Citation
The life and strange adventures of Robinson Crusoe

Material Information

Title:
The life and strange adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title:
Robinson Crusoe
Creator:
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Defoe, Daniel,
Paget, Walter, 1863-1935
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
W.B. Conkey Company
Place of Publication:
Chicago
Publisher:
W.B. Conkey Co.
Language:
English
Physical Description:
463 p. : ill. (1 col.) ; 25 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Castaways -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1904 ( rbgenr )
Genre:
fiction ( marcgt )
Children's literature ( fast )
Imaginary voyages ( rbgenr )
Spatial Coverage:
United States of America -- Illinois -- Chicago
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
NUC pre-1956,
General Note:
Spine title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note:
NUC citation below attributes ill. to Walter Paget.
General Note:
Date based on Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe, 859, dated 1904; Lovett describes a different front. NUC citation below is dated 19--. This edition could be as early as 1890 as Conkey moved to Chicago in that year. Cf. Amer. literary pub. houses, 1638-1899.
General Note:
Col. front. consists of eight vignettes of Crusoe scenes.
General Note:
Parts I and II Robinson Crusoe. Pt. II originally published under title: Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
Statement of Responsibility:
as related by himself, by Daniel Defoe ; with one hundred and seventeen original illustrations.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
SN01271 ( lccn )
28239087 ( oclc )

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Full Text















THE

LIFE AND ADVENTURES

@
OF

ROBINSON (CRUSOE







ee ci Ee





ROBINSON CRUSOE’S ADVENTURES.

~—S,



Wale, jolie

_ AND

STRANGE ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE,

As Related by Himself.

By

- DANIEL DEFOE. —

With One Hundred and Seventeen Original Illustrations,

W. B. CONKEY COMPANY,
CHICAGO,

ote































*
fe

oD

ys



“THIS WAS GAME INDEED” (2.82.)











PAGE.

“THIS WAS GAME INDEED” , 5 ‘ 3 ‘ e q . a
HEADPIECE ,. 4 ; : ‘i ; fs ; e ’ . 1h
“‘yYOU’RE BUT A FRESH-WATER SAILOR’” . a e e a . 1b
“WE WALKED ON FOOT TO YARMOUTH” - . 6 ' . * . 19
“SURPRISED IN THE GRAY OF THE MORNING” . a e e ® . 23
“I PROVED VERY DEXTEROUS” . ; . C e . . e 24
“iF YOU COME NEAR THE BOAT, I'LL SHOOT yYou’” ; . - 26
“WE FILLED OUR JARS” . 3 : : . , ‘ ; . 29
“T BOUGHT ME A NEGRO SLAVE” . ; . : si e ® . 37
“LOOKING OVER THE CHARTS” , : ‘ ; ; . * A 4]
“WE HASTENED OUR DESTRUCTION WITH OUR OWN HANDS w ' ° . 42
“1 WAS NOW LANDED” . 5 6 , ; 3 . 6 . 45
“J ESPIED A SMALL PIECE OF ROPE” . . . . ‘ ° - 46
“SHOES THAT WERE NOT FELLOWS” 0 . 0 O e 48
‘] FELL FAST ASLEEP” . ; ‘ . a ' ' x . 50
“4 CONFUSED SCREAMING AND CRYING” 6 . . . a . 56
“THE KID FOLLOWED ME” . 0 ' . ' ° . he - 60
“1 WANTED NOTHING THAT HE COULD FETCH ME” 0 OC . . 64
“THEY ALL FACED ABOUT UPON THE DOG” . zh . ° ° - 68
“A KIND OF WILD PIGEONS” . . ‘ . ’ ' ° 69
“y WAS SURPRISED AND PERFECTLY ASTONISHED” .- . . ° . 12
“GRINDING MY TOOLS” . 6 . . . . . . 6 %3
“1 CAUGHT A YOUNG DOLPHIN” ., . . ‘ . - ‘ . cg
“A LARGE TORTOISE, OR TURTLE” ; ; ; a § vig

“BROILED IT ON THE COALS” ; O . ; 0 . - 8}



ROBINSON CRUSOE.

©

PAGE.
“I WENT UP THE CREEK FIRST” . . . . ° : pane Sa
“T SOWED MY GRAIN” : . . ‘ a : ° e - 90
“I DESCENDED A LITTLE ON THE SIDE OF THAT DELICIOUS VALLEY” , 5 91
“J KNOCKED IT DOWN WITH A STICK” . ‘ . . . . * 96
“AN INFINITE NUMBER OF FOWLS” . = . 5 . . ° 100
“] FIRED AGAIN” : . 0 . . O . 5 . . 104
“I HANGED THEM IN CHAINS””, 2 j A ‘; ‘ j . —-:105
“WHAT ODD, MISSHAPEN, UGLY THINGS I MADE” . 6 O e - 109
“I RESOLVED TO DIG INTO THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH” , 0 - 118
‘I MADE ME A SUIT OF CLOTHES” 0 eg . ° ° . . 118
“J BROUGHT IT INTO THE CREEK” , f ee . . . oh
“I FELL ON MY KNEES” 5 . . . . ° . - 126
“HOW LIKE A KING I DINED” . % , ‘i § : A . 130
“I STOOD LIKE ONE THUNDERSTRUCK” . ‘ . . . ° - 132
“J HAD MY COUNTRY SEAT” ; . ; . , . ° O 135
“MY EVENING DIVERSION” . 0 0 f° O . . . . 140
“TO SEE IF I COULD OBSERVE ANY BOATS”, . ee eee . gay
“A PLACE WHERE THERE HAD BEEN A FIRE MADE”, e . . . ‘149
“I STIRRED HIM A LITTLE” . : : . ° . ° . 182
“A LIGHT OF SOME FIRE UPON THE SHORE” . 0 ° . . . 156
“THE CORPSE OF A DROWNED BOY” . . » ° . O . 161
“BEGAN TO EXAMINE THE PARTICULARS” 0 . . ° . . 164
“TI WAS THEN OBLIGED TO SHOOT” . |. . ° . . - 169
“DANCING ROUND THE FIRE” 2 . O e ° . . . 171
“AT ONE BLOW CUT OFF HIS HEAD” . , ; re . . 14
“I PRESENTED MY PIECE” . . . = re 9 ; . 179
“] ENTERED INTO A LONG DISCOURSE” . 0 3 . . . 183
“UPON SEEING THIS BOAT, FRIDAY STOOD MUSING A GREAT WHILE” , - 187
“INCH BY INCH UPON GREAT ROLLERS” a ; . ; 0 0 190
‘I MADE DIRECTLY TOWARDS THE POOR VICTIM” . 0 . . . 195
“IN THIS POSTURE WE MARCHED OUT” , . . 2 . . 196
“] FIRED AGAIN AMONG THE AMAZED WRETCHES” . . . emt os
“WRINGING MY SWORD OUT OF HIS HAND” , ‘ . . ' 201
“MY EYE PLAINLY DISCOVERED A SHIP LYING AT AN ANCHOR” , ‘ . 205
“WHAT ARE YE, GENTLEMEN?’” : ; ‘ 5 Sa ae 209
“THEY BEGGED FOR MERCY” . . , : 6 0 . . 212
“SHOT THE NEW CAPTAIN THROUGH THE HEAD” , ‘ . . fs 221
“TI SHOWED THEM THE NEW CAPTAIN HANGING AT THE YARD-ARM OF THE SHIP” 227
“UPON THIS HE PULLS OUT AN OLD POUCH” ° . . . 231
“TWO OF THE WOLVES FLEW UPON THE, GUIDE” . . . . . 238
“*WHAT YOU NO COME FARTHER?’” . ' . ‘ . ' a 239

“THEY CAME ON US WITH A GROWLING KIND OF A NOISE” al ‘ » 242



Re le ee See

’
y
Y
:
:
he
‘



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS,

Pyavesl We

“1 FARMED UPON MY OWN LAND” i 5 ‘ - 3
“IT WAS ALL TO NO PURPOSE” ; 0 ; es e
“THE SHIP BLEW UP” 3 ; , . , .
“THE MATE BROUGHT SIX MEN WITH HIM” , . . 6
“JY FOUND THE POOR MEN ON BOARD ALMOST IN A TUMULT” C
“J CAME FAIR ON THE SOUTH SIDE OF MY ISLAND” , .
““pDo YOU NOT KNOW ME?’” . ‘ ; 0
“BADE THEM STAND OFF” O ; . . : .
“WITH ONE BLOW OF HIS FIST KNOCKED HIM DOWN” 6 ;
“THEY CAME UP IN A VERY SUBMISSIVE, HUMBLE MANNER” ,
“THEY WERE SURPRISED WITH SEEING A LIGHT” a . .
“INDIANS JUST COMING ON SHORE” . ‘ ; .
“PLACED HIMSELF BETWEEN HIM AND THE SAVAGE” 0 ,
“THREE STRANGE MEN COMING TOWARDS HIM” ; . 5
“DREW LOTS AMONG THEM” : . ‘ 5 : :
“THREE SAVAGES LEFT BEHIND, AND LYING FAST ASLEEP” ‘.
“ALL THEIR HUTS AND HOUSEHOLD STUFF FLAMING UP TOGETHER
“CAME RANGING ALONG THE SHORE” . . ; 5 é
“DISPATCHED THESE POOR CREATURES” . . 0 . g
“ATE THEIR PROVISIONS VERY THANKFULLY” . . .
“IN THIS GREAT BEE-HIVE LIVED THE THREE FAMILIES” . .
“WE MADE A SPLENDID FEAST” OF . . . ,
“MADE EVERY ONE A LIGHT COAT” . . . . .
“WE WALKED ON” . . 0 : . . . ‘
“MADE ME A VERY LOW BOW” . ‘ 0 . . °
“THEY ALL CAME TO ME” . 0 . . . au
“ATKINS AND HIS TAWNY WIFE” . ' . . . .
“WE CALLED HIM IN ALONE” . . . . . .
“MADE HER KNEEL BY HIM” ‘ . ’ . . 3
“WE MARRIED THEM THE SAME DAY” ° , 6 0
“GAVE THEM SUCH A BROADSIDE” . . . . .
“I HAVE BROUGHT YOU AN ASSISTANT” ‘ : . e
“(GIVING THEM A SALUTE OF FIVE GUNS” . . . a
“KILLED ,POOR FRIDAY” . 7 . . ant hes .
“WE GAVE THEM A VOLLEY” ; 0 ° . . .
“THE COW WENT ON BEFORE THEM” . . . . 0
“WE SHOWED ME THE POOR FELLOW HANGING” ; ‘ :
“COMES TO ME ONE DAY AN ENGLISHMAN” . o . A

“COULD SEE THE BOATS AT A DISTANCE” . ° e ‘

PAGE.

. 250
256
. 261
264
. 269
272
- 273
279
. 282
287
. 290
291
- 295
298
. 804
307
. 312
315
. 820
325
. 326
334
. 335
339
. 343
347
. 352
855
. 361
364
- 369
370
. 873
at7
. 383
386
- 391
395
- 404



10 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

een PAGE.
“THEY HAULED HER SAIL” a . 0 : 0 a a ‘ 406
“‘WELL DONE, JACK! GIVE THEM SOME MORE OF IT'” 0 . : . 412
“4 BOAT CAME OFF” : ; 0 ; fs . . . . 413
“BROUGHT ABUNDANCE OF THINGS TO SELL” . 3 ‘ fa ' . 416
‘HWE CAME TO ME WITH ONE OF THE MISSIONARY PRIESTS” . x 5 424
“AS SOON AS THEY SAW US, ONE OF THEM BLEW A KIND OF HORN” . . 431
“KILLED THE SECOND WITH HIS PISTOL” : 3 é : fs . 435
“-TWO_OF THEM SEIZED THE FELLOW AND TOOK THE CAMEL” . ; ~ 440
“SENT THREE MESSENGERS TO.US” . iene ; 0 a , 449
“DROUGHT US IN FINE VENISON” . : : . 0 5 ; » 454

TAILPIECE. 5 , . : Fi ; ; c ; 463

















ROBINSON CRUSOE.

WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good family,
though not of that country, my father being a foreigner, of Bremen,
who settled first at Hull; he got a good estate by merchandise, and
leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York; from whence he had mar-
ried my mother, whose relations were named Robinson, a very good family .
in that country, and from whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but, by
the usual corruption of words in England, we are now called, nay, we call
ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe; and so my companions always
called me.

I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel to an
English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded by the famous
Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near Dunkirk against the
Spaniards. What became of my second brother I nevef knew, any more
than my father or mother did know what was become of me.

Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade, my head
began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts; my father, who was
very ancient, had given me a competent share of learning, as far as house-
education and a country free-school generally goes, and designed me for
the law; but I would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and my
inclination to this led me so strongly against the will, nay, the commands,
of my father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of my mother
and other friends, that there seemed to be something fatal in that propen-
sion of nature, tending directly-to the life of misery which was to befall
me ‘

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent coun-

D



Le ROBINSON CRUSOE.

sel against what he foresaw was my design. He called me one morning
into his chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and expostulated
very warmly with me upon this subject; he asked me what reasons, more
than a mere wandering inclination, I had for leaving my father’s house
and my native country, where I might be well introduced, and had a
prospect of raising my fortune by application and industry, with a life of
ease and pleasure. He told me it was men of desperate fortunes on one
hand, or of aspiring, superior fortunes on the .other, who went abroad
upon adventures, to rise by enterprise and make themselves famous in
undertakings of a nature out of the common road; that these things were
all either too far above me or too far below me; that mine was the middle ©
state, or what might be called the upper station of low life, which he had
found by long experience was the best state in the world, the most suited
- to human happiness, not exposed to the miseries and hardships, the labor
and sufferings of the mechanic part of mankind, and not embarrassed with
‘the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the upper part of mankind. He
told me I might judge of the happiness of this state by this one thing, viz.,
that this was the state of life which all other people envied; that kings have
frequently lamented the miserable consequence of being born to great
things, and wished they had been placed in the middle of the two extremes,
between the mean and the great ; that the wise man gave his testimony to
this, as the just standard of true felicity, when he prayed to have neither
poverty nor riches. :

He bade me observe it, and I should always find that the calamities of
life were shared among the upper and lower part of mankind ; but that the
middle station had the fewest disasters, and was not exposed to so many
vicissitudes as the higher or lower part of mankind; nay, they were not
subjected to so many distempers and uneasiness, either of body or mind, as
those were who, by.vicious living, luxury and extravagances on one hand,
or by hard labcr, want of necessaries, and mean or insufficient diet on the
other hand, bring distempers upon themselves by the natural consequences
of their way of living ; that the middle station of life was calculated for all
kind of virtues and all kind of enjoyments; that peace and plenty were the
handmaids of a middle fortune; that temperance, moderation, quietness,
health, society, all agreeable diversions, and all desirable pleasures, were
the blessings attending the middle station of life; that this way men went
silently and smoothly through the world, and comfortably out of it, not
embarrassed with the labors of the hands or of the head, not sold to a life
of slavery for daily bread, nor harassed with perplexed circumstances,
which rob the soul of peace, and the body of rest; nor enraged with the
passion of envy, or the secret burning lust of ambition for great things; but,
in easy circumstances, sliding gently through the world, and sensibly tasting
the sweets of living, without the bitter; feeling that they are happy, and
learning by every day’s experience to know it more sensibly.



MY FATHER’S ADVICE. 1B

After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate manner,
not to play the young man, nor to precipitate myself into miseries which
nature, and the station of life I was born in, seemed to have provided
_ against; that I was under no necessity of seeking my bread; that he would
do well for me, and endeavor to enter me fairly into the station of life which
he had just been recommending to me; and that if I was not very easy and
happy in the world, it must*be my mere fate or fault that must hinder it;
and that he should have nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his
duty in warning me against measures which he knew would be to my hurt;
in a word, that as he would do very kind things for me, if I would stay and
settle at home as he directed, so he would not have so much hand in my
misfortunes as to give me any encouragement to go away; and to close all,
he told me I had my elder brother for an example, to whom he had used
the same earnest persuasions to keep him from going into the Low Country
wars, but could not prevail, his young desires prompting him to run into the
army, where he was killed; and though he said he would not cease to pray
for me, yet he would venture to say to me, that if I did take this foolish.
step, God would not bless me, and I should have leisure hereafter to reflect
upon having neglected his counsel, when there might be none to assist
in my recovery.

I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly prophetic,
though I suppose my father did not know it to be so himself—lI say, |
observed the tears run down his face very plentifully, especially when he
spoke of my brother who was killed; and that when he spoke of my having
leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was so moved that he broke
off the discourse and told me his heart was so full he could say no more
to me.

I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed who could be
otherwise? and I resolved not to think of going abroad any more, but to
settle at home according to my father’s desire. But, alas! a few days wore
it all off; and, in short, to prevent any of my father’s further importunities,
in a few weeks after I resolved to run quite away from him. However, 1
did not act quite so hastily neither as the first heat of my resolution
prompted, but I took my mother at a time when I thought her a little more
pleasant than ordinary, and told her that my thoughts were so entirely bent
upon seeing the world that I should never settle to anything with resolu-
tion enough to go through with it, and my father had better give me his
consent than force me to go without it; that I was now eighteen years old,
which was too late to go apprentice te a trade, or clerk to an attorney; that
I was sure, if J did, I should never serve out mv time, but I should certainly run
away from my master before my time was out, and go to sea; and if she
would speak to my father to let me go one voyage abroad, if I came home
again, and did not like it, I would go no more, and I would promise, by a
double diligence, to recover the time that I had lost.



14 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

This put my mother into a great passion; she told me she knew it would
be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any such subject; that he
knew too well what was my interest to give his consent to anything so much
for my hurt, and that she wondered how I could think of any such thing
after the discourse I had had with my father, and such kind and tender
expressions as she knew my father had used to me, and that in short, if I
would ruin myself, there was no help for me; but I might depend I should
never have their consent to it; that for her part she would not have so much
hand in my destruction, and I should never have it to say that my mother
was willing when my father was not.

Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet I heard after-
ward that she reported all the discourse to him, and that my father, after
a great concern at it, said to her with a sigh: “That boy might be happy
if he would stay at home; but if he goes abroad he will be the most miser-
able wretch that ever was born; I can give no consent to it.”

It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose, though, in the
meantime I continued obstinately deaf to all proposals of settling to busi-
ness, and frequently expostulated with my father and mother about their
being so positively determined against what they knew my inclinations
prompted me to. But being one day at Hull, whither I went casually, and
without any purpose of making an elopement at that time—but I say, being
there, and one of my companions being going by sea to London in his
father’s ship, and prompting me to go with them, with the common allure-
ment of a sea-faring man, that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I
consulted neither father nor mother any more, nor so much as sent them
word of it; but leaving them to hear of it as they might, without asking
God’s blessing, or my father’s, without any consideration of circumstances
or consequences, and in an ill hour, God knows, on the 1st of September,
1651, I went on board a ship bound for London. Never any young adven-
turer’s misfortunes, I believe, began sooner or continued longer than mine,
The ship was no sooner got out of the Humber than the wind began to
blow, and the sea to rise in a most frightful manner; and, as I had never
been at sea before, I was most inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified in
mind: I began now seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and how
justly I was overtaken by the judgment of Heaven for my wicked leaving

_ my father’s house and abandoning my duty. All the good counsels of my

parents, my father’s tears and my mother's entreaties, came now fresh into
my mind; and my conscience, which was not yet come to the pitch of hard-
ness to which it has come since, reproached me with the contempt of advice
and the breach of my duty to God and my father.

All this while the storm increased, and the sea went very high, though
nothing like what I have seen many times since; no, nor what I saw a few
days after; but it was enough to affect me then, who was but a young sailor,
and had never known anything of the matter. I expected every wave would



MY FATHER’S GOOD ADVICE. 5 15

have swallowed us up, and that every time the ship fell down, as I thought
_it did, in the trough or hollow of thé sea, we should never rise more; in this
agony of mind I made many vows and resolutions, that if it would please
God to spare my life in this one voyage, if ever I got once my foot upon



“‘yoU’RE BUT A FRESH-WATER SAILOR’” (J. 16).

dry land again, I would go directly home to my father, and never set it into
a ship again while I lived; that I: would take his advice, and never run
myself into such miseries as these any more. Now I saw plainly the good-
ness of his observations about the middle station of life, how easy, how
comfortable he had lived all his days, and never had been exposed to





16 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

tempests at sea, or troubles on shore; and, in short, I resolved that I would,
like a true repenting prodigal, go home to my father.

These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm lasted,
and indeed some time after; but the next day the wind was abated, and the
sea calmer, and I began to be a little inured to it; however, I was very
grave forall that day, being also a little sea-sick still; but towards night the
weather cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a charming fine evening
followed; the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morn-

- ing, and having little or no wind and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it,

the sight was, as I thought, the most delightful that ever I saw.

I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick, but very
cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough and terrible
the day before, and could be so calm and so pleasant in so little a time
after. And now, lest my good resolutions should continue, my companion
who had enticed me away comes to me.

“Well, Bob,” says he, clapping me upon the shoulder, ‘‘ how do you do
after it? I warrant you were frighted, wer’n’t you, last night, when it blew
but a capful of wind?”

“A capful d’you call it?” said I; ‘‘’twas a terrible storm.”

“A storm, you fool, you!” replies he; “do you call that a storm? why,
it was nothing at all; give us but a good ship and sea-room and we think
nothing of such a squall of wind as that; but you're but a fresh-water sailor,
Bob. Come, let us make a bowl of punch, and we’ll forget allthat; d’ye see
what charming weather ’tis now?”

To make short this sad part of my story, we went the way of all sailors;
the punch was made, and I was made half drunk with it; and in that one
night’s wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon my
past conduct, all my resolutions for the future. In a word, as the sea was
returned to its smoothness of surface and settled calmness by the abatement
of that storm, so the hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears and appre-
hensions of being swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and the current
of my former desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises that
I made in my distress. I found, indeed, some intervals of reflection; and
the serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavor to return again sometimes;
but J shook them off, and roused myself from them as it were from a dis-
temper, and applying myself to drinking and company, soon mastered the
return of those fits, for so I called them; and I had, in five or six days, got
as complete a victory over my conscience as any young fellow that resolved
not to be troubled with it could desire. But I was to have another trial for
it still; and Providence, as in such cases generally it does, resolved to leave
me entirely without excuse; for if I would not take this for a deliverance,
the next was to be such aone as the worst and most hardened wretch among
us would confess both the danger and the mercy.

The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads; the



THE STORM IN YARMOUTH ROADS. 17

wind having been contrary, and the weather calm, we had made but little
way since the storm. Here we were obliged to come to an anchor, and here
we lay, the wind continuing contrary, viz., at southwest, for seven or eight
days, during which time a great many ships from Newcastle came into the
same Roads, as the common harbor where the ships might wait for a wind
for the river.

We had not, however, rid here so long but we should have tided it
up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh, and, after we had lain four or
five days, blew very hard. However, the Roads being reckoned as good as
an harbor, the anchorage good, and our ground-tackle very strong, our men
were unconcerned, and not in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent
the time inrest and mirth, after the manner of the sea; but the eighth day,
in the morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands at work to strike
our top-masts, and make everything snug and close, that the ship might
ride as easy as possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our
ship went forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought once or twice
our anchor had come home; upon which our master ordered out the sheet-
anchor, so that we rode with two anchors ahead, and the cables veered out
to the better end.

By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began to see
terror and amazement in the faces even of the seamen themselves. The
master, though vigilant in the business of preserving the ship, yet as he
went in and out of his cabin by me, I could hear him softly to himself say,
several times, ‘“ Lord, be mercifui to us! we shall be all lost! we shall be all ”
undone!” and the like. During these first hurries I was stupid, lying still in
my cabin, which was in the steerage, and cannot describe my temper. I
could ill resume the first penitence, which I had so apparently trampled
upon, and hardened myself against: I thought the bitterness of death had
been past, and that this would be nothing, too, like the first; but when the
master himself came by me, as I said just now, and said we should be all
lost, I was dreadfully frighted. I got up out of my cabin, and looked out;
but such a dismal sight I never saw; the sea ran mountains high, and broke
upon us every three or four minutes. When I could look about, I could see
nothing but distress round us; two ships that rode near us, we found, had
cut their masts by the board, being deep-laden; and our men cried out that
a ship which rode about a mile ahead of us was foundered. Two more
ships, being driven from their anchors, were run out of the Roads to sea, at
all adventures, and that not with a mast standing. The light ships fared
the best, as not so much laboring in the sea; but two or three of them drove,
and came close by us, running away with only their spritsail out before the
wind.

Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master of our ship
to let them cut away the foremast, which he was very unwilling to do; but
the oat wan protesting to him that if he did not the ship would founder,



18 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

he consented; and when they had cut away the foremast, the mainmast
stood so loose, and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut that
‘ away also, and make a clear deck.

And one must judge what a condition I must be in at all this, who was
but a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright before at but a little.
But if I can express at this distance the thoughts I had about me at that
time, I was intenfold more horror of mind upon account of my former con-
victions, and the having returned from them to the resolutions I had wick-
edly taken at first, than I was at death itself; and these, added to the ter-
ror of the storm, put me into such a condition, that I can by no words
describe it. Butthe worst was not come yet; the storm continued with such
fury that the seamen.themselves acknowledged they had never seen a worse.
We had a good ship, but she was deep-laden, and wallowed in the sea, so
that the seamen every now and then cried out she would founder. It was
my advantage, in one respect, that I did not know what they meant by
founder, till I inquired. However, the storm was so violent that 1 saw, what
is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some others more sensible
than the rest, at their prayers, and expecting every moment when the ship
would go to the bottom. In the middle of the night, and under all the rest
of our distresses, one of the men that had been down to see, cried out we
had sprung a leak; another said there was four feet water in the hold.
Then all hands were called to the pump. At that word, my heart, as I
thought, died within me; and I fell backwards upon the side of my bed,
where I sat, into the cabin. However, the men roused me, and told me
that I, that was able to do nothing before, was as well able to pump as
another; at which I stirred up, and went to the pump, and: worked very
heartily. While this was doing, the master seeing some light colliers who,
not able to ride out the storm, were obliged to slip and run away to the
sea, and would come near us, ordered to firea gun as a signal of distress.
I, who knew nothing what they meant, thought the ship had broken, or
some dreadful thing happened. In a word, I was so surprised that I fell
down ina swoon. As this was a time when everybody had his own life to
think of, nobody minded me, or what was become of me; but anothér man
stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot, let me lie,
thinking I had been dead; and it was a great while before I came to my-
self. :

We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it was apparent that
the ship would founder; and though the storm began to abate a little, yet
as it was not possible she could swim till we might run into any port, so the
master continued firing guns for help; and a light ship, who had rit it out
just ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the utmost
hazard the boat came near us; but it was impossible for us to get on board
or for the boat to lie near the ship’s side, till at last the men rowing very
heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours, our men «ast them a rope



WE LEAVE THE SHIP. 1$

over the stern with a buoy to it, and then veeréd it out a great léngth; which
they, after much labor and hazard, took hold of, and we hauled thetn close
undet dur stern, and got all {nto their boat. It was to no purpose for them
or us, after we were iri the boat, to think of reaching to their own ship; so
all agreed to let Her dtive, and only to pull her in towards shote as

ll Site
SR ES



“WE WALKED ON FOOT TO
YARMOUTH.” (, 20).

much as we cotld; and our master promised them that if the boat was
staved upon shore, he would make it good to their master: so partly row.
ing and partly driving, our boat went away to ‘the notthward, sloping
towards the shore almost as far as Winterton Ness.

We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our ship till we



20 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

saw her sink, and then I understood for the first time what was meant by a
ship foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look
up when the seamen told me she was sinking; for from the moment that
they rather put me into the boat, than that I might be said to go in, my
heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly with fright, partly with horror
of mind, and the thoughts of what was yet before me.

While we were in this condition, the men yet laboring at the oar to bring
the boat near the shore, we could see (when, our boat mounting the waves,
we were able to see the shore) a great many people running along the
strand, to assist us when we should come near; but we made but slow way
towards the shore; nor were we able to reach the shore till, being past the
lighthouse at Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward, towards Cromer,
and so the land broke off a little the violence of the wind. Here we gotin,
and, though not without much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked
afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were used
with great humanity, as well by the magistrates of the town, who assigned
us good quarters, as by particular merchants and owners of ships, and had
money given us sufficient to carry us either to London or back to Hull, as
we thought fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and have gone
home, I had been happy, and my fathe1,an emblem of our blessed Saviour’s
parable, had even killed the fatted calf for me; for hearing the ship I went
away in was cast away in Yarmouth Roads, it was a great while before he
had any assurances that I was not drowned.

But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that nothing could
resist; and though I had several times loud calls from my reason, and my more
composed judgment, to go home, yet I had no power to do it. I know not
what to call this, nor will I urge that it is a secret overruling aecree that
hurries us on to be the instruments of our own destruction, even though it
be before us, and that we rush upon it with our eyes open. Certainly, noth-
ing but some such decreed unavoidable misery attending, and which it was
impossible for me to escape, could have pushed me forward against the calm
reasonings and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and against two
such visible obstructions as I had met with in my first attempt.

My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who was the
master’s son, was now less forward than I. The first time he spoke to me
after we were at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days, for we
were separated in the town to several quarters—I say the first time he saw
me, it appeared his tone was altered; and looking very melancholy, and
shaking his head, he asked me how I did, and telling his father who I was,
and how I had come this voyage only for atrial, in order to go farther
abroad: his father turning to me with a very grave and concerned tone, .
“Young man,” says he, “ you ought never to go to sea’any more; you ought
to take this for a plain and visible token that you are not to be a sea-faring



ANOTHER VOYAGE, 21

man.” ‘“ Why, sir,” said I,“ will you go to sea no more?” ‘“ That is another
case,” said he; “it is my calling, and therefore my duty; but as you made
this voyage for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given you of what
you are to expect if you persist. Perhaps this has all befallen us on your
account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray,” continues he, ‘ what
are you; and on what account did you go to sea?” Upon that I told him
some of my story; at the end of which he burst out into a strange kind of
passion: ‘“ What had I done,” says he, “that such an unhappy wretch should
come into my ship? I would not set my foot in the same ship with thee
again for a thousand pounds.” This indeed was, as I said, an excursion of
his spirits, which were yet agitated by the sense of his loss, and was farther
than he could have authority to go. However, he afterward talked very
gravely to me, exhorting me to go back to my father, and not tempt Provi-
dence to my ruin; telling me I might see a visible hand of Heaven against
me. ‘And, young man,” said he, “depend upon it, if you do not go back,
wherever you go, you will meet with nothing but disasters and disappoint-
ments, till your father’s words are fulfilled upon you.”

We parted soon after, for I made him little answer, and I saw him no
more; which way he went I know not. As for me, having some money in
my pocket, I traveled to London by land; and there, as well as on the road,
had many struggles with myself what course of life I should take, and
whether I should go home or go to sea.

As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered to my
thoughts; and it immediately occurred to me how I should be laughed at
among the neighbors, and should be ashamed to see, not my father and
mother only, but even everybody else; from whence I have often since
observed how incongruous and irrational the common temper of mankind is,
especially of youth, to that reason which ought to guide them in such cases,
viz., that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; not
ashamed of the action for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools, but
are ashamed of the returning which only can make them be esteemed wise
men. =

In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain what
measures to take, and what course of life to lead. An irresistible reluctance
continued to going home; and as I stayed awhile, the remembrance of the
distress I had been in wore off; and as that abated, the little motion I had
in my desires to a return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside the
thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.

That evil influence which carried me first away from my father’s house,
which hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of raising my fortune;
and that impressed those conceits so forcibly upon me, as to make me deaf
to all good advice, and to the entreaties and even the commands of my
father—I say, the same influence, whatever it was, presented the most
unfortunate of all enterprises to my view; and I went on board a vessel



22 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

bound to the coast of Africa; or, as our sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage to
Guinea*. ,

It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I did not ship
myself asa sailor; when, though I might indeed have worked a little harder
than ordinary, yet at the same time I should haye learned the duty and
office of a foremast man, and in time might have qualified myself for a mate
or lieutenant, if not for a master. But as it wasalways my fate to choose for
the worst, so I did here; for having money in my pocket, and good clothes
upon my back, I would always go on board in the habit of a gentleman;
and so I neither had any business in the ship nor learned to do any,

It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in London,
which does not always happen to such loose and misguided young fellows as

‘I then was; the devil generally not omitting to lay some snare for them very
early; but it was not so withme. I first got acquainted with the master ofa
ship who had been on the coast of Guinea; and who, having had very good
success there, was resolved to go again; this captain taking a fancy to my
conversation, which was not at all disagreeable at that time, hearing me say
{ had a mind to see the world, told me if I wquld go the voyage with him,
I should be at no expense; I should be his messmate and his companion;
and if I could carry anything with me, I should have all the advantage of
it that the trade would admit, and perhaps I might meet with some
encouragement.

I embraced the offer; and entering into a strict friendship with this cap-
tain, who was an honest, plain-dealing man, ] went the voyage with him,
and carried a small adventure with me, which, by the disinterested honesty
of my friend the captain, I increased very considerably; for I carried about
£40 in such toys and trifles as the captain directed me to buy. This £40 1
had mustered together by the assistance of some of my relations whom I
corresponded with, and who, I believe, got my father, or at least my
mother, to contribute so much as that to my first adventure.

This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in all my
adventures, and which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my friend the
captain; under whom also I got a competent knowledge of the mathematics
and the rules of navigation, learned how to keep an account of the ship’s
course, take an observation, and, in short, to understand some things that
were needful to be understood by a sailor; for, as he tool delight to
instruct me, I took delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage made me
both a sailor and a merchant; for I brought home five pounds nine ounces
of gold-dust for my adventure, which yielded me in London, at my return,
almost 4300; and this filled me with those aspiring thoughts which have
since so completed my ruin.



* Guinea—A district of that part of the West Coast of Africa where the land runs nearly due east and west.
The six countries into which itis divided are known to sailors under the names of Sierra Leone, Grain
Coast, Ivory Coast, Gold Coast, Slave Coast, and Benin.



A GUINEA TRADER, 23















“SURPRISED IN THE GRAY OF .
THE MORNING.”

Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too; particularly, that I was
continually sick, being thrown into a violent calenture by the excessive heat
of the climate; our principal trading being upon the coast, from the latitude
of fifteen degrees north, even to the line itself.

I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my great mis-
fortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage
again, and I embarked in the same vessel with one who was his mate in the
former voyage, arid had now got the command of the ship. This was the
unhappiest voyage that ever man made; for though I did not carry quite
4100 of my tew-gained wealth, so that I had £200 left which I had
lodged with my friend’s widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell into
tertible misfortunes in this voyage; and the first was this, viz., our ship
making her coufse towards the Canary Islands, or rather between those
islands and the African shore, was surprised in the gray of the morning by
a Moorish rovet of Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the sail she could
make. We crowded also as much canvas as our yards would spread, or our
‘masts carty, to have got clear; but finding the pirate gained upon us, and
would certainly come up with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight; our
ship having twelve gufis, and the rogue eighteen. About three in
the afternoon he came up With us, and bringing-to by mistake, just athwart
our quarter, instead of athwart our stern as he intended, we brought eight
of our guns to bear on that side, and poured in a broadside upon him,
which made him sheer off again, after reiurning our fire, and pouring in



24 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

also his small shot from near two hundred men which he had on board.
However, we had not a man touched, all our men keeping close. He pre-
pared to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves; but laying us on
board the next time upon our other quarter, he entered sixty men upon our
decks, who immediately fell to cutting and hacking the sails and rigging.
We plied them with small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests and such like,
and cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut short this melancholy
part of our story, our ship being disabled, and three of our men killed, and
eight wounded, we were obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners
into Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I apprehended; nor
was I carried up the country to the Emperor’s court, as the rest of our men
were, but was kept by the captain of the rover as his proper prize, and
made his slave, being young and nimble, and fit for his business. At this
surprising change of my circumstances from a merchant to a miserable
slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed ; and now I locked back upon my
father’s prophetic discourse to me, that I should be miserable and have
none to relieve me; which I thought was now so effectually brought to
pass, that I could not be worse; for now the hand of Heaven had overtaken
me, and I was undone without redemption. But, alas! this was but a taste
of the misery I was to go through, as will appear in the sequel of this story.

As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house, so I
was in hopes that he would
take me with him when he
went to sea again, believing
that it would some time or
other be his fate to be taken by
a Spanish or Portuguese man-
of-war; and that then I should
be setat liberty. But this hope
of mine was soon taken away ;
for when he went to sea, he left
me on shore to look after his
little garden, and do the com-
mon drudgery of slaves about
his house ; and when he came
home again from his cruise, he
ordered me to lie in the cabin
to look after the ship.

Here I meditated nothing
but my escape, and what method
I might take to effect it; but
found no way that had the least
probability in it; nothing pre- “I PROVED VERY DEXTEROUS.” (J. 25).





A DEXTEROUS FISHERMAN. 25

sented to make the supposition of it rational; for I had nobody to com-
municate it to that would embark with me; no fellow-slave, no Englishman,
Irishman, or Scotsman there but myself; so that for two years, though I
often pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had the encouraging
prospect of putting it in practice.

After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself, which put
the old thought of making some attempt for my liberty again in my head.
My patron lying at home longer than usual without fitting out his ship,
which, as I heard, was for want of money, he used constantly, once or twice
a week, sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship’s pin-
nace, and go out into the road a-fishing ; and as he always took me and a
young Moresco with him to row the boat, we made him very merry, and I
proved very dexterous in catching fish ; insomuch that sometimes he would
send me with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth, the Moresco, as
they called him, to catch a dish of fish for him.

It happened one time that, going a-fishing with him in a calm morning,
a fog rose so thick, that, though we were not half a league from shore, we
lost sight of it ; and rowing we knew not whither or which way we labored
all day, and all the next night ; and when the morning came, we found we
had pulled out to sea instead of pulling in for the shore ; and that we were
at least two leagues from the land. However, we got well in again,
though with a great deal of labor, and some danger ; for the wind began
to blow pretty fresh in the morning; but particularly we were all very
hungry.

But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more care of
himself for the future; and having lying by him the long-boat of our English
ship which he had taken, he resolved he would not go a-fishing any more
without a compass and some provision; so he ordered the carpenter of his
ship, who also was an English slave, to build a little state-room, or cabin,
in the middle of the long-boat, like that of a barge, with a place to stand
behind it to steer, and haul home the main-sheet; and room before fora
hand or two to stand and work the sails. She sailed with what we call a
shoulder-of-mutton-sail; and the boom jibbed over the top of the cabin,
which lay very snug and low, and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave
or two, and a table to eat on, with some small lockers to put in some bot-
tles of such liquor as he thought fit to drink, and particularly his bread, rice
and coffee.

We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing; and as 1 was most dex-
terous to catch fish for him, he never went without me. It happened that
he had appointed to go out in this boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with
two or three Moors of some distinction in that place, and for whom he had
provided extraordinarily, and had therefore sent on board the boat over-
night a larger store of provisions than usual; and had ordered me to get





26 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

ready three fusils* with powder and shot, which wére on board His ship, for
that they designed some sport of fowling as well as fishing.

I got all things ready as he had directed; and waited the riext morning
with the boat washed clean, her ancientt and pendants out, and everything
to accommodate his guests; when by and by my patron came on board
alone, and told me his guests had put off going, from some business that
fell out, and ordered me, with the man and boy, as usual, to go out with the
boat and catch them some fish; for that his friends were to sup at his house;
he commanded me, too, that as soon as J had got some fish, I should bring
it home to his house; all which I prepared to do.

This moment, my former notions of deliverance darted irito my thoughts,
for now I found I was likely to have a little ship at my command; and my
master being gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not for fishitig business,
but for a voyage; though I knew not, neither did I so much as consider,
whither I would steer; for anywhere to get out of that place was my desire.

My first contrivance was to make a pretense to speak to this Moor, to
get something for our subsistence on board; for I told him we must hot
presume to eat of our patron’s bread. He said, that was true; so he brought
a large basket of rusk of biscuit of their kind, and three jars with fresh
water, into the boat. I knew where my patron’s case of bottles stood,
which it was evident, by the make, were taken out of some English prize,
and I conveyed them into the boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they
had been there before fot. our master. I conveyed also a gieat lump of
beeswax into the boat, which weighed about half an hundredweight, with a
parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all of Which were
of great use to us afterward, especially the wax to make candles. Another
trick I tried upon him which he innocently came into also: his name was
Ismael, which they call Muley, or Moely; so I called to hitn: “Moely,” said
I, “our patron’s guns are all on board the boat; can you not get a little
powder and shot? It may be we may kill some alcamies” (a fowl like our
curlews) “for ourselves, for 1 know he keeps the gunnet’s stores in the ship.”
“Ves,” says he, “I’ll bring some;” accordingly, he brought a great leather
pouch, which held about a pound and a half of powder, or rather more; and
another with shot, that had five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put
all into the boat. At the same time I had found some powder of my mas-
ter’s in the great cabin, with which I filled one of the large bottles in the
case, which was almost empty, pouring what was in it into another; and
thus furnished with everything needful, we sailed out of the port to fish.
The castle, which is at the entrance of the port, knew who we were, and
took no notice of us; and we were not above a mile out of the port before
we hauled in our sail, and sat us down to fish. The wind blew from the
N.N.E., which was contrary to my desire; for had it blown southerly, I had

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* Fusil, a French word, meaning a light musket or firelock.
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28 ; ROBINSON CRUSOE.

beeu sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at least reached to the bay .
of Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow which way it would, I would be
gone from that horrid place where I was, and leave the rest to fate.

After we had fished some time and caught nothing, for when I had fish
on my hook I would not pull them up, that he might not see them, I said
to the Moor, “ This will not do; our master will not be thus served; we must
stand farther off.” He, thinking no harm, agreed, and, being in the head
of the boat, set the sails; and, as I had the helm, I ran the boat out near
a league farther, and then brought her to as if I would fish; when, giving
the boy the helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was, and making
as if I stooped for something behind him, I took him by surprise with my
arm under his waist, and tossed him clear overboard into the sea. He rose
immediately, for he swam like a cork, and called to me, begged to be taken
in, telling me he would go all over the world with me. He swam so strong
after the boat, that he would have reached me very quickly, there being
but little wind; upon which I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one
of the fowling-pieces, I presented it at him, and told him I had done
him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I would do him none: “ But,” said I,
“you swim well enough to reach the shore, and the sea is calm; make the
best of your way to shore, and I will do you no harm; but if you come near
the boat, I’ll shoot you through the head, for I am resolved to have my
liberty.” So he turned himself about, and swam for the shore, and I make
no doubt but he reached it with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.

I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me, and have
drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust him. When he was
gone, I turned to the boy, whom they called Xury, and said to him, “ Xury,
if you will be faithful to me, I’ll make you a great man, but if you will not
stroke your face to be true to me” (that is, swear by Mahomet and his
father’s beard), “I must throw you into the sea too.” The boy smiled in
my fase, and spoke so innocently, that I could not mistrust him, and swore
to be faithful to me, and go all over the world with me.

While I was in the view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood out
directly to sea, with the boat rather stretching to windward, that they
might think me gone towards the Straits’* mouth (as indeed any one
that had been in their wits must have been supposed to do); for who would
have supposed we were sailing on to the southward, to the truly barbarian
coast, where whole nations of negroes were sure to surround us with their
canoes, and destroy us; where we could never once go on shore but we
should be devoured by savage beasts, or mere merciless savages cf human
kind?

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening I changed my course, and
steered directly south and by east, bending my course a little towards the
east, that I might keep in with the shore, and having a fair, fresh gale of

*Straits, the Straits of Gibraltar.



WITH XURY IN THE BOAT. 29

wind and a smooth, quiet sea, J made such sail that I believe by the next
day at three o’clock in the afternoon, when I first made the land, I could
not be less than one hundred and fifty miles south of Sallee, quite beyond
the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions, or indeed of any other king there-
abouts, for we saw no people.

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“WE FILLED OUR JARS” (Z. 31).

apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that I would not stop or go
on shore or come to an anchor, the wind continuing fair till I had sailed in
that manner five days, and then, the wind shifting to the southward, I con-
cluded also that if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would
now give over; so I ventured to make to the coast and came to an anchor in
the mouth of a little river, I knew not what nor where; neither what lati-



30 ROBINSON CRUSOE. :

tude, what country, what nation, ot what river. I neither saw tior desited to
see any people; the principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We catne
into this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shoré as soon as it was
dark and discover the country; but as soon as it was quite dark we heard
such dreadful noises of the barking, roaring and howling of wild creatures,
of we kitew not what kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and
begged of me not to go onshore till day. ‘Well, Xury,” said I, ‘then I
won't, but it may be we may see men by day who will be as bad to us as
those lions.” ‘Then we give them the shoot-gun,” says Xury, laughing,
“make them run wey.” Such English Xury spoke by conversing among 4s
slaves. However, 1 was glad to see the boy so cheerfiil, and I gave him a
dram (out of our patron’s case of bottles) to cheer himup. After all, Xury’s
advice was good and I took it. We dropped our little anchor and lay still
all night. I say still, for we slept none; for in two or three hours we saw
vast great creatures (we knew not what to call them), of many sorts, come
down to the sea shore and run into the water, wallowing and washing thein-
selves for the pleasure of cooling themselves; and they made such hideous
howlings and yellings that I never, indeed, heard the like.

Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I, too; but we were
both more frighted when we heard one mighty creature come swimming
towards our boat; we could not see him, but we might hear him by his
blowing to be a monstrous, huge, and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion
and it might be so for aught I know; but poor Xury cried to me to weigh
the anchor and row away. ‘ No,” says I, ‘“Xury, we can slip our cable, with
the buoy to it, and go to sea; they cannot follow us far.” I had no sooner
said so but I perceived the creature, whatever it was, within two oars’ length,
which something surprised me; however, I immediately stepped to the
cabin-door, and taking up my gun, fired at him, upon which he immediately
turned about and swam towards the shore again.

But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises and hideous cries and
howlings that were raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as higher
within. the country, upon the noise or report of a gun, a thing I have some
reason to believe those creatures had never heard before. This convinced
me that there was no going on shore for us in the night upon that coast,
and how to venture on shore in the day was another question, too; for to’
have fallen into the hands of any of the savages had been as bad as to have
fallen into the paws of lions and tigers, at least we were equally apprehen-
sive of the danger of it.

Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere or other
for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat; when or where to get it was
the point. Xury said, if I would let him go on shore with one of the jars,
he would find if there was any water, and bring some to me. I asked him
why he would go? why I should not go, and he stay in the boat? The boy
answered with so much affection, that made me love him ever after. Says



WE VENTURE ON SHORE, 3l

he, “If wild mans come, they eat me, you go wey.” ‘Well, Xury,” said I,
“we will both go, and if the wild mans come, we will kill them, they shall
eat neither of us.” So I gave Xurya piece of rusk-bread to eat, and a dram
out of our patron’s case of bottles which I mentioned before; and we hauled
the boat in as near the shore as we thought was proper, and waded on
shore, carrying nothing but our arms, and three jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming of canoes
with savages down the river; but the boy, seeing a low place about a mile up
the country, rambled to it, and by and by I saw him come running towards me.
I thought he was pursued by some savage, or frighted with some wild beast,
and I ran forward towards him to help him; but when I came nearer to him,
I saw something hanging over his shoulders, which was a creature that he
had shot, like a hare, but different in color, and longer legs: however, we
were very glad of it, and it was very good meat; but the great joy that poor
Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good water, and seen no wild
mans,

But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for .-ater, fora
little higher up the creek where we were, we found the water fresh when the
tide was out, which flows but a little way up; so we filled our jars, and
feasted on the hare we had killed, and prepared to go on our way, having
seen no footsteps of any human creature in that part of the country.

As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very well that
the Islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd Islands also, lay not far
off from the coast. But as I had no instruments to take an observation to
know what latitude we were in, and did not exactly know, or at least not
remember, what latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for them,
or when to stand off to sea towards them; otherwise I might now easily have
found some of these islands. But my hope was that if I stood along this
coast till I came to that part where the English traded, I should find some
of their vessels upon their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take
us in,

By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was must be
that country which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions
and the negroes, lies waste and uninhabited, except by wild beasts; the
negroes having abandoned it, and gone farther south, for fear of the Moors;
and the Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness;
and indeed both forsaking it because of the prodigious numbers of tigers,
lions, leopards, and other furious creatures which harbor there; so that the
Moors use it for their hunting only, where they go like an army, two or
three thousand men at a time; and, indeed, for near a hundred miles
together upon this coast, we saw nothing but a waste uninhabited country by
day, and heard nothing but howlings and roarings of wild beasts by night.

Once or twice in the day-time I thought I saw the Pico of Tenériffe,
being the high top of the mountain Teneriffe in the Canaries; and had a



32 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

great mind to venture out, in hopes of reaching thither; but having failed
twice, I was forced in again by contrary winds, the sea also going too high
for my little vessel; so I resolved to pursue my first design, and keep along
the shore.

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we had left this
place, and once in particular, being early in the morning, we came to an
anchor under a little point of land, which was pretty high; and the tide
beginning to flow, we lay still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were
more about him than it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me
that we had best go farther off the shore; “for,” says he, “look, yonder lies
a dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fast asleep.” I looked
where he pointed, and saw a dreadful monster, indeed, for it was a terrible
great lion that lay on the side of the shore, under the shade of a piece of
the hill that hung, as it were, a little over him. ‘“Xury,” says I, “you shall
go on shore and kill him.” Xury looked frighted, and said, “Me kill! he
eat me at one mouth;” one mouthful he meant. However, I said no more
to the boy, but bade him be still, and took our biggest gun, which was
almost musket-bore, and loaded it with a good charge of powder, and with
two slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded another gun with two bullets, and
the third (for we had three pieces) I loaded with five smaller bullets. Itook
the best aim I could with the first piece to have shot him in the head, but he
lay so, with his leg raised a little above his nose, that the slugs hit his leg
about the knee and broke the bone. He started up growling at first, but
finding his leg broke, fell down again; and then got up upon three legs,
and gave the most hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a little surprised
that I had not hit him on the head; however, I took up the second piece
immediately, and though he began to move off, fired again, and shot him
in the head, and had the pleasure to see him drop; and making but little
noise, he lay struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and would have
me let him go onshore. “Well, go,” said I; so the boy jumped into the
water, and taking the little gun in one hand, swam to shore with the other
hand, and coming close to the creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his
ear, and shot him in the head again, which dispatched him quite.

This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I was very sorry
to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a creature that was good for
‘nothing to us. However, Xury said he would have some of him; so he
comes on board, and asked me to give him the hatchet. “For what, Xury as
said]. “Me cut off his head,” said he. However, Xury could not cut off
his head, but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him, and it was a mon-
strous great one.

I bethought myself however, that perhaps the skin of him might, one
way or other, be of some value to us; and I resolved to take off his skin if
I could. So Xury and I went to work with him; but Xury was much the
better workman at it, for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us up



TRAFFIC WITH THE NATIVES. 33

both the whole day, but at last we got off the hide of him, and spreading it
on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two days’ time, and
it afterwards served me to lie upon.

After this stop we made on to the southward continually for ten or
twelve days, living very sparingly on our provisions, which began to abate
very much, and going no oftener into the shore than we were obliged to for
fresh water. My design in this was to make the River Gambia or Senegal;
that is to say, anywhere about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to
meet with some European ship; and if I did not I knew not what course I
had to take but to seek for the islands or perish there among the negroes.
I knew that all the ships from Europe which sailed either to the coast of
Guinea or to Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this cape or those islands
and, in a word, I put the whole of my fortune upon this single point, either
that I must meet with some ship or must perish.

When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I have
said, I began to see that the land was inhabited; and in two or three places
as we Sailed by we saw people stand upon the shore to look at us; we could
also perceive they were quite black and stark naked. I was once inclined
to have gone on shore to them, but Xury was my better counselor and said
to me, ‘‘No go,no go.”” However, I hauled in nearer the shore that I might
talk to them, and I found they ran along the shore by mea good way; I
observed they had no weapons in their hands, except one, who had a long
slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they could throw them
a great way with good aim, sol keptat a distance, but talked to them by
signs as well as I could, and particularly made signs for something to eat;
they beckoned to me to stop my boat and they would fetch me some meat.
Upon this, I lowered the top of my sail and lay by, and two of them ran up
into the country, and in less than half an hour came back and brought with
them two pieces of dry flesh and some corn, such as is the produce of their
country; but we neither knew what the one or the other was; however, we
were willing to accept it, but how to come at it was our next dispute, for I
would not venture on shore to them, and they were as much afraid of us;
but they took a safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore and laid
it down, and went and stood a great way off till we fetched it on board, and
then came close to us again.

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make them
amends; but an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige them won-
derfully, for while we were lying on the shore came two mighty creatures,
one pursuing the other (as we took it) with great fury from the mountains
towards the sea. Whether it was the male pursuing the female, or whether
they were in sport or in rage we could not tell, any more than we could
tell whether it was usual or strange, but I believe it was the latter, because,
in the first place, those ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night,
and in ape second place we found the people terribly frighted, especially



34 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the women. The man that had the lance or dart did not fly from them,
but the rest did; however, as the two creatures ran directly into the water
they did not offer to fall upon any of the negroes, but plunged themselves
into the sea, and swam about as if they had come for their diversion. At
last one of them began to come nearer our boat than at first I expected, but
I lay ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with all possible expedition,
and bade Xury load both the others. As soon as he came fairly within my
reach I fired, and shot him directly in the head. Immediately he sank
down into the water, but rose instantly and plunged up and down as if he
was struggling for life, and so indeed he was; he immediately made to the
shore, but between the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and the stran-
gling of the water, he died just before he reached the shore.

It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor creatures at
the noise and fire of my gun; some of them were ready even to die for fear,
and fell down as dead with the very terror. But when they saw the creature
dead, and sunk into the water, and that I] made signs to them to come to
the shore, they took heart and came to the shore, and began to search for
the creature. I found him by his blood staining the water; and by the help
of a rope, which I slung round him, and gave the negroes to haul, they
dragged him on shore, and I found that is was a most curious leopard,
spotted, and fine to an admirable degree; and the negroes held up their
hands with admiration, to think what it was I killed him with.

The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the noise of the
gun, swam to the shore, and ran up drirectly to the mountains from whence
they came, nor could J at that distance know what it was. I found quickly
the negroes were for eating the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to
have them take it as a favor from me; which, when I made signs to them
that they might take it, they were very thankful for. Immediately they fell
to work with him; and though they had no knife, yet, with a sharpened piece
of wood, they took off his skin as readily, and much more readily, than we
would have done with a knife. They offered me some of the flesh, which I
declined, making as if I would give it them; but made-signs for the skin,
which they gave me very freely, and brought me a great deal more of their
provision, which, though I did not understand, yet I accepted. Then I
made signs to them for some water, and held out one of my jars to them,
turning its bottom upward, to show that is was empty, and that I wanted to
have it filled. They called immediately to some of their friends, and there
came two women, and brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt as I
suppose in the sun; this they set down for me, as before, and I sent Xury
on shore with my jars and filled them all three. The women were as stark
naked as the men.

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and water;
and leaving my friendly negroes, | made forward for about eleven days
more, without offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land run out a



PICKED UP BY A PORTUGUESE SHIP. 35

great length into the sea, at about the distance of four or five leagues before
me; and the sea being very calm, I kept a large offing to make this point.
At length, doubling the point at about two leagues from the land, I saw
plainly land on the other side, to seaward; then I concluded, as it was most
certain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands called,
from thence, Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at a great dis-
tance, and I could not well tell what I had best do; forif I should be taken
with a fresh gale of wind, I might neither reach one nor other.

In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the cabin and sat
me down, Xury having the helm; when, on a sudden, the boy cried out,
‘Master, master, a ship with a sail!” and the foolish boy was frighted out
of his wits thinking it must needs be some of his master’s ships sent to pur-
sue us, when J knew we were gotten far enough out of their reach. I jumped
out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only the ship, but that it was a
Portuguese ship; and, as I thought, was bound to the coast of Guinea, for
negroes. But, when I observed the course she steered, I was soon convinced
they were bound some other way, and did not design to go any nearer the
shore; upon which I stretched out to the sea as much as I could, resolving
to speak with them if possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to come in
their way, but that they would be gone by before I could make any signal
to them; but after I had crowded to the utmost, and began to despair, they,
it seems, saw me by the help of their perspective glasses, and that it was
some European boat, which they supposed must belong to some ship that
was lost; so they shortened sail to let me comeup. I was encouraged with
this, and as I had my patron’s ancient on board, I made a waft of it to them
for a signal of distress, and fired a gun, both of which they saw; for they
told me they saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon these
signals they very kindly brought to, and lay by for me; and in about three
hours’ time I came up with them.

They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and in French,
but I understood none of them; but at last a Scotch sailor, who was on
board, called to me; and I answered him, andtold him I wasan Englishman,
that had made my escape outof slavery from the Moors at Sallee; they then
bade me come on board, and very kindly took me in, and all my goods.

It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will believe, that I was
thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable and almost hopeless
condition as I was in; and I] immediately offered allI had to the captain of
the ship, as a return for my deliverance; but he generously toldme, he would
take nothing from me, but that all I had should be delivered safe to me,

when I came tothe Brazils. ‘ For,” says he, “I have saved your life on no
other terms than as I would be glad to be saved myself; and it may, one
time or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same condition. Besides,”
said he, ‘‘when I carry you to the Brazils, so great a way from your own



36 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

country, if I should take from you what you have, you will be starved there,
and then I only take away that life Ihave given. No, no,” says he; “ Seignor
Inglese” (Mr. Englishman), “I will carry you thither in charity, and these
things will help you to buy your subsistence there, and your passage home
again.”

As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the performance
to a tittle; for he ordered the seamen that none should offer to touch any-
thing I had; then he took everythirg into his own possession, and gave me
back an exact inventory of them, that J might have them, even to my
three earthen jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw, and told me,
he would buy it of me for the ship’s use; and asked me what I would have
for it. Itold him, he had been so generous to me in everything, that I
could not offer to make any price of the boat, but left it entirely to him:
upon which he told me he would give me a note of his hand to pay me
eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil; and when it came there, if any one
offered to give more, he would make it up. He offered me also sixty pieces
of eight more for my boy Xury, which I was loth to take; not that I was
unwilling to let the captain have him, but I was very loth to sell the poor
boy’s liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in procuring my own. How-
ever, when I let him know my reason, he owned it to be just, and offered
me this medium, that he would give the boy an obligation to set him free in
ten years, if he turned Christian; upon this, and Xury saying he was yee
to go to him, I let the captain have him.

We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived in the Bay ae
Todos los Santos, or All Saints Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And
now I wasonce more delivered from the most miserable of all conditions of
life; and what to do next with myself I was to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me, I cannever enough remem-
ber; he would take nothing of me for my passage, gave me twenty ducats
for the leopard’s skin, and forty for the lion’s skin, which I had in my boat,
and caused everything I had in the ship to be punctually delivered to me;
and what I was willing to sell, he bought of me: such as the case of bottles,
two of my guns and a piece of the lump of beeswax, for I had made candles
of the rest; in a word, I made about two hundred and twenty pieces of eight
of all my cargo; and with this stock, I went’on shore in the Brazils.

I had not been long here, but being recommended to the house of a
good, honest man, like himself, who had an zmgenio, as they call it (that is,
a plantation and a sugar-house), I lived with him some time, and
acquainted myself, by that means, with the manner of their planting and mak-
ing of sugar;and seeing how well the planters lived, and how they got rich
suddenly, I resolved, if I could get a license to settle there, I would turn
planter among them; resolving, in the meantime, to find out some way to
get my money, which I had left in London, remitted to me. To this pur:



IN THE BRAZILS. 3t-

pose, getting a kind of letter of naturalization, I purchased as much land
that was uncured as my money would reach, and formed a plan for my
plantation and settlement; such-a one as might be suitable to the stock
which I proposed to myself to receive from England.

I had a neighbor, a Portuguese, of Lisbon, but born of English parents,
whose name was Wells, and in much such circumstancesas I was Icallhim
neighbor, because his plantation lay next to mine, and we went on very
sociably together. My
stock was but low, as
well as his; and we
rather planted for food
than anything else, for
about two years. How-
ever, we began to in-
crease, and our land be-
gan to come into order;
so that the third year
we planted some tobac-
co, and made each of us
a large piece of ground
ready for planting canes
in the year to come;
but we both wanted
help; and now I found,
more than before, I had
done wrong in parting
with my boy Xury.

But, alas! for me to
do wrong that neverdid
right, was no great won-
der. I had no remedy
but to go on. I had got
into employment quite
remote to my geniusand
directly contrary to the
life I delighted in, and
for which I forsook my
father’s house, and broke through all his good advice; nay, I was coming
into the very middle station, or upper degree of low life, which my father
advised me to before, and which, if I resolved to go on with, I might as
well have stayed at home, and never fatigued myself in the world, as I have
done; and I used often to say to myself, “I could have done this as well in
England, among my friends, as have gone five thousand miles off to do it
among strangers and savages, in a wilderness, and at such a distance as







oT

“| BOUGHT ME A NEGRO SLAVE” (42. 89).



388 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

never to hear from any part of the world that had the teast knowledge
of me.”

In this manner I used to look upon my condition with the utmost regret.
I had nobody to converse with but now and then this neighbor; no work to
be done but by the labor of my hands; and I used to say, I lived just like a
man cast away upon some desolate island, that had nobody there but him-
self. But how just has it been; and how should all men reflect, that when
they compare their present conditions with others that are worse. Heaven
may oblige them to make the exchange, and be convinced of their former
felicity by their experience—I say, how just has it been that the truly soli-
tary life I reflected on, in an island, or mere desolation, should be my lot,
who had so often unjustly compared it with the life which I then led, in
which, had I continued, I had in all probability been exceedingly prosper-
ous and rich.

I was in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying on the planta-
tion before my kind friend, the captain of the ship that took me up at sea,
went back; for the ship remained there, in providing her lading, and prepar-
ing for her voyage, near three months; when, telling him what little stock I
had left behind me in London, he gave me this friendly and sincere advice:
“Seignor Inglese,” says he (for so he always called me) ‘if you will give
me letters, and a procuration here in form to me, with orders to the person
who has your money in London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to such
persons as I shall direct, and in such goods as are proper for this country, I
will bring you the produce of them, God willing, at my return; but, since
human affairs are all subject to changes and disasters, I would have you give
orders but for one hundred pounds sterling, which, you say, is half your
stock, and let the hazard be run for the first; so that, if it come safe, you
may order the rest the same way; and if it aaa you may have the
other half to have recourse to for your supply.” ;

This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I gould not
but be convinced it was the best course I could take; so I accordingly pre
pared letters to the gentlewoman with whom J had left my money, and a
procuration to the Portuguese captain, as he desired.

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full account of all my adventures.
my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the Portuguese captain at sea,
the humanity of his behavior, and what condition I was now in, with all
other necessary directions for my supply; and when this honest captain
came to Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English merchants there,
to send over not the order only, but a full account of my story, to a
merchant at London, who represented it effectually to her; whereupon
she not only delivered the money, but out of her own pocket sent the
Portugal captain a very handsome present for his humanity and charity
to me,

The merchant in London vested this hundred pounds in English goods,





MY PLANTATION IN THE BRAZILS. 39

such as the captain had written for, sent them directly to him at Lisbon,
and he brought them all safe to me to the Brazils; among which, without
my direction (for 1 was too young in my business to think of them), he had
taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron work, and utensils necessary for
my plantation, and which were of great use to me.

When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made, for I was surprised
with the joy of it; and my good steward, the captain, had laid out the five
pounds, which my friend had sent him for a present for himself, to purchase
and. bring me over a servant, under bond for six years’ service, and would
not accept of any consideration, except a little tobacco, which I would have
him accept, being of my own produce. Stele

Neither was this all; for my goods being all English manufacture, such
as cloth, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable and desirable in the
country, I found means to sell them at a very great advantage; so that I
may say I had more than four times the value of my first cargo, and was
' now infinitely beyond my poor neighbor—I mean in the advancement of my

plantation; for the first thing I did, I bought me a negro slave and an Euro-
pean servant also; I mean another besides that which the captain brought
me from Lisbon. |

But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means of our
greatest adversity, so was it with me. I went on the next year with great
success in my plantation: I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on my own
ground, more than I had disposed of for necessaries among my neighbors,

_and these fifty rolls, being each of above a hundred weight, were well cured,
and laid by against the return of the fleet from Lisbon. And now increas-
ing in business and wealth, my head began to be full of projects and under-
takings beyond my reach; such as are indeed often the ruin of the best
heads in business. Had I continued in the station I was nowin, I had room
for all the happy things to have yet befallen me, for which my father so
earnestly recommended a quiet, retired life, and which he had so sensibly
described the middle station of life to be full of; but other things attended
me, and | was still to be the willful agent of all my own miseries; and par-
ticularly, to increase my fault, and double the reflections upon myself,
which in my future serrows I should have leisure to make, all these mis-
carriages were procured by my apparent obstinate adhering to my foolish
inclination of wandering abroad, and pursuing that inclination, in contradic-
tion to the clearest views of doing myself good in a fair and plain pursuit
of those prospects and those measures of life which nature and Providence
concurred to present me with, and to make my duty.

As I had once done thus in breaking away from my parents, so I could
not be content now, but | must go and leave the happy view I had of being
a richand thriving man in my new plantation, only to pursue a rash and
immoderate desire of rising faster than the nature of the thing admitted;
and thus I cast myself down again into the deepest gulf of human misery



40 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent with life, and a state
of health in the world.

To come then by just degrees to the particulars of this part of my story:
You may suppose that having now lived almost four years in the Brazils,
and beginning to thrive and prosper very well upon my plantation, I had
not only learned the language, but had contracted acquaintance and friend-
ship among my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants of St. Sal-
vadore, which was our port; and that, in my discourse among them, I had
frequently given them an account of my two voyages to the coast of Guinea,
the manner of trading with the negroes there, and how easy it was to pur-
chase upon the coast for trifles—such as beads, toys, knives, scissors,
hatchets, bits of glass, and the like—not only gold-dust, Guinea grains, ele-
phants’ teeth, etc., but negroes, for the service of the Brazils, ingreat numbers.

They listened always very attentively to my discourses on these heads,
but especially to that part which related to the buying negroes, which was
a trade, at that time, not only not far entered into, but, as far as it was, had
been carried on by the Assiento, or permission, of the King of Spain and
Portugal, and engrossed in the public stock; so that few negroes were
brought, and those excessively dear.

It happened, being in company one day with some merchants and
planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very earnestly,
three of them came to me the next morning, and told me they had been
musing very much upon what IJ had discoursed of with them the last night,
and they came to make a secret proposal to me; and, after enjoining me
secrecy, they told me that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea;
that they had all plantations as well as I, and were straitened for nothing
so much as servants; that as it was a trade that could not be carried on,
because they could not publicly sell the negroes when they came home, so
they desired to make but one voyage, to bring the negroes on shore pri-
vately, and divide them among their own plantations ; and, in a word, the
question was, whether I would go their supercargo in the ship, to manage
the trading part upon the coast of Guinea; and they offered me that I
should have my equal share of the negroes, without providing any part of
the stock.

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made to any one
that had not hada settlement and plantation of his own to look after, which
was in a fair way of coming to be very considerable, and with a good stock
upon it. But for me, that was thus entered and established, and had noth-
ing to do but go on as I had begun, for three or four years more, and to
have sent for the other hundred pounds from England ; and who in that
time, and with that little addition, could scarce have failed of being worth
three or four thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing too—for me to
think of such a voyage was the most preposterous thing that ever man in
such circumstances could be guilty of.



I MAKE MY WILL. 41

But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more resist the
offer than I could restrain my first rambling designs, when my father’s good
counsel was lost upon me. Ina word, I told them that I would go with all
my heart, if they would undertake to look after my plantation in my
absence, and would dispose of it as I should direct, if I miscarried. This
they all engaged to do, and entered into writings and covenants to do so. I
made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and effects in case of my
death, making the

-captain of the ship
that had saved my
live, as before, my
universal heir, but
obliging him to
dispose of my ef-
fects as I had di-
rected in my will;
one-half of the
produce being
to himself, and
the other to be
shipped to Eng- WAZ
land. | {

Inshort,I took — diy
all possible cau- | Wr Ms
tion to preserve | ; Vv
my effects, and to “ AW
keep up my plan- i
tation. HadI used



\,
i










half as ‘much pru- Mh,
dence to have ta
looked into my
own interest, and
have made a judg-
ment of what I
ought to have
done, and not to
have done, I had certainly never gone away trom so prosperous an under-
taking, leaving all the probable views of a thriving circumstance, and gone
upon a voyage to sea, attended with all its common hazards, to say nothing
of the reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes to myself.

But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my fancy
rather than my reason; and, accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and the
cargo finished, and all things done as by agreement, by my partners in the
voyage. I went on board in an evil hour again, the 1st of September, 1659,





‘ iH
Yi.

“LOOKING OVER THE CHARTS” (2. 48).



42 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

being the same day eight years that I went from my father and mother at
Hull, in order to act the rebel to their authority and the fool to my own
interest.

Our ship was abcut one hundred and twenty tons burden, carried six
guns, and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy, and myself. We had
on board no large cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit for our
trade with the negroes, such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles,
especially little looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.

The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to the north-
ward upon our own coasts, with design to stretch over for the African
coast, when they came into about ten or twelve degrees of northern lati-
tude; which, it seems, was the manner of their course in those days. We
had very good weather, only excessively hot, all the way upon our own
coast till we came to the height of Cape St. Augustino; from whence, keep-
ing farther off at sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if we were bound
for the isle Fernando de Noronha, holding our course N.E. by N., and
leaving those isles on the east. In this course we passed the line in about
twelve days’ time, and were, by our last observation, in seven degrees
twenty-two minutes northern latitude, when a violent tornado, or hurricane,
took us quite out of our knowledge. It began from the southeast, came
about to the northwest, and then settled into the northeast, from whence
it blew in such a terrible manner, that for twelve days together we could do
nothing but drive, and, scudding away before it, let it carry us wherever
fate and the fury of the winds directed; and during these twelve days I



“WE HASTENED OUR DESTRUCTION WITH OUR OWN HANDS” (Z, 44),



A VIOLZNT TORNADO. 43

need not say that I expected every day to be swallowed up; nor did any in
the ship expect to save their lives.

In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of our men
died of the calenture, and a man and a boy washed overboard. About the
twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the master made an observation as
«ell as he could, and found that he was in about eleven degrees of north
latitude, but that he was twenty-two degrees of longitude -difference west
from Cape St Augustino; so that he found he was gotten upon the coast of
Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river Amazones towards that
pf the river Oroonoque, commonly called the Great River; and now he
began to consult with me what course he should take, for the ship was
leaky, and very much disabled, and he was for going directly back to the
coast of Brazil.

I was .positively against that, and looking over the charts of the sea-
coast of America with him, we concluded there was no inhabited coun-
try for us to have recourse to till we came within the circle of the Caribbee
Islands, and therefore resolved to stand away for Barbadoes, which, by
keeping off at sea, to avoid the in-draft of the Bay or Gulf of Mexico, we
might easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days’ sail; whereas we
could not possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa without some
assistance both to our ship and to ourselves.

With this design we changed our course, and steared away N.W. by W.,
in order to reach some of our English islands, where I hoped for relief; but
our voyage was otherwise determined, for, being in the latitude of twelve
degrees eighteen minutes, a second storm came upon us, which carried us
away with the same impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of the way
of all human commerce, that had all our lives been saved as to the sea, we
were rather in danger of being devoured by savages than ever returning to
our own country. i

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our men early
one morning cried out, ‘‘Land!” and we had no sooner run out of the cabin
to look out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we were, than the
ship struck upon a sand, and ina moment, her motion being so stopped, the
sea broke over her in such a manner that we expected we should all have
_ perished immediately, and we were even driven into our close quarters, to
shelter us from the very foam and spray of the sea.

It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like condition to
describe or conceive the consternation of men in such circumstances. We
knew nothing where we were, or upon what land it was we were driven;
whether an island or the main, whether inhabited or not inhabited. As the
rage of the wind was still great, though rather less than at. first, we could
not so much as hope to have the ship hold many minutes without breaking
in pieces, unless the winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn immediately
about. Ina word, we sat looking one upon another, and expecting death



44 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

every moment, and every man acting accordingly, as preparing for another
world, for there was little or nothing more for us to do in this; that which
was our present comfort, and all the comfort we had, was that, contrary to
our expectation, the ship did not break yet, and that the master said the
wind began to abate.

Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet the ship
having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us to expect herget-
ting off, we were in a dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing to do but to
think of saving our lives as wellas we could. Wehad a boat at our stern just
before the storm, but she was first staved by dashing against the ship’s rud-
der, and in the next place she broke away, and either sunk or was driven off
to sea; so there was no hope from her. We had another boat on board,
but now to get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing; however, there was
no room to debate, for we fancied the ship would break in pieces every
minute, and some told us she was actually broken already.

In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of the boat, and with the
help of the rest of the men, they got her flung over the ship’s side; and get-
ting all into her, let go, and committed ourselves, being eleven in number,
to God’s mercy and the wild sea; for though the storm was abated consider-
ably, yet the sea went dreadfully high upon the shore, and might be well
called den wild zee, as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.

And now our case was very dismal indeed, for we all saw plainly that the
sea went so high that the boat could not escape, and that we should be
inevitably drowned. As to making sail, we had none, nor, if we had, could
we have done anything with it; so we worked at the oar towards the land,
though with heavy hearts, like men going to execution, for we all knew
that when the boat came near the shore, she would be dashed ina thousand
pieces by the breach of the sea. However, we committed our souls to God
in the most earnest manner; and the wind driving us towards the shore, we
hastened our destruction with our own hands, pulling as well as we could
towards land.

What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep or shoal, we
knew not; the only hope that could rationally give us the least shadow of
expectation, was if we might happen into some bay or gulf, or the mouth of
some river, where by great chance we might have run our boat in, or got
under the lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth water. But there was
nothing of this appeared; but as we made nearer and nearer the shore, the
land looked more frightful than the sea.

After we had rowed or rather driven, about a league anda alee as we
reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling asternof us, and
plainly bade us expect the coup de grace. In.a word, it took us with such a
fury that it overset the boat at once, and separating us as well from the
boat as from one another, gave us not time hardly to say, “Q God!” for we
were all swallowed up in a moment.



SHIPWRECKED. 45

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt when I sank
into the water, for though I swam very well, yet I could not deliver myself
from the waves so as to draw breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather
carried me, a vast way on towards the shore, and having spent itself, went
back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but half dead with the water I
took in. I had so much presence of mind, as well as breath left, that
seeing myself nearer the mainland than I expected, I got upon my feet,
and endeavored to make on towards the land as fast as I could, before
another wave should return and take me up again; but I soon found it was
impossible to avoid it, for I saw the sea come after me as high as a great
hill, and as furious as an enemy, which I had no means or’ strength to con-













































“1 WAS NOW LANDED” (2%, 4%).

tend with; my business was to hold my breath, and raise myself upon the
water, if I could, and so by swimming to preserve my breathing, and pilot
myself toward the shore if possible; my greatest concern now being that the
wave, as it would carry me a great way towards the shore when it came on,
might not carry me back again with it when it gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again buried me at once twenty or thirty
feet deep in its own body, and I could feel myself carried with a mighty
force and swiftness towards the shorea very great way; but I held my breath,
and assisted myself to swim still forward with all my might. I was ready
to burst with holding my breath, when as I felt myself rising up, so, to my
immediate relief, I found my head and hands shoot out above the surface



I

HiNG



















a ZZ =
a
ae a

a ca





“ ESPIED A SMALL PIECE OF ROPE” (7. 49),



SAFE ON SHORE. 47

of the water, and though it was not two seconds of time that I could keep
myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave me breath and new courage. I
was covered again with water a good while, but not so long but I held it out;
and finding the water had spent itself, and began to return, I struck forward
against the return of the waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I stood
still a few moments to recover breath, and till the waters went from me,
and then took to my heels, and ran with what strength I had, farther
towards the shore. But neither would this deliver me from the fury of the
sea, which came pouring in after me again; and twice more I was lifted up
by the waves and carried forwards'as before, the shore being very flat.

The last time of these two had well-nigh been fatal to me, for the sea
having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather dashed me, against
a piece of arock, and that with such force as it left me senseless, and in-
deed helpless, as to my own deliverance, for the blow, taking my side and
breast, beat the breath as it were quite out of my body, and had it returned
again immediately, 1 must have been strangled in the water, but I recov-
ered a little before the return of the waves, and seeing I should be covered
again with the water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so
to hold my breath, if possible, till the wave went back. Now, as the waves
were not so high as at first, being nearer land, I held my hold till the wave
abated, and then fetched another run, which brought me so near the shore
that the next wave, though it went over me, yet did not so swallow me up
as to carry me away, and the next run I took I got to the mainland, where,
to my great comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and sat me
down upon the grass, free from danger and quite out ‘of the reach of the
water.

I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up and thank
God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there was some minutes
before scarce any room to hope. JI believe it is impossible to express, to
the life, what the ecstasies and transports of the soul are when it is so saved,
as I may say, out of the very grave; and I do not wonder now at that
custom, when a malefactor, who has the halter about his neck, is tied up,
and just going to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought to him—I say,
I do not wonder that they bring a surgeon with it, to let him blood that very
moment they tell him of it, that the surprise may not drive the animal
spirits from the heart and overwhelm him,

“ For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.”

I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my whole being,
as I may say, wrapt up in a contemplation of my deliverance; making a
thousand gestures and motions, which I cannot describe; reflecting upon
all my comrades that were drowned, and that there should not be one soul
saved but myself; for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign



4 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that were not
fellows.

I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and froth of the
sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far off; and considered,
Lord! how was it possible J could get on shore?

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my condition,
I began to look round me, to see what kind of place I was in, and what was
next to be done; and I soon found my comforts abate, and that, in a word,
I hada dreadful deliverance, for I was wet, had no clothes to shift’ me, nor
anything either to eat or drink, to comfort me; neither did I see any pros-
pect before me but that of perishing with hunger, or being devoured by
wild beasts; and that which was particularly afflicting to me was, that I
had no weapon, either to hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance, or
to defend myself against any other creature that might desire to kill me
for theirs. Ina word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe,
and a little tobacco ina box. This was all my provision; and this threw
me into terrible agonies of mind, that for awhile I ran about like a madman.
Night coming upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider what would
be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that country, seeing at night
they always come abroad for their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time, was to get up
into athick bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny, which grew near me, and where
I resolved to sit all night, and consider the next day what death I should
die, for as yet I saw no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong from the
shore, to see if I could find any fresh water to drink, which I did to my great
joy; and having drunk, and puta little tobacco in my mouth to prevent
hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavored to place
myself so that if I should sleep I might not fall. And having cut mea short
stick, like a truncheon, for my defense, I took up my lodging; and being

































“ SHOES THAT WFPF NOT FELLOWS ”



A VISIT TO THE WRECK. , 49

excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I believe,
few could have done in my condition, and found myself more refreshed
with it than I. think I ever was on such an occasion.

When I waked it was broad day,the weather clear,and the storm abated,
so that the sea did not rage and swellas before: but that which surprised me
most was, that the ship was lifted off in the night from the sand where she
lay, by the swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock
which I at first mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the wave dash-
ing me against it. This being within about a mile from the shore where I
was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished myself on board,
that at least I might save some necessary things for my use.

When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked about me
again, and the first thing I found was the boat, which lay, as the wind and
sea had tossed her up, upon the land, about two miles on my right hand. I
walked as far as I could upon the shore to have got to her, but found a
neck, or inlet, of water between me and the boat, which was about half
a mile broad, sol came back for the present, being more intent upon
getting at the ship, where I hoped to find something’ for my present sub-
sistence.

A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed so far
out, that I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship. And here I
found a fresh renewing of my grief; for I saw evidently that if we had kept
on board, we had been all safe; that is to say, we had all yo. safe on shore,
and I had not been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all com-
fort and company, as I now was. This forced tears to my eyes again, but
as there was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship;
so I pulled off my clothes, for the weather was hot to extremity, and took
the water. But when I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to
know how to get on board; for, as she lay aground, and high out of the
water, there was nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round
her twice, and the second time I espied a small piece of rope, which I
wondered I did not see at first, hanging down by the fore-chains so low
that, with great difficulty, I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope got
up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that the ship was bulged,
and had a great deal of water in her hold; but that she lay so on the side
of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern lay lifted up upon
the bank, and her head low, almost to the water. By this means all her
quarter was free, and all that was in that part was dry; for you may be sure
my first work was to search, and to see what was spoiled and what was
free. And, first, I found that all the ship’s provisions were dry and
untouched by the water, and being very well disposed to eat, I went
to the bread-room, and filled my pockets with biscuit, and ate it as I went
about other things, for I had no time to lose. I also found some rum in
the erat cabin, of which I took a large dram, and which I had, indeed,



50 ROBINSON CRUSOE.












~~ feed enough of to spirit me for
~~ what was before me. Now I
_ wanted nothing but a boat, to
_-.: furnish myself with many things
~~~ which I foresaw would be very
necessary to me.

It was in vain to sit still and
wish for what was hot to be had;
and this extremity roused my ap-
=~plication. We had several spare yards,
-. _ and two or three large spars of wood, and

a sparé topmast or two in the ship. I
resolved to fall to work with these, and
I flung as many of them overboard as J
could manage for their weight, tying every
one with a rope, that they might not drive
away. When this was done I went down

“| FELL FAST ASLEFP ” (/. 49). the ship’s side, and pulling them to me I

tied four of them together at both ends,

as well as I could, in the form of a raft,

and layitig two or three short pieces of
plank upon theth, crossways, I found I could walk upon it very well, but
that it was not able to bear any great weight, the pieces being too light
So I went to work, and with the carpentet’s saw I cut a spare topmast into
three lengths, and added them to my raft, with a great deal of labor and
pains. But the hope of furnishing myself with necessaries encouraged me
to go beyond what I should have been able to have done upon another
occasion.

My ratt was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight. My next



LOADING THE RAFT, 51

care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what I laid upon it from
ihe surf of the sea; but I was not long considering this I first laid all the
planks or boards upon it that I could get, and having considered well what
i most wanted, I first got three of the seamen’s chests, which I had broken
open and emptied, and lowered them down upon my raft; the first of these
I filled with provisions—viz., bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces
of dried goat’s flesh (which we lived much upon), and a little remainder
of European corn, which had been laid by for some fowls which we brought
to sea with us, but the fowls were killed. There had been some barley and
wheat together; but, to my great disappointment, I found afterwards that
the rats had eaten or spoiled it all, As for liquors, J found several cases
of bottles belonging to our skipper, in which were some cordial waters,
and, in all, about five or six gallons of arrack. These I stowed by them-
selves, there being no need to put them into the chest, nor any room for
them. While I was doing this, I found the tide began to flow, though very
calm, and I had the mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which
I had left on shore upon the sand, swim away. As for my breeches, which
were only linen, and open-kneed, I swam on board in them and my stock-
ings, However, this put me upon rummaging for clothes, of which I found
enough, but took no more than I wanted for present use, for I had other
things which my eye was more upon; as, first, tools to work with on shore;
and it was after long searching that I found out the carpenter’s chest, which
was indeed a very useful prize to me, and much more valuable than a ship-
lading of gold would have been at that time. I got it down to my raft,
whole as it was, without losing time to look into it, for I knew in general
what it contained.

My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were two
very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin and two pistols. TheseI secured
first, with some powder-horns,a small bag of shot, and two old rusty
swords. I knew there were three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew
not where our gunner had stowed them; but with much search I found
them two of them dry and good, the third had taken water. Those two I
got to my raft with the arms, And now] thought myself pretty well
freighted, and began to think how I should get to shore with them, having
neither sail, ore, nor rudder, and the least capful of wind would have over-
set all my navigation.

I had three encouragements: first, a smooth, calm sea; secondly, the
tide rising and setting into the shore; thirdly, what little wind there was
blew me towards the land. And thus, having found two or three broken
oars, belonging to the boat, and besides the tools which were in the chest,
two saws, anaxe, and a hammer, with this cargo I putto sea. Fora mile,
or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that I found it drive a little
distant from the place where I had landed before, by which I perceived
that there was some indraught of the water, and consequently, I hoped to



52 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

‘find some creek or river there, which I might make use of asa port to get
to land with my cargo.

As I imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a little opening of
the land. I found a strong current of the tide set into it; so I guided my
raft as well as I could, to keep in the middle of the stream.

But here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if I had,
I think verily would have broken my heart, for, knowing nothing of the
coast, my raft ran aground at one end of it upona shoal, and not being
aground at the other end, it wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped
off towards the end that was afloat, and so fallen into the water. I did
my utmost, by setting my back against the chests, to keep them in their
places, but could not thrust off the raft with all my strength; neither durst
I stir from the posture I was in; but holding up the chests with all my
might, I stood in that manner near half an hour, in which time the rising of
the water brought me a little more upon a level; and a little after, the water
still rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off with the oar I had into
the channel, and then driving up higher, I at length found myself in the
mouth of a little river, with land on both sides, and a strong current or tide
running up. I looked on both sides for a proper place to get to shore, for
t was not willing to be driven too high up the river; hoping in time to see
some ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place myself as near the coast
as I could.

At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek, to which,
with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last got so near, that
reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust her directly in. But here I
had like to have dipped all my cargo into the sea again; for that shore lying
pretty steep—that is to say, sloping—there was no place to land but where
one end of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie so high, and the other sink
lower as before, that it would endanger my cargo again. All that I could
do was to wait till the tide was at the highest, keeping the raft with my oar
like an anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of
ground, which I expected the water would flow over, and so it did. As
soon as I found water enough, for my raft drew about a foot of water, I
thrust her upon that flat piece of ground, and there fastened or moored her,
by sticking my two broken oars into the ground—one on one side near one
end, and one on the other side near the other end; and thus J lay till the
water ebbed away and left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore. :

My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper place for my
habitation, and where to stow my goods, to secure them from whatever
might happen. Where I was, I yet knew not; whether on the continent or
an island; whether inhabited or not inhabited; whether in danger of wild
beast or not. There was a hill not above a mile from me, which rose up
very steep and high, and which seemed to overtop some other hills, which
lay as in a ridge from it, northward. 1 took out one of the fowling-pieces,



A SECOND CARGO. Be

and one of the pistols, and ahorn of powder; and thus armed, I traveled for
discovery up to the top of that hill, where, after I had with great labor and
difficulty got to the top, I saw my fate, to my great affliction—viz., that 1
was in an island environed every way with the sea: no land to be seen
except some rocks, which lay a great way off, and two small islands, less
than this, which lay about three leagues to the west. *

I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw good
reason to believe, uninhabited, except by wild beasts, of which, however, I
saw none. YetI saw abundance of fowls, but knew not their kinds; neither,
when J killed them, could I tell what was fit for food,and what not. At my
coming back, I shot at a great bird, which I saw sitting upon a tree, on the
side of a great wood. I believe it was the first gun that had been fired there
since the creation of the world. I had no sooner fired but from all parts of
the wood there arose an innumerable number of fowls of many sorts, mak-
ing a confused screaming and crying, every one according to his usual note,
but not one of them of any kind that I knew. As for the creature I killed,
I took it to be a kind of hawk, its color and beak resembling it, but it had
no talons or claws more than common. Its flesh was carrion, and fit for
nothing.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and fell to work

to bring my cargo onshore, which took me up the rest of the day; what to
do with myself at night I knew not, nor indeed where to rest, for 1 was
afraid to lie down on the ground, not knowing but some wild beast might
devour me; though, as I afterwards found, there was really no need for those
fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round with the chests
and boards that I had brought on shore, and made a kind of hut for that
night’s lodging. As for food, I yet saw not which way to supply myself,
except that I had seen two or three creatures, like hares, run out of the wood
where I shot the fowl.

I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many things out of
the ship which would be useful to me, and particularly some of the rigging
and sails, and such other things as might come to land; and I resolved to
make another voyage on board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that
the first storm that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I resolved
to set all other things apart, till I got everything out of the ship that I could
get. Then I called a council—that is to say, in my thoughts—whether I
should take back the raft, but this appeared impracticable; so I resolved to
go as before, when the tide was down, and I did so, only that I stripped
before I went from my hut, having nothing on but a checkered shirt, a pair
of linen drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.

I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft; and, hav-
ing had experience of the first, I neither made this so unwieldy, nor loaded
it so hard, but yet I brought away several things very useful to me; as, first,



54 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

-in the carpenter’s stores I found two or three bags full of nails and spikes,
a great screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and, above all, that most
useful thing called a grindstone. All these I secured, together with several
things belonging to the gunner, particularly two or three iron crows, and
two barrels of musket bullets, seven muskets, and another fowling-piece,
with some small quantity of powder more, a large bag full of sniall shot,
and a great roll of sheet,lead; but this last was so heavy I could not hoist
it up to get it over the ship’s side.

Besides these things, I took all the men’s clothes that I could find, and
a spare foretopsail, a hatnmock, and some bedding; and with this I loaded
my second raft, and brought them all safe on shore, to my very great
comfort.

I was under some apprehension during my absence from the land, that
at least my provisions might be devoured on shore; but when I came back
I found no sign of any visitor; only there sat a creature like a wild cat upon
one of the chests, which, when I came towards it, ran away a little distance,
and then stood still. She sat very composed and unconcerned, and looked
full in my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with me. I presented
my gun to her, but, as she did not understand it, she was perfectly uncon-
cerned at it, nor did she offer to stir away, upon which I tossed her a bit of
biscuit, though, by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store was not
great; however, I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled at it,
and ate it, and looked (as pleased) for more; but I thanked her, and could
spare no more, so she marched off.

Having got my second cargo on shore—though I was obliged to open
the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for they were too heavy,
being large casks—I went to work to make me a little tent, with the sail
and some poles which I cut for that purpose; and into this tent I brought
everything that I knew would spoil either with rain or sun; and I piled all
_ the empty chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from
any sudden attempt, either from man or beast.

When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with some
boards within, and an empty chest set up on end without; ard spreading
one of the beds upon the ground, laying my two pistols just at my head,
and my gun at length by me, I went to bed for the first time, and slept very
quietly all night. I was very weary and heavy, for the night before I had
slept little, and had labored very hard all day, as well to fetch those things
from the ship as to get them on shore.

I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid up, I
believe, for one man; but still I: was not satisfied, for. while the ship sat
upright in that posture, I thought I ought to get everything out of her that
I could; so every day, at low water, I went on board, and brought away
something or other; but particularly the third time I went, I brought away
as much of the rigging as I could, as also all the stall ropes aud rope twine



THE LAST OF THE SHIP.

I could get,

with a piece of BN
spare canvas, toy
which was to wf

mend the sails
upon occasion,
and the barrel of wet gunpowder.
In a word, I brought away all the
sails, first and last; only that | was
fain to cut them in pieces, and
bring as much atatimeas I could,
for they were no more useful ta
me, for sails, but as mere canvas
only.

‘But that which comforted me
more still was that at last of all,
after I had made five or six such
voyages as these, and thought I
bad nothing more to expect from
the ship that was worth my med-
dling with—I say, after all this, I
found a great '
hogshead of
bread, three
large runlets
of rum, or spir-
its, a box of
fine sugar, and
a barrel of fine
flour; this was
surprising to
me, because I
had given over
expecting any
more provis-
ions except
what was
spoiled by the
water. I soon
emptied the
hogshead of
the bread, and
‘wrapped it up,
parcel by par




















A



|
i

if

S
ee



'

55










oF:

4

Iu Nits yh
if

“A CONFUSED SCREAMING ANL

CRVING " (2. 58),



56 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

cel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut out; and, in a word, I got all this safe
on shore also, though at several times.

The next day I made another voyage, and now, having plundered the
ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I began with the cable. Cut-
ting the great cable into pieces such as I could move, I got two cables and
‘a hawser on shore, with all the iron-work I could get, and having cut down
the spritsail yard, and the mizzen yard, and everything I could to make a
large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods and came away. But
my good luck began to leave me, for this raft was so unwieldy, and so over-
laden, that after I was entered the little cove, where I had landed the rest
of my goods, not being able to guide it so handily as I. did the other, it
overset, and threw me and all my cargo into the water. As for myself, it
was no great harm, for I was near the shore; but as to my cargo, it was
great part of it lost, especially the iron, which I expected would have been
of great use to me; however, when the tide was out, I got most of the pieces
of cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with infinite labor, for I was
fain to dip for it into the water, a-work which fatigued me very much.
After this, I went every day on board, and brought away what I could get.

I had now been thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven times on
board the ship, in which time I had brought away all that one pair of hands
could well be supposed capable of bringing; though I verily believe, had the
calm weather held, I should have brought away the whole ship, piece by piece;
but preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind began to
rise. However, at low water I went on board, and though I thought I had
rummaged the cabin so effectually that nothing more could be found, yet
I discovered a locker with drawers in it, in one of which I found two or
three razors, and one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of
good knives and forks; in another I found about thirty-six pounds value in
money—some European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold,
and some silver.

I smiled to myself at thesight of this méney. “Oh, drug!” said I aloud,
“what art thou good for? Thou art not worth to me—no, not the taking off
the ground; one of those knives is worth all this heap; I have no manner
of use for thee; e’en remain where thou art, and go to the bottom, asa
creature whose life is not worth saving.” However, upon second thoughts,
I took it away; and wrapping all ina piece of canvas, I began to think of
making another raft, but while I was preparing this I found the sky over-
cast, and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blewa fresh
gale from the shore. It presently occurred to me that it was in vain to pre-
tend to make a raft with the wind off shore, and that it was my business to
be gone before the tide of flood began, otherwise I might not be able to
reach the shore at all. Accordingly, I let myself down into the water, and
swam across the channel which lay between the ship and the sands, and
even that with difficulty enough, partly with the weight of the things I had



I PITCH MY TENT. 57

about me, and partly from the roughness of the water; for the wind rose
very hastily, and before it was quite high water it blew a storm.

But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I lay, with all my wealth
about me very secure. It blewvery hard all that night, and in the morning,
when I looked, out, behold, no more ship was to be seen. I wasa little
surprised, but recovered myself with this satisfactory reflection, that I had
lost no time, nor abated any diligence, to get everything out of her that
could be useful to me; and that, indeed, there was little left in her that I
was able to bring away, if I had had more time.

I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of anything out of her,
except what might drive on shore from her wreck, as, indeed, divers pieces
of her afterwards did; but those things were of small use to me,

My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself against
either savages, if any should appear, or wild beasts, if any were in this land;
and I had many thoughts of the method how to do this, and what kind of
dwelling to make—whether I should make me a cave in the earth, or a tent
upon the earth; and, in short, I resolved upon both; the manner and descrip-
tion of which it may not be improper to give an account of.

I soon found the place I was in was not fit for my settlement, particularly
because it was upona low moorish ground near the sea, and I believed
would not be wholesome, and more particularly because there was no fresh
water near it; so I resolved to finda more healthy and more convenient spot
of ground.

I consulted several things in my situation, which I found would be proper
for me; first, health and fresh water, I just now mentioned; secondly, shelter
from the heat of the sun; thirdly, security from ravenous creatures, whether
man or beast; fourthly, a view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight,
I might not lose any advantage for my deliverance, of which I was not willing
to banish my expectation yet.

In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on the side of
a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was steep as a house-side,
so that nothing could come downupon me from the top. On the side of the
rock there was a hollow place, worn a little way in, like the entrance or door
of a cave; but there was not really any cave, or way into the rock, at all.

On the flat of the green, just below this hollow place, I resolved to pitch
my tent. This plain was not above a hundred yards broad, and about twice
as long, and lay like a green before my door; and, at the end of it, descended
irregularly every way down into the low ground by the sea-side. It was on
the N.N.W. side of the hill,so that it was sheltered from the heat every
day, till it came to the W. and by S. sun or thereabouts, which, in aoe
countries, is near the setting.

Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the hollow place,
which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter from the rock, and
twenty yards in its diameter from its beginning and ending.



58 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving them into
the ground till they stood very firm like piles, the biggest end being out of
the ground above five feet and a half, and sharpened on the tap. The two
rows did not stand above six inches from one another, ~

Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship, and laid
them in rows, upon one another, within the circle, between these two rows
of stakes, up to the top, placing other stakes in the inside, leaning against
them, about two feet anda half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence
was so strong that neither man nor beast could get into it or over it, This
cost me a great deal of time and labor, especially to cut the piles in the
woods, bring them to the place, and drive them into the earth.

The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but by a short
ladder to go over the top, which ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after
me; and so I was completely fenced in and. fortified, as ] thought, from all
the world, and consequently slept secure in the night, which otherwise I
could not haye done; though, as it appeared afterwards, there was no need
of all this caution from the enemies that I apprehended danger from.

Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labor, I carried all my riches, all
my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you have the account
above; and I made mea large tent also, to preserve me from the rains, that
in one part of the year are very violent there. J made it double—viz., one
smaller tent within, and one larger tent above it; and covered the upper-
most part of it with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among the sails.

And now I lay no more for awhile in the bed which I had brought on
shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very good one, and belonged
to the mate of the ship.

Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that would
spoil by the wet, and having thus inclosed all my goods, I made up the
entrance, which till now I had left open, and so passed and re-passed, as I
said, by a short ladder,

When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock, and bring-
ing all-the earth and stones that I dug down out through my tent, I laid
them up within my fence, in the nature of a terrace, so that it raised the
ground within about a foot and a half; and thus I made me a cave, just
behind my tent, which served me like a cellar to my house.

It cost me much labor and many days before all these things were
brought to perfection, and therefore I must go back to some other things
which took up some of my thoughts, At the same time it occurred, after I
had laid my scheme for the setting up the tent, and making the cave, that a
storm of rain falling from a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning
happened, and after that, a great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect
of it. I was not so much surprised with the lightning, as J was with the
thought which darted into my mind as swift as the lightning itself, “Oh, my
powder!’ My very heart sank within me when I thought that, at one blast,



1 KILL A GOAT, d8

all ny powder might be destroyed, on which not my defense only, but the
providing me food, as I thought, entirely depended. I was nothing near so
anxious about my own danger, though, had the powder took fire, I had
never known who had hurt me. ;

Such impression did this make upon mie, that after the storm was over,
I laid aside all my work, my building and fortifying, and applied myself to
make bags atid boxes to separate my powder, and to keep it a little and a
little in a patcel, in hopes that, whatever might come, it might not all take
fire at once; and to keep it. so apart that it should not be possible to make
sve part fire another. I finished this work in about a fortnight; and I think
my powder, which in all was about one hundred and forty pounds weight,
was divided itito no less than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel that had
been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from that; so I placed it in my
new cane, which, in my fancy, I called my kitchen; and the rest I hid up
and down ih holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, mark-
ing very carefully where I laid it,

In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out at least once
every day with my gun, as well to divert myself as to see if I could kill any-
thing fit for food, atid, as near as I could, to acquaint myself with what the
island produced. The first time I went out, I presently discovered that
there were goats in the island, which was a great satisfaction to me; but
then it was attended with this misfortune to me, viz., that they were so shy,
so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the most difficult thing in the world
to come at them; but I was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I
might now and then shoot one, as it soon happened; for after I had found
their haunts a little, I laid wait in this manner for them: I observed if they
saw me in the valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would run
away, as in a terrible fright; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and I
was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence I concluded
that, by the position of their optics, their sight was so directed downward
that they did not readily see objects that were above them; so afterwards I
took this method—I always climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and
then had frequently a fair mark.

The first shot I made among these creattres, I killed a she-goat, which
had a little kid by her, which she gave suck to, which grieved me heartily;
for, when the old one fell, the kid stood stock-still by her, till I came and
took het up; and not only so, but when I carried the old one with me upon
my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my inclosure; upon which I
laid down the dam, and took the kid iii my arms, and carried it over my
pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame, but it would not eat; so I was forced
to kill it and eat it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great while,
for l ate sparingly and saved my provisions, my bread especially, as much -
as I possibly could.

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary to pro-



60 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

vide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn; and what I did for that, as
also how IJ enlarged my cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall givea
full account of in its place; but J must now give some little account of my-
self, and of my thoughts about living,
which, it may well be supposed, were
not a few.

I had a dismal prospect of my con-
dition, for as I was not cast away upon
that island without being driven, as is
said, by a violent storm quite out of
the course of our intended voyage, and
a great way, viz, some hundreds of
leagues, out of the ordinary course of
the trade of mankind, I had great rea-
son to consider it as a determination
of Heaven that in this desolate place
and in this desolate manner, I should
end my life. Thetears would run plen-
tifully down my face when I made these
reflections; and sometimes I would ex-
postulate with myself why Pro-
vidence should thus completely *
ruin its creatures, and render
them so absolutely miserable,
so without help abandoned, and so en-
tirely depressed, that it could hardly
be rational to be thankful for such a life.

But something always returned swift
upon me to check these thoughts, and



















; HK
‘ { ! f nh

Sy

hy

Wy Nh
ONY










to reprove me; and particularly one day Sy } <—, a Nn
walking with my gun in my hand by 2 KN





is id

the sea-side, I was very pensive upon {
the subject of my present condition,

when Reason, as it were, put in expos- NUR gag Feit Ny DN
tulating with me the other way, thus: Uy lH Sy ys |
“Well, you are in a desolate condition, eer

it is true; but, pray remember, where “THE KID FOLLOWED ME” (#. 59).
are the rest of you? Did not youcome

eleven of you into the boat? Where

are the ten? Why were not they saved,

and you lost? Why are you singled out? Is it better to be here or there?”
And then I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be considered with the good
that is in them and with what worse attended them.

Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished for my subsist-

WA
Ce
e



Kf






A HOME MADE CALENDAR. 61]

ence, and what would have been my case if it had not happened ( which was
a hundred thousand to one) that the ship floated from the place where first
she struck, and was driven so near to the shore that I had time to get all
these things out of her? What would have been my case, if I had been
forced to have lived in the condition in which I at first came onshore, with-
out necessaries of life, or any means to supply and procure them? “ Par-
ticularly,” said J aloud (though to myself), “ what should I have done with-
out a gun, without ammunition, without any tools to make anything, or to
work with? without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any manner of coverings?”
and that now I had all these to a sufficient quantity, and was ina fair way
to provide myself in such a manner as to live without my gun, when my
ammunition was spent; so that I had a tolerable view of subsisting without
any want as long as I lived; for I considered from the beginning how I
would provide for the accidents that might happen, and for the time that
was to come, even not only after my ammunition should be spent, but even
after my health and strength should decay.

_ I confess I had not then entertained any notion of myammunition being
destroyed at one blast—I mean my powder being blown up by lightning;
andthis made the thoughts of it surprising to me, when it lightened and
thundered, as I observed just now.

And now, being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene of silent
life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world before, I shall take it
from its beginning, and continue it in its order. It was, by my account, the
30th of September when, in the manner as above said, I first set foot upon
this horrid island; when the sun being to us in its autumnal equinox, was
almost just over my head, for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in
the latitude of nine degrees twenty-two minutes north of the line.

After I had been there about ten or twelve days it came into my thoughts
that I should lose my reckoning of time for want of books and pen and ink,
and should even forget the Sabbath-day from the working days; but to pre-
vent this I cut it with my knife upon a large post, in capital letters, and
making it into a great cross I set it up on the shore where I first landed,
viz., ‘I came on shore here on the 30th of September, 1659.”

upon the sides of this square post Icut every day a notch with my knife and
‘ every seventh notch was as long againas the rest, and every first day of the
month as long again as that long one, and thus I kept my calendar, or
weekly, monthly and yearly reckoning of time.

In the next place we are to observe that among the many things which
I brought from the ship in the several voyages which, as above mentioned,
I made to it, I got several things of less value, but not at all less useful’ to
me, which I omitted setting down before; as, in particular, pens, ink and
paper, several parcels in the captain’s, mate’s, gunner’s and carpenter's keep-
ing, three or four compasses, some Premade instruments, dials, per-
spectives, charts, and books ot navigation, all which I huddled together,



62 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

whether I might want them or no; also I found three very good Bibles,
which came to. me in my cargo from England and which I had packed up
among my things; some Portuguese books also, and, among them, two
or three Popish prayer-books, and several other books, all which I carefully
secured. And I must not forget that we had in the ship a dog and two cats
of whose eminent history I must have occasion to say something in its place,
' for I carried both the cats with me, and as for the dog, he jumped out of
the ship of himself, and swam on shore to me the day after I went on
shore with my first cargo, and was a trusty servant to me many years, I
wanted nothing that he could fetch me, nor any company that he could
make up tome. Ionly wanted to have him talk to me, but that he could
not do. AsI observed before, I found pens, ink and paper, and I husbanded
them to the utmost, and I shall show that while my ink lasted I kept things
very exact; but after that was gone I could not, for I.could not make any
ink by any means that I could devise.

And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwithstanding all
that I had amassed together; and of these, ink was one, as also a spade, pick-
axe and shovel to dig or remove the earth, needles, pins and thread; as for
linen, I soon learned to want that without much difficulty.

This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily; and it was near
a whole year before I had entirely finished my little pale, or surrounding
habitation. The piles or stakes, which were as heavy as I could well lift,
were along time in cutting and preparing inthe woods, and more, by far, in
bringing home, so that I spent sometimes two days in cutting and bringing
home one of those posts, and a third day in driving it into the ground, for
which purpose I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last bethought myself
of one of the iron crows, which, however, though I found it, yet made driving
those posts or piles very laborious and tedious work, But what need I
have beenconcerned at the tediousness of anything I had to do, seeing I
had time enough to do it in? nor had I any other employment, if that had
been over, at least that I could foresee, except the ranging the island to
seek for food, which I did, more or less every day.

I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the circumstances
I was reduced to, and I drew up the state of my affairs in writing, not so
much to leave them to any that were to come after me, for I was like to -
have but few heirs, as to deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon them,
and afflicting my mind; and as my reason began now to master my despon-
dency, I began to comfort myself as well as I could, and to set the good
against the evil, that I might have something to distinguish my case from
worse, and I stated it very impartially, like debtor and creditor, the com-
fort I enjoyed against the miseries I suffered, thus:



THE EVIL—THE GOOD. 63

EVIL. GOOD.

Iam cast upon a horrible, desolate But I am alive; and not drowned, as all my
island; void of ali hope of recovery. ‘ship's company was,

Iam singled out and separated, as But I am singled out, too, from all the ship's
it were, from all the world, to be mis- crew, to be spared from death; and He that mirac-
erable. _ ulously saved mié from death can deliver me from

this condition,

Tam divided from mankind, a soli- But I am not starved, and perishing on a bar-
tary;one banished from human society. ren place, affording no sustenance.

I have no Clothes to cover me. But I am ina hot climate, where if I had clothes,

I could hardly wear them.
Iam without any defense, or means But Iam cast on an island where I see no wild

to resist any violence of man or beast. beasts to hurt me, as I saw on the coast of Africa;
: and what if I had been shipwrecked there?
I have no soul to speak to or relieve But God wonderfully sent the ship in near
me. enough to the shore, that I have got out so many
necessary things as will either supply my wants
or enable me to supply myself, even as long as I
live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony that there was scarce
any condition in the world so miserable but there was something negative,
or something positive to be thankful for in it; and let this stand as a dircc-
tion, from the experience of the most miserable of all conditions in this
world—that we may always find in it something to comfort ourselves from,
and to set, in the description of good and evil, on the credit side of the
account.

Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition, and giving
over looking out to sea if I could spy a ship—I say, giving over these things,
I began to apply myself to accommodate my way of living, and to make
things as easy to me as I could.

I have already described my habitation, which was a tent under the side
of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts and cables; but I might
now tather call it a wall, for I raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs,
about two feet thick, on the outside; and after some time (I think it was a
year and a half) I raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched
or covered it with boughs of trees, and such things as J could get to keep
out the rain, which I found at some times of the year very violent.

I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this pale, and
into the cave which I had made behind me. But I must observe, too, that
at first this was a confused heap of goods, which, as they lay in no order,
so they took up all my place. Ihad no room to turn myself, so I set
myself to enlarge my cave, and worked farther into the earth, for it was a
loose, sandy rock, which yielded easily to the labor I bestowed on it, and
so when I found I was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways,
to the right hand, into the rock, and then turning to the right again worked
quite out, and made me a door to come out on the outside of my pale or
fortification.



64 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

This gave me not only egress and regress, as it was a back way to my
tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room to stow my goods.

And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary things as I
found I most wanted, particularly a chair anda table, for without these I
was not able to enjoy the few comforts I had in the world. I could not
write, or eat, or do several things with so much pleasure without a table.

So I went to work, and here I must needs observe that as reason is the
substance and original of the mathematics, so by stating and squaring



andy nd

“Ni Pi ie












, i ; Whe
il au Ms





| i
A

TN













“I WANTED NOTHING THAT HE COULD FETCH ME” (2. 62).

everything by reason, and by making the most rational judgment of things,
every man may be, in time, master of every mechanic art. I had never
handled a tool in my life, and yet, in time, by labor, application and con-
trivance, I found, at last, that I wanted nothing but I could have made it,
especially if I had had tools. However, I made abundance of things, even
without tools; and some with no more tools than an adze anda hatchet,
which, perhaps, were never made that way before, and that with infinite
labor. For example, if I wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut
down a tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either side with



I BEGIN MY JOURNAL. | 65

my axe till I had brought it to be as thin as a plank and then dub it smocth
with my adze. It is true, by this method I could make but one board out of
awhole tree, but this I had no remedy for but patience, any more than I
had for the prodigious deal of time and labor which it took me up to make
a plank or board, but my time or labor was little worth, and so it was as wel!
employed one way as another.

However, I made mea table and a chair, as I observed above, in the first
place, and this I did out of the short pieces of boards that I brought on my
raft from the ship. But when I had wrought out some boards as above |]
made large shelves of the breadth of a foot and a half, one over another,
all along one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails and iron-work on;
and, in a word, to separate everything at large into their places that I
might come easily at them; also I knocked pieces into. the wall of the rock
to hang my guns and all things that would hang up, so that had my cave
been to be seen, it looked like a general magazine of all necessary things,
and J had everything so ready at my hand that it was a great pleasure to
me to see all my goods in such order, and especially to find my stock of
all necessaries so great.

And now it was when I began to’ keep a journal of every day’s employ-
ment, for, indeed, at first I was in too much hurry, and not only a hurry cc
to labor, but in too much discomposure of mind, and my journal would
have been full of many dull things; for example, I must have said thus:
“ Sept. the 30th.—After I had got to shore, and had escaped drowning,
instead of being thankful to God for my deliverance, having first vomited,
with the great quantity of salt water which was gotten into my stomach,
and recovering myself a little, 1 ran about the shore wringing my hands
and beating my head and face, exclaiming at my misery, and crying out I
was undone, undone! till, tired and faint, I was forced to lie down on the
ground to repose, but durst not sleep, for fear of being devoured.”

Some days after this,and after I had been on board the ship, and had
got all I could out of her, yet I could not forbear getting up to the top ofa
little mountain, and looking out to sea,in hopes of seeing a ship; then
fancy at a vast distance I espied a sail, please myszlf with the hopes of it,
and then, after looking steadily till I was almost blind, lose it quite, and sit
down and weep like a child, and thus increase my misery by my folly.

But having gotten over these things in some measure, and having settled
my household stuff and habitation, made me a table and a chair, and all as
handsome about me as IJ could, I began,I say, to keep my Journal, of which
I shall here give you the copy (though in it will be told all these particulars
over again), as long as it lasted, for at last, having no more ink, I was
forced to leave off.

THE JOURNAL,

September 30, 1659.—I. poor miserable Robinson Crusoe, being ship.
5



66 ROBINSON CRUSOE.,

wrecked, during a dreadful storm, in the offing, came on shore on this dis-
mal, unfortunate island, which I called “The Island of Despair;” all the rest
of the ship’s company being drowned, and myself almost dead.

All the rest of the day IJ spent in afflicting myself at the dismal circum-
stances I was brought to, viz., I had neither food, house, clothes, weapon,
nor place to fly to; and, in despair of any relief, saw nothing but death
before me; either that I should be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by
savages, or starved to death for want of food. At the approach of night I
slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures; but slept soundly, though it rained
all night. :

October 1.—In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the ship had
floated with the high tide, and was driven on shore again, much nearer the
island; which, as it was some comfort, on one hand (for seeing her sit
upright, and not breken to pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I might get
on board, and get some food and necessaries out of her for my relief), so,
on the other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades, who, J]
imagined, if we had all stayed on board, might have saved the ship, or at
least, that they would not have been all drowned, as they were; and that,
had the men been saved, we might perhaps have built us a boat out of the
ruins of the ship to have carried us to some other part of the world, I
spent great part of this day in perplexing myself on these things; but at
length, seeing the ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as nearas I could,
and then swam on board. This day also it continued raining, though with
no wind at all.

From the ist of October to the 24th.—All these days entirely spent in many
several voyages to get all I could out of the ship, which I brought on shore,
every tide of flood, uponrafts. Much rain also, in these days, though with
some intervals of fair weather; but it seems this was the rainy season.

Oct. 24.—I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got upon it, but
being in shoal-water, and the things being chiefly heavy, I recovered many
of them when the tide was out.

Oct. 25.—It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of wind; during
which time the ship broke in pieces, the wind blowing a little harder than
before, and was no more to be seen, except the wreck of her, and that
only at low water. I spent this day in covering and securing the goods
which I saved, that the rain might not spoil them.

Oct. 26.—I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out a place to
fix my habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself from any attack in
the night, either from wild beasts or men. Towards night I fixed upon a
proper place, under a rock, and marked out a semi-circle for my encamp-
meit, which I resolved to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification,
made of double piles, lined within with cables, and without with turf.

From the 26th to the 30th, I worked very hard in carrying all my goods



MY JOURNAL. 67

tomy new habitation, though some part of the time it- rained exceeding
hard.

The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with my gun, to seek
for some food, and discover the country; when I killed a she-goat, and her
kid followed me home, which I afterwards killed also, because it would not
feed. ;

November 1.—I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there for the first
night; making it as large as I could, with stakes driven in to swing my ham-
mock upon. ‘

Nov. 2.—I set up all my chests and boards and the pieces of timber which
made my rafts, and with them formed a fence round me, alittle within the
place I had marked out for my fortification.

Nov. 3.—I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like ducks, which
were very good food. Inthe afternoon went to work to make mea table.

Nov. 4.—This morning I began to order my times of work, of going out
with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion: viz. every morning I
walked out with my gun for two or three hours, if it did not rain; then
employed myself to work till about eleven o’clock; then ate what I had to
live on; and from twelve to two I lay down to sleep, the weather being
excessive hot; and then, in the evening, to work again. The working part
of this day and the next were wholly employed in making this table, for I
was yet but a very sorry workman, though time and necessity made mea
com-lete natural mechanic soon after, as I believe they would do any one
else.

Nov. 5.—This day I went abroad with my gun and my dog, and killed a
wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for nothing. Every crea-
ture I killed, I took off the skins and preserved them. Coming back by the
sea-shore, I saw many sorts of sea-fowls, which I did not understand; but
was surprised, and almost frighted, with two or three seals, which, while I
Was gazing at, not well knowing what they were, got into the sea, and
escaped me for that time.

Nov. 6.—After my morning walk, I went to work with my table again,
and finished it, though not to my liking; nor was it long before I learned to
mend it.

Nov. 7.—Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th, 8th, oth, roth,
and part of the 12th (for the 11th was Sunday according to my reckoning),
I took wholly up to make me a chair, and with much ado brought it toa
tolerable shape, but never to please me; and even in the making I pulled it
to pieces several times.

Note.—I soon neglected keeping Sundays; for, omitting my mark fer
them on my post, I forgot which was which.

Nov.13.—This day it rained, which refreshed me exceedingly, and
cooled the earth; but it was accompanied with terrible thunder and light-
ning, which frighted me dreadfully for fear of my powder. As soon as it



68 ROBINSON

was over, I resolved to separate
my stock of powder into as
many little parcels as possible,
that it might not be in danger.
Nov. 14, 15, 16.—These three
days I spent in making little

RN a

yi












SS
I a fae
ANH [| it
A i) yl ve
Sau
ye in ee aN

m=
= Ser
Ss
oe
=

“THEY ALL FACED ABOUT UPON
THE DOG” (f/. 71).

made use of the iron crows, which
were proper enough, though heavy;
but the next thing was a shovel or
spade; this was so absolutely neces-
sary that indeed I could do nothing
effectually without it; but what kind
of one to make I as not.

Nov, 18.—The next day, in search-
ing the woods, I found a tree of that
wood, or like it, which in the Brazils
they call the iron-tree. for its exceed-





CRUSOE,

square chests, or
boxes, which
might hold about

a pound, or two
pounds at most, of
powder; and so,
putting the pow-

der in, I stowed

it in places as secure
and remote from one
another as possible. On
one of these three days
I killed a large bird that
was good to eat, but I
knew not what to call it.
Nov. 17.—This day I
began to dig behind my tent
into the rock,.to make room
for my further conveniency.
Note—Three things I
wanted exceedingly for this
work: viz, a pickaxe, a
shovel, and a wheelbarrow,
or basket; so I desisted from
my work, and began to con-
sider how to supply that
want, and make me some
tools. As for the pickaxe, I




HN : 4 4 me
Ma Hs i hy)
a i

a i Gi kN! th Wh

Vv Mut
' Syl Hip eS
sivas Seat ae WEN?

“ay i,



MY DIARY CONTINUED. 63

ing hardness; of this, with great labor, and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a
piece, and brought it home, with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding
heavy. The excessive hardness of the wood, and having no other way, made
me a long while upon this machine, for I worked it effectually by little and
little into the form of a shovel or spade; the handle exactly shaped like
ours in England, only that the board part having no iron shod upon it at
bottom, it would not last me so long; however, it served well enough for
the uses which I had occasion to put it to; but never was a shovel, I
believe, made after that fashion, or so long making.

I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket, or a wheelbarrow. A basket
I could not make by any means,
having no such things as twigs
that would bend to make
wicker-ware—at least, none yet
found out; and as to the wheel-
barrow, I fancied I could make
all but the wheel; but that I
had no notion of; neither did
I know how to go about it ; be-
sides, I had no possible way
to make iron gudgeons for the
spindle or axis of the wheel to
run in; so I gave it over, and
so, for carrying away the earth
which I dug out of the cave, I
made me a thing like a hod,
which the laborers carry mortar
in when they serve the brick-
layers. This was not so diffi- “A KIND OF WILD PIGEONS” (2. 71).
cult to me as the making the
shovel; and yet this and the
shovel, and the attempt which I made in vain to make a wheelbarrow, took
me up no less than four days, I mean always excepting my morning’s walk
with my gun, which I seldom failed, and very seldom failed also of bringing
home something fit to eat.

Nov, 23.—My other work having stood still, because of my making these
tools, when they were finished I went on, and working every day, as my
strength and time allowed, I spent eighteen days entirely in widening and
deepening my cave, that it might hold my goods commodiously.

Note-—During all this time I worked to make this room, or cave,
spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse or magazine, a
kitchen, a dining-room, anda cellar. As fora lodging I kept to the tent ;
except that sometimes, in the wet season of the year, it rained so hard that
I could not keep myself dry, which caused me afterwards to cover all my





70 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

place within my pale with long poles, in the form of rafters, leaning
against the rock, and load them with flags and large leaves of trees, like a
thatch.

December 10.—1 began now to think my cave or vault finished, when on
a sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great quantity of earth fell
down from the top and one side; so much that, in short, it frighted me, and
not without reason, too; for if I had been under it, I had never wanted a
grave digger. Upon this disaster I had a great deal of work to do over
again, for I had the loose earth to carry out; and, which was of more
importance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that 1 might be sure no more
would come down.

Dec. 11.—This day I went to work with it accordingly, and got two
shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with two pieces of board across
over each post; this I finished the next day, and setting more posts up with
boards, in about a week more I had the roof secured; and the posts, stand-
ing in rows, served me for partitions to part off my house.

Dec. 17.—From this day to the 20th I placed shelves, and knocked up
nails on the posts to hang everything up that could be hung up; and now
I began to be in some order within doors. ;

ec. 20.—Now I carried everything into the cave, and began to furnish
my house, and set up some pieces of board like a dresser, to order my
victuals upon; but board began to be very scarce with me; also I made me
another table.

Dec, 24.—Much rain all night and all day; no stirring out.

Dec.25.—Rain all day.

Dec. 26.—No rain, and the earth much cooler than before, and pleasanter.

Dec. 27.—Killed a young goat, and lamed another so that I catched it,
and led it home in a string; when I had it at home, I bound and splintered
up its leg which was broke.

NV. B.—\ took such care of it that it lived, and the leg grew weil and as
strong as ever; but by nursing it so long it grew tame, and fed ‘upon the
little green at my door, and would not go away. This was the first time
that I entertained a thought of breeding up some tame creatures, that I
might have food when my powder and shot were all spent.

Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31.—Great heats, and no breeze, so that there was no
stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food; this time I spent in putting
all my things in order within doors.

January t.—Very hot still: but I went abroad early and late with my gun,
and lay still in the middle of the day. This evening, going farther into the
valleys which lay toward the center of the island, I found there was plenty
of goats, though exceedingly shy, and hard to come at; however, I resolved
to try if I could not bring my dog to hunt them down.

Jan. 2.—Accordingly, the next day I went out with my dog, and set him



HOUSEHOLD AFFAIRS, n

upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for they all faced about upon the dog,
and he knew his danger too well, for he would not come near them.

Jan. 3.—1 began my fence, or wall; which, being still jealous of my being
attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very thick and strong.

N. B.—This wall being described before, I purposely omit what was said
inthe Journal; it is sufficient to observe that I was no less time than from
the 3d of January to the 14th of April working, finishing and perfecting this
wall, though it was no more than about twenty-four yards in length, being
a half-circle, from one place in the rock to another place, about eight yards
from it, the door of the cave being in the center behind it.

All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me many days, nay,
sometimes weeks together; but I thought I should never be perfectly secure
till this wall was finished; and it is scarce credible what inexpressible labor
everything was done with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods,
and driving them into the ground; for I made them much bigger than I
needed to have done.

When this wall was finished, and the outside double-fenced, with a turf
wall raised up close to it, 1 persuaded myself that if any people were to
come on shore there, they woud not perceive anything like a habitation;
and it was very well I did sc, as may be observed hereafter, upon a very
remarkable occasion.

During this time I made rounds in the woods for game every day, when
tne rain permitted me, and made frequent discoveries in these walks of
something or other to my advantage; particularly I found a kind of wild
pigeons, which build, net as wood-pigeons ina tree, but rather as house-
pigeons, in the holes c’: the rocks; and taking some young ones I endeav-
ored to breed them up tame, and did so; but when they grew older they
flew all away, which perhaps was at first for want of feeding them, for I had
nothing to give them; however, I frequently found their nests and got their
young ones, which were very good meat.

And now, in the managing my household affairs, I found myself want-
ing in many things, which I thought at first it was impossible for me to
make; as, indeed, as to some of them it was; for instance, I could never
make a cask to be hooped. IJ had asmall runlet or two, as I observed
before, but I could never arrive to the capacity of making one by them,
though I spent many weeks about it; I could neither put in the heads, nor
join the staves so true to one another as to make them hold water, so I gave
that also over.

In the next place, I was at a great loss for candles, so that as soon as it
was dark, which was generally by seven o’clock, I was obliged to go to bed.
I remembered the lump of beeswax with which I made candles in my
African adventure, but I had none of that now; the only remedy I had was,
that when I had killed a goat Isaved the tallow, and with a little dish made of
clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum, J



72 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

made me a lamp; and this gave me light, though not a clear steady light like a
candle. In the middle of all my labors it happened that, rummaging my
things, I found a little bag which, as I hinted before, had been filled with
corn for the feeding of poultry—not for this voyage, but before, as I suppose,
when the ship came from Lisbon. What little remainder of corn had been in
the bag was all devoured by the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but
husks and dust; and being willing to have the bag for some other use (I
think it was to put powder in, when I divided it for fear of the lightning, or
syme such use), I shook the husks of corn out of it on one side of my for-
tification, under the rock.

It was a little before the great rains just now
mentioned that I threw this stuff away, taking no
notice of anything, and not so much as remem-
bering that I had thrown anything there, when,
about a month after or thereabouts, I saw some
few stalks of something green shooting upon the
ground, which I fancied might be some plant I
had not seen; but I was surprised and perfectly
astonished when, after a little longer
time, I saw about ten or twelve ears
come out which were perfectly green
barley, of the same kind as our
European—nay, as our E nelish
barley.












It is impossible
to express the aston-
ishment and confu-
sion of my thoughts
on this occasion; JI
had hitherto acted
upon no religious
foundation at all; in-
deed, I had very few
notions of religion in
my head, nor had en-
tertained any sense
of anything that had
befallen me, other-
wise than asa chance,
or, as we lightly say,
what pleases God,
without so much as
inquiring into the
“I WAS SURPRISED AND PERFECTLY ASTONISHED” end of Providence in



AN UNEXPECTED CROP. : %3

these things, or His order in governing events in the world. But after I
saw barley grow there in a climate which I knew was not proper for corn,
and especially that I knew not how it came there, it startled me strangely,
and I began to suggest that God had miraculously caused this grain to
grow without any help‘of seed sown, and'that it was so directed purely for
my sustenance in that wild, miserable place.

This touched my heart a
little, and brought tears out of
my eyes, and I began to bless
myself that such a prodigy of
Nature should happen upon my
account; and this was the more
strange to me because I saw
near it still, all along by the side
of the rock, some other strag-
gling stalks, which proved to be
stalks of rice, and which I knew,
because I had seen it grow in
Africa when I was ashore there.

I not only thought these the
pure productions of Providence
for my support, but not doubt- —
ing but that there was more in
the place, I went all over that
part of the island where I had
been before, peering in every
corner and under every rock,
to see for more of, it, but I
could not find any. At last it
occurred to my thoughts that
Thad shaken the bag of chick-
ens’ meat out inthat place; and
the wonder began to cease; and
I must confess my religious
thankfulness to God’s provi-
dence began to abate too, upon “GRINDING MY TOOLS” (2. 77).
the discovering that all this was
nothing but what was common;
though I ought to have been as thankful for so strange and unforeseen
providence as if it had been miraculous; for it was really the work of
Providence as to me, that should order or appoint that ten or twelve grains
of corn should remain unspoiled, when the rats had destroyed all the rest,
as if it had been dropped from Heaven; as also that I should throw it out
into that particular place, where, it being in the shade of a high rock, it







74 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

sprang up immediately; whereas, if I had thrown it,anywhere else at that
time, it had been burnt up and destroyed.

I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in their season,
which was about the end of June; and laying up every corn, I resolved to
sow them all again, hoping in time to have some quantity, sufficient to sup-
ply me with bread. But it was not till the fourth year that I would allow
myself the least grain of this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly, as I.
shall say afterwards, in its order; for I lost all that I sowed the first season,
by not observing the proper time; for I sowed it just before the dry season,
so that it never came up at all, at least, not as it would have done; of which
in its place.

Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks of rice,
which I preserved with the same care, and whose use was of the same kind,
or to the same purpose, viz., to make me bread, or rather food; for I found
ways to cook it up without baking, though I did that also after some time.

But to return to my Journal:

I worked excessive hard these three or four months, to get my wall done,
and the 14th of April I closed it up, contriving to go into it, not by a door,
but over a wall, by a ladder, that thére might be no sign on the outside of
my habitation. ‘

April 16.—I finished the ladder; so I went up the ladder to the top, and
then pulled it up after me, and let it down on the inside: this was a complete
inclosure to me; for within I had room enough, and nothing could come at
me from without, unless it could first mount my wall.

The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost had all my
labor overthrown at once, and myself killed. Thc case was thus: As I was
busy in the inside of it, behind my tent, just in the entrance into my cave, I

‘was terribly frighted with a most dreadful surprising thing indeed; for, all
on a sudden, I found the earth came tumbling down from the roof of my
cave, and from the edge of the hill over my head, and two of the posts !
had set up in the cave cracked in a frightful manner. I was heartily scared;
but thought nothing of what really was the cause, only thinking that the top
of my cave was falling in, as some of it had done before, and for fear I
should be buried in it, I ran forwards to my ladder, and not thinking myself
safe there neither, I got over my wall for fear of the pieces of the hill, which
I expected might roll down upon me. I was no sooner stepped down upon
the firm ground, than I plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake; for the
ground I stood on shook three times at about eight minutes’ distance, with
three such shocks as would have overturned the strongest building that
could be supposed to have stood upon the earth; anda great piece of the
top of the rock which stood about half a mile from me, next the sea, fell
down with such a terrible noise as I never heard in all my life. I perceived
also the very sea was put into a violent motion by it; and I believe the
shocks were stronger under the water than on the island.



EARTHQUAKE AND STORM. : 75

I was so amazed with the thing itself, having never felt the like or dis-
coursed with any one that had, that I was like one dead or stupefied; and
the motion of the earth made my stomach sick like one that was tossed at
sea: but the noise of the falling of the rock awaked me as it were, and
rousing me from the stupefied condition I was in, filled me with horror, and
I thought of nothing then but the hill falling upon my tent and all my house-
hold goods, and burying all at once; and this sunk miy very soul within me
a second time.

After the third shock was over, and I felt’ no more for some time, I
began to take courage; and yet I had not heart enough to get over my wall
again, for fear of being buried alive, but still sat upon the ground, greatly
cast down and disconsolate, not knowing what to do. All this while, I had
not the least serious religious thought; nothing but the common “Lord have
mercy upon me!” and when it was over, that went away too.

While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and it grew cloudy, as if it
would rain; soon after that, the wind arose by little and little, so that in less
than half an hour it blew a most dreadful hurricane of wind; the sea was, all
on a sudden, covered with foam and froth; the shore was covered with the
breach of the water; the trees were torn up by the roots; and a terrible storm
it was. This held about three hours, and then began to abate; and then in
two hours more it was calm, and began to rain very hard. All this while I
sat upon the ground very much terrified and dejected; when on a sudden it
came into my thoughts that these winds and rain being the consequences of
the earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent and over, and I might ven-
ture into my cave again. With this thought, my spirits began to revive; and
the rain also helping to persuade me,I went in and sat downin my tent; but
the rain was so violent that my tent was ready to be beaten down with it;
and I was forced to gointo my cave, though very much afraid and uneasy, for
fear it should fall onmy head. This violent rain forced me to a new work,
viz., to cut a hole through my new fortifications, like a sink, to let the water
go out, which would else have drowned my cave. After I had been in my
cave some time, and found still no more shocks of the earthquake follow, I
began to be more composed. And now to support my spirits, which indeed
wanted it very much, I went to my little store and took a small sup of rum;
which, however, I did then and always very sparingly, knowing I could have
no more when that was gone. It continued raining all that night, and great
part of the next day, so that I could not stir abroad; but my mind being more
composed, I began to think of what I had best to do; concluding that if the
island was subject to these earthquakes, there would be no living for me in
a cave, but I must consider of building me some little aut in an open place
which I might surround witha wall, as I had done here, and so make myself
secure from wild beasts or men; for I concluded if I stayed where I was I
should certainly, one time or other, be buried alive.

With these thoughts, I resolved to move my tent from the place where



26 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

it now stood,
which was just
under the
hanging preci-
pice of the
heellG-aerarnva
which, if it
should be
shaken again,
would certain-
ly fall upon
my tent; and
Ispent the two
next days,
being the 19th
and 20th of
April, in con-
triving where
and how to re-
move my habitation. The fear of
being swallowed up alive made
me that I never slept in quiet;
and yet the apprehensions of lying.
abroad without any fence were







“Ss




Z

Wz


























HZ HS almost equal to it; but still, when

i Ay I looked about, and saw how

TF fi ig Wi everything was put in order, how

y De 1 pleasantly concealed I was, and
RR TLE Nt me

ay YK i how safe from danger, it made me

loth to remove. In the mean-
time, it occurred to me that it
would require a vast deal of time
for me to do this, and that I must
- be contented to run the venture
where I was, till I had formed a
camp for myself, and had secured
it so as to remove to it. So with
this resolution I composed myself
for a time, and resolved that I
would go to work with all speed
to build me a wall with piles and
cables, etc., in a circle, as before, and set my tent up in it, when it was fin-
ished; but that I would venture to stay where I was till it was finished, and
fit to remove to. This was the 2Ist.

“I CAUGHT A YOUNG DOLPHIN” (2. 78).



I GRIND MY TOOLS.. 77

April 22.—The next morning I be-
gan to consider of means to put this
resolve in execution; but I was at a
great loss about my tools. I had three
large axes, and abundance of hatchets
(for we carried the hatchets for traffic
with the Indians); but with much chop-
ping and cutting knotty hard wood,
they were all full of notches, and dull;
and though I had a grind stone, I
could not turn it and grind my tools
too. This cost me as much thought as
a statesman would have bestowed upon
a grand point of politics, or a judge
upon the life and death of a man. At
length I contrived a wheel with a string
to turn it with my foot, that I might
have both my hands at liberty.

Note.—I had not seen any such thing
in England, or at least not to
take notice how it was done,
though since I have observed

























it was very common
there; besides that,
my grindstone was
very large and heavy.
This machine cost me
a full week’s work to
bring it to perfection.

April 28, 29.—
These two whole days
I took up in grinding
my tools, my machine
for turning my grind-
stone _ performing
very well.

April 30.—Having perceived my bread had been low a great while, I
now took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one biscuit-cake a day,

which made my heart very heavy.
ISP 4

“A LARGE TORTOISE, OR TURTLE” (f. 79).



78 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

May 1.—In the morning, looking towards the sea-side, the tide being
low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary, and it looked
like a cask. When I came to it, I found a small barrel, and two or three
pieces of the wreck of the ship, which were driven on shore by the late hur-
ricane; and looking towards the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie
higher out of the water than it used to do. I examined the barrel which
was driven on shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder; but it
had taken water, and the powder was caked as hard asa stone; however, I
rolled it farther on shore for the present, and went on upon the sands, as
near as I could to the wreck of the ship, to look for more.

When I came down to the ship I found it strangely removed. The
forecastle, which lay before buried in sand, was heaved up at least six feet,
and the stern, which was broken to pieces and parted from the rest by the
force of the sea soon after I had left. rummaging of her, was tossed, as it
were, up, and Cast on one side; and the sand was thrown so high on that
side next the stern, that whereas there was a great place of water before,
so that I could not come within a quarter of a mile of the wreck without
swimming, I could now walk quite up to her when the tide was out. I was
surprised with this at first, but soon concluded it must be done by the
earthquake; and as by this violence the ship was more broken open than
formerly, so many things came daily on shore, which the sea had loosened,
and which the winds and water rolled by degrees to the land.

This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of removing my
habitation, and I busied myself mightily, that day especially, in searching
whether I could make any way into the ship; but I found nothing was to
be expected of that kind, for that all the inside of the ship was choked
up with sand. However, as I had learned not to despair of anything, I
resolved to pull everything to pieces that I could of the ship, concluding
that everything I could get from her would be of some use or other to
me.
May 3.—! began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam through, which
I thought held some of the upper part or quarter-deck together, and when I
had cut it through, I cleared away the sand as well as I could from the side
which lay highest; but the tide coming in, I was obliged to give over for
that time.

May 4.—\ went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst eat of, till
I was weary of my sport; when, just going to leave off, I caught a young
dolphin. I had made me a long line of some rope-yarn, but I had no hooks;
yet I frequently caught fish enough, as much as I cared to eat: all which I
dried inthe sun, and ate them dry.

May 5.—Worked on the wreck; cut another beam asunder, and brought
three great fir planks off from the decks, which I tied together, and made
swim on shore when the tide of flood came on.

May 6.—Worked on the wreck; got several iron bolts out of her, and



STRIPPING THE WRECK. 73

other pieces of iron-work; worked very hard, and came home very much
tired, and had thoughts of giving it over.

May 7—Went to the wreck again, with an intent not to work, but found
the weight of the wreck had broken itself down, the beams being cut; that
several pieces of the ship seemed to lie loose, and the inside of the hold
lay so open that I could see into it; but it was almost full of water and sand.

May 8 —Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to wrench up the
deck, which lay now quite clear of the water or sand. I wrenched open
two planks, and brought them on shore also with the tide. I left the iron
crow in the wreck for next day.

May 9.—Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way into the body
of the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened them with the crow, but
could not break them up. I felt also a roll of English lead, and could stir
it, but it was too heavy to move.

May 10, 11, 12, 13, 14.—Went every day to the wreck; and got a great
deal of pieces of timber, and boards, or planks, and two or three hundred-
weight of iron.

May 15 —I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a piece off the
roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet, and driving it with the
other; butasit lay about a footand a half i in the water, I could not make any
blow to drive the hatchet.

May 16.—Iit had blown hard in the night, and the wreck appeared more
broken by the force of the water; but I stayed so long in the woods, to get
pigeons for food, that the tide prevented me going to the wreck that day.

May 17.—I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore at a great dis-
tance, near two miles off me, but resolved to see what they were, and found
they were pieces of the head, but too heavy for me to bring away.

May 24.—Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck; and with hard
labor I loosened some things so much with the crow, that the first flowing
tide several casks floated out, and two of the seamen’s chests; but the wind
blowing from the shore, nothing came to land that day but pieces of tim-
ber and a hogshead which had some Brazil pork in it; but the salt water and
the sand had spoiled it. I continued this work every day to the 15th of June,
except the time necessary to get food, which I always appointed, during
this part of my employment, to be when the tide was up, that I might be
ready when it was ebbed out; and by this time I had gotten timber and plank
and iron work enough to have built a good boat, if I had known how; and
also I got, at several times, and in several pieces, near one hundred weight
of the sheet-lead.

June 16.—Going down to the sea-side I found a large tortoise, or turtle.
This was the first I had seen, which, it seems, was only my misfortune, not
any defect of the place or the scarcity; for had I happened to be on the
other side of the island I might have had hundreds of them every day, as 1
found afterwards, but perhaps had paid dear enough for them,



80 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

June 17 I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her threesccre eggs,
and her flesh was to me, at that time, the most savory and pleasant that
ever I tasted in my life, having had no flesh, but of goats and fowls, since I
Janded in this horrible place.

June 18.—Rained all the day and I stayed within. I thought, at this time,
the rain felt cold and I was something chilly, which I knew was not usual in

that latitude.
"June 19.—Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been cold.

June 20.—No rest all night; violent pains in my head and feverish.

June 21.—Very ill; frighted almost to death with the apprehensions of
my sad condition—to be sick, and no help; prayed to God, for the first
time since the storm off Hull, but scarce knew what I said or why, my
thoughts being all confused,

June 22.—A little better, but under dreadful apprehensions of sickness.

June 23.—Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a violent head-
ache.

June 24.—Much better.

June 25.-An ague, very violent; the fit held me seven hours; cold fit,
and hot with faint sweats after it.

June 26.—Better, and having no victuals to eat, took my gun, but found
myself very weak; however, I killed a she-goat, and with much difficulty
got it home, and broiled some of it and ate. I would fain have stewed it
and made some broth, but had no pot. ;

June 27.—The ague again so violent that I lay abed all day and neither
ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for thirst, but so weak I had no
strength to stand up orto get myself any water to drink. Prayed to God
again, but was light-headed, and when I was not, I was so ignorant that I
knew not what to say, only I lay-and cried, “ Lord, look upon me! Lord,
pity me! Lord, have mercy upon me!” I suppose I did nothing else for
two or three hours, till the fit wearing off, I fell asleep, and did not awake
till far in the night. When I awoke I found myself much refreshed but
weak, and exceeding thirsty; however, as I had no water in my whole hab-
itation, I was forced to lie till morning and went to sleep again. In this sec
ond sleep I hadthis terrible dream: I thought that I was sitting on the ground,
on the outside of my wall, where I sat when the storm blew after the earth-
quake, and that I saw a man descend from a great black cloud, in a bright
flame of fire, and light upon the ground; he was all over as bright as a
flame, so that I could but just bear to look towards him; his countenance
was most inexpressibly dreadful, impossible for words to describe. When he
stepped upon the ground with his feet I thought the earth trembled, just as
it had done before in the earthquake, and all the air looked, to my appre-
hension, as if it had been filled with flashes of fire. He was no sooner landed
upon the earth but he moved forwards towards me, with a long spear or
weapon in his hand to kill me, and when he came toa rising greund.atsome



A TERRIBLE VISION. 81

distance, he spoke to me, or I heard a voice so terrible that itis impossible
to express the terror of it. All that I cansay I understood was this: ‘See-
ing all these things have not brought thee to repentance, now thou shalt
die;” at which words, I thought he
lifted up the spear that was in his
hand to kill me.

No one that shall ever read
this account will expect that I
should be able to describe the








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“BROILED IT ON THE COALS” (/, 84),

horrors of my soul at this terrible vision. I mean that even while it was a
dream, I even dreamed of those horrors. Nor is it any more possible to
describe the impression that remained upon my mind when I awaked and
found it was but a dream.

I had, alas! no divine knowledge. What I had received by the good
instruction of my father was then worn out by an uninterrupted series, for
eight years, of sea-faring wickedness, and a constant conversation with none
but such as were, like myself, wicked and profane to the last degree. Ido
not remember that I had, in all that time, one thought that so much as
tended either to looking upwards towards God, or inwards towards a reflec-
tion upon my own ways; but a certain stupidity of soul, without desire of

6



\

32 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

good, or conscience of evil, had entirely overwhelmed me; and I was all
that the most hardened, unthinking, wicked creature among cur common
sailors can be supposed to be—not having the least sense, either of the fear
of God in dangers, or of thankfulness to God in deliverances.

In the relating what is already past of my story, this will be the more
easily believed when I shall add, that through all the variety of miseries
that had to this day befallen me, I never had so much as one thought of its
being the hand of God, or that it was a just punishment for my sins, my
rebellious behavior against my father, or my present sins, which were great,
or so much as a punishment for the general course of my wicked life.
When I was on the desperate expedition on the desert shores of Africa, I
never had so much as one thought of what would become of me, or one wish
to God to direct me whither I should go, or to keep me from the danger
which apparently surrounded me, as well from voracious creatures as cruel
savages; but I was merely thoughtless of God or a Providence. I acted
like a mere brute, from the principles of nature, and by the dictates of com-
mon sense only, and indeed hardly that. When I was delivered and taken
up at sea by the Portugal captain, well used, and dealt justly and honorably
with, as well as charitably, I had not the least thankfulness in my thoughts.
When, again, I was shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger of drowning on this
island, I was as far from remorse, or looking on it as a judgment. I only
said to myself often that I was an unfortunate dog, and born to be always
miserable.

It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found all my ship’s crew
drowned, and myself spared, I was surprised with a kind of ecstasy, and
some transports of soul, which, had the grace of God assisted, might have
come up to true thankfulness; but it ended where it began, in a mere com-
mon flight of joy, or, as I may say, being glad J was alive, without the least
reflection upon the distinguishing goodness of the Hand which had pre-
served me, and had singled me out to be preserved when all the rest were
destroyed, or an inquiry why Providence had been thus merciful to me.
Even just the same common sort of joy which seamen generally have after
they have got safe ashore trom a shipwreck, all which they drown in the
next bowl of punch, and forget almost as soon as it is over, and all the rest
of my life was like it. Even when I was afterwards, on due consideration,
made sensible of my condition, how I was cast on this dreadful place, out of
the reach of humankind, out of all hope of relief, or prospect of redemption,
as soon as I saw a probability of living, and that I should not starve and
perish for hunger, all the sense of my affliction wore off, and I began to be
very easy, applied myself to the works proper for my preservation and sup-
ply, and was far enough from being afflicted at my condition, as a judgment
from Heaven, or as the hand of God against me. These were thoughts
which very seldom entered into my head.

The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my Journal, had, at first,



REPROACHES OF THE PAST. 83

some little influence upon me, and began to affect me with seriousness, as
iong as I thought it had something miraculous in it; but as soon as ever
that part of the thought was removed, all the impression which was raised
from it wore off also, as I have noted already. Even the earthquake,
though nothing could be more terrible in its nature, or more immediately
directing to the invisible power which alone directs such things, yet no
sooner was the first fright over but the impression it had made went off also.
I had no more sense of God, or His judgments—much less of the present
affliction of my circumstances being from His hand—than if I had been in
the most prosperous condition of life. But now, when I began to be sick,
and a leisurely view of the miseries of death came to place itself before me,
when my spirits began to sink under the burden of a strong distemper, and
nature was exhausted with the violence of the fever, conscience, that had
slept so long, began to awake, and I began to reproach myself with my past
life, in which I had so evidently, by uncommon wickedness, provoked the
justice of God to lay me under uncommon strokes, and to deal with me in
so vindictive a manner. These reflections oppressed me from the second
or third day of my distemper; and in the violence, as well of the fever as of
the dreadful reproaches ot my conscience, extorted some words from me like
praying to God, though I cannot say they were either a prayer attended
with desires or with hopes; it was rather the voice of mere fright and
distress. My thoughts were confused, the convictions great upon my mind,
and the horror of dying in such a miserable condition raised vapors into my
head with the mere apprehensions; and in these hurries of my soul, I knew
not what my tongue might express. But it was rather exclamation, such
as, “ Lord, what a miserable creature am I! If I should be sick, I shall cer-
tainly die for want of help, and what will become of me?” Then, the tears
burst out of my eyes, and I could say no more for a good while. In this
interval, the good advice of my father came to my mind, and presently his
prediction, which I mentioned at the beginning of this story, viz., that it I
did take this foolish step, God would not bless me, and I would have leisure
hereafter to reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there
might be none to assist me in my recovery. “ Now,” said I aloud, ‘‘ my dear
father’s words are come to pass; God’s justice has overtaken me, and I have
none to help or hear me. I rejected the voice of Providence, which had
mercifully put me in a posture or station of life wherein I might have been
happy and easy; but I would neither see it myself, nor learn to know the
blessing of it from my parents. I left them to mourn over my folly, and
now I am left to mourn under the consequences of it. I refused their help
and assistance, who would have lifted me into the world, and would have
made everything easy to me; and now [have difficulties to struggle with too
great for even nature itself to support, and no assistance, no help, no com-
fort, no advice.” Then I cried out, ‘“ Lord, be my help, for ] am in great



84 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

distress.” This was the first prayer, if I might call it so, that I had made
for many years, But I return to my Journal:

June 28.—Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I had had, and
the fit being entirely off, I got up, and though the fright and terror of my
dream was very ercat, yet I considered that the fit of the ague would return
again the next day, and now was my time to get somethi.g to refresh and
support myself when I should be ill, and the first thing I did, I filled a
large square case-bottle with water, and set it upon my table, in reach of
my bed; and to take off the chill or aguish disposition of the water, I put
about a quarter of a pint of rum into.it, and mixed them together. Then I
got me a piece of the goat’s flesh, and broiled it on the coals, but could eat
very little. I walked about, but was very weak, and withal very sad and
heavy-hearted in the sense of my miserable condition, dreading the return
of my distemper the next day. At night, I made my supper of three of the
turtle’s eggs, which I roasted in the ashes, and ate, as we call it, in the
shell, and this was the first bit of meat I had ever asked God’s blessing to,
even, as I could remember, in my whole life.

After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself so weak that I could
hardly carry the gun, for I never went out without that; so I went out but
a little way, and sat down upon the ground, looking out upon the sea,
which was just before me, and very calm and smooth. As I sat there, some
thoughts such as these occurred to me: ‘‘ What is the earth and sea, of
which I have seen so much? Whence is it produced? And what am I, and
all the other creatures, wild and tame, human and brutal? Whence are we?
Sure we are all made by some Secret Power, who formed the earth and sea,
the air and sky. And who is that?” Then it followed most naturally—‘It
is God that has made it all. Well, but then,” it came on strongly, “if God
has made all these things, He guides and governs them all, and all things
that concern them; for the Being that could make all things must certainly
have power to guide and direct them. If so, nothing can happen, in the
great circuit of His works, either without His knowledge or appointment.

“And if nothing happens without His knowledge, He knows that I am
here, and am in this dreadful condition; and if nothing happens without His
appointment, He has appointed all this to befall me.” Nothing occurred to
my thoughts to contradict any of these conclusions, and therefore it rested
upon me with the greater force, that it must needs be that God had
appointed all this to befall me; that I was brought to this miserable circum-
stance by His direction, He having the sole power, not of me only, but of
everything that happened in the world. Immediately it followed: “Why
has God done this to me? What have I done to be thus used?” My con-
science presently checked me in that inquiry, as if I had blasphemed, and
methought it spoke te me like a voice, ‘‘ Wretch, dost zou ask what thou
hast done? Look back ugon a dreadful misspent life, and ask thyself what
thou hast zot done? Ask, why is it that thou wert not long ago destroyed?



A NOVEL REMEDY. 85

Why wert thou not drowned in Yarmouth Roads? killed in the fight, when
the ship was taken by the Salle man-of-war? devoured by the wild beasts
off the coast of Africa? or drowned here, when all the crew perished but
thyself? Dost étow ask, ‘What have I done?’” Iwas struck dumb with
these reflections, as one astonished, and had not a word to say—no, not to
answer to myself—but rose up pensive and sad, walked back to my retreat,
and went up over my wall, as if I had been going to bed; but my thoughts
were sadly disturbed, and I had no inclination to sleep; so I sat down in my
chair, and lighted my lamp, for it began to be dark. Now, as the apprehen-
sions of the return of my distemper terrified me very much, it occurred to
my thoughts that the Brazilians take no physic, but their tobacco for
almost all distempers, and I had a piece of a roll of tobacco in one of the
chests, which was quite cured, and some also that was green, and not quite
cured. —

I went, directed by Heaven, no doubt; for in this chest I found a cure
both forsoul and body. I opened the chest, and found what I looked for,
viz., the tobacco; and as the few books I had saved lay there too, I took out
one of the Bibles which I mentioned before, and which to this time I had
not found leisure, or so much as inclination, to look into. I say I took it
out, and brought both that and the tobacco with me to the table. What use
to make of the tobacco I knew not, as to my distemper, or whether it was
good for it or no; but I tried several experiments with it, as if I was resolved
it should heal one way or other. I first took a piece of leaf, and chewed it
in my mouth, which, indeed, at first, almost stupefied my brain, the tobacco
being green and strong, and that I had not been much used to it. Then 1

took some and steeped it an hour or two in some rum, and resolved to take
a dose of it when I lay down; and, lastly, I burnt some upon a pan of coals,
and held my nose close over the smoke of it as long as I could bear it, as
well for the heat as the virtue of it, and I held it almost to suffocation.. In
the interval of this operation, I took up the Bible, and began to read; but
my head was too much disturbed with the tobacco to bear reading, at least
at that time; only having opened the book casually, the words first that
occurred to me were these, “ Call upon Me in the day of trouble, and I will
deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify Me.” These. words were very apt to my
case, and made some impression upon my thoughts at the time of reading
them, though not so much as they did afterwards; for, as for being delivered,
the word had no sound, as I may say, to me; the thing was so remote, so
impossible in my apprehension of things, that I began to say, as the children
of Israel did when they were promised flesh to eat, “Can God spread a table
in the wilderness?” so I began to say, ‘Can God Himself deliver me from
this place?” And as it was not for many years that any hopes appeared,
this prevailed very often upon my thoughts; but, however, the words made
a great impression upon me, and I mused upon them very often. lt grew
now late, and the tobacco had, as I said, dozed my head so much that I



86 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

inclined to sleep: so I left my lamp burning in the cave, lest I should want
anything in the night, and went to bed. But before I lay down, I did what
I never had done in all my life: I kneeled down, and prayed to God to ful-
fill the promise to me, that if I called upon Him in the day of trouble, He
would deliver me. After my broken and imperfect prayer was over, I drank
the rum in which I had steeped the tobacco, which was so strong and rank
of the tobacco that, indeed, 1 could scarcely get it down; immediately upon
this I went to bed; and I found presently it flew up into my head violently,
but I fell into a sound sleep and waked no more till, by the sun, it must
necessarily be near three o’clock in the afternoon the next day; nay, to this
hour Iam partly of opinion that J slept all the next day and night, and till
almost three the day after; for otherwise I know not how I should losea
day out of my reckoning in the days of the week, asit appeared some years
after I had done; forif I had lost it by crossing and re-crossing the line, I
should have lost more than one day; but in my account it was lost, and I
never knew which way. Be that, however, one way or other, when I awaked
I found myself exceedingly refreshed and my spirits lively and cheerful;
when I got up I was stronger than I was the day before, and my stomach
better, for I was hungry; and, in short, I had no fit the next day, but con-
tinued much altered for the better. This was the 29th.

The 30th was my well day, of course, and 1 went abroad with my gun,
but did not care to travel too far. I killed a sea-fowl or two, something
like a brand goose, and brought them home; but was not very forward to
eat them; so I ate some more of the turtle’s eggs, which were very good.
This evening I renewed the medicine, which I had supposed did me good
the day before, viz., the tobacco steeped in rum; only I did not take so
much as before, nor did I chew any. of the leaf, or hold my head over the
smoke; however, I was not so well the next day, which was the Ist of July,
as I hoped I should have been; for I had a little spice of the cold fit, but
it was not much.

July 2.—I renewed the medicine all the three ways;.and dosed myselt
with it as at first, and doubled the quantity which I drank.

July 3.—1 missed the fit for good and all, though I did not recover my
fuil strength for some weeks after. While I was thus gathering strength,
my thoughts ran exceedingly upon this Scripture, ‘1 will deliver thee;”
and the impossibility of my deliverance lay much upon my mind, in bar
of my ever expecting it; but as I was discouraging mysel! with such
thoughts, it occurred to my mind that I pored so much upon my deliver-
ance from the main affliction, that I disregarded the deliverance I had
received, and I was, as it were, made to ask myself such questions as these,
viz.: ““Have I not been delivered, and wonderfully too, from sickness?
from the most distressed condition that could be, and that was so frightful
to me? and what notice had I taken of it? Had I done my part? God
had delivered me, but I had not glorified Him; that is to say, I had not



A HEARTFELT PRAYER. 87

owned and been thankful for that as a deliverance; and how could I expect
greater deliverance?” This touched my heart very much; and immediately
I kneeled down, and gave God thanks aloud for my recovery from my
sickness.

July 4.—In the morn-
ing, I took the Bible; uh
and beginning at the J
New Testament, I be- ach 3
gan seriously to read it, es
and imposed upon my-
self to read awhile
every morning and
every night; not tying
myself to the number {l Ny
of chapters, but as long
as my thoughts should
engage me. It was not
long after I set seriously
to this work, till I found
my heart more deeply Ue
and sincerely affected ‘{ uf
with the wickedness of













































AW
my past life. The im- a
pression of my dream ‘i IN
revived; and the words, ‘
“ All these things have wit
not brought thee to re- al
pentance,” ran seriously 7
in my thoughts. I was oi
earnestly begging of etal ANY ig
God to give me repent- owl i iN GR aoe Ze
ance, when it happened ot a ee se ae Ht
providentially the very Ao ART RAN NS ic )
day that, reading the i A ie ETT, oth Ha :
Scripture, I came to a, SAN ane
these words: “He is Hews
exalted a Prince anda “] WENT UP THE CREEK FIRST” (/. 89).
Saviour, to give repent- :

ance and to give remis-

sion.” I threw down the book; and with my heart as well as my hands
lifted up to heaven, in a kind of ecstasy of joy, I cried out aloud, “ Jesus,
Thou Son of David! Jesus, Thou exalted Prince and Saviour! give me

repentance!” This was the first time I could say, in the true sense of the
words, that I prayed in all my life, for now I prayed with a sense of my





88 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

condition, and with a true Scripture view of hope, founded on the encour-
agement of the Word of God; and from this time, | may say, I began to
have hope that God would hear me.

Now I began to construe the words mentioned above, “ Call on Me; and
I will deliver thee,” in a different sense from what I had ever done before;
for then I had no notion of anything being called dehverance but my being ©
delivered from the captivity I] was in; for though I was indeed at large in
the place, yet the island was certainly a prison to me, and that in the worst
sense in the world. But now I learned to take it in another sense; now I
looked back upon my past life with such horror, and my sins appeared so
dreadful, that my soul sought nothing of God but deliverance from the load
of guilt that bore down all my comfort. As for my solitary life, it was
nothing; I dic not so much as pray to be delivered from it, or think of it;
it was all of no consideration, in comparison of this. And I added this part
here, to hint to whoever shall read it, that whenever they come to a true
sense of things, they will find deliverance from sin a much greater blessing»
than deliverance from affliction.

But, leaving this part, I return to my Journal:

My condition began now to be, though not less miserable as to my way
of living, yet much easier to my mind; and my thoughts being directed, by
a constant reading the Scripture and praying to God, to things of a higher
nature, I had a great deal of comfort within, which, till now, 1 knew noth-
ing of; also, my health and strength returned, I bestirred myself to furnish
myself with everything that I wanted, and make my way of living as regu-
lar as I could.

From the 4th day of July to the 14th, I was chiefly employed i in walking
about with my gun in my hand, a little and a little at a time, as a man that
was gathering up his strength after a fit of sickness; for it is hardly to be im-
agined how low I was, and to what weakness I was reduced. The applica-
tion which I made use of was perfectly new, and perhaps what had never
cured an ague before; neither can I recommend it to any one to practice
by this experiment; and though it did carry off the fit, yet it rather con-
tributed to weaken me, for 1 had frequent convulsions in my nerves and
limbs for some time. I learned from it also this, in particular, that being
abroad in the rainy season was the most pernicious thing to my health that
could be, especially in those rains which came attended with storms and
hurricanes of wind; for as the rain which came in a dry season was always
most accompanied with such storms, so I found this rain was much more
dangerous than the rain which fell in September and October.

I had now been in this unhappy island above ten months; all possibility
of deliverance from this condition seemed to be entirely taken from me,
and I firmly believed that no human shape had ever set foot upon that
place. Having now secured my habitation, as I thought, fully to my mind,



THE FERTILE SIDE OF THE ISLAND. 89

I had a great desire to make a more perfect discovery of the island, and to
see what other productions I might find, which yet I knew nothing of.

It was the 15th of July that I began to take a more particular survey of
the island itself. I went up the creek first, where, as I hinted, I brought
my raftson shore. I found, after I came about two miles up, that the tide
did not flow any higher, and that it was no more than a little brook of run-
ning water, and very fresh and good; but this being the dry season, there
was hardly any water in some parts of it; at least, not enough to run in any
stream, so as it could be perceived. On the banks of this brook, I found
many pleasant savannahs or meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with
grass; and on the rising parts of them, next to the higher grounds, where
the water, as it might be supposed, never overflowed, I found a great deal
of tobacco, green, and growing to a great and very strong stalk. There were
divers other plants, which I had no notion of or understanding about, and
might, perhaps, have virtues of their own, which I could not find out. I
searched for the cassava root, which the Indians in all that climate make
their bread of, but I could find none. I saw large plants of aloes, but did
not then understand them. I saw several sugar-canes, but wild, and, for
want of cultivation, imperfect. I contented myself'with these discoveries
for this time, and came back, musing with myself what course I might take
to know the virtue and goodness of any of the fruits of plants which I
should discover, but could bring it to no conclusion; for, in short, I had
made so little observation while I was in the Brazils, that I knew little of
the plants of the field; at least, very little that might serve me to any pur-
pose now in my distress.

The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again; and after going
something further than I had gone the day before, I found the brook and
savannahs cease, and the country became more woody than before. In this
part I found different fruits, and particularly I found melons upon the
ground, in great abundance, and grapes upon the trees; the vines had spread
sndeed over the trees, and the clusters of grapes were just now in their prime,
very ripeand rich, This was a surprising discovery, and I was exceeding
glad of them; but I was warned by my experience to eat sparingly of them,
remembering that, when I was ashore in Barbary, the eating of grapes killed
several of our Englishmen, who were slaves there, by throwing them into
fluxes and fevers. But I found an excellent use for these grapes; and that
was, to cure or dry them in the sun, and keep them as dried grapes or raisins
are kept, which I thought would be, as indeed they were, as wholesome and
as agreeable to eat, when no grapes might be had.

I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my habitation, which
by the way, was the first night, as 1 might say, Thad lain from home. In
the night I took my first contrivance, and got up into a tree, where I slept
well; and the next morning proceeded upon my discovery, traveling nearly
iour miles, as I might judge by the length of the valley, keeping still due |







gu ROBINSON CRUSOE.

north, with a ridge of hills on the south and north side of me. At the end
of this march I came to an opening, where the country seemed to descend
to the west; and a little spring of fresh water, which issued out of the side
of the hill by me, ran the other way, that is, due east; and the country
appeared so fresh, so green, so flourishing, everything being in a constant



“T SOWED MY GRAIN” (7. 94).

verdure, or flourish of spring, that it looked like a planted garden. 1
descended a little on the side of that delicious valley, surveying it with a
secret kind of pleasure, though mixed with other afflicting thoughts, to
_ think that this was all my own; that I was king and lord of all this country
indefeasibly, and had a right of possession; and, if I could convey it, I
might have it in inheritance as completely as any lord of a manor in Eng-
jand, 1 saw here abundance of cocoa-trees, orange and lemon, and citron-





=) Sr
RSS, yy 88 wasn

SS SS ERS?

AN

“7 DESCENDED A LITTLE ON THE SIDE OF THAT DELICIOUS VALLEY” (f. 90}.
91





92 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

trees; but all wild, and few bearing any fruit, at least not then. However,
the green limes that I gathered were not only pleasant to eat, but very
wholesome; and I mixed their juice afterwards with water, which made it
very wholesome, and very cool and refreshing. I found now I had business
enough to gather and carry home; and I resolved to lay up a store, as well
of grapes as limes and lemons, to furnish myself for the wet season, which
I knew was approaching. In order to do this, I gathered a great heap of
grapes in one place, a lesser heap in another place, anda great parcel of
limes and lemons in another place; and taking a few of each with me, I
traveled homeward, and resolved to come again, and bring a bag or sack, or
what I could make to carry the rest home. Accordingly, having spent three
days inthis journey, I came home (so I must now call my tent and my cave);
but befoie'l got thither, the grapes were spoiled; the richness of the fruit,
and the weight of the juice, having broken them and bruised them, they
were good for little or nothing; as to the limes, they were good, but I could
bring but a few.

The next day, being the 19th, 1 went back, having made me two small
bags to bring home my harvest; but I was surprised when, coming to my
heap of grapes, which were so rich and fine when I gathered them, I found
them all spread abroad, trodden to pieces, and dragged about, some here,
some there, and abundance eaten and devoured. By this I concluded there
were some wild creatures thereabouts, which had done this, but what they
were I knew not. However, as I found there was no laying them up on
heaps, and no carrying them away ina sack, but that one way they would be
destroyed, and the other way they would be crushed with their own weight,
I took another course, for I gathered a large quantity of the grapes, and
hung them upon the out branches of the trees, that they might cure and
dry in the sun; and as for the limes and lemons, I carried as many back as
{ could well stand under.

When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with great
pleasure the friitfulness of that valley, and the pleasantness of the situa-
tion; the security from storm on that side of the water, and the wocd, and
concluded that I had pitched upon a place to fix my abode which was by
far the worst part of the country. Upon the whole, I began to consider of
removing my habitation, and to look out fora place equally safe as where
now I was situate, if possible, in that pleasant, fruitful part of the island.

This thought ran long in my head, and I was exceeding fond of it for
some time, the pleasantness of the place tempting me, but whenI camc toa
nearer view of it, | considered that I was now by the sea-side, where it was at
least possible that something might happen to my advantage, and that the
same ill fate that brought me hither might bring some other unhappy
wretches to the same place, and though it was scarce probable that any
such thing should ever happen, yet to inclose myself among the hills and
woods in the center of the island was to anticipate my bondage and to



TOO MANY CATS, 93

render such an affair not only improbable but impossible, and that therefore
I ought not by any means to remove. However, I was so enamored with
this place that I spent much of my time there for the whole remaining
part of the month of July; and though, upon second thoughts, I resolved as
above not to remove, yet I built me a little kind of a bower, and surrounded
it at a distance with a strong fence, beinga double hedge as high as I could
reach, well staked and filled between with brushwood, and here I lay very
secure, sometimes two or three nights together, always going over it with a
ladder as before, so that I fancied now I had my country house and my
sea-coast house, and this work took me up to the beginning of August.

Thad but newly finished my fence and began to enjoy my labor, but the
rains came on and made me stick close to my first habitation; for though I
had made meatent like the other, with a piece of a sail, and spread it
very well, yet I had not the shelter of ahill to keep me from storms, nor a
cave behind me to retreat into when the rains were extraordinary.

About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my bower and
began to enjoy myself. The 3d of August I found the grapes I had hung
up were perfectly dried, and indeed were excellent good raisins of the sun;
so I began to take them down from the trees, and it was very happy that I
did so, for the rains which followed would have spoiled them, and I had lost
the best part of my winter food, for I had above two hundred large bunches
of them. No sooner had I taken them all down and carried most of them
home to my cave but it began to rain, and from hence, which was the 14th
of August, it rained more or less every day till the middle. of October, and
sometimes so violently that I could not stir out of my cave for several days.

In this season I was much surprised with the increase of my family; I
had been concerned for the loss of one of my cats who ran away from me,
oras I thought had been dead, and I heard no more tidings of her till, to
my astonishment she came home about the end of August with three
kittens. This was the more strange to me because, though I had killed a
wild cat, as I called it, with my gun, yet I thought it was a quite different kind
from our European cats, but the young cats were the same kind of house-
breed as the old one, and both my cats being females, I thought it very
strange. But from these three cats I afterwards came to be so pestered with
cats that I was forced to kill them like vermin, or wild beasts, and to drive
them from my house as much as possible.

From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain, so that I could not
stir, and was now very careful not to be much wet. In this confinement, I
began to be straitened for food; but venturing out twice, I one day killed a
goat; and the last day, which was the 26th, found a very large tortoise,
which was a treat to me, and my food was regulated thus: I ate a bunch
of raisins for my breakfast; a piece of the goat’s flesh, or of the turtle, for
my dinner, broiled (for, to my great misfortune, I had no vessel to boil or
stew anything), and two or three of the turtle’s eggs for supper.



94 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

During this confinement in my cover by the rain, I worked daily two or
three hours at enlarging my cave, and by degrees worked it on towards one
side, till I came to the outside of the hill, and made a door or way out,
which came beyond my ience or wall; and so J came in and out this way.
But I was not peifectly easy at lying so open; for,as I had managed myself
before, I was in a perfect enclosure; whereas now, I thought, I lay
exposed, and yet I could not perceive that there was any living thing
to fear; the biggest creature that I had yet seen upon the island being a
goat.

Sept. 30.—I was now come to the unhappy anniversary of my landing.
I cast up the notches on my post, and found I had been on shore three
hundred and sixty-five days. I kept this day as a solemn fast, setting it
apart for religious exercise, prostrating myself on the ground with the most
serious humiliation, confessing my sins to God, acknowledging His righteous
judgment upon me, and praying to Him to have mercy on me through Jesus
Christ; and having not tasted the least refreshment for twelve hours, even
till the going down of the sun,I then ate a biscuit-cake and a bunch of
grapes, and went to bed, finishing the day as I began it. I had all this time
observed no Sabbath-day, for as at first I had no sense of religion upon my
mind, I had, after some time, omitted to distinguish the weeks by making a
longer notch than ordinary for the Sabbath-day, and so did not really know
what any of the days were; but now, having cast up the days as above, I
found I had been there a year; so I divided it into weeks, and set apart
every seventh day for a Sabbath; though I found at the end of my account
I had lost a day or two inmy reckoning. A little after this, my ink began
to fail me, and so I contended myself to use it more sparingly, and to write
down only the most remarkable events of my life, without continuing a
daily memorandum of other things.

The rainy season and the dry season began to now appear regular to
me, and I learned to divide them so as to provide for them accordingly;
but I bought all ny experience before I had it, and this I am going to relate
was one of the most discouraging experiments that I made at all.

I have mentioned that I had saved the few ears of barley and rice which
I had so surprisingly found spring up, as I thought, of themselves; and I
believe there were about thirty stalks of rice, and about twenty of barley;
and now I thought it a proper time to sow it, after the rains, the sun being
in his southern position, going from me. ‘Accordingly, I dug up a piece of
ground as weil as I could with my wooden spade, and dividing it into two
parts, I sowed my grain; but as I was sowing, it casually occurred to my
thoughts that I would not sow it all at first, because I did not know when was
the proper time for it,so I sowed about two-thirds of the seed, leaving
about a handful of each. It was a great comfort to me afterwards that J
did so, for not one grain of that I sowed this time came to anything; for the
dry months following, the earth having had no rain after the seed was sown,



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THE

LIFE AND ADVENTURES

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OF

ROBINSON (CRUSOE

ee ci Ee


ROBINSON CRUSOE’S ADVENTURES.

~—S,
Wale, jolie

_ AND

STRANGE ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE,

As Related by Himself.

By

- DANIEL DEFOE. —

With One Hundred and Seventeen Original Illustrations,

W. B. CONKEY COMPANY,
CHICAGO,

ote

























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fe

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“THIS WAS GAME INDEED” (2.82.)





PAGE.

“THIS WAS GAME INDEED” , 5 ‘ 3 ‘ e q . a
HEADPIECE ,. 4 ; : ‘i ; fs ; e ’ . 1h
“‘yYOU’RE BUT A FRESH-WATER SAILOR’” . a e e a . 1b
“WE WALKED ON FOOT TO YARMOUTH” - . 6 ' . * . 19
“SURPRISED IN THE GRAY OF THE MORNING” . a e e ® . 23
“I PROVED VERY DEXTEROUS” . ; . C e . . e 24
“iF YOU COME NEAR THE BOAT, I'LL SHOOT yYou’” ; . - 26
“WE FILLED OUR JARS” . 3 : : . , ‘ ; . 29
“T BOUGHT ME A NEGRO SLAVE” . ; . : si e ® . 37
“LOOKING OVER THE CHARTS” , : ‘ ; ; . * A 4]
“WE HASTENED OUR DESTRUCTION WITH OUR OWN HANDS w ' ° . 42
“1 WAS NOW LANDED” . 5 6 , ; 3 . 6 . 45
“J ESPIED A SMALL PIECE OF ROPE” . . . . ‘ ° - 46
“SHOES THAT WERE NOT FELLOWS” 0 . 0 O e 48
‘] FELL FAST ASLEEP” . ; ‘ . a ' ' x . 50
“4 CONFUSED SCREAMING AND CRYING” 6 . . . a . 56
“THE KID FOLLOWED ME” . 0 ' . ' ° . he - 60
“1 WANTED NOTHING THAT HE COULD FETCH ME” 0 OC . . 64
“THEY ALL FACED ABOUT UPON THE DOG” . zh . ° ° - 68
“A KIND OF WILD PIGEONS” . . ‘ . ’ ' ° 69
“y WAS SURPRISED AND PERFECTLY ASTONISHED” .- . . ° . 12
“GRINDING MY TOOLS” . 6 . . . . . . 6 %3
“1 CAUGHT A YOUNG DOLPHIN” ., . . ‘ . - ‘ . cg
“A LARGE TORTOISE, OR TURTLE” ; ; ; a § vig

“BROILED IT ON THE COALS” ; O . ; 0 . - 8}
ROBINSON CRUSOE.

©

PAGE.
“I WENT UP THE CREEK FIRST” . . . . ° : pane Sa
“T SOWED MY GRAIN” : . . ‘ a : ° e - 90
“I DESCENDED A LITTLE ON THE SIDE OF THAT DELICIOUS VALLEY” , 5 91
“J KNOCKED IT DOWN WITH A STICK” . ‘ . . . . * 96
“AN INFINITE NUMBER OF FOWLS” . = . 5 . . ° 100
“] FIRED AGAIN” : . 0 . . O . 5 . . 104
“I HANGED THEM IN CHAINS””, 2 j A ‘; ‘ j . —-:105
“WHAT ODD, MISSHAPEN, UGLY THINGS I MADE” . 6 O e - 109
“I RESOLVED TO DIG INTO THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH” , 0 - 118
‘I MADE ME A SUIT OF CLOTHES” 0 eg . ° ° . . 118
“J BROUGHT IT INTO THE CREEK” , f ee . . . oh
“I FELL ON MY KNEES” 5 . . . . ° . - 126
“HOW LIKE A KING I DINED” . % , ‘i § : A . 130
“I STOOD LIKE ONE THUNDERSTRUCK” . ‘ . . . ° - 132
“J HAD MY COUNTRY SEAT” ; . ; . , . ° O 135
“MY EVENING DIVERSION” . 0 0 f° O . . . . 140
“TO SEE IF I COULD OBSERVE ANY BOATS”, . ee eee . gay
“A PLACE WHERE THERE HAD BEEN A FIRE MADE”, e . . . ‘149
“I STIRRED HIM A LITTLE” . : : . ° . ° . 182
“A LIGHT OF SOME FIRE UPON THE SHORE” . 0 ° . . . 156
“THE CORPSE OF A DROWNED BOY” . . » ° . O . 161
“BEGAN TO EXAMINE THE PARTICULARS” 0 . . ° . . 164
“TI WAS THEN OBLIGED TO SHOOT” . |. . ° . . - 169
“DANCING ROUND THE FIRE” 2 . O e ° . . . 171
“AT ONE BLOW CUT OFF HIS HEAD” . , ; re . . 14
“I PRESENTED MY PIECE” . . . = re 9 ; . 179
“] ENTERED INTO A LONG DISCOURSE” . 0 3 . . . 183
“UPON SEEING THIS BOAT, FRIDAY STOOD MUSING A GREAT WHILE” , - 187
“INCH BY INCH UPON GREAT ROLLERS” a ; . ; 0 0 190
‘I MADE DIRECTLY TOWARDS THE POOR VICTIM” . 0 . . . 195
“IN THIS POSTURE WE MARCHED OUT” , . . 2 . . 196
“] FIRED AGAIN AMONG THE AMAZED WRETCHES” . . . emt os
“WRINGING MY SWORD OUT OF HIS HAND” , ‘ . . ' 201
“MY EYE PLAINLY DISCOVERED A SHIP LYING AT AN ANCHOR” , ‘ . 205
“WHAT ARE YE, GENTLEMEN?’” : ; ‘ 5 Sa ae 209
“THEY BEGGED FOR MERCY” . . , : 6 0 . . 212
“SHOT THE NEW CAPTAIN THROUGH THE HEAD” , ‘ . . fs 221
“TI SHOWED THEM THE NEW CAPTAIN HANGING AT THE YARD-ARM OF THE SHIP” 227
“UPON THIS HE PULLS OUT AN OLD POUCH” ° . . . 231
“TWO OF THE WOLVES FLEW UPON THE, GUIDE” . . . . . 238
“*WHAT YOU NO COME FARTHER?’” . ' . ‘ . ' a 239

“THEY CAME ON US WITH A GROWLING KIND OF A NOISE” al ‘ » 242
Re le ee See

’
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Y
:
:
he
‘



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS,

Pyavesl We

“1 FARMED UPON MY OWN LAND” i 5 ‘ - 3
“IT WAS ALL TO NO PURPOSE” ; 0 ; es e
“THE SHIP BLEW UP” 3 ; , . , .
“THE MATE BROUGHT SIX MEN WITH HIM” , . . 6
“JY FOUND THE POOR MEN ON BOARD ALMOST IN A TUMULT” C
“J CAME FAIR ON THE SOUTH SIDE OF MY ISLAND” , .
““pDo YOU NOT KNOW ME?’” . ‘ ; 0
“BADE THEM STAND OFF” O ; . . : .
“WITH ONE BLOW OF HIS FIST KNOCKED HIM DOWN” 6 ;
“THEY CAME UP IN A VERY SUBMISSIVE, HUMBLE MANNER” ,
“THEY WERE SURPRISED WITH SEEING A LIGHT” a . .
“INDIANS JUST COMING ON SHORE” . ‘ ; .
“PLACED HIMSELF BETWEEN HIM AND THE SAVAGE” 0 ,
“THREE STRANGE MEN COMING TOWARDS HIM” ; . 5
“DREW LOTS AMONG THEM” : . ‘ 5 : :
“THREE SAVAGES LEFT BEHIND, AND LYING FAST ASLEEP” ‘.
“ALL THEIR HUTS AND HOUSEHOLD STUFF FLAMING UP TOGETHER
“CAME RANGING ALONG THE SHORE” . . ; 5 é
“DISPATCHED THESE POOR CREATURES” . . 0 . g
“ATE THEIR PROVISIONS VERY THANKFULLY” . . .
“IN THIS GREAT BEE-HIVE LIVED THE THREE FAMILIES” . .
“WE MADE A SPLENDID FEAST” OF . . . ,
“MADE EVERY ONE A LIGHT COAT” . . . . .
“WE WALKED ON” . . 0 : . . . ‘
“MADE ME A VERY LOW BOW” . ‘ 0 . . °
“THEY ALL CAME TO ME” . 0 . . . au
“ATKINS AND HIS TAWNY WIFE” . ' . . . .
“WE CALLED HIM IN ALONE” . . . . . .
“MADE HER KNEEL BY HIM” ‘ . ’ . . 3
“WE MARRIED THEM THE SAME DAY” ° , 6 0
“GAVE THEM SUCH A BROADSIDE” . . . . .
“I HAVE BROUGHT YOU AN ASSISTANT” ‘ : . e
“(GIVING THEM A SALUTE OF FIVE GUNS” . . . a
“KILLED ,POOR FRIDAY” . 7 . . ant hes .
“WE GAVE THEM A VOLLEY” ; 0 ° . . .
“THE COW WENT ON BEFORE THEM” . . . . 0
“WE SHOWED ME THE POOR FELLOW HANGING” ; ‘ :
“COMES TO ME ONE DAY AN ENGLISHMAN” . o . A

“COULD SEE THE BOATS AT A DISTANCE” . ° e ‘

PAGE.

. 250
256
. 261
264
. 269
272
- 273
279
. 282
287
. 290
291
- 295
298
. 804
307
. 312
315
. 820
325
. 326
334
. 335
339
. 343
347
. 352
855
. 361
364
- 369
370
. 873
at7
. 383
386
- 391
395
- 404
10 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

een PAGE.
“THEY HAULED HER SAIL” a . 0 : 0 a a ‘ 406
“‘WELL DONE, JACK! GIVE THEM SOME MORE OF IT'” 0 . : . 412
“4 BOAT CAME OFF” : ; 0 ; fs . . . . 413
“BROUGHT ABUNDANCE OF THINGS TO SELL” . 3 ‘ fa ' . 416
‘HWE CAME TO ME WITH ONE OF THE MISSIONARY PRIESTS” . x 5 424
“AS SOON AS THEY SAW US, ONE OF THEM BLEW A KIND OF HORN” . . 431
“KILLED THE SECOND WITH HIS PISTOL” : 3 é : fs . 435
“-TWO_OF THEM SEIZED THE FELLOW AND TOOK THE CAMEL” . ; ~ 440
“SENT THREE MESSENGERS TO.US” . iene ; 0 a , 449
“DROUGHT US IN FINE VENISON” . : : . 0 5 ; » 454

TAILPIECE. 5 , . : Fi ; ; c ; 463














ROBINSON CRUSOE.

WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good family,
though not of that country, my father being a foreigner, of Bremen,
who settled first at Hull; he got a good estate by merchandise, and
leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York; from whence he had mar-
ried my mother, whose relations were named Robinson, a very good family .
in that country, and from whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but, by
the usual corruption of words in England, we are now called, nay, we call
ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe; and so my companions always
called me.

I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel to an
English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded by the famous
Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near Dunkirk against the
Spaniards. What became of my second brother I nevef knew, any more
than my father or mother did know what was become of me.

Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade, my head
began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts; my father, who was
very ancient, had given me a competent share of learning, as far as house-
education and a country free-school generally goes, and designed me for
the law; but I would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and my
inclination to this led me so strongly against the will, nay, the commands,
of my father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of my mother
and other friends, that there seemed to be something fatal in that propen-
sion of nature, tending directly-to the life of misery which was to befall
me ‘

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent coun-

D
Le ROBINSON CRUSOE.

sel against what he foresaw was my design. He called me one morning
into his chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and expostulated
very warmly with me upon this subject; he asked me what reasons, more
than a mere wandering inclination, I had for leaving my father’s house
and my native country, where I might be well introduced, and had a
prospect of raising my fortune by application and industry, with a life of
ease and pleasure. He told me it was men of desperate fortunes on one
hand, or of aspiring, superior fortunes on the .other, who went abroad
upon adventures, to rise by enterprise and make themselves famous in
undertakings of a nature out of the common road; that these things were
all either too far above me or too far below me; that mine was the middle ©
state, or what might be called the upper station of low life, which he had
found by long experience was the best state in the world, the most suited
- to human happiness, not exposed to the miseries and hardships, the labor
and sufferings of the mechanic part of mankind, and not embarrassed with
‘the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the upper part of mankind. He
told me I might judge of the happiness of this state by this one thing, viz.,
that this was the state of life which all other people envied; that kings have
frequently lamented the miserable consequence of being born to great
things, and wished they had been placed in the middle of the two extremes,
between the mean and the great ; that the wise man gave his testimony to
this, as the just standard of true felicity, when he prayed to have neither
poverty nor riches. :

He bade me observe it, and I should always find that the calamities of
life were shared among the upper and lower part of mankind ; but that the
middle station had the fewest disasters, and was not exposed to so many
vicissitudes as the higher or lower part of mankind; nay, they were not
subjected to so many distempers and uneasiness, either of body or mind, as
those were who, by.vicious living, luxury and extravagances on one hand,
or by hard labcr, want of necessaries, and mean or insufficient diet on the
other hand, bring distempers upon themselves by the natural consequences
of their way of living ; that the middle station of life was calculated for all
kind of virtues and all kind of enjoyments; that peace and plenty were the
handmaids of a middle fortune; that temperance, moderation, quietness,
health, society, all agreeable diversions, and all desirable pleasures, were
the blessings attending the middle station of life; that this way men went
silently and smoothly through the world, and comfortably out of it, not
embarrassed with the labors of the hands or of the head, not sold to a life
of slavery for daily bread, nor harassed with perplexed circumstances,
which rob the soul of peace, and the body of rest; nor enraged with the
passion of envy, or the secret burning lust of ambition for great things; but,
in easy circumstances, sliding gently through the world, and sensibly tasting
the sweets of living, without the bitter; feeling that they are happy, and
learning by every day’s experience to know it more sensibly.
MY FATHER’S ADVICE. 1B

After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate manner,
not to play the young man, nor to precipitate myself into miseries which
nature, and the station of life I was born in, seemed to have provided
_ against; that I was under no necessity of seeking my bread; that he would
do well for me, and endeavor to enter me fairly into the station of life which
he had just been recommending to me; and that if I was not very easy and
happy in the world, it must*be my mere fate or fault that must hinder it;
and that he should have nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his
duty in warning me against measures which he knew would be to my hurt;
in a word, that as he would do very kind things for me, if I would stay and
settle at home as he directed, so he would not have so much hand in my
misfortunes as to give me any encouragement to go away; and to close all,
he told me I had my elder brother for an example, to whom he had used
the same earnest persuasions to keep him from going into the Low Country
wars, but could not prevail, his young desires prompting him to run into the
army, where he was killed; and though he said he would not cease to pray
for me, yet he would venture to say to me, that if I did take this foolish.
step, God would not bless me, and I should have leisure hereafter to reflect
upon having neglected his counsel, when there might be none to assist
in my recovery.

I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly prophetic,
though I suppose my father did not know it to be so himself—lI say, |
observed the tears run down his face very plentifully, especially when he
spoke of my brother who was killed; and that when he spoke of my having
leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was so moved that he broke
off the discourse and told me his heart was so full he could say no more
to me.

I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed who could be
otherwise? and I resolved not to think of going abroad any more, but to
settle at home according to my father’s desire. But, alas! a few days wore
it all off; and, in short, to prevent any of my father’s further importunities,
in a few weeks after I resolved to run quite away from him. However, 1
did not act quite so hastily neither as the first heat of my resolution
prompted, but I took my mother at a time when I thought her a little more
pleasant than ordinary, and told her that my thoughts were so entirely bent
upon seeing the world that I should never settle to anything with resolu-
tion enough to go through with it, and my father had better give me his
consent than force me to go without it; that I was now eighteen years old,
which was too late to go apprentice te a trade, or clerk to an attorney; that
I was sure, if J did, I should never serve out mv time, but I should certainly run
away from my master before my time was out, and go to sea; and if she
would speak to my father to let me go one voyage abroad, if I came home
again, and did not like it, I would go no more, and I would promise, by a
double diligence, to recover the time that I had lost.
14 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

This put my mother into a great passion; she told me she knew it would
be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any such subject; that he
knew too well what was my interest to give his consent to anything so much
for my hurt, and that she wondered how I could think of any such thing
after the discourse I had had with my father, and such kind and tender
expressions as she knew my father had used to me, and that in short, if I
would ruin myself, there was no help for me; but I might depend I should
never have their consent to it; that for her part she would not have so much
hand in my destruction, and I should never have it to say that my mother
was willing when my father was not.

Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet I heard after-
ward that she reported all the discourse to him, and that my father, after
a great concern at it, said to her with a sigh: “That boy might be happy
if he would stay at home; but if he goes abroad he will be the most miser-
able wretch that ever was born; I can give no consent to it.”

It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose, though, in the
meantime I continued obstinately deaf to all proposals of settling to busi-
ness, and frequently expostulated with my father and mother about their
being so positively determined against what they knew my inclinations
prompted me to. But being one day at Hull, whither I went casually, and
without any purpose of making an elopement at that time—but I say, being
there, and one of my companions being going by sea to London in his
father’s ship, and prompting me to go with them, with the common allure-
ment of a sea-faring man, that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I
consulted neither father nor mother any more, nor so much as sent them
word of it; but leaving them to hear of it as they might, without asking
God’s blessing, or my father’s, without any consideration of circumstances
or consequences, and in an ill hour, God knows, on the 1st of September,
1651, I went on board a ship bound for London. Never any young adven-
turer’s misfortunes, I believe, began sooner or continued longer than mine,
The ship was no sooner got out of the Humber than the wind began to
blow, and the sea to rise in a most frightful manner; and, as I had never
been at sea before, I was most inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified in
mind: I began now seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and how
justly I was overtaken by the judgment of Heaven for my wicked leaving

_ my father’s house and abandoning my duty. All the good counsels of my

parents, my father’s tears and my mother's entreaties, came now fresh into
my mind; and my conscience, which was not yet come to the pitch of hard-
ness to which it has come since, reproached me with the contempt of advice
and the breach of my duty to God and my father.

All this while the storm increased, and the sea went very high, though
nothing like what I have seen many times since; no, nor what I saw a few
days after; but it was enough to affect me then, who was but a young sailor,
and had never known anything of the matter. I expected every wave would
MY FATHER’S GOOD ADVICE. 5 15

have swallowed us up, and that every time the ship fell down, as I thought
_it did, in the trough or hollow of thé sea, we should never rise more; in this
agony of mind I made many vows and resolutions, that if it would please
God to spare my life in this one voyage, if ever I got once my foot upon



“‘yoU’RE BUT A FRESH-WATER SAILOR’” (J. 16).

dry land again, I would go directly home to my father, and never set it into
a ship again while I lived; that I: would take his advice, and never run
myself into such miseries as these any more. Now I saw plainly the good-
ness of his observations about the middle station of life, how easy, how
comfortable he had lived all his days, and never had been exposed to


16 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

tempests at sea, or troubles on shore; and, in short, I resolved that I would,
like a true repenting prodigal, go home to my father.

These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm lasted,
and indeed some time after; but the next day the wind was abated, and the
sea calmer, and I began to be a little inured to it; however, I was very
grave forall that day, being also a little sea-sick still; but towards night the
weather cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a charming fine evening
followed; the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morn-

- ing, and having little or no wind and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it,

the sight was, as I thought, the most delightful that ever I saw.

I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick, but very
cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough and terrible
the day before, and could be so calm and so pleasant in so little a time
after. And now, lest my good resolutions should continue, my companion
who had enticed me away comes to me.

“Well, Bob,” says he, clapping me upon the shoulder, ‘‘ how do you do
after it? I warrant you were frighted, wer’n’t you, last night, when it blew
but a capful of wind?”

“A capful d’you call it?” said I; ‘‘’twas a terrible storm.”

“A storm, you fool, you!” replies he; “do you call that a storm? why,
it was nothing at all; give us but a good ship and sea-room and we think
nothing of such a squall of wind as that; but you're but a fresh-water sailor,
Bob. Come, let us make a bowl of punch, and we’ll forget allthat; d’ye see
what charming weather ’tis now?”

To make short this sad part of my story, we went the way of all sailors;
the punch was made, and I was made half drunk with it; and in that one
night’s wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon my
past conduct, all my resolutions for the future. In a word, as the sea was
returned to its smoothness of surface and settled calmness by the abatement
of that storm, so the hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears and appre-
hensions of being swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and the current
of my former desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises that
I made in my distress. I found, indeed, some intervals of reflection; and
the serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavor to return again sometimes;
but J shook them off, and roused myself from them as it were from a dis-
temper, and applying myself to drinking and company, soon mastered the
return of those fits, for so I called them; and I had, in five or six days, got
as complete a victory over my conscience as any young fellow that resolved
not to be troubled with it could desire. But I was to have another trial for
it still; and Providence, as in such cases generally it does, resolved to leave
me entirely without excuse; for if I would not take this for a deliverance,
the next was to be such aone as the worst and most hardened wretch among
us would confess both the danger and the mercy.

The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads; the
THE STORM IN YARMOUTH ROADS. 17

wind having been contrary, and the weather calm, we had made but little
way since the storm. Here we were obliged to come to an anchor, and here
we lay, the wind continuing contrary, viz., at southwest, for seven or eight
days, during which time a great many ships from Newcastle came into the
same Roads, as the common harbor where the ships might wait for a wind
for the river.

We had not, however, rid here so long but we should have tided it
up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh, and, after we had lain four or
five days, blew very hard. However, the Roads being reckoned as good as
an harbor, the anchorage good, and our ground-tackle very strong, our men
were unconcerned, and not in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent
the time inrest and mirth, after the manner of the sea; but the eighth day,
in the morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands at work to strike
our top-masts, and make everything snug and close, that the ship might
ride as easy as possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our
ship went forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought once or twice
our anchor had come home; upon which our master ordered out the sheet-
anchor, so that we rode with two anchors ahead, and the cables veered out
to the better end.

By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began to see
terror and amazement in the faces even of the seamen themselves. The
master, though vigilant in the business of preserving the ship, yet as he
went in and out of his cabin by me, I could hear him softly to himself say,
several times, ‘“ Lord, be mercifui to us! we shall be all lost! we shall be all ”
undone!” and the like. During these first hurries I was stupid, lying still in
my cabin, which was in the steerage, and cannot describe my temper. I
could ill resume the first penitence, which I had so apparently trampled
upon, and hardened myself against: I thought the bitterness of death had
been past, and that this would be nothing, too, like the first; but when the
master himself came by me, as I said just now, and said we should be all
lost, I was dreadfully frighted. I got up out of my cabin, and looked out;
but such a dismal sight I never saw; the sea ran mountains high, and broke
upon us every three or four minutes. When I could look about, I could see
nothing but distress round us; two ships that rode near us, we found, had
cut their masts by the board, being deep-laden; and our men cried out that
a ship which rode about a mile ahead of us was foundered. Two more
ships, being driven from their anchors, were run out of the Roads to sea, at
all adventures, and that not with a mast standing. The light ships fared
the best, as not so much laboring in the sea; but two or three of them drove,
and came close by us, running away with only their spritsail out before the
wind.

Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master of our ship
to let them cut away the foremast, which he was very unwilling to do; but
the oat wan protesting to him that if he did not the ship would founder,
18 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

he consented; and when they had cut away the foremast, the mainmast
stood so loose, and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut that
‘ away also, and make a clear deck.

And one must judge what a condition I must be in at all this, who was
but a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright before at but a little.
But if I can express at this distance the thoughts I had about me at that
time, I was intenfold more horror of mind upon account of my former con-
victions, and the having returned from them to the resolutions I had wick-
edly taken at first, than I was at death itself; and these, added to the ter-
ror of the storm, put me into such a condition, that I can by no words
describe it. Butthe worst was not come yet; the storm continued with such
fury that the seamen.themselves acknowledged they had never seen a worse.
We had a good ship, but she was deep-laden, and wallowed in the sea, so
that the seamen every now and then cried out she would founder. It was
my advantage, in one respect, that I did not know what they meant by
founder, till I inquired. However, the storm was so violent that 1 saw, what
is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some others more sensible
than the rest, at their prayers, and expecting every moment when the ship
would go to the bottom. In the middle of the night, and under all the rest
of our distresses, one of the men that had been down to see, cried out we
had sprung a leak; another said there was four feet water in the hold.
Then all hands were called to the pump. At that word, my heart, as I
thought, died within me; and I fell backwards upon the side of my bed,
where I sat, into the cabin. However, the men roused me, and told me
that I, that was able to do nothing before, was as well able to pump as
another; at which I stirred up, and went to the pump, and: worked very
heartily. While this was doing, the master seeing some light colliers who,
not able to ride out the storm, were obliged to slip and run away to the
sea, and would come near us, ordered to firea gun as a signal of distress.
I, who knew nothing what they meant, thought the ship had broken, or
some dreadful thing happened. In a word, I was so surprised that I fell
down ina swoon. As this was a time when everybody had his own life to
think of, nobody minded me, or what was become of me; but anothér man
stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot, let me lie,
thinking I had been dead; and it was a great while before I came to my-
self. :

We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it was apparent that
the ship would founder; and though the storm began to abate a little, yet
as it was not possible she could swim till we might run into any port, so the
master continued firing guns for help; and a light ship, who had rit it out
just ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the utmost
hazard the boat came near us; but it was impossible for us to get on board
or for the boat to lie near the ship’s side, till at last the men rowing very
heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours, our men «ast them a rope
WE LEAVE THE SHIP. 1$

over the stern with a buoy to it, and then veeréd it out a great léngth; which
they, after much labor and hazard, took hold of, and we hauled thetn close
undet dur stern, and got all {nto their boat. It was to no purpose for them
or us, after we were iri the boat, to think of reaching to their own ship; so
all agreed to let Her dtive, and only to pull her in towards shote as

ll Site
SR ES



“WE WALKED ON FOOT TO
YARMOUTH.” (, 20).

much as we cotld; and our master promised them that if the boat was
staved upon shore, he would make it good to their master: so partly row.
ing and partly driving, our boat went away to ‘the notthward, sloping
towards the shore almost as far as Winterton Ness.

We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our ship till we
20 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

saw her sink, and then I understood for the first time what was meant by a
ship foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look
up when the seamen told me she was sinking; for from the moment that
they rather put me into the boat, than that I might be said to go in, my
heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly with fright, partly with horror
of mind, and the thoughts of what was yet before me.

While we were in this condition, the men yet laboring at the oar to bring
the boat near the shore, we could see (when, our boat mounting the waves,
we were able to see the shore) a great many people running along the
strand, to assist us when we should come near; but we made but slow way
towards the shore; nor were we able to reach the shore till, being past the
lighthouse at Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward, towards Cromer,
and so the land broke off a little the violence of the wind. Here we gotin,
and, though not without much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked
afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were used
with great humanity, as well by the magistrates of the town, who assigned
us good quarters, as by particular merchants and owners of ships, and had
money given us sufficient to carry us either to London or back to Hull, as
we thought fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and have gone
home, I had been happy, and my fathe1,an emblem of our blessed Saviour’s
parable, had even killed the fatted calf for me; for hearing the ship I went
away in was cast away in Yarmouth Roads, it was a great while before he
had any assurances that I was not drowned.

But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that nothing could
resist; and though I had several times loud calls from my reason, and my more
composed judgment, to go home, yet I had no power to do it. I know not
what to call this, nor will I urge that it is a secret overruling aecree that
hurries us on to be the instruments of our own destruction, even though it
be before us, and that we rush upon it with our eyes open. Certainly, noth-
ing but some such decreed unavoidable misery attending, and which it was
impossible for me to escape, could have pushed me forward against the calm
reasonings and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and against two
such visible obstructions as I had met with in my first attempt.

My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who was the
master’s son, was now less forward than I. The first time he spoke to me
after we were at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days, for we
were separated in the town to several quarters—I say the first time he saw
me, it appeared his tone was altered; and looking very melancholy, and
shaking his head, he asked me how I did, and telling his father who I was,
and how I had come this voyage only for atrial, in order to go farther
abroad: his father turning to me with a very grave and concerned tone, .
“Young man,” says he, “ you ought never to go to sea’any more; you ought
to take this for a plain and visible token that you are not to be a sea-faring
ANOTHER VOYAGE, 21

man.” ‘“ Why, sir,” said I,“ will you go to sea no more?” ‘“ That is another
case,” said he; “it is my calling, and therefore my duty; but as you made
this voyage for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given you of what
you are to expect if you persist. Perhaps this has all befallen us on your
account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray,” continues he, ‘ what
are you; and on what account did you go to sea?” Upon that I told him
some of my story; at the end of which he burst out into a strange kind of
passion: ‘“ What had I done,” says he, “that such an unhappy wretch should
come into my ship? I would not set my foot in the same ship with thee
again for a thousand pounds.” This indeed was, as I said, an excursion of
his spirits, which were yet agitated by the sense of his loss, and was farther
than he could have authority to go. However, he afterward talked very
gravely to me, exhorting me to go back to my father, and not tempt Provi-
dence to my ruin; telling me I might see a visible hand of Heaven against
me. ‘And, young man,” said he, “depend upon it, if you do not go back,
wherever you go, you will meet with nothing but disasters and disappoint-
ments, till your father’s words are fulfilled upon you.”

We parted soon after, for I made him little answer, and I saw him no
more; which way he went I know not. As for me, having some money in
my pocket, I traveled to London by land; and there, as well as on the road,
had many struggles with myself what course of life I should take, and
whether I should go home or go to sea.

As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered to my
thoughts; and it immediately occurred to me how I should be laughed at
among the neighbors, and should be ashamed to see, not my father and
mother only, but even everybody else; from whence I have often since
observed how incongruous and irrational the common temper of mankind is,
especially of youth, to that reason which ought to guide them in such cases,
viz., that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; not
ashamed of the action for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools, but
are ashamed of the returning which only can make them be esteemed wise
men. =

In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain what
measures to take, and what course of life to lead. An irresistible reluctance
continued to going home; and as I stayed awhile, the remembrance of the
distress I had been in wore off; and as that abated, the little motion I had
in my desires to a return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside the
thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.

That evil influence which carried me first away from my father’s house,
which hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of raising my fortune;
and that impressed those conceits so forcibly upon me, as to make me deaf
to all good advice, and to the entreaties and even the commands of my
father—I say, the same influence, whatever it was, presented the most
unfortunate of all enterprises to my view; and I went on board a vessel
22 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

bound to the coast of Africa; or, as our sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage to
Guinea*. ,

It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I did not ship
myself asa sailor; when, though I might indeed have worked a little harder
than ordinary, yet at the same time I should haye learned the duty and
office of a foremast man, and in time might have qualified myself for a mate
or lieutenant, if not for a master. But as it wasalways my fate to choose for
the worst, so I did here; for having money in my pocket, and good clothes
upon my back, I would always go on board in the habit of a gentleman;
and so I neither had any business in the ship nor learned to do any,

It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in London,
which does not always happen to such loose and misguided young fellows as

‘I then was; the devil generally not omitting to lay some snare for them very
early; but it was not so withme. I first got acquainted with the master ofa
ship who had been on the coast of Guinea; and who, having had very good
success there, was resolved to go again; this captain taking a fancy to my
conversation, which was not at all disagreeable at that time, hearing me say
{ had a mind to see the world, told me if I wquld go the voyage with him,
I should be at no expense; I should be his messmate and his companion;
and if I could carry anything with me, I should have all the advantage of
it that the trade would admit, and perhaps I might meet with some
encouragement.

I embraced the offer; and entering into a strict friendship with this cap-
tain, who was an honest, plain-dealing man, ] went the voyage with him,
and carried a small adventure with me, which, by the disinterested honesty
of my friend the captain, I increased very considerably; for I carried about
£40 in such toys and trifles as the captain directed me to buy. This £40 1
had mustered together by the assistance of some of my relations whom I
corresponded with, and who, I believe, got my father, or at least my
mother, to contribute so much as that to my first adventure.

This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in all my
adventures, and which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my friend the
captain; under whom also I got a competent knowledge of the mathematics
and the rules of navigation, learned how to keep an account of the ship’s
course, take an observation, and, in short, to understand some things that
were needful to be understood by a sailor; for, as he tool delight to
instruct me, I took delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage made me
both a sailor and a merchant; for I brought home five pounds nine ounces
of gold-dust for my adventure, which yielded me in London, at my return,
almost 4300; and this filled me with those aspiring thoughts which have
since so completed my ruin.



* Guinea—A district of that part of the West Coast of Africa where the land runs nearly due east and west.
The six countries into which itis divided are known to sailors under the names of Sierra Leone, Grain
Coast, Ivory Coast, Gold Coast, Slave Coast, and Benin.
A GUINEA TRADER, 23















“SURPRISED IN THE GRAY OF .
THE MORNING.”

Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too; particularly, that I was
continually sick, being thrown into a violent calenture by the excessive heat
of the climate; our principal trading being upon the coast, from the latitude
of fifteen degrees north, even to the line itself.

I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my great mis-
fortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage
again, and I embarked in the same vessel with one who was his mate in the
former voyage, arid had now got the command of the ship. This was the
unhappiest voyage that ever man made; for though I did not carry quite
4100 of my tew-gained wealth, so that I had £200 left which I had
lodged with my friend’s widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell into
tertible misfortunes in this voyage; and the first was this, viz., our ship
making her coufse towards the Canary Islands, or rather between those
islands and the African shore, was surprised in the gray of the morning by
a Moorish rovet of Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the sail she could
make. We crowded also as much canvas as our yards would spread, or our
‘masts carty, to have got clear; but finding the pirate gained upon us, and
would certainly come up with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight; our
ship having twelve gufis, and the rogue eighteen. About three in
the afternoon he came up With us, and bringing-to by mistake, just athwart
our quarter, instead of athwart our stern as he intended, we brought eight
of our guns to bear on that side, and poured in a broadside upon him,
which made him sheer off again, after reiurning our fire, and pouring in
24 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

also his small shot from near two hundred men which he had on board.
However, we had not a man touched, all our men keeping close. He pre-
pared to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves; but laying us on
board the next time upon our other quarter, he entered sixty men upon our
decks, who immediately fell to cutting and hacking the sails and rigging.
We plied them with small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests and such like,
and cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut short this melancholy
part of our story, our ship being disabled, and three of our men killed, and
eight wounded, we were obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners
into Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I apprehended; nor
was I carried up the country to the Emperor’s court, as the rest of our men
were, but was kept by the captain of the rover as his proper prize, and
made his slave, being young and nimble, and fit for his business. At this
surprising change of my circumstances from a merchant to a miserable
slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed ; and now I locked back upon my
father’s prophetic discourse to me, that I should be miserable and have
none to relieve me; which I thought was now so effectually brought to
pass, that I could not be worse; for now the hand of Heaven had overtaken
me, and I was undone without redemption. But, alas! this was but a taste
of the misery I was to go through, as will appear in the sequel of this story.

As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house, so I
was in hopes that he would
take me with him when he
went to sea again, believing
that it would some time or
other be his fate to be taken by
a Spanish or Portuguese man-
of-war; and that then I should
be setat liberty. But this hope
of mine was soon taken away ;
for when he went to sea, he left
me on shore to look after his
little garden, and do the com-
mon drudgery of slaves about
his house ; and when he came
home again from his cruise, he
ordered me to lie in the cabin
to look after the ship.

Here I meditated nothing
but my escape, and what method
I might take to effect it; but
found no way that had the least
probability in it; nothing pre- “I PROVED VERY DEXTEROUS.” (J. 25).


A DEXTEROUS FISHERMAN. 25

sented to make the supposition of it rational; for I had nobody to com-
municate it to that would embark with me; no fellow-slave, no Englishman,
Irishman, or Scotsman there but myself; so that for two years, though I
often pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had the encouraging
prospect of putting it in practice.

After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself, which put
the old thought of making some attempt for my liberty again in my head.
My patron lying at home longer than usual without fitting out his ship,
which, as I heard, was for want of money, he used constantly, once or twice
a week, sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship’s pin-
nace, and go out into the road a-fishing ; and as he always took me and a
young Moresco with him to row the boat, we made him very merry, and I
proved very dexterous in catching fish ; insomuch that sometimes he would
send me with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth, the Moresco, as
they called him, to catch a dish of fish for him.

It happened one time that, going a-fishing with him in a calm morning,
a fog rose so thick, that, though we were not half a league from shore, we
lost sight of it ; and rowing we knew not whither or which way we labored
all day, and all the next night ; and when the morning came, we found we
had pulled out to sea instead of pulling in for the shore ; and that we were
at least two leagues from the land. However, we got well in again,
though with a great deal of labor, and some danger ; for the wind began
to blow pretty fresh in the morning; but particularly we were all very
hungry.

But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more care of
himself for the future; and having lying by him the long-boat of our English
ship which he had taken, he resolved he would not go a-fishing any more
without a compass and some provision; so he ordered the carpenter of his
ship, who also was an English slave, to build a little state-room, or cabin,
in the middle of the long-boat, like that of a barge, with a place to stand
behind it to steer, and haul home the main-sheet; and room before fora
hand or two to stand and work the sails. She sailed with what we call a
shoulder-of-mutton-sail; and the boom jibbed over the top of the cabin,
which lay very snug and low, and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave
or two, and a table to eat on, with some small lockers to put in some bot-
tles of such liquor as he thought fit to drink, and particularly his bread, rice
and coffee.

We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing; and as 1 was most dex-
terous to catch fish for him, he never went without me. It happened that
he had appointed to go out in this boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with
two or three Moors of some distinction in that place, and for whom he had
provided extraordinarily, and had therefore sent on board the boat over-
night a larger store of provisions than usual; and had ordered me to get


26 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

ready three fusils* with powder and shot, which wére on board His ship, for
that they designed some sport of fowling as well as fishing.

I got all things ready as he had directed; and waited the riext morning
with the boat washed clean, her ancientt and pendants out, and everything
to accommodate his guests; when by and by my patron came on board
alone, and told me his guests had put off going, from some business that
fell out, and ordered me, with the man and boy, as usual, to go out with the
boat and catch them some fish; for that his friends were to sup at his house;
he commanded me, too, that as soon as J had got some fish, I should bring
it home to his house; all which I prepared to do.

This moment, my former notions of deliverance darted irito my thoughts,
for now I found I was likely to have a little ship at my command; and my
master being gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not for fishitig business,
but for a voyage; though I knew not, neither did I so much as consider,
whither I would steer; for anywhere to get out of that place was my desire.

My first contrivance was to make a pretense to speak to this Moor, to
get something for our subsistence on board; for I told him we must hot
presume to eat of our patron’s bread. He said, that was true; so he brought
a large basket of rusk of biscuit of their kind, and three jars with fresh
water, into the boat. I knew where my patron’s case of bottles stood,
which it was evident, by the make, were taken out of some English prize,
and I conveyed them into the boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they
had been there before fot. our master. I conveyed also a gieat lump of
beeswax into the boat, which weighed about half an hundredweight, with a
parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all of Which were
of great use to us afterward, especially the wax to make candles. Another
trick I tried upon him which he innocently came into also: his name was
Ismael, which they call Muley, or Moely; so I called to hitn: “Moely,” said
I, “our patron’s guns are all on board the boat; can you not get a little
powder and shot? It may be we may kill some alcamies” (a fowl like our
curlews) “for ourselves, for 1 know he keeps the gunnet’s stores in the ship.”
“Ves,” says he, “I’ll bring some;” accordingly, he brought a great leather
pouch, which held about a pound and a half of powder, or rather more; and
another with shot, that had five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put
all into the boat. At the same time I had found some powder of my mas-
ter’s in the great cabin, with which I filled one of the large bottles in the
case, which was almost empty, pouring what was in it into another; and
thus furnished with everything needful, we sailed out of the port to fish.
The castle, which is at the entrance of the port, knew who we were, and
took no notice of us; and we were not above a mile out of the port before
we hauled in our sail, and sat us down to fish. The wind blew from the
N.N.E., which was contrary to my desire; for had it blown southerly, I had

peste
* Fusil, a French word, meaning a light musket or firelock.
{ Ancient, the old word, derived from the French enseigne, for a flag, or the man who carries it.
)s

. 28

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28 ; ROBINSON CRUSOE.

beeu sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at least reached to the bay .
of Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow which way it would, I would be
gone from that horrid place where I was, and leave the rest to fate.

After we had fished some time and caught nothing, for when I had fish
on my hook I would not pull them up, that he might not see them, I said
to the Moor, “ This will not do; our master will not be thus served; we must
stand farther off.” He, thinking no harm, agreed, and, being in the head
of the boat, set the sails; and, as I had the helm, I ran the boat out near
a league farther, and then brought her to as if I would fish; when, giving
the boy the helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was, and making
as if I stooped for something behind him, I took him by surprise with my
arm under his waist, and tossed him clear overboard into the sea. He rose
immediately, for he swam like a cork, and called to me, begged to be taken
in, telling me he would go all over the world with me. He swam so strong
after the boat, that he would have reached me very quickly, there being
but little wind; upon which I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one
of the fowling-pieces, I presented it at him, and told him I had done
him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I would do him none: “ But,” said I,
“you swim well enough to reach the shore, and the sea is calm; make the
best of your way to shore, and I will do you no harm; but if you come near
the boat, I’ll shoot you through the head, for I am resolved to have my
liberty.” So he turned himself about, and swam for the shore, and I make
no doubt but he reached it with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.

I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me, and have
drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust him. When he was
gone, I turned to the boy, whom they called Xury, and said to him, “ Xury,
if you will be faithful to me, I’ll make you a great man, but if you will not
stroke your face to be true to me” (that is, swear by Mahomet and his
father’s beard), “I must throw you into the sea too.” The boy smiled in
my fase, and spoke so innocently, that I could not mistrust him, and swore
to be faithful to me, and go all over the world with me.

While I was in the view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood out
directly to sea, with the boat rather stretching to windward, that they
might think me gone towards the Straits’* mouth (as indeed any one
that had been in their wits must have been supposed to do); for who would
have supposed we were sailing on to the southward, to the truly barbarian
coast, where whole nations of negroes were sure to surround us with their
canoes, and destroy us; where we could never once go on shore but we
should be devoured by savage beasts, or mere merciless savages cf human
kind?

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening I changed my course, and
steered directly south and by east, bending my course a little towards the
east, that I might keep in with the shore, and having a fair, fresh gale of

*Straits, the Straits of Gibraltar.
WITH XURY IN THE BOAT. 29

wind and a smooth, quiet sea, J made such sail that I believe by the next
day at three o’clock in the afternoon, when I first made the land, I could
not be less than one hundred and fifty miles south of Sallee, quite beyond
the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions, or indeed of any other king there-
abouts, for we saw no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the dreadful











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“WE FILLED OUR JARS” (Z. 31).

apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that I would not stop or go
on shore or come to an anchor, the wind continuing fair till I had sailed in
that manner five days, and then, the wind shifting to the southward, I con-
cluded also that if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would
now give over; so I ventured to make to the coast and came to an anchor in
the mouth of a little river, I knew not what nor where; neither what lati-
30 ROBINSON CRUSOE. :

tude, what country, what nation, ot what river. I neither saw tior desited to
see any people; the principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We catne
into this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shoré as soon as it was
dark and discover the country; but as soon as it was quite dark we heard
such dreadful noises of the barking, roaring and howling of wild creatures,
of we kitew not what kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and
begged of me not to go onshore till day. ‘Well, Xury,” said I, ‘then I
won't, but it may be we may see men by day who will be as bad to us as
those lions.” ‘Then we give them the shoot-gun,” says Xury, laughing,
“make them run wey.” Such English Xury spoke by conversing among 4s
slaves. However, 1 was glad to see the boy so cheerfiil, and I gave him a
dram (out of our patron’s case of bottles) to cheer himup. After all, Xury’s
advice was good and I took it. We dropped our little anchor and lay still
all night. I say still, for we slept none; for in two or three hours we saw
vast great creatures (we knew not what to call them), of many sorts, come
down to the sea shore and run into the water, wallowing and washing thein-
selves for the pleasure of cooling themselves; and they made such hideous
howlings and yellings that I never, indeed, heard the like.

Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I, too; but we were
both more frighted when we heard one mighty creature come swimming
towards our boat; we could not see him, but we might hear him by his
blowing to be a monstrous, huge, and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion
and it might be so for aught I know; but poor Xury cried to me to weigh
the anchor and row away. ‘ No,” says I, ‘“Xury, we can slip our cable, with
the buoy to it, and go to sea; they cannot follow us far.” I had no sooner
said so but I perceived the creature, whatever it was, within two oars’ length,
which something surprised me; however, I immediately stepped to the
cabin-door, and taking up my gun, fired at him, upon which he immediately
turned about and swam towards the shore again.

But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises and hideous cries and
howlings that were raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as higher
within. the country, upon the noise or report of a gun, a thing I have some
reason to believe those creatures had never heard before. This convinced
me that there was no going on shore for us in the night upon that coast,
and how to venture on shore in the day was another question, too; for to’
have fallen into the hands of any of the savages had been as bad as to have
fallen into the paws of lions and tigers, at least we were equally apprehen-
sive of the danger of it.

Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere or other
for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat; when or where to get it was
the point. Xury said, if I would let him go on shore with one of the jars,
he would find if there was any water, and bring some to me. I asked him
why he would go? why I should not go, and he stay in the boat? The boy
answered with so much affection, that made me love him ever after. Says
WE VENTURE ON SHORE, 3l

he, “If wild mans come, they eat me, you go wey.” ‘Well, Xury,” said I,
“we will both go, and if the wild mans come, we will kill them, they shall
eat neither of us.” So I gave Xurya piece of rusk-bread to eat, and a dram
out of our patron’s case of bottles which I mentioned before; and we hauled
the boat in as near the shore as we thought was proper, and waded on
shore, carrying nothing but our arms, and three jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming of canoes
with savages down the river; but the boy, seeing a low place about a mile up
the country, rambled to it, and by and by I saw him come running towards me.
I thought he was pursued by some savage, or frighted with some wild beast,
and I ran forward towards him to help him; but when I came nearer to him,
I saw something hanging over his shoulders, which was a creature that he
had shot, like a hare, but different in color, and longer legs: however, we
were very glad of it, and it was very good meat; but the great joy that poor
Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good water, and seen no wild
mans,

But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for .-ater, fora
little higher up the creek where we were, we found the water fresh when the
tide was out, which flows but a little way up; so we filled our jars, and
feasted on the hare we had killed, and prepared to go on our way, having
seen no footsteps of any human creature in that part of the country.

As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very well that
the Islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd Islands also, lay not far
off from the coast. But as I had no instruments to take an observation to
know what latitude we were in, and did not exactly know, or at least not
remember, what latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for them,
or when to stand off to sea towards them; otherwise I might now easily have
found some of these islands. But my hope was that if I stood along this
coast till I came to that part where the English traded, I should find some
of their vessels upon their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take
us in,

By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was must be
that country which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions
and the negroes, lies waste and uninhabited, except by wild beasts; the
negroes having abandoned it, and gone farther south, for fear of the Moors;
and the Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness;
and indeed both forsaking it because of the prodigious numbers of tigers,
lions, leopards, and other furious creatures which harbor there; so that the
Moors use it for their hunting only, where they go like an army, two or
three thousand men at a time; and, indeed, for near a hundred miles
together upon this coast, we saw nothing but a waste uninhabited country by
day, and heard nothing but howlings and roarings of wild beasts by night.

Once or twice in the day-time I thought I saw the Pico of Tenériffe,
being the high top of the mountain Teneriffe in the Canaries; and had a
32 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

great mind to venture out, in hopes of reaching thither; but having failed
twice, I was forced in again by contrary winds, the sea also going too high
for my little vessel; so I resolved to pursue my first design, and keep along
the shore.

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we had left this
place, and once in particular, being early in the morning, we came to an
anchor under a little point of land, which was pretty high; and the tide
beginning to flow, we lay still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were
more about him than it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me
that we had best go farther off the shore; “for,” says he, “look, yonder lies
a dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fast asleep.” I looked
where he pointed, and saw a dreadful monster, indeed, for it was a terrible
great lion that lay on the side of the shore, under the shade of a piece of
the hill that hung, as it were, a little over him. ‘“Xury,” says I, “you shall
go on shore and kill him.” Xury looked frighted, and said, “Me kill! he
eat me at one mouth;” one mouthful he meant. However, I said no more
to the boy, but bade him be still, and took our biggest gun, which was
almost musket-bore, and loaded it with a good charge of powder, and with
two slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded another gun with two bullets, and
the third (for we had three pieces) I loaded with five smaller bullets. Itook
the best aim I could with the first piece to have shot him in the head, but he
lay so, with his leg raised a little above his nose, that the slugs hit his leg
about the knee and broke the bone. He started up growling at first, but
finding his leg broke, fell down again; and then got up upon three legs,
and gave the most hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a little surprised
that I had not hit him on the head; however, I took up the second piece
immediately, and though he began to move off, fired again, and shot him
in the head, and had the pleasure to see him drop; and making but little
noise, he lay struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and would have
me let him go onshore. “Well, go,” said I; so the boy jumped into the
water, and taking the little gun in one hand, swam to shore with the other
hand, and coming close to the creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his
ear, and shot him in the head again, which dispatched him quite.

This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I was very sorry
to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a creature that was good for
‘nothing to us. However, Xury said he would have some of him; so he
comes on board, and asked me to give him the hatchet. “For what, Xury as
said]. “Me cut off his head,” said he. However, Xury could not cut off
his head, but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him, and it was a mon-
strous great one.

I bethought myself however, that perhaps the skin of him might, one
way or other, be of some value to us; and I resolved to take off his skin if
I could. So Xury and I went to work with him; but Xury was much the
better workman at it, for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us up
TRAFFIC WITH THE NATIVES. 33

both the whole day, but at last we got off the hide of him, and spreading it
on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two days’ time, and
it afterwards served me to lie upon.

After this stop we made on to the southward continually for ten or
twelve days, living very sparingly on our provisions, which began to abate
very much, and going no oftener into the shore than we were obliged to for
fresh water. My design in this was to make the River Gambia or Senegal;
that is to say, anywhere about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to
meet with some European ship; and if I did not I knew not what course I
had to take but to seek for the islands or perish there among the negroes.
I knew that all the ships from Europe which sailed either to the coast of
Guinea or to Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this cape or those islands
and, in a word, I put the whole of my fortune upon this single point, either
that I must meet with some ship or must perish.

When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I have
said, I began to see that the land was inhabited; and in two or three places
as we Sailed by we saw people stand upon the shore to look at us; we could
also perceive they were quite black and stark naked. I was once inclined
to have gone on shore to them, but Xury was my better counselor and said
to me, ‘‘No go,no go.”” However, I hauled in nearer the shore that I might
talk to them, and I found they ran along the shore by mea good way; I
observed they had no weapons in their hands, except one, who had a long
slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they could throw them
a great way with good aim, sol keptat a distance, but talked to them by
signs as well as I could, and particularly made signs for something to eat;
they beckoned to me to stop my boat and they would fetch me some meat.
Upon this, I lowered the top of my sail and lay by, and two of them ran up
into the country, and in less than half an hour came back and brought with
them two pieces of dry flesh and some corn, such as is the produce of their
country; but we neither knew what the one or the other was; however, we
were willing to accept it, but how to come at it was our next dispute, for I
would not venture on shore to them, and they were as much afraid of us;
but they took a safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore and laid
it down, and went and stood a great way off till we fetched it on board, and
then came close to us again.

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make them
amends; but an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige them won-
derfully, for while we were lying on the shore came two mighty creatures,
one pursuing the other (as we took it) with great fury from the mountains
towards the sea. Whether it was the male pursuing the female, or whether
they were in sport or in rage we could not tell, any more than we could
tell whether it was usual or strange, but I believe it was the latter, because,
in the first place, those ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night,
and in ape second place we found the people terribly frighted, especially
34 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the women. The man that had the lance or dart did not fly from them,
but the rest did; however, as the two creatures ran directly into the water
they did not offer to fall upon any of the negroes, but plunged themselves
into the sea, and swam about as if they had come for their diversion. At
last one of them began to come nearer our boat than at first I expected, but
I lay ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with all possible expedition,
and bade Xury load both the others. As soon as he came fairly within my
reach I fired, and shot him directly in the head. Immediately he sank
down into the water, but rose instantly and plunged up and down as if he
was struggling for life, and so indeed he was; he immediately made to the
shore, but between the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and the stran-
gling of the water, he died just before he reached the shore.

It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor creatures at
the noise and fire of my gun; some of them were ready even to die for fear,
and fell down as dead with the very terror. But when they saw the creature
dead, and sunk into the water, and that I] made signs to them to come to
the shore, they took heart and came to the shore, and began to search for
the creature. I found him by his blood staining the water; and by the help
of a rope, which I slung round him, and gave the negroes to haul, they
dragged him on shore, and I found that is was a most curious leopard,
spotted, and fine to an admirable degree; and the negroes held up their
hands with admiration, to think what it was I killed him with.

The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the noise of the
gun, swam to the shore, and ran up drirectly to the mountains from whence
they came, nor could J at that distance know what it was. I found quickly
the negroes were for eating the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to
have them take it as a favor from me; which, when I made signs to them
that they might take it, they were very thankful for. Immediately they fell
to work with him; and though they had no knife, yet, with a sharpened piece
of wood, they took off his skin as readily, and much more readily, than we
would have done with a knife. They offered me some of the flesh, which I
declined, making as if I would give it them; but made-signs for the skin,
which they gave me very freely, and brought me a great deal more of their
provision, which, though I did not understand, yet I accepted. Then I
made signs to them for some water, and held out one of my jars to them,
turning its bottom upward, to show that is was empty, and that I wanted to
have it filled. They called immediately to some of their friends, and there
came two women, and brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt as I
suppose in the sun; this they set down for me, as before, and I sent Xury
on shore with my jars and filled them all three. The women were as stark
naked as the men.

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and water;
and leaving my friendly negroes, | made forward for about eleven days
more, without offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land run out a
PICKED UP BY A PORTUGUESE SHIP. 35

great length into the sea, at about the distance of four or five leagues before
me; and the sea being very calm, I kept a large offing to make this point.
At length, doubling the point at about two leagues from the land, I saw
plainly land on the other side, to seaward; then I concluded, as it was most
certain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands called,
from thence, Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at a great dis-
tance, and I could not well tell what I had best do; forif I should be taken
with a fresh gale of wind, I might neither reach one nor other.

In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the cabin and sat
me down, Xury having the helm; when, on a sudden, the boy cried out,
‘Master, master, a ship with a sail!” and the foolish boy was frighted out
of his wits thinking it must needs be some of his master’s ships sent to pur-
sue us, when J knew we were gotten far enough out of their reach. I jumped
out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only the ship, but that it was a
Portuguese ship; and, as I thought, was bound to the coast of Guinea, for
negroes. But, when I observed the course she steered, I was soon convinced
they were bound some other way, and did not design to go any nearer the
shore; upon which I stretched out to the sea as much as I could, resolving
to speak with them if possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to come in
their way, but that they would be gone by before I could make any signal
to them; but after I had crowded to the utmost, and began to despair, they,
it seems, saw me by the help of their perspective glasses, and that it was
some European boat, which they supposed must belong to some ship that
was lost; so they shortened sail to let me comeup. I was encouraged with
this, and as I had my patron’s ancient on board, I made a waft of it to them
for a signal of distress, and fired a gun, both of which they saw; for they
told me they saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon these
signals they very kindly brought to, and lay by for me; and in about three
hours’ time I came up with them.

They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and in French,
but I understood none of them; but at last a Scotch sailor, who was on
board, called to me; and I answered him, andtold him I wasan Englishman,
that had made my escape outof slavery from the Moors at Sallee; they then
bade me come on board, and very kindly took me in, and all my goods.

It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will believe, that I was
thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable and almost hopeless
condition as I was in; and I] immediately offered allI had to the captain of
the ship, as a return for my deliverance; but he generously toldme, he would
take nothing from me, but that all I had should be delivered safe to me,

when I came tothe Brazils. ‘ For,” says he, “I have saved your life on no
other terms than as I would be glad to be saved myself; and it may, one
time or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same condition. Besides,”
said he, ‘‘when I carry you to the Brazils, so great a way from your own
36 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

country, if I should take from you what you have, you will be starved there,
and then I only take away that life Ihave given. No, no,” says he; “ Seignor
Inglese” (Mr. Englishman), “I will carry you thither in charity, and these
things will help you to buy your subsistence there, and your passage home
again.”

As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the performance
to a tittle; for he ordered the seamen that none should offer to touch any-
thing I had; then he took everythirg into his own possession, and gave me
back an exact inventory of them, that J might have them, even to my
three earthen jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw, and told me,
he would buy it of me for the ship’s use; and asked me what I would have
for it. Itold him, he had been so generous to me in everything, that I
could not offer to make any price of the boat, but left it entirely to him:
upon which he told me he would give me a note of his hand to pay me
eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil; and when it came there, if any one
offered to give more, he would make it up. He offered me also sixty pieces
of eight more for my boy Xury, which I was loth to take; not that I was
unwilling to let the captain have him, but I was very loth to sell the poor
boy’s liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in procuring my own. How-
ever, when I let him know my reason, he owned it to be just, and offered
me this medium, that he would give the boy an obligation to set him free in
ten years, if he turned Christian; upon this, and Xury saying he was yee
to go to him, I let the captain have him.

We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived in the Bay ae
Todos los Santos, or All Saints Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And
now I wasonce more delivered from the most miserable of all conditions of
life; and what to do next with myself I was to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me, I cannever enough remem-
ber; he would take nothing of me for my passage, gave me twenty ducats
for the leopard’s skin, and forty for the lion’s skin, which I had in my boat,
and caused everything I had in the ship to be punctually delivered to me;
and what I was willing to sell, he bought of me: such as the case of bottles,
two of my guns and a piece of the lump of beeswax, for I had made candles
of the rest; in a word, I made about two hundred and twenty pieces of eight
of all my cargo; and with this stock, I went’on shore in the Brazils.

I had not been long here, but being recommended to the house of a
good, honest man, like himself, who had an zmgenio, as they call it (that is,
a plantation and a sugar-house), I lived with him some time, and
acquainted myself, by that means, with the manner of their planting and mak-
ing of sugar;and seeing how well the planters lived, and how they got rich
suddenly, I resolved, if I could get a license to settle there, I would turn
planter among them; resolving, in the meantime, to find out some way to
get my money, which I had left in London, remitted to me. To this pur:
IN THE BRAZILS. 3t-

pose, getting a kind of letter of naturalization, I purchased as much land
that was uncured as my money would reach, and formed a plan for my
plantation and settlement; such-a one as might be suitable to the stock
which I proposed to myself to receive from England.

I had a neighbor, a Portuguese, of Lisbon, but born of English parents,
whose name was Wells, and in much such circumstancesas I was Icallhim
neighbor, because his plantation lay next to mine, and we went on very
sociably together. My
stock was but low, as
well as his; and we
rather planted for food
than anything else, for
about two years. How-
ever, we began to in-
crease, and our land be-
gan to come into order;
so that the third year
we planted some tobac-
co, and made each of us
a large piece of ground
ready for planting canes
in the year to come;
but we both wanted
help; and now I found,
more than before, I had
done wrong in parting
with my boy Xury.

But, alas! for me to
do wrong that neverdid
right, was no great won-
der. I had no remedy
but to go on. I had got
into employment quite
remote to my geniusand
directly contrary to the
life I delighted in, and
for which I forsook my
father’s house, and broke through all his good advice; nay, I was coming
into the very middle station, or upper degree of low life, which my father
advised me to before, and which, if I resolved to go on with, I might as
well have stayed at home, and never fatigued myself in the world, as I have
done; and I used often to say to myself, “I could have done this as well in
England, among my friends, as have gone five thousand miles off to do it
among strangers and savages, in a wilderness, and at such a distance as







oT

“| BOUGHT ME A NEGRO SLAVE” (42. 89).
388 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

never to hear from any part of the world that had the teast knowledge
of me.”

In this manner I used to look upon my condition with the utmost regret.
I had nobody to converse with but now and then this neighbor; no work to
be done but by the labor of my hands; and I used to say, I lived just like a
man cast away upon some desolate island, that had nobody there but him-
self. But how just has it been; and how should all men reflect, that when
they compare their present conditions with others that are worse. Heaven
may oblige them to make the exchange, and be convinced of their former
felicity by their experience—I say, how just has it been that the truly soli-
tary life I reflected on, in an island, or mere desolation, should be my lot,
who had so often unjustly compared it with the life which I then led, in
which, had I continued, I had in all probability been exceedingly prosper-
ous and rich.

I was in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying on the planta-
tion before my kind friend, the captain of the ship that took me up at sea,
went back; for the ship remained there, in providing her lading, and prepar-
ing for her voyage, near three months; when, telling him what little stock I
had left behind me in London, he gave me this friendly and sincere advice:
“Seignor Inglese,” says he (for so he always called me) ‘if you will give
me letters, and a procuration here in form to me, with orders to the person
who has your money in London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to such
persons as I shall direct, and in such goods as are proper for this country, I
will bring you the produce of them, God willing, at my return; but, since
human affairs are all subject to changes and disasters, I would have you give
orders but for one hundred pounds sterling, which, you say, is half your
stock, and let the hazard be run for the first; so that, if it come safe, you
may order the rest the same way; and if it aaa you may have the
other half to have recourse to for your supply.” ;

This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I gould not
but be convinced it was the best course I could take; so I accordingly pre
pared letters to the gentlewoman with whom J had left my money, and a
procuration to the Portuguese captain, as he desired.

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full account of all my adventures.
my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the Portuguese captain at sea,
the humanity of his behavior, and what condition I was now in, with all
other necessary directions for my supply; and when this honest captain
came to Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English merchants there,
to send over not the order only, but a full account of my story, to a
merchant at London, who represented it effectually to her; whereupon
she not only delivered the money, but out of her own pocket sent the
Portugal captain a very handsome present for his humanity and charity
to me,

The merchant in London vested this hundred pounds in English goods,


MY PLANTATION IN THE BRAZILS. 39

such as the captain had written for, sent them directly to him at Lisbon,
and he brought them all safe to me to the Brazils; among which, without
my direction (for 1 was too young in my business to think of them), he had
taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron work, and utensils necessary for
my plantation, and which were of great use to me.

When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made, for I was surprised
with the joy of it; and my good steward, the captain, had laid out the five
pounds, which my friend had sent him for a present for himself, to purchase
and. bring me over a servant, under bond for six years’ service, and would
not accept of any consideration, except a little tobacco, which I would have
him accept, being of my own produce. Stele

Neither was this all; for my goods being all English manufacture, such
as cloth, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable and desirable in the
country, I found means to sell them at a very great advantage; so that I
may say I had more than four times the value of my first cargo, and was
' now infinitely beyond my poor neighbor—I mean in the advancement of my

plantation; for the first thing I did, I bought me a negro slave and an Euro-
pean servant also; I mean another besides that which the captain brought
me from Lisbon. |

But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means of our
greatest adversity, so was it with me. I went on the next year with great
success in my plantation: I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on my own
ground, more than I had disposed of for necessaries among my neighbors,

_and these fifty rolls, being each of above a hundred weight, were well cured,
and laid by against the return of the fleet from Lisbon. And now increas-
ing in business and wealth, my head began to be full of projects and under-
takings beyond my reach; such as are indeed often the ruin of the best
heads in business. Had I continued in the station I was nowin, I had room
for all the happy things to have yet befallen me, for which my father so
earnestly recommended a quiet, retired life, and which he had so sensibly
described the middle station of life to be full of; but other things attended
me, and | was still to be the willful agent of all my own miseries; and par-
ticularly, to increase my fault, and double the reflections upon myself,
which in my future serrows I should have leisure to make, all these mis-
carriages were procured by my apparent obstinate adhering to my foolish
inclination of wandering abroad, and pursuing that inclination, in contradic-
tion to the clearest views of doing myself good in a fair and plain pursuit
of those prospects and those measures of life which nature and Providence
concurred to present me with, and to make my duty.

As I had once done thus in breaking away from my parents, so I could
not be content now, but | must go and leave the happy view I had of being
a richand thriving man in my new plantation, only to pursue a rash and
immoderate desire of rising faster than the nature of the thing admitted;
and thus I cast myself down again into the deepest gulf of human misery
40 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent with life, and a state
of health in the world.

To come then by just degrees to the particulars of this part of my story:
You may suppose that having now lived almost four years in the Brazils,
and beginning to thrive and prosper very well upon my plantation, I had
not only learned the language, but had contracted acquaintance and friend-
ship among my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants of St. Sal-
vadore, which was our port; and that, in my discourse among them, I had
frequently given them an account of my two voyages to the coast of Guinea,
the manner of trading with the negroes there, and how easy it was to pur-
chase upon the coast for trifles—such as beads, toys, knives, scissors,
hatchets, bits of glass, and the like—not only gold-dust, Guinea grains, ele-
phants’ teeth, etc., but negroes, for the service of the Brazils, ingreat numbers.

They listened always very attentively to my discourses on these heads,
but especially to that part which related to the buying negroes, which was
a trade, at that time, not only not far entered into, but, as far as it was, had
been carried on by the Assiento, or permission, of the King of Spain and
Portugal, and engrossed in the public stock; so that few negroes were
brought, and those excessively dear.

It happened, being in company one day with some merchants and
planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very earnestly,
three of them came to me the next morning, and told me they had been
musing very much upon what IJ had discoursed of with them the last night,
and they came to make a secret proposal to me; and, after enjoining me
secrecy, they told me that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea;
that they had all plantations as well as I, and were straitened for nothing
so much as servants; that as it was a trade that could not be carried on,
because they could not publicly sell the negroes when they came home, so
they desired to make but one voyage, to bring the negroes on shore pri-
vately, and divide them among their own plantations ; and, in a word, the
question was, whether I would go their supercargo in the ship, to manage
the trading part upon the coast of Guinea; and they offered me that I
should have my equal share of the negroes, without providing any part of
the stock.

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made to any one
that had not hada settlement and plantation of his own to look after, which
was in a fair way of coming to be very considerable, and with a good stock
upon it. But for me, that was thus entered and established, and had noth-
ing to do but go on as I had begun, for three or four years more, and to
have sent for the other hundred pounds from England ; and who in that
time, and with that little addition, could scarce have failed of being worth
three or four thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing too—for me to
think of such a voyage was the most preposterous thing that ever man in
such circumstances could be guilty of.
I MAKE MY WILL. 41

But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more resist the
offer than I could restrain my first rambling designs, when my father’s good
counsel was lost upon me. Ina word, I told them that I would go with all
my heart, if they would undertake to look after my plantation in my
absence, and would dispose of it as I should direct, if I miscarried. This
they all engaged to do, and entered into writings and covenants to do so. I
made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and effects in case of my
death, making the

-captain of the ship
that had saved my
live, as before, my
universal heir, but
obliging him to
dispose of my ef-
fects as I had di-
rected in my will;
one-half of the
produce being
to himself, and
the other to be
shipped to Eng- WAZ
land. | {

Inshort,I took — diy
all possible cau- | Wr Ms
tion to preserve | ; Vv
my effects, and to “ AW
keep up my plan- i
tation. HadI used



\,
i










half as ‘much pru- Mh,
dence to have ta
looked into my
own interest, and
have made a judg-
ment of what I
ought to have
done, and not to
have done, I had certainly never gone away trom so prosperous an under-
taking, leaving all the probable views of a thriving circumstance, and gone
upon a voyage to sea, attended with all its common hazards, to say nothing
of the reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes to myself.

But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my fancy
rather than my reason; and, accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and the
cargo finished, and all things done as by agreement, by my partners in the
voyage. I went on board in an evil hour again, the 1st of September, 1659,





‘ iH
Yi.

“LOOKING OVER THE CHARTS” (2. 48).
42 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

being the same day eight years that I went from my father and mother at
Hull, in order to act the rebel to their authority and the fool to my own
interest.

Our ship was abcut one hundred and twenty tons burden, carried six
guns, and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy, and myself. We had
on board no large cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit for our
trade with the negroes, such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles,
especially little looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.

The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to the north-
ward upon our own coasts, with design to stretch over for the African
coast, when they came into about ten or twelve degrees of northern lati-
tude; which, it seems, was the manner of their course in those days. We
had very good weather, only excessively hot, all the way upon our own
coast till we came to the height of Cape St. Augustino; from whence, keep-
ing farther off at sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if we were bound
for the isle Fernando de Noronha, holding our course N.E. by N., and
leaving those isles on the east. In this course we passed the line in about
twelve days’ time, and were, by our last observation, in seven degrees
twenty-two minutes northern latitude, when a violent tornado, or hurricane,
took us quite out of our knowledge. It began from the southeast, came
about to the northwest, and then settled into the northeast, from whence
it blew in such a terrible manner, that for twelve days together we could do
nothing but drive, and, scudding away before it, let it carry us wherever
fate and the fury of the winds directed; and during these twelve days I



“WE HASTENED OUR DESTRUCTION WITH OUR OWN HANDS” (Z, 44),
A VIOLZNT TORNADO. 43

need not say that I expected every day to be swallowed up; nor did any in
the ship expect to save their lives.

In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of our men
died of the calenture, and a man and a boy washed overboard. About the
twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the master made an observation as
«ell as he could, and found that he was in about eleven degrees of north
latitude, but that he was twenty-two degrees of longitude -difference west
from Cape St Augustino; so that he found he was gotten upon the coast of
Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river Amazones towards that
pf the river Oroonoque, commonly called the Great River; and now he
began to consult with me what course he should take, for the ship was
leaky, and very much disabled, and he was for going directly back to the
coast of Brazil.

I was .positively against that, and looking over the charts of the sea-
coast of America with him, we concluded there was no inhabited coun-
try for us to have recourse to till we came within the circle of the Caribbee
Islands, and therefore resolved to stand away for Barbadoes, which, by
keeping off at sea, to avoid the in-draft of the Bay or Gulf of Mexico, we
might easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days’ sail; whereas we
could not possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa without some
assistance both to our ship and to ourselves.

With this design we changed our course, and steared away N.W. by W.,
in order to reach some of our English islands, where I hoped for relief; but
our voyage was otherwise determined, for, being in the latitude of twelve
degrees eighteen minutes, a second storm came upon us, which carried us
away with the same impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of the way
of all human commerce, that had all our lives been saved as to the sea, we
were rather in danger of being devoured by savages than ever returning to
our own country. i

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our men early
one morning cried out, ‘‘Land!” and we had no sooner run out of the cabin
to look out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we were, than the
ship struck upon a sand, and ina moment, her motion being so stopped, the
sea broke over her in such a manner that we expected we should all have
_ perished immediately, and we were even driven into our close quarters, to
shelter us from the very foam and spray of the sea.

It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like condition to
describe or conceive the consternation of men in such circumstances. We
knew nothing where we were, or upon what land it was we were driven;
whether an island or the main, whether inhabited or not inhabited. As the
rage of the wind was still great, though rather less than at. first, we could
not so much as hope to have the ship hold many minutes without breaking
in pieces, unless the winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn immediately
about. Ina word, we sat looking one upon another, and expecting death
44 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

every moment, and every man acting accordingly, as preparing for another
world, for there was little or nothing more for us to do in this; that which
was our present comfort, and all the comfort we had, was that, contrary to
our expectation, the ship did not break yet, and that the master said the
wind began to abate.

Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet the ship
having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us to expect herget-
ting off, we were in a dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing to do but to
think of saving our lives as wellas we could. Wehad a boat at our stern just
before the storm, but she was first staved by dashing against the ship’s rud-
der, and in the next place she broke away, and either sunk or was driven off
to sea; so there was no hope from her. We had another boat on board,
but now to get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing; however, there was
no room to debate, for we fancied the ship would break in pieces every
minute, and some told us she was actually broken already.

In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of the boat, and with the
help of the rest of the men, they got her flung over the ship’s side; and get-
ting all into her, let go, and committed ourselves, being eleven in number,
to God’s mercy and the wild sea; for though the storm was abated consider-
ably, yet the sea went dreadfully high upon the shore, and might be well
called den wild zee, as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.

And now our case was very dismal indeed, for we all saw plainly that the
sea went so high that the boat could not escape, and that we should be
inevitably drowned. As to making sail, we had none, nor, if we had, could
we have done anything with it; so we worked at the oar towards the land,
though with heavy hearts, like men going to execution, for we all knew
that when the boat came near the shore, she would be dashed ina thousand
pieces by the breach of the sea. However, we committed our souls to God
in the most earnest manner; and the wind driving us towards the shore, we
hastened our destruction with our own hands, pulling as well as we could
towards land.

What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep or shoal, we
knew not; the only hope that could rationally give us the least shadow of
expectation, was if we might happen into some bay or gulf, or the mouth of
some river, where by great chance we might have run our boat in, or got
under the lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth water. But there was
nothing of this appeared; but as we made nearer and nearer the shore, the
land looked more frightful than the sea.

After we had rowed or rather driven, about a league anda alee as we
reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling asternof us, and
plainly bade us expect the coup de grace. In.a word, it took us with such a
fury that it overset the boat at once, and separating us as well from the
boat as from one another, gave us not time hardly to say, “Q God!” for we
were all swallowed up in a moment.
SHIPWRECKED. 45

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt when I sank
into the water, for though I swam very well, yet I could not deliver myself
from the waves so as to draw breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather
carried me, a vast way on towards the shore, and having spent itself, went
back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but half dead with the water I
took in. I had so much presence of mind, as well as breath left, that
seeing myself nearer the mainland than I expected, I got upon my feet,
and endeavored to make on towards the land as fast as I could, before
another wave should return and take me up again; but I soon found it was
impossible to avoid it, for I saw the sea come after me as high as a great
hill, and as furious as an enemy, which I had no means or’ strength to con-













































“1 WAS NOW LANDED” (2%, 4%).

tend with; my business was to hold my breath, and raise myself upon the
water, if I could, and so by swimming to preserve my breathing, and pilot
myself toward the shore if possible; my greatest concern now being that the
wave, as it would carry me a great way towards the shore when it came on,
might not carry me back again with it when it gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again buried me at once twenty or thirty
feet deep in its own body, and I could feel myself carried with a mighty
force and swiftness towards the shorea very great way; but I held my breath,
and assisted myself to swim still forward with all my might. I was ready
to burst with holding my breath, when as I felt myself rising up, so, to my
immediate relief, I found my head and hands shoot out above the surface
I

HiNG



















a ZZ =
a
ae a

a ca





“ ESPIED A SMALL PIECE OF ROPE” (7. 49),
SAFE ON SHORE. 47

of the water, and though it was not two seconds of time that I could keep
myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave me breath and new courage. I
was covered again with water a good while, but not so long but I held it out;
and finding the water had spent itself, and began to return, I struck forward
against the return of the waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I stood
still a few moments to recover breath, and till the waters went from me,
and then took to my heels, and ran with what strength I had, farther
towards the shore. But neither would this deliver me from the fury of the
sea, which came pouring in after me again; and twice more I was lifted up
by the waves and carried forwards'as before, the shore being very flat.

The last time of these two had well-nigh been fatal to me, for the sea
having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather dashed me, against
a piece of arock, and that with such force as it left me senseless, and in-
deed helpless, as to my own deliverance, for the blow, taking my side and
breast, beat the breath as it were quite out of my body, and had it returned
again immediately, 1 must have been strangled in the water, but I recov-
ered a little before the return of the waves, and seeing I should be covered
again with the water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so
to hold my breath, if possible, till the wave went back. Now, as the waves
were not so high as at first, being nearer land, I held my hold till the wave
abated, and then fetched another run, which brought me so near the shore
that the next wave, though it went over me, yet did not so swallow me up
as to carry me away, and the next run I took I got to the mainland, where,
to my great comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and sat me
down upon the grass, free from danger and quite out ‘of the reach of the
water.

I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up and thank
God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there was some minutes
before scarce any room to hope. JI believe it is impossible to express, to
the life, what the ecstasies and transports of the soul are when it is so saved,
as I may say, out of the very grave; and I do not wonder now at that
custom, when a malefactor, who has the halter about his neck, is tied up,
and just going to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought to him—I say,
I do not wonder that they bring a surgeon with it, to let him blood that very
moment they tell him of it, that the surprise may not drive the animal
spirits from the heart and overwhelm him,

“ For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.”

I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my whole being,
as I may say, wrapt up in a contemplation of my deliverance; making a
thousand gestures and motions, which I cannot describe; reflecting upon
all my comrades that were drowned, and that there should not be one soul
saved but myself; for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign
4 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that were not
fellows.

I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and froth of the
sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far off; and considered,
Lord! how was it possible J could get on shore?

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my condition,
I began to look round me, to see what kind of place I was in, and what was
next to be done; and I soon found my comforts abate, and that, in a word,
I hada dreadful deliverance, for I was wet, had no clothes to shift’ me, nor
anything either to eat or drink, to comfort me; neither did I see any pros-
pect before me but that of perishing with hunger, or being devoured by
wild beasts; and that which was particularly afflicting to me was, that I
had no weapon, either to hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance, or
to defend myself against any other creature that might desire to kill me
for theirs. Ina word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe,
and a little tobacco ina box. This was all my provision; and this threw
me into terrible agonies of mind, that for awhile I ran about like a madman.
Night coming upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider what would
be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that country, seeing at night
they always come abroad for their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time, was to get up
into athick bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny, which grew near me, and where
I resolved to sit all night, and consider the next day what death I should
die, for as yet I saw no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong from the
shore, to see if I could find any fresh water to drink, which I did to my great
joy; and having drunk, and puta little tobacco in my mouth to prevent
hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavored to place
myself so that if I should sleep I might not fall. And having cut mea short
stick, like a truncheon, for my defense, I took up my lodging; and being

































“ SHOES THAT WFPF NOT FELLOWS ”
A VISIT TO THE WRECK. , 49

excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I believe,
few could have done in my condition, and found myself more refreshed
with it than I. think I ever was on such an occasion.

When I waked it was broad day,the weather clear,and the storm abated,
so that the sea did not rage and swellas before: but that which surprised me
most was, that the ship was lifted off in the night from the sand where she
lay, by the swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock
which I at first mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the wave dash-
ing me against it. This being within about a mile from the shore where I
was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished myself on board,
that at least I might save some necessary things for my use.

When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked about me
again, and the first thing I found was the boat, which lay, as the wind and
sea had tossed her up, upon the land, about two miles on my right hand. I
walked as far as I could upon the shore to have got to her, but found a
neck, or inlet, of water between me and the boat, which was about half
a mile broad, sol came back for the present, being more intent upon
getting at the ship, where I hoped to find something’ for my present sub-
sistence.

A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed so far
out, that I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship. And here I
found a fresh renewing of my grief; for I saw evidently that if we had kept
on board, we had been all safe; that is to say, we had all yo. safe on shore,
and I had not been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all com-
fort and company, as I now was. This forced tears to my eyes again, but
as there was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship;
so I pulled off my clothes, for the weather was hot to extremity, and took
the water. But when I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to
know how to get on board; for, as she lay aground, and high out of the
water, there was nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round
her twice, and the second time I espied a small piece of rope, which I
wondered I did not see at first, hanging down by the fore-chains so low
that, with great difficulty, I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope got
up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that the ship was bulged,
and had a great deal of water in her hold; but that she lay so on the side
of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern lay lifted up upon
the bank, and her head low, almost to the water. By this means all her
quarter was free, and all that was in that part was dry; for you may be sure
my first work was to search, and to see what was spoiled and what was
free. And, first, I found that all the ship’s provisions were dry and
untouched by the water, and being very well disposed to eat, I went
to the bread-room, and filled my pockets with biscuit, and ate it as I went
about other things, for I had no time to lose. I also found some rum in
the erat cabin, of which I took a large dram, and which I had, indeed,
50 ROBINSON CRUSOE.












~~ feed enough of to spirit me for
~~ what was before me. Now I
_ wanted nothing but a boat, to
_-.: furnish myself with many things
~~~ which I foresaw would be very
necessary to me.

It was in vain to sit still and
wish for what was hot to be had;
and this extremity roused my ap-
=~plication. We had several spare yards,
-. _ and two or three large spars of wood, and

a sparé topmast or two in the ship. I
resolved to fall to work with these, and
I flung as many of them overboard as J
could manage for their weight, tying every
one with a rope, that they might not drive
away. When this was done I went down

“| FELL FAST ASLEFP ” (/. 49). the ship’s side, and pulling them to me I

tied four of them together at both ends,

as well as I could, in the form of a raft,

and layitig two or three short pieces of
plank upon theth, crossways, I found I could walk upon it very well, but
that it was not able to bear any great weight, the pieces being too light
So I went to work, and with the carpentet’s saw I cut a spare topmast into
three lengths, and added them to my raft, with a great deal of labor and
pains. But the hope of furnishing myself with necessaries encouraged me
to go beyond what I should have been able to have done upon another
occasion.

My ratt was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight. My next
LOADING THE RAFT, 51

care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what I laid upon it from
ihe surf of the sea; but I was not long considering this I first laid all the
planks or boards upon it that I could get, and having considered well what
i most wanted, I first got three of the seamen’s chests, which I had broken
open and emptied, and lowered them down upon my raft; the first of these
I filled with provisions—viz., bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces
of dried goat’s flesh (which we lived much upon), and a little remainder
of European corn, which had been laid by for some fowls which we brought
to sea with us, but the fowls were killed. There had been some barley and
wheat together; but, to my great disappointment, I found afterwards that
the rats had eaten or spoiled it all, As for liquors, J found several cases
of bottles belonging to our skipper, in which were some cordial waters,
and, in all, about five or six gallons of arrack. These I stowed by them-
selves, there being no need to put them into the chest, nor any room for
them. While I was doing this, I found the tide began to flow, though very
calm, and I had the mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which
I had left on shore upon the sand, swim away. As for my breeches, which
were only linen, and open-kneed, I swam on board in them and my stock-
ings, However, this put me upon rummaging for clothes, of which I found
enough, but took no more than I wanted for present use, for I had other
things which my eye was more upon; as, first, tools to work with on shore;
and it was after long searching that I found out the carpenter’s chest, which
was indeed a very useful prize to me, and much more valuable than a ship-
lading of gold would have been at that time. I got it down to my raft,
whole as it was, without losing time to look into it, for I knew in general
what it contained.

My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were two
very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin and two pistols. TheseI secured
first, with some powder-horns,a small bag of shot, and two old rusty
swords. I knew there were three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew
not where our gunner had stowed them; but with much search I found
them two of them dry and good, the third had taken water. Those two I
got to my raft with the arms, And now] thought myself pretty well
freighted, and began to think how I should get to shore with them, having
neither sail, ore, nor rudder, and the least capful of wind would have over-
set all my navigation.

I had three encouragements: first, a smooth, calm sea; secondly, the
tide rising and setting into the shore; thirdly, what little wind there was
blew me towards the land. And thus, having found two or three broken
oars, belonging to the boat, and besides the tools which were in the chest,
two saws, anaxe, and a hammer, with this cargo I putto sea. Fora mile,
or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that I found it drive a little
distant from the place where I had landed before, by which I perceived
that there was some indraught of the water, and consequently, I hoped to
52 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

‘find some creek or river there, which I might make use of asa port to get
to land with my cargo.

As I imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a little opening of
the land. I found a strong current of the tide set into it; so I guided my
raft as well as I could, to keep in the middle of the stream.

But here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if I had,
I think verily would have broken my heart, for, knowing nothing of the
coast, my raft ran aground at one end of it upona shoal, and not being
aground at the other end, it wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped
off towards the end that was afloat, and so fallen into the water. I did
my utmost, by setting my back against the chests, to keep them in their
places, but could not thrust off the raft with all my strength; neither durst
I stir from the posture I was in; but holding up the chests with all my
might, I stood in that manner near half an hour, in which time the rising of
the water brought me a little more upon a level; and a little after, the water
still rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off with the oar I had into
the channel, and then driving up higher, I at length found myself in the
mouth of a little river, with land on both sides, and a strong current or tide
running up. I looked on both sides for a proper place to get to shore, for
t was not willing to be driven too high up the river; hoping in time to see
some ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place myself as near the coast
as I could.

At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek, to which,
with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last got so near, that
reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust her directly in. But here I
had like to have dipped all my cargo into the sea again; for that shore lying
pretty steep—that is to say, sloping—there was no place to land but where
one end of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie so high, and the other sink
lower as before, that it would endanger my cargo again. All that I could
do was to wait till the tide was at the highest, keeping the raft with my oar
like an anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of
ground, which I expected the water would flow over, and so it did. As
soon as I found water enough, for my raft drew about a foot of water, I
thrust her upon that flat piece of ground, and there fastened or moored her,
by sticking my two broken oars into the ground—one on one side near one
end, and one on the other side near the other end; and thus J lay till the
water ebbed away and left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore. :

My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper place for my
habitation, and where to stow my goods, to secure them from whatever
might happen. Where I was, I yet knew not; whether on the continent or
an island; whether inhabited or not inhabited; whether in danger of wild
beast or not. There was a hill not above a mile from me, which rose up
very steep and high, and which seemed to overtop some other hills, which
lay as in a ridge from it, northward. 1 took out one of the fowling-pieces,
A SECOND CARGO. Be

and one of the pistols, and ahorn of powder; and thus armed, I traveled for
discovery up to the top of that hill, where, after I had with great labor and
difficulty got to the top, I saw my fate, to my great affliction—viz., that 1
was in an island environed every way with the sea: no land to be seen
except some rocks, which lay a great way off, and two small islands, less
than this, which lay about three leagues to the west. *

I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw good
reason to believe, uninhabited, except by wild beasts, of which, however, I
saw none. YetI saw abundance of fowls, but knew not their kinds; neither,
when J killed them, could I tell what was fit for food,and what not. At my
coming back, I shot at a great bird, which I saw sitting upon a tree, on the
side of a great wood. I believe it was the first gun that had been fired there
since the creation of the world. I had no sooner fired but from all parts of
the wood there arose an innumerable number of fowls of many sorts, mak-
ing a confused screaming and crying, every one according to his usual note,
but not one of them of any kind that I knew. As for the creature I killed,
I took it to be a kind of hawk, its color and beak resembling it, but it had
no talons or claws more than common. Its flesh was carrion, and fit for
nothing.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and fell to work

to bring my cargo onshore, which took me up the rest of the day; what to
do with myself at night I knew not, nor indeed where to rest, for 1 was
afraid to lie down on the ground, not knowing but some wild beast might
devour me; though, as I afterwards found, there was really no need for those
fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round with the chests
and boards that I had brought on shore, and made a kind of hut for that
night’s lodging. As for food, I yet saw not which way to supply myself,
except that I had seen two or three creatures, like hares, run out of the wood
where I shot the fowl.

I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many things out of
the ship which would be useful to me, and particularly some of the rigging
and sails, and such other things as might come to land; and I resolved to
make another voyage on board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that
the first storm that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I resolved
to set all other things apart, till I got everything out of the ship that I could
get. Then I called a council—that is to say, in my thoughts—whether I
should take back the raft, but this appeared impracticable; so I resolved to
go as before, when the tide was down, and I did so, only that I stripped
before I went from my hut, having nothing on but a checkered shirt, a pair
of linen drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.

I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft; and, hav-
ing had experience of the first, I neither made this so unwieldy, nor loaded
it so hard, but yet I brought away several things very useful to me; as, first,
54 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

-in the carpenter’s stores I found two or three bags full of nails and spikes,
a great screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and, above all, that most
useful thing called a grindstone. All these I secured, together with several
things belonging to the gunner, particularly two or three iron crows, and
two barrels of musket bullets, seven muskets, and another fowling-piece,
with some small quantity of powder more, a large bag full of sniall shot,
and a great roll of sheet,lead; but this last was so heavy I could not hoist
it up to get it over the ship’s side.

Besides these things, I took all the men’s clothes that I could find, and
a spare foretopsail, a hatnmock, and some bedding; and with this I loaded
my second raft, and brought them all safe on shore, to my very great
comfort.

I was under some apprehension during my absence from the land, that
at least my provisions might be devoured on shore; but when I came back
I found no sign of any visitor; only there sat a creature like a wild cat upon
one of the chests, which, when I came towards it, ran away a little distance,
and then stood still. She sat very composed and unconcerned, and looked
full in my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with me. I presented
my gun to her, but, as she did not understand it, she was perfectly uncon-
cerned at it, nor did she offer to stir away, upon which I tossed her a bit of
biscuit, though, by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store was not
great; however, I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled at it,
and ate it, and looked (as pleased) for more; but I thanked her, and could
spare no more, so she marched off.

Having got my second cargo on shore—though I was obliged to open
the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for they were too heavy,
being large casks—I went to work to make me a little tent, with the sail
and some poles which I cut for that purpose; and into this tent I brought
everything that I knew would spoil either with rain or sun; and I piled all
_ the empty chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from
any sudden attempt, either from man or beast.

When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with some
boards within, and an empty chest set up on end without; ard spreading
one of the beds upon the ground, laying my two pistols just at my head,
and my gun at length by me, I went to bed for the first time, and slept very
quietly all night. I was very weary and heavy, for the night before I had
slept little, and had labored very hard all day, as well to fetch those things
from the ship as to get them on shore.

I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid up, I
believe, for one man; but still I: was not satisfied, for. while the ship sat
upright in that posture, I thought I ought to get everything out of her that
I could; so every day, at low water, I went on board, and brought away
something or other; but particularly the third time I went, I brought away
as much of the rigging as I could, as also all the stall ropes aud rope twine
THE LAST OF THE SHIP.

I could get,

with a piece of BN
spare canvas, toy
which was to wf

mend the sails
upon occasion,
and the barrel of wet gunpowder.
In a word, I brought away all the
sails, first and last; only that | was
fain to cut them in pieces, and
bring as much atatimeas I could,
for they were no more useful ta
me, for sails, but as mere canvas
only.

‘But that which comforted me
more still was that at last of all,
after I had made five or six such
voyages as these, and thought I
bad nothing more to expect from
the ship that was worth my med-
dling with—I say, after all this, I
found a great '
hogshead of
bread, three
large runlets
of rum, or spir-
its, a box of
fine sugar, and
a barrel of fine
flour; this was
surprising to
me, because I
had given over
expecting any
more provis-
ions except
what was
spoiled by the
water. I soon
emptied the
hogshead of
the bread, and
‘wrapped it up,
parcel by par




















A



|
i

if

S
ee



'

55










oF:

4

Iu Nits yh
if

“A CONFUSED SCREAMING ANL

CRVING " (2. 58),
56 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

cel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut out; and, in a word, I got all this safe
on shore also, though at several times.

The next day I made another voyage, and now, having plundered the
ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I began with the cable. Cut-
ting the great cable into pieces such as I could move, I got two cables and
‘a hawser on shore, with all the iron-work I could get, and having cut down
the spritsail yard, and the mizzen yard, and everything I could to make a
large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods and came away. But
my good luck began to leave me, for this raft was so unwieldy, and so over-
laden, that after I was entered the little cove, where I had landed the rest
of my goods, not being able to guide it so handily as I. did the other, it
overset, and threw me and all my cargo into the water. As for myself, it
was no great harm, for I was near the shore; but as to my cargo, it was
great part of it lost, especially the iron, which I expected would have been
of great use to me; however, when the tide was out, I got most of the pieces
of cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with infinite labor, for I was
fain to dip for it into the water, a-work which fatigued me very much.
After this, I went every day on board, and brought away what I could get.

I had now been thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven times on
board the ship, in which time I had brought away all that one pair of hands
could well be supposed capable of bringing; though I verily believe, had the
calm weather held, I should have brought away the whole ship, piece by piece;
but preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind began to
rise. However, at low water I went on board, and though I thought I had
rummaged the cabin so effectually that nothing more could be found, yet
I discovered a locker with drawers in it, in one of which I found two or
three razors, and one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of
good knives and forks; in another I found about thirty-six pounds value in
money—some European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold,
and some silver.

I smiled to myself at thesight of this méney. “Oh, drug!” said I aloud,
“what art thou good for? Thou art not worth to me—no, not the taking off
the ground; one of those knives is worth all this heap; I have no manner
of use for thee; e’en remain where thou art, and go to the bottom, asa
creature whose life is not worth saving.” However, upon second thoughts,
I took it away; and wrapping all ina piece of canvas, I began to think of
making another raft, but while I was preparing this I found the sky over-
cast, and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blewa fresh
gale from the shore. It presently occurred to me that it was in vain to pre-
tend to make a raft with the wind off shore, and that it was my business to
be gone before the tide of flood began, otherwise I might not be able to
reach the shore at all. Accordingly, I let myself down into the water, and
swam across the channel which lay between the ship and the sands, and
even that with difficulty enough, partly with the weight of the things I had
I PITCH MY TENT. 57

about me, and partly from the roughness of the water; for the wind rose
very hastily, and before it was quite high water it blew a storm.

But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I lay, with all my wealth
about me very secure. It blewvery hard all that night, and in the morning,
when I looked, out, behold, no more ship was to be seen. I wasa little
surprised, but recovered myself with this satisfactory reflection, that I had
lost no time, nor abated any diligence, to get everything out of her that
could be useful to me; and that, indeed, there was little left in her that I
was able to bring away, if I had had more time.

I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of anything out of her,
except what might drive on shore from her wreck, as, indeed, divers pieces
of her afterwards did; but those things were of small use to me,

My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself against
either savages, if any should appear, or wild beasts, if any were in this land;
and I had many thoughts of the method how to do this, and what kind of
dwelling to make—whether I should make me a cave in the earth, or a tent
upon the earth; and, in short, I resolved upon both; the manner and descrip-
tion of which it may not be improper to give an account of.

I soon found the place I was in was not fit for my settlement, particularly
because it was upona low moorish ground near the sea, and I believed
would not be wholesome, and more particularly because there was no fresh
water near it; so I resolved to finda more healthy and more convenient spot
of ground.

I consulted several things in my situation, which I found would be proper
for me; first, health and fresh water, I just now mentioned; secondly, shelter
from the heat of the sun; thirdly, security from ravenous creatures, whether
man or beast; fourthly, a view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight,
I might not lose any advantage for my deliverance, of which I was not willing
to banish my expectation yet.

In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on the side of
a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was steep as a house-side,
so that nothing could come downupon me from the top. On the side of the
rock there was a hollow place, worn a little way in, like the entrance or door
of a cave; but there was not really any cave, or way into the rock, at all.

On the flat of the green, just below this hollow place, I resolved to pitch
my tent. This plain was not above a hundred yards broad, and about twice
as long, and lay like a green before my door; and, at the end of it, descended
irregularly every way down into the low ground by the sea-side. It was on
the N.N.W. side of the hill,so that it was sheltered from the heat every
day, till it came to the W. and by S. sun or thereabouts, which, in aoe
countries, is near the setting.

Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the hollow place,
which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter from the rock, and
twenty yards in its diameter from its beginning and ending.
58 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving them into
the ground till they stood very firm like piles, the biggest end being out of
the ground above five feet and a half, and sharpened on the tap. The two
rows did not stand above six inches from one another, ~

Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship, and laid
them in rows, upon one another, within the circle, between these two rows
of stakes, up to the top, placing other stakes in the inside, leaning against
them, about two feet anda half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence
was so strong that neither man nor beast could get into it or over it, This
cost me a great deal of time and labor, especially to cut the piles in the
woods, bring them to the place, and drive them into the earth.

The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but by a short
ladder to go over the top, which ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after
me; and so I was completely fenced in and. fortified, as ] thought, from all
the world, and consequently slept secure in the night, which otherwise I
could not haye done; though, as it appeared afterwards, there was no need
of all this caution from the enemies that I apprehended danger from.

Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labor, I carried all my riches, all
my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you have the account
above; and I made mea large tent also, to preserve me from the rains, that
in one part of the year are very violent there. J made it double—viz., one
smaller tent within, and one larger tent above it; and covered the upper-
most part of it with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among the sails.

And now I lay no more for awhile in the bed which I had brought on
shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very good one, and belonged
to the mate of the ship.

Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that would
spoil by the wet, and having thus inclosed all my goods, I made up the
entrance, which till now I had left open, and so passed and re-passed, as I
said, by a short ladder,

When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock, and bring-
ing all-the earth and stones that I dug down out through my tent, I laid
them up within my fence, in the nature of a terrace, so that it raised the
ground within about a foot and a half; and thus I made me a cave, just
behind my tent, which served me like a cellar to my house.

It cost me much labor and many days before all these things were
brought to perfection, and therefore I must go back to some other things
which took up some of my thoughts, At the same time it occurred, after I
had laid my scheme for the setting up the tent, and making the cave, that a
storm of rain falling from a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning
happened, and after that, a great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect
of it. I was not so much surprised with the lightning, as J was with the
thought which darted into my mind as swift as the lightning itself, “Oh, my
powder!’ My very heart sank within me when I thought that, at one blast,
1 KILL A GOAT, d8

all ny powder might be destroyed, on which not my defense only, but the
providing me food, as I thought, entirely depended. I was nothing near so
anxious about my own danger, though, had the powder took fire, I had
never known who had hurt me. ;

Such impression did this make upon mie, that after the storm was over,
I laid aside all my work, my building and fortifying, and applied myself to
make bags atid boxes to separate my powder, and to keep it a little and a
little in a patcel, in hopes that, whatever might come, it might not all take
fire at once; and to keep it. so apart that it should not be possible to make
sve part fire another. I finished this work in about a fortnight; and I think
my powder, which in all was about one hundred and forty pounds weight,
was divided itito no less than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel that had
been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from that; so I placed it in my
new cane, which, in my fancy, I called my kitchen; and the rest I hid up
and down ih holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, mark-
ing very carefully where I laid it,

In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out at least once
every day with my gun, as well to divert myself as to see if I could kill any-
thing fit for food, atid, as near as I could, to acquaint myself with what the
island produced. The first time I went out, I presently discovered that
there were goats in the island, which was a great satisfaction to me; but
then it was attended with this misfortune to me, viz., that they were so shy,
so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the most difficult thing in the world
to come at them; but I was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I
might now and then shoot one, as it soon happened; for after I had found
their haunts a little, I laid wait in this manner for them: I observed if they
saw me in the valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would run
away, as in a terrible fright; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and I
was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence I concluded
that, by the position of their optics, their sight was so directed downward
that they did not readily see objects that were above them; so afterwards I
took this method—I always climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and
then had frequently a fair mark.

The first shot I made among these creattres, I killed a she-goat, which
had a little kid by her, which she gave suck to, which grieved me heartily;
for, when the old one fell, the kid stood stock-still by her, till I came and
took het up; and not only so, but when I carried the old one with me upon
my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my inclosure; upon which I
laid down the dam, and took the kid iii my arms, and carried it over my
pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame, but it would not eat; so I was forced
to kill it and eat it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great while,
for l ate sparingly and saved my provisions, my bread especially, as much -
as I possibly could.

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary to pro-
60 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

vide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn; and what I did for that, as
also how IJ enlarged my cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall givea
full account of in its place; but J must now give some little account of my-
self, and of my thoughts about living,
which, it may well be supposed, were
not a few.

I had a dismal prospect of my con-
dition, for as I was not cast away upon
that island without being driven, as is
said, by a violent storm quite out of
the course of our intended voyage, and
a great way, viz, some hundreds of
leagues, out of the ordinary course of
the trade of mankind, I had great rea-
son to consider it as a determination
of Heaven that in this desolate place
and in this desolate manner, I should
end my life. Thetears would run plen-
tifully down my face when I made these
reflections; and sometimes I would ex-
postulate with myself why Pro-
vidence should thus completely *
ruin its creatures, and render
them so absolutely miserable,
so without help abandoned, and so en-
tirely depressed, that it could hardly
be rational to be thankful for such a life.

But something always returned swift
upon me to check these thoughts, and



















; HK
‘ { ! f nh

Sy

hy

Wy Nh
ONY










to reprove me; and particularly one day Sy } <—, a Nn
walking with my gun in my hand by 2 KN





is id

the sea-side, I was very pensive upon {
the subject of my present condition,

when Reason, as it were, put in expos- NUR gag Feit Ny DN
tulating with me the other way, thus: Uy lH Sy ys |
“Well, you are in a desolate condition, eer

it is true; but, pray remember, where “THE KID FOLLOWED ME” (#. 59).
are the rest of you? Did not youcome

eleven of you into the boat? Where

are the ten? Why were not they saved,

and you lost? Why are you singled out? Is it better to be here or there?”
And then I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be considered with the good
that is in them and with what worse attended them.

Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished for my subsist-

WA
Ce
e



Kf



A HOME MADE CALENDAR. 61]

ence, and what would have been my case if it had not happened ( which was
a hundred thousand to one) that the ship floated from the place where first
she struck, and was driven so near to the shore that I had time to get all
these things out of her? What would have been my case, if I had been
forced to have lived in the condition in which I at first came onshore, with-
out necessaries of life, or any means to supply and procure them? “ Par-
ticularly,” said J aloud (though to myself), “ what should I have done with-
out a gun, without ammunition, without any tools to make anything, or to
work with? without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any manner of coverings?”
and that now I had all these to a sufficient quantity, and was ina fair way
to provide myself in such a manner as to live without my gun, when my
ammunition was spent; so that I had a tolerable view of subsisting without
any want as long as I lived; for I considered from the beginning how I
would provide for the accidents that might happen, and for the time that
was to come, even not only after my ammunition should be spent, but even
after my health and strength should decay.

_ I confess I had not then entertained any notion of myammunition being
destroyed at one blast—I mean my powder being blown up by lightning;
andthis made the thoughts of it surprising to me, when it lightened and
thundered, as I observed just now.

And now, being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene of silent
life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world before, I shall take it
from its beginning, and continue it in its order. It was, by my account, the
30th of September when, in the manner as above said, I first set foot upon
this horrid island; when the sun being to us in its autumnal equinox, was
almost just over my head, for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in
the latitude of nine degrees twenty-two minutes north of the line.

After I had been there about ten or twelve days it came into my thoughts
that I should lose my reckoning of time for want of books and pen and ink,
and should even forget the Sabbath-day from the working days; but to pre-
vent this I cut it with my knife upon a large post, in capital letters, and
making it into a great cross I set it up on the shore where I first landed,
viz., ‘I came on shore here on the 30th of September, 1659.”

upon the sides of this square post Icut every day a notch with my knife and
‘ every seventh notch was as long againas the rest, and every first day of the
month as long again as that long one, and thus I kept my calendar, or
weekly, monthly and yearly reckoning of time.

In the next place we are to observe that among the many things which
I brought from the ship in the several voyages which, as above mentioned,
I made to it, I got several things of less value, but not at all less useful’ to
me, which I omitted setting down before; as, in particular, pens, ink and
paper, several parcels in the captain’s, mate’s, gunner’s and carpenter's keep-
ing, three or four compasses, some Premade instruments, dials, per-
spectives, charts, and books ot navigation, all which I huddled together,
62 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

whether I might want them or no; also I found three very good Bibles,
which came to. me in my cargo from England and which I had packed up
among my things; some Portuguese books also, and, among them, two
or three Popish prayer-books, and several other books, all which I carefully
secured. And I must not forget that we had in the ship a dog and two cats
of whose eminent history I must have occasion to say something in its place,
' for I carried both the cats with me, and as for the dog, he jumped out of
the ship of himself, and swam on shore to me the day after I went on
shore with my first cargo, and was a trusty servant to me many years, I
wanted nothing that he could fetch me, nor any company that he could
make up tome. Ionly wanted to have him talk to me, but that he could
not do. AsI observed before, I found pens, ink and paper, and I husbanded
them to the utmost, and I shall show that while my ink lasted I kept things
very exact; but after that was gone I could not, for I.could not make any
ink by any means that I could devise.

And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwithstanding all
that I had amassed together; and of these, ink was one, as also a spade, pick-
axe and shovel to dig or remove the earth, needles, pins and thread; as for
linen, I soon learned to want that without much difficulty.

This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily; and it was near
a whole year before I had entirely finished my little pale, or surrounding
habitation. The piles or stakes, which were as heavy as I could well lift,
were along time in cutting and preparing inthe woods, and more, by far, in
bringing home, so that I spent sometimes two days in cutting and bringing
home one of those posts, and a third day in driving it into the ground, for
which purpose I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last bethought myself
of one of the iron crows, which, however, though I found it, yet made driving
those posts or piles very laborious and tedious work, But what need I
have beenconcerned at the tediousness of anything I had to do, seeing I
had time enough to do it in? nor had I any other employment, if that had
been over, at least that I could foresee, except the ranging the island to
seek for food, which I did, more or less every day.

I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the circumstances
I was reduced to, and I drew up the state of my affairs in writing, not so
much to leave them to any that were to come after me, for I was like to -
have but few heirs, as to deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon them,
and afflicting my mind; and as my reason began now to master my despon-
dency, I began to comfort myself as well as I could, and to set the good
against the evil, that I might have something to distinguish my case from
worse, and I stated it very impartially, like debtor and creditor, the com-
fort I enjoyed against the miseries I suffered, thus:
THE EVIL—THE GOOD. 63

EVIL. GOOD.

Iam cast upon a horrible, desolate But I am alive; and not drowned, as all my
island; void of ali hope of recovery. ‘ship's company was,

Iam singled out and separated, as But I am singled out, too, from all the ship's
it were, from all the world, to be mis- crew, to be spared from death; and He that mirac-
erable. _ ulously saved mié from death can deliver me from

this condition,

Tam divided from mankind, a soli- But I am not starved, and perishing on a bar-
tary;one banished from human society. ren place, affording no sustenance.

I have no Clothes to cover me. But I am ina hot climate, where if I had clothes,

I could hardly wear them.
Iam without any defense, or means But Iam cast on an island where I see no wild

to resist any violence of man or beast. beasts to hurt me, as I saw on the coast of Africa;
: and what if I had been shipwrecked there?
I have no soul to speak to or relieve But God wonderfully sent the ship in near
me. enough to the shore, that I have got out so many
necessary things as will either supply my wants
or enable me to supply myself, even as long as I
live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony that there was scarce
any condition in the world so miserable but there was something negative,
or something positive to be thankful for in it; and let this stand as a dircc-
tion, from the experience of the most miserable of all conditions in this
world—that we may always find in it something to comfort ourselves from,
and to set, in the description of good and evil, on the credit side of the
account.

Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition, and giving
over looking out to sea if I could spy a ship—I say, giving over these things,
I began to apply myself to accommodate my way of living, and to make
things as easy to me as I could.

I have already described my habitation, which was a tent under the side
of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts and cables; but I might
now tather call it a wall, for I raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs,
about two feet thick, on the outside; and after some time (I think it was a
year and a half) I raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched
or covered it with boughs of trees, and such things as J could get to keep
out the rain, which I found at some times of the year very violent.

I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this pale, and
into the cave which I had made behind me. But I must observe, too, that
at first this was a confused heap of goods, which, as they lay in no order,
so they took up all my place. Ihad no room to turn myself, so I set
myself to enlarge my cave, and worked farther into the earth, for it was a
loose, sandy rock, which yielded easily to the labor I bestowed on it, and
so when I found I was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways,
to the right hand, into the rock, and then turning to the right again worked
quite out, and made me a door to come out on the outside of my pale or
fortification.
64 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

This gave me not only egress and regress, as it was a back way to my
tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room to stow my goods.

And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary things as I
found I most wanted, particularly a chair anda table, for without these I
was not able to enjoy the few comforts I had in the world. I could not
write, or eat, or do several things with so much pleasure without a table.

So I went to work, and here I must needs observe that as reason is the
substance and original of the mathematics, so by stating and squaring



andy nd

“Ni Pi ie












, i ; Whe
il au Ms





| i
A

TN













“I WANTED NOTHING THAT HE COULD FETCH ME” (2. 62).

everything by reason, and by making the most rational judgment of things,
every man may be, in time, master of every mechanic art. I had never
handled a tool in my life, and yet, in time, by labor, application and con-
trivance, I found, at last, that I wanted nothing but I could have made it,
especially if I had had tools. However, I made abundance of things, even
without tools; and some with no more tools than an adze anda hatchet,
which, perhaps, were never made that way before, and that with infinite
labor. For example, if I wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut
down a tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either side with
I BEGIN MY JOURNAL. | 65

my axe till I had brought it to be as thin as a plank and then dub it smocth
with my adze. It is true, by this method I could make but one board out of
awhole tree, but this I had no remedy for but patience, any more than I
had for the prodigious deal of time and labor which it took me up to make
a plank or board, but my time or labor was little worth, and so it was as wel!
employed one way as another.

However, I made mea table and a chair, as I observed above, in the first
place, and this I did out of the short pieces of boards that I brought on my
raft from the ship. But when I had wrought out some boards as above |]
made large shelves of the breadth of a foot and a half, one over another,
all along one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails and iron-work on;
and, in a word, to separate everything at large into their places that I
might come easily at them; also I knocked pieces into. the wall of the rock
to hang my guns and all things that would hang up, so that had my cave
been to be seen, it looked like a general magazine of all necessary things,
and J had everything so ready at my hand that it was a great pleasure to
me to see all my goods in such order, and especially to find my stock of
all necessaries so great.

And now it was when I began to’ keep a journal of every day’s employ-
ment, for, indeed, at first I was in too much hurry, and not only a hurry cc
to labor, but in too much discomposure of mind, and my journal would
have been full of many dull things; for example, I must have said thus:
“ Sept. the 30th.—After I had got to shore, and had escaped drowning,
instead of being thankful to God for my deliverance, having first vomited,
with the great quantity of salt water which was gotten into my stomach,
and recovering myself a little, 1 ran about the shore wringing my hands
and beating my head and face, exclaiming at my misery, and crying out I
was undone, undone! till, tired and faint, I was forced to lie down on the
ground to repose, but durst not sleep, for fear of being devoured.”

Some days after this,and after I had been on board the ship, and had
got all I could out of her, yet I could not forbear getting up to the top ofa
little mountain, and looking out to sea,in hopes of seeing a ship; then
fancy at a vast distance I espied a sail, please myszlf with the hopes of it,
and then, after looking steadily till I was almost blind, lose it quite, and sit
down and weep like a child, and thus increase my misery by my folly.

But having gotten over these things in some measure, and having settled
my household stuff and habitation, made me a table and a chair, and all as
handsome about me as IJ could, I began,I say, to keep my Journal, of which
I shall here give you the copy (though in it will be told all these particulars
over again), as long as it lasted, for at last, having no more ink, I was
forced to leave off.

THE JOURNAL,

September 30, 1659.—I. poor miserable Robinson Crusoe, being ship.
5
66 ROBINSON CRUSOE.,

wrecked, during a dreadful storm, in the offing, came on shore on this dis-
mal, unfortunate island, which I called “The Island of Despair;” all the rest
of the ship’s company being drowned, and myself almost dead.

All the rest of the day IJ spent in afflicting myself at the dismal circum-
stances I was brought to, viz., I had neither food, house, clothes, weapon,
nor place to fly to; and, in despair of any relief, saw nothing but death
before me; either that I should be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by
savages, or starved to death for want of food. At the approach of night I
slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures; but slept soundly, though it rained
all night. :

October 1.—In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the ship had
floated with the high tide, and was driven on shore again, much nearer the
island; which, as it was some comfort, on one hand (for seeing her sit
upright, and not breken to pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I might get
on board, and get some food and necessaries out of her for my relief), so,
on the other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades, who, J]
imagined, if we had all stayed on board, might have saved the ship, or at
least, that they would not have been all drowned, as they were; and that,
had the men been saved, we might perhaps have built us a boat out of the
ruins of the ship to have carried us to some other part of the world, I
spent great part of this day in perplexing myself on these things; but at
length, seeing the ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as nearas I could,
and then swam on board. This day also it continued raining, though with
no wind at all.

From the ist of October to the 24th.—All these days entirely spent in many
several voyages to get all I could out of the ship, which I brought on shore,
every tide of flood, uponrafts. Much rain also, in these days, though with
some intervals of fair weather; but it seems this was the rainy season.

Oct. 24.—I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got upon it, but
being in shoal-water, and the things being chiefly heavy, I recovered many
of them when the tide was out.

Oct. 25.—It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of wind; during
which time the ship broke in pieces, the wind blowing a little harder than
before, and was no more to be seen, except the wreck of her, and that
only at low water. I spent this day in covering and securing the goods
which I saved, that the rain might not spoil them.

Oct. 26.—I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out a place to
fix my habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself from any attack in
the night, either from wild beasts or men. Towards night I fixed upon a
proper place, under a rock, and marked out a semi-circle for my encamp-
meit, which I resolved to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification,
made of double piles, lined within with cables, and without with turf.

From the 26th to the 30th, I worked very hard in carrying all my goods
MY JOURNAL. 67

tomy new habitation, though some part of the time it- rained exceeding
hard.

The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with my gun, to seek
for some food, and discover the country; when I killed a she-goat, and her
kid followed me home, which I afterwards killed also, because it would not
feed. ;

November 1.—I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there for the first
night; making it as large as I could, with stakes driven in to swing my ham-
mock upon. ‘

Nov. 2.—I set up all my chests and boards and the pieces of timber which
made my rafts, and with them formed a fence round me, alittle within the
place I had marked out for my fortification.

Nov. 3.—I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like ducks, which
were very good food. Inthe afternoon went to work to make mea table.

Nov. 4.—This morning I began to order my times of work, of going out
with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion: viz. every morning I
walked out with my gun for two or three hours, if it did not rain; then
employed myself to work till about eleven o’clock; then ate what I had to
live on; and from twelve to two I lay down to sleep, the weather being
excessive hot; and then, in the evening, to work again. The working part
of this day and the next were wholly employed in making this table, for I
was yet but a very sorry workman, though time and necessity made mea
com-lete natural mechanic soon after, as I believe they would do any one
else.

Nov. 5.—This day I went abroad with my gun and my dog, and killed a
wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for nothing. Every crea-
ture I killed, I took off the skins and preserved them. Coming back by the
sea-shore, I saw many sorts of sea-fowls, which I did not understand; but
was surprised, and almost frighted, with two or three seals, which, while I
Was gazing at, not well knowing what they were, got into the sea, and
escaped me for that time.

Nov. 6.—After my morning walk, I went to work with my table again,
and finished it, though not to my liking; nor was it long before I learned to
mend it.

Nov. 7.—Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th, 8th, oth, roth,
and part of the 12th (for the 11th was Sunday according to my reckoning),
I took wholly up to make me a chair, and with much ado brought it toa
tolerable shape, but never to please me; and even in the making I pulled it
to pieces several times.

Note.—I soon neglected keeping Sundays; for, omitting my mark fer
them on my post, I forgot which was which.

Nov.13.—This day it rained, which refreshed me exceedingly, and
cooled the earth; but it was accompanied with terrible thunder and light-
ning, which frighted me dreadfully for fear of my powder. As soon as it
68 ROBINSON

was over, I resolved to separate
my stock of powder into as
many little parcels as possible,
that it might not be in danger.
Nov. 14, 15, 16.—These three
days I spent in making little

RN a

yi












SS
I a fae
ANH [| it
A i) yl ve
Sau
ye in ee aN

m=
= Ser
Ss
oe
=

“THEY ALL FACED ABOUT UPON
THE DOG” (f/. 71).

made use of the iron crows, which
were proper enough, though heavy;
but the next thing was a shovel or
spade; this was so absolutely neces-
sary that indeed I could do nothing
effectually without it; but what kind
of one to make I as not.

Nov, 18.—The next day, in search-
ing the woods, I found a tree of that
wood, or like it, which in the Brazils
they call the iron-tree. for its exceed-





CRUSOE,

square chests, or
boxes, which
might hold about

a pound, or two
pounds at most, of
powder; and so,
putting the pow-

der in, I stowed

it in places as secure
and remote from one
another as possible. On
one of these three days
I killed a large bird that
was good to eat, but I
knew not what to call it.
Nov. 17.—This day I
began to dig behind my tent
into the rock,.to make room
for my further conveniency.
Note—Three things I
wanted exceedingly for this
work: viz, a pickaxe, a
shovel, and a wheelbarrow,
or basket; so I desisted from
my work, and began to con-
sider how to supply that
want, and make me some
tools. As for the pickaxe, I




HN : 4 4 me
Ma Hs i hy)
a i

a i Gi kN! th Wh

Vv Mut
' Syl Hip eS
sivas Seat ae WEN?

“ay i,
MY DIARY CONTINUED. 63

ing hardness; of this, with great labor, and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a
piece, and brought it home, with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding
heavy. The excessive hardness of the wood, and having no other way, made
me a long while upon this machine, for I worked it effectually by little and
little into the form of a shovel or spade; the handle exactly shaped like
ours in England, only that the board part having no iron shod upon it at
bottom, it would not last me so long; however, it served well enough for
the uses which I had occasion to put it to; but never was a shovel, I
believe, made after that fashion, or so long making.

I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket, or a wheelbarrow. A basket
I could not make by any means,
having no such things as twigs
that would bend to make
wicker-ware—at least, none yet
found out; and as to the wheel-
barrow, I fancied I could make
all but the wheel; but that I
had no notion of; neither did
I know how to go about it ; be-
sides, I had no possible way
to make iron gudgeons for the
spindle or axis of the wheel to
run in; so I gave it over, and
so, for carrying away the earth
which I dug out of the cave, I
made me a thing like a hod,
which the laborers carry mortar
in when they serve the brick-
layers. This was not so diffi- “A KIND OF WILD PIGEONS” (2. 71).
cult to me as the making the
shovel; and yet this and the
shovel, and the attempt which I made in vain to make a wheelbarrow, took
me up no less than four days, I mean always excepting my morning’s walk
with my gun, which I seldom failed, and very seldom failed also of bringing
home something fit to eat.

Nov, 23.—My other work having stood still, because of my making these
tools, when they were finished I went on, and working every day, as my
strength and time allowed, I spent eighteen days entirely in widening and
deepening my cave, that it might hold my goods commodiously.

Note-—During all this time I worked to make this room, or cave,
spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse or magazine, a
kitchen, a dining-room, anda cellar. As fora lodging I kept to the tent ;
except that sometimes, in the wet season of the year, it rained so hard that
I could not keep myself dry, which caused me afterwards to cover all my


70 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

place within my pale with long poles, in the form of rafters, leaning
against the rock, and load them with flags and large leaves of trees, like a
thatch.

December 10.—1 began now to think my cave or vault finished, when on
a sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great quantity of earth fell
down from the top and one side; so much that, in short, it frighted me, and
not without reason, too; for if I had been under it, I had never wanted a
grave digger. Upon this disaster I had a great deal of work to do over
again, for I had the loose earth to carry out; and, which was of more
importance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that 1 might be sure no more
would come down.

Dec. 11.—This day I went to work with it accordingly, and got two
shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with two pieces of board across
over each post; this I finished the next day, and setting more posts up with
boards, in about a week more I had the roof secured; and the posts, stand-
ing in rows, served me for partitions to part off my house.

Dec. 17.—From this day to the 20th I placed shelves, and knocked up
nails on the posts to hang everything up that could be hung up; and now
I began to be in some order within doors. ;

ec. 20.—Now I carried everything into the cave, and began to furnish
my house, and set up some pieces of board like a dresser, to order my
victuals upon; but board began to be very scarce with me; also I made me
another table.

Dec, 24.—Much rain all night and all day; no stirring out.

Dec.25.—Rain all day.

Dec. 26.—No rain, and the earth much cooler than before, and pleasanter.

Dec. 27.—Killed a young goat, and lamed another so that I catched it,
and led it home in a string; when I had it at home, I bound and splintered
up its leg which was broke.

NV. B.—\ took such care of it that it lived, and the leg grew weil and as
strong as ever; but by nursing it so long it grew tame, and fed ‘upon the
little green at my door, and would not go away. This was the first time
that I entertained a thought of breeding up some tame creatures, that I
might have food when my powder and shot were all spent.

Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31.—Great heats, and no breeze, so that there was no
stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food; this time I spent in putting
all my things in order within doors.

January t.—Very hot still: but I went abroad early and late with my gun,
and lay still in the middle of the day. This evening, going farther into the
valleys which lay toward the center of the island, I found there was plenty
of goats, though exceedingly shy, and hard to come at; however, I resolved
to try if I could not bring my dog to hunt them down.

Jan. 2.—Accordingly, the next day I went out with my dog, and set him
HOUSEHOLD AFFAIRS, n

upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for they all faced about upon the dog,
and he knew his danger too well, for he would not come near them.

Jan. 3.—1 began my fence, or wall; which, being still jealous of my being
attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very thick and strong.

N. B.—This wall being described before, I purposely omit what was said
inthe Journal; it is sufficient to observe that I was no less time than from
the 3d of January to the 14th of April working, finishing and perfecting this
wall, though it was no more than about twenty-four yards in length, being
a half-circle, from one place in the rock to another place, about eight yards
from it, the door of the cave being in the center behind it.

All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me many days, nay,
sometimes weeks together; but I thought I should never be perfectly secure
till this wall was finished; and it is scarce credible what inexpressible labor
everything was done with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods,
and driving them into the ground; for I made them much bigger than I
needed to have done.

When this wall was finished, and the outside double-fenced, with a turf
wall raised up close to it, 1 persuaded myself that if any people were to
come on shore there, they woud not perceive anything like a habitation;
and it was very well I did sc, as may be observed hereafter, upon a very
remarkable occasion.

During this time I made rounds in the woods for game every day, when
tne rain permitted me, and made frequent discoveries in these walks of
something or other to my advantage; particularly I found a kind of wild
pigeons, which build, net as wood-pigeons ina tree, but rather as house-
pigeons, in the holes c’: the rocks; and taking some young ones I endeav-
ored to breed them up tame, and did so; but when they grew older they
flew all away, which perhaps was at first for want of feeding them, for I had
nothing to give them; however, I frequently found their nests and got their
young ones, which were very good meat.

And now, in the managing my household affairs, I found myself want-
ing in many things, which I thought at first it was impossible for me to
make; as, indeed, as to some of them it was; for instance, I could never
make a cask to be hooped. IJ had asmall runlet or two, as I observed
before, but I could never arrive to the capacity of making one by them,
though I spent many weeks about it; I could neither put in the heads, nor
join the staves so true to one another as to make them hold water, so I gave
that also over.

In the next place, I was at a great loss for candles, so that as soon as it
was dark, which was generally by seven o’clock, I was obliged to go to bed.
I remembered the lump of beeswax with which I made candles in my
African adventure, but I had none of that now; the only remedy I had was,
that when I had killed a goat Isaved the tallow, and with a little dish made of
clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum, J
72 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

made me a lamp; and this gave me light, though not a clear steady light like a
candle. In the middle of all my labors it happened that, rummaging my
things, I found a little bag which, as I hinted before, had been filled with
corn for the feeding of poultry—not for this voyage, but before, as I suppose,
when the ship came from Lisbon. What little remainder of corn had been in
the bag was all devoured by the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but
husks and dust; and being willing to have the bag for some other use (I
think it was to put powder in, when I divided it for fear of the lightning, or
syme such use), I shook the husks of corn out of it on one side of my for-
tification, under the rock.

It was a little before the great rains just now
mentioned that I threw this stuff away, taking no
notice of anything, and not so much as remem-
bering that I had thrown anything there, when,
about a month after or thereabouts, I saw some
few stalks of something green shooting upon the
ground, which I fancied might be some plant I
had not seen; but I was surprised and perfectly
astonished when, after a little longer
time, I saw about ten or twelve ears
come out which were perfectly green
barley, of the same kind as our
European—nay, as our E nelish
barley.












It is impossible
to express the aston-
ishment and confu-
sion of my thoughts
on this occasion; JI
had hitherto acted
upon no religious
foundation at all; in-
deed, I had very few
notions of religion in
my head, nor had en-
tertained any sense
of anything that had
befallen me, other-
wise than asa chance,
or, as we lightly say,
what pleases God,
without so much as
inquiring into the
“I WAS SURPRISED AND PERFECTLY ASTONISHED” end of Providence in
AN UNEXPECTED CROP. : %3

these things, or His order in governing events in the world. But after I
saw barley grow there in a climate which I knew was not proper for corn,
and especially that I knew not how it came there, it startled me strangely,
and I began to suggest that God had miraculously caused this grain to
grow without any help‘of seed sown, and'that it was so directed purely for
my sustenance in that wild, miserable place.

This touched my heart a
little, and brought tears out of
my eyes, and I began to bless
myself that such a prodigy of
Nature should happen upon my
account; and this was the more
strange to me because I saw
near it still, all along by the side
of the rock, some other strag-
gling stalks, which proved to be
stalks of rice, and which I knew,
because I had seen it grow in
Africa when I was ashore there.

I not only thought these the
pure productions of Providence
for my support, but not doubt- —
ing but that there was more in
the place, I went all over that
part of the island where I had
been before, peering in every
corner and under every rock,
to see for more of, it, but I
could not find any. At last it
occurred to my thoughts that
Thad shaken the bag of chick-
ens’ meat out inthat place; and
the wonder began to cease; and
I must confess my religious
thankfulness to God’s provi-
dence began to abate too, upon “GRINDING MY TOOLS” (2. 77).
the discovering that all this was
nothing but what was common;
though I ought to have been as thankful for so strange and unforeseen
providence as if it had been miraculous; for it was really the work of
Providence as to me, that should order or appoint that ten or twelve grains
of corn should remain unspoiled, when the rats had destroyed all the rest,
as if it had been dropped from Heaven; as also that I should throw it out
into that particular place, where, it being in the shade of a high rock, it




74 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

sprang up immediately; whereas, if I had thrown it,anywhere else at that
time, it had been burnt up and destroyed.

I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in their season,
which was about the end of June; and laying up every corn, I resolved to
sow them all again, hoping in time to have some quantity, sufficient to sup-
ply me with bread. But it was not till the fourth year that I would allow
myself the least grain of this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly, as I.
shall say afterwards, in its order; for I lost all that I sowed the first season,
by not observing the proper time; for I sowed it just before the dry season,
so that it never came up at all, at least, not as it would have done; of which
in its place.

Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks of rice,
which I preserved with the same care, and whose use was of the same kind,
or to the same purpose, viz., to make me bread, or rather food; for I found
ways to cook it up without baking, though I did that also after some time.

But to return to my Journal:

I worked excessive hard these three or four months, to get my wall done,
and the 14th of April I closed it up, contriving to go into it, not by a door,
but over a wall, by a ladder, that thére might be no sign on the outside of
my habitation. ‘

April 16.—I finished the ladder; so I went up the ladder to the top, and
then pulled it up after me, and let it down on the inside: this was a complete
inclosure to me; for within I had room enough, and nothing could come at
me from without, unless it could first mount my wall.

The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost had all my
labor overthrown at once, and myself killed. Thc case was thus: As I was
busy in the inside of it, behind my tent, just in the entrance into my cave, I

‘was terribly frighted with a most dreadful surprising thing indeed; for, all
on a sudden, I found the earth came tumbling down from the roof of my
cave, and from the edge of the hill over my head, and two of the posts !
had set up in the cave cracked in a frightful manner. I was heartily scared;
but thought nothing of what really was the cause, only thinking that the top
of my cave was falling in, as some of it had done before, and for fear I
should be buried in it, I ran forwards to my ladder, and not thinking myself
safe there neither, I got over my wall for fear of the pieces of the hill, which
I expected might roll down upon me. I was no sooner stepped down upon
the firm ground, than I plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake; for the
ground I stood on shook three times at about eight minutes’ distance, with
three such shocks as would have overturned the strongest building that
could be supposed to have stood upon the earth; anda great piece of the
top of the rock which stood about half a mile from me, next the sea, fell
down with such a terrible noise as I never heard in all my life. I perceived
also the very sea was put into a violent motion by it; and I believe the
shocks were stronger under the water than on the island.
EARTHQUAKE AND STORM. : 75

I was so amazed with the thing itself, having never felt the like or dis-
coursed with any one that had, that I was like one dead or stupefied; and
the motion of the earth made my stomach sick like one that was tossed at
sea: but the noise of the falling of the rock awaked me as it were, and
rousing me from the stupefied condition I was in, filled me with horror, and
I thought of nothing then but the hill falling upon my tent and all my house-
hold goods, and burying all at once; and this sunk miy very soul within me
a second time.

After the third shock was over, and I felt’ no more for some time, I
began to take courage; and yet I had not heart enough to get over my wall
again, for fear of being buried alive, but still sat upon the ground, greatly
cast down and disconsolate, not knowing what to do. All this while, I had
not the least serious religious thought; nothing but the common “Lord have
mercy upon me!” and when it was over, that went away too.

While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and it grew cloudy, as if it
would rain; soon after that, the wind arose by little and little, so that in less
than half an hour it blew a most dreadful hurricane of wind; the sea was, all
on a sudden, covered with foam and froth; the shore was covered with the
breach of the water; the trees were torn up by the roots; and a terrible storm
it was. This held about three hours, and then began to abate; and then in
two hours more it was calm, and began to rain very hard. All this while I
sat upon the ground very much terrified and dejected; when on a sudden it
came into my thoughts that these winds and rain being the consequences of
the earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent and over, and I might ven-
ture into my cave again. With this thought, my spirits began to revive; and
the rain also helping to persuade me,I went in and sat downin my tent; but
the rain was so violent that my tent was ready to be beaten down with it;
and I was forced to gointo my cave, though very much afraid and uneasy, for
fear it should fall onmy head. This violent rain forced me to a new work,
viz., to cut a hole through my new fortifications, like a sink, to let the water
go out, which would else have drowned my cave. After I had been in my
cave some time, and found still no more shocks of the earthquake follow, I
began to be more composed. And now to support my spirits, which indeed
wanted it very much, I went to my little store and took a small sup of rum;
which, however, I did then and always very sparingly, knowing I could have
no more when that was gone. It continued raining all that night, and great
part of the next day, so that I could not stir abroad; but my mind being more
composed, I began to think of what I had best to do; concluding that if the
island was subject to these earthquakes, there would be no living for me in
a cave, but I must consider of building me some little aut in an open place
which I might surround witha wall, as I had done here, and so make myself
secure from wild beasts or men; for I concluded if I stayed where I was I
should certainly, one time or other, be buried alive.

With these thoughts, I resolved to move my tent from the place where
26 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

it now stood,
which was just
under the
hanging preci-
pice of the
heellG-aerarnva
which, if it
should be
shaken again,
would certain-
ly fall upon
my tent; and
Ispent the two
next days,
being the 19th
and 20th of
April, in con-
triving where
and how to re-
move my habitation. The fear of
being swallowed up alive made
me that I never slept in quiet;
and yet the apprehensions of lying.
abroad without any fence were







“Ss




Z

Wz


























HZ HS almost equal to it; but still, when

i Ay I looked about, and saw how

TF fi ig Wi everything was put in order, how

y De 1 pleasantly concealed I was, and
RR TLE Nt me

ay YK i how safe from danger, it made me

loth to remove. In the mean-
time, it occurred to me that it
would require a vast deal of time
for me to do this, and that I must
- be contented to run the venture
where I was, till I had formed a
camp for myself, and had secured
it so as to remove to it. So with
this resolution I composed myself
for a time, and resolved that I
would go to work with all speed
to build me a wall with piles and
cables, etc., in a circle, as before, and set my tent up in it, when it was fin-
ished; but that I would venture to stay where I was till it was finished, and
fit to remove to. This was the 2Ist.

“I CAUGHT A YOUNG DOLPHIN” (2. 78).
I GRIND MY TOOLS.. 77

April 22.—The next morning I be-
gan to consider of means to put this
resolve in execution; but I was at a
great loss about my tools. I had three
large axes, and abundance of hatchets
(for we carried the hatchets for traffic
with the Indians); but with much chop-
ping and cutting knotty hard wood,
they were all full of notches, and dull;
and though I had a grind stone, I
could not turn it and grind my tools
too. This cost me as much thought as
a statesman would have bestowed upon
a grand point of politics, or a judge
upon the life and death of a man. At
length I contrived a wheel with a string
to turn it with my foot, that I might
have both my hands at liberty.

Note.—I had not seen any such thing
in England, or at least not to
take notice how it was done,
though since I have observed

























it was very common
there; besides that,
my grindstone was
very large and heavy.
This machine cost me
a full week’s work to
bring it to perfection.

April 28, 29.—
These two whole days
I took up in grinding
my tools, my machine
for turning my grind-
stone _ performing
very well.

April 30.—Having perceived my bread had been low a great while, I
now took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one biscuit-cake a day,

which made my heart very heavy.
ISP 4

“A LARGE TORTOISE, OR TURTLE” (f. 79).
78 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

May 1.—In the morning, looking towards the sea-side, the tide being
low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary, and it looked
like a cask. When I came to it, I found a small barrel, and two or three
pieces of the wreck of the ship, which were driven on shore by the late hur-
ricane; and looking towards the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie
higher out of the water than it used to do. I examined the barrel which
was driven on shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder; but it
had taken water, and the powder was caked as hard asa stone; however, I
rolled it farther on shore for the present, and went on upon the sands, as
near as I could to the wreck of the ship, to look for more.

When I came down to the ship I found it strangely removed. The
forecastle, which lay before buried in sand, was heaved up at least six feet,
and the stern, which was broken to pieces and parted from the rest by the
force of the sea soon after I had left. rummaging of her, was tossed, as it
were, up, and Cast on one side; and the sand was thrown so high on that
side next the stern, that whereas there was a great place of water before,
so that I could not come within a quarter of a mile of the wreck without
swimming, I could now walk quite up to her when the tide was out. I was
surprised with this at first, but soon concluded it must be done by the
earthquake; and as by this violence the ship was more broken open than
formerly, so many things came daily on shore, which the sea had loosened,
and which the winds and water rolled by degrees to the land.

This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of removing my
habitation, and I busied myself mightily, that day especially, in searching
whether I could make any way into the ship; but I found nothing was to
be expected of that kind, for that all the inside of the ship was choked
up with sand. However, as I had learned not to despair of anything, I
resolved to pull everything to pieces that I could of the ship, concluding
that everything I could get from her would be of some use or other to
me.
May 3.—! began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam through, which
I thought held some of the upper part or quarter-deck together, and when I
had cut it through, I cleared away the sand as well as I could from the side
which lay highest; but the tide coming in, I was obliged to give over for
that time.

May 4.—\ went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst eat of, till
I was weary of my sport; when, just going to leave off, I caught a young
dolphin. I had made me a long line of some rope-yarn, but I had no hooks;
yet I frequently caught fish enough, as much as I cared to eat: all which I
dried inthe sun, and ate them dry.

May 5.—Worked on the wreck; cut another beam asunder, and brought
three great fir planks off from the decks, which I tied together, and made
swim on shore when the tide of flood came on.

May 6.—Worked on the wreck; got several iron bolts out of her, and
STRIPPING THE WRECK. 73

other pieces of iron-work; worked very hard, and came home very much
tired, and had thoughts of giving it over.

May 7—Went to the wreck again, with an intent not to work, but found
the weight of the wreck had broken itself down, the beams being cut; that
several pieces of the ship seemed to lie loose, and the inside of the hold
lay so open that I could see into it; but it was almost full of water and sand.

May 8 —Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to wrench up the
deck, which lay now quite clear of the water or sand. I wrenched open
two planks, and brought them on shore also with the tide. I left the iron
crow in the wreck for next day.

May 9.—Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way into the body
of the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened them with the crow, but
could not break them up. I felt also a roll of English lead, and could stir
it, but it was too heavy to move.

May 10, 11, 12, 13, 14.—Went every day to the wreck; and got a great
deal of pieces of timber, and boards, or planks, and two or three hundred-
weight of iron.

May 15 —I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a piece off the
roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet, and driving it with the
other; butasit lay about a footand a half i in the water, I could not make any
blow to drive the hatchet.

May 16.—Iit had blown hard in the night, and the wreck appeared more
broken by the force of the water; but I stayed so long in the woods, to get
pigeons for food, that the tide prevented me going to the wreck that day.

May 17.—I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore at a great dis-
tance, near two miles off me, but resolved to see what they were, and found
they were pieces of the head, but too heavy for me to bring away.

May 24.—Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck; and with hard
labor I loosened some things so much with the crow, that the first flowing
tide several casks floated out, and two of the seamen’s chests; but the wind
blowing from the shore, nothing came to land that day but pieces of tim-
ber and a hogshead which had some Brazil pork in it; but the salt water and
the sand had spoiled it. I continued this work every day to the 15th of June,
except the time necessary to get food, which I always appointed, during
this part of my employment, to be when the tide was up, that I might be
ready when it was ebbed out; and by this time I had gotten timber and plank
and iron work enough to have built a good boat, if I had known how; and
also I got, at several times, and in several pieces, near one hundred weight
of the sheet-lead.

June 16.—Going down to the sea-side I found a large tortoise, or turtle.
This was the first I had seen, which, it seems, was only my misfortune, not
any defect of the place or the scarcity; for had I happened to be on the
other side of the island I might have had hundreds of them every day, as 1
found afterwards, but perhaps had paid dear enough for them,
80 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

June 17 I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her threesccre eggs,
and her flesh was to me, at that time, the most savory and pleasant that
ever I tasted in my life, having had no flesh, but of goats and fowls, since I
Janded in this horrible place.

June 18.—Rained all the day and I stayed within. I thought, at this time,
the rain felt cold and I was something chilly, which I knew was not usual in

that latitude.
"June 19.—Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been cold.

June 20.—No rest all night; violent pains in my head and feverish.

June 21.—Very ill; frighted almost to death with the apprehensions of
my sad condition—to be sick, and no help; prayed to God, for the first
time since the storm off Hull, but scarce knew what I said or why, my
thoughts being all confused,

June 22.—A little better, but under dreadful apprehensions of sickness.

June 23.—Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a violent head-
ache.

June 24.—Much better.

June 25.-An ague, very violent; the fit held me seven hours; cold fit,
and hot with faint sweats after it.

June 26.—Better, and having no victuals to eat, took my gun, but found
myself very weak; however, I killed a she-goat, and with much difficulty
got it home, and broiled some of it and ate. I would fain have stewed it
and made some broth, but had no pot. ;

June 27.—The ague again so violent that I lay abed all day and neither
ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for thirst, but so weak I had no
strength to stand up orto get myself any water to drink. Prayed to God
again, but was light-headed, and when I was not, I was so ignorant that I
knew not what to say, only I lay-and cried, “ Lord, look upon me! Lord,
pity me! Lord, have mercy upon me!” I suppose I did nothing else for
two or three hours, till the fit wearing off, I fell asleep, and did not awake
till far in the night. When I awoke I found myself much refreshed but
weak, and exceeding thirsty; however, as I had no water in my whole hab-
itation, I was forced to lie till morning and went to sleep again. In this sec
ond sleep I hadthis terrible dream: I thought that I was sitting on the ground,
on the outside of my wall, where I sat when the storm blew after the earth-
quake, and that I saw a man descend from a great black cloud, in a bright
flame of fire, and light upon the ground; he was all over as bright as a
flame, so that I could but just bear to look towards him; his countenance
was most inexpressibly dreadful, impossible for words to describe. When he
stepped upon the ground with his feet I thought the earth trembled, just as
it had done before in the earthquake, and all the air looked, to my appre-
hension, as if it had been filled with flashes of fire. He was no sooner landed
upon the earth but he moved forwards towards me, with a long spear or
weapon in his hand to kill me, and when he came toa rising greund.atsome
A TERRIBLE VISION. 81

distance, he spoke to me, or I heard a voice so terrible that itis impossible
to express the terror of it. All that I cansay I understood was this: ‘See-
ing all these things have not brought thee to repentance, now thou shalt
die;” at which words, I thought he
lifted up the spear that was in his
hand to kill me.

No one that shall ever read
this account will expect that I
should be able to describe the








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Ij te 4













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“BROILED IT ON THE COALS” (/, 84),

horrors of my soul at this terrible vision. I mean that even while it was a
dream, I even dreamed of those horrors. Nor is it any more possible to
describe the impression that remained upon my mind when I awaked and
found it was but a dream.

I had, alas! no divine knowledge. What I had received by the good
instruction of my father was then worn out by an uninterrupted series, for
eight years, of sea-faring wickedness, and a constant conversation with none
but such as were, like myself, wicked and profane to the last degree. Ido
not remember that I had, in all that time, one thought that so much as
tended either to looking upwards towards God, or inwards towards a reflec-
tion upon my own ways; but a certain stupidity of soul, without desire of

6
\

32 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

good, or conscience of evil, had entirely overwhelmed me; and I was all
that the most hardened, unthinking, wicked creature among cur common
sailors can be supposed to be—not having the least sense, either of the fear
of God in dangers, or of thankfulness to God in deliverances.

In the relating what is already past of my story, this will be the more
easily believed when I shall add, that through all the variety of miseries
that had to this day befallen me, I never had so much as one thought of its
being the hand of God, or that it was a just punishment for my sins, my
rebellious behavior against my father, or my present sins, which were great,
or so much as a punishment for the general course of my wicked life.
When I was on the desperate expedition on the desert shores of Africa, I
never had so much as one thought of what would become of me, or one wish
to God to direct me whither I should go, or to keep me from the danger
which apparently surrounded me, as well from voracious creatures as cruel
savages; but I was merely thoughtless of God or a Providence. I acted
like a mere brute, from the principles of nature, and by the dictates of com-
mon sense only, and indeed hardly that. When I was delivered and taken
up at sea by the Portugal captain, well used, and dealt justly and honorably
with, as well as charitably, I had not the least thankfulness in my thoughts.
When, again, I was shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger of drowning on this
island, I was as far from remorse, or looking on it as a judgment. I only
said to myself often that I was an unfortunate dog, and born to be always
miserable.

It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found all my ship’s crew
drowned, and myself spared, I was surprised with a kind of ecstasy, and
some transports of soul, which, had the grace of God assisted, might have
come up to true thankfulness; but it ended where it began, in a mere com-
mon flight of joy, or, as I may say, being glad J was alive, without the least
reflection upon the distinguishing goodness of the Hand which had pre-
served me, and had singled me out to be preserved when all the rest were
destroyed, or an inquiry why Providence had been thus merciful to me.
Even just the same common sort of joy which seamen generally have after
they have got safe ashore trom a shipwreck, all which they drown in the
next bowl of punch, and forget almost as soon as it is over, and all the rest
of my life was like it. Even when I was afterwards, on due consideration,
made sensible of my condition, how I was cast on this dreadful place, out of
the reach of humankind, out of all hope of relief, or prospect of redemption,
as soon as I saw a probability of living, and that I should not starve and
perish for hunger, all the sense of my affliction wore off, and I began to be
very easy, applied myself to the works proper for my preservation and sup-
ply, and was far enough from being afflicted at my condition, as a judgment
from Heaven, or as the hand of God against me. These were thoughts
which very seldom entered into my head.

The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my Journal, had, at first,
REPROACHES OF THE PAST. 83

some little influence upon me, and began to affect me with seriousness, as
iong as I thought it had something miraculous in it; but as soon as ever
that part of the thought was removed, all the impression which was raised
from it wore off also, as I have noted already. Even the earthquake,
though nothing could be more terrible in its nature, or more immediately
directing to the invisible power which alone directs such things, yet no
sooner was the first fright over but the impression it had made went off also.
I had no more sense of God, or His judgments—much less of the present
affliction of my circumstances being from His hand—than if I had been in
the most prosperous condition of life. But now, when I began to be sick,
and a leisurely view of the miseries of death came to place itself before me,
when my spirits began to sink under the burden of a strong distemper, and
nature was exhausted with the violence of the fever, conscience, that had
slept so long, began to awake, and I began to reproach myself with my past
life, in which I had so evidently, by uncommon wickedness, provoked the
justice of God to lay me under uncommon strokes, and to deal with me in
so vindictive a manner. These reflections oppressed me from the second
or third day of my distemper; and in the violence, as well of the fever as of
the dreadful reproaches ot my conscience, extorted some words from me like
praying to God, though I cannot say they were either a prayer attended
with desires or with hopes; it was rather the voice of mere fright and
distress. My thoughts were confused, the convictions great upon my mind,
and the horror of dying in such a miserable condition raised vapors into my
head with the mere apprehensions; and in these hurries of my soul, I knew
not what my tongue might express. But it was rather exclamation, such
as, “ Lord, what a miserable creature am I! If I should be sick, I shall cer-
tainly die for want of help, and what will become of me?” Then, the tears
burst out of my eyes, and I could say no more for a good while. In this
interval, the good advice of my father came to my mind, and presently his
prediction, which I mentioned at the beginning of this story, viz., that it I
did take this foolish step, God would not bless me, and I would have leisure
hereafter to reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there
might be none to assist me in my recovery. “ Now,” said I aloud, ‘‘ my dear
father’s words are come to pass; God’s justice has overtaken me, and I have
none to help or hear me. I rejected the voice of Providence, which had
mercifully put me in a posture or station of life wherein I might have been
happy and easy; but I would neither see it myself, nor learn to know the
blessing of it from my parents. I left them to mourn over my folly, and
now I am left to mourn under the consequences of it. I refused their help
and assistance, who would have lifted me into the world, and would have
made everything easy to me; and now [have difficulties to struggle with too
great for even nature itself to support, and no assistance, no help, no com-
fort, no advice.” Then I cried out, ‘“ Lord, be my help, for ] am in great
84 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

distress.” This was the first prayer, if I might call it so, that I had made
for many years, But I return to my Journal:

June 28.—Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I had had, and
the fit being entirely off, I got up, and though the fright and terror of my
dream was very ercat, yet I considered that the fit of the ague would return
again the next day, and now was my time to get somethi.g to refresh and
support myself when I should be ill, and the first thing I did, I filled a
large square case-bottle with water, and set it upon my table, in reach of
my bed; and to take off the chill or aguish disposition of the water, I put
about a quarter of a pint of rum into.it, and mixed them together. Then I
got me a piece of the goat’s flesh, and broiled it on the coals, but could eat
very little. I walked about, but was very weak, and withal very sad and
heavy-hearted in the sense of my miserable condition, dreading the return
of my distemper the next day. At night, I made my supper of three of the
turtle’s eggs, which I roasted in the ashes, and ate, as we call it, in the
shell, and this was the first bit of meat I had ever asked God’s blessing to,
even, as I could remember, in my whole life.

After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself so weak that I could
hardly carry the gun, for I never went out without that; so I went out but
a little way, and sat down upon the ground, looking out upon the sea,
which was just before me, and very calm and smooth. As I sat there, some
thoughts such as these occurred to me: ‘‘ What is the earth and sea, of
which I have seen so much? Whence is it produced? And what am I, and
all the other creatures, wild and tame, human and brutal? Whence are we?
Sure we are all made by some Secret Power, who formed the earth and sea,
the air and sky. And who is that?” Then it followed most naturally—‘It
is God that has made it all. Well, but then,” it came on strongly, “if God
has made all these things, He guides and governs them all, and all things
that concern them; for the Being that could make all things must certainly
have power to guide and direct them. If so, nothing can happen, in the
great circuit of His works, either without His knowledge or appointment.

“And if nothing happens without His knowledge, He knows that I am
here, and am in this dreadful condition; and if nothing happens without His
appointment, He has appointed all this to befall me.” Nothing occurred to
my thoughts to contradict any of these conclusions, and therefore it rested
upon me with the greater force, that it must needs be that God had
appointed all this to befall me; that I was brought to this miserable circum-
stance by His direction, He having the sole power, not of me only, but of
everything that happened in the world. Immediately it followed: “Why
has God done this to me? What have I done to be thus used?” My con-
science presently checked me in that inquiry, as if I had blasphemed, and
methought it spoke te me like a voice, ‘‘ Wretch, dost zou ask what thou
hast done? Look back ugon a dreadful misspent life, and ask thyself what
thou hast zot done? Ask, why is it that thou wert not long ago destroyed?
A NOVEL REMEDY. 85

Why wert thou not drowned in Yarmouth Roads? killed in the fight, when
the ship was taken by the Salle man-of-war? devoured by the wild beasts
off the coast of Africa? or drowned here, when all the crew perished but
thyself? Dost étow ask, ‘What have I done?’” Iwas struck dumb with
these reflections, as one astonished, and had not a word to say—no, not to
answer to myself—but rose up pensive and sad, walked back to my retreat,
and went up over my wall, as if I had been going to bed; but my thoughts
were sadly disturbed, and I had no inclination to sleep; so I sat down in my
chair, and lighted my lamp, for it began to be dark. Now, as the apprehen-
sions of the return of my distemper terrified me very much, it occurred to
my thoughts that the Brazilians take no physic, but their tobacco for
almost all distempers, and I had a piece of a roll of tobacco in one of the
chests, which was quite cured, and some also that was green, and not quite
cured. —

I went, directed by Heaven, no doubt; for in this chest I found a cure
both forsoul and body. I opened the chest, and found what I looked for,
viz., the tobacco; and as the few books I had saved lay there too, I took out
one of the Bibles which I mentioned before, and which to this time I had
not found leisure, or so much as inclination, to look into. I say I took it
out, and brought both that and the tobacco with me to the table. What use
to make of the tobacco I knew not, as to my distemper, or whether it was
good for it or no; but I tried several experiments with it, as if I was resolved
it should heal one way or other. I first took a piece of leaf, and chewed it
in my mouth, which, indeed, at first, almost stupefied my brain, the tobacco
being green and strong, and that I had not been much used to it. Then 1

took some and steeped it an hour or two in some rum, and resolved to take
a dose of it when I lay down; and, lastly, I burnt some upon a pan of coals,
and held my nose close over the smoke of it as long as I could bear it, as
well for the heat as the virtue of it, and I held it almost to suffocation.. In
the interval of this operation, I took up the Bible, and began to read; but
my head was too much disturbed with the tobacco to bear reading, at least
at that time; only having opened the book casually, the words first that
occurred to me were these, “ Call upon Me in the day of trouble, and I will
deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify Me.” These. words were very apt to my
case, and made some impression upon my thoughts at the time of reading
them, though not so much as they did afterwards; for, as for being delivered,
the word had no sound, as I may say, to me; the thing was so remote, so
impossible in my apprehension of things, that I began to say, as the children
of Israel did when they were promised flesh to eat, “Can God spread a table
in the wilderness?” so I began to say, ‘Can God Himself deliver me from
this place?” And as it was not for many years that any hopes appeared,
this prevailed very often upon my thoughts; but, however, the words made
a great impression upon me, and I mused upon them very often. lt grew
now late, and the tobacco had, as I said, dozed my head so much that I
86 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

inclined to sleep: so I left my lamp burning in the cave, lest I should want
anything in the night, and went to bed. But before I lay down, I did what
I never had done in all my life: I kneeled down, and prayed to God to ful-
fill the promise to me, that if I called upon Him in the day of trouble, He
would deliver me. After my broken and imperfect prayer was over, I drank
the rum in which I had steeped the tobacco, which was so strong and rank
of the tobacco that, indeed, 1 could scarcely get it down; immediately upon
this I went to bed; and I found presently it flew up into my head violently,
but I fell into a sound sleep and waked no more till, by the sun, it must
necessarily be near three o’clock in the afternoon the next day; nay, to this
hour Iam partly of opinion that J slept all the next day and night, and till
almost three the day after; for otherwise I know not how I should losea
day out of my reckoning in the days of the week, asit appeared some years
after I had done; forif I had lost it by crossing and re-crossing the line, I
should have lost more than one day; but in my account it was lost, and I
never knew which way. Be that, however, one way or other, when I awaked
I found myself exceedingly refreshed and my spirits lively and cheerful;
when I got up I was stronger than I was the day before, and my stomach
better, for I was hungry; and, in short, I had no fit the next day, but con-
tinued much altered for the better. This was the 29th.

The 30th was my well day, of course, and 1 went abroad with my gun,
but did not care to travel too far. I killed a sea-fowl or two, something
like a brand goose, and brought them home; but was not very forward to
eat them; so I ate some more of the turtle’s eggs, which were very good.
This evening I renewed the medicine, which I had supposed did me good
the day before, viz., the tobacco steeped in rum; only I did not take so
much as before, nor did I chew any. of the leaf, or hold my head over the
smoke; however, I was not so well the next day, which was the Ist of July,
as I hoped I should have been; for I had a little spice of the cold fit, but
it was not much.

July 2.—I renewed the medicine all the three ways;.and dosed myselt
with it as at first, and doubled the quantity which I drank.

July 3.—1 missed the fit for good and all, though I did not recover my
fuil strength for some weeks after. While I was thus gathering strength,
my thoughts ran exceedingly upon this Scripture, ‘1 will deliver thee;”
and the impossibility of my deliverance lay much upon my mind, in bar
of my ever expecting it; but as I was discouraging mysel! with such
thoughts, it occurred to my mind that I pored so much upon my deliver-
ance from the main affliction, that I disregarded the deliverance I had
received, and I was, as it were, made to ask myself such questions as these,
viz.: ““Have I not been delivered, and wonderfully too, from sickness?
from the most distressed condition that could be, and that was so frightful
to me? and what notice had I taken of it? Had I done my part? God
had delivered me, but I had not glorified Him; that is to say, I had not
A HEARTFELT PRAYER. 87

owned and been thankful for that as a deliverance; and how could I expect
greater deliverance?” This touched my heart very much; and immediately
I kneeled down, and gave God thanks aloud for my recovery from my
sickness.

July 4.—In the morn-
ing, I took the Bible; uh
and beginning at the J
New Testament, I be- ach 3
gan seriously to read it, es
and imposed upon my-
self to read awhile
every morning and
every night; not tying
myself to the number {l Ny
of chapters, but as long
as my thoughts should
engage me. It was not
long after I set seriously
to this work, till I found
my heart more deeply Ue
and sincerely affected ‘{ uf
with the wickedness of













































AW
my past life. The im- a
pression of my dream ‘i IN
revived; and the words, ‘
“ All these things have wit
not brought thee to re- al
pentance,” ran seriously 7
in my thoughts. I was oi
earnestly begging of etal ANY ig
God to give me repent- owl i iN GR aoe Ze
ance, when it happened ot a ee se ae Ht
providentially the very Ao ART RAN NS ic )
day that, reading the i A ie ETT, oth Ha :
Scripture, I came to a, SAN ane
these words: “He is Hews
exalted a Prince anda “] WENT UP THE CREEK FIRST” (/. 89).
Saviour, to give repent- :

ance and to give remis-

sion.” I threw down the book; and with my heart as well as my hands
lifted up to heaven, in a kind of ecstasy of joy, I cried out aloud, “ Jesus,
Thou Son of David! Jesus, Thou exalted Prince and Saviour! give me

repentance!” This was the first time I could say, in the true sense of the
words, that I prayed in all my life, for now I prayed with a sense of my


88 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

condition, and with a true Scripture view of hope, founded on the encour-
agement of the Word of God; and from this time, | may say, I began to
have hope that God would hear me.

Now I began to construe the words mentioned above, “ Call on Me; and
I will deliver thee,” in a different sense from what I had ever done before;
for then I had no notion of anything being called dehverance but my being ©
delivered from the captivity I] was in; for though I was indeed at large in
the place, yet the island was certainly a prison to me, and that in the worst
sense in the world. But now I learned to take it in another sense; now I
looked back upon my past life with such horror, and my sins appeared so
dreadful, that my soul sought nothing of God but deliverance from the load
of guilt that bore down all my comfort. As for my solitary life, it was
nothing; I dic not so much as pray to be delivered from it, or think of it;
it was all of no consideration, in comparison of this. And I added this part
here, to hint to whoever shall read it, that whenever they come to a true
sense of things, they will find deliverance from sin a much greater blessing»
than deliverance from affliction.

But, leaving this part, I return to my Journal:

My condition began now to be, though not less miserable as to my way
of living, yet much easier to my mind; and my thoughts being directed, by
a constant reading the Scripture and praying to God, to things of a higher
nature, I had a great deal of comfort within, which, till now, 1 knew noth-
ing of; also, my health and strength returned, I bestirred myself to furnish
myself with everything that I wanted, and make my way of living as regu-
lar as I could.

From the 4th day of July to the 14th, I was chiefly employed i in walking
about with my gun in my hand, a little and a little at a time, as a man that
was gathering up his strength after a fit of sickness; for it is hardly to be im-
agined how low I was, and to what weakness I was reduced. The applica-
tion which I made use of was perfectly new, and perhaps what had never
cured an ague before; neither can I recommend it to any one to practice
by this experiment; and though it did carry off the fit, yet it rather con-
tributed to weaken me, for 1 had frequent convulsions in my nerves and
limbs for some time. I learned from it also this, in particular, that being
abroad in the rainy season was the most pernicious thing to my health that
could be, especially in those rains which came attended with storms and
hurricanes of wind; for as the rain which came in a dry season was always
most accompanied with such storms, so I found this rain was much more
dangerous than the rain which fell in September and October.

I had now been in this unhappy island above ten months; all possibility
of deliverance from this condition seemed to be entirely taken from me,
and I firmly believed that no human shape had ever set foot upon that
place. Having now secured my habitation, as I thought, fully to my mind,
THE FERTILE SIDE OF THE ISLAND. 89

I had a great desire to make a more perfect discovery of the island, and to
see what other productions I might find, which yet I knew nothing of.

It was the 15th of July that I began to take a more particular survey of
the island itself. I went up the creek first, where, as I hinted, I brought
my raftson shore. I found, after I came about two miles up, that the tide
did not flow any higher, and that it was no more than a little brook of run-
ning water, and very fresh and good; but this being the dry season, there
was hardly any water in some parts of it; at least, not enough to run in any
stream, so as it could be perceived. On the banks of this brook, I found
many pleasant savannahs or meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with
grass; and on the rising parts of them, next to the higher grounds, where
the water, as it might be supposed, never overflowed, I found a great deal
of tobacco, green, and growing to a great and very strong stalk. There were
divers other plants, which I had no notion of or understanding about, and
might, perhaps, have virtues of their own, which I could not find out. I
searched for the cassava root, which the Indians in all that climate make
their bread of, but I could find none. I saw large plants of aloes, but did
not then understand them. I saw several sugar-canes, but wild, and, for
want of cultivation, imperfect. I contented myself'with these discoveries
for this time, and came back, musing with myself what course I might take
to know the virtue and goodness of any of the fruits of plants which I
should discover, but could bring it to no conclusion; for, in short, I had
made so little observation while I was in the Brazils, that I knew little of
the plants of the field; at least, very little that might serve me to any pur-
pose now in my distress.

The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again; and after going
something further than I had gone the day before, I found the brook and
savannahs cease, and the country became more woody than before. In this
part I found different fruits, and particularly I found melons upon the
ground, in great abundance, and grapes upon the trees; the vines had spread
sndeed over the trees, and the clusters of grapes were just now in their prime,
very ripeand rich, This was a surprising discovery, and I was exceeding
glad of them; but I was warned by my experience to eat sparingly of them,
remembering that, when I was ashore in Barbary, the eating of grapes killed
several of our Englishmen, who were slaves there, by throwing them into
fluxes and fevers. But I found an excellent use for these grapes; and that
was, to cure or dry them in the sun, and keep them as dried grapes or raisins
are kept, which I thought would be, as indeed they were, as wholesome and
as agreeable to eat, when no grapes might be had.

I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my habitation, which
by the way, was the first night, as 1 might say, Thad lain from home. In
the night I took my first contrivance, and got up into a tree, where I slept
well; and the next morning proceeded upon my discovery, traveling nearly
iour miles, as I might judge by the length of the valley, keeping still due |




gu ROBINSON CRUSOE.

north, with a ridge of hills on the south and north side of me. At the end
of this march I came to an opening, where the country seemed to descend
to the west; and a little spring of fresh water, which issued out of the side
of the hill by me, ran the other way, that is, due east; and the country
appeared so fresh, so green, so flourishing, everything being in a constant



“T SOWED MY GRAIN” (7. 94).

verdure, or flourish of spring, that it looked like a planted garden. 1
descended a little on the side of that delicious valley, surveying it with a
secret kind of pleasure, though mixed with other afflicting thoughts, to
_ think that this was all my own; that I was king and lord of all this country
indefeasibly, and had a right of possession; and, if I could convey it, I
might have it in inheritance as completely as any lord of a manor in Eng-
jand, 1 saw here abundance of cocoa-trees, orange and lemon, and citron-


=) Sr
RSS, yy 88 wasn

SS SS ERS?

AN

“7 DESCENDED A LITTLE ON THE SIDE OF THAT DELICIOUS VALLEY” (f. 90}.
91


92 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

trees; but all wild, and few bearing any fruit, at least not then. However,
the green limes that I gathered were not only pleasant to eat, but very
wholesome; and I mixed their juice afterwards with water, which made it
very wholesome, and very cool and refreshing. I found now I had business
enough to gather and carry home; and I resolved to lay up a store, as well
of grapes as limes and lemons, to furnish myself for the wet season, which
I knew was approaching. In order to do this, I gathered a great heap of
grapes in one place, a lesser heap in another place, anda great parcel of
limes and lemons in another place; and taking a few of each with me, I
traveled homeward, and resolved to come again, and bring a bag or sack, or
what I could make to carry the rest home. Accordingly, having spent three
days inthis journey, I came home (so I must now call my tent and my cave);
but befoie'l got thither, the grapes were spoiled; the richness of the fruit,
and the weight of the juice, having broken them and bruised them, they
were good for little or nothing; as to the limes, they were good, but I could
bring but a few.

The next day, being the 19th, 1 went back, having made me two small
bags to bring home my harvest; but I was surprised when, coming to my
heap of grapes, which were so rich and fine when I gathered them, I found
them all spread abroad, trodden to pieces, and dragged about, some here,
some there, and abundance eaten and devoured. By this I concluded there
were some wild creatures thereabouts, which had done this, but what they
were I knew not. However, as I found there was no laying them up on
heaps, and no carrying them away ina sack, but that one way they would be
destroyed, and the other way they would be crushed with their own weight,
I took another course, for I gathered a large quantity of the grapes, and
hung them upon the out branches of the trees, that they might cure and
dry in the sun; and as for the limes and lemons, I carried as many back as
{ could well stand under.

When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with great
pleasure the friitfulness of that valley, and the pleasantness of the situa-
tion; the security from storm on that side of the water, and the wocd, and
concluded that I had pitched upon a place to fix my abode which was by
far the worst part of the country. Upon the whole, I began to consider of
removing my habitation, and to look out fora place equally safe as where
now I was situate, if possible, in that pleasant, fruitful part of the island.

This thought ran long in my head, and I was exceeding fond of it for
some time, the pleasantness of the place tempting me, but whenI camc toa
nearer view of it, | considered that I was now by the sea-side, where it was at
least possible that something might happen to my advantage, and that the
same ill fate that brought me hither might bring some other unhappy
wretches to the same place, and though it was scarce probable that any
such thing should ever happen, yet to inclose myself among the hills and
woods in the center of the island was to anticipate my bondage and to
TOO MANY CATS, 93

render such an affair not only improbable but impossible, and that therefore
I ought not by any means to remove. However, I was so enamored with
this place that I spent much of my time there for the whole remaining
part of the month of July; and though, upon second thoughts, I resolved as
above not to remove, yet I built me a little kind of a bower, and surrounded
it at a distance with a strong fence, beinga double hedge as high as I could
reach, well staked and filled between with brushwood, and here I lay very
secure, sometimes two or three nights together, always going over it with a
ladder as before, so that I fancied now I had my country house and my
sea-coast house, and this work took me up to the beginning of August.

Thad but newly finished my fence and began to enjoy my labor, but the
rains came on and made me stick close to my first habitation; for though I
had made meatent like the other, with a piece of a sail, and spread it
very well, yet I had not the shelter of ahill to keep me from storms, nor a
cave behind me to retreat into when the rains were extraordinary.

About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my bower and
began to enjoy myself. The 3d of August I found the grapes I had hung
up were perfectly dried, and indeed were excellent good raisins of the sun;
so I began to take them down from the trees, and it was very happy that I
did so, for the rains which followed would have spoiled them, and I had lost
the best part of my winter food, for I had above two hundred large bunches
of them. No sooner had I taken them all down and carried most of them
home to my cave but it began to rain, and from hence, which was the 14th
of August, it rained more or less every day till the middle. of October, and
sometimes so violently that I could not stir out of my cave for several days.

In this season I was much surprised with the increase of my family; I
had been concerned for the loss of one of my cats who ran away from me,
oras I thought had been dead, and I heard no more tidings of her till, to
my astonishment she came home about the end of August with three
kittens. This was the more strange to me because, though I had killed a
wild cat, as I called it, with my gun, yet I thought it was a quite different kind
from our European cats, but the young cats were the same kind of house-
breed as the old one, and both my cats being females, I thought it very
strange. But from these three cats I afterwards came to be so pestered with
cats that I was forced to kill them like vermin, or wild beasts, and to drive
them from my house as much as possible.

From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain, so that I could not
stir, and was now very careful not to be much wet. In this confinement, I
began to be straitened for food; but venturing out twice, I one day killed a
goat; and the last day, which was the 26th, found a very large tortoise,
which was a treat to me, and my food was regulated thus: I ate a bunch
of raisins for my breakfast; a piece of the goat’s flesh, or of the turtle, for
my dinner, broiled (for, to my great misfortune, I had no vessel to boil or
stew anything), and two or three of the turtle’s eggs for supper.
94 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

During this confinement in my cover by the rain, I worked daily two or
three hours at enlarging my cave, and by degrees worked it on towards one
side, till I came to the outside of the hill, and made a door or way out,
which came beyond my ience or wall; and so J came in and out this way.
But I was not peifectly easy at lying so open; for,as I had managed myself
before, I was in a perfect enclosure; whereas now, I thought, I lay
exposed, and yet I could not perceive that there was any living thing
to fear; the biggest creature that I had yet seen upon the island being a
goat.

Sept. 30.—I was now come to the unhappy anniversary of my landing.
I cast up the notches on my post, and found I had been on shore three
hundred and sixty-five days. I kept this day as a solemn fast, setting it
apart for religious exercise, prostrating myself on the ground with the most
serious humiliation, confessing my sins to God, acknowledging His righteous
judgment upon me, and praying to Him to have mercy on me through Jesus
Christ; and having not tasted the least refreshment for twelve hours, even
till the going down of the sun,I then ate a biscuit-cake and a bunch of
grapes, and went to bed, finishing the day as I began it. I had all this time
observed no Sabbath-day, for as at first I had no sense of religion upon my
mind, I had, after some time, omitted to distinguish the weeks by making a
longer notch than ordinary for the Sabbath-day, and so did not really know
what any of the days were; but now, having cast up the days as above, I
found I had been there a year; so I divided it into weeks, and set apart
every seventh day for a Sabbath; though I found at the end of my account
I had lost a day or two inmy reckoning. A little after this, my ink began
to fail me, and so I contended myself to use it more sparingly, and to write
down only the most remarkable events of my life, without continuing a
daily memorandum of other things.

The rainy season and the dry season began to now appear regular to
me, and I learned to divide them so as to provide for them accordingly;
but I bought all ny experience before I had it, and this I am going to relate
was one of the most discouraging experiments that I made at all.

I have mentioned that I had saved the few ears of barley and rice which
I had so surprisingly found spring up, as I thought, of themselves; and I
believe there were about thirty stalks of rice, and about twenty of barley;
and now I thought it a proper time to sow it, after the rains, the sun being
in his southern position, going from me. ‘Accordingly, I dug up a piece of
ground as weil as I could with my wooden spade, and dividing it into two
parts, I sowed my grain; but as I was sowing, it casually occurred to my
thoughts that I would not sow it all at first, because I did not know when was
the proper time for it,so I sowed about two-thirds of the seed, leaving
about a handful of each. It was a great comfort to me afterwards that J
did so, for not one grain of that I sowed this time came to anything; for the
dry months following, the earth having had no rain after the seed was sown,
THE SEASONS. 95

it had no moisture to assist its growth, and never came up at all till the wet
season had come again, and then it grew as if it had been newly sown.
Finding my first seed did not grow, which I easily imagined was by the
drought, I sought for a moister piece of ground, to make another trial in.
and I dug up a piece of ground near my new bower, and sowed the rest of
my seed in February, a little before the vernal equinox; and this, having the
rainy months of March and April to water it, sprang up very pleasantly,
and yielded a very good crop; but having part of the seed left only, and
not daring to sow all that I had got, I had but a small quantity at last, my
whole crop not amounting to above half a peck of each kind. But by this
experiment ] was made master of my business, and knew exactly when the
proper season was to sow, and that I might expect two seedtimes and two
harvests every year.\,While this corn was growing I made a little discovery,
which was of use to me afterwards. As soon asthe rains were over, and
the weather began to settle, which was about the month of November, I
made a visit up the country to my bower, where, though I had not
been some months, I found all things just as] left them. The circle or
double hedge that I had made was not only firm and entire, but the stakes
which I had cut off of some trees that grew thereabouts were all shot out
and grown with long branches, as much as a willow-tree usually shoots the
first year after lopping its head. I could not tell what tree to call it that
the stakes were cut from. I was surprised, and yet very well pleased, to
see the young trees grow; and I pruned them, and led them up to grow as
much alike as I could; and it is scarcely credible how beautiful a figure they
grew into, in three years; so that though the hedge made a circle of about
twenty-five yards in diameter, yet the trees, for such I might now call ther,
soon covered it, and it was a complete shade, sufficient to lodge under a:t
the dry season. This made me resolve to cut some more stakes, and make
me a hedge like this in a semicircle round my wall (I mean that of my first
dwelling), which I did; and placing the trees or stakes in a double row, at
about eight yards distance from my first fence, they grew presently, and
_were at first a fine cover to my habitation, and afterwards served for a
defense also, as I shall observe in its order.

I found now that the seasons of the year might generally be divided, not
into summer and winter, as in Europe, but into the rainy seasons and thedry
seasons, which were generally thus:

The half of February, the whole of March and the half of April—rainy,
the sun being then on or near the equinox.

The half of April, the whole of May, June and July, and the half ot
August—dry, the sun being then to the north of the line.

The half of August, the whole of September and the half of October—
rainy, the sun being then come back.

The half of October, the whole of November, December and January,
and the half of February—dry, the sun being then to the south of the line,
96 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

The rainy seasons sometimes held longer or shorter, as the winds hap-
pened to blow, but this was the general observation I made. After I had
found, by experience, the ill consequence of being abroad in the rain, I took
care to furnish myself with provisions beforehand, that I might not he
obliged to go out, and IJ sat within doors as much as possible during the wet

tye Oe
) Wy Oe f

OU
page Silt




‘%

i

“T KNOCKED IT DOWN WITH A STICK” (4. 98).

months. In this time I found much employment, and very suitable also to
the time, for I found great occasion of many things which I had no way to
turnish myself with but by hard labor and constant application; particularly,
I tried many ways to make mysclfa basket, but all the twigsI could get for
the purpose proved so brittle that they would do nothing. It proved of
excellent advantage to me now that when I was a boy I used to take great
delight in standing at a basket-maker’s, in the town where my father lived,
A NEW LAND. 94

to see them make their wicker-ware; and being, as boys usually are, very
officious to help, and a great observer of the manner how they worked those
things, and sometimes lent a hand, I had by this means so full knowledge
of the methods of it, that I wanted nothing but the materials; when it came
into my mind that the twigs of that tree from whence I cut my stakes that
grew, might possibly be as tough as the sallows, willows and osiers in Eng-
land, and I resolved to try. Accordingly, the next day I went to my coun-
try house, as I called it, and, cutting some of the smaller twigs, I found them
to my purpose as much asI could desire; whereupon I came the next
time prepared with a hatchet to cut down a quantity, which I soon found,
for there was a great plenty of them. These I set up to dry within my cir-
cle of hedges, and, when they were fit for use, I carried them to my cave;
and here, during the next season, | employed myself in making, as well as I
could, a great many baskets, both to carry earth or to carry or lay up any-
thing, as I had occasion; and though I did not finishthem very handsomely,
yet | made them sufficiently serviceable for my purpose; and thus, after-
wards, I took care never to be without them; and as my wicker-ware
decayed, I made more, especially strong, deep baskets to place my carn in,
instead of sacks, when I should come to ace e any quantity of it.

Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of time about it,
I bestirred myself to see, if possible, how to supply two wants. | had no
vessel to hold anything that was liquid, except two runlets, which were
almost full of rum, and some glass bottles—some of the common size, and
others which were case-bottles, square, for the holding of water, spirits, ete.
I had not so much as a pot to boil anything in, except a great kettle, which
I saved out of the ship, and which was too big for such uses as I desired it
for, viz., to make broth and stew a bit of meat by itself. The second thing I
fain would have had was a tobacco-pipe, but it was impossible for mc to make
one; however, I found a contrivance for that, too,at last. I employed myself
in planting my second row of stakes or piles, and in this wicker-work, all the
summer or dry season, when another business took me up more time than it
could be imagined I could spare.

I mentioned before that I had a great mind to see the whole island, and
that I had traveled up the brook, and so on to where I built my bower, and
where I had an opening quite to the sea on the other side of the island. I
now resolved to travel quite across to the sea-shore on that side}; so taking
my gun, a hatchet, and my dog, and a larger quantity of powder and shot
than usual, with two biscuit- cakes and a great bunch of raisins in my pouch
for my store, | began my journey When I had passed the vale where my
bower stood, as above, | came within view of the sca to the west, amd it
being a very clear day, I fairly deseried land—-whether an island or a conti-
nent I could not tell; but it lay very high, extending from the W. to the
W.S.W., at a very great distance; by my guess, it could not be less than fif-
teen or twenty leagues off.
98 a ae ROBINSON CRUSOE,

I could not tell what part of the world this might be, otherwise than that
I knew it must be part of America, and, as I concluded, by all my observa-
tions, must be near the Spanish dominions, and perhaps was all inhabited by
savages, where, if I should have landed, I had been in a worse condition
than I was now; and therefore I acquiesced in the dispositions of Provi-
dence, which I began now to own and to believe ordered everything for the
best; I say I quieted my mind with this, and left afflicting myself with fruit-
less wishes of being there.

Besides, after some pause upon this affair, I considered that if this land
was the Spanish coast, I should certainly, one time or other, see some ves-
sel pass or repass one way or other; but if not, then it was the savage coast
between the Spanish country and the Brazils, which wer2 indeed the worst
of savages, for they are cannibals, and fail not to murder and devour all the
human bodies that fall into their hands. .

With these considerations I walked very leisurely forward. I found
that side of the island where I now was much pleasanter than mine—the
open or savannah fields sweet, adorned with flowers and grass, and full of
very fine woods. I saw abundance of parrots, and fain would I have caught
one, if possible, to have kept it to be tame, and taught it to speak to me
I did, after some painstaking, catch a young parrot, for I knocked it down
with a stick, and having recovered it, I brought it home; but it was some
years before I could make him speak; however, at last, I taught him to call
me by my name very familiarly. But the accident that followed, though it
be a trifle, will be very diverting in its place.

I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found in the low grounds
hares (as I thought them to be) and foxes; but they differed greatly from
all the other kinds I had met with, nor could I satisfy myself to eat them,
though I killed several. But I had no need to be venturous, for I had no
want of food, and of that which was very good, too, especially these three
sorts, viz., goats, pigeons and turtle, or tortoise, which, added to my grapes,
Leadenhall Market could not have furnished a table better than I, in pro.
portion to the company; and though my case was deplorable enough, yet I
had great cause for thankfulness that I was not driven to any extremities
for food, but had rather plenty, even to dainties. .

I never traveled in this journey above two mi.es outright in a day, or
thereabouts; but I took so many turns and returns to see what discoveries
I could make, that I came weary enough to the place where I resolved to
sit down for all night; and then I either reposed myself in a tree, or sur-
rounded myself with a row of stakes set upright in the ground, either from
one tree to another, or so as no wild creature could come at me without wak-
ing me. As soon as I came to the sea-shore I was surprised to see that I
had taken up my lot on the worst side of the island, for here, indeed, the
shore was covered with innumerable turtles, whereas, on the other side I
had found but three in a year and a half. Here was also an infinite number
THE RETURN HOME 99

of fowls of many kinds, some of which I had not seen before, and many of
them very good meat, but such as I knew not the names of, except those
called penguins.

I could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very sparing of my pow-
der and shot, and therefore had more mind to kill a she-goat, if I could,
which I could better feed on; and though there were many goats here, more
than on the other side of the island, yet it was with much more difficulty
that J could come near them, the country being flat and even, and they saw
me much sooner-than when I was onthe hills. |

I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than mine; but
yet I had not the least inclination to remove, for as I was fixed in my habi-
tation it became natural to me, and I seemed all the while I was here to be
as it were upon a journey, and from-home. However, I traveled along the
shore of the sea towards the east, I suppose about twelve miles, and then
setting up a great pole upon the shore for a mark, I concluded I would go
home again, and that the next journey I took should be on the other side
of the island east from my dwelling, and so round till 1 came to my post
again, of which in its place.

I took another way to come back than that I went, thinking I could eas-
ily keep all the island so much in my view, that I could not miss finding
my first dwelling by viewing the country; but I found myself mistaken, for,
being come about two or three miles, I found myself descended into a very
large valley, but so surrounded with hills, and those hills covered with
wood, that I could not see which was my way by any direction but that of
the sun, nor even then unless I knew very well the position of the sun at
that time of the day. It happened, to my further misfortune, that the
weather proved hazy for three or four days while J was in this valley, and
not being able to see the sun, I wandered about very uncomfortably, and at
last was obliged to find out the sea-side, look for my post, and come back
the same way I went; and then, by easy journeys, I turned homeward, the
weather being exceeding hot, and my gun, ammunition, hatchet, and other
things, very heavy.

In this journey my dog surprised a young kid, and seized upon it, and I
running in to take hold of it, caught it, and saved it alive from the dog. I
had a great mind to bring it home if I could, for I had often been musing
whether it might not be possible to get a kid or two, and so raise a breed of
tame goats, which might supply me when my powder and shot should be
spent. I made a collar to this little creature, and with a string, which I
made of some rope-yarn, which I always carried about me, I led him along,
though with some difficulty, till I came to my bower, and there I inclosed
him and left him, for I was very impatient to be at home, from whence I
had been absent above a month.

I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come into my old
hutch, and lie down in my hammock-bed. This little wandering journey,
£00 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

without settled place of abode, had been so unpleasant to me that my own
house, as I called it to myself, was a perfect settlement to me, compared to
that; and it rendered everything about me so comfortable, that I resolved
I would never goa great way

from it again, while it should

be my lot to stay on the

L island, '

I reposed myself here a
week, to rest and regale my-
self after my long journey;
during which most of the
time was taken up in the
weighty affair of making a
cage for my Poll, who began
now to be a mere domestic,
and to be mighty well
acquainted with me. Then
I began to think of the poor
kid which I had pent in with-
in my little circle, and re-
solved to go and fetch it home, or
give it some food. Accordingly I
went, and found it where I left it, for
‘indeed it could not get out, but was
almost starved for want of food. I
went and cut boughs of trees and
branches of such shrubs as I could
find, and threw them over, and hav-
ing fed it I tied it as I did before to
lead it away; but it was so tame
with. being hungry that I had no
need to have tied it, for it followed
me like a dog; and as I continually
fed it, the creature became so loving, so gentle, and so fond, that it became
‘rom that time one of my domestics also, and would never leave me after-
wards.

The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come, and I kept the
30th of September in the same solemn manner as before, being the anni-
versary of my landing on the island, having now been there for two years,
and no more prospect of being delivered than the first day I camethere. I
spent the whole day in humble and thankful acknowledgements of the
many wonderful mercies which my solitary condition was attended with,
and without which it might have been infinitely more miserable. I gave
humble and hearty thanks that God had been pleased to discover to me



Hire Ze

Es
é DM Raia ea
Mise





“AN INFINITE NUMBER OF FOWLS” (/. 9S).
NEW RESOLUTIONS. 103

that.it was possible I might be more happy in this solitary condition than
I should have been ina liberty of society, and in all the pleasures of the
world; that He could fully make up to me the deficiencies of my solitary
state, and the want of human society, by His presence and the cgmmunica-
tion of His grace to my soul; supporting, comforting and encouraging
me to depend upon His providence here, and hope for His eternal presence
hereafter.

It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much more happy the life I
now led was, with all its miserable circumstances, than the wicked, cursed,
abominable life I led all the past part of my days; and now having changed
both my sorrows and my joys, my very desires altered, my affections
changed their gusts,and my delights were perfectly new from what they
were at first coming, or, indeed, for the two years past.

Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting or for viewing the
country, the anguish of my soul at my condition would break out upon me
on a sudden, and my very heart would die within me, to think of the woods,
the. mountains, the deserts I was in, and how 1 was a prisoner, locked up
with the eternal bars and bolts of the ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness,
without redemption. Inthe midst of the greatest composures of my mind
this would break out upon me like astorm,and make me wring my hands and
weep like a child. Sometimes it would take me in the middle of my work,
and I would immediately sit down and sigh, and look upon the ground for
an hour or two together; and this was still worse to me, for if I could burst
out into tears, or vent myself by words, it would go off, and the grief having
exhausted itself would abate.

But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts. I daily read
the Word of God, and applied all the comforts of it to my present state.
One morning, being very sad, opened the Bible upon these words: “J will
never leave thee, nor forsake thee.” Immediately it occurred that these words
were to me; why else should they be directed in such a manner, just at the
moment when I was mourning over my condition, as one forsaken of God
and man? ‘Well, then,” said I, ‘if God does not forsake me, of what ill
consequence can it be, or what matters it, though the world should all for-
sake me, seeing, on the other hand, if I had all the world, and should lose
the favor and blessing of God, there would be no comparison in the loss?”

From this moment I began to conclude in my mind that it was possible
for me to be more happy in this forsaken, solitary condition, than it was
probable I should ever have been in any other particular state in -the
world; and with this thought I was going to give thanks to God for bring:
ing me to this place. I xsnow not what it was, but something shocked my
mind at that thought, and I durst not speak the words. “ How canst thou
become such a hypocrite,” said I, even audibly, “to pretend to be thankful
for a condition which, however thou mayest endeavor to be contented with,
thou wouldst rather pray heartily to be delivered from?’’ So I stopped
102 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

there; but though I could not say I thanked God for being there, yet I sin-
cerely gave thanks to God for opening my eyes, by whatever afflicting
providences, to see the former condition of my life, and to mourn for my
wickedness, and repent. I never opened the Bible, or shut it, but my very
soul within me blessed God for directing my friend in England, without any
order of mine, to pack it up among my goods, and for assisting me after-
wards to save it out of the wreck of the ship.

Thus, and in this disposition of mind, I began my third year; and though
I have not given the reader the trouble of so particular an account of my
works this year as the first, yet in general it may be observed that I was
very seldom idle, but having regularly divided my time according to several
daily employments that were before me, such as, first, my duty to God, and
the reading the Scriptures, which I constantly set apart some time for, thrice
every day; secondly, the going abroad with my gun for food, which gener-
ally took up three hours in every morning, when it did not rain; thirdly, the
ordering, curing, preserving, and cooking what I had killed or caught for
my supply: these took up great part of the day; also, it is to be considered
that in the middle of the day, when the sun was in the zenith, the violence
of the heat was too great to stir out; so that about four hours in the even-
ing was all the time I could be supposed to work in, with this exception,
that sometimes I changed my hours of hunting and working, and went to
work in the morning, and abroad with my gun in the afternoon.

To this short time allowed for labor, I desire may be added the exceeding
laboriousness of my work; the many hours which, for want of tools, want
of help, and want of skill, everything I did took up out of my time; for
example, I was full two-and-forty days in making a board for a long shelf,
which I wanted in my cave; whereas two sawyers, with their tools and a
saw-pit, would have cut six of them out of the same tree in half a day.

My case was this: it was to be a large tree which was to be cut down,
because my board was to bea broad one. This tree I was three days a-cut-
ting down, and two more cutting off the boughs, and reducing it to a log,
or piece of timber. With inexpressible hacking and hewing, I reduced both
the sides of it into chips till it began to be light enough to move; then I
turned it, and made one side of it smooth and flat as a board from end to
end; then turning that side downward, cut the other side till I brought the
plank to be about three inches thick, and smooth on both sides. Any one
may judge the labor of my hands in such a piece of work; but labor and
patience carried me through that, and many other things; I only observe
this in particular, to show the reason why so much of my time went away
with so little work, viz., that what might be a little to be done with help and
tools, was a vast labor and required a prodigious time to do alone, and by
hand. But notwithstanding this, with patience and labor, 1 went through
many things, and indeed everything that my circumstances made necessary
to me to do, as will appear by what follows.
FEATHERED THIEVES, 103

I was now in the months of November and December, expecting my crop
of barley and rice. The ground I had manured or dug up for them was not
great; for, as I observed, my seed of each was not above the quantity of
half a peck, for I had lost one whole crop by sowing in the dry season; but
now my crop promised very well, when on a sudden J found I was in danger
of losing it all again by enemies of several sorts, which it was scarcely pos-
sible to keep from it; as, first, the goats, and wild creatures which I called
hares, which, tasting the sweetness of the blade, lay in it night and day, as
soon as it came up, and ate it so close that it could get no time to shoot up
into stalk.

This I saw no remedy for but by making an inclosure about it with a
hedge, which I did witha great deal of toil, and the more because it required
a great deal of speed; the creatures daily spoiling my corn. However, as
my arable land was but small, suited to my crop, I got it totally well fenced
in about three weeks’ time; and shooting some of the creatures in the day-
time, I set my dog to guard it in the night, tying him up toa stake at the
gate, where he would stand and bark all night long; so in a little time the
enemies forsook the place, and the corn grew very strong and well, and
began to ripen apace.

But as the beasts ruined me before, while my corn was in the blade, so
the birds were as likely to ruin me now, when it was in the ear; for going
along by the place to see how it throve, J saw my little crop surrounded
with fowls, of I know not how many sorts, who stood, as it were, watching
till I should be gone. Iimmediately let fly among them, for I always had
my gun with me. I had no sooner shot but there rose up a little cloud of
fowls, which I had not seen at all, from among the corn itself.

This touched me sensibly, for I foresaw that in a few days they would
devour all my hopes; that I should be starved, and never be able to raise a
crop at all; and what to do I could not tell; however, I resolved not to losé
my corn, if possible, though I should watch it night and day. In the first
place, I went among it, to see what damage was already done, and found
they had spoiled a good deal of it; but that as it was yet too green for them,
the loss was not so great but the remainder was likely to be a good crop, if
it could be saved

I stayed by it to load my gun, and then coming away, I could easily see
the thieves sitting upon all the trees about me, as if they only waited till I
was gone away, and the event proved it to be so; for as I walked off, as if]
was gone, I was no sooner out of their sight but they dropped down one by
one into the corn again. I was so provoked that I could not have patience
to stay till more came on, knowing that every grain that they ate now was,
as it might be said, a peck-load to me in the consequence; but coming upto
the hedge, I fired again, and killed three of them. This was what I wished for;
so 1 took them up, and served them as we serve notorious thieves in Eng-
land, viz., hanged them in chains, for a terror to others. Itis impossible to
104 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

imagine almost that this should have had such an effect as it had, for the
fowls would not only not come at the corn, but, in short, they forsook all:
that part of the island, and J could never see a bird near the place as long
as my Scare-
crows hung
there. This
~¢ I was very
§ glad of, you




Tn li SN may besure,

eee gypeand about
itive the latter
end of De-

cember,
Bi :
ii which was
i (fe our second
Cee RD Te a LHIRavaeaaT At | He ([L be harvest of the year,
al i it ! reaped my Spain
een lea ele I was sadly put to it
pHa” for a scythe or sickle to
tin
i hui ~ cut it down, and all I could do was to
Nl make one, as well as I could, out of
yt one of the broad-swords, or cutlasses,
which I saved among the arms out of
the ship. However, as my crop was
but small, I had no great difficulty to cut it
down; in short, I reaped it in my way, for I
cut nothing off but the ears, and carried it
away ina great basket which I had made, and so
rubbed it out with my hands; and at the end of
all my harvesting I found that out of my half-peck
of sced I had near two bushels of rice, and above
two bushels and a half of barley; that is to say,
by my guess, for I had no measure at that time.
However, this was a great encouragement to
me, and I foresaw that in time it would please
God to supply me with bread; and yet here I was
perplexed again, for I neither knew how to grind
or make meal of my corn, or indeed how to clean
it and part it; nor, if made into meal, how to make bread of it; and if how
to make it, yet I knew not how to bake it. These things being added to
my desire of having a good quantity for store, and to secure a constant
supply, I resolved not to taste any of this crop, but to preserve it all for
seed against the next season; and, in the meantime, to employ all my study









BHP Ne



Ui
PM AE Ne i
i




“J FIRED AGAIN” (Z, 108).
FARMING OPERATIONS. 105

and hours of working to accomplish this great work of providing myself
with corn and bread.

It might be truly said that now I worked for my bread. It is a little
wonderful, and what I believe few people have thought much upon, viz.,
the strange multitude of little things necessary in the providing, producing,
curing, dressing, making, and finishing this one article of bread.

I, that was reduced to a mere state of nature, found this to my daily
discouragement, and was made more and more sensible of it every hour,
even after I had got the first handful of seed-
corn, which, as I have said, came up unex-
pectedly, and indeed to a surprise.

First, ] had no plow to turn up the earth;
no spade or shovel to dig it. Well, this I con-
quered by making me a wooden spade, as I
observed before, but this did my work but ina
‘wooden manner; and though it cost me a great
many days to make it, yet for want of iron it
not only wore out the sooner, but made my
work the harder, and made it be performed
much worse. However, this I bore with too,
and was content to work it out with patience,
and bear with the badness of the performance.
When the corn was sown, I had no harrow, but
was forced to go over it myself, and drag a
great heavy bough of a tree over it, to scratch
it, as it may be called, rather than rake or
harrow it. When it was growing, or grown, I
have observed already how many things I
wanted, to fence it, secure it, mow or reap it,
cure and carry it home, thrash, part it from the “1 HANGED THEM IN CHAINS”
chaff, and save it. Then I wanted a mill to (p. 108).
grind it, sieves to dress it, yeast and salt to
make it into bread, and an oven to bake it in;
and all these things I did without, as shall be observed; and yet the corn
was an inestimable comfort and advantage to me too. But this, as I said,
made everything laborious and tedious to me; but that there was no help
for, neither was my time so much loss to me, because, as I had divided it, a
certain part of it was every day appointed to these works; and as I had
resolved to use none of the corn for bread till I had a greater quantity by
me, I had the next six months to apply myself wholly, by labor and inven-
tion, to,furnish myself with utensils proper for the performing all the
Operations necessary for making the corn, when I had it, fit for my use.

But first I was to prepare more land, for I had now seed enough to sow
above an acre of ground. Before I did this, ] had a week’s work at least to


106 ; ROBINSON CRUSOE.

make me a spade, which, when it was done, was but a sorry one indeed, and
very heavy, and required double labor to work with it | However, I went
through that, and sowed my seed in two large flat pieces of ground, as near
my house as I could find them to my mind, and fenced them in with a good
hedge, the stakes of which were all cut of that wood which I had set before,
which I knew would grow; so that in one year’s time I knew I should have
a quick or living hedge that would want but little repair. This work was not
so little as to take me up less than three months, because great part of that
time was of the wet season, when I could not go abroad. Within-door—
that is, when it rained and I could not go out—I found employment in the
following occupations, always observing that all the while I was at work I
diverted myself with talking to my parrot, and teaching him to speak; and
I quickly learnt him to know his own name, and at last to speak it out
pretty loud—* Poll” which was the first word I ever heard spoken in the
island by any mouth but my own. This, therefore, was not my work, but
an assistant to my work; for now,as I said, I had a great employment upon
my hands, as follows—viz., I had long studied, by some means or other, to
make myself some earthen vessels, which, indeed, I wanted sorely, but knew
not where to come at them. However, considering the heat of the climate,
I did not doubt but if I could find out any clay, I might botch up some such
pot as might, being dried by the sun, be hard enough and strong enough to
bear handling and to hold anything that was dry and required to be kept so;
and as this was necessary in preparing corn, meal, etc., which was the thing
I was upon, I resolved to make some as large as I could, and fit only to
stand like jars to hold what should be put into them.

It would make the reader pity me, or rather laugh at me, to tell how
many awkward ways I took to raise this paste; what odd, misshapen, ugly
things I made; how many of them fell in, and how many fell out—the clay
not being stiff enough to bear its own weight; how many cracked by the
over-violent heat of the sun, being set out too hastily; and how many fell
to pieces with only removing, as well before as after they were dried; and, in
a word, how, after having labored hard to find the clay—to dig it, to temper
it, to bring it home, and work it—I could not make above two large earthen
ugly things (I cannot call them jars) in about two months’ labor.

However, as the sun baked these two very dry and hard, I lifted them
very gently up and set them down again in two great wicker baskets, which
I had made on purpose for them, that they might not break; and as between
the pot and the basket there was a little room to spare, I stuffed it full of the
rice and barley straw; and these two pots being to stand always dry, I thought
would hold my dry corn, and perhaps the meal when the corn was bruised.

Though I miscarried so much in my design for large pots, yet I made
several smaller things with better success, such as little round pots, flat
dishes, pitchers, and pipkins, and anything my hand turned to. and the heat
of the sun baked them strangely hard.
I MAKE SOME EARTHENWARE, 102

But all this would not answer my end, which was to get an earthen pot
to hold what was liquid and bear the fire, which none of these could do. It
happened after some time, making a pretty large fire for cooking my meat,
when I went to put it out after I had done with it, I found a broken piece of
one of my earthenware vessels in the fire, burnt as hard asa stone,and red as

-atile. I wasagreeably surprised to see it, and said to myself that certainly
they might be made to burn whole if they would burn broken. !

This set me to study how to order my fire so as to make it burn me
some pots. I had no notion of a kiln suchas the potters burn in, or of glaz-
ing them with lead, though I had some lead to do it with; but I placed
three large pipkins and two or three pots in a pile, one upon another, and
placed my firewood all round it, with a great heap of embers under them.
I piled the fire with fresh fuel round the outside and upon the top till I
saw the pots in the inside red-hot quite through, and observed that they
did not crack at all. When I saw them clear red, I let them stand in that
heat about five or six hours, till I found one of them, though it did not
crack, did melt or run; for the sand which was mixed with the clay melted
by the violence of the heat, and would have run into glass if I had gone
on; so I slacked my fire gradually till the pots began to abate of the red
color, and watching them all night, that I might not let the fire abate too

_ fast, in the morning J had three very good (I will not say handsome) pip-
kins and two other earthen pots as hard burnt as could be desired, and one
of them perfectly glazed with the running of the sand.

After this experiment, I need not say that I wanted no sort of earthen-
ware for my use, but I must needs say, as to the shapes of them, they were
very indifferent, as any one may suppose, when I had no way of making
them but as the children make dirt pies, or as a woman would make pies
that never learned to raise paste.

No joy at a thing of so mean a nature was ever equal to mine when I
found I had made an earthen pot that would bear the fire, and I had hardly
patience to stay till they were cold before I set one on the fire again, with
some water in it, to boil me some meat, which it did admirably well; and
with a piece of a kid ] made some very good broth, though I wanted oat-
meal and several other ingredients requisite to make it as good as I would
have had it.

My next concern was to get me a stone mortar to stamp or beat some
corn in, for as to the mill, there was no thought of arriving to that perfec-
tion of art with one pair of hands. To supply this want I was at a great
loss, for, of all the trades in the world, I was as perfectly unqualified fora
stone-cutter as for any whatever, neither had I any tools to go about it with.
I spent many a day to find out a great stone big enough to cut hollow and
make fit for a mortar, and could find none at all, except what was in the
solid rock, and which I had no way to dig or cut out; nor, indeed, were the
rocks in the island of hardness sufficient, but were all of a sandy, crumbling
108 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

stone, which would neither bear the weight of a heavy pestle, nor would
break the corn without filling it with sand. + So, after a great deal of time
lost in searching fora stone, I gave it over, and resolved to look out a great
block of hard wood, which I found, indeed, much easier; and getting one
as big as I had strength to stir, I rounded it and formed it on the outside
with my axe and hatchet, and then, with the help of fire and infinite labor,
made a hollow place in it, as the Indians in Brazil make their canoes. After
this I made a great heavy pestle, or beater, of the wood called the ironwood;
and this I preparedand laid by against I had my next crop of corn, which I
proposed to myself to grind, or rather pound my corn or meal to make my
bread. ,

My next difficulty was to make a sieve, or sierce, to dress my meal, and
to part it from the bran and husk; without which I did not see it possible I
could have any bread. This was a most difficult thing, so much as but to
think on; for to be sure I had nothing like the necessary things to make it
with—I mean fine thin canvas, or stuff to sierce the meal through. And
here I was at a full stop for many months, nor did I really know what to do.
Linen I had none left but what was mere rags. I had goats’-hair, but
neither knew I how to weave or spin it; and had I known how, here were no
tools to work it with. All the remedy that I found for this was, that at last
I did remember I had, among the seamen’s clothes which were saved out of
the ship, some neckcloths of calico or muslin; and with some pieces ot
these I made three small sieves, but proper enough for the work, and thus
I made shift for some years. How I did afterwards I shall show in its place.

The baking part was the next thing to be considered, and how I should
make bread when I came to have corn; for, first, I had no yeast. As to that
part, as there was no supplying the want, so I did not concern myself much
about it. But for an oven I was indeed in great pain. At length I found
out an experiment for that also, which was this: I made some earthen
vessels very broad, but not deep—that is to say, about two feet diameter,
and not above nine inches deep; these I burned in the fire as I had done the
other, and laid them by; and when I wanted to bake, I made a great fire
upon the hearth, which I had payed with some square tiles, of my own
making and burning also. But I should not call them square.

When the firewood was burned pretty much into embers, or live’coals, I
drew them forward upon this hearth, so as to cover it all over, and there I
1et them lie till the hearth was very hot; then, sweeping away all the
embers, I set down my loaf or loaves, and whelming down the earthen pot
upon them, drew the embers all round the outside of the pot to keep in and
add to the heat; and thus, as well as in the best oven in the world, I baked
my barley loaves, and became, in little time, a good pastry-cook into the
bargain; for | made myself several cakes and puddings of the rice. Indeed,
I made no pies, neither had I anything to put into them, supposing I had,
except the flesh either. of fowls or goats,
HOPES OF ESCAPE. 109

It need not be wondered at if all these things took me up most part of
the third year of my abode here; for it is to be observed that, in the inter-
vals of these things, I had my new harvest and husbandry to manage; for I
reaped my corn in its season, and carried it home as well as I could, and
laid it up in ‘he ear in my large baskets till I had time to rub it out, for I
had no floo to thrash it on, or instrument to thrash it vith.

And now, indeed, my stock of corn increasing, I really wanted to
build my barns bigger. I wanted a place to lay it up in, for the increase of
‘the corn now yielded me so much that I had of the barley about twenty
bushels, and of the rice as much, or more; insomuch that I now resolved to
begin to use it freely, for my bread had been quite gone a great while;



“WHAT ODD, MISSHAPEN, UGLY THINGS I MADE” (#. 106).

also I resolved to see what quantity would be sufficient for me a whole
year, and to sow but once a year.

Upon the whole, I found that the forty bushels of barley and rice were
much more than I could consume ina year, so I resolved to sow just the
same quantity every year that I sowed the last, in hopes that such a quan-
tity would fully provide me with bread, etc.

All the while these things were doing, you may be sure my thoughts
ran many times upon the prospect of land which I had seen from the other
side of the island; and I was not without secret wishes that I was on shore
there, fancying that, seeing the mainland and an inhabited country, I might
find some way or other to convey myself farther, and perhaps at last find
some means of escape. .

But all this while I made no allowance for the dangers of such a condi-
tion, and how I might fall into the hands of savages, and perhaps such as I

=~
110 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

might have reason to think far worse than the lions and tigers of Africa;
that if I once came into their power I should run a hazard more than a
thousand to one of being killed, and perhaps of being eaten; for I had
heard that the people of the Caribbean coasts were cannibals, or man-eaters,
and J knew by the latitude that I could not be far off from that shore; that
suppose they were not cannibals, yet they might kill me, as many
Europeans who had fallen into their hands had been served, even when
they had been ten or twenty together—much more J, that was but one, and
could make little or no defense. All these things, I say, which I ought to
have considered well of, and I did cast up in my thoughts afterwards, yet
took up none of my apprehensions at first, and my head ran mightily upon
the thought of getting over to that shore.

Now, I wished for my boy Xury, and the long boat with the shoulder-
of-mutton sail, with which I sailed above a thousand miles on the coast of
Africa; but this was in vain. Then I thought I would go and look at our
ship’s boat, which, as I have said, was blown up upon the shore a, great way
in the storm when we were first cast away. She lay almost where she did
at first, but not quite, and was turned by the force of the waves
and the winds almost bottom upward against the high ridge of beachy
rough sand, but no water about her as before. If I had had hands to have
refitted her, and to have launched her into the water, the boat would have
done well enough, and I might have back into the Brazils with her easily
enough; but I might have easily foreseen that I could no more turn her
and set her upright upon her bottom than I could remove the island. How.
ever, I went to the wood and cut levers and rollers, and brought them to
the boat, resolved to try what I could do, suggesting to myself that if I
could but turn her down I might easily repair the damage she had received
and she would be a very good boat, and I might go to sea in Ler very
easily.

I spared no pains, indeed, in this piece of fruitless toil, and spent, I think
three or four weeks about it. At last, finding it impossible to heave it up
with my little strength, I fell to digging away the sand, to undermine it, and
so to make it fall down, setting pieces of wood to thrust and guide it right
in the fall. _

But when I had done this, I was unable to stir it up again, or to get under
it, much less to move it forward towards the water, so I was forced to give
it over; and yet, though I gave over the hopes of the boat, my desire to ven-
ture over for the main increased, rather than decreased, as the means for it
seemed impossible.

This at length set me upon thinking whether it was not possible to make
myself a canoe, or periagua, suchas the natives of those climates make, even
without tools, or, as I might say, without hands—viz., of the trunk of a great
tree. This I not only thought possible, but easy, and pleased myself
extremely with my thoughts of making it, and with my having much more
I MAKE A CANOE. eet

convenience for it than any of the negroes or Indians; but not at all consid-
ering the particular inconveniences which I lay under more than the Indians
did, viz., want of hands to move it into the water when it was made, a diffi-
culty much harder for me to surmount than all the consequences of want of
tools could be to them. For what was it to me that when I had chosen a
vast tree in the wood, I might with great trouble cut it down, if, after I might
be able with my tools to hew and dub the outside into the proper shape of
a boat, and burn or cut out the inside to make it hollow, so as to make a boat
of it—if, after all this, I must leave it just there where I found it, and was
not able to launch it into the water?

One would have thought I could not have had the least reflection upon
my mind of my circumstances while I was making this boat, but I should
have immediately thought how I should get it into the sea; but my thoughts
were so intent upon my voyage over the sea in it, that I never once consid-
ered how I should get it off the land; and it was really, in its own nature,
more easy for me to guide it over forty-five miles of sea than about forty-
five fathoms of land, where it lay, to set it afloat in the water.

I went to work upon this boat the most like a fool that ever man did,
who hadany of his sensesawake. I pleased myself with the design, without
determining whether I was ever able to undertake it; not but that the diffi-
culty of launching my boat came often into my head, but I put a stop tomy
inquiries into it by this foolish answer which I gave myself: “Let me first make
it; I warrant I shall find some way or other to get it along when it is done.”

This was a most preposterous method; but the eagerness of my fancy
prevailed, and to work I went and felled a cedar tree. I question much
whether Solomon ever had such a one for the building the Temple at Jeru-
salem; it was five feet ten inches diameter at the lower part next the stump,
and four feet eleven inches diameter at the end of twenty-two feet, after
which it lessened for awhile, and then parted into branches. It was not
without infinite labor that I felled this tree. I was twenty days hacking
and hewing at it at the bottom. I was fourteen more getting the branches
and limbs and the vast spreading head of it cut off, which I hacked and
hewed through with my axe and hatchet, and inexpressible labor. After
this it cost me a month to shape it and dub it to a proportion, and to some-
thing like the bottom of a boat, that it might swim uprightas it ought to do.
It cost me near three months more to clear the inside, and work it out so as
to make an exact boat of it. This I did, indeed, without fire, by mere
mallet and chisel, and by the dint of hard labor, till I had brought it to be
a very handsome periagua, and big enough to have carried six-and-twenty
men, and consequently big enough to have carried mevand all my cargo.

When I had gone through this work I was extremely delighted with it.
The boat was really much bigger than ever I saw a canoe or periagua, that
was made of one tree, in my life. Many a weary stroke it had cost, you
may be sure—for there remained nothing but to get it into the water; and
i12 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

had I gotten it into the water, I make no question but I should have begun
the maddest voyage and the most unlikely to be performed that ever was
undertaken.

But all my devices to get it into the water failed me, though they cost
infinite labor, too. It lay about one hundred yards from the water, and not
more; but the first inconvenience was it was up-hill towards the creek.
Well, to take away this discouragement, I resolved to dig into the surface of
the earth, and so make a declivity. This I began, and it cost mea prodig-
ious deal of pains (but who grudge pains that have their deliverance in
view?). But when this was worked through, and this difficulty managed, it
was still much at one, for I could no more stir the canoe than I could the
other boat. Then I measured the distance of ground, and resolved to cut
a dock or canal, to bring the water up to the canoe, seeing I could not bring
the canoe down to the water Well, I began this work, and when I began
to enter into it and calculate how deep it was to be dug, how broad, how
the stuff was to be thrown out, I found that, by the number of hands I had,
being none but my own, it must have been ten or twelve years before I could
have gone through with it, for the shore lay so high that at the upper end
it must have been at least twenty feet deep; so at length, though with great
reluctancy, I gave this attempt over also.

This grieved me heartily, and now I saw, though too late, the folly of
beginning a work before we count the cost, and before we judge rightly of
our own strength to go through with it.

In the middle of this work I finished my fourth year in this place, and
kept my anniversary with the same devotion, and with as much comfort as
ever before, for, by a constant study and serious application of the Word of
God, and by the assistance of His grace, I gained a different knowledge
from what I had before I entertained different notions of things. I looked
now upon the world as a thing remote, which I had nothing to do with, no
expectation from, and, indeed, no desires about; in a word, IT had nothing
indeed to do with it, nor was ever likely to have. So I thought it looked,
as we may perhaps look upon it hereafter, viz,, as a place I had lived in, but
was come out of it. And well might I say, as Father Abraham to Dives,
“ Between me and thee is a great gulf fixed.”

In the first place I was removed from all the wickedness of the world
here; I had neither the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eye, nor the pride of
life. I had nothing to covet, for I had all I was now capable of enjoying; !
was lord of the whole manor, or, if I pleased, I might call myself king or
emperor over the whole country which I had possession of. There were no
rivals; I had no competitor, none to dispute sovereignty or command with
me, I might have raised ship-loadings of corn, but I had no use far it, so I
Ict as little grow as I thought enough for my occasion. I had tortoises or
turtles enough, but now and then one was as much as I could put to any use.
I had timber enough to have built a fleet of ships, and I had grapes enough
USELESS GOLD.

to have made wine, or
to have cured into rais-
ins, to have loaded that
fleet when it had been
built.

But all I could make
use of was all that was.
valuable. I had enough
to eat and tosupply my
wants, and what was all
the rest to me? If I
killed more flesh than I
could eat the dog must
eat it, or the vermin; if I
sowed more corn than I
could eat, it must be
spoiled; the trees that I
cut down were lying to rot
on the ground; I could
make no more use of them than
for fuel, and that I had no occ>-
sion for but to dress my food.

In a word, the nature and
experience of things dictated
to me upon just reflection, that
all the good things of this world
are no further good to us than
they are for our use; and that,
whatever we may heap up in-
deed to give others, we enjoy as
much as we can use and no
more. The most covetous,
griping miser in the world
would have been cured of the
vice of covetousness if he had
been in my case, for I possessed
infinitely more than I knew what
to do with. I had no room for
desire, except it was of things
which I had not, and they were
but trifles, though, indeed, of




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“1 RESOLVED TO DIG INTO THE SURFACE OF
THE EARTH” (2, 112),

great use tome. J had, as I hinted before, a parcel of money, as well gold as

silver, about thirty-six pounds sterling. Alas! there the nasty, sorry, use-

less stuff lay! I had no manner of business for it, and I often thought with
8
114 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

myself that I would have given a handful of it for a gross of tobacco-pipes,
or for a hand-mill to grind my corn; nay, I would have given it all for
sixpenny-worth of turnip and carrot seed out of England, or for a handful
of peas and beans and a bottle of ink. As it was, I had not the least
advantage by it, or benefit from it, but there it lay in a drawer and grew
moldy with the. damp of the cave in the wet seasons, and if I had had the
drawer full of diamonds it had been the same case, they had been of ne
manner of value to me, because of no use.

[had now brought my state of life to be much easier in itself than it was
at first, and much easier to my mind as well as to my body. I frequently
sat down to meat with thankfulness and admired the hand of God’s provi:
dence which had thus spread my table in the wilderness, I learned to look
more upon the bright side of my condition, and less upon the dark side, and
to coasider what I enjoyed rather than what I wanted, and this gave me
somecimes such secret comforts that I cannot express them, and which I
take notice of here, to put those discontented people in mind of it, who can-
not enjoy comfortably what God has given them, because they see and covet
something that He has not given them. All our discontents about what we
want appeared to me to spring from the want of thankfulness for what we
have.

Another reflection was of great use to me and doubtless would be so to
any one that should fall into such distress as mine was, and this was to com-
pare my present condition with what I at first expected it would be; nay,
with what it would certainly have been if the good providence of God had
not wonderfully ordered the ship to be cast up nearer to the shore, where I
not only could come at her, but could bring what I got out of her to the
shore, for my relief and comfort, without which, I had wanted for tools to
work, weapons for defense, and gunpowder and shot for getting my food.

I spent whole hours, I may say whole days, in representing to myself,
in the most lively colors, how I must have acted if I had got nothing out of
the ship. How I could not have so much as got any food, except fish and
turtles, and that, as it was long before I found any of them, I must have
perished first; that I should have lived, if I had not perished, like a mere
savage; that if I had killed a goat or a fowl, by any contrivance, I had no
way to flay or open it, or part the flesh from the skin and the bowels, or to
cut it up, but must gnaw it with my teeth, and pull it with my claws, like a
beast.

These reflections made me very sensible of the goodness of Providence
to me, and very thankful for my present condition, with all its hardships
and misfortunes, and this part also I cannot but recommend to the reflection
of those who are apt, in their misery, to say, “Is any affliction like mine?”
Let them consider how much worse the cases of some people are, and their
case might have been, if Providence had thought fit.

J had another reflection, which assisted me also to comfort my mind with
TERRIBLE REFLECTIONS. 115

hopes, and this was comparing my present situation with what I had deserved,
and had therefore reason to expect from the hand of Providence. I had lived
a dreadful life, perfectly destitute of the knowledge and fear of God. Ihad
been well instructed by father and mother, neither had they been wanting
to me intheir early endeavors to infuse a religious awe of God into my mind,
a sense of my duty and what the nature and end of my being required of
me. But, alas! falling early into the sea-faring life, which, of all lives, is
the most destitute of the fear of God, though His terrors are always before
them—I say, falling early into the sea-faring life, and into sea-faring com-
pany, all that little sense of religion which I had entertained was laughed
out of me by my messmates; by a hardened despising of dangers, and the
views of death, which grew habitual to me; by my long absence from all
manner of opportunities to converse with anything but what was like my-
self, or to hear anything of what was good or tended towards it.

So void was I of everything that was good, or of the least sense of what
I was, or was to be, that, in the greatest deliverances I enjoyed—such as
my escape from Sallee, my being taken up by the Portuguese master of the
ship, my being planted so well in the Brazils, my receiving the cargo from
England, and the like—I never once had the words, “Thank God!” so much
as on my mind, or in my mouth, nor in the greatest distress had I so much
thoughts as to pray to Him, or so much as to say, “Lord, have mercy upon
me!” no, not to mention the name of God, unless it was to swear by, and
blaspheme it.

I had terrible reflections upon my mind for many months, as I have
already observed, on the account of my wicked and hardened life past, and
when I looked about me, and considered what particular providences had
attended me since my coming into this place, and how God had dealt
bountifully with me--had not only punished me less than my iniquity had
deserved, but had so plentifully provided for me—this gave me great hopes
that my repentance was accepted, and that God had yet mercies in store
for me.

With these reflections, I worked my mind up, not only to resignation to
the will of God in the present disposition of my circumstances, but even to
a sincere thankfulness for my condition, and that I, who was yet a living
man, ought not to complain, seeing I had not the due punishment of my
sins. That I enjoyed so many mercies which I had no reason to have
expected in that place. That I ought nevermore to repine at my condition,
but to rejoice, and to give daily thanks for that daily bread, which nothing
but a crowd of wonders could have brought. That I ought to consider I
had been fed even by a miracle, even as great as that of feeding Elijah by
ravens—nay, by a long series of miracles. And that I could hardly have
named a place in the uninhabited part of the world where I could have been
cast more to my advantage; a place where, as I had no society, which was
my affliction on one hand, so I found no ravenous beasts, no furious wolves
116 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

or tigers, to threaten my life, no venomous creatures or poisonous, which I
might have fed on to my hurt, no savages to murder and devour me. Ina
word, as my life was a life of sorrow one way, so it was a life of mercy
another, and I wanted nothing to make it a life of comfort but to be able to
make my sense of God’s goodness to me, and care over me in this condition,
be my daily consolation; and after I made a just improvement of these
things, I went away, and was no more sad. I had now been here so long,
that many things which I brought on shore for my help were either quite
gone, or very much wasted and near spent.

My ink, as I observed, had been gone some time, all but a very little,
which I eked out with water, a little and a little, till it was so pale, it scarce
left any appearance of black upon the paper. As long as it lasted, I made
use of it to minute down the days of the month on which any remarkable
thing happened to me; and first; by casting up times past, I remembered
that there was a strange concurrence of days in the various providences
which befell me, and which, if I had been superstitiously inclinedto observe
days as fatal or fortunate, I might have had reason to have looked upon
with a great deal of curiosity.

First, I had observed that the same day that I broke away from my
father and my friends, and ran away to Hull, in order to go to sea, the same
day afterwards I was taken by the Sallee man-of-war, and made a slave; the
same day of the year that I escaped out of the wreck of that ship in Yar-
mouth Roads, that same day of the year afterwards I mademy escape from
Sallee in a boat; the same day of the year I was born on—viz., the 20th of
September—the same day I had my life so miraculously saved twenty-six
years after, when I was cast on shore in-this island; so that my wicked life
and solitary life began both on a day.

The next thing to my ink being wasted, was that of my bread—I mean
the biscuit which I brought out of the ship. This I had husbanded to the
last degree, allowing myself but one cake of bread a day for above a year;
and yet I was quite without bread for’a year before I got any corn of my
own; and great reason I had to be thankful that I had any at all, the getting
it being, as has been already observed, next to miraculous.

My clothes, too, began to decay mightily; as to linen, I had had none a
good while, except some checkered shirts which I found in the chests of the
other seamen, and which I carefully preserved; because many times I could
bear no other clothes on but a shirt; and it was a very great help to me that
I had, among all the men’s clothes of the ship, almost three dozen of shirts.
There were also several thick watch-coats of the seamen’s which were left
behind, but they were too hot to wear; and though it is true that the weather
was so violently hot that there was no need of clothes, yet I could not go
quite naked—no, though I had been inclined to it, which I was not; nor
could I abide the thoughts of it, though I was all alone. One reason why I
could not go naked was, I could not bear the heat of the sun so well when


I MAKE AN UMBRELLA. 117

quite naked as with some clothes on; nay, the very heat frequently blistered
my skin; whereas, with a shirt on, the air itself made some motion, and,
whistling under the shirt, was twofold cooler than without it. No more
could I ever bring myself to go out inthe heat of the sun without a cap or
a hat; the heat of the sun, beating with such violence as it doesin that place,
would give me the headache presently, by darting so directly on my head,
without a hat or cap on, so that I could not bear it; whereas, if I put on my
hat, it would presently go away.

Upon these views, I began to consider about putting the few rags I had,
which I called clothes, into some order. I had worn out all the waiscoats

‘I had, and my business was now to try if I could not make jackets out of

the great watch-coats which I had by me, and with such other materials as |
had, so I set to work tailoring, or rather indeed botching, for I made most
piteous work of it. However, 1 made shift to make two or three waist-
coats, which I hoped would serve me a great while, as for breeches or
drawers I made but avery sorry shift indeed till afterwards.

I have mentioned that I saved the skins ofall the creatures that I killed
—I mean four-footed ones—and I had them hung up, stretched out with
sticks in the sun, by which means some of them were so dry and hard ‘that
they were fit for little, but others it seems were very useful. The first thing
I made of these was a great cap for my head, with the hairon the outside to
shoot off the rain, and this I performed so well that, after, ] made me a suit
of clothes wholly of those skins—that is to say, a waistcoat and breeches
open at the knees, and both loose, for they were rather wanting to keep me
cool than to keep me warm. I must not omit to acknowledge that they
were wretchedly made, for if I was a bad carpenter I was a worse tailor.
However, they were such as I made a very good shift with, and when I was
abroad, if it happened to rain, the hair of the waistcoat and cap being
outermost, I was kept very dry.

After this I spent a great deal of time and pains to make an umbrella.
I was indeed in great want of one, and had a great mind to makeone. I
had seen them made in the Brazils, where they are very useful in the great
heats which are there, and I felt the heats every jot as great here, and
greater too, being nearer the equinox; besides, as I was obliged to be much
abroad, it was a most useful thing to me, as well for the rains as the heats.
I took a world of pains at it, and was a great while before I could make
anything likely to hold; nay, after ] thought I had hit the way, I spoiled
two or three before I made one to my mind. But at last I made one that
answered indifferently well; the main difficulty I found was to make it to
let down. I could make it spread, but if it did not let down too, and draw
in, it would not be portable for me any way but just over my head, which
would not do. However, at last, as I said, I made one to answer, I covered
it with skins, the hair upwards, so that it cast off the rain like a pent-house
and kept off the sun so effectually that I could walk out in the hottest of
118 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the weather with greater advantage than 1 could before in the coolest, and
when I had no need of it, I could close it and carry it under my arm.

Thus I lived mighty comfortably, my mind being entirely composed by
resigning to the will of God, and throwing myself wholly upon the disposal
of His providence. This made my life better than sociable, for when I
began to regret the want of conversation, I would ask myself, whether thus
conversing mutually with my own thoughts, and (as I hope I may say) with
even my Maker, by ejacu-
lations and petitions, was not
better than the utmost enjoy-.
ment of human society in the
world?

I cannot say that, after’
this, for five years, any ex-
traordinary thing happened
to me, but I lived on in the
same course, in the same
posture and place, just as
before. The chief thing I
was employed in, besides my
yearly labor of planting my
barley and rice and curing
my raisins—of both which I
always kept up just enough
to have sufficient stock of the
year’s provisions beforehand
—I say, besides this yearly
labor and my daily labor of
going out with my gun, I had
one labor, to make me a

“I MADE ME A SUIT OF CLOTHES” (#, 117). canoe, which at last I fin-

ished; so that, by digging a

canal to it of six feet wide
and four feet deep, I brought it into the creek, almost half a mile. As for
the first, which was so vastly big, as I made it without considering before-
hand, as I ought to do, how I should be able to launch it, so, never being
able to bring it into the water, or bring the water to it, I was obliged to let
it lie where it was, as a memorandum to teach me to be wiser the next
time. Indeed, the next time, though I could not get a tree proper for it,
and was in a place where I could not get the water to it at any less distance
than, as I have said, of near half a mile, yet, as I saw it was practicable at
last, 1 never gave it over; and though I was near two years about it, yet I
never grudged my labor, in hopes of having a boat to go off to sea at last.

However, though my little periagua was finished, yet the size of it was




A VOYAGE OF DISCOVERY. 119

not at all answerable to the design which I had in view when I made. the
first—I mean of venturing over to the ¢erra firma, where it was above forty
miles broad. Accordingly, the smallness of my boat assisted to put anend
to that design, and now I thought no more of it. As J hada boat, my next
design was to make a tour round the island; for as I had been on the other
side in one place, crossing, as I have already described it, over the land, so
the discoveries I made in that journey made me very eager to see other
parts of the coast; and now IJ had a boat, I thought of nothing but sailing
round the island.

For this purpose, and that I might do everything with discretion and
consideration, I fitted up a little mast in my boat, and made a sail to it out
of some of the pieces of the ship’s sails, which lay in store, and of which I
had a great store by me. Having fitted my mast and sail, and tried the
boat, I found she would sail very well; then I made little lockers, or boxes,
at each end of my boat, to put provisions, necessaries, ammunition, etc.,
into, to be kept dry, either from rain or the spray of the sea; and a little,
long, hollow place I cut in the inside of the boat, where I could lay my gun,
making a flap to hang down over it, to keep it dry.

I fixed my umbrella also in a step at the stern, like a mast, to stand over
my head, and keep the heat of the sun off of me, like an awning. And thus
I every now and then took a little voyage upon the sea; but never went far
out, nor far from the little creek. At last, being eager to view the circum-
ference of my little kingdom, I resolved upon my tour; and accordingly I
victualed my ship for the voyage, putting in two dozen of loaves (cakes I
should rather call them) of barley-bread, an earthen pot full of parched
rice (a food I ate a great deal of), a little bottle of rum, half a goat, and
powder with shot for killing more, and two large watch-coats (of those
which, as I mentioned before, I had saved out of the seamen’s chests).
These I took, one to lie upon and the other to cover me in the night.

It was the 6th of November, in the sixth year of my reign, or my captiv-
ity, which you please, that I set out on this voyage, and I found it much
longer than I expected; for though the island itself was not very large, yet
when I came to the east side of it, I found a great ledge of rocks lie out
about two leagues into the sea—some above water, some under it; and
beyond that a shoal of sand, lying dry halfa league more, so that I was
obliged to go a great way out to sea to double that point.

When I first discovered them, I was going to give over my enterprise,
and come back again, not knowing how far it might oblige me to go out to
sea, and, above all, doubting how I should get back again, so I came to an
anchor; for I had made a kind of an anchor with a piece of broken grap-
pling which I got out of the ship. -

Having secured my boat, I took my gun and went on shore, climbing up
a hill which seemed to overlook that point, where I saw the full extent of
ii, and resolved to venture.
120 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

In my viewing the sea from that hill where I stood, I perceived a strong
and, indeed, a most furious current, which ran to the east, and even came
close to the point; and I took the more notice of it because I saw there
might be some danger; that when I came into it, I might be carried out to
sea by the strength of it, and not be able to make the island again. And,
indeed, had I not got first upon this hill, I believe it would have been SO,
for there was the same current on the other side of the island, only that it
set off at a farther distance, and I saw there was a strong eddy under the
shore; so I had nothing to do but to get out of the first current, and I should
presently be in an eddy.

I lay here, however, two days, because the wind, blowing pretty fresh at
E.S.E., and that being just contrary to the current, made a great breach of
the sea upon the point; so that it was not safe for me to keep too close to
the shore for the breach, nor to go too far off, because of the stream.

The third day, in the morning, the wind having abated overnight, the
sea was calm, and I ventured. But I am a warning-piece to all rash and
ignorant pilots, for no sooner was I come to the point, when I was not even
my boat’s length from the shore, but I found myself ina great depth of
water, and a current like the sluice of a mill. It carried my boat along with
it with such violence that all I could do could not keep her so much as on
the edge of it; but I found it hurried me farther and farther out from the
eddy, which was on my left hand. There was no wind stirring to help me,
and all that I could do with my paddles signified nothing. And now I
began to give myself over for lost, for as the current was on both sides of
the island, I knew in a few leagues’ distance they must join again, and then
I was irrecoverably gone; nor did I see any possibility of avoiding it; so
that I had no prospect before me but of perishing, not by the sea, for that
was calm enough, but of starving from hunger. I had, indeed, found a tor-
toise on the shore, as big almost as I could lift, and had tossed it into the
boat; and I had a great jar of fresh water—that is to say, one of my earthen
pots; but what was all this to being driven into the vast ocean, wnere, to be
sure, there was no shore, no mainland or island, for a thousand leagues at
least?

And now I saw how easy it was for the providence of God to make the
most miserable condition that mankind could be in worse. Now I looked
back upon my desolate, solitary island as the most pleasant place in the
world, and all the happiness my heart could wish for was to be there again.
I stretched out my hands to it with eager wishes. “O happy desert!” said
I, “I shall never see thee more. O miserable creature! whither am I going?”
Then I reproached myself with my unthankful temper, and how I had
repined at my solitary condition; and now what would I give to be on shore
there again! Thus, we never see the true state of our condition till it is
illustrated to us by its contraries, nor know how to value what we enjoy,
but by the want of it. It is scarcely possible to imagine the consternation
DRIVEN FROM HOME. 121

I was now in, being driven from my beloved island (for so it appeared to
me now to be) into the wide ocean, almost two leagues, and in the utmost
despair of ever recovering it again. However, I worked hard, till, indeed,
my strength was almost exhausted, and kept my boat as much to the north-
ward—that is, towards the side of the current which the eddy lay on—as








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possibly I could; when about noon, as the sun passed the meridian, I
thought I felt a little breeze of wind in my face, springing up from the
S.S.E. This cheered my heart a little, and especially when, in about half
an hour more, it blew a pretty small, gentle gale. By this time I had got at
a frightful distance from the island, and had the least cloudy or hazy
weather intervened, I had been undone another way, too, for I had no com-
pass on board and should never have known how to have steered towards
the island, if I had but once lost sight of it. But the weather continuing
clear, I applied myself to get up my mast again, and spread my sail, stand-
ing away to the north as much as possible, to get out of the current.
122 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Just as I had set up my mast and sail, and the boat began to stretch away,
I saw even by the clearness of the water some alteration of the current was
near; for where the current was so strong, the water was foul; but perceiv-
ing the water clear, I found the current abate; and presently I found tothe
east, at about half a mile, a breach of the sea upon some rocks. These
rocks, I found, caused the current to part again, and as the main stress of it
ran away more southerly, leaving the rocks to the northeast, so the other
returned by the repulse of the rock, and madea strong eddy, which ran
back again to the northwest, with a very sharp stream.

They who know what it is to have a reprieve brought to them upon the
ladder, or to be rescued from thieves just going to murder them, or who
have been in such extremities, may guess what my present surprise of joy
was, and how gladly I put my boat into the stream of this eddy; and the
wind also freshening, how gladly I spread my sail to it, running cheerfully
before the wind, and with astrong tide or eddy under foot.

This eddy carried me about a league in my way back again, directly
towards the island, but about two leagues more towards the northward than
the current lay which carried me away at first; so that when I came near
the island, I found myself open to the northern shore of it—that is to say,
the other end of the island, opposite to that which I went out from.

When I had made something more than a league of way by help of this
current or eddy, I found it was spent, and saved me no farther. However,
I found that being between two great currents—viz., that on the south side,
which had hurried me away, and that on the north, which lay about two
leagues on the other side—I say, between these two, in the wake of the
island, I found the water at least still, and running no way; and having still
a breeze of wind fair for me, I kept on steering directly for the island,
though not making such fresh way as I did before.

About four o’clock in the evening, being then within about a league of
the island, I found the point of the rocks which occasioned this disaster
stretching out, as is described before, to the southward, and casting off the
current more southerly, had, of course, made another eddy to the north; and
this I found very strong, but not directly setting the way my course lay,
which was due west, but almost full north. However, having a fresh gale, I
stretched across this eddy, slanting northwest; and in about an hour came
within about a mile of the shore, where, it being smooth water, I soon got
to,land.

When I was on shore, I fell on my knees, and gave God thanks for my
deliverance, resolving to lay aside all thoughts of my deliverance by my
boat; and refreshing myself with such things as I had, I brought my boat
close to the shore, ina little cove that I had spied under some trees, and
laid me down to sleep, being quite spent with the labor and fatigue of the
voyage.

T was now at a great loss which way to get home with my boat! I had
A STRANGE VOICE, : 123

run so much hazard, and knew too much of the case, to think of attempting
it by the way I went out; and what might be at the other side (I mean the
west side) I knew not, nor had J any mind to runany more ventures. So J
and to see if there was no creek where I might lay up my frigatein safety, so
as to have her again, if I wanted her. In about three miles or thereabouts,
coasting the shore, I came toa very good inlet, or bay, about a mile over, which
narrowed till it cametoa very little rivulet or brook, where I founda very con-
venient harbor for my boat, and where she lay as if she had been ina little
dock made on purpose for her. Here I put in, and having stowed my boat
very safe, I went on shore to look about me, and see where I was.

I soon found I had but little passed the place where I had been before,
when I had traveled on foot to that shore; so, taking nothing out of my
boat but my gun and umbrella, for it was exceedingly hot, I began my
march. The way was comfortable enough after such a voyage as I had been
upon, and I reached my old bower in the evening, where I found everything
standing as I left it; for I always kept it in good order, being, as I said
before, my country-house.

I got over the fence, and laid me down in the shade to rest my limbs,
for I was very weary, and fell asleep. But judge you, if you can, that read
my story, what a surprise I must have been in when I was awaked out of
my sleep bya voice, calling me by name several times: “ Robin, Robin,
Robin Crusoe! poor Robin Crusoe! Where are you, Robin Crusoe? Where
are you? Where have you been?”

I was so dead asleep at first, being fatigued with rowing, or paddling, as
it is called, the first part of the day, and walking the latter part, that I did
not awake thoroughly; and dozing between sleeping and waking, thought |
dreamed that somebody spoke to me; but as the voice continued to repeat,
“Robin Crusoe! Robin Crusoe!” at last I began to awake more perfectly,
and was at first dreadfully frightened, and started up in the utmost conster-
nation. But no sooner were my cyes open but I saw my Poll sitting on the
top of the hedge, and immediately knew that it was he that spoke to me;
for just in such bemoaning language I had used to talk to him and teach him;
and he had learned it so perfectly that he would sit upon my finger, and
lay his bill close to my face, and cry,“ Poor Robin Crusoe! Where are
your Where have you been? How came you here?” and such things as
I had taught him. ee

However, everi though I knew it was the parrot, and that indeed it could
be nobody else, it was a good while before I could compose myself. First,
4 was amazed how the creature got thither; and then, how he should just
fseep about the place, and nowhere else; but as I was well satisfied it could
be nobody but honest Poll, I got over it; and holding out my hand, and call-
ing him by his name, “ Poll,” the sociable creature came to me, and sat upon
my thumb, as he used to do, and continued talking to me, “ Poor Robin
124 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Crusoe! and how did I come here? and where had I been?” just as if hehad
been overjoyed to see me again; and so I carried him home along with me.

I had now had enough of rambling to sea for some time, and had enough
to do for many days to sit still and reflect upon the danger I had beenin. I
would have been very glad to have had my boat again on my side of the
island; but I knew not how it was practicable to get it about. As to the
east side of the island, which I had gone round, I knew well enough there
was no venturing that way; my very heart would shrink, and my very blood
run chill, but to think of it; and as to the other side of the island, I did not
know how it might be there. But supposing the current ran with the same
force against the shore at the east as it passed by it on the other, I might
run the same risk of being driven down the stream, and carried by the island,
as I had been before of being carried away from it. So with these thoughts
I contented myself to be without any boat, though it had been the product
of so many months’ labor to make it, and of so many more to get it intothe
sea.

In this government of my temper I remained near a year; lived a very
sedate, retired life, as you may well suppose; and my thoughts being very
much composed as to my condition, and fully comforted in resigning
myself to the dispositions of Providence, I thought I lived really very hap-
pily in all things, except that of society.

Timproved myself in this time in all the mechanic exercises which my
necessities put me upon applying myself to; and I believe I should, upon
occasion, have made a very good carpenter, especially considering how few
tools I had.

Besides this, I arrived at an unexpected perfection in my earthenware,
and contrived well enough to make them with a wheel, which I found infi-
nitely easier and better, because I made things round and shaped, which
before were filthy things indeed to look on. But I think I was never more
vain of my own performanee, or more joyful for anything I found out, than
for my being able to make a tobacco-pipe; ani} though it was a very ugly,
clumsy thing when it was done, and only burnt red, like other earthenware,
yet as it was hard and firm, and would draw the smoke, I was exceedingly
comforted with it, for 1 had been always used to smoke; and there were
pipes in the ship, but I forgot them at first, not thinking that there was
tobacco in the island; and afterwards, when I searched the ship again, I
could not come at any pipes.

In my wickerware also I improved much, and made abundance of neces-
sary baskets, as well as my invention showed me; though not very hand-
some, yet they were such as were very handy, and convenient for laying
things up in, or fetching things home. For example, if I killed a goat
abroad, I could hang it up ina tree, flay it, and dress it, and cut it in pieces,
and bring it home in a basket; and the like bya turtle; I could cut it up,
take out the eggs, and a piece or two of the flesh, which was enough for
TRAPPING THE GOATS, 125

me, and bring them home in a basket, and leave the rest behind me. Also,
large deep baskets were my teceivers for my corn, which I always rubbed
out as soon as it was dry, and cured; and kept it in great baskets, instead of
a granary,

I began now to perceive my powder abated considerably; and this was
a want which it was impossible for me to supply, and I began seriously to
consider what I must do when I should have no more powder; that is to say,
how I should do to kill any goats, I had, as I observed in the third year of
my being here, kept a young kid, and bred her up tame; I was in hopes of
getting a he-kid; but I could not by any means bring it to pass, till my kid
grew an old goat; and as I could never find in my heart to kill her, she died
at last of mere age.

But being now in the eleventh year of my residence, and, as I have said,
my ammunition growing low, I set myself to study some art to trap and
snare the goats, to see whether I could not catch some of them alive, and
particularly I wanted a she-goat great with young. To this purpose, I made
snares to hamper them, and I believe they were more than once taken in
them; but my tackle was not good, for I had no wire, and always found
them broken, and my bait devoured. At length, I resolved to try a pitfall, so
I dug several large pits in the earth, in places where I had observed the goats
used to feed, and over these pits I placed hurdles, of my own making, too,
with a great weight upon them, and several times I put ears of barley and
dry rice, without setting the trap, and I could easily perceive that the goats
had gone in and eaten up the corn, for I could see the marks of their feet.
At length, I set three traps in one night, and going the next morning, I
found them all standing, and yet the bait eaten and gone. This was very
discouraging. However, I altered my traps; and, not to trouble you with
particulars, going one morning to see my traps, I found in one of them a
a large old he-goat, and in one of the others, three kids, a male and two
females.

As to the old one, I knew not what to do with him; he was so fierce I
durst not go into the pit to him; that is to say, to go about to bring him
away alive, which was what I wanted. I could have killed him, but that
was not my business, nor would it answer my end; so I even let him out,
and he ran away, as if he had been frighted out of his wits. But I had for-
got then what I learned afterwards, that hunger will tame a lion. If I had
let him stay there three or four days without food, and then have carried
him some water to drink, and then a little corn, he would have. been as
tame as one of the kids; for they are mighty sagacious, tractable creatures,
where they are well used.

However, for the present I let him go, knowing no better at that time,
Then I went to the three kids, and, taking them one by one, I tied them
with strings together, and with some difficulty brought them all home.

It was a good while before they would feed, but throwing them some
126 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

sweet corn, it tempted them and they began to be tame. And now I found
that if lexpected to supply myself with goats’ flesh, when I had no powder
or shct left, breeding some up tame was my only way, when, perhaps, I
might have them about my house like a flock of sheep. But, then, it
occurred to me that I must keep the tame from the wild, or else they
would always run wild when they grew up, and the only way for this was to
have some inclosed piece of ground, well fenced either with hedge or pale,

























































“I FELL ON MY KNEES” (A, 122),

to keep them up so effectually, that those within might not break out, or
those without break in.

This was a great undertaking for one pair of hands, yet, as I saw there
was an absolute necessity for doing it, my first piece of work was to find out a
proper piece of ground—viz., where there was likely to be herbage for them
to eat, water for them to drink, and cover to keep them from the sun.

Those who understand such inclosures will think I had very little con-
trivance, when I pitched upon a lace very proper forall these, being a plain.
{ SET UP A DAIRY, 127

open piece of meadow land, or savannah (as our people call it in thé West-
ern colonies), which had two or three little drills of fresh water in it, and at
one end was very woody; I say, they will smile at my forecast, when I shall
tell them I began by inclosing of this piece of ground in sucha manner that
my hedge or pale must have been at least two miles about. Nor was the
madness of it so great as to the compass, for if it was ten miles about I was
like to have time enough to do it in; but-I did not consider that my goats
would be as wild in so much compass as if they had had the whole island,
and I should have so much room to chase them in that I should never catch
them.

My hedge was begun and carried on, I believe, about fifty yards, when
this thought occurred to me; so I presently stopped short, and, for the first
beginning, I resolved to inclose a piece of about one hundred and fifty yards
in length, and one hundred yards in breadth, which, as it would maintain as
many as I should have in any reasonable time, so, as my flock increased, ]
could add more ground to my inclosure,

This was acting with some prudence, and I went to work with courage,
I was about three months hedging in the first piece; and, till I had done it,
I tethered the three kids in the best part of it,and used them to feed as near
me as possible, to make them familiar; and very often I would go and
carry them some ears of barley, or a handful of rice, and feed them out of
my hand; so that, after my inclosure was finished, and I let them loose, they
would follow me up and down, bleating after me for a handful of corn.

This answered my end, and in about a year and a half I had a flock of
about twelve goats, kids and all, and in two years more J. had three-and-
forty, besides several that I took and killed for my food; and after that, I
inclosed five several pieces of ground to feed them in, with little pens to
drive them into, to take them as I wanted them, and gates out of one piece
of ground into another.

But this was not all; for now I not only had goat’s flesh to feed on when
I pleased, but milk too—a thing which, indeed, in my beginning I did not
so much as think of, and which, when it came into my thoughts, was really
an agreeable surprise; for now I set up my dairy, and had sometimes a
gallon or two of milk ina day. Andas Nature, who gives supplies of food to
every creature, dictates even naturally how to make use of it, so I, that
never milked a cow, much less a goat, or saw butter or cheese made, very
readily and handily, though after a great many essays and miscarriages,
made me both butter and cheese at last, and never wanted it afterwards.
How mergifully can our Creator treat His creatures even in those condi-
tions in which they seemed to be overwhelmed in destruction! How can He
sweeten the bitterest providences, and give us cause to praise Him for dun-
geons and prisons! What a table was here spread for me in a wilderness
where I saw nothing at first but to perish for hunger!

Jt would have made a Stoic smile to have seen me and my little family
128 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

sit down to dinner. There was my majesty, the prince and lord of the whole
island. I had the lives of all my subjects at absolute command. I could
hang, draw, give life and liberty and take it away, and no rebels among all
my subjects. Then to see how like a king I dined too, all alone, attended
by my servants! Poll, as if he had been my favorite, was the only person
permitted to talk to me; my dog, who was now grown very old and crazy,
and had found no species to multiply his kind upon, sat always at my right
hand; and two cats, one on one side the table, and one onthe other, expect-
ing now and then a bit from my hand, as a mark of special favor.

But these were not the two cats which I brought on shore at first, for
they were both of them dead, and had been interred near my habitation by
my own hand; but one of them having multiplied by I know not what kind
of creature, these were two which I preserved tame; whereas the rest ran
wild in the woods, and became, indeed, troublesome to me at last, for they
would often come into my house, and plunder me, too, till at last I was
obliged to shoot them, and did kill a great many. At length they left me.
With this attendance and in this plentiful manner I lived; neither could I
be said to want anything but society; and of that, in some time after this, I
was likely to have too much.

I was something impatient, as I have observed, to have the use of my
boat, though very loth to run any more hazard; and, therefore, sometimes |
sat contriving ways to get her about the island, and at other times I sat.
myself down, contented enough without her. But I hada strange uneasiness
in my mind to go down to the point of the island where, as I have said, inmy
last ramble, I went up the hill to see how the shore lay, and howthe current
set, that I might see what I had to do. This inclination increased upon me
every day, and at length I resolved to travel thither by land; and, follow-
ing the edge of the shore, I did so; but had any one in England met sucha
man as I was, it must either have frighted them or raised a great deal of
laughter, and as I frequently stood still to look at myself, I could not but smile
at the notion of my traveling through Yorkshire with such an equipage, and
in such a dress. Be pleased to take a sketch of my figure, as follows:

Thad a great, high, shapeless cap made of goat skin, with a flap hang-
ing down behind, as well to keep the sun from meas to shoot the rain off
from running into my neck; nothing being so hurtful in these climates as
the rain upon the flesh under the clothes.

I had a short jacket of goat’s skin, the skirts coming down to about the
middle of the thighs, and a pair of open-kneed breeches of the same; the
breeches were made of the skin of an old he-goat, whose hair hung down
such a length on either side, that, like pantaloons, it reached té& the mid-
dle of my legs. Stockings and shoes I had none, but had made mea pair
of somethings—I scarce knew what to call them—like buskins, to flap over
my legs and lace on either side like spatterdashes, but of a most barbarovs
shape, as, indeed, were all the rest of my clothes.
MY QUAINT APPEARANCE, 129

I had on a broad belt of goat’s skin dried, which I drew together with
two thongs of the same, instead of buckles; and in a kind of a frog on
either side of this, instead of a sword and dagger, hung a little saw anda
hatchet, one on one side, one on the other, I had another belt not so broad,
and fastened in the same manner, which hung over my shoulder, and at the
end of it, under my left arm, hung two pouches, both made of goat’s skin,
too, in one of which hung my powder, in the other my shot. At my back I
carried my basket, on my shoulder my gun, and over my heada great
clumsy, ugly, goat-skin umbrélla, but which, after all, was the most neces-
sary thing I had about me next to my gun. As for my face, the color of it
was really not so mulatto-like as one might expect from a man not at all
careful of it, and living within nine or ten degrees of the equinox. My beard
I had once suffered to grow till it was about a quarter of a yard long; but
as I had both scissors and razors sufficient, I had cut it pretty short,
except what grew on my upper lip, which I had trimmed into a large pair
of Mahcmetan whiskers, such as I had seen worn by some Turks at Sallee;
for the Moors did not wear such, though the Turks did. Of these mous-
tachios, or whiskers, I will not say they were long enough to hang my hat
upon them, but they were of a length and shape monstrous enough, and
such as in England would have passed for frightful.

But all this is by the bye; for, as to my figure, I had so few to observe
me that it was of no manner of consequence, so I say no more to that part.
In this kind of dress I went my new journey, and was out five or six days.
I traveled first along the sea-shore, directly to the place where I first brought
my boat to an anchor, to get up upon the rocks; and having no boat now to
take care of, I went over the land a nearer way to the same height that Iwas
upon before, when, looking forward to the point of the rock which lay out,
and which I was obliged to double with my boat, as I said above, I was
surprised to see the sea all smooth and quiet—no rippling, no motion, no
current any more there than in other places. I wasata strange loss to under-
stand this, and resolved to spend some time inthe observing it, to see if noth-
ing from the sets of the tide had occasioned it; but I was presently
convinced how it was—viz., that the tide of ebb setting from the west, and
joining with the current of waters from some great river on the shore, must be
the occasion of this current, and that according as the wind blew more forci-
ble from the west or from the north, this current came near, or went farther
from the shore; for, waiting thereabouts till evening, I went up to the rock
again, and then the tide of ebb being made, I plainly saw the current again
as before, only that it ran farther off, being near half a league from the
shore, whereas in my case it set close upon the shore and hurried me in my
canoe along with it, which at another time it would not have done.

This observation convinced me that I had nothing to do but to observe
the ebbing and the flowing of the tide, and I might very easily bring
my boat about the island again; but when I began to think about putting it
130 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

in practice, I had such terror upon my spirits at the remembrance of the
danger I had been in, that I could not think of it again with any patience;
but, on the contrary, I took up another resolution, which was more safe,
though more laborious—and this was, that I would build, or rather make
me another periagua, or canoe, and so have one for one side of the island,
and one for the other. 5

You are to understand that now I had, as I may call it, two plantations
in the island; one my little fortification or tent, with the wall about it, under































































“HOW LIKE A KING I DINED” (A; 128).

the rock, with the cave behind me, which by this time I had enlarged into
several apartments, or caves, one within another. One of these, which was
the driest and largest, and had a door out beyond my wall or fortification—
that is to say, beyond where my wall joined to the rock—was all filled up
with the large earthen pots, of which I have given an account, and with
fourteen or fifteen great baskets, which would hold five or six bushels each,
where I laid up my stores of Provisions, especially my corn, some in the
ear, cut off short from the straw, and the other rubbed out with my hand.
As for my wall, made, as before, with long stakes or piles, those piles
grew all like trees, and were by this time grown so big, and spread so very
MY ISLAND FARM. 131

much, that there was not the least appearance, to any one’s view, of any
habitation behind them.

Near this dwelling of mine, but a little farther within the land, and upon .
lower ground, lay my two pieces of corn-land, which I kept duly cultivated
and sowed, and whicn duly yielded me their harvest in its season; and
whenever I had occasion for more corn, I had more land adjoining, as fit as
that.

Besides this, I had my country seat, and I had now a tolerable planta-
tion there also; for first, I had my little bower, as I called it, which I kept
in repair—that is to say, I kept the hedge which circled it in, constantly
fitted up to its usual height, the ladder standing always in the inside. I
kept the trees, which at first were no more than my stakes, but were now
grown very firm and tall, always so cut that they might spread and grow
thick and wild, and make the more agreeable shade, which they did effectu-
ally tomy mind. Inthe middle of this I had my tent always standing,
being a piece of a sail spread over poles set up for that purpose, and which
never wanted any repair or renewing; and under this I had made me a
squab, or couch, with the skins of the creatures I had killed, and with other
soft things, and a blanket laid on them, such as belonged to our sea-bed-
ding, which I had saved; and a great watch-coat to cover me; and here,
whenever I had oceasion to be absent from my chief seat, I took up my
country habitation.

Adjoining to this I had my inclosures for my cattle—that is to say, my
goats; and as I had taken an inconceivable deal of pains to fence and
inclose this ground, I was sa anxious to see it kept entire, lest the goats
should break through, that I never left off till, with infinite labor, I had
stuck the outside of the hedge so full of small stakes, and so near to one
another, that it was rather a pale than a hedge, and there was scarce room
to put a hand through between them; which afterwards, when those stakes
grew, as they all did in the next rainy season, made the inclosure strong
like a wall—indeed, stronger than any wall. h

This will testify for me that I was not idle, and that I spared no pains
to bring to pass whatever appeared necessary for my comfortable support;
for I considered the keeping up a breed of tame creatures thus at my hand
would be a living magazine of flesh, milk, butter, and cheese for meas long
as I lived in the place, if it were to be forty years; and that keeping them
in my reach depended entirely upon my perfecting my inclosures to such a
degree that I might be sure of keeping them together, which, by this
method, indeed, I so effectually secured, that when these little stakes began
to grow, I had planted them so very thick I was forced to pull some of
them up again, ©

Inthis place also I had my grapes growing, which I principally depended
on for my winter store of raisins, and which I never failed to preserve very
carefully, as the best and most agreeable dainty of my whole diet; and,






















































































































































































































































































































































































































































“I STOOD LIKE ONE THUNDERSTRUCK.” (A, 183),
‘
THE FOOTPRINT ON THE BEACH. 133

indeed, they were not agreeable only, but physical, wholesome, nourishing,
and refreshing to the last degree.

As this was also about half-way between my other habitation and the
place where I had laid up my boat, I generally stayed and lay here in my
way thither, for I used frequently to visit my boat; and I kept all things
about, or belonging to her, in very good order. Sometimes I went ont in
her to divert myself, but no more hazardous voyages would I go, scarcely
ever above a stone’s cast or two from the shore, I was so apprehensive of
being hurried out of my knowledge again by the currents or winds, or any
other accident. But now I came to a new scene of my life.

It happened one day, about noon, going towards my boat, I was exceed-
ingly surprised with the print of a man’s naked foot on the shore, which
was very plain to be seen on the sand. I stood like one thunderstruck,
or as if I had seenanapparition I listened, I looked round me, but I could
hear nothing nor see anything; I went up toa rising ground, to look farther;
I went up the shore, and down the shore, but it was all one. I could see
no other impression but that one. I went to it again to see if there were
any more, and to observe if it might not be my fancy; but there was no
room for that, for there was exactly the print of a foot —toes, heel, and
every part of a foot. How it came thither I knew not, nor could inthe
least imagine. But after innumerable fluttering thoughts, like a man
perfectly confused and out of myself, I came home to my fortification,
not feeling, as we say, the ground I went on, but terrified to the last
degree, looking behind me at every two or-three steps, mistaking every
bush and tree, and fancying every stump ata distance to beaman. Nor
is it possible to describe how many various shapes my affrighted imagi-
nation represented things to me in; how many wild ideas were formed
every moment in my fancy, and what strange, unaccountable whimseys
came into my thoughts by the way.

When I came to my castle (for so I think I called it ever after this) I
fled into it like one pursued. Whether I went over by the ladder, as first
contrived, or went in at the hole in the rock, which I called a door, I cannot
remember; for never frighted hare fled to cover, or fox to earth, with more
terror of mind than I to this retreat.

I had no sleep that night; the farther I was from the occasion of my
fright, the greater my apprehensions were, which is something contrary to
the nature of such things, and especially to the usual practice of all crea-
tures in fear; but I was so embarrassed with my own frightful ideas of the
thing, that I formed nothing but dismal imaginations to myself, even though
I was now a great way off it. Sometimes I fancied it must be the devil;
and reason joined in with me upon this supposition; for how should any
other thing in human shape come into the place? Where was the vessel
that brought them? What marks were there of any other footsteps? And
how was it possible a man should come there? But then to think that
134 ROBINSON CRUBVE,

Satan should take human shape upon him in such a place, where there
could be no manner of occasion for it, but to leave the print of his foot
behind him, and that even for no purpose too, for he could not be sure I
should see it—this was an amazement the other way. I considered that the
devil might have found out abundance of other ways to have terrified me
than this of the single print of a foot; that as I lived quite on the other side
of the island, he would never have been so simple as to leave a mark in a
place where it was ten thousand to one whether I should ever see it or not,
and in the sand too, which the first surge of the sea, upon a high wind,
would have defaced entirely. All this seemed inconsistent with the thing
itself, and with all the notions we usually entertain of the subtlety of the
devil.

Abundance of such things as these assisted to argue me out of all appre-
hensions of its being the devil; and I presently concluded then that it must
be some more dangerous creature; viz., that it must be some of the savages
of the mainland over against me, who had wandered out to sea in their
canoes, and either driven by the currents or by contrary winds, had made
the island, and had been on shore, but were gone away again to sea; being
as loth, perhaps, to have stayed in this desolate island as I would have been
to have had them.

While these reflections were rolling upon my mind, I was very thankful
in my thought that I was so happy as not to be thereabouts at that time, or
that they did not see my boat, by which they would have conéluded that
some inhabitants had been in the place, and perhaps have searched farther
forme. Then terrible thoughts racked my imagination about their having
found my boat, and that there were people here; and that, if so, I should
certainly have them come again in greater numbers, and devour mé; that if
it should happen that they should not find me, yet they would find my
inclosure, destroy all my corn, and carry away all my flock of tame goats,
and I should perish at last for mere want.

Thus my fear banished all my religious hope; all that former confidence
in God, which was founded upon such wonderful experience as I had had
of His goodness, now vanished; as if He that had fed me by miracle hith-
erto, could not preserve by His power the provision which He had made for
me by His goodness. I reproached myself with my laziness, that would
not sow any more corn one year than would just serve me till the next sea-
son, as if no accident could intervene to prevent my enjoying the crop that
was upon the ground; and this I thought so just a reproof, that I resolved
for the future to have two or three years’ corn beforehand, so that, whatever
might come, I might not perish for want of bread.

How strange a checker-work of Providence is the life of man! and by
what secret differing springs are the affections hurried about, as differing
circumstances present! To-day we love what to-morrow we hate; to-day we
seek what to-morrow we shun; to-day we desire what to-morrow we fear,
TERRIBLE APPREHENSIONS. 135

nay, even tremble at the apprehensions of. This was exemplified in me at
this time in the most lively manner imaginable; for I, whose only affliction
was, that I seemed banished from human society, that I was alone, circum-
scribed by the boundless ocean, cut off from

mankind, and condemned to what I call silent

life; that I was as one whom Heaven thought

not worthy to be numbered among the living, &. 3

or to appear amongst the a
rest of His creatures; that
to have seen one of my
own species would have
seemed to mea raising me
from death
to life, and
the greatest
blessing that
Heaven it-
self, next to
the supreme
blessing of
salvation,
could be-
stow; I say,
that I should
now tremble ,
at the very imu Re
apprehen- SLE a aacaleit ii fli
ee of see- al at He *
ing a man,

? i
AS SAW he
2 fants
and was

ready to sink “7 HAD MY COUNTRY SEAT” (Z. 181).
into the
ground at but
the shadow or silent appearance of a man having set his foot on the island.
Such is the uneven state of human life, and it afforded me a great many
curious speculations afterwards, when I had a little recovered my first sur-
prise. I considered that this was the station of life the infinitely wise and
good providence of God had determined for me; that as I could not foresee
what the end of Divine wisdom might be in all this, so I was not to dispute
His sovereignty, who, as I was His creature, had an undoubted right by
creation to govern and dispose of me absolutely as He thought fit; and who,
as I was a creature who had offended Him, had likewise a judicial right to
condemn me to what punishment He thought fit; and that it was my part
to submit to bear His indignation, because I had sinned against Him. I










[are









136 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

then reflected that God, who was not only righteous, but omnipotent, as He
had thought fit thus to punish and afflict me, so He was able to deliver me;
that if He did not think fit to do it, it was my unquestioned duty to resign
myself absolutely and entirely to His will; and, on the other hand, it was
my duty also to hope in Him, pray to Him, and quietly to attend the dic-
tates and directions of His daily providence.

These thoughts took me up many hours, days, nay, I may say weeks and
months; and one particular effect of my cogitations on this occasion I can-
not omit; viz., One morning early, lying in my bed, and filled with thoughts
about my danger from the appearance of savages, 1 found it discomposed
me very much; upon which those words of the Scripture came into my
thoughts: “ Call upon Me in the day of trouble: I will deliver thee, and thou
shalt glorify Me.” Upon this, rising cheerfully out of bed, my heart was
not only comforted, but I was guided and encouraged to pray earnestly to
God for deliverance. When Ihad done praying, I took up my Bible, and
opening it to read, the first words that presented to me were, “ Wait on the
Lord: be of good courage, and He shall strengthen thy heart: wait, I say,
on the Lord.” It is impossible to express the comfort this gave me, andin
return I thankfully laid down the book, and was no more sad, at least, not
on that occasion. ;

In the middle of these cogitations, apprehensions and reflections, it
came into my thoughts one day that all this might be a mere chimera of
my own, and that this foot might be the print ot my own foot when I came
on shore from my boat. This cheered me up a little, too, and I began to
persuade myself it was all a delusion, that it was nothing else but my own
foot, and why might I not come that way from the boat, as well as I was
going that way to the boat? Again I considered also that I could by no
means tell for certain where J had trod, and where I had not, and that if
at last this was only the print of my own foot I had played the part of
those fools who try to make stories of spectres and apparitions, and then
are themselves frighted at them more than anybody else.

Now Ibegan to take courage and to peep abroad again, for I had not
stirred out of my castle for three days and nights, so that I began to starve
for provision, for I had little or nothing within doors but some barley-
cakes and water. Then I knew that my goats wanted to be milked too,
which usually was my evening diversion, and the poor creatures were in
great pain and inconvenience for want of it; and indeed it almost spoiled
some of them, and almost dried up their milk.

Heartening myself, therefore, with the belief that this was nothing but
the print of one of my own feet, and so I might be truly said to start at my
own shadow, I began to go abroad again, and went to my country-house to
milk my flock; but to see with what fear I went forward, how often I looked
behind me, how I was ready, every now and then, to lay down my basket
and run for my life, it would have made any one have thought I was haunted
A CONFUSION OF THOUGHTS. 137

with an evil conscience, or that I had been lately most terribly frighted,
and so, indeed, I had. However, as I went down thus two or three days,
and having seen nothing, I began to be a littler bolder, and to think there
was really nothing in it but my own imagination; but I could not persuade
myself fully of this till I should go down to the shore again, and'see this
print of a foot and measure it by my own, and see if there was any simili-
tude or fitness, that I might be assured it was my own foot. But when I
came to the place—first, it appeared evidently to me that when I laid up
my boat, I could not possibly be on shore anywhere thereabouts; secondly,
when I came to measure the mark with my own foot, I found my foot not
so large by a great deal. Both these things filled my head with new
imaginations, and gave me the vapors again to the highest degree, so that
I shook with cold like one in an ague; and I went home again, filled with
the belief that some man or men had been on shore there; or, in short, that
the island was inhabited, and I might be surprised before I was aware; and
what course to take for my security I knew not.

Oh, what ridiculous resolutions men take when possessed with fear! It
deprives them of the use of those means which reason offers for their relief.
The first thing I proposed to myself was, to throw down my inclosures, and
turn all my tame cattle wild into the woods, that the enemy might not find
them, and then frequent the island in prospect of the same or the like booty;
then the simple thing of digging up my two corn-fields that they might not
find such a grain there, and still be prompted to frequent the island; then
to demolish my bower and tent, that they might not see any vestiges of
habitation, and be prompted to look farther, in order to find out the persons
inhabiting. :

These were the subjects of the first night’s cogitations, after 1 was come
home again, while the apprehensions which had so overrun my mind were
fresh upon me, and my head was full of vapors as above. Thus, fear of
danger is ten thousand times more terrifying than danger itself, when
apparent to the eyes; and we find the burden of anxiety greater, by much,
than the evil which we are anxious about, but which was worse than all this,
Thad not that relief in this trouble, from the resignation I used to practice,
that I hoped to have. I looked, I thought, like Saul, who complained not
only that the Philistines were upon him, but that God had forsaken him;
for I did not now take due ways to compose my mind, by crying to God in
my distress, and resting upon His providence, as I had done before, for my
defense and deliverence; which if I had done, had at least been more
cheerfully supported under this new surprise, and perhaps carried through
it with more resolution.

This confusion of my thoughts kept me waking all night; but in the
morning I fell asleep; and having by the amusement of my mind been, as it
were, tired, and my spirits exhausted, I slept very soundly, and awaked
much better composed than I had ever been before. And now I began to
188 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

think sedately; anu, upon the utmast debate with myself, I concluded that
this island (which was so exceeding pleasant, fruitful, and no farther from
the mainland thanas I had seen) was not so entirely abandoned as I might
imagine; that although there were no stated inhabitants who lived on the
spot, yet that there might sometimes come boats off from the shore, who,
either with design, or perhaps never but when they were driven by cross-
winds, might come to this place; that I had lived here fifteen years now,
and had not met with the least shadow or figure of any people yet; and that,
if at any time they should be driven-here, it was probable they went away
again as soon as ever they could, seeing they had never thought fit to fix
here upon any occasion to this time; that the most I could suggest any
danger from was, from any casual accidental landing of straggling people
from the main, who, as it was likely, if they were driven hither, were here
against their wills; so they made no stay here, but went off again with all
possible speed, seldom staying one night on shore, lest they should not
have the help of the tides and daylight back again; and that, therefore, I
had nothing to do but to consider of some safe retreat in case I should see
any savages land upon the spot.

Now I began sorely to repent that I had dug my cave so large as to
bring a door through again, which door, as I said, came out beyond where
my fortification joined to the rock, Upon maturely considering this, there-
fore, I resolved to draw mea second fortification, in the same manner ef a
semicircle, at a distance from my wall, just where I had planted a double
row of trees about twelve years before, of which I made mention; these
trees having been planted so thick before, there wanted but few piles to be
driven between them, that they should be thicker and stronger, and my wall
would be soon finished. So that I had now a double wall; and my outer
wall was thickened with pieces of timber, old cables, and everything I could
think of to make it strong, having in it seven little holes, about as big as I
might put my arm out at. In the inside of this, I thickened my wall to
about ten feet thick, continually bringing earth out of my cave, and laying
it at the foot of the wall, and walking upon it; and through the seven holes
I contrived to plant the muskets, of which I took notice that I got seven on
shore out of the ship; these, I say, I planted like my cannon, and fitted
them into frames that held them likea carriage, that so I could fire all the
seven guns in two minutes’ time. This wall I was many a weary month in
finishing, and yet never thought myself safe till it was done.

When this was done, I stuck all the ground without my wall, for a great
way every way, as full with stakes or sticks of the osier-like wood, which I
found so apt to grow, as they could well stand; insomuch that I believe I
might set in near twenty thousand of them, leaving a pretty large space
between them and my wall, that I might have room to see an enemy, and
they might have no shelter from the young trees, if they attempted to
approach my outer wall.
DEFENSIVE PREPARATIONS. 139

Thus, in two years’ time, I had a thick gtove; and in five or six years’
time I had a wood before my dwelling grown so monstrous thick and
strong that it was indeed perfectly impassable; and no mami, of what kind
soever, would ever imagine that there was anything beyond it, much less a
habitation. As for the way which I proposed to myself to go in and out
(for I left no avenue), it was by setting two ladders, one to a part of the
rock which was low, and then broke in, and left room to place another lad-
der upon that; so when the two ladders were taken down, no man living
could come down to me without mischiefing himself ; and if they had come
down, they were still on the outside of my outer wall.

Thus I took all the measures human prudence could suggest for my own
preservation; and it will be seen, at length, that they were not altogether
without just reason; though I foresaw fiothing at that time more than my
mere fear suggested to me.

While this was doing, I was not altogether careless of my other affairs; -
for | hada great concern upon me for my little herd of goats; they were
not only a present supply to me upon evéry occasion, and began to be suf-
ficient for me without the expense of powder and shot, but also abated the
fatigue of my hunting after the wild ones; and I was loth to lose the
advantage of them, and to have them all to nurse up over again.

For this purpose, after long consideration, I could think of but two ways
to preserve them: one was to find another convenient place to dig a cave
under ground, and to drive them into it every night; and the other was to
inclose two or three little bits of land, remote from one atiother, and as
much concealed as I could, where I might keep about half a dozen young
goats in each place; so that if any disaster happened to the flock in general,
I might be able to raise them again with little trouble and time; and this,
though it would require a good deal of time and labor, I thought was the
most rational design.

Accordingly, I spent some time to find out the most retired parts of the
island; and I pitched upon one which was as private indeed as my heart
could wish: it was a little damp piece of ground, in the middle of the hol-
low and thick woods, where, as is observed, I almost lost myself once
before, endeavoring to come back that way from the eastern part of the
island. Here I found a clear piece of land, near three acres, so surrounded
with woods that it was almost an enclosure by Nature; at least it did not
want near so much labor to make it so, as the other pieces of ground I had
worked so hard at.

I immediately went to work with this piece of ground; and, in less than
a month’s time, I had so fenced it round that my flock, or herd; call it
which you please, which were not so wild now as at first they might be
supposed to be, were well enough secured in it. So, without any further
delay, I removed ten she-goats, and two he-goats, to this piece; and, when
they were there, I continued to perfect the fence, till I had made it as secure
140 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

as the other; which, however, I did at more leisure, and it took me up more
time by a great deal.

All this labor I was at the peice of, purely from my apprehensions
on the account of the print of a man’s foot which I had seen; for, as yet,
I had never seen any human creature come near the island; and I had now
lived two years under this uneasiness, which, indeed, made my life much
less comfortable than it was before, as may well be imagined by any who
know what it is to live in the constant snare of the fear of man. And this
I must observe, with grief, too, that the discomposure of my mind had too





As WH w

4 i












h sh AY i | ¢ hy
oh i K AS Vi Ne
we SUMO ty Wy va Hi ih I i me ae shi
ae itl a a ie VA ae Ni uN ae
sina WN cn an i HSS, Ne NN WNW. Ws

“MY EVENING DIVERSION” (2. 186).

great impressions also upon the religious part of my thoughts; for the
dread and terror of falling into the hands of savages and cannibals lay
so upon my spirits, that I seldom found myself ina due temper for appli-
cation to my Maker; at least, not with the sedate calmness and resignation
of soul which I was wont to do. I rather prayed to God as under great
affliction and pressure of mind, surrounded with danger, and in expectation
every night of being murdered and devoured before morning; and I must
testify, from my experience, that a temper of peace, thankfulness, love, and
affection, is much the more proper frame for prayer than that of terror and
discomposure; .and that under the dread of mischief impending, a man is
no more fit for a comforting performance of the duty of praying to God
than he is for repentance on a sick-bed; for these discomposures affect the
mind, as the others do the body; and the discomposure of the mind must
A HORRIBLE DISCOVERY. 141

necessarily be as great a disability as that of the body, and much greater;
praying to God being properly an act of the mind, not of the body.

But to go on: after I had thus secured one part of my little living stock,
I went about the whole island, searching for another private place to make
such another deposit; when, wandering more to the west point of the island
than I had ever done yet, and looking out to sea, I thought I saw a boat
upon the sea, at a great distance. I had founda perspective glass or two
in one of the seamen’s chests, which I saved out of our ship, but I had it
not about me; and this was so remote that I could not tell what to make of
it, though I looked at it till my eyes were not able to hold to look any
longer: whether it was a boat or not, I do not know; but as I descended
from the hill I could see no more of it, so I gave it over; only I resolved to
go no more out without a perspective glass in my pocket.

When I was come down the hill to the end of the island, where, indeed,
I had never been before, I was presently convinced that the seeing the print
of a man’s foot was not such a strange thing in the island as I imagined;
and but that it was a special providence that I was cast upon the side of the
island where the savages never came, I should easily have known that
nothing was more frequent than for the canoes from the main, when they
happened to be a little too far out at sea, to shoot over to that side of the
island for harbor; likewise, as they often met and fought in their canoes,
the victors, having taken any prisoners, would bring them over to this
shore, where, according to their dreadful customs, being all cannibals, they
would kill and eat them; of which hereafter.

When I was come down the hill to the shore, as I said above, being the
S.W. point of the island, I was perfectly confounded and amazed; nor is it
bossible for me to express the horror of my mind, at seeing the shore spread
with skulls, hands, feet, and other bones of human bodies; and particularly,
I observed a place where there had been a fire made, and a circle dug in
the earth like a cockpit, where I supposed the savage wretches had sat
down to their inhuman feastings upon the bodies of their fellow-creatures.

I was so astonished with the sight of these things, that I entertained no
notions of any danger to myself from it for a long while; all my apprehen-
sions were buried in the thoughts of such a pitch of inhuman, hellish
brutality, and the horror of the degeneracy of human nature, which, though
I had heard of often, yet I never had so near a view of before; in short, I
turned away my face from the horrid spectacle; my stomach grew sick, and
I was just at the point of fainting, when Nature discharged the disorder
from my stomach; and having vomited with uncommon violence, I was a
little relieved, but could not bear to stay in the place a moment; so I got
up the hill again with all the speed I could, and walked on towards my own
habitation.

When I came a little out of that part of the island, I stood still awhile,
as amazed, and then, recovering myself, I looked up with the utmost affec-
142 . ROBINSON CRUSOE.

tion of my soul, and, with a flood of tears in my eyes, gave God thanks, that
had cast my first lot in a part of the world where I was distinguished fram
such dreadful creatures as these; and that though I had esteemed my pres-
ent condition very miserable, had yet given me so many comforts in it that
I had still more to give thanks for than to complain of; and this, above all,
that I had, even in this miserable condition, been comforted with the
knowledge of Himself, and the hope of His blessing, which was a felicity
more than sufficiently equivalent to all the misery which I had suffered, or
could suffer.

In this frame of thankfulness, I went home to my castle and began to be
much easier now as to the safety of my circumstances than ever I was
before, for I observed that these wretches never came to this island in
search of what they could get, perhaps not seeking, not wanting, or not
expecting anything here, and having often, no doubt, been up in the covered
woody part of it, without finding anything to their purpose. I knewI had been
here now almost eighteen years and never saw the least footsteps of human
creature there before, and I might be eighteen years more as entirely
concealed as I was now, if I did not discover myself to them, which I had
no manner of occasion to do, it being my only business to keep myself
entirely concealed where I was, unless I found a better sort of creatures than
cannibals to make myself known to. Yet I entertained such an abhorrence
of the savage wretches that I have been speaking of, and of the wretched
inhuman custom of their devouring and eating one another up, that I
continued pensive and sad, and kept close within my own circle for almost
two years after this; when I say my own circle, I mean by it my three
plantations, viz., my castle, my country-seat (which I called my bower), and
my inclosure in the woods; nor did I look after this for any other use than
as an inclosure for my goats; for the aversion which Nature gave me to
these heilish wretches was such that I was as fearful of seeing them as of
seeing the devil himself, nor did I so much as go to look after my boat in
all this time, but began rather to think of making me another, for I could
not think of ever making any more attempts to bring the other boat round
the island to me, lest I should meet with some of those creatures at sea, in
which case, if I had happened to have fallen into their hands I knew what
would have been my lot.

Time, however, and the satisfaction I had that I was in no danger of
being discovered by these people, began to wear off my uneasiness about
them, and I began to live just in the same composed manner as before,
only with this difference that I used more caution and kept my eyes more
about me than I did before, lest I should happen to be seen by any of them;
and particularly I was more cautious in firing my gun lest any of them
being on the island should happen to hear it, and it was, therefore, a very
good providence: to me that I had furnished myself with a tame breed of
goats, and that I had no need to hunt any more about the woods or shoot


MY FORMIDABLE APPEARANCE, 143





































































































“A PLACE WHERE THERE HAD BEEN A FIRE MADE” (#. 141).

at them, and if I did catch any of them after this, it was by traps and snares.
as I had done before; so that for two years after this I believe I never fired
my gun once off, though I never went out without it, and, which was thore,
as I had saved three pistols out of the ship, I always carried them out with
me, or at least two of them, sticking them itt my goat-skin belt. I likewise
furnished up one of the great cutlasses that I had out of the ship, and made
me a belt to put it on also, so that I was nowa most formidable fellow to
look at when I went abroad, if you add to the former description of myself
the particular of two pistols and a great broadsword hanging at my side in
a belt, but without a scabbard.

Things going on thus, as I have said, for some time, I seemed, except-
itig these cautions, to be reduced to my former calm, sedate way of living.
All these things tended to show me, more and more, how far my condition
was from being miserable, compared to some others; nay, to many other
particulars of life, which it might have pleased God to have made my lot.
It put me upon reflecting how little repining there would be among man
kind at any condition of life, if people would rather compare their condition
with those that aré worse, in order to be thankful, than be always compar-
ing them with those which are better, to assist their murmurings and coin-
plainings. .
144 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

As in my present condition there were not really many things which I
wanted, so, indeed, I thought that the frights I had been in about these
savage wretches, and the concern I had been in for my own preservation,
had taken off the edge of my invention for my own conveniences, and I
had dropped a good design, which I had once bent my thoughts upon, and
that was to try if I could not make some of my barley into malt, and then
try to brew myself some beer. This was really a whimsical thought, and I
reproved myself often for the simplicity of it, for I presently saw there
would be the want of several things necessary to the making my beer, that
it would be impossible for me to supply; as, first, casks to preserve it in,
which was a thing that, as I have observed already, I could never compass,
no, though I spent not many days, but weeks, nay, months, in attempting it,
but to no purpose. In the next place, I had no hops to make it keep, no
yeast to make it work, no copper or kettle to make it boil, and yet had not
all these things intervened—I mean the frights and terrors I was in about
the savages—I had undertaken it, and perhaps brought it to pass, too, for I
seldom gave anything over without accomplishing it, when I once had it in
my head enough to begin it. But my invention now ran quite another way,
for, night and day, I could think of nothing but how I might destroy some
of these monsters, in their cruel, bloody entertainment, and, if possible, save
the victim they should bring hither to destroy. It would take up a larger
volume than this whole work is intended to be, to set down all the contriv-
ances I hatched, or rather brooded upon, in my thoughts, for the destroying
these creatures, or at least frightening them so as to prevent their coming
hither any more, but all was abortive, nothing could be possible to take
effect, unless I was to be there to do it myself; and what could one man do
among them, when perhaps there might be twenty or thirty of them together
with their darts, or their bows and arrows, with which they could shoot as
true to a mark as I could with my gun?

Sometimes I thought of digging a hole underthe place where they made
their fire and putting in five or six pounds of gunpowder, which,when they kin-
dled their fire, would consequently take fire and blow up all that was near it;
but as, in the first place, I should be unwilling to wasteso much powder upon
them, my store being now within the quantity of one barrel, so neither could
I be sure of its going off at any certain time, when it might surprise them;
and, at best, that it would do little more than just blow the fire about their
ears and fright them, but not sufficient to make them forsake the place, so I
laid it aside; and then proposed that I would place myself in ambush in some
convenient place, with my three guns all double loaded and in the middle
of their bloody ceremony let fly at them, when I should be sure to kill or
wound perhaps two or three at every shot, and then falling in upon them
with my three pistols and my sword, I made no doubt but that, if there were
twenty, I should kill them all. This fancy pleased my thoughts for some
weeks, and I was so full of it that I often dreamed of it, and sometimes that
DEFENSIVE PREPARATIONS. 145

I was just going to let fly at them in my sleep. I went so far with it in my
imagination that I employed myself several days to find out proper places
to put myself in ambuscade, as I said, to watch for them, and I went fre-
quently to the place itself, which was now grown more familiar to me; but
while my mind was thus filled with thoughts of revenge and of a bloody
putting twenty or thirty of them to the sword, as I may call it, the horror I
had at the place, and at the signals of the barbarous wretches devour-.
ing one another, abetted my malice. Well, at length I found a place in the
side of the hill, where I was satisfied I might securely wait till I saw any of
their boats coming; and might then, even before they would be ready to
come on shore, convey myself unseen into some thickets of trees, in one of
which there was a hollow large enough to conceal me entirely; and there I
might sit and observe all their bloody doings, and take my full aim at their
heads when they were so close together as that it would be next to impos-
sible that I should miss my shot, or that I could fail wounding three or four
of them at the first shot. In this place, then, I resolved to fix my design,
’ and accordingly I prepared two muskets and my ordinary fowling-piece.
The two muskets I loaded with a brace of slugs each and four or five smaller
bullets, about the size of pistol bullets, and the fowling-piece I loaded with
near a handful of swan-shot of the largest size. I also loaded my pistols
with about four bullets each, and in this posture, well provided with ammu-
nition for a second and third charge, I prepared myself for my expedition.

After I had thus laid the scheme of my design, and in my imagination
put it in practice, I continually made my tour every morning to the top of
the hill, which was from my castle, as I called it, about three miles or more,
to see if I could observe any boats upon the sea, coming near the island or
standing over towards it. But I began to tire of this hard duty after I
had for two or three months constantly kept my watch, but always came
back without any discovery, there having not, in all that time, been the
least appearance, not only on or near the shore, but on the whole ocean,
as far as my eye or glass could reach every way.

As long as I kept my daily tour to the hill to look out, so long also I
kept up the vigor of my design, and my spirits seemed to be all the while
in a suitable frame for so outrageous an execution as the killing twenty ot
thirty naked savages, for an offense which I had not at all entered into a
discussion of in my thoughts, any farther than my passions were at first
fired by the horror I conceived at the unnatural custom of the people of
that country; who, it seems, had been suffered by Providence, in His wise

. disposition of the world, to have no other guide than that of their own
abominable and vitiated passions; and, consequently, were left, and perhaps
had been so. for some ages, to act such horrid things, and receive such
dreadful customs, as nothing but nature, entirely abandoned by Heaven,
and actuated by some hellish degeneracy, could have run them into, But
now, when, as I have said, I began to be weary of the fruitless excursion

10
146 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

which I had madé so long and 86 fat every morning ih vain, 8 my Opinion
of the attion itself began to alter; and I begah, with cooler and calmer
thoughts, to consider what I was going to ehgageé in; What authority or call
I had to pretend to be judpé and éXxecutioner tipdia these Mei as criminals,
whom Heaveli had thought fit, for so many ages, to suffer, unpunishéd, to
go on, and to be, as it were, the éxecutionets of His judgmetits, oné upon
another; how fat these pedplé weté offenders against me, aiid what fight I
had to engage in the quairel of that blood which they shed promiscuously
upon one another. I debated this very often With myself thus: “How do I
know what God Hithself judges in this particular case? It i8 certain these
people do not conimit this as 4 crime; it is not Against their own consciences
reproving, or their light reproaching them; they do not know it to be an
offéhsé, and then commit it in defiance of Divine justice, as we do in almost
all the Sins wé commit. They think it no more a ctime to kill a captive
taken in war, than we do to kill an ox; of to eat human flesh, than we do to
eat mutton.”

When 1 Cofsidered this a little, it followed necessarily that I was cer-
tainly in the wrotig in it; that these people weré not murderets i thé sétise
that I had before condemned thém in my thotights, any more than those
Christians weré murderers who often put to death the prisoners taken in
battle; or more frequently, upon many occasiohs, put whole troops of men
to the sword, without giving quaiter, though they threw down theit arms
and subtiitted. In the next place, it o¢curréd to meé, that albeit the lisage
they gave one afother was thus brutish and inhuman, yet it was really noth-
ing to me. Thesé people had done me no injury; that if they attempted
nié, or I saw it Necessary, for my immediate presérvation, to fall upon them,
something might be said for it; but that I was yet out of their power, and
they really had no knowledge of me, and consequetitly no design upon the;
and, therefofe, it could fot be just for me to fall upon them. That this
would justify the conduct of thé Spaniards in all theit batbarities practiced
in America, where they destroyed millions of thesé people; who, hoWever
they were idolaters and barbarians, and had seVeral bloody and barbarous
rite8 in their Customs, such as Sacrificing. humah bodies to theit idols, were
yet, aS to the Spaniards, Very innocent peoplé; and that the rooting them
out Of the county is spoken of with the utmost abhorrence and détestation :
by even the Spaniards themselves, at this time, and by all other Christian
nations in Europé, as a meré butchery, a bloody and unnatufal piece of cru-
elty, unjustifiable either to God or man; and stich as for which the very
name of a Spaniara is reckoned to be frightful and tetriblé to all people of
huthanity or of Christian Compassion; as if the kingdom of Spain were par-
ticularly eminent for the product of a race of men who were without pritici-
ples of tenderness, or the common bowels of pity to the miserable, which is
reckoned to be a mark of a ¢enerous temper in the mind.

These considerations really put me to 4 pause, aiid toa kind of a full
SECOND THOUGHT THE BEST. 147

stop, and I began, by little and little, to be off my design, and to conclude
I had taken wrong measures in my resolution to attack the savages, and
that it was not my business to meddle with them, unless they first attacked
me, and this it yas my business, if possible, to prevent, but that if I were
discayered and attacked by them, then I knew my duty. On the other
hand, I argued with myself that this really was the way not to deliver my-
self, but entirely to ruin and destroy myself, for, unless I was sure to kill



































“TO SEE IF I COULD OBSERVE ANY BOATS” (jf. 145),

every one that nat only should be on shore at that time, but that should
ever come on shore afterwards, if but qne of them escaped to tell their
country-people what had happened they would come over again by thau-
sands to revenge the death of their fellows, and I should only bring upon
myselfa certain destruction, which, at present, I had no manner of occasion
for. Upon the whole, I concluded that I ought neither in principle nor in
policy, one way or other, ta concern myself in this affair, that my business
was, by all possible means to conceal myself from them, and not to leave
the least sign for them to guess by that there were any living creatures upon
the island—I mean of human shape. Religion joined in with this pru
148 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

dential resolution, and I was convinced now, many ways, that I was per-
fectly out of my duty when I was laying all my bloody schemes for the
destruction of innocent creatures—I mean innocent as to me. As to the
crimes they were guilty of towards one another, I had nothing to do with
them. These were national punishments, to make a just retribution for
national offenses, and to bring public judgment upon those who offend in a
public manner, by such ways as best please God. This appeared so clear to
me now, that nothing was a greater satisfaction to me than that I had not
been suffered to do a thing which I now saw so much reason to believe
would have been no less a sin than that of willful murder, if I had com
mitted it, and I gave most humble thanks, on my knees, to God, that He
had thus delivered me from blood-guiltiness, beseeching Him to grant me
the protection of His providence, that I might not fall into the hands of the
barbarians, or that I might not lay my hands upon them, unléss I hada more
clear call from Heaven to do it, in defense of my own life.

In this disposition I continued for near a year after this, and so far was
I from desiring an occasion for falling upon these wretches that in all that
time I never once went up the hill to see whether there were any of them
in sight, or to know whether any of them had been on shore there or not,
that I might not be tempted to renew any of my contrivances against them,
or be provoked by any advantage that might present itself to fall upon
them. Only this I did, I went and removed my boat, which I had on the
other side of the island, and carried it down to the east end of the whole
island, where I ran it into a little cove, which I found under some high
rocks, and where I knew, by reason of the currents, the savages durst not,
at least would not, come with their boats upon any account whatever.
With my boat I carried away everything that I had left there belonging to
her, though not necessary for the bare going thither, viz.,a mast and sail
which I had made for her, and a thing like an anchor, but which indeed
could not be called either anchor or grapnel; however, it was the best I
could make of its kind. All these I removed, that there might not be the least
shadow for discovery, or any appearance of any boat, or of any habitation
upon the island. Besides this, I kept myself, as I said, more retired than
ever, and seldom went from my cell, except upon my constant employ-
ment, viz., to milk my she-goats and manage my little flock in the wood,
which, as it was quite on the other part of the island, was out of danger,
for certain it is that these savage people who sometimes haunted this island
never came with any thoughts of finding anything here, and consequently
never wandered off from the coast, and I doubt not but they might have
been several times on shore after my apprehensions of them had made me
cautious, as well as before. Indeed I looked back with some horror upon
the thoughts of what my condition would have been if I had dropped upon
them and been discovered before that, when, naked and unarmed, except
with one gun, and that loaded often only with small shot, I walked every-
REFLECTIONS, 149

where, peeping and peering about the island to see what I could get. What
a surprise should I have been in if when I discovered the print of a man’s
foot I had instead of that seen fifteen or twenty savages, and found them
pursuing me, and by the swiftness of their running, no possibility of
my escaping them! The thoughts of this sometimes sank my very soul
within me, and distressed my mind so much that I could not soon recover
it, to think what I should have done, and how I should not only have been
unable to resist them, but even should not have had presence of mind
enough to do what I might have done, much less what now, after so much
consideration and preparation, I might be able to do. Indeed, after serious
thinking of these things I would be very melancholy, and sometimes it would
last a great while, but I resolved it all at last into thankfulness to that Provi-
dence which had delivered me from so many unseen dangers, and had kept
me from those mischiefs which I could have no way been the agent in
delivering myself from,because I had not the least notion of any such thing
depending, or the least supposition of its being possible.

This renewed a contemplation which often had come into my thoughts
in former times, when first I began to see the merciful dispositions of
Heaven, in the dangers we run through in this life; how wonderfully we are
delivered when we know nothing of it; how, when we are ina quandary (as
we call it), a doubt or hesitation whether to go this way or that way, a
secret hint shall direct us this way, when we intended to go that way; nay,
when sense, our own inclination, and perhaps business, has called us to go
the other way, yet a strange impression upon the mind, from we know not
what springs, and by we know not what power, shall overrule us to go this
way; and it shall afterwards appear that had we gone that way which we
should have gone, and even to our imagination ought to have gone we
should have been ruined and lost. Upon these, and many like reflections, I
afterwards made it acertain rule with me, that whenever I found those secret
hints or pressings of mind, to doing or not doing anything that presented, or
going this way or that way, I never failed to obey the secret dictate; though
I knew no other reason for it than that such a pressure, or such a hint, hung
upon my mind. I could give many examples of the success of this conduct
in the course of my life, but more especially in the latter part of my inhab-
iting this unhappy island; besides many occasions which it is very likely I
might have taken notice of, if I had seen with the same eyes then that I
see with now. But it is never too late to be wise; and I cannot but advise.
all considering men, whose lives are attended with such extraordinary inci-
dents as mine, or even though not so extraordinary, not to slight such secret
intimations of Providence, let them come from what invisible intelligence
they will. That I shall not discuss, and perhaps cannot account for; but
certainly they are a proof of the converse of spirits, and a secret communi-
cation between those embodied and those unembodied, and such a proof
as can never be withstood; of which I shall have occasion to give some
150 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

very remarkable instances in the retnaindet of hiy slitary residence itt this
dismal place.

I believe the reader of this will not thik it straiige if I totifess that these
anxieties, these constant dangers I lived ih, atid thé concerii that was fdw
upon me, put ar end to all itiverition, and to all the contrivaticés that I had
laid for my future accomrtodatidiis and cohvetiiétices. I had the cdté of
my safety more now upon my hands than that of thy fodd. I caréd not to
drive a nail, or chop a Stick df wood now, for feat thé hoisé I should make
should be heard; much less wotild I firé a sti for the saime reason; and,
above all, I was intolerably ufeasy at taking any fire, lest thé stioke,
which is visible at a great distancé in the day, should bettay tie. For this
reason, I remioved that patt of my business Which tequired fire, such as
burning of pots atid pipes, etc., inte my new apartment in the woods; whére,
aftér I had Been some time, I found; to my unspeakable cdnsdlation, a there
natural cave in the earth, which Wert in 4 vast way, aiid where, I dare say,
no savage, had he been at the tHouth of it, would be 86 hardy as to Venture
ins not; indeed; would any rhan élse, but ohe who, like me, watited riothing
so much as a safe retreat.

The mouth of this hollé6w was at the bottom of 4 great rdck, wheré; by
mere accident (I would say; if I did not see abundatit reason to asctibe all
such things now to Providence), I was cutting down some thick branchiés of
trees td make charcoal; anid before I go on I must observe the reasoh for
my thaking this charcoal, which was thus: J was afraid of making a smoke
about my habitation, as I said before, and yet I could not live there without
baking my bread, cooking my meat, etc.; sd I contrived to burn some wood
here; as I had séen done in England, under turf, till it becante chark or dry
coal; atid then putting the fire out, I preserved the coal to catry home; and
perform the otHer services for which fire was watiting, without dahger of
smoke. But this is by the bye. While I Was cuttiitg down some wood here,
I perceived that, behind a very thick branch of low brush-wood, or under-
wood, there was a kind df hollow place: I wa’ curious to look in it; and
getting with difficulty into the mouth of it, I found it was pretty large, that
is to Say, sufficietit for me to stand upright in it, and perhaps another with me;
but I must confess to you that I nade more haste out than I did in, when,
looking farther into the place, and which was perfectly dark, I saw two
broad shining eyes of some créature—whether devil or man I knew not—
which twinkled like two stars, the dim Iight from the cave’s mouth Shining
directly in, and making the reflection. However, after some pause, I
recoveréd myself, and began to call myself a thousand fodls, and to think
that he that was afraid to See the devil was not fit to live twenty years in an
island all alone, and that I might well think there was nothing in this cave
that was more frightful than myself. Upon this, plucking up my cotirage,
I took up a firebrand; and in I rushed again, With the stick flarhing in
my. hand. {[ had not gone threé steps in before I was altfiost a8 much
A DELIGHTFUL GROTTO. 15]

frightened as before, for I] heard avery loud sigh, like that of a man insome
pain, and it was followed by a broken noise, as of words half expressed, and
then a deep sigh again, I stepped back, and was indeed struck with sucha
surprise that it put me into a cold sweat, andif I had had a hat on my head
I will not answer for it that my hair might not have lifted it off. But still
plucking up my spirits as well as I could, and encouraging myself a little
with considering that the power and presence of God was everywhere, and
was able to protect me, I stepped forward again, and by the light ef the
firebrand, holding it up a little over my head, I saw lying on the ground a
monstrous, frightful old he-goat, just making his will, as we say, and gasp-
ing for life, and dying indeed, of mere old age, I stirred him a little to see
if I could get him out, and he essayed to get up, but was not able to raise
himself; and I thought with myself he might even lie there, for if he had
frightened me, so he would certainly fright any of the savages, if any
of them should be so hardy as to come in there while he had any life
in him.

I was now recovered from my surprise and began to tuck round me,
when | found the cave was but very small, that is to say, it might be about
twelve feet over, but in no manner of shape, neither round nor square, no
hands having ever been employed in making it but those of mere nature.
I abserved alsa that there was a place at the farther side of it that went in
farther, but was so low that it required me to creep upon my hands and knees
to ga inta it, and whither it went I knew not; sg, having no candle, I gave
it over for that time, but resolved to come again the next day provided with
candles and a tinder-box, which J had made of the lock of one of the mus-
kets, with some wildfire in the pan.

Accordingly, the next day I came provided with six large candles of my
own making (for I made very good candles now of goat's tallow, but was
hard set for candle-wick, using sometimes rags or rope-yarn, and sometimes
the dried rind ef a weed like nettles); and going into this ee place I was
obliged to creep on all-fours, as I have said, almost ten yards—which, by
the way, I thought was adventure bold enough, considering that I knew not
how far it might go, nor what was beyond it. When I had got through the
’ strajt, | found the roof rose higher up—I believe near twenty feet; but never
was such a glorious sight seen in the island, I dare say, as it was to look
round the sides and roof ofthis vault or cave; the wall reflected a hundred
thousand lights te me from my two candles. What it was in the rock—
whether diamonds, or any other precious stones, or gold—which I rather
supposed it to be—I knew not. The place I was in was a most delight-
ful cavity, or grotto, though perfectly dark; the floor was dry and level,
and had a sort of a small loose gravel upon it, so that there was no nause-
ous or venomous creature to be seen, neither was there any damp or wet
on the sides ar roof; the only difficulty in it was the entrance—which, how-
ever, as it was a place of security, and such a retreat as I wanted, I thought
152 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

was a convenience—so that I was really rejoiced at
the discovery, and resolved, without any delay, to










i BD). bring some of those things which I was most
lk FP, i anxious about to this place; particularly, I
iy, resolved to bring hither my magazine of

MY) ,
fant powder, and all my spare arms—viz., two
‘ ON fowling-pieces, for I had three in all; and
a Hh three muskets, for of them I had eight

in all; so I kept in my castle only five,
which stood ready mounted like
pieces of cannon on my outmost
defense, and were ready also to
take out upon any expedition.
Upon this occasion of remov-
ing my ammunition, I hap-
pened to open the barrel
of powder which I took
up out of the sea, and
which had been wet,
and I found that the
water had penetrated
about three or four
inches into the powder

on every side, which,
caking and growing
hard, had preserved

the inside like a kernel .

\\ eK
ani

(s












} a




ff
hy
I

ps
Thy










Ma
|








| al | !
SC WS Wy ina shell, so that I had
WW RES YW 4 .
KX Ke near sixty pounds of
MSS,

~



very good powder in

the center of the cask;

and this was a very

agreeable discovery to

me at that time; so

I carried all away

“I STIRRED HIM A LITTLE” (#, 151). thither, never keeping

above two or three

pounds of powder with

me in my castle, for fear of a surprise of any kind. I also carried thither
all the lead,I had left for bullets.

I fancied myself now like one of the ancient giants who were said to live
in caves and holes in the rocks, where none could come at them; for I per-
suaded myself, while I was here, that if five hundred savages were to hunt
me, they could never find me out—or if they did, they would not venture to



'
THE TWENTY-THIRD YEAR. 153

attack me here. The old goat whom I found expiring died in the mouth
of the cave the next day after I made this discovery; and I found it much
easier to dig a great hole there, and throw him in and cover him with earth,
than to drag him out; so I interred him there, to prevent offense to my
nose.

I was now in the twenty-third year of residence in this island, and was
so naturalized to the place and the manner of living that, could I but have
enjoyed the certainty that no savages would come to the place to disturb
me, I could have been content to have capitulated for spending the rest of
my time there, even to the last moment, till I had laid me down and died,
like the old goat in the cave. I had also arrived to some little divcrsions
and amusements, which made the time pass more pleasantly with mea great
deal than it did before; first, ] had taught my Poll, as I noted before, to
speak; and he did it so familiarly, and talked so articulately and plain, that
it was very pleasant to me, and he lived with me no less than six-and-twenty _
years. How long he might have lived afterwards I know not, though I
know they have a notion in the Brazils that they live a hundred years. Per-
haps some of my Polls may be alive there still, calling after poor Robinson
Crusoe to this day; I wish no Englishman the ill-luck to come there and
hear them; but if he did he would certainly believe it was the devil. My
dog was a pleasant and loving companion to me for no less than sixteen
years of my time, and then died of mere old age. As for my cats, they
multiplied, as I have observed, to that degree, that I was obliged to shoot
several of them at first, to keep them from devouring me and all I had; but
at length, when the old ones I brought with me were gone, and after some
time continually driving them from me, and Jetting them have no provision
with me, they all ran wild into the woods, except two or three favorites,
which I kept tame, and whose young, when they had any, I always drowned;
and these were part of my family. Besides these I always kept two or
three household kids about me, whom I taught to feed out of my hand; and
I had two more parrots, which talked pretty well, and would all call ‘“ Robin
Crusoe,” but none like my first; nor, indeed, did I take the pains with any
of them that I had done with him. I had also several tame sea-fowls, whose
name I knew not, that I caught upon the shore, and cut their. wings; and
the little stakes which I had planted before my castle-wall being now grown
up to a good thick grove, these fowls all lived among these low trees, and
bred there, which was very agreeable to me; so that, as I said above, I
began to be very well contented with the life I led, if I could have been
secured from the dread of the savages. But it was otherwise directed;
and it may not be amiss for all people who shall meet with my story to
make this just observation from it, viz., how frequently, in the course of our
- lives, the evil which in itself we seek most to shun, and which, when we are
fallen into, is the most dreadful to us, is oftentimes the very means or door
of our deliverance, by which alone we can be raised again from the afflic-
154 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

tion we are fallen into. I could give many examples of this in the course
of my unaccountable life, but in nothing was it more particularly remark-
able than in the circumstances of my last years of solitary residence in this
island.’ mm
It was now the month of December, as I said above, in my twenty-third
year, and this, being the southern solstice (for winter I cannot call it), was
the particular time of my harvest, and required me to be pretty much
abroad in the fields, when, going out pretty early in the morning, even
before it was thorough daylight, I was surprised with seeing a light of some
fire upon the shore at a distance from me of about two miles towards the
end of the island where I had observed some savages had been, as
before, and not on the other side, but, to my great affliction, it was on my
side of the island.
I was indeed terribly surprised at the sight, and stopped short within
my grove, not daring to go out, lest I might be surprised, and yet I had no
more peace within, from the apprehensions I had that if these savages, in
rambling over the island, should find my corn standing or cut, or any of my
works and improvements, they would immediately conclude that there were
people in the place, and would then never rest till they had found me out
In this extremity I went back directly to my castle, and pulled up the
ladder after me, having made all things without look as wild and nat-
ural as I could.
Then I prepared myself within, putting myself in a posture of defense;
I loaded all my cannon, as I called them, that is to say, my muskets, which
were mounted upon my new fortification, and all my pistols, and resolved
to defend myself to the last gasp, not forgetting seriously to commend my--
self to the Divine protection, and earnesly to pray to God to deliver me out
of the hands of the barbarians. And in this posture I continued about two
hours and began to be impatient for intelligence abroad, for I had no spies
to send out. After sitting awhile longer and musing what I should do in
this case, I was not able to bear sitting in ignorance any longer; so setting
up my ladder to the side of the hill, where there was a flat place, as
lobserved before, and then pulling the ladder after me, I set it up again,
and mounted to the top of the hill, and pulling out my perspective glass,
which I had taken on purpose, I laid me down flat on my belly on the
ground, and began to look for the place. I presently found there were no
less than nine naked savages sitting round a small fire, they had made, not
to warm them, for they had no need of that, the weather being extremely
hot, but as I supposed, to dress some of their barbarous diet of human flesh
which they had brought with them, whether alive or dead I could not know.
They had two canoes with them, which they had hauled up on the shore;
and as it was then ebb of tide, they seemed to me to wait the return of the
flood to go away again. It is not easy to imagine what confusion this sight
put me into, especially seeing them come on my side of the island, and so
A VISIT FROM THE SAVAGES. 155

near me; too; but when I considered their coming must be always with the
current of the ebb, I began afterwards to be more sédate in my mind, being
satisfied that I might go abroad with safety all the time of the flood of tide,
if they were not on shore before; and having made this observation, I weiit
abroad about my harvest work with the more composure.

As I expected, so it proved; for, as soon as the tide made to the west-
ward; I saw them all take boat and row (or paddle, as we call it) away. I
should have observed, that for dn hour or more before they went off they
were daricing, and I could easily discern their postures and géstures by my
glass. I could not perceive, by my nicest observation, but that they were
stark naked, and had not the least covering upon them; but whether they
were men or women, I could not distinguish.

AAs soon as I saw them shipped and gone,I took two guns upon my
shoulders, and two pistols in my girdle, and my great sword by my side,
without a scabbard, and with all the speed I was able to make went away to
the hill wheré I had discovered the first appearance of all; and as soonas1.
got thither; which was not in less than two hours (for I could not go apace,
being sé leaded with arms as I was), I perceived there had been three
canoés mote of savages at that place; and, looking out farther; I saw they
weré all at sea toethét, making over for the maiii. This was a dreadful
sight to me, especially when, going down to the shore, I could see the
matks of horror which the dismal Work they had been about had left behind
it, Viz., the blood; the bones, and part of the flesh of human bodies eaten
atid devoured by those Wretchés with merriment and sport. I was so filled
with indignation at the sight, that I now began to premeditate the destruc-
tion of thé next that I saw there; let them be whom or how many soever.
It seemed evident to mie that the visits which they made thus to this island
were not very frequent, for it was above fifteen months before any more of
them came on shore there again—that is to say, I neither saw them nor any
footsteps or signals of them in all that time; for as to the rainy seasons, then
they are sure not to come abroad, at least not so far. Yet all this while I
lived uncomfortably, by reason of the constant apprehensions of their
coming upon me by surprise, from whence I observe that the expectation
of evil is more bitter than the suffering, especially if there is no room to
shake off that expectation or those apprehensions.

During all this time I was in the murdering humor, and spent most of
my hours, whith should have been better employed, in contriving how to
circumvent and fall Upon them the véry next time I should see them—
especially if they should be divided, as they were the last time, into two
parties} hor did I consider at all that if I killed one party—suppose ten or
a dézei—I was still the next day, or week, or month, to kill another, and so
aiiother, even ad infinitum, till 1 should be, at length, no less a murderer
than they were in béifig man-eaters—and perhaps much more so, I spent
my days’ rdw in gteat perplexity and aiixicty of mind, expécting that I
156 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

should one day or other fall into the hands of these merciless creatures;
and if I did at any time venture abroad, it was not without looking around
me with the greatest care and caution imaginable. And now I found, to my
great comfort, how happy it was that I had provided a tame flock or herd
of goats; for I durst not upon any account fire my gun, especially near that
side of the island where they usually came, lest I should alarm the Savages;
and if they had fled from me now, I was sure to have them come again with
perhaps two or three hundred canoes with them in a few days, and then I
knew what to expect. However, I wore out a year and three months more
betore I ever saw any more of these savages, and then I found them again,

















“A LIGHT OF SOME FIRE UPON THE SHORE” (p. 154),

as I shall soon observe. It is true they might have been there once or
twice, but either they made no stay, or at least I did not hear them; but in
the month of May, as near as I could calculate, and in my four-and-
twentieth year, I had a very strange encounter with them; of which in its
place.

The perturbation of my mind during this fifteen or sixteen months’
interval was very great; I slept unquietly, dreamed always frightful dreams,
and often started out of my sleep in the night. In the day, great troubles
overwhelmed my mind; and inthe night I dreamed ovten of killing the sav-
ages and of the reasons why I might justify the doing of it. But to waive
SOUNDS OF A SHIP IN DISTRESS. 157

all this for awhile. It was in the middle of May, on the sixteenth day, I
think, as well as my poor wooden calendar would reckon, for I marked all
upon the post still—I say it was on the sixteenth of May that it blewa
very great storm of wind all day, witha great deal of lightning and thunder,
and a very foul night it was after it. I knew not what was the particular
occasion of it; but as I was reading in the Bible, and taken up with very
serious thoughts about my present condition, I was surprised with the noise
of a gun, as I thought, fired at sea. This was, to be sure, a surprise of a
quite different nature from any I had met with before, for the notions this
put into my thoughts were quite of another kind. I started up in the
greatest haste imaginable, and, in a trice, clapped my ladder to the middle
place of the rock, and pulled it after me; and, mounting it the second time,
got to the top of the hill the very moment that a flash of fire bade me listen
for a second gun, which, accordingly, in about half a minute, I heard, and
by the sound, knew that it was from that part of the sea where I was driven
out with the current in my boat. I immediately considered that this must
be some ship in distress, and that they had some comrade, or some other
ship in company, and fired these for signals of distress, and to obtain help.
I had the presence of mind, at that minute to think that though I could not
help them, it might be they might help me, so I brought together all the
dry wood I could get at hand, and, making a good handsome pile, I set it
on fire upon the hill. The wood was dry, and blazed freely, and though the
wind blew very hard, yet it burned fairly out, so that I was certain, if there
was any such thing as a ship, they must needs see it, and no doubt they
did, for as soon as ever my fire blazed up, 1 heard another gun, and after
that several others, all from the same quarter. I plied my fire all night
long, till daybreak, and when it was broad day, and the air cleared up, I saw
something at a great distance at sea, full east of the island, whether a sail
or a hull I could not distinguish—no, not with my glass; the distance was
so great, and the weather still something hazy also—at least, it was so out
at sea.

I looked frequently at it all that day, and soon perceived that it did not
move, so I presently concluded that it was a ship at anchor, and being
eager, you may be sure, to be satisfied, I took my gun in my hand, and ran
towards the south side of the island, to the rocks where I had formerly
been carried away with the current; and getting up there, the weather by
this time being perfectly clear, I could plainly see, to my great sorrow, the
wreck of a ship, cast away in the night upon those concealed rocks which I
found when I was out in my boat; and which rocks, as they checked the
violence of the stream, and made a kind of counter-stream or eddy, were
the occasion of my recovering from the most desperate, hopeless condition
that ever I had been in in all my life. Thus, what is one man’s safety is
another man’s destruction; for it seems these men, whoever they were,
being out of their knowledge, and the rocks being wholly under water, had
158. ROBINSON CRUSOE.

been driven upon them in the night, the wind blowing hard at E.and E.N.E.
Had they seen the island, as I must necessarily suppose they did not, they
must, as I thought, have endeavored to have saved themselves on shore by
the help of their boat; but their firing off their guns for help, especially.
when they saw, as I imagined, my fire, filled me with many thoughts. First,
I imagined that upon seeing my light they might have put themselves into
their boat, and endeavored to make the shore; but that the sea, running
very high, they might have been cast away. Other times, I imagined that
they might have lost their boat before, as might be the case many ways, as
particularly by the breaking of the sea upon their ship, which many times
obliged men to stave, or take in pieces, their boat, and sometimes to throw
it overboard with their own hands. Other times, I imagined they had some
other ship or ships in company, who, upon the signals of distress they made,
had taken them up and carried them off. Other times, I fancied they were
all gone off to sea in their boat, and being hurried away by the current that
I had been formerly in, were carried out into the great ocean, where there
was nothing but misery and perishing; and that, perhaps, they might by
this time think of starving, and of being in a condition to eat one another.
As all these were but conjectures at best, so, in the condition I was in, I
could do no more than look on, upon the misery of the poor men, and pity
them; which had still this good effect upon my side, that it gave me mare
and more cause to give thanks to God, who had so happily and comfort-
ably provided for me in my desolate condition; and that of two ships’ com-
panies, who were now cast away upon this part of the world, not one life
should be spared but mine. I learned here again to observe that it is very
rare that the providence of God casts us into any condition of life so low, or
any misery so great, but we may see something or other to be thankful for,
and may see others in worse circumstances than our own. Such certainly
was the case of these men, of whom I could not so much as see room to
suppose any of them were saved; nothing could make it rational so much
as to wish or expect that they did not all perish there, except the possibility
only of their being taken up by another ship in company; and this was but
mere possibility indeed, for I saw not the least signal, or appearance of any
such thing. I cannot explain, by any possible energy of words, what a
strange longing I felt in my soul upon this sight, breaking out sometimes
thus: ‘Oh, that there had been but one or two, nay, or but one soul, saved
out of this ship, to have escaped to me, that J might but haye had ene com-
panion, one fellow-creature, to have spoken to me and to have conversed
with!” In all the time of my solitary life, I never felt so earnest, so strong
a desire after the society of my fellow-creatures, or so deep a regret at the
want of it.
There are some secret moving springs in the affections, which, when they,
are set agoing by some object in view, or, though not in view, yet rendered
present to the mind by the power of imagination, that motion Carries out
I VISIT THE SPANISH WRECK. 159

the soul, by its impetuosity, to such violent, eager embracings of the object
that thé absence of it is insuppottablé. Such were these earnest Wishings that
but ofé than iad been saved. I believe I repeated the words, “ Oh, that it
had been but one!” a thousand times; and my desirés were $6 moved by it,
that when I spoke thé words my hatids would clench togéther, and my
fiigérs would press the palms of my hands, so that if I had had any Soft
thitig in my hatid, I Would have crushed it involuntarily; and my teeth in
my head would strike together, aad sét against one another so strong, that
fér some time I could not part them again. Let the naturalists explain
these things, and the reason and mahhei of them. All I can say of them is,
to describe the fact, which was evén surprising to me, whén I found it,
though I knéw not from what it should proceed; it was, doubtless, the
éfféct ©f ardent Wishes, and of strong ideas formed in my mind, realizing
the comfort which the Conversation of one of my fellow-Chifistians would
have been to me. But it was not to be; either their fate, or mine, or both,
forbade it, for till the last year of my being on this island, I never knew
whether any were saved out of that ship of no; and had only the affliction,
somé days aftér, to séé the corpse of a drowned boy come on shore at the
énd of the island which was next the shipwreck. He had no clothes on but
a seafnan’s waistcoat, a pair of 6pen-kneed linén drawers, and a blue linen
shirt; but nothing to direct me so much as to guess what nation he was of.
He had nothing in his pockets but two pieces of eight and a tobacco-pipe
=the last was to mé of ten times move valué than the first.

{t was now calm, and I had a great mind to venture out in my boat to
this wreck, net doubtiig but I might find something on board that might
bé useful to mé. But that did not altogether press me so much as the
possibility that there might be yet some living creature on board, whose
lifé I might not only save, but might, by saving that life, comfort my own
to the last degree; and this thought clung so to my heart that I could not
bé qiifet night or day, but I must venture out in my boat of board this
wreck; atid cotiimitting the rest to God’s providence, I thought the impres-
sion was 86 strong Upon my Mind that it could not be resisted, that it Must
core ftom some invisible direction, and that I should be waiiting to myself
if I did not go.

Under the power of this impression, I hastened back to my castle,
préparéd évetything for my Voyage, took a quantity of bread, a great
pot for fresh water, a compass to steer by, a bottle of rum (for I had still
4 great deal of that left), and a basket of raisins; and thus loading myself
with everything necessary, 1 went down to my boat, got the water out
of her, got Kher afloat, loaded all my cargo in her, and then went home
again for more. My sécond cargo was a great bag full of rice, the umbrella
to sét up over iy head for a shade, another large pot full of fresh water,
atid about two dozen of small loaves, or barley-cakes, moré than before,
with a bottle of goat’s-milk, and a eheese; all which with great labor and
160 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

sweat I brought to my boat; and praying to God to direct my voyage,
I put out, and rowing or paddling the canoe along the shore, came at
last to the utmost point of the island on the northeast side. And now
I was to launch out into the ocean, and either to venture or not to venture.
I looked on the rapid currents which ran constantly on both sides of the
island at a distance, and which were very terrible to me, from the remem-
brance of the hazard I had been in before, and my heart began to fail me;
for I foresaw that if I was driven into either of those currents, I should be
carried a great way out to sea, and perhaps out of my reach or sight of the
island again; and that then, as my boat was but small, if any little gale
of wind should rise, I should be inevitably lost.

These thoughts so oppressed my mind that I began to give over my
enterprise, and having hauled my boat into a little creek on the shore, I
stepped out, andsat down upon a rising bit of ground, very pensive and
anxious, between fear and desire, about my voyage; when, as I was musing,
I could perceive that the tide was turned, and the flood came on; upon
which, my going was impracticable for so many hours. Upon this, presently
it occurred to me that I should go up to the highest piece of ground I could
find, and observe, if I could, how the sets of the tide or currents lay, when the
flood came in, that I might judge whether, if I was driven one way out, I might .
not expect to be driven another way home, with the same rapidity of the
currents. This thought was no sooner in my head than I cast my eye upon
a little hill, which sufficiently overlooked the sea both ways, and from
whence I had a clear view of the currents, or sets of the tide, and which
way I was to guide myself in my return. Here I found that as the current
of ebb set out close by the south point of the island, so the current of the flood
set in close by the shore of the north side; and that I had nothing to do
but to keep to the north of the island in my return, and I should do well
enough.

Encouraged with this observation, I resolved the next morning, to set out
with the first of the tide; and reposing myself for the night in my canoe,
under the great watch-coat I mentioned, I launched out. I first made a
little out to sea, full north, till I began to feel the benefit of the current,
which set eastward, and which carried me ata great rate, and yet did not
so hurry me as the current on the south side had done before, so as to take
"from me all goyernment of the boat; but having a strong steerage with my
paddle, I went, at a great rate, directly for the wreck, and in less than two
hours I came up to it. It was a dismal sight to look at; the ship, which by
its building was Spanish, stuck fast, jammed in between two rocks; all the
stern and quarter of her were beaten to pieces by the sea; and as her fore-
castle, which stuck in the rocks, had run on with great violence, her main-
mast and foremast were brought by the board, that is to say, broken short
off; but her bowsprit was sound, and the head and bow appeared firm,
When I came close to her, a dog appeared upon her, who, seeing me com-
SALVAGE FROM THE WRECK. | 16

ing, yelpedand cried; and, as soon as I called him, jumped into the sea te
come to me; I took him into the boat, but found him almost dead with
hunger and thirst. I gave him a cake of my bread, and he devoured it like
a ravenous wolf that had been starving a fortnight in the snow; I then gave
the poor creature some fresh water, with which, if I would have let him, he
would have burst himself. After this I went on board; but the first sight I
met with was two men drowned in the cook-room, or forecastle of the ship,
with their arms fast about oneanother. I concluded, as is indeed probable.



















































“THE CORPSE OF A DROWNED Boy” (f. 159).

that when the ship struck, it being in a storm, the sea broke so high, and
so continually over her, that the men were not able to bear it, and were
strangled with the constant rushing in of the water, as much as if they had
been under water. Besides the dog, there was nothing left in the ship that
had life; nor any goods that I couldsee, but what were spoiled by the water.
There were some casks of liquor, whether wine or brandy I knewnot, which
lay lower in the hoid, and which, the water being ebbed out I could see;
but they were too big to meddle with. I saw several chests which I believed
belonged to some of the seamen; and I got two of them into the boat, with-
out examining what wasinthem. Had the stern of the ship been fixed, and
the fore-part broken off, I am persuaded I might have madea good voyage};
for, by what I found in these two chests, I had room to suppose the ship
had a great deal of wealth on board; and, if I may guess from the course

she steered, she must have been bound from Buenos Ayres, or the Rio de
11
162 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

la Plata, in the south part of America, beyond the Brazils, to thie Havaniia,
in the Gulf of Mexico, and so perliaps to Spain. She had, no doubt, a great
treasure in her, but of no use, at that time, to anybody; but what became of
the crew I then kriew not.

I found, besides these chests, a little cask full of liquor, of about twenty
gallons; which I got into my boat with much difficulty. There wére several
muskets iti the cabin, and a great powder-horn, with about four pounds of
powder in it. As for the muskets, I had no occasion for them, so I left
them, but took the powder-horn. I took a fire-shovel and tongs, which I
wanted extremely, as also two little brass kettles, a copper pot to make
chocolate, and a gridiron; and with this cargo, and the dog,I came away,
the tide beginning to make home again; and the same eveiiing, about an
hour within night, I reached the island again, weary and fatigued to the last
degree. I reposed that night in the boat; and in the motning I resolved to
harbor what I had got in my new cave, and not carry it home to my castle.
After refreshing myself, I got all my cargo on shote, and began to examine.
the particulars. The cask of liquor I found to be a kind of rum, but hot
such as we had at the Brazils; and, in a word, not at all good; but when I
came to open the chests, I found several things of great use to me: for
example, I found in one a fine case of bottles, of an extraordinary kind, and
filled with cordial waters, fine and very good. The bottles held about three
pints each, and were tipped with silver. I found two pots of very good suc-
cades, or sweetmieats, so fastened also onthe top tliat the salt water had not
hurt them; and two more of the same, which the water had spoiled. I found
some very good shirts, which were very welcome to me; and about a dozen
and a half of white linen handkerchiefs and colored neckcloths; the former
were also very welcome, being exceedingly refreshing to wipe my face ina
hot day. Besides this, when I came to the till in the chest, I found there
three great bags of pieces of eight, which held about eleven hundred pieces
in all; and in one of them, wrapped up in a paper, six doubloons of gold,
and some sniall bars or wedges of gold; I suppose they might all Weigh
neat a pound. In the other chest were some clothes, but of little value;
but, by the circumstances, it must have belonged to thie gtiiiner’s mate;
though there was no powder init, except two pouiids of fine glazed powder,
in three small flasks, kept, I suppose, for chatging their fowling-pieces on
occasion. Uponthe whole, I got very little by this voyage that was of any
usé to me, for as to the money, I had tio thanner of occasion for it; it was
to mie as the dirt under my feet, and I would have given it all for three or
fout pair of English shoes and stockings, which were things I greatly
wanted, but had none on my feet for many years. I had, indeed, got two
pair of shoes now, which I took off the fect of the two drowned men whoim
I saw in the wreck, and I found two pair more iti otie of the chests, which
were very welcomé to me; but they were not like our English shoes, either
for ease Of service, being rather what we call pumps than shoes. I found j#
I FORM NEW PROJECTS. 163

this seaman’s chest about fifty pieces of eight, in rials, but no gold; I sup-
pose this belonged to a poorer man than the other, which seemed to belong
to some officer. Well, however, I lugged this money home to my cave, and
laid it up, as I had done that before which [had brought from our own ship;
but it was a great pity, as I said, that the other part of this ship had not
come to my share, for I am satisfied I might have loaded my canoe several
times over with money, which, if I had ever escaped to England, would
have lain here safe enough till I might have come again and fetched it.
Having now brought all my things on shore and secured them, I went
back to my boat and rowed or paddled her along the shore to her old har-
bor, where I laid her up, and made the best of my way to my old habitation,
where I found everything safe and quiet. I began now to repose myself,
live after my old fashion and take care of my family affairs; and for awhile
I lived easy enough, only that I was more vigilant than I used to be, looked
out oftener, and did not go abroad so much; and if, at any time I did stir
with any freedom, it was always to the east part of the island, where I was
pretty well satisfied the savages never came, and where I could go without
so many precautions and such a load of arms and ammunition as I always
carried with me if I went the other way. I lived in this condition near two
years more; but my unlucky head, that was always to let me know it was
born to make my body miserable, was all these two years filled with projects
and designs, how, if it were possible, I might get away from this island; for
sometimes I was for making another voyage to the wreck, though my
reason told me that there was nothing left there worth the hazard of my
voyage; sometimes for a ramble one way, sometimes another, and I believe
verily if I had had the boat that I went from Sallee in, I should have ven-
tured to sea, bound anywhere, I knew not whither. I have been, in all my
circumstances, a memento to those who are touched with the general plague
of mankind, whence, for aught I know, one-half-of their miseries flow; I
mean that of not being satisfied with the station wherein God and Nature
hath placed them; for, not to look back upon my primitive condition and
the excellent advice of my father, the opposition to which was, as I may call
it, my original sin, my subsequent mistakes of the same kind had been the
means of my coming into this miserable condition. For had that Provi-
dence, which so happily seated me at the Brazils as a planter, blessed me
with confined desires, and I could have been contented to have gone on
gradually, I might have been by this time, I mean in the time of my being
in this island, one of the most considerable planters in the Brazils; nay, I
am persuaded that by the improvements I had made in that little time I
lived there, and the increase I should probably have made if I had remained,
i might have been worth a hundred thousand moidores. And what business
had I to leave a settled fortune, a well-stocked plantation, improving and
increasing, to turn supercargo to Guinea to fetch negroes, when patience
and time would have so increased our stock at home that we could have
164 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

bought them at our own door from those whose business it was to fetch
them? And though it had cost us something more, yet the difference of
that price was by no means worth saving at so great ahazard. But as this is
ordinarily the fate of young heads, so reflection upon the folly of it is as
commonly the exercise of more years, or of the dear-bought experience of
time. So it was with me now, and yet so deep had the mistake taken root
in my temper, that I could not satisfy myself in my station, but was con-
tinually poring upon the means and possibility of my escape from this place;
and that I may, with the greater pleasure to the reader, bring on the remain-
ing part of my story, it may not be improper to give some account of my

a

























“REGAN TO EXAMINE THE PARTICULARS.” (#, 162.)

first conceptions on the subject of this foolish scheme for my escape, and
how and upon what foundation I acted.

I am now to be supposed retired into my castle, after my late voyage to
the wreck, my frigate laid up and secured under water, as usual, and my
condition restored to what it was before. I had more wealth, indeed, than I
had before, but was not at all the richer, for I had no more use for it than
the Indians of Peru had before the Spaniards came there.

It was one of the nights in the rainy season in March, the four-and-
twentieth year of my first setting foot in this island of solitude. I was lying
in my bed or-hammock, awake, very well in health, had no pain, no dis-
i REFLECT SERIOUSLY 168

temper, no uneasiness of body, nor any uneasiness of mind more than ordi-
nary, but could by no means close my eyes, that is, so as to sleep; no, not
a wink all night long, otherwise than as follows: It is impossible and need-
less to set down the innumerable crowd of thoughts that whirled through
that great thoroughfare of the brain—the memory—in this night’s time; I
ran over the whole history of my life in miniature, or by abridgment,
as I may call it, to my coming to this island, and also of that part of my life
since I came to this island. In my reflections upon the state of my case
since I came on shore on this island, I was comparing the happy posture of
my affairs in the first years of my habitation here, with the life of anxiety,
fear, and care, which I had lived in ever since I hadseen the print of a foot
inthe sand; not that I did not believe the savages had frequented the island
even all the while, and might have been several hundreds of them at times
on shore there, but I had never known it, and was incapable of any appre-
hensions about it; my satisfaction was perfect, though my danger was the
same, and I was as happy in not knowing my danger as if I had never
really been exposed to it. This furnished my thoughts with many very
profitable reflections, and particularly this one: How infinitely good that
Providence is, which has provided, in its government of mankind, such
narrow bounds to his sight and knowledge of things; and though he walks
in the midst of so many thousand dangers, the sight of which, if discovered
to him, would distract his mind’and sink his spirits, he is kept serene and
calm, by having the events of things hid from his eyes, and knowing
nothing of the dangers which surround him. ;

After these thoughts had for some time entertained me, Icame to reflect
seriously upon the real danger I had been in for so many years in this very
island, and how] walked about in the greatest security, and with all possible
tranquility, even when perhaps nothing but the brow ofa hill, a great tree,
or the casual approach of night, had been between me and the worst kind
of destruction, viz., that of falling into the hands of cannibals and savages,
who would have seized on me with the same view as I would on a goat ora
turtle, and have thought it no more crime to kill and devour me than I did
of a pigeon ora curlew. I would unjustly slander myself if I should say I
was not sincerely thankful to my great Preserver, to whose singular protec-
tionI acknowledged with great humility, all these unknown deliverances
were due and without which I must inevitably have fallen into their merciless
hands.

When these thoughts were over, my head was for some time taken up in
considering the nature of these wretched creatures, I mean the savages, and
how it came to pass in the world that the wise Governor of all things should
give up any of His creatures to such inhumanity, nay, to something so
much below even brutality itself, as to devour its own kind; but as this
ended in some (at that time) fruitless speculations, it occurred to me to
inquire what part of the world these wretches lived in? how far off the
166 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

coast was from whence they came? what they ventured over so far from
home for? what kind of boats they had? and why I might not order myself
and my business so that I might be as able to go over thither as they were
to come to me?

I never so much as troubled myself to consider what I should do with
myself when I went thither; what would become of me if I fell into the
hands of these savages, or how I should escape them if they attacked me,
no, nor so much as howit was possible for meto reach the coast and not be
attacked by some or other of them without any possibility of delivering
myself, and if I should not fall into their hands what I should do for
provision, or whither I should bend my course; none or these thoughts, I
say,so much as came in my way, but my mind was wholly bent upon the
notion of my passing over in my boat to the mainland. I looked upon my
present condition as the most miserable that could possibly be; that I was
not able to throw myself into anything but death, that could be called worse,
and if I reached the shore of the main, I might perliaps meet with relief, or
I might coast along as I did on the African shore till Icame to some
innabited country, and where I might find some relief; and, after all,
perhaps I might fall in with some Christian ship that might take me in, and
if the worst came to the worst, I could but die, which would put an end to
all these miseries at once. Pray note all this was the fruit of a disturbed
mind, an impatient temper, made, as it were, desperate by the long
continuance of my troubles and the disappointments I lad met with in the
wreck I had been on board of, and where I liad been so near the obtaining
what I so earnestly longed for, namely, somebody to speak to, and to learn
some knowledge of the place whete I was and of the probable means of my’
deliverance. Isay I was agitated wholly by these thoughts; all my calm
of mind in my resignation to Providence, and waiting the issue of the
dispositions of Heaven, seemed to be suspended, and I had, as it were, no
power to turn my thoughts to anything but the project of a voyage to the
main, which came upon me with such force atid such an impetuosity of
desire that it was not to be resisted.

When this had agitated my thoughts for two hours or more, with stich
violence that it set my very blood into a ferment, and my pulse beat as if I
had been in a fever merely with the extraordinary fervor of my mind about
it, Nature, as if I had been fatigued and exhausted with the very thoughts
of it, threw me into a sound sleep. One would have thought I should have
dreamed of it, but I did not, nor of anything relating to it; but I dreamed
that as I was going out in the morning as usual, from my castle, I saw upon
the shore two canoes and. eleven savages, coming to land, and that they
brought with them another savage, whom they were going to kill, in order
to eat him; when, on a sudden, the savage that they were going to kill
iumped away, and ran for his life; then I thought, in my sleep, that he came
sunning into my little thick grove before my fortification, to hide himself;
ON THE: WATCH. im 167

and that I, seeing him alone, and not perceiving that the others sought him
that way, showed myself to him, and smiling upan him encouraged him;

that he kneeled down to me, seeming to pray me to assist him; upon which
I showed him my ladder, made him go up it, and carried him into my cave,
and he became my servant; and that as soon as ] had got this man, I said
to myself, “Now ] may certainly venture to the mainland, for this fellow
will serve me asa pilot, and will tell me what to do, and whither to go for
provisions, and whither nat 1.0 ga for fear of being devoured; what places
to venture into, and what to escape.” I waked with this thought, and was
under such inexpressible impressions of joy at the prospect of my escape in
my dream, that the disappointments which I felt upon coming to myself,
and osha that it was no more than a dream, were equally extravagant the
other way, and threw me into a good dejection of spirits.

Upon this, however, ] made ‘this conclusion: that my only way to go
about an attempt for an escape was, if possible, to get a savage into my pos-
session; and, if possible, it should be one of their prisoners, whom they had
condemned to be eaten, and should bring hither to kill. But these thoughts
still were attended with this difficulty, that it was impossible to effect this
without attacking a whole caravan of them, and killing them all; and this
was not only a very desperate attempt, and might miscarry, but, on the
other hand, I had greatly scrupled the iawfulness of it to me; and my heart
trembled at the thoughts of shedding so much blood, though it was for my
deliverance. I need not repeat the arguments which occurred to me against
this, they being the same mentianed before; but though I had other reasons
to offer now, viz., that thase men were enemies to my life, and would devour
me if they Soult that it was self-:preservation, in the highest degree, to
deliver myself from this death of a life, and was acting in my own defense
as much as if they were actually assaulting me, and the like; I say, though
these things argued for it, yet the thoughts of shedding human blood for
my deliverance were very terrible to me, and such as I could by no means
reconcile myself to for a great while. However, at last, after many secret
disputes with myself, and after great perplexities about it (for all these
arguments, one way and another, struggled in my head a long time), the
eager prevailing desire of deliverance at length mastered all the rest, and |
resolved, if possible, to get one of these savages into my hands, cost what
it would My next thing was to contrive how to do it, and this indeed was
very difficult to resolve on; but as I could pitch upon no probable means
for it, so I resolved to put myself upon the watch, to see them when they
came on shore, and leave the rest to the event, taking such measures as the
opportunity should present, let be what would be.

With these resolutions in my thoughts, I set myself upon the scout as
often as possible, and indeed so often that I was hearti:y tred of it, for it
was above a year anda half that I waited; and for great pa.t of that time
went out to the west end and to the southwest corner of the islazd almost
168 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

every day, to look for canoes, but none appeared. This was very discour.
aging, and began to trouble me much, though I cannot say that it did in
this case (as it had done some time before) wear off the edge of my desire
to the thing; but the longer it seemed to be delayed, the more eager I was
for it; in a word, I was not at first so careful to shun the sight of these sav-
ages, and avoid being seen by them, as I was now eager to be upon them.
Besides, I fancied myself able to manage one, nay, two or three savages, if
I had them, so as to make them entirely slaves to me, to do whatever I
should direct them, and to prevent their being able at any time to do me
any hurt. It was a great while that I pleased myself with this affair, but
nothing still presented; all my fancies and schemes came to nothing, for no
savages came near me for a.great while.

About a year and a half after I entertained these notions (and by long
musing had, as it were, resolved them all into nothing, for want of an occa-
sion to put them in execution), I was surprised one morning early by seeing
no less than five canoes all on shore together on my side the island, and
the people who belonged to them all landed and ott of my sight. The
number of them broke all my measures; for seeing so many, and knowing
that they always came four or six, or sometimes more, in a boat, I could
not tell what to think of it, or how to take my measures, to attack twenty
or thirty men single-handed, so lay still in my castle, perplexed and dis-
comforted. However, I put myself into all the same postures for an attack
that I had formerly provided, and was just ready for action, if anything had
presented. Having waited a good while listening to hear if they made any
noise, at length, being very impatient, I set my guns at the foot of my
ladder, and clambered up to the top of the hill, by my two stages, as usual;
standing so, however, that my head did not appear above the hill, so that
they could not perceive me by any means. Here I observed, by the help
of my perspective glass, that they were no less than thirty in number; that
they had a fire kindled, and that they had meat dressed. How they had
cooked it, I knew not, or what it was; but they were all dancing, in I
know not how many barbarous gestures and figures, their own way, round
the fire.

While I was thus looking on them, I perceived, by my perspective, two
miserable wretches dragged from the boats, where, it seems, they were laid
by, and were now brought out for the slaughter. I perceived one of them
immediately fall, being knocked down, I suppose, with a club, or wooden
sword, for that was their way; and two or three others were at work imme-
diately, cutting him open for their cookery, while the other victim was left
standing by himself, till they should be ready for him. In that very
moment, this poer wretch, seeing himself a little at liberty, and unbound,
Nature inspired him with hopes of life, and he started away from them,
and ran with"incredible swiftness along the sands, directly towards me; I

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169
170 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

dreadfully frightened, that I must acknowledge, when I perceived him run
my way, and especially when, as I thought, I saw him pursued by the whole
body, and now I expected that part of my dream was coming to pass, and
that he would certainly take shelter in my groye; but I could not depend,
by any means, upon my dream, that the other savages would not pursue
him thither, and find him there. However, 1 kept my station, and my spirits
began to recover when IJ found that there was not above three men that
followed him; and still more was I encouraged when I found that he out-
stripped them exceedingly in running, and gained ground on them, so that,
if he could but hold it for half an hour, I saw easily he would fairly get
away from them all. :

There was between them and my castle, the creek, which I mentioned
often in the first part of my story, where I landed my cargoes out of the
ship, and this I saw plainly he must necessarily swim over, or the poor
wretch would be taken there; but when the savage escaping came thither,
he made nothing of it, though the tide was then up; but, plunging in, swam
through in about thirty strokes, or thereabouts, landed, and ran with exceed-
ing strength and swiftness. When the three persons came to the creek, I
found that two of them could swim, but the third could not, and that, stand-
ing onthe other side, he looked at the others, but went no farther, and soon
after went softly back again; which, as it happened, was very well for him
inthe end. I observed that the two who swam were yet more than twice as
long swimming over the creek than the fellow was that fled from them. It
came very warmly upon my thoughts, and indeed irresistibly, that now was
the time to get mea servant, and perhaps a companion orf assistant, and
that J was plainly called by Providence to save this poor creature’s life. I
immediately ran down the ladder with all possible expedition, fetched my
two guns, for they were both at the foot of the ladder, as I observed before,
and getting up again with the same haste to the top of the hill, I crossed
towards the sea, and having a very short cut, and all down hill, clapped
myself in the way between the pursuers and the pursued, hallooing aloud to
him that fled, who, looking back, was at first perhaps as much frightened at
me as at them; but I beckoned with my hand to him to come back, and, inthe
meantime, I slowly advanced towards the two that followed: then rushing
at once upon the foremost, I knocked him dawn with the stock of my piece.
I was loth to fire, because I would not have the rest hear; though, at that
distance, it would not have been easily heard, and being out of sight of the
smoke, too, they would not have known what to make of it. Having
knocked this fellow down, the other who pursued him stopped, as if he had
been frightened, and I advanced towards him; but as I came nearer, I per-
ceived presently he had a bow and arrow, and was fitting it to shoot at me;
so I was then obliged to shoot at him first, which I did, and killed him at
the first shot. The poor savage who fled, but had stopped, though he saw
both his enemies fallen and killed, as he thought, yet was so frightened with
A MARK OF SUBMISSION. 171

the fire drid noise of my piece that he stood stock-still, and neither came
forward nor went backward, though he seemed rather inclined still to fly
tlhah to come on, IJ hallooed again to him, and made signs to come forward,
which he easily understood; and came a little way, then stopped again, and
then a little farther, and stopped again; and I could then perceive that he
stood trembling; as if he had been taken prisoner, and had just been to be









“DANCING ROUND THE FIRE” (f. 168).

killed, as his two enemies were. I beckoned to him again ,to come to me,
and gave him all the signs of encouragement that I could think of; and he
came nearer and nearer, kneeling down every ten or twelve steps, in token
of acknowledgment for saving his life. I smiled at him, and looked
pleasantly, aid beckoned to him to come still nearer, At length, he
came tlosé to me, and then he knecled down again, kissed the ground,
and laid his head tipoti the ground, and, taking me by the foot, set my foot
upon his liead; this, it seems, was in token of swearing to be my slave for-
ever. I took hith up, and made much of him, and encouraged him all I
could, @But there was more work to do yet, for I perceived the savage
172 ; ROBINSON CRUSOE.

whom I had knocked down was not killed, but stunned with the blow, and
began to come to himself; so I pointed to him, and showed him the savage,
that he was not dead. Upon this he spoke some words to me, and though I
could not understand them, yet I thought they were pleasant to hear, for
they were the first sound of a man’s voice that I had heard, my own
excepted, for above twenty-five years. But there was no time for such reflec-
tions now; the savage who was knocked down recovered himself so far as
to sit up on the ground, and I perceived that my savage began to be afraid;
but when I saw that, I presented my other piece at the man, as if I would
shoot him. Upon this my savage, for so I called him now, made a motion to
me to iend him my sword, which hung naked in a belt by ny side, which I

did. He no sooner had it but he runs to his enemy, and at-one blow cut off:

his head as cleverly, no executioner in Germany could have done it sooner
or better; which I thought very strange for one who, I had'reason to believe,
never saw asword in his life before, except theirown woodenswords. How-
ever, it seems, as I learned afterwards, they make their wooden swords so
sharp, so heavy, and the wood isso hard, that they will even cut off heads with
them, ay, and arms, and‘that at one blow too. When he had done this, he
comes laughing to me in sign of triumph, and brought me thessword again,
and with abundance of gestures which I did not understand, laid it down,
wih the head of the savage that he had killed, just before me. But that
which astonished him most was to know how I killed the other Indian so far
off; su, pointing to him, he made signs to me to let him go to him, and I
bade him go, as well as I could. When he came to him, he stood like one
amazed, looking at him, turning him first on one side, then on the other;
lookea at the wound the bullet had made, which it seems was just in his
breast, where it had made a hole, and no great quantity of blood. jaad fol-
lowed; but he had bled inwardly, for he was quite dead. He tool up: his
bow and arrows, and came back; so I turned to go away, and becljned him
to follow me, making signs to him that more might come after them.

Upon this he made signs to me that he should bury them with sand,
that they might not be seen by the rest, if they followed, and so I made
signs to him again to do so. He fell to work, and in an instant he had
scraped a hole in the sand with his hands, big enough to bury the first in,
and then dragged him into it, and covered him, and did so by the other
also, I believe he had buried them both in a quarter of an hour. Then
calliug him away, I carried him, not to my castle, but quite away to my
cave, outhe farther part of the island, so I did not let my dream come to pass
intrat part, that he came into my grove for shelter. Here I gave him bread
ana a bunch of raisins to eat, and a draught of water; which I found he was
indeed in great distress for from his running, and having refreshed him, I
made sigris for him to go and lie down to sleep, showing him a place where
I had laid some rice-straw, and a blanket upon it, which I used to sleep upon
myself sometimes; so the poor creature lay down, and went to sleep.
MY MAN, FRIDAY. : 178

He was a comely, handsome fellow, perfectly well made, with straight,
strong limbs, not too large, tall and well shaped, and, as I reckon, about
twenty-six years of age. He had avery good countenance, not a fierce and
surly aspect, but seemed to have something very manly in his face, and
yet he had all the sweetness and softness of a European in his countenance,
too, especially when he smiled. His hair was long and black, not curled
like wool, his forehead very high and large, and a great vivacity and spark-

‘ling sharpness in his eyes. The color of his skin was not quite black, but
very tawny, and_yct not an ugly, yellow, nauseous tawny, as the Brazilians
and Virginians, and other natives of America are, but of a bright kind of a
dun olive-color, that had in it something very agreeable, though not very
easy to destoibe® His face was round and plump, his nose small, not flat
like the Negroes’,'a very good mouth, thin lips, and his fine teeth well set,
and as white as ivory.

After he had-slumbered, rather than slept, about half an hour, he awoke
again, and came out of the cave to me, for I had been milking my goats,
which I had in the inclosure just by. When he espied me, he came running
to me, laying: himself down again upon the ground, with all the possible

- signs of an humble, thankful disposition, making a great many antic ges-

tures to show it. At last he lays his head flat upon the ground, close to my
foot, and sets my other foot upon his head, as he had done before, and after
this, made all the signs to me of subjection, servitude, and submission

imaginable, to let me know how he would serve me so long as he lived. I-
wagerstood him in many things, and let him know I was very well pleased

mhim. Ina little time I began to speak to him, and teach him to speak
to m@gyand, first, I let him know his name should be FRipay, which was the
day Saved his life, I called him so for the memory of the time. ! likewise
taught him to say Master, and then let him know that was to be my name;

I likewise taught him to say Yes and No, and to know the meaning of
them. I gave him some milk in an earthern pot, and let him see me drink
it before him, and sop my bread in it, and gave him a cake of bread to do
the like, which he “quickly complied with, and made signs that it was very
good for him. I kept there with him all that night, but, as soon as it was
day, I beckoned to him to come with me, ‘and let him know I would give
him some clothes, at which he seemed very glad, for he was stark naked.
As we went by the place where he -had buried the two men, he pointed
exactly to the place, and showed me the marks that he had made to find
them again, making signs to me that we should dig them up again and eat

them. At this I appeared very angry, expressed my abhorrence of it, made
as if I would vomit at the thoughts of it, and beckoned with my hand to

him to come away, which he did immediately, with great submission. I

then led him up to the top of the hill, to see if his enemies were gone, and,
pulling out my glass, I looked, and saw plainly the place where they had
been, but no appearance of them or their canoes, so that it was plain they


174 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

were gone, and had left their two comrades behind them, without any search
after them.

But Iwas not content with this discovery, but having now more cour-
age, and consequently more curiosity, 1 took my man Friday with me,
giving him the sword in his hand, with the bow and arrows at his back,
which I found he could use very dexterously, making him carry one gun
for me, and I two for myself, and away we marched to the place where
these creatures had been—for I had a mind now to get some fuller intelli-

cn

SAHA th
ee













“AT ONE BLOW CUT OFF HIS HEAD” (#. 172).

gence of them. When I came to the place my very blood ran chill in my
veins and my heart sank within me, at the horror of the spectacle; indeed
‘t was a dreadful sight—at least it was’ so to me, though Friday made
nothing of it. The place was covered with human bones, the ground «dyed
with the blood, and great pieces of flesh left here and there, half eaten,
mangled and scorched; and, in short, all the tokens of the triumphant feast
they had been making there after a victory over their enemies. I saw three
skulls, five hands, and the bones of three or four legs and feet, and abun-
I CLOTHE FRIDAY 175

dance of other parts of the bodies; and Friday, by his signs, made me
utiderstatid that they brought over four prisoners to feast upon, that three
of them were eaten up, and that he, pointing to himself, was the foutth;
that there had been a great battle between them and their next king, of
whose subjects, it seems, he had been one, and that they had taken a great
ntiinber of prisoners, all which were carried to several places by those who'
liad taken them in the fight, in order to feast upon them, as was done here
by these wretches upon those they brought hither. :

I caused Friday to gather all the skulls, bones, flesh and whatever
refiiained, and lay them together on a heap and make a great fire upon it,
and burn them all to ashes. I found Friday had still a hankering stomach
aftér some of the flesh, and was still a cannibal in his nature, but I discov-
ered so much abhorretice at the very thoughts of it, and at the least appeat-
ance of it, that he dutst not discover it—for I had, by some means let kim
know that I would kill him if he offered it.

When he kad done this we came back to our castle, and there I fell to
wotlk for my man Friday; and, first of all, I gave hima pair of linen dtaw-
éts which [ had otit of the poor gunner’s chest I mentioned, which I found
in the wreck, and which, with a littie alteration, fitted him very well, and
then I thade him a jerkin of goat’s skin as well as my skill would allow (for
I Was fiow Grown a tolerably good tailor), and I gave hima cap which I
tiidde of hare’s skin, very cofivenient and fashionable enough, and thus he
was clothed, for the present, tolerably well, and was thighty well pleased to
see himself alrnost as well clothed as his master. ‘It is true he went awk-
wardly in these clothes at first. Wearing the drawers was very awkward to
him, aitd the sleeves of the waistcoat galled his shoulders and the inside of
His arims, but a little easing them where he complained they hurt him, and
usitig hithself to them, at length he took to them very well.

The next day, after I cartie home to my hutch with him, I began to con-
sidér where I should lodge him, and, that I might do well for him, aid yet
be perfectly easy myself, I made a little tent for him in the vacant place
betweeii thy two fortifications, in the inside of the last and in the outside
of the first. As there was a door or etitrance there into my cave, I made a
fortnal framed door-case and a door to it of boards, and set it up itt the
passage, a little within the entratice, and, causing the door to open in the
itside, I barred it up in the night, taking in my ladders, too, so that Friday
could no way come at me in the inside of my innermost wall without making
so much hoise in getting over that it must needs awaken me, for my first
wall had now a complete roof over it of long poles, covering all my tent
atid leatiing up to the side of the hill, whicly was again laid across with
stialler sticks, itistead of laths, and then thatched overa great thickness
with the tice straw, which was strong, like reeds, and at the hole or place
Which was left to go in of out by the ladder I had placed a kind of trap-
door, which, if it had bee attempted on the outside, would not have

+
176 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

opened at all, but would have fallen down and made a great noise; as to
weapons, I took them all into my side every night. But I needed none of
all this precaution, for never man had a more faithful, loving, sincere serv
ant than Friday was to me, without passions, sullenness, or designs, per-
fectly obliged and engaged; his very affections were tied to me, like those
of a child to a father, and I dare say he would have sacrificed his life for
the saving mine upon any occasion whatsoever. The many testimonies he
gave me of this put it out of doubt and soon convinced me Bn I needed
no precautions for my safety on his account.

This frequently gave me’ occasion to observe, and that with wonder,
that however it had pleased God in His providence, and in the government
of the works of His hands, to take from so great a part of the world of His
creatures the best uses to which their faculties and the powers of their souls
are adapted, yet that He has bestowed upon them the same powers, the same
reason, the same affections; the same sentiments of kindness and obligation;
the same passions and resentments of wrongs; the same sense of gratitude,
sincerity, fidelity, and all the capacities of doing good and receiving good,
that He has given to us; and that when He pleases to offer them occasions
of exerting these, they are as ready, nay, more ready, to apply them to the

right uses for which they were bestowed than we are. This made me very

melancholy sometimes, in reflecting, as the several occasions presented, how
mean a use we make of all these, even though we have these powers
enlightened by the great lamp of instruction, the spirit of God, and by the
knowledge of His word added to our understanding; and why it has pleased
God to hide the like saving knowledge from so many millions of souls, who,
ifI might judge by this poor savage, would make a much better use of it
than we did. From hence, I sometimes was led too far, to invade the
sovereignty of Providence, and, as it were, arraign the justice of so arbitrary
a disposition of things, that should hide that sight from some, and reveal it
to others, and yet expect a like duty from both; but I shut it up, and
checked my thoughts with this conclusion: first, That we did not know by
what light and law these should be condemned; but that as God was neces-
sarily, and, by the nature of His being, infinitely holy and just, so it could
not be but if these creatures were all sentenced to absence from Himself, it
was on account of sinning against that light, which, as the Scripture says,
was a law to themselves, and by such rules as their consciences would
acknowledge to be just, though the foundation was not discovered to us;
and, secondly, That still, as we are all the clay in the hand of the Potter, no
vessel could say to Him, ‘“ Why hast Thou formed me thus?”

But to return to my new companion: I was greatly delighted with him,
and made it.my business to teach him everything that was proper to make
him useful, handy and helpful; but especially to make him speak and under-
stand me when I spoke; and he was the aptest scholar that ever was; and
particularly was so merry, so constantly diligent, and so pleased when
FRIDAY TAUGHT AND TRAINED. 177

he could but understand me, or make me understand him, that it was very
pleasant to me to talk to him. And now my life began to be so easy that
I began to say to myself, that could I but have been safe from more sav-
ages, I cared not if I was never to remove from the place while I lived.

After I had been two or three days returned to my castle, I thought that,
in order to bring Friday off from his horrid way of feeding, and from the
relish of a cannibal’s stomach, I ought to let him taste other flesh; so 1
took him out with me one morning to the woods. I went, indeed, intend-
ing to kill a kid out of my own flock, and bring it home and dress it; but as
I was going, I saw a she-goat lying down in the shade, and two young kids
sitting by her. Icatched hold of Friday: “Hold,” said I, “stand still; ”’
and made signs to him not to stir; immediately I presented my piece, shot,
and killed one of the kids. The poor creature, who had,at a distance, indeed,
seen me kill the savage, his enemy, but did not know nor could imagine
how it was done, was sensibly surprised; trembled, and shook, and looked
so amazed that I thought he would have sunk down. He did not see the
kid I shot at, or perceived I had killed it, but ripped up his waistcoat, to
feel whether he was not wounded; and,as I found presently, thought I was
resolved to kill him, for he came and kneeled down to me, and embracing
my knees, said a great many things I did not understand; but I could easily
see the meaning was to pray me not to kill him.

I soon found a way to convince him that I would do him no harm; and
taking him by the hand, laughed at him, and pointing’ to the kid which I
had killed, beckoned to him to run and fetch it, which he did; and while
he was wondering, and looking to see how the creature was killed, I loaded
my gun again. By and by I saw a great fowl, like a hawk, sitting upon a
tree within shot; so, to let Friday understand a little what I would do, I
called him to me again, pointed at the fowl, which was indeed a parrot,
though I thought it had been a hawk; I say, pointing to the parrot, and
to my gun, and to the ground under the parrot, to let himsee I would make
it fall, 1 made him understand that I would shoot and kill that bird; accord-
ingly, I fired, and bade him look, and immediately he saw the parrot fall.
He stood like one frightened again, notwithstanding all I had said to him;
and I found he was the more amazed because he did not see me put any-
thing into the gun, but thought that there must be some wonderful fund of
death and destruction in that thing, able to kill man, beast, bird, or anything
near or far off; and the astonishment this created in him was such as could

not wear off for a long time; and, I believe, if I would have let him, he
‘would have worshiped me and my gun. As for the gun itself, he would not
so much as touch it for several days after; but he would speak to it and talk
to it, as if it had answered him, when he was by himself; which, as I after-
wards learned of him, was to desire it not to kill him. Well, after his
astonishment was a little over at this, I pointed to him to run and fetch the
dird I had shot, which he did, but stayed some time; for the parrot, not
178 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

being quite dead, had fluttered away a good distance from the place where
she fell. However, he found her, took her up, and brought her to me; and
as I had perceived his ignorance about the gun before, I took this advant-
age to charge the gun again, and not to let him see me do it, that I might
be ready for any other mark that might present; but nothing more offered
at that time; so I brought home the kid, and the same evening I took the
skin off, and cut it out as well as I could; and having a pot fit for that pur-
pose, I.boiled or stewed some of the flesh, and made some very good broth.
After I had begun to eat some, I gave some to my man, who seemed very
glad of it, and liked it very well; but that which was strangest to him was
to see me eat salt with it. He made a sign to me that the salt was not good
to eat; and, putting a little into his own mouth, he seemed to nauseate it,
and would spit and sputter at it, washing his mouth with fresh water after
it; on the other hand, I took some meat into my mouth without salt, and I
pretended to spit and sputter for want of salt, as fast as he had done at the
salt; but it would not do; he would never care for salt with his meat, or in
his broth; at least, not for a great while, and then but a very little.

Having thus fed him with boiled meat and broth, I was resolved to feast
him the next day with roasting a piece of the kid. This I did by hanging it
before the fire on a string, as I had seen many people do in England, setting
two poles up, one on each side of the fire, and one across on the top, and
tying the string to the cross-stick, letting the meat turn continually. This
Friday admired very much; but when he came to taste the flesh, he took so
many ways to tell me how well he liked it, that I could not but understand
him; and at last he told me, as well as he could, he would never eat man’s
flesh any more, which I was very glad to hear.

The next day I set. him to work to beating some corn out, and sifting it
in the manner I used to do, as I observed before, and he soon understood
how to do it as well asI, especially after he had seen what the meaning of
it was, and that it wasto make bread of; for after that I let himsee me make
my bread and bake it, too; and ina little time Friday was able to do allthe
work for me as well as I could do it myself.

I began now to consider that, having two mouths to feed instead of one,
I must provide more ground for my harvest, and plant a larger quantity of
corn than I used to do; so I marked out a larger piece of land and began
- the fence in the same manner as before, in which Friday worked not only
very willingly and very hard, but did it very cheerfully; and I told him
what it was for; that it was for corn to make more bread, because he was
now with me, and that I might have enough for him and myself, too. He
appeared very sensible of that part, and let me know that he thought I had
much more labor upon me on his account than I had for myself; and
that he would work the harder for me, if I would tell him what to do.

This was the pleasantest year of all the life I led in this place. Friday
began to talk pretty well and understand the names of almost everything I
CONVERSATION WITH FRIDAY. 179

had occasion to call for, and of every place I had tosend him to, and talk a
great deal to me, so that, in short, I began now to have some use for my
tongue again, which, indeed, I had very little

occasion for before, that is to say, about

speech. Besides the pleasure of talking to \\

him, I had a singular satisfaction in the fel-
low himself. His simple, unfeigned honesty
appeared to me more and more every day,











and I began really to love the creature, and Ly

on his side I believe he loved me more than pie hae NG
it was possible for him ever to love any- my } ’
thing before. SHY \x

I had a mind once to try if he had any Wl ‘aw
hankering inclination to his own country
again; and having taught him English so
well that he could answer me almost any






















Gai Ze
f a Uiiini Ie ea
“ Vy en
Ws \ 1 lane
17 SAMY Aue
A } ey we +




Oe *

‘«~ question, l asked him
"whether the nation
that he belonged to
never conquered in
battle. At which he
smiled, and said,
“Yes, yes, we always
fight the better;”
that is, he meant,
always get the better
in fight; and so we
began the following
discourse:

‘ Master —You al-
ways fight the better; how came you to be taken prisoner then, Friday?

Fnday.—My nation beat much, for all that.

Master—How beat? If your nation beat them, how came you to be
taken?

“YT PRESENTED MY PIECE” (f, 177).
180 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Friday —They more many than my nation, in the place where me was;
they take one, two, three, and me; my nation overbeat them in the yonder
place, where me no was; here my nation take one, two, great thousand.

Master—But why did not your side recover you from the hands of your
enemies then? 2

Friday —They run, one, two, three, and me, and make me go in the canoe;
my nation have no canoe that time.

Master —\Wel, Friday, and what does your nation do with the men they
sake? Oo they carry them away and eat them, as these did?

Friday —Yes, my nation eat mans too: eat all up.

Master.—Where do they carry them?

Friday —Go to other place where they think.

Master—Do they come hither?

Friday —Ves, yes, they come hither; come other else place.

Master-—Have you been here with them?

Friday —Ves, 1 been here (points to the N.W. side of the island,
which, it seems, was their side).

By this I understood that my man Friday had formerly been among the
savages who used to come on shore on the farther part of the island, on the
said man-eating occasions that he was now brought for; and, some time
after, when J took the courage to carry him to that side, being the same I
formerly mentioned, he presently knew the place, and told me he was there
once, when they ate up twenty men, two women, and one child; he could
not tell twenty in English, but he numbered them, by laying so many stones
in a row, and pointing to me to tell them over.

I have told this passage because it introduces what follows; that after
this discourse I had with him, I asked him how far it was from our island to
the shore, and whether the canoes were not often lost. He told me there
was no danger; no canoes ever lost; but that after a little way out to sea,
there was a current and wind, always one way in the morning, the other in
the afternoon. This I understood to be no more than the sets of the tide,
as. going out or coming in; but I afterwards understood it was occasioned
by the great draft and reflux of the mighty river Oroonoko, in the mouth of
which river, as I thought afterwards, our island lay; and that this land
which I perceived to the W. and N.W. was the great island Trinidad, on
the north point of the mouth of the river. I asked Friday a thousand
questions about the country, the inhabitants, the sea, the coast, and what
nations were near; he told me all he knew, with the greatest openness
imaginable. I asked him the names of the several nations of his sort of
people, but could get no other name than Caribs; from whence I easily
understood that these were the Caribbees, which our maps place on the
part of America which reaches from the mouth of the river Oroonoko te
Guiana, and onwards to St. Martha. He told me thatup a great way beyona
the moon (that was, beyond the setting of the moon, which must be west
RUDIMENTS OF RELIGION, 18i

from their country) there dwelt white bearded men, like me, and pointed to
my great whiskers, which I mentioned before; and that they had killed
much mans—that was his word; by all which I understood he meant the
Spaniards, whose cruelties in America had been spread over the whole
country, and were remembered by all the nations, from father to son.

I inquired if he could tell me how I might come from this island, and
get among those white men; he told me, “ Yes, yes, I might go in two canoe.”
Icould not understand what he meant by ‘two canoe,” till at last, with
great difficulty, I found he meant it must be in a large, great boat, as big as
two canoes. This part of Friday’s discourse began to relish with me very
well; and from this time I entertained some hopes that, one time or other,
I might find an opportunity to make my escape from this place, and that
this poor savage might be a means to help me to do it.

During the long time that Friday had now been with me, and that he
began to speak to me, and understand me, I was not wanting to lay a foun-
dation of religious knowledge in his mind; particularly I asked him one
time who made him. The poor creature did not understand me at all,
but thought I had asked him who was his father; but I took it by another
handle, and asked him who made the sea, the ground we walked on, and
the hills and woods. He told me, “It was one Benamuckee, that lived
beyond all;” he could describe nothing of this great person, but that he
was very old, “much older,” he said, “than the sea. or the land, than the
moon or the stars.” I asked him; then, if this old person had made all
things, why did not all things worship him? He looked very grave, and,
with a perfect look of innocence, said, “All things said ‘O!’ to him.”
I asked him if the people who die in his country went away anywhere.
He said, “ Yes; they all went to Benamuckee.” Then I asked him whether
those they ate up went thither too. He said, “ Yes.”

From these things I began to instruct him in the knowledge of the true
God. I told him that the great Maker of all things lived there, pointing up
towards Heaven; that He governed the world by the same power and provi-
dence by which He made it; that He was omnipotent, and could do every-
thing for us, give everything to us, take everything from us; and thus,
by degrees, I opened his eyes. He listened with great attention, and
received with pleasure the notion of Jesus Christ being sent to redeem us,
and of the manner of making our prayers to God, and His being able to
hear us, even into Heaven. He told me one day, that if our God could hear
us, up beyond the sun, He must needs be a greater God than their Bena-
muckee, who lived but a little way off, and yet could not hear till they
went up to the great mountain where he dwelt to speak to him. I asked
him if ever he went thither to speak to him. He said, “No; they never
went that were young men; none went thither but the old men,” whom he
called their Oowokakee: that is, as I made him explain it to me, their
religious, or clergy; and that they went to say “O!” (so he called saying
182 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

prayers), and then came back and told them what Benamuckee said. By
this I observed, that there is priestcraft even among the most blinded,
ignorant pagans in the world; and the policy of making a secret of religion,
in order to preserve the veneration of the people to the clergy, is not only
to be found in the Roman, but perhaps among all religions in the world,
even among the most brutish and barbarous savages.

I endeavored to clear up this fraud to my man Friday, and told him
that the pretense of their old men going up to the mountains to say “ oO!”
to their god Benamuckee was a cheat; and their bringing word from thence
what he said was much more so; that if they met with any answer, or spoke
with any one there, it must be with an evil spirit; and then I entered into
a long discourse with him about the devil, the original of him, his rebellion
against God, his enmity to man, the reason of it, his setting himself up in
the dark parts of the world to be worshiped instead of God, and as God,
and the many stratagems he made use of to delude mankind to their ruin;
how he had a secret access to our passions and to our affections, and to
adapt his snares to our inclinations, so as to cause us even to be our own
tempters, and run upon our own destruction by our own choice.

I found it was not so easy to imprint right notions in his mind about the
devil as it was about the being of a God. Nature assisted all my argu-
ments to evidence to him even the necessity of a great First Cause—an over-
ruling, governing Power, a secret directing Providence; and of the equity
and justice of paying homage to Him that made us, and the like; but there
appeared nothing of this kind in the notion of an evil spirit; of his original,
his being, his nature, and, above all, of his inclination to do evil, and to
draw us in to do so too; and the poor creature puzzled me once in such a
manner, by a question merely natural and innocent, that I scarce knew what
to say to him. I had been talking a great deal to him of the power of God,
His omnipotence, His aversion to sin, His beinga consuming fire to the work-
ers of iniquity; how, as He had made us all, He could destroy us andallthe
world in a moment; and he listened with great seriousness to me all the
while. After this, I had been telling him how the devil was God’s enemy in
the hearts of men, and used all his malice and skill to defeat the good
designs of Providence, and to ruin the kingdom of Christ in the world, and
the like. “Well,” says Friday, “ but you say God is so strong, so great; is
He not much strong, much might as the devil?” ‘Yes, yes,” says I, ‘Fri-
day, God is stronger than the devil; God is above the devil, and therefore
we pray to God to tread him down under our feet, and to enable us to resist
his temptations and quench his fiery darts.” “But,” says he again, “ if God
much strong, much might as the devil, why God no kill the devil, so make
him no more do wicked?” I was strangely surprised at this question; and,
after all, though I was now an old man, yet I was but a young doctor, and
ill qualified for a casuist or a solver of difficulties, and at first I could not
tell what to say; so I pretended not to hear him and asked him what he
RELIGIOUS TEACHINGS, 183

said. But he was too earnest for an answer to forget his question, so that
he repeated it in the very same broken words as above. By this time I had
recovered myself a little and I said, “God will at last punish him severely;
he is reserved for the judgment, and he is to be cast into the bottomless pit,
to dwell with everlasting fire.” This did not satisfy Friday; but he returns
upon me, repeating my own words, “ ‘Reserve at last/’ me no understand;
but why not kill the devil now; not kill great ago?” ‘You may as well ask
me,” says I, “why God does not kill you or me when we do wicked things
here that offend Him; we are preserved to repent and be pardoned.” He

















Z.



























“I ENTERED INTO A LONG DISCOURSE” (Z. 182).

muses awhile on this. ‘Well, well,” says he, mightily affectionately, “that
well; so you, I, devil, all wicked, all preserve, repent, God pardon all.”
Here I was run down by him to the last degree; and it was a testimony to
me, how the mere notions of Nature, though they will guide reasonable
creatures to the knowledge of a God and of a worship or homage due to the
supreme being of God, as the consequence of our nature, yet nothing but
Divine revelation can form the knowledge of Jesus Christ, and of redemption
purchased for us; of a Mediator of the new covenant, and of an Intercessor
at the footstool of God’s throne. I say, nothing but a revelation from Heaven
can form these in the soul; and that, therefore, the gospel of our Lord and
Saviour Jesus Christ, | mean the Word of God and the Spirit of God, prom-
ised for the guide and sanctifier of His people, are the absolutely necessary


184 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

instructors of the souls of men in the saving knowledge of God, and the
means of salvation.

I therefore diverted the present discourse between me and my man, ris-

‘ ing up hastily as upon some sudden occasion of going out; then sending
him for something a good way off, I seriously prayed to God that He would
enable me to instruct savingly this poor savage; assisting by His Spirit the
heart of the poor ignorant creature to receive the light of the knowledge of
God in Christ, reconciling him to Himself, and would guide me to speak so
co him from the Word of God, that his conscience might be convinced, his
2yes opened, and his soul’saved. When he came again to me, I entered
into a long discourse with him upon the subjéct of the redemption of man
py the Saviour of the world, and of the doctrine of the gospel preached
from heaven, viz., of repentance towards God, and faith in our blessed Lord
Jesus. I then explained to him as well as I could why our blessed
Redeemer took not on Him the nature of angels, but the seed of Abraham;
and how, for that reason, the fallen angels had no share in the redemption;
that He came only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel, and the like.

I had, God knows, more sincerity than knowledge in all the methods I
took for this poor creature’s instruction, and must acknowledge, what I
believe all that act upon the same principle will find, that, in laying things
open to him, I really informed and instructed myself in many things that I
either did not know, or had not fully considered before, but which occurred
naturally to my mind upon searching into them, for the information of this
poor savage. And I had more affection in my inquiry after things upon this
occasion than ever I felt before; so that, whether this poor wild wretch was
the better for me or no, I had reason to be thankful that ever he came to
me; my grief sat lighter upon me; my habitation grew comfortable to me

‘beyond measure; and when I reflected that in this solitary life which I had
been confined to, I had not only been moved to look up to Heaven myself,
and to seek the Hand that had brought me here, but was now to be made
an instrument, under Providence, to save the life, and, for aught I know, the
soul of a poor savage, and bring him to the true knowledge of religion, and
of the Christian doctrine, that he might know Christ Jesus, to know Whom
is life eternal; I say, when I reflected upon all these things, a secret joy ran
through every part of my soul, and I frequently rejoiced that ever I was
brought to this place, which I had so often thought the most dreadful of all
afflictions that could possibly have befallen me.

In this thankful frame I continued all the remainder of my time; and-
the conversation which employed the hours between Friday and me was
such as made the three years which we lived there together perfectly and
completely happy, if any such thing as complete happiness can be found in
a sublunary state. This savage was now a good Christian, a much better
than I, though I have reason to hope, and bless God for it, that we were
equally penitent, and comforted, restored penitents. We had here the Word
I TELL MY STORY. 185

yf God to read, and no farther off from His Spirit to instruct than if we had
been in England. I always applied myself, in reading the Scriptures, to let
him know, as well as I could, the meaning of what I read; and he again, by
his serious inquiries and questionings, made me, as I said before, a much
better scholar in the Scripture knowledge than I should ever have been by
my own mere private reading. Another thing I cannot refrain from observ-
ing here also, from experience in this retired part of my life, viz., how infi-
nite and inexpressible a blessing it is that the knowledge of God, and of the
doctrine of salvation by Christ Jesus, is so plainly laid down in the Word of
God, so easy to be received and understood, that, as the bare reading the
Scripture made me capable of understanding enough of my duty to carry
me directly on to the great work of sincere repentance for my sins, and of
laying hold of a Saviour for life and salvation, to a stated reformation in
practice, and obedience to all God’s commands, and this without any teacher
or instructor, I mean human, so the same plain instruction sufficiently
served to the enlightening this savage creature, and bringing him to be such
a Christian as I have known few equal to him in my life.

As to the disputes, wrangling, strife and contention which have happened
in the world about religion, whether niceties in doctrines or schemes of
church government, they were all perfectly useless to us, and, for aught I
can yet see, they have been to the rest of the world. We had the sure guide
to Heaven, viz., the Word of God; and we had, blessed be God, comfortable
views of the Spirit of God teaching and instructing us by His Word, lead-
ing us into all truth, and making us both willing and obedient to the instruc-
tion of His Word. And I cannot see the least use that the greatest knowl-
edge of the disputed points of religion, which have made such confusions in
the world, would have been to us, if.we could have obtained it; but I must
go on with the historical part of things, and take every part in its order.

“After Friday and I became more intimately acquainted, and that he
could understand almost all I said to him and speak fluently, though in
broken English, to me, I acquainted him with my own story, or at least so ©
much of it as related to my coming into this place; how I had lived there,
and how long. I let him into the mystery, for such it was to him, of gun-
powder and bullet, and-taught him how to shoot. I gave him a knife, with
which he was wonderfully delighted, and I made him a belt with a frog
hanging to it, such as in England we wear hangers in; and in the frog,
instead of a hanger, I gave him a hatchet, which was not only as gooda
weapon in some cases, but much more useful upon many occasions.

I described to him the countries of Europe, particularly England, which
I came from; how we lived, how we worshiped God, how we behaved to one
another, and how we traded in ships to all parts of the world. I gave him
an account of the wreck which I had been on board of, and showed him as
near as I could the place where she lay; but she was all beaten in pieces
long before, and quite gone. I showed him the ruins of our boat, which we
186 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

lost when we escaped, and which I could not stir with my whole strength
then, but was now fallen almost all to pieces. Upon seeing this boat
Friday stood musing a great while, and said nothing. I asked him what it
was he studied upon. At last says he, ‘‘ Me see such boat like come to place
at my nation.” I did not understand him a good while, but at last, when I
had examined further into it, I understood by him that a boat such as that
had been came on shore upon the country where he lived; that is, as he
explained it, was driven thither by stress of weather. I presently imagined
that some European ship must have been cast away upon their coast, and
the boat might get loose and drive ashore, but was so dull that I never once
thought of men making their escape from a wreck thither, much less
whence they might come, so I only inquired after the description of the
boat.

Friday described the boat to me well enough, but brought me better to
understand him when he added with some warmth, ‘We save the white
mans from drown.” Then I presently asked if there were any white mans,
as he called them, in the boat. “Yes,” he said; ‘the boat full of white
mans.” I asked him how many. He told upon his fingers seventeen. I
asked him then what became of them. He told me, ‘They live, they dwell
at my nation.”

This put new thoughts into my head, for I presently imagined that these
might be the men belonging to the ship that was cast away in the sight of
my island, as I now called it, and who, after the ship was struck on the rock
and they saw her inevitably lost, had saved themselves in their boat, and
were landed upon that wild shore among the savages. Upon this I inquired
of him more critically what had become of them. He assured me they lived
still there, that they had been there about four years, that the savages left
them alone and gave them victuals tolive. I asked how it came to pass that
they did not kill them and eat them. He said, “No, they make brother with
them;” that is,as I understood him, a truce; and then he added, “‘They
no eat mans but when make the warfight;”’ that is to say, they never eat
any men but such as come to fight with them and are taken in battle.

It was after this some considerable time, that being upon the top of the
hill, at the east side of the island, from whence, as I have said, I had, in a
clear day, discovered the main or continent of America, Friday, the weather .
being very serene, looks very earnestly towards the mainland, and, in a
kind of surprise, falls a-jumping and dancing, and calls out to me, for I was
at some distance from him. I asked him what was the matter. ‘Oh, joy!”
says he; “oh, glad! there see my country, there my nation!” JIobservedan
extraordinary sense of pleasure appeared in his face, and his eyes sparkled,
and his countenance discovered a strange eagerness, as if he had a mind to
be in his own country again. This observation of mine puta great many
thoughts into me, which made me, at first, not so easy about my new man
Friday as I was before; and I made no doubt but that, if Friday could get
PANGS OF JEALOUSY. 187

back to his own nation again, he would not only forget all his religion, but
all his obligation to me, and would be forward enough to give his country-
men an account of me, and come back, perhaps, with a hundred or two of
them, and make a feast upon me, at which he might be as merry as he used
to be with those of his enemies when they were taken in war. But I wronged
the poor, honest creature very much, for which I was very sorry afterwards.
However, as my jealousy increased, and held me some weeks, I was a little
more circumspect, and not so familiar and kind to him as before; in which
I was certainly in the wrong too; the honest, grateful
creature having no thought about it but what consisted
with the best principles both as a religious Christian and
as a grateful friend; as appeared afterwards to my full
satisfaction














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While my jealousy of on 7 ce Mes,
Jasted, you may be sure | was
every day pumping him, to see Se
if he would discover any of the
new thoughts which I suspected
were in him; but I found every-
thing he said was so honest and
so innocent, that I could find
nothing to nourish my sus-
picion; and, in spite of all my
uneasiness, he made me at last entirely his own again; nor did he in the
least perceive that I was uneasy, and therefore I could not suspect him of
deceit.

One day, walking up the same hill, but the weather being hazy at sea,
so that we could not see the continent, I called to him, and said, “ Friday,
do not you wish yourself in your own country, your own nation?” “ Yes,”
he said, “I be much O glad to be at my own nation.” “What would you
do there?” said I. “Would you turn wild again, eat men’s flesh again, and be
a savage, as you were before?” He looked full of concern, and shaking his
head, said, ‘‘ No, no; Friday tell them to live good; tell them to pray God;
tell them to eat corn-bread, cattle-flesh, milk; no eat man again.” ‘Why,
then,” said I to him, “they will kill you.’ He looked grave at that, and
then said, “No, no; they no kill me, they willing love learn.’ He meant

“UPON SEEING THIS BOAT, FRIDAY STOOD MUSING
A GREAT WHILE” ( 7. 186).
188 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

by this, they would be willing to learn. He added, they learned much of
the “bearded mans” that came in the boat. Then J asked him if he would
go back to them. He smiled at that, and told me he could not swim so far.
I told him I would make a canoe for him. He told me he would go, if I
would go with him. “Igo!” says I; ‘why, they will eat me if I come
there.” “No, no,” says he, ‘me make them no eat you; me make them
much love you.” He meant, he would tell them how I had killed his enemies,
and saved his life, and so he would make them love me. Thenhe told me,
as well as he could, how kind they were to seventeen white men, or bearded
men, as he called them, who came on shore in distress.

From this time, I confess, 1 hada mind to venture over, and see if I
could possibly join with those bearded men, who, I made no doubt, were
Spaniards or Portuguese; not doubting but, if I could, we might find some
method to escape from thence, being upon the continent, and a good com-
pany together, better than I could from an island forty miles off the shore,
alone, and without help. So, after some days, I took Friday to work again,
by way of discourse, and told him I would give hima boat to go back to his
own nation; and I, accordingly, carried him to my frigate, which lay on the
other side of the island, and having cleared it of water (for I always kept it
sunk in the water), I brought it out, showed it him, and we both went into
it. I found he was a most dexterous fellow at managing it,and would make
it go almost as swift and fast again asI could. So when he was in, I said to
him, ‘‘ Well, now, Friday, shall we go to your nation?” He looked very
dull at my saying so, which it seems was because he thought the boat too
small to go so far. I then told him I had a bigger; so the next day I went
to the place where the first boat lay which I had made, but which I could
not get into the water. He said that was big enough, but then, as I had
taken no care of it, and it had lain two or three and twenty years there, the
sun had split and dried it, that it was rotten. Friday told me that sucha
boat would do very well, and would carry “much enough vittle, drink,
bread,’—that was his way of talking.

Upon the whole, I was by this time so fixed upon my design of going
over with him to the continent, that I told him we would-:go and make one
as big as that, andhe should go home init. He answered not one word, but
looked very grave and sad. I asked him what was the matter with him. He
asked me again, ‘ Why you angry mad with Friday?—what me done?” I
asked him what he meant. I told him I was not angry with him at all.
‘No angry!” says he, repeating the words several times; “ why send Fri-
day home away to my nation?” “Why,” says I, “ Friday, did not you say
you wished you were there?” “ Yes, yes,” says he, “ wish we both there;
no wish Friday there, no master there.” In a word, he would not think of
going there without me. “I go there, Friday?” says I; “what shall I do
there?” He turned very quick upon me at this. ‘“ You do great deal much
good,” says he; “you teach wild mans be good, sober, tame mans; you tell
A NEW CANOE MADE. 189

‘ them know God, pray God, and live new life.” “Alas, Friday!” says I,
“thou knowest not what thou sayest; Iam but an ignorant man myself.’
“Yes, yes,” says he, “ you teachee me good, you teachee them good.” “ No,
no, Friday,” says I, “ you shall go without me; leave me here to live by
myself, as I did before.” He looked confused again at that word, and run
ning to one of the hatchets which he used to wear, he takes it up hastily, and
gives it to me. ‘What must I do with this?” says I tohim. “You take
kill Friday,” says he. ‘What must I kill you for?” said I again. He
returns very quick—‘ What you send Friday away for? Take kill Friday,
no send Friday away.” This he spoke so earnestly that I saw tears stand
in his eyes. Ina word,I so plainly discovered the utmost affection in him
to me, and a firm resolution in him, that I told him then, and often after,
that I would never send him away from me if he was willing to stay with
me.

Upon the whole, as I found by all his discourse a settled affection to me,
and that nothing could part him from me, so I found all the foundation of
his desire to go to his own country was laid in his ardent affection to the
people and his hopes of my doing them good; a thing which, as I had no
notion of myself, so I had not the least thought or intention or desire of
undertaking it. But still I found a strong inclination to my attempting an
escape, founded on the supposition gathered from the former discourse, that
there were seventeen bearded men there; and therefore, without any more
delay, I went to work with Friday to find out a great tree proper to fell, and
make a large periagua, or canoe, to undertake the voyage. There were trees
enough in the island to have built a little fleet, not of periaguas or canoes,
but even of good large vessels; but the main thing I looked at was to get
one so near the water that we might launch it when it was made, to avoid
the mistake I committed at first. At last Friday pitched upon a tree, for I
found he knew much better than I what kind of wood was fittest for it; nor
can I tell to this day what wood to call the tree we cut down, except that it
was very like the tree we call fustic, or between that and the Nicaragua
wood, for it was much of the samecolor and smell. Friday'was for burning
the hollow or cavity of this tree out, to make it into a boat, but I showed
him how rather to cut it with tools; which, after I had showed him how to
use, he did very handily; and in about a month’s hard labor, we finished it
and made it very handsome; especially when, with our axes, which I showed
him how to handle, we cut and hewed the outside into the true shape of a
boat. After this, however, it cost us near a fortnight’s time to get her along,
as it were, inch by inch, upon great rollers into the water; but when she was
in, she would have carried twenty men with great ease.

When she was in the water, though she was so big, it amazed me to see
with what dexterity and how swift my man Friday could manage her, turn
her, and paddle her along. So I asked him if he would and if we might
venture over in her. “Yes,” he said; ‘we venture over in her very well,
190 ah ROBINSON CRUSOE.

though great blow wind.” However, I had -
a farther design that he knew nothing of,
and that was to make a mast and a sail and
to fit her with an anchor and cable. As to
a mast, that was easy enough to get, so I
pitched upon a straight young cedar tree,
which I found near the place and which
there was great plenty of in the island, and
I set Friday to work to cut it down, and
gave him directions how to shape and order

it. But as to the sail, that was my par-

ticular care. I knew IJ had old sails, or

rather pieces of old sails, enough; but
_as I had had them now six-and-twenty

years by me, and had not been very



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kind of use for them, I did not ilies

doubt but they were all rotten; ie Soe Fe.
and, indeed, most of them were ‘iM ZE ZELG
so. However, I foundtwo pieces Ms j ye
which appeared pretty good, We

and with these I went to work; o '
and with a great deal of pains,
and awkward, tedious stitching, you —H fee tl
may be sure, for want of needles, I at Sera AE aa



length made a three-cornered, ugly
thing, like what we call in Englanda
shoulder-of-mutton sail, to go with a
boom at bottom, and a little short sprit
at the top, such as usually our ships’
long-boats sail with, and such as I best knew how to manage, because it
was such a one as I used in the boat in which I made my escape from
Barbary, as related in the first part of my story.

“INCH BY INCH UPON GREAT ROLLERS”

(A. 189).
INSTRUCTIONS IN NAVIGATION. 191

I was near two months performing this last work, viz., rigging and fitting
my mast and sails, for I finished them very complete, making a small stay
and a sail or foresail to it, to assist if we should turn to windward; and, which
was more than all, I fixed a rudder to the stern of her to steer with. And
though I was but a bungling shipwright, yet as I knew the usefulness, and
even the necessity of such a thing, I applied myself with so much pains to
do it, that at last I brought it to pass; though, considering the many dull
contrivances I had for it that failed, I think it cost me almost as much labor
as making the boat.

After all this was done, I had my man Friday to teach as to what
belonged to the navigation of my boat; for, though he knew very well how
to paddle the canoe, he knew nothing of what belonged to a sail anda
rudder; and was the most amazed when he saw me work the boat to and
again in the sea by the rudder, and how the sail jibbed, and filled this way
or that way, as the course we sailed changed; I say, when he saw this, he
stood like one astonished and amazed. However, with a little use, I made
all these things familiar to him, and he became an expert sailor, except
that as to the compass I could make him understand very little of that. On
the other hand, as there was very little cloudy weather, and seldom or never
any fogs in those parts, there was the less occasion for the compass, seeing
the stars were always to be seen by night, and the shore by day, except in
the rainy seasons, and then nobody cared to stir abroad either by land
or sea.

I was now entered on the seven-and-twentieth year of my captivity in
this place; though the three last years that I. had this creature with me
ought rather to be left out of the account, my habitation being quite of
another kind than in all the rest of my time. I kept the anniversary of my
landing here with the same thankfulness to God for His mercies as at first;
and if I had such cause of acknowledgment at first, ] had much more so
now, having such additional testimonies of the care of Providence over me,
and the great hopes I had of being effectually and speedily delivered; for I
had an invincible impression upon my thoughts that my deliverance was at
hand, and that I should not be another year in this place. However, I went
on with my husbandry; digging, planting, and fencing, as usual. I gathered
and cured my grapes and did every necessary thing as before.

The rainy season was in the meantime upon me, when I kept more
within doors than at other times. I had stowed our new vessel as secure as
we could, bringing her up into the creek, where, as I said in the beginning, I
landed my rafts from the ship, and hauling her up to the shore at high-
water mark, I made my man Friday dig a little dock, just big enough to hold
her and just deep enough to give her water enough to float in; and then,
when the tide was out, we made astrong dam across the end of it, to keep
the water out; and so she lay dry as to the tide from the sea, and to keep
the rain off we laid a great many boughs of trees so thick that she was
192 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

as well thatched as a house, and thus we waited for the months of
November and December, in which I designed to make my adventure.
When the settled season began to come in, as the thought of my
design returned with the fair weather, I was preparing daily for the voyage.
And the first thing I did was to lay by a certain quantity of provisions,
being the stores for our voyage, and intended, in a week ora fortnight’s
time, to open the dock and launch out our boat. J was busy one morning
upon something of this kind, when I called to Friday and bid him go to the
sea-shore and see if he could find a turtle or tortoise, a thing which we gen-
erally got oncea week, for the sake of the eggs, as wellas the flesh. Friday
had not been gone long when he came running back and flew over my outer
wall, or fence, like one that felt not the ground or the steps he set his feet
on, and before I had time to speak to him he cries out to me, “O master! O
master! O sorrow! O bad!” ‘ What’s the matter, Friday?” said I. “Oh!
yonder, there,” says he, “one, two, three canoes; one, two, three!” By
this way of speaking I concluded there were six, but on inquiry I found
there were but three. ‘“ Well, Friday,” says I, “do not be frightened.” So
I heartened him up as well as I could. However, I saw the poor fellow
was most terribly scared, for nothing ran in his head but that they were
come back to look for him and would cut him in pieces and eat him, and
the poor fellow trembled so that I scarcely knew what to do with him. I
comforted him as well as I could and told him I was in as much danger
as he, and that they would eat me as well as him. “ But,” said I, “ Friday,
we must resolve to fightthem. Can you fight, Friday?” ‘Me shoot,” says
he, “but there come many great number.” ‘ No matter for that,” said I,
again; ‘our guns will fright them that we do not kill.” So I asked him
whether, if I resolved to defend him, he would: defend me and stand by me,
and do just as I bid him. He said, “ Me die, when you bid die, mas-
ter.” So I went and fetched a good dram of rum and gave him, for I had
been so good a husband of my rum that I had a great deal left. When he
had drunk it I made him take the two fowling-pieces, which we. always
carried, and load them with large swan-shot, as big as small pistol-bul-
lets. Then I took four muskets and loaded them with two slugs and
five small bullets each, and my two pistols I loaded with a brace of bullets
each. I hung my great sword, as usual, naked by my side, and gave Friday
his hatchet. When I had thus prepared myself, I took my perspective
glass and went up to the side of the hill to see what I could discover, and I
found quickly by my glass that there were one-and-twenty savages, three
prisoners, and three canoes, and that their whole business seemed to be the
triumphant banquet upon these three human bodies; a barbarous feast
indeed, but nothing more than, as I had observed, was usual with them. I
observed also that they landed not where they had done when Friday made
his escape, but nearer to my creek, where the shore was low, and where
a thick wood came close almost down to the sea. This, with the abhorrence
A GOOD RESOLUTION, 193

of the inhuman errand these wretches came about, filled me with such
indignation that I came down again to Friday and told him I was resolved
to go down to them and kill them all, and asked him if he would stand
by me. He had now got over his fright and his spirits being a little raised
with the dram I had given him, hé was very cheerful and told me, as before,
he would die when I bid die.

In this bit of fury I took first and divided the arms which I had charged,
as before, between us; I gave Friday one pistol to stick in his girdle, and
three guns upon his shoulder, and I took one pistol and the other three
myself, and in this posture we marched out. I took a small bottle of rum
in my pocket, and gave Friday a large bag with more powder and bullets,
and as to orders, I charged him to keep close behind me, and not to stir, or
shoot, or do anything till I bid him, and in the meantime not to speak a
word, In this posture I fetched acompass to my right hand of near a mile,
as well to get over the creek as to get into the wood, so that I might come
within shot of them before I should be discovered, which I had seen by my
glass it was easy to do.

While I was making this march, my former thoughts returning, I began to
abate my resolution—I do not mean that I entertained any fear of their num-
ber, for, as they were naked, unarmed wretches, it is certain I was superior
to them—nay, though I had been alone. But it occurred to my thoughts,
what call, what occasion, much less what necessity, I was in to go and dip
my hands in blood, to attack people who had neither done nor intended me
any wrong?—who, as to me, were innocent, and whose barbarous custome
were their own disaster, being in them a token, indeed, of God’s having left
them, with the other nations of that part of the world, to such stupidity,
and to such inhuman courses, but: did not call me to take upon me to be a
judge of their actions, much less an executioner of His justice—that when-
ever He thought fit He would take the cause into His own hands, and by
national vengeance punish them for national crimes; but that, in the mean-
time, it was none of my business—that it was true Friday might justify it,
because he was a declared enemy, and in a state of war with those very
particular people, and it was lawful for him to attack them, but I could not
say the same with regard to myself. These things were so warmly pressed
upon my thoughts all the way as I went, that I resolved I would only go
and place myself near them that I might observe their barbarous feast, and
that I would act then as God should direct, and that unless something
offered that was more a call to me than yet I knew of, I would not meddle
with them.

With this reso!ution I entered the wood, and with all possible wariness
and silence, Friday following close at my heels, I marched till I came to
the skirt of the wood on the side which was next to them, only that one
corner of the wood lay between me and them. Here I called softly to Fri-
day, and showing him a great tree which was just at the corner of the wood,
194 . ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I bade him go to the tree, and bring me word if he could see there plainly
what they were doing. He did so, and came immediately back to me, and
told me they might be plainly viewed there—that they were all about their-
fire eating the flesh of one of their prisoners, and that another lay bound
upon the sand a little from them, whom he said they would kill next, and
this fired the very soul within me. He told me it was not one of their
nation, but one of the bearded men whom he had told me of, that came to
their country in the boat. I was filled with horror at the very naming of the
white bearded man, and going to the tree, I saw plainly by my glass a white
man, who lay upon the beach of the sea with his hands and his feet tied
with flags, or things like rushes, and that he was a European, and had
clothes on.

There was another tree, and a tittle thicket beyond it, about fifty ce
nearer to the place where I was, which, by going a little way about, I saw I
might come at undiscovered, and that then I should be within halfa shot of
them; so I withheld my passion, though I was indeed enraged to the highest
degree; and going back about twenty paces, I got behind some bushes,
which held all the way till I came to the other tree, and then came to a
little rising ground, which gave me a full view of them at the distance of
about eighty yards.

I had now not a moment to lose, for nineteen of the dreadful wretches
sat on the ground, all close huddled together, and had just sent the other
two to butcher the poor Christian, and bring him, perhaps limb by limb, to
their fire, and they were stooping down to untie the bands at his feet. I
turned te Friday: “ Now, Friday,” said I, “do as I bid thee.” Friday said
he would. “Then, Friday,” said I, ‘do exactly as you see me do; fail in
nothing.” So I set down one of the muskets and the fowling-piece upon
the ground, and Friday did the like by his, and with the other musket I
took my aim at the savages, bidding him do the like; then asking him if he
was ready, he said, Yes.” ‘Then fire at them,” said 1; and at the same
moment I fired also.

Friday took his aim so much better than I, that on the side he shot he
killed two of them, and wounded three more; and on my side I| killed one,
and wounded two. They were, you may be sure, in a dreadful consterna-
tion; and all of them that were not hurt jumped upon their feet, but did not
immediately know which way to run, or which way to look, for they knew
not from whence their destruction came. Friday kept his eyes close upon
me, that, as I had bid him, he might observe what I did; so, as soon as the
first shot was made, I threw down thé piece, and took up the fowling-piece,
and Friday did the like; he saw me cock and present; he did the same
again. “Are youready, Friday?” saidI. “Yes,” sayshe. ‘Let fly, then,”
said I, “in the name of God!” and with that I fired again among the
amazed wretches, and so did Friday; and as our pieces were now loaded with
what I call swan-shot, or small pistol-bullets, we found only two drop; but
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“T MADE DIRECTLY TOWARDS THE POOR VICTIM” (f. 196).
195
196 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

so many were wounded, that they ran about yelling and screaming like mad
creatures, all bloody, and most of them miserably wounded; whereof three
more fell quickly after, though not quite dead.

“Now, Friday,” said I, laying down the discharged pieces, and taking up
the musket that was yet loaded, “follow me,” which he did with a great
deal of courage; upon which I rushed out of the wood and showed myself,
and Friday close at my foot. As soon as I perceived they saw me, I shouted
as loud as I could, and bade Friday
do so too, and running as fast as I
could, which by the way was not very
fast, being loaded with arms as I was,
I made directly towards the poor
victim, who was, as I said, lying upon
the beach or shore, between the place
where they sat and the sea. The
two butchers who were just going to
work with him had left him at the
surprise of our first fire, and fledin a
terrible fright to the sea-side, and had
jumped intoa canoe, and three more
of the rest made the same way. I
turned to Friday, and bade him step
forwards and fire at them; he under-
stood me immediately, and running
about forty yards nearer them, he
shot at them; and I thought he killed
them all, for I saw them all fall of a
heap into the boat, though I saw two
of them up again quickly; however,
he killed two of them, and wounded
the third so that he lay down in the

bottom of the boat as if he had been
“IN THIS POSTURE WE MARCHED OUT” dead.
(p. 198).



While my man Friday fired at
them, I pulled out my knife and cut
the flags that bound the poor victim; and loosing his hands and feet, I lifted
him up, and asked him, in the Portuguese tongue, what he was. He
answered, in Latin, Christianus; but was so weak and faint that he could
scarce stand or speak. I took my bottle out of my pocket, and gave it
him, making signs that he should drink, which he did; and I gave hima
piece of bread, which he ate. Then I asked him what countryman he was,
and he said Espagnole; and being a little recovered, let me know, by all the
signs he could possibly make, how much he was in my debt for his deliver-
ance. ‘Seignior,” said I, with as much Spanish as I could make up, “ we
A SPANIARD RESCUED. 197

will talk afterwards, but we must fight now; if you have any strength left,
take this pistol and sword, and lay about you.” He took them very thank-
fully; and no sooner had he the arms in his hands, but, as if they had put
new vigor into him, he flew upon his murderers like a fury, and had cut two
of them in pieces in an instant; for the truth is, as the whole was a surprise
to them, so the poor creatures were so much frightened with the noise of
our pieces that they fell down for mere amazement and fear, and had no
more power to attempt their own escape, than their flesh had to resist our



“T FIRED AGAIN AMONG THE AMAZED WRETCHES” (/. 194).

shot; and that was the case of those five that Friday shot at in tne boat;
for as three of them fell with the hurt they received, so the other two fell
with the fright.

I kept my piece in my hand still without firing, being willing to keep
my charge ready; because I had given the Spaniard my pistol and sword;
so I called to Friday, and bade him run up to the tree from whence we first
fired, and fetch the arms which lay there that had been discharged, which
he did with great swiftness; and then giving him my musket, 1 sat down
myself to load all the rest again, and bade them come to me when they
198 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

wanted. While I was loading these pieces, there happened a fierce engage-
ment between the Spaniard and one of the savages, who made at him with
one of their great wooden swords, the same weapon that was to have killed
him before, if I had not. prevented it. The Spaniard, who was as bold and
brave as could be imagined, though weak, had fought this Indian a good
while, and had cut two great wounds on his head; but the savage being a
stout, lusty fellow, closing in with him, had thrown him down, being faint,
and was wringing my sword out of his hand; when the Spaniard, though
undermost, wisely quitted the sword, drew the pistol from his girdle, shot
the savage through the body, and killed him upon the spot, before I, who
was running to help him, could come near him.

Friday, being now left to his liberty, pursued the flying wretches, with
no weapon in his hand but his hatchet; and with that he dispavched those
three who, as I said before, were wounded at first, and fallen, and all the
rest he could come up with; and the Spaniard coming to me for a gun, I
gave him one of the fowling-pieces, with which he pursued two of the sav-
ages, and wounded them both; but, as he was not able to run, they both
got from him into the wood, where Friday pursued them, and killed one of
them, but the other was too nimble for him; and though he was wounded,
yet had plunged himself into the sea, and swam with all his might off to
those two who were left in the canoe; which three in the canoe, with one
wounded, that we knew not whether he died or no, were all that escaped
our hands, of one-and-twenty. The account of the whole is as follows:
Three killed at our first shot from the tree; two killed at the next shot; two
killed by Friday in the boat; two killed by Friday, of those at first wounded;
one killed by Friday in the wood; three killed by the Spaniard; four killed,
being found dropped here and there, of the wounds, or killed by Friday in
his chase of them; four escaped in the boat, whereof one wounded, if not
dead—twenty-one in all.

Those that were in the canoe worked hard to get out of gunshot, and
though Friday made two or three shots at them, I did not find that he hit
‘any of them. Friday would fain have had me take one of their canoes, and
pursue them; and, indeed, I was very anxious about their escape, lest, carry-
ing the news home to their people, they should come back perhaps with
two or three hundred of the canoes, and devour us by mere multitude. So
I consented to pursue them by sea, and running to one of their canoes, I
jumped in, and bade Friday follow me; but when I was in the canoe, I was
surprised to find another poor creature lie there, bound hand and foot, as
the Spaniard was, for the slaughter, and almost dead with fear, not know-
ing what was the matter; for he had not been able to look up over the side
of the boat, he was tied:so hard neck and heels, and had been tied so long,
‘that he had really little life in him.

I immediately cut the twisted flags or rushes, which they had bound
him with, and would have helped him up, but he could not stand or speak,’
FRIDAY AND HIS FATHER. 199

but groaned most piteously, believing, it seems, still, that he was only
unbound in order to be killed. When Friday came to him, I bade him
speak to him, and tell him of his deliverance; and pulling out my bottle,
made him give the poor wretch a dram; which, with the news of his being
delivered, revived him, and he sat up in the boat. But when Friday came
to hear him speak, and look in his face, it would have moved any one to
tears to have seen how Friday kissed him, embraced him, hugged him,
cried, laughed, hallooed, jumped about, danced, sung; then cried again,
wrung his hands, beat his own face and head; and then sung and jumped
about again like a distracted creature. It was a good while before I could
make him speak to me, or tell me what was the matter; but when he came
a little to himself, he told me that it was his father.

It is not easy for me to express how it moved me to see what ecstacy
and filial affection had worked in this poor savage at the sight of his father,
and of his being delivered from death; nor, indeed, can I describe half the
extravagances of his affection after this, for he’ went into the boat and out
of the boat a great many times; when he went in to him he would sit down
by him, open his breast and hold his father’s head close to his bosom half
an hour together, to nourish it; then he took his arms and ankles, which
were numbed and stiff with the binding, and chafed and rubbed them with
his hands; and I, perceiving what the case was, gave him some rum out of
my bottle to rub them with, which did them a great deal of good.

This action put an end to our pursuit of the canoe with the other sav-
ages, who were now gotten almost out of sight; and it was happy for us
that we did not, for it blew so hard within two hours after, and before they
could be got a quarter of their way, and continued blowing so hard all
night, and that from the northwest, which was against them, that I could
not suppose their boat could live or that they ever reached their own coast.

But to return to Friday: he was so busy about his father that I could not
find in my heart to take him off for some time, but after I thought he could
leave him a little, I called him to me, and he came jumping and laughing
and pleased to the highest extreme; then I asked him if he had given his
father any bread. He shook his head and said, “ None; ugly dog eat all up
self.” I then gave hima cake of bread out of a little pouch I carried on pur-
pose; I also gave him a dram for himself, but he would not taste it but car-
' ried it tothis father. I had in my pocket also two orthree bunches of raisins,
so I gave him a handful of them for his father. He had no sooner given his
father these raisins but I saw him come out of the boat and run away as if
he had been bewitched, for he was the swiftest fellow on his feet that ever I
saw; I say, he ran at such a rate that he was out of sight, as it were, in an
instant, and though I called and hallooed out. too, after him, it was all one
_ —away he went; and in a quarter of an hour I saw him come back again,
though not so fast as he went; and, as he came nearer, 1 found his pace
slacker, because he had something in his hand. When he came up to me I
200 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

found he had been quite home for an earthen jug, or pot, to bring his father
some fresh water, and that he had got two more cakes or loaves of bread;
the bread he gave to me, but the water he carried to his father; however, as
I was very thirsty too, Itooka little sup of it. This water revived his father
more than all the rum or spirits I had given him, for he was just fainting
with thirst.

When his father had drunk, I called to him to know if there was any
water left. He said “Yes,” and I bade him give it to the poor Spaniard,
who was in as much want of it as his father; and I sent one of the cakes, .
that Friday brought, to the Spaniard too, who was indeed very weak, and
was reposing himself upon a green place under the shade of a tree; and
whose limbs were also very stiff, and very much swelled with the rude band-
age he had been tied with. When I saw that upon Friday’s coming to him
with the water he sat up and drank, and took the bread and began to eat,
I went to him and gave him a handful of raisins. He looked up in my face
with all the tokens of gratitude and thankfulness that could appear in any
countenance; but was so weak, notwithstanding he had so exerted himself
in the fight, that he could not stand up on his feet. He tried to do it two or
three times, but was really not able, his ankles were so swelled and so pain-
ful to him; so I bade him sit still, and caused Friday to rub his ankles, and
bathe them with rum, as he had done his father’s.

I observed the poor affectionate creature, every two minutes, or perhaps
less, all the while he was here, turned his head about, to see if his father
was inthe same place-and posture as he left him sitting; and at last he
found he was not to be seen; at which he started up, and, without speaking
a word, flew with that swiftness to him, that one could scarce perceive his
feet to touch the ground as he went; but when he came, he only found he
laid himself down to ease his limbs, so Friday came back to me presently;
and I then spoke to the Spaniard to let Friday help him up, if he could, and
lead him to the boat, and then he should carry him to our dwelling, where
I would take care of him. But Friday, a lusty young fellow, took the Span-
iard quite up on his back, and carried him away to the boat, and set him
down softly upon the side or gunwale of the canoe, with his feet in the
inside of it; and then lifted him quite in, and set him close to his father;
and presently stepping out again, launched the boat off, and paddled it
along the shore faster than I could walk, though the wind blew pretty hard
too; so he brought them both safe into our creek, and leaving them in the
boat, runs away to fetch the other canoe. Ashe passed me I spoke to him,
and asked him whither he went. He told mie, ‘Go fetch more boat;” so
away he went like the wind, for sure never man or horse ran like him; and
he had the other canoe in the creek almost as soon as I got to it by land;
so he wafted me over, and then went to help our new guests out of the boat,
which he did; but they were neither of them able to walk, so that poor
Friday knew not what to do.
AFTER THE FIGHT. 201

To remedy this I went to work in my thought, and calling to Friday to
bid them sit down on the bank while he came to me, I soon made a kind of
hand-barrow to lay them on, and Friday and I carried them up both together
upon it between us.

But when we got them to the outside of our wall,
or fortification, we were at a worse loss than before,
for it was impossible to get them over, and I was
resolved not to break it down; so I set to work again,
and Friday and I, in about two hours’ time, made a
very handsome tent, covered with old sails, and above
that with boughs of trees,
being in the space without
our outward fence, and be-
tween that and the grove
of young wood which I had
planted;
and here we
made them
two beds of
such things
as I had,
viz., of good
fice-straw,
vith blank-
ets laid
upon it, to
lie on and
another to
cover them,
on each bed.












My island SSE
was now sd
peopled,
: “WRINGING MY SWORD OUT OF HIS HAND” (, 198).
and I
thought

myself very rich in subjects, and it was a merry reflection which I fre-
quently made, how like a king I looked. First of all, the whole country
was my own mere property, so that I had an undoubted right of dominion.
Secondly, my people were perfectly subjected; I was absolutely lord and
lawgiver; they all owed their lives to me and were ready to lay down their
_lives if there had been occasion for it, for me. It was remarkable, too, I
had but three subjects, and they were of three different religions; my man
Friday was a Protestant, his father was a Pagan and a cannibal, and the
Spanard was a Papist. However, I allowed liberty of conscience throughout
my dominions—but this is by the way.
202 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

As soonas J] had secured my two weak rescued prisoners and given
them shelter and a place to rest them upon, I began to think of making
some provision for them, and the first thing I did, J ordered Friday to
take a yearling goat, betwixt a kid and a goat, out of my particular flock
to be killed; when I cut off the hinder quarter and chopping it into small
pieces, I set Friday to work to boiling and stewing, and made them a very
good dish, J assure you, of flesh and broth, having put some barley and
rice also into the broth; and as I cooked it without doors, for I made no
fire within my inner wall, so I carried it all into the new tent, and having set
a table there for them, I sat down and ate my own dinner also with them,
and, as well as I could, cheered them and encouraged them. Friday was
my interpreter, especially to his father, and, indeed, to the Spaniard too,
for the Spaniard spoke the language of the savages pretty well.

After we had dined, or rather supped, I ordered Friday to take one of
the canoes and go and fetch our muskets and other fire-arms, which, for
want of time, we had left upon the place of battle; and, the next day, I
ordered him to go and bury the dead bodies of the savages, which lay open
to the sun, and would presently be offensive. I also ordered him to bury,
the horrid remains of their barbarous feast, which I could not think of doing
myself; nay, I could not bear to see them, if I went that way; all which he
punctually performed, and defaced the very appearance of the savages
being there; so that when I went again, I could scarce know where it was,
otherwise than by the corner of the wood pointing to the place.

Ithen began to enter into a little conversation with my two new sub-
jects; and, first, I set Friday to inquire of his father what he thought of the
escape of the savages in that canoe, and whether we might expect a return
of them, with a power too great for usto resist. His first opinion was, that
the savages in the boat never-could live out the storm which blew that
night they went off, but must, of necessity, be drowned, or driven south to
those other shores, where they were as sure to be devoured as they were to
be drowned if they were.cast away; but, as to what they would do if they
came safe on shore, he said he knew not; but, it was his opinion that they
were so dreadfully frightened with the manner of their being attacked, the
noise, and the fire, that he believed they would tell the people they were all
killed by thunder and lightning, not by the hand of man; and that the two
which appeared, viz., Friday and I, were two heavenly spirits, or furies,
come down to destroy them, and not men with weapons. This he said he
knew, because he heard them all cry out so, in their language, one to
another; for it was impossible for them to conceive that a man could dart
fire, and speak thunder, and kill at a distance, without lifting up the hand,
‘as was done now. And this old savage was in the right; for, as I under-
stood since, by other hands, the savages never attempted to go over to the
island afterwards; they were so terrified with the accounts given by those
four men (for it seems they did escape the sea), that they believed whoever
A TALK WITH THE SPANIARD. Ah 208

went to that enchanted island would be destroyed with fire from the gods.
This, however, 1 knew not; and therefore was under continual apprehen-
sions for a good while, and kept always upon my guard, I and all my army;
for, as we were now four of us, I would have ventured upon a hundred of
them, fairly in the open field, at any time.

In a little time, however, no more canoes appearing, the fear of their
coming wore off; and I began to take my former thoughts of a voyage to
the main into consideration; being likewise assured, by Friday’s father, that
I might depend upon good usage from their nation, on his account, if 1
would go. But my thoughts were a little suspended when I had a serious
discourse with the Spaniard, and when IJ understood that there were sixteen
more of his countrymen and Portuguese, who, having been cast away and
made their escape to that side, lived there at peace, indeed, with the savages,
but were very sore put to it for necessaries, and, indeed, for ‘life. I asked
him all the particulars of their voyage, and found they were a Spanish ship
bound from the Rio de la Plata to the Havanna, being directed to leave
their loading there, which was chiefly hides and silver, and to bring back
what European goods they could meet with there; that they had five Portu-
guese seamen on board, whom they took out of another wreck; that five of
their own men were drowned, when first the ship was lost, and that these
escaped through infinite danger and hazards, and arrived, almost starved, on
the cannibal coast, where they expected to have been devoured every
moment. HH: told me they had some arms with them, but they were
perfectly useiess, for that they had neither powder nor ball, the washing of
the sea having spoiled all their powder, but a little, which they used at their
first landing, to provide themselves some food.

ITasked him what he thought would become of them there, and if they
had formed no design of making any escape. He said they had many con-
sultations about it; but having neither vessel, nor tools to build one, nor
provisions of any kind; their councils always ended in tears and despair. I
asked him how he thought they would receive’a proposal from me, which
might tend towards an escape; and whether, if they were all here, it might
not be done. I told him with freedom, I feared mostly their treachery and
ill-usage of me, if I put my life in their hands; for that gratitude was no
inherent virtue in the nature of man, nor did men always square their
dealings by the obligations they had received, so much as they did by
the advantages they expected. I told him it would be very hard that I
should be the instrument of their deliverance, and that they should after-
wards make me their prisoner in New Spain, where an Englishman was cer-
tain to be made a sacrifice, what necessity or what accident soever brought
him thither; and that I had rather be delivered up to the savages, and be
devoured alive, than fall into the merciless claws of the priests, and be car-
. ried into the Inquisition. I added that, otherwise, I was persuaded, if they
were all here, we might, with so many hands, build a bark. large enough to
204 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

carry us all away, either to the Brazils southward, or to the islands or Span-
ish coast northward; but that if, in requital, they should, when I had put
weapons into their hands, carry me by force among their own people, I
might be ill-used for my kindness to them, and make my case worse than it
was before. ;

He answered with a great deal of candor and ingenuousness, that their
condition was so miserable, and that they were so sensible of it, that he
believed they would abhor the thought of using any man unkindly that
should contribute to their deliverance; and that, if I pleased, he would go
to them, with the old man, and ‘discourse with them about it and return
again, and bring. me their answer; that he would make conditions with them
upon their solemn oath, that they should be absolutely under my direction,
as their commander and captain; and they should swear upon the Holy ~
Sacrament and Gospel to be true to me, and go to such Christian country
as I should agree to, and no other; and to be directed wholly and absolutely
by my orders, till they were landed safely in such country as I intended;
and that he would bring a contract from them, under their hands, for that
purpose. Then he told me he would first swear to me himself, that he would
never stir from me as long as he lived, till I gave him orders; and that he
would take my side to the last drop of his blood, if there should happen the
least breach of faith among his countrymen. He told me they were all of
them very civil, honest men, and they were under the greatest distress
imaginable, having neither weapons nor clothes, nor any food, but at the
mercy and discretion of the savages; out of all hopes of ever returning to
their own country; and that he was sure, if I would undertake their relief,
they would live and die by me.

Upon these assurances, I resolved to venture to relieve them, if possible,
and to send the old savage and this Spaniard over to them to treat. But
when we had got all things in readiness to go, the Spaniard himself started
an objection which had so much prudence in it on one hand, and so much
sincerity on the other hand, that I could not but be very well satisfied in it;
and, by his advice, put off the deliverance of his comrades for at least half
ayear. The case was thus: He had been with us now about a month,
during which time I had let him see in what manner I had provided, with
the assistance of Providence, for my support, and he saw evidently what
stock of corn and rice I had laid up; which, though it was more than suffi-
cient for myself, yet it was not sufficient, without good husbandry, for my
family, now it was increased to four; but much less would it be sufficient if
his countrymen, who were, as he said, fourteen, still alive should come over,
and least of all would if be sufficient to victual our vessel, if we should build
one, for a voyage to any of the Christian colonies of America; so he told me
he thought it would be more advisable to let him and the other two dig and’
cultivate some more land, as much as I could spare seed to sow, and that
we should wait another harvest, that we might have a supply of corn for




A LARGE CROP, 208

his countrymen, when they should come; for want might be a temptation to
them to disagree, or not to think themselves delivered, otherwise than out of
one difficulty into another, “You know,” says he, “the children of Israel,
though they rejoiced at first for their being delivered out of Egypt, yet
rebelled even against God Himself, that delivered them, when they came to
want bread in the wilderness.”

His caution was so seasonable, and his advice so good, that I could not
but be very well pleased with his proposal, as well as I was satisfied with

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ay \
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:
Hy Tg
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HE GB
nn

“MY EYE PLAINLY DISCOVERED A SHIP LYING AT AN ANCHOR ” (f. 207).

his fidelity; so we fell to digging, all four of us, as well as the wooden tools
we were furnished with permitted, and in about a month’s time, by the end
of which it was seed time, we had got as much land cured and trimmed up as
we sowed two-and-twenty bushels of barley on, and sixteen jars of rice,
which was, in short, all the seed we had to spare; indeed, we left ourselves
barely sufficient for our own food for the six months that we had to expect
our crop; that is to say, reckoning from the time we set our seed aside for
sowing, for it is not to be supposed it is six months in the ground in that
country.

Having now society enough, and our number being sufficient to put us
206 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

out of fear of the savages, if they had come, unless their number had been very
great, we went freely all overthe island, whenever we found occasion; and as
we had our escape or deliverance upon our thoughts, it was impossible, at
least for me, to have the means of it out of mine. For this purpose I
marked out several trees which I thought fit for our work, and I set Friday
and his father to cut them down, and then I caused the Spaniard, to whom I
imparted my thoughts on that affair, to oversee and direct their work. I
showed them with what indefatigable pains I had hewed a large tree into
single planks, and I caused them to do the like, till they had made about
a dozen large planks of good oak, near two feet broad, thirty-five long, and
from two inches to four inches thick; what prodigious labor it took up, any one
may imagine.

At the same time, I contrived to increase my little stock of tame goats
as much as I could; and for this purpose I made Friday and the Spaniard
go out one day, and myself with Friday the next day (for we took our
turns), and by this means we got about twenty young kids to breed up with
the rest; for whenever we shot the dam, we saved the kids, andadded them
to our flock. But above all, the season for curing the grapes coming on, J
caused such a prodigious quantity to be hung up in the sun, that I believe,
had we been at Alicant, where the raisins of the sun are cured, we could
have filled sixty or eighty barrels; and these, with our bread, formed a great
part of our food—very good living, too, I assure you, for they are exceeding
nourishing.

It was now harvest, and our crop in good order; it was not the most
plentiful increase I had seen in the island, but, however, it was enough to
answer our end; for, from twenty-two bushels of barley, we brought in and
thrashed out above two hundred and twenty bushels; and the like in pro-
portion of the rice; which was store enough for our food to the next harvest,
though all the sixteen Spaniards had been on shore with me; or, if we had
been ready for a voyage, it would very plentifully have victualed our ship
to have carried us to any part of the world, that is to say, of America.
When we had thus housed and secured our magazine of corn, we fell to work
to make more wicker-work, viz., great baskets, in which we kept it; and the
Spaniard was very handy and dexterous at this part, and often blamed me
that I did not make some things for defense of this kind of work, but I saw
no need of it.

And now, having a full supply of food for all the guests expected, I gave
the Spaniard leave to go over the main, to see what he could do with those
he had left behind him there. I gave him a strict charge not to bring any
man with him who would not first swear, in the presence of himself and the
old savage, that he would no way injure, fight with, or attack the person ‘he
should find in the island who was so kind as to send for them in order to
their deliverance; but that they would stand by him and defend him against
all such attempts, and wherever they went, would be entirely under and
A SHIP IN SIGHT. 207

subjectea to his command; and that this should be put in writing, and
signed with their hands. How they were to have done this, when I knew
they had neither pen nor ink—that, indeed, was a question which we never
asked. Under these instructions, the Spaniard and the old savage, the
father of Friday, went away in one of the canoes which they might be said
to have come in, or rather were brought in, when they came as prisoners to:
be devoured by the savages. I gave each of thema musket, with a firelock
on it, and about eight charges of powder and ball, charging them to be very
good husbands of both, and not to use either of them but upon urgent
occasion.

This was a cheerful work, being the first measures used by me, in view
of my deliverance, for now twenty-seven years and some days. I gavethem
provisions of bread, and of dried grapes, sufficient for themselves for many
days, and sufficient for all the Spaniards for about eight days’ time; and
wishing them a good voyage, I saw them go, agreeing with them about a
signal they should hang out at their return, by which I should know them
again, when they came back, at a distance, before they came on shore. They
went away, with a fair gale, on the day the moon was at full, by my account
in the month of October; but as foran exact reckoning of days, after I had
once lost it, I could never recover it again; nor had I kept even the number
of years so punctually as to be sure I was right; though, as it proved, when
I afterwards examined my account, I found I had kept.a true reckoning of
years. :

It was no less than eight days I had waited for them, when a strange
and unforeseen accident intervened, of which the like has not, perhaps,
been heard of in history. I was fast asleep in my hutch one morning when
my man Friday came running in to me, and called aloud, “Master, master,
they are come, they are come!” I jumped up and, regardless of danger, I
went out as soon as I could get my clothes on, through my little grove,
which, by the way, was by this time grown to be a very thick wood; I say
regardless of danger, I went without my arms, which was not my custom to
do, but I was surprised when, turning my eyes to the sea, I presently saw a
boat at about a league and a half distance standing in for the shore, with a
shoulder-of-mutton sail, as they call it, and the wind blowing pretty fair to
bring them in; also I observed presently that they did not come from that
side which the shore lay on, but from the southernmost end of the island.
Upon this I called Friday in and bade him lie close, for these were not the
people we looked for, and that we might not know yet whether they were
friends or enemies. In the next place, I went in to fetch my perspective
glass to see what I could make of them, and, having taken the ladder out,
I climbed up to the top of the hill, as I used to do when IJ was apprehensive
of anything, and to take my view plainer without being discovered. I had
scarce set my foot upon the hill. when my eye plainly discovered a ship
lying at ananchor at about two leagues and a half distance from me, S.S.E.,
20& ROBINSON CRUSOE.

but not above a league and a half from the shore. By my observation it
appeared plainly to be an English ship, and the boat appeared to be an
English long-boat.

I cannot express the confusion J was in, though the joy of seeing a ship,
and one that I had reason to believe was manned by my own countrymen,
and consequently friends, was such as I cannot describe; but yet I had some
secret doubts hung about me—I cannot tell from whence they came—bid-
ding me keep upon my guard. In the first place, it occurred to me to con-
sider what business an English ship could have in that part of the world,
since it was not the way to or from any part of the world where the English
had any traffic; and I knew there had been no storms to drive them in
there in distress, and that if they were really English it was most probable
that they were here upon no good design, and that I had better continue as
I was than fall into the hands of thieves and murderers.

Let no man despise the secret hints and notices of danger which some-
times are given him when he may think there is no possibility of its being
real, That such hints and notices are given us, I believe few that have
made any observations of things can deny; that they are certain discov-
eries of an invisible world, and a converse of spirits, we cannot doubt; and
if the tendency of them seems to be to warn us of danger, why should we
not suppose they are from some friendly agent (whether supreme or infe-
tior and subordinate is not the question), and that they are not given for
our good? .

The present question abundantly confirms me in the justice of this rea-
soning, for had I not been made cautious by this secret admonition, come
it from whence it will, I had been undone inevitably, and in a far worse
condition than before, as you will see presently. I had not kept myself
long in this posture till I saw the boat draw near the shore, as if they looked
for a creek to thrust in at for the convenience of landing. However, as
they did not come quite far enough they did not see the little inlet where I
formerly landed my rafts, but ran their boat on shore upon the beach, at
about half a mile from me, which was very happy for me, for otherwise
they would have landed just at my door, as I may say, and would soon
have beaten me out of my castle, and perhaps have plundered me of all I
had. When they were onshore I was fully satisfied they were Englishmen,
at least most of them; one or two I thought were Dutch, but it did not
prove so. There were in all eleven men, whereof three of them I found
were unarmed, and, as I thought, bound; and when the first four or five of
them were jumped on shore they took those three out of the boat as pris-
oners. One of the three I could perceive using the most passionate ges-
tures of entreaty, affliction and despair even to a kind of extravagance; the
other two I could perceive lifted up their hand sometimes and appeared
concerned, indeed, but not to such a degree as the first, I was perfectly
confounded at the sight, and knew not what the meaning of it should be,
A STRANGE COMPANY. 208

kriday called out to me in English, as well as he could, ‘O, master! you
see English mans eat prisoner as well as savage mans.” ‘Why, Friday,”
says I, ‘‘do you think they are going to eat them, then?’ “Yes,” says
Friday, “they will eat them.” ‘No, no,” says I, “Friday, I’m afraid they
will murder them, indeed, but you may be sure they will not eat them.”
All this while I had no thought of what the matter really was, but
stood trembling with the horror of the sight, expecting every moment

Ss










—

5










ANN

SNH) TA
\ NT has
OU Nh wi

“WHAT ARE YE, GENTLEMEN?’” (4, 211.)



when the three prisoners should be killed; nay, once I saw one of the
villains lift up his arm with a great cutlass, as the seamen call it, or sword.
to strike one of the poor men; and I expected to see him fall every
moment; at which all the blood in my body seemed to run chill in my
veins. I wished heartily now for my Spaniard, and the savage that was
gone with him, or that I had any way to have come undiscovered within
shot of them, that I might have secured the three men, for I saw no fire-
arms they had among them; but it fell out to my mind another way. After
I had observed the outrageous usage of the three men by the insolent sea-
men, I ose acd the fellows run scattering about the land, as if they wanted
210 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

to see the country. I observed also that the three other men had liberty
to go where they pleased; but they sat down all three upon the ground,
very pensive, and looked like men in despair. This put me in mind of the
first time when I came on shore, and began to look about me; how I gave
myself over for lost; how wildly I looked round me; what dreadful appre
hensions I had; and how I lodged in the tree all night, for fear of being
devoured by wild beasts. As I knew nothing, that night, of the supply
{ was to receive by the providential driving of the ship nearer the land
by the storms and tide, by which I have since been so long nourished
and supported; so these three poor desolate men knew nothing how
certain of deliverance and supply they were, how near it was to them,
and how effectually and really they were in a condition of safety, at the
same time they thought themselves lost, and their case desperate. So little
do we see before us in the world, and so much reason have we to depend
cheerfully upon the great Maker of the world, that He does not leave His
creatures so absolutely destitute, but that, in the worst circumstances, they
have always something to be thankful for, and sometimes are nearer their
deliverance than they imagine; nay, are even brought to their deliverance
by the means by which they seem to be brought to their destruction.

It was just at the top of high water when these people came on shore,
and while they rambled about to see what kind of a place they were in,
they had carelessly stayed till the tide was spent, and the water was ebbed
considerably away, leaving their boat aground. They had left two men
in the boat, who, as I found afterwards, having drunk a little too much
brandy, fell asleep; however, one of them waking a little sooner than the
other, and finding the boat too fast aground for him to stir it, hallooed
out for the rest, who were straggling about; upon which they all soon
came to the boat; but it was past all their strength to launch her, the boat
being very heavy, and the shore on that side being a soft oozy sand, almost
like a quicksand. In this condition, like true seamen, who are, perhaps,
the least of all mankind given to forethought, they gave it over, and away
they strolled about the country again; and I heard one of them say aloud
to another, calling them off from the boat, ‘Why, let her alone, Jack,
can’t you? she'll float next tide;” by which I was fully confirmed in the
main inquiry of what countrymen they were. All this while I kept myself
close, not once daring to stir out of my castle, any farther than to my
place of observation, near the top of the hill; and very glad I was to think
how well it was fortified. I knew it was no less than ten hours before
the boat could float again, and by that time it would be dark, and I might
5e at more liberty to sce their motions, and to hear their discourse, if they
had any. In the meantime, I fitted myself up for a battle, as before,
though with more caution, knowing that I had to ‘do with another kind
of enemy than J had at first. I ordered Friday also, whom I had made
an excellent marksman with his gun, to load himself with arms. I took
AN ANGEL IN DISGUISE, 21]

myself two fowling-pieces, and I gave him three muskets. My figure,
indeed, was very fierce; I had my formidable goat-skin coat on, with the
great cap I have mentioned, a naked sword, two pistols in my belt, and
a gun upon each shoulder.

It was my design, as I said above, not to have made any attempt till it
was dark; but about two o’clock, being the heat of the day, I found, in
short, they were all gone straggling into the woods, and, as I thought, were
all laid down to sleep. The three poor distressed men, too anxious for their
condition to get any sleep, had, however, sat down under the shelter of a
great tree, at about a quarter of amile from me, and, as I thought, out of
sight of any of the rest. Upon this I resolved to discover myself to them,
and learn something of their condition; immediately I marched as above,
my man Friday at a good distance behind me, as formidable for his arms as -
I, but not making quite so staring a specter-like figure as I did. I came as
near them undiscovered as I could, and then, before any of them saw me, ]
called aloud to them in Spanish, “What are ye, gentlemen?” They started
up at the noise, but were ten times more confounded when they saw me,
and the uncouth figure that I made. They made no answer at all, but]
thought I perceived them just going to fly from me, when I spoke to them
in English: ‘“* Gentlemen ” said I, “do not be surprised at me, perhaps you
may have a friend near, when you did not expect it.” ‘He must be sent
directly from Heaven, then,” said one of them very gravely to me, and
pulling off his hat at the same time, “for our condition is past the help of
man.” “All help is from Heaven, sir,” said 1; “but can you put a stranger in
the way to help you? for you seem to be in some great distress. I saw
you when you landed, and when you seemed to make application to the
brutes that came with you, I saw one of them lift up his sw ord to kill you.”

The poor man, with tears running down his face, and trembling, looked
like one astonished, and returned, “Am I talking to God or man? Is ita
real man, oran angel?” ‘Be in no fear about that, sir,” said I; “if God had
sent an angel to relieve you, he would have come better clothed, and
armed after another manner than you see me in; pray lay aside your fears;
Tam «man, an Englishman, and disposed to assist you; you see I have one
servant only; we have arms and ammunition; tell us freely, can we serve
youe What is your case?” ‘Our case, sir,” said he, “is too long to tell
you, while our murderers are so near us, but in short, sir, I was commander
of that ship; my men have mutinied against me; they have been hardly
prevailed on not to murder me, and, at last, have set me on shore in this
-desolate place, with these two men with me—one my mate, the other a
passenger—where we expected to perish, believing the place to be unin-
habited, and know not yet what to think of it.’ “Where are these brutes.
your enemies?” said I; ‘do you know where they are gone?” “There they
lie, sir,” said he pointing to a thicket of trees; “my*heart trembles for fear
they nave seen us, and heard you speak; if they have, they will certainly
212 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

murder usall.” ‘Have they any fire-arms?” said I. He answered, “They
had only two pieces, one of which they left in the boat.” “Well, then,”
said I, “leave the rest to me; I see they are all asleep; it isan easy thing to
kill them all; but shall we rather take them prisoners?” He told me there
were two desperate villains among them that it was scarce safe to show any
mercy to, but if they were secured, he believed all the rest would return to
their duty. I asked him which they were. He told me he could notat
that distance distinguish them, but he would obey my orders in anything I
wouid direct. “Well,” says I, “let us retreat out of their view or hearing,





Se

mad ML |
iy
Wh \ te
a


















covered us from them. Vit No

“Look you, sir,” said Tey
I venture upon your deliver-
ance, are you willing to make
two conditions with me?” He
anticipated my proposals by telling me that both he and the ship, if recov-
ered, should be wholly directed and commanded by me in everything, and
if the ship was not recovered, he would live and die with me in what part
of the world soever I would send him, and the two other men said the same.
“Well? said: I, “my conditions are but two: first, that while you stay on
this island with me, you will not pretend to any authority here, and if I put
arms in your hands, you will, upon all occasions, give them up to me, and
do no prejudice to me or mine upon this island, and in the meantime be
governed by my orders; secondly, that if the ship is or may be recovered,
you will carry me and my man to England passage free.”

He gave me all the assurance that the invention and faith of a man
could devise that he would comply with these most reasonable demands,
and besides would owe his life to me, and acknowledge it upon all occasions,

ONLY iit il
Seda Maly

teat
i Ca ath ela
aN INE

lest they awake, and we fall Wy

willresolve further.” So ASS jh nay Vay hi:

hey willingl back rs MB) Me Ne

they willingly went bac TG NE See

eae SEU ek
\ yee (AN) a Ooi

Ab TENE

“THEY BEGGED FOR MERCY,” ( p. 2138,’
QUICK VENGENCE. 213

as long as he lived. ‘Well, then,” said I, “here are three muskets for you,
with powder and ball; tell me next what you think is proper to be done.”
He showed all the testimony of his gratitude that he was able, but offered
to be wholly guided by me. I told him I thought it was hard venturing
anything, but the best method I could think of was to fire on them at once
as they lay, and if any were not killed at the first volley, and offered to sub-
mit, we might save them, and so put it wholly upon God’s providence to
direct the shot. He said, very modestly, that he was loth to kill them, if he
could help it, but that those two were incorrigible villains, and had been the
authors of all the mutiny in the ship, and if they escaped, we should be
undone still, for they would go on board and bring the whole ship’s com-
pany, and destroy us all. ‘Well, then,” says I, “necessity legitimates my
advice, for it is the only way to save our lives.” However, seeing him still
cautious of shedding blood, I told him they should go themselves, and man-
_age as they found convenient.

In the middle of this discourse we heard some of them awake, and soon
after we saw two of them on their feet. I asked him if either of them were
the men who he had said were the heads of the mutiny. He said, “No.”
‘Well, then,” said I, “you may let them escape; and Providence seems to
have awakened them on purpose to save themselves. Now,” says l, “if the
rest escape you, it is your fault.” Animated with this, he took the musket
I had given him in his hand, and a pistol in his belt, and his two comrades
with him, with each man a piece in his hand; the two men who were with
him going first made some noise, at which one of the seamen, who was
awake, turned about, and seeing them coming, cried out to the rest, but it
was too late then, for the moment he cried out they fired—I mean the two
men, the captain wisely reserving his own piece. They had so well aimed
their shot at the men they knew, that one of them was killed on the spot,
and the other very much wounded, but not being dead, he started up on his
feet, and called eagerly for help to the other; but the captain, stepping to
him, told him it was too late to cry for help, he should call upon God to
forgive his villainy, and with that word knocked him down with the stock of
his musket, so that he never spoke more; there were three more in the
company, and one of them was slightly wounded. By this time I was come,
and when they saw their danger, and that it was in vain to resist, they begged
for mercy. The captain told them he would spare their lives if they would
give him an assurance of their abhorrence of the treachery they had been
guilty of, and would swear to be faithful to him in recovering the ship, and
afterwards in carrying her back to Jamaica, from whence they came. They
gave him all the protestations of their sincerity that could be desired, and
he was willing to believe them, and spare their lives, which I was not
against, only I obliged him to keep them bound hand and foot while they
were upon the island.

While this was doing, I sent Friday with the captain’s mate to the boat,
214 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

with orders to secure her, and bring away the oars and sails, which they did;
and by and by three straggling men, that were (happily for them) parted
from the rest, came back upon hearing the guns fired; and seeing the cap-
tain, who before was theit prisoner, now their conqueror, they submitted to
be bound also; and so our victory was complete.

It now remained that the captain and I should inquire into one another’s
circumstances. I began first, and told him my whole history, which he heard
with an attention even to amazement—and particularly at the wonderful
manner of my being furnished with provisions and ammunition; and, indeed,
as my story is a whole collection of wonders, it affected him deeply. But
when he reflected from thence upon himself, and how I seemed to have
been preserved there on purpose to save his life, the tears ran down his face,
and he could not speak a word more. After this communication was at an
end, I carried him and his two men into my apartments, leading them in
just where I came out, viz., at the top of the house, where I refreshed him
with such provision as I had, and showed them all the contrivances I had
_ made during my long, long inhabiting that place.

All I showed them, all I said to them, was perfectly amazing; but above
all, the captain admired my fortification, and how perfectly I had concealed
my retreat with a grove of trees, which, having been now planted near
twenty years, and the trees growing much faster than in England, was
become a little wood, so thick that it was impassable in any part of it but
at that one side where I had reserved my little winding passage into it. I
told him this was my castle and my residence, but that I had a seat in the
country, as most princes have, whither I could retreat upon occasion, and I
would show him that too another time; but at present our business was to
consider how to recover the ship. He agreed with me as to that, but told
me he was perfectly at a loss what measures to take, for that there were still
six-and-twenty hands on board, who, having entered into a cursed conspir-
acy, by which they had all forfeited their lives to the law, would be hardened
in it now by desperation, and would carry it on, knowing that if they were
subdued they should be brought to the gallows as soon as they came to
England, or to any of the English colonies, and that, therefore, there would
be no attacking them with so small a number as we were.

I mused for some time upon what he had said, and found it was a very
tational conclusion, and that therefore something was to be resolved on very
speedily, as well to draw the men on board into some snare for their
surprise, as to prevent their landing upon us, and destroying us. Upon
chis, it presently occurred to me that in a little while the ship’s crew,
wondering what was become of their comrades and of the boat, would
certainly come. on shore in their other boat, to look for them, and that
then, perhaps, they might come armed, and be too strong for us; this
he allowed to be rational. Upon this, I told him the first thing we had to do
was to stave the boat, which lay upon the beach, so that they might not
A NEW DANGER. 215

carry her off, and taking everything out of her, leave her so far useless as
not to be fit to swim. Accordingly we went on board, took the arms which
were left on board out of her, and whatever else we found there—which was
a bottle of brandy, and another of rum, a few biscuit-cakes, a horn of
powder, and a great lump of sugar in a piece of canvas (the sugar was five
or six pounds); all which was very welcome to me, especially the brandy
and sugar, of which I had had none left for many years.

When we had carried all these things on shore (the oars, mast, sail and
rudder of the boat were carried away before), we knocked a great hole in
her bottom, that if they had come strong enough to master us, yet they could
not carry off the boat. Indeed, it was not much in my thoughts that we
could be able to recover the ship, but my view was, that if they went away
without the boat, I did not much question to make her again fit to carry us
to the Leeward islands, and call upon our friends the Spaniards in my way,
for I had them still in my thoughts.

While we were thus preparing our designs, and had first, by main strength,
heaved the boat upon the beach, so high that the tide would not float her off
at high-water mark, and besides, had broken a hole in her bottom too big to
be quickly stopped, and were sat down musing what we should do, we heard
the ship fire a gun, and make a waft with her ensign as a signal for the boat
to come on board; but no boat stirred, and they fired several times, making
other signals for the boat. At last, when all their signals and firing proved
fruitless, and they found the boat did not stir, we saw them, by the help of
my glasses, hoist another boat out and row towards the shore; and we found,
as they approached, that there were no less than ten men in her and that
they had fire-arms with them.

As the ship lay almost two leagues from the shore, we had a full view of
them as they came, and a plain sight even of their faces, because, the tide
having set them a little to the east of the other boat, they rowed up under
shore to come to the same place where the other had landed and where the
boat lay; by this means, I say, we had a full view of them, and the captain
knew the persons and characters of all the men in the boat, of whom, he
said, there were three very honest fellows, who, he was sure, were led into
this conspiracy by the rest, being overpowered and frightened; but that as
for the boatswain, who it seems was the chief officer among them, and all
the rest, they were as outrageous as any of the ship’s crew, and were no
doubt made desperate in their new enterprise; and terribly apprehensive he
was that they would be too powerful for us. I smiled at him and told him
that men in our-circumstances were past the operation of fear; that seeing
almost every condition that could be was better than that which we were
supposed to be in, we ought to expect that the consequence, whether death
or life, would be sure to be a deliverance. I asked him what he thought of
the circumstances of my life and whether a deliverance were not worth ven-
turing for. “And where, sir,” said I, “is your belief in my being preserved
216 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

here on purpose to save your life, which elevated you a little while ago?
For my part,” said I, “ there seems to be but one thing amiss in all the pros-
pect of it.” ‘What is that?” says he. “Why,” said I, ‘it is, that as you
say there are three or four honest fellows among them, which should be
spared, had they been all of the wicked part of the crew, I should have
thought God’s providence had signaled them out to deliver them into your
hands; for depend upon it, every man that comes ashore is our own, and
shall die or live, as they behave to us.” As I spoke this with a raised voice
and cheerful countenance, I found it greatly encouraged him; so we set vig-
orously to our business.

We had upon the first appearance of the boats coming from the ship,
considered of separating our prisoners; and had, indeed, secured them
effectually. Two of them, of whom the captain was less assured than ordi-
nary, I sent with Friday and one of the three delivered men to my cave,
where they were remote enough, and out of danger of being heard or dis-
covered, or of finding their way out of the woods, if they could have deliv-
ered themselves. Here they left them bound, but gave them provisions,
and promised them, if they continued there quietly, to give them their lib-
erty in a.day or two; but that if they attempted their escape, they should
be put to death without mercy. They promised faithfully to bear their
confinement with patience, and were very thankful that they had such good
usage as to have provisions and a light left them; for Friday gave them
candles (such as we made ourselves) for their comfort; and they did not
know but that he stood sentinel over them at the entrance.

The other prisoners had better usage; two of them were kept pinioned,
indeed, because the captain was not free to trust them; but the other two
were taken into my service, upon the captain’s recommendation, and upon
their solemnly engaging to live and die with us; so with them and the three
honest men we were seven men, well armed; and I made no doubt we
should be able to deal well enough with the ten that were coming, consid-
ering that the captain had said there were three or four honest men among
them also. As soon as they got to the place where their other boat lay,
they ran their boat into the beach and came all on shore, hauling the boat
up after them, which I was glad to see, for I was afraid they would rather
have left the boat at an anchor some distance from the shore, with some

_hands inher, to guard her, and so we should not be able to seize the boat.
Being on shore, the first thing they did, they ran all to their other boat, and
it was easy to see they were under a great surprise to find her stripped, as
above, of all that was in her, and a great hole in her bottom. After they
had mused awhile upon this, they set up two or three great shouts, hallooing
with all their might, to try if they could make their companions hear; but
all was to no purpose. Then they came all close ina ring, and fired a volley
of their small-arms, which, indeed, we heard, and: the echoes made the
woods ring; but it was all one; those in the cave, we were sure, could not
MORE VISITORS. 217

hear; and those in our keeping, though they heard it well enough, yet durst
give no answer to them. They were so astonished at the surprise of this,
that, as they told us afterwards, they resolved to go all on board again to
their ship, and let them know that the men were all murdered, and the long-
boat staved; accordingly, they immediately launched their boat again, and
got all of them on board.

The captain was terribly amazed, and even confounded, at this, believ-
ing they would go on board the ship again, and set sail, giving their com-
rades over for lost, and so he should still lose the ship, which he was in
hopes we should have recovered; but he was quckly as much frightened
the other way.

They, had not been long put off with the boat, when we perceived them
all coming on shore again; but with this new measure in their conduct,
which it seems they ‘consulted together upon, viz., to leave three men in
the boat, and the rest to go on shore, and go up into the country to look
for their fellows. This was a great disappointment to us, for now we wereat
a loss what to do, as our seizing those seven men on shore would be no advan-
tage to us if we let the boat escape, because they would row away to the
ship, and then the rest of them would be sure to weigh and set sajl, and so
our recovering the ship would be lost. However, we had no remedy but to
wait and see what the issue of things might present. The seven men came
on shore, and the three who remained in the boat put her off to a good dis-
tance from the shore, and came to an anchor to wait for them; so that it
was impossible for us to come at them in the boat. Those that came on
shore kept close together, marching towards the top of the little hill under
which my habitation lay, and we could see them plainly, though they could
not perceive us. We should have been very glad if they would have come
nearer to us, so that we might have fired at them, or that they would have
gone farther off, that we might come abroad. But when they were come
to the brow of the hill where they could see a great way into the valleys
and woods, which lay towards the northeast part, and where the island lay
lowest, they shouted and hallooed till they were weary, and not caring, it
seems, to venture far from the shore, nor far from one another, they sat
down together, under a tree, to consider of it. Had they thought fit to”
have gone to sleep there, as the other party of them had done, they had
done the job for us; but they were too full of apprehensions of danger to
venture to go to sleep, though they could not tell what the danger was they
had to fear.

The captain made a very just proposal to me upon this consultation of
theirs, viz., that perhaps they would all fire a volley again, to endeavor to
make their fellows hear, and that we should all sally upon them just at the
juncture when their pieces were all discharged, and they would certainly
yield, and we should have them without bloodshed. I liked this proposal,
provided it was done while we were near cnough to come up to them before
218 ; ROBINSON CRUSOK.

they could load their pieces again. But this event did not happen, and we
lay still a long time, very irresolute what course to take. At length, I told
them there would be nothing done, in my opinion, till night, and then if
they did not return to the boat, perhaps we might find a way to get between
them and the shore, and so might use some stratagem with them in the boat
to get them on shore. We waited a great while, though very impatient for
their removing, and were very uneasy, when, after long consultation, we
saw them all start up, and march down towards the sea; it seems they had
such dreadful apprehensions of the danger of the place, that they resolved
to go on board the ship again, give their companions over for lost, and so
go on with their intended voyage with the ship.

As soon as I perceived them go towards the shore, I imagined it to be
as it really was, that they had given over their search, and were for going
back again; and the captain, as soon as I told him my thoughts, was ready
to sink at the apprehensions of it; but I presently thought of a stratagem
to fetch them back again, and which answered myend to atittle. I ordered
Friday and the captain’s mate to go over the little creek westward, towards
the place where the savages came on shore when Friday was rescued, and
so soon as they came to a little rising ground, at about half a mile distance,
I bade them halloo out, as loud as they could, and wait till they found the
seamen heard them; that as soon as ever they heard the seamen answer
them, they should return it again; and, then keeping out of sight, take a
round, always answering when the others hallooed, to draw them as far into
the island, and among the woods, as possible, and then wheel about again
to me by such ways as J directed.

They were just going into the boat when Friday and the mate hallooed;
and they presently heard them, and, answering, ran along the shore west-
ward, towards the voice they heard, when they were presently stopped by
the creek, where, the water being up, they could not get over, and called
for the boat to come up and set them over; as, indeed, I expected. When
they had set themselves over, 1 observed that the boat being gone upa
good way into the creek, and, as it were, in a harbor within the land, they
took one of the three men out of her, to go along with them, and left only
two in the boat, having fastened her to the stump of a little tree on the
shore. This was what I wished for; and immediately leaving Friday and
the captain’s mate to their business, I took the rest with me, and crossing
the creek out of their sight, we surprised the two men before they were
aware, one of them lying on the shore, and the other being in the boat.
The fellow on shore was between sleeping and waking, and going to start
up; the captain, who was foremost, ran in upon him, and knocked him
down; and then called out to him in the boat to yield, or he was a dead
man. There needed very few arguments to persuade a single man to yield,
when he saw five men upon him, and his comrade knocked down; besides,
this was, it seems, one of the three who were not so hearty in the'mutiny as
A SUCCESSFUL STRATAGEM., 219

the rest of the crew, and, therefore, was easily persuaded not only to yield,
but afterwards to join very sincerely with us. In the meantime, Friday and
the captain’s mate so well managed their business with the rest that they
drew them, by hallooing and answering, from one hill to another, and from
one wood to another, till they not only heartily tired them, but left them
where they could not reach back to the boat before it was dark; and, indeed,
they were heartily tired themselves also by the time they came back to us.

We had nothing now to do but to watch for them in the dark, and to fall
upon them, so as to make sure work with them. It was several hours after
Friday came back to me before they came back to their boat; and we could
hear the foremost of them, long before they came quite up, calling to those
behind to come along; and could also hear them answer, and complain how
lame and tired they were, and not able to come any faster; which was very
welcome news tc us. At length they came up to the boat; but it was impos-
sible to express their confusion when they found their boat fast aground in
the creek, the tide ebbed out, and their two men gone. We could hear
them call to one another in the most lamentable manner, telling one another
they were got into an enchanted island; that either there were inhabitants
in it, and they should all be murdered, or else there were devils and spirits
in it, and they should all be carried away and devoured. They hallooed
again, and called their two comrades by their names a great many times;
but no answer. After some time, we could see them, by the little light
there was, running about, wringing their hands like men in despair, and
sometimes they would go and sit down in the boat to rest themselves; then
come ashore again, and walk about again, and so the same thing over again.
My men would fain have had me give them leave to fall upon them at once
in the dark; but I was willing to take them at some advantage, so to spare
them, and kill as few of them as I could; and especially I was unwilling to
hazard the killing of any of our men, knowing the others were very well
armed. I resolved to wait, to see if they did not separate; and therefore,
to make sure of them, I drew my ambuscade nearer, and ordered Friday and
the captain to creep upon their hands and feet, as close to the ground as
they could, that they might not be discovered, and get as near them as they
could possibly before they offered to fire.

They had not been long in that posture, when the boatswain, who was
the principal ringleader of the mutiny and had now shown himself the most
dejected and dispirited of all the rest, came walking towards them, with
two more of the crew; the captain was so eager at having the principal
rogue so much in his power, that he could hardly have patience to let.him
come so near as to be sure of him, for they only heard his tongue before;
but when they came nearer, the captain and Friday, starting up on their feet
let fly at them, The boatswain was killed upon the spot; the next man was
shot in the body, and fell just by him, though he did not die till an hour or
two after; and the third ran for it. At the noise of the fire, I immediately
220 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

advanced with my whole army, which was now eight men: viz., myself,
generalissimo; Friday, my lieutenant-general; the captain and his two men,
and the three prisoners of war whom we had trusted with arms. We came
upon them, indeed, in the dark, so that they could not see our number; and
I made the man they had left in the boat, and who was now one of us, call
them by name, to try if I could bring them to a parley, and so perhaps
reduce them to terms; which fell out just as we desired; for, indeed,
it was easy to think, as their condition then was, they would be very willing
to capitulate. So he calls out as loud as he could to one of them, ‘Tom
Smith! Tom Smith!” Tom Smith answered immediately, ‘Who's that?
Robinson?” for it seems he knew the voice. The other answered, “Ay, ay;
for God’s sake, Tom Smith, throw down your arms and yield, or you are all
dead men this moment.” ‘‘Who must we yield to? Where are they?’”’ says
Smith again. “ Here they are,” says he; ‘“‘here’s our captain and fifty men
with him, have been hunting you these two hours; the boatswain is killed,
Will Frye is wounded, and I am a prisoner, and if you do not yield, you are
all lost.” ‘* Will they give us quarter then?” says Tom Smith, “and we will
yield.” ‘Tl go and ask, if you promise to yield,” said Robinson. So he
asked the captain, and the captain himself then calls out, ‘ You, Smith, you
know my voice; if you lay down you arms immediately and submit, you
shall have your lives, all but Will Atkins.”

Upon this, Will Atkins cried out, “ For God’s sake, captain, give me
quarter; what have I done? They have been all as bad as I1;” which, by
the way, was not true, for, it seems, this Will Atkins was the first man that
laid hold of the captain when they first mutinied and used him barbarously,
in tying his hands and giving him injurious language. However, the cap-
tain told him he must lay down his arms at discretion and trust to the gov-
ernor’s mercy—by which he meant me, for they all called me governor. In
a word, they all laid down their arms and begged their lives; and I sent the
man that had parleyed with them and two more, who bound them all; and
then my great army of fifty men, which, with those three, were in all but
eight, came up and seized upon them and upon their boat; only that I kept
myself and one more out.of sight, for reasons of state.

Our next work was to repair the boat and think of seizing the ship, and
as for the captain, now he had leisure to parley with them, he expostulated
with them upon the villainy of their practices with him, and upon the
further wickedness of their design, and how certainly it must bring them to
misery and distress in the end and perhaps to the gallows. They all
appeared very penitent, and begged nard for their lives. As for that, he
told them they were none of his prisoners, but the commander’s of the
island; that they thought they had set him on shore in a barren, uninhabited
island, but it had pleased God so to direct them, that it was inhabited, and
that the governor was an Englishman; that he might hang them all there,
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“SHOT THE NEW CAPTAIN THROUGH THE HEAD” (f 224),
221


9929 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

send them to England, to be dealt with there as justice required, except
Atkins, whom he was commanded by the governor to advise to prepare for —
death, for that he would be hanged in the morning.

Though this was all a fiction of his own, yet it had its desired effect;
Atkins fell upon his knees to beg the captain to intercede with the governor
tor his life, and all the rest begged of him, for God’s sake, that they might
not be sent to England.

It now occurred to me that the time of our deliverance was come, and
that it would be a most easy thing to bring these fellows in to be hearty in
getting possession of the ship; so I retired in the dark from them, that they
might not see what kind of a governor they had, and called the captain to
me; when I called, as at a good distance, one of the men was ordered to
speak again, and say to the captain, “Captain, the commander calls for
you;” and presently the captain replied, ‘Tell his Excellency, I am just
coming.” This more perfectly amazed them, and they all believed that the
commander was just by with his fifty men. Upon the captain coming to
me, I told him my project for seizing the ship, which he liked wonderfully
well, and resolved to put it into execution next morning. But, in order to
execute it with more art, and to be secure of success, I told him we
must divide the prisoners, and that he should go and take Atkins, and two
more of the worst of them, and send them pinioned to the cave where the
others lay. This was committed to Friday and the two men who came on
shore with the captain. They conveyed them to thecaveas toa prison; and
it was, indeed, a dismal place, especially to men in their condition. The
others I ordered to my bower, as I called it, of which I have given a full
description; and as it was fenced in, and they pinioned, the place was secure
enough considering they were upon their behavior.

10 these in the morning I sent the captain, who was to enter into a par-
ley with them; in a word, to try them, and tell me whether he thought they
might be trusted or not to goon hoard and surprise the ship. He talked
to them of the injury done him, of the condition they were brought to, and
that though the governor had given them quarter for their lives as to the
present action, yet that if they were sent to England, they would be all
hanged in chains; but that if they would join in such an attempt as to
recover the ship, he would have the governor’s engagement for their
pardon. ,

Any one may guess how readily such a proposal would be accepted by
men in their position; they fell down on their knees to the captain, and
promised, with the deepest imprecations, that they would be faithful to him
to the last drop, and that they should owe their lives to him, and would go
with him all over the world; that they would own him for a father to them °
as long as they lived. “Well,” says the captain, “I must go and tell the
governor what ‘you say, and see what I can do to bring him to consent to
it.” So he brought me an account of the temper he found them in, and that
THE ATTACK ON THE SHIP. 223

he verily believed they would be faithful. However, that we might be
very secure, I told him that he should go back again and choose out five of
them, and tell them that they might see that he did not want men, that he
would take out those five to be his assistants, and that the governor would
keep the other two and the three that were sent prisoners to the castle (my
cave), as hostages for the fidelity of those five; and that if they proved
unfaithful in the execution, the five hostages should be hanged in chains
alive on the shore. This looked severe, and convinced them that the gov-
ernor was in earnest; however, they had no way left them but to accept it;
and it was now the business of the prisoners, as much as of the captain, to
persuade the other five to do their duty.

Our strength was now thus ordered for the expedition; first, the captain,
his mate, and passenger; second, then the two prisoners of the first gang,
to whom, having their character from the captain, I had given their liberty
and trusted them with arms; third, the othertwo whom I had kept till now in
my bower pinioned, but, upon the captain’s motion, had now released;
fourth, these five released at last; so that they were twelve in all, besides
five we kept prisoners in the cave for hostages.

Iasked the captain if he was willing to venture with these hands on
board the ship; for as for me and my man Friday, I did not think it.was
proper for us to stir, having seven men left behind; and it was employment
enough for us to keep them asunder, and supply them with victuals. As tothe
five in the cave, I resolved to keep them fast, but Friday went in twice a
day to them, to supply them with necessaries; and I made the other two
carry provisions to a certain distance, where Friday was to take it.

When I showed myself to the two hostages, it was with the captain, who
told them I was the person the governor had ordered to look after them;
and that it was the governor’s pleasure that they should not stir anywhere
but by my direction; that if they did, they would be fetched into the castle,
and be laid in irons; so that as we never suffered them to see me as gover-
nor, I now appeared as another person, and spoke of the governor, the
garrison, the castle, and the like, upon all occasions.

. The captain now had no difficulty before him, but to furnish his two
oats, stop the breach of one, and man them. He made his passenger cap-
tain of one, with four other men; and himself, his mate, and five more, went
in the other; and they contrived their business very well, for they came up
to the ship about midnight. As soon as they came within call of the ship,
ne made Robinson hail them, and tell them they had brought off the men
and the boat, but that it was a long time before they had found them, and
the like; holding them in a chat till they came to the ship’s side; when the
captain and the mate entering first with their arms, immediately knocked
down the second mate and carpenter with the butt-end of their muskets,
being very faithfully seconded by their men; they secured all the rest that
were upon the main and quarter-decks, and began to fasten the hatches, to
224 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

keep them down that were below; when the other boat and their men, enter-
ing at the fore-chains, secured the forecastle of the ship, and the scuttle
which went down into the cook-room, making three men they found there
prisoners. When this was done, and all safe upon deck, the captain ordered
the mate, with three men, to break into the round-house, where the new
rebel captain lay, who, having taken the alarm, had got up, and with two
men and a boy had got fire-arms in their hands; and when the mate, with
a crow, split open the deor, the new captain and his men fired boldly among
them, and wounded the mate with a musket-ball, which broke his arm, and
wounded two more of the men, but killed nobody. The -mate, calling for
help, rushed, however, into the round-house, wounded as he was, and, with
his pistol, shot the new captain through the head, the bullet entering at his
mouth, coming out again behind one of his ears, so that he never spoke a
word more; upon which the rest yielded, and the ship was taken effectually,
without any more lives lost.

As soon as the ship was thus secured, the captain ordered seven guns to
be fired, which was the signal agreed upon with me to give me notice of his
success, which, you may be sure, I was very glad to hear, having sat watching
upon the shore for it till near two o’clock in the morning. Having thus
heard the signal plainly, I laid me down, and it having been a day of great
fatigue to me, I slept very sound till I was something surprised with the
noise of a gun, and presently starting up, I heard a man calling me by the
name of “Governor! Governor!” and presently I knew the captain’s voice.
When climbing up to the top of the hill, there he stood, and, pointing to the
ship, he embraced me in his arms. ‘‘My dear friend and deliverer,” says he,
“there’s your ship, for she is all yours, and so are we, and all that belongs
to her.” I cast my eyes to the ship and there she rode within little more
than half a mile of the shore, for they had weighed her anchor as soon as
chey were masters of her, and, the weather being fair, had brought her toan
anchor just against the mouth of the little creek, and, the tide being up, the
captain had brought the pinnace in near the place where I first landed my
rafts, so landed just at my door. I wasat first ready to sink down with the
surprise, for I saw my deliverance indeed, visibly put into my hands, all
things easy, and a large ship just ready to carry me away whither I pleased
to go. At first, for some time, I was not able to answer one word, but as he

"had taken me in his arms I held fast by him, or I should have fallen to the
ground. He perceived the surprise, and immediately pulled a bottle out of
his pocket, and gave me a dram of cordial, which he had brought on pur-
pose forme, After I had drunk it, I sat down upon the ground, and though
it brought me to myself, yet it was a good while before I could speak a word
to him. All this while the poor man was in as great an ecstacy as I, only
not under any surprise as I was, and he said a thousand kind and tender
things to me to compose and bring me to myself; but such was the flood of |
joy in my breast that it put all my spirits into confusion; at last it broke into
THE CAPTAIN’S GRATITUDE. 225

tears, and, in a little while after, I'recovered my speech. Then I took my
turn, and embraced him as my deliverer, and we rejoiced together. I told
him I looked upon him as a man sent from heaven to deliver me, and that
the whole transaction seemed to be a chain of wonders; that such things as
these were the testimonies we had of a secret hand of Providence governing
the world, and an evidence that the eye of an Infinite Power could search
into the remotest corner of the world, and send help to the miserable when-
ever He pleased. I forgot not to lift up my heart in thankfulness to
Heaven, and what heart could forbear to bless Him, who had not only in
a miraculous manner provided for one in such a wilderness, and in such a
desolate condition, but from whom every deliverance must always be
acknowledged to proceed.

When we had talked awhile, the captain told me he had brought me
some little refreshments, such as the ship afforded, and such as the wretches
that had been so long his masters had not plundered him of. Upon this, he
called aloud to the boat, and bade his men bring the things ashore that
were for the governor; and, indeed, it was a present as if I had been one
that was not to be carried away along with them, but as if I had been to
dwell upon the island still, and they were to go without me. First, he had
brought me a case of bottles full of excellent cordial waters, six large bot-
tles of Madeira wine (the bottles held two quarts each) two pounds of
excellent good tobacco, twelve good pieces of the ship’s beef, and six pieces
of pork, with a bag of peas, and about a hundred weight of biscuit; he also
brought me a box of sugar, a box of flour, a bag full of lemons, and two
bottles of lime-juice, and abundance of other things. But besides these, and
what was a thousand times more useful, he brought me six new clean shirts,
six very good neckcloths, two pair of gloves, one pair of shoes, a hat, and
one pair of stockings, and a very good suit of clothes of his own, which had
been worn but very little. Ina word, he clothed me from head to foot. It
was a very kind and agreeable present, as any one may imagine, to one in
my circumstances; but never was anything in the world of that kind so
unpleasant, awkward, and uneasy as it was to me to wear such clothes at
their first putting on. .

After these ceremonies were past, and after all his good things were
brought into my little apartment, we began to consult what was to be done
with the prisoners we had, for it was worth considering whether we might
venture to take them away with us or no, especially two of them, whom he
knew to be incorrigible and refractory to the last degree; and the captain
said he knew they were such rogues that there was no obliging them, and if
he did carry them away, it must be in irons, as malefactors, to be delivered
over to justice at the first English colony he could come at, and I found the
captain himself was very anxious about it. Upon this, I told him that, if he
desired it, I would undertake to bring the two men he spoke of to make it
their own request that he should leave them upon the island. ‘I should be

15
226 ; ROBINSON CRUSOE.

very glad of that,” says the captain, “with all my heart.” “ Well,” says I,
“I will send for them up, and talk with them for you.” So I caused Friday ©
and the two hostages, for they were now discharged, their comrades having
performed their promise; I say, I caused them to go to the cave, and bring
up the five men, pinioned as they were, to the bower, and keep them there
till lcame. After some time, I came thither, dressed in my new habit, and
now I was called governor again. Being all met, and the captain with me,
I caused the men to be brought before me, and I told them I had got a ful!
account of their villainous behavior to the captain, and how they had run
away with the ship, and were preparing to commit further robberies, but
that Providence had ensnared them in their own ways, and that they were
fallen into the pit which they had dug for others. I let them know that by
my direction the ship had been seized, that she lay now in the road, and
they might see by and by that their new captain had received the reward of
his villainy, for that they might see him hanging at the yard arm; that, as
to them, I wanted to know what they had to say why I should not execute
them as pirates, taken in the fact, as by my commission they could not
doubt but I had authority to do.

One of them answered in the name of the rest, that they had nothing to
say but this, that when they were taken, the captain promised them their
lives, and they humbly implored my mercy. But I told them I knew not
what mercy to show them; for as for myself I had resolved to quit the
island with all my men, and had taken passage with the captain to go to
England; and as for the captain, he could not carry them to England other
than as prisoners in irons, to be tried for mutiny, and running away with
the ship; the consequence of which, they must needs know, would be the
gallows; so that I could not tell what was the best for them, unless they
had a mind to take their fate in the island. If they desired that, I did not
care; as I had liberty to leave it, I had some inclination to give them their
lives, if they thought they could shift on shore. They seemed very thank-
ful for it, and’ said they would much rather venture to stay there than be
carried to England to be hanged. So I left it on that issue.

However, the captain seemed to make some difficulty of it, as if he
durst not leave them there. Upon this I seemed a little angry with the
captain, and told him that they were my prisoners, not his; and, that seeing
I had offered them so much favor, I would be as good as my word; and
that if he did not think fit to consent to it, I would set them at liberty, as I
found them; and if he did not like it, he might take them again if he could
catch them. Upon this they appeared very thankful, and I accordingly set
them at liberty, and bade them retire into the woods, to the place whence
they came, and I would :eave them some fire-arms, some ammunition, and
some directions how they should live very well, if they thought fit. Upon ©
this I prepared to go on board the ship, but told the captain I would stay
that night to prepare my things, and desired him to go on board in the

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THE FATE Or THE NEW CREW. - 22%

meantime, and keep all right in the ship, and send the boat on shore next

day for me; ordering him, in the meantime, to cause the new captain, who

was killed, to be hanged at the yard-arm, that these men might see him.
When the captain was gone, | sent for

the men up to me in my apartment and

entered seriously into discourse with them

of their circumstances. I told them I

thought they had made a right choice;

but if the captain had carried them away,

they would certainly be hanged. Ishowed







b

*¥ SHOWED THEM THE NEW CAPTAIN HANGING AT THE YARD-ARM OF THE SHIP.”

them the new captain hanging at the yard-arm of the ship, and told them
they had nothing less to expect.

When ‘they had all declared their willingness to stay, I told them I
would let them into the story of my living there, and put them into the way
of making it easy to them. Accordingly, I gave them the whole history of
the place, and of my coming to it; showed them my fortifications, the way
i made my bread, planted my corn, cured my grapes; and, in a word, all
228 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

that was necessary to make them easy. I told them the story also ot the
sixteen Spaniards, that were to be expected, for whom I left a letter, and
made them promise to treat them in common with themselves.

I left them my fire-arms, viz., five muskets, three fowling-pieces, and three
swords. I had above a barrel and a half of powder left; for after the first
year or two I used but little, and wasted none. I gave thema description
of the way I managed the goats, and directions to milk and fatten them, and
to make both butter and cheese. Ina word, I gave them every part of my
story; and told them I should prevail with the captain to leave them two
barrels of gunpowder more, and some garden-seeds, which I told them I
would have been very glad of. Also, 1 gave them the bag of peas which
the captain had brought me to eat, and bade them be sure to sow and
increase them.

Having done all this, I left the next day, and went on board the ship.
We prepared immediately to sail, but did not weigh that night. The next
morning early, two of the five men came swimming to the ship’s side, and
made the most lamentable complaint of the other three, begged to be taken
into the ship for God’s sake, for they should be murdered, and begged the
captain to take them on board, though he hanged them immediately. Upon
this, the captain pretended to have no power without me; but after some
difficulty, and after their solemn promises of amendment, they were taken on
board, and were, some time after, soundly whipped and pickled; after which
they proved very honest and quiet fellows.

Some time after this, I went with the boat on shore, the tide being up,
with the things promised to the men; to which the captain, at my interces-
sion, caused their chests and clothes to be added, which they took, and
were very thankful for. I also encouraged them, by telling them, that if it
lay in my way to send any vessel to take them in, I would not forget them.

When I took leave of this island, I carried on board, for relics, the great
goat-skin cap I had made, my umbrella, and one of my parrots; also I for-
got not to take the money I formerly mentioned, which had lain by me so
long useless that it was grown rusty or tarnished, and could hardly pass
for silver till it had been a little rubbed and handled, and also the money I
found in the wreck of the Spanish ship. And thus I left the island, the Igth
of December, as I found by the ship’s account, in the year 1686, after I had
been upon it eight-and-twenty years, two months, and nineteen days; being
delivered from the second captivity the same day of the month that I first
made my escape in the Barco longo from among the Moors of Sallee. In
this vessel, after a long voyage, I arrived in England the 11th of June, in
the year 1687, having been thirty-five years absent.

When I came to England, I was a perfect stranger to all the world, as it
I had never been known there. My benefactor and faithful steward, whom
I had left my money in trust with, was alive, but had had great misfortunes
in the world; was become a widow the second time, and very low in the
IN ENGLAND AGAIN. avy

world. 1 made her easy as to what she owed me, assuring her I would give
her no trouble; but, on the contrary, in gratitude for her former care and
faithfulness to me, I relieved her as my little stock would afford; which at
that time would, indeed, allow me to do but little for her; but I assured her
I would never forget her former kindness to me; nor did I forget her when
I had sufficient to help her, as shall be observed in its place. I went down
afterwards into Yorkshire; but my father was dead, and my mother and all
the family extinct, except that I found two sisters, and two of the children
of one of my brothers; and as] had been long ago given over for dead,
there had been no provision made for me; so that in a word, I found noth-
ing to relieve or assist me; and that little money I had would not do much
for me as to settling in the world. .

I met with one piece of gratitude, indeed, which I did not expect, and
this was, that the master of the ship, whom I had so happily delivered, and
by thesame means saved the ship and cargo, having given a very handsome
account to the owners, of the manner how I had saved the lives of the men,
and the ship, they invited me to meet them and some other merchants con-
cerned, and altogether made me a very handsome compliment upon the
subject and a present of almost 4200 sterling.

But after making several reflections upon the circumstances of my life,
and how little way this