Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Half Title
 Title Page
 List of Illustrations
 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Title: Robinson Crusoe
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 Material Information
Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Defoe, Daniel,
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Bibliographic ID: UF00074456
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
        Front Matter 4
    Half Title
        Page i
        Page i-a
        Page i-b
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    List of Illustrations
        Page v
        Page vi
    Adventures of Robinson Crusoe
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 4a
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Full Text




Volumes in this series
Artist: c. wArBER HODGES
THE BLACK ARROW by R. L. Stevenson. Artist: nIoNEL EDWPARDS
Artist: B H. SHEPARD
THE CORAL ISLAND by R. M. Ballantyne. Artist:La I.O ATE
THE CUCKOO CLOCK by Mary Louisa Molesworth. Artist: E H. SHEPARD
FAIRY TALES OF LONG AGO. Edited by M. C. Carey.
GULLVER'S TRAVELS by Jonathan Swift. Artist: Annum RcKanaa
HEIDI by Johanna Spyri. Artist: VIcNCTE o. COHEN
11TTLE WOMEN by Louisa M. Alcott Artidt: VAN ABBA
GOOD WIVES by LoususA M. Alot rtist:s. vAN Anah
PII.GRIM'S PROGRESS by John Bunyan. Artist: PRANK c. PAP6
ROBIN HOOD by Crl m Artist: s vaN AnnA
TOM BROWN'S SCHOOLDAYS by Thomas Hughes. Artist: s. vaN And6
TREASURE ISLAND by R. L. Stevenson. Artist: s. vaN AnnA
A WONDER BOOK by Nathaniel Hawrthorne. Artist: s. VAN AsBB
TANGLEWOOD TALES by Nathaniel Hawthorne. Artist: s. vaN AnnA
THE WATER-BABIES by Charles Kingsley. Artist:' ROSALIE E. FRY
HANS BRINKER by Mary Mapes Dodge. Artist: HANS BnAUMMAUER

Lrger sit(e (Demy tw)
DON QUIXOTB by Cervantes. Artist: w. HEATH ROBINSON
Artist: DNoAzLo snowN canal~Hz
LORNA DOONE by R. D. Bldackore. Artist: nIoNEL EDWARDS
A BOOK OF NONSENSE. Edited by R.L.Green.
Illusutratd by CHARLES FOLKARDand original drawings by TE~nNRa, LnAR, FRNISS, HOLIDAT,
HUGHES, sHEPARD, Snd Others.
AT THE BACK( OF RI'H NORTH WIND by George MacDonald.
Artist: k.H. SHEPARD
LITTLE MEN by Louisa M. Alcott, Artist,* IJAny roorunIZ.

r.Y I
i. +r-
I- JZ;


See page 39
I guided my raft as well as I could


W~ith EighItcolour plates
and drawings in d~e text by



DANIEL DEPOE (his father's name was F;OE) was born in or
about -the year I tto in St. Giles, London.
He was educated with a view to his becoming a Presbyterian
minister, but renounced the idea. As a young man he took part in the
Monmouth rebellion, and after the defeat of Monmouth he joined the
army of King William III.
Defoe's later career was devoted to political journalism, and his
brilliant writings had great influence at that time. But he gave up
politics to turn to Fction, and in r7zy published the first and greatest
of his novels -' The Life and Strange Surprising Adventures of
Robinson Crusoe of York, Mariner'-tfo give it its full title. The
story was inspired by the various accounts of the actual voyage of a
seaman, one Alexander Selkirk, who sailed for Brazil in z7oj, and
who was subsequently put ashore on the island of Juan F7ernandez, and
left there alone for over four years.
Robinson Crusoe' was Frst published in two parts, and it is the
famous frst part only that is included in the present volume, in slightly
shortened form. It is by far the more convincing and romantic of the
two. Part II tells of further adventures by sea, and of Crusoe's
journeys in China, Asia, and Russia. Part I was without question
the greatest work Defoe ever produced, and it remains, and is likely to
remain, one of the best-loved and most widely read
books in the English language.

All rights reserved. Made in Great Britain at The Aldine
Press, Letchwuorth, for J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd, Aldines House,
Bedford St, London. First published in this edition I903*
Last reprinted 1958.


. .20
. .32
. .48


I guided my raft as well as I could .
' If you come near the boat I'll shoot you'.
I was kin~g and lord of all this country .
I victualled my ship for the voyage .
I could plainly see the wreck of a ship .
Killed him at the first shot .
I cut the flags that bound the poor victim .
I showed them the new captain hanging at
yard-arm .


All hands were called to the pumps .
Gave chase with all the sail she could set .
He started up growling .
They got her slung over the ship's side .
I had frequently a fair-mark .

. Froantispiece
. facing page 4
,, ,,89
,, ,, 04
,, ,,121
,, ,,136
,, ,,185


,, ,, 200


My machine for turning my grindstone performing very well 62
I found a large tortoise or turtle . . 64
What odd, misshapen, ugly things I made 87
It cost me near three months to clear the inside . 94
I stood like one thunderstruck . . I13
I contrived to plant the muskets . . I19
A most monstrous old he-goat 3
It was a dismal sight . . . 141
He stood like one frighted 56
Stood musing a great while 65
Inch by inch, upon great rollers . . 17o
Wringing my sword out of his hand 78
The water revived his father 82
Plainly discovered a ship . . . gI9
'He must be sent directly from heaven' 95
Knocked him down with the stock 99
Called out to him in the boat to yield .207
Made Robinson hail them .2I2
Shot the new captain through the head q
With his pistol shot the wolf .233
Ordered our men to fire .239

07~9B~ WA1S born in the year 1632, in
the city of York, of a good
family, though not of that
country, my father being a
foreigner of Bremen, who
settled first at Hull. He got a good
/ 9' ,estate by merchandise, and leaving
off his trade, lived afterward at York,
from whence he had married my
mother, whose relations were named Robinson,
a very good family in that country, and from
whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but
by the usual corruption of words in England we
are now called, nay, we call ourselves, and write
our name, Crusoe, and so my companions always called me.


Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade,
my head began to be Silled very early with rambling thoughts.
My father, who was very ancient, had given me a competent
share of learning, as far as house-education and a country free
school generally goes, and designed me for the law; but I would
be satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and my inclination
to this led me so strongly against the will, nay, the commands,
of my father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of
my mother and other friends, that there seemed to be something
fatal in that propension of nature tending directly to the life of
misery which was to befall me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and
excellent counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He
called me one morning into his chamber, where he was confined
by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with me upon this
He pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate
manner, not to play the young man, not to precipitate myself
into miseries which Nature and the station of life I was born in
seemed to have provided against; that I was under no neces-
sity of seeking my bread; that he would do well for me, and
endeavour to enter me fairly into the middle station of life
which he had been just recommending to me; and that if I
was not, very easy and happy in the world it must be my
mere fate or fault that must hinder it, and that he should
have nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his
duty in warning me against measures which he knew would
be to my hurt; in a word, that as he would do very kind
things for me if I would stay and settle at home as he
directed, so he would not have so much hand in my mis-
fortunes, as to give me any encouragement to go away.
And to close all, he told me I had my elder brother for an
example, to whom he had used the same earnest persuasions
to keep him from going into the Low Country wars, but
could not prevail, his young desires prompting him to run
into the army, where he was killed; and though he said he
would not cease to pray for me, yet he would venture to say
to me, that if I did take this foolish step, God would not bless
me, and I would have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having


neglected his counsel when there might be none to assist in my
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed who
could be otherwise ? and I resolved not to think of going
abroad any more, but to settle at home according to my father's
desire. But alas i a few days wore it all off; and, in short, to
prevent any of my father's farther importunities, in a few weeks
after I resolved to run quite away from him. However, I did
not act so hastily neither as my first heat of resolution
prompted, but I took my mother, at a time when I thought
her a little pleasanter than ordinary, and told her, that my
thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing the world, that I
should never settle to anything with resolution enough to go
through with it, and my father had better give me his consent
than force me to go without it; that I was now eighteen years
old, which was too late to go apprentice to a trade, or clerk
to an attorney; that I was sure if I did, I should never serve
out my time, and I should certainly run away from my master
before my time was out, and go to sea; and if she would speak
to my father to let me go but one voyage abroad, if I came
home again and did not like it, I would go no more, and I
would promise by a double diligence to recover that time I
had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion. She told me,
she knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon
any such subject; that he knew too well what was my interest
to give his consent to anything so much for my hurt, and that
she wondered how I could think of any such thing after such
a discourse as I had had with my father, and such kind and
tender expressions as she knew my father had used to me;
and that, in short, if I would ruin myself there was no help for
me; but I might depend I should never have their consent
to it; that for her part, she would not have so much hand in
my destruction, and I should never have it to say, that my
mother was willing when my father was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet, as
I have heard afterwards, she reported all the discourse to him,
and that my father, after showing a great concern at it, said
to her with a sigh, That boy might be happy if he would stay


at home, but if he goes abroad he will be the miserablest wretch
that was ever born : I can give no consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose,
though in the meantime I continued obstinately deaf to all
proposals of settling to business, and frequently expostulating
with my father and mother about their being so positively
determined against what they knew my inclinations prompted
me to. But being one day at Hull, where I went casually, and
without any purpose of making an elopement that time; but I
say, being there, and one of my companions being going by
sea to London, in his father's ship, and prompting me to go
with them, with the common allurement of seafaring men, viz.,
that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I consulted
neither father or mother any more, nor so much as sent them
word of it; but leaving them to hear of it as they might, with-
out asking God's blessing, or my father's, without any con-
sideration of circumstances or consequences, and in an ill hour,
God knows, on the first of September, 1651, I went on board
a ship bound for London. Never any young adventurer's
misfortunes, I believe, began sooner, or continued longer than
mine. The ship was no sooner gotten out of the Humber, but
the wind began to blow, and the waves to rise in a most frightful
manner; and as I had never been at sea before, I was most in-
expressibly sick in body, and terrified in my mind. I began
now seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and how justly
I was overtaken by the judgment of heaven for my wicked
leaving my father's house, and abandoning my duty.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea, which I had
never been upon before, went very high, though nothing like
what I have seen many times since; no, nor like what I saw a few
days after. But it was enough to affect me then, who was but
a young sailor, and had never known anything of the matter.
I expected every wave would have swallowed us up, and that
every time the ship fell down, as I thought, in the trough or
hollow of the sea, we should never rise more; and in this agony
of mind I made many vows and resolutions, that if it would
please God here to spare my life this one voyage, if ever I got
once my foot upon dry land again, I would go directly home to
my father, and never set it into a ship again while I lived; that

~S ~

See page 17
" If you come near the boat I'll shoot you "


I would take his advice, and never run myself into such miseries
as these any more. Now I saw plainly the goodness of his
observations about the middle station of life, how easy, how
comfortably he had lived all his days, and never had been
exposed to tempests at sea, or troubles on shore; and I resolved
that I would, like a true repenting prodigal, go home to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the
storm continued, and indeed some time after; but the next
day the wind was abated and the sea calmer, and I began to be
a little inured to it. However, I was very grave for all that
day, being also a little sea-sick still; but towards night the
weather cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a charming
fine evening followed; the sun went down perfectly clear, and
rose so the next morning; and having little or no wind, and a
smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought,
the most delightful that ever I saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick
but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was
so rough and terrible the day before, and could be so calm and
so pleasant in so little time after. And now lest my good
resolutions should continue, my companion, who had indeed
enticed me away, comes to me: Well, Bob," says he, clapping
me on the shoulder, how do you do after it ? I warrant
you were frighted, wa'n't you, last night, when it blew but a
capful of wind ?~ " A capful, d'you call it ? said I; "'twas
a terrible storm." A storm, you fool you," replies he; "do
you call that a storm ? Why, it was nothing at all; give us
but a good ship and sea-room, and we think nothing of such
a squall of wind as that; but you're but a fresh-water sailor,
Bob. Come, let us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget
all that; d'ye see what charming weather 'tis now ?" To
make short this sad part of my story, we went the old way
of all sailors; the punch was made, and I was made drunk
with it, and in that one night's wickedness I drowned all
my repentance, all my reflections upon my past conduct, and
all my resolutions for my future. I found indeed some
intervals of reflection, and the serious thoughts did, as it
were, endeavour to return again sometimes ; but I shook them
off, and roused myself from them as it were from a distemper,


and applying myself to drink and company, soon mastered the
return of those fits, for so I called them, and I had in five or six
days got as complete a victory over conscience as any young
fellow that resolved not to be troubled with it could desire.
But I was to have another trial for it still; and Providence, as
in such cases generally it does, resolved to leave me entirely
without excuse. For if I would not take this for a deliverance,
the next was to be such a one as the worst and most hardened
wretch among us would confess both the danger and the mercy.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth
roads; the wind having been contrary and the weather calm,
we had made but little way since the storm. Here we were
obliged to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind con-
tinuing contrary, viz., at south-west, for seven or eight days,
during which time a great many ships from Newcastle came
into the same roads, as the common harbour where the ships
might wait for a wind for the river.
We had not, however, rid here so long, but should have tided
it up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh; and after we
had lain four or five days, blew very hard. However, the roads
being reckoned as good as a harbour, the anchorage good, and
our ground-tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned, and
not in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent the time in
rest and mirth, after the manner of the sea; but the eighth day
in the morning the wind increased, and we had all hands at
work to strike our topmasts, and make everything snug and
close, that the ship might ride as easy as possible. By noon the
sea went very high indeed, and our ship rid forecastle in,
shipped several seas, and we thought once or twice our anchor
had come home; upon which our master ordered out the sheet-
anchor, so that we rode with two anchors ahead, and the cables
veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed, and now I
began to see terror and amazement in the faces even of the
seamen themselves. The master, though vigilant to the business
of preserving the ship, yet as he went in and out of his cabin by
me, I could hear him softly to himself say several times, Lord
be merciful to us, we shall be all lost, we shall be all undone ";
and the like. During these first hurries I was stupid, lying still


in my cabin, which was in the steerage, and cannot describe my
temper; I could ill reassume the first penitence, which I had so
apparently trampled upon, and hardened myself against; I
thought the bitterness of death had been past, and that this
would be nothing too, like the first. But when the master him-
self came by me, as I said just now, and said we should be all
lost, I was dreadfully frighted; I got up out of my cabin, and
looked out. But such a dismal sight I never saw; the sea went
mountains high, and broke upon us every three or four minutes;
when I could look about, I could see nothing but distress round
us. Two ships that rid near us we found had cut their masts by
the board, being deep loaden; and our men cried out, that a
ship which rid about a mile ahead of us was foundered. Two
more ships beings driven from their anchors, were run out of the
roads to sea at all adventures, and that with not a mast stand-
ing. The light ships fared the best, as not so much labouring
in the sea; but two or three of them drove, and came close by
us, running away with only their sprit-sail out before the wind.
Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the
master of our ship to let them cut away the foremast, which he
was very unwilling to. But the boatswain protesting to him
that if he did not the ship would founder, he consented; and
when they had cut away the foremast, the mainmast stood so
loose, and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut her
away also, and make a clear deck.
Any one may judge what a condition I must be in
at all this, wvho was but a young sailor, and who had been
in such a fright before at but a little. But if I can express
at this distance the thoughts I had about me at that time, I
was in tenfold more horror of mind upon account of my
former convictions, and the having returned from them to
the resolutions I had wickedly taken at first, than I was at
death itself; and these, added to the terror of the storm,
put me into such a conditions, that I can by no words describe
it. But the worst was not come yet; the storm continued
with such fury, that the seamen themselves acknowledged
they had never known a worse. We had a good ship, but
she was deep loaden, and wallowed in the sea, that the sea-
men every now and then cried out she would founder. It



was my advantage in one respect, that I did not know what
they meant by founder till I inquired. However, the storm
was so violent, that I saw what is not often seen, the master,
the boatswain, and some others more sensible than the rest,
at their prayers, and expecting every moment when the ship
would go to the bottom. In the middle of the night, and
under all the rest of our distresses, one of the men that had
been down on purpose to see cried out w~e had sprung a leak;
another said there was four foot water in the hold. Then al!
hands were called to the pump. At that very word my
heart, as I thought, died within me, and I fell backwards
upon the side of my bed where I sat, into the cabin. How-
ever, the men roused me, and told me, that I, that was able to
do nothing before, was as well able to pump as another; at
which I stirred up and went to the pump and worked very:
heartily. While this was doing, the master seeing some light


colliers, who, not able to ride out the storm, were obliged to slip
and run awvay to sea, and would come near us, ordered to fire a
gun as a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing what that
meant, was so surprised that I thought the ship had broke, or
some dreadful thing had happened. In a word, I was so
surprised that I fell down in a swoon. As this was a time
when everybody had his own life to think of, nobody minded
me, or what was become of me; but another man stepped up
to the pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot, let me lie,
thinking I had been dead; and it was a great while before I
came to myself.
We worked on, but the water increasing in the hold, it was
apparent that the ship would founder, and though the storm
began to abate a little, yet as it was not possible she could swim
till we might run into a port, so the master continued firing
guns for help; and a light ship, who had rid it out just ahead
of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the utmost
hazard the boat came near us, but it was impossible for us to
get on board, or for the boat to lie near the ship's side, till at
last the men rowing very heartily, and venturing their lives to
save ours, our meh cast them a rope over the stern with a buoy
to it, and then veered it out a great length, which they after
great labour and hazard took hold of, and w~e hauled them
close under ouir stern, and got all into their boat. It was to no
purpose for them or us after we were in the boat to think of
reaching to their own ship, so all agreed to let her drive, and
only to pull her in towards shore as much as we could, and our
master promised them that if the boat was stayed upon shore
he would make it good to their master; so partly rowing and
partly driving, our boat went away to the norward, sloping
towards the shore almost as far as Winterton Ness.
While we were in this condition, the men yet labouring
at the oar to bring the boat near the shore, we could see.
when, our boat mounting the waves, we were able to see the
shore, a great many people running along the shore to assist
us when we should come near. But we made but slow way
towards the shore, nor were we able to reach the shore, till
being past the lighthouse at Winterton, the shore falls off to
the westward towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a little
B 8-15


the: violence of the wind. Here we got in, and though not
without much difficulty got all safe on shore, and walked
afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men,
we were used with great humanity as well by the magistrates
of the town, who assigned us good quarters, as by particular
merchants and owners of ships, and had money given us
sufficient to carry us either to London or back to Hull, as we
thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and
have gone home, I had been happy, and my father, an emblem
of our blessed Saviour's parable, had even killed the fatted calf
for me; for hearing the ship I went away in was cast away
in Yarmouth road, it was a great while before he had any
assurance that I was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that
nothing could resist; and though I had several times loud
calls from my reason and my more composed judgment to go
home, yet I had no power to do it. I knowY not what to call
this, nor will I urge that it is a secret overruling decree that
hurries us on to be the instruments of our own destruction,
even though it be before us, and that w~e rush upon it with our
eyes open. Certainly nothing but somne such decreed unavoid-
able misery attending, and which it was impossible for me to
escape, could have pushed me forward against the calm
reasoning and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and
against two such visible instructions as I had met with in my
first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and
who was the master's son, was now less forward than I. The
first time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which was
not till two or three days, for we were separated in the town to
several quarters--I say, the first time he saw me, it appeared
his tone was altered, and looking very melancholy and shaking
his head, asked me how I did, and telling his father who I was,
and how I had come this voyaeol o ra nodrt
go arter brodhisfater uring to me wVith a very grave
and concerned tone, Young man," says he, you ought never
to go to sea any more, you ought to take this for a plain and
visible token, that you are not to be a seafaring man. And,


young man," said he, depend upon it, if you do not go back,
wherever you go you will meet with nothing but disasters and
diaIppointments, till your father's words are fulfilled upon you."
WVe parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I
saw him no more; which way he went, I know not. As for me,
having some money in my pocket, I travelled to London by
land; and there, as well as on the road, had many struggles
with myself what course of life I should take, and whether I
should go home, or go to sea.
As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that
offered to my thoughts; and it immediately occurred to me
how I should be laughed at among the neighbours, and should
be ashamed to see, not my father and mother only, but even
everybody else; from whence I have since often observed how
incongruous and irrational the common temper of mankind is,
especially of youth, to that reason which ought to guide them
in such cases, viz., that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are
ashamed to repent; not ashamed of the action for which they
ought justly to be esteemed fools, but are ashamed of the
returning, which only can make thiem be esteemed wise men.
It was mny lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in
London, which does not always happen to such loose and mis-
guided young fellows as I then was; the devil generally not
omitting to lay sc-me snare for them very early; but it was not
so with me. I first fell acquainted with the master of a ship
who had been on the coast of Guinea, and who, having had very
good success there, was resolved to go again; and who, taking a
fancy to my conversation, which was not at all disagreeable at
that time, hearing me say I had a mind to see the world, told
me if I would go the voyage with him I should be at no
expense; I should be his messmate and his companion; and if
Could carry anything with me, I should have all the adlvantage
of it that the trade would admit, and perhaps I might meet with
some encouragement.
I embraced thle offer; and, entering into a strict friendship
with this captain, who was an honest and plain-dealing man, I
went the voyage with him, and carried a small adventure with
me, which, by the disinterested honesty of my friend the
captain, I increased very considerably, for I carried about ;4o


in such toys and trifles as the captain directed me to buy.
This G40 I had mustered together by the assistance of some of
my relations whom I corresponded with, and who, I believe, got
my father, or at least my mother, to contribute so much as that
to my first adventure.
This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in
all my adventures, and which I owe to the integrity and honesty
of my friend the captain; under whom also I got a competent
knowledge of the mathematics and the rules of navigation,
learned how to keep an account of the ship's course, take an
observation, and, in short, to understand some things that were
needful to be understood by a sailor. For, as he took delight
to introduce me, I took delight to learn; and, in a word, this
voyage made me both a sailor and a merchant; for I brought
home five pounds nine ounces of gold dust for my adventure,
which yielded me in London at my return almost ;t300, and
this filled me with those aspiring thoughts which have since so
completed my ruin.
Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too;
particularly, that I was continually sick, being thrown into a
violent calenture by the excessive heat of the climate; our
principal trading being upon the coast, from the latitude of Ij
degrees north even to the line itself.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and m-y friend, to my
great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to Igo
the same voyage again, and I embarked in the same vessel w~ith
one who was his mate in the former voyage, and had now got
the command of the ship. This was the unhappiest vo\age
that ever man made; for though I did not carry quite 100o of
my new-gained wealth, so that I had 200o left, and whichI
lodged with my friend's widow, who was very just to me, yet I
fell into terrible misfortunes in this voyage; and the first was
this, viz., our ship making her course towards the Canary
Islands, or rather between those islands and the African shore,
was surprised in the grey of the morning by a Turkish rover of
Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the sail she could make.
We crowded also as much canvas as ouir yards would spread, or
our masts carry, to have got clear; but finding the pirate gained
upon us, and would certainly come up with us in a few hours,


we prepared to fight, our ship having twelve guns, and the
rogue eighteen. About three in the afternoon he came up with
us, and bringing to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter,
instead of athwart our
stern, as he intended, ~t~-~-r -~-
we brought eight of-
our guns to bear on
that side, and poured '
in a broadside upon
him, which made him-
sheer off again, after--
returning our fire and -,
pouring in also hiis r~~: .
small-shot from near .'
2oo men which he had f
on board. However, ~d,4 F
we had not a man
touched, all our men
keeping close. H-e
prepared to attack us
again, and we to de-
fend ourselves; but
laying us on board
the next time upon ~L~~
our other quarter, hep"s,=s___C
entered sixty men
upon our decks, who
immediately fell to
cutting and hacking
the decks and rigginga.
We plied them with --.
small-shot, half-pikes, ---~-;'--
powder-chests, and
such like, and cleared GAVE CHASE WIlTH ALL THE SAIL SHE COULD Sxr.T
Our deck of them twice. However, to cut short this melancholy
part of our story, our ship being disabled, and three of our
men killed and eight wounded, we were obliged to yield, and
were carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to the


The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I
apprehended, nor was I carried up the country to the emperor's
court, as the rest of our men were, but was kept by the captain
of the rover as his proper prize, and made his slave, being young
and nimble, and fit for his business.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his
house, so I was in hopes that he would take me with him w~hen
he went to sea again, believing that it would some time or other
be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portugal man-of-war;
and that then I should be set at liberty. But this hope of mine
was soon taken away; for when he went to sea, he left me on
shore to look after his little garden, and do the common
drudgery of slaves about his house; and when he came home
again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie in the cabin to look
after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method
I might take to effect it, but found no way that had the least
probability in it. Nothing presented to make the supposition
of it rational; for I had nobody to communicate it to that
would embark with me; so that for two years, though I often
pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had the least
encouraging prospect of putting it in practice.
After about two years an odd circumstance presented itself.
which put the old thought of making some attempt for my
liberty again in my head. M~y patron lying at home longer
than usual without fitting out his ship, which, as I heard, was
for want of money, he used constantly, once or twice a w\eek,
sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship's
pinnace, and go out into the road a-fishing; and as he always
took me and a young Maresco with him to row the boat, we
made him very merry, and I proved very dexterous in catching
fish; insomuch, that sometimes he would send me with a Moor,
one of his kinsmen, and the youth the Maresco, as they called
him, to catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time that, goings a-fishing in a stark calm
morning, a fog rose so thick, that though we were not half a
league from the shore we lost sight of it ; and rowing we knew
not whither or which way, we laboured all day, and all the next
night, and when the morning came we found we had pulled off


to sea instead of pulling in for the shore; and that we were at
least two leagues from the shore. However, we got well in
again, though with a great deal of labour, and some danger,
for the winid began to blow pretty fresh in the morning; but
particularly we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take
more care of himself for the future; and having lying by him
the long-boat of our English ship which he had taken, he
resolved he would not go a-fishing any more without a compass
and some provision; so he ordered the carpenter of his ship,
who also was an English slave, to build a little state-room, or
cabin, in the middle of the long-boat, like that of a barge, with
a place to stand behind it to steer and haul home the main-
sheet, and room before for a hand or two to stand and work the
We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing, and as I
was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without
me. It happened that he had appointed to go out in this boat,
either for pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors of some
distinction in that place, and for whom he had provided extra-
ordinarily; and had therefore sent on board the boat overnight
a larger store of provisions than ordinary; and had ordered me
to get ready three fuzees with powder and shot, which were on
board his ship, for that they designed some sport of fowling as
well as fishing.
I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the
next morning with the boat, washed clean, her ancient and
pendants out, and everything to accommodate his guests; when
by-and-by my patron came on board alone, and told me his
guests had put off going, upon some business that fell out, and
ordered me with the man and boy, as usual, to go out with the
boat and catch them some fish, for that his friends were to sup
at his house; and commanded that as soon as I had got some
fish I should bring it home to his house; all which I prepared
to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into
my thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a little ship at
my command ; and my master being gone, I prepared to furnish
myself, not for a fishing business, but for a voyage; though I


knew not, neither did I so much as consider, whither I should
steer; for anywhere, to get out of that place, was my, way.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this
Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board; for I told
him we must not presume to eat of our patron's bread. Hle
said that was true; so he brought a large basket of rusk or
biscuit of their kind, and three jars with fresh water, into the
boat. I knew where my patron's case of bottles stood, which
it was evident by the make were taken out of some English
prize; and I conveyed them into the boat while the Mloor was
on shore, as if they had been there before for our master. I
conveyed also a great lump of beeswax into the boat, which
weighed above half a hundred weight, with a parcel of twine or
thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all which were great
use to us afterwards, especially the wax to make candles. Tlhus
furnished wyith everything needful, we sailed out of the port
to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of the port,
knew who we were, and took no notice of us; and we were not
above a mile out of the port before we hauled in our sail, and
set us down to fish. The wind blew from the N.N.E., which
was contrary to my desire; for had it blown southerly I had
been sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at least reached
to the bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow which wayn!
it would, I would be gone from the horrid place where I was.
and leave the rest to Fate.
After we had fished some time and catched nothing, for
when I had fish on my hook I would not pull them up, that hie
might not see them, I said to the Moor, This will not do; our
master will not be thus served; we must stand farther off."He
thinking no harm, agreed, and being in the head of the boat se~t
the sails; and as I had the helm I run the boat out near a
league farther, and then brought her to as if I would fish; when
giving the boy the helm, I stepped forward to where the Mroor
was, and making as if I stooped for something behind him, i
took him by surprise with mny arm under his twist, and tossed
him clear overboard into the sea. He rose immediately, for he
swam like a cork, and called to me, begged to be taken in, told
me he would go all ths world over with me. He swam so strong
after the boat, that he would have reached me very quickly,


there being but little wind ; upon which I stepped into the cabin,
and fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented it at him,
and told h~im I had done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet
I would do him none. "' But," said I, you swim well enough to
reach to the shore, and the sea is calm; make the best of your
way to shore, and I will do you no harm ; but if you come near
the boat I'll shoot you through the head, for I am resolved to
have my liberty." So be turned himself about, and swam for
the shore, and I make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for
he was an excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me,
and have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust
him. When he was gone I turned to the boy, whom they called
Xury, and said to him, Xury, if you will be faithful to me I'll
make you a great man; but if you will not stroke your face to
be true to me," that is, swear by Mahomet and his father's beard,
" I must throw you into the sea too." The boy smiled in my
face, and spoke so innocently, that I could not mistrust him,
and swore to be faithful to me, and go all over the world with
While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I
stood out directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching to
windward, that they might think me gone towards the straits'
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed miy
course, and steered directly south and by east, bending my
course a little toward the east, that I might keep in with the
shore; and having a fair, fresh gale of' wind, and a smooth,
quiet sea, I made such sail that I believe by the next day at
three o'clock in the afternoon, when I first made the land, I
could not be less than 150 miles south of Sallee ; quite beyond
the Emperor of Morocco's dominions, or indeed of any other
king thereabouts, for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the
dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that I
would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an anchor, the wind
continuing fair, till I had sailed in that manner five days; and
then the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also that
if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would now


give over; so I ventured to make to the coast, and came to an
anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew not what, or where ;
neither what latitude, what country, what nations, or what
river. I neither saw, or desired to see, any people; the principal
thing I wanted was fresh water. We came into this creek in
the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark,
and discover the country; but as soon as it was quite dark we
heard such dreadful noises of the barking, roaring, and howling
of wild creatures, of we knew not what kinds, that the poor boy
was ready to die with fear, and begged of me not to go on
shore till day.
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but
we were both more frighted when we heard one of these mighty
creatures come swimming towards our boat; we could not see
him-, but we might hear him by his blowing to be a monstrous
huge and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion, and it might
be so for aught I know; but poor Xury cried to me to weigh
the anchor and row away. No," says I, Xury; we can slip
our cable with the buoy to it, and go off to sea; they cannot
follow us far." I had no sooner said so, but I perceived the
creature (whatever it was) within two oars' length, which somne-
thing surprised me; however, I immediately stepped to the
cabin door, and taking up my gun, fired at him, upon which he
immediately turned about and swam towards the shore again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrible noises, and
hideous cries and howlings, that were raised, as well upon the
edge of the shore as higher within the country, upon the noise
or report of the gun, a thing I have some reason to believe
those creatures had never heard before. This convinced me
that there was no going on shore for us in the night upon that
coast; and how to venture on shore in the day was another
question too; for to have fallen into the hands of any of the
savages, had been as bad as to have fallen into the hands of
lions and tigers; at least we were equally apprehensive of the
danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore some-
where or other for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat;
when or where to get to it, was the point. Xury said if I would
let him go on shore with one of the jars, he would find if there


was any water and bring some to me. I asked him why he
would go ? why I should not go and he stay in the boat ? The
boy answered with so much affection, that made me love him
ever after. Says he, If wild mans come, they eat me, you go
way." Well, Xury," said I, we will both go; and if the wild
mans come, we will kill them, they shall eat neither of us." So
I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a dram out of our
patron's case of bottles which I mentioned before; and we
hauled in the boat as near the shore as we thought was proper
and so waded on shore, carrying nothing but our arms and two
jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the
coming of canoes with savages down the river; but the boy see-
ing a low place about a mile up the country, rambled to it; and
by-and-by I saw him come running towards me. I thought he
was pursued by some savage, or frighted with some wild beast,
and I ran forward towards him to help him; but when I came
nearer to him, I saw something hanging over his shoulders, which
was a creature that he had shot, like a hare, but different in
colour, and longer legs. However, we were very glad of it, and
it was very good meat; but the great joy that poor Xury came
with was to tell me he had found good water, and seen no wild
man s.
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very
well that the islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verde
Islands also, lay not far off from the coast. But as I had no
instruments to take an observation to know what latitude we
were in, and did not exactly know, or at least remember, what
latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for them, or
when to stand off to sea towards them; otherwise I might now
easily have found some of these islands. But my hope was,
that if I stood along this coast till I came to that part where
the English traded, I should find some of their vessels upon
their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take us in.
Once or twice in the daytime I thought I saw the Pico of
Teneniffe, being the high top of the M~ountain Teneriffe in the
Canaries, and had a great mind to venture out, in hopes of
reaching thither; but having tried twice, I was forced in again
by contrary winds, the sea also going too high for my little


vesse; s eovd opru yfis ein adke ln
the-,-~ shore. f

SeveraltmsIwsolgdt adfrfehwtratr
ha etti lc ;an nei atclrbigeryi h
morning wecm oa nhr4 une aitenit fln hc

veslooe wheIre hled pointed myfrs es, and sa radu oser landed
uder thoe saeo ic ftehl hthn si eealtl
o evera him s Xuy ays bie "you shall gor onshor wand killr hm
Xury looke frightlaed and saeid, Me icll!, hei eatl me at oe
moupreth" oneh mouthflhe mi eainnt. However, I~ said noi moe
to father boy, buty badeee er oe b him letlladItokurbgst gunt
whih ws almos mue clskeot-b oe and laded itel witha good charg

lofe owder, and ointhwoslg, and laid t dowdulmn ;thernIlodeed
aothr gunas werith tw blet ; aind thetlyo th ird e ( fo w e shadtree

pieches Ioy lotaded ith five smaller bulet I took the biaest aim,


I could with the first piece to have shot him into the head, but
he lay so with his leg raised a little above his nose, that the slugs
hit his leg about the knee, and broke the bone. He started up
growling at Sirst, but finding his leg broke, fell down again, and
then got up upon three legs and gave the most hideous roar
that ever I heard. I was a little surprised that I had not hit
him on the head. However, I took up the second piece
immediately, and, though he began to move off, fired again, and
shot him into the head, and had the pleasure to see him drop,
and make but little noise, but lay struggling for life. Then
Xury took heart, and would have me let him go on shore. Well,
go," said I; so the boy jumped into the water, and taking a
little gun in one hand, swam to shore with the other hand, and
coming close to the creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his
ear, and shot him into the head again, which despatched him
This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I was
very sorry to loose three charges of powder and shot upon a
creature that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury said
he would have some of him; so he comes on board, and asked
me to give him the hatchet. For what, Xury ?" said I. Me
cut off his head," said he. However, Xury could not cut off his
head, but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him, and it was
a monstrous great one.
I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him
might one way or other be of some value to us; and I resolved
to take off his skin if I could. So Xury and I went to work
with him; but Xury was much the better workman at it, for I
knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us up both the
whole day, but at last we got off the hide of him, and spreading
it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two
days' time, and it afterwards served me to lie upon.
After this stop we made on to the southward continually for
ten or twelve days, living very sparing on our provisions, which
began to abate very much, and going no oftener into the shore
than we were obliged to for fresh water. My design in this was
to make the river Gambia or Senegal--that is to say, anywhere
about the Cape de Verde--where I was in hopes to meet with
some European ship; and if I did not, I knew not what course


I had to take, but to seek out for the islands, or perish there
among the negroes. I knew that all the ships from Europe,
which sailed either to the coast of Guinea or to Brazil, or to the
East Indies, made this cape, or those islands; and in a word, I
put the whole of my fortune upon this single point, either that I
must meet with some ship, or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer,
as I have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited; and
in two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand
upon the shore to look at us; we could also perceive they were
quite black, and stark naked. I was once inclined to have gone
on shore to them; but Xury was my better counsellor, and said
to me, No go, no go." However, I hauled in nearer the shore
that I might talk to them, and I found they ran along the shore
by me a good way. I observed they had no weapons in their
hands, except one, who had a long slender stick, which Xury
said was a lance, and that they would throw them a great way
with good aim. So I kept at a distance, but talked with them by
signs as well as I could, and particularly made signs for some-
thing to eat; they beckoned to me to stop my boat, and that
they would fetch me some meat. Upon this I lowered the top
of my sail, and lay by, and two of them ran up into the country,
and in less than half an hour came back, and brought with them
tw'o pieces of dried flesh and some corn, such as is the produce
of their country ; but we neither knew what the one or the other
was. However, we were willing to accept it, but how to come
at it was our next dispute, for I was not for venturing on shore
to them, and they were as much afraid of us; but they took a
safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore and laid it
down, and went and stood a great way off till we fetched it on
board, and then came close to us again.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and
water; and leaving my friendly negroes, I made forward for
about eleven days more, without offering to go near the shore,
till I saw the land run out a great length into thle sea, at about
the distance of four or five leagues before me; and the sea being
very calm, I kept a large offing, to make this point. At length,
doubling the point, at about two leagues from the land, I saw
plainly land on the other side, to seaward; then I concluded, as


it wlas most certain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verde,
and those the islands, called from thence Cape de Verde Islands.
However, they were at a great distance, and I could not well tell
what I had best to do; for if I should be taken with a fresh of
wind, I might neither reach one or other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the
cabin, and sat me down, Xury having the helm; when, on a
sudden, the boy cried out, Master, master, a ship with a sail!"
and the foolish boy was frighted out of his wits, thinking it must
needs be some of his master's ships sent to pursue us, when I
knew we were gotten far enough out of their reach. I jumped
out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only the ship, but
what she was, viz., that it was a Portuguese ship, and, as I thought,
was bound to the coast of Guinea, for negroes. But when I
observed the course she steered, I wvas soon convinced they were
bound some other way, and did not design to come any nearer
to the shore; upon which I stretched out to sea as much as I
could, resolving to speak with them, if possible.
With all the sail i could mak~e, I found I should not be able
to come in their way, but that they would be gone by before I
could make any signal to them; but after I had crowded to the
utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems, saw me by the help
of their perspective glasses, and that it was some European boat
which~, as they supposed, must belong to some ship that was lost
so they shortened sail to let me come up. I was encouraged
with th~is; and as I had my patron's ancient on board, I made
a waft of it to them for a signal of distress, and fired a gun, both
which they saw; for they told me they saw the smoke, though
they did not hear the gun. Upon these signals they were
kindly brought to, and lay by for me; and in about three hours'
time I came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish,
and in French, but I understood none of them; but at last a
Scots sailor, who was on board, called to me, and I answered
him, and told him I was an Englishman, that I had made my
escape out of slavery from the Moors, at Sallee. Then they
bade me come on board, and very kindly took me in, and all
my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, that any one will believe,


that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miser-
able, and almost hopeless, condition as I was in; and I
immediately offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a
return for my deliverance. But he generously told me he
would take nothing from me, but that all I had should be
delivered safe to me when I came to the Brazils. For," says
he, I have saved your life on no other terms than I would be
glad to be saved myself; and it may, one time or other, be my
lot to be taken up in the same condition. Besides," says he,
" when I carry you to the Brdazils, so great a way from your
own country, if I should take from you what you have, you will
be starved there, and then I only take away that life I have given.
No, no, Seignior Inglese," says he, Mlr. Englishman, I will
carry you thither in charity, and those things will help you
to buy your subsistence there, and your passage home
As he was charitable in his proposal, so he was just in the
performance to a tittle; for he ordered the seamien that none
should offer to touch anything I had; then he took everything
into his own possession, and gave me back an exact inventory
of them, that I might have them, even so much as my three
earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one, and that he saw~,
and told me he would buy it of me for the ship's use, and asked
me what I would have for it ? I told him he had been so
generous to me in everything, that I could not offer to mak~e
any price of the boat, but left it entirely to him; upon which
he told me he would give me a note of his hand to pay me
eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil, and when it came there,
if any one offered to give more, he would make it up. He
offered me also sixty pieces of eight more for my boy Xury,
which I was loth to take; not that I was not willing to let theF
captain have him, but I was very loth to sell the poor boy's
liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in procuring my ow~n.
However, when I let him know my reason, he owned it to be
just, and offered me this medium, that he would give the boy
an obligation to set him free in ten years if he turned Christian
Upon this, and Xury saying he was willing to go to him, I let
the captain have him.


We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and arrived in
the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints' Bay, in about
twenty-two days after. And now I was once more delivered
from the most miserable of all conditions of life; and w~hat to
do next with myself, I was now to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never
enough remember. He would take nothing of me for my
passage, gave me twenty ducats for the leopard's skin, and
forty for the lion's skin, which I had in my boat, and caused
everything I had in the ship to be punctually delivered me;
and what I was willing to sell he bought, such as the case of
bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of beeswax--
for I had made candles of the rest; in a word, I made about
220 pieces of eight of all my cargo, and with this stock I went
on shore in the Brazils.
I had not been long here, but being recommended to the
house of a good honest man like himself, who had an ingin~~io as
they call it, that is, a plantation and a sugar-house, I lived with
him some time, and acquainted myself by that means with the
mariner of their planting and making of sugar ; and seeing how
well the planters lived, and how they grew rich suddenly, I
resolved, if I could get licence to settle there, I would turn
planter among them, resolving in the meantime to find out
some way to get my money which I had left in London
remitted to me. To this purpose, getting a kind of a better of
naturalisation, I purchased as much land that was uncured as
my money would reach, and formed a plan for my plantation
and settlement, and such a one as might be suitable to the stock
which I proposed to myself to receive from England.
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of
English parents, whose name was WiTells, and in much such
circumstances as I was. I call him my neighbour, because his
plantation lay next to mine, and we went on very sociably
together. My stock w\as but low, as well as his; and we rather
planted for food than anything else, for about tw~o y-ears.
However, we began to increase, and our land began to come
into order; so that the third year we planted some tobacco,
and made each of us a large piece of ground ready for planting
canes in the year to come. But we both wanted help; and


now I found, more than before, I had done wrong in parting
with my boy Xury.
I was in some degree settled in my measures for carrying
on the plantation before my kind friend, the captain of the ship
that took me up at sea, went back; for the ship remained there
in providing his loading, and preparing for his voyage, near
three months; when, telling him what little stock I had left
behind me in London, he gave me this friendly and sincere
advice: Seignior Inglese," says he, for so he always called me,
"if you will give me letters, and a procuration here in form to
me, with orders to the person who has your money in London
to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct,
and in such goods as are proper for this country, I will bring
you the produce of them, God willing, at my return. But since
human affairs are all subject to changes and disasters, I would
have you give orders but for one hundred pounds sterling,
which, you say, is half your stock, and let the hazard be run for
the first; so that if it come safe, you may order the rest the
same way; and if it miscarry, you may have the other half to
have recourse to for your supply."
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, thalt
I could not but be convinced it was the best course I could
take; so I accordingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman
with whom I had left my money, and a procuration to the
Portuguese captain, as he desired.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of all
my adventures; my slavery, escape, and how I had m-et with
the Portugal captain at sea, the humanity of his behaviour, and
in what condition I was now in, with all other necessary
directions for my supply. And when this honest captain came
to Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English merchants
there, to send over not the order only, but a full account of my
story to a merchant at London, who represented it effectually
to her; whereupon, she not only delivered the money, but out
of her own pocket sent the Portugal captain a very handsome
present for his humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London vesting this hundred pounds in
English goods, such as the captain had writ for, sent themn
directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me


to the Brazils; among which, without my direction (for I was
too young in my business to think of them), he had taken care
to have all sorts of tools, iron-work, and utensils necessary for
my plantation, and which were of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made, for I
was surprised with joy of it; and my good steward, the captain,
had laid out the five pounds, which my friend had sent him for
a present for himself, to purchase and bring me over a servant
under bond for six years' service, and would not accept of any
consideration, except a little tobacco, which I would have him
accept, being of my own produce.
Neither was this all; but my goods being all English
manufactures, such as cloth, stuffs, baize, and things particularly
valuable and desirable in the country, I found means to sell
them to a very great advantage; so that I may say I had more
than four times the value of my first cargo, and was now
infinitely beyond my poor neighbour, I mean in the advance-
mient of my plantation ; for the first thing I did, I bought me
a negro slave, and an European servant also; I mean another
besides that which the captain brought me from Lisbon.
B~ut as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means
of our greatest adversity, so was it with me. I went on7 the
next year with great success in my plantation. I raised fifty
great rolls of tobacco on my ow\n ground, more than I had
disposed of for necessaries among my neighbours; and these
fifty rolls, being each of above a hundredweight, w~ere well
cured, and laid by against the return of the fleet from Lisbon.
And now, increasing in business and in wealth, my head began
to be full of projects and undertakings beyond my reach, such
as are, indeed, often the ruin of the best heads in business.
You may suppose, that having now lived almost four years
in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive and prosper very well
upon my plantation, I had not only learned the language, but
had contracted acquaintance and friendship among my fellow-
planters, as well as among the merchants at St Salvador, which
was our port, and that in my discourses among them I had
frequently given them an account of my two voyages to the
coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with the negroes there,
and how easy it was to purchase upon the coast for trifles--


such as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and
the like--not only gold-dust, Guinea grains, elephants' teeth,
&rc., but negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my discourses on
these heads, but especially to that part which related to the
buying negroes; which was a trade, at that time, not only not
far entered into, but, as far as it was, had been carried on by
the assiento, or permission, of the Kings of Spain and Portugal,
so that few negroes were brought, and those excessive dear.
It happened, being in company with some merchants and
planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very
earnestly, three of them came to me the next morning, and
told me they had been musing very much upon what I had
discoursed with them of, the last night, and they came to make
a secret proposal to me. And after enjoining me secrecy, they
told me that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea;
that they had all plantations as well as I, and were straitened
for nothing so much as servants; that as it was a trade that
could not be carried on because they could not publicly sell
the negroes when they camne home, so they desired to make
but one voyage, to bring the negroes on shore privately, and
divide them among their own plantations; and, in a word, the
question was, whether I would go their supercargo in the ship,
to manage the trading part upon the coast of Guinea ; and they
offered me that I should have my equal share of the negroes
without providing any part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it m-ust be confessed, had it been
made to any one that had not had a settlement and plantation
of his own to look after, which was in a fair way of coming to
be very considerable, and with a good stock< upon it. But for
me, that was thus entered and established, and had nothing to
do but go on as I had begun, for three or four years more, and
to have sent for the other hundr-ed pounds from England; and
who, in that time, and with that little addition, could scarce
have failed of being worth three or four thousand pounds
sterling, and that increasing too--for me to think of such a
voyage, was the most preposterous thing that ever man, in such
circumstances, could be guilty of.
B3ut I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no


more resist the offer than I could restrain my first rambling
designs, when my father's good counsel was lost upon me. In
a word, I told them I would go with all my heart, if they would
undertake to look after my plantation in my absence, and
would dispose of it to such as I should direct if I miscarried.
This they all engaged to do, and entered into writings or
covenants to do so; and I made a formal will, disposing of my
plantation and effects, in case of mny death ; making the captain
of the ship that had saved my life, as before, my universal heir,
but obliging himn to dispose of my effects as I had directed in
my will; one half of the produce being to himself, and the other
to be shipped to England.
In short, I tooke all possible caution to preserve my effects,
and keep up my plantation. Had I used half as much
prudence to have looked into my ow~n interest, and have made
a judgment of what I ought to have done and not to have
done, I had certainly never gone away from so prosperous an
undertaking, leaving all the probable views of a thriving cir-
cumstance, and gone upon a voyage to sea, attended with all
its common hazards, to say nothing of the reasons I had to ex-
pect particular misfortunes to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of
my fancy rather than my reason. And accordingly, the ship
being fitted out, and the cargo furnished, and all things done as
by agreement by my partners in the voyage, I went on board
in an evil hour, the [first] of [September 1659], being the same
day eight year that I went from my father and mother at Hull,
in order to act the rebel to their authority, and the fool to my
own interest.
Our ship was about 120 tons burthen, carried six guns and
fourteen men, besides the master, his boy, and myself. W;e had
on board no large cargo of goods, except of such toys as were
fit for our trade with the negroes--such as beads, bits of glass,
shells, and odd trifles, especially little looking-glasses, knives,
scissors, hatchets, and the like.
The same day I wrent on board we set sail, standing aw~ay
to the northward upon our own coast, with design to stretch
over for the African coast, when they came about ten or twelve
degrees of northern latitude, which, it seems, was the manner of


their course in those days. We passed the line in about twelve
days' time, and were, by our last observation, in seven degrees
twenty-two minutes northern latitude, when a violent tornado,
or hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge. It began
from the south-east, came about to the north-west, and then
settled into the north-east, from whence it blew in such a
terrible manner, that for twelve days together we could do
nothing but drive, and, scudding away before it, let it carry us
wherever fate and the fury of the winds directed; and during
these twelve days, I need not say that I expected every day to
be swallowed up, nor, indeed, did any in the ship expect to save
their lives.
In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm, one
of our men died of the calenture, and one man and the boy
washed overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather abating
a little, the master made an observation as well as he could,
and found that he was gotten upon the coast of Guiana, or the
north part of Brazil, beyond the river Amazon, toward that of
the river Orinoco, commonly called the Great River, and began
to consult with me what course we should take, for the ship was
leaky and very much disabled, and he was going directly back
to the coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that; and looking over the charts
of the sea-coast of America with him, we concluded there was
no inhabited country for us to have recourse to till we came
within the circle of the Carribbee Islands, and therefore resolved
to stand away for the Barbadoes, which by keeping off at sea,
to avoid the indraft of the Bay or Gulf of Mexico, w~e mighlt
easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days' sail; whereas
we could not possibly make our voyage to the coast of
Africa without some assistance, both to our ship and to
With this design we changed our course, and steered awany
N.W. by W. in order to reach some of our English islands,
where I hoped for relief ; but our voyage was otherwise deter-
mined; for a second storm came upon us, which carried us
away with the same impetuosity westward, and drove us so out
of the very way of all human commerce, that had all our lives
been saved, as to the sea, we were rather in danger of


being devoured by savages than ever returning to our ownn
In this distress, the w~ind still blowing very hard, one of
our mnci early in the morning cried out, Land and w~e had
nio sooner ran out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing
wvhercabouts in the world w~e wvere, but the ship struck; upon a
sanrd, andi in a momnent, her motion being so stopped, the sea
broke ovecr her in such a manner, that nve expected w\e should
all have perished imnmediiately; and w~e wrere imnmediately driven
inito our close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam and
spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one, who has not been in the like
condition, to describe or conceive the consternation of men in
such circumstances. We k~newv nothing where we were, or
upon w~hat land it wras w\e w~ere driven, whether an island or the
mnain, whether inhabited or not inhabited; and as the rage of
the w\indl was still great, though rather less than at first, w~e
could niot so much as hope to have the ship hold many
minutes without breaking in pieces, unless the wvinds, by a kinld
of miracle, should turn immediately about. In a word, we sat
looking one upon another, and expecting death every moment,
and eivery man acting accordingly, as preparing for another
world; for there was little or nothing more for us to do in this.
That whlich w\as our present comfort, and all the comfort
w~e had, was that, contrary to our expectation, the ship did
not break yet, and that the master said the wind began to
Now, though w~e thought that the wind did a little abate,
yet th~e ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too
fast for us to expect her getting off, w~e were in a dreadful con-
dition indeed, and had nothing to do but to think; of saving our
lives as w\ell as w~e could. W~e had a boat at our stern just
before the storm, but she w~as first stayed by dashiing against
the ship's rudder, and in the next place, she broke aw~ay, and
either sunk;, or w~as driven off to sea, so theie wvas no hope
fr-om her; we hadi another boat on board, but how to get her off
into the sea was a doubtful thing. However, there was no
room to debate, for we fancied the ship would break in pieces
every minute, and some told us she was actually broken already.



In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of the
boat, and with the help of the rest of the men they got her slung
over the ship's side; and getting all into her, let go, and com-
mitted ourselves, being eleven in number, to God's mercy, and
the wild sea; for though the storm wyas abated considerably, yet
the sea went dreadful high upon the shore.
And now our case was very dismal indeed, for we all saw
plainly that the sea went so high, that the boat could not live,
and that we should be inevitably drowned. However, we
committed our souls to God in the most earnest manner; and
the wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened our
destruction with our own hands, pulling as well as we could
towards land.
What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep or
shoal, we knew not; the only hope that could rationally give
us the least shadow of expectation was, if we might happen
into some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where by
great chance we might have run our boat in, or got under the
lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth water. But


there was nothing of this appeared; but as we made nearer
and nearer the shore, the land looked more frightful than
the sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and a
half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came
rolling astern of us, and plainly bade us expect the couip de
graice. In a word, it took us with such a fury, that it overset
the boat at once; and separating us, as well from the boat as
from one another, gave us not time hardly to say, O God!i"
for w~e were all swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt
when I sunk into the water; for though I swam very well, yet
I could not deliver myself from the waves so as to draw
breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather carried me, a
vast way on towards the shore, and having spent itself, went
back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but half dead with
the water I took in. I had so much presence of mind, as well
as breath left, that seeing myself nearer the mainland than I
expected, I got upon my feet, and endeavoured to make on
towards the land as fast as I could, before another w~ave should
return and take me up again. But I soon found it w~as im-
possible to avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as high
as a great hill, and as furious as an enemy, which I had no
means or strength to contend with. M~y business was to hold
my breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I could; and so,
by swimming, to preserve my breathing~, and pilot myself
towards the shore, if possible; my greatest concern now being,
that the sea, as it would carry me a great w~ay towards the
shore when it came on, might not carry me back again with it
when it gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again, buried me at once
20 Or 3O feet deep in its ow~n body, and I could feel myself
carried with a mighty force and swliftness towards the shore a
very great way; but I held my breath, and assisted myself to
swim still forward with all my might. I was ready- to burst
with holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising up, so, to
my immediate relief, I found my head and hands shoot out
above the surface of the water; and though it was niot two
seconds of time that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved me


greatly, gave me breath and new courage. I was covered
again with water a good while, but not so long but I held it out;
and finding the water had spent itself, and began to return, I
struck forward against the return of the waves, and felt ground
again with my feet. I stood still a few moments to recover
breath, and till the water went from me, and then took to my
heels and ran with what strength I had farther towards the
shore. But neither would this deliver me from the fury of the
sea, which came pouring in after me again, and twice more I
was lifted up by the waves and carried forwards as before, the
shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well near been fatal to me;
for the sea, having hurried me along as before, landed me, or
rather dashed me, against a piece of a rock, and that with such
force, as it left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own
deliverance; for the blow taking my side and breast, beat the
breath as it were quite out of my body; and had it returned
again immediately, I must have been strangled in the water.
But I recovered a little before the return of the waves, and see-
ing I should be covered again with the water, I resolved to hold
fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath, if possible,
till the wave went back. Now as the waves were not so high as
at first, being near land, I held my hold till the wave abated,
and then fetched another run, which brought me so near the
shore, that the next wave, though it went over me, yet did not
so swallow me up as to carry me away, and the next run I took
I got to the mainland, where, to my great comfort, I
clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and sat me down upon the
grass, free from danger, and quite out of the reach of the
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up
and thank God that my life was saved in a case wherein there
was some minutes before scarce any room to hope.
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my
whole being, as I may say, wrapt up in the contemplation of
my deliverance, making a thousand gestures and motions which
I cannot describe, reflecting upon all my comrades that were
drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved but my-
self; for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign


of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that
were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when the breach and
froth of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far
off, and considered, Lord how was it possible I could get on
shore ?
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of
my condition, I began to look round me to see what kind of
place I was in, and what was next to be done, and I soon found
my comforts abate, and that, in a word, I had a dreadful
deliverance; for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor any-
thing either to eat or drink to comfort me, neither did I see any
prospect before me but that of perishing with hunger, or being
devoured by wild beasts; and that which was particularly
afflicting to me was, that I had no weapon either to hunt and
kill any creature for my sustenance, or to defend myself against
any other creature that might desire to kill me for theirs. In a
word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and
a little tobacco in a box. This was all my provision; and this
threw me into terrible agonies of mind, that for a while I ran
about like a madman. Night coming upon me, I began, with
a heavy heart, to consider what would be my lot if there were
any ravenous beasts in that country, seeingat night they always
come abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time
was, to get up into a thick bushy tree like a fir, but thorny, which
grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all night, and consider
the next day what death I should die, for as yet I saw no
prospect of life. I walked about a furlong from the shore, to see
if I could find any fresh water to drink, which I did, to my great
joy; and having drank, and put a little tobacco in my mouth
to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it,
endeavoured to place myself so, as that if I should sleep I
might not fall; and having cut me a short stick,1like a truncheon,
for my defence, I took up my lodging, and having been
excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably
as, I believe, few could have done in my condition, and found
myself the most refreshed with it that I think I ever was on
such an occasion.


When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the
storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as before.
But that which surprised me most was, that the ship was lifted
off in the night from the sand where she lay, by the swelling of
the tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock which I
first mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the dashing me
against it. This being within about a mile from the shore where
I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished
myself on board, that, at least, I might have some necessary
things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree I looked
about me again, and the first thing I found was the boat, which
lay as the wind and the sea had tossed her up upon the land,
about two miles on my right hand. I walked as far as I could
upon the shore to have got to her, but found a neck or inlet of
water between me and the boat, which was about half a mile
broad; so I came back for the present, being more intent upon
getting at the ship, where I hoped to find something for my
present subsistence.
A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the tide
ebbed so far out, that I could come within a quarter of a mile
of the ship ; and here I found a fresh renewing of my grief, for
I saw evidently, that if we had kept on board we had been all
safe, that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had not
been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort
and company, as I now was. This forced tears from my eyes
again; but as there was little relief in that, I resolved, if
possible, to get to the ship;i so I pulled off my clothes, for the
weather was hot to extremity, and took the water. But when
I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how
to get on board; for as she lay aground, and high out of the
water, there was nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I
swam round her twice, and the second time I spied a small
piece of a rope, which I wondered I did not see at first, hang
down by the fore-chains so low, as that with great difficulty I
got hold of it, and by the help of that rope got up into the fore-
castle of the ship. Here I found that the ship was bulged, and
had a great deal of water in her hold, but that she lay so on the
side of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern lay


lifted up upon the bank, and her head low almost to the water.
B3y this means all her quarter was free, and all that was in that
part was dry; for you may be sure my first work was to search
and to see what was spoiled and what was free. And first I
found that all the ship's provisions were dry and untouched by
the water; and being very well disposed to eat, I went to the
bread-room and filled my pockets with biscuit, and eat it as I
went about other things, for I had no time to lose. I also
found some rum in the great cabin, of which I took a large dram,
and which I had indeed need enough of to spirit me for what
was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat, to furnish
myself with many things which I foresaw would be very
necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be
had, and this extremity roused my application. We had
several spare yards, and two or three large spars of wood, and
a spare top-mast or two in the ship. I resolved to fall to work
with these, and flung as many of them overboard as I could
manage for their weight, tying every one with a rope, that they
might not drive away. WVhen this was done I went down the
ship's side, and, pulling them to me, I tied four of them fast
together at both ends as well as I could, in the form of a raft;
and laying two or three short pieces of plank upon them cross-
ways, I found I could walk upon it very well, but that it was
not able to bear any great weight, the pieces being too light.
So I went to work, and with the carpenter's saw I cut a spare
top-mast into three lengths, and added them to my raft, with a
great deal of labour and pains; but hope of furnishing myself
with necessaries encouraged me to go beyond what I should
have been able to have done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable
weight. My next care was what to load it with, and how to
preserve what I laid upon it from the surf of the sea; but I was
not long considering this. I first laid all the planks or boards
upon it that I could get, and having considered well what I
most wanted, I first got three of the seamen's chests, which I
had broken open, and emptied, and lowered them down upon
my raft. The first of these I filled with provisions, viz., bread,
rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goat's flesh, which


we lived much upon, and a little remainder of European corn,
which had been laid by for some fowls which we brought to sea
with us, but the fowls were killed. There had been some barley
and wheat together, but, to my great disappointment, I found
afterwards that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As for
liquors, I found several cases of bottles belonging to our
skipper, in which were some cordial waters, and, in all, about
five or six gallons of rack. These I stowed by themselves,
there being no need to put them into the chest, nor no room for
them. While I was doing this, I found the tide began to flow,
though very calm, and I had the mortification to see my coat,
shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on shore upon the sand,
swim away; as for my breeches, which were only linen, and
open-kneed, I swam on board in them, and my stockings.
However, this put me upon rummaging for clothes, of which I
found enough, but took no more than I wanted for present use ;
for I had other things which my eye was more upon, as
first tools to work with on shore; and it was after long search-
ing that I found out the carpenter's chest, which was indeed a
very useful prize to me, and much more valuable than a ship-
loading of gold would have been at that time. I got it down
to my raft, even whole as it was, without losing time to look
into it, for I knew in general what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms; there
were two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two
pistols; these I secured first, with some powder-horns, and a
small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there
were three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where
our gunner had stowed them; but with much search I found
them, two of them dry and good, the third had taken water;
those two I got to my raft with the arms. And now I thought
myself pretty well freighted, and began to think how I should
get to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, or rudder; and
the least capful of wind would have overset all my navigation.
I had three encouragements. I. A smooth calm sea. 2.
The tide rising and setting in to the shore. 3. What little wind
there was blew me towards the land. And thus, having found
two or three broken oars belonging to the boat, and besides the
tools which were in the chest, I found two saws, an axe, and a


hammer, and with this cargo I put to sea. F~or a mile or there-
abouts my raft went very well, only that I found it drive a little
distance from the place where I had landed before, by which I
perceived that there was some indraft of the water, and conse-
quently I hoped to find some creek or river there, which I might
make use of as a port to get to land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was; there appeared before me a little
opening of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide
set into it, so I guided my raft as well as I could to keep in the
middle of the stream. But here I had like to have suffered a
second shipwreck, which, if I had, I think verily would have
broke my heart; for knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran
aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and not being aground
at the other end, it wanted but a little that all my cargo had
slipped off towards that end that was afloat, and so fallen into
the water. I did my utmost by setting my back against the
chests to keep them in their places, but could not thrust off the
raft with all my strength, neither durst.I stir from the posture
I was in, but holding up the chests with all my might, stood in
that manner near half-an-hour, in which time the rising of the
water brought me a little more upon a level; and a little after,
the water still rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off
with the oar I had into the channel, and then driving up higher,
I at length found myself in the mouth of a little river, with
land on both sides, and a strong current or tide running up. I
looked on both sides for a proper place to get to shore, for I
was not willing to be driven too high up the river, hoping in
time to see some ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place
myself as near the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the
creek, to which, with great pain and difficult, I guided my
raft, and at last got so near, as that, reaching ground with my
oar, I could thrust her directly in; but here I had like to have
dipped all my cargo in the sea again; for that shore lying
pretty steep, that is to say, sloping, there was no place to land
but where one end of my float, if it run on shore, would lie so
high and the other sink lower, as before, that it would endanger
my cargo again. All that I could do was to wait till the tide
was at the highest, keeping the raft with my oar like an anchor


to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of
ground, which I expected the water would flow over; and so it
did. As soon as I found water enough, for my raft drew about
a foot of water, I thrust her on upon that flat piece of ground,
and there fastened or moored her by sticking my two broken
oars into the ground; one on one side near one end, and one on
the other side near the other end; and thus I lay till the
water ebbed away, and left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country and seek a proper
pace for my habitation, and where to stow my goods to secure
tem from whatever might happen. Where I was, I yet knew
not; whether on the continent, or on an island; whether
inhabited or not inhabited ; whether in danger of wild beasts, or
not. There was a hill, not above a mile from me, which rose up
very steep and high, and which seemed to overtop some other
hills, which lay as in a ridge from it, northward. I took out
one of the fowling-pieces and one of the pistols, and a horn of
powder; and thus armed, I travelled for discovery up to the top
of that hill, where, after I had with great labour and difficulty
got to the top, I saw my fate to my great affliction, viz., that I
was in an island environed every way with the sea, no land to
be seen, except some rocks which lay a great way off and two
small islands less than this, which lay about three leagues to
the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I
saw good reason to believe, uninhabited, except by wild beasts,
of whom, however, I saw none; yet I saw abundance of fowls,
but knew not their kinds; neither, when I killed them, could I
tell what was fit for food, and what not. At my coming back,
I shot at a great bird which I saw sitting upon a tree on the
side of a great wood. I believe it was the first gun that had
been fired there since the creation of the world. I had no
sooner fired, but from all the parts of the wood there arose an
innumerable number of fowls of many sorts, making a confused
screaming, and crying everyone according to his usual note;
but not one of them of any kind that I knew. As for the
creature I killed, I took it to be a kind of a hawk, its colour and
beak resembling it, but had no talons or claws more than
common; its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.


Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and
fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the
rest of that day; and what to do with myself at night, I knew
not, nor indeed where to rest; for I was afraid to lie down on
the ground, not knowing but some wild beast might devour me,
though, as I afterwards found, there was really no need for
those fears. However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself
round with the chests and boards that I had brought on shore,
and made a kind of a hut for that night's lodging; as for food,
I yet saw not which way to supply myself, except that I had
seen two or three creatures like hares run out of the wood where
I shot the lowl.
I now began to consider, that I might yet get a great many
things out of the ship, which would be useful to me, and
particularly some of the rigging and sails, and such other things
as might come to land; and I resolved to make another voyage
on board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that the first
storm that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I
resolved to set all other things apart till I got everything out
of the ship that I could get. Then I called a council, that is to
say, in my thoughts, whether I should take back the raft, but
this appeared impracticable; so I resolved to go as before, when
the tide was down; and I did so, only that I stripped before I
went from my hut, having nothing on but a chequered shirt and
a pair of linen drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second
raft, and having had experience of the first, I neither made this
so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard; but yet I brought away
several things very useful to me; as, first, in the carpenter's
stores I found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great
screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and above all, that most
useful thing called a grindstone. All these I secured, together
with several things belonging to the gunner, particularly two or
three iron crows, and two barrels of musket bullets, seven
muskets, and another fowling-piece, with some small quantity
of powder more; a large bag full of small-shot, and a great roll
of sheet lead; but this last was so heavy, I could not hoist it up
to get it over the ship's side. Besides these things, I took all
the men's clothes that I could find, and a spare fore-top sail, a


hammock, and some bedding; and with this I loaded my second
raft, and brought them all safe on shore, to my very great
I was under some apprehensions during my absence from
the land, that at least my provisions might be devoured on
shore; but when I came back, I found no sign of any visitor,
only there sat a creature like a wild cat upon one of the chests,
which, when I came towards it, ran away a little distance, and
then stood still. She sat very composed and unconcerned, and
looked full in my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted
with me. I presented my gun at her ; but as she did not under-
stand it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer
to stir away; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit, though,
by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store was not great.
However, I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled
of it, and ate it, and looked (as pleased) for more ; but I thanked
her, and could spare no more, so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore, though I was fain to
open the barrels of powder and bring them by parcels, for they
were too heavy, being large casks, I went to work to make me a
little tent with the sail and some poles which I cut for that
purpose; and into this tent I brought everything that I knew
would spoil either with rain or sun; and I piled all the empty
chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from
any sudden attempt, either from man or beast.
When I had done this I blocked up the door of the tent
with some boards within, and an empty chest set up on end
without; and spreading one of the beds upon the ground, laying
my two pistols just at my head, and my gun at length by me,
I went to bed for the first time, and slept very quietly all night,
for I was very weary and heavy; for the night before I had
slept little, and had laboured very hard all day, as well to fetch
all those things from the ship, as to get them on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was
laid up, I believe, for one man; but I was not satisfied still, for
while the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought I ought to
get everything out of her that I could. So every day at low
water I went on board, and brought away something or other;
but, particularly, the third time I went I brought away as much


of the rigging as I could, as also all the small ropes and rope-twine
I could get, with a piece of spare canvas, which was to mend the
sails upon occasion, the barrel of wet gunpowder; in a word, I
brought away all the sails first and last, only that I was fain to
cut them in pieces, and bring as much at a time as I could; for
they were no more useful to be sails, but as mere canvas only.
B3ut that which comforted me more still was, that at last of
all, after I had made five or six such voyages as these, and
thought I had nothing more to expect from the ship that was
worth my meddling with; I say, after all this, I found a great
hogshead of bread, and three large runlets of rum or spirits, and
a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine flour; this was surprising to
me, because I had given over expecting any more provisions,
except what was spoilt by the water. I soon emptied the hogs-
head of that bread, and wrapped it up parcel by parcelin pieces
of the sails, which I cut out; and, in a word, I got all this safe
on shore also.
The next day I made another voyage. And now, having
plundered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I
began with the cables; and cutting the great cable into pieces,
such as I could move, I got two cables and a hawser on shore,
with all the iron-work I could get; and having cut down the
sprit-sailyard, and the mizzen-yard, and everything I could to
make a large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods, and
came away. But my good luck began now to leave me; for
this raft was so unwieldy, and so overladen, that after I was
entered the little cove where I had landed the rest of my goods,
not being able to guide it so handily as I did the other, it
overset, and threw me and all my cargo into the water. As
for myself, it was no great harm, for I was near the shore; but
as to my cargo, it was great part of it lost, especially the iron,
which I expected would have been of great use to me. How-
ever, when the tide was out I got most of the pieces of cable
ashore, and some of the iron, though with infinite labour; for
I was fain to dip for it into the water, a work which fatigued
me very much. After this I went every day on board, and
brought away what I could get.
I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven
times on board the ship; in which time I had brought away all


that one pair of hands could well be supposed capable to bring,
though I believe verily, had the calm weather held, I should
have brought away the whole ship piece by piece. But prepar-
ing the twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind begin to
rise. However, at low water I went on board, and though I
thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectually as that
nothing more could be found, yet I discovered a locker with
drawers in it, in one of which I found two or three razors, and
one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good
knives and forks; in another, I found about thirty-six pounds
value in money, some European coin, some Brazil, some pieces
of eight, some gold, some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. O drug!i"
said I aloud, what art thou good for ? Thou art not worth to
me, no, not the taking off of the ground; one of those knives
is worth all this heap. I have no manner of use for thee ; even
remain where thou art, and go to the bottom as a creature
whose life is not worth saving." However, upon second
thoughts, I took it away; and wrapping all this in a piece of
canvas, I began to think of making another raft; but while I
was preparing this, I found the sky overcast, and the wind
began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale
from the shore. It presently occurred to me that it was in vain
to pretend to make a raft with the wind off shore, and that it
was my business to be gone before the tide of flood began,
otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore at all.
Accordingly I let myself down into the water, and swam across
the channel, which lay between the ship and the sands, and
even that with difficulty enough, partly with the weight of the
things I had about me, and partly the roughness of the water;
for the wind rose very hastily, and before it was quite high
water it blew a storm.
But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I lay with
all my wealth about me very secure. It blew very hard all
that night, and in the morning, when I looked out, behold, no
more shipwas to be seen. I was a little surprised,but recovered
myself with this satisfactory reflection, viz., that I had lost no
time, nor abated no diligence, to get everything out of her
that could be useful to me, and that indeed there was little


left in her that I was able to bring away if I had had more
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of any-
thing out of her, except what might drive on shore from her
wreck, as indeed divers pieces of her afterwards did; but those
things were of small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing
myself against either savages, if any should appear, or wild
beasts, if any were in the island; and I had many thoughts of
the method how to do this, and what kind of dwelling to make,
whether I should make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon
the earth; and, in short, I resolved upon both, the manner and
description of which it may not be improper to give an
account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not for my settlement,
particularly because it was upon a low moorish ground near
the sea, and I believed would not be wholesome; and more
particularly because there was no fresh water near it. So I
resolved to find a more healthy and more convenient spot of
I consulted several things in my situation, which I found
would be proper for me. First, health and fresh water, I just
now mentioned. Secondly, shelter from the heat of the sun.
Thirdly, security from ravenous creatures, whether men or
beasts. Fourthly, a view to the sea, that if God sent any ship
in sight I might not lose any advantage for iny deliverance, of
which I was not willing to banish all my expectation yet.
In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on
the side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was
steep as'a house-side, so that nothing could come down upon
me from the top; on the side of this rock there was a hollow
place, worn a little way in, like the entrance or door of a cave;
but there was not really any cave, or way into the rock at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I
resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above an hundred
yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a green
before my door, and at the end of it descended irregularly
every way down into the low grounds by the seaside. It was
on the NNW. side of the hill, so that I was sheltered from the


heat every day, till it came to a W. and by S. sun, or there-
abouts, which in those countries is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half circle before the
hollow place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter
from the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter from its
beginning and ending. In this half-circle I pitched two rows
of strong stakes, driving them into the ground till they stood
very firm like piles, the biggest end being out of the ground
about five feet and a half, and sharpened on the top. The two
rows did not stand above six inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship,
and laid them in rows one upon another, within the circle,
between these two rows of stakes, up to the top, placing other
stakes in the inside leaning against them, about two feet and
a half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong,
that neither man or beast could get into it, or over it. This
cost me a great deal of time and labour, especially to cut the
piles in the woods, bring them to the place, and drive them
into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be not by a door,
but by a short ladder to go over the top; which ladder when
I was in, I lifted over after me, and so I was completely fenced
in, and fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and
consequently slept secure in the night, which otherwise I could
not have done; though as it appeared afterward, there was no
need for all this caution from the enemies that I apprehended
danger from.
Into this fence or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all
my riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which
you have the account above; and I made me a large tent,
which, to preserve me from the rains that in one part of the
year are very violent there, I made double, viz., one smaller
tent within, and one larger tent above it, and covered the
uppermost with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among
the sails. And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which
I had brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed
a very good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.
Into this tenlt I brought all my provisions, and everything
that would spoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed all my


goods, I made up the entrance, which, till now, I had left open,
and so passed anld repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way into the
rock, and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down
out through my tent, I laid them up within my fence in the
nature of a terrace, so that it raised the ground within about a
foot and a half ; and thus I made me a cave just behind my
tent, which served me like a cellar to my house.
It cost me much labour, and many days, before all these
things were brought to perfection, and therefore I must go
back to some other things which took up some of my thoughts.
At the same time it happened, after I had laid my scheme for
the setting up my tent, and making the cave, that a storm of
rain falling From a thick dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning
happened, and after that a great clap of thunder, as is naturally
the effect of it. I was not so much surprised with the
lightning, as I was with a thought which darted into my mind
as swift as the lightning itself. O my powder! My very
heart sunk within me when I thought, that at one blast all my
powder might be destroyed, on which, not my defence only,
but the providing me food, as I thought, entirely depended.
I was nothing near so anxious about my own danger; though
had the powder took fire, I had never known who had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that after the
storm was over I laid aside all my works, my building, and
fortifying, and applied myself to make bags and boxes to
separate the powder, and keep it a little and a little in a parcel,
in hope that whatever might come it might not all take fire at
once, and to keep it so apart, that it should not be possible to
make one part fire another. I finished this work in about a
fortnight; and I think my powder, which in all was about 24o
pounds' weight, was divided in not less than a hundred parcels.
As to the barrel that had been wet, I did not apprehend any
danger from that, so I placed it in my new cave, which in my
fancy I called my kitchen, and the rest I hid up and down in
holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it,
marking very carefully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out
once, at least, every day with my gun, as well to divert myself,



as to see if I could kill anything fit for food, and as near as I
could to acquaint myself with what the island produced. The
first time I went out, I presently discovered that there were
goats in the island, which was a great satisfaction to me; but
then it was attended with this misfortune to me, viz., that they
were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the
difficultest thing in the world to come at them. But I was not
discouraged at this, not doubting but I might now and then
shoot one, as it soon happened; for after I had found their
haunts a little, I laid wait in this manner for them. I observed
if they saw me in the valleys, though they were upon the rocks,
they would run away as in a terrible fright; but if they were
feeding in the valleys, and I was upon the rocks, they took no
notice of me, from whence I concluded that, by the position
of their optics, their sight was so directed downward, that they
did not readily see objects that were above them. So after-
ward I took this method; I always climbed the rocks first to
get above them, and then had frequently a fair mark. The
first shot I made among these creatures I killed a she-goat,
which had a little kid by her, which she gave suck to, which
grieved me heartily; but when the old one fell, the kid stood
stock still by her till I came and took her up; and not only so,


but when I carried the old one with me upon my shoulders,
the kid followed me quite to my enclosure; upon which I laid
down the dam, and took the kid in my arms, and carried it over
my pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame; but it would not
eat, so I was forced to kill it, and eat it myself. These two
supplied me with flesh a great while, for I eat sparingly, and
saved my provisions, my bread especially, as much as possibly
I could.
And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of a
scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the
world before, I shall take it from its beginning, and continue it
in its order. It was, by my account, the 30th of September
when, in the manner as above said, I first set foot upon this
horrid island, when the sun being to us in its autumnal equinox,
was almost just over my head, for I reckoned myself, by obser-
vation, to be in the latitude of 9 degrees 22 minutes north of
the line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into
my thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time for want of
books and pen and ink, and should even forget the Sabbath days
from the working days ; but to prevent this, I cut it with my knife
upon a large post, in capital letters; and making it into a great
cross, I set it up on the shore where I first landed, viz., I came
on shore here on the 30th of September 1659."1 Upon the sides
of this square post I cut every day a notch with my knife, and
every seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and every first
day of the month as long again as that long one; and thus I kept
my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of
In the next place we are to observe, that among the many
things which I brought out of the ship in the several voyages,
which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I, got several things of
less value, but not all less useful to me, which I omitted set-
ting down before; as in particular, pens, ink, and paper, several
parcels in the captain's, mate's, gunner's, and carpenter's keep-
ing, three or four compasses, some mathematical instruments,
dials, perspectives, charts, and books of navigation, all which I
huddled together, whether I might want them or no. Also I
found three very good Bibles, which came to me in my cargo


from England, and which I had packed up among my things;
some Portuguese books also, and among them two or three
Popish prayer-books, and several other books, all which I
carefully secured. And I must not forget, that we had in the
ship a dog and two cats, of whose eminent history I may have
occasion to say something in its place; for I carried both the
cats with me; and as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship of
himself, and swam on shore to me the day after I went on
shore with my first cargo, and was a trusty servant to me many
years. I wanted nothing that he could fetch me, nor any com-
pany that he could make up to me; I only wanted to have him
talk to me, but that would not do. As I observed before, I
found pen, ink, and paper, and I: husbanded them to the
utmost; and I shall show that while my ink lasted, I kept
things very exact; but after that was gone, I could not, for I
could not make any ink by any means that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, not-
withstanding all that I had amassed together; and of these,
this of ink was one, as also spade, pickaxe, and shovel, to dig
or remove the earth, needles, pins, and thread; as for linen,
I soon learned to want that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily;
and it was near a whole year before I had entirely finished
my little pale or surrounded habitation. The piles or stakes,
which were as heavy as I could well lift, were a long time
in cutting and preparing in the woods, and more by far in
bringing home; so that I spent sometimes two days in
cutting and bringing home one of those posts, and a third
day in driving it into the ground; for which purpose I got a
heavy piece of wood at first, but at last bethoug~ht myself of
one of the iron crows, which, however, though I found it, yet
it made driving those posts or piles very laborious and tedious
But what need I have been concerned at the tediousness of
anything I had to do, seeing I had time enough to do it in ?
nor had I any other employment, if that had been over, at
least, that I could foresee, except the ranging the island to seek
for food, which I did more or less every day.
I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the


circumstance I was reduced to; and I drew up the state of my
affairs in writing; not so much to leave them to any that were
to come after me, for I was like to have but few heirs, as to
deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon them, and afflict-
ing my mind. And as my reason began now to master my
despondency, I began to comfort myself as well as I could, and
to set the good against the evil, that I might have something
to distinguish my case from worse; and I stated it very
impartially, like debtor and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed
against the miseries I suffered, thus:

But I am alive, and not
drowned, as all my ship's com-
pany was:
But I am singled out, too,
from all the ship's crew to be
spared from death; and He
that miraculously saved me
from death, can deliver me
from this condition.
But I am not starved and
perishing on a barren place,
affording no sustenance.
But I am in a hot climate,
where if I had clothes I could
hardly wear them.
But I am cast on an island,
where I see no wild beasts to
hurt me, as I saw on the coast
of Africa; and what if I had
been shipwrecked there ?
But God wonderfully sent
the ship in near enough to the
shore, that I have gotten out
so many necessary things as
will either supply my wants,
or enable me to supply myself
even as long as I live.

I am cast upon a horrible
desolate island, void of all
hope of recovery.
I am singled out and sepa-
rated, as it were, from all the
world to be miserable.

I am divided from mankind,
a solitaire, one banished from
human society.
I have not clothes to cover

I am without any defence or
means to resist any violence of
man or beast.

I have no soul
or relieve me.

to speak to,


Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition,
and given over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a ship; I
say, giving over these things, I began to apply myself to ac-
commodate my way of living, and to make things as easy to
me as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was a tent
under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts
and cables; but I might now rather call it a wall, for I raised a
kind of wall up against it of turfs, about two feet thick on the
outside, and after some time--I think it was a year and a half
--I raised rafters from it leaning to the rock, and thatched or
covered it with boughs of trees and such things as I could
get to keep out the rain, which I found at some times of the
year very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods into
this pale, and into the cave which I had made behind me. But
I must observe, too, that at first this was a confused heap of
goods, which as they lay in no order, so they took up all my
place; I had no room to turn myself. So I set myself to en-
large my cave and works farther into the earth; for it was a
loose sandy rock, which yielded easily to the labour I bestowed
on it. And so, when I found I was pretty safe as to beasts of
prey, I worked sideways to the right hand into the rock; and
then, turning to the right again, worked quite out, and made me
a door to come out on the outside of my pale or fortification.
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were a back-
way to my tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room to
stow my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary
things as I found I most wanted, as particularly a chair and a
table; for without these I was not able to enjoy the few
comforts I had in the world. I could not write or eat, or do
several things with so much pleasure without a table.
I had never handled a tool in my life; and yet in time, by
labour, application, and contrivance, I found at last that I
wanted nothing but I could have made it, especially if I had
had tools. However, I made abundance of things even without
tools, and some with no more tools than an adze and a hatchet,
which, perhaps were never made that way before, and that with


infinlite labour. For example, if I wanted a board, I had no
other way but to cut down a tree, set it on an edge before me,
and hew it flat on either side with my axe, till I had brought it
to be thin as a plank, and then dub it smooth with my adze.
It is true, by this method I could make but one board out of a
whole tree; but this I had no remedy for but patience, any
more than I had for the prodigious deal of time and labour
which it took me up to make a plank or board. But my time
or labour was little worth, and so it was as well employ ed one
way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed
above, in the first place, and this I did out of the short pieces of
boards that I brought on my raft from the ship. But when I
had wrought out some boards, as above, I made large shelves
of the breadth of a foot and a half one over another, all along
one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work;
and, in a word, to separate everything at large in their places,
that I might come easily at them. I knocked pieces into the
wall of the rock to hang my guns and all things that would
hang up; so that had my cave been to be seen, it looked like a
general magazine of all necessary things ; and I had everything
so ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me to see
all my goods in such order, and especially to find my stock of
all necessaries so great.
And now it was when I began to keep a journal of every
day's employment; for, indeed, at first, I was in too much hurry,
and not only hurry as to labour, but in too much disc6mposure
of mind; and my journal would have been full of many dull
But having gotten over these things in some measure, and
having settled my household stuff and habitation, made me a
table and a chair, and all as handsome about me as I could, I
began to keep my journal, of which I shall here give you the copy
(though in it will be told all these particulars over again) as long
as it lasted; for, having no more ink, I was forced to leave
it off.



Nov. 4.-This morning I began to order my times of work,
of going out with my gun, time of sleep, arid time of diversion,
viz., every morning I walked out with my gun for two or three
hours, if it did not rain;, then employed myself to work till
about eleven o'clock; then eat what I had to live on ; and from
twelve to two I lay down to sleep, the weather being excessive
hot; and then in the evening to work again. The working
part of this day and of the next were wholly employed in making
my table; for I was yet but a very sorry workman, though
time aind necessity made me a complete natural mechanic soon
after, as I believe it would do any one else.
Nov. 5.--This day went abroad with my gun and my dog,
and killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good
for nothing. Every creature I killed, I took off the skins and
preserved them. Coming back by the sea-shore, I saw many
sorts of sea-fowls, which I did not understand; but was
surprised, and almost frighted, with two or three seals, which,
while I was gazing at, not well knowing what they were, got
into the sea, and escaped me for that time.
Nov. 6.-After my morning walk I went to work with my
table again, and finished it, though not to my liking; nor was
it long before I learned to mend it.
Nov. 7.-Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th,
8th, 9th, Ioth, and part of the 12th (for the Isth was Sunday)
I took wholly up to make me a chair, and with much ado,
brought it to a tolerable shape, but never to please me; and
even in the making, I pulled it in pieces several times. Note I
soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for, omitting my mark
for them on my post, I forgot which was which.
Nov. 17.--This day I began to dig behind my tent into the
rock, to make room for my farther conveniency. Note, three
things I wanted exceedingly for this work, viz., a pick-axe, a
shovel, and a wheelbarrow or basket; so I desisted from my
work, and began to consider how to supply that want, and
make me some tools. As for a pick-axe, I made use of the iron
crows, which were proper enough, though heavy i but the next


thing was a shovel or spade. This was so absolutely necessary,
that indeed I could do nothing effectually without it; but what
kind of one to make, I knew not.
Nov. 18.-The next day, in searching the woods, I found a tree
of that wood, or like it, which in the Brazils they call the iron-tree,
for its exceeding hardness ; of this, with great labour, and almost
spoiling my axe, I cut a piece, and brought it home, too, with
difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy.
The excessive hardness of the wood, and having no other
way, made me a long while upon this machine, for I worked it
effectually, by little and little, into the form of a shovel or spade,
the handle exactly shaped like ours in England, only that the
broad part having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not
last me so long.
I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket or a wheelbarrow.
A basket I could not make by any means, having no such things
as twigs that would bend to make wicker ware, at least none yet
found out. And as to a wheelbarrow, I fancied I could make
all but the wheel, but that I had no notion of, neither did I
know how to go about it; besides, I had no possible way to
make the iron gudgeons for the spindle or axis of the wheel to
run in, so I gave it over; and so for carrying away the earth
which I dug out of the cave, I made me a thing like a hod
which the labourers carry mortar in, when they serve the brick-
Nov. 23.-My other work having now stood still because of
my making these tools, when they were finished I went on, and
working every day, as my strength and time allowed, I spent
eighteen days entirely in widening and deepening my cave,
that it might hold my goods commodiously.
Note: During all this time I worked to make this room or
cave spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse or
magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar; as for my
lodging, I kept to the tent, except that sometimes in the wet
season of the year it rained so hard, that I could not keep
myself dry, which caused me afterwards to cover all my place
within my pale with long poles, in the form of rafters, leaning
against the rock, and load them with flags and large leaves of
trees, like a thatch.


December ro.--I began now to think my cave or vault
finished, when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large)
a great quantity of earth fell down from the top and one side,
so much, that, in short, it frighted me, and not without reason
too; for if I had been under it, I had never wanted a grave-
digger. Upon this disaster I had a great deal of work to do
over again; for I had the loose earth to carry out; and, which
was of more importance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I
might be sure no more would come down.
Dec. II.--This day I went to work with it accordingly, and
got two shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with two
pieces of boards across over each post. This I finished the
next day; and setting more posts up with boards, in about a
week more I had the roof secured ; and the posts standing in
rows, served me for partitions to part of my house.
Dec 7.--From this -day to the twentieth I placed shelves,
and knocked up nails on the posts to hang everything up that
could be hung up; and now I began to be in some order within
Dec. 20.--Now I carried everything into the cave, and began
to furnish my house, and set up some pieces of boards, like a
dresser, to order my victuals upon; but boards began to be very
scarce with me; also I made me another table.
Dec. 24.--Much rain all night and all day; no stirring out.
Dec. 25.--Rain all day.
Dec. 26.--No rain, and the earth much cooler than before,
and pleasanter.
Dec. 27.--Killed a young goat, and lamed another, so that I
catched it, and led it home in a string. When I had it home, I
bound and splintered up its leg, which was broke. N.B6.--I
took such care of it, that it lived, and the leg grew well and as
strong as ever; but by my nursing it so long it grew tame, and
fed upon the little green at my door, and would not go away.
This was the first time that I entertained a thought of breeding
up some tame creatures, that I might have food when my
powder and shot was all spent.
Dec. 28, 29, 30.-Great heats and no breeze, so that there
was no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food. This
time I spent in putting all my things in order within doors.


january I.-Very hot still, but I went abroad early and late
with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day. This
evening, going farther into the tralleys which lay towards the
centre of the island, I found there was plenty of goats, though
exceeding shy, and hard to come at. However, I resolved to
try if I could not bring my dog to hunt them down.
Jan. 2.--Accordingly, the next day, I went out with my dog,
and set him upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for they all
faced about upon the dog; and he knew his danger too well, for
he would not come near them.
Jan. 3.-I began my fence or wall; which, being still jealous
of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very
thick and strong.
N~rB.-This wall being described before, I purposely omit
what was said in the journal. It is sufficient to observe that I
was no less time than from the 3rd of January to the 14th of
April working, finishing, and perfecting this wall,though it was
no more than about twenty-four yards in length, being a half
circle from one place in the rock to another place about eight
yards from: it, the door of the cave being in the centre
behind it.

All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me
many days, nay, sometimes weeks together; but I thought I
should never be perfectly secure till this wall- was finished
And it is scarce credible what inexpressible labour everything
was done with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods,
and driving them into the ground; for I made them much
bigger than I need to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double-fenced
with a turf-wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that if
any people were to come on shore there, they would not per-
ceive anything like a habitation; and it was very well I did so,
as may be observed hereafter upon a very remarkable occasioth.
During this time, I made my rounds in the woods for game
every day, when the rain admitted me, and made frequent dis-
coveries in these walks of something or other to my advantage;
particularly I found a kind of wild pigeons, who built, not 'as
wood pigeons in a tree, but rather as house pigeons, in the


holes of the rocks. And taking some young ones, I endeavoured
to breed them up tame, and did so; but when they grew older
they hew all away, which, perhaps, was at first for want of
feeding them, for S had nothing to give them. I-owever, I
frequently found their nests, and got their young ones, which
were very good meat.
And now in the managing my household affairs I found
myself wanting in many things, which I thought at first it was
impossible for me to make, as indeed, as to some of them, it
was. For instance, I could never make a cask to be hooped;
I had a small runlet or two, as I observed before, but I could
never arrive to the capacity of making one by them, though I
spent many weeks about it. I could neither put in the heads,
or joint the staves so true to one another, as to make them hold
water; so I gave that also over,
In the next place, I was at a great loss for candle; so that
as soon as ever it was dark, which was generally by seven
o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I remembered the lump
of beeswax with which I made candles in my African ad-
venture, but I had none of that now. The only remedy I had
was, that when I had killed a goat I saved the tallow, and with
a little dish made of clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I
added a wick of some oakum, I made me a lamp; and this
gave me light, though not a clear steady light like a candle.
In the middle of all my labours it happened, that rummag-
ing my things, I found a little bag, which, as I hinted before,
had been filled with corn for the feeding of poultry, not for this
voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the ship came from
Lisbon. What little remainder of corn had been in the bag
was all devoured with the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag
but husks and dust; and being willing to have the bag for some
other use, I think it was to put powder in, when I divided it for
feat of the lightning, or some such use, I shook the husks of
corn out of it on one side of my fortification, under the rock.
It was a little before the great rains, just now mentioned, that
I threw this stuff away, taking no notice of anything, and not
so much as remembering that I had thrown anything there;
when, about a month after, or thereabout, I sawr some few stalks
of something green shooting out of the ground, which I fancied


might be some plant I had nlot seen; but I was surprised, and
perfectly astonished, when, after a little longer time, I saw about
ten or twelve ears come out, which were perfect green barley of
the same kind as our European, nay, as our English barley,
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in
their season, which was about the end of June; and laying up
every corn, I resolved to Pow them all again, hoping in time to
have some quantity sufficient to supply me with bread. But it
was not till the fourth year that I could allow myself the least
grain of this corn to eat, and even then buit sparingly, as I shall
say afterwards in its order; for I lost all that I sowed the first
season, by niot observing the proper time; for I sowed it just
before the dry season, so that it never carne up at all, at least
not as it would have done; of which in its place.
Besides this barley, there was, as above, twenty or thirty
stalks of rice, which I preserved with the same care, and whose
use was of the same kind, or to the same purpose, viz., to make
me bread, or rather food; for I found ways to cook it up with-
out baking, though I did that also after some time. But to
return to my journal.
I work-ed excessive hard these three or four months to get
my wall done; and the 14th of April I closed it up, contriviing
to go into it, not by a door, but over the wall by a ladder, that
there might be no sign in the outside of my habitation.
April 16,-I finished the ladder, so I went up with the
ladder to the top, and then pulled it up after me, and let it
down on the inside. This was a complete enclosure to me; for
within I had room enough, and nothing could come at me from
without, unless it could first mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost
had all my labour overthrown at once, and myself killed. The
case was thus: As I was busy in the inside of it, behind my
tent, just in the entrance into my dave, I was terribly frighted
with a most dreadful surprising thing indeed; for all on a
sudden I found the earth come crumbling down from the roof
of my cave, and from the edge of the hill over my head, and
two of the posts I had set up in the cave cracked in a frightful
manner, I was heartily scared, but thought nothing of what
whas really the cause, only thinking that the top of my cave was


falling in, as some of it had done before; and for fear I should
be buried in it, I ran forward to my ladder; and not thinking
myself safe there neither, I got over my wall for fear of the
pieces of the hill which I expected might roll down upon me.
I was no sooner stepped down upon the firm ground, but I
plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake ; for the ground I stood
on shook three times at about eight minutes' distance, with
three such shocks, as would have overturned the strongest
building that could be supposed to have stood on the earth;
and a` great piece of the top of a rock, which stood about half a
mile from me next the sea, fell down with such a terrible noise,
as I never heard in all my life. I perceived also the very sea
was put into violent motion by it; and I believe the shocks
were stronger under the water than on the island.
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some
time, I began to take courage; and yet I had not heart enough
to go over my wall again, for fear of being buried alive, but sat
still upon the ground, greatly cast down and disconsolate, not
knowing what to do. All this while I had not the least serious
religious thought, nothing but the common, Lord, have mercy
upon me!i" and when it was over, that went away too.
While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow cloudy,
as if it would rain. Soon after that the wind rose by little and
little, so that in less than half-an-hour it blew a most dreadful
hurricane. The sea was all on a sudden covered over with foam
and froth; the shore was covered with the breach of the water;
the trees were torn up by the roots; and a terrible storm it
was: and this held about three hours, and then began to
abate;.and in two hours more it was stark calm, and began to
rain very hard.
I was forced to go into my cave, though very much afraid
and uneasy, for fear it should fall on my head.
This violent rain forced me to a new work, viz., to cut a
hole through my new fortification, like a sink, to let the water
go out, which would else have drowned my cave. After I had
been in my cave some time, and found still no more shocks of
the earthquake follow, I began to be more composed. And
now to support my spirits, which indeed wanted it very much,
I went to my.liittle store, and ,took a small sup of rum, which


however, I did then, and always, very sparingly, knowing I
could have no more when that was gone.
It continued raining all that night and great part of the
next day, so that I could not stir abroad; but my mind being
more composed, I began to think of what I had best do, con-
cluding that if the island was subject to these earthquakes,
there would be no, living for me in a cave, but I must consider
of building me some little hut in an open place, which I might
surround with a wall, as I had done here, and so make myself
secure from wild beasts or men; but concluded, if I stayed
where I was, I should certainly, one time or other, be buried
With these thoughts I resolved to remove my tent from the
place where it stood, which was just under the hanging precipice
of the hill, and which, if it should be shaken again, would
certainly fall upon my tent; and I spent the two next days,
being the 19th and 2oth of April, in contriving where and how
to remove my habitation.
The fear of being swallowed up alive made me that I never
slept in quiet ; and yet the apprehension of lying abroad without
any fence was almost equal to it. But still, when I looked
about and saw how everything was put in order, how pleasantly
concealed I was, and how safe from danger, it made me very
loth to remove.
In the meantime it occurred to me that it would require a
vast deal of time for me to do this, and that I must be contented
to run the venture where I was, till I had formed a camp -for
myself, and had secured it so as to remove to it. So with this
resolution I composed myself for a time, and resolved that I
would go to work with all speed to build me a wall with piles
and cables, &rc., in a: circle as before, and set my tent up in it
when it was finished, but that I would venture to stay where
I was till it was finished, and fit to remove to. This was
the 21st.
April 22.--The next morning I began to consider of means
to put this resolve in execution ; but I was at a great loss about
my tools. I had three large axes, and abundance of hatchets
(for we carried the hatchets for traffic with the Indians), but
with much chopping and cutting knotty hard wood, they were


all full of notches and dull; and though I. had a grindstone, I
could not turn it and grind my tools too. This cost me as
much thought as a
statesman would have
bestowed upon a
gran dpoi ntof politics,
(5-~ or a judge upon the
-\ -. life and death of a
man. At length I
r~iS~ fu~a~4~. contrived a wheel
with a string, to turn

I might have both
:r my hands at liberty.
Note, I had never
seen any such thing
in E~ngland, or at least
1 not to take notice how
it was done, though
since I have observed
a it is very common
i there; besides that,
mPli y grindstone was
very large and heavy,
This machine cost me
a full week's work to
bring it to perfootion,
April 28, 29.-
These two whole
days I took up in
2 9~5 grinding my tools,
my machine for turn-
M IC~pE0RFOI~RMING VELGRY WELL B ing my grindstone
performing very well,
Alay I.--In the morning, looking towards the seaside, the
tide being low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger than
ordinary, and it looked like a cask. When I came to it, I found
a samll barrel, and two or three pieces of the wreck of the ship,
which were driven On shore by the late hurricane; and looking


towards the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher out
of the water than it used to do. I examined the barrel which
was driven on shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gun
powder; but it had taken water, and the powder was caked as
hard as a stone. However, I rolled it farther on shore for the
present, and went on upon the sanlds as near as I could to the
wreck of the ship to look for more.
When I came down to the ship I found it strangely removed.
The forecastle, which lay before buried in sand, was heaved up
at least six feet; and the stern, which was broken to pieces,
and parted from the rest by the force of the sea, soon after I
had left rummaging her, was tossed, as it were, up, and cast on
one side, and the sand was thrown so high on that side next
her stern, that whereas there was a great place of water before,
so that I could not come within a quarter of a mile of the
wreck without swimming, I could nlow walk quite up to her
when the tide was out. I was surprised with this at first, but
soon concluded it must be done by the earthquake. And as by
this violence the ship was more broken open than formerly, so
many things came daily on shore, which the sea had loosened,
and which the winds and water rolled by degrees to the
This wnholly diverted my ~thoughts from the design of re-
moving my habitation ; anld I busied myself mightily, that day
especially, in 'searching ;whether I could make any way into
the ship. Bu~t I found nothing was to be expected of that kind,
for that all the inside of the ship wias choked up with sand.
However, as i had learned not to despair of anything, I[ resolved
to pull everything to pieces that I could of the ship, concluding,
that everything I could get from her; would be of sbine use or
other to me.
M~ay 3-r7.-1VNent every day to the wreck, and got a great
deal of pieces of timber, and boards, or plank, and two, or three
hundi-edweight of ironi.
May 24. Every dlay to this day I worked on the wreck,
anld with hard labour I loosened some things so much with the
crow, that the first blowing' tide several casks floated out, and
two of the seamen's chests. But the wind blowing from the
shore, riothing came to land that day but pieces of timber, and



a hoshed, wichhad omeBrazl prk i it butthesal wte

duringsed this h part of my emp zloyment, to be he the tide wase

up, that I might be ready when it was ebbed out. .And by this
time I had gotten timber, and plank, and ironwork enough to
have builded a good boat, if I had known how; and also, I got
at several times, and in several pieces, near one hundredweight
of the sheet lead.
June 16.--Going down to the seaside, I found a large
tortoise, or turtle. This was the first I had seen, which it seems
was only my misfortune, not any defect of the place, or scarcity ;
for had I happened to be on the other side of the island, I
might have had hundreds of them every day, as I found
afterwards; but, perhaps, had paid dear enough for them.
June I7 I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her three-
score eggs; and her flesh was to me, at that time, the most
savoury and pleasant that ever I tasted in my life, having had
no flesh, but of goats and owls, since I landed in this horrid place.


June 18.--Rained all day, and I stayed within. I thought
at this time the rain felt cold, and I was something chilly,
which I knew was not usual in that latitude.
june 19.-Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been
junre 2o.-No rest all night; violent pains in my head, and
June 21.--Very ill, frighted almost to death with the appre-
hensions of my sad condition, to be sick, and no help. Prayed
to God for the first time since the storm off Hull, but scarce
knew what I said, or why; my thoughts being all confused.
Jucne 22.-A little better, but under dreadful apprehensions
of sickness.
June 23.-Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a
violent headache.
June 24.-Much better.
june 25.-An ague very violent; the fit held me seven
hours; cold fit, and hot, with faint sweats after it.
Julne 26.-Better; and having no victuals to eat, took my
gun, but found myself very weak. However, I killed a she-goat,
and with much difficulty got it home, and broiled some of it,
and eat. I would fain have stewed it, and made some broth,
but had no pot.
June 27.-The ague again so violent that I lay abed all day,
and neither eat or drink. I was ready to.perish for thirst; but
so weak, I had not strength to stand up, or to get myself any
water to drink. Prayed to God again, but was light-headed;
and when I was not, I was so ignorant that I knew not what to
say; only I lay and cried, Lord, look upon me i Lord, pity
mel Lord,have mercy upon me!" I suppose I did nothing
else for two or three hours, till the fit wearing off, I fell asleep,
and did not wake till far in the night. When I waked, I
found myself much refreshed, but weak, and exceeding thirsty.
However, as I had no water in my whole habitation, I was
forced to lie till morning, and went to sleep again. In this
second sleep I had this terrible dream.
I thought that I was sitting on the ground, on the outside
of my wall, where I sat when the storm blew after the earth-
quake, and that I saw a man descend from a great black cloud,


in a bright flame of Sire, and light upon the grotmnd. He was
all over as bright as a flame, so that I could but just bear to
look towards him. His countenance was most inexpressibly
dreadful, impossible for words to describe. When he stepped
upon the ground with his feet, I thought the earth trembled,
just as it had done before in the earthquake, and all the air
looked, to my apprehension, as if it had been filled with flashes
of fire.
He was no sooner landed upon the earth, but he moved
forward towards me, with a long spear or weapon in his hand, to
kill me; and when he came to a rising ground, at some distance,
he spoke to me, or I heard a voice so terrible, that it is im-
possible to express the terror of it. All that I can say I under-
stood was this: Seeing all these things have not brought
thee to repentance, now thou shalt die; at which words I
thought he lifted up the spear that was in his hand to kill me.
No one that shall ever read this account, will expect that I
should be able to describe the horrors of my soul at this terrible
vision; I mean, that even while it was a dream, I even dreamed
of those hor-rors; nor is it any more possible to describe the
impression that remained upon my mind when I awaked, and
found it was but a dream.
I had, alas!i no divine knowledge; what I had received by
the good instruction of my father was then worn out, by an
tmninterrupted series, for eight years, of seafaring wickedness,
and a constant conversation with nothing but such as were, hike
myself, wicked and profane to the last degree. I do not re-
member that I had, in all that time, one thought that so much
as tended~ either to looking upwards toward God, or inwards
towards a reflection upon my ways,
It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found all my
ship's crew drowned, anld myself spared, I was surprised with a
kind of ecstasy, and some transports of soul, which, had the
grace of God assisted, might have come up to true thankfulness ;
but it ended where it begun, in a mere common flight of joy, or,
as I may say, being glad I was alive, without the lest re-
flection upon the distinguishing goodness of the hand which
had preserved me, and had singled me out to be preserved,
when all the rest were destroyed; or an inquiry why Providence


had been thus merciful to me; even just the same common sort
of joy which seamen generally have after they are got safe
ashore from a shipwreck, which they drown all in the next bowl
of punch, and forget almost as soon as it is over, and all the rest
of my life was like it.
Even the earthquake, though nothing could be more terrible in
its nature, or more immediately directing to the invisible Power,
which alone directs such things, yet no sooner was the first fright
over, but the impression it had made went off also. I had no
more sense of God or His judgments, much less of the present
affliction of my circumstances being from His hand, than if I
had been in the most prosperous condition of life.
But now, when I began to be sick, and a leisurely view of
the miseries of death came to place itself before me; when my
spirits began to sink under the burthen of a strong distemper,
and Nature was exhausted with the violence of the fever; con-
science, that had slept so long, began to awake, and I began to
reproach myself with my past life, in which I had so evidently,
by uncommon wickedness, provoked the justice of God to lay
me under uncommon strokes, and to deal with me in so vindic-
tive a manner.
Now," said I aloud, my dear father's words are come to
pass; God's justice has overtaken me, and I have none to help
or hear me. I rejected the voice of Providence, which had mer-
cifully put me in a posture or station of life wherein I might
have been happy and easy; but I would neither see it myself,
or learn to know the blessing of it from my parents. I refused
their help and assistance, who would have lifted me into the
world, and would have made everything easy to me; and now I
have difficulties to struggle with, too great for even Nature
itself to support, and no assistance, no help, no comfort, no
advice."' Then I cried out, Lord, be my help, for I am in
great distress."
This was the Sirst prayer, if I: may call it so, that I had made
for many years. But I return to my journal.
June 28.--Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I
had had, and the fit being entirely off, I got up; and though
the fright and terror of my dream was very great, yet II con-
sidered that the fit of the ague would return again the next day,


and now was my time to get something to refresh and support
myself when I should be ill. And the first thing I did I filled a
large square case-bottle with water, and set it upon my table,
in reach of my bed; and to take off the chill or aguish disposi-
tion of the water, I put about a quarter of a pint of rum into it,
and mixed them together. Then I got me a piece of the goat's
flesh, and broiled it on the coals, but could eat very little. I
walked about, but was very weak, and withal very sad and
heavy-hearted in the sense of my miserable condition, dreading
the retiarn of my distemper the next day. At night I made my
supper of three of the turtle's eggs, which I roasted in the ashes,
and eat, as we call it, in the shell; and this was the first bit of
meat I had ever asked God's blessing to, even as I could
remember, in my whole life.
After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself so weak,
that I could hardly carry the gun (for i never went out without
that); so I went but, a little way, and sat down upon the
ground, looking out upon the sea, which was just before me, and
very calm and smooth. As I sat here, some such thoughts as
these occurred to me.
That it must needs be that God had appointed all this to
befall me; that I was brought to this miserable circumstance
by His direction, He having the sole power, not of me only, but
of everything that happened in the world. Immediately it
followed, Why has God done this to me ? What have I done
to be thus used ?~
My conscience presently checked me in that inquiry, as if I
had blasphemed, and methought it spoke to me like a voice :
" Wretch! dost thou ask what thou hast done ? Look back
upon a dreadful misspent life, and ask thyself what thou hast
not done? Ask, why is it that thou wert not long ago de-
stroyed ? Why wert thou not drowned in Yarmouth Roads;
killed in the fight when the ship was taken by the Sallee man-
of-war; devoured by the wild beast on the coast of Africa ?
or drowned here, when all the crew perished but thyself? Dost
thou ask, What have I done ?~ "
I was struck dumb with these reflections, as one astonished,
and had not a word to say, no, not to answer to myself, but rose
up pensive and sad, walked back to my retreat, and went up


over my wall, as if I had been going to bed. But my thoughts
were sadly disturbed, and I had no inclination to sleep; so I
sat down in my chair, and lighted my lamp, for it began to be
.dark. Now, as the apprehension of the return of my distemper
terrified me very much, it occurred to my thought that the
Brazilians take no physic but their tobacco for almost all dis-
tempers; and I had a piece of a roll of tobacco in one of the
chests, which was quite cured, and some also that was green,
and not quite cured.
I went, directed by Heaven no doubt; for in this chest I
found a cure both for soul and body. I opened the chest, and
found what I looked for, viz., the tobacco; and as the few books
I had saved lay there too, I took out one of the Bibles which I
mentioned before, and which to this time I had not found
leisure, or so much as inclination, to look into. I say, I took it
out, and brought both that and the tobacco with me to the table.
What use to make of the tobacco I knew not, as to my dis-
'temper, or whether it was good for it or no; but I tried several
experiments with it, as if I was resolved it should hit one way
or other. I first took a piece of a leaf, and chewed it in my
mouth, which indeed at first almost stupefied my brain, the
tobacco being green and strong, and that I had not been much
used to it. Then I took some and steeped it an hour or two in
some rum, and resolved to take a dose of it when I lay down.
And lastly, I burnt some upon a pan of coals, and held my nose
close over the smoke of it as long as I could bear it, as well for
the heat, as almost for suffocation.
In the interval of this operation, I took up the Bible, and
began to read, but my head was too much disturbed with the
tobacco to bear reading, at least that time; only having opened
the book casually, the first words that occurred to me were
these, Call on Me in the day of trouble, and I will deliver, and
thou shalt glorify Me."
It grew now late, and the tobacco had, as I said, dozed my
head so much, that I inclined to sleep; so I left my lamp burn-
ing in the cave, lest I should want anything in the night, and
went to bed. But before I lay down, I did what I never had
done in all my life; I kneeled down, and prayed to God to
fulfil the promise to me, that if I called upon Him in the day of


trouble, He would deliver me. After my broken and imperfect
prayer was over, I drank the rum in which I had steeped the
tobacco; which was so strong and rank of the tobacco, that in-
deed I could scarce get it down. Immediately upon this I went
to bed. I found presently it flew up in my head violently; but
I fell into a sound sleep, and wnak~ed no more till, by the sun, it
must necessarily be near three o'clock in the afternoon the next
day. Nayt, to this hour I am partly of the opinion that I slept
all the next day and night, and till almost three that day after;
for otherwise I knew not how I should lose a day out of my
reckoning in the days of the week, as it appeared some years
after I had done. For if I had lost it by crossing and recross-
ing the line, I should have lost more than one dayt. But cer-
tainly I lost a day in my account, and never knew which way,
Be that, however, one way or the other, when I awaked I
found myself extceedinlgly refreshed, and my spirits lively and
cheerful. When I got up, I was stronger than I was the day
before, and my stomach better, for I was hungry; and, in short,
I had no fit the next day, but continued much altered for the
better. Thiswa~s the 29th.
The 3ioth was my well day, of course, and I went abroad
with my: gunr, but did not care to travel too far. I killed a sea
fowl or two, something like a brand-goose, and brought them
home, but was niot very forward to eat them; so I eat some
more of the turtle's eggs, which were vrery good. This evening
I renewed the medicine, which I had supposed did me good the
day before, viz., the tobacco steeped in rum ; only I did not
take so much as before, nor did I chew any of the lear, or hold
my head over the smoke, However, I was not so well the next
day, which was the first of July, as I hoped I should havre been ;
for I had a little spice of the cold fit, but it was not much,
fully 4.--Inl the morning I took the Bible; and beginning at
the New Testament, I began seriously to read it, and imposed
upon myself to read awhile every morning and every night, not
tying myself to the number of chapters, but as long as my
thoughts should engage me.
Now I begari to construe the words mentioned above, Call
on IVe, and I will deliver you," in a different sense from what I
had ever done before; for then I had no notion of anything


being called deliverance but my being delivered from the cap-
tivity I was in; for though I was indeed at large in the place,
yet the island was certainly a prison to me, and that in the
worst sense in the world. But now I learned to take it in
another sense; now I looked back upon my past life with such
horror, and my sins appeared so dreadful, that my soul sought
nothing of God but deliverance from the load of guilt that bore
down all my comfort.
My condition began now to be, though not less miserable as
to my way of living, yet much easier to my mind; and my
thoughts being directed, by a constant reading the Scripture,
and praying to God, to things of a higher nature, I had a great
deal of comfort within, which, till now, I knew nothing of.
Also, as my health and strength returned, I bestirred myself to
furnish myself with everything that I wanted, and make my
way of living as regular as I could.
From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly employed
in walking about with my gun in my hand, a little and a little
at a time, as a man that was gathering up his strength after a
fit of sickness; for it is hardly to be imagined how low I was,
and to what weakness I was reduced. The application which I
made use of was perfectly new, and perhaps what had never
cured an ague before; neither can I recommend it to any one
to practise, by this experiment; and though it did carry off the
Sit, yet it rather contributed to weakening me ; for I had frequent
convulsions in my nerves and limbs for some time.
I had been now in this unhappy island above ten months;
all possibility of deliverance from this condition seemed to be
entirely taken from me; and I firmly believed that no human
shape had ever set foot upon that place. Having now secured
my habitation, as I thought, fully to my mind, I had a great
desire to make a more perfect discovery of the island, and to
see what other productions I might find, which I yet knew
nothing of.
It was the 15th of July that I began to take a more
particular survey of the island itself. I went up the creek first,
where, as I hinted, I brought my rafts on shore. I found, after
I came about two miles up, that the tide did not flow any
higher, and that it stas no more than a little brook of running


water, and very fresh and good; but this being the dry
season, there was hardly any water in some parts of it,
at least, not enough to run in any stream, so as it could be
On1 the bank of this brook I found many pleasant savannas
or meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with grass; and on the
rising parts ofthem, next to the higher grounds, where the water,
as might be supposed, never overflowed, I found a great deal
of tobacco, green, and growing to a great and very strong stalk.
There were divers other plants, which I had no notion of, or
understanding about, and might perhaps have virtues of their
own which I could not find out.
I searched for the cassava root, which the Indians, in all that
climate, make their bread of, but I could find none. I saw large
plants of aloes, but did not then understand them. I saw
several sugar-canes, but wild, and, for want of cultivation,
imperfect. I contented myself with these discoveries for this
time, and came back, musing with myself what course I might
take to know the virtue and goodness of any of the fruits or
plants which I should discover; but could bring it to no con-
clusion; for, in short, I had made so little observation while I
was in the Brazils, that I knew little of the plants in the field, at
least very little that might serve me to any purpose now in my
The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again ; and
after going something farther than I had gone the day before, I
found the brook and the savannas began to cease, and the
country became more woody than before. In this part I found
different fruits, and particularly I found melons upon the ground
in great abundance, and grapes upon the trees. The vines had
spread indeed over the trees, and the clusters of grapes were
just now in their prime, very ripe and rich. This was a surpris-
ing discovery, and I was exceeding glad of them; but I was
warned by my experience to eat sparingly of them, remembering
that when I was ashore in Barbary the eating of grapes killed
several of our Englishmen, who were slaves there, by throwing
them into Buxes and fevers. But I found an excellent use for
these grapes; and that was, to cure or dry them in the sun, and
keep them as dried grapes or raisins are kept, which I thought


would be, as indeed they were, as wholesome as agreeable to eat,
when no grapes might be to be had.
I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my
habitation; which, by the way, was the first night, as I might
say, I had lain from home. In the night, I took my first
contrivance, and got up into a tree, where I slept well; and the
next morning proceeded upon my discovery, travelling near four
miles, as I might judge by the length of the valley, keeping still
due north, with a ridge of hills on the south and north side
of me.
At the end of this march I came to an opening, where the
country seemed to descend to the west; and a little spring of
fresh water, which issued out of the side of the hill by me, ran
the other way, that is, due east; and the country appeared so
fresh, so green, so flourishing, everything being in a constant
verdure or flourish of spring, that it.looked like a planted garden.
I descended a little on the side of that delicious vale, survey-
ing it with a secret kind of pleasure, though mixed with my
other afflicting thoughts, to think that this was all my own;
that I was king and lord of all this country indefeasibly, and
had a right of possession ; and, if I could convey it, I might have
it in inheritance as completely as any lord of a manor in England.
I saw -here abundance of cocoa trees, orange, and lemon, and
citron trees; but all wild, and very few bearing any fruit, at
least not then. However, the green limes that I gathered were
not only pleasant to eat, but very wholesome;.and I mixed
their juice afterwards with water, which made it very wholesome,
and very cool and refreshing.
I found now I had business enough to gather and carry
home; and I resolved to lay up a store, as well of grapes as
limes and lemons to furnish myself for the wet season, which I
knew. was approaching.
In order to this, I gathered a great heap of grapes in one
place, and a lesser heap in another place, a~nd a great parcel of
limes and lemons in another place; and, taking a few of each
with me, I travelled homeward; and resolved to come again,
and bring a bag or sack; or what I could make, to carry the rest
Accordingly, having spent three days in this journey, I came


home (so I must now call my tent and my cave); but before I
got thither, the grapes were spoiled; the richness of the fruits,
and the weight of the juice, having broken them and bruised
them, they were~good for little or nothing: as to the limes,
they were good, but I could bring but a few.
The next day, being the 19th, I went back, having made me
two small bags to bring home my harvest; but I was surprised,
when, coming to my heap of grapes, which were so rich and
fine when !I gathered them, I found them all spread about, trod
to pieces, and dragged about, some here, some there, and abund-
ance eaten and devoured. B3y this I concluded there were some
wild creatures thereabouts, which had done this; but what they
were, I knew not.
However, as I found that there was no laying them up on
heaps, and no carrying them away in a sack, but that one way
they would be destroyed, and the other way they would be
crushed with their own weight, I took another course; for I
gathered a large quantity of the ~grapes, and hung them up upon
the out-branches of the- trees, that they might cure and dry in
the sun; and as for the limes and lemons, I carried as many back
as I could well- stand under.
When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with
great pleasure the fruitfulness of that valley, and the pleasant-
ness of the situation ; the security from storms on that side the
water and the woo0d; and concluded that I had pitched upon a
place to fix my abode, which was by far the worst part of the
country. Upon the whole, I began to consider of removing my
habitation, and to look out for a place equally safe as where I
now was situate, if possible, in that pleasant ~fruitful part of the
This thought ran long in my head, and I was exceeding
fond of it for some time, the pleasantness of the place tempting
me; but when I came to a nearer view of it, and to consider
'that I was now by the seaside, where it was at least possible
that something miqh t happen to my advan tage, and, by the same
ill fate that' brought me' hither, might bring some other unhappy
wretches to the same place; and though it was scarce probable
that any such thing should ever happen, yet to enclose myself
among the; hills and woods in the centre of :the island, wais to


anticipate my bondage, and to render such an affair not only
improbable, but impossible; and that therefore I ought not by
any means to remove.
However, I was so enamoured of this place, that I spent
much of my time there for the whole remaining part of the
month of July; and though, upon second thoughts, I resolved,
as above, not to remove, yet I built me a little kind of a bower,
and surrounded it at a distance with a strong fence, being a
double hedge as high as I could reach, well staked, and filled
between with brushwood. And here I lay very secure, some-
times two or three nights together, always going over it with a
ladder, as before; so that I fancied now I had my country house
and my sea-coast house; and this work took me up to the
beginning of August.
I had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy iny
labour, but the rains came on, and made me stick close to my
first habitation; for though I had made me a tent like the other,
with a piece of a sail, and' spread it very well, yet I had niot the
shelter of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a cave behind me
to retreat into when the rains were extraordinary.
About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my
bower, and began to enjoy myself. The 3rd of August, I
found the grapes I had hung up were perfectly dried, and in-
deed were excellent good raisins of the sun; so I began to take
them down from the trees. And it was very happy that I did
so, for the rains which followed would have spoiled them, and
I had lost the best part of my winter food ; for I had above two
hundred large bunches of them. No sooner had I taken them
all down, and carried most of them home to my cave, but it began
to rain ; and from hence, which was the 14th of August, it rained,
more or less, every day till the middle of October, and sometimes
so violently, that I could not stir out of my cave for several
In this season, I was much surprised wvith the increase of
my family. I had been concerned for the -loss of one of my
cats, who run away from me, or, as I thought, had been dead,
and I heard no more tale or tidings of her, till, to my astonish-
ment, she came home about the end of August with three
kittens.. But from these three cats I afterwards came to be so


pestered with cats, that I was forced to kill them like vermin,
or wild beasts, and to drive them from my house as much as
From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain, so
that I could not stir, and was now very careful not to be much
wet. In this confinement, I began to be straitened for food;
but venturing out twice, I one day killed a goat, and the last
day, which was the 26th, found a very large tortoise, which was
a treat to me,. and my food was regulated thus: I eat a bunch of
raisins for my breakfast, a piece of the goat's flesh, or of the
turtle, for my dinner, broiled; for, to my great misfortune, I
had no vessel to boil or stew anything; and two or three of the
turtle's eggs for my supper.
During this confinement in my cover by the rain, I worked
daily two or three hours at enlarging my cave, and by degrees
worked it on towards one side, till I came to the outside of the
hill, and made a door, or way out, which came beyond my fence
or wall; and so I came in and out this way. But I was not
perfectly easy at lying so open; for as I had managed myself
before, I was in a perfect enclosure ; whereas now, I thought I
lay exposed, and open for anything to come in upon me; and
yet I could not perceive that there was any living thing to fear,
the biggest creature that I had yet seen upon the island being
a goat.
Sept. 30.-I was now come to the unhappy anniversary of
my landing. I cast up the notches on my post, and found I
had been on shore three hundred and sixty-five days. I kept
this day as a solemn fast, setting it apart to religious exercise.
I had all this time observed no Sabbath day, for as at first
I had no sense of religion upon my mind, I had, after some time,
omitted to distinguish the weeks, by making a longer notch
than ordinary for the Sabbath day, and so did not really know
what any of the days were. But now, having cast up the days,
as above, I found I had been there a year, so I divided it into
weeks, and set apart every seventh day for a Sabbath; though
I found at the end of my account, I had lost a day or two in
my reckoning.
A: little after this my ink began to fail me, and so I con-
t~ented myself to use it more sparingly, and to write down only


the most remarkable events of my life, without continuing a
daily memorandum of other thin~gs.
The rainy season and the dry season began now to appear
regular to me, and I learned to divide them so as to provide
for them accordingly; but I bought all my experience before I
had it, and this I am going to relate was one of the most dis-
couraging experiments that I made at all. I have mentioned
that I had saved the few ears of barley and rice, which I had so
surprisingly found spring up, as I thought, of themselves, and
believe there were about thirty stalks of rice, and about twenty
of barley; and now I thought it a proper time to sow it after
the rains, the sun being in its southern position, going from
Accordingly I dug up a piece of ground as well as I could
with my wooden spade, and dividing it into two parts, I sowed
my grain; but as I was sowing, it casually occurred to my
thoughts that I would not sow it all at first, because I did not
kn~ow when was the proper time for it, so I sowed about two-
thirds of the seed, leaving about a handful of each.
It was a great comfort to me afterwards that I did so, for
not one grain of that I sowed this time came to anything, for
the dry months following, the earth having had no rain after
the seed was sown, it had no moisture to assist its growth, and
never came up at all till the wet season had come again, and
then it grew as if it had been but newly sown.
Finding my first seed did not grow, which I easily
imagined was by the drought, I sought for a moister piece of
ground to make another trial in, and I dug up a piece of ground
near my new bower, and sowed the rest of my seed in February,
a little before the vernal equinox. And this having the rainy
months of March and April to water it, sprung up very
pleasantly, and yielded a very good crop; but having part of
the seed left only, and not daring to sow all that I had, I had
but a small quantity at last, my whole crop not amounting to
above half a peck of each kind. But -by this experiment I was
made master of my business, and knew exactly when the
proper season was to sow, and that I might expect two seed-
times and two harvests every year.
While this corn was growing, I made a little discovery,


which was of use to me afterwards. As soon as the rains were
over, and the weather began to settle, which was about the
month of' November, I made a visit up the country to my
bower, where, though I had not been some months, yet I found
all things just as I left them. The circle or double hedge that
I had made was not only firm and entire, but the stakes which
I had cut out of some trees that grew therabouts were all shot
out, andl grown with long branches, as much as a willow-tree
usually shoots the first year after lopping its head. I could
not tell what tree to call it that these stakes were cut from. I
was surprised, and yet very well pleased to -see the young trees
grow, and I pruned them, and led them up to grow as much
alike as I could. And it is scarce credible how beautiful a
figure they grew into in three years; so that though the hedge
made a circle of about twenty-five yards in diameter, yet the
trees, for' such I might now call them, soon covered it, and it
was a complete shade, sufficient to lodge under all the dry
This made me resolve to cut some more stakes, and make
me a lie'dge ~like this, in a semicircle round my wall (I mean
that of my first dwelling), which I did; and placing the trees or
stakes in a double row, at about eight yards' distance from my
first fence, they grew presently, and were at first a fine cover
to my habitation, and afterward served for a defence also, as I
shall observe in its order.
I found. now that the seasons of the year might generally
be divided, not into summer and winter, as in Europe, but into
the rainy seasons and, the dry seasons. After I had found by
experience the ill consequence of being abroad in the rain, I
took care to furnish myself with provisions beforehand, that I
might not be obliged to go out; and I sat within doors as much
as possible during the wet months.
In! this time I found much employment, and very suitable
also to the time, for I found great occasion of many things
which I had no way to furnish myself with but by hard labour
and constant application; particularly, I tried many ways to
make myself a basket; but all the twigs I could get for the
purpose proved so brittle, that they would do nothing. It
proved of excellent advantage to me now, that when I was a


boy I used to take great delight in standing at a basket-maker's
in the town where my father lived, to see them make their
wicker-ware; and being, as boys usually are, very officious to
help, and a great observer of the manner how they worked
those things, and sometimes lending a hand, I had by this means
full knowledge of the methods of it, that I wanted nothing but
the materials; when it came into my mind that the twigs of
that tree from whence I cut my stakes that grew might possibly
be as tough as the sallows, and willows, and osiers in England,
and I resolved to try.
Accordingly, the next day, I went to my country house, as
I called it; and cutting some of the smaller twigs, I found them
to my purpose as much as I could desire; whereupon I came
the next time prepared with a hatchet to cut down a quantity,
which I soon found, for there was great plenty of them. These
I set up to dry within my circle or hedge, and when they were
fit for use, I carried them to my cave; and here during the next
season I employed myself in making, as well as I could, a great
many baskets, both to carry earth, or to carry or lay up any-
thing as I had occasion. And though .I did .not finish them
very handsomely, yet I made them sufficiently serviceab~le.for:
my purpose. And thus, afterwards, I took care never to be
without them; and as my wicker-ware decayed, I made more,
especially .I made strong deep baskets to place my corn in,
instead of sacks, when I should come to have any quantity'
of it.
Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of
time about it, I bestirred myself to see, if possible, how to
supply two wants. I had no vessels to hold anything that was:
liquid, except two runlets, which were almost full of rum, and
some glass bottles, some of the common size, and others which-
were case-bottles square, for the holding of waters, spirits, &c.
I had niot so much as a pot to boil anything, except a great
kettle, which I saved out of the ship, and which was too big for
such use as I desired it, viz., to make broth, and stew a bit of
meat by itself. The second thing I would fain have had was a
tobacco-pipe; but it was impossible to me to make one. How-
ever,' I found a contrivance for that, ~too, at last.
I employed myself in planting my second rows of stakes or


piles and in this wicker-working all the summer or dry season,
when another business took me up more time than it could be
imagined I could spare.
I mentioned before that I had a great mind to see the whole
island, and that I had travelled up the brook, and so on to
where I built my bower, and where I had an opening quite to
the sea, on the other side of the island. I now resolved to
travel quite across to the seashore on that side; so taking my
gun, a hatchet, and my dog, and a larger quantity of powder
and shot than usual, with two biscuit-cakes and a great bunch
of raisins in my pouch for my store, .I began my journey.
When I had passed the vale where my bower stood, as above, I
came within view of the sea to the west; and it being a very
clear day, I fairly described land, whether an island or a
continent I could not tell; but it lay very high, extending from
the west to the W.S.W. at a very great distance; by my guess,
it could not be less than fifteen or twenty leagues off.
I saw abundance of parrots, and fain I would have caught
one, if possible, to have kept it to be tame, and taught it to
speak to me. I did, after some painstaking, catch a young
parrot, for I knocked it down with a stick, and having recovered
it, I brought it -home; but it was some years before I could
make him speak. However, at last I taught him to call me by
my name very familiarly. But the accident that followed,
though it be a trifle, will be very diverting in its place.
I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found in
the low grounds hares, as I thought them to be, and foxes; but
they differed greatly from all the other kinds I had met with,
nor could I satisfy myself to eat them, though I killed several.
But I had no need to be venturous, for I had no want of fobod,
and of that which was. very good too; especially these three
sorts, viz., goats, pigeons, and turtle, or tortoise; which, added
to my grapes, Leadenhall Market could not have furnished a
table better than I, in proportion to the company. And though
my case was deplorable enough, yet I had great cause for thank-
fulness, and that I was not driven to any extremities for food,
but rather plenty, even to dainties.
I never travelled in this journey above two miles outright in
a day, or thereabouts; but I took so many turns and returns,


to see what discoveries I could make, that I came weary enough
to the place where I resolved to sit down for all night; and
then I either reposed myself in a tree, or surrounded myself
with a row of stakes, set upright in the ground, either from one
tree to another, or so as no wild creature could come at me
without waking me.
As soon as I came to the seashore, I was surprised to see
that I had taken up my lot on the worst side of the island, for
here indeed the shore was covered with innumerable turtles;
whereas, on the other side, I had found but three in a year and
a half. Here was also an infinite number of fowls of many
kinds, some which I had seen, and some which I had not seen
of before, and many of them very good meat, but such as I
knew not the names of, except those called penguins.
I could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very sparing
of my powder and shot, and therefore had more mind to kill a
she-goat, if I could, which I could better feed on; and though
there were many goats here, more than on my side the island,
yet it was with much more difficulty that I could come near
them, the country being flat and even, and they saw me much
sooner than when I was on the hill.
I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than
mine; but yet I had not the least inclination to remove, for as
I was fixed in my habitation, it became natural to me, and I
seemed all the while I was here to be as it were upon a journey,
and from home. However, I travelled along the shore of the
sea towards the east, I suppose about twelve miles, and .then
setting up a great pole upon the shore for a mark, I concluded
I would go home again; and that the next journey I took
should be on the other side of the island, east from my dwelling,
and so round till I came to my post again; of which in its
I took another way to come back than that I went, thinking
I could easily keep all the island so much in my view, that I
could not miss finding my first dwelling by viewing the country.
But I found myself mistaken. I wandered about very uncom-
fortably, and at last was obliged to find out the seaside, look
for my post, and come back the same way I went; and then by
easy journeys I turned homeward, the weather being exceeding


hot, and my gun, ammunition, hatchet, and other things very~
In this journey my dog surprised a young kid, and seized
upon it, and I running in to take hold of it, caught it, and saved
it alive from the dog. I had a great mind to bring it home if I
could, for I had often been musing whether it might not be
possible to get a kid or' two, and so raise a breed of tame goats,
which might supply me when my powder and shot should be
all spent.
I made a collar to this little creature, and with a string,
which I made of some rope-yarn, which I always carried about
me, I led him along, though with some difficulty, till I came to
my bower, and there I enclosed him and left him, for I was very
impatient to be at home, from whence I had been absent
above a month.
I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come
into my old hutch, and lie down in my hammock-bed. This
little wandering journey, without settled place of abode, had
been so unpleasant to me, that my own house, as I called it to
myself, was a perfect settlement to me compared to that; and
it rendered everything about me so comfortable, that I resolved
I would never go a great way from it again, while it should be
my lot to stay on the island.
I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale myself
after my long journey; during which most of the time was
taken up in the weighty affair of making a cage for my Poll,
who began now to be a mere domestic, and to be mighty well
acquainted with me. Then I began to think of the poor kid
which I had penned in within my little circle, and resolved to
go and fetch it home, or give it some food. Accordingly I
went, and found it where I left it, for indeed it could not get
out, but almost starved for want of food. I went and cut
boughs of trees, and branches of such shrubs as I could find,
and threw it over, and having fed it, I tied it as I did before, to
lead it away; but it was so tame with being hungry, that I had
no need to have tied it, for it followed me like a dog. Arid as
I continually fed it, the creature became so ~loving, so gentle,
and so fond, that it became from that time one of my domestics
also, and would never leave me afterwards,


The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come,
and I kept the 30th of September in the same solemn manner
-as before, being the anniversary of my landing on the island,
having now been there two years, and no more prospect of
being delivered than the first day I came there. I spent the
whole day in humble and thankful acknowledgments of the
many wonderful mercies which my solitary condition was
attended with, and without which it might have been infinitely
more miserable.
It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much more
happy this life I now led was, with all its miserable circum-
stances, than the wicked, cursed, abominable life I led all the
past part of my days. And now I changed both my sorrows
~and my joys; my very desires altered, my affections changed
their gusts, and my delights were perfectly new from what they
were at my first coming, or indeed for the two years past.
Thus, and in this disposition of mind, I began my third
year; and though I have not given the reader the trouble of so
particular account of my works this year as the first, yet in
general it may be observed, that I was very seldom idle, but
having regularly divided my time, according to the several
daily employment that were before me, such as, first, my duty
to God, and the reading the Scriptures, which I constantly set
apart some time for, thrice every day; secondly, the going
abroad with my gun for food, which generally took me up three
hours in every morning, when it did not rain; thirdly, the
ordering, curing, preserving, and cooking what I had killed or
catched for my supply; these took up great part of the day;
also, it is to be considered that the middle of the day, when the
sun was in the zenith, the violence of the heat was too great to
stir out; so that about four hours in the evening was all the
time I could be supposed to work in, with this exception, that
sometimes I changed my hours of hunting and working, and
went to work in the morning, and abroad with my gun in the
To this short time allowed for labour, I desire may be added
the exceeding laboriousness of my work ; the many hours which,
for want of tools, want of help, and want of skill, everything I
did took up out of my time. For example, I was full two and


forty days making me a board for a long shelf, which I wanted
in my cave ; whereas two saw\ers, with their tools and a saw-
pit, would have cut six of them out of the same tree in' half a
My case was this: it was to be a large tree which was to be
cut down, because my board was to be a broad one. This tree
I was three days a-cutting down, and two more cutting off the
boughs, and reducing it to a log, or piece of timber. With
inexpressible hacking and hewing, I reduced both the sides of it
into chips till it began to be light enough to move; then I
turned it, and made one side of it smooth and flat as a board
from end to end; then turning that side downward, cut the
other side, till :I brought the plank to be about three inches
thick, and smooth on both sides. Any one may judge the labour
of my hands in such a piece of work; but labour and patience
carried me through that, and many other things. I only observe
this in particular, to show the reason why so much of my time
went away with so little work, viz., that what might be a little to
be done with help and tools, was a vast labour, and required a
prodigious time to do alone, and by hand. But notwithstanding
this, with patience and labour, I went through many things, and,
indeed, everything that my circumstances made necessary to me
to do, as will appear by what follows.
I was now, in the months of November and December, ex-
p~ecting my crop of barley and rice. The ground I had manured
or dug up for them was not great; for as I observed, my seed of
each was not above the quantity of half a peck; for I had lost
one whole crop by sowing in the dry season. But now my crop
promised very well, when on a sudden I found I was in danger of
losing it all again by enemies of several sorts, which it was
scarce possible to keep from it; as, first the goats and wild
creatures which I called hares, who, tasting the sweetness of the
blade, lay in it night and day, as soon as it came up, and eat it
so close, that it could get no time to shoot up into stalk.
This I saw no remedy for but by making an enclosureabout
it with a hedge, which I did with a great deal of toil, and the
more, because it required speed. However, as my arable land
was but small, suited to my crop, I got it totally well fenced in
about three weeks' time, and shooting some of the creatures in

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