Front Cover
 Title Page
 Robinson Crusoe
 Back Cover

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074455/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 176 p. : ill., port. ; 26 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Defoe, Daniel,
Chapman, Edwin O
Griset, Ernest Henry, 1844-1907
Watson, John Dawson, 1832-1892
Linton, W. J ( William James ), 1812-1897
Macquoid, Thomas Robert, 1820-1912
Marriott, R. S
Thomas, William Luson, 1830-1900
Wentworth, Frederick
Dalziel Brothers
M.A. Donohue & Co
Publisher: M.A. Donohue & Co.
Place of Publication: Chicago ( 407-429 Dearborn Street )
Manufacturer: Printed and bound by M.A. Donohue & Co.
Edition: New ed. -- edited for young readers by E.O Chapman.
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1864   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States of America -- Illinois -- Chicago
General Note: Cover col. ill. with title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: On t.p.: "With<?> upwards of two hundred illustrations by Dalziel, Griset, J.D. Watson and others." <first word not legible>
General Note: Engravers include: G. LaFosse, Linton, T. Macquoid, R.S. Marriott, and Wentworth.
General Note: Donohue began using the above form of name in 1903. Cf. Amer. literary pub. houses, 1638-1899.
General Note: Printed in double columns.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe.
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel Defoe.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074455
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: lccn - SN01271
oclc - 20619112

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Page 1
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    Title Page
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    Robinson Crusoe
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Full Text

M-A-DoNoHur& Go.










CMvi-pa-Now for one more tru.,

I*:1Q:nY r U.








TmHE story of Rosnr.
SON CUsoW was writ.
ten by Daniel De Foe,
and first published in
1719, nearly one hundred and seventy years
ago. The author called it "The Life and
Strange Surprising Adventures of Robinson
: rusoe, of York, Mariner: who lived eight-
and-twenty years all alone in an uninhabited
i island on the coast of America, near the
mouth of the great river Oroonoque; hav.
mg been cast on shore by shipwreck, where-
in all the men perished but himself. With
an account how he was at last strangely
delivered by Pirates. Written by himself
They gave their books very long titles
in those days. But the people soon found
that this was a very interesting book, de-
spite its long title. No publisher wanted
to print it at first, but as soon as it was
published, a large number of copies were
sold, and publishers have been printing it
iad selling it ever since.
It was at first thought by sone to be an

entirely true story, but t is not It li a
doubt, however, founded in part on the real
aclentures of Alexander Selkirk, the son
of a shoemaker in Sootland. The following
brief account of him is given by Wilson,
the biographer of De Foe:
"His real name was Selcraig, which he
changed to that of Selkirk, when he went
to sea. He was born at Largo, i the
county of Fife, in 1676, and, after a corn
mon school education, was put to his
father's business, which was that of a shoe
maker. Being a spoiled child, he seen dis
covered a waywardness of temper that gave
much uneasiness to his parents; whilst an
early propensity to the sea rendered his
employment irksome. At length an inci-
dent occurred that put him upon indulging
his humor; for, being brought under church.
censure for irregular conduct when he was
eighteen years of age, rather than submit,
he suddenly left home, and was never heard
of for six years. It is supposed that he was
with the buccaneers in the South Seas. In
1701 we find him again at Largo, but the
same intractable person as ever, being en
gaged in constant broils with his family.
As the sea was his favorite element, he did
not continue long in Scotland, but, going
to London, engaged with Captain Pliupler


apon a cuising expedition to the South
Seas This was the voyage that rendered
his subsequent history so interesting to the
lovers of romance.
"Being appointed sailig.master of the
Cinque Ports galley, a companion to the
St. George commanded by Dampier, he left
England in the spring of 1703, and, after
various adventures, both vessels reached
the island of Juan Fernandez in the follow-
fag February. After staying some time to
e-fit, they sailed again in quest of booty;
but a violent quarrel arising between Sel-
kirk and his commander, Stradling, which
settled into a rooted animosity, the former
resolved to take the first opportunity of
leaving the vessel This occurred at the
beginning of September, 1704, when her
nrazy state obliged Stradling to return to
Juan Femandez for fresh repairs; which

being completed, Selkirk bade a final adieu
to his comrades at the end of the same
month. Upon this island he lived by himr
self four years and four months, until he
was released by Captain Woodes Rogers,
in the month of February, 1709."
It has been said that this wild fellow
wrote a story of his adventures and gave it
to De Foe, and that De Foe made the story
of ROBmisoI CRUsoE from it, but this is not
believed to be true.
Whether the story is founded upon that
of Selkirk or not, it is one that every body
finds full of interest. The picture of Crusoe
with his coat and umbrella of goat skin
watching day after day for a ship, until the
days pass into months and the months into
years, is one which readers will never tire
of, and is especially attractive to boys and


WAS BORN in the city
of York, in the year 1632.
My father's right name
was Kreutznaer, and he
had come to England from
Bremen. My mother's re-
lations were named Robin.
son, so I was named Robinson Kreutznaer.
The English people called it Crusoe, and
after a while we came to write it so.
My father was hot rich, but he had
become well to do by trading, and he
wished me to stay at home and be happy;
and all the more because both he and my
'mother were getting old, and further, be.
cause one of my elder brothers had been
%/t: .


I killed in the war with the Spaniards, and
the other had gone away from home and
had not been heard from; but I would be
satisfied with nothing but going to sea,
and my inclination to this led me es
strongly against the will of my father, and
against all the entreaties of my mother
that there seemed to be something fatal in
my perversity, tending directly to the life
of misery which was to befall me.
One morning, my father called me into
his chamber, where he was sick with the
gout, and talked to me very seriously
about it,. He told me that if I staid at
home, I had a prospect of raising my
fortunes and living a life of happiness


He said that it wa only the very wealthy
on the one hand, or the very desperate on
the other, who went abroad in search of
adventure. Mine was the middle state,
which he had found by experience was the
best state in the world. This was the
state of life that was envied both by kings
and beggar. This condition of life was
what the wise man meant when he prayed
that he might have bOith poverty nor

Much more he told me to dissuade me
from going to sea, and he ended by saying
that though he should not cease to pray
for me, if I did take this foolish step,
God would not bless me.
I was deeply affected by what my father
said, and I resolved not to think any more
of going abroad. But in a few days my
good resolutions were all given up and I
began to think of running away from
home in spite of the entreaties of my
father and the tears of my mother. How.

ever, as no opportunity presented itself. I
still remained at home, though I refused
to engage in any business or to learn any
One day, being at Hull, I met one of my
companions who was going by sea to Lon.
don, and he invited me so strongly to go
with him that I consulted neither father
nor mother any more, nor so much as sent
them word of it; but leaving them to hear
of it as they might, without asking God's
blessing, or my father's, without any con-
sideration of circumstances or consequences,
and in an ill hour, God knows, on the 1st
of September, 1651, I went on board a shiF
bound for London.
Never any young adventurer's misfor
tunes, I believe, began sooner or continued
longer than mine. The ship was no sooner
got out of the Humber than the wind
began to blow, and the sea to rise in a
most frightful manner; and, as I had never
been at sea before, I was most inexpressibly
sick in body, and terrified in mind. I
began now seriously to reflect upon what I
had done, and how justly I was overtaken
by the judgment of Heaven for my wicked
leaving my father's house, and abandoning
my duty. All the good counsels of my
parents came now fresh into my mind; and
my conscience, which was not yet come to
the pitch of hardness to which it has come
since, reproached me with the contempt of
advice, and the breach of my duty to God
and my father.
I thought that every wave would swallow
us up, and that every time the ship fell
into the hollow or trough of the sea, it
would never rise again. In this agony of
mind I made many vows and resolutions,


that if it would please God to spare my
life in this one voyage, if ever I got once
my foot upon dry land again, I would go
directly home to my father, and never set

it into a ship again while I lived; that I
would take his advice, and never run my-
self into such miseries as these any more.
I had these wise and good thoughts aa
long as the storm lasted, and, indeed, for
some time after. But the next day, the
wind abated and the sea grew calmer, and
a fine evening followed. My sea-sickness
and my fears disappeared, and with them
all my thoughts of home and duty. The
sun rose clear the next morning, and his
beams shining upon the sea, which was
uqnir smooth. there being little or no wind,

made a sight that I thought the mst de
lightful I ever saw.
I had slept well in the night and was
now no more sea-sick, but very chieerfI,

looking with wonder upon the sea that wws
so rbugh and terrible the day before, an,
could be so calm and so pleasant in so little
a time after. And now, lest my good rt
solutions shouldT continue, my companion
who had enticed me away comes to me.
"Well, Bob," says he, clapping me upua
the shoulder, "how do you do after it I
warrant you were frightened, weren't v'-i,
last night, when it blew but a capful of
wind "
"A capful d'you call it I" said I; "''t v
a terrible storm."


"A storm, you foot I" replies he; "do you
call that a storm ? why, it was nothing at
all; give us but a good ship and sea-room,
and we think nothing of such a squall of
wind as that; but you're but a fresh-water
sailor, Bob. Come, let us make a bowl of
punch, and we'll forget all that."
To make short this sad part of my story,
we went the way of all sailors; the punch
was made, and I was made half-drunk with
it; and in that one night's wickedness I
drowned all my repentance, all my refleo.
tious upon my past conduct, all my resoln-
tions for the future. In a word, as the sea
was returned to its smoothness, so the
hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears
of being swallowed up by the sea being
forgotten, and the current of my former
desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows
sad promises that I made in my distress.

I found, indeed, some intervals of reflect,
tion; and the serious thoughts did, as it
were, endeavor to return again sometimes;
bIut I shook them off, and roused myself
from them, and applying myself to drink-
ing and company, soon mastered the return
of those fits. But I was to have another
trial for it still; and Providence, as in such
cases generally it does, resolved to leave me
entirely without excuse; for if I would
not take this for a deliverance, the next
was to be such a one as the worst and most
hardened wretch among us would confess
both the danger and the mercy.
The sixth day of our being at sea, we
came into Yarmouth Roads; the wind
having been contrary, and the weather
calm, we had made but little way since the
storm. Here we were obliged to, come to
an anchor, and here we lay, the wind COL.
tinuing contrary, for seven or eight day.,
during which time a great many ships from
Newcastle came into the same Roads.
We had not, however, rid here so long
but we should have tided it up the river,
but that the wind blew too fresh, and,
after we had lain four or five days, blew
very hard. However, the Roads being
reckoned as good as an harbor, the anchor,
age good, and our ground-tackle very
strong, our men were unconcerned, and not
in the least apprehensive of danger, but
spent the time in rest and mirth, after the
manner of the sea. But the eighth d:y, ifi
the morning, the wind increase, anA we
had all hands at work to strike our top
masts, and make everything snug and close,
that the ship might ride as easy as possible.
By noon the sea went very high indeed,
and our ship rode forecastle in, shipped


several seas, and we thought once or twice
our anchor had come home; upon which
our master o rdred out the sheet-anchor.
The storm grew fiercer and fiercer until
I began to see terror in the faces of the
seamen themselves. At first, I was quite
stupid with sickness and fear, and I lay in
the cabin; but now I clambered on deck,
and looked about. Two of the ships near us
had cut their masts, and I heard the sailors

say that two more had been blown out to
sea. Finally a great ship foundered before
our eyes, and the master ordered our masts
"to be cut away. Then came a cry that we
: had sprung a leak, and we all went to
work at the pumps.
All our efforts were useless; the water
gained rapidly in the hold, and it became
certain that we could not ride out the
storm. Guns were now fired as signals of

distress, and, the storm somewhat abating,
a boab as put off to us from a ship that
had not been damaged, because she was
light. We had great difficulty in getting
into the boat when it reached us; but we
did it safely and after several hours of
drifting, in danger of being swamped every
minute, we reached the shore, drenched
and destitute. The ship sank soon after
we left her.

At Yarmouth, we were given some money,
and I might easily have gone back to Hall,
but my ill late pushed me on. With what
money I had, I made my way to London.
There I fell in with the master of a ship
bound for the coast of Gninea on a trading
voyage. He took quite a fancy to me at
once and became my friend. I raised some
forty pounds by corresponding with some
relations, and investing it in trinkets, such


as -me captain carried to trade with the
natives, we set sail, and made a most sue.
cessful voyage.

My success I owed entirely to my
friend the captain, who first showed me
what things to buy in London, and then
how to trade them with the natives of
Guinea for gold-dust. On the voyage, he
taught mne the use of the ship's instruments,
by which an account of our course was
taken every day, and I became a navigator
as well as a Guinea trader.
My friend died soon after his arrival at
home, but I resolved to go the same voy-
age again on the same ship. This was a
most unhappy voyage, for though I left a
good portion of my money with myfriend's
widow, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes.

Our ship making her course towards tie
Canary Islands, was surprised, in the gray
of the morning, by a Moorish rover of Sal-
lee, who gave chase to u&. We crowded as
much canvas as our yards would spread, or
our masts carry, to get clear; but finding
the pirate gained upon us, we prepared to
fight, our ship having twelve guns and the
rogue eighteen. About three in the after-
noon he came up with us, and bringing to,
by mistake, just athwart our quarter, we
brought eight of our guns to bear on that
side, and poured in a broadside upon him,
which made him sheer off again, after
returning our fire, and pouring in also his
small shot from near two hundred men
which he had on board. However, we had
not a man touched, all our men keeping
He prepared to attack us again, and we
to defend ourselves; but laying us on board
the next time upon our other quarter, he
entered sixty men upon our decks, who
immediately fell to cutting and hacking
the sails and rigging. We plied them with
small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and


Peicn like, an cleared our deck of them
twice. However, to cut short this melan-
c:holy part of our story, our ship being dis-
abled, and three of our men killed, and
eight wounded, we were obliged to yield,
' and were all carried prisoners into Sallee,
Sp-ort belonging to the Moors.
SThe usage I had there was not so
i:naLiid as I at first feared; nor was I eara
I I. up the country to the Emperors court,
.i the rest of our men were, but was kept
oy the captain as his proper prize, and
*made his slave, being young and nimble,
and fit for his business. At this surprise.
nmg change of my circumstances, from a
merchant to a slave, I was perfectly over-
whelmed; and now I looked back upon
.my father's prophetic discourse to me, that
(I should be miserable; which I thought
was now so effectually brought to pass,
That I could not be worse; for now the
band] of heaven had overtaken me, and I
was undone. But alas I this was but a
rt.te, of the misery I was to go through.
SAs my new patron, or master, had taken
n'.e horn to his house, so I was in hopes
lthit he would take me with him when he
l-lnt to sea again, believing that it would
*'.,lni time or other be his fate to be taken
by a man-of-war, and that then I should
'be set at liberty. But this hope of mine
.was soon taken away; for when he went
to 6.,a, he left me on shore to look after his
little garden, and do the con non drudgery
of slaves about his house.
'I had no one to taik to, for, though
here were other slaves, not one of them
could understand my language, nor could
tl uinderi- tan theirs. But while at work
.%w au i ra he a wden or grinding grain, I

thought of nothing but my escape. JBt
for a long time no means of escaping pre-
sented itself
After about two years, my master stayed
at home longer than usual, and two or
three times a week he used to go out
a-fishing in his boat. He always took me
and a young Moresco, besides a Moor, with

him, for we made him very merry, and I
was very dexterous in catching fish.
It happened one time, that, going fish.
ing with him in a calm morning, a fog rose
so thick, that though we were not half a
league from the shore, we lost sight of it;
and rowing we knew not whither, we
labored all day and all the next night; and
when the morning came, we found we had
pulled out to sea instead of pulling in for


the snore. However, we got well in again,
though with a great deal of labor and some
danger, and we were all very hungry. But
our master, warned by this disaster, resolv-
ed to take more care of himself in the
future; and having lying by him the long
boat of our English ship which he had
taken, he resolved he would not go afish-
ing any more without a compass and some
provision. So he ordered the carpenter of

his isip to build a little cabin in the
aiiddle of the long-boat and fit a place for
provisions and water, also for a compass,
and put in a mast and sails. After that,
we used to go a-fishing in the long-boat.
oG day my master commanded the

Moor to take me and the young Moreseoi
whose name was Xury, and go and catco
some fish, as he expected some distinguished
company to sup with him. Now, thought
I, is my chance to get my liberty.
My first contrivance was to speak to the
Moor and ask him if we ought not to take
along some food for our dinner; fox I told
him we must not presume to eat of our
master's bread. He said that was true; s

h--. - ---- -- -


he brought a basket full of their kind, and
three jars with fresh water into the boat.
I knew where my master's case of bottles
stood, and I conveyed them into the boat
while the Moor was on shore, as if they
had been there before for our JUast.


conveyed also a great lump of beeswax
into the boat, which weighed about half
an hundred weight, with a parcel of twine
or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer,
all of which were of great use to us after-
Another trick I
tried upon him, whieh
he innocently came
into also: "Moely,"
said I, our patron's
guns are all on board
the boat; can you not
'get a little powder
and shot a It may be
we may kill some
alcamies (a fowl like
our curlews) for our-
selves." Yes" says
he, "I'll bring some;"
and 'accordingly, he
brought, a great leath.
er pouch, which held
about a pound and a
half of powder, and
another with shot,
that had five or six
pounds, with some
bullets, and put all into the boat. At the
same time, I had found some powder of my
master's in the great cabin, and thus far.
nished with everything needful, we sailed
out of the port to fish.
> The castle, which is at the entrance of the
port, knew who we were, and took no
,notice of us; and we were not above a mile
'out of the port before we hauled in our
:sail, and sat us down to fish. The wind
:blew from the N. N. E., which was con-
trary to my desire; for had it blown

southerly, I had been sure to make the
coast of Spain; but my resolutions were,
blow which way it would, I would be gone
from that horrid place where I was, and
leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and

caught nothing (for when I had fish on my
hook I would not pull them up, that he
might not see them) I said to the Moor,
"This will not do; our master wai not be
thus served; we must stand further off."
He, thinking no harm, agreed, and, being
in the head of the boat, set the sails; and,
as I had the helm, I ran the boat out near
a league farther, and then brought her to,
as if I would fish; when, giving the boy
the helm, I stepped forward to where the
Moor was, and making as if I stooped fcr


something behind him, I took him by sur.
prise with my arm under his waist, and
tossed him clear overboard into the sea
He rose immediately, for he swam like a
cork, and begged to be taken in.
As he continued to swim after us I
6ttched a fowling-piece from the cabin,

and pointing it at him, said: You can
swim well enough to reach the shored If
you try to get in the boat, I will shoot
you." He turned about when he saw I
was determined, and swam toward the
shore, which I have no doubt he reached
in safety.
When he was gone, I turned to the boy,
and said to him, "Xury, if you will be
faithful to me, I'll make you a great man;
but if you will not stroke your face to be
true to me," that is, swear by Mahomet
and his father's beard, I must throw you
into the sea, too." The boy smiled in my
face. a'd spoke so innocently, that I eould

not mistrust him, and swore to be faithful
to me, and go all over the world with me.
As long as the swimming Moor could
see me, I steered the boat straight out to
sea, for I knew he would tell his master
which way I had gone. But as soon as
I thought the boat was out of his sight,
I turned her head to the south-east.
With a good breeze and a smooth sea, at
three o'clock on the afternoon of the next
day, I had no doubt that we were one
hundred and fifty miles from Sallee. At
this time we were within sight of the
coast, and I knew that we were were out
of the kingdom of the Moors.
But so afraid was I of being followed
by my late master, that we sailed on
toward the south for five days, without
stopping. At the close of the fifth day,
we anchored at the mouth of a little river;
but I was afraid to go on shore for fear of
the wild beasts, which inhabit that coast
in great numbers They made hideous
noises in thd night, and sometimes we could
see great creatures bathing on the beach.
One of them swam off toward the boat,
but a shot from a fowling-piece sent him
quickly back to the shore.
However, we had to go on shore for
water, for we had not a pint left, so, the
next day, we drew the boat in as close as
we could, and waded ashore, taking our
fowling-pieces and two jars. I staid by
the boat, while Xury soon found some
water and filled the jars. He also shot a
hare, which we roasted on the shore, and
had quite a feast.
Several times I was obliged to land for
fresh water, after we had left this place;
and onee in particular, being early in the


morning, we came to an anchor under a
i, title point of land. Xury, whose eyes
i were more about him than it seems mine
:: were, calls softly to me, and tells me that we
had best go farther off the shore; "for,"
.ays he, "look, yonder lies a dreadful
,monster on the side of that hillock, fast
Asleepp" I looked where he pointed, and
saw a terrible great lion that lay on the

side of the shore, under the shade of a
piece of the hill I took our biggest gun,
and loaded it with a good charge of pow-
der, and with two slugs, and laid it down;
then I loaded another gun with two bul-
lets; and the third (for we had three
pieces) I loaded with five smaller bullets.
[took the best aim I could with the first
piece to have shot him in the head, but he

lay so, with his leg raise a little above
his nose, that the slugs hit his leg about
the knee, and broke the bone. He started
up, growling at first, but finding his leg
broke, fell down again; and then got up
upon three legs, and gave the most hideous
roar that ever I heard. I took up the
second piece immediately, and though he
began to move off, fired again, and shot

him in the head, and had the pleasure to
see him drop.
This was game indeed to us, but this
was no food; and I was very sorry to lose
three charges of powder and shot upon a
creature that was good for nothing to us.
I bethought myself, however, that perhaps
the skin of him might, one way or other,
be of some value to us. So Xury anid I

went to work with him; but Xury was devour the flesh, making signs to offer me
much the better workman at it, for I knew some. I shook my head, but signified that
very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us I would take the skin, if they would put it
both the whole day, but at last we got off on the shore and go away. This they did,
the hide of him, and spreading it on the and I sent Xury for it. They also left on

top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried
it in two days' time,, and it afterwards
served me to lie upon.
After sailing on for twelve days more I
found that the land was inhabited by
negroes,who ran along the shore and made
aigns to us. As I thought them savages, I
did not venture to go on shore. One day
a great leopard ran down among them to
the water, at which they were greatly
frightened. When I shot him, they were
greatly surprised and very grateful. They
quickly took off the skin and began to

the shore a great jar of water and some
dried roots and corn for which I was
I sailed on for eleven days more without
going near the shore till I saw the land run
out a great way into the sea. This I took
to be Cape de Verde. On sailing out to
the point of the Cape, I saw land far out
to sea which I thought was the Cape d(
Verde Islands. I stepped into the cabin
and was thinking whether I pught not to
sail for the Islands when I heard Xury cry
out: "Master, master, a ship with a sail*


1 rushed from the cabin and found Xury
'in a great fright, he thinking that it must
needs be a ship of his old master, the
pirate. I saw, however, that it was a
Portuguese ship, and I crowded all sail to
come up to her, and was soon on board.
Upon hearing my story, the captain
offered to take me to the Brazils, whither
ewas going, without any pay whatever, and
io take all my goods also. He offered to
ive me a good sum for my boat, which I
Accepted. He wanted also to buy Xury,
but I was loth to sell the boy's liberty as
soon as he had gained it. But as he offered
to set him free in ten years and to treat
him well, and, moreover, Xury being will-
ing, I let the Captain have him.
We made a good voyage to tbe Brazils,
landing in All Saints' Bay in twenty-two
days. The generous treatment the captain
gave me, I can never enough remember. He
would take nothing of me for my passage,
.gave me twenty ducats for the leopard's
skin, and forty for the lion's skin, which I
bad in my boat, and caused everything I
had in the ship to be punctually delivered
to me; such as the case of bottles, two of
my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees'.
was, for I had made candles of the rest; in
a word, I made about two hundred and
twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo; and
with this stock I went on shore.
I soon learned that the planters of that
country lived well and became rich, so I
bought land and became a planter, raising
Sugar ;nud tobacco. When the Portuguese
captain sailed, I sent by him an order for
the luouey which I had left with the
english captain's widow, and gave him in.
a-ractii.ns to invest it in Lisbon in auch

utensils and things as I wanted; whch he
did, and brought them to me on hisa ae
I was now very prosperous and happy,
but I was not to remain so. I often talked
to the planters about me of my voyage to
the coast of Guinea, and how easy it was to
trade with the natives for gold-dust, or
even for slaves, which were very dear in
the Brazils.
One day some of the planters came to
me and proposed, that, as there was noth.
ing we needed so much as slaves to work
our plantations, they would fit out a ship
to go to the coast of Guinea for slaves, and
that I would take charge of the affair. Al.
though I was very well situated where I
was, I accepted their proposal, providing

they would take care of my property while
I was gone. In short, I obeyed blindly the
dictates of my fancy rather than my reason;
and, accordingly, the ship being fitted out,
and the cargo finished, and all things done


as by agreement by my partnoa in the
voyage I went on board in an evil hoar
again, the 1st of September, 1659, being the
same day eight years that I went from my

father and mother at Hull, acting the rebel
to their authority, and the fool to my own
Our ship was about one hundred and
twenty tons burden, carried six guns, and
fourteen men, besides the master, his boy,
and myself We had on board no large
cargo of goods, except of such toys as were
fit for our trade with the negroes, such as
beads, bits of glass, shells and odd trifles,
especially little looking-glassea, knives,
scissors, hatchets, and the like.
We had very good weather, and we
sailed north, at first, along our own coast.
We passed the line in about twelve days'
ime, and were, by our last observation, in
seven degrees twenty-two minutes north
latitude, when a violent tornado took us
quite out of our knowledge. It blew in
esch a terrible manner, that for twelve
days together we could do nothing but
drive, and, scudding away before it, let it
carry us wherever fate and the fury of the
waves directed; and during these twelve
days, I need not say that I expected every
day to be swallowed up; nor did any in
the ship expect to save their live,

At last we perceived land ahead, but be
fore we could make out whether it was an
island or the mainland, the ship struck on
the sand a long distance from the shore.
Now, we were in a dreadful condition in
deed, and had nothing to do but to think
of saving our lives as best we could. We
had a boat at our stern just before the
storm, but she was first staved by dashing
against the ship's rudder, and in the next
place she broke away, and either sunk o,
was driven off to sea; so there was no hope
from her. We had another boat on board,
but how to get her off into the sea was a
doubtful thing; however, there was no
room to debate, for we fancied the ship
would break in pieces every minute, and
some told us she was actually broken
In this distress, the mate of our vessel
lay hold of the boat, and with the help of
the rest of the men, they got her flung over
the ship's side; and getting all into her, let
go, and committed ourselves, being eleven

in number, to God's mercy and the wild
sea; for though the storm was abated con-
siderably, yet the sea went dreadfully hiih
upon the shoe.


And now we all saw plainly that the
boat could not escape, and that we should
be drowned. As to making sail, we had
none, nor, if we had, could we have done
,anything with it; so we worked at the oar
towards land, though with heavy hearts,
*ike men going to execution; for we all
knew that when the boat came near the
,hore she would be dashed in a thousand

perhaps make smooth water. But there
was nothing of this appeared; but as we
made nearer and nearer the shore, the lan'i
looked more frightful than the sea.
At last, a great wave came rolling after
us, overset the boat, and we were all swal.
lowed up in a moment. Nothing can de
scribe what I felt when I sank into the
water; for though I swam very well, yet 1

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pieces by the breach of the sea. However,
'we committed our souls to God in the most
earnest manner.
What the shore was, whether rock or
sand, whether steep or shoal, we knew not;
the only hope was that we might happen
into some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some
river, where by great chance we might run
'our boat in under the lee of the land, and

could not deliver myself from the waves so
as to draw breath, till that wave having
driven me, or rather carried me, a vast way
on towards the shore, and having spent
itself, went back, and left me upon the land
almost dry, but half dead with the water I
took in. I had so much presence of maid,
as well as breath ]ett, that seeing myself
nearer the main land than I expected, 1got


V- upon my feet and ran.
Another wave soon over-
took me and then another, until I was
dashed against a rock with such force as to
make me nearly senseless.
I held on to the rock, however, until the
wave receded, and the next run I took I
got to the mainland, exhausted ind bruised,
and, indeed, more dead than live.
But I was now landed, and safe on
shore, and began to look up and to thank
God that my life was saved. I walked
about the shore, lifting up my hands, and
my whole being, I may say, wrapt up in
a contemplation of my deliverance; mak-
ing a thousand gestures and motions, which
I cannot describe; reflecting upon all my
comrades that were drowned, and that
there should not be one soul saved but
myself; for, as for them, I never saw them
afterwards, or any sign of them, except
three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes
that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel,
when, the breach and froth of the sea
being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay
so far off, and considered, Lord! how was
. possible I could get on shore?
Xfter I had solaced my mind with the
comfortablee part of my condition, I began
to look around me, to see what kind of
place I was in, and what was next to be

done; and I soon found my comforts abate,
and that, in a word, I had a dreadful uie
liyerance; for I was wet, had no clothes to
shift me, nor anything either to eat or
drink, to comfort me. Neither did I see-
any prospect before me, but that of per'i.
fishing with hunger, on being devoured by'
wild beasts; and that which was paIrticu'
larly affecting to me was, that I had ni
weapon, either to hunt and kill any cream
ture for my sustenance, or to defend my?
self against any other creature that might;
desire to kill me for theirs. In a word, i
had nothing about me but a knife, a to
bacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a bo.
This was all my provision; and this threv
me into terrible agonies of mind, that forr
while I ran about like a madman. Nigh'
coming upon me, I began, with a heavy
heart, to consider what would be my lot ii
there were any ravenous beasts in tha:
country, seeing at night they always come
abroad for prey.
All the remedy that offered to my
thoughts, at that time, was to get up into
a thick bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny
which grew near me. and where I resolve'&
to sit all night, and consider the nexir
day what death I should die, for as yet
saw no prospect of life. I walked aboni
a furlong from the shore, to see if I could ,
find any fresh water to drink, which I di:i
to my great joy; and having drunk, :mii
put a little tobacco in my mouth to pi"
vent hunger, I went to the tree, and gelp
ting up into it, endeavoured to place my.
self so that if I should sleep I might no(
fall. And having cut me a short sticl:
like a truncheon, for my defence, I took u':
my lodging; and being excessively fatiguet.

I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably
as, I believe, few could have done in my
condition, and found myself morerefreshed
with it than I think I ever was on such an

When I waked up it was broad day.
light, the weather clear, and the storm
abated, so that the sea did not rage and
swell as before; but that which surprised
me more was, that the ship was lifted off
in the night from the sand where she lay,
by the swelling of the tide, and was driven
up almost as far as the rock which I at first
mentioned, where I had been so bruised
by the wave dashing me against it. This
being within about a mile from the shore
where I was, and the ship seeming to stand
uprightt still, I wished myself on board,

that at least I might save some necessary
things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment
in the tree, I looked about me again, and
the first thing I found was the boat, which

lay, as the wind and sea had tossed her up,
upon the land, about two miles on my right
hand. I walked as far as I could upon
shore to have got to her; but found a neck,
or inlet of water between me and the boat
which was about half a mile broad; so I
came back for the present, being more
intent upon getting at the ship, where I
hoped to find something for my present
A little after noon I found the sea very
calm, and the tide ebbed so far out, that I
could come within a quarter of a mile ad


~Fe shp.p And here I found afresh renew-
mg of my grief; for I saw evidently, that if
we had kept on board, we had been all
safe; that is to say, we had all got safe on
shore, and I had not been so miserable as
to be left entirely destitute of all comfort
and company as I now was.
This forced the tears to my eyes again.
As there was little relief in that, I resolved
if possible, to get to the ship; so I pulled
off my clothes, for the weather was hot, and

took to the water. But when I eam to the
ship my difficulty was still greater to know
uow to get on board, for as she lay high out
at tho water, there was nothing within my

reach to lay hold of. I swam around her
twice, and the second time I espied a small
piece of rope hanging down the fore-chains
so low, that with great difficulty I got hold
of it, and by the help of that rope got up
into the forecastle of the ship.
I found that the ship was bulged, and
had a great deal of water in her hold; but
that she lay so on the side of a bank of
hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern lay
lifted up upon the bank, and her head low,
almost to the water. By this means all her
quarter was free, and all that was in that
part was dry; for you may be sure my first
work was to search and to see what was
spoiled and what was free. And, first, I
found that all the ship's provisions were
dry and untouched by the water, and being
very well disposed to eat, I went to the
bread-room and filled my pockets with bis
cult, and ate it as I went about other things,
for I had no time to lose. I also found
some rum in the great cabin, of which I
took a largedram, and which I had, indeed,
need enough of, to spirit me for what was
before me.
Now I wanted nothing but a boat, to
furnish myself with many things which I
foresaw would be very necessary to me. It
was in vain to sit still and wish for' what,
was not to be had; and this extremity 1
roused my application. We had several
spare yards, and two or three large spars of
wood, and a spare top-mast or two in th(
ship. I resolved to fall to work with the-e
and I tlung as many of them overboard as i1
could manage for their weight, tying evely.
one with a rope, that they might not driv,
away. When this was done I went dowf
the ship's side and pulling them to me,.


tied four of them together at both ends, as
well as I could, in the form of a raft, and
laying two or three short pieces of plank
upon them, crossways, I found I could
walk upon it very well, but that it was not
able to bear any great weight, the pieces
being too light.
So I went to work, and with the carpen.
ter's saw I cut a spare top-mast into three
lengths, and added them to my raft, with a
great deal of labor and pains. But the
hope of furnishing myself with necessaries
encouraged me togo beyond what I should
have been able to have done upon another
My raft was now strong enough to bear
any reasonable weight. My next care was
what to load it with, and how to preserve
what I had laid upon it from the surf of
the sea: but I was not long considering
I first laid all the planks or boards upon
it that I could get, and having considered
well what I most wanted, I first got three
of the seamen's chests, which I had broken
open and emptied, and lowered them down
upon my raft; the first of these I filled
with provisions-vi ., bread, rice, three
Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goat's
Flesh (which we lived much upon), and a
little remainder of European corn, which
had been laid by for some fowls which we
brought to sea with us, but the fowls were
killed. There had been some barley and
wheat together; but, to my great disap-
pointment, I found afterwards that the rats
had eaten or spoiled it all. As for liquors,
I found several cases of bottles belonging
to our skipper, in which were some oordial
wines; and, in all, about fve or ix gallons

of arrack. These I stowed by thfasel'vas.
there being no need to put them into the
chest, nor any room for them.
While I was doing thin, I found the tide
began to flow, though very calm; and I had

the mortification to see my coat, shirt and
waistcoat, which I had left on the shore
upon the sand, swim away. As for my
Sbreeches, which were only nuen, and open-
kneed, I swam on board in them and my
However, this put me upon rummaging
for clothes, of which I found enough, but
took no more. than what I wanted for pre.
sent use, for I had other things which my
eye was more upon; as, first, tools to work
with on shore; and it was after long
searching that I found out the carpenter'e


i i~--------~------

chest, which was indeed a very useful prize
to me, and much more valuable than a ship.
lading of gold would have been at that
time. I got. it down to my raft, whole as
it was, without losing time to look into it,
for I knew in general what it contained.

My next care was forsome ammunition
and arms. There were two fowling-pieces
in the cabin, and two pistols. These I
secured first, with some powder-horns, and
two old, rusty swords. I knew there were
three barrels of powder in the ship and,
with much search, I found them; two of
them were dry and good, and these I got
to my raft, with the arms.
And now I thought myself pretty well
weighted, and I began to think how I
should get to shore with all my things,
having neither sail, oar, nor rudder, and
the least puff of wind would have overset
my raft. But the sea was calm, the tide
was setting toward the shore, and what
little wind there was, blew in that direc-
tion. I found, however, two or three
broken oars, and with these I put to sea.
The raft went very well; but I found
that the tide took sne some distance from

the point where I
which I perceived

had landed before, by
that there was an in.

draft of the water. This led me to think
that there might be a creek or river there;
and so I found there was.
I steered my raft toward it as well as I
could. At the mouth of the little creek I
came very near suffering a second ship.
wreck, which, I verily believe, would have
broken my heart. The raft ran on a shoal,
and nearly upset. I held all the things in
their places, and when the tide rose a little
higher, it floated safely off. I landed at
high tide, when the water covered the
bank, and when it receded, the raft was
high and dry.
My next work was to view the country,
and seek a proper place for my habitation,
and where to stow my goods, to secue
them from whatever might happen. Where
I was, I yet knew not; whether on the.
continent or an island; whether inhabited
or not inhabited; whether m danger of
wild beasts or not.
There was a hill not above a mile from
me, which rose up very steep and high,
and which seemed to overtop some other
hills, which lay as in a ridge from it, north-
ward. I took out one of the fowlin:
pieces, and one of the pistols, and a honr
of powder; and thus armed, I traveled for
discovery up to the top of that hill, wher..'
after I had with great labor and difficulty
got to the top, I saw my fate, to my great!
affliction-viz., that I was in an islanli'!
environed every way with the sea nu
land to be seen except some rocks, whNic
lay a great way off, and two small island
less than this, which lay about there
leagues to the west.


I found also that the island I was in was
barren, and, as I saw good reason to
believe, uninhabited, except by wild beasts,
of which, however, I saw none. Yet I saw
abundance of fowls, but knew not their
kinds; neither, when I killed them, could
I tell what was fit for food and what not.

At my coming back, I shot at a great
bird, which I saw sitting upon a tree, on
the side of a great wood. I believe it was
the first gun that had been fired there
since the creation of the world. I had Ito
sooner fired, but from all parts of the wood
there arose an innumerable number ot




fowls of many..sort4 making a confused
screaming and crying, every one according
to his usual note, but not one of them of
any kind that I knew. As for the creature
I killed, I took it to be a kind of hawk, its
color and beak resembling it, but it had no
talons or claws more than common. Its
flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came
back to my raft, and fell to work to bring
my cargo on shore, which took me all the
rest of the day. What to do with myself
at night I knew not, nor indeed where to
rest, for I was afraid to lie down on the
ground, not knowing but some wild beast
might devour me, though, as I afterwards

found, there was really no need for those
However, as well as I could, I barricaded
myself round with the chests and. boards
that I had brought on shore, and made a
kind of hut for that night's lodging. As
for food, I yet saw not which way to sup
ply myself except that I had seen two or
three creatures, like hares, run out of the
wood where I shot the fowl.
I now began to consider that I might
yet get a great many things out of the
ship, which would be useful to me, and
particularly some of the rigging and sails,
and such other things as might come to
land; and I resolved to make another voy.
age on board the vessel, if possible. And
as I knew that the first storm that blex
must necessarily break her all in pieces, ;
resolved to set all other things apart, till I
got everything out of the ship that I could
get. Then I called a council-that is to
say, in my thoughts-whether I should
take back the raft; but this appeared imr
practicable; so I resolved to go as before,
when the tide was down; and I did so,
only that I stripped before I went from my
hut, having nothing on but a chequeredi
shirt, a pair of linen drawers, and a pair of|
pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and
prepared a second raft; and, having had
experience of the first, I neither made tlii,
so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but yt ,
I brought away several things very useful
to me; as, first, in the carpenter's stores 1!
found two or three bags full of nails ani
spikes, a great screw-jack, a dozen or t\w
of hatchets, and, above all, that most useful
thing called a grindstone.


A i these I secured, together with seve-
ral things belonging to the gunner, particu.
tarly two or three iron crows, and two
barrels of musket bullets, seven muskets,
and another fowling piece, with some small

z- 7


quantity of powder more; a large bag-full
of small shot, and a great roll of sheet lead;
but this last was so heavy I could not
hoist it up to get it over the ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's
clothes that I could find, and a spare fore-
.top sail, a hammock, and some bedding;
and with this I loaded my second raft, and
brought them all safe on shore, to my very
great comfort.
I was under some apprehension during
my absence from the land, that at least my
provisions might be devoured on shore;
but when I came back, I found no sign of
any visitor; only there sat a creature like a
wild cat, upon one of the chests, which,

when I came towards it, ran away n littE e
distance, and then stood still. She sat very
composed and unconcerned, and looked full
in my face, as if she had a mind to be
acquainted with me. I presented my gun
to her, but, as she did not understand it,
she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor
did she offer to stir away; upon which I
tossed her a bit of biscuit, though, by the
way, I was not very free of it, for my store
was not great; however, I spared her a bit,
I say, and she went to it, smelled at it, and
ate it, and looked (as pleased) for more;
but I thanked her, and could spare no
more, so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore-
though I was obliged to open the barrels of
powder, and bring them by parcels, for they
were too heavy, being large casks-I went
to work to make me a little tent, with the
sail, and some poles which I cut for that
purpose; and into this tent I brought
everything that I knew would spoil either
with rain or sun; and I piled all the empty
chests and casks up in a circle round the
tent, to fortify it from any sudden attempt,
either from man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the
door of the tent with some board.-; within,
and an empty chest set up on end without;


ani spreading one of the beds upon the
ground, laying my two pistols just at my
head, and my gun at length by me, I went
to bed for the first time, and slept very
quietly all night. I was very weary and
heavy; for the night before I had slept
little, and had labored hard all day, as
well to fetch those things from the ship, as
to get them on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds
now that ever was laid up, I believe, for one
man; but still I was not satisfied, for while


- ...- :

the ship stood upright in that posture, I
thought I ought to get everything out of
her I could. So every day, at low water, I
went on board, and brought away some.
thing or other; but particularly the third
time I went, I brought away as much of
the rigging as I could, as also all the small
rope and rope twine I could get, with a
piece of spare canvas, which was to mend
the sails upon occasion, and the barrel of
wet gunpowder. In a word, I brought
away all the sails, first and last; only that
I was fain to cut them in pieces, and bring

as much at a time as I could, for they were
no more useful to me for sails, but as mere
canvas only.
But that which comforted me more still,
was, that at last of all, after I had made
five or six such voyages as these, and
thought I had nothing more to expect from
the ship that was worth my meddling with
-I say, after all this, I found a gre.it hogs-
head of bread, three large runlets of rum
or spirits, a box of fine sugar, and a barrel
of fine flour; this was surprising to me, be-
cause I had given over expecting any more
provisions except what was spoiled by the
water. I soon emptied the hogshead of the
bread, and wrapped it up, parcel by parcel,
in pieces of the sails, which I cut out; and,
in a word, I got all this on shore also,
though at several times.
The next day I made another voyage, and
now, having plundered the ship of what
was portable, I cut up the cable in pieces
that I could lift, and gathered all the iron
work that I could move. I cut up the
yards and made a raft to take it all ashore,
but when I got into the little cove, the raft
upset and my load all went to the bottom.
However, when it was low water, I got the
most of it out.
If it had remained calm, I verily believe
that I would have cut up the whole ship
and got it ashore. The twelfth time that
I went on board, I found some money and
some knives. The former was of no worth
to me, but I took it, and as the wind began
to rise I hurried on shore. It blew very
hard that night, and in the morning therE
was no more ship to be seen.
I now begap to think of securing myself
against wild beasts and savages, by build

--- __-.------. ----*_--_..---
-^ <> ^ ~~_ .'^"' _. -- I s---^.

S .. -. .
- - - -. .. _-

;--.. --i-_= _..

--_ __-__ .--




ing a dwelling, and I resolved to make me
both a tent and a cave, and I set about
finding a more healthy and suitable spot
than where I then was.
I consulted several things in my situa-
tion, which I found would be proper for
me: first, health and fresh water; secondly,
shelter from the heat of the sun; thirdly,
security from ravenous creatures, whether
man or beast; fourthly, a view to the sea,
that if God sent any ship in sight, I might
not lose any advantage for my deliverance,
of which I was not willing to banish my
expectation yet.
In search of a place proper for this, I
found a little plain on the side of a rising
hill, whose front towards this little plain
was steep as a house side, so that nothing
could come down upon me from the top.
On the side of the rock there was a hollow
place, worn a little way in, like the en-
trance or door of a cave; but there was
not really any cave, or way into the rock,
at all.
On the flat of the green, just below this
hollow place, I resolved to pitch my tent.
This plain was not above a hundred yards
broad, and about twice as long, and lay
green before my door; and, at the

end of it, descended irregularly every way,
down into the low ground by the sea-side.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half.
circle before the hollow place, and in this
half-circle I pitched two rows of strong
stakes, driving them into the ground till
they stood very firm, the biggest end being
out of the ground above five feet and a
half, and sharpened on the top. The two
rows did not stand above six inches from
one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I
had cut in the ship, and laid them in rows,
upon one another, within the circle, be
tween these two rows of stakes, up to the

top, placing other stakes in the inside
leaning against them, about two feet and;
half high, like a spur to a post; and tli.


nee was so strong, that neither man nor
a t could get into it or over it.
The entrance into this place I made to
i, not by a door, but by a short ladder to
Over the top; which ladder, when I was
, I lift .1 over after me; and so I was
>npleteJy fenced in and fortified, as I
ought, from all the world, and conse-
iently slept secure in the niglil, which

'' wle I could not have done; though,
it dippeared afterwards, there was no
i of all this caution from the enemies
I apprehended danger from.
to t his fence, or fortress, with infinite
i r, I carried all my riches, all my pro-
n.r., amunmunition, and stores; and I
|e me a large tent also, to preserve me
i tht rains, that in one part of the
:. l

year are very violent there. I madoC :
double-viz., one smaller tent within, anm
one larger tent above it; and covered the
uppermost part of it with a large tan
paulin, which I had saved among the sail&
When I had done all this, I dug a cave
in the hill-side, piling the earth and stones
within my fence so as to raise the ground
nearly to the top. Before I had done all

this, a thunder-storm, aeeompanied by sharp
flashes of lightning, frightened me very
much for fear that my powder would take
fire. As soon as the storm was over, I
went to work and separated the powder
into small parcels and hid it away ia
different places in the rocks.
In the interval of time while this wat
doing, I wemt out at least once every day

,, -- -- i

with my gun, as well to divert myself, as
to see if I could kill anything fit for food;
and, as near as I could, to acquaint myself
with what the island produced. The first

time I went out, I discovered that t.ere
were goats 'n the island, which was a great
satisfaction to me; but they were so shy,
co subtle, aid so swift of foot, that it was
the most difficult thing in the world to
come at them; but I was not discouraged
at this. I observed if they saw me in the
valleys. though they were upon the rocks,
they would run away, as in a terrible fright;
but if they were feeding in the valleys,

and I was upon the rocks, they took no
notice of me; from whence I concluded,
that by the position of their optics, theiff
sight was so directed downward, that they

did not readily see objects that were above,
them; so afterwards I always climbed tb
rocks first, to get above them, and theta
had frequently a fair mark.
The first shot I made among these crew'
tures I killed a she-goat, which had a little
kid by her, which grieved me heartily; fo!
when the old one fell, the kid stood stock
still by her, till I came and took her ui
and not only so, but when I carried tU

old one with me upon my shoulders, the kept a strict account of everything, but
kid followed me quite to my eneloaure; they were soon gone. We had on the
upon which I laid down the dam, and took ship two cats and a dog, and I had Ibought
the kid in my arms, and carried it over my both of the eats on shore As for the dog
pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame; he swam ashore, and became my trusty
but it would not eat, so I was formal to servant for many years,
kill it and eat it myself The want of tools mado every work I
After 1 had been there abom. te or did go on heavily; and it was near a whole
twelve days, it came into my thoughts that year before I had entirely finished my
I should lose my reckoning of time, and little pale, or sWuounded habitation. The
should even forget the Sabbath-day from piles or stakes, which were as heavy as I
the working-days; but to prevent this, I could well lift, were a long time ia cutting
and preparing in the woods, and more, by
far, in bringing home; so that I lpent
sometimes two days in cutting anud bring.
: ing home one of tho:-e p'sts, and a third
'+- lday in driving it into the ground But
.... '- -what need I have been concerned at the
tediousness of anything I had to To, seeing
'I had time enough to do it in ? nor had I
i L( any other employment, if that hb;z' been
: over, at least that I could foresee, except
-- the ranging the island to seek for food,
-- and climbing the high rocks to see if any
vessel was wtithiln ia g t.
Saving now brought my mTind little
to relish my condition, and given over
eat it wit h my kaife pon a large i*ot, in looking out to seea to see if I could spy a
capital letter, and making it into a great ship; I say, giving over these things. I
woes, I set it up on the shore where I first began to apply myself to a.couniolatt nml
landed, viz., "I came on shore here on the way of living, and to make things as eay
80th of September, 1659." to me as I could.
Upon the sides of this square post cut I Lave already described my habitation,
every day a notch with my knife, and which was a tent under the side of a ro k.
every seventh notch was as long again as surrounded with a strong pale of posts
the rest and every first day of the month and cables; but I might now rather call it
as long again as that long one; and thus I wall, for I raised a kind of wall up
kept imy alendar. against it of turfs, about two feet thick on
I bad brought from the ship some pens, the outside; and after some time (I thinkl
ilk and paper, and while they lasted I it was a year and a half) I raised rate


from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched
or covered it with boughs of txr-s, and
such things as I could get to keep out the
rain, which I found at some times of the
year very violent.
I have already observed how I brought
all my goods into this pale, and into this
cave which I had made behind me But I
must observe, too, that at first this was a
confused heap of goods, which, as they lay
in no order, so they took up all my place.
I had no room to turn myself; so I set my
self to enlarge my cave, and worked far-
.ther into the earth, for it was a loose,
.anidy rock, which yielded easily to the
i]labor I bestowed on it; and so when I
l'found I was pretty safe as to beasts of
-prey, I worked sideways, to the right
';-.and. into the rock; and then turning to
.4bthe right again, worked quite out, and
.pnade me a door to come out on the out-
d.ie of ry pale or fortification.
A: And nuo I began to apply myself to
pake such necessary things as I found I
iaost wanted, particularly a chair and a
ablebl; for without these I was not able to
: '.joy the few comforts I had in the world.
S: could not write, or eat, or do several
.'iuns with so much pleasure without a
II had never hanouad a tool in my life;
; pipd yet, in time, by labor, application, and
'.epantrivance, I found, at last, that I wanted
'iothiug I'ut I could have made it, espe-
iWfly it I had had the tools. However, I
;i.'ade abuundance of things, even without
'iols; and some with no more tools than
Sadlz and a hatchet, which, perhaps,
w. ere ueve-r made that way before, and that
:i:th itifnite labor. For example, if I

----, -;rl*" -

wanted a board, I had no other way but to
cut down a tree, set it on an edge before
me, and hew it flat on either side with my
axe, till I had brought it to be as thin as a
plank, and then dub it smooth with my
adze. It is true, by this method I could
make but one board out of a whole tree,
but this I had no remedy for but patience.
However, I made me a table and a chair,
in the first place; and this I did out of the
short pieces of boards that I brought on
my raft from the ship. But when I had
wrought out some boards as above, I made
large shelves, of the breadth of a foot and
an half, one over another, all along one
side of my cave, to lay all my tools, naib
and iron-work on; and, in a word, to sepa-
rate everything at large into their places,
that I might come easily at them; also I
knocked pieces into the wall of the rtck,
to hang my guns and all things that would
hang up; so that had my cave been to b.


seen, it looked like a general magazine of
all necessary things; and I had everything
Po ready at my hand, that it was a great
pleasure to me to see all my goods in such

I As ,i. -r ii l ink
lasted I kept a jour-
nal of all that happened to me, of whiich I
will now give a part, for much that I wrote
at that time I have already told, and need
not repeat.

Sept-zber 30, 1659.-I, poor, miserable
Robinson Crusoe, being shipwrecked, dur.
ing a dreadful storm, in the offing, came on
shore on this dismal, unfortunate island,
which I called "The Island of Despair ;"
all the rest of the ship's company being
drowned, and myself almost dead.
All the rest of the day I spent in afflict-
ing myself at the dismal circumstances I
was brought to; viz, I had neither food,
house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to;
and, in despair of any relief, saw nothing
but death before me: either that I should
be devoured by wild beasts, or perish by
Oct. 25.-It rained all night and all
day, with some gusts of wind; during
which time the ship broke in pieces, the
wind blowing a little harder than before,

and was no more to be seen, except tie
wreck of her, and that only at low water.
I spent this day in covering and securing
the goods which I saved, that the rain
might not spoil them.
Oct. 26.-I walked about the shore
almost all day, to find out a place to fix
my habitation, greatly concerned to secure
myself from any attack in the night, either
from wild beasts or men. Towards night
I fixed upon a proper place, under a rock,
and marked out a semicircle for my en.
campment, which I resolved to strengthen
with a work, wall, or fortification, made of
double piles, lined within with cables, and
without with turf.
From the 26th to the 30th, I worked
very hard in carrying all my goods to my
new habitation, though some part of the
time it rained exceed, g hard.
Nov. 1.-On this day I made a strict
division of my time, fixing the hours which
I would devote to my several duties, 'viz.:
every morning, to walk out with my 'gu
for two or three hours, if it did not rain:
then to employ myself to work till abol)
eleven o'clock; then to eat what I had u
live on; then to lie down and sleep, thf
weather being very hot ; then to woi'
again. The working .a of this day w:
wholly employed in making my table.
Nov. 5.--Tlis day 1 went .abroad \vwiI
lmy gun and my dog, and killed a wild c;!r:
her skin pretty soft, but her Jilsh good F'"
nothing. Of every creature that I killc'
I took off the skin and preserved
Coming oack by the seashore, I saw t,
or three seals, but not well knowing w!::
they were at first, while I stood gaz:ng:
them, they got into the sea and eseapetd a1i


Nov. 17.-This day I beganto dig behind worked it by little and little into the form
my tent into the rock, to make room for of a shovel or spade; the handle exactly
my further conveniency. shaped like ours in England, only that the
Note.-Three things I wanted exceed. board part having no iron shod upon it at
ingly for this work, viz., a pickaxe, a
shovel, and a wheelbarrow, or basket; so I _-
desisted from my work, and began to con-
sider how to supply that want, and make r7 '
me some tools. As for the pickaxe, I -
made use of the iron crows, which were A
proper enough, though heavy; and the "
next thing was a shovel, or spade. This was ki -.
so absolutely necessary, that, indeed, I
could do nothing effectually without it; but -
what kind of one to make I knew not.
Nov. 18.-The next day, in searching
the woods, I found a tree of that wood,
or like it, which, in the Brazils, they call
the iron-tree, for its exceeding hardness; of --
this, with great labor, and almost spoiling I._:.
my axe, I cut a piece, and brought it home, --..
with difficulty enough, for it was exceed. "-
ingly heavy. The excessive hardness of
the wood, and having no other way, made bottom, it would not last me so long; how
me a long while upon this machine, for I ever, it served well enough for the aseG
which I had occasion to put it to; but
Sf never was a shovel, I believe, made after
+v_. that fashion or so long making.
I was still deficient, for I wanted a
basket, or a wheelbarrow. A basket I
could not make by any means, having no
such things as twigs that would bend to
make wicker-ware-at least, none yet found
out; and as to the wheelbarrow, I fancied
:, I could make all but the wheel; but that
I had no notion of; neither did I know
how to go about it; besides, I had no
,_-_ .possible way to make iron gudgeons for Che
spindle or axis of the wheel to run in: so
I gave it over, and so, for carrying away


the earth which I dug out of the cave, I
made a thing like a hod, which the laborers
carry mortar in, when they serve the brick-

This was not so difficult to me as the
making the shovel; and yet this and the
shovel, and the attempt which I made in
vain to make a wheelbarrow, took me no
less than four days, I mean always except-
ing my morning's walk with my gun, which
I seldom failed, and very seldom failed
also of bringing home something fit to eat.
Nov. 23.--My other work having stood
still, because of my making these tools,
when they were finished I went on, and
working every day, as my strength and
time allowed, I spent eighteen days entirely

in widening and deepening my cave, thea
it might hold my goods commodiously
Note.-During all this time 1 worked tc
make this room, or cave, spacious enough:

to accommodate me as a warehouse, or
magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a
cellar. As for a lodging, I kept to the
tent; except that sometimes, in the wvt
season of the year, it rained so hard, that 1
could not keep myself dry, which cau-ed
me afterwards to cover all my place within
my pale with long poles, in the form ol
rafters, leaning against the rock, and load
them with flags and F 'ge leaves of trees
like a thatch.
Dec. 10.-I began now to think my ca
or vault finished, when on a sudden :'


seems I had made it too large), a great
quantity of earth fell down from the top.
I now had a great deal of work to do over
again, for I had the loose earth to carry
Iut, and then I had to pro-) un the ceiling.

Dec. 11.-This day I went to work and
got posts pitched upright to the top, with
boards across over each top, and in a week
I had the roof secured.
Dec. 2 7.-Killed a young goat, and lamed
another, so that I catched it and led it home
by a string. When I had it home, I bound
and splintered up its leg, which was broke.
-note.-I took such care of it that it
lived, and the leg grew as strong as ever.
By nursing it so long, it grew tame and
would not go away. This led me to think
of taming more goats.
Jan. 2.-Went out with my dog, and set

him upon some goats, jut they all faced
about upon him, and he knew his danie'(r
and would not come near them.
All this time it rained hard nearly very
day. I made rounds in the woods for game

when the rain permitted me, and made fre.
quent discoveries in these walks of some.
thing or other to my advantage; particularly
I found a kind of wild pigeons, which
build, not as wood pigeons in a tree, but
rather as house pigeons, in the holes of the
rocks; and taking some young ones, I en
deavored to breed them up tame, and c'i,
so; but when they grew older they tfle w i
away, which perhaps was at first for Nvtvt
of feeding them, for I had nothing to gi \-
them; however, I frequently found their
nests, and got their young ones, which welr
very good meat.


And now, in the managing my household
affairs, I found myself wanting in many
things, which I thought at first it was im-
possible for me to make; as, indeed, as to
some of them it was: for instance, I could
never make a cask to be hooped. I had a
small runlet or two, as I observed before;
but I could never arrive to the capacity of
making one by them, though I spent many
weeks about it; I could never put in the

heads, nor join the staves so true to one an.
other as to make them hold water; so I gave
that also over.
In the next place, I was at a great loss
for candles; so that as soon as it was dark,

which was generally by seven o'clock,
was obliged to go to bed. I remembered
the lump of bees'-wax with which I mad,(
candles in my African adventure; but I hai]
none of that now. The only remedy I had
was, that when I had killed a goat, I saved
the tallow, and with a little dish made of
clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I
added a wick of some oakum, I made ii,
a lamp; and this gave me light, though not
a clear, steady light like a candle.
In the middle of all my labors, it hap.
opened that, rummaging my things, I found
a little bag, which had been filled with corn
for the feeding of poultry. What little re-
mainder of corn had been in the bag was
all devoured by the rats, and I saw i i Ih;'.
in the bag but husks and dust; and ',,i,..;
killing to have the bag for some other use,
I shook the husks of corn out of it on one,
side of my fortification, under the rock.
It was a little before the great rain, jin-
now mentioned, that I threw this stuff a w..
taking no notice of ani;iythi., and iqnt
muchas ren iilbi.riig that I had throw\ ;ii,
thing there, when, about a month aftr.'
saw some few stalks of something LI',
shooting upon the ground, which I f;ai.i,
mightbe some plant I had not seen. l.4ur
was surprised when, after a little I1,._
time, I saw about ten or twelve ears .;!
out, which were perfect green barley,
the same kind as our Englihi barley.
It is impossible to express the astoni,
ment and confusion of my thoughts on tf
occasion. I had hitherto acted upon no i!
ligious foundation at all; indeed, I li
very few notions of religion in imy 1'
nor had entertained any sense of anyl
that had befallen me, otherwise thn


chance, or, as we lightly say, what pleases
God, without so much as inquiring into the
end of Providence in these things. But
after I saw barley grow there in a climate
which I knew was not proper for corn, and
especially that I knew not how it came
there, it startled me strangely, and I began
to suggest that God had miraculously caused
this grain to grow without any help of seed
This touched my heart a little, and
brought tears out of my eyes, and I began
to bless myself that such a prodigy of
Nature should happen upon my account;
and this was the more strange to me, be-
cause I saw near it still, all along by the
side of the rock, straggling stalks of rice,
and which I knew, because I had seen it
grow in Africa, when I was ashore there.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn,
you may be sure, in their season, which
was about the end of June; and laying up
every corn, I resolved to sow them all
again, hoping in time to have sufficient to
supply me with bread. But it was not
till the fourth year that I would allow
myself the least grain of this corn to eat,
and even then but sparingly; for I lost all
that I sowed the first season, by not
observing the proper time; for I sowed it
just before the dry season, so that it never
came up at all.
Besides this barley, there were twenty
or thirty stalks of rice, which I preserved
with the same care, and whose use was of
the same kind, or to the same purpose,
viz., to make me bread, or rather food;
I found ways to cook it up without
ing, though I did that also after some

But to return to my Journal:-
April 16.-I finished the ladder; so I
went up the ladder to the top, and then
pulled it up after me, and let it down on
the inside. This was a complete enclosure
to me; for within I had room enough, and
nothing could come at me from without,
unless it could first mount my wall.


The very next day after this wall was
finished, I had almost had all my labor
overthrown at once, and myself killed.
The case was thus:-As I was busy in the
inside of it, behind my tent, just in the
entrance into my cave, I was terribly
frightened with a most dreadful surpris-
ing thing indeed; for, all on a sudden, I
found the earth came tumbling down from
the roof of my cave, and from the edge of
the hill over my head, and two of the posts
I had set up in the cave cracked in a fright-
ful manner. I was heartily scared; and forI
fear I should be buried in it, I ran forward
to my ladder, and not thinking myself safety
there neither, I got over my wall for fear
of the pieces of the hill, which I expected
might roll down upon me. I was no sooner
stepped down upon the firm ground, than
I plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake;


for the ground I stood on shook three
times, with such shocks as would have
overturned the strongest building that
could be supposed to have stood upon the
earth; and a great piece of the top of the
rock, which stood about half a mile from
me, next the sea, fell down with such a
terrible noise as I never heard in all my
life. I perceived also the very sea was put
into a violent motion by it.
I was so amazed with the tLing itself,
having never felt the like, or discoursed
with any one that had, that I was like one
dead or stupefied; and the motion of the

eaadb made my stomach sick like one that
was tossed at sea. But the noise of the
falling of the rock awaked me as it were,
and rousing me from the stupefied condi-
tion I was in, filled me with horror, and I
thought of nothing then, but the hill fall.
ing upon my tent and all my household
goods, and burying all at once.
When I found there were no more shocks,
1 began to take courage, but I was for a
long time afraid to get over the wall for
fear the hill would fall on me. To make
my situation worse, the rain began to fall
down in torrents, and there came a terrible

hurricane of wind. The sea was lashed to
foam; and trees were torn up by the roots
and, in short, it was a dreadful storm.
In about three hours the wind abated,
but the rain continued all night and all the
next day. As there were no more shocks
I climbed over the wall and went into my
cave to escape the rain, but still in great
fear that it would fall upon me.
This led me to a resolve that I would
find a new place for my home, where an
earthquake could not harm me, and I find
this in my Journal:
April 22.-I began to consider of meaas
to put this resolve in execution; but I
was at a great loss about my tools. I
had three large axes, and abundance of
hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for
traffic with the Indians); but with much
chopping and cutting knotty hard wood,
they were all full of notches and dull;
and though I had a grindstone, I could
not turn it and grind my tools too. Atl
length, I contrived a wheel with a stiinr
to turn it with my foot, that I might havr
both my hands at liberty.
Note.-I had not seen any such thing ii
England, or at least not to take notice ho0
it was done, though since I have observed
it was very common there; besides tha'
my grindstone was very large and heae'
This machine cost me a full week's woi
tc bring it to perfection.
April 28, 29.-These two whole days
took up in grinding my tools, my mrn;rlbi
for turning my grindstone performing ve
April 80.-Having perceived my bies
had been low a great while, I now took
survey of it, and reduced myself to o

. i a day, wlieh made my heat May 5.-Worked on the wreck; cut
S ... another beam asunder. and brought three
S -In the morning, looking toward great fir planks from off the decks, whicn I
-ide, the tide being low, I saw tied together, and made swim on shore
ZI ,.il ig lie on the shore like a cask; when the tide of flood came in.
ll1n I came to it, I found a small barrel, .-_
tw o or three pieces of the wreck of the /: ..
i, which were driven on shore by the
h, ricane and looking towards the
irk, I thought it seemed to lie higher
z. o f the water than it used to do. I. .
i.:,iild the barrel which was driven .
l;bhre. and soon found that it was a bar.' *-"' :
_:iiowder; but it had taken water, ,'-
," i.. powder was caked as hard as a
'.li. ever, I rolled it farther on ..-' :
I., 1-- the present, and went on to look

; ,'I came to the ship, I found that '
I *. th iiake or the hurricane had cast it --.
,- to the shore that I could walk ;... -
qwi. to ii at low water. The wreck was .. .
alp much broken up, and many things -
wer, K-bed ashore. '
S'~i:i- wholly diverted my thoughts from-
Wao ;.,- u y habitation, and I busied myself
,ig !,i.v' T- make my way into the ship,
i ,.: i u>rd was filled with sand. This -
S..: i do, but r~iolved to pull her
"i- ... and to that end I wolrdA every
'J J.May 6.-Worked on the wreck; got
.'., I.--I went a-fshing, but caught several iron bolts, and other pieces of iron-
. ot;: ... :;r h that I durst eat of, till I was work; worked very hard, and came home
Sveia1 t my sport; when, just going to very much tired.
,e I. :I, I caught a young dolphin. I had May 7.-Went to the wreck again, witt
I'a i ,- ; long line of some rope-yarn, but an intent not to work, but found the weight
- ha' :.0, hooks; yet I frequently caught of the wreck had broken itself down; that
'sh n:,, *: as much as I cared to eat; all several pieces of the ship seemed to lie
A -tr. it dnedin the M' and ate them loose, and the inside of the bo! la o
TV open that I could see into it


May 8.-Went to the wreck, and car-
tied an iron crow to wrench up the deck
which lay now quite clear of the water or
sand: I wrenched open two planks, and
brought them on shore also with the tide.
May 9.-Went to the wreck, and with
the crow made way into the body of the
wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened
them with the crow, but could not break
them up. I felt also a roll of Englisj
lead, and could stir it, but it was too heavy
to move.
May 10, 11, 12, 18, 14.-Went every
- day to the wreck; and got a good deal of
pieces of timber, and boards, or planks, and
two or three hundredweight of iron.
May 15.-I carried two hatchets, to try
if I could not cut a piece off the roll of
lead, but as it lay about a foot and a half
in the water, I could not make any blow to
drive the hatchet.
May 16.-It had blown hard in the
night, and the wreck appeared more broken
by the force of the water; but I stayed so
long in the woods, to get pigeons for food,
that the tide prevented me going to the
I continued this work every day to the'
15th of June, except the time necessary to
get food, which I always appointed, during
this part of my employment, to be when
the tide was up, that I might be ready
when it was ebbed out; and by this time
I had gotten timber, and plank, and iron.
work enough to have built a good boat, if
I had known how; and also I got, at seven.
ral times, and in several pieces, near one
hundredweight of the sheet-lead.
Jne 16.-Going down to the sea-side, I
iMnmd a large tortoise, or turtle. This was

the first I had seen, which, it seems, was
only my misfortune; for had I happened
to be on the other side of the island, I
might have had hundreds of them every
June 17 I spent in cooking the turtle. 1
found in her threescore eggs; and her flesh
was to me, at that time, the most savor!
and pleasant that ever I tasted in my life:
having had no flesh, but of goats and
fowls, since I landed in this horrible place.
June 18.-Rained all the day, and I stayed
within. I thought, at this time, the rain
felt cold, and I was something chilly,
which 1 knew was not usual in that latitude.
June 19.-Very ill, and shivering, as if
the weather had been cold.
June 20.-No rest all night: violent
pains in my head, and feverish.
June 21.-Very ill; frightened almost to
death with the apprehension of my sad con.
dition-to be sick, and no help; prayed
to God, for the first time since the storm
off of Hull, but scarce knew what I said
or why; my thoughts being all confused.
June 22.-A little better; but undes
dreadful apprehensions of sickness.
June 23.-Very bad again; cold and
shivering, and then a violent headache.
June 24.-Much better.
June 25.-An ague very violent: the fit
held me seven hours; cold fit, and hot with
faint sweats after it.
June 26.- Better; and having :
victuals to eat, took my gun, but found my
self very weak; however, I killed a she
goat, and with much difficulty got it home,
and broiled some of it, and ate. I woulo
fain have stewed it. and made some bl t,
but had no pot.

Juii 2' .-The ague again so violent that stepped upon the, ground, I thought th,
1 lay a-bed all day, and neither ate nor earth trembled, just as it had done in the
drank. I was ready to perish with thirst; earthquake. Then I heard a voice so
but so weak I had no strength to stand up, terrible that it is impossible to express
or to get myself any water to drink, the terror of it. All that I understood
Prayed to God again, but was light-headed; was this:-" Seeing all these things have
and when I was not, I was so ignorant I not brought thee to repent..ce, now thou
knew not what to say; only I lay and shalt die ;'-at which words, I thought he
cried, "Lord, look upon me I Lord, pity lifted up the spear that was in his hand to
me I Lord, have mercy upon me I" I sup- kill me.
pose I did nothing else for two or three No one that shall ever read this account
hours; till, the fit wearing off, I fell asleep, will expect that I should be able to de.
and did not awake till far in the night. scribe the horrors of my soul at this terrible
When I awoke, I found myself much re- vision. Nor is it any more possible to de.
freshed, but weak, and exceeding thirsty; scribe the impression that remained upon
however, as I had no water in my whole my mind when I awaked, and found it
habitation, I was forced to !Ie till morning, was but a dream.
and went to sleep again. In this second I had, alas! no divine knowledge. What
sleep, I had this terrible dream: I thought I had received from my father had been
worn out by eight years of seafaring
wickedness. During all that time I had
t never thought seriously of God, nor had 1
been thankful to Him for His great mer
cies. But now I began to pray for the
first time in many years, after which I fell
into a refreshing sleep.
J J e $8.-Feeling much better, I arose
and cooked three of the turtle's eggs in
the ashes, and ate them. I tned to walk
rpB about with my gun, but was too weak to
go far, and I sat down to think. I knew
that the ague would return the next day,
and then I remembered that the Brazili;nl:
took tobacco for such distempers. I had
some tobacco in one of the chests that l
had saved, and I went to get it. I was
th'at I was sitting on the ground, and that directed by heaven, no doubt, for I found
I saw a man descend from a great black in the chest a cure both for soul and body,
coud: in a bright flame of fire. IHis Packed in with the tobacco was a Bible
rountenanoe was most dreadful. When he which I had forgotten all about, but whid


w Ws now overjoyed to find. I took it to
iny table and read from it a long time, and
L:,ing taken a dose of tobacco stee ped in
sum, I went to bed,
'~.. next day I had the bfv'r, but not so
5,&, and July 3d I missed it for good and
ai. I was, hIr eerf, so weak for many
namys that I could do but little more than
,:1 ; tiih mouth of my cave and try to
ri.:; '.- baskets.
It w.- the 1.,ih of July that I began to
.1. L.- a IL, ire particular survey of the island
i .-..! I went up the creek flist, where, as
I in1; *.1, I brought ,ivy :iafr on shore. I
f.,.: i..! t-r I came about two miles up,
t.C it t 1! ide did not t, a:t any higher; and
t.l : it v .:s no more than a little brook.
0, .. i .I iks were many meadows covered
w-ih O;;. -, and on the higher parts Ifound
tl ...-c ., rowing. There were many other
,pl..rt., tlat, I had never seen before.
.)u the next day I went farther the same
Way, :nmij, much to my joy, found melons
np. -u (Ili round in great abundance, and
grllaes h[Ki.in.. in great clusters from the
braultlin- ofi the trees. I staid there all
that. nIlih, sleeping in a tree as when I
first Ji:ried.. In the m'nin:, I traveled on
some four miles farther. Here I found a
deli,.ous valley, where everyt:hingi appeared
so fresh and green that it looked like a
planted g:.rden. Here were orange, lemon,
lime andl cocoa trees, but few of them bore
fru'i. I gathered some green limes, and,
mixed \ith water, I fo nd their juice very
refr'h;Lir,.. I resolved to lay up a store of
all fr the wet season.
In order to do this, I gathered a great
healp -". .IraTpes in one place, a lesser heap
# '~clthLr place, and a great parcel of

limes and lemons in another place; and
taking a few of each with me. I traveled
home, but before I got thither, the grapes
were spoiled; the richness of the fruit., and
the weight of the juice, having broke
them and bruised them, they were good for
little or nothing. As to the limes, they were
good, but I could bring but a few.

The next day I went balk, having made
Sae two small bags to bring home my har.
, est; but I was surp risvd, when, coming to
aiy heap of grapes, I found them all spread
abroad, trodden to pieces, and dragged
about, some here, some there, and abund.
ance eaten and devoured. Bythis I con-
eluded there were some wild creatures
thereabouts, which had done this; but
what they were I knew not. However, I
took another course; for I gathered a large


quantity of the grapes, and hung them
Upon the out branches of the trees, that
they might cure and dry in the sun; and
as for the limes and lemons, I carried as
many back as I could well stand under.
SWhen I came home from this journey, I
contemplated with great pleasure the fruit-
fulness of that valley, and the pleasantness
of the situation; the security from storm
on that side of the water, and the wood;
and concluded that I had pitched upon a
place to fix my abode, which was by far
the worst part of the country. Upon the
while, I began to consider of removing my
habitation, and to look out for a place

equally safe as where now 1 was situate, if
possible, in that pleasant, fruitful part of
the island.
This thought ran long in my head, and
I was exceedingly fond of it for some time,
the pleasantness of the place tempting me;
but when I came to a nearer view of it, I
considered that I was now by the sea-side,
where it was at least possible that some-
thing fight happen to my advantage;
and that the same ill fate that brought
me hither, might bring some other un.
happy wretches to the same place; and to
enclose myself among the hills and woods
in the centre of the island, was to antici.
pate my bondage, and to render such an
affair not only improbable, but impossible;
and that therefore I ought not by any
means to remove.
However, I was so enamored with
this place, that I spent much of my time
there for the whole remaining part of the
month of July; and though, upon second
thoughts, I resolved as above not to remove,
yet I built me a little kind of a bower, and
surrounded it at a distance with a strong
fence, being a double hedge, as high as I
could reach, well staked, and filled between
with brushwood; and here I lay very
secure, sometimes two or three nights to.
gether, always going over it with a ladder
as before; so that I fancied now I had my
country house and my sea-coast house.
The 3rd of August, I found the grapes I
had hung up were perfectly dried, and
indeed were excellent good raisins of the
sun; so I began to take them down from the
trees, and it was very happy that I did so,
for the rains which followed would have
spoiled them, and I had lost the better prt


of my winter's food; for I had above two
hundred large bunches of them. No sooner
had I taken them all down, and carried
most of them home to my cave, but it began
to rain; and it rained, more or less, every
day, till the middle of October, and some-
times so violently, that I could not stir out
of my cave for several days.

In this season I was much surprised with
the increase of my family. I had been con.
cerned for the loss of one of my cats, who
ran away from me, and I heard no more
tidings of her, till, to my astonishment, she
came home about the end of August, with
three kittens. I afterward came to lbe so
pestered with cats, that I was forced to
kill them like vermin, or wild beasts, and
to drive them from my house as much as
From the 14th of August to the 26th,
incessant rain, so that I could not stir, and
was now very careful not to be much wet.
In this confinement, I began to be strait-
mned for food; but venturing out twice, I
one day killed a goat; and the last day,
which was the 26th, found a very large
tortoise, which was a treat to me, and my

food was regulated thus:-I ate a bmuch of
raisins for my breakfast; a piece of the
goat's flesh, or of the turtle, for my dinner,
broiled (for, to my great misfortune, I had
no vessel to boil or stew anything), and
two or three of the turtle's eggs for supper.
&ept. 30.-I was now come to the un-
happy anniversary of my landing. I cast
up the notches on my post, and found
I had been on shore three hundred and
sixty-five days. I kept this day as a solerm
fast, setting it apart for religious exercises,
prostrating myself on the ground with tLe
most serious humiliation, confessing my
sins to God, acknowledging his righteous
judgment upon me, and praying to him to
have mercy upon me through Jesus Christ ;
and havingnot tasted the least refre.- liiri, i
for twelve hours, even till the going dow;
of the sun, I then ate a biscuit-cake and :
bunch of grapes, and went to bed, finishing
the day as I began it. I now set off every!
seventh day as the Sabbath day.
My ink gave out about this time, and I
gave up my journal. After a time I leased!
how to divide the rainy season from 1itf
dry season, but at first the lack of thi|
knowledge came near costing me dear, fuir
I sowed my grain before the dry season
and not a stalk came up. Fort:unat'yl .
had not sown it all, and I sowed the fek
grains left before the rainy season and i
grew very well, though it was several y.~ar
before I had enough to make a crop.
After I had found, by experience, the i
consequences of being abroad in the raii
I took care- to furnish myself with 1piol
sons before hand, ,,at I might not .V1
obliged to go oA, and I sat within d].op'.
as much as possible during the wet mniolt'"


In this time I found much employment,
and very suitable also to the time, for I
found great occasion of many things which
I had no way to furnish myself with but
by hard labor and 'constant application;
particularly, I had tried many ways to
make myself a basket, but all the twigs I
could get for the purpose proved so brittle
that they would do nothing.
It came into my mind that the twigs of
that tree from whence I cut my stakes that
grew might possibly be. as tough as the
sallows, willows, and osiers in England,
and I resolved to try. Accordingly, the
next day I went to my country-house, as I
called it, and cutting some of the smaller
twigs, I found them to my purpose asamuch
as I could desire. During the next season,
Employed myself in making, as well as
could, a great many baskets, both to

carry earth or lay up anything, as I had
occasion; and though I did not finish them
very handsomely, yet I made them suf.
ciently servicable for my purpose; and
thus, afterwards, I took care never to be
without them; and as my wicker-ware
decayed, I made more, especially strong,
deep baskets to place my corn in, instead of
sacks, when I should come to have any
quantity of it.
I now resolved to travel quite across to
the other side of the island, so, taking a
hatchet with my gun and dog, and a larger
quantity of powder and shot than usual,
and putting a great bunch of raisins and
two biscuit oakes in my pouch, I began
my journey.
I saw abundance of parrots, and fain
would I have caught one, if possible, to
have kept it to be tame, and taught it to


speak to me. I did, after some painstak-
ing, catch a young parrot, for I knocked it
down with a stick, and having recovered
it, I brought it home; but it was some
:years before I could make him speak;
however, at last, I taught him to call me
,by my name very familiarly.

As soon as I came to the seashore, I was
surprised to see that I had taken up my
lot on the worst side of the island, for
here, indeed, the shore was covered with
innumerable turtles, whereas, on the other
side, I had found but three in a year and
a half. Here was also an infinite number
of fowls of many kinds, some of which I
had not seen before, and many of them
very good meat, but such as I knew not
the names of, except those called penguins.
I could have shot as many as I pleased,
but was very sparing of my powder and
shot, and therefore had more mind to kill
a she-goat, if I could, which I could better
feed on; and though there were many
goats here, more than on the other side of
the island, yet it was with much more
difficulty that I could come near them.
I confess this side of the country was

much pleasanter than mine; but yet I had
not the least inclination to remove, for, as
I was fixed in my habitation, it became
natural to me, and I seemed all the while
I was here to be as it were upon a jour.
ney, and from home. However, I trav.
eled along the shore of the sea towards
the east, I suppose about twelve miles, and
then setting up a great pole upon the shore
for a mark, I concluded I would go home
I took another way going home, and
became bewildered and lost, so that I had
to go back to my post and start again. In
this journey, my dog surprised a kid, which
I caught and led by a string till I came to
my bower, where I left him, securely tied.
I cannot express my satisfaction when I
came to what I called my home and threw
myself in my hammock. I had been gone
a month, and it all appeared so comfortable
that I resolved never to leave it for so long
a time again, while I remained on the
It was now that I began sensibly to feel
how much more happy the life I now led
was, with all its miserable circumstances
than the wicked, abominable life I led al
the past part of my days; and now having
changed both my sorrows and my joys:
my very desires altered, and my delights
were perfectly new fr)- what they wer
at first coming.
Before, as I walked about, either on my
hunting, or for viewing the country, tbh
anguish of my soul at my condition would
break out upon me on a sudden, and my
very heart would die within me, to think
of the woods, the mountains, the deserts I
was in, and how I was a prisoner, locked

up with the eternal bars and bolts of the would go off, and the grief having exj
ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness, with- hausted itself would abate.
out redemption. In the midst of the But now I began to exercise myself
greatest composures of my mind, this with new thoughts. I daily read the Word
would break out upon me like a storm, of God, and applied all the comforts of it
and make me wring my hands, and weep to my present state. One morning, being

like a child. Sometimes it would take me
in the middle of my work, and I would sit
down and sigh, and look upon the ground
for an hour or two together; and this
was still worse to me, for if I could burst
out into tears, or vent myself by words, it

very sad, I opened the Bible upon these
words, I will never leave thee, never for-
sake thee." Immediately it occurred that
these words were to me; why otherwise
should they be directed in such a manner,
just at the moment when I was mourning


over my condition, as one forsaken of God
and man? Well, then," said I, "if God
does not forsake me, of what ill conse-
quence cfn it be, or what matters it, though

the world should all forsake me seeing, on
the other hand, if I had all the world, and
should lose the favor and blessing of God,
siere would be no comparison in the loss ?"
Fi'ia this moment I began to conclude
.n my mind that it was possible for me to
be happy in this forsaken, solitary condi.
tUon; and I was going to give thanks to
God for bringing me to this place. I know
not what it was, but something shocked my

mind at that thought, and I durst not
speak the words. How canst thou become
such a hypocrite," said I, even audibly, "to
pretend to be thankful for a condition,
which, however
Sthou mayst en.
deavor to be c--.
Satented with, thoi
we wouldst rather
pray heartily to 1,
delivered from?"
So I stopped
there; but though
I could not say I
thanked God for
being there, yet
I sincerely gave
thanks to God for
opening my eyes.
bywhatever afflict
aig providence
to see the former
condition of n:y
life, and to mourn
for my wickedness
and repent.
Thus I began
my third year. I
was seldom idle,
dividing my thinl
according to my daily employment, such n,
first, my duty to God, and the reading th,
Scriptures, which. I always set apart sont
time for, thrice every day; secondly, the
going abroad with my gun for food, which
generally took up three hours in every
morning, when it did not rain; thirdlY,
the ordering, curing, prese-rving and cok,l,
ing what I had killed or caught for yv
supply. These took up great part of thei

day. Also, it is to be considered, that in of losing it all again by enemies of several
the middle of the day, when the sun was sorts, which it was scarcely possible to keep
in the zenith, the violence of the heat was from it; as, first the goats, and wild cream
too great to stir out; so that about four tures which I called hares, which, tasting
hours in the evening was all the time I the sweetness of the blade, eat it so close
could be supposed to work in, with this that it could get no time to shoot up in
exception, that sometimes I changed my stalk.
hours of hunting and working, and went This I saw no remedy for, but making
to work in the morning, and abroad with an inclosure about it with a hedge, which
my gun in the afternoon, did with a great deal of toil, and the mo
While in-doors, during the rains, I talked because it required a great deal of speed
much to my parrot, which now learned her the creatures daily spoiling my corn. Ho
own name and seemed to repeat it for my ever, as my arable land was but sma
diversion, as it pleased me greatly. suited to my crop, I got .it totally w
I was now in the months of November fenced in about three weeks' thime; an
and December, expecting my crop of barley shooting some of the creatures in the d
and rice. The ground I had dug up for time, I set my dog to guaru it in the nigh
tying him up to a stake at the gate, whe
he would stand and bark all night long;
in a little time the enemies forsook
Place, and the corn grew very strong
t--l But now I had even greater trouble
keep the birds from eating all of t
ripening grain. I finally shot three
MN them, and hung them up as scarecro
This had the effect I de-red, and kept t
so u w mibirds away. In the latter end of Dece
ber I reaped my corn.
I was sadly put to it for a scythe
sickle to cut it down, and all I could
was to make one, as well as I could, out
one of the broad-swords, or cutlass
,which I saved among the arms out of
ship. However, as my crop was b
them was not great; for my seed of each small I had no great difficulty to cut
:' was not above half a peck, for I had lost down; in short, I reaped it in my way,
one whole crop by sowing in the dry sea- I cut nothing off but the ears, and car
son; but now my crop promised very well, it away in a great basket which JI
when on a sudden I found I was in danger made, and so rubbed it out with my hands


and at the end of all my harvesting, I
found that out of my half-peck of seed I
had near two bushels of rice, and above
two bushels and a-half of barley; that is
~o say, by my guess, for I had no measure
at that time.
I had long studied, by some means or
other, to make myself some earthen vessels,
which, indeed, I wanted sorely. I did not
doubt but if I could find out any clay, I
might botch up some such pot as might,
being dried by the sun, be hard enough
and strong enough to bear handling, and
to hold anything that was dry, and re-
quired to be so; and as this was necessary
in preparing corn, meal, &c., which was
the thing that I was upon, I resolved to
make some as large as I could, and fit only
to stand like jars, to hold what should be
put into them.
It would- make the reader pity me, or
rather laugh at me, to tell how many awk-
ward ways I took to raise this paste; what
odd, misshapen, ugly things I made; how
many of them fell in, and how many fell
out-the clay not being stiff enough to
bear its own weight; how many cracked
by the over-violent heat of the sun, being
set out too hastily; and how many fell to
pieces with only removing, as well before
as after they were dried; and, in a word,
how, after having labored hard to find the
clay-to dig it, to temper it, to bring it
Some, and work it-I could not make
above two large earthen ugly things (I can.
not call them jars) in about two months'
However, as the sun baked these two
very dry and hard, I lifted them very
gently up, and set them down again in two

great wicker baskets, which I had made on
purpose for them, that they might not
Though miscarried so much in my design
for large pots, yet I made several smaller
things with better success; such as little
round pots, flat dishes, pitchers and pipkins,
and anything my hand turned to; and the
heat of the sun baked them strangely hard.

But all this would not answer my end,
which was to get an earthen pot to hold
what was liquid, and bear the fire; which
none of these could do. It happened after
some time, making a pretty large fire for
cooking my meat, when I went to put it
out after I had done with it, I found a
broken piece of one of my earthenware ves.
sels in the fire, burnt as hard as a stqe,:


and red as a tile. I was agreeably surprised
to see it, and said to myself that certainly
they might be made to burn whole, if they
would burn broken.
This set me to study how to order my
fu-e so as to make it burn me some pots. I
had no notion of a kiln, such as the potters
burn in, or of glazing them with lead,.
though I had some lead to do it with; but
I placed three large pipkins, two or three

pots, in a pile, one upon another, and placed
my flFreod, all round it, with a heap of
embers under them. I plied the fire with
fresh fuel round the outside and upon the
top, till I saw the pots in the inside red-hot
quite through, and observed that they did
not crack at all; when I saw them clear
red, I let them stand in that heat about
five or six hours, till I found one of them,
th,,,righ it did noi crack, did melt or run;
for the said which was mixed with the
clay melted v ith the violence of the heat,
and would have run into glass if I had
gone on. So I slacked my fire gradually till
the pots Legan to abate of the red color,
sad waftchlg thjem all night. that I might

not let the fire abate too fast, in the mortar
ing I had three very good (I will not say
handsome) pipkins,. and two other earthen
pots, as hard burnt as could be desired, and
one them perfectly glazed with the running
of the sand.
After this experiment, I wanted no sort
of earthenware for my use; but I must
needs say as to the shapes of them they
were very indifferent, as any one may sup:
pose, when I had no way of making the-n i
but as the children make dirt pies, or as ha
woman would make pies that never learned
to raise paste.
I now thought to dig out a stone, and
make myself a mortar; but,after search inog
a long while I could find no stone hard
enoughas all the rocks on the island wein,
soft and crumbling. I got instead a great
block of hard wood, and with much labor
I rounded the outside, and then, with the
help of fire, made a hollow place in it, as.
the Indians in Brazil make their canoes.
Then I made a heavy pestle of iron-woo.d
and laid them both by till I had my next
crop of corn to grind or pound into flour,
With some muslin taken from the ship, I
made some very good sieves.
The baking part was the next thing to
be considered, but I managed this also.
I made some hollow earthen vessels, which
served as hearths. In there I built Aot
fires. Then, raking the ashes and embenr
off lean, I put in my loaves and covered
them with earthen Jais.
All the while these things were doing,
you may be sure my thoughts ran many
times upon the land which I had seen
from the other side of the island; and I
was not without secret wishes that I w


Lb won there, fancying that I might find
iome way or other to convey myself far-
ilbei, and perhaps at last find some means
esf escape.
But all this while I made no allowance
or the dangers of such a condition, and
$ow I might fall into the hands of sav-
i4ges, and perhaps such as I might have
"ason to think far worse than the lions
:nd tigers of Africa; that if I once came
fjto their power I should run a hazard of
I- .u killed, and perhaps of being eaten;
,,r I had heard that the people of the
caribbean coasts were cannibals, or men.
,t'rs, and I knew by the latitude, that I
could not be far of from that shore. All
.*.the things, I say, which I ought to have
eTiusidered well of, aand I did cast up in
ay thoughts afterwards, yet took up none
i my apprehensions at first, nd my head
ian i ghtily upon the thought of getting
vr to that shore.
Now, I wished for my boy XXry and
A e long-boat, with the '-houlder-of-mutton
il, with lhich I sailed above a thousand
i s on the coast of Africa; but this was
vain. Then I thought I would go and
,,ok at our ship'sboat, which was blown'
u' ipon 'he share a great way, in the
turm, when w werefi cast away. She;
ay a.ost Where she did at first, but not
Iite, and wasturned, by the force of the
taves and the winds, almost bottom up
;v.rl, against the high bridge of rough
aLd, but no water about other as before.
SIf I had had hands to have refitted her,
,dl to have launched her into the water,
~~L boat would have done well enough,
aI mLight have gone back into the
f ib with her. easily enough; but 1T
f :-. s

CRU80. t8
~ ------ -

might have easily foreseen that I could no
more turn her and set her upright upon
her bottom, than I could remove the
island; however, I went to the wood, and
cut levers and rollers, and brought them to
the boat, resolved to try what I could do
I spared no pains, indeed, in this piece
of fruitless toil, and spent, I think, three
or four weeks about it; at last, -ililndlg it
impossible to heave it up with my lit t]
strength, I fell to digging away the sand,
to undermine it, and so to make it fuil
down, setting pieces of wood to thruas
and guide it right in the fal.
But I was unable to stir it, or to w *


under it, much less to move it forward to.
wards the water; so I was forced to give
it over; and yet, though I gave over the
hopes of the boat, my desire to venture
over for the mainland increased.

S This at length set me
Supon thinking whether
it was not possible to make myself a
canoe, or periagua, such as the natives of
those climates make, even without tools,
3r, as I might say, without hands-viz.,
of the trunk of a great tree. This I not
only thought possible, but easy, and pleased
myself extremely with my thoughts of
making it, and with my having much more
convenience for it than any of the Negroes
or Indians; but not at all considering the
particular inconveniences which I lay
under more than the Indians did, viz.,
want of hands to move it into the water
when it was made.
I went to work upon this boat the most
like a fool that ever man did, who had any
of his senses awake. I pleased myself
with the design, without determining
whether I was ever able to undertake it;
not but that the difficulty of launching my
boat came often into my head; but I put
a stop to my inquiries into it, by this
foolish answer which I gave myself: "Let
me first make it; I warrant I shall find
some way to get it along when it is done."

This was a most preposterous method;
but the eagerness of my fancy prevailed,
and to work I went, and felled a cedar.
tree. I question much whether Solomon
ever had such a one for the building the
Temple of Jerusalem. It was five feet ten
inches diameter at the lower part, and four
feet eleven inches diameter at the end of
twenty-two feet; after which it lessened
for a while, and then parted into branches.
It was not without infinite labor that I
felled this tree. I was twenty days hqck.
ing and hewing at it at the bottom; I was
fourteen more getting the branches and
limbs and the vast spreading head of it cut
off, which I hacked and hewed through
with my axe and hatchet. After this, it
cost me a month to shape it to something
like the bottom of a boat. It cost me
near three months more to clear the inside,
and work it out so as to make an exact
boat of it. This I did, indeed, without fire,
by mere mallet and chisel, and by the dint
of hard labor, till I had brought it to be a
very handsome periagua, and big enough
to have carried six-and-twenty men.
When I had gone through this work, I
was extremely delighted with it. The
boat was really much, bigger than ever I
saw a canoe or periagua, that was made of
one tree, in my life. Many a weary stroke
it had cost, you may be sure-for there
remained nothing but to get it into the;
water; and had I gotten it into the water,
I make no question, but I should have
begun the maddest voyage, and the most
unlikely to be performed that ever was
But all my devices to get it into the
water failed me. It lay about one hun-


dred yards from the water, and not more; bread for
but the first inconvenience was, it was up my own.
hill towards the creek. Well, to take My do
away this discouragement, I resolved to as to lin
dig into the surface of the earth, and so while, ex,
make a declivity. This I began, and it in the c
cost me a prodigious deal of pains (but which I (
who grudge pains that have their deliver- times I c
ance in view ?); but when this was worked a shirt;
through, and this difficulty managed, it was to me t]
still much at one, for I could no more stir clothes o:
the canoe than I could the other boat. of shirts.
Then I measured the distance of ground, watch-coa
and resolved to cut a dock or canal, to left behind
bring the water up to the canoe, seeing I so I set t
could not bring the canoe down to the botching,
water. I began this work, but upon cal. it. How
culating the amount of digging and what three wai
I could do in a day, I found it would take me a gr
twelve years to finish it, so I was obliged drawers, ]
to abandon it. afterward
In the middle of this work I finished my I have
fourth year in this place, and kept my anni- of all the
versary with the same devotion, and with four-foote
as much comfort as ever before; for, by stretched
a constant study and serious application of whlch mei
the Word of God, and by the assistance of hard that
His grace, I gained a different knowledge it seems,
from what I had before. I looked now made of t
upon the world as a thing remote, which I with the
had nothing to do with, no expectation the rain;
from, and, indeed, no desire about; in a after, I m
word, I had nothing indeed to do with it, those skin
nor was ever likely to have. ledge the6
The next thing to my ink being wasted, was a bad
was that of my bread, I mean the biscuit However,
which I brought out of the ship. This I good shift
had husbanded to the last degree, allowing it happen
myself but one cake of bread a day for coat.and c
abovea year; and yet I was quite without very d3y.

a year before I got any corn of

these too, began to decay mightily;'
en, I had had none for a good
cept some shirts which I had found
chests of the other seamen, and
carefully preserved; because many
would bear no other clothes on but
and it was a very great help
hat I had, among all the men's
f the ship, almost three dozen
There were also several thick
Its of the seamen's, which were
Id, but they were too hot to wear;
o work, tailoring, or rather, indeed,
for I made most piteous work of
ever, I made shift to make two or
coats, which I hoped would serve
eat while; as for breeches or
Made but a very sorry shift till
mentioned that I saved the skins
creatures that I killed, I mean
d ones, and I had hung them up
out with sticks in the sun, by
anssome of them were so dry and
they were fit for little, but other
were very useful The first thing
hese was a great cap for my head,
hair on the outside, to shoot oi
and this performed so well, that
ade me a suit of clothes wholly of
i. I must not omit to acknow.
Were wretchedly made; for if I
carpenter, I was a worse tailor.
they were such as I made a veri
with, and when I wasabroad, ii
d to rin, the hair at the waist
ap being outermod, I was kep


After this, I spent a great deal of time
and pains to make an umbrella. I was, in.
deed, in great need of one, and had a great
mind to make one. I had seen them made
in the Brazils, where they are very useful
in the great heats which are there, and I
felt the heats every jot as great here, and
greater too, being nearer the equinox; be-
sides, as I was obliged to be much abroad

it spread, but if it did not let down too,
and draw in, it would not be portable for
me any way but just over my head, which
would not do. However, at last, as I said,
I made one to answer. I covered it with
skins, the hair upwards, so that it east off
the rain like a pent-house, and kept off
the sun so effectually, that I could walk
out in the hottest of the weather with

it was a most useful thing to me, as well
for the rams as the heats. I took a world
of pains at it, and was a great while before
I could mal. anything likely to hold: nay,
after I thought I had hit the way, I spoiled
two or three before I made one to my mind.
But at last I made one that answered indif.
ferently well; the main difficulty I found
was to make it to let down. I could make

greater advantage than I could before il
the coolest.
Thus I lived mighty comfortably, my
mind being entirely composed by resigning
to the will of God, and throwing myself
wholly upon the disposal of His providence.
This made my life better than sociable, for
when I began to regret the want of convert.
station, I would ask myself whether thus


conersing mutually with my own thoughts,
and (as I hope I may say) with even my
Maker, by ejaculations and petitions, was
not better than the utmost enjoyment of
human society in the world ?
I cannot say that, after this, for five'
years, any extraordinary thing happened to
me, but I lived on in the same course, in
the same posture and place, just as before.
The chief thing I was employed in, besides
my yearly labor of planting my barley and
rice, and curing my raisins-of both which
I always kept up just enough to have
sufficient stock of the year's provision
beforehand-I had one labor, to make me
a canoe, which at last I finished; so that,
by digging a canal to it of six feet wide
and four feet deep, I brought it into the
creek, almost half a mile.
In building this boat I was wiser than
in building my larger one, and I built it
small enough to get to the sea. I was near
two years in building it, but I never
grudged my labor, in hopes of having a
boat to go off to sea at last.
However, though my little periagua was
finished, yet the size of it was not at all
answerable to the design which I had in
view when I made the first; I mean of
venturing over to the mainland, so that
design was given over for the present. As
I had a boat, my next design was to make
a tour round the island.
For this purpose, I fitted up a little mast
in my boat, and made a sail to it out of
some of the little pieces of the ship's sails
which lay in store. I tried the boat, and
found she would sail very well. Then I
made little lockers or boxes at each end to
put provisions, ammunition, etc., to be

kept dry, either from rain or the spray of
the sea. I made also, a little, long, hollow
place where I could lay my gun, making a
flap to hang down over it to keep it dry.
I fixed my umbrella at the stern, to stand
over my head like an awning. All now
being ready, I loaded my ship for the voy.
age, putting in two dozen loaves of barley
bread, an earthen pot full of parched
rice, a little bottle of rum, and half a goat,
powder and shot for my gun, and two
large coats, one to lie upon and one to
cover me in the night, and thus I set sail.
When I came to the east side of the
island, I found a great ledge of rocks lie
out about two leagues into the sea, and be.
yond that a shoal of sand lying half a
league more. I was afraid to go so far out
to sea, for fear I could not get back again,
so I anchored my boat, and, taking my
gun, went on shore and climbed a big hill,
to get a view of the other side of the
From the hill I perceived a strong and
intricate current, which would be very
likely to prevent me from being able to
make the island again. And, indeed, had
I not got first upon this hill, I believe it
would have been so; for there was the
same current on the other side of the
island, only that it set off at a farther dis-
tance, and I saw there was a strong eddy
under the shore; so I had nothing to do
but to get out of the first current, and i
should presently be in an eddy.
I lay here, however, two days, because,
the wind blowing pretty fresh at E.S.E.,
and that being just contrary to the current,
made a great breach of the sea upon the
point; so that it was not safe for me to


keep too close to the shore for the breach,
nor to go too far off, because of the stream.
The third day, in the morning, the wind
having abated overnight, the sea was calm,
and I ventured. But I am a warning-piece
to all rash and ignorant pilots; for no
sooner was I come to the point, when I
was not even my boat's length from the
shore, but I found myself in a great depth
of water, and a current like the sluice of
a mill. It carried my boat along with it

with such violence that all I could de
could not keep her so much as on the edge
of it; but I found it hurried me farther
and farther out from the eddy, which was
on my left hand. There was no wind
stirring-to help me, and all that I could do
with my paddles signified nothing. And
now I began to give myself over for lost;
for as the current was on both sides of the
island, I, knew in a few leagues' distance
they must join again, and then I was ire.


1 coverably gone; so that
7 R- I had no prospect be-
fore me but of perishing, not by the sea,
for that was calm enough, but of starving
from hunger. I had, indeed, found a tor-
tois3 on the shore, as big almost as I could
lift, and had tossed it into the boat; and I
had a great jar of fresh water, that is to
say, one of my earthen pots; but what
was all this to being driven into the vast
ocean, where, to be sure, there was no
shore, no mainland or island, for a thous-
and miles at least I
And now I saw how easy it was for the
providence of God to make the most mis-
erable condition that mankind could be in
worse. Now I looked back upon my deso-
late, solitary island as the most pleasant
place in the world, and all the happiness
Smy heart could wish for was to be there
again. I stretched out my hands to it,
with eager wishes. "0 happy desert!"
said I, "I shall never see thee more. 0
miserable creature I whither am I going?*
I still worked hard to get my boat out
c' the current. About noon, a breeze
sprang up from the S. S. E.,which cheered
my heart a little, and especially when, in
about half an hour more, it blew a pretty
small, gentle gale. By this time, I had
got at a frightful distance from the island;
and had the least cloudy or hazy weather
intervened I had beer donee another


way, too; for I had no compass on board.
and should never have known how to have
steered towards the island, if I had but
once lost sight of it. But the weather
continuing clear, I applied myself to get
up my mast again, and spread my sail
standing away to the north as much as
possible, to get out of the current.
I made such good headway that I soon
found an eddy which carried me about a
league on my way back. The -wind con-
tinuing fair, I continued to near the island
and soon got to land. When I was on
shore, I fell on my knees and gave God
thanks for my deliverance. After which, I
drew my boat into a little cove under some
trees, and laid me down to sleep, being
quite spent with the fatigue of the voyage,
which I resolved not to repeat.
I was now at a great loss which way to
get home with my boat. I had run so much
hazard, and knew too much of the case, to
think of attempting it by the way I went
out; and what might be at the other side I
knew not, nor had I any mind to run any
more ventures. So I resolved, on the next
morning, to make my way westward along
the shore, and to see if there was no creek
where I might lay up my frigate in safety,
so as to have her again, if I wanted her.
In about three miles, coasting the shore, I
came to a very good inlet or bay, about a
mile over, which narrowed till it came to a
very little rivulet or brook, where I fo d
a very convenient harbor for my
Here I put in, and, having stored my b
very safe, I went on shore to look a at
me, and see where I was.
I soon found I had but a little passed by
the place where I had been before, wheir I



travelled on foot to that shore; so, taking
nothing out of my boat but my gun and
umbrella, for it was exceedingly hot, I
began my march. The way was comfort-
able enough after such a voyage as I had
been upon, and I reached my old bower in
the evening, where I found everything
standing as I left "t.
I got over the feiice, and laid me down
to rest my limbs, for I was
rery weary, and fell asleep.
But judge you, if you can,
what a surprise I must have
been in when I was awaked
out of my sleep by a voice,
calling me by my name sev-
eral times: "Robin, Robin,
Robin Crusoe poor Robin
Crusoe! Where are you,
Robin Crusoe? Where are
ou ? Where have you
been ?"
I was so dead asleep at
first, being fatigued with
rowing the first part of the
day and walking the latter
part, that I did not awake
thoroughly; and dozing be-
tween sleeping and waking,
thought I dreamed that
somebody spoke to me; but
as the voice continued to
repeat, "Robin Crusoe!
Robin Crusoe !' at last I
began to awake more per-
fectly, and was at first
dreadfully frightened, and
started up in the utmost
consternation. No sooner
were my eyes open, but I

saw my poll sitting on the top ol th,-
hedge, and immediately knew that it w.,
he that spoke to me; for just in ,ucc
bemoaning language I had used to talk
to him and teach him.
However, even though I knew it was the
parrot, and that indeed it could be nobody
else, it was a good while before I coula
compose myself. Holding out my hand,


and calling him by his name, Poll," the
sociable creature came to me, and sat upon
my thumb, as he used to do, and continued
talking to me, "Poor Robin Crusoe I and
ihow did I come here! and where had I
been ?" just as if he had been overjoyed to
see me again; and so I carried him home
along with me.
I had now enough of rambling to sea for
some time, and enough to do for many days
to eit still and reflect upon the danger I

had been in. I would have been very glad
to have had my boat again on my side of
the island; but I knew not how it was
practicable to get it about. As to the east
side of the island, which I had gone round,
I knew well enough there was no ventur-
ing that way; my very heart would shrink
and my very blood run chill, but to
think of it; and as to the other side of the
island, I knew there was a current there
quite as dangerous.
I began to think now what I should do
for goat'f Iesh when my powder should be
all gone. To make provision for this, I set
traps, and caught some young kids, which
I tamed, keeping them in a large enclosure,
securely fenced about. It would have
made a stoic smile to see me and my little
family sit down to dinner. There was my
majesty, the prince and lord of the whole

island. I had the lives of all my subject
at absolute command; I could hang, draw.
give life and liberty and take it away, and
no rebels among all my subjects. Then to
see how like a king I dined too, all alone,
attended by my servants! Poll, as if he
had been my favourite, was the only per-
son permitted to talk to me; my dog, who
was now grown very old and crazy, sat
always at my right 'hand; and two cats,
one on one side the table, and one on the
other, expecting now and then a bit from
my hand, as a mark of special favor.
I wanted the use of my boat very much,
but I was very loth to run any more risk
at sea. One day I resolved to go by land
to the little hill on the other side where I
had observed how the shore lay and the
current set, and so I started, following the
edge of the shore. Had any of the people
of England met me at that time, I should
either have frightened them or raised a
great deal of laughter.
I had a great, high shapeless cap, made
of goat's skin, with a flap hanging down
behind, as well to keep the sun from me as
to shoot the rain off from running into my
neck; nothing being so hurtful in these
climates as the rain upon the flesh under
the clothes.
I had a short jacket of goat's skin, the
skirts coming down to about tile middle
of the thighs, and a pair of open-kneed
breeches of the same. The breeches were
made of the skin of an old he-goat, v hose
hair hung down such a length on either
side, that, like pantaloons, it reached to the
middle of my legs. Stockings and shoes 1
had none, but had made me a pair of some-
things, I scarce know what to call them"


like buskins, to flap over my legs, and lace
on either side like spatterdashes, but of a
most barbarous shape, as indeed were all
the rest of my clothes.
I had on a broad belt of goat's skin
dried, which I drew together with two
thongs of the same, instead of buckles;
and in a kind of a frog on either side of
this, instead of a sword and dagger, hung
a little saw and a hatchet, one on one side,
one on the other. I had another belt not
so broad, and fastened in the same manner,
which hung over my shoulder; and at the
end of it, under my left arm, hung two
pouches, both made of goat's skin too, in
one of which hung my powder, in the
other my shot. At my back I carried my
basket, on my shoulder my gun, and over

my head a great, clumsy, ugly goat-skin
umbrella, but which, after all, was the
most necessary thing I had about me next
to my gun.
When I reached the hill, I found the sea
quite still, which convinced me that the
current was formed by the ebb and flow
of the tide. Still I resolved to leave the
boat for use on that side of the island, and
to make me another boat to use on my
home side.
It happened one day, about noon, going
towards my boat, I was exceedingly sur.
prised with the print of a man's naked foot
on the shore, which was very plain to be
seen on the sand. I stood like one thun.
derstruck, or as if I had seen an appar.
ition. I listened, I looked around me, but


I eoud hear nothing, nor see anything; I
went up to ia rising ground, to look far-
ther; I went up the shore, and down the
shore, but it was all one; I could see no
other impression but that one. I went to
it again to see if there were any more, and
to observe if it might not be my fancy;
but there was no room for that, for there
was exactly the print of a foot-toes, heel,
and every part of a foot. How it came
thither I knew not, nor could in the least
imagine. But after innumerable fluttering
thoughts, like a man perfectly confused
and out of myself, I came home to my for-
tification, not feeling,
as we say, the ground
I went on, but terri-
fied to the last de.
gree, looking behind
me at every two or
three steps, mistaking
every bush and tree
and fancying every
ttump at a distance
to be a man. Nor isit
possible to describe
how many various
shapes my affrighted
imagination represent-
ed things to me in;
how many wild ideas
were formed every
moment in my fancy,
and what strange un-
accountable whimseys
came into my thoughts
by the way.
When I came to
my castle (for so I
think I called it ever

after this), I fled into it like one pur
sued. Whether I went over by unt
ladder, as first contrived, or went in at
the hole in the ro~-, which I called a
door, I cannot remember; for never frighted
hare fled to cover, or fox to earth, with
more terror )f mind than I did to this
I had no sleep that night, but .lay
trembling with fright and thinking who or
what it could be that had visited the
island. I fancied all sorts of things, but
finally concluded that some of the savages
of the main land had been there, and this

&I 14 d%-


did not in the least allay my fear, for after-
wards I was in constant dread that I
should meet them. When milking my
goats or gathering my fruit, if I heard the
least noise, I was ready to drop every-
:thing and flee to my house.
SNow I began sorely to repent that I had
dug my cave so large as to bring a door
through again beyond where my fortifica-
tion joined to the rock. Therefore I re-
solved to draw me a second fortification, in
the same manner of a semicircle, at a dis-
tance from my wall, just where I had
planted a double row of trees about twelve
years before. These trees having been planted
so thick before, there wanted but few piles
to be driven between the., and my wall
would be soon finished. So that I had
now a double wall; and my outer wall
was thickened with pieces of timber, old

cables, and everything I could tu
of to make it strong, having in it se-
little holes, about as big as I might
my arm out at. In the inside of this
thickened my wall to about ten feet th
continually bringing earth out of my ca
and laying it at the foot of the wall,
walking upon it; and through the sei
holes I contrived to plant the muskets i
cannon, so I could fire all the seven guns
two minutes' time. This wall I was mn
a weary month in finishing, and yet nev
thought myself safe till it was done.
Then I planted the ground without
full of trees as could well stand and gro
so that, in two years' time, I had a grove
thick that no one would ever imagine th
was any human habitation beyond
While I was doing this I thought much
the safety of my goats; so I made a stro


enciosure in a retired part of the island,
and removed to it ten she-goats and two
he-goats and left them there.
One day as I wandered more to the west
part of the island, being on a hill, I thought
saw a boat far out at sea, but I was not
sure. On coming down from the hill, I
was confounded and amazed to see the
shore spread with skulls and other bones of '
human bodies. There was a place where
a fire had been made, and a circle dug in
the earth, where I supposed the savage
wretches had sat down to their inhuman
feast. When I recovered from my horror
at such a sight, I began to thank God that
I was cast ashore upon a part of the island
that was not visited by the cannibals.
In this frame of thankfulness, I went
home to my castle, and began to be much
easier now, as to the safety of my circum-
stances, than ever I was before: for I
observed that these wretches never came to
this island in search of what they could
get; perhaps not l,.'kin-, not wanting, or
not ex.lI.cting, anything here; and having
often, no doubt, been up in the covered,
woody part of it, without finding anything
to their purpose. I knew I had been here
now almost eighteen years, and never saw
the least footsteps of human creature there
before; and I might be eighteen years
more as entirely concealed as I was now, if
I did not discover myself to them, which I
had no manner of occasion to do; it being
my only business to keep myself entirely
concealed where I was, unless I found a
better sort of creatures than cannibals to
make myself known to. Yet I entertained
such an abhorrence of the savage wretches
that I have been speaking of, and of the

wretcned inhuman custom of their devour.
ing and eating one another up, that I con-
tinued pensive and sad, and kept close
within my own circle for almost two years
after this. When I say my own circle, I
mean by it my three plantations, viz., my
castle, my country-seat (which I called my
bower), and my enclosure in the woods;
nor did I look after this for any other use
than as an enclosure for my goats; for the
aversion which nature gave me to these
wretches was such, that I did not so much
as go to look after my boat in all this time,
but began rather to think of making me


another; for I could not think of ever
making any more attempts to bring the
other boat round the island to me, lest I
should meet with some of those creatures
at sea; in which case, if I had happened to
have fallen into their hands, I knew what
would have been my lot.
Night and day, I could think of nothing
now but how I might destroy some of
these monsters, and, if possible, save the
victim they should bring hither to destroy.
It would take up a larger volume than this
whole work is intended to be, to set down
all the contrivances I hatched, or rather
brooded upon, in my thoughts, for the


destroying of th
creatures, or at le
frightening them so
to prevent their con"
hither any more.
all was abortive; n(
ing could be poss
to take effect, unless
was to be there to
it myself: and w]
could one man
among them, w4
perhaps there mig
be twenty or thirty
them, together
their darts, or tl
bows and arrows, wi
which they proba
could shoot as true
a mark as I could wv
my gun ?
Sometimes Ithoug
of digging a h
under the place we
they made their h
and putting in five or six pounds of g
powder, which, when they kindled the
fire, would consequently take fire, and blo
up all that was near it: but as, in the
place, I should be unwilling to waste
much powder upon them, my being n]
within the quantity of one barrel, so neith
could I be sure of its going off at any,
tain time, when it might surprise theg
and, at best, that it would do little mo0
than just blow the fire about their ears an
fright them, but not sufficient to ma
them forsake the place; so I laid it aside
I continually made my tour every mol
ing to the top of the hill, which was frol


my castle, as I called it,
about three miles or
more, to see if I could
observe any boats upon the sea, coming near
the island, or standing over towards it; but
I began to tire of this hard duty, after I
had for two or three months constantly
kept my watch, but came always back
without any discovery.
I began to think, too, that it was not
for me to judge these wretches, and for a
year, I gave up watching for them. This
I did, however: I removed my boat and
hid it securely on the east end of the
island, and I kept myself more retired
than ever.
I believe the reader of this will not
think it strange if I confess these anxie-
ties, these constant fears I lived in, and
the concern that was now upon me, put
an end to all invention, and to all the
contrivances that I had laid for my future
accommodations and conveniences. I had
the care of my safety more now upon
hands than that of my food. I cared not
'to drive a nail, or chop a stick of wood
now, for fear the noise I should make
should be heard; much less would I fire
a gun for the same reason; and, above all,
I was intolerably uneasy at making any
fire, lest the smoke, which is visible at
a great distance in the day, should betray
me. For this reason, I removed that part

of my business which required fire, sucl
as burning of pots and pipes, etc., intj
my new apartment in the woods; where
after I had been some time, I found, to
my unspeakable consolation, a mere nat
ural cave in the earth, which went in a
vast way, and where, I dare say, no say.
age, had he been at Lhe mouth of it, would
be so hardy as to venture in; nor, indeed,
would any man else, but one who, like me,
wanted nothing so much as a safe retreat
On entering with a lighted torch, I stum
bled over an old he-goat that had crept it
there to die, and who did die the next day
The entrance to this cave was a small
hole at the base of a large rock, but within
it was large and roomy and quite dry. I
was greatly rejoiced at the discovery, and
I brought here my magazine of powder.
several muskets and other things.


It was now the month of December in
*y twenty-third year; and this, being the
iautheru solstice (for winter I cannot call
it), was the particular time of my harvest,
aid required me to be pretty much abroad
iv the fields, when, going out early in the
.moniing, I was surprised with seeing a
eight of some fire upon the shore, at a dis.

-i :: -,, y -,- , . ,
:_ '. ' ', . .

-^ ^^ :; .^^ ^
:_., - -,^ - ^., ,
C'- .. I .. -- ''.v.r J .. ..
:, 1 r-, I ... - , :I !

-' -: ... ".:
-r--: .- .... .- .- ; - -: _- -

tance from me of about two miles towards
the end of the island where I had observed
some savages had been, as before, and not
on the other side, but, to my great afflic-
tion, it was on my side of the island.
I was, indeed, terribly surprised at the
sight, and stopped short within my grove,
not daring to go out, lest I might be sur-



pris&n; and yet I had no more peace say, my muskets, which were mounted
withna, from the apprehensions I had upon my new fortifications, and all my
that if these savages, in rambling over pistols, and resolved to defend myself t
the island, should find my corn standing the last gasp-not forgetting seriously to
or cut, )r any of my works, they would commend myself to the Divine protectioA
and earnestly to pray to God to deliver
me out of the hands of the barbarians
And in this posture I continued about
two hours, and began to be impatient for
intelligence abroad, for I had no spies to
send out. I was not able to bear sitting
in ignorance any longer; so setting up my
ladder to the side of the hill, and then
pulling the ladder after me, I set it up
again, and mounted to the top of the hill,
and pulling out my perspective-glass, I laid
me down flat on the ground, and began to
look for the place. I presently found
there were no less than nine naked savy
ages sitting round a small fire they had
made, not to warm them, for they had no
need of that, the weather being extremely
hot, but, as I supposed, to dress some of
their barbarous diet of human flesh which
they had brought with them, whether alive
or dead I could not know.
They had two canoes with them, which
they had hauled up upon the shore; and
as it was then ebb of tide, they seemed to
me to wait the return of the flood to go
immediately conclude that there were pe(t away again. As I expected, so it proved;
pile in the place, and would then never rest. "or, as soon as the tide made to the wes6
tiP 'hey had found me out. n this ex -'ard, I saw them all take boat and row
triemity I went back directly to my castle, ( r paddle, as we call it) away. I should
and pulled up the ladder after mc, having L. ve observed, that for an hour or more
made all things without look as wild and. bore they went off they were dancing
Itatural as I could. ane 1 could easily discern their postures
Then I prepared myself within, putting and e dtures by my glass.
myself in a posture of defence; I loaded & as soon as I saw them gone, I took my
all my cannon, as I called them-that is to guns and pistols and went away to tbh


hill on the other side;. Isaw there had,
been three. canoes-of savagesw there,, and
they were out at sea, making overt for the
main. Going down to, the- shore I saw
with horror, the marks- of their dreadful
feast, in the blood and bones, of b'unan
I was so filled with' indignation at this.
sight, that I began to, ponder how I could:
destroy them when they should come
again.. I.went often to the hill to look for
them, and- if they-had- come, I should cer-
tainly have- attacked them. But more than
a year elapsed and I saw no signs of them,
and I lived on very comfortably. In the

meantime, an event happened which
intensely excited me.
There had been a storm of wind an. day,
with a great deal of lightning and thunder,
and a very fend night, it. was after it. As-
I was reading in the Bible, and taken up
with very serious thoughts about my pres-
ent condition, I was. surprised with the
noise of a gun, as I thought, fired at sea.
This was, to. be sure, a surprise of a differ-
ent nature from any I had met before; for.
the notions this put into: my thoughts were
of another kind. I started, up. in the-
greatest haste, andy in a trice, clapped my
ladder to the middle place of the rock, and
pulled it after me-; and, mounting it the

second: time, got, tothe. top-of the-hillt the
very moment that a flash of fire bid me.
listen fa asksecond gun, which, accordingly,

in about half' a minute, IF heard;; andi by,
the sound; knew that it was from that part
of the sea where I wasdr ven out with, the,
current, in my boat. I immediately con,
sidered that this must be some ship in diia
tress. I had the presence of mind,, at that
minute, to think, that though I could not
help them, it might be they might help
me; so I brought together all the dry
wood I could get at hand, and, making af
good, handsome pile, I set it on fire upon,
the hill. The wood was dry, and blazed
freely; and though the wind blew very,
hard, yet 'it burned fairly out, so that I
was certain, if there was any such thing as
a ship, they must need see it, and no doubt
they. did; for as soon as, my fire blazed up,.
I heard another gun, and then several

In the morning I saw to, my great sor-
row the wreck of a.ship upon the concealed
rocks, far out from shore. I cannot ex-


plain, by any possible energy of words,
what a strange longing I felt in my soul
npon this sight, breaking out sometimes
thus :-" Oh, that there had been but one
or two, nay, or but one soul, saved out of
this ship, to have escaped to me that I
might but have had one companion, one
fellow-creature, to have spoken to me and
to have conversed with!" In all the time
of my solitary life, I never felt so earnest,

And now the thought so pressed upon
me night and day that I must go off to this
wreck, that, at last, I loaded my boat with
everything necessary and ventured to sea,
after making a careful study of the dan-
gerous currents.
When I came close to the ship, a dog
appeared upon her, who, seeing me coming,
yelped and cried; and, as soon as I called
him, jumped into the sea to come to me. I

--- -;

---~ .-~i.
-~1-~,-------- --;;

so strong a desire after the society of my
fellow-creatures, or so deep a regrel at the
want of it.
But there was no sign of any living
thing on the wreck, and I had only the
affliction, some days after, to see the corpse
of a drowned boy come on shore. He had
nothing in his pockets but two pieces of
eight and a tobacco pipe-the last was to
me of ten times more value than the first.

took him into the boat, but found him
almost dead with hunger and thirst. I gave
him a cake of my bread, and he devoured
it like a ravenous wolf that had been starv.
ing a fortnight in the snow; I then gave
the poor creature some fresh water, with
which, if I would have let him, he would
have burst himself. After this 1 went on
board; but the first sight I met with was
with two men drowned in the forecastle.


eides the dog, there was nothing left in
he ship that had life; nor any goods, that
could see but what were spoiled by the
after. I saw several chests, which I
believe belonged to some of the seamen;
nd I got two of them into the boat, with-
~i exan J,,'iy what was in their'

I found, besides these chests, a little cua
full of liquor, of about twenty gallons,
which I got into my boat with much difi-
culty. There were several muskets in the
cabin, and a great powder-horn, with about
four pounds of powder in it. As for tht
muskets, I had no occasion for them. so A

left them, and took the powderhorn.. I tat me-; and about &a dozen and a half of
took a fire shovel adi tigs, which I white linem. handhiericiei~& Besides this,
wanted extremely ;; a& alo t liwoh tthr rass: whie.m : came-tot the till in the chest, I
kettles, a copper pot- t. maine choeolat, foundithiere three great. bags, of pieces of
and a gridiron;; amn with this- cargo,, an. eight aiin, one of them,~ix: doubloons

the dog, I came, away, andl the same even-
ing I reached the iisand againv.weary and:
fatigued to the lastdegree. l reposed that-
right in the boat;,and ii. the morning I got
al1 my cargo on shore., Tlhe caskof liquor-
. found to be a; kind of runnnit at all.
guod; but when I came to open the chests,
I found several things of great use to me.
F'o example, I found in one a fine case of
bottles, filled with cordial waters;. Found
two pots ofvery-good succades, or sweat.
meats, so fastened on the top that the salt
had not hurt them I found some
good shirts, which were very welcome i

of gold; and some, smart i bars of gold; I
suppose they~oightall weigh near a pound.
SUpon the whole: got very little by this
voyage that was of any use.to me; for as
to th ,money, I had no.manner-o' occasion
far it;. for it was to- me as: the-diit ;under
my feet, and I would have given it all for
three or four pair of English shoes and
stockings, which were things I greatly
wanted. I had, indeed, got two pairs of
shoes now, which I took off the feet of the
two drowned men whom I saw in the
wreck, and I found two pairs more in one
of the chests, which were very welcome to

~Fsaowisw i~sz

ais. Jaund in
this seamanak chest
about fifty pieces
of eight, in !ials,
but no gold. Well,
,however, I lugged
'this ..nney -home
to -my caRe, and
laidit up,asi had
done that before
which :I ,!ad got
,in our own -ship.
But it -was .*a, great .
pity that the other
part of this -aship ad not -ome -to. my
share; 'for I am -satisfied I ,might .have
loaded mny -anoe several times ,over
with money,; which, f I had -ever escaped
to England, .would have lain Aere :sae
"*- "" "'

enough till I might have come again and
fetched it.
After this event,ITlived easy enough for
near two years, bt "I thought constantly
of how I should get away from the island.
One iiight I dreamed that one of the vic.
times of the cannibals ran away from them
and came :to me. ""Now," thought I, in
my dream, "T may venture to the main
land, for this savage will be my pilot."
After this dream, I watched every day for
the cannibals, determined to capture one of
their victims.
I had watched thus for ibout a year and
a half, when I saw one morning no less
than .five canoes on shore, and there were
about thirty of the savages dancing around
a fire. While I looked, I saw two miser.
able wretches dragged from the boats.
One was knocked down immediately and
cut up for their cookery, while the other):
was left standing 'by himselff fill they
would be ready for him.
This poor wretch, seeing himself a little
at liberty, and unbound, started away rom
them, and ran with incredible swiftness


along the sands, directly towards me. I
was dreadfully frightened, when I perceived
him run my way; and especially when, as
I thought, I saw him pursued by the whole
body. However, my spirits began to re.
cover when I found that there was not
above three men that followed him; and
still more was I encouraged, when I found
that he outstripped them exceedingly in
There was between them and my castle,
the creek; but he made nothing of it, but,
plunging in, swam through in about thirty
strokes, landed, and ran with exceeding
strength and swiftness. When the three
persons came to the creek, I found that two
of them could swim, but the third went no
farther, and soon after went softly back
again. It came very warmly upon my
thoughts that now was the time to get me
a servant, and perhaps a companion. I
immediately ran down the ladder, fetched
my two guns, and getting up again with
the same haste to the top of the hill, I
crossed towards the sea; and having a
very short cut, and all down hill, clap'd

myself in the way between the pureaa
and the pursued, hallooing aloud to
him that led, who, looking back, was at
first perhaps as much frightened at me as
at them. But I beckoned with my hand to
him to come back; and, in the mean time,
rushing at once upon the foremost, I
knocked him down with the stock of my
piece. I was loth to fire, because I would
not have the rest hear. Having knocked
this fellow down, the other stopped, as if
he,had been frightened, and I advanced
towards him. But as I came nearer, I per.
ceived he had a bow and arrow, and wa
fitting it to shoot at me: so I was then
obliged to shoot at him first, which I did,
and killed him at the first shot. The poor
savage who fled, but had stopped, was so
frightened with the fire and noise of my
piece that he stood stock still. I hallooed
again to him, and made signs to come fox
ward, which he easily understood, and

e~s~ar~ ~RPc-~
IP~ r~~l

._ __. -. *_ _ _ _ _I^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ j a c

came a little way, and stood, trembling. JI
smiled at him pleasantly, and beckoned,
and at length he came close to me, laid his
head upon the ground, and 'put my foot
upon it. This, it seems, meant that be
would be my slave forever,
But there was more work to do. The
'savage that I had knocked down began to
come to himself, and -sat p on the ground.:
My savage motioned for me to give him my
sword, and when I gave it to him he ran
quickly and cut off :his "head at a single
Stroke. MWhen the had done this, he comes
laughing to in e in sign -idf tiiumph, and
brought me The sword again. But Athat
'which astonished Siim most, was to know.
how I killed ;he other Indian so Tar off.
When he came to 1him, `e stood like one'
amazed,looking at him, ,turning himfirst.
on one side, then on the other. He took:
up his how and .arrows and .camelbaick;
I turned to go away, and leekoned miim to
follow me.
SUpon this he made signs o nme twat 'he
should "bry them with sand, that ^they
might not be seen by the rest,ff they fol-1
lowed; and -so I made. signs i to liim again

o i

:to&o:is. He fell :to work; and in an in.
stant 3he had 'scrqped a hole in the sand
with this hands, big enough to bury the
fi',st'in, an .then ragged him into it, and
coveredhim:; ,and did so by the other also.
Then calling'him, way, I carried him, not
tonmy:castle,`but qiite 'away to my cave,
on the farther part of the island. Here I
gave him bread.and a bunch of raisins to
eat, and a draught of water, which I found.
he 'was indeed in great distress for, and
having refreshed him, I made signs for
him to go -and lie down 'to sleep, so the
poorcreature"lay down, and went to sleep.
HIe was a comely, 'handsome fellow, with
straight, strong limbs, tall and well shaped;
and as I reckon, about twenty-six years of



age. Meeadaverygoeodeoanatenance,aot, might; uts, as 'soon as it was day, I eo-
a pierce and *snuiy /aspect, !but seemed to, kaoned ito rAim to eaome with me, and let
have something wery mainly .in Iis f ace. him knpow Iwould .givelim some clothes;
His hair was lng and black, aot :curled at which he seemed very glad, for he was
like wool; iis forehead very high and
large.; and .a -great tvivacit yand sparkling
sharpness in Ip i eyes. The color 'of hism
skin was not quite black,but very tawny.
His face was round sand .plump:; his nose
small, not flat like the NTegroes; a very -
good inoui, alin -Tips, ma. his ne teeth
,wel set, and as w it as ,ivory. After he

came outCt Ile .cavetonme: for I had'been
niilkingmJy.goats. When he espied me le
came running tonme, PIajing himself down
again mon l&e ground, with aill the pose
-sible isigns tion, making a tgret t mal. antic gestures
t'oshow;it. At lastlie lays ,hislhead lsat
Tpon the ground, close :to my soot, andw
sets ~ayt h&eredt upon is lead,aslhe'ad
I let limlm wnflr it I dm8erstod him
And 'was wqs dil ilwAsed. In a little
time I began to ipeeal to Uni-,and teach
Phim oto g o aner; -alkIlaskt I ;let iim
know lis mmne hloiild Fee TimnA, which
WMafsfthediVlAae- I'ihiie 1callea Tiiml
so Tor the memory oT fhe ime. Likewise' stark naked. As we went by the place
taught Jim4oiy 2lXasterand then letJim where lie lhad buried the two nmen, he
k owthat ,sAto Je nmyname; I likewise jointed exactly to the place, and showed
4a ght him to ~sy Yes and NTo, -and to. me the marks that he had :made to find
know the ~neaming of Athem. I gave him them again, making -*igns to :me that we
isome'milk 4in nmartien ,t,mand &let im. should tdig them up again and teat :them.
see me drink it before him, and s-qp tny At thisLappeared very augry, made ,as if
bread init,; audgvehimrarakeaof bread I would vomit at *hb Lthoughts of it, and
Aoedolthe ilm, which :elquioklyicomplied liekoned with my hand to him -to come
VndihjandimadetsighesWatit ws welygood away, whidh Ie did immediately, with
for hitI ,I & -pt ztereith him sdl Mw.t apea W6 "hmio n. a 'then led Iin) Ap to


the top of the hill, to see if his enemies
were gone, and pulling out my glass, I saw
plainly the place where they'had been, but
no appearance of them or their canoe.
We visited the place, and carefully
buried the remains of their horrible feast.
Friday let me know that there had been
a great battle, and that four prisoners, of
which he was one, were brought here to

be eaten. When we came back to our
castle, I fell to work to dress my man,
Friday. I gave him a pair of linen
drawers, and made him a jerkin of goat's
skin, and a very good cap of hare's skin,
and he was mightily pleased to see himself
clothed like his master.
I then made him a little tent between
my two fortifications, and I fixed all my
d&eB so that I could fasten them on the

have sacrificed his life to save mi
upon any occasion whatsoever. The ma
testimonies he gave me of this put it c
of doubt, and soon convinced me that
needed no precautions for my safety on I
I was greatly delighted with him, a
made it my business to teach him ever
thing that was proper to make him usef
handy, and helpful; but especially

inside. As to the weapons, I took tn
all into my habitation every night. B1
needed none of all this precaution;
never man had a more faithful, lov
sincere servant than Friday was to
without passions, sullenness, or design
perfectly obliged and engaged. His vf
affections were tied to me, like those of
child to a father; and I dare say he won

. I


make him speak, and understand me when
I spoke. And he was the aptest scholar
that ever was; and particularly was so
merry, so constantly diligent, and so pleased
when he could but understand me, or make
me understand him, that it was very pleas.
ant to me to talk to him.
After I had been two or -three days
returned to my castle, I thought that, in
order to bring Friday off :from his horrid
way of feeding, and from the relish :of a
cannibal's stomach, I ought tolet him taste
other flesh; so I took him out with me one
morning to the wood I went, indeed,

intending to kill a kid out of my owN
flock, and bring it home and dress it; but
as I was going, I saw a she-goat lying down
in the shade, and two young kids sitting
by her. I catched hold of Friday and
made signs to thim not to stir; immediately
I presented my piece, shot, and killed one
of the kids. The-poor creature, who had
at a distance, indeed, seen me kill Uhi
enemy, but did not know nor could
imagine how it was done, was sensible
surprised; trembled, and shook, and looked
so amazed -that I thought he would have
sunk down. He did not see the kid I shot
at, or perceive I had killed it, but ripped
up his waistcoat,-to feel whether he wa
not wounded; and, as I found presently,
thought I was resolved to kill him; for he
came and kneeled down to me, and embrace
ing my knees, said a great many things
did not understand; but I could easily see
themeaning was, topray menot to kill him
I soon found a way to convince him
that wouldd do him no harm; and taking
him up by the hand, laughed at him, and
pointing to the kid which I had killed,
beckoned to him to runand fetch it, which
he did; and while he was wondering, and
looking to see how the creature was killed,
Loaded my gun again. By-and-by I saw
a great :fowl sitting upon a tree within
shot; .so, to let Friday understand a little
what I would do, I called hini to me again,
pointed at the fowl, which -was indeed a
parrot, and to Ty gun, and to the ground
under the parrot, to let him see I would
make it fall. I fired, and bade him look,
and immediately he -aw ,the parrot fal
He stood like one frightened again, not
withstanding all I had said to him; and i

1?Off1E32~NUNj~~- CxR17jT~sTffl..~

aJK.ieqe if I wouldR have let. him, he would-
itve worshipped: me and the gun. As for
She gun itself he would not so much as
touch it for several days.
When Friday tasted the. stewed kid ie
'; me know that lie Iliked'it very much.
Tie next day I roasted" a piece, and when
Monday came to eat it he expressed great
sisfaction, and made me- understand that
i be would never eat human flesi any more..
taught him to beat and sift the corn and'

Sto make bread, and in a short time e hwa
able to Jo all my work as well as I could
do it myself, and we lived very happily
I had a mind once to try if he had ary
hankering inclination to his own country
again;, and having taught him English so
well that he could answer me almost any
question, I asked him whether the nation
hef belonged to never conquered in battle.
At which. he smiled, and said, Yes, yes
we always fight the better."


Master-How came
z s you to be taken pris-
oner, then?
Friday-They more many than my na-
tion, in the place where me waw; they take
one, two, three, and me; my nation over-
beat them in the yonder place, where me
no was; there my nation take one, two,
great thousand.
Master-But why did not your side re-
zover you from your enemies ?
Friday-They run, one, two three, and
me, and make me go in the canoe; my
nation have no canoe that time.
Master-Well, Friday, what does your
nation do with the men they take? Do
they carry them away and eat them ?
Friday-Yes, my nation eat mans too.
Master-Where do they carry them
Friday-Go to other place, where they
Master-Do they come hither ?
Friday-Yes, yes, they come hither;
come other else place.
Master-Have you been here with
them ?
i Friday-Yes, I been here (points to
'the N. W. side of the island, which, it
seems, was their side).
By this I understood that my man,
Friday, had formerly been among the
savages who used to come on shore on

the farther part of the island, on the said
man-eating occasions that he was now
brought for: and, some time after, when
I took the courage to carry him to that
side, being the same I formerly mentioned,
he presently knew the place, and told me
he was there once, when they eat up
twenty men, two women and one child.
He could not tell twenty in English, but
he numbered them, by laying so many
stones in a row, and pointing to me to tell
them over.
I asked Friday a thousand questions
about his country, and he told me all he
knew. He said his sort of people were
called Caribs; but further west there were
white-bearded men like me, and that they
had killed much mans;" by all of which,
I knew. he meant the Spaniards whose
cruelties in America had spread over the
whole country, and were remembered from
father to son. As the time passed away,
I talked much to Friday about God and
the Saviour, and I verily believe that he
became a better Christian than I was.
When he could understand me well I told
him of the countries of Europe, and how
I came to be on the island. When I
showed him the ship's boat which was
now falling to pieces on the shore, he told
me that such a boat had come ashore in
his country with seventeen white men in it,
and that these white men were then living
with his people.
It was after this some time, that being
upon the top of the hill, at the east side of
the island, Friday, the weather being very
serene, looked very earnestly towards the
main land, then fell to dancing and cried,
"Oh, joy I oh, glad I there see my country.


at set me to thi-nking whether I could
t make the voyage with Friday, or send
iday alown to see if the white men were
U there.
When I proposed to Friday that he
Duld go over alone to see his people, he
t very badly, and said he would like to

go, but would not leave me; so I resolved
to make a large canoe and make the ven-
ture. We felled a large tree near the
water, and. with a month's hard labor, we
shaped a very handsome boat, and in an-
other fortnight we got her into the water.
Though she was large enough to carry

twenty men, I wwa surprised tosee with- great fright,,eazying ot to me," 0, master
what dexterity and how awift my manQ O. masterr ~E, ha.dl. "Wihat' the~matter
Friday could manage hier, turn her,. and Eriday1"' said E. "O.k! yonder, there,"
paddle her along. So I asked liirm.i we 'saya lihe, "'one, two, three: canoes, one,
would, and if we, might venture, over ih: two,, three,!' "'WTell,. Fiiday',"says I, "do
her. "Yes," he saiiU- "vwe venture'over.inm not. be figitenednc Sb I heartened him
her very well, though great blow wind:" aup, as- well as I could. However,, I saw
However, I had a farther design that he the- poor fellow was most terribly scared,
knew nothing of, and that was to make a for nothing rain irt hisi head but; that they
mast and a sail, and to fit her with; an, were come back toJbokfir'liinm.and would
aechor and cable. cut him. in pieces and eat hlim;, and the
poor fellow trembled! so that I scarcely
knew what ta-do> with:li hii I comforted
him as well, as, 1 couldi, and told him I wast
in- as much danger as he,. and that they
would eat me as well as him. "But," said
SJI, "Friday,. we: must resolve to. fight them.
Can you fight, Fidiay." "Me, shoot,"
says he;- "'but. there come many-great num-
After all this was done, I had my man ber."' "-No matter for that," said I,a again;
Friday to teach as to what belonged to the "our guns will fright them that we do nqt
navigation of my boat; fbr, though he kilL"' So I asked him. whether, if I rI
knew very well how to. paddle the canoe, solved to defend' him, he would defend
he knew nothing of what belonged to a me,. and stand, by me, and: do just as I bid
sail and a rudder; and was the most him. He said, "Me die when you bid die
amazed when: he saw me work. the boat to master."
and again in the sea by the rudder,.. and' I loaded the two. fowling-pieces with
how the sail gibbed,. and' filled this way or swan shot as Iarge, as small pistol-bullets
that way, as the course we sailed changed. Then, I took four, muskets, and loaded
However, with a little use I made all these them with two slugs,, and' five small bullets
things familiar to him, and he became an each;, and my two pistols I loaded with a
expert sailor, except that as to the corn- brace of bullets each. I hung my great
pass 1 could make him understand very sword by my side, and gave Friday his
litte of that. hatchet. When I had thus prepared u"
by the time I had the boat finished the self, I took my perspective-glass, and went
rainy season was upon us, and we had to up to the side of the hill;, and I fouan
keep within doors. When we began to go quickly by my glass that there were one
out again, I sent Friday down to the shore and-twenty savages, three prisoners, ass
one day to find a turtle. In a short time three canoes; and that their whole bua
he came flying over my outer wall in a' ness seemed to be the tiumphian banqu~

men, and had taken passage to go to
Unglant As for them, they could not go
to Engla;-a in the ship, except as prisoners
in arms, sad upon reaching there, they
would su*'ely be hanged.

Upon thin they begged that I would let
tnem stay oa the island, to which I gave
my consent. Then I told them my whole
history, and how I had managed every-
thing. I left them all my firearms and
about a barrel and a half of gunpowder,
and I prevailed upon the captain to give
them two barrels more and also some gar-
den seeds. I gave them also the bag of
xeas. and the captain sent them their chests
an( clothes, for which they seemed very
thankful And then I left the island, after
beiu upon it eight-and-twenty year= two
taontas and nineteen days.


When I .cam to ^ nd, I was a per-
feet stranger to all th rld. My father
and mother were deadA d all my family
except two sisters and t children of one
of my brothers. The captain gave to the

owners a handsome account of my saving
the ship, and they made up a purse of
nearly 200. With this money I resolved
to go to Lisbon and see if I could get any
news from my plantations in Brazil. I
accordingly took shipping and arrived in
Lisbon safely, Friday accompanying me,
and proving a most valuable servant. Here
I found my old friend, the captain, who
took me on the coast of Africa. He was
an old man now, and he told me he had
not been to the Brazils for nine years, but
he assured me that when he was there last
my n ner was alive, and he believed I.


as he fired upon them and would not sub. before me, and I told them 1 had got a full
mit, the mate shot him dead. The next account how they had run away with the
day his body was hung up at the yard. ship, and were preparing to commit further
arm as a warning to the rest. robberies. I let them know that by my
When the captain came back, he told
me he had brought me some little refresh-
ments, such as the ship afforded. Upon
this, he called aloud to the boat, and bade
his men bring the things ashore that were
for the governor; and, indeed, it was a
present as if I had been one that was not
to be carried away along with them, but
as if I had been to dwell upon the island
still, and they were to go without me.
First, he had brought me a case of bottles
full of excellent cordial waters, six large
bottles of Madeira wine, two pounds of
excellent good tobacco, twelve good pieces
of the ship's beef, and six pieces of pork,
with a bag of peas, and about a hundred.
weight of biscuit. He also brought me a
box of sugar, box of flour, a bag full of
lemons, and two bottles of lime-juice, and
abundance of other things. But besides a.
these, he brought me six new clean
shirts, six very good neckcloths, two pair direction the ship had. been seized; that
of gloves, one pair of shoes, a hat, and one she lay now in the road; and they might
pair of stockings, and a very good suit of see that their new captain had received the
clothes of his own, which had been worn reward of his villany; that, as to them, I
but very little: in a word, he clothed me wanted to know what they had to say why
from head to foot. It was a very kind and I should not execute them as pirates, as
agreeable present, as any one may imagine, they could not doubt but I had authority
to one in my circumstances; but never was to do.
anything in the world of that kind so One of them answered that they had
unpleasant, awkward, and uneasy as it was nothing to say but this, that when they
to me to wear such clothes at their first were taken, the captain promised them
putting on. their lives, and they humbly implored my
After dressing in my new clothes, so as mercy But I told them I knew not what
to look more like a real governor than in mercy to show them; foi as for myself I
my goat skins, I had -all the rebels brought had resolved to quit the island with all my

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