Citation
The Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe

Material Information

Title:
The Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title:
Robinson Crusoe
Creator:
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Defoe, Daniel,
Macklin, T. Eyre
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Walter Scott Publishing Co
Place of Publication:
London
New York (3 East 14th St.)
Felling-on-Tyne
Publisher:
Walter Scott Pub. Co.
Language:
English
Physical Description:
viii, 547, 16 p., 1 leaf of plates : 1 ill. ; 19 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Castaways -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1905 ( rbgenr )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1905 ( rbgenr )
Genre:
Children's literature ( fast )
Imaginary voyages ( rbgenr )
Publishers' catalogues ( rbgenr )
fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
England -- Felling-on-Tyne
United States of America -- New York -- New York
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Spine title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note:
Date based on title and series information in the publisher's catalog 16 p. at end.
General Note:
Illustration signed: T. Eyre Macklin.
General Note:
Variant of Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe, 872.
General Note:
Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe, divided into chapters. Part II originally published under title: The farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Daniel Defoe.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
SN01271 ( lccn )
27020827 ( oclc )

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“He LAID IT DOWN, WITH THE



THE SAVAGE.”—p, 198,

Robinson Crusoe.)



THE
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE

BY

DANIEL DEFOE

London and Felling-on-Cyne:
THE WALTER SCOTT PUBLISHING CO, LTD..

NEW YORK: 3 EAST I4TH STREET.







CONTENTS.



PART I.

CHAp. I,—My birth and parents—At nineteen years of age I determined
to go to sea—Dissuaded by my parents—Elope with a schoolfellow,
and go on board ship—A storm arises, during which I am dreadfully
frightened—Ship founders—Myself and crew saved by a boat from
another vessel, and landed near Yarmouth—Meet my companion’s
father there, who advises me never to go to sea more, but all in
vain. = - - - : : : - pl

Cap. I].—Make a trading voyage to Guinea very successfully—Death of
my captain—Sail another trip with his mate—The vengeance of
Providence for disobedience to parents now overtakes me—Taken by
a Sallee rover, and all sold as slaves—My master frequently sends me
a-fishing, which suggests an idea of escape—Make my escape in an .
open boat, with a Moresco boy + - : - p. 14

Cuar. III.—Make for the southward in the hopes of meeting some
European vessel—See savages along shore—Shoot a large leopard—Am
taken up by a merchantman—aArrive at the Brazils, and buy a settle-
ment there—Cannot be quiet, but sail on a voyage of adventure to
‘Guinea—Ship strikes on a sandbank in unknown land—All lost but
myself, who am driven ashore half dead - - = ° p, 27



iv CONTENTS.

Cuap. I¥Y.—Appearance of the wreck and country next day—Swim on
board of the ship, and, by means of a contrivance, get a quantity of
stores on shore—Shoot a bird, but it turns out perfect carrion—
Moralise upon my situation—The ship blown off land, and totally
lost—Set out in search of a proper place for a habitation—See numbers
of goats—Melancholy reflections : - * - pe 46

Cuarv. V.—I begin to keep a journal—Christen my desert island the
Island of Despair—Fall upon various schemes to make tools, baskets,
etc., and begin to build my house—At a great loss of an evening for
candle, but fall upon an expedient to supply the want—Strange dis-
covery of corn—A terrible earthquake and storm - - p. 67

Cuar. VI.—Observe the ship driven further aground by the late storm—
Procure a vast quantity of necessaries from the wreck—Catch a large
turtle—I fall ill of a fever and ague—Terrible dream, and serious re-
flections thereupon—Find a Bible in one of the seamen’s chests thrown
ashore, the reading whereof gives me great comfort - - p. 81

Cuar. VII.—I begin to take a survey of my island—Discover plenty of
tobacco, grapes, lemons, and sugar-canes, wild, but no human inhabi-
tants—Resolve to lay up a store of these articles, to furnish me against
the wet season—My cat, which I supposed lost, returns with kittens—
I regulate my diet, and shut myself up for the wet season—Sow my
grain, which comes to nothing ; but I discover and remedy my error—
Take account of the course of the weather - - - p. 95

Cuar. VIII.—Make a second tour through the island—Catch a young
parrot, which I afterwards teach to speak—My mode of sleeping at
night—Find the other side of the island much more pleasant than
mine, and covered with turtle and sea-fowl—Catch-a young kid, which
I tame—Return to my old habitation—Great plague with my
harvest . ° . . ° : - p.104

Cuar. IX.—I attempt to mould earthenware, and succeed—Description
of my mode of baking—Begin to make a boat—After it is finished, am
unable to get it down to the water—Serious reflections—My ink and
biscuit exhausted, and clothes in a bad state—Contrive to make a
dress of skins - . . : . ° > pid



CONTENTS. v

Cuap. X,—I succeed in getting a canoe afloat, and set out on a voyage in
the sixth year of my reign or captivity—Blown out to sea—Reach the
shore with great difficulty—Fall asleep, and am awakened by a voice
calling my name—Devise various schemes to tame goats, and at last
succeed. . - - - - - - p. 182

Quar. XI.—Description of my figure—Also of my dwelling and enclosures
—Dreadful alarm on seeing the print of a man’s foot on the shore—
Reflections—Take every possible measure of precaution - p. 144

Cuap, XII.—I observe a canoe out at sea—Find on the shore the
remnant of a feast of cannibals—Horror of mind thereon—Double arm
myself—Terribly alarmed by a goat—Discover a singular cave or
grotto, of which I form my magazine—My fears on account of the
savages begin to subside - ° - - - p. 157

Onav. XIII.—Description of my situation in the twenty-third year of my
residence—Discover nine naked savages round the fire on my side of
the island—My horror on beholding the dismal work they were about
—I determine on the destruction of the next party, at all risks—A ship
lost off the island—Go on board the wreck, which I discern to be
Spanish—Procure a great variety of articles from the vessel- p, 174

Car. XIV.—Reflections—An extraordinary dream—Discover five canoes
of savages on shore—Observe from my station two miserable wretches
dragged out of the boats to be devoured—One of them makes his escape,
and runs directly towards me, pursued by two others-—I take measures so
as to destroy his pursuers, and save his life—Christen him by the name
of Friday, and he becomes a faithful and excellent servant - p, 188

Cuar. XV.—I am at great pains to instruct Friday respecting my
abhorrence of the cannibal practices of the savages—He is amazed
at the effects of the gun, and considers it an intelligent being—Begins
to talk English tolerably—A dialogue—I instruct him in the knowledge
of religion, and find him very apt—He describes to me some white men
who had come to his country, and still lived there - - -—p.. 204

Onar. XVI.—I determine to go over to the continent—Friday and I con-
struct a boat equal to carry twenty men—His dexterity in managing
her—Friday brings intelligence of three canoes of savages on shore—



vi CONTENTS.

Resolve to go down upon them—Friday and I fire upon the wretches,
and save the life of a poor Spaniard—List of the killed and wounded—
Discover a poor Indian bound in one of the canoes, who turns out to
be Friday’s father = - - - - : - —p. 220

Cuap. XVII.—I learn from the Spaniard that there were sixteen more of
his countrymen among the savages—The Spaniard and Friday’s father,
well armed, sail on a mission to the continent—I discover an English
ship lying at anchor off the island—her boat comes on shore with three
prisoners—The crew straggle into the woods, their boat being aground—
Discover myself to the prisoners, who prove to be the captain and mate
of the vessel, and a passenger—Secure the mutineers - p. 237

Cuap. XVIII.—The ship makes signals for her boat—On receiving no
answer, she sends another boat on shore—Methods by which we secure
this boat’s crew, and recover the ship - : - p. 252

Cuar. XIX.—I take leave of the island, and, after a long voyage, arrive
in England—Go down into Yorkshire, and find the greater part of my
family dead—Resolve to go to Lisbon for information respecting my
plantation at the Brazils—Meet an old friend there, by whose means I
become rich—Set out for England overland—Much annoyed by wolves
on the road - . - - - “ - p. 269

Cuar. XX.—Strange battle betwixt Friday and a bear—Terrible engage-
ment with a whole army of wolves—Arrive in England safely, and
settle my affairs there—I marry, and have a family - - p. 284

PART IL

Cap. XX1.—Reflections—Unsettled state of mind, and conversation with
my wife thereon—Purchase a farm in the county of Bedford—Lose my
wife—I determine to revisit my island, and for that purpose settle-all
my affairs in Jingland—Description of the cargo I carried out with me
—Save the crew of a vessel burnt at sea . : - p, 297

Cuap. XXII.—Steer for the West Indies—Distressing account of a Bristol
ship, the crew of which we save, in a state of starvation—Arrive at my



CONTENTS. vii

island—Friday's joy on discovering it—Affecting interview betwixt
him and his father on landing—Narrative of the occurrences on the
island during my absence - - - - - p. 817

Cuap. XXIII.—Narrative continued—Insolence of three Englishmen to
the Spaniards—They are disarmed and brought to order—aA great body
of savages land upon the island—They turn out to be two adverse
nations met there by chance—A bloody battle betwixt them—Several of
the vanquished party secured by the Spaniards - > p. 8384

Cuap. XXIV.—Fresh broils betwixt the turbulent Englishmen and the
“ Spaniards — The English make a voyage to the mainland, and
return in twenty days—Particulars of their voyage—Description of the
men and women they brought with them—The colony discovered by
an unlucky accident to the savages, who invade the island but are
defeated - - - - - - - pp. 349

CHar. XXV.—The island is invaded by a formidable fleet of savages—A
terrible engagement, in which the cannibals are utterly routed—Thirty-
seven wretches, the survivors, are saved, and employed by my people as
servants—Description of Will Atkins’ ingenious contrivances for his
accommodation : : se = - p. 874

Cuar. XXVI.—I hold conversations with the Spaniards, and learn the
history of their situation among the savages from which I relieved
them—I inform the colony for what purpose I am come, and what I
mean to do for them—Distribution of the stores I brought with me—
The priest I saved at sea solemnises the marriages of the sailors
and female Indians, who had hitherto lived together as man and
wife - - - : - - : > p. 387

Cuap, XXVII.—Sincere and wo-thy character of the priest— Dialogue
with Will Atkins and myself—Conversation betwixt Atkins and his
‘Indian wife on the subject of religion—Her baptism—Settlement of the
commonwealth - - - - - - p. 419

Crap. XXVIII —I entertain the prospect of converting the Indians—
Amiable character of the young woman we saved in a famished state at
sea—Her own relation of her sufferings from hunger—Sail from the
island for the Brazils—Encounter and rout a whole fleet of savages—
Death of Friday—Arrival at Brazil - - - - p. 434



viii CONTENTS.

Cuap, XXIX.—I despatch a number of additional recruits, and a quantity
of extra stores, to the island, and take my leave of it for ever—I
determine to go with the ship to the East Indies—Arrive at Mada-
gascar—Dreadful occurrences there - : : - p. 449.

Cap. XXX.—Difference with my nephew on account of the cruelties
practised at Madagascar—Five men lost on the Arabian shore, off the
Gulf of Persia—The seamen refuse to sail if I continue on board, in
consequence of which I am left on shore—Make a very advantageous
trading voyage, in company with an English merchant, and purchase
a vessel - - a - : - - p. 466

Cuap. XXXI.—Make a trading voyage in this ship—Put into the river of
Cambodia—Am warned of my danger by a countryman, in con-
sequence of which we set sail, and are pursued—Great difficulty in
making our escape - - - - - - p. 475

Cuap, XXXII.—Obliged to come to anchor on a savage coast, to repair
our ship—We are attacked by the natives, whom our carpenter
disperses by a whimsical contrivance—Serious reflections upon our
disagreeable situation - - - - - - p. 485

CHar, XXXIII.—We arrive in China in safety—Dispose of the ship—
Description of the inhabitants—Arrive at Pekin, and find an oppor-
tunity of returning to Europe - - + - p. 496

Cuap. XXXIV.—Set out by the caravan—Account of the valuable effects
we took with us—Further description of the interior of China—Pass
the great wall—Attacked by Tartars, who are dispersed by the resolu-
tion of a Scots merchant—The old pilot saves my life—We are again
attacked, and defeat the Tartars - - - - -p. 510

Car. XXXV.—Further account of our journey—Description of an idol:
which we destroy—Great danger we incur thereby—Account of our
travels through Muscovy - - - - - p. 520

Cuap. XXXVI.—Conversations with a Russian grandee—Set out on my
journey homewards—Harassed by Kalmucks on the road—Arrival at
Archangel—Sail from thence, and arrive safely in England - op, 585



THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE.

—+60—__

PART I.
CHAPTER I.

My birth and parentage—At nineteen years of age I determined to go to
sea—Dissuaded by my parents—Elope with a schoolfellow, and go on
board ship—A storm arises, during which I am dreadfully frightened— —
Ship founders—Myself and crew saved by a boat from another vessel, and
landed near Yarmouth—Meet my companion’s father there, who advises
me never to go to sea more, but all in vain.

I was born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good
family, though not of that country, my father being a foreigner
of Bremen, who settled first at Hull. He got a good estate by
merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York,
from whence he had married my mother, whose relations were
named Robinson, a very good family in that country, and from
whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but, by the usual cor-
ruption of words in England, we are now called—nay, we call
ourselves and write our name—Crusoe; and so my companions
always called me.

I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel

to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded
I



2 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle
near Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What became of my second
brother I never knew, any more than my father or mother knew
what became of me.

Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade,
my head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts.
My father, who was very ancient, had given me a competent share
of learning, as far as house-education and a country free-school
_ generally go, and designed me for the law; but I would be
satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and my inclination to
this led me so strongly against the will, nay, the commands of
my father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of my
mother and other friends, that there seemed to be something fatal
in that propensity of nature, tending directly to the life of misery
which was to befall me.

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent
counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He called me
one morning into his chamber, where he was confined by the
gout, and expostulated very warmly with me upon this subject.
He asked me what reasons, more than a mere wandering inclina-
tion, I had for leaving my father’s house and my native country,
where I might be well introduced, and had a prospect of raising
my fortune by application and industry, with a life of ease and
pleasure. He told me it was men of desperate fortunes on one
hand, or of aspiring, superior fortunes on the other, who went
abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise and make them-
selves famous in undertakings of a nature out of the common
road; that these things were all either too far above me or too
far below me; that mine was the middle state, or what might be
called the upper station of low life, which he had found, by long
experience, was the best state in the world, the most suited to
human happiness, not exposed to the miseries and hardships, the
labour and sufferings of the mechanic part of mankind, and not
embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the
upper part of mankind. He told me I might judge of the



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 3

happiness of this state by this one thing—viz., that this was the
state of life which all other people envied; that kings have
frequently lamented the miserable consequence of being born to
great things, and wished they had been placed in the middle of
the two extremes, between the mean and the great; that the wise
man gave his testimony to this, as the standard of felicity, when
he prayed to have neither poverty nor riches.

He bade me observe it, and I should always find that the
calamities of life were shared among the upper and lower part
of mankind, but that the middle station had the fewest disasters,
and was not exposed te so many vicissitudes as the higher or
lower part of mankind ; nay, they were not subjected to so many
distempers and uneasiness, either of body or mind, as those were
who, by vicious living, luxury, and extravagances on the one
hand, or by hard labour, want of necessaries, and mean or in-
sufficient diet on the other hand, bring distemper upon them-
selves by the natural consequences of their way of living; that
the middle station of life was calculated for all kind of virtue
and all kind of enjoyments; that peace and plenty were the
handmaids of a middle fortune; that temperance, moderation,
quietness, health, society, all agreeable diversions, and all desir-
able pleasures were the blessings attending the middle station
of life; that this way men went silently and smoothly through
the world, and comfortably out of it, not embarrassed with the
labours of the hands or of the head, not sold to a life of slavery
for daily bread, nor harassed with perplexed circumstances, which
rob the soul of peace and the body of rest, nor enraged with the
passion of envy or the secret burning lust of ambition for great
things; but in easy circumstances sliding gently through the
world, and sensibly tasting the sweets of living without the bitter;
feeling that they are happy, and learning by every day’s experience
to know it more sensibly.

After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate
manner, not to play the young man, not to precipitate myself into
miseries which nature, and the station of life I was born in,



4 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

seemed to have provided against; that I was under no necessity
of seeking my bread; that he would do well for me, and en-
deavour to enter me fairly into the station of life which he had
just been recommending to me; and that if I was not very easy
and happy in the world, it must be my mere fate or fault that
must hinder it; and that he should have nothing to answer for,
having thus discharged his duty in warning me against measures
which he knew would be to my hurt; in a word, that as he would
- do very kind things for me if I would stay and settle at home as
he directed, so he would not have se much hand in my mis-
fortunes as to give me any encouragement to go away; and to
close all, he told me I had my elder brother for an example, to
whom he had used the same earnest persuasions to keep him
from going into the Low Country wars, but could not prevail, his
young desires prompting him to run into the army, where he was
killed; and though he said he would not cease to pray for me,
yet he would venture to say to me, that if I did take this foolish
step, God would not bless me, and I should have leisure here.
after to reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there
might be none to assist in my recovery.

I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly
prophetic, though I suppose my father did not know it to be so
himself—I say, I observed the tears run down his face very
plentifully, especially when he spoke of my brother who was
killed; and that when he spoke of my having leisure to repent,
and none to assist me, he was so moved that he broke off the
discourse, and told me his heart was so full he could say no more
to me.

I was sincerely affected. with this discourse, and, indeed, who
could be otherwise? and I resolved not to think of going abroad
any more, but to settle at home according to my father’s desire.
But alas! a few days wore it all off; and, in short, to prevent any
of my father’s further importunities, in a few weeks after I resolved
to run quite away from him. However, I did not act quite so
hastily as the first heat of my resolution prompted; but I took my



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 5

mother at a time when I thought her a little more pleasant. than
ordinary, and told her that my thoughts were so entirely bent
upon seeing the world that I should never settle to anything with
resolution enough to go through with it, and my father had better
give me his consent than force me to go without it; that I was
now eighteen years.old, which was too late to go apprentice to a
trade or clerk to an attorney; that I was sure if I did I should
never serve out my time, but I should certainly run away from my
master before my time was out and go to sea; and if she would
speak to my father to let me go one voyage abroad, if I came
home again, and did not like it, I would go no more; and I
would promise, by a double diligence, to recover the time that
I had lost.

This put my mother into a. great passion; she told me she
knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any
such subject; that he knew too well what was my interest to give
his consent to anything so much for my hurt; and that she
wondered how I could think of any such thing after the discourse
I had had with my father, and such kind and tender expres-
sions as she knew my father had used to me; and that, in short,
if I would ruin myself, there was no help for me; but I might
depend I should never have their consent to it; that for her part,
she would not have so much hand in my destruction; and I
should never have it to say that my mother was willing when my
father was not.

Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet I heard
afterwards that she reported all the discourse to him, and that my
father, after showing a great concern at it, said to her, with a sigh,
“That boy might be happy if he would stay at home; but if he
goes abroad, he will be the most miserable wretch that ever was
born: I can give no consent to it.”

It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose,
though, in the meantime, I continued obstinately deaf to all
proposals of settling to business, and frequently expostulated with
my father.and mother about their being so positively determined



6 FIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

against what they knew my inclinations prompted me to. But
being one day at Hull, where I went casually, and without any
purpose of making an elopement at that time; but, I say, being
there, and one of my companions being about to sail to London
in his father’s ship, and prompting me to go with them with the
common allurement of seafaring men, that it should cost me
nothing for my passage, I consulted neither father nor mother
any more, nor so much as sent them word of it; but leaving them
to hear of it as they might, without asking God’s blessing or my
father’s, without any consideration of circumstances or conse-
quences, and in an ill hour, God knows, on the rst of September
1651, I went on board a ship bound for London. Never any
young adventurer’s misfortunes, I believe, began sooner, or con-
tinued longer, than mine. The ship was no sooner out of the
Humber than the wind began to blow and the sea to rise in
a most frightful manner; and as I had never been at sea before,
[ was most inexpressibly sick in body and terrified in mind. I
began now seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and how
justly I was overtaken by the judgment of heaven for my wicked
leaving my father’s house and abandoning my duty. All the
good counsels of my parents, my father’s tears and my mother’s
entreaties, came now fresh into my mind; and my conscience,
which was not yet come to the pitch of hardness to which it has
since, reproached me with the contempt of advice, and the breach
of my duty to God and my father.

All this while the storm increased, and the sea went very high,
_ though nothing like what I have seen many times since; no, nor

what I saw a few days after; but it was enough to affect me then,
who was but a young sailor, and had never known anything of the
matter. I expected every wave would have swallowed us up, and
that every time the ship fell down, as I thought it did, in the
trough or hollow of the sea, we should never rise more; in this
agony of mind I made many vows and resolutions, that if it would
please God to spare my life in this one voyage, if ever I got once
my foot upon dry land again, I would go directly home to my



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 7

father, and never set it into a ship again while I lived; that I
would take his advice, and never run myself into such miseries as
these any more. Now I saw plainly the goodness of his observa-
tions about the middle station of life, how easy, how comfortably
he had lived all his days, and never had been exposed to tempests
at sea or troubles on shore; and I resolved that I would, like a
true repenting prodigal, go home to my father.

These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the
storm lasted, and indeed some time after; but the next day the
wind was abated and the sea calmer, and I began to be a little
inured to it; however, I was very grave for all that day, being also
a little sea-sick still; but towards night the weather cleared up,
the wind was quite over, and a charming fine -evening followed;
the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morning;
and having little or no wind and a smooth sea, the sun shining
upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most delightful that ever
I saw.

I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick, but
very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough
and terrible the day before, and could be so calm and so pleasant
in so little a time after. And now, lest my good resolutions
should continue, my companion, who had enticed me away, comes
to me: “Well, Bob,” says he, clapping me upon the shoulder,
“how do you do after it? I warrant you were frighted, wer’n’t
you, last night, when it blew but a capful of wind?” “A capful, —
d’you call it?” said I; “’twas a terrible storm.” ‘A storm, you
fool you,” replies he; “do you call that a storm? why, it was
nothing at all; give us but a good ship and sea-room, and we
think nothing of such a squall of wind as that; but you’re but a
fresh-water sailor, Bob. Come, let us make a bowl of punch, and
we'll forget all that; d’ye see what charming weather ’tis now?”
To make short this sad part of my story, we went the way of all
sailors; the punch was made, and I was made half-drunk with it;
and in that one night’s wickedness I drowned all my repentance,
all my reflections upon my past conduct, all my resolutions for



8 IIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

the future. In a word, as the sea was returned to its smoothness
of surface and settled calmness by the abatement of that storm, so
the hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears and apprehensions
of being swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and the current
of my former desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and
promises that I made in my distress. I found, indeed, some
intervals of reflection; and the serious thoughts did, as it were,
endeavour to return again sometimes; but I shook them off, and
roused myself from them as it were from a distemper, and apply-
ing myself to drinking and company, soon mastered the return of
those fits—for so I called them; and I had in five or six days got
as complete a victory over conscience as any young fellow that
resolved not to be troubled with it could desire. But I was to
have another trial for it still; and Providence, as in such cases
generally it does, resolved to leave me entirely without excuse; for
if I would not take this for a deliverance, the next was to be such
a one as the worst and most hardened wretch among us would
confess both the danger and the mercy of.

The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth
Roads; the wind having been contrary and the weather calm, we
had made but little way since the storm. Here we were obliged
to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing con-
trary—viz., at south-west, for seven or eight days, during which
time a great many ships from Newcastle came into the same
Roads, as the common harbour where the ships might wait for
a wind for the river.

We had not, however, rid here so long but we should have
tided it up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh, and after we
had lain four or five days, blew very hard. However, the Roads
being reckoned as good as a harbour, the anchorage good, and our
ground-tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned and not in
the least apprehensive of danger, but spent the time in rest and
mirth, after the manner of the sea; but the eighth day, in the
morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands at work to
strike our top-masts and make everything snug and close, that the



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 9

ship might ride as easy as possible. By noon the sea went very
high indeed, and our ship rode forecastle in, shipped several seas,
and we thought once or twice our anchor had come home; upon
which our master ordered out the sheet-anchor, so that we rode
with two anchors ahead, and the cables veered out to the better
end.

By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began
to see terror and amazement in the faces even of the seamen them-
selves. The master, though vigilant in the business of preserving
the ship, yet as he went in and out of his cabin by me I could
hear him softly to himself say, several times, “Lord be merciful
to us! we shall be all lost ; we shall be all undone!” and the like.
During these first hurries I was stupid, lying still in my cabin,
which was in the steerage, and cannot describe my temper: I
could ill resume the first penitence which I had so apparently
trampled upon and hardened myself against: I thought the bitter-
ness of death had been past, and that this would be nothing like
the first; but when the master himself came by me, as I said just
now, and said we should be-all lost, I was dreadfully frighted. I
got up out of my cabin and looked out; but such a dismal sight
I never saw: the sea ran mountains high, and broke upon us every
three or four minutes; when I could look about, I could see
nothing but distress round us; two ships that rode near us, we
found, had cut their masts by the board, being deep laden; and
our men cried out that a ship which rode about a mile ahead
of us was foundered. Two more ships, being driven from their
anchors, were run out of the Roads to sea, at all adventures, and
that not with a mast standing. The light ships fared the best, as
not so much labouring in the sea; but two or three of them drove
and came close by us, running away with only their sprit-sail out
before the wind.

Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master of
our ship to let them cut away the fore-mast, which he was very
unwilling to do; but the boatswain protesting to him that if he
did not the ship would founder, he consented; and when they



to LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

had cut away the fore-mast, the main-mast stood so loose, and
shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut that away also,
and make a clear deck.

Any one must judge what a condition I must be in at all this,
who was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright
before at but a little. But if I can express at this distance the
thoughts I had about me at that time, I was in tenfold more
horror of mind upon account of my former convictions, and the
having returned from them to the resolutions I had wickedly
taken at first, than I was at death itself; and these, added to the
terror of the storm, put me into such a condition that I can by
no words describe it. But the worst was not come yet; the
storm continued with such fury that the seamen themselves
acknowledged they had never seen a worse. We had a good
ship, but she was deep laden, and wallowed in the sea, so that
the seamen every now and then cried out she would founder. It
was my advantage, in one respect, that I did not know what they
meant by founder till I inquired. However, the storm was so
violent, that I saw, what is not e@ften seen, the master, the boat-
swain, and some others more sensible than the rest, at their
prayers, and expecting every moment when the ship would go to
the bottom. In the middle of the night, and under all the rest of -
our distresses, one of the men that had been down to see cried
out we had sprung a leak; another said there was four feet water
in the hold.. Then all hands were called to the pump. At that
word my heart, as I thought, died within me, and I fell back-
wards upon the side of my bed where I sat into the cabin.
However, the men roused me, and told me that I, that was able
to do nothing before, was as well able to pump as another; at
which I stirred up and went to the pump, and worked very
heartily. While this was doing, the master seeing some light
colliers, who, not able to ride out the storm, were obliged to slip
and run away to the sea, and would come near us, ordered to fire
a gun as a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing what they
meant, thought the ship had broken, or some. dreadful thing



ROBINSON CRUSOE. ii

happened. In a word, I was so surprised that I fell down in
aswoon. As this was a time when everybody had his own life to
think of, nobody minded me, or what was become of me; but
another man stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me aside
with his foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead; and it was a
great while before I came to myself.

We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it was
apparent that the ship would founder; and though the storm
began to abate a little, yet it was not possible she could swim
till we might run into any port; so the master continued firing
guns for help; and a light ship, who had rid it out just ahead of
us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the utmost
hazard the boat came near us; but it was impossible for us to get
on board, or for the boat to lie near the ship’s side, till at last the
men rowing very heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours,
our men cast them a rope over the stern with a buoy to it, and
then veered it out a great length, which they, after much labour
and hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them close under our
stern, and got all into their boat. It was to no purpose for them
or us, after we were in the boat, to think of reaching their own
ship; so all agreed to let her drive, and only to pull her in
towards shore as much as we could; and our master promised
them that if the boat was staved upon shore, he would make it
good to their master; so partly rowing, and partly driving, our
boat went away to the northward, sloping towards the shore
almost as far as Winterton Ness.

We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our
ship till we saw her sink, and then I understood for the first time
what was meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I must acknow-
ledge I had hardly eyes to look up when the seamen told me she
was sinking; for from the moment that they rather put me into
the boat than that I might be said to go in, my heart was, as it
were, dead within me, partly with fright, partly with horror of
mind, and the thoughts of what was yet before me.

While we were in this condition—the men yet labouring at the



12 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

oar to bring the boat near the shore—we could see (when, our
boat mounting the waves, we were able to see the shore) a great

many people running along the strand to assist us when we should

come near; but we made but slow way towards the shore; nor

were we able-to reach the shore till, being past the lighthouse at

Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward towards Cromer,

and so the land broke off a little the violence of the wind. Here

we got in, and, though not without much difficulty, got all safe
‘on shore, and walked afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as

unfortunate men, we were used with great humanity, as well by

the magistrates of the town, who assigned us good quarters, as by

particular merchants and owners of ships, and had money given

us sufficient to carry us either to London or back to Hull, as we ©
thought fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and have
gone home, I had been happy, and my father, as in our blessed
Saviour’s parable, had even killed the fatted calf for me; for
hearing the ship I went away in was cast away in Yarmouth
Roads, it was a great while before he had any assurances that I
was not drowned.

But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that
nothing could resist; and though I had several times loud calls
from my reason and my more composed judgment to go home,
yet I had no power to do it. I know not what to call this, nor
will I urge that it is a secret overruling decree that hurries us on
to be the instruments of our own destruction, even though it be
before us, and that we rush upon it with our eyes open. Cer-
tainly, nothing but some such decreed unavoidable misery, which
it was impossible for me to escape, could have pushed me forward
against the calm reasOnings and persuasions of my most retired
thoughts, and against two such visible instructions as I had met
with in my first attempt.

My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who
was the master’s son, was now less forward than I. The first time
he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which was not till two



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 13

or three days, for we-were separated in the town to several
quarters; I say, the first time he saw me, it appeared his tone
was altered ; and looking very melancholy, and shaking his head,
he asked me how I did, and telling his father who I was, and how
I had come this voyage only for a trial, in order to go farther
abroad: his father, turning to me with a very grave and concerned
tone, ‘Young man,” says he, “you ought never to go to sea any
more; you ought to take this fora plain and visible token that
you are nat to be a seafaring man.” ‘Why, sir,” said I, “ will
you go to seano more?” ‘That is another case,” said he; “it
is my calling, and therefore my duty; but as you made this
voyage on trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given you of
what you are to expect if you persist. Perhaps this has all be-
fallen us on your account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish,
Pray,” continues he, “what are you, and on what account did
you go to sea?” Upon that I told him some of my story; at the
end of which he burst out into a strange kind of passion: ‘ What
had I done,” says he, “that such an unhappy wretch should come
into my ship? I would not set my foot in the same ship with
thee again for a thousand pounds.” This indeed was, as I said,
an excursion of his spirits, which were yet agitated by the sense
of his’ loss, and was further than he could have.authority to go.
However, he afterwards talked very gravely to me, exhorting me
to go back to my father, and not tempt Providence to my ruin,
telling me I might see a visible hand of Heaven against me.
“ And, young man,” said he, “ depend upon it, if you do not go
back, wherever you go you will meet with nothing but disasters
and disappointments, till your father’s words are fulfilled upon
you.”

We parted soon after; for. I made him little answer, and I saw
him no more; which way he went I knew not. As for me, having
some money in my pocket, I travelled to London by land; and
there, as well as on the road, had many struggles with myself
what course of life I should take, and whether I should go home
or to sea.



14 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered
to my thoughts, and it immediately occurred to me how I should
be laughed at among the neighbours, and should be ashamed to
see, not my father and mother only, but even everybody else;
from whence I have since often observed how incongruous and
irrational the common temper of mankind is, especially of youth,
to that reason which ought to guide them in such cases—viz., that
they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; not

‘ashamed of the action for which they ought justly to be esteemed
fools, but are ashamed of the returning, which only can make
them be esteemed wise men.

In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain
what measures to take and what course of life to lead. An
irresistible reluctance continued to going home; and as I stayed
away awhile, the remembrance of the distress I had been in wore
off, and as that abated, the little motion I had in my desires to
return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts
of it, and looked out for a voyage.

CHAPTER II.

Make a trading voyage to Guinea very successfully—Death of my captain—
Sail another trip with his mate—The vengeance of Providence for dis-
obedience to parents now overtakes me—Taken by a Sallee rover, and
all sold as slaves—My master frequently sends me a-fishing, which
suggests an idea of escape—Make my escape in an open boat, with a
Moresco boy.

Twar evil influence which carried me first away from my father’s
house—which hurried me into the wild and indigested notion of
raising my fortune, and that impressed those conceits so forcibly
upon me, as to make me deaf to all good advice, and to the
entreaties and even the commands of my father—I say, the same



ROBINSON CRUSOZ. 15

influence, whatever it was, presented the most unfortunate of all
enterprises to my view; and I went on board a vessel bound to
the coast of Africa; or, as our sailors vulgarly called it, a voyage
to Guinea.

It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I did
not ship myself as a sailor; when, though I might indeed have
worked a little harder than ordinary, yet at the same time I
should have learnt the duty and office of a fore-mast man, and
in time might have qualified myself for a mate or lieutenant,
if not for a master. But as it was always my fate to choose
for the worse, so I did here; for, having money in my pocket
and good clothes upon my back, I would always go on board
in the habit of a gentleman; and so I neither had any business
in the ship, nor learned to do any.

It was my. lot first of all to fall into pretty good company
in London, which does not always happen to such loose and
misguided young fellows as I then was; the devil generally not .
omitting to lay some snare for them very early; but it was not
so with me. I first got acquainted with the master of a ship
who had been on the coast of Guinea; and who, having had
very good success there, was resolved to go again. This captain
taking a fancy to my conversation, which was not at all disagree-
able at that time, hearing me say I had a mind to see the world,
told me if I would go the voyage with him I should be at no
expense; I should be his messmate and his companion; and if
I could carry anything with me, I should have all the advantage
of it that the trade would admit; and perhaps I might meet with
some encouragement.

I embraced the offer; and entering into a strict friendship with
this captain, who was an honest, plain-dealing man, I went the
voyage with him, and carried a small adventure with me, which,
by the disinterested honesty of my friend the captain, I increased
very considerably; for I carried about £40 in such toys and trifles
as the captain directed me to buy. These £40 I had mustered
together by the assistance of some of my relations whom I corre-



16 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

sponded with; and who, I believe, got my father, or at least my
mother, to contribute so much as that to my first adventure.

This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in all
my adventures, which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my
friend the captain; under whom also I got a competent knowledge
of the mathematics and the rules of navigation, learned how to
keep an account of the ship’s course, take an observation, and, in

_ Short, to understand some things that were needful to be under-
‘stood by a sailor; for as he took delight to instruct me, I took
delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage made me both a
sailor and a merchant; for I brought home five pounds nine
ounces of gold-dust for my adventure, which yielded me in
London, at my return, almost £300; and this filled me with
those aspiring thoughts which have since so completed my
ruin.

Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too; particularly,
that I was continually sick, being thrown into a violent calenture
by the excessive heat of the climate; our principal trading being
upon the coast, from latitude of 15° north even to the line itself.

I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my
great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the
same voyage again, and I embarked in the same vessel with one
who was his mate in the former voyage, and had now got the
command of the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage that
ever man made; for though I did not carry quite 4100 of my
new-gained wealth, so that I had £200 left, which I had lodged
with my friend’s widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell into
terrible misfortunes; the first was this—our ship making her
course towards the Canary Islands, or rather between those
Islands and the African shore, was surprised in the grey of
the morning by a Turkish rover of Sallee, who gave chase to
us with all the sail she could make. We crowded also as much
canvas as our yards would spread or our masts carry to get
clear ; but finding the pirate gained upon us, and would certainly
come up with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight; our ship



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 17

having twelve guns, and the rogue eighteen. About three in the
afternoon he came up with us, and bringing to, by mistake, just
athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as he intended,
we brought eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured in
a broadside upon him which made him sheer off again, after
returning our fire, and pouring in also his small shot from near
two hundred: men which he had on board. However, we had
not a man touched, all our men keeping close. He prepared
to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves. But laying us
on board the next time upon our other quarter, he entered sixty
men upon our decks, who immediately fell to cutting and hacking
the sails and rigging. We plied them with small shot, half-pikes,
powder-chests, and such-like, and cleared our deck of them twice.
However, to cut short this melancholy part of our story, our ship
being disabled, and three of our men killed and eight wounded,
we were obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee,
a port belonging to the Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I appre-
hended ; nor was I carried up the country to the emperor’s court,
as the rest of our men were, but was kept by the captain of the
rover as his. proper prize, and made his slave, being young and
nimble and fit for his business. At this surprising change of
my circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was
perfectly overwhelmed ; and now I looked back upon my father’s
prophetic discourse to me, that I should be miserable and have
none to relieve me, which I thought was now so effectually brought
to pass that I could not be worse; for now the hand of Heaven
had overtaken me, and I was undone without redemption; but,
alas! this was but a taste of the misery I was to go through, as
will appear in the sequel of this story.

As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house,
so I was in hopes that he would take me with him when he went
to sea again, believing that it would some time or other be his
fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portugal man-of-war; and that
then I should be set at liberty. But this hope of mine was soon

a



18 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

taken away; for when he went to sea he left me on shore to
look after his little garden and do the common drudgery of
slaves about his house; and when he came home again from
his cruise he ordered me to lie in the cabin to look after
the ship.

Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I
might take to effect it, but found no way that had the least prob-
ability in it; nothing presented to make the supposition of it
rational; for I had nobody to communicate it to that would
embark with me—no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or
Scotchman there but myself; so that for two years, though 1
often pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had the
least encouraging prospect of putting it in practice. |

After about two years an odd circumstance presented itself
which put the old thought of making some attempt for my liberty
again in my head. My patron lying at home longer than usual
without fitting out his ship, which, as I heard, was for want of
money, he used constantly, once or twice a week, sometimes
oftener if the weather was fair, to take the ship’s pinnace and go
out into the road a-fishing ; and as he always took me and young
Maresco with him to row the boat, we made him very merry, and
I proved very dexterous in catching fish; insomuch that some-
times he would send me with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and
the youth—the Maresco, as they called him—to catch a dish
of fish for him,

It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a calm morning, a
fog rose so thick that, though we were not half a league from the
shore, we lost sight of it; and rowing we knew not whither or
which way, we laboured all day and all the next night; and
when the morning came we found we had pulled off to sea
instead of pulling in for the shore, and that we were at least
two leagues from the shore. However, we got well in again,
though with a great deal of labour and some danger; for the
wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morning; but we were all
very hungry.



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 19

But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more
care of himself for the future; and having lying by him the long-
boat of our English ship that he had taken, he resolved he would
not go a-fishing any more without a compass and some provision;
so he ordered the carpenter of his ship, who also was an English
slave, to build a little state-room, or cabin, in the middle of the
long-boat, like that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it
to steer and haul home the main-sheet; the room before for
a hand or two to stand and work the sails. She sailed with what
we call a shoulder-of-mutton sail; and the boom gibed over the
top of the cabin, which lay very snug and low, and had in it room
for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table to eat on, with
some small lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor as he
thought fit to drink; and his bread, rice, and coffee.

We went frequently out with his boat a-fishing; and as I was
most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without me.
It happened that he had appointed to go out in this boat, either
for pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors of some distinc-
tion in that place, and for whom he had provided extraordinarily,
and had, therefore, sent on board the boat over-night a larger
store of provisions than ordinary; and had ordered me to get
ready three fusees with powder and shot, which were on board his
ship, for that they designed some sport of fowling as well as
fishing. 2

I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the next
morning with the boat washed clean, her ancient and pendants
out, and everything to accommodate his guests; when by-and-by
my patron came on board alone, and told me his guests had
put off going, from some business that fell out, and ordered me,
with the man and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat and
catch them some fish, for that his friends were to sup at his
house, and commanded that as soon as I got some fish I should
bring it home to his house; all which I prepared to do.

This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into my
thoughts, for now I found I was likely to have a little ship at my



20 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

command; and my master being gone, I prepared to furnish
myself, not for fishing business, but for a voyage; though I knew
not, neither did I so much as consider, whither I should steer—
anywhere to get out of that place was my desire.

My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this
Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board; for I told
‘him we must not presume to eat of our patron’s bread. He said
that was true; so he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit and
three jars of fresh water into the boat. I knew where my patron’s
case of bottles stood, which it was evident, by the make, were
taken out of some English prize, and I conveyed them into the
boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they had been there
before for our master. I conveyed also a great lump of bees-wax
into the boat, which weighed about half a hundredweight, with a
parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all of
which were of great use to us afterwards, especially the wax, to
make candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which he
innocently came into also: his. name was Ismael, which they
call Muley, or Moely; so I called to him, “Moely,” said I,
“our patron’s guns are on board the boat; can you not get
a little powder and shot? It may be we may kill some alcamies
(a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves, for I know he keeps the
gunner’s stores in the ship.” “Yes,” says he, “T’ll bring some ;”
and accordingly he brought a great leather pouch, which held a
pound and a half of powder, or rather more; and another with shot,
that had five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put all into the
boat. At the same time I had found some powder of my master’s
in the great cabin, with which I filled one of the large bottles in
the case, which was almost empty, pouring what was in it into
another ; and thus furnished with everything needful, we sailed
out of the port to fish, The castle, which is at the entrance of
the port, knew who we were, and took no notice of us; and we
were not above a mile out of the port before we hauled in our
sail and set us down to fish. The wind blew from the N.N.E.,
which was contrary to my desire, for had it blown southerly I had



ROBINSON CRUSOE, ai

been sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at least reached
to the bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow which way it
would, I would be gone from that horrid place where I was, and
leave the rest to fate. ,

After we had fished some time and caught nothing, for when I
had fish on my hook I would not pull them up, that he might not
see them, I said to the Moor, “ This will not do; our master will
not be thus served; we must stand farther off.” He, thinking no
harm, agreed, and being in the head of the boat, set the sails;
and as I had the helm, I ran the boat out near a league farther,
and then brought her to, as if I would fish; when, giving the boy
the helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was, and making
as if I stooped for something behind him, I took him by surprise
with my arm under his waist and tossed him clear overboard into
the sea. He rose immediately, for he swam like a cork, and
called to me, begged to be taken in, told me he would go all over
the world with me. He swam so strong after the boat that he
would have reached me very quickly, there being but little wind;
upon which I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the
fowling-pieces, I presented it at him, and told him I had done
him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I would do him none:
“ But,” said I, “ you swim well enough to reach to the shore, and
the sea is calm; make the best of your way to shore, and I will
do you no harm; but if you come near the boat ’ll shoot you
through the head, for I am resolved to have my liberty;” so he
turned himself about and swam for the shore, and I make no
doubt but he reached it with ease, for he was an_ excellent
swimmer. ‘

I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me,
and have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust
him. When he was gone I turned to the boy, whom they called
Xury, and said to him, “ Xury, if you will be faithful to me, I’ll
make you a great man; but if you will not stroke your face to be
true to me,” that is, swear by Mahomet and his father’s beard,
“I must throw you into the sea too.” The boy smiled in my



22 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

face, and spoke so innocently that I could not distrust him, and
swore to be faithful to me and go all over the world with me.

While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming I stood
out directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching to windward,
that they might think me gone towards the Straits’ mouth (as
indeed any one that had been in their wits must have been
supposed to do); for who would have supposed we were sailed
on to the southward, to the truly Barbarian coast, where whole
nations of Negroes were sure to surround us with their canoes
and destroy us; where we could not go on shore but we should
be devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless savages of
human kind.

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening I changed my
course and steered directly south and by east, bending my course
a little towards the east, that I might keep in with the shore; and
having a fair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth, quiet sea, I made
such sail that I believe by the next day, at three o’clock in the
afternoon, when I first made the land, I could not be less than
one hundred and fifty miles south of Sallee; quite beyond the
Emperor of Morocco’s dominions, or indeed of any other king
thereabouts, for we saw no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken of the Moors, and the
dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that
I would not stop or go on shore, or come to an anchor; the
wind continuing fair till I had sailed in that manner five days;
and then the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also
that if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would now
give over; so I ventured to make to the coast, and came to an
anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew not what, nor where,
neither what latitude, what country, what nation, or what river.
I neither saw nor desired to see any people; the principal thing
I wanted was fresh water. We came into this creek in the even-
ing, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark and discover
the country; but as soon as it was quite dark we heard sych dread-
ful noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures,



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 23

of we knew not what kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die
with fear, and begged of me not to go on shore till day. ‘“ Well,
Xury,” said I, “then I won’t; but it may be that we may see men
by day, who will be as bad to us as those lions.” ‘“ Then we give
them the shoot gun,” says Xury, laughing, ‘make them run wey.”
Such English Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves. How-
ever, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him
a dram (out of our patron’s case of bottles) to cheer him up.
After all, Xury’s advice was good, and I took it; we dropped our
little anchor and lay still all night; I say still, for we slept none;
for in two or three hours we saw vast great creatures (we knew
not what to call them) of many sorts come down to the sea-shore
and run into the water, wallowing and washing themselves for the
pleasure of cooling themselves; and they made such hideous
howlings and yellings that I never indeed heard the like.

Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but we
were both more frighted when we heard one of these mighty
creatures come swimming towards our boat; we could not see
him, but we might hear him by his blowing to be a monstrous
huge and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion, and it might be
so for aught I know; but poor Xury cried to me to weigh the
anchor and row away; “No,” says I, “ Xury; we can slip our
cable, with the buoy to it, and go off to sea; they cannot follow
us far.” I had no sooner said so but I perceived the creature
(whatever it was) within two oars’ length, which something
surprised me; however, I immediately stepped to the cabin-door,
and taking up my gun, fired at him; upon which he immediately
turned about and swam towards the shore again.

But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises and hideous
cries and howlings that were raised, as well upon the edge of the
shore as higher within the country, upon the noise or report of
the gun, a thing I have some reason to believe those creatures
had never heard before: this convinced me that there was no
going on shore for us in the night on that coast, and how to
venture on shore in the day was another question too; for to



24 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

have fallen into the hands of any of the savages had been as bad
as to have fallen into the hands of the lions and tigers; at least
we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.

Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere
or other for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat; when
and where to get to it was the point. Xury said, if I would let
him go on shore with one of the jars he would find if there was
any water and bring some to me. I asked him why he would
go? why I should not go, and he stay in the boat? The boy
answered with so much affection as made me love him ever alter.
Says he, “If wild mans come, they eat me, you go wey.” “ Well,
Xury,” said I, “we will both go, and if the wild mans come we
will kill them, they shall eat neither of us.” So I gave Xury a
piece of rusk bread to eat and a dram out of our patron’s case of
bottles which I mentioned before; and we hauled the boat,in as
near the shore as we thought was proper, and so waded on shore;
carrying nothing but our arms and two jars for water.

- I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming
of canoes with savages down the river; but the boy seeing a low
place about a mile up the country, rambled to it, and by-and-by I
saw him come running towards me. I thought he was pursued
by some savage, or frighted with some wild beast, and I ran
forwards towards him to help him; but when I came nearer to
him I saw something hanging over his shoulders, which was a
creature that he had shot, like a hare, but different in colour, and
longer legs; however, we were very glad of it, and it was very
good meat; but the great joy that poor Xury came with was to
tell me he had found good water and seen no wild mans.

But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for
water, for a little higher up the creek where we were we found the
water fresh when the tide was out, which flowed but a little way
up; so we filled our jars and ‘feasted on the hare we had killed,
and prepared to go on our way, having seen no footsteps of any
human creature in that part of the country.

As I had been one voyage to this coast before, 1 knew very



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 25

well that the-islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd
Islands also, lay not far off from the coast. But as I had no
instruments to take an observation to know what latitude we were
in, and not exactly knowing, or at least remembering, what
latitude they were in, I knew not where to. look for them, or
when to stand off to sea towards them; otherwise I might now
easily have found some of these islands. But my hope was that
if I stood along this coast till I came to that part where the
English traded, I should find some of their vessels upon their
usual design of trade that would relieve and take us in.

By the best-of my calculation, that place where I now was must
be that country which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco’s
dominions and the Negroes, lies waste and uninhabited, except
by wild beasts; the Negroes having abandoned it and gone
farther south for fear of the Moors; and the Moors not thinking
it worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness;. and, indeed, both
forsaking it because of the prodigious number of tigers, lions,
leopards, and other furious creatures which harbour there; so
that the Moors use it for their hunting only, where they go like
an army, two or three thousand men at a time; and, indeed, for
near a hundred miles together upon this coast we saw nothing
but a waste, uninhabited country by day, and heard nothing but
howlings and roaring of wild beasts by night.

Once or twice in the daytime I thought I saw the Pico of
Teneriffe, being the high top of the Mountain Teneriffe in the
Canaries, and had a great mind to venture out, in hopes of
reaching thither; but having tried twice, I was forced in again by
contrary winds, the sea also going too high for my little vessel;
so I resolved to pursue my first design and keep along the
shore.

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we
had left this place; and once in particular, being early in the
morning, we came to an anchor under a little point of land, which
was pretty high; and the tide beginning to flow, we lay still to go
farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about him than it seems



26 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

mine were, calls softly to me and tells me that we had best go
farther off the shore; “For,” says he, “look, yonder lies a
dreadful monster on the side of that hillock fast asleep.” I
looked where he pointed and saw a dreadful monster indeed, for
it was a terrible, great lion that lay on the side of the shore, under
the shade of a piece of the hill that hung, as it were, a little over
-him. ‘Xury,” says I, “you shall go on shore and kill him.”
Xury looked frighted, and said, “Me kill! he eat me at one
mouth!” one mouthful he meant. However, I said no more to
the boy, but bade him lie still, and I took our biggest gun, which
was almost musket bore, and loaded it with a good charge of
powder and with two slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded
another gun with two bullets; and the third (for we had three
pieces) I loaded with five smaller bullets, I took the best aim I
could with the first piece to have shot him in the head, but he
lay so with his leg raised a little above his nose that the slugs hit
his leg above the knee and broke the bone. He started up,
growling at first, but finding his leg broken, fell down again; and
then got upon three legs and gave the most hideous roar that
ever I heard. I was a little surprised that I had not hit him on
the head; however, I took up the second piece immediately, and
though he began to move off, fired again, and shot him in the
head, and had the pleasure to see him drop and make but little
noise, but lie struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and
would have me let him go on shore. “ Well, go,” said I; so the
boy jumped into the water, and taking a little gun in one hand,
swam to shore with the other hand, and coming close to the
creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear and shot him in
the head again, which despatched him quite.

This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I was
very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a crea-
ture that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury said he
would have some of him; so he comes on board and asked me to
give him the hatchet. “For what, Xury?” said I. “Me cut off
his head,” said he. However, Xury could not cut off his head,



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 27

but he cut off a foot and brought it with him, and it was 2 mon-
strous great one.

I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him
might, one way or other, be of some value to us; and I resolved
to take off his skin if I could. So Xury and I went to work with
him; but Xury was much the better workman at it, for I knew
very ill how to doit. Indeed, it took us both up the whole day,
but at last we got off the hide of him, and spreading it on the top
of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two days’ time, and it
afterwards served me to lie upon.

CHAPTER IIL

Make for the southward in hopes of meeting with some European vessel-—
See savages along shore—Shoot a large leopard—Am taken up by a
merchantman—Arrive at the Brazils, and buy a settlement there—Cannot
be quiet, but sail on a voyage of adventure to Guinea—Ship strikes on a
sandbank in unknown Jand—All lost but myself, who am driven ashore
half dead.

AFTER this stop we made on to the southward continually for ten
or twelve days, living very sparingly on our provisions, which
began to abate very much, and going no oftener to the shore than
we were obliged to for fresh water. My design in this was to
make the River Gambia or Senegal, that is to say, anywhere about
the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to meet with some
European ship; and if I did not, I knew not what course I had
to take but to seek for the islands, or perish there among the
Negroes. I knew that all the ships from Europe which sailed
either to the coast of Guinea, or to Brazil, or to the East Indies,
made this Cape or those islands; and, in a word, I put the whole
of my fortune upon this single point, either that I must meet with
some ship or must perish.

When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I



28 LIFE AND ADVENFURES OF

have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited; and in two
or three places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand upon the
shore to look at us; we could also perceive they were quite black
and naked. I was once inclined to have gone on shore to them;
but Xury was my better counsellor, and said to me, “No go, no
go.” However, I hauled in nearer the shore that I might talk to
them, and I found they ran along the shore by me a good way. I
observed they had no weapons in their hand, except one, who had
a long slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they
could throw them a great way with good aim; so I kept at a
distance, but talked with them by signs as well as I could; and
particularly made signs for something to eat: they beckoned to me
to stop my boat, and they would fetch me some meat. Upon this
I lowered the top of my sail and lay by, and two of them ran up
into the country, and in less than half-an-hour came back, and
brought with them two pieces of dried flesh and some corn, such
as is the produce of their country; but we neither knew what the
one or the other was; however, we were willing to accept it, but
how to come at it was our next dispute, for I would not venture
on shore to them, and they were as much afraid of us; but they
took a safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore and laid
it down, and went and stood a great way off till we fetched it on
board, and then came close to us again.

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make
them amends; but an opportunity offered that very instant to
oblige them wonderfully ; for while we were lying by the shore
came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took it)
with great fury from the mountains towards the sea; whether it
was the male pursuing the female, or whether they were in sport
or in rage, we could not tell, any more than we could tell whether
it was usual or strange, but I believe it was the latter; because, in
the first place, those ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the
night; and, in the second place, we found the people terribly
frighted, especially the women. The man that had the lance or
dart did not fly from them, but the rest did; however, as the two



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 29

creatures ran directly into the water, they did not offer to fall upon
any of the Negroes, but plunged themselves into the sea, and swam
about as if they had come for their diversion; at last one of them
began to come nearer our boat than at first I expected; but I lay
ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with all possible expedi-
tion, and bade Xury load both the others, As soon as he came
fairly within my reach I fired, and shot him directly in the head;
immediately he sank down into the water, but rose instantly, and
plunged up and down as if he was struggling for life, and so
indeed he was; he immediately made to the shore; but between
the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the
water, he died just before he reached the shore.

It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor
creatures at the noise and fire of my gun; some of them were
even ready to die for fear, and fell down as dead with the very
terror; but when they saw the creature dead and sunk in the
water, and that I made signs to them to come to the shore, they
took heart and came, and began to search for the creature. I
found him by his blood staining the water; and by the help of a
rope which T slung round him and gave the Negroes to haul, they
dragged him on shore, and found that it was a most curious
leopard, spotted, and fine to an admirable degree; and the
Negroes held up their hands with admiration, to think what it
was I had killed him with. ;

The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the noise
of the gun, swam on shore and ran up directly to the mountains
from whence they came; nor could I at that distance know what
it was. I found quickly the Negroes wished to eat the flesh of
this creature, so I was willing to have them take it as a favour
from me; which, when I made signs to them that they might take
him, they were very thankful for. Immediately they fell to work
with him; and though they had no knife, yet with a sharpened
piece of wood they took off his skin as readily, and much more
readily, than we could have done with a knife. They offered me
some of the flesh, which I declined, pointing out that I would



30 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

give it them, but made signs for the skin, which they gave me
very freely, and brought me a great deal more of their provisions,
which, though I did not understand, yet I accepted. I then
made signs to them for some water, and held out one of my jars
to them, turning it bottom upward to show that it was empty and
that I wanted to have it filled. They called immediately to some
of their friends, and there came two women and brought a great
vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I supposed, in the sun; this they
set down to me as before, and I sent Xury on shore with my jars
and filled them all three. The women were as naked as the men.

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and
water; and leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward for
about eleven days more, without offering te go near the shore
till I saw the land run out a great length into the sea, at about
the distance of four or five leagues before me; and the sea being
very calm, I kept a large offing to make this point. At length,
doubling the point at about two leagues from the land, I saw
plainly land on the other side, to seaward; then I concluded, as
it was most certain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verd, and
those the islands called, from thence, Cape de Verd Islands.
However, they were at a great distance, and I could not well tell
what I had best to do, for if I should be taken with a fresh of

‘wind I might neither reach one or other.

In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the
cabin and sat down, Xury having the helm; when, on a sudden,
the boy cried out, “ Master, master, a ship with a sail!” and the
foolish boy was frighted out of his wits, thinking it must needs be
some of his master’s ships sent to pursue us, but I knew we were
far enough out of their reach. I jumped out of the cabin and
immediately saw not only the ship, but that it was a Portuguese
ship; and, as I thought, was bound to the coast of Guinea for
Negroes. But when I observed the course she steered I was soon
convinced they were bound some other way, and did not design
to come any nearer to the shore; upon which I stretched out to
sea as much as I could, resolving to speak with them if possible.



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 31

With all the sail I could make I found I should not be able to
come in their way, but that they would be gone by before I could
make any signal to them; but after I had crowded to the utmost,
and began to despair, they, it seems, saw by the help of their
glasses that it was some European boat, which they supposed
must belong to some ship that was lost; so they shortened sail to
let me come up. I was encouraged with this, and as I had my
patron’s ancient on board I made a waft of it to them for a signal
of distress and fired a gun, both which they saw; for they told
me they saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon
these signals they very kindly brought to and lay by for me; and
in about three hours’ time I came up with them.

They asked me what I was in Portuguese, and in Spanish and
in French, but I understood none of them; but at last a Scotch
sailor who was on board called to me; and I answered him, and
told him I was an Englishman, that I had made my escape out of
slavery from the Moors at Sallee; they then bade me come on
board, and very kindly took me in, and all my goods.

It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one can believe,
that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable
and almost hopeless condition as I was in; and I immediately
offered all I had to the captain of the ship as a return for my
deliverance ; but he generously told me he would take nothing
from me, but that all I had should be delivered safe to me when I
came to the Brazils. “For,” says he, “I have saved your life on
no other terms than I would be glad to be saved myself; and it
may, one time or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same
condition. Besides,” said he, ‘‘when I carry you to the Brazils,
so great a way from your own country, if I should take from you
what you have, you will be starved there, and then I only take
away that life I have given. No, no,” says he; “Seignor Inglese”
(Mr. Englishman), “I will carry you thither in charity, and those
things will help to buy your subsistence there, and your passage
home again.”

As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the



32 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

performance to a tittle; for he ordered the seamen that none
should touch anything that I had; then he took everything into
his own possession, and gave me back an exact inventory of them,
that I might have them, even to my three earthen jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw, and
told me he would buy it of me for his ship’s use, and asked me
what I would have for it? I told him he had been so generous
to me in everything that I could not offer to make any price of
the boat, but left it entirely te him; upon which he told me he
would give me a note of hand to pay me eighty pieces of eight
for it at Brazil; and when it came there, if any one offered to
give more, he would make it up. He offered me also sixty
pieces of eight more for my boy Xury, which I was loath to
take; not that I was unwilling to let the captain have him, but
I was very loath to sell the poor boy’s liberty, who had assisted
me so faithfully in procuring my own. However, when I let him
know my reason, he owned it to be just, and offered me this
medium, that he would give the boy an obligation to set him
free in ten years if he turned Christian; upon this, and Xury
saying he was willing to go to him, I let the captain have him.

We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived in the
Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints’ Bay, in about twenty-two
days after. And now I was once more delivered from the most
miserable of all conditions of life; and what to do next with
myself I was to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me I can never
enough remember: he would take nothing of me for my passage,
gave me twenty ducats for the leopard’s skin and forty for the
lion’s skin, which I had in my boat, and caused everything I had
in the ship to be punctually delivered to me; and what I was
willing to sell he bought of me, such as the case of bottles,
two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees-wax—for I had
made candles of the rest; in a word, I made about two hundred
and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo; and with this stock
I went on shore in the Brazils.



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 33

I had not been long here before I was recommended to the
house of a good, honest man, like himself, who had an ingenio,
as they call it (that is, a plantation and a sugar-house). I lived
with him some time, and acquainted myself, by that means, with
the manner of planting and making of sugar; and seeing how well
the planters lived, and how they got rich suddenly, I resolved, if
I could get a licence to settle there, I would turn planter among
them, resolving, in the meantime, to find out some way to get
my money which I had left in London remitted to me To
this purpose, getting a kind of letter of naturalisation, I purchased
as much land that was uncured as my money would reach, and
formed a plan for my plantation and settlement; such a one as
might be suitable to the stock which I proposed to myself to
receive from England.

Thad a neighbour, a Portuguese, of Lisbon, but born of English
parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such circumstances
as Iwas. Icall him my neighbour, because his plantation lay
next to mine, and we went on very sociably together. My stock
was but low, as well as his; and we rather planted for food than
anything else for about two years. However, we began to
increase, and our land began to come into order; so that the
third year we planted some tobacco, and made each of us a
large piece of ground ready for planting canes in the year to
come. But we both wanted help; and now I found, more than
before, I had done wrong in parting with my boy Xury.

But, alas! for me to do wrong that never did right was no
great wonder. I had no remedy but to go on: I had got into
an employment quite remote to my genius, and directly contrary
to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my father’s
house, and broke through all his good advice. Nay, I was
coming into the very middle station, or upper degree of low
life, which my father advised me to before, and which, if I
resolved to go on with, I might as well have stayed at home, and
never have fatigued myself in the world as I had done; and I
used often to say to myself, I could have done this as well in

3



34 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

England, among my friends, as have gone five thousand miles
off to do it among strangers and savages, in a wilderness, and
at such a distance as never to hear from any part of the world
that had the least knowledge of me.

In this manner I used to look upon my condition with the
utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with, but now and
then this neighbour; no work to be done but by the labour of
my hands; and I used to say, I lived just like a man cast away
upon some desolate island that had nobody there but himself.
But how just has it been—and how should all men reflect, that
when they compare their present conditions with others that are
worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the exchange, and be
convinced of their former felicity by their experience—I say,
how just has it been, that the truly solitary life I reflected on,
in an island of mere desolation, should be my lot, who had so
often unjustly compared it with the life which I then led, in
which, had I continued, I had, in all probability, been exceeding
prosperous and rich?

I was in some degree settled in my measures for carrying
on the plantation before my kind friend, the captain of the
ship that took me up at sea, went back—for the ship remained
there, in providing his lading and preparing for his voyage, nearly
three months. -When telling him what little stock I had left behind
me in London, he gave me this friendly and sincere advice :—
“Seignor Inglese,” says he (for so he always called me), “if you
will give me letters and a procuration in form to me, with orders
to the person who has your money in London to send your effects
to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct, and in such goods as
are proper for this country, I will bring you the produce of them,
God willing, at my return; but, since human affairs are all subject
to changes and disasters, I would have you give orders but for
one hundred pounds sterling, which, you say, is half your stock,
and let the hazard be run for the first; so that, if it come safe,
you may order the rest the same way, and, if it miscarry, you may
have the other half to have recourse to for your supply.”



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 35

This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that
I could not but be convinced it was the best course I could take;
so I accordingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman with whom
_ Thad left my money, and a procuration to the Portuguese captain,
as he desired.

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full account of all my
adventures—my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the
Portuguese captain at sea, the humanity of his behaviour, and
what condition I was now in, with all other necessary directions
for my supply; and when this honest captain came to Lisbon, he
found means, by some of the English merchants there, to send
over, not the order only, but a full account of my story to
a merchant in London, who represented it effectually to her;
whereupon she not only delivered the money, but out of her own
pocket sent the Portuguese captain a very handsome present for
his humanity and charity to me.

The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in
English goods, such as the captain had written for, sent them ~
directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me to
the Brazils; among which, without my direction (for I was too
young in my business to think of them), he had taken care to
have all sorts of tools, ironwork, and utensils necessary for my
plantation, and which were of great use to me.

When this cargo arrived I thought my fortune made, for I was
surprised with the joy of it; and my good steward, the captain,
had laid out the five pounds which my friend had sent him for a
present for himself, to purchase and bring me over a servant,
under bond for six years’ service, and would not accept of any
consideration, except a little tobacco, which I would have him
accept, being of my own produce. :

Neither was this all; for my goods being all English manu-
facture, such as cloths, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valu-
able and desirable in the country, I found means to sell them to
a very great advantage; so that I might say I had more than four
times the value of my first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond



36 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

my poor neighbour—I mean in the advancement of my planta.
tion; for the first thing I did, I bought me a negro slave, and an
European servant also—I mean another besides that which the
captain brought me from Lisbon.

But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means of
our greatest adversity, so it was with me. I went on the next
year with great success in my plantation: I raised fifty great rolls
of tobacco on my own ground more than I had disposed of for
necessaries among my neighbours; and these fifty rolls, being
each of above a hundredweight, were well cured and laid by
-against the return of the fleet from Lisbon; and now increasing
in business and wealth, my head began to be full of projects and
undertakings beyond my reach; such as are, indeed, often the
ruin of the best heads in business. Had I continued in the
station I was now in, I had room for all the happy things to have ©
yet befallen me for which my father so earnestly recommended a
quiet, retired life, and of which he had so sensibly described the
middle station of life to be full of; but other things attended me,
and I was still to be the wilful agent of all my own miseries; and
particularly, to increase my fault and double the reflections upon
myself, which in my future sorrows I should have leisure to make,
all these miscarriages were procured by my apparent obstinate
adhering to my foolish inclination of wandering abroad, and
pursuing that inclination in contradiction to the clearest views of
doing myself good in a fair and plain pursuit of those prospects
and those measures of life which nature and Providence con-
curred to present me with, and to make my duty.

As I had once done thus in my breaking away from my
parents, so I could not be content now, but I must go and leave
the happy view I had of being a rich and thriving man in my new
plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of rising
faster than the nature of the thing admitted; and thus I cast
myself down again into the deepest gulf of human misery that
ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent with life and
a state of health in the world.



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 37

To come, then, by the just degrees, to the particulars of this
part of my story:—You may suppose that, having now lived
almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive and
prosper very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned the
language, but had contracted acquaintance and friendship among
my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants at St. Salvador,
which was our port; and that, in my discourses among them, I
had frequently given them an account of my two voyages to the
coast of Guinea: the manner of trading with the Negroes there,
and how easy it was to purchase upon the coast for trifles—such
as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and the
like—not only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants’ teeth, etc.,
but Negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great numbers.

They listened always very attentively to my discourses on these
heads, but especially to that part which related to the buying of
Negroes, which was a trade at that time not only not far entered
into, but, as far as it was, had been carried on by assientos, or
permission of the kings of Spain and Portugal; and engrossed in
the public stock; so that few Negroes were bought, and those
excessively dear.

It happened, being in company with some. merchants and
planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very
earnestly, three of them came to me next morning and told me
they had been musing very much upon what I had discoursed
with them of the last night, and they came to make a secret pro-
posal to me; and after enjoining me secrecy, they told me that
they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that they had
all plantations as well as I, and were straitened for nothing so
much as servants; that as it was a trade that could not be carried
on, because they could not publicly sell the Negroes when they
came home, so they desired to make but one voyage, to bring the
Negroes on shore privately, and divide them among their own
plantations; and, in a word, the question was, whether I would
go their supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading part upon
the coast of Guinea; and they offered me that I should have my



33 IIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

equal share of the Negroes, without providing any part of the
stock.

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made
to any one that had not had a settlement and a plantation of his
own to look after, which was in a fair way of coming to be very
considerable, and with a good stock upon it; but for me, that was
thus entered and established, and had nothing to do but to go on
as I had begun for three or four years more, and to have sent for
the other hundred pounds from England, and who in that time,
and with that little addition, could scarce have failed of being
worth three or four thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing
too—for me to think of such a voyage was the most preposterous
thing that ever man in such circumstances could be guilty of.

But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more
resist the offer than I could restrain my first rambling designs
when my father’s good counsel was lost upon me In a word, I
told them I would go with all my heart, if they would undertake
to look after my plantation in my absence, and would dispose of
it to such as I should direct, if I miscarried. This they all
engaged to do, and entered into writings o: covenants to do so;
and I made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and effects
in case of my death, making the captain of the ship that had
saved my life, as before, my universal heir, but obliging him to
dispose of my effects as I had directed in my will; one half of the
produce being to himself, and the ether to be shipped in England.

In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects and
to keep up my plantation. Had I used half as much prudence to
have looked into my own interest, and have made a judgment of
what I ought to have done and not to have done, I had certainly
never gone away from so prosperous an undertaking, leaving all
the probable views of a thriving circumstance and gone upon a
voyage to sea, attended with all its common hazards, to say
nothing of the reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes to
myself.

But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 39

fancy rather than my reason; and accordingly, the ship being
fitted out and the cargo furnished, and all things done, as by
agreement, by my partners in the voyage, I went on board in an
evil hour, the rst September 1659, being the same day eight years
that I went from my father and mother at Hull, in order to act
the rebel to their authority, and the fool to my own interests.

Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden,
carried six guns and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy,
and myself. We had on board no large cargo of goods, except
of such toys as were fit for our trade with the Negroes, such as
beads, bits of glass, shells, and other trifles, especially little look-
ing-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.

The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to
the northward upon our own coast, with design to stretch over for
the African coast when we came about ten or twelve degrees of
northern latitude, which, it seems, was the manner of course in
those days. We had very good weather, only excessively hot, all
the way upon our own coast, till we came to the height of Cape
St. Augustino; from whence, keeping farther off at sea, we lost
sight of land, and steered as-if we were bound for the isle Fer-
nando de Noronha, holding our course N.E. by.N., and leaving
those isles on the east, In this course we passed the line in
about twelve days’ time, and were, by our last observation, in
seven degrees twenty-two minutes northern latitude, when a
violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge.
It began from the south-east, came about to the north-west, and
then settled in the north-east ; from whence it blew in such a ter-
rible manner that for twelve days together we could do nothing but
drive, and scudding away before it, let it carry us whither ever
fate and the fury of the winds directed; and during these twelve
days I need not say that I expected every day to be swallowed
up; nor, indeed, did any in the ship expect to save their lives.

In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of
our men die of the calenture, and one man and the boy washed
overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather abating a little,



40 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

the master made an observation as well as he could, and found
that he was in about eleven degrees north latitude, but that he was
twenty-two degrees of longitude difference west from Cape St.
Augustino ; so that he found he was upon the coast of Guinea, or
the north part of Brazil, beyond the river Amazons, towards that
of the river Oroonoque, commonly called the Great River; and
began to consult with me what course he should take, for the
‘ship was leaky and very much disabled, and he was going
directly back to the coast of Brazil.

I was positively against that; and looking over the charts of
the sea-coast of America with him, we concluded there was no
inhabited country for us to have recourse to till we came within
the circle of the Caribbee Islands, and therefore resolved to stand
away for Barbadoes; which, by keeping off at sea, to avoid the
indraft of the Bay or Gulf of Mexico, we might easily perform, as
we hoped, in about fifteen days’ sail; whereas we could not
possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa without some
assistance both to our ship and to ourselves.

With this design we changed our course and steered away
N.W, by W., in order to reach some of our English islands, where
I hoped for relief But our voyage was otherwise determined; for,
being in the latitude of twelve degrees eighteen minutes, a second
storm came upon us which carried us away with the same im-
petuosity westward, and drove us so out of the way of all human
commerce, that, had all our lives been saved as to the sea, we
were rather in danger of being devoured by savages than ever
returning to our own country.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our
men early in the morning cried out, “Land!” and we had no
sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing where-
abouts in the world we were, than the ship struck upon a sand,
and in a moment, her motion being so stopped, the sea broke
over her in such a manner that we expected we should all have
perished immediately; and we were immediately driven into our
close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam and spray of the sea.



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 4i

It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like
condition to describe or conceive the consternation of men in
such circumstances. We knew nothing where we were, or upon
what land it was we were driven—whether an island or the main,
whether inhabited or not inhabited. As the rage of the wind was
still great, though rather less than at first, we could not so much
as hope to have the ship hold many minutes without breaking
into pieces, unless the winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn
"immediately about. In a word, we sat looking upon one another
and expecting death every moment, and every man, accordingly,
preparing for another world; for there was little or nothing more
for us to do in this. That which was our present comfort, and
all the comfort we had, was that, contrary to our expectation, the
ship did not break yet, and that the master said the wind began
to abate.

Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet
the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast
for us to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful condition
indeed, and had nothing to do but to think of saving our lives as
well as we could. We had a boat at our stern just before the
storm, but she was first staved by dashing against the ship’s
rudder, and in the next place she broke away, and either sunk or
was driven off to sea; so there was no hope from her. We had
another boat on board, but how to get her off into the sea was a
doubtful thing. However, there was no time to debate, for we
fancied that the ship would break in pieces every minute, and
some told us she was actually broken already.

In this distress the mate of our vessel laid hold of the boat, and
with the help of the rest of the men got her slung over the ship’s
side; and getting all into her, let go, and committed ourselves,
being eleven in number, to God’s mercy and the wild sea; for
though the storm was abated considerably, yet the sea ran dread-
fully high upon the shore, and might be well called den wild zee,
as the Dutch call the sea in a storm. ;

And now our case was very dismal. indeed; for we all saw



42 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

plainly that the sea went so high that the boat could not live, and
that we should be inevitably drowned. As to making sail, we had
none, nor if we had could we have done anything with it; so we
worked at the oar towards the land, though with heavy hearts,
like men going to execution; for we all knew that when the boat
came.near the shore she would be dashed in a thousand pieces
by the breach of the sea. However, we committed our souls to
God in the most earnest manner; and the wind driving us
towards the shore, we hastened our destruction with our own
hands, pulling as well as we could towards land.

What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep or
shoal, we knew not. The only hope that could rationally give us
the least shadow of expectation was, if we might find some bay
or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where by great chance we
might have run our boat in, or got under the lee of the land, and
perhaps made smooth water. But there was nothing like this
appeared; but as we made nearer and nearer the shore, the land
looked more frightful than the sea.

After we had rowed or rather driven about a league and a
half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came
rolling astern of us, and plainly bade us expect the coup de grace.
It took us with such a fury that it overset the boat at once; and
separating us, as well from the boat as from one another, gave us
no time to say, *O God!” for we were all swallowed up in a
moment.

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt
when I sank into the water; for though I swam very well, yet 1
could not deliver myself from the waves so as to draw breath, till
that wave having driven me, or rather carried me, a vast way on
towards the shor, and having spent itself, went back, and left me
upon the land almost dry, but half-dead with the water I took in.
I had so much presence of mind as well as breath left, that
seeing myself nearer the mainland than I expected, I got upon
my feet and endeavoured to make on towards the land as fast as
I could before another wave should return and take me up again;



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 43

but I soon found it was impossible to avoid it; for I saw the sea
come after me as high as a great hill, and as furious as an enemy,

‘which I had no means or strength to contend with: my business
was to hold my breath and raise myself upon the water, if I
could; and so, by swimming, to preserve my breathing and pilot
myself towards the shore, if possible, my greatest concern now
being that the sea, as it would carry me a great way towards the
shore when it came on, might not carry me back again with it
when it gave back towards the sea.

The wave that came upon me again buried me at once twenty or
thirty feet deep in its own body, and I could feel myself carried
with a mighty force and swiftness towards the shore a very great
way; but I held my breath and assisted myself to swim stil)
forward with all my might. I was ready to burst with holding my
breath, when, as I felt myself rising up, so, to my immediate relief,
I found my head and hands shoot out above the surface of the
water; and though it was not two seconds of time that I could keep
myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave me breath and new
courage. I was covered again with water a good while, but. not
so long but I held it out; and finding the water had spent itself
and began to return, I struck forward against the return of the
waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I stood still a few
moments to recover breath and till the waters went from me, and
then took to my heels and ran with what strength I had farther
towards the shore. But neither would this deliver me from the
fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me again ; and twice
more I was lifted up by the waves and carried forward as before,
the shore being very flat.

The last time of these two had well-nigh been fatal to me, for
the sea having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather
dashed me against a piece of rock, and that with such force that
it left me senseless, and indeed helpless as to my own deliver-
ance; for the blow taking my side and breast, beat the breath, as
it were, quite out of my body; and had it returned again imme-
diately, I must have been strangled in the water; but I recovered



44 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

a little before the return of the waves, and seeing I should be
covered again with the water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece
of the rock, and so to hold my breath, if possible, till the wave
went back. Now, as the waves were not so high as at first, being
nearer land, I held my hold till the wave abated, and then fetched
another run, which brought me so near the shore that the next

. wave, though it went over me, yet did not so swallow me up as to
carry me away; and the next run I took I got to the mainland,
where, to my great comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the shore
and sat me down upon the grass, free from danger and quite out
of the reach of the water.

I was now landed and safe on shore, and began to look up and
thank God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there was,
sOme minutes before, scarce any room to hope. I believe it is
impossible to express, to the life, what the ecstasies and transports
of the soul are when it is so saved, as I may say, out of the very
grave; and I do not wonder now at the custom,.when a male
factor, who has the halter about his neck, is tied up, and just
going to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought to him—TI say,
Ido not wonder that they bring a surgeon with it, to let him
blood that very moment they tell him of it, that the surprise may
not drive the animal spirits from the heart and overwhelm him.

‘For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.”

I walked about on the shore lifting up my hands, and my whole
being, as I may say, wrapt up in a contemplation of my deliver-
ance; making a thousand gestures and motions which I cannot
describe; reflecting upon all my comrades that were drowned, and
that there should not be one soul saved but myself; for, as for
them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign of them, except
three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that were not fellows.

I cast my eye to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and froth
of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far off; and
considered, Lord! how was it possible I could get on shore?

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 48

condition, I began to look round me, to see what kind of place 1
was in, and what was next to be done; and I soon found my
comforts abate, and that, ina word, I had a dreadful deliverance;
for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor anything either to
eat or drink to comfort me; neither did I see any prospect before
me but that of perishing with hunger or being devoured by wild
beasts; and that which was particularly afflicting to me was that
I had no weapon, either to hunt and kill any creature for my sus-
tenance, or to defend myself against any other creature that might
desire to kill me for theirs. In a word, I had nothing about me
but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco ina box. This
was all my provisions; and this threw me into terrible agonies of
. mind, that for a while I ran about like a madman. Night coming
upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider what would be
my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that country, as at
night they always come abroad for their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time was to
get up into a thick bushy tree like a fir, but thorny, which grew
near me, and where I resolved to sit all night, and consider the
next day what death I should die, for as yet I saw no prospect of
life. I walked about a furlong from the shore to see if I could
find any fresh water to drink, which I did, to my great joy; and
having drank and put a little tobacco into my mouth to prevent
hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured to
place myself so that if I should sleep I might not fall. And
having cut me a short stick, like a truncheon, for my defence, I
took up my lodging; and having been excessively fatigued, I fell
fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could have
done in my condition, and found myself more refreshed with it
than, I think, I ever was on such an occasion.



46 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

CHAPTER IV.

Appearance of the wreck and country next day—Swim on board of the ships
and by means of a contrivance get a quantity of stores on shore—Shoot
a bird, but it turns out perfect carrion—Moralise upon my situation—The
ship blown off land and totally lost—Set out in search of a proper place
for a habitation—See numbers of goats—Melancholy reflections.

WueEn I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the
storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as before.
But that which surprised me most was that the ship was lifted off
in the night from the sand where she lay by the swelling of the
tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock which I at first
mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the wave dashing me
against it. This being within about a mile from the shore where
I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished
myself on board, that at least I might save some necessary things
for my use.

When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked
about me again, and the first thing I found was the boat, which
lay, as the wind and the sea had tossed her up, upon the land,
about two miles on my right hand. I walked as far as I could
upon the shore to have got to her; but found a neck or inlet of
water between me and the boat which was about halfa-mile »
broad; so I came back for the present, being more intent upon
getting at the ship, where I hoped to find something for my
present subsistence.

A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the tide
ebbed so far out that I could come within a quarter of a mile
of the ship. And here I found a fresh renewing of my grief; for
I saw evidently that if we had kept on board we had been all
safe—that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had not
been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort
and company as I now was. This forced tears to my eyes again;
but as there was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 44

. to the ship; so I pulled off my clothes—for the weather was hot
to extremity—and took the water. But when I came to the ship
my difficulty was still greater to know how to get on board; for
as she lay aground and high out of the water, there was nothing
within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and the
second time I spied a small piece of rope, which I wondered I
did not see at first, hung down by the fore-chains so low as that
with great difficulty I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope
I got up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that the
ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her hold, but
that she lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather
earth, that her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head
low, almost to the water. By this means all her quarter was free,
and all that was in that part was dry; for you may be sure my
first work was to search, and to see what was spoiled and what
was free. And, first, I found that all the ship’s provisions were
dry and ‘untouched by the water; and being very well disposed
to eat, I went to the bread-room and filled my pockets with
biscuit, and ate it as I went about other things, for I had no time
to lose. I also found some rum in the great cabin, of which I
took a large dram, and which I had, indeed, need enough of to
spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a
boat to furnish myself with many things which I foresaw would
be very necessary to me.

It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had;
and this extremity roused my application. We had several spare
yards, and two or three large spars of wood, and a spare top-mast
or two in the ship; I resolved to fall to work with these, and I
flung as many of them overboard as I could manage for their
weight, tying every one with a rope, that they might not drive
away. When this was done I went down the ship’s side, and
pulling them to me, I tied four of them together at both ends as
well as I could, in the form of a raft, and laying two or three
short pieces of plank upon them cross-ways, I found I could walk
upon it very well, but that it was not able to bear any great



48 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

weight, the pieces being too light. So I went to work, and with
& carpenter’s saw I cut a spare top-mast into three lengths, and
added them to my raft, with a great deal of labour and pains.
But the hope of furnishing myself with necessaries encouraged
me to go beyond what I should have been able to have done
upon another occasion.

' My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight.
My next care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what
I laid upon it from the surf of the sea; but I was not long con
sidering this. I first laid all the planks or boards upon it that I
could get, and having considered well what I most wanted, I first
got three of the seamen’s chests, which I had broken open and
emptied, and lowered them down upon my raft; the first of these
I filled with provisions—viz., bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses,
five pieces of dried goat’s flesh (which we lived much upon), and
a little remainder of European corn, which had been laid by for
some fowls which we brought to sea with us, but the fowls were
killed. There had been some barley and wheat together; but, to
my great disappointment, I found afterwards that the rats had
eaten or spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found several cases of
bottles belonging to our skipper, in which were some cordial
waters; and, in all, about five or six gallons of rack. These I
stowed by themselves, there being no. need to put them into the
chest, nor any room for them. While I was doing this I found
the tide begin to flow, though very calm; and I had the mortifi-
cation to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on
the shore upon the sand, swim away. As for my breeches, which
were only linen, and open-kneed, I swam on board in them and
my stockings. However, this set me on rummaging for clothes,
of which I found enough, but took no more than I wanted for
present use, for I had other things which my eye was more upon
—as, first, tools to work with on shore, And it was after long
searching that I found out the carpenter’s chest, which was indeed
a very useful prize to me, and much more valuable than a ship-
load of gold would have been at that time. I got it down to my



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 49

raft, whole as it was, without losing time to look into it, for I
knew in general what it contained.

My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were
two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols.
These I secured first, with some powder-horns and a small bag of
shot and two old rusty swords. I knew there were three barrels
of powder in the ship, but knew not where our gunner had stowed
them; but with much search I found them, two of them dry and
good, the third had taken water. Those two I got to my raft,
with the arms. And now I thought myself pretty well freighted,
and began to think how I should get to shore with them, having
neither sail, oar, nor rudder; and the least capful of wind would
have overset all my navigation.

I had three encouragements— first, a smooth, calm sea;
secondly, the tide rising and setting in to the shore; thirdly, what
little wind there was blew me towards the land. And thus, having
found two or three broken oars belonging to the boat—and,
besides the tools which were in the chest, I found two saws, an
axe, and a hammer; with this cargo I put to sea. Fora mile or
thereabouts my raft went very well, only that I found it drive a
little distant from the place where I had landed before; by which
I perceived that there was some indraft of the water, and conse-
quently I hoped to find some creek or river there which I might
make use of as a port to get to land with my cargo.

As I imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a little
opening of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide set
into it; so I guided my raft as well as I could, to keep in the
middle of the stream.

But here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck,

-which, if I had, I think, verily, would have broken my heart; for
knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran aground at one end of
it upon a shoal, and not being aground at the other end, it wanted
but a little that all my cargo had slipped off towards the end that
was afloat, and so fallen into the water. I did my utmost, by
setting my back against the chests, to keep them in their places,

4



50 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

but could not thrust off the raft with all my strength; neither
durst I stir from the posture I was in; but holding up the chests
with all my might, I stood in that manner near. half-an-hour, in
which time the rising of the water brought me a little more upon

-a level; and a little after, the water still rising, my raft floated
again, and I thrust her off with the oar I had into the channel,
and then driving up higher, I at length found myself in the mouth
of a little river, with land on both sides, and a strong current of
tide running up. I looked on both sides for a proper place to
get to shore, for I was not willing to be driven too high up the
river; hoping, in time, to see some ship at sea, and therefore
resolved to place mysclf as near the coast as I could. |

At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek,
to which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and at
last got so near that, reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust
her directly in. But here I had like to have dipped all my cargo
into the sea again; for that shore lying pretty steep—that is to
say, sloping—there was no place to land but where one end
of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie so high, and the other
sink lower, as before, that it would endanger my cargo again,
All that I could do was to wait till the tide was at the highest,
keeping the raft with my oar like an anchor, to hold the side of it
fast to the shore, near a flat piece of ground, which I expected the
water would flow over; and so it did. As soon as I found water
enough—for my raft drew about a foot of water—I thrust her
upon that flat piece of ground, and there fastened or moored her,
by sticking my two broken oars into the ground, one on one side,
near one end, and one on the other side near the other end; and
thus I lay till the water ebbed away, and left my raft and all my
cargo safe on shore. ,

My next work was to view the country and seek a proper
place for my habitation,.and where to stow my goods to secure
them from whatever might happen. Where I was I yet knew
not; whether on the continent or on an island; whether inhabited
or not inhabited; whether in danger of wild beasts or not. There



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 51

was a hill not above a mile from me, which rose up very steep
and high, and which seemed to overtop some other hills, which
lay as in a ridge from it northward. I took out one of the
fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn of powder; and
thus armed, I travelled for discovery up to the top of that hill,
where, after I had with great labour and difficulty got to the top,
I saw my fate, to my great affliction—viz., that I was in an island
environed every way with the sea: no land to be seen except
some rocks, which lay a great way off; and two small islands,
less than this, which lay about three leagues to the west.

I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw
good reason to believe, uninhabited except by wild beasts, of
whom, however, I saw none. Yet I saw abundance of fowls, but
knew not their kinds; neither when I killed them could I tell
what was fit for food and what-not. At my coming back I shot
at a great bird which I saw sitting upon a tree on the side of a
great wood. I believe it was the first gun that had been fired
there since the creation of the world. I had no sooner fired than
from all parts of the wood there arose an innumerable number of
fowls, of many sorts, making a confused screaming and crying,
and every one according to his usual note, but not one of them
of any kind that I knew. As for the creature I killed, I took it
to be a kind of hawk, its colour and beak resembling it, but it
had no talons or claws more than common. Its flesh was carrion,
and fit for nothing.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and fell
to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the rest
of that day. What to do with myself at night I knew not, nor
indeed where to rest, for I was afraid to lie down on the
ground, not knowing but some wild beast might devour me,
though, as I afterwards found, there was really no need for those
fears.

However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round with
the chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and made
a kind of hut for that night’s lodging. As for food, I yet saw



52 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

not which way to supply myself, except that I had seen two
or three creatures like hares run out of the wood where I shot
the fowl.

I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many
things out of the ship which would be useful to me, and par-
ticularly some of the rigging and sails, and such other things
as might come to land; and I resolved to make another voyage
on board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that the first
storm that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I re-
‘solved to set all other things apart till I had got everything out of
the ship that I could get. Then I called a council—that is to
say, in my thoughts—whether I should take back the raft; but
this appeared impracticable, so I resolved to go as before, when
the tide was down; and I did so, only that I stripped before
I went from my hut, having nothing on but my chequered shirt,
a pair of linen drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.

I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft;
and having had experience of the first, I neither made this so
unwieldy nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought away several
things very useful to me; as, first, in the carpenter’s stores I
found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great screw-
jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and, above all, that most useful
thing called a grindstone. All these I secured, together with
several things belonging to the gunner, particularly two or three
iron crows and two barrels of musket bullets, seven muskets,
another fowling-piece, with some small quantity of powder more ;
a large bagful of small shot, and a great roll of sheet-lead; but
* this last was so heavy I could not hoist it up to get it over the
ship’s side.

Besides these things, I took all the men’s clothes that I could
find, and a spare foretop-sail, a hammock, and some bedding;
and with this I loaded my second raft, and brought them all safe
on shore, to my very great comfort.

I was under some apprehension, during my absence from the
land, that at least my provisions might be devoured on shore; but



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 53

when I came back I found no sign of any visitor; only there sat
a creature like a wild cat upon one of the chests, which, when I
came towards it, ran away a little distance, and then stood still.
She sat very composed and unconcerned, and looked full in my
face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with me. I presented
my gun at her, but as she did not understand it, she was perfecily
unconcerned at it, nor did she offer to stir away; upon which I
tossed her a bit of biscuit, though, by the way, I was not very free
of it, for my store was not great; however, I spared her a bit, I
say, and she went to it, smelled at it, and ate it, and looked (as if
pleased) for more; but I thanked her, and could spare no more,
so she marched off.

Having got my second cargo on shore—though I was fain to”
open the barrels of powder and bring them by parcels, for they
were too heavy, being large casks—I went to work to make me a
little tent with the sail and some poles which I cut for that pur-
pose ; and into this tent I brought everything that I knew would
spoil either with rain or sun; and I piled all the empty chests
and casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from any
sudden attempt, either from man or beast.

When I had done this I blocked up the door of the tent with
some boards within, and an empty chest set up on end without;
and spreading one of the beds upon the ground, laying my two
pistols just at my head, and my gun at length by me, I went to
bed for the first time, and slept very quietly all night, for I was
very weary and heavy; for the night before I had slept little, and
had laboured very hard all day to fetch all those things from the
ship, and to get them on shore.

I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid
up, I believe, for one man; but I was not satisfied still, for while
the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought I ought to get
everything out of her that I could; so every day at low water I
' went on board and brought away something or other; but par-
ticularly the third time I went I brought away as much of the
rigging as I could, as also all the small ropes and rope-twine



54 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

I could get, with a piece of spare.canvas, which was to mend the
sails upon occasion, and the barrel of wet gunpowder. In a word,
I brought away all the sails, first and last; only that I was fain to
cut them in pieces, and bring as much at a time as I could, for
they were no more useful to be sails, but as mere canvas only.

But that which comforted me more still was that, last of all,
after I had made five or six such voyages as these, and thought I
had nothing more to expect from the ship that was worth my
meddling with—I say, after all this I found a great hogshead of
bread, three large runlets of rum or spirits, a box of sugar, and a
barrel of fine flour; this was surprising to me, because I had
given over expecting any more provisions, except what was
spoiled by the water. I soon emptied the hogshead of the
bread, and wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails,
which I cut out; and, in a word, I got all this safe on shore
also.

The next day I made another voyage, and now, having plun-
dered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I began
with the cables. Cutting the great cable into pieces such as I
could move, I got two cables and a hawser on shore, with all the
ironwork I could get; and having cut down the spritsail-yard and
the mizen-yard, and everything I could, to make a large raft, I
loaded it with all these heavy goods and came away. But my
good luck began now to leave me; for this raft was so unwieldy
and so overladen, that after I had entered the little cove where I
had landed the rest of my goods, not being able to guide it so
handily as I did the other, it overset and threw me and all my
cargo into the water. As for myself, it was no great harm, for I
was near the shore; but as to my cargo, it was a great part of it
lost, especially the iron, which I expected would have been of
great use to me; however, when the tide was out I got most of
the pieces of the cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with
infinite labour; for I was fain to dip for it into the water, a work
which fatigued me very much. After this I went every day on
board, and brought away what I could get.



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 55

I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven
times on board the ship, in which time I had brought away all
that one pair of hands could well be supposed capable to bring;
though I believe verily, had the calm weather held, I should have
brought away the whole ship, piece by piece. But preparing the
twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind began to rise;
however, at low water I went on board, and though I thought I
had rummaged the cabin so effectually that nothing more could
be found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers in it, in one of
which I found two or three razors and one pair of large scissors,
with some ten or a dozen of good knives and forks; in another I
found about thirty-six pounds value in money—some European
coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold, and some
silver.

I smiled to myself at the sight of this money: “O drug!” said
1 aloud, “what art thou good for? Thou art not worth to me—
no, not the taking off the ground; one of those knives is worth all
this heap; I have no manner of use for thee—e’en remain where
thou art and go to the bottom, as a creature whose life is not
worth saving.” However, upon second thoughts I took it away;
and wrapping all this in a piece of canvas, I began to think of
making another raft; but while I was preparing this I found the
sky overcast, and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter of an
hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore. It presently occurred to
me that it was in vain to pretend to make a raft with the wind off
shore, and that it was my business to be gone before the tide
of flood began, otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore
at all. Accordingly, I let myself down into the water and swam
across the channel which lay between the ship and the sands, and ~
even that with difficulty enough, partly with the weight of the
things I had about me, and partly the roughness of the water; for
the wind rose very hastily, and before it was quite high-water it
blew a storm.

But I had got home to my little tent, where I lay,. with all my
wealth about me, very secure. It blew very hard all night, and in



56 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

the morning when I looked out, behold, no more ship was to be
seen! I was a little surprised, but recovered myself with the
satisfactory reflection that I had lost no time, nor abated any
diligence, to get everything out of her that could be useful to me,
and that, indeed, there was little left in her that I was able to
bring away, if I had had more time.

T now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of anything
out of her, except what might drive on shore from her wreck; as,
indeed, divers pieces of her afterwards did; but those things were

_of small use to me.

My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself
against either savages, if any should appear, or wild beasts, if any
were in the island; and I had many thoughts of the method how
to do this, and what kind of dwelling to make—whether I should
make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the earth; and, in
short, I resolved upon both, the manner and description of which
it may not be improper to give an account of.

T soon found the place I was iz was not fit for my settlement,
because it was upon a low, moorish ground near the sea, and
believed it would not be wholesome, and more particularly
because there was no fresh water near it; so I resolved to find a
more healthy and more convenient spot of ground,

I consulted several things in my situation which I found would

be proper for me: first, health and fresh water, I just now men-
tioned; secondly, shelter from the heat of the sun; thirdly,
security from ravenous creatures, whether man or beast; fourthly,
a view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight I might not
lose any advantage for my deliverance, of which I was not willing
to banish all my expectation yet.
' In search of a proper place for this, I found a little plain on the
side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was steep
as a house-side, so that nothing could come down upon me from
the top. On the one side of the rock there was a hollow place,
worn a little way in, like the entrance or door of a cave; but there
was not really any cave or way into the rock at all.



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 57

On the flat of the green, just below this hollow place, I resolved
to pitch my tent. This plain was not above a hundred yards
broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a green before my
door; and at the end of it descended irregularly every way down
into the low ground by the sea-side. It was on the N.N.W. side
of the hill, so that it was sheltered from the heat every day till
it came to a W. and by S. sun, or thereabouts, which in those
countries is near the setting.

Before I set up my tent I drew a half-circle before the hollow
place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter from
the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter from its beginning and
ending.

In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving
them into the ground till they stood very firm like piles, the
biggest end being out of the ground above five feet and a half,
and sharpened on the top. The two rows did not stand above
six inches from one another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship,
and laid them in rows, one upon another, within the circle,
between these two rows of stakes, up to the top placing other
stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two feet and
a half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong,
that neither man nor beast could get into it or over it. This
cost me a great deal of time and labour, especially to cut the
piles in the woods, bring them to the place, and drive them into
the earth.

The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but
by a short ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when I was
in, I lifted over after me; and so I was completely fenced in and
fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and consequently slept
secure in the night, which otherwise I could not have done;
though, as it appeared afterwards, there was no need of all this
caution from the enemies that I apprehended danger from.

Into this fence or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all my
riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you



5§ LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

have the account above; and I made a large tent, which, to
preserve me from the rains that in one part of the year are very
violent there, I made double—one smaller tent within, and one
larger tent above it; and covered the uppermost with a large tar-
paulin which I had saved among the sails.

And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had
brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very
good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.

Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that
would spoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed all my goods,
I made up the entrance, which till now I had left open, and so
passed and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.

When I had done this I began to work my way into the rock,
and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down out through
my tent, I laid them up within my fence, in the nature of a
terrace, so that it raised the ground within about a foot and
a half; and thus I made me a cave just behind my tent, which
served me like a cellar to my house.

It cost me much labour and many days before all these things
were brought to perfection; and, therefore, I must go back to
some other things which took up some of my thoughts. At the
same time it happened, after I had laid my scheme for the setting
up my tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain falling from
a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened, and
after that a great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it.
I was not so much surprised with the lightning as I was with the
thought which darted into my mind as swift as the lightning itself
—Oh, my powder! My very heart sank within me when I thought
that at one blast all my powder might be destroyed; on which,
not my defence only, but the providing my food, as I thought,
entirely depended. I was nothing near so anxious about my own
danger, though, had the powder took fire, I should never have
known who had hurt me.

Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm
was over I laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying,



ROBINSON CRUSOZ. 59

and applied myself to make bags and boxes, to separate the
powder, and to keep it a little and a little in a parcel, in the hope
that whatever might come, it might not all take fire at once; and
to keep it so apart that it should not be possible to make one
part fire another. I finished this work in about a fortnight; and
I think my powder, which in all was about two hundred and
forty pounds weight, was divided in not less than a hundred
parcels. As to the barrel that had been wet, I did not apprehend
any danger from that; so I placed it in my new cave, which, in
my fancy, I called my kitchen; and the rest I hid up and down
in holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it,
marking very carefully where I laid it.

In the interval of time while this was doing I went out once
at least every day with my gun, as well to divert myself as to see
if I could kill anything fit for food; and, as near as I could, to
acquaint myself with what the island produced. The first time I
went out I presently discovered that there were goats in the
island, which was a great satisfaction to me; but then it was
attended with this misfortune to me—viz., that they were so shy,
so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the most difficult thing
in the world to come at them; but I was not discouraged at this,
not doubting but I might now and then shoot one, as it soon
happened; for after I had found their haunts a little, I laid
wait in this manner for them: I observed if they saw me in the
valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would run away,
as in a terrible fright; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and
I was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence
I concluded that, by the position of their optics, their sight was
so directed downward that they did not readily see objects
that were above them; so afterwards I took this method—I
always climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and then had
frequently a fair mark.

The first shot I made among these creatures I killed a she
goat, which had a little kid by her, which she gave suck to,
which grieved me heartily; for when the old one fell the kid



60 LIFE AND ADVENTURES Of

stood stock-still by her, till I came and took her up; and not
only so, but when I carried the old one with me upon my
shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my enclosure; upon
which I laid down the dam and took the kid in my arms and
carried it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame; but
it would not eat; so I was forced to kill it and eat it myself.
These two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I ate
sparingly and saved my provisions, my bread especially, as much
as possibly I could.
_ Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary
to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn; and what
I did for that, and also how I enlarged my cave, and what con-
veniences I made, I shall give a full account of in its place; but.
I must now give some little account of myself, and of my thoughts
about living, which, it may well be supposed, were not a few.

I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for as I was not cast
away upon that island without being driven, as is said, by a
violent storm, quite out of the course of our intended voyage,
and a great way—viz.,, some hundreds of leagues, out of the
ordinary course of the trade of mankind, I had great reason to
consider it as a determination of Heaven that in this desolate
place, and in this desolate manner, I should end my life. The
tears would run plentifully down my face when I made these
reflections; and sometimes I would expostulate with myself
why Providence should thus completely ruin His creatures and
render them so absolutely miserable; so without help, aban-
doned, so entirely depressed, that it could hardly be rational to
be thankful for such a life,

But something always returned swift upon me to check these
thoughts, and to reprove me; and particularly one day, walking
with my gun in my hand by the sea-side, I was very pensive
upon the subject of my present condition, when reason, as. it
were, expostulated with me the other way, thus: “ Well, you are
ina desolate condition, it is true; but, pray remember, where are
the rest of you? Did not you come eleven of you in the boat?



‘ROBINSON .CROSOE. 6x

Where are the ten? Why were they not saved and you lost?
Why were you singled eut? Is it better to be here or there?”
And then I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be considered
with the good that is in them, and with what worse attends them.
Then it occurred to me again how well I was furnished for
my subsistence, and what would have been my case if it had not
happened (which was a hundred thousand to one) that the ship
floated from the place where she first struck, and was driven so
near to the shore that I had time to get all these things out of
her; what would have been my case if I had been forced to have
lived-in the condition in which I at first came on shore, without
necessaries of life or necessaries to supply and procure them?
“‘ Particularly,” said I, aloud (though to myself), “ what should I
have done without a gun, without ammunition, without any tools
to make anything or to work with, without clothes, bedding, a
tent, or any manner of covering?” and that now I had all these
to sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to provide myself in
such a manner as to live without my gun when my ammunition
was spent; so that I had a tolerable view of. subsisting, without
any want, as long as I lived; for I considered from the beginning
how I would provide for the accidents that might happen, and for
the time that was to come, even not only that my ammunition
should be spent, but even after my health and strength should decay.
I confess I had not entertained any notion of my ammunition
being destroyed at one blast—I mean my powder being blown
up by lightning; and this made the thoughts of it so surprising
to me when it lightened and thundered, as I observed just now.
And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene
of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world
before, I shall take it from its beginning and continue it in its
order. It was by my account the 30th September when, in the
manner as above said, I first set foot upon this horrid island; _
when the sun, being to us in its autumnal equinox, was almost
over my head; for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in
the latitude of nine degrees, twenty-two minutes north of the line,



62 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into my
thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time for want of
books and pen and ink, and should even forget the Sabbath days;
but to prevent this, I cut with my knife upon a large post, in
capital letters, and making it into a great cross, I set up on the
shore where I first landed, “I came on shore here on the 3oth of
September 1659.”

Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a notch
with my knife, and every seventh notch was as long again as the

. rest, and every first day of the month as long again as that long
one; and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and
yearly reckoning of time.

In the next place we are to observe that among the many
things which I brought out of the ship, in the several voyages
which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got several things of
less value, but not at all less useful to me, which I omitted
setting down before; as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper,
several parcels in the captain’s, mate’s, gunner’s, and carpenter’s
keeping; three or four compasses, some mathematical instruments,
dials, perspectives, charts, and books of navigation, all which I
huddled together, whether I might want them or no; also, I
found three very good Bibles, which came to me in my cargo
from England, and which I had packed up among my things;
some Portuguese books also; and among them two or three
Popish prayer-books and several other books, all which I care-
fully secured. And I must not forget that we had in the ship a
dog and two cats, of whose eminent history I may have occasion
to say something in its place; for I carried both the cats with me;
and as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship of himself and
swam on shore to me the day after I went on shore with my first
cargo, and was a trusty servant to me many years; I wanted
nothing that he could fetch me; nor any company that he could
make up to me; I only wanted to have him talk to me, but
that would not do. As I observed before, I found pens, ink,
and paper, and I husbanded them to the utmost; and I shall



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 83

show that while my ink lasted I kept things very exact, but
after that was gone I could not, for I could not make any ink by
any means that I could devise.

And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwith-
standing all that I had amassed together; and of these, ink was
one; as also a spade, pick-axe, and shovel, to dig or remove the
earth; needles, pins, and thread; as for linen, I soon learned to
want that without much difficulty.

This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily; and
it was near a whole year before I had entirely finished my little
pale, or surrounded my habitation. The piles, or stakes, which
were as heavy as I could lift, were a long time in cutting and pre-
paring in the woods, and more by far in bringing home; so that
I spent sometimes two days in cutting and bringing home one of
those posts, and a third day in driving it into the ground; for
which purpose I got a héavy piece of wood at first, but at last
bethought myself of one of the iron crows; which, however,
though I found it, made driving those posts or piles very
laborious and tedious work. But what need I have been
concerned at the tediousness of anything I had to do, seeing
I had time enough to do it in? nor had I any other employ-
ment if that had been over, at least that I could foresee, except
the ranging the ead to seek for food, which I. did, more or eS
every day.

I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the cir-
cumstances I was reduced to; and I drew up the state of my
affairs in writing, not so much to leave them to any that were to
come after me—for I was likely to have but few heirs—as to
deliver my thoughts from daily poring over them and afflicting
my mind; and as my reason began now to master my despond-
ency, I began to comfort myself as well as I could, and to set
the good against the evil, that I might have something to dis-
tinguish my case from worse; and I stated very impartially, like
debtor and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed against the miseries I
suffered, thus :—



64

EVIL.
I am cast upon a horrible, desolate
‘island, void of all hope of recovery.
Iam singled out and separated, as
it were, from all the world, to be
miserable,

Y am divided from mankind—a
solitaire; one banished from human
society.

T have not clothes to cover me.

Iam without any defence or means
to resist any violence of man or beast.

I have no soul to speak to or re-
lieve me.

LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

GOOD.

But I am alive, and not drowned,
as all my ship’s company were.

But I am singled out, too, from all
the ship’s crew, to be spared from
death; and He that miraculously
saved me from death can deliver me
from this condition.

But I am not starved, and perishing
on a barren place affording no sus-
tenance.

But I am in a hot climate, where,
if I had clothes, I could hardly wear
them.

But I am cast on an island where I
see no wild beasts to hurt me, as I saw
on the coast of Africa; and what if [
had been shipwrecked there?

But God wonderfully sent the ship in
near enough to the shore, that I have
got out as many necessary things as
will either supply my wants or enable
me to supply myself, even as long as I
live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony that there

was scarce any condition in the world so miserable but there was
something negative or something positive to be thankful for in it;
and let this stand as a direction from the experience of the most
miserable of all conditions in this world: that we may always find
in it something to comfort ourselves from, and to set, in the de
scription of good and evil, on the credit side of the account.

Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition,
and given over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a ship—I
say, giving over these things, I began to apply myself to arrange
my way of living, and to make things as easy to me as I could.

I have already described my habitation, which was a tent under
the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts and
cables; but I might now rather call it a wall, for I raised a kind



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 65

of wall up against it of turfs, about two feet thick on the outside;
and after some time (I think it was a year and a half) I raised
rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched or covered it
with boughs of trees, and such things as.I could get to keep out
the rain, which I found at some times of the year very violent.

I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this
pale, and into the cave which I had made behind me. But I
must observe, too, that at first this was a confused heap of goods,
which, as they lay in no order, so they took up all my place; I
had no room to turn myself; so I set myself to enlarge my cave,
and work farther-into the earth, for it was a loose sandy rock
which yielded easily to the labour I bestowed on it; and so when
I found I was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways,
to the right hand, into the rock; and then, turning to the right
again, worked quite out, and made me a door to come out on the
outside of my pale or fortification. This gave me not only egress
and regress, as it was a back way to my tent and to my store-
house, but gave me room to store my goods.

And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary
things as I found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a table;
for without these I was not able te enjoy the few comforts I had
in the world; I could not write or eat, or do several things, with
so much pleasure without a table: so I went to work. And here
I must needs observe that, as reason is the substance and origin of
the mathematics, so by stating and squaring everything by reason,
and by making the most rational judgment of things, every man
may be in time master of every mechanic art. I had never
handled a tool in my life; and yet in time, by labour, applica-
tion, and contrivance, I found at last that I wanted nothing but
I could have made it, especially if I had had tools. However, I
made abundance of things, even without tools; and some with

.no more tools than an adze and a hatchet, which perhaps were

never made that way before, and that with infinite labour. For

example, if 1 wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut

down a tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on
5



66 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

either side with my axe till I brought it to be thin as a plank,
and then dub it smooth with my adze. It is true, by this method
I could make but one board out of a whole tree; but this I had
no remedy for but patience, any more than I had for the pro-
digious deal of time and labour which it took me up to make
a plank or board; but my time or labour was little worth, and so
it was as well employed one way as another.

However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above,
in the first place; and this I did out of the short pieces of boards
that I brought on my raft from the ship. But when I had wrought
out some boards as above, I made large shelves, of the breadth of
a foot and a half, one over another all along one side of my cave,
to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work on; and, in a word, to
separate everything at large into their places, that I might come
easily at them. I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock to
hang my guns and all things that would hang up; so that, had
my cave been to be seen, it looked like a general magazine of all
necessary things; and I had everything so ready at my hand that
it was a great pleasure to me to see all my goods in such order,
and especially to find my stock of all necessaries so great.

And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every day’s
employment; for, indeed, at first, I was in too much hurry, and
not only hurry as to labour, but in too much discomposure of
mind; and my journal would have been full of many dull things;
for example, I must have said thus :—‘“' Sesé. 30¢2.—After I had
got to shore, and had escaped drowning, instead of being thankful
to God for my deliverance, having first vomited, with the great
quantity of salt water which had got into my stomach, and
recovering myself a little, I ran about the shore wringing my
hands and beating my head and face, exclaiming at my misery,
and crying out ‘I was undone, undone!’ till, tired and faint, I
was forced to lie down on the ground to repose, but durst not
sleep for fear of being devoured.”

Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship
and got all that I could out of her, yet I could not forbear getting



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 67

up to the top of a little mountain, and looked out to sea in hopes
of seeing a ship; then fancy, at a vast distance, I spied a sail,
please myself with the hopes of it, and then after looking steadily,
till I was almost blind, lose it quite, and sit down and weep like a
child, and thus increase my misery by my folly.

But having gotten over these things in some measure, and
having settled my household staff and habitation, made me a
table and a chair, and all as handsome about me as I could,
I began to keep. my journal; of which I shall here give you the
copy (though in it will be told all these particulars over again) as
long as it lasted; for having no more ink, I was forced to leave
it off.

CHAPTER V.

I begin to keep a journal—Christen my desert island the Island of Despair
_—Fall upon various schemes to make tools, baskets, etc., and begin to
build my house—At a great loss of an evening for candle, but fall upon
an expedient to supply the want—-Strange discovery of corn—A terrible
earthquake and storm.

THE JOURNAL.

SEPTEMBER 30, 1659.—I, poor, miserable Robinson Crusoe,
being shipwrecked during a dreadful storm in the offing, came
on shore on this dismal, unfortunate island, which I called “The
Island of Despair”; all the rest of the ship’s company being
drowned, and myself almost dead.

All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at the dismal
circumstances I was brought to—viz., I had neither food, house,
clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to; and in despair of any
relief, saw nothing but death before me—either that I should
be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or starved to
death for want of food. At the approach of night I slept in.



68 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

a tree, for fear of wild creatures; but slept soundly, though it
rained all night.

October 1,—In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the
ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven on the shore
again much nearer the island; which, as it was some comfort, on -
one hand—for, seeing her set upright and not broken to pieces, I
hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board and get some
food and necessaries out of her for my relief—so, on the other
hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades, who, I
imagined, if we had all stayed on board, might have saved the
ship, or, at least, that they would not have been all drowned,
as they were; and that, had the men been saved, we might
perhaps have built us a boat out of the ruins of the ship to
have carried us to some other part of the world. I spent great
part of this day in perplexing myself on these things; but at
length, seeing the ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as
near as I could, and then swam on board. This day also it
continued raining, though with no wind at all.

From the 1st of October to the 24th.—All these days entirely
spent in many several voyages to get all I could out of the ship,
which I brought on shore every tide of flood upon rafts. Much
rain also in the days, though with some intervals of fair weather;
but it seems this was the rainy season.

Oct, 20.—I overset my raft and all the goods I had got upon
it; but being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly heavy,
I recovered many of them when the tide was out.

Oct, 25.—It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of
wind; during which time the ship broke in pieces, the wind blow-
ing a little harder than before, and was no more to be seen, except
the wreck of her, and that only at low water. I spent this day in
covering and securing the goods which I had saved, that the rain
might not spoil them. .

Oct. 26.—I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out
a place to fix my habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself
from any attack in the night, either from wild beasts or men.



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 69

Towards night I fixed upon a proper place under a rock, and
marked out a semicircle for my encampment; which I resolved
to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification made of double
piles, lined within with cables, and without with turf.

From the 26th to 30th I worked very hard in carrying all my
goods to my new habitation, though some part of the time it
rained exceedingly hard.

The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with my
gun to see for some food and discover the country; when I
killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me home, which I after-
wards killed also, because it would not feed.

LVovember 1.—I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there for
the first night; making it as large as I could, with stakes driven
in to swing my hammock upon.

Vov. 2.—I set up all my chests and boards and the pieces of
timber which made my rafts, and with them formed a fence
round me, a little within the place I had marked out for my
fortification.

Vov. 3.—I went out with my gun and killed two fowls like
ducks, which were very good food. In the afternoon went to
work to make me a table.

Vou, 4.—This morning I began to order my times of work, of
going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion—viz,
every morning I walked out with my gun for two or three hours,
if it did not rain; then employed myself to work till about eleven
o’clock; then eat what I had to live on; and from twelve to two I
lay down to sleep, the weather being excessively hot; and then,
in the evening, to work again. The working part of this day and
of the next were wholly employed in making my table, for I was
yet but a very sorry workman, though time and necessity made
me a complete natural mechanic soon after, as I believe they
would do any one else.

WVov. 5.—This day went abroad with my gun and my dog, and
killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for
nothing; every creature that I killed I took off the skins and â„¢



70 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

preserved them. Coming back by the sea-shore, I saw many
sorts of sea-fowls which I did not understand; but was surprised
and almost frightened with two or three seals, which, while I was
gazing at, not well knowing what they were, got into the sea and
escaped me for that time.

JVov. 6.—After my morning walk I went to work with my table
again, and finished it, though not to my liking; nor was it long
before I learned to mend it.

WVov. 7.—Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th,
8th, oth, roth, and part of the rath (for the 11th was Sunday)
I took wholly up to make me a chair, and with much ado brought
it to a tolerable shape, but never to please me; and even in the
making I pulled it in pieces several times.

Note.—I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for, omitting my
mark for them on my post, I forgot which was which.

NVov. 13.—This day it rained, which refreshed me exceedingly,
and cooled the earth; but it was accompanied with terrible
thunder and lightning, which frightened me dreadfully, for fear of
my powder. As soon as it was over I resolved to separate my
stock of powder into as many little parcels as possible, that it
might not be in danger.

Nov. 14, 15, 16.—These three days I spent in making little
square chests or boxes, which might hold about a pound, or two
pounds at most, of powder; and so, putting the powder in, I
stowed it in places as secure and remote from one another as
possible. On one of these three days I killed a large bird that
was good to eat, but I knew not what to call it.

iVov. 17.—This day I began to dig behind my tent into the
rock to make room for my further conveniency.

Note.—Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work—viz.,
a pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow or basket; so I desisted
from my work and began to consider how to supply that want,
and make me some tools. As for the pickaxe, I made use of the
iron crows, which were proper enough, though heavy; but the
next thing was a shovel or spade; this was so absolutely necessary,



ROBINSON CRUSOE. a

that, indeed, I could do nothing effectually without it; but what
kind of one to make I knew not.

Vov, 18.—The next. day, in searching the woods, I found a tree
of that wood, or like it, which in the Brazils they call the iron-
tree, for its exceeding hardness. Of this, with great labour, and
almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece, and brought it home, too,
with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy. The excessive
hardness of the wood, and my having no other way, made me a
long while upon this machine, for I worked it effectually by little
and little into the form of a shovel or spade; the handle exactly
shaped like ours in England, only that the board part having no
iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not last me so long; how-
ever, it served well enough for the uses which I had occasion to
put it to; but never was a shovel, I believe, made after that
fashion, or so long in making.

I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket or a wheelbarrow.
A basket I could not make by any means, having no such things
as twigs that would bend to make wicker-ware—at least, none yet
found out; and as to a wheelbarrow, I fancied I could make all
but the wheel, but that I had no notion of; neither did I know
how to go about it; besides, I had no possible way to make the
iron gudgeons for the spindle or axis of the wheel to run in; so I
gave it over, and so, for carrying away the earth which I dug out
of the cave I made mea thing like a hod which the labourers
carry mortar in when they serve the bricklayers. This was not so
difficult to me as the making the shovel; and yet this and the
shovel, and the attempt which I made in vain to make a wheel-
barrow, took me up no less than four days—I mean always
excepting my morning walk with my gun, which I seldom failed,
and very seldom failed also bringing home something fit to eat.

WVov, 23.—My other work having now stood still, because of
’ my making these tools, when they were finished I went on, and
working every day, as my strength and time allowed, I spent
eighteen days entirely in widening and deepening my cave, that
it might hold my goods commodiously.



42 IIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

Note.—During all this time I worked to make this room or
cave spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse or
magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar. As for my
lodging, I kept to the tent; except that sometimes, in the wet
season of the year, it rained so hard that I could not keep myself
dry, which caused me afterwards to cover all my place within my
pale with long poles, in the form of rafters, leaning against the
rock, and load them with flags and large leaves of trees, like a
thatch.

December 10.—-1 began now to think my cave or vault finished,
when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great
quantity of earth fell down from the top on one side; so much
that, in short, it frighted me, and not without reason too, for if I
had been under it I had never wanted a grave-digger. I had
now a great deal of work to do over again, for I had the loose
earth to carry out; and, which was of more importance, I had the
ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no more would come
down.

Dec. 11,—This day I went to work with it accordingly, and got
two shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with two pieces of
boards across over each post; this I finished the next day; and
setting more posts up with boards, in about a week more I had
the roof secured, and the posts, standing in rows, served me for
partitions to part off the house. .

Dec. 17.—From this day to the zoth I placed shelves, and
knocked up nails on the posts, to hang everything up that could
be hung up; and now I began to be in some order within doors.

Det, 20.—Now I carried everything into the cave, and began
to furnish my house, and set up some pieces of boards like a
dresser, to order my victuals upon; but boards began to be very
scarce with me; also, I made me another table.

Dec. 24.—Much rain all night and all day. No stirring out.

Dec. 25.—Rain all day.

Dec, 26.—No rain, and the earth much cooler than before, and
pleasanter.



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 73

Dec, 24.—Killed a young goat and lamed another, so that I
caught it and led it home in a string; when I had it at home I
bound and splintered up its leg, which was broke.

N.B.—I took such care of it that it lived, and the leg grew
well and as strong as ever; but by-my nursing it so long it grew
tame and fed upon the little green at my door, and would not go
away. This was the first time that I entertained a thought of
breeding up some tame creatures that I might have food when
my powder and shot was all spent.

Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31.—Great heats and no breeze, so that there
was no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food; this time
[ spent in putting all my things in order within doors.

January 1.—Very hot still; but I went abroad early and late
with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day. This
evening, going farther into the valleys which lay towards the
centre.of the island, I found there were plenty of goats, though
exceedingly shy and hard to come at; however, I resolved to try
if I could not bring my dog to hunt them down.

Jan, 2.—Accordingly, the next day I went out with my dog
and set him upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for they all
faced about upon the dog, and he knew his danger too well, for
he, would not come near them.

Jan. 3.—I began my fence or wall; which, being still jealous of
my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very thick
and strong.

N.B.—This wall being described before, I purposely omit what
was said in the journal; it is sufficient to observe that I was no
less time than from the 2nd of January to the 14th of April
working, finishing, and perfecting this wall, though it was no
more than about twenty-four yards in length, being a half-circle
from one place in the rock to another place, about eight yards
from it, the door of the cave being in the centre behind it.

All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me many
days, nay, sometimes weeks together; but I thought I should
never be perfectly secure till this wall was finished; and ‘it is



74 IIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

scarce credible what inexpressible labour everything was done
with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods and driving
them into the ground; for I made them much bigger than I needed
to have done.

When this wall was finished, and the outside double-fenced,
with a turf wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that if any
people were to come on shore there they would not perceive any-
thing like a habitation; and it was very well I did so, as may be
observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable occasion.

During this time I made my rounds in the woods for game every
day when the rain permitted me, and made frequent discoveries in
these walks of something or other to my advantage; particularly,
I found a kind of wild pigeons, which build, not as wood-pigeons
in a tree, but rather as house-pigeons, in the holes of the rocks;
and taking some young ones, I endeavoured to breed them up
tame, and did so; but when they grew older they flew away, which
perhaps was at first for want of feeding them, for I had nothing to
give them; however, I frequently found their nests, and got their
young ones, which were very good meat. And now, in the man:
aging my household affairs, I found myself wanting in many
things, which I thought at first it was impossible for me to make;
as, indeed, with some of them it was; for instance, I could never
make a cask to be hooped. I had a small runlet or two, as I
observed before; but I could never arrive at the capacity of
making one by them, though I spent many weeks about it; I
could neither put in the heads nor join the staves so true to one
another as to make them hold water; so I gave that also over. In
the next place, I was at a great loss for candles; so that as soon
as ever it was dark, which was generally by seven o’clock, I was
obliged to go to bed. I remembered the lump of bees-wax with
which I made candles in my African adventure; but I had none
of that now; the only remedy I had was that when I had killed a
goat I saved the tallow, and with a little dish made of clay, which
I baked in the sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum, I
made me a lamp; and this gave me light, though not a clear,



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 45

steady light, like a candle. In the middle of all my labours it
happened that, rummaging my things, I found a little bag, which,
as I hinted before, had been filled with corn for the feeding of
poultry—not for this voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the
ship came from Lisbon. The little remainder of corn that had
been in the bag was all devoured by the rats, and I saw nothing
in the bag but husks and dust; and being willing to have the bag
for some other use (I think it was to put powder in, when I divided
it for fear of the lightning, or some such use), I shook the husks
of corn out of it on one side of my fortification, under the rock,

It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned that I
threw this stuff away, taking no notice, and not so much as remem-
bering that I had thrown anything there, when, about a month
after, or thereabouts, I saw some few stalks of something green
shooting out of the ground, which I fancied might be some plant I
had not seen; but I was surprised and perfectly astonished when,
after a little longer time, I saw about ten or twelve ears come out,
which were perfect green barley, of the same kind as our European
——nay, as our English barley. ,

It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of my
thoughts on this occasion. I had hitherto acted upon no religious
foundation at all; indeed, I had very few notions of religion in my
head, nor had entertained any sense of anything that had befallen
me otherwise than as chance, or, as we lightly say, what pleases
God, without so much as inquiring into the end of Providence in
these things, or His order in governing events for the world. But
after I saw barley grow there, in a climate which I knew was not
proper for corn, and especially that I knew not how it came there,
it started me strangely, and I began to suggest that God had
miraculously caused His grain to grow without any help of seed
sown, and that it was so directed purely for my sustenance on that
wild, miserable place,

This touched my heart a little and brought tears out of my eyes,
and I began to bless myself that such a prodigy of nature should
’ happen upon my account; and this was the more strange to me,



76 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

because I saw near it still, all along by the side of the rock,
some other straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks of rice, and
which I knew, because I had seen it grow in Africa when I was
ashore there.

T not only thought these the pure productions of Providence for
my support, but not doubting that there was more in the place, I
went all over that part of the island where I had been before,
peering in every corner and under every rock to seek for more of
it, but I could not find any. At-last it occurred to my thoughts
that I shook a bag of chickens’ meat out in that place; and then
the wonder began to cease; and I must confess my religious
thankfulness to God’s providence began to abate, too, upon the
discovering that all this was nothing but what was common;
though I ought to have been as thankful for so strange and un-.
foreseen a providence as if it had been miraculous; for it was
really the work of Providence to me that should order or appoint
that ten or twelve grains of corn should remain unspoiled, when
the rats had destroyed all the rest, as if it had been dropped from
heaven; as also, that I should throw it out in that particular
place, where, it being in the shade of a high rock, it sprang up
immediately; whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere else at that
time, it had been burnt up and destroyed.

I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in
their season, which was abwut the end of June; and laying up
every corn, I resolved to sow them all again, hoping in time to
have some quantity sufficient to supply me with bread. But it
was not till the fourth year that I could allow myself the least
grain of this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly, as I shall
say afterwards, in its order; for I lost all that I sowed the first
season by not observing the proper time; for I sowed it just
before the dry season, so that it never came up at all, at least not
as it would have done; of which in its place.

Besides this barley there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks
of rice, which I preserved with the same care and for the same use,
or to the same purpose—to make me bread, or rather food; for I



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 7

found ways to cook it without baking, though I did that also after
some time.

But to return to my Journal—

I worked excessive hard these three or four months to get my
wall done; and the 14th of April I closed it up, contriving to go
into it, not by a door but over the wall by a ladder, that there
might be no sign on the outside of my habitation.

April 16.—T finished the ladder ; so I went up the ladder to the
top, and then pulled it-up after me, and let it down in the inside,
This was a complete enclosure to me; for within I had room
enough, and nothing could come at me from without, unless it
could first mount my wall.

The very next day after this wall was finished I had almost-had
all my labour overthrown at once, and myself killed. The case
was thus: As I was busy in the inside behind my tent, just at the
entrance into my cave, I was terribly frighted with a most dread-
ful, surprising thing indeed;. for all on a sudden I found the earth
come crumbling down from the roof of my cave, and from the edge
of the hill over my head, and two of the posts I. had set up in the
cave cracked in a frightful manner. Iwas heartily scared, but
thought nothing of what was really the cause, only thinking that
the top of my cave was fallen in, as some of it had done before;
and for fear I should be buried in it I ran forward to my ladder,
and not thinking myself safe there neither, I got over my wall for
fear of the pieces of the hill, which I expected might roll down
upon me. I had no sooner stepped down upon the firm ground
than I plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake; for the ground I
stood on shook three times at about eight minutes’ distance, with
three such shocks as would have overturned the strongest building

‘that could be supposed to have stood on the earth; and a great
piece of the top of a rock which stood about half-a-mile from me
next the sea fell down with such a terrible noise as I never heard
in all my life. I perceived also the very sea was put into violent
motion by it;-and I believe the shocks were stronger under the
water than on the island.



78 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

I was so much amazed with the thing itself, having never felt the
like, nor discoursed with any one that had, that I was like one dead
or stupefied; and the motion of the earth made my stomach sick,
like one that was tossed at sea; but the noise of the falling of the

. rock awaked me, as it were, and rousing me from the stupefied
condition I was in, filled me with horror; and I thought of nothing
then but the hill falling upon my tent and all my household goods,
and burying all at once; and this sunk my very soul within me a
second time.

After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some time,
I began to take courage; and yet I had not heart enough to go
over my wall again for fear of being buried alive, but sat still upon
the ground greatly cast down and disconsolate, not knowing what
to do. All this while I had not the least serious religious thought;
nothing but the common “ Lord have mercy upon me!” and when
it was over that went away too.

While I sat thus I found the air overcast and grow cloudy, as if
it would rain. Soon after that the wind arose by little and little,
so that in less than half-an-hour it blew a most dreadful hurricane,
the sea was all on a sudden covered over with foam and froth; the
shore was covered with the breach of the water; the trees were
torn up by the roots; anda terrible storm it was.’ This held about
three hours, and then began to abate; and in two hours more it
was quite calm, and began to rain very hard, All this while I sat
upon the ground very much terrified and dejected ; when on a
sudden it came into my thoughts that these winds and rains being
the consequences of the earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent
and over, and I might venture into my cave again. With this
thought my spirits began to revive; and the rain also helping to
persuade me, I went inand sat down in my tent. But the rain was
so violent that my tent was ready to be beaten down with it; and
I was forced to go into my cave, though very much afraid and
uneasy, for fear it should fallon my head. This violent rain forced
me to a new work—yviz., to cut a hole through my new fortification,
like a sink, to let the water go out, which would else have flooded



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 79

my cave. After I had been in my cave for some time, and found
still no more shocks of the earthquake follow, I began to be more
composed. And now, to support my spirits, which indeed wanted
it very much, I went to my little store and took a small sup of
rum; which, however, I did then and always very sparingly,
knowing I could have no more when that was gone. It continued
raining all that night and great part of the next day, so that I could
not stir abroad; but my mind being more composed, I began to
think of what I had best do; concluding that if the island was
subject to these earthquakes, there would be no living for me ina
cave, but I must consider of building a little hut in an open place,
which I might surround with a wall, as I had done here, and so
make myself secure from wild beasts or men ; for I concluded if I
stayed where I was, I should certainly, one time or other, be buried
alive.

With. these thoughts I resolved to remove my tent from the
place where it stood, which was just under the hanging precipice
of the hill, and which, if it should be shaken again, would cer-
tainly fall upon my tent; and I spent the two next days, being
the 19th and zoth of April, in contriving where and how to
remove my habitation. The fear of being swallowed up alive
made me that I never slept in quiet; and yet the apprehension of
lying abroad without any fence was almost equal to it; but still,
when I looked about, and saw how everything was put in order,
how pleasantly concealed I was, and how safe from danger, it
made me very loath to remove. In the meantime it occurred to
me that it would require a vast deal of time for me to do this, and
that I must be contented to venture where I was till I had formed
a camp for myself, and had secured it so as to remove to it. So
with this resolution I composed myself for a time, and resolved
that I would go to work with all speed to build me a wall with
piles and cables, etc., in a circle as before, and set my tent up in
it when it was finished, but that I would venture to stay where I
was till it was finished and fit to remove. This was the 21st.

April 22.—The next morning I began to consider of means to



80 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

put this resolve into execution, but I was at a great loss about my
tools. I had three large axes and abundance of hatchets (for we
carried the hatchets for traffic with the Indians), but with much
chopping and cutting knotty, hard wood they were all full of
notches, and dull; and though I had a grindstone, I could not
turn it and grind my tools too. This cost me as much thought as
a statesman would have bestowed upon a grand point of politics,
or a judge upon the life and death of a man. At length I con-
trived a wheel with a string, to turn it with my foot, that I might
have both my hands at liberty.

Note.—I had never seen any such thing in England, or at
least not to take notice how it was done, though since I have
observed it is very common there; besides that, my grindstone
was very large and heavy. This machine cost me a full week’s
work to bring it to perfection.

April 28, 29.—These two whole days I took up in grinding
my tools, my machine for turning my grindstone performing very
well.

April 30.—Having perceived my bread had been low a great
while now I took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one biscuit
cake a day, which made my heart very heavy.

May 1.—In the morning, looking towards the sea-side, the tide
being low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary,
and it looked like a cask; when I came to it I found a small
barrel and two or three pieces of the wreck of the ship, which
were driven on shore by the late hurricane; and looking towards
the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher out of the water
than it used to do. I examined the barrel which was driven on
shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder; but it had
taken water, and the powder was caked as hard as a stone; how-
ever, I rolled it farther on shore for the present, and went on
upon the sands as near as I could to the wreck of the ship to
look for more.



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 81

CHAPTER VI.

Observe the ship driven farther aground by the late storm-—Procure a vast
quantity of necessaries from the wreck—Catch a large turtle—I fall ill of
a fever and ague—Terrible dream, and serious reflections thereupon—
Find a Bible in one of the seamen’s chests thrown ashore, the reading
whereof gives me great comfort.

WueEn I came down to the ship I found it strangely removed.
The forecastle, which lay before buried in sand, was heaved up at
least six feet, and the stern, which was broke in pieces and parted
from the rest by the force of the sea soon after I had left rummag-
ing her, was tossed, as it were, up, and cast on one side; and the
sand was thrown so high on that side next her stern, that whereas
there was a great place of water before, so that I could not come
within a quarter of a mile of the wreck without swimming, I could
now walk quite up to her when the tide was out. I was surprised
with this at first, but soon concluded it must be done by the
earthquake; and as by this violence the ship was more broke
open than formerly, so many things came daily on shore which
the sea had loosened, and which the winds and water rolled by
degrees to the land.

This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of removing
-my habitation, and I busied myself mightily, that day especially,
in searching whether I could make any way into the ship; but I
found nothing was to be expected of that kind, for all the inside
of the ship was choked up with sand. However, as I had learned
not to despair of anything, I resolved to pull everything to pieces
that I could of the ship, concluding that everything I could get
from her would be of some use or other to me.

May 3.—I began with my saw and cut a piece of a beam
through, which I thought held some of the upper part or quarter-
deck together, and when I had cut it through I cleared away the
sand as well as I could from the side which lay highest; but the
tide coming in, I was obliged to give over for that time.

6



82 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

May 4.—I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst

eat of, till I was weary of my sport; when, just going to leave off,
I caught a young dolphin. I had made mea long line of some
rope-yarn, but I had no hooks; yet I frequently caught fish
’ enough, as much as I cared to eat; all which I dried in the sun,
and ate them dry.
: May 5.—Worked on the wreck; cut another beam asunder,
and brought three great fir planks off from the decks, which I
tied together and made to float on shore when the tide of flood
came on.

May 6.—Worked on the wreck; got several iron bolts out of
her and other pieces of iron-work. Worked very hard, and came
home very much tired, and had thoughts of giving it over.

May 7.—Went to the wreck again, not with an intent to work,
but found the weight of the wreck had broke itself down, the
beams being cut; that several pieces of the ship seemed to lie
loose, and the inside of the hold lay so open that I could see into
it; but it was almost full of water and sand.

May 8.—Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to wrench
up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the water or sand. I
wrenched open two planks, and brought them on shore also with
the tide. I left the iron crow in the wreck for next day.

May 9.—Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way into
the body of the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened them
with the crow, but could not break them up. I felt also a roll of
English lead, and could stir it, but it was too heavy to remove.

May 10-14.—Went every day to the wreck; and got a great
many pieces of timber, and boards, or plank, and two or three
hundredweight of iron.

May 15.—I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a
piece off the roll of lead by placing the edge of one hatchet and
driving it with the other; but as it lay about a foot and a half in
the water, I could not make any blow to drive the hatchet.

May 16.—It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck
appeared more broken by the force of the water; but I stayed so



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 83

long in the woods to get pigeons for food that the tide prevented
" my going to the wreck that day.

May 17.—I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore ata
great distance, near two miles off me, but resolved to see what
they were, and found it was a piece of the head, but too heavy
for me to bring away.

May 24.—Every day to this day I worked on the wreck; and
with hard labour I loosened some things so much with the crow
that the first blowing tide several casks floated out, and two of
the seamen’s chests; but the wind blowing from the shore,
nothing came to land that day but pieces of timber and a hogs-
head which had some Brazil pork in it; but the salt water and
the sand had spoiled it. I continued this work every day to the
15th of June, except the time necessary to get food, which I
always appointed, during this part of my employment, to be when
the tide was up, that I might be ready when it was ebbed out;
and by this time I had got timber and plank and iron-work
enough to have built a good boat, if I had known how; and also
I got, at several times and in several pieces, near one hundred-
weight of the sheet-lead.

June 16.—Going down to the sea-side, I found a large tortoise
or turtle. This was the first I had seen, which, it seems, was
only my misfortune, not any defect of the place, or scarcity; for
had I happened to be on the other side of the island, I might
have had hundreds of them every day, as I found afterwards; but
perhaps had paid dear enough for them.

June 17.—I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her three-
score eggs; and her flesh was to me, at that time, the most
savoury and pleasant that ever J tasted in my life, having had no
flesh but of goats and fowls since I landed in this horrid place.

June 18.—Rained all day, and I stayed within. I thought at
this time the rain felt cold, and I was something chilly; which
I knew was not usual in that latitude.

- June 19.—Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been
cold,



84 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

June 20.—No rest all night; violent pains in my head, and
feverish.

June 21.—Very ill; frighted almost to death with the apprehen-
sions of my sad condition—to be sick and no help. Prayed
‘to God for the first time since the storm off Hull, but scarce
knew what I said, or why, my thoughts being all confused.

June 22.—A little better; but under dreadful apprehensions of
sickness.

June 23.—Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a
violent headache.

June 24.—Much better.

June 25,—An ague very violent; the fit held me seven hours;
cold fit and hot, with faint sweats after it.

June 26.—Better; and having no victuals to eat, took my gun,
but found myself very weak. However, I killed a she-goat, and
with much difficulty got it home and broiled some of it, and ate,
I would fain have stewed it and made some broth, but had ns
pot.

June 27.—The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all day,
and neither ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for thirst; but
so weak I had not strength to stand up, or to get myself any
water to drink. Prayed to God again, but was light-headed; and
when I was not, I was so ignoxant that I knew not what to say;
only I lay and cried, “Lord, look upon me! Lord, pity me!
Lord, have mercy upon me!” I suppose I did nothing else for
two or three hours ; till, the fit wearing off, I fell asleep, and did
not wake till far in the night. When I awoke I found myself
much refreshed, but weak and exceeding thirsty. However, as I
had no water in my habitation, I was forced to lie till morning,
and went to sleep again. In this second sleep I had this terrible
dream :—I thought that I was sitting on the ground, on the out-
side of my wall, where I sat when the storm blew after the earth-
‘quake, and that I saw a man descend from a great black cloud,
in a bright flame of fire, and light upon the ground. He was all
over as bright asa flame, so that I could but just bear to look



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 85

towards him; his countenance was most inexpressibly dreadful,
impossible for words to describe. When he stepped upon the
ground with his feet, I thought the earth trembled, just as it had
done before in the earthquake, and all the air looked, to my
apprehension, as if it had been filled with flashes of fire He was
no-sooner landed upon the earth but he moved forward towards
me, with a long spear or weapon in his hand, to kill me; and
when he came to a rising ground, at some distance, he spoke to
me—or I heard a voice so terrible that it is impossible to express
the terror of it. All that I can say I understood was this:
“Seeing all these things have not brought. thee to repentance,
now thou shalt die;” at which words I thought he lifted up the
spear that was in his hand to kill me,

No one that shall ever read this account will expect that I
should be able to describe the horrors of my soul at this terrible
vision. I mean, that even while it was a dream, I even dreamed
of those horrors. Nor is it any more possible to describe the
impression that remained upon my mind won I awaked and
found it was but a dream.

Thad, alas! no divine knowledge. What I had received by
the good instruction of my father was then worn out by an
uninterrupted series, for eight years, of seafaring wickedness,
and a constant conversation with none but such as were, like
myself, wicked and profane to the last degree. I do not remem-
ber that I had in all that time one thought that so much as
tended either to looking upwards towards God, or inwards towards
a reflection upon my own ways; but a certain stupidity of soul,

. without desire of good or conscious of evil, had entirely over-
whelmed me; and I was all that the most hardened, unthinking,
wicked creature among our common sailors can be supposed
to be; not having the least sense, either of the fear of God in
danger, or of thankfulness to God in deliverance.

In the relating what is already past of my story, this will be the
more easily believed when I shall add that, through all the variety
of miseries that had to this day befallen me, I never had so much



86 LIFE AND ADVENFURES OF

as one thought of it being the hand of God, or that it was a just
punishment for my sin—my rebellious behaviour against my father
—or my present sins, which were great—or so much as a punish-
ment for the general course of my wicked life. When I was on
the desperate expedition on the desert shores of Africa I never
_ had so much as one thought of what would become of me, or one
wish to God to direct me whither I should go, cr to keep me from
the danger which apparently surrounded me, as well from voracious
creatures as cruel savages. But I was merely thoughtless of a God
or a Providence, acted like a mere brute, from the principles of
nature, and by the dictates of common-sense only, and, indeed,
hardly that. When I was delivered and taken up at sea by the
Portuguese captain, well used, and dealt justly and honourably
with, as well as charitably, I had not the least thankfulness in my
thoughts. When again I was shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger
of drowning on this island, I was as far from remorse or looking
on it as a judgment. I only said to myself often that I was an
unfortunate dog, and born to be always miserable.

It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found all my
ship’s crew drowned and myself spared, I was surprised with a
kind of ecstasy, and some transports of soul, which, had the grace
of God assisted, might have come up to true thankfulness; but
it ended where it began, in a mere common flight of joy, or, as
I may say, being glad I was alive, without the least reflection
upon the distinguished goodness of the hand which had preserved
me, and had singled me out to be preserved when all the rest
were destroyed, or an inquiry why Providence had been thus
merciful unto me. Even just the same common sort of joy
which seamen generally have after they are got safe ashore from
a shipwreck, which they drown all in the next bowl of punch, and
forget almost as soon as it is over; and all the rest of my life was
like it. Even when I was afterwards, on due consideration, made
sensible of my condition, how I was cast on this dreadful place,
out of the reach of human kind, out of all hope of relief or
prospect of redemption, as soon as I saw but a prospect of



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THE SAVAGE.”—p, 198,

Robinson Crusoe.)
THE
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE

BY

DANIEL DEFOE

London and Felling-on-Cyne:
THE WALTER SCOTT PUBLISHING CO, LTD..

NEW YORK: 3 EAST I4TH STREET.

CONTENTS.



PART I.

CHAp. I,—My birth and parents—At nineteen years of age I determined
to go to sea—Dissuaded by my parents—Elope with a schoolfellow,
and go on board ship—A storm arises, during which I am dreadfully
frightened—Ship founders—Myself and crew saved by a boat from
another vessel, and landed near Yarmouth—Meet my companion’s
father there, who advises me never to go to sea more, but all in
vain. = - - - : : : - pl

Cap. I].—Make a trading voyage to Guinea very successfully—Death of
my captain—Sail another trip with his mate—The vengeance of
Providence for disobedience to parents now overtakes me—Taken by
a Sallee rover, and all sold as slaves—My master frequently sends me
a-fishing, which suggests an idea of escape—Make my escape in an .
open boat, with a Moresco boy + - : - p. 14

Cuar. III.—Make for the southward in the hopes of meeting some
European vessel—See savages along shore—Shoot a large leopard—Am
taken up by a merchantman—aArrive at the Brazils, and buy a settle-
ment there—Cannot be quiet, but sail on a voyage of adventure to
‘Guinea—Ship strikes on a sandbank in unknown land—All lost but
myself, who am driven ashore half dead - - = ° p, 27
iv CONTENTS.

Cuap. I¥Y.—Appearance of the wreck and country next day—Swim on
board of the ship, and, by means of a contrivance, get a quantity of
stores on shore—Shoot a bird, but it turns out perfect carrion—
Moralise upon my situation—The ship blown off land, and totally
lost—Set out in search of a proper place for a habitation—See numbers
of goats—Melancholy reflections : - * - pe 46

Cuarv. V.—I begin to keep a journal—Christen my desert island the
Island of Despair—Fall upon various schemes to make tools, baskets,
etc., and begin to build my house—At a great loss of an evening for
candle, but fall upon an expedient to supply the want—Strange dis-
covery of corn—A terrible earthquake and storm - - p. 67

Cuar. VI.—Observe the ship driven further aground by the late storm—
Procure a vast quantity of necessaries from the wreck—Catch a large
turtle—I fall ill of a fever and ague—Terrible dream, and serious re-
flections thereupon—Find a Bible in one of the seamen’s chests thrown
ashore, the reading whereof gives me great comfort - - p. 81

Cuar. VII.—I begin to take a survey of my island—Discover plenty of
tobacco, grapes, lemons, and sugar-canes, wild, but no human inhabi-
tants—Resolve to lay up a store of these articles, to furnish me against
the wet season—My cat, which I supposed lost, returns with kittens—
I regulate my diet, and shut myself up for the wet season—Sow my
grain, which comes to nothing ; but I discover and remedy my error—
Take account of the course of the weather - - - p. 95

Cuar. VIII.—Make a second tour through the island—Catch a young
parrot, which I afterwards teach to speak—My mode of sleeping at
night—Find the other side of the island much more pleasant than
mine, and covered with turtle and sea-fowl—Catch-a young kid, which
I tame—Return to my old habitation—Great plague with my
harvest . ° . . ° : - p.104

Cuar. IX.—I attempt to mould earthenware, and succeed—Description
of my mode of baking—Begin to make a boat—After it is finished, am
unable to get it down to the water—Serious reflections—My ink and
biscuit exhausted, and clothes in a bad state—Contrive to make a
dress of skins - . . : . ° > pid
CONTENTS. v

Cuap. X,—I succeed in getting a canoe afloat, and set out on a voyage in
the sixth year of my reign or captivity—Blown out to sea—Reach the
shore with great difficulty—Fall asleep, and am awakened by a voice
calling my name—Devise various schemes to tame goats, and at last
succeed. . - - - - - - p. 182

Quar. XI.—Description of my figure—Also of my dwelling and enclosures
—Dreadful alarm on seeing the print of a man’s foot on the shore—
Reflections—Take every possible measure of precaution - p. 144

Cuap, XII.—I observe a canoe out at sea—Find on the shore the
remnant of a feast of cannibals—Horror of mind thereon—Double arm
myself—Terribly alarmed by a goat—Discover a singular cave or
grotto, of which I form my magazine—My fears on account of the
savages begin to subside - ° - - - p. 157

Onav. XIII.—Description of my situation in the twenty-third year of my
residence—Discover nine naked savages round the fire on my side of
the island—My horror on beholding the dismal work they were about
—I determine on the destruction of the next party, at all risks—A ship
lost off the island—Go on board the wreck, which I discern to be
Spanish—Procure a great variety of articles from the vessel- p, 174

Car. XIV.—Reflections—An extraordinary dream—Discover five canoes
of savages on shore—Observe from my station two miserable wretches
dragged out of the boats to be devoured—One of them makes his escape,
and runs directly towards me, pursued by two others-—I take measures so
as to destroy his pursuers, and save his life—Christen him by the name
of Friday, and he becomes a faithful and excellent servant - p, 188

Cuar. XV.—I am at great pains to instruct Friday respecting my
abhorrence of the cannibal practices of the savages—He is amazed
at the effects of the gun, and considers it an intelligent being—Begins
to talk English tolerably—A dialogue—I instruct him in the knowledge
of religion, and find him very apt—He describes to me some white men
who had come to his country, and still lived there - - -—p.. 204

Onar. XVI.—I determine to go over to the continent—Friday and I con-
struct a boat equal to carry twenty men—His dexterity in managing
her—Friday brings intelligence of three canoes of savages on shore—
vi CONTENTS.

Resolve to go down upon them—Friday and I fire upon the wretches,
and save the life of a poor Spaniard—List of the killed and wounded—
Discover a poor Indian bound in one of the canoes, who turns out to
be Friday’s father = - - - - : - —p. 220

Cuap. XVII.—I learn from the Spaniard that there were sixteen more of
his countrymen among the savages—The Spaniard and Friday’s father,
well armed, sail on a mission to the continent—I discover an English
ship lying at anchor off the island—her boat comes on shore with three
prisoners—The crew straggle into the woods, their boat being aground—
Discover myself to the prisoners, who prove to be the captain and mate
of the vessel, and a passenger—Secure the mutineers - p. 237

Cuap. XVIII.—The ship makes signals for her boat—On receiving no
answer, she sends another boat on shore—Methods by which we secure
this boat’s crew, and recover the ship - : - p. 252

Cuar. XIX.—I take leave of the island, and, after a long voyage, arrive
in England—Go down into Yorkshire, and find the greater part of my
family dead—Resolve to go to Lisbon for information respecting my
plantation at the Brazils—Meet an old friend there, by whose means I
become rich—Set out for England overland—Much annoyed by wolves
on the road - . - - - “ - p. 269

Cuar. XX.—Strange battle betwixt Friday and a bear—Terrible engage-
ment with a whole army of wolves—Arrive in England safely, and
settle my affairs there—I marry, and have a family - - p. 284

PART IL

Cap. XX1.—Reflections—Unsettled state of mind, and conversation with
my wife thereon—Purchase a farm in the county of Bedford—Lose my
wife—I determine to revisit my island, and for that purpose settle-all
my affairs in Jingland—Description of the cargo I carried out with me
—Save the crew of a vessel burnt at sea . : - p, 297

Cuap. XXII.—Steer for the West Indies—Distressing account of a Bristol
ship, the crew of which we save, in a state of starvation—Arrive at my
CONTENTS. vii

island—Friday's joy on discovering it—Affecting interview betwixt
him and his father on landing—Narrative of the occurrences on the
island during my absence - - - - - p. 817

Cuap. XXIII.—Narrative continued—Insolence of three Englishmen to
the Spaniards—They are disarmed and brought to order—aA great body
of savages land upon the island—They turn out to be two adverse
nations met there by chance—A bloody battle betwixt them—Several of
the vanquished party secured by the Spaniards - > p. 8384

Cuap. XXIV.—Fresh broils betwixt the turbulent Englishmen and the
“ Spaniards — The English make a voyage to the mainland, and
return in twenty days—Particulars of their voyage—Description of the
men and women they brought with them—The colony discovered by
an unlucky accident to the savages, who invade the island but are
defeated - - - - - - - pp. 349

CHar. XXV.—The island is invaded by a formidable fleet of savages—A
terrible engagement, in which the cannibals are utterly routed—Thirty-
seven wretches, the survivors, are saved, and employed by my people as
servants—Description of Will Atkins’ ingenious contrivances for his
accommodation : : se = - p. 874

Cuar. XXVI.—I hold conversations with the Spaniards, and learn the
history of their situation among the savages from which I relieved
them—I inform the colony for what purpose I am come, and what I
mean to do for them—Distribution of the stores I brought with me—
The priest I saved at sea solemnises the marriages of the sailors
and female Indians, who had hitherto lived together as man and
wife - - - : - - : > p. 387

Cuap, XXVII.—Sincere and wo-thy character of the priest— Dialogue
with Will Atkins and myself—Conversation betwixt Atkins and his
‘Indian wife on the subject of religion—Her baptism—Settlement of the
commonwealth - - - - - - p. 419

Crap. XXVIII —I entertain the prospect of converting the Indians—
Amiable character of the young woman we saved in a famished state at
sea—Her own relation of her sufferings from hunger—Sail from the
island for the Brazils—Encounter and rout a whole fleet of savages—
Death of Friday—Arrival at Brazil - - - - p. 434
viii CONTENTS.

Cuap, XXIX.—I despatch a number of additional recruits, and a quantity
of extra stores, to the island, and take my leave of it for ever—I
determine to go with the ship to the East Indies—Arrive at Mada-
gascar—Dreadful occurrences there - : : - p. 449.

Cap. XXX.—Difference with my nephew on account of the cruelties
practised at Madagascar—Five men lost on the Arabian shore, off the
Gulf of Persia—The seamen refuse to sail if I continue on board, in
consequence of which I am left on shore—Make a very advantageous
trading voyage, in company with an English merchant, and purchase
a vessel - - a - : - - p. 466

Cuap. XXXI.—Make a trading voyage in this ship—Put into the river of
Cambodia—Am warned of my danger by a countryman, in con-
sequence of which we set sail, and are pursued—Great difficulty in
making our escape - - - - - - p. 475

Cuap, XXXII.—Obliged to come to anchor on a savage coast, to repair
our ship—We are attacked by the natives, whom our carpenter
disperses by a whimsical contrivance—Serious reflections upon our
disagreeable situation - - - - - - p. 485

CHar, XXXIII.—We arrive in China in safety—Dispose of the ship—
Description of the inhabitants—Arrive at Pekin, and find an oppor-
tunity of returning to Europe - - + - p. 496

Cuap. XXXIV.—Set out by the caravan—Account of the valuable effects
we took with us—Further description of the interior of China—Pass
the great wall—Attacked by Tartars, who are dispersed by the resolu-
tion of a Scots merchant—The old pilot saves my life—We are again
attacked, and defeat the Tartars - - - - -p. 510

Car. XXXV.—Further account of our journey—Description of an idol:
which we destroy—Great danger we incur thereby—Account of our
travels through Muscovy - - - - - p. 520

Cuap. XXXVI.—Conversations with a Russian grandee—Set out on my
journey homewards—Harassed by Kalmucks on the road—Arrival at
Archangel—Sail from thence, and arrive safely in England - op, 585
THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE.

—+60—__

PART I.
CHAPTER I.

My birth and parentage—At nineteen years of age I determined to go to
sea—Dissuaded by my parents—Elope with a schoolfellow, and go on
board ship—A storm arises, during which I am dreadfully frightened— —
Ship founders—Myself and crew saved by a boat from another vessel, and
landed near Yarmouth—Meet my companion’s father there, who advises
me never to go to sea more, but all in vain.

I was born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good
family, though not of that country, my father being a foreigner
of Bremen, who settled first at Hull. He got a good estate by
merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York,
from whence he had married my mother, whose relations were
named Robinson, a very good family in that country, and from
whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but, by the usual cor-
ruption of words in England, we are now called—nay, we call
ourselves and write our name—Crusoe; and so my companions
always called me.

I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel

to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded
I
2 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle
near Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What became of my second
brother I never knew, any more than my father or mother knew
what became of me.

Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade,
my head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts.
My father, who was very ancient, had given me a competent share
of learning, as far as house-education and a country free-school
_ generally go, and designed me for the law; but I would be
satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and my inclination to
this led me so strongly against the will, nay, the commands of
my father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of my
mother and other friends, that there seemed to be something fatal
in that propensity of nature, tending directly to the life of misery
which was to befall me.

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent
counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He called me
one morning into his chamber, where he was confined by the
gout, and expostulated very warmly with me upon this subject.
He asked me what reasons, more than a mere wandering inclina-
tion, I had for leaving my father’s house and my native country,
where I might be well introduced, and had a prospect of raising
my fortune by application and industry, with a life of ease and
pleasure. He told me it was men of desperate fortunes on one
hand, or of aspiring, superior fortunes on the other, who went
abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise and make them-
selves famous in undertakings of a nature out of the common
road; that these things were all either too far above me or too
far below me; that mine was the middle state, or what might be
called the upper station of low life, which he had found, by long
experience, was the best state in the world, the most suited to
human happiness, not exposed to the miseries and hardships, the
labour and sufferings of the mechanic part of mankind, and not
embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the
upper part of mankind. He told me I might judge of the
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 3

happiness of this state by this one thing—viz., that this was the
state of life which all other people envied; that kings have
frequently lamented the miserable consequence of being born to
great things, and wished they had been placed in the middle of
the two extremes, between the mean and the great; that the wise
man gave his testimony to this, as the standard of felicity, when
he prayed to have neither poverty nor riches.

He bade me observe it, and I should always find that the
calamities of life were shared among the upper and lower part
of mankind, but that the middle station had the fewest disasters,
and was not exposed te so many vicissitudes as the higher or
lower part of mankind ; nay, they were not subjected to so many
distempers and uneasiness, either of body or mind, as those were
who, by vicious living, luxury, and extravagances on the one
hand, or by hard labour, want of necessaries, and mean or in-
sufficient diet on the other hand, bring distemper upon them-
selves by the natural consequences of their way of living; that
the middle station of life was calculated for all kind of virtue
and all kind of enjoyments; that peace and plenty were the
handmaids of a middle fortune; that temperance, moderation,
quietness, health, society, all agreeable diversions, and all desir-
able pleasures were the blessings attending the middle station
of life; that this way men went silently and smoothly through
the world, and comfortably out of it, not embarrassed with the
labours of the hands or of the head, not sold to a life of slavery
for daily bread, nor harassed with perplexed circumstances, which
rob the soul of peace and the body of rest, nor enraged with the
passion of envy or the secret burning lust of ambition for great
things; but in easy circumstances sliding gently through the
world, and sensibly tasting the sweets of living without the bitter;
feeling that they are happy, and learning by every day’s experience
to know it more sensibly.

After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate
manner, not to play the young man, not to precipitate myself into
miseries which nature, and the station of life I was born in,
4 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

seemed to have provided against; that I was under no necessity
of seeking my bread; that he would do well for me, and en-
deavour to enter me fairly into the station of life which he had
just been recommending to me; and that if I was not very easy
and happy in the world, it must be my mere fate or fault that
must hinder it; and that he should have nothing to answer for,
having thus discharged his duty in warning me against measures
which he knew would be to my hurt; in a word, that as he would
- do very kind things for me if I would stay and settle at home as
he directed, so he would not have se much hand in my mis-
fortunes as to give me any encouragement to go away; and to
close all, he told me I had my elder brother for an example, to
whom he had used the same earnest persuasions to keep him
from going into the Low Country wars, but could not prevail, his
young desires prompting him to run into the army, where he was
killed; and though he said he would not cease to pray for me,
yet he would venture to say to me, that if I did take this foolish
step, God would not bless me, and I should have leisure here.
after to reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there
might be none to assist in my recovery.

I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly
prophetic, though I suppose my father did not know it to be so
himself—I say, I observed the tears run down his face very
plentifully, especially when he spoke of my brother who was
killed; and that when he spoke of my having leisure to repent,
and none to assist me, he was so moved that he broke off the
discourse, and told me his heart was so full he could say no more
to me.

I was sincerely affected. with this discourse, and, indeed, who
could be otherwise? and I resolved not to think of going abroad
any more, but to settle at home according to my father’s desire.
But alas! a few days wore it all off; and, in short, to prevent any
of my father’s further importunities, in a few weeks after I resolved
to run quite away from him. However, I did not act quite so
hastily as the first heat of my resolution prompted; but I took my
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 5

mother at a time when I thought her a little more pleasant. than
ordinary, and told her that my thoughts were so entirely bent
upon seeing the world that I should never settle to anything with
resolution enough to go through with it, and my father had better
give me his consent than force me to go without it; that I was
now eighteen years.old, which was too late to go apprentice to a
trade or clerk to an attorney; that I was sure if I did I should
never serve out my time, but I should certainly run away from my
master before my time was out and go to sea; and if she would
speak to my father to let me go one voyage abroad, if I came
home again, and did not like it, I would go no more; and I
would promise, by a double diligence, to recover the time that
I had lost.

This put my mother into a. great passion; she told me she
knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any
such subject; that he knew too well what was my interest to give
his consent to anything so much for my hurt; and that she
wondered how I could think of any such thing after the discourse
I had had with my father, and such kind and tender expres-
sions as she knew my father had used to me; and that, in short,
if I would ruin myself, there was no help for me; but I might
depend I should never have their consent to it; that for her part,
she would not have so much hand in my destruction; and I
should never have it to say that my mother was willing when my
father was not.

Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet I heard
afterwards that she reported all the discourse to him, and that my
father, after showing a great concern at it, said to her, with a sigh,
“That boy might be happy if he would stay at home; but if he
goes abroad, he will be the most miserable wretch that ever was
born: I can give no consent to it.”

It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose,
though, in the meantime, I continued obstinately deaf to all
proposals of settling to business, and frequently expostulated with
my father.and mother about their being so positively determined
6 FIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

against what they knew my inclinations prompted me to. But
being one day at Hull, where I went casually, and without any
purpose of making an elopement at that time; but, I say, being
there, and one of my companions being about to sail to London
in his father’s ship, and prompting me to go with them with the
common allurement of seafaring men, that it should cost me
nothing for my passage, I consulted neither father nor mother
any more, nor so much as sent them word of it; but leaving them
to hear of it as they might, without asking God’s blessing or my
father’s, without any consideration of circumstances or conse-
quences, and in an ill hour, God knows, on the rst of September
1651, I went on board a ship bound for London. Never any
young adventurer’s misfortunes, I believe, began sooner, or con-
tinued longer, than mine. The ship was no sooner out of the
Humber than the wind began to blow and the sea to rise in
a most frightful manner; and as I had never been at sea before,
[ was most inexpressibly sick in body and terrified in mind. I
began now seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and how
justly I was overtaken by the judgment of heaven for my wicked
leaving my father’s house and abandoning my duty. All the
good counsels of my parents, my father’s tears and my mother’s
entreaties, came now fresh into my mind; and my conscience,
which was not yet come to the pitch of hardness to which it has
since, reproached me with the contempt of advice, and the breach
of my duty to God and my father.

All this while the storm increased, and the sea went very high,
_ though nothing like what I have seen many times since; no, nor

what I saw a few days after; but it was enough to affect me then,
who was but a young sailor, and had never known anything of the
matter. I expected every wave would have swallowed us up, and
that every time the ship fell down, as I thought it did, in the
trough or hollow of the sea, we should never rise more; in this
agony of mind I made many vows and resolutions, that if it would
please God to spare my life in this one voyage, if ever I got once
my foot upon dry land again, I would go directly home to my
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 7

father, and never set it into a ship again while I lived; that I
would take his advice, and never run myself into such miseries as
these any more. Now I saw plainly the goodness of his observa-
tions about the middle station of life, how easy, how comfortably
he had lived all his days, and never had been exposed to tempests
at sea or troubles on shore; and I resolved that I would, like a
true repenting prodigal, go home to my father.

These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the
storm lasted, and indeed some time after; but the next day the
wind was abated and the sea calmer, and I began to be a little
inured to it; however, I was very grave for all that day, being also
a little sea-sick still; but towards night the weather cleared up,
the wind was quite over, and a charming fine -evening followed;
the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morning;
and having little or no wind and a smooth sea, the sun shining
upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most delightful that ever
I saw.

I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick, but
very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough
and terrible the day before, and could be so calm and so pleasant
in so little a time after. And now, lest my good resolutions
should continue, my companion, who had enticed me away, comes
to me: “Well, Bob,” says he, clapping me upon the shoulder,
“how do you do after it? I warrant you were frighted, wer’n’t
you, last night, when it blew but a capful of wind?” “A capful, —
d’you call it?” said I; “’twas a terrible storm.” ‘A storm, you
fool you,” replies he; “do you call that a storm? why, it was
nothing at all; give us but a good ship and sea-room, and we
think nothing of such a squall of wind as that; but you’re but a
fresh-water sailor, Bob. Come, let us make a bowl of punch, and
we'll forget all that; d’ye see what charming weather ’tis now?”
To make short this sad part of my story, we went the way of all
sailors; the punch was made, and I was made half-drunk with it;
and in that one night’s wickedness I drowned all my repentance,
all my reflections upon my past conduct, all my resolutions for
8 IIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

the future. In a word, as the sea was returned to its smoothness
of surface and settled calmness by the abatement of that storm, so
the hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears and apprehensions
of being swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and the current
of my former desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and
promises that I made in my distress. I found, indeed, some
intervals of reflection; and the serious thoughts did, as it were,
endeavour to return again sometimes; but I shook them off, and
roused myself from them as it were from a distemper, and apply-
ing myself to drinking and company, soon mastered the return of
those fits—for so I called them; and I had in five or six days got
as complete a victory over conscience as any young fellow that
resolved not to be troubled with it could desire. But I was to
have another trial for it still; and Providence, as in such cases
generally it does, resolved to leave me entirely without excuse; for
if I would not take this for a deliverance, the next was to be such
a one as the worst and most hardened wretch among us would
confess both the danger and the mercy of.

The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth
Roads; the wind having been contrary and the weather calm, we
had made but little way since the storm. Here we were obliged
to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing con-
trary—viz., at south-west, for seven or eight days, during which
time a great many ships from Newcastle came into the same
Roads, as the common harbour where the ships might wait for
a wind for the river.

We had not, however, rid here so long but we should have
tided it up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh, and after we
had lain four or five days, blew very hard. However, the Roads
being reckoned as good as a harbour, the anchorage good, and our
ground-tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned and not in
the least apprehensive of danger, but spent the time in rest and
mirth, after the manner of the sea; but the eighth day, in the
morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands at work to
strike our top-masts and make everything snug and close, that the
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 9

ship might ride as easy as possible. By noon the sea went very
high indeed, and our ship rode forecastle in, shipped several seas,
and we thought once or twice our anchor had come home; upon
which our master ordered out the sheet-anchor, so that we rode
with two anchors ahead, and the cables veered out to the better
end.

By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began
to see terror and amazement in the faces even of the seamen them-
selves. The master, though vigilant in the business of preserving
the ship, yet as he went in and out of his cabin by me I could
hear him softly to himself say, several times, “Lord be merciful
to us! we shall be all lost ; we shall be all undone!” and the like.
During these first hurries I was stupid, lying still in my cabin,
which was in the steerage, and cannot describe my temper: I
could ill resume the first penitence which I had so apparently
trampled upon and hardened myself against: I thought the bitter-
ness of death had been past, and that this would be nothing like
the first; but when the master himself came by me, as I said just
now, and said we should be-all lost, I was dreadfully frighted. I
got up out of my cabin and looked out; but such a dismal sight
I never saw: the sea ran mountains high, and broke upon us every
three or four minutes; when I could look about, I could see
nothing but distress round us; two ships that rode near us, we
found, had cut their masts by the board, being deep laden; and
our men cried out that a ship which rode about a mile ahead
of us was foundered. Two more ships, being driven from their
anchors, were run out of the Roads to sea, at all adventures, and
that not with a mast standing. The light ships fared the best, as
not so much labouring in the sea; but two or three of them drove
and came close by us, running away with only their sprit-sail out
before the wind.

Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master of
our ship to let them cut away the fore-mast, which he was very
unwilling to do; but the boatswain protesting to him that if he
did not the ship would founder, he consented; and when they
to LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

had cut away the fore-mast, the main-mast stood so loose, and
shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut that away also,
and make a clear deck.

Any one must judge what a condition I must be in at all this,
who was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright
before at but a little. But if I can express at this distance the
thoughts I had about me at that time, I was in tenfold more
horror of mind upon account of my former convictions, and the
having returned from them to the resolutions I had wickedly
taken at first, than I was at death itself; and these, added to the
terror of the storm, put me into such a condition that I can by
no words describe it. But the worst was not come yet; the
storm continued with such fury that the seamen themselves
acknowledged they had never seen a worse. We had a good
ship, but she was deep laden, and wallowed in the sea, so that
the seamen every now and then cried out she would founder. It
was my advantage, in one respect, that I did not know what they
meant by founder till I inquired. However, the storm was so
violent, that I saw, what is not e@ften seen, the master, the boat-
swain, and some others more sensible than the rest, at their
prayers, and expecting every moment when the ship would go to
the bottom. In the middle of the night, and under all the rest of -
our distresses, one of the men that had been down to see cried
out we had sprung a leak; another said there was four feet water
in the hold.. Then all hands were called to the pump. At that
word my heart, as I thought, died within me, and I fell back-
wards upon the side of my bed where I sat into the cabin.
However, the men roused me, and told me that I, that was able
to do nothing before, was as well able to pump as another; at
which I stirred up and went to the pump, and worked very
heartily. While this was doing, the master seeing some light
colliers, who, not able to ride out the storm, were obliged to slip
and run away to the sea, and would come near us, ordered to fire
a gun as a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing what they
meant, thought the ship had broken, or some. dreadful thing
ROBINSON CRUSOE. ii

happened. In a word, I was so surprised that I fell down in
aswoon. As this was a time when everybody had his own life to
think of, nobody minded me, or what was become of me; but
another man stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me aside
with his foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead; and it was a
great while before I came to myself.

We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it was
apparent that the ship would founder; and though the storm
began to abate a little, yet it was not possible she could swim
till we might run into any port; so the master continued firing
guns for help; and a light ship, who had rid it out just ahead of
us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the utmost
hazard the boat came near us; but it was impossible for us to get
on board, or for the boat to lie near the ship’s side, till at last the
men rowing very heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours,
our men cast them a rope over the stern with a buoy to it, and
then veered it out a great length, which they, after much labour
and hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them close under our
stern, and got all into their boat. It was to no purpose for them
or us, after we were in the boat, to think of reaching their own
ship; so all agreed to let her drive, and only to pull her in
towards shore as much as we could; and our master promised
them that if the boat was staved upon shore, he would make it
good to their master; so partly rowing, and partly driving, our
boat went away to the northward, sloping towards the shore
almost as far as Winterton Ness.

We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our
ship till we saw her sink, and then I understood for the first time
what was meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I must acknow-
ledge I had hardly eyes to look up when the seamen told me she
was sinking; for from the moment that they rather put me into
the boat than that I might be said to go in, my heart was, as it
were, dead within me, partly with fright, partly with horror of
mind, and the thoughts of what was yet before me.

While we were in this condition—the men yet labouring at the
12 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

oar to bring the boat near the shore—we could see (when, our
boat mounting the waves, we were able to see the shore) a great

many people running along the strand to assist us when we should

come near; but we made but slow way towards the shore; nor

were we able-to reach the shore till, being past the lighthouse at

Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward towards Cromer,

and so the land broke off a little the violence of the wind. Here

we got in, and, though not without much difficulty, got all safe
‘on shore, and walked afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as

unfortunate men, we were used with great humanity, as well by

the magistrates of the town, who assigned us good quarters, as by

particular merchants and owners of ships, and had money given

us sufficient to carry us either to London or back to Hull, as we ©
thought fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and have
gone home, I had been happy, and my father, as in our blessed
Saviour’s parable, had even killed the fatted calf for me; for
hearing the ship I went away in was cast away in Yarmouth
Roads, it was a great while before he had any assurances that I
was not drowned.

But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that
nothing could resist; and though I had several times loud calls
from my reason and my more composed judgment to go home,
yet I had no power to do it. I know not what to call this, nor
will I urge that it is a secret overruling decree that hurries us on
to be the instruments of our own destruction, even though it be
before us, and that we rush upon it with our eyes open. Cer-
tainly, nothing but some such decreed unavoidable misery, which
it was impossible for me to escape, could have pushed me forward
against the calm reasOnings and persuasions of my most retired
thoughts, and against two such visible instructions as I had met
with in my first attempt.

My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who
was the master’s son, was now less forward than I. The first time
he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which was not till two
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 13

or three days, for we-were separated in the town to several
quarters; I say, the first time he saw me, it appeared his tone
was altered ; and looking very melancholy, and shaking his head,
he asked me how I did, and telling his father who I was, and how
I had come this voyage only for a trial, in order to go farther
abroad: his father, turning to me with a very grave and concerned
tone, ‘Young man,” says he, “you ought never to go to sea any
more; you ought to take this fora plain and visible token that
you are nat to be a seafaring man.” ‘Why, sir,” said I, “ will
you go to seano more?” ‘That is another case,” said he; “it
is my calling, and therefore my duty; but as you made this
voyage on trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given you of
what you are to expect if you persist. Perhaps this has all be-
fallen us on your account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish,
Pray,” continues he, “what are you, and on what account did
you go to sea?” Upon that I told him some of my story; at the
end of which he burst out into a strange kind of passion: ‘ What
had I done,” says he, “that such an unhappy wretch should come
into my ship? I would not set my foot in the same ship with
thee again for a thousand pounds.” This indeed was, as I said,
an excursion of his spirits, which were yet agitated by the sense
of his’ loss, and was further than he could have.authority to go.
However, he afterwards talked very gravely to me, exhorting me
to go back to my father, and not tempt Providence to my ruin,
telling me I might see a visible hand of Heaven against me.
“ And, young man,” said he, “ depend upon it, if you do not go
back, wherever you go you will meet with nothing but disasters
and disappointments, till your father’s words are fulfilled upon
you.”

We parted soon after; for. I made him little answer, and I saw
him no more; which way he went I knew not. As for me, having
some money in my pocket, I travelled to London by land; and
there, as well as on the road, had many struggles with myself
what course of life I should take, and whether I should go home
or to sea.
14 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered
to my thoughts, and it immediately occurred to me how I should
be laughed at among the neighbours, and should be ashamed to
see, not my father and mother only, but even everybody else;
from whence I have since often observed how incongruous and
irrational the common temper of mankind is, especially of youth,
to that reason which ought to guide them in such cases—viz., that
they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; not

‘ashamed of the action for which they ought justly to be esteemed
fools, but are ashamed of the returning, which only can make
them be esteemed wise men.

In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain
what measures to take and what course of life to lead. An
irresistible reluctance continued to going home; and as I stayed
away awhile, the remembrance of the distress I had been in wore
off, and as that abated, the little motion I had in my desires to
return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts
of it, and looked out for a voyage.

CHAPTER II.

Make a trading voyage to Guinea very successfully—Death of my captain—
Sail another trip with his mate—The vengeance of Providence for dis-
obedience to parents now overtakes me—Taken by a Sallee rover, and
all sold as slaves—My master frequently sends me a-fishing, which
suggests an idea of escape—Make my escape in an open boat, with a
Moresco boy.

Twar evil influence which carried me first away from my father’s
house—which hurried me into the wild and indigested notion of
raising my fortune, and that impressed those conceits so forcibly
upon me, as to make me deaf to all good advice, and to the
entreaties and even the commands of my father—I say, the same
ROBINSON CRUSOZ. 15

influence, whatever it was, presented the most unfortunate of all
enterprises to my view; and I went on board a vessel bound to
the coast of Africa; or, as our sailors vulgarly called it, a voyage
to Guinea.

It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I did
not ship myself as a sailor; when, though I might indeed have
worked a little harder than ordinary, yet at the same time I
should have learnt the duty and office of a fore-mast man, and
in time might have qualified myself for a mate or lieutenant,
if not for a master. But as it was always my fate to choose
for the worse, so I did here; for, having money in my pocket
and good clothes upon my back, I would always go on board
in the habit of a gentleman; and so I neither had any business
in the ship, nor learned to do any.

It was my. lot first of all to fall into pretty good company
in London, which does not always happen to such loose and
misguided young fellows as I then was; the devil generally not .
omitting to lay some snare for them very early; but it was not
so with me. I first got acquainted with the master of a ship
who had been on the coast of Guinea; and who, having had
very good success there, was resolved to go again. This captain
taking a fancy to my conversation, which was not at all disagree-
able at that time, hearing me say I had a mind to see the world,
told me if I would go the voyage with him I should be at no
expense; I should be his messmate and his companion; and if
I could carry anything with me, I should have all the advantage
of it that the trade would admit; and perhaps I might meet with
some encouragement.

I embraced the offer; and entering into a strict friendship with
this captain, who was an honest, plain-dealing man, I went the
voyage with him, and carried a small adventure with me, which,
by the disinterested honesty of my friend the captain, I increased
very considerably; for I carried about £40 in such toys and trifles
as the captain directed me to buy. These £40 I had mustered
together by the assistance of some of my relations whom I corre-
16 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

sponded with; and who, I believe, got my father, or at least my
mother, to contribute so much as that to my first adventure.

This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in all
my adventures, which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my
friend the captain; under whom also I got a competent knowledge
of the mathematics and the rules of navigation, learned how to
keep an account of the ship’s course, take an observation, and, in

_ Short, to understand some things that were needful to be under-
‘stood by a sailor; for as he took delight to instruct me, I took
delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage made me both a
sailor and a merchant; for I brought home five pounds nine
ounces of gold-dust for my adventure, which yielded me in
London, at my return, almost £300; and this filled me with
those aspiring thoughts which have since so completed my
ruin.

Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too; particularly,
that I was continually sick, being thrown into a violent calenture
by the excessive heat of the climate; our principal trading being
upon the coast, from latitude of 15° north even to the line itself.

I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my
great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the
same voyage again, and I embarked in the same vessel with one
who was his mate in the former voyage, and had now got the
command of the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage that
ever man made; for though I did not carry quite 4100 of my
new-gained wealth, so that I had £200 left, which I had lodged
with my friend’s widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell into
terrible misfortunes; the first was this—our ship making her
course towards the Canary Islands, or rather between those
Islands and the African shore, was surprised in the grey of
the morning by a Turkish rover of Sallee, who gave chase to
us with all the sail she could make. We crowded also as much
canvas as our yards would spread or our masts carry to get
clear ; but finding the pirate gained upon us, and would certainly
come up with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight; our ship
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 17

having twelve guns, and the rogue eighteen. About three in the
afternoon he came up with us, and bringing to, by mistake, just
athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as he intended,
we brought eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured in
a broadside upon him which made him sheer off again, after
returning our fire, and pouring in also his small shot from near
two hundred: men which he had on board. However, we had
not a man touched, all our men keeping close. He prepared
to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves. But laying us
on board the next time upon our other quarter, he entered sixty
men upon our decks, who immediately fell to cutting and hacking
the sails and rigging. We plied them with small shot, half-pikes,
powder-chests, and such-like, and cleared our deck of them twice.
However, to cut short this melancholy part of our story, our ship
being disabled, and three of our men killed and eight wounded,
we were obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee,
a port belonging to the Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I appre-
hended ; nor was I carried up the country to the emperor’s court,
as the rest of our men were, but was kept by the captain of the
rover as his. proper prize, and made his slave, being young and
nimble and fit for his business. At this surprising change of
my circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was
perfectly overwhelmed ; and now I looked back upon my father’s
prophetic discourse to me, that I should be miserable and have
none to relieve me, which I thought was now so effectually brought
to pass that I could not be worse; for now the hand of Heaven
had overtaken me, and I was undone without redemption; but,
alas! this was but a taste of the misery I was to go through, as
will appear in the sequel of this story.

As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house,
so I was in hopes that he would take me with him when he went
to sea again, believing that it would some time or other be his
fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portugal man-of-war; and that
then I should be set at liberty. But this hope of mine was soon

a
18 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

taken away; for when he went to sea he left me on shore to
look after his little garden and do the common drudgery of
slaves about his house; and when he came home again from
his cruise he ordered me to lie in the cabin to look after
the ship.

Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I
might take to effect it, but found no way that had the least prob-
ability in it; nothing presented to make the supposition of it
rational; for I had nobody to communicate it to that would
embark with me—no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or
Scotchman there but myself; so that for two years, though 1
often pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had the
least encouraging prospect of putting it in practice. |

After about two years an odd circumstance presented itself
which put the old thought of making some attempt for my liberty
again in my head. My patron lying at home longer than usual
without fitting out his ship, which, as I heard, was for want of
money, he used constantly, once or twice a week, sometimes
oftener if the weather was fair, to take the ship’s pinnace and go
out into the road a-fishing ; and as he always took me and young
Maresco with him to row the boat, we made him very merry, and
I proved very dexterous in catching fish; insomuch that some-
times he would send me with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and
the youth—the Maresco, as they called him—to catch a dish
of fish for him,

It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a calm morning, a
fog rose so thick that, though we were not half a league from the
shore, we lost sight of it; and rowing we knew not whither or
which way, we laboured all day and all the next night; and
when the morning came we found we had pulled off to sea
instead of pulling in for the shore, and that we were at least
two leagues from the shore. However, we got well in again,
though with a great deal of labour and some danger; for the
wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morning; but we were all
very hungry.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 19

But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more
care of himself for the future; and having lying by him the long-
boat of our English ship that he had taken, he resolved he would
not go a-fishing any more without a compass and some provision;
so he ordered the carpenter of his ship, who also was an English
slave, to build a little state-room, or cabin, in the middle of the
long-boat, like that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it
to steer and haul home the main-sheet; the room before for
a hand or two to stand and work the sails. She sailed with what
we call a shoulder-of-mutton sail; and the boom gibed over the
top of the cabin, which lay very snug and low, and had in it room
for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table to eat on, with
some small lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor as he
thought fit to drink; and his bread, rice, and coffee.

We went frequently out with his boat a-fishing; and as I was
most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without me.
It happened that he had appointed to go out in this boat, either
for pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors of some distinc-
tion in that place, and for whom he had provided extraordinarily,
and had, therefore, sent on board the boat over-night a larger
store of provisions than ordinary; and had ordered me to get
ready three fusees with powder and shot, which were on board his
ship, for that they designed some sport of fowling as well as
fishing. 2

I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the next
morning with the boat washed clean, her ancient and pendants
out, and everything to accommodate his guests; when by-and-by
my patron came on board alone, and told me his guests had
put off going, from some business that fell out, and ordered me,
with the man and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat and
catch them some fish, for that his friends were to sup at his
house, and commanded that as soon as I got some fish I should
bring it home to his house; all which I prepared to do.

This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into my
thoughts, for now I found I was likely to have a little ship at my
20 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

command; and my master being gone, I prepared to furnish
myself, not for fishing business, but for a voyage; though I knew
not, neither did I so much as consider, whither I should steer—
anywhere to get out of that place was my desire.

My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this
Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board; for I told
‘him we must not presume to eat of our patron’s bread. He said
that was true; so he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit and
three jars of fresh water into the boat. I knew where my patron’s
case of bottles stood, which it was evident, by the make, were
taken out of some English prize, and I conveyed them into the
boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they had been there
before for our master. I conveyed also a great lump of bees-wax
into the boat, which weighed about half a hundredweight, with a
parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all of
which were of great use to us afterwards, especially the wax, to
make candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which he
innocently came into also: his. name was Ismael, which they
call Muley, or Moely; so I called to him, “Moely,” said I,
“our patron’s guns are on board the boat; can you not get
a little powder and shot? It may be we may kill some alcamies
(a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves, for I know he keeps the
gunner’s stores in the ship.” “Yes,” says he, “T’ll bring some ;”
and accordingly he brought a great leather pouch, which held a
pound and a half of powder, or rather more; and another with shot,
that had five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put all into the
boat. At the same time I had found some powder of my master’s
in the great cabin, with which I filled one of the large bottles in
the case, which was almost empty, pouring what was in it into
another ; and thus furnished with everything needful, we sailed
out of the port to fish, The castle, which is at the entrance of
the port, knew who we were, and took no notice of us; and we
were not above a mile out of the port before we hauled in our
sail and set us down to fish. The wind blew from the N.N.E.,
which was contrary to my desire, for had it blown southerly I had
ROBINSON CRUSOE, ai

been sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at least reached
to the bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow which way it
would, I would be gone from that horrid place where I was, and
leave the rest to fate. ,

After we had fished some time and caught nothing, for when I
had fish on my hook I would not pull them up, that he might not
see them, I said to the Moor, “ This will not do; our master will
not be thus served; we must stand farther off.” He, thinking no
harm, agreed, and being in the head of the boat, set the sails;
and as I had the helm, I ran the boat out near a league farther,
and then brought her to, as if I would fish; when, giving the boy
the helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was, and making
as if I stooped for something behind him, I took him by surprise
with my arm under his waist and tossed him clear overboard into
the sea. He rose immediately, for he swam like a cork, and
called to me, begged to be taken in, told me he would go all over
the world with me. He swam so strong after the boat that he
would have reached me very quickly, there being but little wind;
upon which I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the
fowling-pieces, I presented it at him, and told him I had done
him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I would do him none:
“ But,” said I, “ you swim well enough to reach to the shore, and
the sea is calm; make the best of your way to shore, and I will
do you no harm; but if you come near the boat ’ll shoot you
through the head, for I am resolved to have my liberty;” so he
turned himself about and swam for the shore, and I make no
doubt but he reached it with ease, for he was an_ excellent
swimmer. ‘

I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me,
and have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust
him. When he was gone I turned to the boy, whom they called
Xury, and said to him, “ Xury, if you will be faithful to me, I’ll
make you a great man; but if you will not stroke your face to be
true to me,” that is, swear by Mahomet and his father’s beard,
“I must throw you into the sea too.” The boy smiled in my
22 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

face, and spoke so innocently that I could not distrust him, and
swore to be faithful to me and go all over the world with me.

While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming I stood
out directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching to windward,
that they might think me gone towards the Straits’ mouth (as
indeed any one that had been in their wits must have been
supposed to do); for who would have supposed we were sailed
on to the southward, to the truly Barbarian coast, where whole
nations of Negroes were sure to surround us with their canoes
and destroy us; where we could not go on shore but we should
be devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless savages of
human kind.

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening I changed my
course and steered directly south and by east, bending my course
a little towards the east, that I might keep in with the shore; and
having a fair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth, quiet sea, I made
such sail that I believe by the next day, at three o’clock in the
afternoon, when I first made the land, I could not be less than
one hundred and fifty miles south of Sallee; quite beyond the
Emperor of Morocco’s dominions, or indeed of any other king
thereabouts, for we saw no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken of the Moors, and the
dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that
I would not stop or go on shore, or come to an anchor; the
wind continuing fair till I had sailed in that manner five days;
and then the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also
that if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would now
give over; so I ventured to make to the coast, and came to an
anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew not what, nor where,
neither what latitude, what country, what nation, or what river.
I neither saw nor desired to see any people; the principal thing
I wanted was fresh water. We came into this creek in the even-
ing, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark and discover
the country; but as soon as it was quite dark we heard sych dread-
ful noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures,
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 23

of we knew not what kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die
with fear, and begged of me not to go on shore till day. ‘“ Well,
Xury,” said I, “then I won’t; but it may be that we may see men
by day, who will be as bad to us as those lions.” ‘“ Then we give
them the shoot gun,” says Xury, laughing, ‘make them run wey.”
Such English Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves. How-
ever, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him
a dram (out of our patron’s case of bottles) to cheer him up.
After all, Xury’s advice was good, and I took it; we dropped our
little anchor and lay still all night; I say still, for we slept none;
for in two or three hours we saw vast great creatures (we knew
not what to call them) of many sorts come down to the sea-shore
and run into the water, wallowing and washing themselves for the
pleasure of cooling themselves; and they made such hideous
howlings and yellings that I never indeed heard the like.

Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but we
were both more frighted when we heard one of these mighty
creatures come swimming towards our boat; we could not see
him, but we might hear him by his blowing to be a monstrous
huge and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion, and it might be
so for aught I know; but poor Xury cried to me to weigh the
anchor and row away; “No,” says I, “ Xury; we can slip our
cable, with the buoy to it, and go off to sea; they cannot follow
us far.” I had no sooner said so but I perceived the creature
(whatever it was) within two oars’ length, which something
surprised me; however, I immediately stepped to the cabin-door,
and taking up my gun, fired at him; upon which he immediately
turned about and swam towards the shore again.

But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises and hideous
cries and howlings that were raised, as well upon the edge of the
shore as higher within the country, upon the noise or report of
the gun, a thing I have some reason to believe those creatures
had never heard before: this convinced me that there was no
going on shore for us in the night on that coast, and how to
venture on shore in the day was another question too; for to
24 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

have fallen into the hands of any of the savages had been as bad
as to have fallen into the hands of the lions and tigers; at least
we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.

Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere
or other for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat; when
and where to get to it was the point. Xury said, if I would let
him go on shore with one of the jars he would find if there was
any water and bring some to me. I asked him why he would
go? why I should not go, and he stay in the boat? The boy
answered with so much affection as made me love him ever alter.
Says he, “If wild mans come, they eat me, you go wey.” “ Well,
Xury,” said I, “we will both go, and if the wild mans come we
will kill them, they shall eat neither of us.” So I gave Xury a
piece of rusk bread to eat and a dram out of our patron’s case of
bottles which I mentioned before; and we hauled the boat,in as
near the shore as we thought was proper, and so waded on shore;
carrying nothing but our arms and two jars for water.

- I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming
of canoes with savages down the river; but the boy seeing a low
place about a mile up the country, rambled to it, and by-and-by I
saw him come running towards me. I thought he was pursued
by some savage, or frighted with some wild beast, and I ran
forwards towards him to help him; but when I came nearer to
him I saw something hanging over his shoulders, which was a
creature that he had shot, like a hare, but different in colour, and
longer legs; however, we were very glad of it, and it was very
good meat; but the great joy that poor Xury came with was to
tell me he had found good water and seen no wild mans.

But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for
water, for a little higher up the creek where we were we found the
water fresh when the tide was out, which flowed but a little way
up; so we filled our jars and ‘feasted on the hare we had killed,
and prepared to go on our way, having seen no footsteps of any
human creature in that part of the country.

As I had been one voyage to this coast before, 1 knew very
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 25

well that the-islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd
Islands also, lay not far off from the coast. But as I had no
instruments to take an observation to know what latitude we were
in, and not exactly knowing, or at least remembering, what
latitude they were in, I knew not where to. look for them, or
when to stand off to sea towards them; otherwise I might now
easily have found some of these islands. But my hope was that
if I stood along this coast till I came to that part where the
English traded, I should find some of their vessels upon their
usual design of trade that would relieve and take us in.

By the best-of my calculation, that place where I now was must
be that country which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco’s
dominions and the Negroes, lies waste and uninhabited, except
by wild beasts; the Negroes having abandoned it and gone
farther south for fear of the Moors; and the Moors not thinking
it worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness;. and, indeed, both
forsaking it because of the prodigious number of tigers, lions,
leopards, and other furious creatures which harbour there; so
that the Moors use it for their hunting only, where they go like
an army, two or three thousand men at a time; and, indeed, for
near a hundred miles together upon this coast we saw nothing
but a waste, uninhabited country by day, and heard nothing but
howlings and roaring of wild beasts by night.

Once or twice in the daytime I thought I saw the Pico of
Teneriffe, being the high top of the Mountain Teneriffe in the
Canaries, and had a great mind to venture out, in hopes of
reaching thither; but having tried twice, I was forced in again by
contrary winds, the sea also going too high for my little vessel;
so I resolved to pursue my first design and keep along the
shore.

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we
had left this place; and once in particular, being early in the
morning, we came to an anchor under a little point of land, which
was pretty high; and the tide beginning to flow, we lay still to go
farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about him than it seems
26 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

mine were, calls softly to me and tells me that we had best go
farther off the shore; “For,” says he, “look, yonder lies a
dreadful monster on the side of that hillock fast asleep.” I
looked where he pointed and saw a dreadful monster indeed, for
it was a terrible, great lion that lay on the side of the shore, under
the shade of a piece of the hill that hung, as it were, a little over
-him. ‘Xury,” says I, “you shall go on shore and kill him.”
Xury looked frighted, and said, “Me kill! he eat me at one
mouth!” one mouthful he meant. However, I said no more to
the boy, but bade him lie still, and I took our biggest gun, which
was almost musket bore, and loaded it with a good charge of
powder and with two slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded
another gun with two bullets; and the third (for we had three
pieces) I loaded with five smaller bullets, I took the best aim I
could with the first piece to have shot him in the head, but he
lay so with his leg raised a little above his nose that the slugs hit
his leg above the knee and broke the bone. He started up,
growling at first, but finding his leg broken, fell down again; and
then got upon three legs and gave the most hideous roar that
ever I heard. I was a little surprised that I had not hit him on
the head; however, I took up the second piece immediately, and
though he began to move off, fired again, and shot him in the
head, and had the pleasure to see him drop and make but little
noise, but lie struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and
would have me let him go on shore. “ Well, go,” said I; so the
boy jumped into the water, and taking a little gun in one hand,
swam to shore with the other hand, and coming close to the
creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear and shot him in
the head again, which despatched him quite.

This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I was
very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a crea-
ture that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury said he
would have some of him; so he comes on board and asked me to
give him the hatchet. “For what, Xury?” said I. “Me cut off
his head,” said he. However, Xury could not cut off his head,
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 27

but he cut off a foot and brought it with him, and it was 2 mon-
strous great one.

I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him
might, one way or other, be of some value to us; and I resolved
to take off his skin if I could. So Xury and I went to work with
him; but Xury was much the better workman at it, for I knew
very ill how to doit. Indeed, it took us both up the whole day,
but at last we got off the hide of him, and spreading it on the top
of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two days’ time, and it
afterwards served me to lie upon.

CHAPTER IIL

Make for the southward in hopes of meeting with some European vessel-—
See savages along shore—Shoot a large leopard—Am taken up by a
merchantman—Arrive at the Brazils, and buy a settlement there—Cannot
be quiet, but sail on a voyage of adventure to Guinea—Ship strikes on a
sandbank in unknown Jand—All lost but myself, who am driven ashore
half dead.

AFTER this stop we made on to the southward continually for ten
or twelve days, living very sparingly on our provisions, which
began to abate very much, and going no oftener to the shore than
we were obliged to for fresh water. My design in this was to
make the River Gambia or Senegal, that is to say, anywhere about
the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to meet with some
European ship; and if I did not, I knew not what course I had
to take but to seek for the islands, or perish there among the
Negroes. I knew that all the ships from Europe which sailed
either to the coast of Guinea, or to Brazil, or to the East Indies,
made this Cape or those islands; and, in a word, I put the whole
of my fortune upon this single point, either that I must meet with
some ship or must perish.

When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I
28 LIFE AND ADVENFURES OF

have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited; and in two
or three places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand upon the
shore to look at us; we could also perceive they were quite black
and naked. I was once inclined to have gone on shore to them;
but Xury was my better counsellor, and said to me, “No go, no
go.” However, I hauled in nearer the shore that I might talk to
them, and I found they ran along the shore by me a good way. I
observed they had no weapons in their hand, except one, who had
a long slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they
could throw them a great way with good aim; so I kept at a
distance, but talked with them by signs as well as I could; and
particularly made signs for something to eat: they beckoned to me
to stop my boat, and they would fetch me some meat. Upon this
I lowered the top of my sail and lay by, and two of them ran up
into the country, and in less than half-an-hour came back, and
brought with them two pieces of dried flesh and some corn, such
as is the produce of their country; but we neither knew what the
one or the other was; however, we were willing to accept it, but
how to come at it was our next dispute, for I would not venture
on shore to them, and they were as much afraid of us; but they
took a safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore and laid
it down, and went and stood a great way off till we fetched it on
board, and then came close to us again.

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make
them amends; but an opportunity offered that very instant to
oblige them wonderfully ; for while we were lying by the shore
came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took it)
with great fury from the mountains towards the sea; whether it
was the male pursuing the female, or whether they were in sport
or in rage, we could not tell, any more than we could tell whether
it was usual or strange, but I believe it was the latter; because, in
the first place, those ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the
night; and, in the second place, we found the people terribly
frighted, especially the women. The man that had the lance or
dart did not fly from them, but the rest did; however, as the two
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 29

creatures ran directly into the water, they did not offer to fall upon
any of the Negroes, but plunged themselves into the sea, and swam
about as if they had come for their diversion; at last one of them
began to come nearer our boat than at first I expected; but I lay
ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with all possible expedi-
tion, and bade Xury load both the others, As soon as he came
fairly within my reach I fired, and shot him directly in the head;
immediately he sank down into the water, but rose instantly, and
plunged up and down as if he was struggling for life, and so
indeed he was; he immediately made to the shore; but between
the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the
water, he died just before he reached the shore.

It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor
creatures at the noise and fire of my gun; some of them were
even ready to die for fear, and fell down as dead with the very
terror; but when they saw the creature dead and sunk in the
water, and that I made signs to them to come to the shore, they
took heart and came, and began to search for the creature. I
found him by his blood staining the water; and by the help of a
rope which T slung round him and gave the Negroes to haul, they
dragged him on shore, and found that it was a most curious
leopard, spotted, and fine to an admirable degree; and the
Negroes held up their hands with admiration, to think what it
was I had killed him with. ;

The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the noise
of the gun, swam on shore and ran up directly to the mountains
from whence they came; nor could I at that distance know what
it was. I found quickly the Negroes wished to eat the flesh of
this creature, so I was willing to have them take it as a favour
from me; which, when I made signs to them that they might take
him, they were very thankful for. Immediately they fell to work
with him; and though they had no knife, yet with a sharpened
piece of wood they took off his skin as readily, and much more
readily, than we could have done with a knife. They offered me
some of the flesh, which I declined, pointing out that I would
30 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

give it them, but made signs for the skin, which they gave me
very freely, and brought me a great deal more of their provisions,
which, though I did not understand, yet I accepted. I then
made signs to them for some water, and held out one of my jars
to them, turning it bottom upward to show that it was empty and
that I wanted to have it filled. They called immediately to some
of their friends, and there came two women and brought a great
vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I supposed, in the sun; this they
set down to me as before, and I sent Xury on shore with my jars
and filled them all three. The women were as naked as the men.

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and
water; and leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward for
about eleven days more, without offering te go near the shore
till I saw the land run out a great length into the sea, at about
the distance of four or five leagues before me; and the sea being
very calm, I kept a large offing to make this point. At length,
doubling the point at about two leagues from the land, I saw
plainly land on the other side, to seaward; then I concluded, as
it was most certain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verd, and
those the islands called, from thence, Cape de Verd Islands.
However, they were at a great distance, and I could not well tell
what I had best to do, for if I should be taken with a fresh of

‘wind I might neither reach one or other.

In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the
cabin and sat down, Xury having the helm; when, on a sudden,
the boy cried out, “ Master, master, a ship with a sail!” and the
foolish boy was frighted out of his wits, thinking it must needs be
some of his master’s ships sent to pursue us, but I knew we were
far enough out of their reach. I jumped out of the cabin and
immediately saw not only the ship, but that it was a Portuguese
ship; and, as I thought, was bound to the coast of Guinea for
Negroes. But when I observed the course she steered I was soon
convinced they were bound some other way, and did not design
to come any nearer to the shore; upon which I stretched out to
sea as much as I could, resolving to speak with them if possible.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 31

With all the sail I could make I found I should not be able to
come in their way, but that they would be gone by before I could
make any signal to them; but after I had crowded to the utmost,
and began to despair, they, it seems, saw by the help of their
glasses that it was some European boat, which they supposed
must belong to some ship that was lost; so they shortened sail to
let me come up. I was encouraged with this, and as I had my
patron’s ancient on board I made a waft of it to them for a signal
of distress and fired a gun, both which they saw; for they told
me they saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon
these signals they very kindly brought to and lay by for me; and
in about three hours’ time I came up with them.

They asked me what I was in Portuguese, and in Spanish and
in French, but I understood none of them; but at last a Scotch
sailor who was on board called to me; and I answered him, and
told him I was an Englishman, that I had made my escape out of
slavery from the Moors at Sallee; they then bade me come on
board, and very kindly took me in, and all my goods.

It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one can believe,
that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable
and almost hopeless condition as I was in; and I immediately
offered all I had to the captain of the ship as a return for my
deliverance ; but he generously told me he would take nothing
from me, but that all I had should be delivered safe to me when I
came to the Brazils. “For,” says he, “I have saved your life on
no other terms than I would be glad to be saved myself; and it
may, one time or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same
condition. Besides,” said he, ‘‘when I carry you to the Brazils,
so great a way from your own country, if I should take from you
what you have, you will be starved there, and then I only take
away that life I have given. No, no,” says he; “Seignor Inglese”
(Mr. Englishman), “I will carry you thither in charity, and those
things will help to buy your subsistence there, and your passage
home again.”

As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the
32 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

performance to a tittle; for he ordered the seamen that none
should touch anything that I had; then he took everything into
his own possession, and gave me back an exact inventory of them,
that I might have them, even to my three earthen jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw, and
told me he would buy it of me for his ship’s use, and asked me
what I would have for it? I told him he had been so generous
to me in everything that I could not offer to make any price of
the boat, but left it entirely te him; upon which he told me he
would give me a note of hand to pay me eighty pieces of eight
for it at Brazil; and when it came there, if any one offered to
give more, he would make it up. He offered me also sixty
pieces of eight more for my boy Xury, which I was loath to
take; not that I was unwilling to let the captain have him, but
I was very loath to sell the poor boy’s liberty, who had assisted
me so faithfully in procuring my own. However, when I let him
know my reason, he owned it to be just, and offered me this
medium, that he would give the boy an obligation to set him
free in ten years if he turned Christian; upon this, and Xury
saying he was willing to go to him, I let the captain have him.

We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived in the
Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints’ Bay, in about twenty-two
days after. And now I was once more delivered from the most
miserable of all conditions of life; and what to do next with
myself I was to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me I can never
enough remember: he would take nothing of me for my passage,
gave me twenty ducats for the leopard’s skin and forty for the
lion’s skin, which I had in my boat, and caused everything I had
in the ship to be punctually delivered to me; and what I was
willing to sell he bought of me, such as the case of bottles,
two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees-wax—for I had
made candles of the rest; in a word, I made about two hundred
and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo; and with this stock
I went on shore in the Brazils.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 33

I had not been long here before I was recommended to the
house of a good, honest man, like himself, who had an ingenio,
as they call it (that is, a plantation and a sugar-house). I lived
with him some time, and acquainted myself, by that means, with
the manner of planting and making of sugar; and seeing how well
the planters lived, and how they got rich suddenly, I resolved, if
I could get a licence to settle there, I would turn planter among
them, resolving, in the meantime, to find out some way to get
my money which I had left in London remitted to me To
this purpose, getting a kind of letter of naturalisation, I purchased
as much land that was uncured as my money would reach, and
formed a plan for my plantation and settlement; such a one as
might be suitable to the stock which I proposed to myself to
receive from England.

Thad a neighbour, a Portuguese, of Lisbon, but born of English
parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such circumstances
as Iwas. Icall him my neighbour, because his plantation lay
next to mine, and we went on very sociably together. My stock
was but low, as well as his; and we rather planted for food than
anything else for about two years. However, we began to
increase, and our land began to come into order; so that the
third year we planted some tobacco, and made each of us a
large piece of ground ready for planting canes in the year to
come. But we both wanted help; and now I found, more than
before, I had done wrong in parting with my boy Xury.

But, alas! for me to do wrong that never did right was no
great wonder. I had no remedy but to go on: I had got into
an employment quite remote to my genius, and directly contrary
to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my father’s
house, and broke through all his good advice. Nay, I was
coming into the very middle station, or upper degree of low
life, which my father advised me to before, and which, if I
resolved to go on with, I might as well have stayed at home, and
never have fatigued myself in the world as I had done; and I
used often to say to myself, I could have done this as well in

3
34 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

England, among my friends, as have gone five thousand miles
off to do it among strangers and savages, in a wilderness, and
at such a distance as never to hear from any part of the world
that had the least knowledge of me.

In this manner I used to look upon my condition with the
utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with, but now and
then this neighbour; no work to be done but by the labour of
my hands; and I used to say, I lived just like a man cast away
upon some desolate island that had nobody there but himself.
But how just has it been—and how should all men reflect, that
when they compare their present conditions with others that are
worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the exchange, and be
convinced of their former felicity by their experience—I say,
how just has it been, that the truly solitary life I reflected on,
in an island of mere desolation, should be my lot, who had so
often unjustly compared it with the life which I then led, in
which, had I continued, I had, in all probability, been exceeding
prosperous and rich?

I was in some degree settled in my measures for carrying
on the plantation before my kind friend, the captain of the
ship that took me up at sea, went back—for the ship remained
there, in providing his lading and preparing for his voyage, nearly
three months. -When telling him what little stock I had left behind
me in London, he gave me this friendly and sincere advice :—
“Seignor Inglese,” says he (for so he always called me), “if you
will give me letters and a procuration in form to me, with orders
to the person who has your money in London to send your effects
to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct, and in such goods as
are proper for this country, I will bring you the produce of them,
God willing, at my return; but, since human affairs are all subject
to changes and disasters, I would have you give orders but for
one hundred pounds sterling, which, you say, is half your stock,
and let the hazard be run for the first; so that, if it come safe,
you may order the rest the same way, and, if it miscarry, you may
have the other half to have recourse to for your supply.”
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 35

This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that
I could not but be convinced it was the best course I could take;
so I accordingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman with whom
_ Thad left my money, and a procuration to the Portuguese captain,
as he desired.

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full account of all my
adventures—my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the
Portuguese captain at sea, the humanity of his behaviour, and
what condition I was now in, with all other necessary directions
for my supply; and when this honest captain came to Lisbon, he
found means, by some of the English merchants there, to send
over, not the order only, but a full account of my story to
a merchant in London, who represented it effectually to her;
whereupon she not only delivered the money, but out of her own
pocket sent the Portuguese captain a very handsome present for
his humanity and charity to me.

The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in
English goods, such as the captain had written for, sent them ~
directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me to
the Brazils; among which, without my direction (for I was too
young in my business to think of them), he had taken care to
have all sorts of tools, ironwork, and utensils necessary for my
plantation, and which were of great use to me.

When this cargo arrived I thought my fortune made, for I was
surprised with the joy of it; and my good steward, the captain,
had laid out the five pounds which my friend had sent him for a
present for himself, to purchase and bring me over a servant,
under bond for six years’ service, and would not accept of any
consideration, except a little tobacco, which I would have him
accept, being of my own produce. :

Neither was this all; for my goods being all English manu-
facture, such as cloths, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valu-
able and desirable in the country, I found means to sell them to
a very great advantage; so that I might say I had more than four
times the value of my first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond
36 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

my poor neighbour—I mean in the advancement of my planta.
tion; for the first thing I did, I bought me a negro slave, and an
European servant also—I mean another besides that which the
captain brought me from Lisbon.

But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means of
our greatest adversity, so it was with me. I went on the next
year with great success in my plantation: I raised fifty great rolls
of tobacco on my own ground more than I had disposed of for
necessaries among my neighbours; and these fifty rolls, being
each of above a hundredweight, were well cured and laid by
-against the return of the fleet from Lisbon; and now increasing
in business and wealth, my head began to be full of projects and
undertakings beyond my reach; such as are, indeed, often the
ruin of the best heads in business. Had I continued in the
station I was now in, I had room for all the happy things to have ©
yet befallen me for which my father so earnestly recommended a
quiet, retired life, and of which he had so sensibly described the
middle station of life to be full of; but other things attended me,
and I was still to be the wilful agent of all my own miseries; and
particularly, to increase my fault and double the reflections upon
myself, which in my future sorrows I should have leisure to make,
all these miscarriages were procured by my apparent obstinate
adhering to my foolish inclination of wandering abroad, and
pursuing that inclination in contradiction to the clearest views of
doing myself good in a fair and plain pursuit of those prospects
and those measures of life which nature and Providence con-
curred to present me with, and to make my duty.

As I had once done thus in my breaking away from my
parents, so I could not be content now, but I must go and leave
the happy view I had of being a rich and thriving man in my new
plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of rising
faster than the nature of the thing admitted; and thus I cast
myself down again into the deepest gulf of human misery that
ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent with life and
a state of health in the world.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 37

To come, then, by the just degrees, to the particulars of this
part of my story:—You may suppose that, having now lived
almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive and
prosper very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned the
language, but had contracted acquaintance and friendship among
my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants at St. Salvador,
which was our port; and that, in my discourses among them, I
had frequently given them an account of my two voyages to the
coast of Guinea: the manner of trading with the Negroes there,
and how easy it was to purchase upon the coast for trifles—such
as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and the
like—not only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants’ teeth, etc.,
but Negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great numbers.

They listened always very attentively to my discourses on these
heads, but especially to that part which related to the buying of
Negroes, which was a trade at that time not only not far entered
into, but, as far as it was, had been carried on by assientos, or
permission of the kings of Spain and Portugal; and engrossed in
the public stock; so that few Negroes were bought, and those
excessively dear.

It happened, being in company with some. merchants and
planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very
earnestly, three of them came to me next morning and told me
they had been musing very much upon what I had discoursed
with them of the last night, and they came to make a secret pro-
posal to me; and after enjoining me secrecy, they told me that
they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that they had
all plantations as well as I, and were straitened for nothing so
much as servants; that as it was a trade that could not be carried
on, because they could not publicly sell the Negroes when they
came home, so they desired to make but one voyage, to bring the
Negroes on shore privately, and divide them among their own
plantations; and, in a word, the question was, whether I would
go their supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading part upon
the coast of Guinea; and they offered me that I should have my
33 IIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

equal share of the Negroes, without providing any part of the
stock.

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made
to any one that had not had a settlement and a plantation of his
own to look after, which was in a fair way of coming to be very
considerable, and with a good stock upon it; but for me, that was
thus entered and established, and had nothing to do but to go on
as I had begun for three or four years more, and to have sent for
the other hundred pounds from England, and who in that time,
and with that little addition, could scarce have failed of being
worth three or four thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing
too—for me to think of such a voyage was the most preposterous
thing that ever man in such circumstances could be guilty of.

But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more
resist the offer than I could restrain my first rambling designs
when my father’s good counsel was lost upon me In a word, I
told them I would go with all my heart, if they would undertake
to look after my plantation in my absence, and would dispose of
it to such as I should direct, if I miscarried. This they all
engaged to do, and entered into writings o: covenants to do so;
and I made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and effects
in case of my death, making the captain of the ship that had
saved my life, as before, my universal heir, but obliging him to
dispose of my effects as I had directed in my will; one half of the
produce being to himself, and the ether to be shipped in England.

In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects and
to keep up my plantation. Had I used half as much prudence to
have looked into my own interest, and have made a judgment of
what I ought to have done and not to have done, I had certainly
never gone away from so prosperous an undertaking, leaving all
the probable views of a thriving circumstance and gone upon a
voyage to sea, attended with all its common hazards, to say
nothing of the reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes to
myself.

But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 39

fancy rather than my reason; and accordingly, the ship being
fitted out and the cargo furnished, and all things done, as by
agreement, by my partners in the voyage, I went on board in an
evil hour, the rst September 1659, being the same day eight years
that I went from my father and mother at Hull, in order to act
the rebel to their authority, and the fool to my own interests.

Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden,
carried six guns and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy,
and myself. We had on board no large cargo of goods, except
of such toys as were fit for our trade with the Negroes, such as
beads, bits of glass, shells, and other trifles, especially little look-
ing-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.

The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to
the northward upon our own coast, with design to stretch over for
the African coast when we came about ten or twelve degrees of
northern latitude, which, it seems, was the manner of course in
those days. We had very good weather, only excessively hot, all
the way upon our own coast, till we came to the height of Cape
St. Augustino; from whence, keeping farther off at sea, we lost
sight of land, and steered as-if we were bound for the isle Fer-
nando de Noronha, holding our course N.E. by.N., and leaving
those isles on the east, In this course we passed the line in
about twelve days’ time, and were, by our last observation, in
seven degrees twenty-two minutes northern latitude, when a
violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge.
It began from the south-east, came about to the north-west, and
then settled in the north-east ; from whence it blew in such a ter-
rible manner that for twelve days together we could do nothing but
drive, and scudding away before it, let it carry us whither ever
fate and the fury of the winds directed; and during these twelve
days I need not say that I expected every day to be swallowed
up; nor, indeed, did any in the ship expect to save their lives.

In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of
our men die of the calenture, and one man and the boy washed
overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather abating a little,
40 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

the master made an observation as well as he could, and found
that he was in about eleven degrees north latitude, but that he was
twenty-two degrees of longitude difference west from Cape St.
Augustino ; so that he found he was upon the coast of Guinea, or
the north part of Brazil, beyond the river Amazons, towards that
of the river Oroonoque, commonly called the Great River; and
began to consult with me what course he should take, for the
‘ship was leaky and very much disabled, and he was going
directly back to the coast of Brazil.

I was positively against that; and looking over the charts of
the sea-coast of America with him, we concluded there was no
inhabited country for us to have recourse to till we came within
the circle of the Caribbee Islands, and therefore resolved to stand
away for Barbadoes; which, by keeping off at sea, to avoid the
indraft of the Bay or Gulf of Mexico, we might easily perform, as
we hoped, in about fifteen days’ sail; whereas we could not
possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa without some
assistance both to our ship and to ourselves.

With this design we changed our course and steered away
N.W, by W., in order to reach some of our English islands, where
I hoped for relief But our voyage was otherwise determined; for,
being in the latitude of twelve degrees eighteen minutes, a second
storm came upon us which carried us away with the same im-
petuosity westward, and drove us so out of the way of all human
commerce, that, had all our lives been saved as to the sea, we
were rather in danger of being devoured by savages than ever
returning to our own country.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our
men early in the morning cried out, “Land!” and we had no
sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing where-
abouts in the world we were, than the ship struck upon a sand,
and in a moment, her motion being so stopped, the sea broke
over her in such a manner that we expected we should all have
perished immediately; and we were immediately driven into our
close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam and spray of the sea.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 4i

It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like
condition to describe or conceive the consternation of men in
such circumstances. We knew nothing where we were, or upon
what land it was we were driven—whether an island or the main,
whether inhabited or not inhabited. As the rage of the wind was
still great, though rather less than at first, we could not so much
as hope to have the ship hold many minutes without breaking
into pieces, unless the winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn
"immediately about. In a word, we sat looking upon one another
and expecting death every moment, and every man, accordingly,
preparing for another world; for there was little or nothing more
for us to do in this. That which was our present comfort, and
all the comfort we had, was that, contrary to our expectation, the
ship did not break yet, and that the master said the wind began
to abate.

Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet
the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast
for us to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful condition
indeed, and had nothing to do but to think of saving our lives as
well as we could. We had a boat at our stern just before the
storm, but she was first staved by dashing against the ship’s
rudder, and in the next place she broke away, and either sunk or
was driven off to sea; so there was no hope from her. We had
another boat on board, but how to get her off into the sea was a
doubtful thing. However, there was no time to debate, for we
fancied that the ship would break in pieces every minute, and
some told us she was actually broken already.

In this distress the mate of our vessel laid hold of the boat, and
with the help of the rest of the men got her slung over the ship’s
side; and getting all into her, let go, and committed ourselves,
being eleven in number, to God’s mercy and the wild sea; for
though the storm was abated considerably, yet the sea ran dread-
fully high upon the shore, and might be well called den wild zee,
as the Dutch call the sea in a storm. ;

And now our case was very dismal. indeed; for we all saw
42 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

plainly that the sea went so high that the boat could not live, and
that we should be inevitably drowned. As to making sail, we had
none, nor if we had could we have done anything with it; so we
worked at the oar towards the land, though with heavy hearts,
like men going to execution; for we all knew that when the boat
came.near the shore she would be dashed in a thousand pieces
by the breach of the sea. However, we committed our souls to
God in the most earnest manner; and the wind driving us
towards the shore, we hastened our destruction with our own
hands, pulling as well as we could towards land.

What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep or
shoal, we knew not. The only hope that could rationally give us
the least shadow of expectation was, if we might find some bay
or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where by great chance we
might have run our boat in, or got under the lee of the land, and
perhaps made smooth water. But there was nothing like this
appeared; but as we made nearer and nearer the shore, the land
looked more frightful than the sea.

After we had rowed or rather driven about a league and a
half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came
rolling astern of us, and plainly bade us expect the coup de grace.
It took us with such a fury that it overset the boat at once; and
separating us, as well from the boat as from one another, gave us
no time to say, *O God!” for we were all swallowed up in a
moment.

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt
when I sank into the water; for though I swam very well, yet 1
could not deliver myself from the waves so as to draw breath, till
that wave having driven me, or rather carried me, a vast way on
towards the shor, and having spent itself, went back, and left me
upon the land almost dry, but half-dead with the water I took in.
I had so much presence of mind as well as breath left, that
seeing myself nearer the mainland than I expected, I got upon
my feet and endeavoured to make on towards the land as fast as
I could before another wave should return and take me up again;
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 43

but I soon found it was impossible to avoid it; for I saw the sea
come after me as high as a great hill, and as furious as an enemy,

‘which I had no means or strength to contend with: my business
was to hold my breath and raise myself upon the water, if I
could; and so, by swimming, to preserve my breathing and pilot
myself towards the shore, if possible, my greatest concern now
being that the sea, as it would carry me a great way towards the
shore when it came on, might not carry me back again with it
when it gave back towards the sea.

The wave that came upon me again buried me at once twenty or
thirty feet deep in its own body, and I could feel myself carried
with a mighty force and swiftness towards the shore a very great
way; but I held my breath and assisted myself to swim stil)
forward with all my might. I was ready to burst with holding my
breath, when, as I felt myself rising up, so, to my immediate relief,
I found my head and hands shoot out above the surface of the
water; and though it was not two seconds of time that I could keep
myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave me breath and new
courage. I was covered again with water a good while, but. not
so long but I held it out; and finding the water had spent itself
and began to return, I struck forward against the return of the
waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I stood still a few
moments to recover breath and till the waters went from me, and
then took to my heels and ran with what strength I had farther
towards the shore. But neither would this deliver me from the
fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me again ; and twice
more I was lifted up by the waves and carried forward as before,
the shore being very flat.

The last time of these two had well-nigh been fatal to me, for
the sea having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather
dashed me against a piece of rock, and that with such force that
it left me senseless, and indeed helpless as to my own deliver-
ance; for the blow taking my side and breast, beat the breath, as
it were, quite out of my body; and had it returned again imme-
diately, I must have been strangled in the water; but I recovered
44 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

a little before the return of the waves, and seeing I should be
covered again with the water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece
of the rock, and so to hold my breath, if possible, till the wave
went back. Now, as the waves were not so high as at first, being
nearer land, I held my hold till the wave abated, and then fetched
another run, which brought me so near the shore that the next

. wave, though it went over me, yet did not so swallow me up as to
carry me away; and the next run I took I got to the mainland,
where, to my great comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the shore
and sat me down upon the grass, free from danger and quite out
of the reach of the water.

I was now landed and safe on shore, and began to look up and
thank God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there was,
sOme minutes before, scarce any room to hope. I believe it is
impossible to express, to the life, what the ecstasies and transports
of the soul are when it is so saved, as I may say, out of the very
grave; and I do not wonder now at the custom,.when a male
factor, who has the halter about his neck, is tied up, and just
going to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought to him—TI say,
Ido not wonder that they bring a surgeon with it, to let him
blood that very moment they tell him of it, that the surprise may
not drive the animal spirits from the heart and overwhelm him.

‘For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.”

I walked about on the shore lifting up my hands, and my whole
being, as I may say, wrapt up in a contemplation of my deliver-
ance; making a thousand gestures and motions which I cannot
describe; reflecting upon all my comrades that were drowned, and
that there should not be one soul saved but myself; for, as for
them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign of them, except
three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that were not fellows.

I cast my eye to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and froth
of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far off; and
considered, Lord! how was it possible I could get on shore?

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 48

condition, I began to look round me, to see what kind of place 1
was in, and what was next to be done; and I soon found my
comforts abate, and that, ina word, I had a dreadful deliverance;
for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor anything either to
eat or drink to comfort me; neither did I see any prospect before
me but that of perishing with hunger or being devoured by wild
beasts; and that which was particularly afflicting to me was that
I had no weapon, either to hunt and kill any creature for my sus-
tenance, or to defend myself against any other creature that might
desire to kill me for theirs. In a word, I had nothing about me
but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco ina box. This
was all my provisions; and this threw me into terrible agonies of
. mind, that for a while I ran about like a madman. Night coming
upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider what would be
my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that country, as at
night they always come abroad for their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time was to
get up into a thick bushy tree like a fir, but thorny, which grew
near me, and where I resolved to sit all night, and consider the
next day what death I should die, for as yet I saw no prospect of
life. I walked about a furlong from the shore to see if I could
find any fresh water to drink, which I did, to my great joy; and
having drank and put a little tobacco into my mouth to prevent
hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured to
place myself so that if I should sleep I might not fall. And
having cut me a short stick, like a truncheon, for my defence, I
took up my lodging; and having been excessively fatigued, I fell
fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could have
done in my condition, and found myself more refreshed with it
than, I think, I ever was on such an occasion.
46 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

CHAPTER IV.

Appearance of the wreck and country next day—Swim on board of the ships
and by means of a contrivance get a quantity of stores on shore—Shoot
a bird, but it turns out perfect carrion—Moralise upon my situation—The
ship blown off land and totally lost—Set out in search of a proper place
for a habitation—See numbers of goats—Melancholy reflections.

WueEn I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the
storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as before.
But that which surprised me most was that the ship was lifted off
in the night from the sand where she lay by the swelling of the
tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock which I at first
mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the wave dashing me
against it. This being within about a mile from the shore where
I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished
myself on board, that at least I might save some necessary things
for my use.

When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked
about me again, and the first thing I found was the boat, which
lay, as the wind and the sea had tossed her up, upon the land,
about two miles on my right hand. I walked as far as I could
upon the shore to have got to her; but found a neck or inlet of
water between me and the boat which was about halfa-mile »
broad; so I came back for the present, being more intent upon
getting at the ship, where I hoped to find something for my
present subsistence.

A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the tide
ebbed so far out that I could come within a quarter of a mile
of the ship. And here I found a fresh renewing of my grief; for
I saw evidently that if we had kept on board we had been all
safe—that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had not
been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort
and company as I now was. This forced tears to my eyes again;
but as there was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 44

. to the ship; so I pulled off my clothes—for the weather was hot
to extremity—and took the water. But when I came to the ship
my difficulty was still greater to know how to get on board; for
as she lay aground and high out of the water, there was nothing
within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and the
second time I spied a small piece of rope, which I wondered I
did not see at first, hung down by the fore-chains so low as that
with great difficulty I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope
I got up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that the
ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her hold, but
that she lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather
earth, that her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head
low, almost to the water. By this means all her quarter was free,
and all that was in that part was dry; for you may be sure my
first work was to search, and to see what was spoiled and what
was free. And, first, I found that all the ship’s provisions were
dry and ‘untouched by the water; and being very well disposed
to eat, I went to the bread-room and filled my pockets with
biscuit, and ate it as I went about other things, for I had no time
to lose. I also found some rum in the great cabin, of which I
took a large dram, and which I had, indeed, need enough of to
spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a
boat to furnish myself with many things which I foresaw would
be very necessary to me.

It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had;
and this extremity roused my application. We had several spare
yards, and two or three large spars of wood, and a spare top-mast
or two in the ship; I resolved to fall to work with these, and I
flung as many of them overboard as I could manage for their
weight, tying every one with a rope, that they might not drive
away. When this was done I went down the ship’s side, and
pulling them to me, I tied four of them together at both ends as
well as I could, in the form of a raft, and laying two or three
short pieces of plank upon them cross-ways, I found I could walk
upon it very well, but that it was not able to bear any great
48 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

weight, the pieces being too light. So I went to work, and with
& carpenter’s saw I cut a spare top-mast into three lengths, and
added them to my raft, with a great deal of labour and pains.
But the hope of furnishing myself with necessaries encouraged
me to go beyond what I should have been able to have done
upon another occasion.

' My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight.
My next care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what
I laid upon it from the surf of the sea; but I was not long con
sidering this. I first laid all the planks or boards upon it that I
could get, and having considered well what I most wanted, I first
got three of the seamen’s chests, which I had broken open and
emptied, and lowered them down upon my raft; the first of these
I filled with provisions—viz., bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses,
five pieces of dried goat’s flesh (which we lived much upon), and
a little remainder of European corn, which had been laid by for
some fowls which we brought to sea with us, but the fowls were
killed. There had been some barley and wheat together; but, to
my great disappointment, I found afterwards that the rats had
eaten or spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found several cases of
bottles belonging to our skipper, in which were some cordial
waters; and, in all, about five or six gallons of rack. These I
stowed by themselves, there being no. need to put them into the
chest, nor any room for them. While I was doing this I found
the tide begin to flow, though very calm; and I had the mortifi-
cation to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on
the shore upon the sand, swim away. As for my breeches, which
were only linen, and open-kneed, I swam on board in them and
my stockings. However, this set me on rummaging for clothes,
of which I found enough, but took no more than I wanted for
present use, for I had other things which my eye was more upon
—as, first, tools to work with on shore, And it was after long
searching that I found out the carpenter’s chest, which was indeed
a very useful prize to me, and much more valuable than a ship-
load of gold would have been at that time. I got it down to my
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 49

raft, whole as it was, without losing time to look into it, for I
knew in general what it contained.

My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were
two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols.
These I secured first, with some powder-horns and a small bag of
shot and two old rusty swords. I knew there were three barrels
of powder in the ship, but knew not where our gunner had stowed
them; but with much search I found them, two of them dry and
good, the third had taken water. Those two I got to my raft,
with the arms. And now I thought myself pretty well freighted,
and began to think how I should get to shore with them, having
neither sail, oar, nor rudder; and the least capful of wind would
have overset all my navigation.

I had three encouragements— first, a smooth, calm sea;
secondly, the tide rising and setting in to the shore; thirdly, what
little wind there was blew me towards the land. And thus, having
found two or three broken oars belonging to the boat—and,
besides the tools which were in the chest, I found two saws, an
axe, and a hammer; with this cargo I put to sea. Fora mile or
thereabouts my raft went very well, only that I found it drive a
little distant from the place where I had landed before; by which
I perceived that there was some indraft of the water, and conse-
quently I hoped to find some creek or river there which I might
make use of as a port to get to land with my cargo.

As I imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a little
opening of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide set
into it; so I guided my raft as well as I could, to keep in the
middle of the stream.

But here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck,

-which, if I had, I think, verily, would have broken my heart; for
knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran aground at one end of
it upon a shoal, and not being aground at the other end, it wanted
but a little that all my cargo had slipped off towards the end that
was afloat, and so fallen into the water. I did my utmost, by
setting my back against the chests, to keep them in their places,

4
50 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

but could not thrust off the raft with all my strength; neither
durst I stir from the posture I was in; but holding up the chests
with all my might, I stood in that manner near. half-an-hour, in
which time the rising of the water brought me a little more upon

-a level; and a little after, the water still rising, my raft floated
again, and I thrust her off with the oar I had into the channel,
and then driving up higher, I at length found myself in the mouth
of a little river, with land on both sides, and a strong current of
tide running up. I looked on both sides for a proper place to
get to shore, for I was not willing to be driven too high up the
river; hoping, in time, to see some ship at sea, and therefore
resolved to place mysclf as near the coast as I could. |

At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek,
to which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and at
last got so near that, reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust
her directly in. But here I had like to have dipped all my cargo
into the sea again; for that shore lying pretty steep—that is to
say, sloping—there was no place to land but where one end
of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie so high, and the other
sink lower, as before, that it would endanger my cargo again,
All that I could do was to wait till the tide was at the highest,
keeping the raft with my oar like an anchor, to hold the side of it
fast to the shore, near a flat piece of ground, which I expected the
water would flow over; and so it did. As soon as I found water
enough—for my raft drew about a foot of water—I thrust her
upon that flat piece of ground, and there fastened or moored her,
by sticking my two broken oars into the ground, one on one side,
near one end, and one on the other side near the other end; and
thus I lay till the water ebbed away, and left my raft and all my
cargo safe on shore. ,

My next work was to view the country and seek a proper
place for my habitation,.and where to stow my goods to secure
them from whatever might happen. Where I was I yet knew
not; whether on the continent or on an island; whether inhabited
or not inhabited; whether in danger of wild beasts or not. There
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 51

was a hill not above a mile from me, which rose up very steep
and high, and which seemed to overtop some other hills, which
lay as in a ridge from it northward. I took out one of the
fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn of powder; and
thus armed, I travelled for discovery up to the top of that hill,
where, after I had with great labour and difficulty got to the top,
I saw my fate, to my great affliction—viz., that I was in an island
environed every way with the sea: no land to be seen except
some rocks, which lay a great way off; and two small islands,
less than this, which lay about three leagues to the west.

I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw
good reason to believe, uninhabited except by wild beasts, of
whom, however, I saw none. Yet I saw abundance of fowls, but
knew not their kinds; neither when I killed them could I tell
what was fit for food and what-not. At my coming back I shot
at a great bird which I saw sitting upon a tree on the side of a
great wood. I believe it was the first gun that had been fired
there since the creation of the world. I had no sooner fired than
from all parts of the wood there arose an innumerable number of
fowls, of many sorts, making a confused screaming and crying,
and every one according to his usual note, but not one of them
of any kind that I knew. As for the creature I killed, I took it
to be a kind of hawk, its colour and beak resembling it, but it
had no talons or claws more than common. Its flesh was carrion,
and fit for nothing.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and fell
to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the rest
of that day. What to do with myself at night I knew not, nor
indeed where to rest, for I was afraid to lie down on the
ground, not knowing but some wild beast might devour me,
though, as I afterwards found, there was really no need for those
fears.

However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round with
the chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and made
a kind of hut for that night’s lodging. As for food, I yet saw
52 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

not which way to supply myself, except that I had seen two
or three creatures like hares run out of the wood where I shot
the fowl.

I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many
things out of the ship which would be useful to me, and par-
ticularly some of the rigging and sails, and such other things
as might come to land; and I resolved to make another voyage
on board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that the first
storm that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I re-
‘solved to set all other things apart till I had got everything out of
the ship that I could get. Then I called a council—that is to
say, in my thoughts—whether I should take back the raft; but
this appeared impracticable, so I resolved to go as before, when
the tide was down; and I did so, only that I stripped before
I went from my hut, having nothing on but my chequered shirt,
a pair of linen drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.

I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft;
and having had experience of the first, I neither made this so
unwieldy nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought away several
things very useful to me; as, first, in the carpenter’s stores I
found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great screw-
jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and, above all, that most useful
thing called a grindstone. All these I secured, together with
several things belonging to the gunner, particularly two or three
iron crows and two barrels of musket bullets, seven muskets,
another fowling-piece, with some small quantity of powder more ;
a large bagful of small shot, and a great roll of sheet-lead; but
* this last was so heavy I could not hoist it up to get it over the
ship’s side.

Besides these things, I took all the men’s clothes that I could
find, and a spare foretop-sail, a hammock, and some bedding;
and with this I loaded my second raft, and brought them all safe
on shore, to my very great comfort.

I was under some apprehension, during my absence from the
land, that at least my provisions might be devoured on shore; but
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 53

when I came back I found no sign of any visitor; only there sat
a creature like a wild cat upon one of the chests, which, when I
came towards it, ran away a little distance, and then stood still.
She sat very composed and unconcerned, and looked full in my
face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with me. I presented
my gun at her, but as she did not understand it, she was perfecily
unconcerned at it, nor did she offer to stir away; upon which I
tossed her a bit of biscuit, though, by the way, I was not very free
of it, for my store was not great; however, I spared her a bit, I
say, and she went to it, smelled at it, and ate it, and looked (as if
pleased) for more; but I thanked her, and could spare no more,
so she marched off.

Having got my second cargo on shore—though I was fain to”
open the barrels of powder and bring them by parcels, for they
were too heavy, being large casks—I went to work to make me a
little tent with the sail and some poles which I cut for that pur-
pose ; and into this tent I brought everything that I knew would
spoil either with rain or sun; and I piled all the empty chests
and casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from any
sudden attempt, either from man or beast.

When I had done this I blocked up the door of the tent with
some boards within, and an empty chest set up on end without;
and spreading one of the beds upon the ground, laying my two
pistols just at my head, and my gun at length by me, I went to
bed for the first time, and slept very quietly all night, for I was
very weary and heavy; for the night before I had slept little, and
had laboured very hard all day to fetch all those things from the
ship, and to get them on shore.

I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid
up, I believe, for one man; but I was not satisfied still, for while
the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought I ought to get
everything out of her that I could; so every day at low water I
' went on board and brought away something or other; but par-
ticularly the third time I went I brought away as much of the
rigging as I could, as also all the small ropes and rope-twine
54 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

I could get, with a piece of spare.canvas, which was to mend the
sails upon occasion, and the barrel of wet gunpowder. In a word,
I brought away all the sails, first and last; only that I was fain to
cut them in pieces, and bring as much at a time as I could, for
they were no more useful to be sails, but as mere canvas only.

But that which comforted me more still was that, last of all,
after I had made five or six such voyages as these, and thought I
had nothing more to expect from the ship that was worth my
meddling with—I say, after all this I found a great hogshead of
bread, three large runlets of rum or spirits, a box of sugar, and a
barrel of fine flour; this was surprising to me, because I had
given over expecting any more provisions, except what was
spoiled by the water. I soon emptied the hogshead of the
bread, and wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails,
which I cut out; and, in a word, I got all this safe on shore
also.

The next day I made another voyage, and now, having plun-
dered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I began
with the cables. Cutting the great cable into pieces such as I
could move, I got two cables and a hawser on shore, with all the
ironwork I could get; and having cut down the spritsail-yard and
the mizen-yard, and everything I could, to make a large raft, I
loaded it with all these heavy goods and came away. But my
good luck began now to leave me; for this raft was so unwieldy
and so overladen, that after I had entered the little cove where I
had landed the rest of my goods, not being able to guide it so
handily as I did the other, it overset and threw me and all my
cargo into the water. As for myself, it was no great harm, for I
was near the shore; but as to my cargo, it was a great part of it
lost, especially the iron, which I expected would have been of
great use to me; however, when the tide was out I got most of
the pieces of the cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with
infinite labour; for I was fain to dip for it into the water, a work
which fatigued me very much. After this I went every day on
board, and brought away what I could get.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 55

I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven
times on board the ship, in which time I had brought away all
that one pair of hands could well be supposed capable to bring;
though I believe verily, had the calm weather held, I should have
brought away the whole ship, piece by piece. But preparing the
twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind began to rise;
however, at low water I went on board, and though I thought I
had rummaged the cabin so effectually that nothing more could
be found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers in it, in one of
which I found two or three razors and one pair of large scissors,
with some ten or a dozen of good knives and forks; in another I
found about thirty-six pounds value in money—some European
coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold, and some
silver.

I smiled to myself at the sight of this money: “O drug!” said
1 aloud, “what art thou good for? Thou art not worth to me—
no, not the taking off the ground; one of those knives is worth all
this heap; I have no manner of use for thee—e’en remain where
thou art and go to the bottom, as a creature whose life is not
worth saving.” However, upon second thoughts I took it away;
and wrapping all this in a piece of canvas, I began to think of
making another raft; but while I was preparing this I found the
sky overcast, and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter of an
hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore. It presently occurred to
me that it was in vain to pretend to make a raft with the wind off
shore, and that it was my business to be gone before the tide
of flood began, otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore
at all. Accordingly, I let myself down into the water and swam
across the channel which lay between the ship and the sands, and ~
even that with difficulty enough, partly with the weight of the
things I had about me, and partly the roughness of the water; for
the wind rose very hastily, and before it was quite high-water it
blew a storm.

But I had got home to my little tent, where I lay,. with all my
wealth about me, very secure. It blew very hard all night, and in
56 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

the morning when I looked out, behold, no more ship was to be
seen! I was a little surprised, but recovered myself with the
satisfactory reflection that I had lost no time, nor abated any
diligence, to get everything out of her that could be useful to me,
and that, indeed, there was little left in her that I was able to
bring away, if I had had more time.

T now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of anything
out of her, except what might drive on shore from her wreck; as,
indeed, divers pieces of her afterwards did; but those things were

_of small use to me.

My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself
against either savages, if any should appear, or wild beasts, if any
were in the island; and I had many thoughts of the method how
to do this, and what kind of dwelling to make—whether I should
make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the earth; and, in
short, I resolved upon both, the manner and description of which
it may not be improper to give an account of.

T soon found the place I was iz was not fit for my settlement,
because it was upon a low, moorish ground near the sea, and
believed it would not be wholesome, and more particularly
because there was no fresh water near it; so I resolved to find a
more healthy and more convenient spot of ground,

I consulted several things in my situation which I found would

be proper for me: first, health and fresh water, I just now men-
tioned; secondly, shelter from the heat of the sun; thirdly,
security from ravenous creatures, whether man or beast; fourthly,
a view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight I might not
lose any advantage for my deliverance, of which I was not willing
to banish all my expectation yet.
' In search of a proper place for this, I found a little plain on the
side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was steep
as a house-side, so that nothing could come down upon me from
the top. On the one side of the rock there was a hollow place,
worn a little way in, like the entrance or door of a cave; but there
was not really any cave or way into the rock at all.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 57

On the flat of the green, just below this hollow place, I resolved
to pitch my tent. This plain was not above a hundred yards
broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a green before my
door; and at the end of it descended irregularly every way down
into the low ground by the sea-side. It was on the N.N.W. side
of the hill, so that it was sheltered from the heat every day till
it came to a W. and by S. sun, or thereabouts, which in those
countries is near the setting.

Before I set up my tent I drew a half-circle before the hollow
place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter from
the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter from its beginning and
ending.

In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving
them into the ground till they stood very firm like piles, the
biggest end being out of the ground above five feet and a half,
and sharpened on the top. The two rows did not stand above
six inches from one another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship,
and laid them in rows, one upon another, within the circle,
between these two rows of stakes, up to the top placing other
stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two feet and
a half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong,
that neither man nor beast could get into it or over it. This
cost me a great deal of time and labour, especially to cut the
piles in the woods, bring them to the place, and drive them into
the earth.

The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but
by a short ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when I was
in, I lifted over after me; and so I was completely fenced in and
fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and consequently slept
secure in the night, which otherwise I could not have done;
though, as it appeared afterwards, there was no need of all this
caution from the enemies that I apprehended danger from.

Into this fence or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all my
riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you
5§ LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

have the account above; and I made a large tent, which, to
preserve me from the rains that in one part of the year are very
violent there, I made double—one smaller tent within, and one
larger tent above it; and covered the uppermost with a large tar-
paulin which I had saved among the sails.

And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had
brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very
good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.

Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that
would spoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed all my goods,
I made up the entrance, which till now I had left open, and so
passed and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.

When I had done this I began to work my way into the rock,
and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down out through
my tent, I laid them up within my fence, in the nature of a
terrace, so that it raised the ground within about a foot and
a half; and thus I made me a cave just behind my tent, which
served me like a cellar to my house.

It cost me much labour and many days before all these things
were brought to perfection; and, therefore, I must go back to
some other things which took up some of my thoughts. At the
same time it happened, after I had laid my scheme for the setting
up my tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain falling from
a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened, and
after that a great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it.
I was not so much surprised with the lightning as I was with the
thought which darted into my mind as swift as the lightning itself
—Oh, my powder! My very heart sank within me when I thought
that at one blast all my powder might be destroyed; on which,
not my defence only, but the providing my food, as I thought,
entirely depended. I was nothing near so anxious about my own
danger, though, had the powder took fire, I should never have
known who had hurt me.

Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm
was over I laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying,
ROBINSON CRUSOZ. 59

and applied myself to make bags and boxes, to separate the
powder, and to keep it a little and a little in a parcel, in the hope
that whatever might come, it might not all take fire at once; and
to keep it so apart that it should not be possible to make one
part fire another. I finished this work in about a fortnight; and
I think my powder, which in all was about two hundred and
forty pounds weight, was divided in not less than a hundred
parcels. As to the barrel that had been wet, I did not apprehend
any danger from that; so I placed it in my new cave, which, in
my fancy, I called my kitchen; and the rest I hid up and down
in holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it,
marking very carefully where I laid it.

In the interval of time while this was doing I went out once
at least every day with my gun, as well to divert myself as to see
if I could kill anything fit for food; and, as near as I could, to
acquaint myself with what the island produced. The first time I
went out I presently discovered that there were goats in the
island, which was a great satisfaction to me; but then it was
attended with this misfortune to me—viz., that they were so shy,
so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the most difficult thing
in the world to come at them; but I was not discouraged at this,
not doubting but I might now and then shoot one, as it soon
happened; for after I had found their haunts a little, I laid
wait in this manner for them: I observed if they saw me in the
valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would run away,
as in a terrible fright; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and
I was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence
I concluded that, by the position of their optics, their sight was
so directed downward that they did not readily see objects
that were above them; so afterwards I took this method—I
always climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and then had
frequently a fair mark.

The first shot I made among these creatures I killed a she
goat, which had a little kid by her, which she gave suck to,
which grieved me heartily; for when the old one fell the kid
60 LIFE AND ADVENTURES Of

stood stock-still by her, till I came and took her up; and not
only so, but when I carried the old one with me upon my
shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my enclosure; upon
which I laid down the dam and took the kid in my arms and
carried it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame; but
it would not eat; so I was forced to kill it and eat it myself.
These two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I ate
sparingly and saved my provisions, my bread especially, as much
as possibly I could.
_ Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary
to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn; and what
I did for that, and also how I enlarged my cave, and what con-
veniences I made, I shall give a full account of in its place; but.
I must now give some little account of myself, and of my thoughts
about living, which, it may well be supposed, were not a few.

I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for as I was not cast
away upon that island without being driven, as is said, by a
violent storm, quite out of the course of our intended voyage,
and a great way—viz.,, some hundreds of leagues, out of the
ordinary course of the trade of mankind, I had great reason to
consider it as a determination of Heaven that in this desolate
place, and in this desolate manner, I should end my life. The
tears would run plentifully down my face when I made these
reflections; and sometimes I would expostulate with myself
why Providence should thus completely ruin His creatures and
render them so absolutely miserable; so without help, aban-
doned, so entirely depressed, that it could hardly be rational to
be thankful for such a life,

But something always returned swift upon me to check these
thoughts, and to reprove me; and particularly one day, walking
with my gun in my hand by the sea-side, I was very pensive
upon the subject of my present condition, when reason, as. it
were, expostulated with me the other way, thus: “ Well, you are
ina desolate condition, it is true; but, pray remember, where are
the rest of you? Did not you come eleven of you in the boat?
‘ROBINSON .CROSOE. 6x

Where are the ten? Why were they not saved and you lost?
Why were you singled eut? Is it better to be here or there?”
And then I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be considered
with the good that is in them, and with what worse attends them.
Then it occurred to me again how well I was furnished for
my subsistence, and what would have been my case if it had not
happened (which was a hundred thousand to one) that the ship
floated from the place where she first struck, and was driven so
near to the shore that I had time to get all these things out of
her; what would have been my case if I had been forced to have
lived-in the condition in which I at first came on shore, without
necessaries of life or necessaries to supply and procure them?
“‘ Particularly,” said I, aloud (though to myself), “ what should I
have done without a gun, without ammunition, without any tools
to make anything or to work with, without clothes, bedding, a
tent, or any manner of covering?” and that now I had all these
to sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to provide myself in
such a manner as to live without my gun when my ammunition
was spent; so that I had a tolerable view of. subsisting, without
any want, as long as I lived; for I considered from the beginning
how I would provide for the accidents that might happen, and for
the time that was to come, even not only that my ammunition
should be spent, but even after my health and strength should decay.
I confess I had not entertained any notion of my ammunition
being destroyed at one blast—I mean my powder being blown
up by lightning; and this made the thoughts of it so surprising
to me when it lightened and thundered, as I observed just now.
And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene
of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world
before, I shall take it from its beginning and continue it in its
order. It was by my account the 30th September when, in the
manner as above said, I first set foot upon this horrid island; _
when the sun, being to us in its autumnal equinox, was almost
over my head; for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in
the latitude of nine degrees, twenty-two minutes north of the line,
62 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into my
thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time for want of
books and pen and ink, and should even forget the Sabbath days;
but to prevent this, I cut with my knife upon a large post, in
capital letters, and making it into a great cross, I set up on the
shore where I first landed, “I came on shore here on the 3oth of
September 1659.”

Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a notch
with my knife, and every seventh notch was as long again as the

. rest, and every first day of the month as long again as that long
one; and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and
yearly reckoning of time.

In the next place we are to observe that among the many
things which I brought out of the ship, in the several voyages
which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got several things of
less value, but not at all less useful to me, which I omitted
setting down before; as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper,
several parcels in the captain’s, mate’s, gunner’s, and carpenter’s
keeping; three or four compasses, some mathematical instruments,
dials, perspectives, charts, and books of navigation, all which I
huddled together, whether I might want them or no; also, I
found three very good Bibles, which came to me in my cargo
from England, and which I had packed up among my things;
some Portuguese books also; and among them two or three
Popish prayer-books and several other books, all which I care-
fully secured. And I must not forget that we had in the ship a
dog and two cats, of whose eminent history I may have occasion
to say something in its place; for I carried both the cats with me;
and as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship of himself and
swam on shore to me the day after I went on shore with my first
cargo, and was a trusty servant to me many years; I wanted
nothing that he could fetch me; nor any company that he could
make up to me; I only wanted to have him talk to me, but
that would not do. As I observed before, I found pens, ink,
and paper, and I husbanded them to the utmost; and I shall
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 83

show that while my ink lasted I kept things very exact, but
after that was gone I could not, for I could not make any ink by
any means that I could devise.

And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwith-
standing all that I had amassed together; and of these, ink was
one; as also a spade, pick-axe, and shovel, to dig or remove the
earth; needles, pins, and thread; as for linen, I soon learned to
want that without much difficulty.

This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily; and
it was near a whole year before I had entirely finished my little
pale, or surrounded my habitation. The piles, or stakes, which
were as heavy as I could lift, were a long time in cutting and pre-
paring in the woods, and more by far in bringing home; so that
I spent sometimes two days in cutting and bringing home one of
those posts, and a third day in driving it into the ground; for
which purpose I got a héavy piece of wood at first, but at last
bethought myself of one of the iron crows; which, however,
though I found it, made driving those posts or piles very
laborious and tedious work. But what need I have been
concerned at the tediousness of anything I had to do, seeing
I had time enough to do it in? nor had I any other employ-
ment if that had been over, at least that I could foresee, except
the ranging the ead to seek for food, which I. did, more or eS
every day.

I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the cir-
cumstances I was reduced to; and I drew up the state of my
affairs in writing, not so much to leave them to any that were to
come after me—for I was likely to have but few heirs—as to
deliver my thoughts from daily poring over them and afflicting
my mind; and as my reason began now to master my despond-
ency, I began to comfort myself as well as I could, and to set
the good against the evil, that I might have something to dis-
tinguish my case from worse; and I stated very impartially, like
debtor and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed against the miseries I
suffered, thus :—
64

EVIL.
I am cast upon a horrible, desolate
‘island, void of all hope of recovery.
Iam singled out and separated, as
it were, from all the world, to be
miserable,

Y am divided from mankind—a
solitaire; one banished from human
society.

T have not clothes to cover me.

Iam without any defence or means
to resist any violence of man or beast.

I have no soul to speak to or re-
lieve me.

LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

GOOD.

But I am alive, and not drowned,
as all my ship’s company were.

But I am singled out, too, from all
the ship’s crew, to be spared from
death; and He that miraculously
saved me from death can deliver me
from this condition.

But I am not starved, and perishing
on a barren place affording no sus-
tenance.

But I am in a hot climate, where,
if I had clothes, I could hardly wear
them.

But I am cast on an island where I
see no wild beasts to hurt me, as I saw
on the coast of Africa; and what if [
had been shipwrecked there?

But God wonderfully sent the ship in
near enough to the shore, that I have
got out as many necessary things as
will either supply my wants or enable
me to supply myself, even as long as I
live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony that there

was scarce any condition in the world so miserable but there was
something negative or something positive to be thankful for in it;
and let this stand as a direction from the experience of the most
miserable of all conditions in this world: that we may always find
in it something to comfort ourselves from, and to set, in the de
scription of good and evil, on the credit side of the account.

Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition,
and given over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a ship—I
say, giving over these things, I began to apply myself to arrange
my way of living, and to make things as easy to me as I could.

I have already described my habitation, which was a tent under
the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts and
cables; but I might now rather call it a wall, for I raised a kind
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 65

of wall up against it of turfs, about two feet thick on the outside;
and after some time (I think it was a year and a half) I raised
rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched or covered it
with boughs of trees, and such things as.I could get to keep out
the rain, which I found at some times of the year very violent.

I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this
pale, and into the cave which I had made behind me. But I
must observe, too, that at first this was a confused heap of goods,
which, as they lay in no order, so they took up all my place; I
had no room to turn myself; so I set myself to enlarge my cave,
and work farther-into the earth, for it was a loose sandy rock
which yielded easily to the labour I bestowed on it; and so when
I found I was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways,
to the right hand, into the rock; and then, turning to the right
again, worked quite out, and made me a door to come out on the
outside of my pale or fortification. This gave me not only egress
and regress, as it was a back way to my tent and to my store-
house, but gave me room to store my goods.

And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary
things as I found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a table;
for without these I was not able te enjoy the few comforts I had
in the world; I could not write or eat, or do several things, with
so much pleasure without a table: so I went to work. And here
I must needs observe that, as reason is the substance and origin of
the mathematics, so by stating and squaring everything by reason,
and by making the most rational judgment of things, every man
may be in time master of every mechanic art. I had never
handled a tool in my life; and yet in time, by labour, applica-
tion, and contrivance, I found at last that I wanted nothing but
I could have made it, especially if I had had tools. However, I
made abundance of things, even without tools; and some with

.no more tools than an adze and a hatchet, which perhaps were

never made that way before, and that with infinite labour. For

example, if 1 wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut

down a tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on
5
66 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

either side with my axe till I brought it to be thin as a plank,
and then dub it smooth with my adze. It is true, by this method
I could make but one board out of a whole tree; but this I had
no remedy for but patience, any more than I had for the pro-
digious deal of time and labour which it took me up to make
a plank or board; but my time or labour was little worth, and so
it was as well employed one way as another.

However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above,
in the first place; and this I did out of the short pieces of boards
that I brought on my raft from the ship. But when I had wrought
out some boards as above, I made large shelves, of the breadth of
a foot and a half, one over another all along one side of my cave,
to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work on; and, in a word, to
separate everything at large into their places, that I might come
easily at them. I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock to
hang my guns and all things that would hang up; so that, had
my cave been to be seen, it looked like a general magazine of all
necessary things; and I had everything so ready at my hand that
it was a great pleasure to me to see all my goods in such order,
and especially to find my stock of all necessaries so great.

And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every day’s
employment; for, indeed, at first, I was in too much hurry, and
not only hurry as to labour, but in too much discomposure of
mind; and my journal would have been full of many dull things;
for example, I must have said thus :—‘“' Sesé. 30¢2.—After I had
got to shore, and had escaped drowning, instead of being thankful
to God for my deliverance, having first vomited, with the great
quantity of salt water which had got into my stomach, and
recovering myself a little, I ran about the shore wringing my
hands and beating my head and face, exclaiming at my misery,
and crying out ‘I was undone, undone!’ till, tired and faint, I
was forced to lie down on the ground to repose, but durst not
sleep for fear of being devoured.”

Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship
and got all that I could out of her, yet I could not forbear getting
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 67

up to the top of a little mountain, and looked out to sea in hopes
of seeing a ship; then fancy, at a vast distance, I spied a sail,
please myself with the hopes of it, and then after looking steadily,
till I was almost blind, lose it quite, and sit down and weep like a
child, and thus increase my misery by my folly.

But having gotten over these things in some measure, and
having settled my household staff and habitation, made me a
table and a chair, and all as handsome about me as I could,
I began to keep. my journal; of which I shall here give you the
copy (though in it will be told all these particulars over again) as
long as it lasted; for having no more ink, I was forced to leave
it off.

CHAPTER V.

I begin to keep a journal—Christen my desert island the Island of Despair
_—Fall upon various schemes to make tools, baskets, etc., and begin to
build my house—At a great loss of an evening for candle, but fall upon
an expedient to supply the want—-Strange discovery of corn—A terrible
earthquake and storm.

THE JOURNAL.

SEPTEMBER 30, 1659.—I, poor, miserable Robinson Crusoe,
being shipwrecked during a dreadful storm in the offing, came
on shore on this dismal, unfortunate island, which I called “The
Island of Despair”; all the rest of the ship’s company being
drowned, and myself almost dead.

All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at the dismal
circumstances I was brought to—viz., I had neither food, house,
clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to; and in despair of any
relief, saw nothing but death before me—either that I should
be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or starved to
death for want of food. At the approach of night I slept in.
68 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

a tree, for fear of wild creatures; but slept soundly, though it
rained all night.

October 1,—In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the
ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven on the shore
again much nearer the island; which, as it was some comfort, on -
one hand—for, seeing her set upright and not broken to pieces, I
hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board and get some
food and necessaries out of her for my relief—so, on the other
hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades, who, I
imagined, if we had all stayed on board, might have saved the
ship, or, at least, that they would not have been all drowned,
as they were; and that, had the men been saved, we might
perhaps have built us a boat out of the ruins of the ship to
have carried us to some other part of the world. I spent great
part of this day in perplexing myself on these things; but at
length, seeing the ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as
near as I could, and then swam on board. This day also it
continued raining, though with no wind at all.

From the 1st of October to the 24th.—All these days entirely
spent in many several voyages to get all I could out of the ship,
which I brought on shore every tide of flood upon rafts. Much
rain also in the days, though with some intervals of fair weather;
but it seems this was the rainy season.

Oct, 20.—I overset my raft and all the goods I had got upon
it; but being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly heavy,
I recovered many of them when the tide was out.

Oct, 25.—It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of
wind; during which time the ship broke in pieces, the wind blow-
ing a little harder than before, and was no more to be seen, except
the wreck of her, and that only at low water. I spent this day in
covering and securing the goods which I had saved, that the rain
might not spoil them. .

Oct. 26.—I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out
a place to fix my habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself
from any attack in the night, either from wild beasts or men.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 69

Towards night I fixed upon a proper place under a rock, and
marked out a semicircle for my encampment; which I resolved
to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification made of double
piles, lined within with cables, and without with turf.

From the 26th to 30th I worked very hard in carrying all my
goods to my new habitation, though some part of the time it
rained exceedingly hard.

The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with my
gun to see for some food and discover the country; when I
killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me home, which I after-
wards killed also, because it would not feed.

LVovember 1.—I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there for
the first night; making it as large as I could, with stakes driven
in to swing my hammock upon.

Vov. 2.—I set up all my chests and boards and the pieces of
timber which made my rafts, and with them formed a fence
round me, a little within the place I had marked out for my
fortification.

Vov. 3.—I went out with my gun and killed two fowls like
ducks, which were very good food. In the afternoon went to
work to make me a table.

Vou, 4.—This morning I began to order my times of work, of
going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion—viz,
every morning I walked out with my gun for two or three hours,
if it did not rain; then employed myself to work till about eleven
o’clock; then eat what I had to live on; and from twelve to two I
lay down to sleep, the weather being excessively hot; and then,
in the evening, to work again. The working part of this day and
of the next were wholly employed in making my table, for I was
yet but a very sorry workman, though time and necessity made
me a complete natural mechanic soon after, as I believe they
would do any one else.

WVov. 5.—This day went abroad with my gun and my dog, and
killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for
nothing; every creature that I killed I took off the skins and â„¢
70 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

preserved them. Coming back by the sea-shore, I saw many
sorts of sea-fowls which I did not understand; but was surprised
and almost frightened with two or three seals, which, while I was
gazing at, not well knowing what they were, got into the sea and
escaped me for that time.

JVov. 6.—After my morning walk I went to work with my table
again, and finished it, though not to my liking; nor was it long
before I learned to mend it.

WVov. 7.—Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th,
8th, oth, roth, and part of the rath (for the 11th was Sunday)
I took wholly up to make me a chair, and with much ado brought
it to a tolerable shape, but never to please me; and even in the
making I pulled it in pieces several times.

Note.—I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for, omitting my
mark for them on my post, I forgot which was which.

NVov. 13.—This day it rained, which refreshed me exceedingly,
and cooled the earth; but it was accompanied with terrible
thunder and lightning, which frightened me dreadfully, for fear of
my powder. As soon as it was over I resolved to separate my
stock of powder into as many little parcels as possible, that it
might not be in danger.

Nov. 14, 15, 16.—These three days I spent in making little
square chests or boxes, which might hold about a pound, or two
pounds at most, of powder; and so, putting the powder in, I
stowed it in places as secure and remote from one another as
possible. On one of these three days I killed a large bird that
was good to eat, but I knew not what to call it.

iVov. 17.—This day I began to dig behind my tent into the
rock to make room for my further conveniency.

Note.—Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work—viz.,
a pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow or basket; so I desisted
from my work and began to consider how to supply that want,
and make me some tools. As for the pickaxe, I made use of the
iron crows, which were proper enough, though heavy; but the
next thing was a shovel or spade; this was so absolutely necessary,
ROBINSON CRUSOE. a

that, indeed, I could do nothing effectually without it; but what
kind of one to make I knew not.

Vov, 18.—The next. day, in searching the woods, I found a tree
of that wood, or like it, which in the Brazils they call the iron-
tree, for its exceeding hardness. Of this, with great labour, and
almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece, and brought it home, too,
with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy. The excessive
hardness of the wood, and my having no other way, made me a
long while upon this machine, for I worked it effectually by little
and little into the form of a shovel or spade; the handle exactly
shaped like ours in England, only that the board part having no
iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not last me so long; how-
ever, it served well enough for the uses which I had occasion to
put it to; but never was a shovel, I believe, made after that
fashion, or so long in making.

I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket or a wheelbarrow.
A basket I could not make by any means, having no such things
as twigs that would bend to make wicker-ware—at least, none yet
found out; and as to a wheelbarrow, I fancied I could make all
but the wheel, but that I had no notion of; neither did I know
how to go about it; besides, I had no possible way to make the
iron gudgeons for the spindle or axis of the wheel to run in; so I
gave it over, and so, for carrying away the earth which I dug out
of the cave I made mea thing like a hod which the labourers
carry mortar in when they serve the bricklayers. This was not so
difficult to me as the making the shovel; and yet this and the
shovel, and the attempt which I made in vain to make a wheel-
barrow, took me up no less than four days—I mean always
excepting my morning walk with my gun, which I seldom failed,
and very seldom failed also bringing home something fit to eat.

WVov, 23.—My other work having now stood still, because of
’ my making these tools, when they were finished I went on, and
working every day, as my strength and time allowed, I spent
eighteen days entirely in widening and deepening my cave, that
it might hold my goods commodiously.
42 IIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

Note.—During all this time I worked to make this room or
cave spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse or
magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar. As for my
lodging, I kept to the tent; except that sometimes, in the wet
season of the year, it rained so hard that I could not keep myself
dry, which caused me afterwards to cover all my place within my
pale with long poles, in the form of rafters, leaning against the
rock, and load them with flags and large leaves of trees, like a
thatch.

December 10.—-1 began now to think my cave or vault finished,
when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great
quantity of earth fell down from the top on one side; so much
that, in short, it frighted me, and not without reason too, for if I
had been under it I had never wanted a grave-digger. I had
now a great deal of work to do over again, for I had the loose
earth to carry out; and, which was of more importance, I had the
ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no more would come
down.

Dec. 11,—This day I went to work with it accordingly, and got
two shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with two pieces of
boards across over each post; this I finished the next day; and
setting more posts up with boards, in about a week more I had
the roof secured, and the posts, standing in rows, served me for
partitions to part off the house. .

Dec. 17.—From this day to the zoth I placed shelves, and
knocked up nails on the posts, to hang everything up that could
be hung up; and now I began to be in some order within doors.

Det, 20.—Now I carried everything into the cave, and began
to furnish my house, and set up some pieces of boards like a
dresser, to order my victuals upon; but boards began to be very
scarce with me; also, I made me another table.

Dec. 24.—Much rain all night and all day. No stirring out.

Dec. 25.—Rain all day.

Dec, 26.—No rain, and the earth much cooler than before, and
pleasanter.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 73

Dec, 24.—Killed a young goat and lamed another, so that I
caught it and led it home in a string; when I had it at home I
bound and splintered up its leg, which was broke.

N.B.—I took such care of it that it lived, and the leg grew
well and as strong as ever; but by-my nursing it so long it grew
tame and fed upon the little green at my door, and would not go
away. This was the first time that I entertained a thought of
breeding up some tame creatures that I might have food when
my powder and shot was all spent.

Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31.—Great heats and no breeze, so that there
was no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food; this time
[ spent in putting all my things in order within doors.

January 1.—Very hot still; but I went abroad early and late
with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day. This
evening, going farther into the valleys which lay towards the
centre.of the island, I found there were plenty of goats, though
exceedingly shy and hard to come at; however, I resolved to try
if I could not bring my dog to hunt them down.

Jan, 2.—Accordingly, the next day I went out with my dog
and set him upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for they all
faced about upon the dog, and he knew his danger too well, for
he, would not come near them.

Jan. 3.—I began my fence or wall; which, being still jealous of
my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very thick
and strong.

N.B.—This wall being described before, I purposely omit what
was said in the journal; it is sufficient to observe that I was no
less time than from the 2nd of January to the 14th of April
working, finishing, and perfecting this wall, though it was no
more than about twenty-four yards in length, being a half-circle
from one place in the rock to another place, about eight yards
from it, the door of the cave being in the centre behind it.

All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me many
days, nay, sometimes weeks together; but I thought I should
never be perfectly secure till this wall was finished; and ‘it is
74 IIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

scarce credible what inexpressible labour everything was done
with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods and driving
them into the ground; for I made them much bigger than I needed
to have done.

When this wall was finished, and the outside double-fenced,
with a turf wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that if any
people were to come on shore there they would not perceive any-
thing like a habitation; and it was very well I did so, as may be
observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable occasion.

During this time I made my rounds in the woods for game every
day when the rain permitted me, and made frequent discoveries in
these walks of something or other to my advantage; particularly,
I found a kind of wild pigeons, which build, not as wood-pigeons
in a tree, but rather as house-pigeons, in the holes of the rocks;
and taking some young ones, I endeavoured to breed them up
tame, and did so; but when they grew older they flew away, which
perhaps was at first for want of feeding them, for I had nothing to
give them; however, I frequently found their nests, and got their
young ones, which were very good meat. And now, in the man:
aging my household affairs, I found myself wanting in many
things, which I thought at first it was impossible for me to make;
as, indeed, with some of them it was; for instance, I could never
make a cask to be hooped. I had a small runlet or two, as I
observed before; but I could never arrive at the capacity of
making one by them, though I spent many weeks about it; I
could neither put in the heads nor join the staves so true to one
another as to make them hold water; so I gave that also over. In
the next place, I was at a great loss for candles; so that as soon
as ever it was dark, which was generally by seven o’clock, I was
obliged to go to bed. I remembered the lump of bees-wax with
which I made candles in my African adventure; but I had none
of that now; the only remedy I had was that when I had killed a
goat I saved the tallow, and with a little dish made of clay, which
I baked in the sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum, I
made me a lamp; and this gave me light, though not a clear,
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 45

steady light, like a candle. In the middle of all my labours it
happened that, rummaging my things, I found a little bag, which,
as I hinted before, had been filled with corn for the feeding of
poultry—not for this voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the
ship came from Lisbon. The little remainder of corn that had
been in the bag was all devoured by the rats, and I saw nothing
in the bag but husks and dust; and being willing to have the bag
for some other use (I think it was to put powder in, when I divided
it for fear of the lightning, or some such use), I shook the husks
of corn out of it on one side of my fortification, under the rock,

It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned that I
threw this stuff away, taking no notice, and not so much as remem-
bering that I had thrown anything there, when, about a month
after, or thereabouts, I saw some few stalks of something green
shooting out of the ground, which I fancied might be some plant I
had not seen; but I was surprised and perfectly astonished when,
after a little longer time, I saw about ten or twelve ears come out,
which were perfect green barley, of the same kind as our European
——nay, as our English barley. ,

It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of my
thoughts on this occasion. I had hitherto acted upon no religious
foundation at all; indeed, I had very few notions of religion in my
head, nor had entertained any sense of anything that had befallen
me otherwise than as chance, or, as we lightly say, what pleases
God, without so much as inquiring into the end of Providence in
these things, or His order in governing events for the world. But
after I saw barley grow there, in a climate which I knew was not
proper for corn, and especially that I knew not how it came there,
it started me strangely, and I began to suggest that God had
miraculously caused His grain to grow without any help of seed
sown, and that it was so directed purely for my sustenance on that
wild, miserable place,

This touched my heart a little and brought tears out of my eyes,
and I began to bless myself that such a prodigy of nature should
’ happen upon my account; and this was the more strange to me,
76 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

because I saw near it still, all along by the side of the rock,
some other straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks of rice, and
which I knew, because I had seen it grow in Africa when I was
ashore there.

T not only thought these the pure productions of Providence for
my support, but not doubting that there was more in the place, I
went all over that part of the island where I had been before,
peering in every corner and under every rock to seek for more of
it, but I could not find any. At-last it occurred to my thoughts
that I shook a bag of chickens’ meat out in that place; and then
the wonder began to cease; and I must confess my religious
thankfulness to God’s providence began to abate, too, upon the
discovering that all this was nothing but what was common;
though I ought to have been as thankful for so strange and un-.
foreseen a providence as if it had been miraculous; for it was
really the work of Providence to me that should order or appoint
that ten or twelve grains of corn should remain unspoiled, when
the rats had destroyed all the rest, as if it had been dropped from
heaven; as also, that I should throw it out in that particular
place, where, it being in the shade of a high rock, it sprang up
immediately; whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere else at that
time, it had been burnt up and destroyed.

I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in
their season, which was abwut the end of June; and laying up
every corn, I resolved to sow them all again, hoping in time to
have some quantity sufficient to supply me with bread. But it
was not till the fourth year that I could allow myself the least
grain of this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly, as I shall
say afterwards, in its order; for I lost all that I sowed the first
season by not observing the proper time; for I sowed it just
before the dry season, so that it never came up at all, at least not
as it would have done; of which in its place.

Besides this barley there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks
of rice, which I preserved with the same care and for the same use,
or to the same purpose—to make me bread, or rather food; for I
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 7

found ways to cook it without baking, though I did that also after
some time.

But to return to my Journal—

I worked excessive hard these three or four months to get my
wall done; and the 14th of April I closed it up, contriving to go
into it, not by a door but over the wall by a ladder, that there
might be no sign on the outside of my habitation.

April 16.—T finished the ladder ; so I went up the ladder to the
top, and then pulled it-up after me, and let it down in the inside,
This was a complete enclosure to me; for within I had room
enough, and nothing could come at me from without, unless it
could first mount my wall.

The very next day after this wall was finished I had almost-had
all my labour overthrown at once, and myself killed. The case
was thus: As I was busy in the inside behind my tent, just at the
entrance into my cave, I was terribly frighted with a most dread-
ful, surprising thing indeed;. for all on a sudden I found the earth
come crumbling down from the roof of my cave, and from the edge
of the hill over my head, and two of the posts I. had set up in the
cave cracked in a frightful manner. Iwas heartily scared, but
thought nothing of what was really the cause, only thinking that
the top of my cave was fallen in, as some of it had done before;
and for fear I should be buried in it I ran forward to my ladder,
and not thinking myself safe there neither, I got over my wall for
fear of the pieces of the hill, which I expected might roll down
upon me. I had no sooner stepped down upon the firm ground
than I plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake; for the ground I
stood on shook three times at about eight minutes’ distance, with
three such shocks as would have overturned the strongest building

‘that could be supposed to have stood on the earth; and a great
piece of the top of a rock which stood about half-a-mile from me
next the sea fell down with such a terrible noise as I never heard
in all my life. I perceived also the very sea was put into violent
motion by it;-and I believe the shocks were stronger under the
water than on the island.
78 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

I was so much amazed with the thing itself, having never felt the
like, nor discoursed with any one that had, that I was like one dead
or stupefied; and the motion of the earth made my stomach sick,
like one that was tossed at sea; but the noise of the falling of the

. rock awaked me, as it were, and rousing me from the stupefied
condition I was in, filled me with horror; and I thought of nothing
then but the hill falling upon my tent and all my household goods,
and burying all at once; and this sunk my very soul within me a
second time.

After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some time,
I began to take courage; and yet I had not heart enough to go
over my wall again for fear of being buried alive, but sat still upon
the ground greatly cast down and disconsolate, not knowing what
to do. All this while I had not the least serious religious thought;
nothing but the common “ Lord have mercy upon me!” and when
it was over that went away too.

While I sat thus I found the air overcast and grow cloudy, as if
it would rain. Soon after that the wind arose by little and little,
so that in less than half-an-hour it blew a most dreadful hurricane,
the sea was all on a sudden covered over with foam and froth; the
shore was covered with the breach of the water; the trees were
torn up by the roots; anda terrible storm it was.’ This held about
three hours, and then began to abate; and in two hours more it
was quite calm, and began to rain very hard, All this while I sat
upon the ground very much terrified and dejected ; when on a
sudden it came into my thoughts that these winds and rains being
the consequences of the earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent
and over, and I might venture into my cave again. With this
thought my spirits began to revive; and the rain also helping to
persuade me, I went inand sat down in my tent. But the rain was
so violent that my tent was ready to be beaten down with it; and
I was forced to go into my cave, though very much afraid and
uneasy, for fear it should fallon my head. This violent rain forced
me to a new work—yviz., to cut a hole through my new fortification,
like a sink, to let the water go out, which would else have flooded
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 79

my cave. After I had been in my cave for some time, and found
still no more shocks of the earthquake follow, I began to be more
composed. And now, to support my spirits, which indeed wanted
it very much, I went to my little store and took a small sup of
rum; which, however, I did then and always very sparingly,
knowing I could have no more when that was gone. It continued
raining all that night and great part of the next day, so that I could
not stir abroad; but my mind being more composed, I began to
think of what I had best do; concluding that if the island was
subject to these earthquakes, there would be no living for me ina
cave, but I must consider of building a little hut in an open place,
which I might surround with a wall, as I had done here, and so
make myself secure from wild beasts or men ; for I concluded if I
stayed where I was, I should certainly, one time or other, be buried
alive.

With. these thoughts I resolved to remove my tent from the
place where it stood, which was just under the hanging precipice
of the hill, and which, if it should be shaken again, would cer-
tainly fall upon my tent; and I spent the two next days, being
the 19th and zoth of April, in contriving where and how to
remove my habitation. The fear of being swallowed up alive
made me that I never slept in quiet; and yet the apprehension of
lying abroad without any fence was almost equal to it; but still,
when I looked about, and saw how everything was put in order,
how pleasantly concealed I was, and how safe from danger, it
made me very loath to remove. In the meantime it occurred to
me that it would require a vast deal of time for me to do this, and
that I must be contented to venture where I was till I had formed
a camp for myself, and had secured it so as to remove to it. So
with this resolution I composed myself for a time, and resolved
that I would go to work with all speed to build me a wall with
piles and cables, etc., in a circle as before, and set my tent up in
it when it was finished, but that I would venture to stay where I
was till it was finished and fit to remove. This was the 21st.

April 22.—The next morning I began to consider of means to
80 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

put this resolve into execution, but I was at a great loss about my
tools. I had three large axes and abundance of hatchets (for we
carried the hatchets for traffic with the Indians), but with much
chopping and cutting knotty, hard wood they were all full of
notches, and dull; and though I had a grindstone, I could not
turn it and grind my tools too. This cost me as much thought as
a statesman would have bestowed upon a grand point of politics,
or a judge upon the life and death of a man. At length I con-
trived a wheel with a string, to turn it with my foot, that I might
have both my hands at liberty.

Note.—I had never seen any such thing in England, or at
least not to take notice how it was done, though since I have
observed it is very common there; besides that, my grindstone
was very large and heavy. This machine cost me a full week’s
work to bring it to perfection.

April 28, 29.—These two whole days I took up in grinding
my tools, my machine for turning my grindstone performing very
well.

April 30.—Having perceived my bread had been low a great
while now I took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one biscuit
cake a day, which made my heart very heavy.

May 1.—In the morning, looking towards the sea-side, the tide
being low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary,
and it looked like a cask; when I came to it I found a small
barrel and two or three pieces of the wreck of the ship, which
were driven on shore by the late hurricane; and looking towards
the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher out of the water
than it used to do. I examined the barrel which was driven on
shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder; but it had
taken water, and the powder was caked as hard as a stone; how-
ever, I rolled it farther on shore for the present, and went on
upon the sands as near as I could to the wreck of the ship to
look for more.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 81

CHAPTER VI.

Observe the ship driven farther aground by the late storm-—Procure a vast
quantity of necessaries from the wreck—Catch a large turtle—I fall ill of
a fever and ague—Terrible dream, and serious reflections thereupon—
Find a Bible in one of the seamen’s chests thrown ashore, the reading
whereof gives me great comfort.

WueEn I came down to the ship I found it strangely removed.
The forecastle, which lay before buried in sand, was heaved up at
least six feet, and the stern, which was broke in pieces and parted
from the rest by the force of the sea soon after I had left rummag-
ing her, was tossed, as it were, up, and cast on one side; and the
sand was thrown so high on that side next her stern, that whereas
there was a great place of water before, so that I could not come
within a quarter of a mile of the wreck without swimming, I could
now walk quite up to her when the tide was out. I was surprised
with this at first, but soon concluded it must be done by the
earthquake; and as by this violence the ship was more broke
open than formerly, so many things came daily on shore which
the sea had loosened, and which the winds and water rolled by
degrees to the land.

This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of removing
-my habitation, and I busied myself mightily, that day especially,
in searching whether I could make any way into the ship; but I
found nothing was to be expected of that kind, for all the inside
of the ship was choked up with sand. However, as I had learned
not to despair of anything, I resolved to pull everything to pieces
that I could of the ship, concluding that everything I could get
from her would be of some use or other to me.

May 3.—I began with my saw and cut a piece of a beam
through, which I thought held some of the upper part or quarter-
deck together, and when I had cut it through I cleared away the
sand as well as I could from the side which lay highest; but the
tide coming in, I was obliged to give over for that time.

6
82 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

May 4.—I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst

eat of, till I was weary of my sport; when, just going to leave off,
I caught a young dolphin. I had made mea long line of some
rope-yarn, but I had no hooks; yet I frequently caught fish
’ enough, as much as I cared to eat; all which I dried in the sun,
and ate them dry.
: May 5.—Worked on the wreck; cut another beam asunder,
and brought three great fir planks off from the decks, which I
tied together and made to float on shore when the tide of flood
came on.

May 6.—Worked on the wreck; got several iron bolts out of
her and other pieces of iron-work. Worked very hard, and came
home very much tired, and had thoughts of giving it over.

May 7.—Went to the wreck again, not with an intent to work,
but found the weight of the wreck had broke itself down, the
beams being cut; that several pieces of the ship seemed to lie
loose, and the inside of the hold lay so open that I could see into
it; but it was almost full of water and sand.

May 8.—Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to wrench
up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the water or sand. I
wrenched open two planks, and brought them on shore also with
the tide. I left the iron crow in the wreck for next day.

May 9.—Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way into
the body of the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened them
with the crow, but could not break them up. I felt also a roll of
English lead, and could stir it, but it was too heavy to remove.

May 10-14.—Went every day to the wreck; and got a great
many pieces of timber, and boards, or plank, and two or three
hundredweight of iron.

May 15.—I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a
piece off the roll of lead by placing the edge of one hatchet and
driving it with the other; but as it lay about a foot and a half in
the water, I could not make any blow to drive the hatchet.

May 16.—It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck
appeared more broken by the force of the water; but I stayed so
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 83

long in the woods to get pigeons for food that the tide prevented
" my going to the wreck that day.

May 17.—I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore ata
great distance, near two miles off me, but resolved to see what
they were, and found it was a piece of the head, but too heavy
for me to bring away.

May 24.—Every day to this day I worked on the wreck; and
with hard labour I loosened some things so much with the crow
that the first blowing tide several casks floated out, and two of
the seamen’s chests; but the wind blowing from the shore,
nothing came to land that day but pieces of timber and a hogs-
head which had some Brazil pork in it; but the salt water and
the sand had spoiled it. I continued this work every day to the
15th of June, except the time necessary to get food, which I
always appointed, during this part of my employment, to be when
the tide was up, that I might be ready when it was ebbed out;
and by this time I had got timber and plank and iron-work
enough to have built a good boat, if I had known how; and also
I got, at several times and in several pieces, near one hundred-
weight of the sheet-lead.

June 16.—Going down to the sea-side, I found a large tortoise
or turtle. This was the first I had seen, which, it seems, was
only my misfortune, not any defect of the place, or scarcity; for
had I happened to be on the other side of the island, I might
have had hundreds of them every day, as I found afterwards; but
perhaps had paid dear enough for them.

June 17.—I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her three-
score eggs; and her flesh was to me, at that time, the most
savoury and pleasant that ever J tasted in my life, having had no
flesh but of goats and fowls since I landed in this horrid place.

June 18.—Rained all day, and I stayed within. I thought at
this time the rain felt cold, and I was something chilly; which
I knew was not usual in that latitude.

- June 19.—Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been
cold,
84 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

June 20.—No rest all night; violent pains in my head, and
feverish.

June 21.—Very ill; frighted almost to death with the apprehen-
sions of my sad condition—to be sick and no help. Prayed
‘to God for the first time since the storm off Hull, but scarce
knew what I said, or why, my thoughts being all confused.

June 22.—A little better; but under dreadful apprehensions of
sickness.

June 23.—Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a
violent headache.

June 24.—Much better.

June 25,—An ague very violent; the fit held me seven hours;
cold fit and hot, with faint sweats after it.

June 26.—Better; and having no victuals to eat, took my gun,
but found myself very weak. However, I killed a she-goat, and
with much difficulty got it home and broiled some of it, and ate,
I would fain have stewed it and made some broth, but had ns
pot.

June 27.—The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all day,
and neither ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for thirst; but
so weak I had not strength to stand up, or to get myself any
water to drink. Prayed to God again, but was light-headed; and
when I was not, I was so ignoxant that I knew not what to say;
only I lay and cried, “Lord, look upon me! Lord, pity me!
Lord, have mercy upon me!” I suppose I did nothing else for
two or three hours ; till, the fit wearing off, I fell asleep, and did
not wake till far in the night. When I awoke I found myself
much refreshed, but weak and exceeding thirsty. However, as I
had no water in my habitation, I was forced to lie till morning,
and went to sleep again. In this second sleep I had this terrible
dream :—I thought that I was sitting on the ground, on the out-
side of my wall, where I sat when the storm blew after the earth-
‘quake, and that I saw a man descend from a great black cloud,
in a bright flame of fire, and light upon the ground. He was all
over as bright asa flame, so that I could but just bear to look
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 85

towards him; his countenance was most inexpressibly dreadful,
impossible for words to describe. When he stepped upon the
ground with his feet, I thought the earth trembled, just as it had
done before in the earthquake, and all the air looked, to my
apprehension, as if it had been filled with flashes of fire He was
no-sooner landed upon the earth but he moved forward towards
me, with a long spear or weapon in his hand, to kill me; and
when he came to a rising ground, at some distance, he spoke to
me—or I heard a voice so terrible that it is impossible to express
the terror of it. All that I can say I understood was this:
“Seeing all these things have not brought. thee to repentance,
now thou shalt die;” at which words I thought he lifted up the
spear that was in his hand to kill me,

No one that shall ever read this account will expect that I
should be able to describe the horrors of my soul at this terrible
vision. I mean, that even while it was a dream, I even dreamed
of those horrors. Nor is it any more possible to describe the
impression that remained upon my mind won I awaked and
found it was but a dream.

Thad, alas! no divine knowledge. What I had received by
the good instruction of my father was then worn out by an
uninterrupted series, for eight years, of seafaring wickedness,
and a constant conversation with none but such as were, like
myself, wicked and profane to the last degree. I do not remem-
ber that I had in all that time one thought that so much as
tended either to looking upwards towards God, or inwards towards
a reflection upon my own ways; but a certain stupidity of soul,

. without desire of good or conscious of evil, had entirely over-
whelmed me; and I was all that the most hardened, unthinking,
wicked creature among our common sailors can be supposed
to be; not having the least sense, either of the fear of God in
danger, or of thankfulness to God in deliverance.

In the relating what is already past of my story, this will be the
more easily believed when I shall add that, through all the variety
of miseries that had to this day befallen me, I never had so much
86 LIFE AND ADVENFURES OF

as one thought of it being the hand of God, or that it was a just
punishment for my sin—my rebellious behaviour against my father
—or my present sins, which were great—or so much as a punish-
ment for the general course of my wicked life. When I was on
the desperate expedition on the desert shores of Africa I never
_ had so much as one thought of what would become of me, or one
wish to God to direct me whither I should go, cr to keep me from
the danger which apparently surrounded me, as well from voracious
creatures as cruel savages. But I was merely thoughtless of a God
or a Providence, acted like a mere brute, from the principles of
nature, and by the dictates of common-sense only, and, indeed,
hardly that. When I was delivered and taken up at sea by the
Portuguese captain, well used, and dealt justly and honourably
with, as well as charitably, I had not the least thankfulness in my
thoughts. When again I was shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger
of drowning on this island, I was as far from remorse or looking
on it as a judgment. I only said to myself often that I was an
unfortunate dog, and born to be always miserable.

It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found all my
ship’s crew drowned and myself spared, I was surprised with a
kind of ecstasy, and some transports of soul, which, had the grace
of God assisted, might have come up to true thankfulness; but
it ended where it began, in a mere common flight of joy, or, as
I may say, being glad I was alive, without the least reflection
upon the distinguished goodness of the hand which had preserved
me, and had singled me out to be preserved when all the rest
were destroyed, or an inquiry why Providence had been thus
merciful unto me. Even just the same common sort of joy
which seamen generally have after they are got safe ashore from
a shipwreck, which they drown all in the next bowl of punch, and
forget almost as soon as it is over; and all the rest of my life was
like it. Even when I was afterwards, on due consideration, made
sensible of my condition, how I was cast on this dreadful place,
out of the reach of human kind, out of all hope of relief or
prospect of redemption, as soon as I saw but a prospect of
ROBINSON CRUSOE. ay

living, and that I should not starve and perish for hunger, all
the sense of my affliction wore off, and I began to be very easy,
applied myself to the works proper for my preservation and
supply, and was far enough from being afilicted at my condition
as a judgment from heaven, or as the hand of God against me;
these were thoughts which very seldom entered my head.

The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my Journal, had at
-first some little influence upon me, and began to affect me with
seriousness as long as I thought it had something miraculous in
it; but as soon as ever that part of the thought was removed,
all the impression that was raised from it wore off also, as I have
noted already. Even the earthquake, though nothing could be
more terrible in its nature or more immediately directing to the
invisible power which alone directs such things, yet no sooner
was the first fright over but the impression it had made went off
also. I had no more sense of God or His judgments—much
less of the present affliction of my circumstances being from His
hand—than if I had been in the most prosperous condition of
life. But now, when I began to be sick, and a. leisurely view of
the miseries of death came to place itself before me; when my
spirits began to sink under the burden of a strong distemper, and
-nature was exhausted with the violence of the fever, conscience,
that had slept so long, began to awake, and I began to reproach
myself with my past life, in which I had so evidently, by un-
common wickedness, provoked the justice of God to lay me
under uncommon strokes, and to deal with me in so vindictive
a manner. These reflections oppressed me for the second or
third day of my distemper; and in the violence, as well of the
fever as of the dreadful reproaches of my conscience, extorted
some words from me like praying to God, though I cannot say
they were either a prayer attended with desires or with hopes; it
was rather the voice of mere fright and distress. My thoughts
were confused, the convictions great upon my mind, and the horror
of dying in such a miserable condition raised vapours into my
head with the mere apprehension; and in these hurries of my
88 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

soul I knew not what my tongue might express. But it was
rather exclamation, such as, “Lord, what a miserable creature
am I! If I should be sick, I shall certainly die for want of help;
and what will become of me?” Then the tears burst out of
my eyes, and I could say no more for a good while. In this
-interval the good advice of my father came to my mind, and
presently his prediction, which I mentioned at the beginning of
this story—viz., that if I did take this foolish step, God would
not bless me, and I would have leisure hereafter to reflect upon
having neglected his counsel when there might be none to assist
in my recovery. “Now,” said I, aloud, “ my dear father’s words
are come to pass; God’s justice has overtaken me, and I have
none to help or hear me. I rejected the voice of Providence,
which had mercifully put me in a posture or station of life
wherein I might have been happy and easy; but I would neither
see it myself, nor learn to know the blessing of it from my
parents. I left them to mourn over my folly, and now I am left
to mourn under the consequences of it. I refused their help and
assistance, who would have lifted me in the world, and would
have made everything easy to me; and now I have difficulties to
struggle with too great for even nature itself to support, and no
assistance, no help, no comfort, no advice.” Then I cried out,
“Lord, be my help, for I] am in great distress.” This was the
first prayer, if I may call it so, that I had made for many years.

But to return to my Journal—

June 28.—Vaving been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I
had had, and the fit being entirely off, I got up; and though the
fright and terror of my dream was very great, yet I considered
that the fit of the ague would return again the next day, and now
was my time to get something to refresh and support myself when
I should be ill; and the first thing I did I filled a large square
case-bottle with water and set it upon my table, in reach of my
bed ; and to take off the chill er aguish disposition of the water
I put about a quarter of a pint of rum into it, and mixed them
together. Then I got mea picce of the goat’s flesh and broiled
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 89 -

it on the coals, but could eat very little. I walked about, but
was very weak, and withal very sad and heavy-hearted under a
sense of my miserable condition, dreading the return of my
distemper the next day. At night I made my supper of three of
the turtle’s eggs, which I roasted in the ashes, and ate, as we call
it, in the shell, and this was the first bit of meat I had ever asked
God’s blessing to, that I could remember, in my whole life.
After I had eaten I tried to walk, but found myself so weak that
I could hardly carry a gun, for I never went out without that;
so I went but a little way, and sat down upon the ground, looking
out upon the sea, which was just before me, and very calm and
smooth. As I sat here some such thoughts as these occurred to
me: What is this earth and sea, of which I have seen so much?
Whence is it produced? And what am I, and all the other
creatures wild and tame, human and brutal?. Whence are we?
Sure we are all made by some secret power, who formed the earth
and sea, the air and sky. And who is that? Then it followed
most naturally, it is God that has made all. Well, but then it
came on strangely, if God has made all these things, He guides
and governs them all, and all things that concern them; for
the power that could make all things must certainly have powe~
to guide and direct them. If so, nothing can happen in the
great circuit of His works, either without His knowledge or
appointment.

And if nothing happens without His knowledge, He knows
that I am here and am in this dreadful condition; and if nothing
happens without His appointment, He has appointed all this to
befall me. Nothing occurred to my thought to contradict any
of these conclusions, and therefore it rested upon me with the
greater force that it must needs be that God had appointed all
this to befall me; that I was brought into this miserable circum-
stance by His direction, He having the sole power, not of me
only, but of everything that happened in the world. Imme-
diately it followed: Why has God done this to me? What have
I done to be thus used? My conscience presently checked me
go LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

in that inquiry, as if I had blasphemed, and methought it spoke
to me like a voice: “Wretch! dost ¢#ow ask what thou hast
done? Look back upon a dreadful misspent life, and ask thyself
what thou hast #o¢ done? Ask, why is it that thou wert not
_long ago destroyed? Why wert thou not drowned in Yarmouth
Roads ; killed in the fight when the ship was taken by the Sallee
man-of-war; devoured by the wild beasts on the coast of Aftica; or
drowned 4ere, when all the crew perished but thyself? Dost
thou ask, what have I done?” I was struck dumb with these
reflections, as one astonished, and had not a word to say—no,
not to answer to myself, but rose up pensive and sad, walked
back to my retreat, and went up over my wall, as if I had been
going to bed; but my thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I had
no inclination to sleep; so I sat down in my chair and lighted
my lamp, for it began to be dark. Now, as the apprehension of
the return of my distemper terrified me very much, it occurred to
my thought that the Brazilians take no physic but their tobacco
for almost all distempers, and I had a piece of a roll of tobacco in
one of the chests which was quite cured, and some also that was
green and not quite cured.
I went, directed by Heaven no doubt; for in this chest I found
a cure both for soul and body. I opened the chest, and found
what I looked for, the tobacco; and as the few books I had
saved lay there too, I took out one of the Bibles which I
mentioned before, and which te this time I had not found
leisure or inclination to look into. I say, I took it out, and
brought both that and the tobacco with me to the table.
What use to make of the tobacco I knew not in my distemper,
or whether it was good for it or no; but I tried several experi-
ments with it, as if I was resolved it should hit one way or other.
I first took a piece of leaf and chewed it in my mouth, which,
indeed, at first almost stupefied my brain, the tobacco being
green and strong, and that I had not been much used to it. Then
I took some and steeped it an hour or two in some rum, and
resolved to take a dose of it wheu I lay down; and lastly, I burnt
ROBINSON CRUSOE. gi

some upon a pan of coals, and held my nose close over the smoke
of it as long as I could bear it, as well for the heat as almost for
suffocation, In the interval of this operation I took up the Bible
and began to read; but my head was too much disturbed with
the tobacco to bear reading, at least at that time; only, having
opened the book casually, the first words that occurred to me
were these, ‘ Call on Me in the day of trouble, and I will deliver
thee, and thou shalt glorify Me.” These words were very apt to
my case, and made some impression upon my thoughts at the
time of reading them, though not so much as they did afterwards;
for, as for being dedivered, the word had no sound, as I may say,
to me; the thing was so remote, so impossible in my apprehension
of things, that I began to say, as the children of Israel did when
they were promised flesh to eat, ‘Can God spread a table in the
wilderness ?” so I began to say, ‘Can God himself deliver me
from this place?” And as it was not for many years that any
hopes appeared, this prevailed very often upon my thoughts; but,
however, the words made a great impression upon me, and I
mused upon them very often. It grew now late, and the tobacco
had, as I said, dozed my head so much that I inclined to sleep;
so I left. my larap burning in the cave, lest I should want any-
thing in the night, and went to bed. But before I lay down I
did what I never had done in all my life—i kneeled down and
prayed to God to fulfil the promise to me, that if I called upon
Him in the day of trouble, He would deliver me. After my
broken and imperfect prayer was over I drank the rum in which
I had steeped the tobacco, which was so strong and rank of the
tobacco that I could scarcely get it down; immediately upon this
I went to bed. I found presently it flew up into my head
violently; but I fell into a sound sleep, and waked no more till,
by the sun, it must necessarily be near three o’clock in the after-
noon the next day—nay, to this hour I am partly of opinion that
I slept all the next day and night, and till almost three the day
after; for otherwise I know not how I should lose a day out of
my reckoning in the days of the week, as it appeared some years
92 IIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

after { had done; for if I had lost it by crossing and recrossing
the Line, I should have lost more than one day; but certainly I
lost a day in my account, and never knew which way. Be that,
however, one way or the other, when I awaked I found myscif
exceedingly refreshed and my spirits lively and cheerful; when
got up I was stronger than I was the day before, and my stomach
better, for I was hungry; and, in short, I had no fit the next day,
but continued much altered for the better, This was the 2gth.

The 30th was my well day, of course, and I went abroad with
my gun, but did not care to travel too far. I killed a sea-fowl or
two, something like a brand goose, and brought them home, but
was not very forward to eat them; so I ate some more of the
turtle’s eggs, which were very good. This evening I renewed the
medicine, which I had supposed did me good the day before—
the tobacco steeped in rum; only I did not take so much as
before, nor did I chew any of the leaf or hold my head over the
smoke; however, I was not so well the next day, which was the
first of July, as I hoped I should have been; for I had a little
spice of the cold fit, but it was not much.

July 2.—I renewed the medicine all the three ways; and dosed
myself with it as at first, and doubled the quantity which I drank.

July 3.—I missed the fit for good and all, though I did not
recover my full strength for some weeks after. While I was thus
gathering strength my thoughts ran exceedingly upon this
scripture, “I will deliver thee;” and the impossibility of my
deliverance lay much upon my mind, in bar of my ever expecting
it; but as I was discouraging myself with such thoughts, it
occurred to my mind that I pored so much upon my deliverance
from the main affliction that I disregarded the deliverance I had
received, and I was as it were made to ask myself such questions
as these—viz., Have I not been delivered, and wonderfully too,
from sickness—from the most distressed condition that could be,
and that was so frightful to me? and what notice had I taken of
it? Had I done my part? God had delivered me, but I had not
glorified Him—that is to say, I had not owned and been thank-
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 93

ful for that as a deliverance; and how could I expect greater
deliverance? This touched my heart very much; and immedi-
ately I knelt down and gave God thanks aloud for my recovery
from my sickness.

July 4.—In the morning I took the Bible; and beginning at
the New Testament, I began seriously to read it, and imposed
upon myself to read a while every morning and every night; not
tying myself to the number of chapters, but as long as my thoughts
should engage me. It was not long after I set seriously to this
work till I found my heart more deeply and sincerely affected
with the wickedness of my past life. The impression of my dream
revived; and the words, ‘All these things have not brought
thee to repentance,” ran seriously through my thoughts. I was
earnestly begging of God to give me repentance, when it happened
providentially, the very day that, reading the Scripture, I came
to these words: ‘“‘He is exalted a Prince and a Saviour, to give
repentance and to give remission.” I threw down the book; and
with my heart as well as my hands lifted up to heaven, in a kind
of ecstasy of joy, I cried out aloud, “ Jesus, thou son of David!
Jesus, thou exalted Prince and Saviour! give me repentance!”
This was the first time I could say, in the true sense of the words,
that I prayed in all my life; for now I prayed with a sense of my
condition, and a true Scripture view of hope, founded on the
encouragement of the Word of God; and from this time, I may
say, I began to hope that God would hear me.

Now I began to construe the words mentioned above, “ Call on
Me, and I will deliver thee,” in a different sense from what I had
ever done before; for then I had no notion of anything being
called deliverance but my being delivered from the captivity I was
in; for though I was indeed at large in the place, yet the island
was certainly a prison to me, and that in the worse sense in the
world. But now I learned to take it in another sense; now I
looked back upon my past life with such horror, and my sins
appeared so dreadful that my soul sought nothing of God but
deliverance from the load of guilt that bore down all my comfort.
94 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

As for my solitary life, it was nothing; I did not so much as pray
to be delivered from it.or think of it; it was all of no considera-
tion in comparison to this. And I add this part here to hint to
whoever shall read it, that whenever they come to a true sense of

‘ things they will find deliverance from sin a much greater blessing
than deliverance from affliction.

But leaving this part, I return to my Journal.

My condition began now to be, though not less miserable as to
my way of living, yet much easier to my mind; and my thoughts
being directed, by a constant reading the Scripture and praying to
God, to things of a higher nature, I had a great deal of comfort
within, which till now I knew nothing of; also my health and
strength returned, I bestirred myself to furnish myself with every-
thing that I wanted, and make my way of living as regular as I
could.

From the 4th of July to the r4th I was chiefly employed in
walking about with my gun in my hand, a little and a little at a
time, as a man that was gathering up his strength after a fit of
sickness; for it is hardly to be imagined how low I was, and to
what weakness I was reduced. The application which I made
use of was perfectly new, and perhaps which had never cured an
ague before; neither can I recommend it to any to practise by
this experiment; and though it did carry off the fit, yet it rather
contributed to weakening me, for I had frequent convulsions in
my nerves and limbs for some time. I learned from it also this
in particular, that being abroad in the rainy season was the most
pernicious thing to my health that could be, especially in those
rains which came attended with storms and hurricanes of wind;
for as the rain which came in the dry season was almost always
accompanied with such storms, so I found that rain was much
more dangerous than the rain which fell in September and
October.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 95

CHAPTER VIL.

I begin to take a survey of my island—Discover plenty of tobacco, grapes,
lemons, and sugar-canes, wild, but no human inhabitants—Resolve to lay
up a store of these articles to furnish me against the wet season—My cat,
which I supposed lost, returns with kittens—I regulate my diet, and shut
myself up for the wet season—Sow my grain, which comes to nothing;
but I discover and remedy my error—Take account of the course of the
weather.

I HAD now been in this unhappy island above ten months. All
possibility of deliverance from this condition seemed to be
entirely taken from me, and I firmly believe that no human shape
had ever set foot upon that place. Having now secured my
habitation, as I thought, fully to my mind, I had a great desire to
make a more perfect discovery of the island, and to see what
other productions I might find which I yet knew nothing of.

It was on the r5th of July that I began to take a more
particular survey of the island itself. I went up the creek first,
where, as I hinted, I brought my rafts on shore. J found, after I
came about two miles up, that the tide did not flow any higher,
and that it was no more than a little brook of running water, very
fresh and good; but this being the dry season, there was hardly
any water in some parts of it—at least not enough to run in any
stream, so as it could be perceived. On the banks of this brook
I found many pleasant savannahs or meadows, plain, smooth, and
covered with grass; and on the rising parts of them, next to the
higher grounds, where the water, as might be supposed, never
overflowed, I found a great deal of tobacco, green, and growing to
a great and very strong stalk. There were divers other plants,
which I had no notion of or understanding about, that might
perhaps have virtues of their own which I could not find out. I
searched for the cassava root, which the Indians, in all that
climate, make their bread of, but I could find none. I saw large
plants of aloes, but did not understand them. I saw several
96 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

sugar-canes, but wild, and, for want of cultivation, imperfect. I
contented myself with these discoveries for this time and came
back, musing with myself what course I might take to know the
virtue and goodness of any of the fruits or plants which I should
' discover, but could bring it to no conclusion; for, in short, I had
made so little observation while I was in the Brazils that I knew
little of the plants in the field; at least, very little that might serve
to any purpose now in my distress.

The next day, the sixteenth, I went up the same way again;
and after going something farther than I had gone the day before,
I found the brook and the savannahs cease, and the country
become more woody than before. In this part I found different
fruits, and particularly I found melons upon the ground in great
abundance, and grapes upon the trees. The vines had spread,
indeed, over the trees, and the clusters of grapes were just now
in their prime, very ripe and rich. This was a surprising dis-
covery, and I was exceeding glad of them; but I was warned by
my experience to eat sparingly of them, remembering that when I
was ashore in Barbary the eating of grapes killed several of our
Englishmen, who were slaves there, by throwing them into fluxes
and fevers. But I found an excellent use for these grapes; and
that was to cure or dry them in the sun, and keep them as dried
grapes or raisins are kept, which I thought would be, as indeed
they were, wholesome and agreeable to eat when no grapes could
be had.

I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my habita-
tion; which, by the way, was the first night, as I might say, I had
lain from home. In the night I took my first contrivance, and
got up in a tree, where I slept well; and the next morning pro-
ceeded upon my discovery; travelling nearly four miles, as I
might judge by the length of the valley, keeping still due north,
with a ridge of hills on the south and north side of me. At the
end of this march I came to an opening, where the country
seemed to descend to the west; and a little spring of fresh water,
which issued out of the side of the hill by me, and ran the other
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 97

way, that is, due east; and the country. appeared so fresh, so
green, so flourishing, everything being in a constant verdure or
flourish of spring, that it looked like a planted garden. I
descended a little on the side of that delicious vale, surveying it
with a secret kind of pleasure, though mixed with my other
afflicting thoughts, to think that this was all my own; that I was
king and lord of all this country indefeasibly, and had a right of
possession; and if I could convey it, I might have it in inherit-
ance as completely as any lord of a manor in England. I saw
here abundance of cocoa trees, orange, and lemon, and citron
trees; but all wild, and very few bearing any fruit, at least not
then. However, the green limes that I gathered were not only
pleasant to eat, but very wholesome; and I mixed their juice
afterwards with water, which made it very wholesome and very
cool and refreshing. I found now I had business enough to
gather and carry home; and I resolved to lay up a store as well
of grapes as limes and lemons, to furnish myself for the wet
season, which I knew was approaching. In order to do this, I
gathered a great heap of grapes in one place, a lesser heap in
another place, and a great parcel of limes and lemons in another
place; and taking a few of each with me, I travelled homewards;
resolving to come again and bring a bag or sack, or what I could
make, to carry the rest home. Accordingly, having spent three
days in this journey, I came home (so I must now call my tent
and my cave); but before I got thither the grapes were spoiled;
the richness of the fruit and the weight of the juice having broken
them and bruised them, they were good for little or nothing; as
to the limes, they were good, but I could bring but a few.

The next day, being the nineteenth, I went back, having made
me two small bags to bring home my harvest; but I was surprised,
when coming to my heap of grapes, which were so rich and fine
when I gathered them, to find them all spread about, trod to
pieces, and dragged about, some here, some there, and abundance
eaten and devoured. By this I concluded there were some wild
creatures thereabouts which had done this; but what they were f

7
98 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

knew not. However, as I found there was no laying them up on
heaps, and no carrying them away in a sack, but that one way
they would be destroyed, and the other way they would be
crushed with their own weight, I took another course; for I
gathered a large quantity of the grapes and hung them upon the
out branches of the trees, that they might cure and dry in the
sun; and as for the limes and lemons, I carried as many back as
I could well stand under.

-When I came home from this journey I contemplated with
great pleasure the fruitfulness of that valley and the pleasantness
of the situation; the security from storms on that side of the
water and the wood; and concluded that I had pitched upon a
place to fix my abode which was by far the worst part of the
country. Upon the whole, I began to consider of removing my
habitation and looking out for a place equally safe as where now
I was situate, if possible, in that pleasant, fruitful part of the
island.

This thought ran long in my head, and I was exceeding fond
of it for some time, the pleasantness of the place tempting me;
but when I came to a nearer view of it, I considered that I was
now by the sea-side, where it was at least possible that something
might happen to my advantage; and by the same ill fate that
brought me hither, might bring some other unhappy wretches to
the same place; and though it was scarce probable that any such
thing should ever happen, yet to inclose myself among the hills
and woods in the centre of the island was to anticipate my
bondage, and to render such an affair not only improbable, but
impossible; and that therefore I ought not by any means to
remove. However, I was so enamoured of this place that I spent
much of my time there for the whole of the remaining part of the
month of July; and though, upon second thoughts, I resolved
not to remove, yet I built me a little kind of a bower, and
surrounded it at a distance with a strong fence, being a double
hedge, as high as I could reach, well staked and filled between
with brushwood; and here I lay very secure, sometimes two or
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 99

three nights together; always going over it with a ladder; so that
I fancied now I had my country house and my sea-coast house;
and this work took me up to the beginning of August.

I had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy my
labour, when the rains came on and made me stick close to my
first habitation; for though I had made me a tent like the other,
with a piece of a sail, and spread it very well, yet I had not the
shelter of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a cave behind me to
retreat into when the rains were extraordinary.

About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my
bower, and began to enjoy myself. The 3rd of August, I found the
grapes I had hung up perfectly dried, and, indeed, were excellent
good raisins of the sun; so I began to take them down from the
trees, and it was very happy that.I did so, for the rains which
followed would have spoiled them, and I had lost the best part of
my winter food; for I had above two hundred large bunches of
them. No sooner had I taken them all down, and carried the
most of them home to my cave, than it began to rain; and from
hence, which was the 14th of August, it rained, more or less, every
day till the middle of October; and sometimes so violently that I
could not stir out of my cave for several days.

In this season I was much surprised with the increase of my
family; I had been concerned for the loss of one of my cats, who
ran away from me, or, as I thought, had been dead, and I heard no
more tidings of her till, to my astonishment, she came home about
the end of August, with three kittens. This was the more strange
to me because, though I had killed a wild cat, as I called it, with
my gun, yet I thought it was quite a different kind from our
European cats ; but the young cats were the same kind of house-
breed as the old one; and both my cats being females, I thought it
very strange. But from these three cats I afterwards came to be
so pestered with cats that I was forced to kill them like vermin or
wild beasts, and to drive them from my house as much as
possible.

From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain, so that I
100 . LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

could not stir, and was now very careful not to be much wet. In
this confinement I began to be straitened for food; but venturing
out twice, I one day killed a goat; and the last day, which was the
26th, found a very large tortoise, which was a treat to me, and my
food was regulated thus:—I ate a bunch of raisins for my break-
fast; a piece of the goat’s flesh, or of the turtle, for my dinner,
broiled; for, to my great misfortune, I had no vessel to boil or
stew anything; and two or three of the turtle’s eggs for my supper.

During this confinement in my cover by the rain I worked daily
two or three hours at enlarging my cave, and by degrees worked it
on. towards one side, till I came to the outside of the hill and made
a door or way out, which came beyond my fence or wall; and so I
came in and out this way. But I was not perfectly easy at lying
so open; for as I had managed myself before, I was in a perfect
enclosure; whereas now, I thought I lay exposed and open for any-
thing to come in upon me; and yet I could not perceive that there
was any living thing to fear, the biggest creature that I had yet
seen upon the island being a goat.

Sept. 30.—I was now come to the unhappy anniversary of my
landing. I cast up the notches on my post, and found I had been
on shore three hundred and sixty-five days. I kept this day as a
solemn fast, setting it apart for religious exercise, prostrating my-
self on the ground with the most serious humiliation, confessing
my sins to God, acknowledging His righteous judgments upon me,
and praying to Him to have mercy on me through Jesus Christ ;
and not having tasted the least refreshment for twelve hours, even
till the going-down of the sun, I then ate a biscuit-cake and a bunch
of grapes, and went to bed, finishing the day as I beganit. I had
all this time observed no Sabbath-day; for as at first I had no
sense of religion upon my mind, I had, after some time, omitted to
distinguish the weeks, by making a longer notch than ordinary for
the Sabbath-day, and so did not really know what any of the days
were; but now, having cast up the days as above, I found I had
been there a year; so I divided it into weeks, and set apart every
seventh day for a Sabbath; though I found at the end of my
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 10z

account I had lost a day or two in my reckoning. A little after
this my ink began to fail me, and so I contented myself to use
it more sparingly, and to write down only the most remarkable
events of my life, without continuing a daily memorandum of other
things.

The rainy season and the dry season began now to appear
regular to me, and I learned to divide them so as to provide for
them accordingly; but I bought all my experience before I had it,
and this Iam going to relate was one of the most discouraging
experiments that I made.

1 have mentioned that I had saved the few ears of barley and
rice, which I had so surprisingly found spring up, as I thought, of
themselves, and I believe there were about thirty stalks of rice and
about twenty of barley; and now I thought it a proper time to sow
it, after the rains, the sun being in its southern position, going from
me. Accordingly, I dug up a piece of ground as well as I could
with my wooden spade, and dividing it into two parts, I sowed my
grain; but as I was sowing, it casually occurred to my thoughts
that I would not sow it all at first, because I didnot know when
was the proper time for it, so I sowed about two-thirds of the seed,
leaving about a handful of each. It was a great comfort to me
afterwards that I did so, for not one grain of what I sowed this
time came to anything; for the dry months following, the earth
having had no rain after the seed was sown, it had no moisture to
assist its growth, and never came up at all till the wet season had
come again, and then it grew as if it had been but newly sown.
Finding my first seed did not grow, which I easily imagined was
by the drought, I sought for a moister piece of ground to make
another trial in, and I dug up a piece of ground near my new bower,
and sowed the rest of my seed in February, a little before the
vernal equinox; and this having the rainy months of March and
April to water it, sprung up very pleasantly, and yielded a very
good crop; but having part of the seed left only, and not daring
to sow all that I had, I had but a small quantity at last, my whole
crop not amounting to above halfa peck of each kind. But: by
102 | LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

this experiment I was made master of my business, and knew
exactly when the proper season was to sow, and that I might
expect two seed times and two harvests every year.

While this corn was growing I made a little discovery, which
was of use to me afterwards. As soon as the rains were over

.and the weather began to settle, which was about the month of
November, I made a visit up the country to my bower, where,
though I had not been some months, yet I found all things just
as I left them. The circle or double hedge that I had made was
not only firm and entire, but the stakes which I had cut out of
some trees that grew thereabouts were all shot out and grown
with long branches, as much as a willow-tree usually shoots the
first year after lopping its head. I could not tell what tree to
call it that these stakes were cut from. I was surprised, and yet
very well pleased, to see the young trees grow; and I pruned
them, and led them up to grow as much alike as I could; and
it is scarce credible how beautiful a figure they grew into in
three years; so that though the hedge made a circle of about
twenty-five yards in diameter, yet the trees, for such I might now
call them, soon covered it, and it was a complete shade, sufficient
to lodge under all the dry season. This made me resolve to cut
some more stakes, and make me a hedge like this, in a semi-
circle round my wall (I mean that of my first dwelling), which I
did; and placing the trees or stakes in a double row, at about
eight yards distance from my first fence, they grew presently, and
were at first a fine cover to my habitation, and afterwards served
for a defence also, as I shall observe in its order,

I found now that the seasons of the year might generally be
divided, not into summer and winter, as in Europe, but into the
rainy seasons and the dry seasons, which were generally thus :—

The half of February, the whole of March, and the half of
April—rainy, the sun being then on or near the equinox.

The half of April, the whole of May, June, and July, and the

_ half of August—dry, the sun being then to the north of the

Line.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 103

The half of August, the whole of September, and the half of
October—rainy, the sun being then come back.

The half of October, the whole of November, December, and
January, and the half of February—dry, the sun being then to the
south of the Line.

_ The rainy seasons sometimes held longer or shorter as the winds
happened to blow, but this was the general observation I made.
After I had found, by experience, the ill consequences of being
abroad in the rain, I took care to furnish myself with provisions
beforehand, that I might not be obliged to go out, and I sat
within doors as much as possible during the wet months. This
time I found much employment, and very suitable also to the
time, for I found great occasion for many things which I had no
way to furnish myself with but by hard labour and constant
application; particularly I tried many ways to make myself a
basket, but all the twigsI could get for the purpose proved so
brittle that they would do nothing. It proved of excellent
advantage to me now, that when I was a boy I used to take
great delight in standing at a basketmaker’s, in the town where
my father lived, to see them make their wicker-ware; and being,
as boys usually are, very officious to help, and a great observer of
the manner in which they worked those things, and sometimes
lending a hand, I had by these means full knowledge of the
methods of it, and I wanted nothing but the materials, when it
came into my mind that the twigs of that tree from whence I cut
my stakes that grew might possibly be as tough as the sallows,
willows, and osiers in England, and I resolved to try. Accord-
ingly, the next day I went to my country house, as I called it, and
cutting some of the smaller twigs, I found them to my purpose as
much as I could desire; whereupon I came the next time pre-
pared with a hatchet to cut down a quantity, which I soon found,
for there was great plenty of them. These I set up to dry within
my circle or hedge, and when they were fit for use I carried them
to my cave; and here, during the next season, I employed myself
in making, as well as I could, a great many baskets, both to carry
to4 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

earth or to carry or lay up anything, as I had occasion; and
though I did not finish them very handsomely, yet I made them
sufficiently serviceable for my purpose; and thus, afterwards,
I took care never to be without them; and as my wicker-ware
decayed I made more, especially strong, deep baskets to place my
corn in, instead of sacks, when I should come to have any
quantity of it.

Having mastered this difficulty and employed a world of time
about it, I bestirred myself to see, if possible, how to supply two
wants. Ihad no vessels to hold anything that was liquid, except
two runlets, which were almost full of rum, and some glass bottles
—some of the common size, and others which were case bottles,
square, for the holding of water, spirits, etc. I had not so much
as a pot to boil anything, except a great kettle, which I saved out
of the ship, and which was too big for such as I desired it—viz.,
to make broth and stew a bit of meat by itself. The second
thing I fain would have had was a tobacco-pipe, but it was im-
possible to me to make one; however, I found a contrivance for
that, too, at last. I employed myself in planting my second rows
of stakes or piles, and in this wicker-working all the summer or
dry season, when another business took me up more time than it
could be imagined I could spare.

CHAPTER VIIL

Make a second tour through the island—Catch a young parrot, which I after-
wards teach to speak—My mode of sleeping at night—Find the other
side of the island much more pleasant than mine, and covered with turtle
and sea-fowl—Catch a young kid, which T tame—Return to my old
habitation—Great plague with my harvest.

I MENTIONED before that I had a great mind to see the whole
island, and that 1 had travelled up the brook, and so on to where
I built my bower, and where I had an opening quite to the sca,
ROBINSON CRUSOE. Los

on the other side of the island. I now resolved te travel quite
across to the sea-shore on that side; so, taking my gun, a hatchet,
and my dog, and a larger quantity of powder and shot than usual,
with two biscuit-cakes and a great bunch of raisins in my pouch
for my store, I began my journey. When I had passed the vale
where my bower stood, as above, I came within view of the sea
to the west, and it being a very clear day, I fairly descried land—
whether an island or a continent I could not tell; but it lay very
high, extending from the W. to the W.S.W. at a very great
distance; by my guess it could not be less than fifteen or twenty
leagues off.

I could not tell what part of the world this might be, otherwise
than I knew it must be part of America, and, as I concluded, by
all my observations, must be near the Spanish dominions, and
perhaps was all inhabited by savages, where, if I had landed,
I had been in a worse condition than I was now; and therefore I
acquiesced in the dispositions of Providence, which I began now
to own and to believe ordered everything for the best; I say
I quieted my mind with this, and left off afflicting myself with
fruitless wishes of being there.

Besides, after some thought upon this affair, I considered that
if this land was the Spanish coast, 1 should certainly, one time
or other, see some vessel pass or repass one way or other; but if
not, then it was the savage coast between the Spanish country
and Brazils, where are found the worst of savages; for they are
cannibals or men-eaters, and fail not to murder and devour all
the human bodies that fall into their hands.

With these considerations I walked very leisurely forward. I
found that side of the island where I now was much pleasanter
than mine—the open or savannah fields sweet, adorned with
flowers and grass, and full of very fine woods. I saw abundance
of parrots, and fain I would have caught one, if possible, to have
kept it to be tame, and taught it to speak to me. I did, after
some painstaking, catch a young parrot, for I knocked it down
with a stick, and having recovered it, I brought it home; but it
106 i#E& AND ADVENTURES OF

was some years before I could make him speak; however, at last
I taught him to call me by name very familiarly. But the
accident that followed, though it be a trifle, will be very diverting
in its place.

I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found in the
. low grounds hares (as I thought them to be) and foxes; but they
differed greatly from all the other kinds I had met with, nor could
I satisfy myself to eat them, though I killed several. But I had
no need to be venturous, for I had no want of food, and of that
which was very good, too, especially these three sorts, viz.—goats,
pigeons, and turtle or tortoise, which, added to my grapes,
Leadenhall market could not have furnished a table better
than I, in proportion to the company; and though my case
was deplorable enough, yet I had great cause for thankfulness
that I was not driven to any extremities for food, but had rather
plenty, even to dainties.

IT never travelled in this journey above two miles outright in a
day, or thereabouts; but I took so many turns and re-turns to sec
what discoveries I could make, that I came weary enough to the
place where I resolved to sit down all night; and then I either
reposed myself in a tree, or surrounded myself with a row of
stakes set upright in the ground, either from one tree to another,
or so as no wild creature could come at me without waking
me. ;
As soon as I came to the sea-shore, I was surprised to see that
I had taken up my lot on the worst side of the island, for here,
indeed, the shore was covered with innumerable turtles, whereas
on the other side I had found but three in a year and a half.
Here was also an infinite number of fowls of many kinds, some
which I had seen, and some which I had not seen before, and
many of them very good meat, but such as I knew not the names
of, except those called penguins.

I could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very sparing
of my powder and shot, and therefore had more mind to kill
a she-goat, if I could, which I could beiter feed on; and though
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 107

there were many goats here, more than on my side of the island,
yet it was with much more difficulty that I could come near them,
the country being flat and even, and they saw me much sooner
than when I was on the hills.

I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than
mine; but yet I had not the least inclination to remove, for as
I was fixed in my habitation it became natural to me, and I
seemed all the while I was here to be as it were upon a journey,
and from home. However, I travelled along the shore of the sea
towards the east, I suppose about twelve miles, and then setting
up a great pole upon the shore for a mark, I concluded I would
go home again, and that the next journey I took should be on
the other side of the island east from my dwelling, and so round
till I came to my post again.

I took another way to come back than that I went, thinking
I could easily keep all the island so much in my view that I
could not miss finding my first dwelling by viewing the country;
but I found myself mistaken, for being come about two or three
miles, I found myself descended into a very large valley, but so
surrounded with hills, and those hills covered with wood, that I
could not see which was my way by any direction but that of the
sun, not even then, unless I knew very well the position of the
sun at that time of the day. It happened, to my further misfortune,
that the weather proved hazy for three or four days while I was in
the valley, and not being able to see the sun, I wandered about
very uncomfortably, and at last was obliged to find the sea-side,
look for my post, and come back the same way I went; and then,
by easy journeys, I turned homeward, the weather being exceed-
ing hot, and my gun, ammunition, hatchet, and other things very
heavy.

In this journey my dog surprised a young kid, and seized upon
it; and I, running in to take hold of it, caught it, and saved it
alive from. the dog. I hada great mind to bring it home if I
could, for T had often been musing whether it might not be
possible to get a kid or two, and so raise a breed of tame
108 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

goats, which might supply me when my powder and shot should
be all spent. I made a collar for this little creature, and with a
string, which I made of some rope-yarn, which I always carried
about me, I led him along, though with some difficulty, till I
came to my bower, and there I enclosed him and left him, for
I was very impatient to be at home, from whence I had been
absent above a month.

I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come into
my old hutch and lie down in my hammock-bed. This little
wandering journey, without settled place of abode, had been so
unpleasant to me that my own house, as I called it to myself,
was a perfect settlement to me compared to that; and it rendered
everything about me so comfortable that I resolved I would never
go a great way from it again while it should be my lot to stay on
the island.

I reposed myself here a week to rest and regale myself after
my long journey; during which most of the time was taken up
in the weighty affair of making a cage for my Poll, who began
now to be a mere domestic, and to be well acquainted with me.
Then I began to think of the poor kid which I had penned in
within my little circle, and resolved to go and fetch it home
or give it some food; accordingly I went, and found it. where I
left it, for indeed it could not get out, but was almost starved for
want of food. I went and cut boughs of trees and branches of
such shrubs as I could find and threw it over, and having fed it,
I tied it as I did before, to lead it away; but it was so tame with
being hungry that I had no need to have tied it, for it followed
me like a dog; and as continually fed it the creature became so
loving, so gentle, and so fond, that it became from that time one
of my domestics also, and would never leave me afterwards.

The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come,
and I kept the goth of September in the same solemn manner
as before, being the anniversary of my landing on the island,
having now been there two years, and no more prospect of being
delivered than the first day i came there. I spent the whole day
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 109

in humble and thankful acknowledgments of the many wonderful
mercies which my solitary condition was attended with, and with-
out which it might have been infinitely more miserable. I gave
humble and hearty thanks that God had been pleased to discover
to me that it was possible I might be more happy in this solitary
condition than I should have been in the liberty of society, and
in all the pleasures of the world; that He could fully make up to
me the deficiencies of my solitary state, and the want of human
society by His presence and the communications of His grace to
my soul; supporting, comforting, and encouraging me to depend
upon His providence here, and hope for His eternal presence
hereafter.

It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much more
happy this life I now led was, with all its miserable circumstances,
than the wicked, cursed, abominable life I led all the past part of
my days; and now I changed both my sorrows and my joys; my
very desires altered, my affections changed their gusts, and my
delights were perfectly new from what they were at my first
coming, or, indeed, for the two years past.

Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting, or for viewing
the country, the anguish of my soul at my condition would break
out upon me on a sudden, and my very heart would die within
me, to think of the woods, the mountains, the deserts I was in, and
how I was a prisoner, locked up with the eternal bars and bolts
of the ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness, without redemption.
In the midst of the greatest composure of my mind this would
break out upon me like a storm, and make me wring my hands
and weep like a child. Sometimes it would take me in the
middle of my work, and I would immediately sit down and
sigh, and look upon the ground for an hour or two together;
and this was still worse to me, for if I could burst out into tears,
or vent myself by words, it would go off, and the grief, having
exhausted itself, would abate.

But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts ; I daily
read the Word of God, and applied all the comforts of it. to my
r10 ILFE AND ADVENTURES OF

present state. One morning, being very sad, I opened the Bible
upon these words, “I will never, never leave thee, nor forsake
thee.” Immediately it occurred that these words were to me;
why else should they be directed in such a manner, just at the
moment when I was mourning over my condition, as one forsaken
of God and man? “Well, then,” said I, “if God does not for-
sake me, of what ill consequence can it be, or what matters it
though the world should all forsake me, seeing on the other hand
if I had all the world, and should lose the favour and blessing of
God, there would be no comparison in the loss?”

From this moment I began to conclude in my mind that it was
possible for me to be more happy in this forsaken, solitary con-
dition than it was probable I should ever have been in any other
particular state in the world; and with this thought I was going
to give thanks to God for bringing me to this place. I know not
what it was, but something shocked my mind at that thought,
and I durst not speak the words. ‘How canst thou become
such a hypocrite,” said I, even audibly, “to pretend to be thank-
ful for a condition which, however thou mayest endeavour to be
contented with, thou wouldst rather pray heartily to be delivered
from?” So I stopped there; but though I could not say I
thanked God for being there, yet I sincerely gave thanks to God
for opening my eyes, by whatever afflicting providences, to see
the former condition of my life, and to mourn for my wickedness,
and repent. I never opened the Bible or shut it but my very
soul within me blessed God for directing my friend in England,
without any order of mine, to pack it up among my goods, and
for assisting me afterwards to save it out of the wreck of the
ship.

Thus, and in this disposition of mind, I began my third year;
and though I have not given the reader the trouble of so par- .
ticular an account of my works this year as the first, yet in
general it may be observed that I was very seldom idle, but
having regularly divided my time according to the several daily
employments that were before me, such as, first, my duty to God
ROBINSON CRUSOE. LLI

and the reading the Scriptures, which I tonstantly set apart some
time for thrice every day; secondly, the going abroad with my
gun for food, which generally took me up three hours in every
morning when it did not rain; thirdly, the ordering, cutting,
preserving, and cooking what I had killed or caught for my
supply—these took up great part of the day. Also, it is to be
considered that in the middle of the day, when the sun was in the
zenith, the violence of the heat was too great to stir out; so that
about four hours in the evening was all the time I could be
supposed to work in, with this exception, that sometimes I
changed my hours of hunting and working, and went to work in
the morning, and abroad with my gun in the afternoon.

To this short time allowed for labour I desire may be added
the exceeding laboriousness of my work; the many hours which,
for want of tools, want of help, and want of skill, everything I did
took up out of my time. For example, I was full two and forty
days in making a board for a long shelf which I wanted in my
cave; whereas, two sawyers, with their tools and a saw-pit, would
have cut six of them out of the same tree in half a day.

My case was this: it was to be a large tree which was to be cut
down, because my board was to be a broad one. This tree I
was three days in cutting down, and twe more cutting off the
boughs and reducing it to a log or piece of timber. With in-
expressible hacking and hewing I reduced both the sides of it
into chips till it began to be light enowgh to move; then I turned
it, and made one side of it smooth and flat as a board from end
to end; then turning that side downward, cut the other side till I
brought the plank to be about three inches thick, and smooth on
both sides. Any one may judge the labour of my hands in such
a piece of work; but labour and patience carried me through that
and many other things. I only observe this in particular, to show
the reason why so much of my time went away with so little
work—viz., that what might be a little to be done with help and
tools was a vast labour and required a prodigious time to do
alone, and by hand. But notwithstanding this, with patience
112 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

and labour I got through everything that my circumstances made
necessary to me to do, as will appear by what follows.

I was now, in the months of November and December, expect-
ing my crop of barley and rice, The ground I had manured and
dug up for them was not great; for, as I observed, my seed of
each was not above the quantity of half a peck, for I had lost one
whole crop by sowing in the dry season. But now my crop
promised very well, when on a sudden I found I was in danger
of losing it all again by enemies of several sorts, which it was
scarcely possible to keep from it; as, first the goats and wild
creatures which I called hares, who, tasting the sweetness of the
blade, lay in it night and day, as soon as it came up, and ate it
so close that it could get no time to shoot up into stalk.

This I saw no remedy for but by making an enclosure about it
with a hedge; which I did with a great deal of toil, and the more
because it required speed. However, as my arable land was but
small, suited te my crop, I got it totally well fenced in about
three weeks’ time; and shooting some of the creatures in the day-
time, I set my dog to guard it in the night, tying him up to a
stake at the gate, where he would stand and bark all night long;
so in a little time the enemies forsook the place, and the corn
grew very strong and well, and began to ripen apace.

But as the beasts ruined me before while my corn was in the
blade, so the birds were as likely to ruin me now when it was in
the ear; for going along by the place to see how it throve, I saw
my little crop surrounded with fowls, of I know not how many
sorts, who stood, as it were, watching till I should be gone, I
immediately let fly among them, for I always had my gun with
me. I had no sooner shot but there rose up a little cloud of
fowls, which I had not seen at all, from among the corn itself.

This touched me sensibly, for I foresaw that in a few days
they would devour all my hopes; that I should be starved and
never be able to raise a crop at all; and what to do I could not
tell; however, I resolved not to lose my corn, if possible, though I
should watch it night and day. In the first place, 1 went among
ROBINSON CRUSCE. ITZ

it to see what damage was already done, and found they had
spoiled a good deal of it; but that as it was yet too green for
them the loss was not so great, but that the remainder was likely
to be a good crop if it could be saved.

I stayed by it to load my gun, and then coming away, I could
easily see the thieves sitting upon all the trees about me, as if
they only waited till I was gone away, and the event proved it
to be so; for as I walked off as if I was gone, I was no sooner
out of their sight than they dropped down one by one into the
corn again. I was so provoked that I could not have patience to
stay till more came on, knowing that every grain they ate now
was, as it might be said, a peck-loaf to me in the consequence;
but coming up to the hedge, I fired again and killed three of
them. This was what I wished for; so I took them up and
served them as we serve notorious thieves in England—hanged
them in chains for a terror to others. It is impossible to imagine
that this should have such an effect as it had, for the fowls would
not only not come at the corn, but, in short, they forsook all that
part of the island, and I could never see a bird near the place as
long as my scarecrows hung there. This I was very glad of, you
may be sure, and about the latter end of December, which was
our second harvest of the year, I reaped my corn.

I was sadly put to it fora scythe or sickle to cut it down, and
all I could do was to make one as well as I could out of one of
the broadswords or cutlasses which I saved among the arms out
of the ship. However, as my first crop was but small, I had no
great difficulty to cut it down; in short, I reaped it in my way, for
I cut nothing off but the ears, and carried it away in a great
basket which I had made, and so rubbed it out with my hands;
and at the end of all my harvesting I found that out of my half-
peck of seed I had nearly two bushels of rice and about two
bushels and a half of barley; that is to say by my guess, for I
had no measure at that time.

However, this was a great encouragement to me, and I foresaw
that in time it would please Gad to supply me with bread. And

8
1m4 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

yet here I was perplexed again, for I neither knew how to grind
or make meal of my corn, or indeed how to clean it and part it;
nor, if made into meal, how to make bread of it; and if how to
make it, yet I knew not how to bake it. These things being
added to my desire of having a good quantity for store, and to
secure a constant supply, I resolved not to taste any of this crop,
but to preserve it all for seed against the next season; and in
the meantime to employ all my study and hours of working to
accomplish this great work of providing myself with corn and
bread.

It might be truly said that now I worked for my bread. I
believe few people have thought much upon the strange multitude
of little things necessary in the providing, producing, curing,
dressing, making, and finishing this one article of bread.

I, that was reduced to a mere state of nature, found this
to my daily discouragement; and was made more sensible of it
every hour, even after I had got the first handful of seed-corn,
which, as I have said, came up unexpectedly, and indeed to a
surprise,

First, I had no plough to turn up the earth—no spade or
shovel to dig it. Well, this I conquered by making me a wooden
spade, as I observed before; but this did my work but in a
wooden manner; and though it cost me a great many days to
make it, yet for want of iron it not only wore out soon, but made
my work the harder, and made it be performed much worse.
However, this I bore with, and was content to work it out with
patience and bear with the badness of the performance. When
the corn was sown I had no harrow, but was forced to go over it
myself and drag a great heavy bough of a tree over it, to scratch
it, as it may be called, rather than rake or harrow it. When it
was growing and grown, I have observed already how many
things I wanted to fence it, secure it, mow or reap it, cure and
carry it home, thrash, part it from the chaff, and save it. Then
I wanted a mill to grind it, sieves to dress it, yeast and salt to
make it into bread, and an oven to bake it; but all these things
ROBINSON CRUSOE. rig

I did without, as shall be observed; and yet the corn was an
inestimable comfort and advantage to me too. All this, as I
said, made everything laborious and tedious to me; but that
there was no help for. Neither was my time so much loss to
me, because, as I had divided it, a certain part of it was every day
appointed to these works; and as I had resolved to use none of
the corn for bread till I had a greater quantity by me, I had the
next six months to apply myself wholly, by labour and invention,
to furnish myself with utensils proper for the performing all the
operations necessary for making the corn, when I had it, fit for
my use.

CHAPTER IX.

I attempt to mould earthenware, and succeed—Description of my mode of
baking—Begin to make a boat—After it is finished, am unable to get it
down to the water—Serious reflections—My ink and biscuit exhausted,
and clothes in a bad state—Contrive to make a dress of skins,

Burt first I was to prepare more land, for I had now seed enough
to sow above an acre of ground, Before,I did this I had a week’s
work at least to make me a spade, which, when it was done, was
but a sorry one indeed, and very heavy, and required double
labour to work with it. However, I got through that, and sowed
my seed in two large flat pieces of ground as near my house as I
could find them to my mind, and fenced them in with a good
hedge, the stakes of which were all cut off that wood which I had
set before, and knew it would grow; so that in a year’s time I
knew I should have a quick or living hedge that would want but
little repair. This work did not take me up less than three
months, because a great part of that time was the wet season,
when I could not go abroad. Within doors, that is when it
rained and I could not go out, I found employment in the
following occupations—always observing, that all the while I was
116 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

at work I diverted myself with talking to my parrot and teaching
him to speak; and I quickly taught him to know his own name,
and at last to speak it out pretty loud, “Poll,” which was the
first word I ever heard spoken in the island by any mouth but
my own. This, therefore, was not my work, but an assistance to
my work; for now, as I said, I had a great employment upon my
hands, as follows:—I had long studied to make, by some means or
other, some earthen vessels, which, indeed, I wanted sorely, but
knew not where to come at them. However, considering the heat
of the climate, I did not doubt but if I could find out any clay, I
might make some pots that might, being dried in the sun, be hard
enough and strong enough to bear handling, and to hold anything
that was dry, and required to be kept so; and as this was neces-
sary in the preparing corn, meal, etc., which was the thing I was
doing, I resolved to make some as large as I could, and fit only
to stand like jars, to hold what should be put into them.

It would make the reader pity me, or rather laugh at me, to tell
how many awkward ways I took to raise this paste; what odd,
misshapen, ugly things I made; how many of them fell in and
how many fell out, the clay not being stiff enough to bear its own
weight; how many cracked by the over-violent heat of the sun,
being set out too hastily; and how many fell in pieces with only
removing, as well before as after they were dried; and, in a word,
how, after having laboured hard to find the clay—to dig it, to
temper it, to bring it home, and work it—I could not make above
two large earthen ugly things (I cannot call them jars) in about
two months’ labour.

Flowever, as the sun baked these two very dry and hard, I
lifted them very gently up, and set them down again in two great
wicker-baskets, which I had made on purpose for them, that they
might not break; and as between the pot and the basket there
was a little room to spare, I stuffed it full of the rice and barley
straw; and these two pots being to stand always dry I thought
would hold my dry corn, and perhaps the meal when the corn
was bruised.
LOBINSON CRUSOE. : 127

Though I miscarried so much in my design for large pots, yet
I made several smaller things with better success; such as little
round pots, flat dishes, pitchers, and pipkins, and any things my
hand turned to; and the heat of the sun baked them quite hard.

But all this would not answer my end, which was to get an
earthen pot to hold what was liquid and bear the fire, which none
of these could do. It happened after some time, making a pretty
large fire for cooking my meat, when I went to put it out after I
had done with it, I found a broken piece of one of my earthen-
ware vessels in the fire, burnt as hard as a stone and red as a
tile. I was agreeably surprised to see it, and said to myself that
certainly they might be made to burn whole if they would burn
broken.

This set me to study how te order my fire so as to make it
burn some pots. I had no notion of a kiln, such as the potters
burn in, or of glazing them with lead, though I had some lead to
do it with; but I placed three large pipkins and two or three pots
in a pile, one upon another, and placed my firewood all round it,
with a great heap of embers under them. I plied the fire with
fresh fuel round the outside and upon the top till I saw the pots
in the inside red-hot quite through, and observed that they did
not crack at all. When I saw them clear red I let them stand in
that heat about five or six hours, till I found one of them, though
it did not crack, did melt or run; for the sand which was mixed
with the clay melted by the violence of the heat, and would have
run into glass if I had gone on; so I slacked my fire gradually
till the pots began to abate of the red colour; and watching them
all night that I might not let the fire abate too fast, in the
morning I had three very good (I will not say handsome)
pipkins and two other earthen pots, as hard burnt as could be
desired, and one of them perfectly glazed with the running of the
sand,

After this experiment I need not say that I wanted no sort of
earthenware for my use; but I must needs say as to the shapes of
them, they were very indifferent, as any one may suppose, when 1
118 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

had no way of making them but as the children make dirt pies,
or as a woman would make pies that never learned to raise paste.

No joy at a thing of so mean a nature was ever equal to mine
when I found I had made an earthen pot that would bear the
fire; and I had hardly patience to stay till they were cold before I
set one on the fire again, with some water in it, to boil me some
meat, which it did admirably well; and with a piece of a kid I
made some very good broth, though I wanted oatmeal and several
other ingredients requisite to make it as good as I would have
had it been.

My next concern was to get me a stone mortar to stamp or beat
some corn in; for as to the mill, there was no thought of arriving
at that perfection of art with one pair of hands. To supply this
want I was at a great loss, for of all the trades in the world, I was
as perfectly unqualified for a stone-cutter as for any whatever;
neither had I any tools to go about it with, I spent many a day
to find out a great stone big enough to cut hollow and make. fit
for a mortar, and could find none at all, except what was in the
solid rock, and which I had no way to dig or cut out; nor indeed
were the rocks in the island of hardness sufficient, but were all of
a sandy, crumbling stone, which neither would bear the weight of
a heavy pestle, nor would break the corn without filling it with
sand. So after a great deal of time lost in searching for a stone,
I gave it over, and resolved to look out for a great block of hard
wood, which I found indeed much easier; and getting one as big
as I had strength to stir, I rounded it, and formed it on the
outside with my axe and hatchet, and then, with the help of fire
and infinite labour, made a hollow place in it, as the Indians in
Brazil make their canoes. After this I made a great heavy pestle,
or beater, of the wood called the iron-wood, and this I pre-
pared and laid by against I had my next crop of corn, which I
proposed to myself to grind, or rather pound, into meal, to make
bread.

My next difficulty was to make a sieve, or searce, to dress my
meal and to part it from the bran and the husk, without which I
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 1ig

did not see it possible I could have any bread. This was a most
difficult thing even to think on, for to be sure I had nothing like
the necessary thing to make it—-I mean fine thin canvas or stuff
to searce the meal through. And here I was at a full stop for
many months; nor did I really know what to do. Linen J had
none left but what was mere rags; I had goats’ hair, but neither
knew how to weave it or spin it; and had I known how, here were
no tools to work it with. All the remedy that I found for this
was that at last I did remember I had, among the seamen’s
clothes which were saved out of the ship, some neckcloths of
calico or muslin, and with some pieces of these I made three
small sieves proper enough for the work; and thus I made shift
for some years; how I did afterwards I shall show in its place.

The baking part was the next thing to be considered, and how
I should make bread when I came to have corn—for, first, I had
no yeast. As to that part, there was no supplying the want, so I
did not concern myself much about it. But for an oven I was
indeed in great pain, At length I found out an experiment for
that also, which was this: I made some earthen vessels, very
broad but not deep, that is to say about two feet diameter, and
not above nine inches deep. These I burned in the fire, as I had
done the other, and laid them by; and when f wanted to bake I
made a great fire upon my hearth, which I had paved with some
square tiles, of my own baking and burning also; but I should
not call them square.

When the firewood was burned pretty much into embers, or
live coals, I drew them forward upon this hearth, so as to cover it
all over, and there I let them lie till the hearth was very hot.
Then sweeping away all the embers, I set down my loaf or
loaves, and whelming down the earthen pot upon them, drew
the embers all round the outsidé of the pot, to keep in and add
to the heat; and thus, as well as in the best oven in the world, I
baked my barley-loaves, and became, in little time, a good pastry-
cook into the bargain; for I made myself several cakes and
puddings of the rice; but I made no pies, neither had I anything
izo LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

to put into them, supposing I had, except the flesh either of fowls
or goats.

It need not be wondered at if ali these things took me up most
part of the third year of my abode here, for it is to be observed
that in the intervals of these things I had my new harvest and
husbandry to manage; for 1 reaped my corn in its season, and
carried it home as well as I could, and laid it ap in the ear, in my
large baskets, till I had time to rub it out, for I had no floor.to
thrash it on, or instrument to thrash it with,

And now indeed, my stock of corn increasing, I really wanted
to build my barns bigger; I wanted a place to lay it up in, for the
increase of the ccrn now yielded me so much that I had of the
barley about twenty bushels, and of the rice as much or more;
insomuch that now I resolved to begin to use it freely, for my
bread had been quite gone a great while; also I resolved to see
what quantity would be sufficient for me a whole year, and to sow
but once a year.

Upon the whole, I found that the forty bushels of barley and
rice were much more than I could consume in a year, so I
resolved to sow just the same quantity every year that I sowed
the last, in hopes that such a quantity would ae provide me
with bread, etc.

All the while these things were seis you may be sure my
thoughts ran many times upon the prospect of land which I had
seen from the other side of the island; and I was not without
secret wishes that I were on shore there, fancying that, seeing the
mainland and an inhabited country, I might find some way or
other to convey myself farther, and perhaps.at last find some
means of escape.

But all this while I made no allowance for the dangers of such
an undertaking, and how I might fall into the hands of savages,
and perhaps such as I might have reason to think far worse than
the lions and tigers of Africa; that if I once came in their power,
I should run a hazard of more than a thousand to one of being
killed, and perhaps of being eaten; for I had heard that the
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 12

people of the Caribbean coast were cannibals, or man-eaters, and
I knew by the latitude that I could not .be far from that shore.
Then, supposing they were not cannibals, yet they might kill me,
as many Europeans who had fallen into their hands had been
served, even when they had been ten or twenty together—much
more I, that was but one, and could make little or no defence;
all these things, I say, which I ought to-have considered well, and
did. come into my thoughts afterwards, yet gave me no apprehen-
sions at first, and my head ran mightily upon the thought of
getting over to the shore.

Now I wished for my boy Xury and the long-boat with shoulder-
of-mutton sail, with which I sailed above a thousand miles on the
coast of Africa; but this was in vain: then I thought I would go
and look at our ship’s boat, which, as I have said, was blown up
upon the shore a great way in the storm when we were first cast
away. She lay almost where she did at first, but not quite; and
was turned, by the force of the waves and the winds, almost bottom
upward, against a high ridge of beachy, rough sand, but no water
about her. If I had had hands to have refitted her, and to have
launched her into the water, the boat would have done well enough,
and I might have gone back into the Brazils with her easily
enough; but I might have foreseen that I could no more turn her
and set her upright upon her bottom than I could remove the
island; however, I went to the woods and cut levers and rollers,
and brought them to the boat, resolving to try what I could do;
suggesting to myself that if I could but turn her down, I might
repair the damage she had received, and she would be a very good
boat, and I might go to sea in her very easily.

I spared no pains, indeed, in this piece of fruitless toil, and
spent, I think, three or four weeks about it; at last- finding it im-
possible to heave it up with my little strength, I fell to digging
away the sand, to undermine it, and so to make it fall down,
setting pieces of wood to thrust and guide it right in the fall.

But when I had done this I was unable to stir it up again, or to
get under it, much less to move it forward towards the water; so I
122 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

was forced to give it over; and yet, though I gave over the hopes
of the boat, my desire to venture over for the main increased,
rather than decreased, as the means for it seemed impossible.

This at length put me upon thinking whether it was not possible
to make myself a canoe or periagua, such as the natives of those
climates make, even without tools, or, as | might say, without
hands, of the trunk of a great tree, This I not only thought
possible but easy, and pleased myself extremely with the thoughts
of making it, and with my having much more convenience for it
than any of the Negroes or Indians; but not at all considering the
particular inconveniences which I lay under more than the Indians
did—viz., want of hands to move it, when it was made, into the
water—a difficulty much harder for me to surmount than ali the
consequences of want ef tools could be to them; for what was it
to me, if when I had chosen a vast tree in the woods, and with
much trouble cut it down, if 1 had been able with my tools to hew
and dub the outside into the proper shape of a boat, and burn or
cut out the inside to make it hollow, so as to make a boat of it—
if, after all this, I must leave it just there where I found it, and
not be able to launch it into the water? ;

One would have thought I could not have had the least reflection
upon my mind of my circumstances while I was making this boat,
but I should have immediately thought how I should get it into the
sea; but my thoughts were so intent upon my voyage over the sea
in it, that I never once considered how I should get it off the land;
and it was really, in its own nature, more easy for me to guide it
over forty-five miles of sea than about forty-five fathoms of land,
where it lay, to set it afloat in the water.

I went to work upon this boat the most like a fool than ever man
did who had any of his senses awake. I pleased myself with the
design, without determining whether I was ever able to undertake
it; not but that the difficulty of launching my boat came often into
my head; but I put a stop to my inquiries into it by this foolish
answer which I gave myself—‘ Let me first make it; I warrant
T will find sume way or other to get it along when it is done.”
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 123

This was a most preposterous method ; but the eagerness of my
fancy prevailed, and to work I went. I felled a cedar tree, and 1
question much whether Solomon ever had such a one for the
building of the Temple of Jerusalem; it was five feet ten inches
diameter at the lower part next the stump, and four feet eleven
inches diameter at the end of twenty-two feet; after which it
lessened for a while, and then parted into branches, It was not
without infinite labour that I felled this tree; I was twenty days
hacking and hewing at it at the bottom; 1 was fourteen more
getting the branches and limbs and the vast spreading head cut
off, which I hacked and hewed through with axe and hatchet and
inexpressible labour ; after this it cost me a month to shape it and
dub it to a proportion, and to something like the bottom of a boat,
that it might swim upright as it ought to do. It cost me near
three months more to clear the inside and work it out so as to
make an exact boat of it; this I did, indeed, without fire, by mere
mallet and chisel, and by the dint of hard labour, till I had
brought it to be a very handsome periagua, and big enough to
have carried six-and-twenty men, and consequently big enough to
have carried me and all my cargo. ,

When I had gone through this work I was extremely delighted
with it, The boat was really much bigger than ever I saw a canoe
or periagua, that was made of one tree, in my life. Many a weary
stroke it had cost, you may be sure; and had I gotten it into the
water, I make no question but I should have begun the maddest
voyage, and the most unlikely to be performed, that ever was
undertaken.

But all my devices to get it into the water failed me; though
they cost me infinite labour. too. It lay about one hundred
yards from the water, and not more; but the first inconvenience
was, it was up hill towards the creek. Well, to take away this
discouragement, I resolved to dig into the surface of the earth,
and so make a declivity; this I began, and it cost me a pro-
digious deal of pains (but who grudge pains who have their
deliverance in view?); but when this was worked through, and
124 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OP

this difficulty managed, it was still much the same, for I could
no more stir the canoe than I could the other boat. Then 1
measured the distance of ground, and resolved to cut a dock or
canal, to bring the water up to the cance, seeing I could noi
bring the canoe down to the water. Well, I began this work;
‘and when I began to enter upon it and calculate how deep it
was to be dug, how broad, how the stuff was to be thrown out, I
found that, by the number of hands I had, being none but my
own, it must have been ten or twelve years before I could have
gone through with it; for the shore lay so high, that at the
upper end it must have been at least twenty feet deep; so at
length, though with great reluctancy, I gave this attempt over
also.

This grieved me heartily; and now I saw, though toc late, the
folly of beginning a work before we count the cost, and before we
judge rightly of our own strength to go through with it.

In the middle of this work I finished my fourth year in this
place, and kept my anniversary with the same devotion, and
with as much comfort as ever before; for by a constant study
and serious application to the Word of God, and by the assist-
ance of His grace, I gained a different knowledge from what I
had before. I entertained different notions of things. 1 looked
now upon the world as a thing remote, which I had nothing to
do with, no expectations from, and, indeed, no desires about; in
a word, I had nothing indeed to do with it, nor was ever likely to
have, so I thought it looked, as we may perhaps look upon it
hereafter—viz., as a place I had lived in, but was come out of it;
and well might I say, as Father Abraham to Dives, “ Between me
and thee is a great gulf fixed.”

In the first place, I was removed from all the wickedness
of the world here; I had neither the lusts of the flesh, the
lusts of the eye, nor the pride of life. I had nothing to covet,
for I had all that I was now capable of enjoying; I was lord of
the whole manor; or, if I pleased, I might call myself king
or emperor over the whole country which I had possession of:
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 125

there were no rivals; I had no competitor, none to dispute
sovereignty or command with me: I might have raised ship-
loadings of corn, but I had no use for it; so I let as little grow
as I thought enough for my occasion. I had tortoise or turtle
enough, but now and then one was as much as I could put
to any use; I had timber enough to have built a fleet of
ships; and I had grapes enough to have made wine, or to
have cured into raisins, to have loaded that fleet when it had
been built.

But all I could make use of was all that was valuable; I
had enough to eat and supply my wants, and what was all the
rest tome? If I killed more flesh than I could eat, the dog must
eat it, or vermin; if | sowed more corn than I could eat, it must
be spoiled ; the trees that I cut down were lying to rot on the
ground; I could make no more use of them but for fuel, and that
I had no occasion for but to dress my food.

In a word, the nature and experience of things dictated to me,
upon just reflection, that all the good things of this world are no
further good to us than they are for our use; and that, whatever
we may heap up to give others, we enjoy just as much as we can
use, and ne more. The most covetous, griping miser in the
world would have been cured of the vice of covetousness if
he had been in my case; for I possessed infinitely more than
I knew what to do with. I had no room for desire, except it
was of things which I had not, and they were but trifles,
though, indeed, of great use to me. I had, as I hinted before,
a parcel of money, as well gold as silver, about thirty-six pounds
sterling, Alas! there the sorry, useless stuff lay; I had no
manner of business for it; and often thought with myself that
I would have given a handful of it for a gross of tobacco-pipes,
or for a hand-mill to grind my corn; nay, I would have given
it all for a sixpenny-worth of turnip and carrot seed out of
England, or for a handful of peas and beans and a bottle of
ink, As it was, I had not the least advantage by it or benefit
from it; but there it lay in a drawer, and grew mouldy with the
126 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

damp of the cave in the wet seasons; and if I had had the drawet
full of diamonds, it had been the same case—they had been of no
manner of value to me, because of no use.

I had now brought my state of life to be much easier in itself
than it was at first, and much easier to my mind, as well as to my
body. I frequently sat down to meat with thankfulness, and
admired the hand of God’s providence, which had thus spread
my table in the wilderness. I learned to look more upon the
bright side of my condition, and less upon the dark side, and to
consider what I enjoyed rather than what I wanted; and this
gave me sometimes such secret comforts that I cannot express
them; and which I take notice of here, to put those discontented
people in mind of it, who cannot enjoy comfortably what God
has given them because they see and covet something that He
has not given them. All our discontents about what we want
appeared to me to spring from the want of thankfulness for what
we have.

Another reflection was of great use to me, and doubtless would
be so to any one that should fall into such distress as mine was;
and this was, to compare my present condition with what I at
first expected it would be; nay, with what it would certainly have
been if the good providence of God had not wonderfully ordered
the ship to be cast up nearer to the shore, where I not only could
come at her, but could bring what I got out of her to the shore for
my relief and comfort; without which I had wanted for tools to
work, weapons for defence, and gunpowder and shot for getting
my food.

I spent whole hours, I may say whole days, in representing to
myself, in the most lively colours, how I must have acted if I had
got nothing out of the ship. How I could not have so much as
got any food, except fish and turtles; and that, as it was long
before I found any of them, 1 must have perished first; that I
should have lived, if I had not perished, like a mere savage;
that if I had killed a goat or a fowl by any contrivance, I had no
way to flay or open it, or part the flesh from the skin and the
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 127

bowels, or to cut it up; but must gnaw it with my teeth and pull
it with my claws like a beast.

These reflections made me very sensible of the goodness of
Providence to me, and very thankful for my present condition,
with all its hardships and misfortunes; and this part also I cannot
but recommend to the reflection of those who are apt, in their
misery, to say, “Is any affliction like mine?” Let them consider
how much worse the cases of some people are, and their case
might have been, if Providence had thought fit.

I had another reflection, which assisted me also to comfort my
mind with hopes; and this was comparing my present situation
with what I had deserved, and had therefore reason to expect
from the hand of Providence, I had lived a dreadful life,
perfectly destitute of the knowledge and fear of God. I had
been well instructed by father and mother; neither had they
been wanting to me in their early endeavours to infuse a religious
awe of God into my mind, a sense of my duty, and what the
nature and end of my being required of me. But, alas! falling early
into the seafaring life, which of all lives is the most destitute of the
fear of God, though His terrors are always before them; I say,
falling early into the seafaring life, and into seafaring company,
all that little sense of religion which I had entertained was
laughed out of me by my messmates; by a hardened despising of
dangers and the views of death, which grew habitual to me by
my long absence from all manner of opportunities to converse
with anything but what was like myself, or to hear anything that
was good or tended towards it.

So void was I of everything that was good, or the least sense
of what I was or was to be, that, in the greatest deliverances I
enjoyed—such as my escape from Sallee; my being taken up by
the Portuguese master of the ship; my being planted so well in
the Brazils; my receiving the cargo from England, and the like—
T never had once the words, “Thank God,” so much as on my
mind or in my mouth; nor in the greatest distress had I so much
as a thought to pray to Him, or so much as to say, “ Lord, have
128 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

mercy upon me!” no, nor to mention the name of God, unless it
was to swear by and blaspheme it.

Thad terrible reflections upon my mind for many months, as I
have already observed, on account of my wicked and hardened
life past; and when I looked about me and considered what
particular providences had attended me since my coming into
this place, and how God had dealt bountifully with me—had
not only punished me less than my iniquity had deserved, but had
so plentifully provided for me—this gave me great hopes that my
repentance was accepted, and that God had yet mercy in store
for me.

With these reflections I worked my mind up, not only to a
resignation to the will of God in the present disposition of my
circumstances, but even to a sincere thankfulness for my condition;
and that I, who was yet a living man, ought not to complain,
seeing I had not the due punishment of my sins; that I enjoyed
sO many mercies which [ had no reason to have expected in that
place; that I ought never more to repine at my condition, but to
rejoice, and to give daily thanks for that daily bread, which
nothing but a crowd of wonders could have brought; that I
ought to consider I had been fed even by a miracle, even as great
as that of feeding Elijah by ravens—nay, by a long series of
miracles; and that [ could hardly have named a place in the
uninhabitable part of the world where I could have been cast more
to my advantage—a place where, as I had no society, which was
my affliction on one hand, so I found no ravenous beasts, no
furious wolves or tigers, to threaten my life; no venomous
creatures, or poisons, which I might feed on to my hurt; no
savages to murder and devour me. In a word, as my life was a
life of sorrow one way, so it was a life of mercy another; and [I
wanted nothing to make it a life of comfort but to be able to
make my sense cf Gad’s goodness to me, and care over me in
this condition, be my daily consolation; and after I did make a
just improvement on these things I went away, and was no more
sad. I had now been here so long that many things which I
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 129

had brought on shore for my help were either quite gone or very
much wasted and near spent.

My ink, as I observed, had been gone some time, all but a
very little, which I eked out with water, a little and a little, till it
was so pale it scarce let any appearance of black upon the paper.
As long as it lasted I made use of it to minute down the days of
the month on which any remarkable thing happened to me; and
first, by casting up times past, I remembered that there was a
strange concurrence of days in the various providences which
befell me, and which, if I had been superstitiously inclined to
observe days as fatal or fortunate, 1 might have had reason to
have looked upon with a great deal of curiosity.

First, I had observed that the same day that I broke away
from my father and friends and ran away to Hull, in order to go
to sea, the same day afterwards I was taken by the Sallee man-of-
war and made a slave; the same day of the year that I escaped
out of the wreck of that ship in Yarmouth Roads, that same day
year afterwards I made my escape from Sallee in a boat; the.
same day of the year I was born on—viz., the 30th of September,
that same day I had my life so miraculously saved twenty-six years
after, when I was cast on shore in this island; so that my wicked
life and my solitary life began both on a day.

The next thing to my ink being wasted was that of my bread
—I mean the biscuit which I brought out of the ship; this I had
husbanded to the last degree, allowing myself but one cake of
bread a day for above a year; and yet I was quite without bread
for near a year before I got any corn of my own; and great
reason I had to be thankful that I had any at all, the getting it
being, as has been already observed, next to miraculous.

My clothes, too, began to decay; as to linen, I had had none
a good while, except some chequered shirts which I found in the
chests of the other seamen, and which I carefully preserved;
because many times I could bear no other clothes on but a shirt;
and it was a very great help to me that I had, among all the
men’s clothes of the ship, almost three dozen of shirts. There

9
130 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

were also, indeed, several thick watch-coats of the seamen’s which
were left, but they were too hot to wear; and though it is true
that the weather was so violently hot that there was no need of
clothes, yet I could not go quite naked—no, though I had been
inclined to it, which 1 was not—nor could I abide the thought of
it, though I was alone. The reason why I could not go naked
was I could not bear the heat of the sun so well when quite
naked as with some clothes on—nay, the very heat frequently
blistered my skin; whereas with a shirt on, the air itself made
some motion, and whistling under the shirt, was twofold cooler
than without it. No more could I ever bring myself to go out in
the heat of the sun without a cap or a hat; the heat of the sun,
beating with such violence as it does in that place, would give me
the headache presently, by darting so directly on my head, with-
out a cap or hat on, so that I could not bear it; whereas, if I put
on my hat it would presently go away.

Upon these views I began to consider about putting the few
rags I had, which I called clothes, into some order; I had worn
out all the waistcoats I had, and my business was now to try if J
could not make jackets out of the great watch-coats which I had
by me, and with such other materials as I had; so I set to work
tailoring, or rather, indeed, botching, for I made most piteous
work of it. However, I made shift to make two or three new
waistcoats, which I hoped would serve me a great while; as for
breeches or drawers, I made but a very sorry shift indeed till
afterwards.

I have mentioned that I saved the skins of all the creatures
that I killed, I mean four-footed ones, and I had them hung up,
stretched out with sticks in the sun, by which means some of
them were so dry and hard that they were fit for little, but others
were very useful. The first thing I made of these was a great
cap for my head, with the hair on the outside, to shoot off the
rain; and this I performed so well, that after I made me a suit of
clothes wholly of these skins—that is to say, a waistcoat and
breeches open at the knees, and both loose, for they were rather
‘ROBINSON CRUSOE. 131

wanting to keep me cool than to keep me warm. I must not
omit to acknowledge that they were wretchedly made; for if
I was a bad carpenter, I was a worse tailor. However, they were
such as I made very good shift with, and when I was out, if it
happened to rain, the hair of my waistcoat and cap being outer-
most, I was kept very dry.

After this I spent a great deal of time and pains to make an
umbrella; I was, indeed, in great want of one, and had a great
mind to make one: I had seen them made in the Brazils, where
they are very useful in the great heats there, and I felt the heats
every jot as great here, and greater too, being nearer the equinox;
besides, as I was obliged to be much abroad, it was a most useful
thing to me, as well for the rains as the heats. I took a world
of pains with it, and was a great while before I could make any-
thing likely to hold—nay, after I had thought I had hit the way, I
spoiled two or three before I made one to my mind; but at last
I made one that answered indifferently well; the main difficulty
T found was to make it let down. I could make it spread, but if
it did not let down too and draw in, it was not portable for me
any way but just over my head, which would not do. However,
at last, as I said, I made one to answer, and covered it with skins,
the hair upwards, so that it cast off the rain like a pent-house,
and kept off the sun so effectually that I could walk out in the
hottest of the weather with greater advantage than I could before
in the coolest, and when I had no need of it could close it and
carry it under my arm.

Thus I lived mighty comfortably, my mind being entirely com-
posed by resigning myself to the will of God, and throwing my-
self wholly upon the disposal of His providence. This made my
life better than sociable, for when I began to regret the want of
conversation, I would ask myself, whether thus conversing
mutually with my own thoughts, and (as I hope I may say) with
even God Himself, by ejaculations, was not better than the utmost
enjoyment of human society in the world?
132 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

CHAPTER X.

I succeed in getting 2 cance afloat, and set out on a voyage in the sixth
year of my reign, or captivity—Blown out to sea—Reach the shore
with great difficulty—Fall asleep, and am awakened by a voice calling
my name—Devise various schemes to tame goats, and at last succeed.

.

I cANNoT say that, after this, for five years, any extraordinary
thing happened to me, but I lived on in the same course, in the
same posture and place, as before; the chief things I was em-
ployed in, besides my yearly labour of planting my barley and
rice and curing my raisins, of both which I always kept up just
enough to have sufficient stock of one year’s provisions before-
hand; I say, besides this yearly labour and my daily pursuit of
going out with my gun, I had one labour, to make a canoe, which
at last I finished; so that by digging a canal to it of six feet wide
and four feet deep, I brought it into the creek, almost half-a-mile.
As for the first, which was so vastly big, for I made it without
considering beforehand, as I ought to have done, how I should
“be able to launch it, so, never being able to bring it into the
water, or bring the water to it, I was obliged to let it lie where it was
as a memorandum to teach me to be wiser next time; indeed,
the next time, though I could not get a tree proper for it, and
was in a place where I could not get the water to it at any less
distance than, as I have said, near half-a-mile, yet, as I saw it was
practicable at last, I never gave it over; and though I was near
two years about it, yet I never grudged my labour, in hopes of
having a boat to go off to sea at last.

However, though my little periagua was finished, yet the size
of it was not at all answerable to the design which I had in view
when I made the first; I mean of venturing over to the serra
firma, where it was above forty miles broad; accordingly, the
smallness of my boat assisted to put an end to that design, and
now I thought no more of it. As I hada boat, my next design
was to make a cruise round the island; for as I had been on the
ROBINSON CRUSOE. £33

other side in one place, crossing, as I have already described it,
over the land, so the discoveries I made in that little journey
made me very eager to see other parts of the coast; and now I
had a boat I thought of nothing but sailing round the island.

For this purpose, that I might do everything with discretion
and consideration, I fitted up a little mast in my boat, and made
a sail too out of some of the pieces of the ship’s sails which lay
in store, and of which I had a great stock by me. Having fitted
my mast and sail-and tried the boat, I found she would sail very
well; then I made little lockers or boxes at each end of my boat,
to put provisions, necessaries, ammunition, etc., into, to be kept
dry, either from rain or the spray of the sea; and a little, long,
hollow place I cut in the inside of the boat, where I could lay my
gun, making a flap to hang down over it te keep it dry.

I fixed my umbrella also in a step at the stern, like a mast, to
stand over my head and keep the heat of the sun off me, like an
awning ; and thus I every now and then took a little voyage upon
the sea, but never went far out, nor far from the little creek, At
last, being eager to view the circumference of my little kingdom,
i resolved upon my cruise; and accordingly I victualled my ship
for the voyage, putting in two dozen of loaves (cakes I should call
them) of barley bread, an earthen pot full of parched rice (a food
I ate a good deal of), a little bottle of rum, half a goat, and
powder and shot for killing more, and two large watch-coats, of
those which, as I mentioned before, I had saved out of the
seamen’s chests; these I took, one to lie upon, and the other to
cover me in the night.

It was the 6th of November, in the sixth year of my reign—or
my captivity, which you please—that I set out on this voyage, and
I found it much longer than I expected; for though the island
itself was not very large, yet when I came to the east side of it, J
found a great ledge of rocks lie out about two leagues into the sea,
some above water, some under it; and beyond that a shoal of
sand, lying dry half-a-league more, so that I was obliged to goa
great way out to sea to double the point.
134 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

When I first discovered them I was going to give over my
enterprise and come back again, not knowing how far it might
oblige me to go out to sea; and above all, doubting how I should
get back again: so I came to an anchor; for I had made a kind
of an anchor with a piece of a broken grappling which I got out of —
the ship.

Having secured my boat, I took my gun and went on shore,
climbing up a hill, which seemed to overlook that point where I
saw the full extent of it, and resolved to venture.

In my viewing the sea from that hill where I stood 1 perceived
a strong, and indeed a most furious, current, which ran to the
east, and even came close to the point; and I took the more
notice of it because I saw there might be some danger that when
I came into it I might be carried out to sea by the strength of it,
and not be able to make the island again; and indeed, had I not
got first upon this hill, I believe it would have been so; for there
was the same current on the other side the island, only that it set
off at a farther distance, and I saw there was a strong eddy under
the shore; so I had nothing to do but to get out of the first
current and I should presently be in an eddy.

I lay here, however, two days, because the wind blowing pretty
fresh at E.S.E., and that being just contrary to the current, made
a great breach of the.sea upon the point; so that it was not safe
for me to keep too close to the shore for the breach, nor to go too
far off because of the stream.

The third day, in the morning, the wind having abated over-
night, the sea was calm, and I ventured: but I am a warning to
all rash and ignorant pilots; for no sooner was I come to the
point, when I was not even my boat’s length from the shore, but
I found myself in a great depth of water and a current like the
sluice of a mill: it carried my boat along with it with such
violence that all I could do could not keep her so much as on the
edge of it; but I found it hurried me farther and farther out from
the eddy, which was on my left hand. There was no wind
stirring to help me, and all I could do with my paddles signified
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 135

nothing: and now I began to give myself over for lost; for as
the current was on both sides of the island, I knew in a few
leagues distance they must join again, and then I was irrecover-
ably gone; nor did I see any possibility of avoiding it; so that I
had no prospect before me but of perishing, not by the sea, for
that was calm enough, but of starving from hunger. I had,
indeed, found a tortoise on the shore, as big almost as I could
lift, and had tossed it into the boat; and I had a great jar of fresh
water—that is to say, one of my earthen pots; but what was all
this to being driven into the vast ocean, where, to be sure, there
was no shore, no mainland or island, for a thousand leagues at
least ?

And now I saw how easy it was for the providence of God to
make even the most miserable condition ef mankind worse.
Now I looked back upon my desolate, solitary island as the most
pleasant place in the world, and all the happiness my heart could
wish for was to be but there again. I stretched out my hands to
it with eager wishes— Oh, happy desert!” said I, “I shall never
see thee more. Oh, miserable creature! whither am I going?”
Then I reproached myself with my unthankful temper, and that
[ had repined at my solitary condition; and now what would I
give to be on shore there again! Thus we never see the true
state of our condition till it is illustrated to us by its contraries,
nor know how to value what we enjoy but by the want of it. It
is scarcely possible to imagine the consternation I was now in,
being driven from my beloved island (for so it appeared to me
now to be) into the wide ocean, almost two leagues, and in the
utmost despair of ever recovering it again. However, I worked
hard till, indeed, my strength was almost exhausted, and kept my
boat as much to the northward, that is, towards the side of the
current which the eddy lay on, as possibly I could; when about
noon, as the sun passed the meridian, I thought I felt a little
breeze of wind in my face, springing up from S.S.E. This
cheered my heart a little, and especially when, in about half-an-
hour more, it blew a pretty gentle gale. By this time I had got
136 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

at a frightful distance from the island, and had the least cloudy
or hazy weather intervened, I had been undone another way too;
for I had no compass on board, and should never have known
how to have steered towards the island if I had but once lost
sight of it; but the weather continuing clear, I applied myself to
get up my mast again and spread my sail, standing away to the
north as much as possible to get out of the current.

Just as I had set my mast and sail, and the boat began to
stretch away, I saw even by the clearness of the water some
alteration of the current was near; for where the current was so
strong the water was foul; but perceiving the water clear, I found
the current abate; and presently I found to the east, at about
-half-a-mile, a breach of the sea upon some rocks: these rocks I
found caused the current to part again, and as the main stress
of it ran away more southerly, leaving the rocks to the north-east,
so the other returned by the repulse of the rocks, and made a
strong eddy, which ran back again to the north-west with a very
sharp stream. ;

They who know what it is to have a reprieve brought to them
upon the ladder, or to be rescued from thieves just going to
murder them, or who have been in such extremities, may guess
what my present surprise of joy was, and how gladly I put my
boat into the stream of this eddy; and the wind also freshening,
how gladly I spread my sail to it, running cheerfully before the
wind, and with a strong tide or eddy under foot.

This eddy carried me about a league in my way back again,
directly towards the island, but about two leagues more to the
northward than the current which carried me away at first; so
that when I came near the island I found myself open to the
northern shore of it, that is to say, the other end of the island
opposite to that which I went out from.

When I had made something more than a league of way by the
help of this current or eddy, I found it was spent, and served me
no farther. However, I found that being between two great
currents—yviz,, that on the south side, which had hurried me
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 137

away, and that on the north, which lay about a league on the
other side; I say, between these two, in the wake of the island, I
found the water at least still, and running no way; and having
still a breeze of wind fair for me, I kept on steering directly for
the island, though not making such fresh way as I did before.

About four o’clock in the evening, being then within a league
of the island, I found the point of the rocks which occasioned’
this disaster stretching out, as is described before, to the south-
ward, and casting off the current more southerly, had, of course,
made another eddy to the north; and this I found very strong,
but not directly setting the way my course lay, which was due
west, but almost full north, However, having a fresh gale, I -
stretched across this eddy, slanting north-west; and in about an
hour came within about a mile of the shore, where, it being
smooth water, I soon got to land. ,

When I was on shore I fell on my knees and gave God
thanks for my deliverance, resolving to lay aside all thoughts
of my deliverance by my boat; and refreshing myself with such
things as I had, I brought my boat close to the shore, in a little
cove that I had spied under some trees, and laid me down to
sleep, being quite spent with the labour and fatigue of the
. voyage.

I was now at a great loss which way to get home with m
boat! Ihad run so much hazard, and knew too much of the
case, to think of attempting it by the way I went out; and what
might be at the other side (I mean the west side) I knew not,
nor had I any mind to run any more ventures; so I resolved on
the next morning to make my way westward along the shore, and
to see if there was no creek where I might lay up my frigate in
safety, so as to have her again if I wanted her. In about three
miles, or thereabouts, coasting the shore, I came to a very good
inlet or bay, about a mile over, which narrowed till it came to
a very little rivulet or brook, where I found a very convenient
harbour for my boat, and where she lay as if she had been in
a little dock made on purpose for her. Here I put in, and
138 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

having stowed my boat very safe, I went on shore to look
about me and see where I was.

I soon found I had but a little passed by the place where
I had been before when I travelled on foot to that shore; so
taking nothing out of my boat but my gun and umbrella, for
it was exceedingly hot, I began my march. The way was
comfortable enough after such a voyage as I had been upon,
and I reached my old bower in the evening, where I found
everything standing as I left it; for I always kept it in good
order, being, as I said before, my country-house.

I got over the fence and laid me down in the shade to rest
my limbs, for I was very weary, and fell asleep; but judge you,
if you can, that zead my story, what a surprise I must be in
when I was awaked out of my sleep by a voice calling me by
my name several times, “ Robin, Robin, Robin Crusoe; poor
Robin Crusoe! Where are you, Robin Crusoe? Where are
you? Where have you been?”

I was so dead asleep at first, being fatigued with rowing, or
paddling, as it is called, the first part of the day, and with
walking the latter part, that I did not wake thoroughly; but
dozing between sleeping and waking, thought I dreamed that
somebody spoke to me; but as the voice continued to repeat,
“Robin Crusoe, Robin Crusoe,” at last I began to wake more
perfectly, and was at first dreadfully frightened, and started up
in the utmost consternation; but no sooner were my eyes open
but I saw my Poll sitting on the top of the hedge; and
immediately knew that it was he that spoke to me; for just
in such bemoaning language I had used to talk to him and
teach him; and he had learned it so perfectly that he would
sit upon my finger and lay his bill close to my face and cry,
“Poor Robin Crusoe! Where are you? Where have you been?
How came you here?” and such things as I had taught him.

However, even though I knew it was the parrot, and that
indeed it could be nobody else, it was a good while before I
could compose myself. First, I was amazed how the creature got
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 139

thither; and then, how he should just keep about the place, and
nowhere else; but as I was well satisfied it could be nobody
but honest Poll, I got over it; and holding out my hand and
calling him by his name, “Poll,” the sociable creature came to
me and sat upon my thumb, as he used to do, and continued
talking to me, ‘Poor Robin Crusoe! and how did I come
here? and where had I been?” just as if he had been overjoyed
to see me again; and so I carried him home again with me.

I had now had enough of rambling to sea for some time,
and had enough to do for many days to sit still and reflect
upon the danger I had been in. I would have been very glad to
have had my boat again on my side of the island; but I knew
not how it was practicable to get it about. As to the east
side of the island, which I had gone round, I knew well
enough there was no venturing that way; my very heart would
shrink and my very blood run chill but to think of it; and
as to the other side of the island, I did not know how it
might be there; but supposing the current ran with the same
force against the shore at the east as it passed by it on the
other, I might run the same risk of being driven down the stream
and carried by the island, as I had been before of being carried
away from it; so with these thoughts I contented myself to be with-
out any boat, though it had been the product of so many months’
labour to make it, and of so many more to get it into the sea.

In this government of my temper I remained near a year, and
lived a very sedate, retired life, as you may well suppose; and
my. thoughts being very much composed as to my condition,
and fully comforted in resigning myself to the dispositions of
Providence, I thought I lived really very happily in all things
except that of society.

I improved myself in this time in all the mechanic exercises
which my necessities put me upon applying myself to; and I
believe I should, upon occasion, have made a very good
carpenter, especially considering how few tools I had.

Besides this, I arrived at an unexpected perfection in my
140 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

earthenware, and contrived well enough to make them with
a wheel, which I found infinitely easier and better; because I
made things round and shaped, which before were filthy things
indeed to look on. But I think I was never more vain of my
own performance, or more joyful for anything I found out, than
for my being able to make a tobacco-pipe; and though it was
a very ugly, clumsy thing when it was done, and only burned
red, like other earthenware, yet as it was hard and firm, and
would draw the smoke, I was exceedingly comforted with it,
for I had been always used to smoke; and there were pipes
in the ship, but I forgot them at first, not thinking there was
tobacco in the island; and afterwards, when I searched the
ship again, I could not come at any pipes.

In my wickerware also I improved much, and made abundance
of necessary baskets, as well as my invention showed me; though
not very handsome, yet they were such as were very handy and
convenient for laying things up in, or fetching things home. For
example, if I killed a goat abroad, I could hang it up in a tree,
flay it, dress it, and cut it in pieces, and bring it home in a
basket; and the like by a turtle; I could cut it up, take out the
eggs, and a piece or two of the flesh, which was enough for me,
and bring them home in a basket and leave the rest behind me.
Also large, deep baskets were the receivers of my corn, which I
always rubbed out as soon as it was dry, and cured and kept it
in great baskets.

I began now to perceive my powder abated considerably; this
was a want which it was impossible for me to supply, and I began
seriously to consider what I must do when I should have no more
powder—that is to say, how I should kill any goats. I had, as is
observed, in the third year of my being here kept a young kid,
and bred her up tame, and I was in hopes of getting a he-goat,
but I could not by any means bring it to pass till my kid grew an
old goat; and as I could never find in my heart to kill her, she
died at last of mere age.

But being now in the eleventh year of my residence, and, as I
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 14

have said, my ammunition growing low, I set myself to study some
art to trap and snare the goats, to see whether I could not catch
some of them alive; and particularly, 1 wanted a she-goat great
with young, For this purpose I made snares to hamper them;
and I do believe they were more than once taken in them; but
my tackle was not good, for I had no wire, and I always found
them broken and my bait devoured. At length I resolved to try
a pitfall; so I dug several large pits in the earth, in places where I
had observed the goats used to feed, and over those pits I placed
hurdles, of my own making too, with a great weight upon them;
and several times I put ears of barley and dry rice without setting
the trap, and I could easily perceive that the goats had gone in
and eaten up the corn, for I could see the marks of their feet.
At length I’set three traps in one night, and going the next
morning I found them all standing, and yet the bait eaten and
gone; this- was very discouraging. However, I altered my traps,
and, not to trouble you with particulars, going one morning to see
my traps, I found in one of them a large old he-goat, and in one
of the others three kids, a male and two females.

As to the old one, I knew not what to do with him; he was so
fierce I durst not go into the pit to him—that is to say, to bring
him away alive, which was what I wanted. I could have killed
him, but that was not my business, nor would it answer my end;
. 80 I even let him out, and he ran away as if he had been fright-
ened out of his wits. But I did not then know what I afterwards
learned—that hunger will tame a lion. If I had let him stay
three or four days without food, and then carried him some water
to drink, and then a little corn, he would have been as tame as
one of the kids; for they are mighty sagacious, tractable creatures
where they are well used.

However, for the present I let him go, knowing no better at
that time; then I went to the three kids, and taking them one by
one, I tied them with strings together, and with some difficulty
brought them all home.

It was a good while before they would feed, but throwing them
142 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

some sweet corn, it tempted them, and they began to be tame.
And now I found that if I expected to supply myself with goats’
flesh when I had no powder or shot left, breeding some up tame
was my only way, when, perhaps, I might have them about my
house like a flock of sheep. But then it occurred to me that I
must keep the tame from the wild, or else they would always run
wild when they grew up; and the only way for this was to have
some enclosed piece of ground, well fenced either with hedge or
pale, to keep them in so effectually that those within might not
break out, or those without break in.

This was a great undertaking for one pair of hands; yet, as I
saw there was an absolute necessity for doing it, my first work was
to find out a proper piece of ground, where there was likely to be
herbage for them to eat, water for them to drink, and cover to
keep them from the sun.

Those who understand such enclosures will think I had very
little contrivance when I pitched upon a place very proper for all
these (being a plain, open piece of meadow land, or savannah, as
our people call it in the western colonies), which had two or three
little drills of fresh water in it, and at one end was very woody—I
” say they will smile at my forecast when I shall tell them I began
by enclosing this piece of ground in‘such a manner that my hedge
or pale must have been at least two miles about. Nor was the
madness of it so great as to the compass, for if it was ten miles
about I was like to have time enough to do it in; but I did not
consider that my goats would be as wild in so much compass as if
they had had the whole island, and I should have so much room
to chase them in that I should never catch them.

My hedge was begun and carried on, I believe, about fifty
yards when this thought occurred to me; so I presently stopped
short, and for the beginning I resolved to enclose a piece of about
one hundred and fifty yards in length and one hundred yards in
breadth, which, as it would maintain as many as I should have in
any reasonable time, so, as my stock increased, I could add more
ground to my enclosure.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 143

This was acting with some prudence, and I went to work with
courage. I was about three months hedging in the first piece;
and till I had done it I tethered the three kids in the best paft
of it, and used them to feed as near me as possible, to make them
familiar; and very often I would go and carry them some ears of
barley or a handful of rice, and feed them out of my hand; so
that after my enclosure was finished and I let them loose, they
would follow me up and down, bleating after me for a handful of
corn.

This answered my end, and in about a year and a half I had a
flock of about twelve goats, kids and all; and in two years more I
had three-and-forty, besides several that I took and killed for my
food. After that I enclosed five several pieces of ground to feed
them in, with little pens to drive them into, to take them as I
wanted, and gates out of one piece of ground into another.

But this was not all; for nowI not only had goats’ flesh to feed
on when I pleased, but milk too—a thing which, indeed, in the
beginning, I did not so much as think of, and which, when it came
into my thoughts, was really an agreeable surprise, for now I set
up my dairy, and had sometimes a gallon or two of milk in a day.
And as Nature, who gives supplies of food to every creature,
dictates even naturally how to make use of it, so I, that had never
milked a cow, much less a goat, or seen butter or cheese made only
when I was a boy, after a great many essays and miscarriages,
made both butter and cheese at last, also salt (though I found it
partly made to my hand by the heat of the sun upon some of the
rocks of the sea), and never wanted it afterwards. How mercifully
can our Creator treat His creatures, even in those conditions in
which they seemed to be overwhelmed in destruction! How can
He sweeten the bitterest providences, and give us cause to praise
Him for dungeons and prisons! What a table was here spread
for me in the wilderness, where I saw nothing at first but to
perish for hunger !
144 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

CHAPTER XI.

Description of my figure—Also of my dwelling and enclosures—Dreadful
alarm on seeing the print of a man’s foot on the shore—Reflections—Take
every possible measure of precaution.

It would have made a Stoic smile to have seen me and my little
family sit down to dinner. There was my majesty, the prince and
lord of the whole island ; I had the lives of all my subjects at my
absolute command; I could hang, draw, give liberty, and take it
away, and no rebels among all my subjects. Then, to see how like
a king I dined, too, all alone, attended by my servants! Poll, as
if he had been my favourite, was the only person permitted to
talk to me. My dog, who was now grown old and crazy, and had
found no species to multiply his kind upon, sat always at my right
hand; and two cats, one on one side of the table and one on the
other, expecting now and then a bit from my hand as a mark of
especial favour.

But these were not the two cats which I brought on shore at
first, for they were both of them dead, and had been interred near
my habitation by my own hand; but one of them having multiplied
by I know not what kind of creature, these were two which I had
preserved tame; whereas the rest ran wild in the woods, and be-
came indeed troublesome to me at last, for they would often come
into my house and plunder me too, till at last I was obliged to
shoot them, and did kill a great many; at length they left me.
With this attendance, and in this plentiful manner, I lived; neither
could I be said to want anything but society; and of that, some
time after this, I was likely to have much.

I was something impatient, as I have observed, to have the use
of my boat, though very loath to run any more hazards; and there-
fore sometimes I sat contriving ways to get her about the island,
and at other times I sat myself down contented enough without
her. But I had a strange uneasiness in my mind to go down to
the point of the island where, as I have said in my last ramble, I

9
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 145

went up the hill to see how the shore lay, and how the current set,
that I might see what I had to do; this inclination increased upon
me every day, and at length I resolved to travel thither by land,
following the edge of the shore. I did so; but had any one in
England met such a man as I was, it must either have frightened
him or raised a great deal of laughter; and as I frequently stood
still to look at myself, I could not but smile at the notion of my
travelling through Yorkshire with such an equipage and in such
adress. Be pleased to take a sketch of my figure as follows:—

I had a great high shapeless cap made of a goat’s skin, with a
flap hanging down behind, as well to keep the sun from me as to
shoot the rain off from running into my neck, nothing being so hurt-
ful in these climates as the rain upon the flesh under the clothes.

I had a short jacket of goat’s skin, the skirts coming down to
about the middle of the thighs, and a pair of open-kneed breeches
of the same; the breeches were made of the skin of an old he-goat,
whose hair hung down such a length on either side, that, like
pantaloons, it reached to the middle of my legs; stockings and
shoes I had none, but had made me a pair of somethings, I scarce
know what to call them, like buskins, to flap over my legs and lace
on either side like spatterdashes, but of a most barbarous shape,
as indeed were all the rest of my clothes.

I had on a broad belt of goat’s skin dried, which I drew together
with two thongs of the same instead of buckles, and in a kind of
a frog on either side of this, instead of a sword and dagger, hung.
a little saw and a hatchet, one on one side and one on the other.
I had another belt not so broad, and fastened in the same manner,
which hung over my shoulder, and at the end of it, under my leit
arm, hung two pouches, both made of goat’s skin, too, in one of
which hung my powder, in the other my shot. At my back I
carried my basket, and on my shoulder my gun, and over my head
a great clumsy, ugly, goat’s-skin umbrella, but which, after all, was
the most necessary thing I had about me next to my gun. As for
my face, the colour of it was really not so mulatto-like as one
might expect from a man not at all careful of it, and living within

10
146 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

nine or ten degrees of the equinox. My beard I had once
suffered to grow till it was about a quarter of a yard long; but as
T had both scissors and razors sufficient, I had cut it pretty short,
except what grew on my upper lip, which I had trimmed into a
large pair of Mahometan whiskers, such as 1 had seen worn by
some Turks at Sallee, for the Moors did not wear such, though
the Turks did; of these moustachios, or whiskers, I will not say
they were long enough to hang my hat upon them, but they were
of a length and shape monstrous enough, and such as in England
would have passed for frightful.

But all this is by-the-bye; for as to my figure, I had so few t6
observe me that it was of no manner of consequence, so I say no
more of that. In this kind of dress I went my new journey and
was out five or six days. I travelled first along the sea-shore,
directly to the place where I first brought my boat to an anchor
to get upon the rocks; and having no boat now to take care of,
I went over the land a nearer way to the same height that I was
upon before, when looking forward to the points of the rocks
which lay out, and which I was obliged to double with my boat,
as is said above, I was surprised to see the sea all smooth and_
quiet—no rippling, no motion, no current, any more there than
in other places. I was at a strange loss to understand this, and
resolved to spend some time in the observing it, to see if nothing
from the sets of the tide had occasioned it; but I was presently
convinced how it was—viz., that the tide of ebb setting from the
west, and joining with the current of waters from some great river
on the shore, must be the occasion of this current, and that,
according as the wind blew more forcibly from the west or from
the north,. this current came nearer or went farther from the
shore; for, waiting thereabouts till evening, I went up to the rock
again, and then the tide of ebb being made, I plainly saw the
current again as before, only that it ran farther off, being near
half-a-league from the shore, whereas in my case it set close upon
the shore and hurried me and my canoe along with it, which at
another time it would not have done.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 147

This observation convinced me that I had nothing to do but
to observe the ebbing and the flowing of the tide, and I might
_very easily bring my boat about the island again; but when I
began to think of putting it into practice I had such a ‘terror
upon my spirits at the remembrance of the danger I had been in
that I could not think of it again with any patience, but, on the
contrary, I took up another resolution, which was more safe,
though more labouring—and this was that I would build, or
rather make, me another periagua or canoe, and so have one for
one side of the island and one for the other.

You are to understand that now I had, as I may call it, twe
plantations in the island—one my little fortification or tent, with
the wall about it under thé rock, with the cave behind me, which
by this time I had enlarged into. several apartments or caves, one
within another. One of these, which was the driest and largest,
and had a door out beyond my wall or fortification—that is to
say, beyond where my wall joined to the rock, was all filled up
with the large earthen pots of which I have given an account, and
with fourteen or fifteen great baskets which would hold five or six
bushels each, where I laid up my stores of provisions, especially
my corn, some in the ear, cut off short from the straw, and the
other rubbed out with my hand.

As for my wall, made, as before, with long stakes or piles, those
piles grew all like trees, and were by this time grown so big and
spread so very much that there was not the least appearance, to
any one’s view, of any habitation behind them.

Near this dwelling of mine, but a little farther within the land,
and upon lower ground, lay my two pieces ef corn land, which I
kept duly cultivated and sowed, and which duly yielded me their
harvest in its season; and whenever I had occasion for more corn
I had more land adjoining as fit as that.

Besides this I had my country-seat, and I had now a tolerable
plantation there also; for, first, I had my little bower, as I called
it, which I kept in repair—that is to say, I kept the hedge which
encircled it in constantly fitted up to its usual height, the ladder
148 IIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

standing always in the inside. I kept the trees, which at first
were no more than stakes, but were now grown very firm and tall,
always cut, so that they might spread and grow thick and wild
and make the more agreeable shade, which they did effectually
to my mind. In the middle of this I had my tent always stand-
ing, being a piece of a sail spread over poles set up for that
. purpose, and which never wanted any repair or renewing; and
under this I had made me a squab or couch with the skins of the
creatures I had killed, and with other soft things, and a blanket
laid on them, such as belonged to our sea-bedding, which I had
saved, and a great watch-coat to cover me. And here, whenever
I had occasion to be absent from my chief seat, I took up my
country habitation.

Adjoining to this I had my enclosures for my cattle, that is to
say my goats, and I had taken an inconceivable deal of pains to
fence and enclose this ground. I was so anxious to see it kept
entire, lest the goats should break through, that I never left off till,
with infinite labour, I had stuck the outside of the hedge so full
of small stakes, and so near to one another, that it was rather
a pale than a hedge, and there was scarce room to put a hand
through between them; which afterwards, when those stakes grew,
as they all did in the next rainy season, made the enclosure strong
like a wall, indeed stronger than any wall.

This will testify for me that I was not idle, and that I spared
no pains to bring to pass whatever appeared necessary for my
comfortable support, for I considered the keeping up a breed of
tame creatures thus at my hand would be a living magazine of
flesh, milk, butter, and cheese for me as long asI lived in the
place, if it were to be forty years; and that keeping them in my
reach depended entirely upon my perfecting my enclosures to
such a degree that I might be sure of keeping them together;
which, by this method, indeed, I so effectually secured, that
when these little stakes began to grow, I had planted them so
very thick that I was forced to pull some of them up again.

In this place also I had my grapes growing, which I principally
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 149

depended on for my winter store of raisins, and which I never
failed to preserve very carefully, as the best and most agreeable
dainty of my whole diet; and indeed they were not only agreeable,
but medicinal, wholesome, nourishing, and refreshing to the last
degree.

As this was also about half-way between my other habitation
and the place where I had laid up my boat, I generally stayed
and lay here in my way thither, for I used frequently to visit my
boat; and I kept all things about, or belonging to her, in very
good order. Sometimes I went out in her to divert myself, but
no more hazardous voyages would I go, scarcely ever above a
stone’s cast or two from the shore, I was so apprehensive of
being hurried out of my knowledge again by the currents or
winds, or any other accident. But now I come toa new scene
of my life.

It happened one day, about noon, going towards my boat, I
was exceedingly surprised with the print of a man’s naked foot on
the shore, which was very plain to be seen on the sand. I stood
like one thunderstruck, or as if I had seen an apparition. I
listened, I looked round me, but I could hear nothing nor see
anything; I went up to a rising ground to look farther; I went up
the shore and down the shore, but it was all one; I could see no
other impression but that one. I went to it again to see if there
were any more, and to observe if it might not be my fancy; but
there was no room for that, for there was exactly the print of a
foot—toes, heel, and every part of a foot. How it came thither I
knew not, nor could I in the least imagine; but after innumerable
fluttering thoughts, like a man perfectly confused and out of
myself, I came home to my fortification, not feeling, as we say,
the ground I went on, but terrified to the last degree, looking
behind me at every two or three steps, mistaking every bush and
tree, and fancying every stump at a distance to be a man.
Nor is it possible to describe how many various shapes my
affrighted imagination represented things to me in, how many
wild ideas were found every moment in my fancy, and what
150 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

strange, unaccountable whimsies came into my thoughts by the
way.

When I came to my castle (for so I think I called it ever after
this), I fled into it like one pursued. Whether I went over by
the ladder, as’ first contrived, or went in at the hole in , the
rock, which I had called a door, I cannot remember; no, nor
could I remember the next morning, for never frightened hare
' fled to cover, or fox to earth, with more terror of mind than I to
this retreat.

I slept none that night; the farther I was from the occasion of
my fright the greater my apprehensions were, which is something
contrary to the nature of such things, and especially to the usual
practice of all creatures in fear; but I was so embarrassed with
my own frightful ideas of the thing, that I formed nothing but
dismal imaginations to myself, even though I was now a great
way off. Sometimes I fancied it must be the devil, and reason
joined in with me in this supposition, for how should any other
thing in human shape come into the place? Where was the
vessel that brought them? What marks were there of any other
footstep? And how was it possible a man should come there?
But then, to think that Satan should take human shape upon him
in such a place, where there could be no manner of occasion for
it, but to leave the print of his foot behind him, and that even for
no purpose too, for he could not be sure I should see it—this was
an amusement the other way. I considered that the devil might
have found out abundance of other ways to have terrified me
than this of the single print of a foot; that as I lived quite on the
other side of the island, he would never have been so simple as
to leave a mark in a place where it was ten thousand to one
whether I should ever see it or not, and in the sand too, which
the first surge of the sea, upon a high wind, would have defaced
entirely, All this seemed inconsistent with the thing itself, and
with all the notions we usually entertain of the subtlety of the devil.

Abundance of such things as these assisted to argue me out
of all apprehensions of its being the devil; and I presently con-
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 151

cluded then that it must be some more dangerous creature—viz.,
that it must be some of the savages of the mainland opposite
who had wandered out to sea in their canoes, and either driven
by the currents or by contrary winds, had made the island, and
had been on shore, but were gone away again to sea; being as
loath, perhaps, to have stayed in this desolate island as I would
have been to have had them.

While these reflections were rolling in my mind, I was very thank-
ful in my thoughts that I was so happy as not to be thereabouts
at that time, or that they did not see my boat, by which they
would have concluded that some inhabitants had been in the
place, and perhaps have searched farther for me. Then terrible
thoughts racked my imagination about their having found out my
boat, and that there were people here; and that, if so, I should
certainly have them come again in greater numbers and devour
me; that if it should happen that they should not find me, yet
they would find my enclosure, destroy all my corn, and carry
away all my flock of tame goats, and I should perish at last for
mere want.

Thus my fear banished all my religious hope, all that former
confidence in God, which was founded upon such wonderful
experience as I had had of His goodness; as if He that had fed
me by miracle hitherto could not preserve, by His power, the
provision which He had made for me by His goodness. I
reproached myself with my laziness, that would not sow any more
corn one year than would just serve me till the next season, as if
no accident could intervene to prevent my enjoying the crop that
was upon the ground; and this I thought so just a reproof that
I resolved for the future to have two or three years’ corn before
hand; so that, whatever might come, I might not perish for want
of bread.

How strange a chequer-work of Providence is the life of man!
and by what secret different springs are the affections hurried
about, as different circumstances present! To-day we love what
to-morrow we hate; to-day we seek what to-morrow we shun;
152 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

to-day we desire what to-morrow we fear, nay, even tremble at the
apprehensions of. This was exemplified in me, at this time, in
the most lively manner imaginable; for I, whose only affliction
was that I seemed banished from human society, that I was alone,
circumscribed by the boundless ocean, cut off from mankind, and
condemned to what I call silent life; that I was as one whom
Heaven thought not worthy to be numbered among the living, or
-to appear among the rest of His creatures; that to have seen one
of my own species would have seemed to me a raising me from
death to life, and the greatest blessing that Heaven itself, next to the
supreme blessing of salvation, could bestow. I say, that I should
now tremble at the very apprehensions of seeing a man, and was
ready to sink into the ground at but the shadow or silent appear-
ance of a man having set his foot in the island.
Such is the uneven state of human life; and it afforded me
a great many curious speculations afterwards, when I had a little
recovered my first surprise. I considered that this was the station
of life the infinitely wise and good providence of God had deter-
mined for me; that as I could not foresee what the ends of
Divine wisdom might be in all this, so I was not to dispute His
sovereignty; who, as I was His creature, had an undoubted right,
by creation, to govern and dispose of me absolutely as He
thought fit; and who, as I was a creature that had offended Him,
had likewise a judicial right to condemn me to what punishment
He thought fit; and that it was my part to submit to bear His
‘indignation, becausé I had sinned against Him. I then reflected,
that as God, who was not only righteous but omnipotent, had
thought fit thus to punish and afflict me, so He was able to
deliver me; that if He did not think fit to do so, it was my
unquestioned duty to resign myself absolutely and entirely to His
will; and, on the other hand, it was my duty also to hope in Him,
pray to Him, and quietly to attend to the dictates and directions
of His daily providence. :
These thoughts took me up many hours, days---nay, I may say
weeks and months; and one particular effect of my cogitations on
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 153

this occasion I cannot omit. One morning early, lying in my
bed, and filled with thoughts about my danger from the appear-
ances of savages, I found it discomposed me very much; upon
which these words of the Scripture came into my thoughts—“ Call
upon Me in the day of trouble, and I will deliver thee, and thou
shalt glorify Me.”. Upon this, rising cheerfully out of my bed, my
heart was not only comforted, but I was guided and encouraged to
pray earnestly to God for deliverance; when I had done praying
I took up my Bible, and opening it,to read, the first words that
presented to me were, “ Wait on the Lord, and be of good
cheer, and He shall strengthen thy heart; wait, I say, on the
Lord.” It is impossible to express the comfort thisgave me. In
answer, I thankfully laid down the book, and was no more sad,
at least on that occasion.

In the middle of these cogitations, apprehensions, and reflec-
tions, it came into my thoughts one day that all this might be
a mere chimera of my own, and that this foot might be the print
of my own foot, when I came on shore from my boat: this
cheered me up a little, too, and I began to persuade myself it was
all a delusion; that it was nothing else but my own foot; and why
might I not come that way from the boat, as well as I was going
that way to the boat? Again I considered, also, that I could by
no means tell for certain where I had trod, and where I had not;
and that if, at last, this was only the print of my own foot, I had
played the part of those fools who try to make stories of spectres
ahd apparitions, and then are frightened at them more than anybody.

Now I began to take courage and to peep abroad again, for
I had not stirred out of my castle for three days and nights, so
that I began to starve for provisions; for I had little or nothing
within doors but some barley-cakes and water; then I knew that
my goats wanted to be milked too, which usually was my evening
diversion; and the poor creatures were in great pain and incon-
venience for want of it; and, indeed, it almost spoiled some of
them, and almost dried up their milk. Encouraging myself,
therefore, with the belief that this was nothing but the print of
154 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

one of my own feet, and that I might be truly said to start at my
own shadow, I began to go abroad again, and went to my country-
house to milk my flock; but to see with what fear I went forward,
how often I looked behind me, how I was ready, every now and
then, to lay down my basket and run for my life, it would have
made any one have thought I was haunted with an evil con-
science, or that I had been lately most terribly frightened; and
so, indeed, I had. However, I went down thus two or three
days, and having seen nothing, I began to be a little bolder, and
to think there was really nothing in it but my own imagination;
but I could not persuade myself fully of this till I should go down
to the shore again and see this print of a foot, and measure it by
my own, and see if there was any similitude or fitness, that I
might be assured it was my own foot; but when I came to the
place—first, it appeared evidently to me, that when I laid up my
boat I could not possibly be on shore anywhere thereabouts;
secondly, when I came to measure the mark with my own foot, I
found my foot not so large by a great deal. Both these things
filled my head with new imaginations, and gave me the vapours
again to the highest degree, so that I shook with cold like
one in an ague; and I went home again, filled with the belief
that some man or men had been on shore there; or, in short,
that the island was inhabited, and I might be surprised before
I was aware; and what course to take for my security I knew not.

Oh, what ridiculous resolutions men take when possessed with
fear! It deprives them of the use of those means which reason
offers for their relief. The first thing I proposed to myself was to
throw down my enclosures and turn all my tame cattle wild into
the woods, lest the enemy should find them and then frequent
the island in prospect of the same or the like booty; then the
simple thing of digging up my two corn-fields, lest they should
find such a grain there and still be prompted to frequent the’
island; then to demolish my bower and tent, that they might not
see any vestiges of habitation and be prompted to look farther, in
order to find out the persons inhabiting,
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 155

These were the subject of the first night’s cogitations after I
was come home again, while the apprehensions which had so
overrun my mind were fresh upon me, and my head was full of
vapours. ‘Thus fear of danger is ten thousand times more terrify-
ing than danger itself, when apparent to the eyes; and we find
the burden of anxiety greater, by much, than the evil which we
are anxious about: and what was worse than all this, I had not
that relief in this trouble that from the resignation I used to
practice I hoped to have. I looked, I thought, like Saul, who
complained not only that the Philistines were upon him, but that
God had forsaken him; for I did not now take due ways to
compose my mind, by crying to God in my distress and resting
upon His providence, as I had done before, for my defence and
deliverance ; which, if I had done, I had at least been more
cheerfully supported under this new surprise, and perhaps carried
through it with more resolution.

This confusion of my thoughts kept me awake all night, but in
the morning I fell asleep; and having, by the amusement of my
mind, been, as it were, tired, and my spirits exhausted, I slept very
soundly, and waked much better composed than I had ever been
before. And now I began to think sedately, and, upon debate
with myself, I concluded that this island (which was so exceed-
ingly pleasant, fruitful, and no farther from the mainland than as
I had seen) was not so entirely abandoned as I might imagine;
that although there were no stated inhabitants who lived on the
spot, yet that there might sometimes come boats off from the
shore, who, either with design, or perhaps never but when they
were driven by cross winds, might come to this place; that I had
lived there fifteen years now and had not met with the least
shadow or figure of any people yet; and that if at any time they
should be driven here, it was probable they went away again as
soon as ever they could, seeing they had never thought fit to fix
here upon any occasion; that the most I could suggest any danger
from was from any casual accidental landing of straggling people
from the main, who, as it was likely if they were driven hither,
156 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

were here against their wills, so they made no stay here, but went off
again with all possible speed, seldom staying one night on shore, lest
they should not have the help of the tides and daylight back again;
and that, therefore, I had nothing to do but to consider of some
safe retreat, in case I should see any savages land upon the spot.
Now I began sorely to repent that I had dug my cave so large
as to bring a door through again, which door, as I said, came out
- beyond where my fortification joined to the rock: upon maturely
considering this, therefore, I resolved to draw me a second fortifi-
cation, in the manner of a semicircle, at a distance from my wall,
just where I had planted a double row of trees about twelve years
before, of which I made mention; these trees having been planted
so thick before, they wanted but few piles to be driven between
them that they might be thicker and stronger, and my wall would
be soon finished. So that I had now a double wall, and my outer
wall was thickened with pieces of timber, old cables, and every-
thing I could think of to make it strong; having in it seven little
holes, about as big as I might put my arm out at. In the inside
of this I thickened my wall to about ten feet thick with continually
bringing earth out of my cave and laying it at the foot of the
wall and walking upon it; and through the seven holes I con-
trived to plant the muskets, of which I took notice that I had got
seven on shore out of the ship; these I planted like my cannon,
and fitted them into frames that held them like a carriage, so that
I could fire all the seven guns in two minutes’ time; this wall I
was many a weary month in finishing, and yet never thought
myself safe till it was done.

When this was done I stuck all the ground without my wall, for

a great length every way, as full with stakes or sticks of the osier-

like wood, which I found so apt to grow, as they could well .
stand; insomuch that I believe I might set in near twenty
thousand of them, leaving a pretty large space between them and
my wall, that I might have room to see an enemy, and they
might have no shelter from the young trees if they attempted to
approach my outer wall.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 157

Thus in two years’ time I had a thick grove; and in five or
six years’ time I had a wood before my dwelling, growing so
monstrously thick and strong that it was indeed perfectly impass-
able; and no men, of what kind soever, could ever imagine that
there was anything beyond it, much less a habitation. As for the
way which I proposed to myself to go in and out (for I left no
avenue), it was by setting two ladders, one to a part of the rock
which was low and then broke in, and left room to place another
ladder upon that; so when the two ladders were taken down no
man living could come down to me without doing himself mis-
chief; and if they had come down, they were still on the outside
of my outer wall.

Thus I took all the measures human prudence could suggest
for my own preservation; and it will be seen, at length, that
they were not altogether without just reason; though I foresaw
nothing at that time more than my mere fear suggested to me.

CHAPTER XIl.

I observe a canoe out at sea—Tind on the shore the remnant of a feast of
cannibals— Horror of mind thereon—Double arm myself—Terribly
alarmed by a goat—Discover a singular cave or grotto, of which I
form my magazine—My fears on account of the savages begin to subside.

WHILE this was doing I was not altogether careless of my other
affairs; for I had a great concern upon me for my little herd of
goats: they were not only a ready supply to me on every
occasion, and began to be sufficient for me, without the expense
of powder and shot, but also without the fatigue of hunting after
the wild ones; and I was loath to lose the advantage of them,
and to have them all to nurse up over again.

For this purpose, after long consideration, I could think of but
two ways to preserve them: one was to find another convenient
158 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

place to dig a cave underground, and to drive them into it every
night; and the other was to enclose two or three little bits of
land, remote from one another, and as much concealed as I
could, where I might keep about half-a-dozen young goats in each
place; so that if any disaster happened to the flock in general, I
might be able to raise them again with little trouble and time:
_ and this, though it would require a good deal of time and labour,
I thought was the most rational design.

Accordingly, I spent some time to find out the most retired
parts of the island; and I pitched upon one which was as private,
indeed, as my heart could wish: it was a little damp piece of
ground in the middle of the hollow and thick woods, where, as
is observed, I almost lost myself once before endeavouring to
come back that way from the eastern part of the island. Here f
found a clear piece of land, near three acres, so surrounded with
woods that it was almost an enclosure by nature; at least, it did
not want near so much labour to make it so as the other piece of
ground J had worked so hard at.

T immediately went to work with this piece of ground; and in
less than a month’s time I had so fenced it round that my flock
or herd, call it which you please, which were not so wild now as
at first they might be supposed to be, were well enough secured
in it: so without any further delay I removed ten young she
goats and two he-goats to this piece; and when they were there
I continued to perfect the fence till I had made it as secure as
the other; which, however, I did at more leisure, and it took me
up more time by a great deal. All this labour I was at the
expense of purely from my apprehensions on account of the
print of a man’s foot; for as yet I had never seen any human
creature come near the island; and I had now lived two years
under this uneasiness, which, indeed, made my life much less
comfortable than it was before, as may be well imagined by any
who know what it is to live in the constant snare of the fear of
man. And this I must observe with grief, too, that the discom-
posure of my mind had great impression also upon the religious
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 159

part of my thoughts; for the dread and terror of falling into the
hands of savages and cannibals lay so upon my spirits that I
seldom found myself in a due temper for application to my
Maker; at least, not with the sedate calmness and resignation of
soul which I was wont to do: I rather prayed to God as under
great affliction and pressure of mind, surrounded with danger,
and in expectation every night of being murdered and devoured
before morning; and I must testify, from my experience, that a
temper of peace, thankfulness, love, and affection is much the
more proper frame for prayer than that of terror and discom-
posure: and that under the dread of mischief impending a man is
no more fit for a comforting performance of the duty of praying
to God than he is for a repentance on a sick bed; for these dis-
composures affect the mind, as the others do the body; and the
discomposure of the mind must necessarily be as great a dis-
ability as that of the body, and much greater; praying to God
being properly an act of the mind, not of the body.

But to go on: after I-had thus secured one part of my little
living stock I went about the whole island searching for another
private place to make such another deposit; when, wandering |
more to the west point of the island than I had ever done yet,
and looking out to sea, I thought I saw a boat upon the sea, at a
great distance. I had found a perspective glass or two in one of
the seamen’s chests, which I saved out of our ship, but I had it
not about me; and this was so remote that I could not tell what
to make of it, though I looked at it till my eyes were not able to
hold to look any longer; whether it was a boat or not I do not
know, but as I descended from the hill I could see no more of it,
so I gave it over; only I resolved to go no more out without a
perspective glass in my pocket. When I was come down the hill
to the end of the island, where, indeed, I had never been before, I
was presently convinced that the seeing the print of a man’s foot
was not such a strange thing in the island as I imagined; and but
that it was a special providence that I was cast upon the side of the
island where the savages never came, I should easily have known
160 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

that nothing was more frequent than for the canoes from the
main, when they happened to be a little too far out at sea, to
shoot over to that side of the island for harbour: likewise, as
they often met and fought in their canoes, the victors, having
taken any prisoners, would bring them over to this shore, where,
according to their dreadful customs, being all cannibals, they
would kill and eat them; of which hereafter. ‘

When I was come down the hill to the shore, as I said above,
being the S.W. point of the island, I was perfectly confounded
and amazed; nor is it possible for me to express the horror of my
mind at seeing the shore spread with skulls, hands, feet, and
other bones of human bodies; and particularly I observed a place
where there had been a fire made, and a circle dug in the earth,
like a cock-pit, where I supposed the savage wretches had sat
down to their inhuman feastings upon the bodies of their fellow-
creatures,

I was so astonished with the sight of these things that I enter-
tained no notions of any danger to myself from it for a long while:
all my apprehensions were buried in the thoughts of such a pitch
of inhuman, hellish brutality, and the horror of the degeneracy of
human nature, which, though I had heard of it often, yet I never
had so near a view of before; in short, I turned away my face
from the horrid spectacle; my stomach grew sick, and I was just
at the point of fainting, when nature discharged the disorder from
my stomach; and having vomited with uncommon violence, I was
a little relieved, but could not bear to stay in the place a moment;
so I got up the hill again with all the speed I could, and walked
on towards my own habitation.

When I came a little out of that part of the island I stood still
awhile, as amazed, and then, recovering myself, I looked up with
the utmost affection of my soul, and with a flood of tears in my
eyes, gave God thanks, that had cast my first lot in a part of the
world where I was distinguished from such dreadful creatures as
these; and that, though I had esteemed my present condition
very miserable, had yet given me so many comforts in it that
ROBINSON CRUSOL. 161

I had still more to give thanks for than to complain of: and this,
above all, that I had, even in this miserable condition, been com-
forted with the knowledge of Himself, and the hope of His
blessing; which was a felicity more than sufficiently equivalent to
all the misery which I had suffered or could suffer.

In this frame of thankfulness I went home to my castle, and
began to be much easier now, as to the safety of my circum-
stances, than ever I was before; for I observed that these
wretches never came to this island in search of what they could
get; perhaps not seeking, not wanting, or not expecting anything
here; and having often, no doubt, been up the covered, woody
part of it without finding anything to their purpose. I knew I
had been here now almost eighteen years, and never saw the
least footsteps of human creature there before; and I might be
eighteen years more as entirely concealed as I was now, if I did
not discover myself to them, which I had no manner of occasion
to do; it being my only business to keep myself entirely con-
cealed where I was, unless I found a better sort of creatures than
cannibals to make myself known to. Yet I entertained such an
abhorrence of the*savage wretches that I have been speaking of,
and of the wretched, inhuman custom of their devouring and eating
one another up, that I continued pensive and sad, and kept close
within my own circle for almost two years after this: when I say
my own circle, I mean by it my three plantations—viz., my castle,
my country-seat (which I called my bower), and my enclosure in
the woods; nor did I look after this for any other use than an
enclosure for my goats; for the aversion which nature gave me to
these hellish wretches was such that I was as fearful of seeing
them as of seeing the devil himself. I did not so much as go to
look after my boat all this time, but began rather to think of
making another; for I could not think of ever making any more
attempts to bring the other boat round the island to me, lest
I should meet with some of these creatures at sea; in which case
if I had happened to have fallen into their hands, I knew what
would have been my lot,

11
162 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

Time, however, and the satisfaction I had that I was in no
danger of being discovered by these people, began to wear off my
uneasiness about them; and I began to live just in the same
composed manner as before, only with this difference, that I used
more caution, and kept my eyes more about me than I did
before, lest I should happen to be seen by any of them; and
particularly, | was more cautious of firing my gun, lest any of
them, being on the island, should happen to hear it. It was,
therefore, a very good providence to me that I had furnished my-
self with a tame breed of goats, and that I had no need to hunt any
more about the woods or shoot at them; and if I did catch any of
them after this it was by traps and snares, as I had done before;
so that for two years after this 1 believe I never fired my gun
once off, though I never went out without it; and what was more,
as I had saved three pistols out of the ship, I always carried them
out with me, or at least two of them, sticking them in my goat-
skin belt. I also furbished up one of the great cutlasses that
I had out of the ship, and made me a belt to hang it on also; so
that I was now a most formidable fellow to look at when I
went abroad, if you add to the former description of myself the
particular of two pistols and a broadsword hanging at my side in
a belt, but without a scabbard.

Things going on thus, as I have said, for some time, I seemed,
excepting these cautions, to be reduced to my former calm, sedate
way of living. All these things tended to show me more and
more how far my condition was from being miserable compared
to some others—nay, to many other particulars of life which it
might have pleased God to have made my lot. It put me upon
reflecting how little repining there would be among mankind at
any condition of life if people would rather compare their condi-

_tion with those that were worse, in order to be thankful, than be
always comparing them with those which are better, to assist their
murmurings and complainings. ,

As in my present condition there were not really many things

which I wanted, so, indeed, I thought that the frights I had been
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 163

in about these savage wretches, and the concern I had been in
for my own preservation, had taken off the edge of my invention
for my own conveniences; and I had dropped a good design,
which I had once bent my thoughts upon, and that was to try if
I could not make some of my barley into malt,.and then try to
brew myself some beer. This was really a whimsical thought,
and I reproved myself often for the simplicity of it: for I
presently saw there would be the want of several things necessary
to the making my beer that it would be impossible for me to
supply; as, first, casks to preserve it in, which was a thing that, as
I have observed already, I could never compass; no, though I
spent not only many days, but weeks, nay months, in attempting
it, but to no purpose. In the next place, I had no hops to make
it keep, no yeast to make it work, no copper or kettle to make it
boil; and yet with all these things wanting, I verily believe, had
not the frights and terrors I was in about the savages intervened,
I had undertaken it, and perhaps brought it to pass too; for I
seldom gave anything over without accomplishing it, when once I
had it in my head to begin it. But my invention now ran quite
another way; for night and day I could think of nothing but
how I might destroy some of the monsters in their cruel, bloody
entertainment, and, if possible, save the victim they should bring
hither to destroy. It would take up a larger volume than this
whole work is intended to be to set down all the contrivances I
hatched, or rather brooded upon, in my thoughts, for the destroy-
ing these creatures, or at least frightening them so as to prevent
their coming hither any more: but all this was abortive; nothing
could be possible to take effect, unless I was to be there to do it
myself; and what could one man do among them, when perhaps
there might be twenty or thirty of them together with their darts,
or their bows and arrows, with which they could shoot as true to
a mark as I could with my gun?

Sometimes I thought of digging a hole under the place where
they made their fire, and putting in five or six pounds of gun-
powder, which, when they kindled their fire, would consequently
164 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

take fire and blow up all that was near it: but as, in the first place,
I should be unwilling to waste so much powder upon them, my
store being now within the quantity of one barrel, so neither
could I be sure of its going off at any certain time, when it might
surprise them; and, at best, that it would do little more than just
blow the fire about their ears and fright them, but not sufficient
to make them forsake the place: so I laid it aside; and then
proposed that I would place myself in ambush in some convenient
place, with my three guns all double-loaded, and in the middle of
their bloody ceremony let fly at them, when I should be sure to
kill or wound perhaps two or three at every shot; and then falling
in upon them with my three pistols and my sword, I made no
doubt but that, if there were twenty, I should kill them all. This
fancy pleased my thoughts for some weeks, and I was so full of it
that I often dreamed of it, and sometimes, that I was just going
to let fly at them in my sleep. I went so far with it in my
imagination that I employed myself several days to find out
proper places to put myself in ambuscade, as I said, to watch for
them, and I went frequently to the place itself, which was now
grown more familiar to me; but while my mind was thus filled
with thoughts of revenge and a bloody putting twenty or thirty of
them to the sword, as I may call it, the horror I had at the place,
and at the signals of the barbarous wretches devouring. one
another, abetted my malice. Well, at length I found a place in
the side of the hill, where I was satisfied I might securely wait
till I saw any of their boats coming; and might then, even before
they would be ready to come on shore, convey myself unseen into
some thickets of trees, in one of which there was a hollow large
enough to conceal me entirely; and there I might sit and observe
all their bloody doings, and take my full aim at their heads, when
they were so close together as that it would be next to impossible
that I should miss my shot, or that I could fail wounding three or
four of them at the first shot. In this place, then, I resolved to
fulfil my design; and accordingly, I prepared two muskets and my
ordinary fowling-piece. The two muskets I loaded with a brace
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 165

of slugs each, and four or five smaller bullets about the size of
pistol bullets; and the fowling-piece I loaded with near a hand-
ful of swan-shot of the largest size; I also loaded my pistols with
about four bullets each; and in this posture, well provided with
ammunition for a second and third charge, I prepared myself for
my expedition.

After I had thus laid the scheme of my design, and in my
imagination put it in practice, I continually made my tour every
morning to the top of the hill, which was from my castle, as I
called it, about three miles or more, to see if I could observe
any boats upon the sea coming near the island, or standing
over towards it; but I began to tire of this hard duty, after I had
for two or three months constantly kept my watch, but came
always back without any discovery; there having not, in all that
time, been the least appearance, not only on or near the shore,
but on the whole ocean, so far as my eye or glass could reach
every way. :

As long as I kept my daily tour to the hill to look out, so long
also I kept up the vigour of my design, and my spirits seemed to
be all the while in a suitable frame for so outrageous an execution
as the killing ef twenty or thirty naked savages, for an offence
which I had not at all entered into any discussion of in my
thoughts, any farther than my passions were at first fired by the
horror I conceived at the unnatural custom of the people of that
country, who, it seems, had been suffered by Providence, in His
wise disposition of the world, to have no other guide than that of
their own abominable and vitiated passions; and, consequently,
were left, and perhaps had been so for some ages, to act such
horrid things, and receive such dreadful customs, as nothing but
nature, entirely abandoned by heaven, and actuated by some
hellish degeneracy, could have run them into. But now, when,
as I have said, I began to be weary of the fruitless. excursion
which I had made so long and so far every morning in vain, so
my opinion of the action itself began to alter; and I began, with
cooler and calmer thoughts, to consider what I was going to
166 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

engage in; what authority or call I had to pretend to be judge
and executioner upon these men as criminals, whom Heaven had
thought fit, for so many ages, to suffer, unpunished, to go on, and
to be, as it were, the executioners of His judgments one upon ©
another; how far these people were offenders against me, and
what right I had to engage in the quarrel of that blood which
they shed promiscuously upon one another. I debated this very
often with myself thus—“ How do I know what God himself
judges in this particular case? It is certain these people do
not commit this as a crime; it is not against their own con-
sciences reproving, or their light reproaching them; they do
not know it to be an offence, and then commit it in defiance
of divine justice, as we do in almost all the sins we commit.
They think it no more a crime to kill a captive taken in war
than we do to kill an ox, or to-eat human flesh than we do to eat
mutton.”

When I considered this a little, it followed necessarily that I
was certainly in the wrong; that these people were not murderers,
in the sense that 1 had before condemned them in my thoughts,
any more than those Christians were murderers who often put to
death the prisoners taken in battle; or more frequently, upon
many occasions, put whole troops of men to the sword, without
giving quarter, though they threw down their arms and submitted.
In the next place, it occurred to me that although the usage they
gave one another was thus brutish and inhuman, yet it was really
nothing to me; these people had done me no injury ; that if they
attempted, or I saw it necessary, for my immediate preservation, to
fall upon them, something might be said for it; but that I was
yet out of their power, and they really had no knowledge of
me, and consequently no design upon me; and therefore it could
not be just for me to fall upon them; that this would justify the
conduct of the Spaniards in all their barbarities practised in -
America, where they destroyed millions of these people; who,
however they were idolaters and barbarians, and had several
bloody and barbarous rites in their customs, such as sacrificing
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 167

human bodies to their idols, were yet, as to the Spaniards, very
-innocent people; and that the rooting them out of the country is
spoken of with the utmost abhorrence and detestation by even
the Spaniards themselves at this time, and by all other Christian
nations of Europe, as a mere butchery, a bloody and unnatural
piece of cruelty, unjustifiable either to God or man; and for
which the very name of a Spaniard is reckoned te be frightful
and terrible to all people of humanity or of Christian compassion;
as if the kingdom of Spain were particularly eminent for the pro-
duce of a race of men who were without principles of tenderness,
or the common bowels of pity to the miserable, which is reckoned
to be a mark of generous temper in the mind.

These considerations really put me to a pause and toa kind of
a full stop; and I began, by little and little, to be off my design,
and to conclude I had taken wrong measures in my resolution to
attack the savages; and that it was not my business to meddle
with them unless they first attacked me; and this it was my
business, if possible, to prevent: but that, if I were discovered
and attacked by them, I knew my duty. On the other hand,
I argued with myself that this really was the way not to deliver
myself, but entirely to ruin and destroy myself; for unless I was
sure to kill every one that not only should be on shore at that
time, but that should ever come on shore afterwards, if but one
of them escaped to tell their country-people what had happened,
they would come over again by thousands to revenge the death
of their fellows, and I should only bring upon myself a certain
destruction, which, at present, I had no manner of occasion for.
Upon the whole, I concluded that I ought, neither in principle
nor in policy, one way or other, to. concern myself in this affair;
that my business was, by all possible means, to conceal myself
from them, and not to leave the least sign for them to guess by
that there were any living creatures upon the island—I mean of
human shape. Religion joined in with this prudential resolution;
and I was convinced now, many ways, that I was perfectly
out of my duty when I was laying all my bloody schemes for
168 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

the destruction of innocent creatures—I mean innocent as to
me. As to the crimes they were guilty of towards one another, I
had nothing to do with them; they were national, and I ought to
leave them to the justice of God, who is the Governor of nations,
and knows how, by national punishments, to make a just retri-
bution for national offences, and to bring public judgments upon
those who offend in a public manner, by such ways as best please —
Him. This appeared so clear to me now, that nothing was a
greater satisfaction to me than that I had not been suffered to do
a thing which I now saw so much reason to believe would have
been no less a sin than that of wilful murder if I had committed
it; and I gave most humble thanks on my knees to God, that He
had thus delivered me from blood-guiltiness; beseeching Him to
grant me the protection of His providence, that I might not fall
into the hands of the barbarians, or that-I might not lay my
hands upon them, unless I had a more clear call from Heaven to
do it, in defence of my own life.

In this disposition I continued for near a year after this; and
so far was I from desiring an occasion for falling upon these
wretches, that in all that time I never once went up the hill to
see whether there were any of them in sight, or to know whether
any of them had been on shore there or not, that I might not be
tempted to renew any of my contrivances against them, or be
provoked by any advantage that might present itself to fall upon
them; only this I did—I went and removed my boat, which I had
on the other side of the island, and carried it down to the east
end of the whole island, where I ran it into a little cove, which I
found under some high rocks, and where I knew, by reason of
the currents, the savages durst not, at least would not, come
with their boats upon any account whatever. With my boat I
carried away everything that I had left there belonging to her,
though not necessary for the bare going thither—viz., a mast and
sail which I had made for her, and a thing like an anchor, but
which, indeed, could not be called either anchor or grapnel;
however, it was the best I could make of its kind: all these I
ROBINSON CRUSOE. "169

removed, that there might not be the least shadow for discovery,
or appearance of any boat, or of any human habitation upon the
island. Besides this, I kept myself, as I said, more retired than
ever, and seldom went from my cell except upon my constant
employment, to milk my she-goats, and manage my little flock in
the wood, which, as it was quite on the other part of the island,
was out of danger; for certain it is that these savage people, who
sometimes haunted this island, never came with any thoughts of
finding anything here, and consequently never wandered off from
the coast, and I doubt not but they might have been several
times on shore after my apprehensions of them had made me
cautious, as well as before. Indeed, I looked back with some
horror upon the thoughts of what my condition would have been
if I had chopped upon them and been discovered before that;
when, naked and unarmed, except with one gun, and that loaded
often only with small shot, I walked everywhere, peeping and
peering about the island, to see what I could get; what a surprise
should I have been in if, when I discovered the print of a man’s
foot, I had, instead of that, seen fifteen or twenty savages, and
found them pursuing me, and by the swiftness of their running
no possibility of my escaping them! The thoughts of this
sometimes sank my very soul within me, and distressed my mind
so much that [ could not soon recover it, to think what I should
have done, and how I should not only have been unable to
resist them, but even should not have had presence of mind
enough to do what I might have done; much less what now,
after so much consideration and preparation, I might be able to
do. Indeed, after serious thinking of these things, I would be
melancholy, and sometimes it would last a great while; but I
resolved it all at last into thankfulness to that Providence which
had delivered me from so many unseen dangers, and had kept
me from those mischiefs which I could have no way been the
agent in delivering myself from, because I had not the least
notion of any such thing depending, or the least supposition of
its being possible. This renewed a contemplation which often
170 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

had come into my thoughts in former times, when first I began
to see the merciful dispositions of Heaven, in the dangers we run
through in this life; how wonderfully we are delivered when we
know nothing of it; how, when we are in a quandary (as we call
it), a doubt or hesitation whether to go. this way or that way, a
secret hint shall direct us this way, when we intended to go that
way; nay, when sense, our own inclination, and perhaps business,
has called us to go the other way, yet a strange impression upon
the mind, from we know not what springs, and by we know not
what power, shall overrule us to go this way; and.it shall after-
wards appear that had we gone that. way which we should have
gone, and even to our imagination ought to have gone, we should
have been ruined and lost. Upon these and many like reflections
I afterwards made it a certain rule with me, that whenever I
found those secret hints or pressings of mind to doing or not
doing anything that presented, or going this way or that way, I
never failed to obey the secret dictate, though I knew no other
reason for it than such a pressure or such a hint hung upon my
mind. I could give many examples of the success of this
conduct in the course of my life, but more especially in the latter
part of my inhabiting this unhappy island, besides many occasions
which it is very likely I might have taken notice of, if I had seen
with the same eyes then that I see with now. But it is never too
late to be wise, and I cannot but advise all considering men,
whose lives are attended with such extraordinary incidents as
"mine, or even though not so extraordinary, not to slight such
secret intimations of Providence, let them come from what
invisible intelligence they will. That I shall not discuss, and
perhaps cannot account for; but certainly they are a proof of the
converse of spirits, and a secret communication between those
embodied and those unembodied, and-such a proof as can never
be withstood, of which I shall have occasion to give some
remarkable instances in the remainder of my solitary residence in

this dismal place.
I believe the reader of this will not think it strange if IT confess
ROBINSON CROSOE. r7T

that these anxieties, these constant dangers I lived in, and the
concern that was now upon me, put an end to all invention, and
to all the contrivances that I had laid for my future accommoda-
tions and conveniences. I had the care of my safety more now
upon my hands than that of my food. I cared not to drive a
nail, or chop a stick of wood now, for fear the noise [ might
make should be heard; much less would I fire a gun for the same
reason; and, above all, I was intolerably uneasy at making any
fire, lest the smoke, which is visible at a great distance in the day,
should betray me. For this reason I removed that part of my
business which required fire, such as burning of pots and pipes,
etc, into my new apartment in the woods, where, after I had
been some time, I found, to my unspeakable consolation, a mere
natural cave in the earth, which went in a vast way, and where, I
daresay, no savage, had he been at the mouth of it, would be so
hardy as to venture in; nor, indeed, would any man else, but one
who, like me, wanted nothing so much as a safe retreat.

The mouth of this hollow was at the bottom of a great rock,
where, by mere accident (I would say, if I did not see abundant
reason to ascribe all such things now to Providence), I was cutting
down some thick branches of trees to make charcoal; and before
I go on I must observe the reason of my making this charcoal,
which was this—I was afraid of making a smoke about my habita-
tion, as I said before; and yet I could not live there without
baking my bread, cooking my meat, etc.; so I contrived to burn
some wood here, as I had seen done in England, under turf, till
it became chark or dry coal; and then putting the fire out, I
preserved the coal to carry home, and perform the other services
for which fire was wanting, without danger of smoke. But this is
by-the-bye.’ While I was cutting down some wood here I per-
ceived that, behind a very thick branch of low brushwood or
underwood, there was a kind of hollow place; I was curious to
look in it, and getting with difficulty into the mouth of it, I found
it was pretty large—that is to say, sufficient for me to stand up-
right in it, and perhaps another with me; but I must confess to
172 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

you that I made more haste out than I did in, when looking
farther into the place, and which was perfectly dark, I saw two
broad shining eyes of some creature, whether devil or man I knew
not, which twinkled like two stars; the dim light from the cave’s
mouth shining directly in and making the reflection. However,
after some pause, I recovered myself, and began to call myself
a thousand fools, and to think that he that was afraid to see the
devil was not fit to live twenty years in an island all alone; and
that I might well think there was nothing in this cave that was
more frightful than myself. Upon this, plucking up my courage,
I took up a firebrand, and in I rushed again, with the stick flam-
ing in my hand: I had not gone three steps in before I was
almost as frightened as before; for I heard a very loud sigh, like
that of a man in some pain, and it was followed by a broken
noise, as of words half expressed, and then a deep sigh again. I
stepped back, and was indeed struck with such a surprise that it
put me into a cold sweat, and if I had had a hat on my head, I
will not answer for it that my hair might not have lifted it off.
But still plucking up my spirits as well as I could, and encourag-
ing myself a little with considering that the power and presence
of God was everywhere, and was able to protect me, I stepped
forward again, and by the light of the firebrand, holding it up
a little over my head, I saw lying on the ground a monstrous,
frightful, old he-goat, just making his will, as we say, and gasping
for life, and dying, indeed, of mere old age. I stirred him a little
to see if I could get him out, and he essayed to get up, but was
not able to raise himself; and I thought with myself he might
even lie there—for if he had frightened me, so he would certainly
fright any of the savages, if any of them should be so hardy as to
come in there while he had any life in him.

I was now recovered from my surprise, and began to look
round me, when I found the cave was but very small—that is to
say, it might be about twelve feet over, but in no manner of
shape, neither round nor square, no hands having ever been
employed in making it but those of mere Nature. I observed
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 173

also that there was a place at the farther side of it that went in
farther, but was so low that it required me to creep upon my
hands and knees. to go into it, and whither it went I knew not;
so, having no candle, I gave it over for that time, but resolved to
go again the next day provided with candles and a tinder-box,
which I had made of the lock of one of the muskets, with some
wildfire in the pan. ,

Accordingly, the next day I came provided with six large
candles of my own making (for I made very good candles now of
goat’s tallow, but was hard set for candlewick, using sometimes
rags or rope-yarn, and sometimes the dried rind of a weed like
nettles); and going into this low place I was obliged to creep
upon all-fours as I have said, almost ten yards—which, by the
way, I thought was a venture bold enough, considering that I
knew not how far it might go, nor what was beyond it. When I
had got through the straight I found the roof rose higher up,
I believe near twenty feet; but never was such a glorious sight seen
in the island, I daresay, as it was to look round the sides and
roof of this vault or cave—the wall reflected a hundred thousand
lights to me from my two candles. What it was in the rock—
whether diamonds or any other precious stones, or gold—which I
rather supposed it to be—I knew not. The place I was in was a
most delightful cavity, or grotto, though perfectly dark; the floor
_ was dry and level, and had a sort of a small loose gravel upon it,
so that there was no nauseous or venomous creature to be seen,
neither was there any damp or wet on the sides or roof. The
only difficulty in it was the entrance—which, however, as it was a
place of security, and such a retreat as I wanted, I thought was a
convenience; so that I was really rejoiced at the discovery, and
resolved, without any delay, to bring some of those things which
I was most anxious about to this place; particularly, I resolved to
bring hither my magazine of powder and all my spare arms,
viz., two fowling-pieces—for I had three in all—and three muskets
—for of them I had eight in all; so I kept in my castle only five,
which stood ready mounted like picces of cannon on my out-
174 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

most fence, and were ready also to take out upon any expedition.
Upon this occasion of removing my ammunition I happened to
open the barrel of powder which I took up out of the sea, and
which had been wet, and I found that the water had penetrated
about three or four inches into the powder on every side, which,
caking and growing hard, had preserved the inside like a kernel
in the shell, so that 1 had near sixty pounds of very good powder
in the centre of the cask. ‘This was a very agreeable discovery to
me at that time; so I carried all away thither, never keeping
above two or three pounds of powder with me in my castle, for
fear of a surprise of any kind; ! also carried thither all the lead 1
had left for bullets.

I fancied myself ‘now like one of the ancient giants who were
said to live in caves and holes in the rocks, where none could
come at them; for I persuaded myself, while I was here, that
if five hundred savages were to hunt me, they could never find
me out—or if they did, they would not venture to attack me here,
The old goat whom I found expiring died in the mouth of the
cave the next day after 1 made this discovery; and I found it
much easier to dig a great hole there, and throw him in and
cover him with earth, than to drag him out; so I interred him
there to prevent offence to my nose.

CHAPTER XIII.

Description of my situation in the twenty-third year of my residence—
Discover nine naked savages round a fire on my side of the island—
My horror on beholding the dismal work they were about—I determine
on the destruction of the next party at all risks—A ship lost off the
island—Go on board the wreck, which I discern to be Spanish—Procure
a great variety of articles from the vessel.

I was now in the twenty-third year of my residence in this
island, and was so naturalised to the place and the manner of
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 195

living that, could I but have enjoyed the certainty that no
savages would come to the place to disturb me, I could have
been content to have capitulated for spending the rest of my
time there, even to the last moment, till I had laid me down
and died, like the old goat in the cave. I had also arrived
to some little diversions and amusements, which made the time
pass a great deal more pleasantly with me than it did before—
first, 1 had taught my Poll, as I named before, to speak; and he
did it so familiarly, and talked so articulately and plain, that it
was very pleasant to me; and he lived with me no less than
six-and-twenty years. How long he might have lived afterwards
I know not, though I know they have a notion in the Brazils
that they live a hundred years. My dog was a pleasant and
loving companion to me for no less than sixteen years of my
time, and then died of mere old age. As for my cats, they
multiplied, as I have observed, to that degree that I was obliged
to shoot several of them at first to keep them from devouring me
and all I had; but at length, when the two old ones I brought
with me were gone, and after some time continually driving them
from me, and letting them have no provision with me, they all
ran wild into the woods, except two or three favourites, which
I kept tame, and whose young, when they had any, I always
drowned; and these were part of my family. Besides these I
always kept two or three household kids about me, whom I
taught to feed out of my hand; and I had two more parrots,
which talked pretty well, and would all call “ Robin Crusoe,” but
none like my first; nor, indeed, did I take the pains with any
of them that I had done with him. I had also several tame sea-
fowls, whose name I knew not, that I caught upon the shore, and
cut their wings; and the little stakes which I had planted before
my castle-wall being now grown up to a good thick grove, these
fowls all lived among these low trees, and bred there, which was
very agreeable to me; so that, as I said above, I began to be very
well contented with the life I led, if I could have been secured
from the dread of the savages. But it was otherwise directed;
176 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

and it may not be amiss for all people who shall meet with my
story to make this just observation from it:—How frequently, in
the course of our lives, the evil which in itself we seek most to
shun, and which, when we are fallen into, is the most dreadful
to us, is oftentimes the very means or door.of our deliverance, by
which alone we can be raised again from the affliction we are
fallen into. I could give many examples of this in the course
of my unaccountable life; but in nothing was it more particularly
remarkable than in the circumstances of my last years of solitary
residence in this island.

It was now the month of December, as I said above, in
my twenty-third year; and this, being the southern solstice (for
winter I cannot call it), was the particular time of my harvest,
and required me to be pretty much abroad in the fields, when,
going out early in the morning, even before it was thorough day-
light, I was surprised with seeing a light of some fire upon the
shore, at a distance from me of about two miles, toward that part
of the island where I had observed some savages had been, as
before, and not on the other side—but, to my great affliction,
it was on my side of the island.

I was indeed terribly surprised at the sight, and stopped short
within my grove, not daring to go out, lest I might be surprised;
and yet I had no more peace within, from the apprehensions I
had that if these savages, in rambling over the island, should find
my corn standing or cut, or any of my works or improvements,
they would immediately conclude that there were people in the
place, and would then never rest till they had found me out. In
this extremity I went back directly to my castle, pulled up the
ladder after me, and made all things without look as wild and
natural as I could.

Then I prepared myself within, putting myself in a posture of
defence. I loaded all my cannon, as I called them—that is to
say, my muskets, which were mounted upon my new fortification
and all my pistols, and resolved to defend myself to the last
gasp—not forgetting seriously to commend myself to-the Divine
ROBINSON CRUSOE. rey

protection, and earnestly to pray to God to deliver me out of the
hands of the barbarians. I continued in this posture about two
hours, and began to be impatient for intelligence abroad, for I
had no spies to send out. After sitting a while longer, and
musing what I should do in this case, I was not able to bear
sitting in ignorance longer; so setting up my ladder to the side of
the hill, where there was a flat place, as I observed before, and
then pulling the ladder after me, I set it up again and mounted
the top of the hill, and pulling out my perspective glass, which I
had taken on purpose, I laid me down flat on my belly on the
ground and began to look for the place. I presently found
there were no less than nine naked savages sitting round a small
fire they had made, not to warm them, for they had no need of
that, the weather being extremely hot, but, as I supposed, to dress
some of their barbarous diet of human flesh which they had
brought with them, whether alive or dead I could not tell.

They had two canoes with them, which they had hauled up
upon the shore; and as it was then ebb of tide, they seemed to
me to wait for the return of the flood to go away again. It is not
easy to imagine what confusion this sight put me into, especially
seeing them come on my side of the island, and so near to me;
but when I considered their coming must be always with the
current of the ebb, I began afterwards te be more sedate in my
mind, being satisfied that I might go abroad with safety all the
time of the flood of tide, if they were not on shore before;
and having made this observation, I went abroad about my
harvest work with the more composure.

As I expected, so it proved; for as soon as the tide made to
the westward I saw them all take boat and row (or paddle, as we
call it) away. I should have observed, that for an hour or more
before they went off they were dancing, and I could easily
discern their postures and gestures by my glass. I could not
perceive, by my nicest observation, but that they were stark
naked, and had not the least covering upon them; but whether

they were men or women I could not distinguish.
12
178 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

As soon as I saw them shipped and gone I took two guns
upon my shoulders, and two pistols in my girdle, and my great
sword by my side without a scabbard, and with all the speed I
was able to make went away to the hill where I had discovered
the first appearance of all; and as soon as I got thither, which
was not in less than two hours (for I could not go quickly, being
so loaded with arms as I was), I perceived there had been three
canoes more of the savages at that place; and looking out
farther, I saw they were all at sea together making over for the
main. This was a dreadful sight to me, especially as, going
down to the shore, I could see the marks of horror which the
dismal work they had been about had left behind it—viz., the
blood, the bones, and part of the flesh of human bodies eaten and
devoured by those wretches with merriment and sport. I was
so. filled with indignation at the sight that I now began to
premeditate the destruction of the next that I saw there, let them
be whom or how many soever. It seemed evident to me that
the visits which they made thus to this island were not very
frequent, for it was above fifteen months before any more of them
came on shore there again—that is to say, I neither saw them nor
any footsteps or signals of them in all that time; for as to the rainy
seasons, then they are sure not to come abroad, at least not so
far. Yet all this while I lived uncomfortably, by reason of the
constant apprehensions of their coming upon me by surprise;
from whence I observe that the expectation of evil is more
bitter than: the suffering, especially if there is no room to shake
off that expectation or those apprehensions.

During all this time I was in a murdering humour, and spent
most of my hours, which should have been better employed, in
contriving how to circumvent and fall upon them the very next
time I should see them-—especially if they should be divided, as
they were the last time, into two parties; nor did I consider at all
that if I killed one party—suppose ten or a dozen—I was still the
next day, or week or month, to kill another, and so another, even
ad infinitum, till I should be, at length, no less a murderer than
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 179

they were in being man-eaters—and perhaps much more so. I
spent my days now in great perplexity and anxiety of mind,
expecting that I should one day or other fall into the hands of
these merciless creatures; and if I did at any time venture abroad,
it was not without looking around me with the greatest care and
caution imaginable. And now I found, to my great comfort, how
happy it was that I had provided a tame flock or herd of goats, for
I durst not upon any account fire my gun, especially near that
side of the island where they usually came, lest I should alarm
the savages; and if they had fled from me now, I was sure to
have them come again with perhaps two or three hundred canoes
with them in a few days, and then I knew what to expect.
However, I wore out a year and three months more before I ever
saw any more of the savages, and then I found them again, as I
shall soon observe. It is true they might have been there once
or twice; but either they made no stay, or at least I did not see
them; but in the month of May, as near as I could calculate, and
in my four-and-twentieth year, I had a very strange encounter
with them; of which in its place.

The perturbation of my mind during this fifteen or sixteen
months’ interval was very great; I slept unquietly, dreamed always
frightful dreams, and often started out of my sleep in the night. In
the day great troubles overwhelmed my mind; and in the night
I dreamed often of killing the Savages, and of the reasons why
T might justify doing it.

But to waive all this for a while. It was in the middle of May,
on the sixteenth day, I think, as well as my poor wooden calendar
would reckon, for I marked all upon the post still; I say, it was
on the sixteenth of May that it blew a very great storm of wind
all day, with a great deal of lightning and thunder, and a very
foul night it was after it. I knew not what was the particular
occasion of it, but as I was reading in the Bible, and taken up
with very serious thoughts about my present condition, I was
surprised with the noise of a gun, as I thought, fired at sea. This
was, to be sure, a surprise quite of a different nature from any
180 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

T had met with before; for the notions this put into my thoughts
were quite of another kind. I started up in the greatest haste
imaginable; and in a trice clapped my ladder to the middle
place of the rock, and pulled it after me; and mounting it the
second time, got to the top of the hill the very moment that a
flash of fire bid me listen for a second gun, which, accordingly, in
about half-a-minute, I heard; and by the sound knew that it was
from that part of the sea where I was driven down the current in
my boat. I immediately considered that this must be some ship
in distress, and that they had some comrade or some other ship
in company, and fired these for signals of distress, and to obtain
help. I had the presence of mind at that minute to think that,
though I could not help them, it might be that they might help me;
so I brought together all the dry wood I could get at hand, and
making a good handsome pile, I set it’on fire upon the hill, The
wood was dry and blazed freely; and though the wind blew very
hard, yet it burned fairly out; so that I was certain, if there was
any such thing as a ship, they must need see it. And no doubt
they did; for as soon as ever my fire blazed up I heard another
gun, and after that several others, all from the same quarter. I
plied my fire all night long till daybreak; and when it was broad
day and the air cleared up, I saw something at a great distance
at sea, full east of the island, whether a sail or a hull.I could not
distinguish—no, not with my glass; the distance was so great,
and the weather still something hazy also; at least, it was so out
at sea.

T looked frequently at it all that day, and soon perceived that
it did not move; so I presently concluded that it was a ship at
anchor; and being eager, you may be sure, to be satisfied, I
took my gun in my hand and ran towards the south side of the
island, to the rocks where I had formerly been carried away by
the current; and getting up there, the weather by this time being
perfectly clear, I could plainly see, to my great sorrow, the wreck
of a ship, cast away in the night upon those concealed rocks
which I found when I was out in my boat; and which rocks, as
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 181

they checked the violence of the stream, and made a kind of
counter-stream or eddy, were the occasion of. my recovering from
the most desperate, hopeless condition that ever I had been in in
all my life. Thus, what is one man’s safety is another man’s
destruction; for it seems these men, whoever they were, being out
of their knowledge, and the rocks being wholly under water, had
been driven upon them in the night, the wind blowing hard at
E.N.E. Had they seen the island, as I must necessarily suppose
they did not, they must, as I thought, have endeavoured to have
saved themselves on shore by the help of their boat; but their
firing off guns for help, especially when they saw, as I imagined,
my fire, filled me with many thoughts. First, I imagined that upon
seeing my light they might have put themselves into their boat and
endeavoured to make the shore; but that the sea running very
high, they might have been cast away. Other times I imagined
that they might have lost their boat before, as might be the case
many ways; particularly by the breaking of the sea upon their
ship, which many times obliged men to stave, or take in pieces,
their boat, and sometimes to throw it overboard with their own
hands. Other times I imagined they had some other ship or
ships in company, who, upon the signals of distress they made,
had taken them up and carried them off. Other times I fancied
they were all gone off to sea in their boat, and being hurried away
by the current that I had been formerly in, were carried out into
the great ocean, where there was nothing but misery and perish-
ing; and that, perhaps, they might by this time think of starving,
and of being in a condition to eat one another.

As all these were but conjectures at best, so, in the condition
I was in, I could dono more than look on‘upon the misery of the
poor men and pity them; which had still this good effect upon
my side, that it gave me more and more cause to give thanks to
God, who had so happily and comfortably provided for me in my
desolate condition; and that of two ships’ companies, who were
now cast away upon this part of the world, not one life should be
spared but mine. I learned here again to observe, that it is very
182 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

rare that the providence of God casts us into any condition so
low, or any misery so great, but we may see something or other
to be thankful for, and may see others in worse circumstances
than our own. Such certainly was the case of these men, of
whom I could not so much as see room to suppose any were
saved; nothing could make it rational’so much as to wish or
expect that they did not all perish there, except the possibility
only of their being taken up by another ship in company; and
this was but mere possibility indeed, for I saw not the least sign
or appearance of any such thing. 1 cannot explain, by any
possible energy of words, what a strange longing I felt in my soul
upon this sight, breaking out sometimes thus—“ O that there had
been but one or two, nay, or but one soul, saved out of this ship,
to have escaped to me, that I might but have had one companion,
one fellow-creature, to have spoken to me and to have conversed
with!” In all the time of my solitary life I never felt so earnest,
so strong a desire after the society of my fellow-creatures, or so
deep a regret at the want of it.

There are some secret springs in the affections which, when
they are set a-going by some object in view, or, though not in
view, yet rendered present to the mind by the power of imagina-
tion, that motion carries out the soul, by its impetuosity, to such
violent, eager embracings of the object, that the absence of it
is insupportable. Such were these earnest wishings that but one
man had been saved. I believe I repeated the words, “O that
it had been but one!” a thousand times; and my desires were
so moved by it that when I’spoke the words my hands would
clinch together, and my fingers would press the palms of my
hands, so that if I had had any soft thing in my hand I should
have crushed it involuntarily; and the teeth in my head would
strike together, and set against one another so strong, that for
some time I could not part them again. Let the naturalists
explain these things, and the reason and manner of them. All
Ican do is to describe the fact, which was even surprising to
me when | found it, though I knew not from whence it proceeded;
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 183

it was, doubtless, the effect of ardent wishes, and of strong ideas
formed in my mind, realising the comfort which the conversation
of one of my fellow-Christians would have been to me. But it
was not to be; either their fate or mine, or both, forbade it; for,
till the last year of my being on this island, I never knew whether
any were saved out of that ship or no; and had only the affliction,
some days after, to see the corpse of a drowned boy come on
shore at the end of the island which was next the shipwreck.
He had no clothes on but a seaman’s waistcoat, a pair of
open-kneed linen drawers, and a blue linen shirt; but nothing
to direct me so much as to guess what nation he was of. He
had nothing in his pockets but two pieces of eight and a tobacco
pipe—the last was to me of ten times more value than the
first.

It was now calm, and I had a great mind to venture out in my
boat to this wreck, not doubting but I might find something on
board that might be useful to me. But that did not altogether
press me so much as the possibility that there might be yet some
living creature on board, whose life I might not only save, but
might, by saving that life, comfort my own to the last degree;
and this thought clung so to my heart that I could not be quiet
night “or day, but I must venture out in my boat on board this
wreck; and committing the rest to God’s providence, I thought
the impression was so strong upon my mind that it could not be
resisted—that it must come from some invisible direction, and
that I should be wanting to myself if I did not go.

Under the power of this impression I hastened back to my
castle, prepared everything for my voyage, took a quantity of
bread, a great pot of fresh water, a compass to steer by, a
bottle of rum (for I had still a great deal of that left), and
a basket of raisins; and thus, loading myself with everything
necessary, I went down to my boat, got the water out of her,
got her afloat, loaded all my cargo in her, and then went home
again for more. My second cargo was a great bag of rice, the
umbrella to set up over my head for a shade, another large pot
184 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

of water, and about two dozen of small loaves, or barley cakes,
more than before, with a bottle of goat’s milk and a cheese; all
which with great labour and sweat I carried to my boat; and
praying to God to direct my voyage, I put out, and rowing or
paddling the canoe along the shore, came at last to the utmost
point of the island on the north-east side. And now I was to
launch out into the ocean, and either to venture or not to
venture. I looked on the rapid currents which ran constantly
on both sides of the island at a distance, and which were very
terrible to me from the remembrance of the hazard I had been
in before, and my heart began to fail me; for I foresaw that
if I was driven into either of those currents, I should be carried
-a great way out to sea, and perhaps out of my reach or sight
of the island again; and that then, as my boat was but small,
- if any little gale of wind should rise, I should be inevitably
lost. ;

These thoughts so oppressed my mind that I began to give
over my enterprise; and having hauled my boat into a little
creek on the shore, I stepped out and sat down upon a rising
bit of ground, very pensive and anxious, between fear and desire,
about my voyage; when, as I was musing, I could perceive that
the tide was turned, and the flood come on; upon which my
going was impracticable for so many hours. Upon this, presently
it occurred to me that I should go up to the highest piece of
ground I could find, and observe, if I could, how the sets of the
tide or currents lay when the flood came in, that I might judge
whether, if I was driven one way out, I might not expect to be
driven another way home, with the same rapidity of the currents.
This thought was no sooner in my head than I cast my eye upon -
a little hill which sufficiently overlooked the sea both ways, and
from whence I had a clear view of the currents or sets of the
tide, and which way I was to guide myself in my return. Here
I found that as the current of ebb set out close by the south
point of the island, so the current of the flood set in close by the
shore of the north side; and that I had nothing to do but to keep
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 185

to the north side of the island in my return, and I should do well
enough.

Encouraged by this observation, I resolved, the next morning,
to set out with the first of the tide; and reposing myself for the
night in my canoe, under the watch-coat I mentioned, I launched
out. I first made a little out to sea, full north, till I began to feel
the benefit of the current, which set eastward, and which carried
me at a great rate; and yet did not so hurry me as the current on
the south side had done before, so as to take from me all govern-
ment of the boat; but having a strong steerage with my paddle, I
went, at a great rate, directly for the wreck, and in less than two
hours I came up to it. It was a dismal sight to look at: the ship,
which, by its building, was Spanish, stuck fast, jammed in between
two rocks, All the stern and quarter of her were beaten to pieces
by the sea; and as her forecastle, which stuck in the rocks, had
run on with great violence, her mainmast and foremast were
brought by the board—that is to say, broken short off; but her
bowsprit was sound, and the head and bow appeared firm. When
I came close to her, a dog appeared upon her, who, seeing me
coming, yelped and cried; and as soon as I called him, jumped
into the sea tocome tome. I took him into the boat, but found
him almost dead with hunger and thirst. I gave him a cake of
my bread, and he devoured it like a ravenous wolf that had been
starving a fortnight in the snow; I then gave the poor creature
some fresh water, with which, if I would have let him, he would
have burst himself. After this I went on board; but the first
sight I met with was two men drowned in the cook-room, or fore-
castle of the ship, with their arms fast about one another. I con-
cluded, as is indeed probable, that when the ship struck, it being
in a storm, the sea broke so high, and so continually over her,
that the men were not able to bear it, and were strangled with the
constant rushing in of the water, as much as if they had been
under water. Besides the dog, there was nothing left in the ship
that had life; nor any goods, that I could see, but what were
spoiled by the water. There were some casks of liquor, whether
186 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

wine or brandy I knew not, which lay lower in the hold, and
which, the water being ebbed out, I could see; but they were too
big to meddle with. I saw several chests, which, I believe,
belonged to some of the seamen; and I got two of them into the
boat, without examining what wasin them. Had the stern of the
ship been fixed and the forepart broken off, 1 am persuaded I
might have made a good voyage; for by what I found in those
two chests I had room to suppose the ship had a great deal of
wealth on board; and if ! may guess from the course she steered,
she must have been bound from Buenos Ayres, or the Rio de la
Plata, in the south part of America, beyond the Brazils to the
‘Havannah, in the Gulf of Mexico, and so perhaps to Spain. She
had no doubt a great treasure in her, but of no use, at that time,
to anybody; but what become of the crew I then knew not.

I found, besides these chests, a little cask full of liquor, of
about twenty gallons, which I got into my boat with much
difficulty. There were several muskets in the cabin, and a great
powder-horn, with about four pounds of powder in it; as for the
muskets, I had no occasion for.them, so I left them, but took the
powder-horn. I took a fire-shovel and tongs, which I wanted
extremely, as also two little brass kettles, a copper pot to make
chocolate, and a gridiron; and with this cargo and the dog I
came away, the tide beginning to make home again—and the
same evening, about an hour within night, I reached the island
again, weary and fatigued to the last degree. I reposed that
night in the boat; and in the morning I resolved to harbour what
{had got in my new cave, and not carry it home to my castle.
After refreshing myself, I got all my cargo on shore, and began to
examine the particulars. The cask of liquor I found to bea kind
of rum, but not such as we had at the Brazils; and, in a word,
not at all good; but when I came to open the chests, I found
several things of great use to me—for example, I found in one a
fine case of bottles, of an extraordinary kind, and filled with
cordial waters, fine and very good; the bottles held about three
pints each, and were tipped with silver. I found two pots of very
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 187

good succades, or sweetmeats, so fastened also on the top that
the salt-water had not hurt them; and two more of the same,
which the water had spoiled. I found some very good shirts,
which were very welcome to me; and about a dozen and a half of
white linen handkerchiefs and coloured neckcloths; the former
were also very welcome, being exceedingly refreshing to wipe my
face ina hot day. Besides this, when I came to the till in the
chest, I found there three great bags of pieces of eight, which held
about eleven hundred pieces in all; and in one of them, wrapped
up in a paper, six doubloons of gold, and some small bars or
wedges of gold; I suppose they might all weigh neara pound. In
the other chest were some clothes, but of little value; but, by the
circumstances, it must have belonged to the gunner’s mate;
though there was no powder in it, except two pounds of fine
glazed. powder, in three flasks, kept, I suppose, for charging their
fowling-pieces on occasion. Upon the whole, I got very little by
this voyage that was of any use to me; for, as to the money, I had
no manner of occasion for it; it was to me as the dirt under my
feet, and I would have given it all for three or four pair of English
shoes and stockings, which were things I greatly wanted, but had
had none on my feet for many years. I had, indeed, got two pair
of shoes now, which I took off the feet of the two drowned men
whom I saw in the wreck, and I found two pair more in one of
the chests, which were very welcome to me; but they were not
like our English shoes, either for ease or service, being rather
what we call pumps than shoes. I found in this seaman’s chest
about fifty pieces of eight, in rials, but no gold: I suppose this
belonged to a poorer man than the other, which seemed to belong
to some officer. Well, however, I lugged this money home to my
cave, and laid it up, as I had done that before which I had
brought from our own ship; but it was a great pity, as I said, that
the other part of this ship had not come to my share; for I am
satisfied I might have loaded my canoe several times over with
money ; and, thought I, if I ever escape to England, it might lie
here safe enough till I come again and fetch it,
188 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

CHAPTER XIV.

Reflections—An extraordinary dream—Discover five canoes of savages on
shore—Observe from my station two miserable wretches dragged out of
the boats to be devoured—One of them makes his escape and runs
directly towards me, pursued by two others—I take measures so as to
destroy his pursuers and save his life—Christen him by the name of
Friday, and he becomes a faithful and excellent servant:

Havine now brought all my things on shore and secured them, I
went back to my boat, and rowed or paddled her along the shore
to her old harbour, where I laid her up, and made the best of my
way to my old habitation, where I found everything safe and
quiet. I began now to repose myself, live after my old fashion,
and take care of my family affairs; and for a while I lived easy
enough, only that I was more vigilant than I used to be, looked
out oftener, and did not go abroad so much; and if at any time I
did stir with any freedom, it was always to the east part of the
island, where I was pretty well satisfied the savages never came,
and where I could go without so many precautions, and such a
load of arms and ammunition as I always carried with me if I
went the other way. I lived in this condition near two years
more; but my unlucky head, that was always to let me know it
was born to make my body miserable, was all these two years
filled with projects and designs, how, if it were possible, I might
get away from this island; for sometimes I was for making
another voyage to the wreck, though my reason told me that
there was nothing left there worth the hazard of my voyage;
sometimes for a ramble one way, sometimes another—and I
believe verily, if I had had the boat that I went from Sallee in, I
should have ventured to sea, bound anywhere, I knew not
whither. I have been, in all my circumstances, a memenzo to
those who are touched with the general plague of mankind,
whence, for aught I know, one-half of their miseries flow: I mean
that of not being satisfied with the station wherein Gad and
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 189

Nature hath placed them—for, not to look back upon my
primitive condition, and the excellent advice of my father, the
opposition to which was, as I may call it, my original sin, my
subsequent mistakes of the same kind had been the means of my
coming into this miserable condition; for had that Providence
which so happily seated me at the Brazils as a planter blessed me
with confined desires, and I could have been contented to have
gone on gradually, I might have been by this time—I mean in
the time of my being in this island—one of the most consider-
able planters in the Brazils—nay, I am persuaded that, by the
improvements I had made in that little time I lived there, and
the increase I should probably have made if I had remained,
I might have been worth a hundred thousand moidores—and
what business had I to. leave a settled fortune, a well-stocked
plantation, improving and increasing, to turn supercargo to
Guinea to fetch negroes, when patience and time would have so
increased our stock at home that we could have bought them at
our own door from those whose business it was to fetch them?
and though it had cost us something more, yet the difference of
that price was by no means worth saving at so great a hazard.
But as this is usually the fate of young heads, so reflection upon
the folly of it is as commonly the exercise of more years, or of
the dear-bought experience of time—so it was with me now; and
yet so deep had the mistake taken root in my temper that I could
not satisfy myself in my station, but was continually poring upon
the means and possibility of my escape from this place—and
that I may, with greater pleasure to the reader, bring on the
remaining part of my story, it may not be improper to give some
account of my first conceptions on the subject of this foolish
scheme for my escape, and how, and upon what foundation, I
acted.

I am now to be supposed retired in my castle, after my late
voyage to the wreck, my frigate laid up and secured under water,
as usual, and my condition restored to what it was before: I had
more wealth, indeed, than I had before, but was not at all the
190 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

richer; for I had no more use for it than the Indians of Peru had
before the Spaniards came there.

It was one of the nights in the rainy season -in March, the
four-and-twentieth year of my first setting foot in this island of
~solitude, I was lying in my bed or hammock, awake, very well in
health, had no pain, no distemper, no uneasiness of body, nor
any uneasiness of mind more than ordinary, but could by no
means close my eyes, that is, so as to sleep; no, not a wink all
night long, otherwise than as follows:—It is impossible to set
down the innumerable crowd of thoughts that whirled through
that great thoroughfare of the brain, the memory, in this night’s
time: I ran over the whole history of my life in miniature, or by
abridgment, as I may call it, to my coming to this island, and
also of that part of my life since J came to this island. In my
reflections upon the state of my case since I came on shore
on this island I was comparing the happy posture of my affairs
in the first years of my habitation here, with the life of anxiety,
fear, and care which 1 had lived in ever since I had seen the
print of a foot in the sand. Not that I did not believe the
savages had frequented the island even all the while, and might
have been several hundreds of them at times on shore there; but
I had never known it, and was incapable of any apprehensions
about it; my satisfaction was perfect, though my danger was the
same, and I was as happy in not knowing my danger as if I had
never really been exposed to it. This furnished my thoughts
with many very profitable reflections, and particularly this one :—
How infinitely good that Providence is which has provided, in
its government of mankind, such narrow bounds to his sight and
knowledge of things; and though he walks in the midst of so
many thousand dangers, the sight of which, if discovered to him,
would distract his mind and sink his spirits, he is kept serene and
calm by having the events of things hid from his eyes, and
knowing nothing of the dangers which surround him.

After these thoughts had for some time entertained me, I came
to reflect. seriously upon the real danger I had been in for so
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 191

many years in this very island, and how I had walked about in
the greatest security, and with all possible tranquillity, even when
perhaps nothing but the brow of a hill, a great tree, or the casual
approach of night, had been between me and the worst kind of
destruction—viz., that of falling into the hands of cannibals and
savages, who would have seized on me with the same view as I
would on a goat or turtle; and have thought it no more crime to
kill and devour me than I did of a pigeon or a curlew. I would
unjustly slander myself if I should say I was not sincerely thankful
to my great Preserver, to whose singular protection I acknow-
ledged, with great humility, all these unknown deliverances were
due, and without which I must inevitably have fallen into their
merciless hands.

When these thoughts-were over, my head was for some time
taken up in considering the nature of these wretched creatures, I
mean the savages, and how it came to pass in the world that the
wise Governor of all things should give up any of his creatures to
such inhumanity—nay, to something so much below even brutality
itself—as to devour its own kind; but as this ended in some (at
that time) fruitless speculations, it occurred to me to inquire what
part of the world these wretches lived in? how far off the coast
was from whence they came? what they ventured over so far from
home for? what kind of boats they had? and why I might not
order myself and my business so that I might be able to go over
thither, as they were to come to me?

I never so much as troubled myself to consider what I should
do with myself when I went thither; what would become of me if
I fell into the hands of these savages; or how I should escape
them if they attacked me; no, norso much as how it was possible
for me to reach the coast, and not be attacked by some or other
of them, without any possibility of delivering myself; and if I
should not fall into their hands, what I should do for provision,
or whither I should bend my course: none of these thoughts, I
say, so much as came in my way; but my mind was wholly bent
upon the notion of my passing over in my boat to the mainland.
192 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

I looked upon my present condition as the most miserable that
could possibly be; that I was not able to throw myself into any-
thing but death that could be called worse; and if I reached the
shore of the main I might perhaps meet with relief, or I might
coast along, as I did on the African shore, till I came to some
inhabited country, and where I might find some relief; and after
all, perhaps I might fall in with some Christian ship that might
take me in; and if the worst came to the worst, I could but die,
which would put an end to all these miseries at once. Pray note,
all this was the fruit of a disturbed mind, an impatient temper,
made desperate, as it were, by the long continuance of my
troubles, and the disappointments I had met in the wreck I had
been on board of, and where I had been so near obtaining what
Iso earnestly longed for—somebody to speak to, and to learn
some knowledge from them of the place where I was, and of the
probable means of my deliverance. J was agitated wholly by
these thoughts; all my calm of mind, in my resignation to
Providence, and waiting the issue of the dispositions of Heaven,
seemed to be suspended; and I had, as it were, no power to turn
my thoughts to anything but to the project of a voyage to the main,
which came upon me with such force and such an impetuosity of
desire that it was not to be resisted.

When this had agitated my thoughts for two hours or more,
with such violence that it set my very blood into a ferment, and
my pulse beat as if I had been ina fever, merely with the extra-
ordinary fervour of my mind about it, Nature—as if I had been
fatigued and exhausted with the very thoughts of it—threw me
into a sound sleep. One would have thought I should have
dreamed of it, but I did not, nor of anything relating to it; but I
dreamed that as I was going out in the morning as usual from my
castle, I saw upon the shore two canoes and eleven savages coming
to land, and that they brought with them another savage, whom
they were going to kill in order to eat him; when, on a sudden,
the savage that they were going to kill jumped away and ran for
his life; and I thought in my sleep that he came running into my
ROBINSON CRUSOE... 193

little thick grove before my fortification, to hide himself; and that
I, seeing him alone, and not perceiving that the others sought
him that way, showed myself to him, and smiling upon him,
encouraged him ;. that he kneeled down to me, seeming to pray
me to assist him; upon which I showed him my ladder, made
him go up, and carried him into my cave, and he became my
servant ; and that as soon as I had got this man, I said to my-
self, “Now I may certainly venture to the mainland, for this
fellow will serve me as a pilot, and will tell me what to do and
whither to go for provisions, and whither not to go for fear of being
devoured; what places to venture into, and what to shun.” I
waked with this thought; and was under such inexpressible
impressions of joy at the prospect of my escape in my dream, that
the disappointments which I felt upon coming to myself, and
finding that it was no more than a dream, were equally extravagant
the other way, and threw me into a very great dejection of spirits.

Upon this, however, I made this conclusion: that my only way
to go about to attempt an escape was, to endeavour to get a savage
into my possession; and, if possible, it should be one of their
prisoners, whom they had condemned to be eaten, and should
bring hither to kill. But these thoughts still were attended with
this difficulty: that it was impossible to effect this without
attacking a whole caravan of them and killing them all; and this
was not only a very desperate attempt, and might miscarry; but,
on the other hand, I had greatly scrupled the lawfulness of it to
myself; and my heart trembled at the thoughts of shedding so
much blood, though it was for my deliverance. I need not repeat
the arguments which occurred to me against this, they being the
same mentioned before; but though I had other reasons to offer
now—viz., that those men were enemies to my life, and would
devour me if they could; that it was self-preservation, in the
highest degree, to deliver myself-from this death of a life, and was
acting in my own defence as much as if they were actually
assaulting me, and the like; I say, though these things argued for
it, yet the thoughts of shedding human blood for my deliverance

13
194 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

were very terrible to me, and such as I could by no means
reconcile myself to for a great while. However, at last, after
many secret disputes with myself, and after great perplexities about
it (for all these arguments, one way and another, struggled in my
head a long time), the eager prevailing desire of deliverance at
length mastered all the rest; and I resolved, if possible, to get one
of these savages into my hands, cost what it would. My next
thing was to contrive how to de it, and this indeed was very
difficult to resolve on; but as I could pitch upon no probable
means for it, so I resolved to put myself upon the watch, to see
them when they came on shore, and leave the rest to the event;
taking such measures as the opportunity should present, let what
would be.

With these resolutions in my thoughts I set myself upon the
scout as often as possible, and indeed so often that I was heartily
tired of it; for it was above a year and a half that I waited; and
for great part of that time went out to the west end, and to the
south-west corner of the island almost every day, to look for
canoes, but none appeared. This was very discouraging, and
began to trouble me much, though I cannot say that it did in
this case (as it had done some time before) wear off the edge of
my desire to the thing; but the longer it seemed to be delayed
the more eager I was for it; in a word, I was not at first so
careful to shun the sight of these savages and avoid being seen
by them as I was now eager to be upon them. Besides, I
fancied myself able to manage one, nay, two or three savages, if
IT had them, so as to make them entirely slaves to me, to do
whatever I should direct them, and to prevent their being able at
any time to do me any hurt. Tt was a great while that I pleased
myself with this affair; but nothing still presented itself; all my
fancies and schemes came to nothing, for no savages came near
me for a great while.

About a year and a half after I entertained these notions (and
by long musing had, as it were, resolved them all into nothing,
for want of an occasion to put them into execution), I was
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 195

surprised one morning by seeing no less than five canoes all
on shore together on my side the island, and the people who
belonged to them all landed and out of my sight. The number
of them broke all my measures; for seeing so many, and
knowing that they always came four or six, or sometimes more in
a boat, I could not tell what to think of it, or how to take my
measures to attack twenty or thirty men single-handed; so lay
still in my castle, perplexed and discomforted. However, I put
myself into the same position for an attack that I had formerly
provided, and was just ready for action, if anything had presented.
Having waited a good while, listening to hear if they made any
noise, at length, being very impatient, I set my guns at the foot
of my ladder, and clambered up to the top of the hill, by my two
stages, as usual; standing so, however, that my head did not
appear above the hill, so that they could not perceive me by any
means. Here I observed, by the help of my perspective glass,
that they were no less than thirty in number; that they had a fire
kindled, and that they had meat dressed. How they had cooked
it I knew not, or what it was; but they were all dancing, in I
know not how many barbarous gestures and figures, their own
way, round the fire.

While I was thus looking on them, I perceived, by my per-
spective, two miserable wretches dragged from the boats, where,
it seems, they were laid by, and were now brought out for the
slaughter. I perceived one of them immediately fall; being
knocked down, I suppose, with a club or wooden sword, for that
was their way; and two or three others were at work immediately,
cutting him open for their cookery, while the other victim was
left standing by himself till they should be ready for him. In
that very moment this poor wretch, seeing himself a little at
liberty and unbound, Nature inspired him with hopes of life, and
he started away from them, and ran with incredible swiftness
along the sands, directly towards me; I mean towards that part
of the coast where my habitation was. I was dreadfully
frightened, I must acknowledge, when I perceived him run my
196 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

way; and especially when, as I thought, I saw him pursued by
the whole body; and now I expected that part of my dream was
coming to pass, and that he would certainly take shelter in my
grove: but I could not depend, by any means, upon my dream,
that the other savages would not pursue him thither and find
him there... However, I kept my station, and my spirits began to
recover when I found that there was not above three men that
followed him; and still more was I encouraged when I found that
he outstripped them exceedingly in running, and gained ground
on them; so that, if he could but hold out for half-an-hour, I saw
easily he would fairly get away from them all.

There was between them and my castle the creek, which I
mentioned often in the first part of my story, where I landed my
cargoes out of the ship; and this I saw plainly he must necessarily
swim over, or the poor wretch would be taken there; but when the
savage escaping came thither he made nothing of it, though the
tide was then up; but plunging in, swam through in about thirty
strokes, or thereabouts, landed, and ran with exceeding strength
and swiftness. When the three persons came to the creek, I found
that two of them could swim, but the third could not, and that,
standing on the other side, he looked at the others, but went no
farther, and soon after went softly back again; which, as it
happened, was very well for him in the end. I observed that the
two who swam were yet more than twice as long swimming over
the creek as the fellow was that fled from them. It came very
warmly upon my thoughts, and, indeed, irresistibly, that now was
the time to get me a servant, and perhaps a companion or
assistant; and that I was-plainly called by Providence to save this
poor creature’s life. I immediately ran down the ladders with all
possible expedition, fetched my two guns, for they were both at the
foot of the ladders, as I observed before, and getting up again
with the same haste to the top of the hill, I crossed towards the
sea; and having a very short cut, and all down hill, placed myself
in the way between the pursuers and the pursued, hallooing aloud
to him that fled, who, looking back, was at first perhaps as much
ROBINSON CRUSOE. “197

frightened at me as at them; but I beckoned with my hand to
him to come back; and in the meantime I slowly advanced
towards the two that followed; then rushing at once upon the
foremost, I knocked him down with the stock of my piece. I was
loath to fire, because I would not have the rest hear; though at
that distance it would not have been easily heard, and being out
of sight of the smoke too, they would not have known what to
make of it. Having knocked this fellow down, the other who
pursued him stopped, as if he had been frightened, and I
advanced towards him; but as I came nearer, I perceived
presently he had a bow and arrow, and was fitting it to shoot
at me; so I was then obliged to shoot at him first, which I did,
and killed him at the first shot. The poor savage who fled, but
had stopped, though he saw both his enemies fallen and killed,
as he thought, yet was so frightened with the fire and noise of my
piece that he stood stock-still, and neither came forward nor went
backward, though he seemed rather inclined still to fly than to
‘come on. I hallooed again to him, and made signs to come
forward, which he easily understood, and came a little way; then
stopped again, and then a little farther, and stopped again; and I
could then perceive that he stood trembling, as if he had been
taken prisoner, and had just been to be killed, as his two enemies
were, I beckoned to him again to come to me, and gave him all
the signs of encouragement that I could think of; and he came
nearer and nearer, kneeling down every ten or twelve steps, in
token of acknowledgment for saving his life. I smiled at him
and looked pleasantly, and beckoned to him to come still nearer;
at length he came close to me; and then he kneeled down again,
kissed the ground, and laid his head upon the ground, and, taking
me by the foot, set my foot upon his head; this, it seems, was in
token of swearing to be my slave for ever. I took him up and
made much of him, and encouraged him all I could. But there
was more work to do yet; for I perceived the savage whom I had
knocked down was not killed but stunned with the blow, and
began to come to himself; so I pointed to him, and showed him
198 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

the savage, that he was not dead; upon this he spoke some words
to me, and though I could not understand them, yet I thought -
they were pleasant to hear; for they were the first sound of a
man’s voice that I had heard, my own excepted, for above twenty-
five years. But there was no time for such reflections now; the
savage who was knocked down recovered himself so far as to sit
up upon the ground, and I perceived that my savage began to be
afraid; but when I saw that I presented my other piece at the
man, as if I would shoot him: upon this my savage, for so I call
him now, made a motion to me to lend him my sword, which
hung naked in a belt by my side, which I did. He no sooner
had it but he runs to his enemy, and at one blow cut off his head
so cleverly, no executioner in Germany could have done it sooner
or better; which I thought very strange for one who, I had reason
to believe, never saw a sword in his life before, except their own
wooden swords: however, it seems, as I learned afterwards, they
make their wooden swords so sharp, so heavy, and the wood is so
hard, that they will even cut off heads with them, ay, and arms,
and that at one blow too. When he had done this he comes
laughing to me in sign of triumph, and brought me the sword
again, and with abundance of gestures which I did not under-
stand laid it down, with the head of the savage that he had
killed, just before me. But that which astonished him most was
to know how I killed the other Indian so far off; so, pointing to
him, he made signs to me to let him go to him; and I bade him
go, as well as I could. When he came to him he stood like one
amazed, looking at him, turning him first on one side, then on
the other; looked at the wound the bullet had made, which it
seems was just in his breast, where it had made a hole, and no
great quantity of blood had followed; but he had bled inwardly,
for he was quite dead. He took up his bow and arrows and
came back; so I turned to go away, and beckoned him to follow
me, making signs to him that more might come after them.
Upon this he made signs to me that he should bury them with
sand, that they might not be seen by the rest, if they followed;
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 199

and so I made signs to him again to do so. He fell to work; and
in an instant he had scraped a hole in the sand with his hands
big enough to bury the first in, and then dragged him into it, and
covered him; and did so by the other also; I believe he had
buried them both in a quarter of an hour. Then, calling him
away, I carried him, not to my castle, but quite away to my cave,
on the farther part of the island: so I did not let my.dream come
to pass in that part, that he came into my grove for shelter. Here
I gave him bread and a bunch of raisins to eat, and a draught of
water, which I found he was indeed in great distress for, from his
running; and having refreshed him, I made signs for him to go
and lie down to sleep, showing him a place where I had laid some
rice-straw and a blanket upon it, which I used to sleep upon
myself sometimes; so the poor creature lay down and went to
sleep.

He was a comely, handsome fellow, perfectly well made, with
straight, strong limbs, not too large, tall, and well-shaped ; and,
as I reckon, about twenty-six years of age. He had a very good
countenance, not a fierce and surly aspect, but seemed to have
something very manly in his face; and yet he had all the
sweetness and softness of a European in his countenance too,
especially when he smiled. His hair was long and black, not
curled like wool; his forehead very high and large; and a great
vivacity and sparkling sharpness in his eyes. The colour of his_
skin was not quite black, but very tawny; and yet not an ugly,
yellow, nauseous tawny, as the Brazilians and Virginians and
other natives of America are, but of a bright kind of a dun
olive-colour, that had in it something very agreeable, though not
very easy to describe. His face was round and plump; his nose
small, not flat, like the Negroes; a very good mouth, thin lips,
and his fine teeth well set, and as white as ivory.

After he had slumbered, rather than slept, about half-an-hour,
he awoke again, and came out of the cave to me; for I had been
milking my goats which I had in the enclosure just by: when he
espied me he came running to me, laying himself down again
200 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

upon the ground, with all the possible signs of an humble,
thankful disposition, making a great many antic gestures to
show it. At last he lays his head flat upon the ground, close
to my foot, and sets my other foot upon his head, as he had done
before; and after this made all the signs to me of subjection,
servitude, and submission imaginable, to let me know how he
would serve me so long as he lived. I understood him in
many things, and let him know I was very well pleased with
him. In a little time I began to speak to him, and teach him
to speak to me; and first, I let. him know his name should
be Fripay, which was the day I-saved his life: I called him so
for the memory of the time. I likewise taught him to say
Master; and then let him know that was to be my name: I
likewise taught him to say Yes and No, and to know the mean-
ing of them. I gave him some milk in an earthen pot, and let
him see me drink it before him, and sop my bread in it; and
gave him a cake of bread to do the like, which he quickly ©
complied with, and made signs that it was very good for him. I
kept there with him all that night; but as soon as it was day I
beckoned to him. to come with me, and let him know I would
give him some clothes; at which he seemed very glad, for he
was stark naked. As we went by the place where he had buried
the two men, he pointed exactly to the place, and showed me
the marks that he had made to find them again, making signs
to me that we should dig them up again and eat them. At this
I appeared very angry, expressed my abhorrence of it, made as if
I would vomit at the thoughts of it, and beckoned with my hand
to him to come away, which he did immediately with great sub-
mission. I then led him up to the top of the hill to see if his
enemies were gone; and pulling out my glass I looked, and saw
plainly the place-where they had been, but no appearance of
them or their canoes; so that it was plain they were gone, and
had left their two comrades behind them, without any search
after them.

But I was not content with this discovery; but having now more
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 201

courage, and consequently more curiosity, I took my man Friday
with me, giving him the sword in his hand, with the bow and
arrows at his back, which I found he. could use very dexterously,
making him carry one gun for me, and I two for myself; and
away we marched to the place where these creatures had been;
for I had a mind now to get some further intelligence of them.
When I came to the place my very blood ran chill in my veins,
and my heart sunk within me at the horror of the spectacle;
indeed, it was a dreadful sight, at least it was so to me, though
Friday made nothing of it. The place was covered with human
bones, the ground dyed with their blood, and great pieces of flesh
left here and there, half-eaten, mangled, and scorched; and, in
short, all the tokens of the triumphant feast they had been
making there, after a victory over their enemies. I saw three
skulls, five hands, and the bones of three or four legs and feet,
and abundance of other parts of the bodies; and Friday, by his
signs, made me understand that they brought over four prisoners
to feast upon; that three of them were eaten up, and that he,
pointing to himself, was the fourth; that there had been a great
battle between them and their next king, of whose subjects, it
seems, he had been one, and that they had taken a great number
of prisoners; all-which were carried to several places by those
who had taken them in the fight, in order to feast upon them, as
was done here by these wretches upon those they brought hither.
I caused Friday to gather all the skulls, bones, flesh, and
whatever remained, and lay them together in a heap, and make
a great fire upon it, and burn them all to ashes. I found Friday
had still a hankering stomach after some of the flesh, and was
still a cannibal in his nature; but I showed so much abhorrence
at the very thoughts of it, and at the least appearance of it,
that he durst not discover it; for I had, by some means, let him
know that I would kill him if he offered it.
When he had done this we came back to our castle; and there
I fell to work for my man Friday; and first of all, I gave him a
pair of linen drawers, which I had out of the poor gunner’s chest
202 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

I mentioned, which I found in the wreck, and which, with a little
alteration, fitted him very well; and then I made him a jerkin of
goat’s skin, as well as my skill would allow (for I was now grown
a tolerably good tailor); and I gave him a cap which I made of
hare’s skin, very convenient, and fashionable enough; and thus
he was clothed, for the present, tolerably well, and was mighty well
pleased to see himself almost as well clothed as his master. It
is true he went awkwardly in these clothes at first—wearing the
drawers was very awkward to him, and the sleeves of the waist-
coat galled his shoulders and the inside of his arms; but a little
easing them where he complained they hurt him, and using him-
self to them, he took to them at length very well.

The next day, after I came home to my hutch with him, I began
to consider where I should lodge him; and that I might do well
for him and yet be perfectly easy myself, I made a little tent for
him in the vacant place between my two fortifications, in the
inside of the last, and in the outside of the first. As there was a
door or entrance there into my cave, I made a formal framed
door-case, and a door to it, of boards, and set it up in the
passage, a little within the entrance; and causing the door to
open in the inside, I barred it up in the night, taking in my ladders,
too; so that Friday could no way come at me in the inside of my
innermost wall without making so much noise in getting over
that it must needs awaken me; for my first wall had now a com-
plete roof over it of long poles, covering all my tent, and leaning
up to the side of the hill; which was again laid across with smaller
sticks, instead of laths, and then thatched over a great thickness
with the rice-straw, which was strong, like reeds; and at the hole
or place which was left to go in or out by the ladder I had placed
a kind of trap-door, which, if it had been attempted on the out-
side, would not have opened at all, but would have fallen down
and made a great noise: as to weapons, I took them all into my
side every night. But I needed none of all this precaution; for
never man had a more faithful, loving, sincere servant than Friday
was to me; without passions, sullenness, or designs, perfectly
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 203

obliged and engaged; his very affections were tied to me, like
those of a child to a father; and I daresay he would have
sacrificed his life to save mine upon. any occasion whatsoever—
the many testimonies he gave me of this put it out of doubt, and
soon convinced me that I needed to use no precautions for my
safety on his account.

This frequently gave me occasion to observe, and that with
wonder, that however it had pleased God in His providence, and
in the government of the works of His hands, to take from so
great a part of the world of His creatures the best uses to which
their faculties and the powers of their souls are adapted, yet that
He has bestowed upon them the same powers, the same reason,
the same affections; the same sentiments of kindness and obliga-
tion; the same passions and resentments of wrongs, the same
sense of gratitude, sincerity, fidelity, and all the capacities of
doing good and receiving good that He has given to us; and that
when He pleases to offer them occasions of exerting these, they
are as ready, nay, more ready, to apply them to the right uses for
which they were bestowed than we are. This made me very
melancholy sometimes, in reflecting, as the several occasions
presented, how mean a use we make of all these, even though we
have these powers enlightened by the great lamp of instruction,
the Spirit of God, and by the knowledge of His word added to
our understanding; and why it has pleased God to hide the like
saving knowledge from so many millions of souls, who, if I might
judge by this poor savage, would make a much better use of it
than we did. From hence I sometimes was led too far, to invade
the sovereignty of Providence, and, as it were, arraign the justice
of so arbitrary a disposition of things, that should hide that sight
from some and reveal it to others, and yet expect a like duty
from both; but I shut it up, and checked my thoughts with this
conclusion: first, That we did not know by what light and law
these should be condemned; but that as God was necessarily,
and by the nature of His being, infinitely holy and just, so it
could not be but if these creatures were all sentenced to absence
204 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

from Himself, it was on account of sinning against that light
which, as the Scripture says, was a law to themselves, and by
such rules as their consciences would acknowledge to be just,
though the foundation was not discovered to us; and secondly,
That still as we all are the clay in the hand of the potter, no
vessel could say to him, “ Why hast thou formed me thus ?”

But to return to my new companion:—I was greatly delighted
with him, and made it my business to teach him everything that
was proper to make him useful, handy, and helpful; but especially
to make him speak, and understand me when I spoke; and he
was the aptest scholar that ever was; and particularly was so
merry, so constantly diligent, and so pleased when he could but
understand me, or make me understand him, that it was very
pleasant to me to talk to him. Now my life began to be so easy
that I began to say to myself that could I but have been safe
from more savages, I cared not if I was never to remove from the
place where I lived.

CHAPTER XV.

I am at great pains to instruct Friday respecting my abhorrence of the cannibal
practices of the savages—He is amazed at the effects of the gun, and
considers it an intelligent being—Begins to talk English tolerably—A
dialogue—I instruct him in the knowledge of religion, and find him very
apt—He describes to me some white men who had come to his country,
and still lived there.

Arter I had been two or three days returned to my castle, I
thought that, in order to bring Friday off from his horrid way of
feeding, and from the relish of a cannibal’s stomach, I ought to
let him taste other flesh; so I took him out with me one morning
to the woods. I went, indeed, intending to kill a kid out of my
own flock and bring it home and dress it; but as I was going I
saw a she-goat lying down in the shade, and two young kids
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 20%

sitting by-her. I catched hold of Friday;— Hold,” said I,
“stand still;” and made signs to him not to stir; immediately
T presented my piece, shot, and killed one of the kids. The poor
creature, who had, at a distance, indeed, seen me kill the savage,
his enemy, but did not know, nor could imagine how it was done,
was sensibly surprised; trembled, and shook, and looked so
amazed that I thought he would have sunk down. He did not
see the kid I shot at, or perceive I had killed it, but ripped up
his waistcoat to feel whether he was not wounded; and, as 1
found presently, thought I was resolved to kill him; for he came
and kneeled down to me, and embracing my knees, said a great
many things I did not understand; but I could easily see the
meaning was to pray me not to kill him.

I soon found a way to convince him that I would do him no
harm; and taking him up by the hand, laughed at him, and
pointing to the kid which I had killed, beckoned to him to run
and fetch it, which he did; and while he was wondering and look-.
ing to see how the creature was killed, I loaded my gun again.
By-and-by I saw a great fowl, like a hawk, sitting upon a tree
within shot; so, to let Friday understand a little what.I would
do, I called him to me again, pointing at the fowl, which was
indeed a parrot, though I thought it had been a hawk; I say,
pointing to the parrot and to my gun, and to the ground under
the parrot, to let him see I would make it fall, I made him under-
stand that I would shoot and kill that bird; accordingly I fired,
and bade him look, and immediately he saw the parrot fall. He
stood like one frightened again, notwithstanding all I had said to
him; and I found he was the more amazed because he did not
see me put.anything into the gun, but thought that there must be
some wonderful fund of death and destruction in that thing, able
to kill man, beast, bird, or anything near or far off; and the:
astonishment this created in him was such as could not wear off
for a long time; and I believe, if I would have let him, he would -
have worshipped me and my gun. As for the gun itself, he would
“ not so much as touch it for several days after; but he would
206 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

speak to it and talk to it, as if it had answered him, when he was
by himself; which, as I afterwards learned of him, was to desire
it not to kill him. Well, after his astonishment was a little over
at this, I pointed to him to run and fetch the bird I had shot,
which he did, but stayed some time; for the parrot, not being
quite dead, had fluttered away a good distance from the place
where she fell: however, he found her, took her up, and brought
her to me; and as I had perceived his ignorance about the gun
before, I took this advantage to charge the gun again, and not to
let him see me do it, that I might be ready for any other mark
that might present; but nothing more offered at that time: so I
brought home the kid, and the same evening I took the skin off,
and cut it out as well as I could; and having a pot fit for that
purpose, I boiled or stewed some of the flesh, and made some
very good broth. After I had begun to eat some I gave some to
my man, who seemed very glad of it, and liked it very well; but
that which was strangest to him was to see me eat salt with it.
He made a sign to me that the salt was not good to eat; and
putting a little into his own mouth, he seemed to nauseate it, and
would spit and sputter at it, washing his mouth with fresh water
after it; on the other hand, I took some meat into my mouth
without salt, and I pretended to spit and sputter for want of salt,
as much as he had done at the salt; but it would not do; he
wotdd never care for salt with meat or in his broth—at least, not
for a great while, and then but a very little.

Having thus fed him with boiled meat and broth, I was resolved
to feast him the next day by roasting a piece of the kid: this I
did by hanging it before the fire on a string, as I had seen many
people do in England, setting two poles up, one on each side of
the fire, and one across the top, and tying the string to the cross
stick, letting the meat turn continually. This Friday admired
very much; -but when he came to taste the flesh, he took so many
ways to tell me how well he liked it, that I could not but under-
stand him; and at last he told me, as well as he could, he would
never eat man’s flesh any more, which T was very glad to hear.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 207

The next day I set him to work beating some corn out, and sifting
it in the manner I used to do, as I observed before 3 and he soon
understood how to do it as well as J, especially after he had seen
what the meaning of it was, and that it was to make bread of; for
after that I let him see me make my bread, and bake it too; and
in a little time Friday was able to do all the work for me as well
as I could do it myself.

I began now to consider, that having two mouths to feed
instead of one, I must provide more ground for my harvest,
and plant a larger quantity of corn than I used to do; so I
marked out a larger piece of land, and began the fence in the
same manner as before, in which Friday worked not only very
willingly and very hard, but did it very cheerfully: and I told him
what it was for; that it was for corn to make more bread, because
he was now with me, and that I might have enough for him and
myself too. He appeared very sensible of that part, and let me
know that he thought I had much more labour upon me on his
account than I had for myself; and that he would work the
harder for me if I would tell him what to do.

This was the pleasantest year of all the life I led in this place.
Friday began to talk pretty well, and understand the names of
almost everything I had occasion to call for, and of every place I
had to send him to, and talked a great deal to me; so that, in
short, I began now to have some use for my tongue again, which,
indeed, I had very little occasion for before. Besides the pleasure
of talking to him, I had a singular satisfaction in the fellow
himself: his simple, unfeigned honesty appeared to me more and
more every day, and I began really to love the creature; and
on his side I believe he loved me more than it was possible for
him ever to love anything before.

I had a mind once to try if he had any inclination of his own
country again; and having taught him English so well that he
could answér me almost any question, I asked him whether the
nation that he belonged to never conquered in battle? At which
he smiled, and said—" Yes, yes, we always fight the better;” that
208 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

is, he meant always get the better in fight; and so we began
the following discourse :—

Master.—VYou always fight the better; how came you to be
taken prisoner then, Friday?

Friday.—My nation beat much for all that.

Master—How beat? If your nation beat them, how came
you to be taken?

Friday.—They more many than my nation, in the place where
me was; they take one, two, three, and me: my nation over-beat
them in the yonder place, where me no was; there my nation take
one, two, great thousand.

Mastery —But why did not your side recover you from the
hands of your enemies, then?

Ffriday.—They run, one, two, three, and me, and make go
in the canoe; my nation have no canoe that time.

Master.—Well, Friday, and what does your nation do with the
men they take? Do they carry them away and eat them, as these
did?

Friday.—VYes, my nation eat mans too: eat all up.

Master.—Where do they carry them?

friday.—Go to other place, where they think.

MMaster.—Do they come hither?

Friday,—Ves, yes, they come hither; come other else place.

Master.—Have you been here with them?

Friday.—VYes, 1 have been here (points to the N.W. side of the
island, which, it seems, was their side).

By this I understood that my man Friday had formerly been
among the savages who used to come on shore at the farther part
of the island, on the same man-eating occasions he was now
brought for; and some time after, when I took the courage to
carry him to that side, being the same I formerly mentioned, he
presently knew the place, and told me he was there once, when
they ate up twenty men, two women, and one child; he could
not tell twenty in English, but he numbered them by laying’
so many stones in a row, and pointing to me to tell them over.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 209

I have told this passage because it introduces what follows:
that after this discourse I had with him, I asked him how far it
was from our island to the shore, and whether the canoes were
not often lost. He told me there was no danger, no canoes ever
lost; but that after a little way out to sea, there was a current and
wind, always one way in the morning, the other in the afternoon.
This I understood to be no more than the sets of the tide, as
going out or coming in; but I afterwards understood it was
occasioned by the great draught and reflux of the mighty river
Oroonoko, in the mouth or gulf of which river, as I found after-
wards, our island lay; and that this land, which I perceived to be
W. and N.W., was the great island Trinidad, on the north point
of the mouth of the river. I asked Friday a thousand questions
about the country, the inhabitants, the sea, the coast, and what
nations were near; he told me all he knew with the greatest
openness imaginable. I asked him the names of the several
nations of his sort of people, but could get no other name than
Caribs; from whence I easily understood that these were the
Caribbees, which our maps place on the part of America which
reaches from the mouth of the river Oroonoko to Guiana, and
onwards to St. Martha. He told me, that up a great way beyond
the moon, that was beyond the setting of the moon, which must
be west from their country, there dwelt white bearded men, like
me, and pointed to my great whiskers, which I mentioned before;
and that they had killed much mans, that was his word: by all
which I understood he meant the Spaniards, whose cruelties in
America had been spread over the whole country, and were
remembered by all the nations from father to son.

I inquired if he could tell me how I might go from this island
and get among those white men; he told me, “Yes, yes, you
may go in‘two canoe.” I could not understand what he meant,
or make him describe to me what he meant by two canoe, till at
last, with great difficulty, I found he meant it must be in a large
boat, as big as two canoes. This part of Friday’s discourse I
began to relish very well; and from this time I entertained some

14
210 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

hopes that, one time or other, I might find an opportunity to
make my escape from this place, and that this poor savage might
be a means to help me.

During the long time that Friday had now been with me, and
that he began to speak to me, and understand me, I was not
wanting to lay a foundation of religious knowledge in his mind;
particularly I asked him one time, who made him. The poor
creature did not understand me at all, but thought I had asked
who was his father—but I took it up by another handle, and
asked him who made the sea, the ground we walked on, and the
hills and woods. He told me, “It was one Benamuckee, that
lived beyond all;” he could describe nothing of this great
person, but that he was very old, ‘‘much older,” he said, ‘than
the sea or land, than the moon or the stars.” I asked him then,
if this old person had made all things, why did not all things
worship him? He looked very grave, and, with a perfect look
of innocence, said, “ All things say O to him.” I asked him if
the people who die in his country went away anywhere? He
said, “Yes; they all went to Benamuckee.” Then I asked him
whether those they eat up went thither too? He said, “ Yes.”

From these things, I began to instruct him in the knowledge of
the true God—I told him that the great Maker of all things lived
up there, pointing up towards heaven; that He governed the
world by the same power and providence by which He made it;
that He was omnipotent, and could do everything for us, give
everything to us—take everything from us; and thus, by degrees,
I opened his eyes. He listened with great attention, and received
with pleasure the notion of Jesus Christ being sent to redeem us;
and of the manner of making our prayers to God, and His being
able to hear us, even in heaven. He told me one day, that if
our God could hear us, up beyond the sun, he must needs be a
greater God than their Benamuckee, who lived but a little way
off, and yet could not hear till they went up to the great moun-
tains where he dwelt to speak to him. I asked him if ever he
went thither to speak to him? He said, “No; they never went
ROBINSON CRUSOE. ary

that were young men; none went thither but the old men,”
whom he called their Oowokakee; that is, as I made him explain
to me, their religious, or clergy; and that they went to say O (so
he called saying prayers), and then came back and told them
what Benamuckee said. By this I observed that there is priest-
craft even among the most blinded, ignorant pagans in the world;
and the policy of making a secret of religion, in order to preserve
the veneration of the people to the clergy, not only to be found
in the Roman, but perhaps among all religions in the world,
even amongst the most brutish and barbarous savages.

I endeavoured to clear up this fraud to my man Friday; and
told him that the pretence of their old men going up to the
mountains to say O to their god Benamuckee was a cheat; and
their bringing word from thence what he said was much more so;
that if they met with any answer, or spake with any one there, it
must be with an evil spirit; and then I entered into a long
discourse with him about the devil, the origin of him, his rebellion
against God, his enmity to man, the reason of it, his setting him-
self up in the dark parts of the world to be worshipped instead of
God, and as God, and the many stratagems he made use of to
delude mankind to their ruin; how he had a secret access to our
passions and to our affections, and to adapt his snares to our
inclinations, so as to cause us even to be our own tempters, and
run upon our destruction by our own choice.

T found it was not so easy to imprint right notions in his mind
about the devil as it was about the being of a God—nature
assisted all my arguments to evidence to him even the necessity
of a great First Cause—an overruling, governing Power—a secret
directing Providence; and of the equity and justice of paying
homage to Him that made us, and the like; but there appeared
nothing of this kind in the notion of an evil spirit; of his origin,
his being, his nature; and above all, of his inclination to do evil,
and to draw us in to do so too—and the poor creature puzzled
me once in such a manner, by a question. merely natural and
innocent, that I scarce knew what to say to him. I had been
212 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

talking a great deal to him of the power of God, His omnipo-
tence, His aversion to sin, His being a consuming fire to the
workers of iniquity; how, as He had made us all, He could
destroy us and all the world in a moment; and he listened with
great seriousness to me all-the while. After this I had been
telling him how the devil was God’s enemy in the hearts of men,
and used all his malice and skill to defeat the good designs of
Providence, and to ruin the kingdom of Christ in the world, and
the like. ‘‘ Well,” says Friday, “but you say God is so strong, so
great; is He not much strong, much might as the devil?” ‘“ Yes,
yes,” says I, “ Friday; God is stronger than the devil—God is
above the devil, and therefore we pray to God to tread him down
under our feet, and enable us to resist his temptations and quench
his fiery darts.” ‘ But,” says he, again, “if God much stronger,
much might as the wicked devil, why God no kill the devil, so
make him no more do wicked?” I was strangely surprised at
this question; and, after all, though I was now an old man, yet I
was but a young doctor, and ill qualified for a casuist or a solver
of difficulties; and at first I could not tell what to say; so I
pretended not to hear him, and asked him what he said—but he
was too earnest for an answer to forget his question, so that he
repeated it in the very same broken words as above. By this
time I had recovered myself a little, and I said, ‘God will at last
punish him severely; he is reserved for the judgment, and is to
be cast into the bottomless pit, to dwell with everlasting fire.”
This did not satisfy Friday ; but he returns upon me, repeating
my words, ‘‘ /teserve at last/’ me no understand—but why not
kill the devil now; not kill great ago?” “You may as well ask
me,” said I, ‘‘why God does not kill you or me, when we do
wicked things here that offend Him—we are preserved to repent
and be pardoned.” He mused some time on this—“' Well, well,”
says he, mightily affectionately, ‘‘that well—so you, I, devil, all
wicked, all preserve, repent, God pardon all.” Here I was run
down again by him to the last degree—and it was a testimony to
me, how the mere notions of nature, though they will guide
ROBINSON CRUSOE, 213

reasonable creatures to the knowledge of a God, and of a worship
or homage due to the supreme being of God, as the consequence
of our nature, yet nothing but divine revelation can form the
knowledge of Jesus Christ, and of redemption purchased for us;
of a Mediator of the new covenant, and of an Intercessor at the
footstool of God’s throne; I say, nothing but a revelation from
heaven can form these in the soul; and that, therefore, the gospel
of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, I mean the Word of God,
and the Spirit of God, promised for the guide and sanctifier of
His people, are the absolutely necessary instructors of the souls
of men in the saving knowledge of God and the means of
salvation.

I therefore diverted the present discourse between me and my
man, rising up hastily, as upon some sudden occasion of going
out; then sending him for something a good way off, I seriously
prayed to God that he would enable me to instruct savingly
this poor savage; assisting, by His Spirit, the heart of the poor -
ignorant creature to receive the light of the knowledge of God in
Christ, reconciling him to Himself, and would guide me so to
speak to him from the Word of God that his conscience might
be convinced, his eyes opened, and his soul saved. When he
came again to me, I entered into a long discourse with him upon
the subject of the redemption of man by the Saviour of the
world, and of the doctrine of the gospel preached from heaven—
viz, of repentance towards God, and faith in our blessed Lord
Jesus. I then explained to him as well as I could why our
blessed Redeemer took not on him the nature of angels, but
the seed of Abraham; and how, for that reason, the fallen angels
had no share in the redemption; that he came only to the lost
sheep of the house of Israel, and the like.

I had, God knows, more sincerity than knowledge in all the
methods I took for this poor creature’s instruction, and must
acknowledge, what I believe all that act upon the same principle
will find, that in laying things open to him, I really informed and
instructed myself in many things that either I did not know, or
214 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

had not fully considered before, but which occurred naturally to
my mind upon searching into them, for the information of this
poor savage; and I had more affection in my inquiry after things
upon this occasion than ever I felt before: so that, whether this
poor, wild wretch was better for me or no, I had great reason to
be thankful that ever he came to me; my grief sat lighter upon
me; my habitation grew comfortable to me beyond measure:
and when I reflected that in this solitary life which I have been
confined to, I had not only been moved to look up to heaven
myself, and to seek the hand that had brought me here, but was
now to be made an instrument; under Providence, to save the
life, and, for aught I knew, the soul of a poor savage, and bring
him. to the true knowledge of religion, and of the Christian
doctrine, that he might know Christ Jesus, in whom is life
eternal; I say, when I reflected upon all these things, a secret
joy ran through every part of my soul, and I frequently rejoiced
“that ever I was brought to this place, which I had so often
thought the most dreadful of all afflictions that could possibly
have befallen me.

I continued in this thankful frame all the remainder of my
time; and the conversation which employed the hours between
Friday and me was such as made the three years which we lived
there together perfectly and completely happy, if any such thing
as complete happiness can be formed in a sublunary state. This
savage was now a good Christian, a much better than I; though
I have reason to hope, and bless God for it, that we were equally
penitent, and comforted, restored penitents. We had here the
Word of God to read, and no farther off from His Spirit to
instruct than if we had been in England. I always applied
myself, in reading the Scripture, to let him know, as well as I
could, the meaning of what I read; and he again, by his serious
inquiries and questionings, made me, as I said before, a much
better scholar in the Scripture knowledge than I should ever have
been by my own mere private reading. Another thing’ I cannot
refrain from observing here also, from experience in this retired
ROBINSON CRUSOE. ° 215

part of my life—viz., how infinite and inexpressible a blessing it
is that the knowledge of God, and of the doctrine of salvation by
Christ Jesus, is so plainly laid down in the Word of God, so easy
to be received and understood, that, as the bare reading the Scrip-
ture made me capable of understanding enough of my duty to carry
me directly on to the great work of sincere repentance for my
sins, and laying hold of a Saviour for life and salvation, to 4
stated reformation in practice, and obedience to all God’s com-
mands, and this without any teacher or instructor, I mean
human; so the same plain instruction sufficiently served to
the enlightening this savage. creature, and bringing him to be
such a Christian as I have known few equal to him in my life.

As to all the disputes, wrangling, strife, and contention which
have happened in the world about religion, whether niceties in
doctrines or schemes of church government, they were all per-
fectly useless to us, and, for aught I can yet see, they have been
so to the rest of the world. We had the sure guide to heaven—
viz, the Word of God; and we had, blessed be God, comfortable
views of the Spirit of God teaching and instructing by His word,
leading us into all truth, and making us both willing and obedient
to the instruction of His word. And I cannot see the least use
that the greatest knowledge of the disputed points of religion,
which have made such confusion in the world, would have been
to us, if we could have obtained it. But I must go on with the
historical part of things, and take every part in its order.

After Friday and I became more intimately acquainted, and
that he could understand almost all I said to him, and speak
pretty fluently, though in broken English, to me, I acquainted
him with my own history, or at least so much of it as related to
my coming to this place: how I had lived there, and how long;
I let him into the mystery, for such it was to him, of gunpowder
and bullet, and taught him how to shoot. I gave him a knife,
which he was wonderfully delighted with; and I made him a belt,
with a frog hanging to it, such as in England we wear hangers in;
and in the frog, instead of a hanger, I gave him a hatchet, which
216 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

was not only as good a weapon in some cases, but much more
useful upon other occasions.

I described to him the country of Europe, particularly
England, which I came from; how we lived, how we worshipped
God, how we behaved to one another, and how we traded in
ships to all parts of the world. I gave him an account of the
wreck which I had been on board of, and showed him, as near as
I could, the place where she lay; but she was all beaten in pieces
before, and gone. 1 showed him the ruins of our boat, which we
lost when we escaped, and which I could not. stir with my whole
strength then; but was now fallen almost all to pieces. Upon
seeing this boat, Friday stood musing a great while, and said
nothing. I asked him what it was he studied upon. At last says
he, “ Me see such boat like come to place at my nation.” I did
not understand him a good while; but at last, when i had
examined further into it, I understood by him that a boat, such
as that had been, came on shore upon the country where he
lived: that is, as he explained it, was driven thither by stress of
weather. I presently imagined that some European ship must
have been cast away upon their coast, and the boat might get -
loose and drive ashore; but was so dull that I never once
thought of men making their escape from a wreck thither,
much less whence they might come: so I only inquired after a
description of the boat.

Friday described the boat to me well enough; but brought me
better to understand him when he added with some warmth,
“ We save the white mans from drown.” Then I presently asked
if there were any white mans, as he called them, in the boat.
“Yes,” he said; “the boat full of white mans.” [I asked him
how many. He told upon his fingers seventeen. I asked him
then what became of them. He told me, “They live, they dwell
at my nation.”

This put new thoughts into my head; for I presently imagined
that these might be the men belonging to the ship that was cast
away in the sight of my island, as I now called it; and who, after
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 2L7

the ship was struck on the rock, and they saw her inevitably lost,
had saved themselves in their boat, and were landed upon that
wild shore among the savages. Upon this I inquired of him
more critically what was become of them. He assured me they
lived still there ; that they had been there about four years; that
the savages left them alone, and gave them victuals to live on.
I asked him how it came to pass they did not kill them and eat
them. He said, “No, they make brother with them;” that is,
as I understood him, a truce; and then he added, “They no eat
mans but when make the war fight;” that is to say, they never
eat any men but such as come to fight with them and are taken
in battle.

It was after this some considerable time, that being upon the
top of the hill, at the east side of the island, from whence, as I
have said, I had, in a clear day, discovered the main or continent
of America, Friday, the weather being very serene, looks very
earnestly towards the mainland, and in a kind of surprise falls a
jumping and dancing, and calls out to me, for I was at some
distance from him. I asked him what was the matter. “Oh,
joy!” says he; “Oh, glad! there see my country, there my
nation!” I observed an extraordinary sense of pleasure
appeared in his face, and his eyes sparkled, and his countenance
discovered a strange eagerness, as if he had a mind to be in his
own country again. This observation of mine put a great many
thoughts into me, which made me at first not so easy about my
new man Friday as I was before; and I made no doubt but that,
if Friday could get back to his own nation again, he would not
only forget all his religion but all his obligation to me, and would
be forward enough to give his countrymen an account of me, and
come back, perhaps with a hundred or two of them, and make a
feast upon me, at which he might be as merry as he used to be
with those of his enemies when they were taken in war. But I
wronged the poor honest creature very much, for which I was
very sorry afterwards. However, as my jealousy increased, and
held some weeks, I was a little more circumspect, and not so
218 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

familiar and kind to him as before: in which I was certainly
wrong too; the honest, grateful creature having no thought about
it but what consisted with the best principles, both as a religious
Christian and as a grateful friend, as appeared afterwards to my
full satisfaction.

While my jealousy of him lasted, you may be sure I was every
day pumping him to see if he would discover any of the new
thoughts which I suspected were in him; but I found everything
he said was so honest and so innocent, that I could find nothing
to nourish my suspicion; and in spite of all my uneasiness, he
made me at last entirely his own again; nor did he in the least
perceive that 1 was uneasy, and therefore I could not suspect him
of deceit.

One day, walking up the same hill, but the weather being hazy
at sea, so that we could not see the continent, I called to him,
and said, “ Friday, do not you wish yourself in your own country,
your own nation?” ‘ Yes,” he said, “i be much O glad to be
at my own nation.” “What would you do there?” said I.
“Would you turn wild again, eat men’s flesh again, and be a
savage as you were before?” He looked full of concern, and
shaking his head, said, ‘ No, no, Friday tell them to live good;
tell them to pray God; tell them to eat corn-bread, cattle flesh,
milk; no eat man again.” ‘Why, then,” said I to him, “they
will kill you.” He looked grave at that, and then said, “ No, no,
they no kill me, they willing love learn.” He meant by this, they
would be willing to learn. He added, they learned much of the
bearded mans that came in the boat. Then I asked him if he
would go back to them. He smiled at that, and told me that he
could not swim so far. I told him I would make a canoe for
him. He told me he would go if I would go with him. “I go!”
says I; “why, they will eat me if I come there.” ‘No, no,”
says he, “me make they no eat you; me make they much love
you.” He meant he would tell them how I had killed his
enemies and saved his life, and so he would make them love me.
Then he told me, as well as he could, how kind they were to
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 219

seventeen white men, or bearded men, as he called them, who
came on shore there in distress.

From this time, I confess, 1 had a mind to venture over, and
see if I could possibly join with those bearded men, who I made
no doubt were Spaniards and Portuguese; not doubting but, if I
could, we might find some method to escape from thence, being
upon the continent, and a good company together, better than I
could from an island forty miles off the shore, alone and without
help. So, after some days, I took Friday to work again by way
of discourse, and told him I would give him a boat to go back
to his own nation; and, accordingly, I carried him to my frigate,
which lay on the other side of the island, and having cleared it
of water (for I always kept it sunk in water), I brought it out,
showed it him, and we both went into it. I found he was a
most dexterous fellow at managing it, and would make it go
almost as swift again as I could. So when he was in I said to
him, “Well, now, Friday, shall we go to your nation?” He
looked very dull at my saying so; which it seems was because he
thought the boat was too small to go so far. I then told him I
had a bigger; so the next day I went to the place where the first
boat lay which I had made, but which I could not get into the
water. He said that was big enough; but then, as I had taken
no care of it, and it had lain two or three-and-twenty years there,
the sun had split and dried it, that it was rotten. Friday told
me such a boat would do very well, and would carry ‘“ much
enough vittle, drink, bread;” this was his way of talking.
220 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

CHAPTER XVI.

i determine to go over to the continent—Friday and I construct a boat equal °
to carry twenty men—His dexterity in managing her—Friday brings
‘intelligence of three canoes of savages on shore—Resolve to go down
upon them—Friday and I fire upon the wretches, and save the life
of a poor Spaniard—List of the killed and wounded—Discover a
poor Indian bound in one of the canoes, who turns out to be Friday’s
father, ?

Uvon the whole, I was by this time so fixed upon my design of
going over with him to the continent that I told him we would
go and make one as big as that, and he should go home in it.
He answered not one word, but looked very grave and sad. I
asked him what was the matter with him. He asked me again,
“Why you angry mad with Friday ?—what me done?” JI asked
him what he meant. I told him I was not angry with him at all.
“No angry!” says he, repeating the words several times; “ why
send Friday home away to my nation?” “Why,” says I,
“Friday, did not you say you wished you were there?” ‘“ Yes,
yes,” says he, “wish we both there; no wish Friday there, no
master there.” In a word, he would not think of going there
without me. “I go there, Friday?” says I; “what shall I do
there?” He turned very quick upon me at this. ‘You do
great deal much good,” says he; “you teach wild mans be good,
sober, tame mans; you tell them know God, pray God, and live
new life.” “Alas, Friday!” says I, “thou knowest not what thou
sayest; Iam but an ignorant man myself.” “Yes, yes,” says he,
“you teachee me good, you teachee them good.” ‘No, no,
Friday,” says I, “you shall go without me; leave me here to live
by myself, as I did before.” He looked confused again at that
word; and running to one of the hatchets which he used to wear,
he takes it up hastily and gives it to me. ‘What must I do
with this?” says I to him, “You take kill Friday,” says he.
‘What must I kill you for?” said I again. He returns very
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 22

quick—“ What you send Friday away for? Take kill Friday, no
send Friday away.” This he spoke so earnestly that I saw tears
stand in his eyes. Ina word, I so plainly discovered the utmost
affection in him to me, and a firm resolution in him, that I told
him then, and often after, that I would never send him away
from me if he was willing to stay with me.

Upon the whole, as I found by all his discourse a settled
affection to me, and that nothing could part him from me, so I
found all the foundation of his desire to go to his own country
was laid in his ardent affection to the people, and his hopes of
my doing them good; a thing which, as I had no notion of
myself, so I had not the least thought or intention or desire of
undertaking it. But still I found a strong inclination to attempt-
ing my escape, founded on the supposition gathered from the
discourse, that there were seventeen bearded men there; and
therefore, without any more delay, I went to work with Friday to
find out a great tree proper to fell, and make a large periagua, or
canoe, to undertake the voyage. There were trees enough in the
island to have built a little fleet, not of periaguas or canoes, but
even of good, large vessels; but the main thing I looked at was,
to get one so near the water that we might launch it when it was
made,.to avoid the mistake I committed at first. At last Friday
pitched upon a tree; for I found he knew much better than I
what kind of wood was fittest for it; nor can I tell, to this day,
what wood to call the tree we cut down, except that it was very
like the tree we call fustic, or between that and the Nicaragua
wood, for it was much of the same colour and smell. Friday
wished to burn the hollow or cavity of this tree out, to make it
for a boat, but I showed him how to cut it with tools; which,
after I had showed him how to use, he did very handily; and in
about a month’s hard labour we finished it and made it very
handsome; especially when, with our axes, which I showed him
how to handle, we cut and hewed the outside into the true shape
of a boat. After this, however, it cost us near a fortnight’s time
to get her along, as it were inch by inch, upon great rollers into
222 IIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

the water; but when she was in, she would have carried twenty
men with great ease.

When she was in the water, though she was so big, it amazed
ye to see with what dexterity and how swift my man Friday could
ylanage her, turn her, and paddle her along. So I asked him if
ne would, and if we might venture over in her. ‘ Yes,” he said,
“we venture over in her very well, though great blow wind.”
However, I had a further design that he knew nothing of, and
that was to make a mast anda sail, and to fit her with an anchor
- and cable. As to a mast, that was easy enough to get; so I
pitched upon a straight young cedar-tree which I found near the
place, and which there were great plenty of in the island, and I
set Friday to work to cut it down, and gave him directions how to
shape and order it. But as to the sail, that was my particular
care. I knew I-had old sails, or rather pieces of old sails, enough;
but as I had had them now six-and-twenty years by me, and had
not been very careful to preserve them, not imagining that I
should ever have this kind of use for them, I did not doubt but
they were all rotten; and, indeed, most of them were so. How-
ever, I found two pieces which appeared pretty good, and with
these I went to work; and with a great deal of pains, and awkward
stitching, you may be sure, for want of needles, I at length made
a three-cornered ugly thing, like what we call in England a
shoulder-of-mutton sail, to go with a boom at bottom, and a little
short sprit at the top, such as usually our ships’ long-boats sail
with, and such as I best knew how to manage, as it was sucha
one as I had to the boat in which I made my escape from Barbary,
as related in the first part of my story.

I was near two months performing this last work—viz., rigging
and fitting my mast and sails; for I finished them very complete,
making a small stay, and a sail, or foresail to it, to assist if we
should turn to windward; and, what was more than all, I fixed a
rudder to the stern of her to steer with. I was but a bungling
shipwright, yet as I knew the usefulness, and even necessity, of
such a thing, I applied myself with so much pains to do it that at
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 223

last I brought it to pass; though, considering the many dull con-
trivances I had for it that failed, I think it cost me almost as
much labour as making the boat.

After all this was done I had my man Friday to teach as to
what belonged to the navigation of my boat; for though he knew
very well how to paddle a canoe, he hay nothing of what
belonged to a sail and a rudder, and was the most amazed when
he saw me work the boat to and again in the sea by the rudder,
and how the sail gibbed, and filled this way or that way, as the
course we sailed changed; I say, when he saw this, he stood like
one astonished and amazed. However, with a little use I made ~
all these things familiar to him, and he became an expert sailor,
except that of the compass I could make him understand very
little. On the other hand, as there was very little cloudy weather,
and seldom or never any fogs in those parts, there was the less
occasion for a compass, seeing the stars were always to be seen
by night, and the shore by day, except in the rainy seasons, and
then nobody cared to stir abroad either by land or sea. :

IT was now entered on the seven-and-twentieth year of my cap-
tivity in this place; though the three last years that I had this
creature with me ought rather to be left out of the account, my
habitation being quite of another kind than in all the rest of the
time. I kept the anniversary of my landing here with the same
thankfulness to God for His mercies as at first; and if I had such
cause of acknowledgment at first, I had much more so now,
having such additional testimonies of the care of Providence over
me, and the great hopes I had of being effectually and speedily
delivered; for I had an invincible impression upon my thoughts
that my deliverance was at hand, and that I should not be
another year in this place. I went on, however, with my hus-
bandry—digging, planting, and fencing as usual. I gathered and
cured my grapes, and did every necessary thing as before.

The rainy season was in the meantime upon me, when I kept
more within doors than at other times. We had stowed our new
vessel as secure as we could, bringing her up into the creek,
fm. LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

where, as I said in the beginning, I landed my rafts from the
ship; and hauling her up to the shore at high-water mark, I made
my man Friday dig a little dock, just big enough to hold her, and
just deep enough to give her water enough to float in; and then,
when the tide was out, we made a strong dam across the end of
it to keep the water out; and so she lay dry as to the tide from
the sea; and to keep the rain off we laid a great many boughs of
trees, so thick that she was as well thatched as a house; and thus
we waited for the months of November and December, in which
I designed to make my adventure.

When the settled season began to come in, as the thought
of my design returned with the fair weather, I was preparing
daily for the voyage. And the first thing I did was to lay by
a certain quantity of provisions, being the stores for our voyage;
and intended in a week or a fortnight’s time to open the dock,
and launch out our boat. I was busy one morning upon some-
thing of this kind, when I called to Friday and bid him to go
to the sea-shore and see if he could find a turtle or a tortoise, a
thing which we generally got once a week, for the sake of the
eggs as well as the flesh. Friday had not been long gone when
he came running back, and flew over my outer wall or fence,
like one that felt not the ground or the steps he set his feet
on; and before I had time to speak to him he cries out to
me, “Oh, master! Oh, master! Oh, sorrow! Oh, bad!”
“What’s the matter, Friday?” says I. ‘Oh, yonder there,”
says he, “one, two, three canoes; one, two, three!” By this
way of speaking I concluded there were six; but on inquiry I
found there were but three,. “Well, Friday,” says I, “do not
be frightened.” So I heartened him up as well as I could.
However, I saw the poor fellow was most terribly scared, for
nothing ran in his head but that they were come to look for
him, and would cut him in pieces-and eat him; and. the poor
fellow trembled so that I scarcely knew what to do with him. I
comforted him as well as I could, and told him I was in as much
danger as he, and that they would eat me as well as him. “ But,”
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 225

says I, “ Friday, we must resolve to fight them. Can you fight,
Friday?” “Me shoot,” says he, “but there come many great
number.” ‘No matter for that,” said I again; ‘our guns will
fright them that we do not kill.” So I asked him whether, if
I resolved to defend him, he would defend me and stand by me,
and do just as I bid him. He said, “ Me die when you bid die,
master.” So I went and fetched a good dram of rum and gave
him; for I had been so good a husband of my rum that I had a
great deal left. When we had drunk it I made him take the two
fowling-pieces, which we always carried, and loaded them with
large swan-shot, as big as small pistol-bullets, Then I took four
muskets and loaded them with two slugs and five small bullets
each; and my two pistols I loaded with a brace of bullets each.
I hung my great sword, as usual, naked by my side, and gave
Friday his hatchet. When I had thus prepared myself I took
my perspective glass and went up to the side of the hill, to see
what I could discover; and I found quickly by my glass that there
were one-and-twenty savages, three prisoners, and three canoes ;
and that their whole business seemed to be the triumphant
banquet upon these three human bodies; a barbarous feast,
indeed! but nothing more than, as I had observed, was usual -
with them. I observed also that they had landed, not where
they had done when Friday made his escape, but nearer to my
creek, where the shore was low, and where a thick wood came
almost close down to the sea. This, with the abhorrence of the
inhuman errand these wretches came about, filled me with such _
indignation that I came down again to Friday, and told him I
was resolved to go down to them and kill them all; and asked
him if he would stand by me. He had now got over his fright,
and his spirits being a little raised with the dram I had given him,
he was very cheerful, and told me, as before, he would die when
I bid die.

In this fit of fury I divided the arms which I had charged, as
before, between us; I gave Friday one pistol to stick in his girdle,
and three guns upon his shoulder, and I took one pistol and the

T5
226 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

other three guns myself; and in this posture we marched out. I
took a small bottle of rum in my pocket, and gave Friday a large
bag with more powder and bullets; and as to orders, I charged
him to keep close behind me, and not to stir, or shoot, or do
anything till I bid him, and in the meantime not to speak a word.
In this posture I fetched a compass to my right hand of near
a mile, as well to get over the creek as to get into the wood,
so that I could come within shot of them before I should be
discovered, which I had seen by my glass it was easy to do.

While I was making this march, my former thoughts returning,
I began to abate my resolution:—I do not mean that I enter-
tained any fear of their number, for as they were naked, unarmed
wretches, it is certain I was superior to them—nay, though I had
been alone. But it occurred to my thoughts, what call, what
occasion, much less what necessity, I was in to go and dip
my hands in blood, to attack people who had neither done or
intended me any wrong? who, as to me, were innocent, and
whose barbarous customs were their own disaster, being in them
a token, indeed, of God’s having left them, with the other nations
of that part of the world, to such stupidity, and to such inhuman
courses, but did not call me to take upon me to be a judge
of their actions, much less an executioner of His justice—that
whenever He thought fit He would take the cause into His own
hands, and by national vengeance punish them as a people for
national crimes, but that, in the meantime, it was none of my
_ business—that it was true Friday might justify it, because he was
a declared enemy, and in a state of war with those very particular
people, and it was lawful for him to attack them—but I could not
say the same withregard to myself These things were so warmly
pressed upon my thoughts all the way as I went, that I resolved
I would only go and place myself near them that I might observe
their barbarous feast, and that I would act then as God should
direct; but that unless something offered that was more a call
to me than yet I knew of, I would not meddle with them.

With this resolution I entered the wood, and, with all possible
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 227

wariness and silence, Friday following close at my heels, I
marched till I came to the skirts of the wood on the side which
was next to them, only that one corner of the wood lay between
me and them. Here I called softly to Friday, and showing him
a great tree which was just at the corner of the wood, I bade him
go to the tree, and bring me word if he could see there plainly
what they were doing. He did so, and came immediately back
to me, and told me they might be plainly viewed there—that they
were all about their fire, eating the flesh of one of their prisoners,
and that another lay bound upon the sand a little from them,
whom he said they would kill next; and this fired the very soul
within me. He told me it was not one of their nation, but one
of the bearded men he had told me of, that came to their country
in the boat. I was filled with horror at the very naming of the
white bearded man; and going to the tree, I saw plainly by my
glass a white man, who lay upon the beach of the sea with his
hands and his feet tied with flags, or things like rushes, and that
he was an European, and had clothes on.

There was another tree and a little thicket beyond it, about
fifty yards nearer to them than the place where I was, which by
going a little way about, I saw I might come at undiscovered,
and that then I should be within half a shot of them; so I with-
held my passion, though I was indeed enraged to the highest
degree; and going back about twenty paces, I got behind some
bushes, which held all the way till I came to the other tree, and
then came to a little rising ground, which gave me a full view of
them at the distance of about eighty yards.

I had now not a moment to lose, for nineteen of the dreadful
wretches sat upon the ground, all close huddled together, and had
just sent the other two to butcher the poor Christian, and bring
him perhaps limb by limb to their fire, and they were stooping
down to untie the bands at his feet. I turned to Friday :—“ Now, |
Friday,” said I, ‘do as I bid thee.” Friday said he would.
“Then, Friday,” says I, “do exactly as you see me do; fail in
nothing.” So I set down one of the muskets and the fowling-
228 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

piece upon the ground, and Friday did the like by his, and with
the other musket I took my aim at the savages, bidding him to do
the like ; then asking him if he was ready, he said, “Yes.” “Then
fire at them,” said I; and at the same moment I fired also.

Friday took his aim so much better than JI, that on the side
that he shot he killed two of them, and wounded three more; and
on my side I killed one, and wounded two. They were, you may
be sure, in a dreadful consternation ; and all of them that were
not hurt jumped upon their feet, but did not immediately know
which way to run, or which way to look, for they knew not from
whence their destruction came. Friday kept his eyes close upon
me, that, as I had bid him, he might observe what I did; so as
soon as the first shot was made I threw down the piece and
took up the fowling-piece, and Friday did the like; he saw me
cock and present; he did the same again. “Are you ready,
Friday?” said I. “Yes,” says he. “Let fly, then,” says I, “in the
‘name of God!” and with that I fired again among the amazed
wretches, and so did Friday; and as our pieces were now loaded
with what I call swan-shot, or small pistol-bullets, we found only
two drop; but so many were wounded that they ran about yelling
and screaming like mad creatures, all bloody, and most of them
miserably wounded; whereof three more fell quickly after, though
not quite dead.

“Now, Friday,” says I, laying down the discharged pieces, and
taking up the musket which was yet loaded, “follow me,” which
he did with a great deal of courage; upon which I rushed out of
the wood and showed myself, and Friday close at my foot. As
soon as I perceived they saw me, I shouted as loud as I could,
and bade Friday do so too, and running as fast as I could, which,
by the way, was not very fast, being loaded with arms as I was, I
made directly towards the poor victim, who was, as I said, lying
upon the beach or shore, between the place where they sat and
the sea. The two butchers who were just going to work with him
had left him at the surprise of our first fire, and fled in a terrible
fright to the sea-side, and had jumped into a canoe, and three
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 229

more of the rest made the same way. I turned to Friday, and bade
him step forwards and fire at them; he understood me im-
mediately, and running about forty yards, to be nearer them, he
shot at them; and I thought he had killed them all, for I saw
them all fall of a heap into the boat, though I saw two of them up
again quickly; however, he killed two of them, and wounded the
third, so that he lay down in the bottom of the boat as if he had
been dead.

While my man Friday fired at them I pulled out my knife and
cut the flags that bound the poor victim; and loosing his hands
and feet, I lifted him up, and asked him in the Portuguese tongue
what he was. He answered in Latin, Christianus; but was so
weak and faint that he could scarce stand or speak. I took my
bottle out of my pocket and gave it him, making signs that he
should drink, which he did; and I gave him a piece of bread,
which he ate. Then I asked him what countryman he was: and
he said, Espagniole; and being a little recovered, let me know
by all the signs he could possibly make, how much he was in my
debt for his deliverance. “Seignior,” said I, with as much
Spanish as I could make up, “we will talk afterwards, but we
must fight now: if you have any strength left, take this pistol and
sword and lay about you.” He took them very thankfully; and
no sooner had he the arms in his hands, but, as if they had put
new vigour into him, he flew upon his murderers like a fury, and
cut two of them in pieces in an instant; for the truth is, as the
whole was a surprise to them, so the poor creatures were so much
frightened with the noise of our pieces that they fell down for
mere amazement and fear, and had no more power to attempt
their own escape than their flesh had to resist our shot; and that
was the case of those five that Friday shot at in the boat; for as
three of them fell with the hurt they received, so the other two
fell with the fright.

I kept my piece in my hand still without firing, being will-
ing to keep my charge ready, because I had given the Spaniard
my pistol and sword: so I called to Friday, and bade him run up
230 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

to the tree from whence we first fired, and fetch the arms which
lay there that had been discharged, which he did with great swift-
ness; and then giving him my musket, I sat down myself to load
all the rest again, and bade them come to me when they wanted.
While I was loading these pieces, there happened a fierce engage-
ment between the Spaniard and one of the savages, who made at
him with one of their great wooden swords, the weapon that was
to have killed him before, if I had not prevented it. The Spaniard,
who was as bold and brave as could be imagined, though weak,
had fought the Indian a good while, and had cut two great wounds
on his head ; but the savage being a stout, lusty fellow, closing in
with him, had thrown him down, being faint, and was wringing my
sword out of his hand; when the Spaniard, though undermost,
wisely quitting the sword, drew the pistol from his girdle, shot the
savage through the body, and killed him upon the spot, before
I, who was running to help him, could come near him.

Friday, being now left to his liberty, pursued the flying wretches,
with no weapon in his hand but his hatchet: and with that he
despatched those three who, as I said before, were wounded at
first, and fallen, and all the rest he could come up with: and the
Spaniard coming to me for a gun, I gave him one of the fowling-
pieces, with which he pursued two of the savages, and wounded
them both; but, as he was not able to run, they both got from
him into the wood, where Friday pursued them, and killed one
of them, but the other was too nimble for him; and though he
was wounded, yet had plunged himself into the sea, and swam
with all his might off to those two who were left in the canoe;
which three in the canoe, with one wounded, that we knew not
whether he died or no, were all that escaped our hands of one-
and-twenty. The account of the whole is as follows — three
killed at our first shot from the tree; two killed at the next shot;
two killed by Friday in the boat; two killed by Friday of those
at first wounded; one killed by Friday in the wood; three killed
by the Spaniard; four killed, being found dropped here and
there, of the wounds, or killed by Friday in his chase of them;
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 231

four escaped in the boat, whereof one wounded, if not dead—
twenty-one in all.

Those that were in the canoe worked hard to get out of gun-
shot, and though Friday made two or three shots at them, I did
not find that he hit any of them. Friday would fain have had
me take one of their canoes, and pursue them; and, indeed,
I was very anxious about their escape, lest carrying the news
home to their people, they should come back perhaps with two
or three hundred of the canoes and devour us by mere multitude;
so I consented to pursue them by sea, and running to one of their
canoes, I jumped in and bade Friday follow me; but when I was
in the canoe I was surprised to find another poor creature lie
there, bound hand and foot, as the Spaniard was, for the
slaughter, and almost dead with fear, not knowing what was
the matter; for he had not been able to look up over the
side of the boat, he was tied so hard neck and heels, and had
been tied so long that he had really but little life in him.

I immediately cut the twisted flags or rushes which they had
bound him with, and would have helped him up; but he could
not stand or speak, but groaned most piteously, believing, it
seems, still, that he was only unbound in order to be killed.
When Friday came to him I bade him speak to him, and tell
him of his deliverance; and pulling out my bottle, made him
give the poor wretch a dram, which, with the news of his being
delivered, revived him, and he sat up in the boat. But when
Friday came to hear him speak, and look in his face, it would
have moved any one to tears to have seen how Friday kissed
him, embraced him, hugged him, cried, laughed, hallooed,
jumped about, danced, sang; then cried again, wrung his
hands, beat his own face and head; and then sang and
jumped about again like a distracted creature. It was a good
while before I could make him speak to me or tell me what
was the matter; but when he came a little to himself he told me
that it was his father.

It is not easy for me to express how it moved me to see what
232 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

ecstasy and filial affection had worked in this poor savage at the
sight of his father, and of his being delivered from death; nor
indeed can I describe half the extravagances of his affection after
this: for he went into the boat and out of the boat a great many
times: when he went in to him he would sit down by him, open
his breast, and hold his father’s head close to his bosom for many
minutes together, to nourish it; then he took his arms and ankles,
which were numbed and stiff with the binding, and chafed and
rubbed them with his hands ; and I, perceiving what the case was,
gave him some rum out-of my bottle to rub them with, which did
them a great deal of good.

This affair put an end to our pursuit of the canoe with the other
savages, who were now almost out of sight; and it was happy for
us that we did not, for it blew so hard within two hours after, and
before they could be got a quarter on their way, and continued
blowing so hard all night, and that from the north-west, which was
against them, that I could not suppose their boat could live, or
that they ever reached their own coast.

But to return to Friday; he was so busy about his father that
I could not find in my heart to take him off for some time; but
after I thought he could leave him a little, I called him to me,
and he came jumping and laughing, and pleased to the highest
extreme; then I asked him if he had given his father any bread.
He shook his head, and said, “None; ugly dog eat all up self.”
I then gave him a cake of bread out of a little pouch I carried on
purpose; I also gave him a dram for himself; but he would not
taste it, but carried it to his father. I had in my pocket two or
three bunches of raisins, so I gave him a handful of them for his
father. He had no sooner given his father these raisins but I saw
him come out of the boat, and run away as if he had been
bewitched, for he was the swiftest fellow on his feet that ever
I saw: I say, he ran at such a rate that he was out of sight, as it
were, in an instant; and though I called, and hallooed out too
after him, it was all one—away he went; and in a quarter of an
hour I saw him come back again, though not so fast as he went;
ROBINSON CRUSCE. 233

and as he came nearer I found his pace slacker, because he had
something in his hand. When he came up to me I found he had
been quite home for an earthen jug or pot, to bring his father
some fresh water, and that he had got two more cakes or loaves
of bread: the bread he gave me, but the water he carried to his
father ; however, as I was very thirsty too, I took a little of it.
The water revived his father more than all the rum or spirits
I had given him, for he was fainting with thirst.

When his father had drunk, I called to him to know if there
was any water left—he said, “Yes;” and I bade him give it to
the poor Spaniard, who was in as much want of it as his father;
and I sent one of the cakes, that Friday brought, to the Spaniard
too, who was indeed very weak, and was reposing himself upon a
green place under the shade of a tree ; and whose limbs were also
_-very stiff, and very much swelled with the rude bandage he had
been tied with. When I saw that upon Friday’s coming to him
with the water he sat up and drank, and took the bread and began
to eat, I went to him and gave him a handful of raisins—he
looked up in my face with all the tokens of gratitude and thank-
fulness that could appear in any countenance ; but was so weak,
notwithstanding he had so exerted himself in the fight, that he
could not stand up upon his feet—he tried to do it two or three
times, but was really not able, his ankles were so swelled and so
painful to him; so I bade him sit still, and caused Friday to rub
his ankles, and bathe them with rum, as he had done his father’s.

I observed the poor affectionate creature, every two minutes, or
perhaps less, all the while he was here, turn his head about to see
if his father was in the same place and posture as he left him
sitting ; and at last he found he was not to be seen; at which he
started up, and, without speaking a word, flew with that swiftness
to him that one could scarce perceive his feet to touch the ground
as he went—but when he came, he only found he had laid him-
self down to ease his limbs, so Friday came back to me presently ;
and then I spoke to the Spaniard to let Friday help him up if he
could, and lead him to the boat, and then he should carry him to
234 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

our dwelling, where I would take care of him. But Friday, a
lusty, strong fellow, took the Spaniard upon his back, and carried
him away to the boat, and set him down softly upon the side or
gunnel of the canoe, with his feet in the inside of it; and then
lifting him quite in, he set him close to his father ; and presently
stepping out again, launched the boat off, and paddled it along
the shore faster than I could walk, though the wind blew pretty
hard too; so he brought them both safe into our creek, and
leaving them in the boat, ran away to fetch the other canoe. As
he passed me I spoke to him, and asked him whither he went.
He told me, “Go fetch more boat;” so away he went like the
wind, for sure never man or horse ran like him; and he had the
other canoe in the creek almost as soon as I got to it by land; so
he wafted me over, and then went to help our new guests out of
the boat, which he did; but they were neither of them able to
walk ; so that poor Friday knew not what to do. ,

To remedy this, I went to work in my thought, and-calling to
Friday to bid them sit down on the bank while he came to me,
T soon made a kind. of hand-barrow to lay them on, and Friday
and I carried them both up together upon it between us.

But when we got them to the outside of our wall, or fortifica-
tion, we were at a worse loss than before, for it was impossible to
get them over, and I was resolved not to break it down; so I set
to work again, and Friday and I, in about two hours’ time, made
a very handsome tent, covered with old sails, and above that with
boughs of trees, being in the space without our outward fence,
and between that and the grove of young wood which I had
planted; and here we made them-two beds of such things as
I had—viz., of good rice-straw, with blankets laid upon it to lie
on, and another to cover them, on each bed.

My island was now peopled, and I thought myself very rich in
subjects ; and it was a merry reflection, which I frequently made,
how like a king I looked. First of all, the whole country was my
own property, so that I had an undoubted right of dominion.
Secondly, my people were perfectly subjected—I was absolutely
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 235

lord and lawgiver—they all owed their lives to me, and were
ready to lay down their lives, if there had been occasion for it, for
me. It was remarkable, too, I had but three subjects, and they
were of three different religions—my man Friday was a Protest-
ant, his father was a Pagan and a cannibal, and the Spaniard was
a Papist. However, I allowed liberty of conscience throughout
my dominions.—But this is by the way.

As soon as I had secured my two weak, rescued prisoners, and
given them shelter, and a place to rest them upon, I began to think
of making some provision for them: and the first thing I did,
T ordered Friday to take a yearling goat, betwixt a kid and a goat,
out of my particular flock, to be killed; when I cut off the hinder-
quarter, and chopping it into small pieces, I set Friday to work to
boiling and stewing, and made them a very good dish, I assure
you, of flesh and broth; and as I cooked it without doors, for I
made no fire within my inner wall, so I carried it all into the new
tent, and having set a table there for them, I sat down, and ate
my own dinner also with them, and, as well as I could, cheered
them and encouraged them. Friday was my interpreter, especially
to his father, and, indeed, to the Spaniard too; for the Spaniard
spoke the language of the savages pretty well.

After we had dined, or rather supped, I ordered Friday to take
one of the canoes, and go and fetch our muskets and other fire-
arms, which, for want of time, we had left upon the place of
battle ; and the next day I ordered him to go and bury the dead
bodies of the savages, which lay open to the sun, and would
presently be offensive. I also ordered him to bury the horrid
remains of their barbarous feast, which I could not think of doing
myself: nay, I could not bear to see them if I went that way; all
which he punctually performed, and effaced the very appearance
of the savages being there; so that when I went again, I could
scarce know where it was, otherwise than by the corner of the
wood pointing to the place.

T then began to enter into a little conversation with my two new
subjects ; and, first, I set Friday to inquire of his father what he
236 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

thought of the escape of the savages in that canoe, and whether
we might expect a return of them, with a power too great for us
to resist. His first opinion was, that the savages in the boat never
could live out the storm which blew that night they went off, but
must, of necessity, be drowned, or driven south to those other
shores, where they were as sure to be devoured as they were to be
drowned if they were cast away; but, as to what they would do if
they came safe on shore, he said he knew not; but it was his
opinion that they were so dreadfully frightened with the manner
of their being attacked, the noise, and the fire, that he believed
they would tell the people they were all killed by thunder and
lightning, not by the hand of man; and that the two which
appeared—viz., Friday and I, were two heavenly spirits, or furies,
come down to destroy them, and not men with weapons. This,
he said, he knew ; because he heard them all cry out so, in their
language, one to another ; for it was impossible for them to con-
ceive that a man could dart fire, and speak thunder, and kill at a
distance, without lifting up the hand, as was done now: and this
old savage was in the right; for, as I understood since, by other
hands, the savages never attempted to go over to the island after-
wards, they were so terrified with the accounts given by those four
men (for it seems they did escape the sea), that they believed
whoever went to that enchanted island would be destroyed with
fire from the gods. This, however, I knew not; and therefore was
under continual apprehensions for a good while, and kept always
upon my guard, with all my army: for, as there were now four of
us, I would have ventured upon a hundred of them, fairly in the
open field, at any time. ,
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 237

CHAPTER XVII.

Ilearn from the Spaniard that there were sixteen more of his countrymen
among the savages—The Spaniard and Friday’s father, well armed, sail on
a mission to the continent—I discover an English ship lying at anchor off
the island—Her boat comes on shore with three prisoners—The crew
straggle into the woods, their boat being aground—Discover myself to the
prisoners, who prove to be the captain and mate of the vessel, and a
passenger—Secure the mutineers,

in a little time, however, no more canoes appearing, the fear of
their coming wore off; and I began to take my former thoughts
of a voyage to the main into consideration ; being likewise assured
by Friday’s father that I might depend upon good usage from their
nation, on his account, if I would go. But my thoughts were a
little suspended when I had a serious discourse with the Spaniard,
and when I understood that there were sixteen more of his
countrymen and Portuguese, who having been cast away and made
their escape to that side, lived there at peace, indeed, with the
savages, but were very sore put to it for necessaries, and, indeed,
for life. I asked him all the particulars of their voyage, and found
they were a Spanish ship, bound from the Rio de la Plata to the
Havanna, being directed to leave their loading there, which was
chiefly hides and silver, and to bring back what European goods
they could meet with there; that they had five Portuguese
seamen on board, whom they took out of another wreck; that
five of their own men were drowned when first the ship was lost,
and that these escaped through infinite dangers and hazards, and
arrived, almost starved, on the cannibal coast, where they expected
to have been devoured everymoment. He told me they had some
arms with them, but they were perfectly useless, for that they had
neither powder nor ball, the washing of the sea having spoiled all
their powder but a little, which they used at their first landing to
provide themselves with some food.

T asked him what he thought would become of them there, and
238 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

if they had formed any design of making their escape. He said
they had many consultations about it; but that having neither
vessel, nor tools to build one, nor provisions of any kind, their
councils always ended in tears and despair. I asked him how he
thought they would receive a proposal from me, which might tend
towards an escape; and whether, if they were all here, it might
not be done. I told him with freedom, I feared mostly their
treachery and ill-usage of me, if I put my life in their hands; |
for that gratitude was no inherent virtue in the nature of man,
nor did men always square their dealings by the obligations they
had received so much as they did by the advantages they
expected. I told him it would be very hard that I should be
the instrument of their deliverance, and that they should after-
wards make me their prisoner in New Spain, where an English-
man was certain to be made a sacrifice, what necessity or what
accident soever brought him thither; and that I had rather be
delivered up to the savages, and be devoured alive, than fall into
the merciless claws of the priests, and be carried into the Inquisi-
tion. I added that, otherwise, I was persuaded, if they were all
here, we might, with so many hands, build a barque large enough
to carry us all away, either to the Brazils southward, or to the
islands or Spanish coast northward ; but that if, in requital, they
should, when I had put weapons into their hands, carry me by
force among their own people, I might be ill used for my kindness
to them, and make my case worse than it was before.

He answered, with a great deal of candour and ingenuousness,
that their condition was so miserable, and that they were so
sensible of it, that he believed they would abhor the thought of
using any man unkindly that should contribute to their deliver-
ance ; and that, if I pleased, he would go to them, with the old
man, and discourse with them about it, and return again, and
bring me their answer ; that he would make conditions with them
upon their solemn oath, that they should be absolutely under my
direction as their commander and captain ; and they should swear
upon the holy sacraments and gospel to be true to me, and go to
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 239

vv

such Christian country 2s I should agree tc, and no other; and
to be directed wholly and absolutely by my orders till they were
landed safely in such country as I intended; and that he would
bring a contract from them, under their hands, for that purpose.
Then he told me he would first swear to me himself that he would
never stir from me as long as he lived till I gave him orders; and
that he would take my side to the last drop of his blood, if there
should happen the least breach of faith among his countrymen.
He told me they were all of them very civil, honest men, and
they were under the greatest distress imaginable, having neither
weapons nor clothes, nor any food, but at the mercy and dis-
cretion of the savages ; out of all hopes of ever returning to their
own country; and that he was sure, if I would undertake their
relief, they would live and die by me.

Upon these assurances, I resolved to venture to relieve them,
if possible, and to send the old savage and this Spaniard over to
them to treat. But when we had got all things in readiness to go,
the Spaniard himself started an objection, which had so much
prudence in it on one hand, and so much sincerity on the other
hand, that I could not but be very well satisfied in it; and, by
his advice, put off the, deliverance of his comrades for at least
half a year. The case was thus: he had been with us now about
a month, during which time I had let him see in what manner
I had provided, with the assistance of Providence, for my sup-
port; and he saw evidently what stock of corn and rice I had
laid up; which, though it was more than sufficient for myself, yet
it was not sufficient, without good husbandry, for my family, now
it was increased to four; but much less would it be sufficient if
his countrymen, who were, as he said, sixteen, still alive, should
come over; and, least of all would it be sufficient to victual our
vessel, if we should build one, for a voyage to any of the Christian
colonies of America ; so he told me he thought it would be more
advisable to let him and the other two dig and cultivate some
more land, as much as I could spare seed to sow, and that we
should wait another harvest, that we might have a supply of corn
240 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

for his countrymen when they should come; for want might be
a temptation to them to disagree, or not to think themselves
delivered, otherwise than out of one difficulty into another. “You
know,” says he, “the children of Israel, though they rejoiced at
first for their being delivered out of Egypt, yet rebelled even
against God Himself, that delivered them, when they came to
want bread in the wilderness.”

His caution was so seasonable, and his advice so good, that
T could not but be very well pleased with his proposal, as well as
I was satisfied with his fidelity ; so we fell to digging, all four of
us, as well as the wooden tools we were furnished with permitted ;
and, in about a month’s time, by the end of which it was seed-
time, we had got as much land cured and trimmed up as we
sowed two-and-twenty bushels of barley on, and sixteen jars of
rice, which was, in short, all the seed we had to spare: indeed,
we left ourselves barely sufficient for our own food for the six
months that we had to expect our crop ; that is to say, reckoning
from the time we set our seed aside for sowing ; for it is not to be
supposed it is six months in the ground in that country.

Having now society enough, and our numbers being sufficient
to put us out of fear of the savages, if they had come, unless their
number had been very great, we went freely all over the island,
whenever we found occasion; and as we had our escape or
deliverance upon our thoughts, it was impossible, at least for
me, to have the means of it out of mine. For this purpose,
I marked out several trees, which I thought fit for our work,
and I set Friday and his father to cut them down; and then
I caused the Spaniard, to whom I imparted my thoughts on
that affair, to oversee and direct their work. I showed them
with what indefatigable pains I had hewed a large tree into single
planks, and I caused them to do the like, till they made about
a dozen large planks of good oak, near two feet broad, thirty-five
feet long, and from two inches to four inches thick: what pro-
digious labour it took up any one may imagine.

At the same time I contrived to increase my little flock of tame
ROBINSON CRUSOE. &4i

goats as much as I could; and for this purpose I made Friday
and the Spaniard go out one day, and myself with Friday the next
day (for we took our turns), and by this means we got about
twenty young kids to breed up with the rest; for whenever we
shot the dam, we saved the kids, and added them to our flock.
But above all, the season for curing the grapes coming on, I
caused such a prodigious quantity to be hung up in the sun, that,
I believe, had we been at Alicant, where the raisins of the sun
are cured, we could have filled sixty or eighty barrels; and these,
with our bread, formed a great part of our food—very good living
too, I assure you, for they are exceedingly nourishing.

It was now harvest, and our crop in good order: it was not the
most plentiful increase I had seen in the island, but, however, it
was enough to answer our end; for from twenty-two bushels of
barley we brought in and thrashed out above two hundred and
twenty bushels; and the like in proportion of the rice; which was
store enough for our food to the next harvest, though all the six-
teen Spaniards had been on shore with me; or, if we had been
ready for a voyage, it would very plentifully have victualled our
ship to have carried us to any part of the world ; that is to say, any
part of America. When we had thus housed and secured our
magazine of corn, we fell to work to make more wicker-ware—viz.,
great baskets, in which we kept it; and the Spaniard was very
handy and dexterous at this part, and often blamed me that I did
not make some things for defence of this kind of work ; but I saw
no need of it. ;

And now, having a full supply of food for all the guests I
expected, I gave the Spaniard leave to go over to the main, to see
what he could do with those he had left behind him there. I gave
him a strict charge not to bring any man who would not first
swear in the presence of himself and the old savage that he would
in no way injure, fight with, or attack the person he should find
in the island, who was so kind as to send for them in order to
their deliverance ; but that they would stand by him and defend
him against ali such attempts, and wherever they went would be

16
242 Lith AND ADVENTURES OF

entirely under and subjected to his command; and that this should
be put in writing, and signed in their hands. How they were to
have done this, when I knew they had neither pen nor ink, was a
question which we never asked. Under these instructions, the
Spaniard and the old savage, the father of Friday, went away in
one of the canoes which they might be said to have come in, or
rather were brought in, when they came as prisoners to be devoured
by the savages. I gave each of them a musket, with a firelock on
it, and about eight charges of powder and ball, charging them to
be very good husbands of both, and not to use either of them but
upon urgent occasions.

This was a cheerful work, being the first measures used by me
in view of my deliverance for now twenty-seven years and some
days. I gave them provisions of bread and of dried grapes, suffi-
cient for themselves for many days, and sufficient for all the
Spaniards for about eight days’ time; and wishing them a good
voyage, I saw them go, agreeing with them about a signal they
should hang out at their return, by which I should know them
again when the}.came back, at a distance, before they came on
shore. They went away with a fair gale on the day that the moon
was at full, by my account in the month of October; but as for
an exact reckoning of days, after I had once lost it I could never
recover it again; nor had I kept even the number of years so
punctually as to be sure I was right; though, as it proved when
I afterwards examined my account, I found I had kept a true
reckoning of years.

It was no less than eight days I had waited for them, when a
strange and unforeseen accident intervened, of which the like has
not, perhaps, been heard of in history. Iwas fast asleep in my
hutch one morning, when my man Friday came running in to me,
and called aloud, ‘‘ Master, master, they are come, they are come!”
I jumped up, and regardless of danger I went as soon as I could
get my clothes on, through my little grove, which, by the way, was
by this time grown to be a very thick wood ; I say, regardless of
danger I went without my arms, which was not my custom to do;
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 243

but I was surprised when, turning my eyes to the sea, I presently
saw a boat at about a league and a half distance, standing in for the
shore, with a shoulder-of-mutton sail, as they call it, and the wind
blowing pretty fair to bring them in: also I observed, presently,
that they did not come from that side which the shore lay on, but
from the southernmost erd of the island. Upon this I called
Friday in, and bade him lie close, for these were not the people
we looked for, and that we raight not know yet whether they were
friends or enemies. In the next place I went in to fetch my per-
spective glass to see what I could make of them; and having
taken the ladder out, I climbed up to the top of the hill, as I used
to do when I was apprehensive of anything, and to take my view
the plainer without being discovered. I had scarce set my foot
upon the hill when my eye plainly discovered a ship lying at
anchor, at about two,leagues and a half distance from me, S.S.E.,
but not above a league and a half from the shore. By my observa-
tion it appeared plainly to be an English ship, and the boat
appeared to be an English long-boat.

I cannot express the confusion I was in, though the joy of seeing
a ship, and one that I had reason to believe was manned by my
own countrymen, and consequently friends, was such as I cannot
describe; but yet I had some secret doubts hung about me—I
cannot tell from whence they came—bidding me keep upon my
guard. In the first place, it occurred to me to consider what
business an English ship could have in that part of the world, since
it was not the way to or from any part of the world where the
English had any traffic; and I knew there had been no storms to

drive thern in there in distress ; and that if they were really English
it was most probable that they were here upon no good design;
and that I had better continue as I was than fall into the hands of
thieves and murderers.

Let no man despise the secret hints and notices of danger
which sometimes are given him when he may think there is no
possibility of its being real. That such hints and notices are
given us I believe few that have made any cbservations of things
244 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

can deny; that they are certain discoveries of an invisible world,
and a converse of spirits, we cannot doubt; and if the tendency
of them seems to be to warn us of danger, why should we not
suppose they are from some friendly agent (whether supreme, or
inferior and subordinate, is not the question), and that they are
given for our good?

The present question abundantly confirms me in the justice of
this reasoning ; for had I not been made cautious by this secret
admonition, come it from whence it will, I had been done inevit-
ably, and in a far worse condition than before, as you will see
presently. I had not kept myself long in this posture till I saw
the boat draw near the shore, as if they looked for a creek to
thrust in at, for the convenience of landing ; however, as they did
not come quite far enough, they did not see the little inlet where
I formerly landed my rafts, but ran their boat on shore upon the
beach, at about half-a-mile from me, which was very happy for
me; for otherwise they would have landed just at my door, as
I may say, and would soon have beaten me out of my castle, and
perhaps have plundered me of all I had. When they were on
shore I was fully satisfied they were Englishmen, at least most
of them ; one or two I thought were Dutch, but it did not prove
so; there were in all eleven men, whereof three of them I found
were unarmed, and, as I thought, bound; and when the first
four or five of them were jumped on shore, they took those
three out of the boat as prisoners: one of the three I could
perceive using the most passionate gestures of entreaty, affliction,
and despair, even to a kind of extravagance; the other two,
I could perceive, lifted up their hands sometimes, and appeared
concerned indeed, but not to such a degree as the first. I was
perfectly confounded at the sight, and knew not what the meaning
of.it should be. Friday called out to me in English, as well as
he could, ‘Oh, master! you see English mans eat prisoner as
well as savage mans.” “Why, Friday,” says I, “do you think
. they are going to eat them, then?” “Yes,” says Friday, “they
will eat them.” “No, no,” says I, “Friday; I am afraid they
ROBINSON CRUSOE. . 245

will murder them, indeed; but you may be sure they will not
eat them.”

All this while I had no thought of what the matter really was,
but stood trembling with the horror of the sight, expecting every
- moment when the three prisoners should be killed; nay, once
I saw one of the villains lift up his arm with a great cutlass, as
the seamen call it, or sword, to strike-one of the poor men; and
T expected to see him fall every moment; at which all the blood
in my body seemed to run chill in my veins. I wished heartily
now for the Spaniard, and the savage that had gone with him,
or that I had any way to have come undiscovered within shot of
them, that I might have secured the three men, for I saw no
firearms they had among them; but it fell out to my mind
another way. After I had observed the outrageous usage of the
three men by the insolent seamen, I observed the fellows run
scattering about the island, as if they wanted to see the country.
I observed that the three other men had liberty to go also where
they pleased ; but they sat down all three upon the ground, very
pensive, and looked like men in despair. This put me in mind
of the first time when I came on shore, and began to look about
me; how I gave myself over for lost; how wildly I looked round
me; what dreadful apprehensions I had; and how I lodged in
the tree all night, for fear of being devoured by wild beasts. As
I knew nothing that night of the supply I was to receive by the
providential driving of the ship nearer the land by the storms
and tide, by which I have since been so long nourished and
supported ; so these three poor desolate men knew nothing how
certain of deliverance and supply they were, how near it was to
them, and how effectually and really they were in a condition of
safety, at the same time that they thought themselves lost and
their case desperate. So little do we see before us in the world,
and so much reason have we to depend cheerfully upon the
great Maker of the world, that He does not leave His creatures
so absolutely destitute, but that in the worst circumstances they
have always something to be thankful for, and sometimes are
246 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

nearer deliverance than they imagine; nay, are even brought to
their deliverance by the means by which they seem to be brought
to their destruction.

It was just at high-water when these people came on shore; and
while they rambled about to see what kind of a place they were in,
they had carelessly stayed till the tide was spent, and the water
was ebbed considerably away, leaving their boat aground. They
had left two men in the boat, who, as I found afterwards, having
drunk a little too much brandy, fell asleep; however, one of them
waking a little sooner than the other, and finding the boat too fast
aground for him to stir it, hallooed out for the rest, who were
straggling about: upon which they all soon came to the boat: but
it was past all their strength to launch her, the boat being very
heavy, and the shore on that side being a soft oozy sand, almost
like a quicksand. In this condition, like true seamen, who are,
perhaps, the least of all mankind given to forethought, they gave
it over, and away they strolled about the country again; and I
heard one of them say aloud to another, calling them off from the
boat, “ Why, let her alone, Jack, can’t you? she'll float next tide;”
by which I was fully confirmed in the main inquiry of what
countrymen they were. All this while I kept myself very close,
not once daring to stir out of my castle any farther than to my
place of observation near the top of the hill: and very glad I was
to think how well it was fortified. I knew it.was no less than ten
hours before the boat could float again, and by that time it would
be dark, and I might be at more liberty to see their motions, and
to hear their discourse, if they had any. In the meantime, I fitted
myself up for a battle as before, though with more caution, know-
ing I had to do with another kind of enemy than I had at first.
I ordered Friday also, whom I had made an excellent marksman
with his gun, to load himself with arms. I took myself two
fowling-pieces, and I gave him three muskets. My figure, indeed,
was very fierce; I had my formidable goat-skin coat on, with the
great cap I have mentioned, a naked sword by my side, two
pistols in my belt, and a gun upon each shoulder,
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 247

it was my design, as I said above, not to have made any
attempt till it was dark ; but about two o’clock, being the heat of
the day, I found that they were all gone straggling into the woods,
and, as I thought, laid down to sleep. The three poor distressed
men, too anxious for their condition to get any sleep, had, how-
ever, sat down under the shelter of a great tree, at about a quarter
of a mile from me, and, as I thought, out of sight of any of the
rest. Upon this I resolved to discover myself to them, and learn
something of their condition; immediately I marched as above,
my man Friday at a good distance behind me, as formidable for
his arms as I, but not making quite so staring a spectre-like figure
as I did. I came as near them undiscovered as I could, and
then, before any of them saw me, I called aloud to them in
Spanish, “What are ye, gentlemen?” They started up at the
noise, but were ten times more confounded when they saw me,
and the uncouth figure that made. They made no answer at
all, but I thought I perceived them just going to fly from me,
when I spoke to them in English—“ Gentlemen,” said I, “do not
be surprised at me; perhaps you may have a friend near when
you did not expect it.” ‘He must be sent directly from heaven
then,” said one of them very gravely to me, and pulling off his
hat at the same time to me; “for our condition is past the help ot
man.” ‘All help is from heaven, sir,” said I— but can you put
a stranger in the way to help you? for you seem to be in some
great distress. saw you when you landed; and when you
seemed to make application to the brutes that came with you,
I saw one of them lift up his sword to kill you.”

The poor man, with tears running down his face, and trembling,
looked like one astonished, returned, “Am I talking to God or
man? Is it a real man or an angel?”—"“ Be in no fear about
that, sir,” said I; “if God had sent an angel to relieve you, he
would have come better clothed, and armed after another manner
than you see me; pray lay aside your fears; I am a man, an
Englishman, and disposed to assist you; you see I have one
servant only; we have arms and ammunition ; tell us freely, can
248 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

we serve you? What is your case?” ‘ Our case, sir,” said he,
“is too long to tell you while our murderers are so near us; but,
in short, sir, I was commander of that ship—my men have
mutinied against me; they have been hardly prevailed on not to
murder me, and, at last, have set me on shore in this desolate.
place, with these two men with me—one my mate, the other a
passenger—where we expected to perish, believing the place to be
uninhabited, and know not yet what to think of it.” “ Where are
these brutes, your enemies?” said I; “do you know where they
are gone?” “There they lie, sir,” said he, pointing to a thicket
of trees ; ‘my heart trembles for fear they have seen us and heard
you speak; if they have, they will certainly murder us all.”
“Have they any firearms?” said I. He answered, “They had
only two pieces, one of which they left in the boat.” “Well,
then,” said I, “leave the rest to me; I see they are all asleep; it
is an easy thing to kill them all; but shall we rather take them
prisoners?” He told me there were two desperate villains among
them that it was scarce safe to show any mercy to; but if they
were secured, he believed all the rest would return to their duty.
I asked him which they were. He told me he could not at that
distance distinguish them, but he would obey my orders in any-
thing I would direct. “Well,” says I, “let us retreat out of their
view or hearing, lest they awake, and we will resolve further.” So
they willingly went back with me, till the woods covered us from
them.

“Look you, sir,” said i, “if I venture upon your deliverance,
are you willing to make two conditions with me?” He antici-
pated my proposals by telling me that both he and the ship, if
recovered, should be wholly directed and commanded by me in
everything; and if the ship was not recovered, he would live and
die with me in what part of the world soever I would send him;
and the two other men said the same. “Well,” says I, “ my con-
ditions are but two ;. first—that while you stay in this island with
me, you will not pretend to any authority here; and if I put arms
in your hands, you will, upon all occasions, give them up to me,
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 249

and do no prejudice to me or mine upon this island, and in the
meantime be governed by my orders; secondly—that if the ship
is or may be recovered, you will carry me and my man to England
passage free.”

He gave me all the assurances that the invention or faith of
man could devise that he would comply with these most reason-
able demands, and besides would owe his life to me, and acknow-
ledge it upon all occasions as long as he lived. ‘ Well, then,”
said I, “here are three muskets for you, with powder and ball;
tell me next what you think is proper to be done.” He showed
all the testimonies of his gratitude that he was able, but offered to
be wholly guided by me. I told him I thought it was very hard
venturing anything ; but the best method I could think of was to
fire on them at once as they lay, and if any were not killed at the
first volley, and offered to submit, we might save them, and so
put it wholly upon God’s providence to direct the shot. He said,
very modestly, that he was loath to kill them if he could help it;
_ but that those two were incorrigible villains, and had been the
authors of all the mutiny in the ship, and if they escaped, we
should be undone still, for they would go on board and bring the
whole ship’s company, and destroy us all, ‘Well, then,” says
I, “necessity legitimates my advice, for it is the only way to save
our lives.” However, seeing him still cautious of shedding blood,
I told him they should go themselves, and manage as they found
convenient.

In the middle of this discourse we heard some of them awake,
and soon after we saw two of them on their feet. I asked him if
either of them were the heads of the mutiny? He said, “No.”
“Well, then,” said I, “you may let them escape; and Providence
seems to have awakened them on purpose to save themselves.
Now,” says I, “if the rest escape you, it is your fault.” Animated
with this, he took the musket I had given him in his hand, and a
pistol in his belt, and his two comrades with him, with each a piece
in his hand; the two men who were with him going first made
some noise, at which one of the seamen who was awake turned
250 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

about, and seeing them coming, cried out to the rest; but was too
late then, for the moment-he cried out they fired—I mean the two
men, the captain wisely reserving his own piece. They had so
well aimed their shot at the men they knew, that one of them was
killed on the spot, and the other very much wounded; but not
being dead, he started up on his feet, and called eagerly for help
to the other; but the captain stepping to him, told him it was too
late to cry for help, he should call upon God to forgive his
villainy, and with that word knocked him down with the stock of
his musket, so that he never spoke more; there were three more
in the company, and one of them was slightly wounded. By this
time I was come; and when they saw their danger, and that it
was in vain to resist, they begged for mercy. The captain told
them he would spare their lives if they would give him an assur-
ance of their abhorrence of the treachery they had been guilty of,
and would swear to be faithful to him in recovering the ship, and
afterwards in carrying her back to Jamaica, from whence they
came. They gave him all the protestations of their sincerity that
could be desired ; and he was willing to believe them, and spare
their lives, which I was not against, only that I obliged him to
keep them bound hand and foot while they were on the island.

While this was doing, I sent Friday with the captain’s mate to
the boat, with orders to secure her, and bring away the oars and
sails, which they did; and by-and-by three straggling men, that
were (happily for them). parted from the rest, came back upon
hearing the guns fired; and seeing the captain, who was before
their prisoner, now their conqueror, they submitted to be bound
also; and so our victory was complete.

It now remained that the captain and I should inquire into one
another’s circumstances. I began first, and told him my whole
history, which he heard with an attention even to amazement—and
particularly at the wonderful manner of my being furnished with
provisions and ammunition ; and, indeed, as my story is a whole
collection of wonders, it affected him deeply. But when he
reflected from thence upon himself, and how I seemed to have
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 251

been preserved there on purpose to save his life, the tears ran
down his face, and he could not speak a word more. After this
communication was at an end, I carried him and his two men into
my apartment, leading them in just where I came out—viz.,’at the
top of the house, where I refreshed him with such provisions as
I had, and showed them all the contrivances I had made during
my long, long inhabiting that place.

All I showed them, all I said to them, was perfectly amazing;
but above all, the captain admired my fortification, and how
perfectly I had concealed my retreat with a grove of trees, which
having been now planted nearly twenty years, and the trees grow-
ing much faster than in England, was become a little wood, so
thick that it was impassable in any part of it but at that one side
where I had reserved my little winding passage into it. I told him
this was my castle and my residence, but that I had a seat in the
country, as most princes have, whither I could retreat upon
occasion, and I would show him that too another time; but at
present our business was to consider how to recover theship. He
agreed with me as to that, but told me he was perfectly at a loss
what measures to take, for that there were still six-and-twenty
hands on board, who, having entered into a cursed conspiracy,
by which they had all forfeited their lives to the law, would be
hardened in it now by desperation, and would carry it on, know-
ing that if they were subdued they would be brought to the gallows
as soon as they came to England, or to any of the English
colonies, and that, therefore, there would be no attacking them
with so small a number as we were.

I mused for some time on what he had said, and found it was a
very rational conclusion, and that, therefore, something was to be
resolved on speedily, as well to draw the men on board into some
snare for their surprise as to prevent their landing upon us, and
destroying us. Upon this, it presently occurred to me that in a
little while the ship’s crew, wondering what was become of their
comrades and of the boat, would certainly come on shore in their
other boat to look for them, and that then, perhaps, they might
252 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

come armed, and be too strong for us: this he allowed to be
rational. Upon this, I told him the first thing we had to do was
to stave the boat which lay upon the beach, so that they might not
carry her off, and taking everything out of her, leave her so far
useless as not to be fit to swim. Accordingly, we went on board;
took the arms which were left on board out of her, and whatever
else we found there—which was a bottle of brandy, and another of
rum, a few biscuit-cakes, a horn of powder, and a great lump of
sugar in a piece of canvas (the sugar was five or six pounds): all
which was very welcome to me, especially the brandy and sugar,
of which I had had none left for many years.

When we had carried all these things on shore (the oars, mast,
sail, and rudder of the boat were carried away before), we knocked
a great hole in her bottom, that if they had come strong enough
to master us, yet they could not carry off the boat. Indeed, it
was not much in my thoughts that we could be able to recover
the ship; but my view was, that if they went away without the
boat, I did not much question to make her again fit to carry us to
the Leeward Islands, and call upon our friends the Spaniards in
my way, for I had them still in my thoughts.

CHAPTER XVII.

The ship makes signals for her boat—On receiving no answer, she sends
another boat on shore—Methods by which we secure this boat’s crew, and
recover the ship.

WHILE we were thus preparing our designs, and had first, by
main strength, heaved the boat upon the beach, so high that the
tide would not float her off at high-water mark, and besides, had
broke a hole in her bottom too big to be quickly stopped, and
were set down musing what we should do, we heard the ship fire
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 253

a gun, and make a waft with her ensign as a signal for the boat to
come on board—but no boat stirred; and they fired several
times, making other signals for the boat. At last, when all their
signals and firing proved fruitless, and they found the boat did
not stir, we saw them, by the help of my glasses, hoist another
boat out and row towards the shore; and we found, as they
approached, that there were no less than ten men in her, and that
they had fire-arms with them.

As the ship lay almost two leagues from the shore, we had a
full view of them as they came, and a plain sight even of their
faces ; because the tide having set them a little to the east of the
other boat, they rowed up under shore, to come to the same place
where the other had landed, and where the boat lay; by this
means, I say, we had a full view of them, and the captain knew
the persons and characters of all the men in the boat, of whom,
he said, there were three very honest fellows, who, he was sure,
were led into this conspiracy by the rest, being overpowered and
frightened ; but that as for the boatswain, who it seems was the
chief officer among them, and all the rest, they were as outrageous
as any of the ship’s crew, and were no doubt made desperate in
their new enterprise ; and terribly apprehensive he was that they
would be too powerful for us. I smiled at him, and told him that
men in our circumstances were past the operation of fear; that
seeing almost every condition that could be was better than that
which we were supposed to be in, we ought to expect that the
consequence, whether death or life, would be sure to be a deliver-
ance. I asked him what he thought of the circumstances of my
life, and whether a deliverance were not worth venturing for?
“ And where, sir,” said I, “is your belief of my being. preserved
here on purpose to save your life, which elevated you a little while
ago? For my part,” said I, “there seems to be but one thing
amiss in all the prospect of it.” “What is that?” says he.
“Why,” said I, “it is, that as you say there are three or four
_honest fellows among them which should be spared, had they
been all of the wicked part of the crew I should have thought
254 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

God’s providence had singled them out to deliver them into your
hands ; for depend upon it, every man that comes ashore is our
own, and shall die or live as they behave to us.” As I spoke this
with a raised voice and cheerful countenance, I found it greatly
encouraged him ; so we set vigorously to our business. ©

We had, upon the first appearance of the boats coming from
the ship, considered of separating our prisoners; and we had,
indeed, secured them effectually. Two of them, of whom the
captain was less assured than ordinary, I sent with Friday, and
one of the three delivered men, to my cave, where they were
remote enough, and out of danger of being heard or discovered,
or of finding their way out of the woods if they could have
delivered themselves—here they left them bound, but gave them
provisions ; and promised them, if they continued there quietly,
to give them their liberty in a day or two; but that if they
attempted their escape they should be put to death without
mercy. They promised faithfully to bear their confinement with
patience, and were very thankful that they had such good usage
as to have provisions and light left them; for Friday gave them
candles (such as we made ourselves) for their comfort; and
they did not know but that he stood sentinel over them at the
entrance, '

The other prisoners had better usage; two of them were kept
pinioned, indeed, because the captain was not able to trust them;
but the other two were taken into my service, upon the captain’s
recommendation, and upon their solemnly engaging to live and die
with us; so with them and the three honest men we were seven
men, well armed ; and I made no doubt we should be able to deal
well enough with the ten that were coming, considering that the
captain had said there were three or four honest men among them
also. As soon as they got to the place where their other boat lay,
they ran their boat into the beach and came all on shore, hauling
the boat up after them, which I was glad to see, for I was afraid
they would rather have left the boat at an anchor some distance
from the shore, with some hands in her to guard her, and so we.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 265

should not be able to seize the boat. Being on shore, the first
thing they did, they ran all to their other boat; and it was easy to
see they were under a great surprise to find her stripped, as above,
of all that was in her, and a great hole in her bottom. After they
had mused a while upon this, they set up two or three great
shouts, hallooing with all their might, to try if they could make
their companions hear; but all was to no purpose—then they
came all close in a ring, and fired a volley of their small arms,
which, indeed, we heard, and the echoes made the woods ring—
but it was all one; those in the cave, we were sure, could not
hear; and those in our keeping, though they heard it well enough,
yet durst give no answer to them. They were so astonished at
the surprise of this, that, as they told us afterwards, they resolved
to go all on board again to their ship, and let them know that the
men were all murdered, and the long-boat staved; accordingly,
they immediately launched their boat again, and got all of them
on board.

The captain was terribly amazed, and even confounded, at this,
believing they would go on board the ship again and set sail,
giving their comrades over for lost, and so he should still lose the
ship, which he was in hopes we should have recovered; but he
was quickly as much frightened the other way.

They had not been long put off with the boat, when we perceived
them all coming on shore again; but with this new measure in
their conduct, which it seems they consulted together upon—
viz. to leave three men in the boat, and the rest to go on
shore, and go up into the country to look for their fellows.
This was a great disappointment to us, for now we were at a loss
what to do, as our seizing those seven men on shore would be no
advantage to us if we let the boat escape; because they would
row away to the ship, and then the rest of them would be sure to
weigh and set sail, and so our recovering the ship would be lost.
However, we had no remedy but to wait and see what the issue of
things might present. The seven men came on shore, and the
three who remained in the boat put her off to a good distance
256 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

from the shore, and came to an anchor to wait for them; so that
it was impossible for us to come at them in the boat. Those that
came on shore kept close together, marching towards the top of
the little hill under which my habitation lay; and we could see
them plainly, though they could not perceive us. We should
have been very glad if they would have come nearer us, so that
we might have fired at them, or that they would have gone farther
off, that we might come abroad. But when they were come to
the brow of the hill where they could see a great way into the
valleys and woods, which lay towards the north-east part, and
where the island lay lowest, they shouted and hallooed till they
were weary; and not caring, it seems, to venture far from the
shore, nor far from one another, they sat down together under a
tree to consider it. Had they thought fit to have gone to sleep
there, as the other part of them had done, they had done the job
for us; but they were too full of apprehensions of danger to
venture to go to sleep, though they could not tell what the danger
was they had to fear.

The captain made a very just proposal to me upon this consulta-
tion of theirs—viz., that perhaps they would all fire a volley again,
to endeavour to make their fellows hear, and that we should all
sally upon them just at the juncture when their pieces were all
discharged, and they would certainly yield, and we should have
them without bloodshed. 1 liked this proposal, provided it was
done while we were near enough to come up to them before they
could load their pieces again. But this event did not happen;
and we lay still a long time, very irresolute what course to take.
At length I told them there would be nothing done, in my opinion,
till night; and then, if they did not return to the boat, perhaps we
might find a way to get between them and the shore, and so
might use some stratagem with them in the boat to get them on
shore. We waited a great while, though very impatient for their
removing ; and were very uneasy, when, after long consultation,
we saw them all start up, and march down towards the sea; it
seems they had such dreadful apprehensions of the danger of the
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 257

place that they resolved to go on board the ship again, give their
companions over for lost, and so go on with their intended voyage
with the ship.

As soon as I perceived them go cowards the shore, I imagined
it to be as it really was, that they had given over their search, and
were going back again; and the captain, as soon as I told him
my thoughts, was ready to sink at the apprehensions of it: but
I presently thought of a strategem to fetch them back again, and
which answered my end to a tittle. I ordered Friday and the
captain’s mate to go over the little creek westward, towards the
place where the savages came on shore, when Friday was rescued,
and so soon as they came to a little rising ground, at about half a
mile distance, I bid them halloo out, as loud as they could, and
wait till they found the seamen heard them; that as soon as ever
they heard the seamen answer them, they should return it again;
and then, keeping out of sight, take a round, always answering
when the others hallooed, to draw them as far into the island and
among the woods as possible, and then wheel about again to me
by such ways as I directed them.

They were just going into the boat when Friday and the mate
hallooed; and they presently heard them, and, answering, ran
along the shore westward, towards the voice they heard, when they
were stopped by the creek, where, the water being up, they could not
get over, and called for the boat to come up and set them over; as,
indeed, I expected. When they had set themselves over, I observed
that the boat being gone a good way into the creek, and, as it
were, in a harbour within the land, they took one of the three
men out of her, to go along with them, and left only two in the
boat, having fastened her to the stump of a little tree on the
shore. This was what I wished for; and immediately leaving
Friday and the captain’s mate to their business, I took the rest
with me; and, crossing the creek out of their sight, we surprised
the two men before they were aware—one of them lying on the
shore, and the other being in the boat. The fellow on shore was

between sleeping and waking, and going to start up; the captain,
17
258 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

who was foremost, ran in upon him, and knocked him down;
and then called out to him in the boat to yield, or he was a dead
man. They needed very few arguments to persuade a single man
to yield, when he saw five men upon him, and his comrade
knocked down: besides, this was, it seems, one of the three
who were not so hearty in the mutiny as the rest of the crew,
and therefore was easily persuaded not only to yield, but after-
wards to join very sincerely with us. In the meantime, Friday
and the captain’s mate so well managed their business with the
rest that they drew them, by hallooing and answering, from one
hill to another, and from one wood to another, till they not only
heartily tired them, but left them where they were, very sure they
could not reach back to the boat before it was dark ; and, indeed,
they were heartily tired themselves also, by the time they came
back to us.

We had nothing now to do but to watch for them in the dark,
and to fall upon them, so as to make sure work with them. It
was several hours after Friday came back to me before they came
back to their boat ; and we could hear the foremost of them, long
before they came quite up, calling to those behind to come along:
and could also hear them answer, and complain how lame and
tired they were, and not able to come any faster: which was very
welcome news tous. At length they came up to the boat: but
it is impossible to express their confusioh when they found the
boat fast aground in the creek, the tide ebbed out, and their two
men gone. We could hear them call one to another in a most
lamentable manner, telling one another they were got into an
enchanted island; that either there were inhabitants in it, and
they should all be murdered, or else there were devils and spirits
in it, and they should be all carried away and devoured. They
halloced again, and called their two comrades by their names
a great many times; but no answer. After some time, we could
see them, by the little light there was, run about, wringing their
hands like men in despair, and sometimes they would go and sit
down in the boat to rest themselves: then come ashore again, and
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 259

walk about again, and so the same thing over again. My men
would fain have had me give them leave to fall upon them at
once in the dark ; but I was willing to take them at some advan-
tage, so as to spare them, and kill as few of them as I could; and
especially I was unwilling to hazard the killing of any of our men,
knowing the others were very well armed. I resolved to wait,
to see if they did not separate; and therefore, to make sure of
them, I drew my ambuscade nearer, and ordered Friday and
the captain to creep upon their hands and feet, as close to the
ground as they could, that they might not be discovered, and
get as near them as they could possibly before they offered to
fire.

They had not been long in that posture when the boatswain,
who was the principal ringleader of the mutiny, and had now
shown himself the most dejected and dispirited of all the rest,
came walking towards them, with two more of the crew; the
captain was so eager at having this principal rogue so much
in his power, that he could hardly have patience to let him
come so near as to be sure of him, for they only heard his
tongue before: but when they came nearer, the captain and
Friday, starting up on their feet, let fly at them. The boat-
swain was killed upon the spot: the next man was shot in the
body, and fell just by him, though he did not die till an hour
or two after; and the third ran for it. At the noise of the fire
I immediately advanced with my whole army, which was now
eight men—viz., myself, generalissimo; Friday, my lieutenant-
general ; the captain and his two men, and the three prisoners
of war whom we had trusted with arms.- We came upon them,
indeed, in the dark, so that they could not see our number;
and I made the man they had left in the boat, who was now
one of us, to call them by name, to try. if I could bring them
to a parley, and so perhaps might reduce them to terms; which
fell out just as we desired : for, indeed, it was easy to think, as
their condition then was, they would be very willing to capitulate,
So he calls out as loud as he could to one of them, “Tom Smith!
260 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

Tom Smith!” Tom Smith answered immediately, “Is that
Robinson?” for it seems he knew the voice. The other
answered, “ Ay, ay; for God’s sake, Tom Smith, throw down
your arms and yield, or you are all dead men this moment.”
“Who must we yield to? Where are they?” says Smith again.
“ Here they are,” says he; “here’s our captain and fifty men with
him, have been hunting you these two hours; the boatswain is
killed ; Will Fry is wounded, and I am a prisoner ; and if you do
not yield you are all lost.” ‘ Will they give us quarter, then?”
says Tom Smith, “and we will yield.” “I’ll go and ask, if you
promise to yield,” said Robinson: so he asked the captain, and
the captain himself then calls out, “ You, Smith, you know my
voice ; if you lay down your arms immediately and submit, you
shall have your lives, all but Will Atkins.”

Upon this Will Atkins cried out, “ For God’s sake, captain,
give me quarter ; what have IT done? They have all been as bad
as I:” which, by the way, was not true; for it seems this Will
Atkins was the first man that laid hold of the captain when they
first mutinied, and used him barbarously in tying his hands and
giving him injurious language. However, the captain told him
he must lay down his arms at discretion, and trust to the
governor’s mercy: by which he meant me, for they all called
me governor. In a word, they all laid down their arms, and
begged their lives; and I sent the man that had parleyed
with them, and two more, who bound them all; and then my
great army of fifty men, which, with those three, were in all
but eight, came up and seized upon them, and upon their
boat; only that I kept myself and one more out of sight for
reasons of state.

Our next work was to repair the boat, and think of seizing
the ship: and as for the captain, now he had leisure to parley
with them, he expostulated with them upon the villainy of their
practices with him, and upon the further wickedness of their
design, and how certainly it must bring them to misery and
distress in the end, and perhaps to the gallows, They all appeared
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 261

very penitent, and begged hard for their lives. As for that, he
told them they were not his prisoners, but the commander’s of
the island; that they thought they had set him on shore in a
barren, uninhabited island; but it had pleased God so to direct
them that it was inhabited, and that the governor was an English-
man; that he might hang them all there, if he pleased; but as he
had given them all quarter, he supposed he would send them to
England, to be dealt with there as justice required, except Atkins,
whom he was commanded by the governor to advise to prepare
for death, for that he would be hanged in the morning,

Though this was all but a fiction of his own, yet it had its
desired effect; Atkins fell upon his knees, to beg the captain to
intercede with the governor for his life ; and all the rest begged of
him, for God’s sake, that they might not be sent to England.

it now occurred to me that the time of our deliverance was
come, and that it would be a most easy thing to bring these fellows
in to be hearty in getting possession of the ship; so I retired in
the dark from them, that they might not see what kind of a
governor they had, and called the captain to me; when I called,
ata good distance, one of the men was ordered to speak again,
and say to the captain, “Captain, the commander calls for you ;”
and presently the captain replied, “Tell his Excellency I am just
coming.” This more perfectly amazed them, and they all believed
that the commander was just by, with his fifty men. Upon the
captain coming to me, I told him my project for seizing the ship,
which he liked wonderfully well, and resolved to put it in execution
the next morning. But, in order to execute it with more art, and
to be secure of success, I told him we must divide the prisoners,
and that he should go and take Atkins, and two more of the worst
of them, and send them pinioned to the cave where the others lay.
This was committed to Friday and the two men who came on
shore with the captain. They conveyed them to the cave as toa
prison: and it was, indeed, a dismal place, especially to men in
their condition. The others I ordered to my bower, as I called
it, of which I have given a full description: and as it was fenced
262 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

in, and they pinioned, the place was secure enough, considering
they were upon their behaviour.

To these in the morning I sent the captain, who was to enter
into a parley with them; in a word, to try them, and tell me
whether he thought they might be trusted or not to go on board
and surprise the ship. He talked to them of the injury done him,
of the condition they were brought to, and that though the
governor had given them quarter for their lives as to the present
action, yet that if they were sent to England, they would all be
hanged in chains; but that if they would join in so just an
attempt as to recover the ship, he would have the governor's
engagement for their pardon.

Any cne may guess how readily such a proposal would be
accepted by men in their condition ; they fell down on their knees
~ to the captain, and promised, with the deepest imprecations, that
they would be faithful to him to the last drop, and that they
should owe their lives to him, and would go with him all over the
world; that they would own him as a father to them as long as
they lived. “Well,” says the captain, “I must go and tell the
governor what you say, and see what I can do to bring him to
consent to it.” So he brought me an account of the temper he
found them in, and that he verily believed they would be faithful.
However, that we might be very secure, I told him he should go
back again and choose out those five, and tell them, that they
might see he did not want men, that he would take out those five
to be his assistants, and that the governor would keep the other
two, and the three that were sent prisoners to the castle (my cave),
as hostages for the fidelity of those five; and that if they proved
unfaithful in the execution, the five hostages should be hanged in
chains alive on the shore. This looked severe, and convinced
them that the governor was in earnest ; however, they had no way
left them but to accept it; and it was now the business of the
prisoners, as much as of the captain, to persuade the other five to
do their duty.

Our strength was now thus ordered for the expedition: first,
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 263
the captain, his mate, and passenger; second, the two prisoners
of the first gang, to whom, having their character from the captain,
I had given their liberty, and trusted them with arms; third, the
other two that I had kept till now in my bower, pinioned, but, on
. the captain’s motion, had now released ; fourth, these five released
at last; so that there were twelve in all, besides five we kept
prisoners in the cave for hostages.

I asked the captain if he was willing to venture with these
hands on board the ship; but as for me and my man Friday, I
did not think it was proper for us to stir, having seven men left
behind; and it was employment enough for us to keep them
asunder, and supply them with victuals. As to the five in the
cave, I resolved to keep them fast, but Friday went in twice a-day
to them, to supply them with necessaries ; and I made the other
two catry provisions to a certain distance, where Friday was take them.

When I showed myself to the two hostages, it was with the
captain, who told them I was the person the governor had ordered
to look after them; and that it was the governor’s pleasure they
should not stir anywhere but by my direction; that if they did,
they would be fetched into the castle, and be laid in irons: so
that as we never suffered them to see me as governor, I now
appeared as another person, and spoke of the governor, the
garrison, the castle, and the like, upon all occasions.

The captain now had no difficulty before him, but to furnish
his two boats, stop the breach of one, and man them. He made
his passenger. captain of one, with four of the men; and himself,
his mate, and five more, went in the other; and they contrived
their business very well, for they came up to the ship about mid-
night. As soon as they came within call of the ship, he made
Robinson hail them, and tell them they had brought off the men
and the boat, but that it was a long time before they had found
them, and the like, holding them in a chat till they came to the
ship’s side; when the captain and the mate entering first with their
arms, immediately knocked down the second mate and carpenter
264 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

with the butt-end of their muskets, being very faithfully seconded
by their men; they secured all the rest that were upon the main
and quarter-decks, and began to fasten the hatches, to keep them
down that were below; when the other boat and their men, enter-
ing at the forechains, secured the forecastle of the ship, and the
scuttle which went down into the cook-room, making three men they
found there prisoners. When this was done, and all safe upon
deck, the captain ordered the mate, with three men, to break into
the round-house, where the new rebel captain lay, who, having
taken the alarm, had got up, and with two men and a boy had got
firearms in their hands; and when the mate, with a crow, split
open the door, the new captain and his men fired boldly among
them, and wounded the mate with a musket ball, which broke his
arm, and wounded two more of the men, but killed nobody.
The mate, calling for help, rushed, however, into the round-house,
wounded as he was, and, with his pistol, shot the new captain
through the head, the bullet entering at his mouth, and came out
again behind one of his ears, so that he never spoke a word more :
upon which the rest yielded, and the ship was taken effectually,
without any more lives lost.

As soon as the ship was thus secured, the captain ordered seven
guns to be fired, which was the signal agreed upon with me to give
me notice of his success, which, you may be sure, I was very glad
to hear, having sat watching upon the shore for it till near two
p’clock in the morning. Having thus heard the signal plainly, I
laid me down; and it having been a day of great fatigue to me, I
slept very sound, till I was surprised with the noise of a gun; and
presently starting up, I heard a man call me by the name of
“ Governor! Governor!” and presently I knew the captain’s voice ;
when, climbing up to the top of the hill, there he stood, and,
pointing to the ship, he embraced me in his arms, “My dear
friend and deliverer,” says he, “there’s your ship; for she is all
yours, and so are we, and all that belong to her.” I cast my eyes
to the ship, and there she rode, within little more than half a mile
of the shore; for they had weighed her anchor as soon as they
ROBINSON CRUSOE: 265

were masters of her, and, the weather being fair, had brought her
to an anchor just against the mouth of the little creek; and the
tide being up, the captain had brought the pinnace in near the
place where I had first landed my rafts, and so landed just at my
door. I was at first ready to sink down with the surprise; for I
saw my deliverance, indeed, visibly put into my hands, all things
easy, and a large ship just ready to carry me away whither I pleased
to go. At first, for some time, I was not able to answer him one
word ; but as he had taken me in his arms, I held fast by him, or
T should have fallen to the ground. He perceived the surprise, and
immediately pulled a bottle out of his pocket and gave me a dram
of cordial, which he had brought on purpose forme. After I had
drunk it, I sat down upon the ground; and though it brought me
to myself, yet it was a good while before I could speak a word to
him. All this time the poor man was in as great an ecstasy as I,
only not under any surprise as I was; and he said a thousand kind
and tender things to me, to compose and bring me to myself; but
such was the flood of joy in my breast, that it put all my spirits
into confusion: at last it broke out into tears; and, in a little
while after, I recovered my speech. I then took my turn, and
embraced him as my deliverer, and we rejoiced together. {f
told him I looked upon him as a man sent by Heaven to deliver
me, and that the whole transaction seemed to be a chain of won-
ders; that such things as these were the testimonies we had of a
secret hand of Providence governing the world, and an evidence
that the eye of an infinite Power could search into the remotest
corner of(the world, and send help to the miserable whenever He
pleased. I forgot not to lift up my heart in thankfulness to
Heaven, and what heart could forbear to bless Him, who had
not only in a miraculous manner provided for me in such a wilder-
ness, and in such a desolate condition, but from whom every
deliverance must always be acknowledged to proceed.

When we had talked a while, the captain told me he had
brought me some little refreshment, such as the ship afforded, and
such as the wretches that had been so long his masters had not
266 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

plundered him of. Upon this, he called aloud to the boat, and
bade his men bring the things ashore that were for the governor;
and, indeed, it was a present as if I had been one that was not to
be carried away with them, but as if I had been to dwell upon the
island still. First, he had brought me a case of bottles full of
excellent cordial waters, six large bottles of Madeira wine (the
bottles held two quarts each), two pounds of excellent good
tobacco, twelve good pieces of the ship’s beef, and six pieces of
pork, with a bag of peas, and about a hundredweight of biscuit;
he also brought me a box of sugar, a box of flour, a bag full of
lemons, and two botiles of lime-juice, and abundance of other
things. But besides these, and what was a thousand times more
useful to me, he brought me six new clean shirts, six very good
neckcloths, two pair of gloves, one pair of shoes, a hat, and one
pair of stockings, with a very good suit of clothes of his own, |
which had been worn but very little: in a word, he clothed me
from head to foot. It was a very kind and agreeable present, as
any one may imagine, to one in my circumstances, but never was
anything in the world of that kind so unpleasant, awkward, and
uneasy as it was to me to wear such clothes at first.

After these ceremonies were past, and after all his good things
were brought into my little apartment, we began to consult what
was to be done with the prisoners we had ; for it was worth con-
sidering whether we might venture to take them with us or no,
especially two of them, whom he knew to be incorrigible and
refractory to the last degree; and the captain said he knew they
were such rogues that there was no obliging them, and if he did
carry them away, it must be in irons, as malefactors, to be delivered
over to justice at the first English colony he could come to; and
I found that the captain himself was very anxious about it. Upon
this, I told him that, if he desired it, I would undertake to bring
the two men he spoke of to make it their own request that he
should leave them upon the island. “I should be very glad of
that,” says the captain, “with all my heart.” “Well,” says 1, “I
will send for them up, and talk with them for you.” So I caused
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 267

Friday and the two hostages, for they were now discharged, their
comrades having performed their promise; I say, I caused them -to
go to the cave, and bring up the five men, pinioned as they were, to
the bower, and keep them there till I came. After some time,
I came thither, dressed in my new habit; and now I was.called
governor again. Being all met, and the captain with me, I caused
the men to be brought before me, and I told them I had got a
full account of their villainous behaviour to the captain, and how
they had run away with the ship, and were preparing to commit
further robberies, but that Providence had ensnared them in their
own ways, and that they were fallen into the pit which they had
dug for others. I let them know that by my direction the ship
had been seized; that she lay now in the road ; and they might see
by-and-by that their new captain had received the reward of his
villainy, and that they would see him. hanging at the yard-arm ;
that, as to them, I wanted to know what they had to say why I
should not execute them as pirates taken in the fact, as by my
commission they could not doubt but JI had authority so
to do.

One of them answered in the name of the rest, that they had
nothing to say but this, that when they were taken the captain
promised them their lives, and they humbly implored my mercy.
But I told them I knew not what mercy to show them ; for as for
myseli, I had resolved to quit the island with all my men, and had
taken passage with the captain to go to England; and as for the
captain, he could not carry them to England other than as prison-
ers in irons, to be tried for mutiny and running away with the
ship ; the consequence of which, they must needs know, would be
the gallows; so that I could not tell what was best for them, unless
they had a mind to take their fate in the island. If they desired
that, as I had liberty to leave the island, I had some inclination to
give them their lives, if they thought they could shift on shore.
They seemed very thankful for it, and said they would much
rather venture to stay there than be carried to England to be
hanged, So I left it on that issue,
268 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

However, the captain seemed to make some difficulty of it, as if
he durst not leave them there. Upon this I seemed a little angry
with the captain, and told him that they were my prisoners, not
his; and that seeing I had offered them so much favour, I would
be as good as my word; and that if he did not think fit to consent
to it, I would set them at liberty, as I found them: and if he did
not like it, he might take them again if he could catch them.
Upon this they appeared very thankful, and I accordingly set
them at liberty, and bade them retire into the woods, to the place
whence they came, and I would leave them some fire-arms, some
ammunition, and some directions how they should live very well if
they thought fit. Upon this I prepared to goon board the ship; but
told the captain I would stay that night to prepare my things, and
desired him to go on board in the meantime, and keep all right
in the ship, and send the boat on shore next day for me; ordering
him, at all events, to cause the new captain, who was killed, to be
hanged at the yard-arm, that these men might see him.

When the captain was gone I sent for the men up to me to my
apartment, and entered seriously into discourse with them on their
circumstances, I told them I thought they had made a right
choice; that if the captain had carried them away they would
certainly be hanged. I showed them the new captain hanging at
the yard-arm of the ship, and told them they had nothing less to

expect.
"When they had all declared their willingness to stay, I then told
them I would let them into the story of my living there, and put
them into the way of making it easy tothem. Accordingly, I gave
them the whole history of the place, and of my coming to it;
showed them my fortifications, the way I made my bread, planted
my corn, cured my grapes; and, in a word, all that was necessary
to make them easy. I told them the story also of the seventeen
Spaniards that were to be expected, for whom I left a letter, and
made them promise to treat them in common with themselves.
Here it may be noted that the captain, who had ink on board, was
greatly surprised that I never hit upon a way of making ink of
ROBINSON CRUSOZ#. 269

charcoal and water, or of something else, as I had done things
much more difficult.

I left them my firearms—viz,, five muskets, three fowling-pieces,
and three swords. I had above a barrel and a-half of powder left ;
for after the first year or two I used but little, and wasted none.
I gave them a description of the way I managed the goats, and
directions to milk and fatten them, and to make both butter and
cheese. Ina word, I gave them every part of my own story; and
told them I should prevail with the captain to leave them two
barrels of gunpowder more, and some garden-seeds, which I told
them I would have been very glad of. Also, I gave them the
bag of peas which the captain had brought me to eat, and bade
them be sure to sow and increase them,

CHAPTER XIX.

I take leave of the island, and after a long voyage arrive in England—
Go down into Yorkshire, and find the greater part of my family dead—
Resclve to go to Lisbon for information respecting my plantation at
the Brazils — Meet an old friend there, by whose means I become
rich — Set out for England overland Much annoyed by wolves on
the road.

Havine done all this, I left them the next day, and went on
board the ship. We prepared immediately to sail, but did not
weigh that night. The next morning early, two of the five men
came swimming to the ship’s side, and making the most lament-
able complaint of the other three, begged to be taken into the
ship for God’s sake, for they should be murdered, and begged
the captain to take them on board, though he hanged them
immediately. Upon this the captain pretended to have no
power without me; but after some difficulty, and after their
279 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

solemn promises of amendment, they were taken on board,
and were, some time after, soundly whipped and pickled; after
which they proved very honest and quiet fellows.

Some time after this, the boat was ordered on shore, the tide
being up, with the things promised to the men; to which the
captain, at my intercession, caused their chests and clothes to be
added, which they took, and were very thankful for. I also
encouraged them, by telling them that if it lay in my power to
send any vessel to take them in, I would not forget them.

When I took leave of this island, I carried on board, for
reliques, the great goat-skin cap I had made, my umbrella,
and one of my parrots; also, I forgot not to take the money
I formerly mentioned, which had lain by me so long useless
that it was grown rusty or tarnished, and could hardly pass
for silver till it had been a little rubbed and handled, as also
the money I found in the wreck of the Spanish ship. And
thus I left the island, the 19th of December, as I found by the
ship’s account, in the year 1686, after I had been upon it eight-
and-twenty years, two months, and nineteen days; being delivered
from this second captivity the same day of the month that I first
made my escape in the long-boat from among the Moors of
Sallee. In this vessel, after a long voyage, I arrived in England
the rth of June, in the year 1687, having been thirty-five years
absent.

When I came to England I was as perfect a stranger to all the
world as if E had never been known there. My benefactor and
faithful steward, whom I had left my money in trust with, was
alive, but had had great misfortunes in the world ; was become a
widow the second time, and very low in the world. I made her
very easy as to what she owed me, assuring her I would give her
no trouble ; but, on the contrary, in gratitude for her former care
and faithfulness to me, I relieved her as my little stock would
afford; which at that time would, indeed, allow me to do but little
for her ; but I assured her I would never forget her former kindness
to me; nor did I forget her when I had sufficient to help her, as
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 271

shall be observed in its proper place. I went down afterwards
into Yorkshire; but my father was dead, and my mother and
all the family extinct, except that I found two sisters, and two of
the children of one of my brothers; and as I had been long ago
given over for dead, there had been no provision made for me; so
that, in a word, I found nothing to relieve or assist me; and that
the little money T had would not do much for me as to settling
in the world.

I met with one piece of gratitude indeed, which I did not
expect; and this was, that the master of the ship, whom I had
so happily delivered, and by the same means saved the ship and
cargo, having given a very handsome account to the owners of
the manner how I had saved the lives of the men and the ship,
they invited me to meet them and some other merchants con-
cerned, and all together made me a very handsome compliment
upon the subject, and a present of almost £200 sterling.

But after making several reflections upon the circumstances of
my life, and how little way this would go towards settling me in
the world, I resolved to go to Lisbon, and see if I might not come
at some information of the state of my plantation in the Brazils,
and of what was become of my partner, who, I had reason to
suppose, had some years past given me over for dead. With
this view I took shipping for Lisbon, where I arrived in April
following, my man Friday accompanying me very honestly in
all these ramblings, and proving a most faithful servant upon
all occasions. When I came to Lisbon, I found out, by inquiry,
and: to my particular satisfaction, my old friend, the captain
of the ship who first took me up at sea off the shore of Africa.
He was now grown old, and had left off going to sea, having put
his son, who was far from a young man, into his ship, and who
still used the Brazil trade. The old man did not know me; and
indeed, I hardly knew him. But I soon brought him to my
remembrance, and as soon brought myself to his remembrance,
when I told him who f was.

After some passionate expressions of the old acquaintance
278 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

between us, I inquired, you may be sure, after my plantation and
my partner. The old man told me he had not been in the Brazils
for about nine years; but that he could assure me, that when he
came away my partner was living; but the trustees, whom I had
joined with him to take cognisance of my part, were both dead:
that, however, he believed I would have a very good account of
the improvement of the plantation; for that, upon the general
belief of my being cast away and drowned, my trustees had given
in the account of the produce of my part of the plantation to the
procurator-fiscal, who had appropriated it, in case I never came
to claim it, one-third to the king, and two-thirds to the monastery
of St. Augustine, to be expended for the benefit of the poor, and
for the conversion of the Indians to the Catholic faith: but that,
if I appeared, or any one for me, to claim the inheritance, it would
be restored; only that the improvement, or annual production,
being distributed to charitable uses, could not be restored: but
he assured me that the steward of the king’s revenue from lands,
and the providore, or steward of the monastery, had taken great
care all along that the incumbent, that is to say, my partner, gave
every year a faithful account of the produce, of which they had
duly received my moiety. I asked him if he knew to what height
of improvement he had brought the plantation, and whether he
thought it might be worth looking after; or whether, on my going
thither, I should meet with any obstruction to my possessing my
just right in the moiety. He told me he could not tell exactly to
what degree the plantation was improved; but this he knew, that
my partner was grown exceeding rich upon the enjoying his part
of it; and that, to the best of his remembrance, he had heard
that the king’s third of my part, which was, it seems, granted away
to some other monastery or religious house, amounted to above
two hundred moidores a-year: that as to my being restored toa
quiet possession of it, there was no question to be made of that,
my partner being alive to witness my title, and my name being
also enrolled in the register of the country; also he told me that
the survivors of my two trustees were very fair, honest people, and
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 273

very wealthy; and he believed I would not only have their assist-
ance for putting me in possession, but would find a very consider-
able sum of money in their hands for my account, being the
produce of the farm while their fathers held the trust, and before
it was given up, as above; which, as he remembered, was for
about twelve years.

I showed myself a little concerned and uneasy at this account,
and inquired of the old captain how it came to pass that the
trustees should thus dispose of my effects, when he knew that
I had made my will, and had made him, the Portuguese captain,
my universal heir, &c.

He told me that was true; but that as there was no proof of my
being dead, he could not act as executor until some certain
account should come of my death; and, ‘besides, he was not will-
ing to intermeddle with a thing so remote: that it was true he had
registered my will, and put in his claim; and could he have given
any account of my being dead or alive, he would have acted by
procuration, and taken possession of the ingenio (so they call the
sugar-house), and have given his son, who was now at the Brazils,
orders to do it. “But,” says the old man, “I have one piece of
news to tell you, which perhaps may not be so acceptable to you
as the rest; and that is, believing you were lost, and all the world
believing so also, your partner and trustees did offer to account
with me, in your name, for the first six or eight years’ profits,
which I received. There being at that time great disbursements
for increasing the works, building an ingenio, and buying slaves,
it did not amount to near so much as afterwards it produced;
however,” says the old man, “I shall give you a true account of
what I have received in all, and how I have disposed of it.”

After a few days’ further conference with this ancient friend, he
brought me an account of the first six years’ income of my planta-
tion, signed by my partner and the merchant-trustees, being always
delivered in goods—viz., tobacco in roll, and sugar in chests,
besides rum, molasses, &c., which is the consequence of a sugar-

work ; and I found by this account, that every year the income
18
274 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

considerably increased; but, as above, the disbursements being
large, the sum at first was small: however, the old man let me see
that he was debtor to me four hundred and seventy moidores of
gold, besides sixty chests of sugar, and fifteen double rolls of
tobacco, which were lost in his ship; he having been shipwrecked
coming home to Lisbon, about eleven years after my leaving the
place. The good man then began to complain of his misfortunes,
and how he had been obliged to make use of my money to recover
his losses, and buy him a share in a new ship. ‘“ However, my
old friend,” says he, “you shall not want a supply in your neces-
sity; and as soon as my son returns you shall be fully satisfied.”
Upon this he pulls out an old pouch, and gives me one hundred
and sixty Portugal moidores in gold; and giving the writings of
his title to the ship, which his son was gone to the Brazils in, of
which he was quarter-part owner, and his son another, he puts
them both into my hands for security of the rest.

I was too much moved with the honesty and kindness of the
poor man to be able to bear this; and remembering what he had
done for me, how he had taken me up at sea, and how generously
he had used me on all occasions, and particularly how sincere a
friend he was now to me, I could hardly refrain weeping at what
he had said to me; therefore I asked him if his circumstances
admitted him to spare so much money at that time, and if it
would not straiten him? He told me he could not say but it
might straiten him a little; but, however, it was my money, and
i might want it more than he.

Everything the good man said was full of affection, and I could
hardly refrain from tears while he spoke; in short, I took one
hundred of the moidores, and called for a pen and ink to give him
a receipt for them: then I returned him the rest, and told him if
ever I had possession of the plantation I would return the other
to him also (as, indeed, I afterwards did); and that as to the bill
of sale of his part in his son’s ship, I would not take it by any
means; but that if I wanted the money, I found he was honest
enough to pay me; and if I did not, but came to receive what he
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 275

gave me reason to expect, I would never have a penny more from
him.

When this was past, the old man asked me if he should put me
into a method to make my claim to my plantation. I told him
I thought to go over to it myself. He said I might do so if
I pleased, but that if I did not, there were ways enough to secure
my right, and immediately to appropriate the profits to my use:
and as there were ships in the river of Lisbon just ready to
go away to Brazil, he made me enter my name in a public register,
with his affidavit, affirming, upon oath, that I was alive, and that
I was the same person who took up the land for the planting the
said plantation at first. This being regularly attested by a notary,
and a procuration affixed, he directed me to send it, with a letter
of his writing, to a merchant of his acquaintance at the place;
and then proposed my staying with him till an account came
of the return.

Never was anything more honourable than the proceedings
upon this procuration ; for in less than seven months I received a
large packet from the survivors of my trustees, the merchants, for
whose account I went to sea, in which were the following
particular letters and papers enclosed :—

First, there was the account-current of the produce of my farm
or plantation, from the year when their fathers had balanced with
my old Portugal captain, being for six years ; the balance appeared
to be one thousand one hundred and seventy-four moidores in my
favour.

Secondly, there was the account of four years more, while they
kept the effects in their hands, before the government claimed the
administration, as being the effects of a person not to be found,
which they called civil death ; and the balance of this, the value
of the plantation increasing, amounted to nineteen thousand four
hundred and forty-six crusadoes, being about three thousand two
hundred and forty moidores.

Thirdly, there was the Prior of St. Augustine’s account, who
had received the profits for above fourteen years; but not being
276 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

able to account for what was disposed of by the hospital, very
honestly declared he had eight hundred and seventy-two moidores
not distributed, which he acknowledged to my account: as to the
king’s part, that refunded nothing,

There was a letter of my partner’s, congratulating me very
affectionately upon my being alive, giving me an account how the
estate was improved, and what it produced a-year; with the par-
ticulars of the number of squares or acres that it contained, how
planted, how many slaves there were upon it: and making two-
and-twenty crosses for blessings, told me he had said so many Ave
Marias to thank the Blessed Virgin that I was alive; inviting me
very passionately to come over and take possession of my own,
and in the meantime to give him orders to whom he should
‘deliver my effects if I did not come myself; concluding with
a hearty tender of his friendship, and that of his family ; and sent
me as a present seven fine leopards’ skins, which he had, it seems,
received from Africa, by some other ship that he had sent thither,
and which, it seems, had made a better voyage than I. He sent
me also five chests of excellent sweetmeats, and a hundred pieces
of gold uncoined, not quite so large as moidores. By the same
fleet my two merchant-trustees shipped me one thousand two
hundred chests of sugar, eight hundred rolls of tobacco, and the
rest of the whole account in gold.

T might well say now, indeed, that the latter end of Job was
better than the beginning. It is impossible to express the flutter-
ings of my very heart when I found all my wealth about me; for
as the Brazil ships come all in fleets, the same ships which brought
my letters brought my goods:-and the effects were safe in the
river before the letters came to my hand. In a word, I turned
pale, and grew sick; and, had not the old man run and fetched
me a cordial, I believe the sudden surprise of joy had overset
nature, and I had died upon the spot: nay, after that I continued
very ill, and was so some hours, till a physician being sent for, and
something of the real cause of my illness being known, he ordered
me to be let blood; after which I had relief, and grew well: but
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 277

I verily believe, if I had not been eased by a vent given in that
manner to the spirits, I should have died.

I was now master, all on a sudden, of above five thousand
pounds sterling in money, and had an estate, as I might well call
it, in the Brazils, of above a thousand pounds a-year, as sure as an
estate of lands in England: and, in a word, I was in a condition
which I scarce knew how to understand, or how to compose
myself for the enjoyment of it. The first thing I did was to
recompense my original benefactor, my good old captain, who had
been first charitable to me in my distress, kind to me in my
beginning, and honest to me at the end. I showed him all that
was sent tome; J told him that, next to the providence of Heaven,
which disposed all things, it was owing to him; and that it now
lay on me to reward him, which I would do a hundred-fold: so
I first returned to him the hundred moidores I had received
of him ; then I sent for a notary, and caused him to draw up a
general release or discharge from the four hundred and seventy
moidores, which he had acknowledged he owed me, in the fullest
and firmest manner possible. After which, I caused a procuration
to be drawn, empowering him to be the receiver of the annual
profits of my plantation: and appointing my partner to account
with him, and make the returns, by the usual fleets, to him in my
name; and by a clause in the end, made a grant of one hundred
moidores a-year to him during his life, out of the effects, and fifty
moidores a-year to his son after him, for his life: and thus
T requited my old man.

I had now to consider which way to steer my course next, and
what to do with the estate that Providence had thus put into my
hands; and, indeed, I had more care upon my head now than
I had in my state of life in the island, where I wanted nothing
but what I had, and had nothing but what I wanted; whereas
Thad now a great charge upon me, and my business was how to
secure it. I had not a cave now to hide my money in, or a place
where it might lie without lock or key, till it grew mouldy and
tarnished before anybody would meddle with it; on the contrary
278 LIFE AND ADVENTURES Ci

I knew not where to put it, or whom to trust with it. My old
patron, the captain, indeed, was honest, and that was the only
refuge I had. In the next place, my interest in the Brazils
seemed to summon me thither; but now I could not tell how to
think of going thither till I had settled my affairs, and left my
effects in some safe hands behind me. At first I thought of my
old friend the widow, who I knew was honest, and would be just
to me; but then she was in years, and but poor, and, for aught
I knew, might be in debt; so that, in a word, I had no way
but to go back to England myself and take my effects with
me.

It was some months, however, before I resolved upon this;
and, therefore, as I had rewarded the old captain fully, and to his
satisfaction, who had been my former benefactor, so I began to
think of the poor widow, whose husband had been my first bene-
factor, and she, while it was in her power, my faithful steward and
instructor. So, the first thing I did, I got a merchant in Lisbon
to write to his correspondent in London, not only to pay a bill,
but to go find her out, and carry her, in money, a hundred pounds
from me, and to talk with her, and comfort her in her poverty, by
telling her she should, if I lived, have a further supply: at the
same time I sent my two sisters in the country a hundred pounds
each, they being, though not in want, yet not in very good
circumstances; one having been married and left a widow; and
the other having a husband not so kind to her as he should be.
But among all my relations or acquaintances I could not yet pitch
upon one to whom I durst commit the gross of my stock, that
I might go away to the Brazils, and leave things safe behind me;
and this greatly perplexed me.

I had once a mind to have gone to the Brazils and have settled
myself there, for I was, as it were, naturalised to the place; bu
I had some little scruple in my mind about religion, whict.
insensibly drew me back. However, it was not religion that kept
me from going there for the present; and as I had made no
scruple of being openly of the religion of the country all the while
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 279

I was among them, so neither did I yet; only that, now and then,
having of late thought more of it than formerly, when I began to
think of living and dying among them, I began to regret having
professed myself a Papist, and thought it might not be the best
religion to die with.

But, as I have said, this was not the main thing that kept me
from going to the Brazils, but that really I did not know with
whom to leave my effects behind me; so I resolved at last to go
to England, where, if I arrived, I concluded that I should make
some acquaintance, or find some relations, that would be faithful
to me; and, accordingly, I prepared to go to England with all my
wealth.

In order to prepare things for my going home, I first (the
Brazil fleet being just going away) resolved to give answers suit-
able to the just and faithful account of things I had from thence;
and, first, to the Prior of St. Augustine I wrote a letter full of
thanks for his just dealings, and the offer of the eight hundred
and seventy-two moidores which were undisposed of, which
I desired might be given, five hundred to the monastery, and
three hundred and seventy-two to the poor, as the prior should
direct ; desiring the good padre’s prayers for me, and the like.
I wrote next a letter of thanks to my two trustees, with all the
acknowledgment that so much justice and honesty called for—as
for sending them any present, they were far above having any
occasion of it. Lastly, I wrote to my partner, acknowledging his
industry in the improving the plantation, and his integrity in
increasing the stock of the works; giving him instructions for his
future government of my part, according to the powers I had left
with my old patron, to whom I desired him to send whatever
became due to me, till he should hear from me more particularly ;
assuring him that it was my intention not only to come to him,
but to settle myself there for the remainder of my life. To this
I added a very handsome present of some Italian silks for his
wife and two daughters, for such the captain’s son informed me
he had; with two pieces of fine English broad cloth, the best
280 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

I could get in Lisbon, five pieces of black baize, and some
Flanders lace of a good value.

Having thus settled my affairs, sold my cargo, and turned all
my effects into good bills of exchange, my next difficulty was
which way to go to England: I had been accustomed enough to
the sea, and yet I had a strange aversion to go to England by sea
at that time; and though I could give no reason for it, yet the
difficulty increased upon me so much, that though I had once
shipped my baggage in order to go, yet I altered my mind, and
that not once but two or three times.

It is true I had been very unfortunate by sea, and this might be
one of the reasons; but let no man slight the strong impulses of
his own thoughts in cases of such moment: two. of the ships
which I had singled out to go in, I mean more particularly singled
out than any other, having put my things on board one of them,
and in the other having agreed with the captain; I say two of
these ships miscarried—one was taken by the Algerines, and the
other was lost on the Start, near Torbay, and all the people
drowned except three; so that in either of those vessels I had
_ been made miserable.

Having been thus harassed in my thoughts, my old pilot, to’
whom I communicated everything, pressed me earnestly not to go
by sea, but either to go by land to the Groyne, and cross over the
Bay of Biscay to Rochelle, from whence it was but an easy and
safe journey by land to Paris, and so to Calais and Dover; or to
go up to Madrid, and so all the way by land through France. In
a word, I was so prepossessed against my going by sea at all,
except from Calais to Dover, that I resolved to travel all the way
by land; which, as I was not in haste, and did not value the
charge, was by much the pleasanter way: and to make it more so,
my old captain brought an English gentleman, the son of a mer-
chant in Lisbon, who was willing to travel with me; after which
we picked up two more English merchants also, and two young
Portuguese gentlemen, the last going to Paris only; so that in all
there were six of us and five servants; the two merchants and the
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 281

two Portuguese contenting themselves with one servant between
two, to save the charge; and as for me, I got an English sailor to
travel with me as a servant, besides my man Friday, who was too
much a stranger to be capable of supplying the place of a servant
on the road.

In this manner I set out from Lisbon; and our company being
very well mounted and armed, we made a little troop, whereof
they did me the honour to call me captain, as well because I was
the oldest man, as because I had two servants, and, indeed, was
the origin of the whole journey.

As I have troubled you with none of my sea journals, so I shall
trouble you now with none of my land journal; but some adven-
tures that happened to us in this tedious and difficult journey I
must not omit.

When we came to Madrid, we, being all of us strangers to
Spain, were willing to stay some time to see the court of Spain,
and what was worth observing ; but it being the latter part of the
summer, we hastened away, and set out from Madrid about the
middle of October; but when we came to the edge of Navarre, we
were alarmed, at several towns on the way, with an account that
so much snow was falling on the French side of the mountains,
that several travellers were obliged to come back to Pampeluna,
after having attempted at an extreme hazard to pass on.

When we came to Pampeluna itself, we found it so indeed; and
to me, that had been always used to a hot climate, and to
countries where I could scarce bear any clothes on, the cold was
insufferable: nor, indeed, was it more painful than surprising to
come but ten days before out of Old Castile, where the weather
was not only warm but very hot, and immediately to feel a wind
from the Pyrenean Mountains so very keen, so severely cold, as to
be intolerable, and to endanger benumbing and perishing of our
fingers and toes.

Poor Friday was really frightened when he saw the mountains
all covered with snow, and felt cold weather, which he had never
seen or felt before in his life. To mend the matter, when we came
282 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

to Pampeluna it continued snowing with so much violence and so
long, that the people said winter was come before its time; and
the roads, which were difficult before, were now quite impassable ;
for, in a word, the snow lay in some places too thick for us to
travel, and being not hard frozen, as is the case in the northern
countries, there was no going without being in danger of being
buried alive every step. We stayed no less than twenty days at -
Pampeluna; when (seeing the winter coming on, and no likelihood
of its being better, for it was the severest winter all over Europe
that had been known in the memory of man) I proposed that we
should go away to Fontarabia, and there take shipping for
Bordeaux, which was a very little voyage. But, while I was
considering this, there came in four French gentlemen, who,
having been stopped on the French side of the passes, as we were
on the Spanish, had found out a guide, who, traversing the
country near the head of Languedoc, had brought them over the
mountains by such ways that they were not much incommoded
with the snow; for where they met with snow in any quantity,
they said it was frozen hard enough to bear them and their horses,
We sent for this guide, who told us he would undertake to carry
us the same way, with no hazard from the snow, provided we were
armed sufficiently to protect ourselves from wild beasts; for, he
said, in these great snows it was frequent for some wolves to show
themselves at the foot of the mountains, being made ravenous for
want of food, the ground being covered with snow.. We told him
we were well enough prepared for such creatures as they were, if
he would insure us from a kind of two-legged wolves, which, we
were told, we were in most danger from, especially on the French
side of the mountains, He satisfied us that there was no danger
of that kind in the way that we were to go; so we readily agreed
to follow him, as did also twelve other gentlemen with their ser-
vants, some French, some Spanish, who, as I said, had attempted
to go, and were obliged to come back again. .
Accordingly, we set out from Pampeluna with our guide on the
15th of November; and, indeed, I was surprised, when, instead of
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 283

going forward, he came directly back with us on the same road
that we came from Madrid, about twenty miles; when, having
passed two rivers, and come into the plain country, we found our-
selves in a warm climate again, where the country was pleasant,
and no snow to be seen; but, on a sudden, turning to his left, he
approached the mountains another way; and though it is true the
hills and precipices looked dreadful, yet he made so many tours,.
such meanders, and led us by such winding ways, that we insen-
sibly passed the height of the mountains without being much
encumbered with the snow ; and all on a sudden he showed us the
pleasant and fruitful provinces of Languedoc and Gascony, all
green and flourishing, though at a great distance, and we had
some rough way to pass still.

We were a little uneasy, however, when we found it snowed one
whole day and a night so fast that we could not travel; but he
bid us be easy; we should soon be past it all: we found, indeed,
that we began to descend every day, and to come more north
than before; and so, depending upon our guide, we went on.

It was about two hours before night when, our guide being
something before us, and not just in sight, out rushed three
monstrous wolves, and after them a bear, from a hollow way
adjoining to a thick wood: two of the wolves made at the guide,
and had he been far before us, he would have been devoured
before we could have helped him; one of them fastened upon
his horse, and the other attacked the man with such violence,
that he had not time, or presence of mind enough, to draw his
pistol, but hallooed and cried out to us most lustily. My man
Friday being next me, I bade him ride up and see what was the
matter. As soon as Friday came in sight of the man, he hallooed
out as loud as the other, “‘O master! O master!” but like a bold
fellow, rode directly up to the poor man, and with his pistol shot
the wolf in the head that attacked him.

It was happy for the poor man that it was my man Friday;
for, having been used to such creatures in his ‘country, he had
no fear upon him, but went close up to him and shot him;
284 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

whereas, any other of us would have fired at a farther distance,
and have perhaps either missed the wolf or endangered shooting
the man.

But it was enough to have terrified a bolder man than I; and,
indeed, it alarmed all our company, when, with the noise of
Friday's pistol, we heard on both sides the most dismal howling
of wol