Front Cover
 Title Page
 Robinson Crusoe
 Back Cover

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074451/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 158 p., 1 leaf of plates : ill. (1 col.) ; 24 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Paget, Walter, 1863-1935 ( Illustrator )
Naumann, P ( Engraver )
McLoughlin Bros., inc ( Publisher )
Publisher: McLoughlin Brothers
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: [190-?]
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1905   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1905
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel Defoe ; with seventy-nine original illustrations by Walter Paget.
General Note: Cover with col. ill. has title: Robinson Crusoe; spine title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Variant of Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe, 820.
General Note: Some engraving by P. Naumann.
General Note: Part I and II of Robinson Crusoe, abridged.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074451
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001769741
oclc - 30345701
notis - AJJ2956

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Front Cover 3
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Robinson Crusoe
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
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    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

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WI AS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good family,
though not of that country, my father being a foreigner, of
Bremen, who settled first at Hull: he got a good estate by merchan-
dise, and leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York; from whence
he had married my mother, whose relations were named Robinson, a
very good family in that country, and from whom I was called
Robinson Kreutznaer; but, by the usual corruption of words in
England, we are now called, nay, we call ourselves, and write our
name, Crusoe; and so my companions always called me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade, my
head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts: my father
had given me a competent share of learning, and designed me for the
law; but I would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and my
inclination to this led me so strongly against the will, nay, the
commands, of my father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions
of my mother and other friends, that there seemed to be something
fatal in that propension of nature, tending directly to the life of
misery which was to befall me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me excellent counsel
against what he foresaw was my design. He called me one morning

into his chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and expostulated
very warmly with me upon this subject: he asked me what reasons,
more than a mere wandering inclination, I had for leaving my
father's house and my native country, where I might be well
introduced, and had a prospect of raising my fortune by application
and industry, with a life of ease and pleasure. He told me it was men
of desperate fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring, superior fortunes on
the other, who went abroad upon adventures, to make themselves
famous in undertakings of a nature out of the common road ; that
these things were all either too far above me or too far below me;
that mine was the middle state, or what might be called the upper
station of low life, which he had found by long experience was the
best state in the world, the most suited to human happiness, not
exposed to the misery and hardships, the labor and sufferings of the
mechanic part of mankind, and not embarrassed with pride, luxury,
ambition, and envy of the upper part of mankind. He told me, I
might judge of the happiness of this state by this one thing, viz., that
this was the state of life which all other people envied; that kings
have frequently lamented the miserable consequence of being born to
great things, and wished they had been placed in the middle of the
two extremes, between the mean and the great; that the wise man
gave his testimony to this, as the just standard of true felicity, when
he prayed to have neither poverty nor riches.
After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate
manner, not to play the young man, nor to precipitate myself into
miseries which Nature, and the station of life I was born in, seemed
to have provided against; that I was under no necessity of seeking
my bread; that he would do well for me, and endeavor to enter me
fairly into the station of life which he had just been recommending to
me; and that if I was not very easy and happy in the world, it must
be my mere fate or fault that must hinder it; and that he should have
nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his duty in warning
me against .measures which he knew would be to my hurt.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed who could
be otherwise ? and I resolved not think of going abroad any more, but
to settle at home according to my father's desire. But, alas! a few
days wore it all off; and, in short, to prevent any of my father's

further importunities, in a few weeks after I resolved to run quite away
from him. However, I did not act quite so hastily as the first heat of
my resolution prompted, but I took my mother at a time when I
thought her a little more pleasant than ordinary, and told her that
my thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing the world, that I
should never settle to anything with resolution enough to go through
with it, and my father had better give me his consent than force me
to go without it. This put my mother into a great passion; she told
me she knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon
any such subjects.; that for her part, she would not have so much
hand in my destruction; and I should never have it to say that my
mother was willing when my father was not.
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose. Being
one day at Hull, and one of my companions being going by sea to
London in his father's ship, and prompting me to go with them, I
consulted neither father or mother any more, nor so much as sent them
word of it; but leaving them to hear of it as they might, without
asking God's blessing, or my father's, without any consideration of
circumstances or consequences, and in an ill hour, God knows, on the
1st of September, 1651, I went on board a ship bound for London.
Never any young adventurer's misfortunes began sooner or con-
tinued longer than mine. The ship was no sooner got out of the
Humber than the wind began to blow, and the sea to rise in a
most frightful manner; and, as I had never been at sea before, I was
most inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified in mind. In this agony
I made many vows and resolutions, that if it would please God to
spare my life in this one voyage, if ever I got once my foot upon dry
land again, I would go directly home to my father, and never set it
into a ship again while I lived.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm
lasted, and indeed some time after; but the next day the wind was
abated, and the sea calmer, and I began to be a little inured to it. A
charming fine evening followed; the sun went down perfectly clear,
and rose so the next morning; and having little or no wind, and a
smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the
most delightful that ever I saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was no more sea-sick; but very

cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough and
terrible the day before, and could be so calm and so pleasant in so
little a time after. And now, lest my good resolutions should
continue, my companion who had enticed me away comes to me.

"Well, Bob," says he, clapping me upon the shoulder, "how do
you do after it? I warrant you were frighted, wer'nt you, last night,
when it blew but a capful of wind ? "
"A capful d'you call it ? said I ; 'twas a terrible storm."
"A storm, you fool, you! replies he; do you call that a storm?

why, it was nothing at all; give us but a good ship and sea-room, and
we think nothing of such a squall of wind as that; but you're but a
fresh-water sailor, Bob. Come, let us make a bowl of punch, and
we'll forget all that; d'ye see what charming weather 'tis now? "
To make short this sad part of my story, we went the way of all
sailors; the punch was made, and I was-made half drunk with it;
and in that one night's wickedness I drowned all my reflections upon
my past conduct, all my resolutions for the future.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads.
Here we were obliged to come to anchor, and here we lay, the wind
continuing contrary, viz., at south-west, for seven or eight days. The
eight day, in the morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands
at work to strike our top-masts, and make everything snug and close,
that the ship might ride as easy as possible. By noon the sea went
very high indeed, and our ship rode forecastle in, shipped several seas,
and we thought once or twice our anchor had come home; upon which
our master ordered out the sheet-anchor, so that we rode with two
anchors ahead, and the cables veered out to the, better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began to
see terror and amazement in the face even of the seamen themselves.
Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master of our
ship to let them cut away the foremast, which he was very unwilling
to do; but the boatswain protesting to him that if he did not, the ship
would founder, he consented; and when they had cut away the fore-
mast, the main-mast stood so loose, and shook the ship so much, they
were obliged to cut that away also, and make a cleal deck.
And one must judge what a condition I must be in at all this, who
was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright before at
but a little. In the middle of the night, and under all the rest of our
distresses, one of the men that had been down to see, cried out we had
sprung a leak; another said there was four feet water in the hold.
Then all hands were called to the pump.
We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it was
apparent that the ship would founder; and though the storm began
to abate a little, yet as it was not possible she could swim till we
might run into any port, so the master fired guns for help; and a
light ship, who had rid it out just ahead of us, ventured a boat out to

help us. Our men cast a rope over the stern with a buoy to it, and
then veered it out a great length, which they, after much labor and
hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them close under our stern, and
got all into their boat. It was to no purpose for them or us, after we
were in the boat, to think of reaching to their own ship; so all agreed
to let her drive, and only to pull her in towards shore as much as we
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our ship
till we saw her sink, and then I understood for the first time what was
meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge I had
hardly eyes to look up when the seamen told me she was sinking.
While we were in this condition, the men yet laboring at the oar to
bring the boat near the shore, we could see a great many people run-
ning along the strand, to assist us when we should come near; but we
made but slow way towards the shore; nor were we able to reach the
shore till being past the lighthouse at Winterton, the shore falls off to
the west-ward, towards Crome. Here we got all safe on shore, and
walked afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men,
we were used with great humanity.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and have gone
home, I had been happy. But my ill fate pushed me on now with an
obstinacy that nothing could resist. Having some money in my pocket,
I travelled to London by land; and there,-as well as on the road, had
many struggles with myself what course of life I should take, and
whether I should go home or go to sea.
It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in London,
which does not always happen to such loose and misguided young
fellows as I then was. I first got acquainted with the master of a
ship who had been on the coast of Guinea; and who having had very
good success there, was resolved to go again; this captain taking a
fancy to my conversation, told me if I would go the voyage with him,
I should be at no expense; I should be his messmate and his compan-
ion; and if I could carry anything with me, I should have all the
advantage of it that the trade would admit.
I embraced the offer; and entering into a strict friendship with this
captain, who was an honest, plain-dealing man, I went the voyage
with him, and carried about 40 in such toys and trifles as the

captain directed me to buy. This 40 I had mustered together by
the assistance of some of my relations whom I corresponded with, and
who, I believe, got my father, or at least my mother, to contribute so
much as that to my first adventure.

" WP WaLi7I' r- FnrAT TO.

This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in all my
adventures, and which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my friend
the captain; for I brought home five pounds nine ounces of gold-dust
for my adventure, which yielded me in London, at my return, almost
300; and this filled me with those aspiring thoughts which have
since so completed my ruin.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my great


V. ..

4L~i. Fi F 1N iY I-F N.

misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the same voy-
age again. I embarked in the same vessel with one who was his mate
in the former voyage, and had now got the command of the ship.
This was the unhappitst voyage that ever man made; for though I
did not carry quite 100 of my new-gained wealth, so that I had
200 left which I had lodged with my friend's widow, who was very
just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes in this voyage; and the
first was this, viz., our ship making her course towards the Canary
Islands, was surprised in the gray of the morning by a Moorish rover
of Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the sail he could make.
About three in the afternoon he came up with us, and to cut short
this melancholy part of our story, our ship being disabled, and three
of our men killed, and eight wounded, we were obliged to yield, and
were carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not-so dreadful as at first I apprehended;
nor was I carried up the country to the Emperor's court, as the rest
of our men were, but was kept by the captain of the rover as his proper
prize, and made his slave, being young and nimble, and fit for his
business. When he went to sea, he left me on shore to look after his
little garden, and do the common drudgery of slaves about his house;

~ c-


and when he came home again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie
in the cabin to look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I might
take to effect it; but found no way that had the least probability in it.
After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself, which
put the thought of making some attempt for my liberty again in my
head. My patron lying at home longer than usual without fitting out
his ship, he used constantly to take the ship's pinnace, and go out
into the road a-fishing; and as he always took me and a young
Moresco with him to row the boat, we made him very merry, and I
proved very dexterous in catching fish, insomuch that sometimes he
would send me with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth, the
Moresco, as they called him, to catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time that, going a-fishing with him in a calm
morning, a fog rose so thick, that though we were not half a league
from the shore, we lost sight of it; and rowing we knew not whither
or which way, we labored all day, and all the next night; and when
the morning came, we found we had pulled out to sea instead of
pulling in for the shore. How-
ever, we got well in again,
though with a great deal of
labor, and some danger.
But our patron resolved he
would not go a-fishing any more
without a compass and some
provision; so he ordered the
carpenter of his ship to build a
little state-room or cabin, in the
middle of The long-boat, which
had in it room for him to lie
with a slave or two, and a table
to eat on, with some small ._-
lockers to put in some bottles ---
of such liquor as he thought fit
to drink; and particularly his
bread, rice, and coffee.
It happened that he appointed "I PROVED VERY DXTEROUS.

to go out in this boat, with two or three Moors of some distinction in
that place, and he had provided a larger store of provisions than
usual; and had ordered me to get ready three fusils" with powder
and shot, which were on board his ship, for that they designed some
sport of fowling as well as fishing. I got all things ready as he had
directed; and waited the next morning with the boat, when by-and-by
my patron came on board alone, and told me his guests had put off
going, and ordered me, with the man as usual, to go out with the boat
and catch them some fish.
This moment, my former notions of deliverance darted into my
thoughts, for now I found I was likely to have a little ship at my
command; and my master being gone, I prepared to furnish myself,
not for fishing business, but for a \ovYce. My first contrivance was
to make a pretence to speak to tliu Moor, to get something for our
subsistence on board; for I toldSlah we must not presume to eat of
our patron's bread. He said, thatvas true; so he brought a large
basket of rusk or biscuit of their kind, and three jars with fresh water,
into the boat. I knew where my patron's case of bottles stood, and I'
conveyed them into the boat while the Moor was on shore. I
conveyed also a great lump of hbeswax into the boat, with a parcel
of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw and a hammer, all of which were
of great use to us afterwards, especially the wax to make candles.
Thus furnished with everything needful, we sailed out of the port to
After we had fished some time and caught nothing, for when I had
fish on my hook I would not pull them up, that he might not see them
I said to the Moor, "This will not do; we must stand farther off."
He, thinking no harm, agreed, and I ran the boat out near a league
farther, and then brought her to as if I would fish; when, giving the
boy the helm, I stepped to where the Moor was, and making as if I
stooped for something behind him, I took him by surprise with my
arm under his waist, and tossed him clear overboard into the sea.
He rose immediately, for he swam like a cork, and called to me,
begged to be taken in, telling me he would go all over the world with
me. He swam so strong after the boat, that he would have reached
me very quickly, there being but little wind; upon which I stepped
Fusil, a French word, meaning a light musket or firelock.





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into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented it
at him, and told him I had done him no hurt, and if he would be
quiet I would do him none; "But," said I, you swim well enough
to reach the shore, and the sea is calm; make the best of your way to
shore, and I will do you no harm; but if you come near the boat, I'll
shoot you through the head, for I am resolved to have my liberty."
So he turned himself about, and swam for the shore, and I make no
doubt but he reached it with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.
When he was gone, I turned to the boy, whom they called Xury,
and said, "Xury, if you will be faithful to me, I'll make you a great
man; but if you will not stroke your face to be true to me (that is,
swear by Mahomet and his father's bea rd), "I must throw you into
the sea too." The boy smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently,
that I could not mistrust him, and he swore to be faithful to me, and
go all over the world with me.
While I was in the view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood
directly out to to sea, that they might think me gone towards the
Straits' mouth. But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I
changed my course, that I might keep in with the shore; and having
a fair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth, qtet sea, I made such sail
that I believed by the next day at three o'clfi in the afternoon, when
I first made land, I could not be less than one hundred and fifty miles
beyond the Emperor of Morocco's dominions.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, that I would not
stop till I had sailed in that manner five days' and then, the wind
shifting to the southward, I concluded also that if any of our vessels
were in chase of me, they also would now give over; so I ventured
to make to the coast, and came to an anchor in the mouth of a little
river, I knew not what nor where. I neither saw nor desired to see
any people; the principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came
into this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as
it was dark, and discover the country; but as soon as it was quite
dark, we heard such dreadful noises of the barking, roaring, and
howling of wild creatures, of we knew not what kinds, that the poor
boy was ready to die with fear, and begged of me not to go on shore
till day. Well, Xury," said I, "then I won't; but it may be we may see
Straits, the Straits of Gibraltar.

men by day, who will be as bad to us as those lions." Then we give
them the shoot-gun," says Xury, laughing, make them run wey." Such
English Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves. However, I was
glad to see the boy so cheerful, and as his advice was good, I took it.
We dropped our little anchor, and lay still all night: I say still for

we slept none; for in two or three hours we saw vast great creatures
(we knew not- what to call them), of many sorts, come down to the
sea-shore, and run into the water, wallowing and washing themselves
and they made such hideous howlings and yelling that I never indeed
heard the like.

Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but we
were both more frighted when we heard one mighty creature come
swimming towards our boat. Xury cried to me to weigh the anchor
and row away. No," says I, "Xury, we can slip our cable, with the
buoy to it, and go to sea; they cannot follow us far." I had no sooner
said so but I perceived the creature, within two oars' length. I
immediately stepped to the cabin-door, and, taking up my gun, fired
at him; upon which he turned about and swam towards the shore
But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises and hideous cries
and howlings that were raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as
higher within the country, upon the noise or report of the gun. This
convinced me that there was no going on shore for us in the night
upon that coast; and how to venture on shore in the day was another
question too; for to have fallen into the hands of any of the savages,
had been as bad as to have fallen into the paws of lions and tigers.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere or
other for water. Xury said, if I would let him go on shore with one
of the jars, he would find if there was any water, and bring some to
me. I asked him why he would go? why I should not go, and he
stay in the boat? The boy answered with so much affection, that
made me love him ever after. Says he, If wild mans come, they eat
me, you go wey." "Well, Xury," said I, "we will both go, and if
the wild mans come, we will kill them, they shall eat neither of us."
So we hauled the boat in as near the shore as we thought was proper,
and waded on shore, carrying nothing but our arms, and two jars for
for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, but the boy, seeing a
low place about a mile up the country, rambled to it, and by and by
I saw him come running towards me. I thought he was pursued, and
I ran forward towards him to help him; but when I came nearer to
him, I saw something hanging over his shoulders, which was a
creature that he had shot, like a hare, but different in color, and
longer legs; however, we were very glad of it, and it was very good
meat; but the great joy that poor Xury came with, was to tell me he
had found good water, and seen no wild mans.
But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for

water, for a little higher up the creek where we were, we found the
water fresh when the tide was out, so we filled our jars, and prepared
to go on our way.
I knew very well that the Islands of the Canaries, and the Cape
de Verd Islands also, lay not far off from the coast. But I knew not
where to look for them. My hope was that if I stood along this coast
till I came to that part where the English traded, I should find some
of their vessels upon their usual design of trade, that would relieve
and take us in.
Once or twice in the day-time, I thought I saw the Pico of Teneriffe,
being the hightop of the mountain Teneriffe in the Canaries; and had
a great mind to venture out, in hopes of reaching thither; but having
failed twice, I was forced in again by contrary winds, the sea also
going too high for my little vessel; so I resolved to pursue my first
design, and keep along the shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, and once in
particular, being early in the morning, we came to an anchor under a
little point of land, which was pretty high; and the tide beginning to
flow, we lay still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more
about him than it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me
that we had best go farther off the shore; "for," says he, "look,
yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fast asleep."
I looked where he pointed, and saw a terrible great lion that lay on
the side of the shore. "Xury," says I, "you shall go on shore and
kill him." Xury looked frighted, and said, "Me kill! he eat me at
one mouth;" one mouthful he meant. However, I said no more to
the boy, but bade him be still, and took our biggest gun, and aimed
as well as I could with the first piece to have shot him in the head,
but the slug hit his leg about the knee, and broke the "bone. He
started up growling at first, but finding -his leg broke, gave the most
hideous roar that ever I heard. I fired again, and shot him in the
head, and had the pleasure to see him drop.
This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I was very
sorry to lose the charges of powder and shot upon a creature that
was good for nothing to us. I bethought myself, however, perhaps
the skin of him might be of some value to us; and I resolved to take
off his skin if I could. So Xury and I went to work with him. It

took us up both the whole day, but at last we got. off the hide of him,
and spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it
in two days' time, and it afterwards served me to lie upon.
After this stop, we made on to the southward continually for ten
or twelve days. My design in this was to make the River Gambia
or Senegal; that is to say, anywhere about the Cape de Verd, where
I was in hopes to meet with some European ship; and if I did not,
I knew not what course I had to take, but to seek for the islands, or
perish there among the negroes. When I had pursued this resolu-
tion about ten days longer, as I have said, I began to see that the
land was inhabited; and in two or three places, we saw people stand
upon the shore to look at us; we could also perceive they were quite
black, and stark naked. I was once inclined to have gone on shore
to them; but Xury said to me, "No go, no go." However, I hauled
in nearer the shore, and I found they ran along the shore by me a
good way: they had no weapons in their hands, except one, who had
a long stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they could throw
them a great way with good aim: so I kept at a distance, but
talked with them by signs as well as I could; and particularly made
signs for something to eat: they beckoned to me to stop my boat,
and they would fetch me some meat. Upon this, I lay by, and two
of them ran up into the country, and in less than half an hour
came back, and brought with them two pieces of dry flesh and
some corn, but how to come at it was our next dispute, for I would
not venture on shore to them, and they were as much afraid of us;
but they took a safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore
and laid it down, and went and stood a great way off till we fetched
it on board, and then came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make
them amends; but an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige
them wonderfully: for while we were lying on the shore, came two
mighty creatures, one pursuing the other from the mountains to-
wards the sea. The man that had the lance or dart did not fly from
them, but the rest did. The two creatures ran directly into the
water, and swam about; at last one of them began to come nearer our
boat than at first I expected; but I lay ready for him, for I had
loaded my gun with all possible expedition. As soon as he came

fairly within my reach, I fired, and shot him directly in the head: he
immediately made to the shore; but between the wound, which was
his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the water, he died just before
he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor creatures
at the noise and fire of my gun. But when they saw the creature
dead, and that I made signs to them to come to the shore, they took
heart and came to the shore, and began to search for the creature.
I found him by his blood staining the water; and by the help of a
rope, they dragged him on shore, and found that it was a most
curious leopard.
The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the noise of
the gun, swam to the shore, and ran up directly to the mountains
from whence they came. I found quickly the negroes were for eat-
ing the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to have them take it as
a favor from me; which, when I made signs to them that they might
take it, they were very thankful for. Then I made signs to them for
some water, and held out one of my jars to them, turning its bottom
upward, to show that it was empty, and that I wanted to have it
filled. They called immediately to some of their friends, and there
came two women, and brought a great vessel made of earth, and
burnt, as I suppose, in the sun; this they set down for me, as before,
and I sent Xury on shore with my jars and filled them all three.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and wa-
ter; and leaving my friendly negroes, I made forward for about
eleven days more, till I came in sight of the Cape de Verd Islands.
On a sudden, Xury cried out, "Master, master, a ship with a sail! "
and the foolish boy was frighted out of his wits, thinking it must
needs be some of his master's ships sent to pursue us. I immediate-
ly saw, that it was a Portuguese ship; upon which I stretched out to
the sea as much as I could, resolving to speak with them if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to
come in their way, but that they would be gone by before I could
make any signal to them; they, it seems, saw me by the help of
their perspective glasses, so they shortened sail to let me come up.
I was encouraged with this, and as I had my patron's ensign on
board, I made a waft of it to them for a signal of distress, and fired

a gun. Upon these signals they very kindly brought to, and lay by
for me; and in about three hours' time I came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and in
French, but I understood none of them; but at last a Scotch sailor,
who was on board, called to me; and I answered him, and told him
I was an Englishman, that had made my escape out of slavery from
the Moors at Sallee; they then bade me come on board, and very
kindly took me in, and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will believe, that
I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable and
almost hopeless condition as I was in; and I immediately offered all
I had to h captain of the ship, as a return for my deliverance; but
he generously told me, he would take nothing from me, but that all
I had should be delivered safe to me, when I came to the Brazils.
As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the per-
formance to a tittle; for he ordered the seamen that none should
offer to touch anything I had: then he took everything into his own
possession, and gave me back an exact inventory of them, that I
might have them, even to my three earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw, and told
me, he would buy it of me for the ship's use. He offered me also
sixty pieces of eight for my boy Xury, but I was very loth to sell
the poor boy's liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in procuring
my own. However, when I let him know my reason, he owned it to
be just, and offered me this medium, that he would give the boy an
obligation to set him free in ten years, if he turned Christian: upon
this, and Xury saying he was willing to go to him, I let the captain
have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived in the
Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints Bay, in about twenty-two
days after. The generous treatment -the captain gave me, I can
never enough remember: he would take nothing of me for my pass-
age, and what I was willing to sell, he bought of me: in a word, I
made about two hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo;
and with this stock, I went on shore in the Brazils.
I had not been long here, but being recommended to the house of
a good, honest planter, I lived with him some time, and acquainted

myself, by that means, with the manner of their planting and mak-
ing of sugar; and seeing how well the planters lived, and how they
got rich suddenly, I resolved, I would turn planter among them; re-
solving, in the meantime, to find out some way to get my money,
which I had left in Lon-
don, remitted to me. To
this purpose, I purchased
as much land as my
money would reach, and
formed a plan for my
plantation and settle-
I had a neighbor, a
Portuguese of Lisbon,
but born of English par-
ents, whose name was
Wells, and in much such
circumstances as I was.
My stock was but low,
as well as his; and we
rather planted for food
than anything else, for
about two years. How-
ever, we began to in-
crease, so that the third
year we planted some
tobacco, and made each ,
of us a large piece of
ground ready for plant- "I BOUGHT ME A NEGRO SLAVE."
ing canes in the year to come.
I was in some measure settled before the captain departed from
the Brazils. One day I went to him and told him what stock I had
in London, desiring his help in getting it remitted; to which he
readily consented, but would only have me send for half of my
money lest it should miscarry.
His kindness to me was great, for he not only procured the
money I had drawn for, but sent me over a servant, with a cargo of

salable goods, together with tools, iron work, and utensils necessary
for my plantation. I found means to sell the goods at a very great
advantage, so that I was now infinitely beyond my poor neighbor,
and the first thing I did, I bought me a negro slave, and a European
servant also: I mean another besides that the captain sent me.
I went on with great success in my plantation, and had I con-
tinued in. the station I was now in, I had room for all the happy
things to have yet befallen me, for which my father so earnestly
recommended a quiet, retired life. But I must go and leave the
happy view I had of being a rich and thriving man in my new
plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of rising
faster than the nature of the thing admitted ; and thus I cast myself
down again into the deepest gulf of human misery that ever man
fell into.
Having lived almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning to
thrive and prosper vefy well upon my plantation, I had contracted
acquaintance and friend ip among my fellow-planters, and, in my
discourse among them, I had frequently given them an account of
my two voyages to thefoast of Guinea, the manner of trading with
the negroes there, and how easy it was to purchase upon the coast
for trifles-such as 'beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of
glass, and the like-not only gold-dust, Guinea grains, elephants'
teeth, etc., but negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great
It happened, being in company one day with some merchants and'
planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very earn-
estly, three of them came to me the next morning, and told me that
they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that they had all
plantations as well as I, and were straitened for nothing so much as
servants; that they could not publicly sell the negroes when they
came home, so they desired to make but one voyage, to bring the
negroes on shore privately, and divide them among their own plan-
tations; and the question was, whether I would go their supercargo
in the ship, to manage the trading part; and they offered me that I
should have my equal share of the negroes, without providing any
part of the stock.
I could not resist the offer, and told them I would go if they

would look after my plantation in my absence, and would dispose of
it as I should direct, if I miscarried. This they all engaged to do.
The ship being fitted out, I went on board in an evil hour again,
the 1st of September, 1850, being the same day eight years that I
went from my father
and mother at Hull.
The same day I went -
on board we set sail,
standing away to the --
northward upon our E L-
own coasts, with de-
sign to stretch over
for the African
coast. We had very
good weather, all the
way upon our own ,Ii
coast till we came
to the height of
Cape St. Augustino;
from whence, keep-
ing farther off at
sea, we lost sight of
land, and steered as
if we were bound
for the isle Fernan-
do de Noronha. In
this course we "LOOKING OVER THE CHARTS."
passed the line in
about twelve days' time, and were, by our last observation, in seven
degrees twenty-two minutes northern latitude, when a violent tor-
nado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge. For twelve
days together we could do nothing but drive, and during these
.twelve days, I need not say that I expected every day to be swal-
lowed up; nor did any in the ship expect to save their lives.
About the twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the master made
an observation as well as he could, and found that he was in about
eleven degrees of north latitude, but that he was twenty-two degrees



of longitude difference west from Cape St. Augustino; so that he
found he was gotten upon the coast of Guiana, and now he began to
consult with me what course he should take; for the ship was leaky,
and very much disabled, and he was for going directly back to the
coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that; and looking over the charts of the
sea-coast of America with him, we resolved to stand away for Barba-
does; which we might easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen
days' sail; whereas we could not possibly make our voyage to the
coast of Africa without some assistance both to our ship and to our-
With this design we exchanged our course, in order to reach some
of our English islands, where I hoped for relief ; but our .via- e was
otherwise determined; for a second storm came upon us, which car-
ried us away with the same impetuosity westward, and -drove us out
of the way of all human commerce.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our men
early one morning cried out, "Land !" and we had no sooner run
out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the
world we were, than the ship struck upon a sand, and in a moment,

the sea br6ke over her in such a manner that we expected we should
all have perished immediately.
We knew nothing where we were, and we could not so much as
hope to have the ship hold many minutes without breaking in pieces,
unless the winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn immediately
In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of the ship's boat,
and with the help of the rest of the men, they got her flung over the
side; and getting all into her, let go, and committed ourselves, being
eleven in number, to God's mercy and the wild seas.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and a half, a
raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling astern of us, and took us
with such a fury that it overset the boat at once. Though I swam
very well, yet I could not deliver myself from the waves so as to
draw breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather carried me,
a vast way on towards the shore, and having spent itself, went back,
and left me upon the land almost dry, but half dead with the water I
took in. Seeing myself nearer the mainland than I expected, I got
upon my feet, and endeavored to make on towards the land as fast
as I could, before another wave should return and take me up again;


but I soon found it was impossible to avoid it; for I saw the sea
come after me as high as a great hill.
The wave that came upon me again buried me at once twenty or
thirty feet deep in its own body, and I could feel myself carried
with a mighty force and swiftness towards the shore a very great
way. I was covered with water a good while, but not so long but
I held it out, and felt ground again with my feet. I stood still a few
moments to recover breath, and then took to my heels, and ran with
what strength I had, farther towards the shore. But neither would
this deliver me from the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after
me again; and twice more I was lifted up by the waves and carried
forwards as before, the shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well-nigh, been fatal to me; for the
sea dashed me against a piece of a rock, but I recovered a little, and
resolved to hold fast by the rock, till the wave went back. Now, as
the waves were not so high as at first, being nearer land, I held my
hold till the waves abated, and then fetched another run, which
brought me so near the shore that the next run I took I got to the
mainland; where I clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and sat me
down upon the grass, quite out of the reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up and
thank God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there was some
minutes before scarce any room to hope. I walked about on the
shore, lifting up my hands, and my whole being, as I may say,
wrapt up in a contemplation of my deliverance; reflecting upon all




J 1,., ,

V 45


-" O1tr lEz thlt were
S. :lro,:u-ne-, ai:ln tlhat there
:J iil n,-t le ou,. soul
': i--! aved 1:.Nut mt.self ; tor, as
for them, I n.-ver saw
tht-em atter, wars, or any
-i-n ofI them, -::e:t. three
f : their ihts, one cap,
iand tw, shieS that w ere not
fe ,1'-,v-s.
After I had: solacied my mind
With the ,coinfortalble part of my
cculondition u, I began t 1,,,:,k round
mu-, t:, set e wvli t kin:id of place I
be i was in, -anld l what. was nlitxt. to be
I FELL FAST ASLEEP.," done; and I soon found my com-
forts abate, for I was wet, had
no clothes to shift me, nor anything either to eat or drink, to com-
fort me; neither did I see any prospect before me but that of perish-
ing with hunger, or being devoured by wild beasts. In a word, I
had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little to-
bacco in a box. Night coming upon me, I began, with a heavy
heart, to consider what would be my lot if there were any ravenous
beasts in that country. All the remedy that offered to my thoughts,


at that time, was to get up into a thick bushy tree, which grew near
me, and where I resolved to sit all night, and consider the next day
what death I should die, for as yet I saw no prospect of life. Being
excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as,
I believe, few could have done in my condition.
When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the storm
abated?- but that which surprised me most was, that the ship was
lifted off in the night from the sand where she lay, by the swelling
of the tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock which I at
first mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the wave dashing
me against it.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked about
me again, and the first thing I found was the boat, which lay about
two miles on iny right hand. I walked as far as I could upon the
shore to have got to her; but found a neck, or inlet, of water be-
tween me and the boat; so I came back for the present, being more
intent upon getting at the ship, where I hoped to find something, for
my present subsistence.
-A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed
so far out, that I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship.
I pulled off my clothes, foi the weather was hot to extremity, and
took the water. When I came to the ship, I espied a small piece of
rope, hanging down, and by the help of that rope got up into the
forecastle of the ship. I found that all the ship's provisions were
dry, and being very well disposed to eat, I went to the bread-room,
and filled my pockets with biscuit, and ate it as I went about other
Now I wanted nothing but a boat, to furnish myself with many
things which I foresaw would be very necessary to me.
We had several spare yards, and a spare topmast or two in the
ship; and I flung as many of them overboard as I could manage,
tying every one with a rope, that they might not drive away. When
this was done I went down the ship's side, and tied four of them to-
gether at both ends, as in the form of a raft, and laying two or three
short pieces of plank upon them, crossways, I found I could walk
upon it very well, but that it was not able to bear any great weight.
So I went to work, and with the carpenter's saw I cut a spare top-



mast into three lengths, and added them to my raft, with a great
deal of labor and pains.
My next care was what to load it with, but I was not long con-
sidering this. I first laid all the planks or boards upon it that I
could get, and three of the seamen's chests, which I had broken open
and emptied. The first of these I filled with bread, rice, three
Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goat's flesh, and a little remainder
of European corn. I found several cases of bottles belonging to our
skipper, in which were some cordial waters;- and, in all, about five
or six gallons of arrack. These I stowed by themselves. While I
was doing this, I found the tide began to flow, though very calm;
and I had the mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat,
which I had left on shore upon the sand, swim away. As for my
breeches, which were only linen, and open-kneed, I swam on board
in them and my stockings. However, this put me upon rummaging
for clothes, of which I found enough, but took no more than I
wanted for present use, for I had other things which my eye was
more upon; as, first, tools to work with on shore, and it was after
long searching that I found out the carpenter's chest, which was in-
deed a very useful prize to me.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were
two very good fowling pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols.
These I secured first, with some powder-horns, a small bag of shot,
and two old rusty swords. I knew there were three barrels of pow-
der in the ship, but knew not where our gunner had stowed them;
but with much search I found them.
Having found two or three broken oars, belonging to the boat, and
besides the tools which were in the chest, two saws, an axe, and a
hammer, with this cargo I put to sea. For a mile, or thereabouts,
my raft went very well, only that I found it drive a little distant
from the place where I had landed before.
Then there appeared before me a little opening of the land. I
found a strong current of the tide set into it; so I guided my raft as
well as I could, to keep in the middle of the stream.
But here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck, for,
knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran aground at one end of it
upon a shoal, and not being aground at the other end, it wanted but



a little that all my cargo had slipped off towards the end that was
afloat, but holding up the chests with all my might, I stood in that
manner near half an hour, in which time the rising of the water
brought me a little more upon a level; and a little after, the water
still rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off, and then driv-
ing up higher, I at length found myself in the mouth of a little

river. I looked on both sides for a proper place to get to shore, and
at length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek, to
which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, near a flat
piece of ground, which I expected the water would flow over; and
so it did. As soon as I found water enough, I thrust her upon that
flat piece of ground, and there fastened or moored her, by sticking
my two oars into the ground-one on one side, near one end, and one
on the other side, near the other end; and thus I lay till the water
ebbed away, and left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper place
for my habitation. There was a hill not above a mile from me, which
rose up very steep and high. I took out one of the fowling-pieces,
and one of the pistols, and a horn of powder; and thus armed, I
traveled for discovery up to the top of that hill, where I saw that 1
was in an island environed every way with the sea: no land to be
seen except some rocks, which lay a great way off, and two small
islands, less than this, which lay about three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren, and uninhabited,
except by wild beasts. Yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not
their kinds; neither, when I killed them, could I tell what was fit
for food, and what not. At my coming back, I shot at a great bird,
which I saw sitting upon a tree, on the side of a great wood. I had
no sooner fired but from all parts of the wood there arose an innumer-
able number of fowls of many sorts, making a confused screaming
and crying, every one according to his usual note, but not one of
them of any kind that I knew. As for the creature I killed, I took
it to be a kind of hawk. Its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.
I came back to my raft, and fell to work to bring my cargo on shore,
which took me up the rest of the day. What to do with myself at
night I knew not. However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself
round with the chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and
made a kind of hut for that night's lodging.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many things
out of the ship which would be useful to me, and I resolved to make
another voyage on board the vessel, if possible.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft; and
brought away several things very useful to me; as, first, in the


carp enter's
stores I found ,
two or three '
bags full of nails and
spikes, a great serw-iaek a -
dozen or two oi hatchet., alnd,
above all, that m-nt u--eful thing ,
called a grindstone. RBesides
these things, I took all the irnen's
clothes that I could tind:, and a .-pare
fore-topsail, a hanin-ck, anu s-ii-e
bedding; and v:ith this I l:,-,:i,:-d 1 my
second raft, and blirun lht them all sal~f
on shore, to my very 2'r-eat ei.imf:rt.
I was under s...m apprehensi,.r
during my absence from the l:ila-, that
at least my provisi:,us umig.htl lbe
devoured on shore; but when I '
came back I found n:o -i'-stu CofL
any visitor; only there 0
sat -a crea-
ture like a a
wild cat up-
on one of the
the chests,
which, when .
I came to-
wards it, ran
away a little
distance, and
then stood
still. I pre- \
sented my .
gun to her, I; tF.i
but, as she i
did not un-
derstand it, 'f4. Er
'F VA. ".'

Y c4U

she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer to stir away;
upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit, and she went to it, smelled
at it, and ate it, and looked (as pleased) for more; but I thanked her,
and could spare no more: so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore, I went to work to make me
a little tent, with the sail, and some poles which I cut for that pur-
pose; and into this tent I brought everything that I knew would
spoil either with rain or sun; and I piled all the empty chests and
casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from ay sudden at-
tempt, either from man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door-of the tent with
some boards within, and an empty chest set up on end without; and
spreading one of the beds upon the ground, I went to bed for the
first time, and slept very quietly all night. I was very weary and
heavy ; for the night before I had slept little, and had labored very
hard all day.
While the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought I ought to
get everything out of her that I could; so ek--ry d:ay, I went on
board, and brought away something or other. After I had made five
or six such voyages as these, and thought I had nothing more to
expect from the ship that was worth my meddling with-I say, after
all this, I found a great hogshead of bread, three large runlets of
rum, or spirits, a box of fine sugar, and a barrel of fine flour. I got
all this safe on shore also, though at several times.
The next day I made another voyage, and got two cables and a
hawser on shore, with all the iron-work I could get: and having cut
down the spritsail yard, and the mizzen yard, and everything I could
to make a large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods and came
away. But my good luck began to leave me, for this raft was so un-
wieldy, and so overladen, that after I was entered the little cove,
where I had landed the rest of my goods, it overset, and threw me
and all my cargo into the water. However, when the tide was out, I
got most of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron, though
with infinite labor. After this, I went every day on board, and
brought away what I could get.
Preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind began
to rise. However, at low water I went on board, and though I

thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectually that nothing more
could be found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers in it, in one
of which I found two or three razors, and one pair of large scissors,
with some ten or a dozen of good
nj-. k u il :d forks; in another I found
ab-l::ut thirt,y-six pounds value in
lU,,V. I smiled to myself at the
1si1ht. 'f this money. Oh, drug!"
said I iloid, "what art thou good
f:r ?1 Th1 :l art not worth to me-no,
not. the- tLaking off the ground; one
:f th:,:e knives is worth all this heap.
However, upon second thoughts, I
; t,::.k it tay iy; and wrapping all in a
1:i ,c': o:f ,:avas, I began to think of
making another raft; but
__ __ while I was preparing
this, I found the sky
overcast, and the wind
Sl:r.ain to rise, and in a quar-
ter :f an hour it blew a fresh
SI', ,le from the shore. It pres-
.iin tl occurred to me that it
Si w.: in vain to pretend to make
^ a Ir:itt with the wind off shore.
,. A-,-,rdingly, I let myself
''' do:vn-L into the water, and swam
., acir:s the channel which lay
'"' between the ship and the
sands, and even that with
"THE KID FOLLOWED ME." difficulty enough, partly with
the weight of the things I had
about me, and partly from the roughness of the water.
But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I lay, with all my
wealth about me very secure. It blew very hard all that night, and
in the morning, when I looked out, behold, no more ship was to be

My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself
against either savages, or wild beasts, if any were in the island; and
I had many thoughts of the method how to do this, and whether I
should make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the earth; and,
in short, I resolved upon both.
I found a little plain on the side of a rising hill, whose front to-
wards this little plain was steep as a house-side, so that nothing
could come down upon me from the top. On the side of the rock
there was a hollow place, worn a little way in, like the entrance or
door of a cave; but there was not really any ave, or way into the
rock, at all.
On the flat of the green, just below this holl:t). v:. i-p e, I resolved to
pitch my tent. Before I set up my ,t-nt, I d re W half-circle before
the hollow place, which took in al.':s,,t t iu yards.i its semi-diameter
from the rock, and twenty yards iJits diameter from its beginning
and ending.
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving them
into the ground till they stood very firm like piles. Then I took the
pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship, and laid them in rows
between these two rows of stakes, up to the top, placing other stakes
in the inside, leaning against them, about two feet and a half high,
like a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong that neither man
nor beast could get into it or over it.
The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but by a
short ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when I was in, I lifted
over after me; and so I was completely fenced in and fortified, as I
thought, from all the world. Into this fence, or fortress, with in-
finite labor, I carried all my riches, all my provisions, ammunition,
and stores, of which you have the account above; and I made me a
large tent also, to preserve me from the rains, that in one part of
the year are very violent there.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that
would spoil by the wet; and having thus inclosed all my goods, I
made up the entrance, and so passed and re-passed, as I said, by a
short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock, and
bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down out through my

tent, I laid them up within my fence, in the nature of a terrace, so
that it raised the ground within about a foot and a half ; and thus
I made me a cave, just behind my tent, which served me like a cellar
to my house.
While this was doing, I went out at least once every day with my

'---~- "
~ L ,',.i ..


gun, to see if I could kill anything fit for food; and I presently dis-
covered that there were goats in the island. The first shot I made
among these creatures, I killed a she-goat, which had a little kid by
her. When the old one fell, the kid stood stock-still by her, till I
came and took her up; and not only so, but when I carried the old
one with me upon my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my in-
closure; upon which I laid down the dam, and took the kid in my
arms, and carried it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame;
but it would not eat; so I was forced to kill it and eat it myself.
These two supplied me with flesh a great while.
It came into my thoughts that I should lose my reckoniAg of time

for want of books, and pen, and ink, and should even forget the
Sabbath-day from the working days; but to prevent this, I cut it
with my knife upon a large post, in capital letters; and making it in-
to a great cross, I set it up on the shore where I first landed, viz.,
"I came on shore here on the 30th of September, 1659."
Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a notch with
my knife, and every seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and
every first day of the month as long again as that long one; and thus
I kept my calendar.
In the next place, we are to observe that among the many things
which I brought from the ship in the several voyages which, as
above mentioned, 'niade to it, I got several things of less value, but
not at all less useful to me, which I omitted setting down before; as,
in particular, pens, ink, and paper; several parcels in the captain's,
mate's, gunner's, and aipkenter's keeping; three or four compasses,
some mathematical instruments, charts, and books of navigation,
three Bibles, and several other books; all which I carefully secured.
And I must not forget that we had in the ship a dog and two cats,
of whose history I must have occasion to say something in its place,
for I carried both the cats with me; and as for the dog, he jumped
out of the ship of himself, and swam on shore to me the day after
I went on shore with my first cargo, and was a trusty servant to me
many years; I wanted nothing that he could fetch me, nor any com-
pany that he could make up to me.L
The want of tools made every work I did go on heavily; and it was
near a whole year before I had entirely finished my little pale, or sur-
rounded habitation. But what need I have been concerned at the
tediousness of anything I had to do, seeing I had time enough to do
it in? nor had I any other employment, except the ranging the is-
land to seek for food. I have already described this habitation,
which was a tent under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong
pale of posts and cables; but I might now rathe- call it a wall, for
I raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs, about two feet thick, on
the outside; and after some time (I think it was a year and a half)
I raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched or covered
it with boughs of trees, and such things as I could get to keep out
the rain, which I found at some times of the year very violent.

I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this pale,
and into the cave which I had made behind me. But I must observe,
too, that at first this was a confused heap of goods, which, as they
lay in no order, so they took up all my place; I had no room to
turn myself: so I set myself to enlarge my cave, and worked farther
into the earth; for it was a
loose, sandy rock, which
yielded easily to the labor I
bestowed on it: and so when i, l
I found I was pretty safe as to
beasts of prey, I worked side-
ways, to the right hand, into
the rock, and then turning to
the right again, worked quite
out, and made me a door to
come out on the outside of my
pale or fortification.
And now I began to apply
myself to make such necessary
things as I found I most
wanted, particularly a chair 'A KIND OF WILD PIGEONS."
and a table. I had never
handled a tool in my life; and yet, in time, by labor, application,
and contrivance, I found, at last, that I wanted nothing but I could
have made it, especially if I had had tools. However, I made abun-
dance of things even without tools; and some with no more tools
than an adze and a hatchet, which, perhaps, were never made that
way before, and that with infinite labor. For example, if I wanted
a board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree, set it on an edge
before me, and hew it flat on either side with my axe, till I had
brought it to be as thin as a plank and then dub it smooth with my
During this time I made rounds in the woods for game every day,
-when the rain permitted me, and made frequent discoveries in these
walks of something or other to my advantage; particularly I found
a kind of wild pigeons, which build, not as wood-pigeons in a tree,
but rather as house-pigeons, in the holes of the rocks; and taking

some young ones, I endeavored to breed them up tame, and did so;
but when they grew older they flew all away, which perhaps was at
first for want of feeding them, for I had nothing to give them; how-
ever, I frequently found their nests and got their young ones, which
were very good meat.
It happened that, rummaging my things, I found a little bag
which had been filled with corn for the feeding of poultry. I saw
nothing in the bag but husks and dust; and being willing to have
the ba,-" fr snre other use, I shook the husks
itf rn:1' out of it 'on lone side of my fortifica-
tion, 11uler tf r,: ck.
I threw this st.ft away, taking no no-
ti- of i:n iiythi'ig, and not so much
as ri1tmnl-~briang that I had thrown
alyt1 n.n there, when, about a month
after, :r thereabouts, I saw some few
stalk: of so: iething green shooting
upon the ground,
which I fancied
might be some plant
I had not seen; but
rI was surprised and
perfectly astonished
when, after a little
S': longer time, I saw
about ten or twelve
ears come out which
were perfectly green
barley, of the same
kind as our Europe-
an-nay, as our
English barley.
,--- It is impossible
to express the aston-
/- ishment and confu-
fion of my thought

and I began to suggest that God had miraculously caused this grain
to grow without any help of seed sown, and that it was so directed
purely for my sustenance in that wild miserable place.
This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my eyes,
and I began to bless myself that such a prodigy of Nature should
happen upon my account; and this was the more strange to me be-
cause I saw near it still, all along by the side of the rock, some other
straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks of rice, and which I
knew, because I had seen it grow in Africa when I was ashore there.
Not doubting but that there was more in the place, I went all over
that part of the island, peering in every corner and under every
rock, to see for more of it, but I could not find any. At last it oc-
curred to my thoughts that I had shaken the bag of chickens' meat
out in that place; and the wonder began to cease.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in their
season, which was about the end of June; and laying up every corn,
I resolved to sow them all again, hoping in time to have some quan-
tity, sufficient to supply me with bread. But it was not till the
fourth year that I would allow myself the least grain of this corn to
eat, and even then but sparingly.
Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks of
rice, which I preserved with the same care, and whose use was of the
same kind, or to the same purpose, viz., to make me bread, or rather
food ; for I found ways to cook it up without baking, though I did
that also after some time.
Not long after the wall of my castle was finished, I had almost had
all my labor overthrown at once, and myself killed. The case was
thus :-As I was busy just in the entrance into my cave, I was ter-
ribly frightened with a most dreadful surprising thing indeed: for,
all on a sudden, I found the earth came tumblng down from the roof
of my cave, and two of the posts I had set up in the cave cracked in
a frightful manner. I ran forwards to my ladder, and not thinking
myself safe there neither, I got over my wall. I was no sooner
stepped down upon the firm ground, than I plainly saw it was a
terrible earthquake; for the ground I stood on shook three times at
about eight minutes' distance, with three such shocks as would have
overturned the strongest building that could be. supposed to have

stood upon the earth. I was like one dead or stupified; and the mo-
tion of the earth made my stomach sick like one that was tossed at
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some time,
I began to take courage;
and yet I had not heart
enough to get over my wall
again, but still sat upon the
ground, greatly cast down
.and disconsolate, not know-
ing what to do. While I sat
Sthus, it grew cloudy, as if it
would rain; soon after that,
the wind arose so that in less
than half an hour it blew a
most dreadful hurricane of
wind. This held about
three hours, and then began
to abate; and then in two
hours more it was calm, and
began to rain very hard.
SAll this while I sat upon
the ground very much terri-
fled and dejected; when on
a sudden it came into my
thoughts that these winds
and rain being the conse-
quences of the earthquake,
the earthquake itself was
spent and over, and I might
venture into my cave again. I went in and sat down in my tent;
but the rain was so violent that my tent was ready to be beaten
down with it; and I was forced to go into my cave, though very
much afraid it should fall on my head. It continued raining all
that night, and great part of the next day, so that I could not stir
abroad; buit my mind being more composed, I began to think of
what I had best to do; concluding that I must consider of building

me some little hut in an open place which I might surround with a
wall. In the meantime it occurred to me that it would require a
vast deal of time for me to do this, and that I must be contented to
run the venture where I was, till I had formed a camp for myself,
and had secured it so as to remove it.
The next morning I began to consider of means to put this resolve
in execution; but I was at a great loss about my tools. I had three
large axes, and abundance of hatchets, but with much chopping and
cutting knotty hard wood, they were all full of notches, and dull;
and though I had a grindstone, I could not turn -it and grind my
tools too. At length I contrived a wheel with a string to turn it
with my foot, that I might have both my hands at liberty.
On the morning of the first of May, I found a barrel of gunpowder
and some pieces of the wreck of the ship, which were driven on
shore by the late hurricane; and looking towards the wreck, I
thought it seemed to lie higher out of the water than it used to. I
went out on the sands as near as I could to the wreck, and found
that the forecastle had parted from the stern, and that whereas be-
fore I could not come within a quarter of a mile of the wreck with-
out swimming, I could now walk quite up to her when the tide was
out. As the ship was more broken open than formerly, many things
came daily on shore.
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of moving my
habitation, and I busied myself in searching whether' I could make
any way into the ship; but I found nothing was to be expected of
that kind, for all the inside of it was choked up with sand. How-
ever, as I had learned not to despair of any thing, I resolved to pull
everything to pieces that I could of the ship, concluding that every-
thing I could get from her'would be of some use or other to me.
I continued this work every, day to the 15th of June, except the
time necessary to get food; and by this time I had gotten timber,
and plank, and iron-work enough to have built a good boat, if I had
known how; and I also got, at several times, and in several pieces,
near one hundredweight of sheet lead.
One day during this time I went a-fishing, but caught not one
fish that I durst eat of, till I was weary of my sport; when, just go-
ing to leave off, I caught a young dolphin. I had made me a long


line of some
rope-yarn, but
had no hooks;
yet frequent-
ly I caught
fish enough,
._" ~as much as I
cared to eat;
all which I
dried in the
sun, and ate
them dry.
:Going down
Sto the sea-side
Son the 16th
-of .Jui-r, 1 f.iund a large tor-
't..i-, or turtle. This was the
th-'it I lhal s~-n. I found in
-r three ,--. .re eggs; -and
l'.--r l,-_lih wals to me, at that
tirii,_ t. he mt:,st savory and
1,l-,-:.:int tihat ever I tasted

STlih- r..iini fell for some
-iv. an'ild I felt ill and shiv-
.. i:-i_, l if the weather had
..-~ el-. I had no rest all
P ni.t I ht d violent pains in
S:- ll" ]- d, and feverish.
The- iixt ::,v I was very ill;
--- fril te:l aliiost to death
=-'~- --: lith il- rprehensions of
my sad condition-to be
"I CAUGHT A YOUNG DOLPHIN." sick and no help: prayed to
God, for the first time since
the storm off Hull, but scarce knew what I said or why; my
thoughts being all confused.

The next day I was a little
hbett.er, ,liit on the next day
ft'ter that I was very bad
T:lg'inti, and ;s:, it went, turn
ita,.u t, f,,r several days. One
j. i .- at I telt s'om-what bet-
tTl, h1LavinD- n,:, victuI,-iS t.:, eat,
S took ty -n, blt foiCund
"'" .,- m <.'iNlf very wv ak; h w-.iv-ver,
I killed a shli-g,:,at, rnlu1: with
unlchi dil;eculty, a.,t it home,
an,_! boild-., snie of it, and
.t On June 27th, I had the
aleue l maie IL si vi, l-nt that I
IL ael all daly n:lu neither
S r I was ready
to. peri -"h for thirst; t so

weak I hL:d no,
strength t, sta n
up, or to .et ily-
self any \\ater t .
drink. Prave, t,,
God again, but was
light-headed; il
when I wa. ,1,
I was so ignorant
what to say; only
I lay and cried, Lord, look upon me Lord, pity me Lord, have
mercy upon me! I suppose I did nothing else for two or three
hours: till the fit wearing off, I fell asleep, and did not awake till

far in the night. When I awoke, I found myself much refreshed,
but weak, and exceeding thirsty; however, as I had no water in my
whole habitation, I was forced to lie till morning, and went to sleep
again. In this second sleep, I had this terrible dream: I thought
that I was sitting on the ground, on the outside of my wall, where I
sat when the storm blew after the earthquake, and that I saw a man
descend from a great black cloud, in a bright flame of fire, and light
upon the ground : he was all over as bright as a flame, so that I could
but just bear to look towards him: his countenance was most inex-
pressibly dreadful, impossible for words to describe; when he
stepped upon the ground with his feet, I thought the earth trembled,
just as it had done before in the earthquake, and all the air looked,
to my apprehension, as if it had been filled with flashes of fire. He
was no sooner landed upon the earth but he moved forwards towards
me, with a long spear or weapon in his hand to kill me; and when
he came to a rising ground, at some distance, he spoke to me-or I
heard a voice so terrible that it is impossible to express the terror
of it. All that I can say I understood wa~ithis:-" Seeing all these
things have not brought thee to repentance,ow thou shalt die; at
which words, I thought he lifted up the spear'- that was in his hand
to kill me.
No one that shall ever read this account will expect that I should
be able to describe the horrors of my soul at this terrible vision.
Now is it any more possible to describe the impression that remained
upon my mind when I awaked, and found it was but a dream.
I had, alas! no divine knowledge. What Ihad received by the
good instruction of my father was then worn out by an uninterrupted
series, for eight years, of sea-faring wickedness, and a constant con-
versation with none but such as were, like myself, wicked and pro-
fane to the last degree. I do not remember that I had, in all that
time, one thought that so much as tended either to looking upwards
towards God, or inwards towards a reflection upon my own ways;
but a certain stupidity of soul, without desire of good, or conscience
of evil, had entirely overwhelmed me.
"Now," said I aloud, "my dear father's words are come to pass;
God's justice has overtaken me, and I have none to help or hear me.
I rejected the voice of Providence, which had mercifully put me in a

posture or station of life wherein I might have been happy and easy;
but I would neither see it myself, nor learn to know the blessing of
it from my parents. I left them to mourn over my folly; and now I
am left to mourn under the consequences of it. I refused their help
and a9sistanee, who would
have litte,:d e into tle
world, and \-vo uld Lhave
made 01verithig" ei t0
me; ,m ,:w I hav- lith-


-' ,, -, -, : ,- .-, -. -.-- -

culties to struggle with too great for even nature itself to support,
and no assistance, no help, no comfort, no advice." Then I cried
out, "Lord, be my help, for I am in great distess." This was the
first prayer, if I might call it so, that I had made for many years.
Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I had had, and
the fit being entirely off, I got up; and though the fright and terror
of my dream was very great, yet I considered that the fit of the ague

would return again the next day, and now was my time to get some-
thing to refresh and support myself when I should be ill: and the
first thing I did, I filled a large square case-bottle with water, and
set it upon my table, in reach of my bed'; and to take off the chill or
aguish disposition of the water, I put about a quarter of a pint of
rum into it, and mixed them together. Then I got me a piece of the
goat's flesh, and broiled it on the coals, but could eat very little. I
walked about, but was very weak, and withal very sad and heavy-
hearted in the sense of my miserable condition, dreading the return
of my distemper the next day.
After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself so weak that
I could hardly carry the gun, for I never went out without that; so
I went out but a little way, and sat down upon the ground, looking
out upon the sea, which was just before me, and very calm and
smooth. As I sat there, some thoughts such as these occurred to
me :-" What is the earth and sea, of which I have seen so much ?
Whence is it produced ? And what am I, and all the other creatures,
wild and tame, human and brutal? Whence are we? Sure we are
all made by some secret Power, who formed the earth and sea, and
air and sky. And who is that?" Then it followed most naturally-
"It is God that has made it all. Well, but then," it came on strong-
ly, "if God has made all these things, He guides and governs them
all, and all things that concern them; for the Being that could make
all things must certainly have power to guide and direct them. If
so, nothing can happen, in the great circuit of his works, either
without His knowledge or appointment.
"And if nothing happens without His knowledge, He knows that
I am here, and am in this dreadful condition; and if nothing hap-
pens without His appointment, He has appointed all this to befall
me." Immediately it followed-" Why has God done this to me?
What have I done to be thus used?" My conscience presently
checked me in that inquiry, as if I had blasphemed, and methought
it spoke to me like a voice, Wretch, dost thou ask what thou hast
done? Look back upon a dreadful misspent life, and ask thyself,
what thou hast not done? Ask, why is it that thou wert not long
ago destroyed ? Why wert thou not drowned in Yarmouth Roads ?
killed in the fight, when the ship was taken by the Sallee man-of-

war ? devoured by the wild beasts off the coast of Africa? or
drowned here, when all the crew perished but thyself? Dost thou
ask, 'What have I done?'" I was struck dumb with these re-
flections, as one astonished, and had not a word to say, but rose up
pensive and sad, walked back to my retreat, and went up over my
wall, as if I had been going to bed; but my thoughts were sadly dis-
turbed, and I had no inclination to sleep; so I sat down in my chair,
and lighted my lamp, for it began to be dark. Now, as the appre-
hensions of the return of my distemper terrified me very much, it
occurred to my thought that the Brazilians take no physic but their
tobacco for almost all distempers, and I had a piece of a roll of to-
bacco in one of the chests.
I went, directed by Heaven, no doubt; for in this chest I found a
cure both for soul and body. I opened the chest, and found what I
looked for, viz., the tobacco; and as the few books I had saved lay
there too, I took out one of the Bibles which I mentioned before, and
which to this time I had not found leisure, or so much as inclination,'
to look into. Having opened the book casually, the words first that
occurred to me were these, Call upon Me in the day of trouble, and
I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify Me." These words were
very apt to my case, and made some impression upon my thoughts
at the time of reading them, though not so much as they did after-
wards; for, as for being delivered, the thing was so remote that I be-
gan to say, as the children of Israel did when they were promised
flesh to eat, "Can God spread a table in the wilderness ? so I began
to say, Can God Himself deliver me from this place? However,
the words made a great impression upon me, and I mused upon them
very often.
It grew now late, and the tobacco had, as I said, dozed my head so
much that I inclined to sleep: so I went to bed. But before I lay
down, I kneeled and prayed to God to fulfill the promise to me, that
if I called upon Him in the day of trouble, He would deliver me.
After my broken and imperfect prayer was over, I drank the rum in
which I had steeped the tobacco; immediately upon this I went to
bed; and I found presently it flew up into my head violently; but I
fell into a sound sleep, and waked no more till, by the sun, it must
necessarily be near three o'clock in the afternoon the next day; nay,

to this hour I am partly of opinion that I slept all the next day and
night, and till almost three the day after; for otherwise I know not
how I should lose a day out of my reckoning in the days of the week,
as it appeared some years after I had done. When I awaked I found
myself exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively and cheerful;
when I got up I was stronger than I was the day before, and my
stomach better, for I was hungry; and, in short, I had no fit the next
day, but continued much altered for the better.
I had now been in
this unhappy island
.. L r- above ten months; all
possibility of deliverance
from this condition
,.' seemed to be entirely
-, taken from me; and I
'' i firmly believed that no
/' 'human shape had ever
S' set foot upon that place.
f having now secured
y habitation, as I
thought, fully to my
mind, I had a great de-
sire to make a more
perfect discovery of the
island, and to see what
other productions I
might find, which yet I
knew nothing of.
It was the 15th of
July that I began to
take a more particular
,_ ,. survey of the island it-
self. I went up the
creek first, where, as I
hinted, I brought my
rafts on shore. I found,
"I WENT UP THE CREEK FIRST" after I came about two




'.... -- ""-

< L f

Cr~ __

1 -

miles up, that the tide did not flow any higher; and that it was no
more than a little brook of running water, and very fresh and good.
On the banks of this brook, I found many pleasant savannahs or
meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with grass; and on the rising
parts of them, next to the higher grounds, where the water, as it
might be supposed, never overflowed, I found a great deal of tobacco,
green, and growing to a great and very strong stalk; there were di-
vers other plants, which I had no notion of or understanding about,
and might, perhaps, have virtues of their own, which I could not find
out. I searched for the cassava foot, which the Indians in all that
climate made their bread of, but I could find none. I saw large
plants of aloes, but did not then understand them. I saw several
sugar-canes, but wild and, for want of cultivation, imperfect. I con-
tented myself with these discoveries for this time, and came back. ,
The next day, I went up the same way again; and after going
something further than I had gone the day before, I found the coun-
try became more woody than before. In this part I found different
fruits, and particularly I found melons upon the ground, in great
abundance, and grapes upon the trees: the vines had spread indeed
over the trees, and the clusters of grapes were just now in their
prime, very ripe and rich. This was a surprising discovery, and I
found an excellent use for these grapes: and that was, to cure or
dry them in the sun, and keep them as dried grapes or raisins are
kept, which I thought would be, as indeed they were, as wholesome
and as agreeable to eat, when no grapes might be had.
I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my habitation,
but took my first contrivance, and got up into a tree, where I slept
well; and the next morning proceeded upon my discovery, travelling
nearly four miles, as I might judge by the length of the valley, keep-
ing still due north. At the end of this march I came to an opening,
where the country seemed to descend to the west; and a little spring
of fresh water, which issued out of the side of the hill by me, ran
the other way, that is, due east; and the country appeared so fresh,
so green, so flourishing, everything being in a constant verdure, or
flourish of spring, that it looked like a planted garden. I descended
a little on the side of that delicious valley, and I saw here abun-
dance of cocoa-trees, orange and lemon, and citron-trees; but all

wild, and few bearing any fruit, at least, not then. However, the
green limes that I gathered were not only pleasant to eat, but very
wholesome; and I mixed their juice afterwards with water, which
made it very wholesome, and very cool and refreshing. I found now


I 1 had business enough to gather and carry home; and I resolved to
lay up a store, as well of grapes as limes and lemons, to furnish my-
self for the wet season, which I knew was approaching.
I contemplated with great pleasure the fruitfulness of that valley,
and the pleasantness -of the situation; the security from storm on
that side of the water, and the wood; and concluded that I had
pitched upon a place to fix my abode which was by far the worst



part of the country. Upon the whole, I began to consider of remov-
ing my habitation, and to look out for a place equally safe as where
now I was situate, if possible, in that pleasant, fruitful part of the
This thought ran along in my head, but when I came to a nearer
view of it, I considered that I was now by the sea-side, where it was
at least possible that something might happen to my advantage; and
that the same ill fate that brought me hither, might bring some other
unhappy wretches to the same place; and to inclose myself among
the hills and woods in the center of the island was to anticipate my
bondage, and to render such an affair not only improbable but
impossible; and that therefore I ought not by any means to remove.
However, I was so enamored with this place that I spent much of
my time there for the whole remaining part of the month of July;
and though, upon second thoughts, I resolved as above not to re-
move, yet I built me a little kind of a bower, and surrounded it at a
distance with a strong fence; and here I lay very secure, sometimes
two or three nights together.
I had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy my labor,
but the rains came on, and made me stick close to my first habita-
tion; for though I had made me a tent like the other, with a piece
of a sail, and spread it very well, yet I had not the shelter of a hill
to keep me from storms, nor a cave behind me to retreat into when
when the rains were extraordinary.
On September 30th I cast up the notches on my post, and found I
had been on shore three hundred and sixty-five days. I kept this
day as a solemn fast, setting it apart for religious exercise, confess-
ing my sins to God, and praying to Him to have mercy on me
through Jesus Christ; and having-not tasted the least refreshment
for twelve hours, even till the going down of the sun, I then ate a
biscuit-cake and a bunch of grapes, and went to bed, finishing the
day as I began it.
I have mentioned that I had saved the few ears of barley and rice
which I had so surprisingly found spring up, and now I thought it a
proper time to sow it, after the rains. Accordingly, I dug up a
piece of ground as well as I could, and dividing it into two parts,
I sowed my grain; but as I was sowing, it casually occurred to my

thoughts that I would not sow it all at first, because I did not know
when was the proper time for it, so I sowed about two-thirds of the
seed. It was a great comfort to me afterwards that I did so, for not
one grain of that I sowed this time came to anything; for the dry
months following, it had no moisture to assist its growth, and never
came up at all till the wet season had come again, and then it grew
as if it had been newly sown. Finding my first seed did not grow,
which I easily imagined was by the drought, I sought for a moister
piece of ground, to make another trial in, and I dug up a piece of
ground near my new bower, and sowed the rest of my seed in Feb-
ruary, a little before the vernal equinox; and this, having the rainy
months of March and April to water it sprang up very pleasantly,
and yielded a very good crop; but having part of the seed left only,
and not daring to sow all that I had got, I had but a small quantity
at last, my whole crop not amounting to above half a peck of each
kind. But by this experiment I was made master of my business,
and knew exactly when the proper season was to sow, and that I
might expect two seed-times and two harvests every year. While this
corn was growing I made a little discovery, which was of use to me
afterwards. As soon as the rains were over, I made a visit up the
country to my bower. The fence or double hedge that I had made
was not only firm and entire, but the stakes which I had cut off of
some trees that grew thereabouts were all shot out and grown with
long branches. I was surprised, and yet very well pleased, to see
the young trees grow; and I pruned them, and led them up to grow
as much alike as I could; and it is scarcely credible how beautiful a
figure they grew into, in three years; so that it was a complete
shade, sufficient to lodge under all the dry season. This made me
resolve to cut some more stakes, and make me a hedge like this in a
semicircle round my wall (I mean that of my first dwelling), which I
did; and placing the trees or stakes in a double row, at about eight
yards distance from my first fence, they grew presently, and were
at first a fine cover to my habitation, and afterwards served for a
defense also, as I shall observe in its order.
I found now that the seasons of the year might generally be di-
vided, not into summer and winter, as in Europe, but into the rainy
seasons and the dry seasons. After I had found, by experience, the

ill consequence of being abroad in the rain, I took care to furnish
myself with provisions beforehand, that I might not be obliged to go
out, and I sat within doors as much as possible during the wet
months. In this time I found much employment, and very suitable
also to the time, for I found great occasion of many things which I
had no way to furnish myself with but by hard labor and constant
application; particularly, I tried many ways to make myself a bas-
ket, but all the twigs I could get for the purpose proved so brittle
that they would do nothing. It proved of excellent advantage to
me now that when I was a boy I used to take great delight in stand-
ing at a basket-maker's, in the town where my father lived, to see
them make their wicker-ware; and, I had by this means so full
knowledge of the methods of it, that I wanted nothing but the ma-
terials; when it came into my mind that the twigs of that tree from
whence I cut my stakes that grew might possibly be as tough as the
osiers in England, and I resolved to try. Accordingly, the next day
I went to my country house, and cutting some of the smaller twigs,
I found them to my purpose as much as I could desire; whereupon
I came the next time prepared with a hatchet to cut down a quantity,
which I soon found. These I set up to dry, and when they were fit
for use, I carried them to my cave; and here, during the next sea-
son, I employed myself in making, as well as I could, a great many
baskets, and though I did not finish them very handsomely, yet I
made them sufficiently serviceable for my purpose.
I mentioned before that I had a great mind to see the whole island,
and that I had travelled up the brook, and so on to where I built my
bower. I now resolved to travel quite across to the sea-shore on
that side; so, taking my gun, a hatchet, and my dog, I began my
journey. When I had passed the vale where my bower stood, I
came within view of the sea to the west, and it being a very clear
day, I fairly described land--whether an island or a continent I could
xot tell; but it lay very high, at a very great distance; by my guess,
it could not be less than fifteen or twenty leagues off.
I saw abundance of parrots on that side of the island where I now
was, and fain would I have caught one, if possible, to have kept it
to be tame, and taught it to speak to me. I did, after some pains-
taking, catch a young parrot, for I knocked it down with a stick, and

having recovered it, I brought it home; but it was some years be-
fore I could make him speak; however, at last, I taught him to call
me by name very familiarly.
I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found in the low

R il .


ground hares and foxes; but they differed greatly from all the other
kinds I had met with, nor could I satisfy myself to eat them. But
I had no need to be venturous, for I had no want of food and of that
which was very good, too, especially these three sorts, viz., goats,
pigeons, and turtle, or tortoise, which, added to my grapes, Leaden-
hall Market could not have furnished a table better than I in pro-
portion to the company. As soon as I came to the sea-shore I was

surprised to see that I had taken up my lot on the worst side of the
island, for here, indeed, the shore was covered with innumerable
turtles, whereas, on the other side I had found but three in a year
and a half. Here was also an infinite number of fowls of many
--. 2. kinds, some of which I
"p had not seen before, and
many of them very good
meat, but such as I knew
S.. -. p not the names of, except
-,~- those called penguins.
-. ,' > Although I confess this
,,-o, BB H" side of the country was
much pleasanter than
S_ mine yet I had not the
"A' least inclination to remove,
for as I was fixed in my
habitation it became natu-
Sral to me, and I seemed all the
S while- I was here to be as it were
u. i:ln a journey, and from home.
H. wvtn-h:r, I traveled along the
Sh1te :of the sea towards the east
'" I ilse about twelve miles, and
then -tting up a great pole upon
'!1 ..[' tLhe shore for a mark, I concluded
I w uld go home again, and that
N NFN NUBER OF FOWLS" the next journey I took should be
on the other side of the island east
from my dwelling, and so round till I came to my post again.
In this journey my dog surprised a young kid, and seized upon it,
and I running in to take hold of it, caught it, and saved it alive
from the dog. I had a great mind to bring it home if I could, for I
had often been musing whether it might not be possible to get a kid
or two, and so raise a breed of tame goats, which might supply me
when my powder and shot should be spent. I made a collar to
this little creature, and with a string, which I made of some rope-
yarn, which I always carried about me, I led him along, though

with some difficulty, till I came to my bower, and there I inclosed
him. and left him, for I was very impatient to be at home, from
whence I had been absent above a month.
I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come into my
old hutch, and lie down in my hammock-bed. I reposed myself here
a week, to rest and regale myself after my long journey; during
which, most of the time was taken up in the weighty affair of mak-
ing a cage for my Poll. Then I began to think of the poor kid
which I had pent in within my little circle, and resolved to go and
fetch it home, or give it some food ; accordingly I went, and found
it was almost starved for want of food. Having fed it, I tied it as
I did before, to lead it away; but it was so tame with being hungry
that I had no need to have tied it, for it followed me like a dog; and
as I continually fed it, the creature became so loving, so gentle, and
so fond, that it became from that time one of my domestics also, and
would never leave me afterwards.
My third crop of barley and rice was promising very well, when
on a sudden I found I was in danger of losing it all again by enemies
of several sorts, which it was scarcely possible to keep from it; as,
first, the goats and hares, which, tasting the sweetness of the blade,
ate it so close that it could get no time to shoot up into stalk. This
I saw no remedy for but by making an inclosure about it with a
hedge, which I did with a great deal of toil; and shooting some of
the creatures in the day time, I set my dog to guard it in the night,
tying him up to a stake at the gate, where he would stand and bark
all night long; so in a little time the enemies forsook the place, and
the corn grew very strong and well, and began to ripen apace.
But as the beasts ruined before, while my corn was in the blade,
so the birds were as likely to ruin me now, when it was in the ear;
for going along by the place to see how it throve, I saw my little
crop surrounded with fowls, of I know not how many sorts, who
stood, as it were, watching till I should be gone. I immediately let
fly among them, for I always had my gun with me. I had no sooner
shot but there rose up a little cloud of fowls, which I had not seen
at all, from among the corn itself.
I stayed by it to load my gun, and then coming away, I was no
sooner out of their sight but the thieves dropped down one by one

into the corn again. I fired again, and killed three of them. This
was what I wished for; so I took them up, and served them as we
serve notorious thieves in England, viz., hanged them in chains, for
a terror to
V others. It
is impos-
sible to
.. n i, sim agine
Si almost that
this should
t have had
such an ef-
feet as it
had, for
the fo,-ls would not only
Sno-t come at the corn, but,
in shlrt, they forsook all
tha t Part ':if the island. This I
Swats very g!lad of, aynd about the
latter end of tDecenibler, I reaped
--lV ("0 I'L1.
I was sadlly lilut to it for a scythe or a
sickle t.i:, ut it idl,wn, and al-l I could do
was t.LI i; mke i -one oult. lof one ,of the broad-
swor'ds which I save.l am1n:,g the arms
-t out of the ship. However, I reaped it
in my way, fL: r I cut nothing off but the
ears, alnd carriet it. away in a great bas-
ket. which I had:l male, and so rubbed it
"I FIRED AGAIN.." out with my hands ; and at the end. of
all my harvesting, I found that out of my
half-peck of seed I had near two bushels of rice, and above two
bushels and a half of barley.
It is a little wonderful, and what I believe few people have thought
much upon, viz., the strange multitude of little things necessary in
providing the one article of bread. I, that was reduced to a mere
state of nature, found this to my daily discouragement.

First, I had no plough to turn up the earth; no spade or shovel to
dig it. Well, this I conquered by making me a wooden spade, but
this did my work but in a wooden manner. When the corn was
sown, I had no harrow, but was forced to drag a great heavy bough
of a tree over it. When it was growing, or grown, I wanted many
things to fence it, secure it, mow or reap it, cure and carry it home,
thrash, part it from the chaff, and save it. Then I wanted a mill to
grind it, sieves to dress it, yeast and salt to make it into bread, and
an oven to bake it in; and all these things I did without, as shall be
observed; and yet the corn was an inestimable comfort and advant-
age to me too. I had now seed enough to sow above an acre of
ground. I sowed my seed in two large flat pieces of ground, and
fenced them in with a good hedge. This work was not so little as
to take me up less than three months, because great part of that
time was of the wet season, when I could not go abroad. Within-
door-that is, when it rained and I could not go out-I had a great
employment upon my hands, as follows-
viz., I had long studied, by some means or
other, to make myself some earthen vessels,
which, indeed, I wanted sorely. However,
considering the heat of the climate, I did
not doubt but if I could find out any clay,
I might botch up some such pot as might,
being dried by the sun, be strong enough
to bear handling, and to hold anything that
was dry and required to be kept so.
The clay I found, but it would make the
reader laugh at me to see what odd, mis-
shapen, ugly things I made; how many
cracked by the heat of the sun, and fell in
pieces when they were removed, so that
with about two months' labor I could not
make above two large earthen ugly things
(I cannot call them jars). I ANGED THEM IN CHAINS.
Although I miscarried so much in my de-
sign for large pots, yet I made several smaller things with better
success, such as little round pots, flat dishes, pitchers, and pipkins,

the sun baking them very hard. Getting a hint by finding a broken
piece of one of my earthenware vessels in the fire, burnt as hard as a
st lu, I afterwards managed to bake several pots so hard that I
could boil meat and make broth in them.
MI next concern was to get me a stone mortar to beat some corn
in, a mill to grind it being out of the question. But all the stones of


the island 1,-i i of a -.rli'y, crumbling nature, I resolved to look out
a great block of hard wood, which having found I formed it with my
axe ., -i I .L i ..- and then with the help of fire made a hollow in it.
Afttr this I made a heavy pestle of iron-wood, and then laid them
":- in :. ,'ii--- r for my next crop of corn.
The next. thin to be made was a sieve, to sift my meal. Linen I
had none left but what was mere rags. I had goat's hair, but I could
not weave or -p i it. At last I remembered that I had some neck-
cloths of ,,'ic,.1 or muslin of the sailors, which I had saved from the
and with these I made three sieves, small, but proper enough
for the work.
The want of an oven I supplied by making some earthen vessels
very I:r.,:.Ir but not d'l.p. When I wanted to bake I made a great
i:. upon ,- I..- irnL, '.\. when the wood was burned into live coals,
I '.-,- them forward ipo;: the hearth so as to c 'r .. it all over till it

became very hot; then, sweeping them away, I set down my loaves,
and turning down an earthen pot upon them, drew the coals all
around the outside of the pot to keep in and add to the heat, and in
this way I baked my barley loaves as well as if I had been a com-
plete pastry-cook.
These things took me up the most part of a year, and what inter-
vals I had were given to managing my new harvest; for I reaped my
corn in season, and carried it home, and laid it up in the ear in my
large baskets, till I had time to rub it out.
All the while these things were doing, you may be sure my
thoughts ran many times upon the prospect of land which I had seen
from the other side of the island; and I was not without secret
wishes that I was on: shore there, fancying that, seeing the main-
land and an inhabited country, I might find some way or other to
convey myself fattber, and perhaps at last find some means of escape.
Then I thought I would go and look at our ship's :ia- t. which lay
on the high ridge of beachy rough sanci. where it had been thrust
by the storm when we were first cast away. But it lay bottom up-
ward, so I had to dig the sand from under it and turn it over with
the help of wooden levers. When I had done this, I found it was all
in vain, for I had not the strength to get it to the water to launch it.
This at length set me upon thinking whether it was not possible
for me to make a canoe, such as the Indians make of the trunk of a
tree. I found one that was just fit for it which grew not far Iir :m
the shore. Twenty days was I ha-king and litrri fn this tree at the
bottom to fell it; I was fourteen more getting the branches off, and
a whole month shaping it like the bottom of a boat. As for the in-
side I was three weeks with a mallet and chisel cleari..in. it.
Nothing remained but to get it to the water, but all my devices
to get it into the water failed me. I first dug- the r r. :.a to make a
smooth declivity from the boat to the sea, so as to let it 4li'l. down;
but I could then no more stir this boat than the other. Th1.: I re-
solved to dig a canal to bring the water up to the boat. I began the
work, but on calculating how deep and broad it would have to be,
I found it would take me ten or twelve years to dig it, so I gave it
over, seeing too late the folly of beginning a work before we count
the cost.

In the middle
of this work I
finished my --
fourth year in
this place, and
kept my anni-
versary with
even greater de-
votion than ever
before, for now-I
had so little hope
of ever leaving
the island, that I :.
looked upon the wn:rld
as a thing with wthi,.hi
I had nothing t, ,-1.
But I was separated 14Nl
from its wicke,:nk-es :,S:,
too; I had nothiin- to '
covet; I might call inmv.
self king or emperor :of the
whole country o: whicrih I
had possession. I hI, tim-
ber enough to ha,-v built, I
fleet of ships; !i.l1 I hadl
grapes enough t) h:1-e
made wine, or to Lo.e t:cu'r-d
into raisins, to hav,- 1:.:1-l
that fleet whell it had@
been built. -'. .
But all that I c,:oi:l make ,
use of was all thrt w-as
valuable; I had enough to FIRST DUG THE GROUND TO MAKE A
eat and to supply my wants, SMOOTH DECLIVITY."
and what was all the rest
to me. The money I had lay by me as sorry, useless stuff, which I
would have freely given for a handful of peas or beans.

My clothes began to decay mightily, and of linen I had had none
for a good while except some shirts which I found in the seamen's
chests. There were also several thick watch coats of the seamen's,
but they were too hot to wear till I make jackets out of them. I had
saved all the skins of the four-footed creatures that I killed, and out
of these, I made, first, a great cap for my head, with the hair on the
outside to shoot off the
rain, and afterwards I
made me a suit of clothes
wholly of these skins-
that is to say, a waist-
coat, and breeches open
at the knees, and both -
loose; for they were
rather wanting to keep
me cool than to keep me
warm. After this I
spent a great deal of
time and pains to make
an umbrella, covering it
with skins; which was
a most useful thing to
me, as well for the heat -.
of the sun as for the rain.
I cannot say that af-
ter this, for five years, "I MADE ME A SUIT OF CLOTHES."
any extraordinary thing ,
happened to me, but I lived on in the same course as before. My
chief employment, besides my yearly labor of planting my barley and
rice and curing my raisins, was to make me a canoe, this time cf
such a size that by digging a canal to it of six feet wide and four
feet deep, I brought it into the creek.
The design I had in view when I made the first boat was to ven-
ture over to the other shore, but the size of this was not at all suit-
able to that purpose, so my next design was to make a tour round
the island. I put up a little mast in my boat, and made a sail for
it out of some of the ship's sails which I had in store. Then I made

lockers to hold food and kept it dry, and a rest for my gun with a
flap to hang down over it to keep it dry.
It was the 6th of November, in the sixth year of my reign, or my
captivity, that I set out on this voyage, and I found it much longer


than I expected ; for though the island itself was not very large, yet
when I came to the east side of it, I found a great ridge of rocks lie
out about two leagues into the sea; and beyond that a shoal of sand
lying dry half a league more, so that I was obliged to go a great way
out to sea to double that point.
I am a warning to all rash and ignorant pilots, for I was no sooner
come to that point but I found myself in a great depth of water,
running like the sluice of a mill. It hurried me farther and farther

out, there was no wind stirring to help me, and all I could do with
my paddles signified nothing. I began to give myself over for lost,
and looked upon my solitary island as the most pleasant place in the
world, to be in which was all the happiness my heart could wish for.
However I worked as hard as I could, and, to my joy, about noon a
breeze sprang up. I spread my sail and stood away to the north as
much as I could, and in a few hours came within a mile of the shore,
where soon after I got to land. When I was on shore, I fell on my
knees, and gave God thanks for my deliverance, resolving to lay
aside all thoughts of my deliverance by boat.
I found a convenient harbor for my boat, and taking nothing but
my gun and umbrella, I began my march homeward. On my way
I lay down to rest, being quite spent with fatigue, and fell into a
deep sleep. But judge, if you can, what a surprise I must have been
in when a voice woke me out of my sleep, and called my name several
times, "Robin, Robin, Robin Crusoe poor Robin Crusoe At first
I was dreadfully frightened, but as soon as I awoke thoroughly, I saw
my Poll sitting at the top of the hedge, and knew that it was he that
spoke, and did but say the words I had taught him. Calling him by
name, the sociable creature came to me, and sat on my thumb as he
used to do, and kept on talking to me as if he were overjoyed to see
me; and so I carried him home with me.
I had now had enough of rambling to sea, and for near a year I led
a very sedate retired life, feeling resigned to the decrees of Provi-
dence, and wanting nothing but society.
My powder beginning to fail, I set myself to study some art to
trap and snare the goats alive, for I saw that if I expected to supply
myself with goat's flesh, when I had no powder or shot left, breeding
some up tame was my only way; when, perhaps, I might have them
about my house like a flock of sheep. At last I had my desire, for
making pitfalls and traps, baited with barley and rice, I found one
morning, in one of them, an old he-goat, and in another, three kids,
one male and two females. The old goat was much too fierce for
me, so I let him go; then I took the kids home. It was a good while
before they would feed; but throwing them some sweet corn, it
tempted them, and they began to be tame.
I saw that I must keep the tame from the wild, or else they would

always run wild when they grew up, and that the only way for this
was to have some inclosed piece of ground well fenced. I began
with the idea of inclosing such a space that my fence must have
been at least, two miles about, but it struck me that in so great a
space, the kids would soon be as wild as if they had the whole island


to run in, so I inclosed a piece of ground about one hundred and
fifty yards in length, and one hundred in breadth, which would
maintain as many as I should have in any reasonable time.
It took me three months to hedge in this piece. In about a year and
a half I had a flock of twelve goats, and in two years more I had
three-and-forty, and after that I inclosed five pieces of ground to feed
them in, with gates and pens to take them as I wanted them.
I had now not only goat's flesh to feed on, but milk too, for now

I had now not only goat's flesh to feed on, but milk too, for now

I set up my dairy, and had sometimes a gallon or two of milk in a
day. What a table was here spread for me in a wilderness where I
saw nothing at first but to perish for hunger! How like a king I
dined, too, attended by my servants! Poll, as if he had been my
favorite, was the only person permitted to talk to me; my dog, old,
but faithful, sat always at my right hand, while my two cats sat at


each side of the table, expecting a bit from my hand now and then
as a mark of special favor. With this attendance and in this plenti-
ful manner I lived; neither could I be said to want anything but
society; and of that, in a short time after this, I was likely to have
too much.
I had now two plantations in the island, one my little fortification,
under the. rock, with the cave behind it, and the wall about it. The
piles with which I had made the wall were grown so large that there
was not the least appearance of any habitation behind them. Besides

this I had my country seat, or little bower, as I called it, where my
grapes flourished, and where I had my enclosures for my goats.
As this was also about half-way between my other habitation and
the place where I had laid up my boat, I
generally stayed aud lay here in my way
thither, for I used fret-:lieutly to visit 1my
boat. Sometimes I went out in her to: di-
vert myself, but no more hazarldou voyagae.s -
would I go, scar,.,elyv ever abl:,ve at stone 's
cast or two from the hore, I was s. aljpre-
hensive of being huilri,:l out of
my knowledge again 1by the cur
rents or winds, or any ,:.th- *
er accident. But now I
came to a new
scene of my life.
It happened
one day, about
noon, going to- -l
wards my boat,
I was exceed- il.
ingly surprised P 4
with the print dow t s
of a man's naked ,
foot on the
shore, which 0 ,!,1
was very plain ", .'l.''
to be seen on ,
the sand. I ,"
stood like one
or as if I had "I HAD MY COUNTRY SEAT."
seen an appari-
tion. I listened, I looked round me, but I could hear nothing nor
see anything; I went up to a rising ground, to look farther; I went
up the shore, and down the shore, but it was all one: I could see no
other impression but that one. I went to it again to see if there

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Od;r -

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__7 ai_?S~i85^ .'-',;


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were any more, and to observe if it might not be my fancy; but
there was no room for that, -for there was exactly the print of a foot
-toes, heel, and every part of a foot. How it came thither I knew
not, nor could in the least imagine. But after innumerable fluttering
thoughts, like a man perfectly confused and out of myself, I came
home to my fortification, terrified to the last degree.
When I came to my castle (for so I think I called it ever after
this), I fled into it like one pursued. I had no sleep that night; and
I formed nothing but dismal imaginations to myself. Sometimes I
fancied it must be the devil; and reason joined in with me upon
this supposition: for how should any other thing in human shape
come into the place ? But then to think that Satan should take hu-
man shape upon him in such a place, where there could be no man-
ner of occasion for it, but to leave the print of his foot behind him,
and that even for no purpose too, for he could not be sure I should
see it-this was an amazement the other way. I easily argued my-
self out of all fear of its being the devil; and I presently concluded
then that it must be some more dangerous creature viz that it must
be some of the savages of the mainland over against me, who had
wandered out to sea in their canoes, and either driven by the cur-
rents or by contrary winds, had made the island, and had been on
shore, but were gone away again to sea; being as loth, perhaps,
to have stayed in this desolate island as I would have been to have
had them.
While these reflections were rolling upon my mind, I was very
thankful in my thought that I was so happy as not to be thereabouts
at that time, or that they did not see my boat, by which they would
have concluded that some inhabitants had been in the place, and
perhaps have searched farther for me. Then terrible thoughts
racked my imagination about their having found my boat, and that
there were people here; and that, if so, I should certainly have them
come again in greater numbers, and devour me; that if it should
happen that they should not find me, yet they would find my in-
closure, destroy all my corn, and carry away all my flock of tame
goats, and I should perish at last for mere want.
Thus my fear banished all my religious hope; all that former con-
fidence in God, which was founded upon such wonderful experience

as I had had of His goodness, now vanished; as if He that had fed
me by miracle hitherto, could not preserve by His power the pro-
vision which he had made for me by His goodness.
How strange a checker-work of Providence is the life of man and
by what secret differing springs are the affections hurried about,
as differing circumstances present! To-day we love what to-morrow
we hate; to-day we seek what to-morrow we shun; to-day we desire
what to-morrow we fear, nay, even tremble at the apprehensions of.
This was exemplified in me at this time in the most lively manner
imaginable; for I, whose only affliction was, that I seemed banished
from human society, was now ready to sink into the ground at but
the shadow or silent appearance of a man having set his foot on the
One morning early, lying in my bed, and filled with thoughts
about my danger from the appearance of savages, I found it discom-
posed me very much; upon which those words of the Scripture came
into my thoughts: Call upon Me in the day of trouble: I will de-
liver thee, and thou shalt glorify Me." Upon this, rising cheerfully
out of bed, my heart was not only comforted, but I was guided and
encouraged to pray earnestly to God for deliverance: when I had done
praying, I took up my Bible, and opening it to read, the first words
that presented to me were, Wait on the Lord: be of good courage,
and He shall strengthen thy heart: wait, I say, on the Lord." It is
impossible to express the comfort this gave me, and in return, I
thankfully laid down the book, and was no more sad, at least, not
on that occasion. (
In the middle of these reflections, it came into my thoughts one
day that this foot might be the print of my own foot, when I came
on shore from my boat. I considered that I could by no means tell
for certain where I had trod, and where I had not; and that if, at
last, this was only the print of my own foot, I had played the part
of those fools who try to make stories of specters and apparitions,
and then are themselves frighted at them more than anybody else.
Now I began to take courage, and to peep abroad again, for I had
not stirred out of my castle for three days and nights, so that I began
to starve for provision; for I had little or nothing within doors but
some barley-cakes and water. Then I knew that my goats wanted

to be milked too, which usually was my evening diversion; and the
poor creatures were in great pain and inconvenience for want of it.
Heartening myself, therefore, with the belief that this was nothing
but the print of one of my own feet, I began to go abroad again, and
went to my country-house to milk my flock; and having seen nothing,
I began to be a little bolder, and to think there was really nothing
in it but my own imagination; but I could not persuade myself fully

of this till I should go down to the shore again, and see this print of
a foot, and measure it by my own. But when I came to the place-
first, it appeared evidently to me that when I laid up my boat, I
could not possibly be on shore anywhere thereabouts: secondly, when
I came to measure the mark with my own foot, I found my foot not so
large by a great deal. Both these things filled my head with new im-
aginations, and I went home again, filled with the belief that some
man or men had been on shore there; or, in short, that the island
was inhabited, and I might be surprised before I was aware.
Now I began sorely to repent that I had dug my cave so large as
to bring a door through again, which door, as I said, came out be-
yond where my fortification joined to the rock. Upon maturely con-
sidering this, therefore, I resolved to draw me a second fortification,

in the same manner of a semicircle, at a distance from my wall, just
where I had planted a double row of trees about twelve years before,
these trees having been planted so thick before, there wanted but few
piles to be driven between them, that they should be thicker and
stronger, and my wall would be soon finished. Through seven holes
in this wall I contrived to plant muskets, of which I had got seven on
shore out of the ship; these, I say, I planted like cannon, so that I
could fire all the seven guns in two minutes' time.
When this was done, I stuck all the ground without my wall, for a
great way, full with sticks of the osier-like wood, which I found so
apt to grow, leaving a pretty large space between them and my wall,
that I might have room to see an enemy, and they might have no
shelter from the young trees, if they attempted to approach my outer
Thus, in two years' time, I had a thick grove; and in five or six
years' time I had a wood before my dwelling grown so monstrous
thick and strong that it was indeed perfectly impassable: and no
man, of what kind soever, would ever imagine that there was any-
thing beyond it, much less a habitation.
Another measure of prudence that I took was to seek out some re-
tired spots on the island, where I might inclose a few of my goats,
half a dozen in each place, so that if any disaster happened to the
flock in general, I might be able to raise them again. I completed
one such inclosure, and went about the whole island, searching for
another place to make such another deposit; when, wandering more
to the west point of the island than I had ever done yet, and looking
out to sea, I thought I saw a boat upon the sea, at a great distance.
I had found a perspective glass or two in one of the seamen's chests,
which I saved out of our ship, but I had it not about me; and this
was so remote that I could not tell what to make of it, though I
looked at it till my eyes were not able to hold to look any longer. I
was presently convinced that the seeing the print of a man's foot was
not such a strange thing in the island as I imagined ; and but that
it was a special providence that I was cast upon the side of the is-
land where the savages never came, I should easily have known that
nothing was more frequent than for the canoes from the main, when
they happened to be a little too far out at sea, to shoot over to that


-,- /,


side of the island for harbor: likewise, as they often met and fought
in their canoes, the victors, having taken any prisoners, would bring
them over to this shore, where, according to their dreadful customs,
being all cannibals, they would kill and eat them; of which here-
When I was come down the hill to the shore, as I said above, be-
ing the S. W. point of the island, I was perfectly confounded and
amazed; nor is it possible for me to express the horror of my mind,
at seeing the shore spread with skulls, hands, feet, and other bones
of human bodies; and particularly, I observed a place where there
had been a fire made, and a circle dug in the earth, where I supposed
the savage wretches had sat down to their inhuman feastings upon
the bodies of their fellow-creatures. I could not bear to stay in the
place a moment; so I got up the hill again with all the speed I
could, and walked on towards my own habitation.
I continued pensive and sad, and kept close within my own circle
I continued pensive and sad, and kept close within my own circle

for almost two years after this : when I say my own circle, I mean by
it my three plantations, viz., my castle, my county-seat (which I
called my bower), and my inclosure in the woods. Time, however
began to wear off my uneasiness, and I began to live just in the
same composed manner as before, only with this difference, that I
used more caution, and kept my eyes more about me than I did be-
fore, lest I should happen to be seen by any of these people; and
particularly I was more cautious in firing my gun, lest any of them,
being on the island, should happen to hear it; though I never went
out without it, and carried in addition two pistols and a broadsword.
The terror I had been in about the savages diverted my invention
from my own conveniences, and now my thoughts were all of how I
might destroy some of these cannibals when they were at their
bloody entertainments, and if possible save the victims they should
bring hither to destroy. To put my design into execution, I sought
a place where uWen I might behold every action of the savages. I
found such a pl&.e~n'the side of a hill, and here I bestowed two
muskets, each of which was loaded with a brace of slugs and four or
five small bullets; a fowling-piece, charged with a handful of the
largest shot; and my pistols, with about four bullets in each. Every
morning I made a tour to the top of the hill, which was about three
miles from my castle, to see if I could observe any boats on the sea.
But after having watched in vain for two or three months, I not only
grew tired of this hard duty, but began to doubt that I had a right
to meditate the killing of the savages, and to fear that in attempting
it I might only bring upon myself certain destruction. Religion
joined in with this prudent consideration, and I concluded that I
would be going quite beyond my duty in destroying creatures who
were innocent as to me, however guilty they might be towards one
another. This appeared so clear to me now, that nothing was a
greater satisfaction to me than that I had not been suffered to do a
thing which I now saw so much reason to believe would have been
sinful murder,, and I gave most humble thanks to God that He had
thus delivered me from blood-guiltiness.
In this state of mind I continued for near a year after this. I re-
moved my boat which was on the other side of the island to a little
cave under some high rocks on the east end of the island, that there

might not be near the place where the savages landed any shadow of
human presence. Besides this I kept myself more retired than ever,
and seldom left my cell except when I went out to milk my goats and
manage my little flock in the wood. which was quite out of danger
on the other side of the island.
I now cared not to drive a nail, chop a stick, fire a gun, or make a


fire, lest either the noise be heard, or the smoke betray me. For
this reason I did all the work requiring fire at my new apartment in
the woods, when, after a while, I found by accident a natural cave
in the earth which proved to be a great convenience to me.
It was while I was cutting some wood to make charcoal that I dis-
covered this cave ; and before I go on I must observe the reason for
my making this charcoal, which was that I could use it to bake and
cook without making a smoke. While I was cutting wood one day,
I perceived, behind a very thick branch of brushwood, a kind of hol-




when I got to the end o

low plae. I loo-ked into the mouth of it,
aoni l:,aI:l it was so large that I could
-tmjui upirigiht in it. But I made more
haste i-out thain I did in, for I saw two
shiniu; i:'is of some creature which
t.winkl,1. like stars. When I re-
co'vcre-d: a little from my surprise,
I plul.iked up courage, and tak-
i iiL a flaming firebrand, I
'rushed in again, and found
there was no cause
for fear, for the eyes
were those of an old
goat, which was dy-
S ing, indeed, of old age.
o- I stirred him a little
to see if I could get
S him out, but he was
not able to raise him-
i self so I let him lie
S I found the cave to
b e about twelve feet
~ ide, but there was a
place at the farther
side of it that went in
S still farther, but so
low that I had to creep
on my hands and feet
to go in. I gave up
my search for that
time, but came the
A LITTLE." next day provided
with candles, and
f the low passage, I found the roof rose to

the height of near twenty feet.
As the light of my two candles shone on the sides and roof of this

cave, it made a most glorious sight, for the walls reflected a hundred
thousand lights to me, as if they had been made of diamonds and
other precious stones. What was in the rock to cause this, I knew
not. The place was a most d1-lilhtfid grotto, and I resolved to bring
here some of the things I was most anxious about, particularly my
magazine of powder, and my spare arms. The old goat died in the
mouth of the cave the next day after I discovered it, and I found it
easier to bury him on the spot where he expired than to drag him
I was now in the twenty-third year of residence in this island, and
was so naturalized to the place and the manner of living that, could
I but have enjvoyed the certainty that no savages would come to the
plai:cw to disturb me, I could have been content to spend the rest of
my time there. I had some little amusemen* which made the time
pa.is more pleasantly with me a great deal than it did before: first, I
had taug iht my Poll, as I noted before, to speak; and he did it so
familiarly, and talked so articulately and plain, that it was very
pleasant to me. My dog was a pleasant and loving companion to
me for no less than sixteen years of my time, and then died of mere
old age. As for my cats, they multiplied to that degree, that I-was
:olii'ed to shoot or drive them into the woods, except two or three
favorites. Besides these I always kept two or three household kids
about me, whom I taught to feed out of my hand; and' I had two
more parrots, which talked pretty well, and would all call Robin
Crusoe," but none like my first. I had also several tame sea-fowls,
that I caught upon the shore, and cut their wings; and the little
stakes which I had planted before my castle-wall being now grown
up to a good thick grove, these fowls all lived among these low trees,
and bred there, which was very agreeable to me.
It may not be amiss for all people who shall meet with my story to
make this just observation from it: viz., how frequently, in the
course of our lives, the evil which in itself we seek most to shun
and which, when we are fallen into, is the most dreadful to us, is
ofteiitiiie. the very means or door of our deliverance, by which
alone we can be raised again from the affliction we are fallen into.
I could give many examples of this in the course of my unacount-
able life, but in nothing was it more particularly remarkable than in

the circumstances of my last years of solitary residence in this island.
It was now the month of December, as I said above, in my twenty-
third year; and this, being the southern solstice, was the particular
time of my harvest, and required me to be pretty much abroad in the
fields, when, going out pretty early in the morning, even before it


was thorough daylight, I was surprised with seeing a light of some
fire upon the shore at a distance from me of about two miles towards
the end of the island where I had observed some savages'had been,
as before, and not on the other side, but, to my great affliction, it
was on my side of the island.
I was indeed terribly surprised with the sight, and filled with my
usual apprehension that the savages would find my works and im-
provements. In this extremity I returned directly to my castle, and
pulled the ladder after me, making all things look as wild and natu-
ral as I possibly could. Then I prepared myself within for defense,
loaded my muskets and pistols, and commended myself to the Divine
protection, resolved to defend myself to the last gasp. Two hours
after, impatient for intelligence, I mounted to the top of the hill,

where, laying myself down, with my perspective glass I perceived
no less than nine naked savages, sitting round a small fire, eating,
as I supposed, human flesh. with their two canoes hauled on shore,
waiting for the flood of the tide to carry them off again.
It is not easy to imagine what confusion this sight put me into,
but when I considered that their coming must always be with the
current of the ebb, I became more easy, being fully satisfied that I
might go abroad with safety all the time of the flood, if they were
not before landed. Before they went off, I could see by their pos-
tures and gestures that they were dancing, and they kept this up for
an hour or more.
When I saw them gone, I took two guns upon my shoulders, and
placing a couple of pistols in my belt, with my great sword hanging
by my side, I went to the hill where I had discovered the first ap-
pearance of all, and then saw that there had been three canoes more
of the savages on shore at that place, which with the rest were now
making over to the main land.
Going down to the shore, I could see the marks of horror which
the dismal .work they had been about had left behind it; and so
filled-was I with indignation, that I began again to premeditate tak-
ing revenge on the first that came there, let them be as many soever.
It then appeared to me that the visits they made to this island are
not very frequent, it being fifteen months before they came again;
yet all this while I was very uneasy, lest they should come upon me
by surprise.
It was in the middle of May, on the sixteenth day, I think, as well
as my poor wooden calendar would reckon, that it blew a very great
storm of wind all day, with a great deal of lightning and thunder,
and a very foul night it was after it. As I was reading in the Bible,
and taken up with very serious thoughts about my present condi-
tion, I was surprised with the noise of a gun, as I thought, fired at
sea. I started up in the greatest haste imaginable; and, mounting
my ladder, got to the top of the hill the very moment that a flash
of fire bade me listen for a second gun, which, accordingly, in about
half a minute, I heard; and by the sound, knew that it was- from
that part of the sea where I was driven out with the current in my
boat. I immediately considered that this must be some ship in

distress. I had the presence of mind, at that minute, to think that
though I could not help them, it might be they might help me; so I
brought together all the dry wood I could get at hand, and set it on
fire upon the hill. As soon as ever my fire blazed up, I heard an-
other gun, and after that several others. I plied my fire all night
long, till daybreak; and when, the air cleared up, I saw something
at a great distance at sea, full east of the island, whether a sail or a
hull I could not distinguish.
I looked frequently at it all that day, and presently concluded that
it was a ship at anchor; and being eager to be satisfied, I ran to-
wards the south side of the island, to the rocks where I had formerly
been carried away with the current; and getting up there, I could
plainly see the wreck of a ship cast away in the night upon those
concealed rocks which I found when I was out in my boat.
It was now calm, and I had a great mind to venture out in my boat
to this wreck, not doubting but I might find something on board that
might he useful to me. But that did not altogether press me so
much as the possibility that there might be yet some living creature
on board, whose life I might not only save, but might, by saving that
life, comfort my own to the last degree; and this thought clung so
to my heart that I could not be quiet night or day, but I must ven-
ture out in my boat on board this wreck; and committing the rest to
God's providence, I thought the impression was so strong upon my
mind that it could not be resisted.
Under the power of this impression, I hastened back to my castle,
and loading myself with everything necessary, went down to my boat,
got the water out of her, got her afloat, and loaded all my cargo in
her. Praying to God to direct my voyage, I put out, and rowing or
paddling the canoe along the shore, came at last to the utmost point
of the island on the north-east side. And now I was to launch out
into the ocean, and either to venture or not to venture. I looked on
the rapid currents which ran constantly on both sides of the island
at a distance, and my heart began to fail me; for I foresaw that if I
was driven into either of those currents, I should be carried perhaps
out of reach or sight of the island again.
These thoughts so oppressed my mind that I began to give over
my enterprise; and having hauled my boat into a little creek on the

shore, I stepped out, and sat down upon a rising bit of ground, very
pensive and anxious. As I was musing, I could perceive that
the tide was turned, and the flood came on; upon which, my going
was impracticable for many hours. Upon this, presently it occurred
to me that I should go up to the highest piece of ground I could find,
and observe, if I could, how the sets of the tide or currents lay. I
cast my eye upon a little hill from whence I had a clear view of the
currents, or sets of the tide, and which way I was to guide myself in
my return. Here I found that as the current of ebb set out close by
the south point of the island, so the current of the flood set in close
by the shore of the north side; and that I had nothing to do but to
keep te the north of the island in my return, and I should do well
Encouraged with this observation, I resolved, the next morning, to
set out with the first of the tide. I first made a little out to sea, full
north, till I began to feel the benefit of the current, which set east-
ward, and having a strong steerage with my paddle, I went, at a
great rate, directly for the wreck, and in less than two hours I came up
to it. The ship, which was Spanish, stuck fast, jammed in between
two rocks: all the stern and quarter of her were beaten to pieces by
the sea; and her mainmast and foremast were broken short off; but
her head and bow appeared firm. When I came close to her, a dog
appeared upon her, who, seeing me coming, yelped and cried; and,
as soon as I called him, jumped into the sea to come to me: I took
him into the boat, but found ~im almost dead with hunger and
thirst. I gave him a cake of my bread, and he devoured it like a
ravenous wolf that had been starving a fortnight in the snow; I then
gave the poor creature some fresh water, with which, if I would have
let him, he would have burst himself. After this I went on board;
but the first sight I met with was two men drowned in the cook-
room, or forecastle of the ship, with their arms fast about one an-
other. I concluded, that when the ship struck, the sea broke so con-
tinually over her, that the men were strangled with the constant
rushing in of the water. Besides the dog, there was nothing left in
the ship that had life. I saw several chests, which I believed be-
longed to some of the seamen; and I got two of them into the boat,
without examining what was in them. Had the stern of the ship

been fixed, and the fore-part broken off, I am persuaded I might
have made a good voyage; for, by what I found in these two chests,
I had room to suppose the ship had a great deal of wealth on board.
I found, besides these chests, a little cask full of liquor, which I
got into my boat with much difficulty. There were several muskets
in the cabin, and a great powder-horn, with about four pounds of
powder in it. As for the muskets, I had no occasion for them, so I

.. .'

left them, but took the powder-horn. I took a fire-shovel and tongs,
which I wanted extremely, as also two little brass kettles, a copper
pot to make chocolate, and a gridiron; and with this cargo, and
the dog, I came away, the tide beginning to make home again; and
the same evening, about an hour within night, I reached the island
again, weary and fatigued to the last degree. I reposed that night
in the boat; and in the morning I resolved to harbor what I had got
in my new cave, and not carry it home to my castle. After refreshing
myself, I got all my cargo on shore, and began to examine the par-
When I came to open the chests, I found several things of great
When I came to open the chests, I found several things of great

use to me : for example, I found in one a fine case of bottles, filled
with cordial waters. I found some very good shirts, and about a
dozen and a half of white linen handkerchiefs and colored neck-
cloths. Besides this, when I came to the till in the chest, I found
there three great bags of pieces of eight, which- held about eleven
hundred pieces in all; and in one of them, wrapped up in a paper,
six doubloons of gold, and some small bars or wedges of gold; I
suppose they might all weigh near a pound. In the other chest
were some clothes, but of little value; but, by the circumstances, it
must have belonged to the gunner's mate; though there was no pow-
der in it, except two pounds of fine glazed powder, in three small
flasks, kept, I suppose, for charging their fowling-pieces on occasion.
Upon the whole, I got very little by this voyage that was of any use
to me; for as to the money, I had no manner of occasion for it; it
was to me as the dirt under my feet; however, I lugged this money
home to my cave, and laid it up, as I had done that before which I
had brought from our own ship.
Having now brought all my things on shore, and secured them, I
went back to my boat, and rowed or paddled her along the shore to
her old harbor, where I laid her up, and made the best of my way to
my old habitation, where I found everything safe and quiet. I
never knew whether any were saved out of that ship or no; and
had only the affliction, some days after, to see the corpse of a drowned
boy come on shore at the end of the island which was next to the
shipwreck. He had no clothes on but a seaman's waistcoat, a pair
of open-kneed linen drawers, and a blue linen shirt; but nothing to
direct me so much as to guess what nation he was of.
I began now to repose myself, live after my old. fashion, and take
care of my family affairs; and for awhile I lived easy enough, only
that I was more vigilant than I used to be, looked out oftener, and
did not go abroad so much; and if, at any time, I did stir with any
freedom, it was always to the east part of the island, where I was
pretty well satisfied the savages never came, and where I could go
without so many precautions, and such a load of arms and ammuni-
tion as I always carried with me if I went the other way. I lived in
this condition near two years more; but my unlucky head, that was
always to let me know it was born to make my body miserable, was

all these two years filled with projects and designs, how, if it were
possible, I might get away from this island.
On one of the nights in the rainy season in March, the four-and-
twentieth year of my first setting foot in this island of solitude, I was
lying in my bed or hammock, awake, very well in health, but could
by no means close my eyes, that is, so as to sleep. It is impossible

~a ,

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.;' ;


and needless to set down the innumerable crowd of thoughts that
whirled through that great thoroughfare of the brain-the memory
-in this night's time: I ran over the whole history of my life in
miniature, to my coming to this island, and also of that part of my
life since I came to this island. In my reflections upon the state of
my case since I came on shore on this island, I was comparing the
happy posture of my affairs in the first years of my habitation here,
with the life of anxiety, fear, and care, which I had lived in ever
since I had seen the print of a foot in the sand. Then I came to re-
flect seriously upon the real danger I had been in for so many
years, and how I had walked about in the greatest security, and
with all possible tranquillity, even when perhaps nothing but the
brow of a hill, a great tree, or the casual approach of night, had


been between me and the worst kind of destruction, viz., that of fall-
ing into the hands of cannibals and savages, who would have seized
on me with the same view as I would on a goat or a turtle.
When these thoughts were over, my head was for some time taken
up in considering the nature of these savages; and it occurred to me
to inquire what part of the world these wretches lived in? how far
off the coast was from whence they came ? and why I might not
order myself and my business so that I might be as able to go over
thither as they were to come to me? I never so much as troubled my-
self to consider what I should do with myself when I went thither;
but my mind was wholly bent upon the notion of my passing over
in my'boat to the mainland. I looked upon my present condition as
the most miserable that could possibly be; that I was not able to
throw myself into anything,'but death, that could be called worse;
and if I reached the shore of the main, I might perhaps meet with
relief; or I might coast along, as I did on the African shore, till I
came to some inhabited country, and where I might find some relief ;
and, after all, perhaps I might fall in with some Christian ship that
might take me in; and if the worst came to the worst, I could but
die, which would put an end to all these miseries at once. I was
.-iltatrd gr-eatlv by these thoughts; all my calm of mind seemed to
be suspended; and I had, as it were, no power to turn my thoughts
to anything but the project of a voyage to the main.
When this had agitated my thoughts for two hours or more, with
such violence that it set my very blood into a ferment, Nature, as if
I had been fatigued and exhausted with the very thoughts of it,
threw me into a sound sleep. One would have thought I should
have dreamed of it, but I did not, nor of anything relating to it: but
I dreamed that as I was going out in the morning as usual, from my
castle, I saw upon the shore two canoes and eleven savages, coming
to land, and that they brought with them another savage, whom
they were going to kill, in order to eat him; when, on a sudden, the
savage that they were going to kill jumped away, and ran for his
life ; then I thought, in my sleep, that he came running into my lit-
tle r',.i'. -- before my fortification, to hide himself; and that I, seeing
him alone, and not perceiving that the others sought him that way,
.1 .,. 1 -,I:-1 to him, and smiling upon him encouraged him: that

he kneeled down to me, seeming to pray me to assist him; upon
which I showed him my ladder, made him go up it, and carried him
into my cave, and he became my servant; and that as soon as I had
got this man, I said to myself, "Now I may certainly venture to the


|f r *


mainland, for this fellow will serve me as a pilot, and will tell me
what to do, and whither to go for provisions, and whither not to go;
for fear of being devoured; what places to venture into, and what to:'
escape." I waked with this thought: and was under such inexpress-
ible impressions of joy at the prospect of my escape in my dream,
that the disappointments which I felt upon coming to myself, and
finding that, it was no more than a dream, were equally extravagant
the other way, and threw me into a deep dejection of spirits.
Upon this, however, I made this conclusion: that my only way to
go about an attempt for an escape was, if possible, to get a savage

into my possession; and, if possible, it should be one of their prison-
ers, whom they had condemned to be eaten, and should bring hither
to kill. I resolved, if possible, to get one of these savages into my
hands, cost what it would. My next thing was to contrive how to
do it, and this indeed was very difficult to resolve on; but as I could
pitch upon no probable means for it, so I resolved to put myself upon
the watch, to see them when they came on shore, and leave the rest
to the event; taking such measures as the opportunity should pre-
About a year and a half after I entertained these notions (and by
long musing had, as it were, resolved them all into nothing, for want
of an occasion to put them in execution), I was surprised one morning
early by seeing no less than five canoes all on shore together on my
side the island, and the people who belonged to them all landed and
out of my sight. Seeing so many, and knowing that they always
came four or six, or sometimes more, in a boat, I could not tell how
to take my measures, to attack twenty or thirty men single-handed;
so lay still in my castle, perplexed and discomforted. However, I
put myself into all the same postures for an attack that I had former-
ly provided, and was just ready for action, if anything had presented.
Having waited a good while, at length, being very impatient, I set
my guns at the foot of my ladder, and clambered up to the top of the
hill; standing so, however, that my head did not appear above the
hill, so that they could not perceive me. Here I observed, by the
help of my perspective glass, that they were no less than thirty in
number; that they had a fire kindled, and that they had meat
dressed. How they had cooked it, I knew not, or what it was; but
they were all dancing round the fire.
While I was thus looking on them, I perceived, by my perspective,
two miserable wretches dragged from the boats. I perceived one of
them immediately fall; being knocked down, I suppose, with a club,
or wooden sword, for that was their way; and two or three others
were at work immediately, preparing him for their cookery, while the
other victim was left standing by himself, till they should be ready
for him. In that very moment, this poor wretch, seeing himself a
little at liberty, started away from them, and ran with incredible
swiftness along the sands, directly towards me. I was dreadfully

frightened, that I must acknowledge, when I perceived him run my
way; and especially when, as I thought, I saw him pursued by the
whole body. However, I kept my station, and my spirits began to
recover when I found that not above three men followed him ; and
still more was I encouraged when I found that he outstripped them
exceedingly in running, and gained ground on them.
There was between them and my castle, the creek, which I
mentioned often in the first part of my story, where I landed my
cargoes out of the ship; and this I saw plainly he must necessarily
swim over; but when the savage escaping came thither, he made
nothing of it; but, plunging in, swam through in about thirty
strokes, or thereabouts, landed, and ran with exceeding strength and
swiftness. When the three persons came to the creek, I found that
two of them could swim, but the third could not, and that, standing
on the other side, he looked at the others, but went no farther, and
soon after went softly back again. I observed that the two who
swam were yet more than twice as long swimming over the creek
Than the fellow was that fled from them. It came very warmly upon
my thoughts, and indeed irresistibly, that now was the time to get me
a servant, and perhaps a companion or assistant; and that I was
plainly called by Providence to save this poor creature's life. I im-
mediately ran down the ladder with all possible expedition, fetched
my two guns, and getting up again, I crossed towards the sea; and
having a very short cut, and all down hill, clapped myself in the way
between the pursuers and the pursued, hollooing aloud to him that
fled, who, looking back, was at first perhaps as much frightened at
me as at them; but I beckoned with my hand to him to come back;
and, in the meantime, I slowly advanced towards the two that fol-
lowed; then rushing at once upon the foremost, I knocked him down
with the stock of my piece. I was loth to fire, because I would not
have the rest hear; though, at that distance, it would not have been
easily heard. Having knocked this fellow down, the other who pur-
sued him stopped, as if he had been frightened, and I advanced to-
wards him; but as I came nearer, I perceived presently he had a bow
and arrow, and was fitting it to shoot at me; so I was then obliged
to shoot at him first, which I did, and killed him at the first shot.
The poor savage who fled was so frightened with the fire and noise

of my piece that he stood stock still. I made signs to come forward,
which he easily understood, and came a little way; then stopped
again, and then a little farther, and stopped again; and I could then
perceive that he stood trembling. I smiled at him, and looked
pleasantly, and beckoned to him to come still nearer; at length, he
came close to me; and then he kneeled down, laid his head upon the
ground, and, taking me by the foot, set my foot upon his head ; this,
it seems, was in token of swearing to be my slave forever. I took
him up, and made much of him, and encouraged him all I could.
But there was more work to do yet; for I perceived the savage whom
I had knocked down was not killed, but stunned with the blow, and
began- to come to himself : so I pointed to him, and showed him the
savage, that he was not dead; upon this he spoke some words to me,
and though I could not understand them, yet I thought they were
pleasant to hear; for they were the first -sound of a man's voice that
I had heard, my own excepted, for above twenty-five years. But
there was no time for such reflections now; the savage who was
knocked down recovered himself so far as to sit up on the ground,.
and I perceived that my savage began to be afraid. He maae a mo-
tion to'me to lend him my sword, which I did. He no sooner had it
but he runs to his enemy, and at one blow cut off his head as clever-
ly, no executioner in Germany could have done it sooner or better;
which I thought very strange for one who, I had reason to believe,
never saw a sword in his life before, except their own wooden swords:
however, it seems, as I learned afterwards, they make their wooden
swords so sharp, so heavy, and the wood is so hard, that they will
even cut off heads with them. When he had done this, he comes
laughing to me in sign of triumph, and brought me the sword again,
and laid it down, with the head of the savage that he had killed, just
before me. But that which astonished him most was to know how I
killed the other Indian so far off; so pointing to him, he made signs to
me to let him go to him; and I bade him go, as well as I could.
When he came to him, he stood like one amazed, looking at him,
turning him first on one side, then on the other. He took up his bow
and arrows, and came back; so I turned to go away, and beckoned
him to follow me, making signs to him that more might come after


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Wo o

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11)1 1111 I 4w


I carried him, not to my castle, but quite away to my cave, on the
farther part of the island ; so I did not let my dream come to pass in
that part, that he came into my grove for shelter. Here I gave him
bread and a bunch of raisins to eat, and a draught of water, which I
found he was indeed in great distress for from his running; and
having refreshed him, I made signs for him to go and lie down to
He was a comely, handsome fellow, perfectly well made, with
straight, strong limbs, not too large, tall and well shaped; and, as I
reckon, about twenty-six years of age. He had a very good counten-
ance, not a fierce and surly aspect, but seemed to have something
very manly in his face; and yet he had all the sweetness and softness
of a European in his countenance, too, especially when he smiled. His
hair was long and black, not curled like wool; his forehead very high
and large; and a great vivacity and sparkling sharpness in his eyes.
The color of his skin was not quite black, but very tawny.
After he had slumbered about half an hour, he awoke and came
out of the cave to me; for I had been milking my goats, which I had
in the inclosure just by: when he espied me, he came running to
me, laying himself down again upon the ground, with all the possible
signs of an humble, thankful disposition, making a great many ges-
tures to show it. I understood him in many things, and let him know
I was very well pleased with him. In a little time I began to speak
to him, and teach him to speak to me; and, first, I let him know his
name should be FRIDAY, which was the day I saved his life: I called
him so for the memory of the time. I likewise taught him to say
Master, and then let him know that was to be my name; I likewise
taught him to say Yes and No, and toknow the meaning of them. I
gave him some milk in an earthen pot, and let him see me drink it
before him, and sop my bread in it; and gave him a cake of bread to
do the like, which he quickly complied with, and made signs that it
was very good for him. I kept there with him all that night; but,
as soon as it was day, I beckoned to him to come with me, and let
him know I would give him some clothes; at which he seemed very
glad, for he was stark naked. I then led him up to the top of the hill,
to see if his enemies were gone, and, pulling out my glass, I looked,
and saw plainly the place where they had been, but no appearance of

them or their canoes; so that it was plain they were gone, and had
left their two comrades behind them, without any search after them.
We came back to our castle, and there I fell to work for my man
Friday; and. first of all, I gave him a pair of linen drawers, which I
had out of the poor gunner's chest I mentioned, which I found in the
wreck, and which, with a little alteration, fitted him very well; and
then I made him a jerkin of goat's skin, as well as my skill would
allow (for I was now grown a tolerably good tailor); and I gave him
a cap which I made of hare's skin, very convenient, and fashionable
enough; and thus he was clothed, for the present, tolerably well.
The next day, I began to consider where I should lodge him; and,
that I might do well for him, and yet be perfectly easy myself, I
made a little tent for him in the vacant place between my two fortifi-
cations. As there was a door or entrance there into my cave, I made
a formal framed door-case, and a door to open in the inside, which I
barred up in the night, taking in my ladders, too; so that Friday
could no way come at me in the inside of my innermost wall, without
making so much noise in getting over that it must needs awaken me.
But I needed none of all this precaution; for never man had a more
faithful, loving, sincere servant than Friday was to me; without
passion, sulleness, or design, his affections were tied to me, like those
of a child to a father.
I was greatly delighted with my new companion, and made it my
business to teach him everything that was proper to make him use-
ful, handy, and helpful; but especially to make him speak, and
understand me when I spoke; and he was the aptest scholar that
ever was; and particularly was so merry, so constantly diligent, and
so pleased when he could but understand me, or make me under-
stand him, that it was very pleasant to me to talk to him. And now
my life began to be so easy that I began to say to myself, that could
I but have been safe from more savages, I cared not if I was never
to remove from the place while I lived.
One morning I took him out with me to the woods. I went, in-
deed, intending to kill a kid out of my own flock, and bring it home
and dress it; but as I was going, I saw a she-goat lying down in the
shade, and two young kids sitting by her. I catched hold of Fri-
day: "Hold," said I, "stand still; "and made signs to him not to

stir: immediately I presented my piece, shot, and killed one of the
kids. The poor creature was sensibly surprised; trembled, and
shook, and looked so amazed that I thought he would have sunk
down. He did not see the kid I shot at,
or perceive I had killed it, but ripped up
his waistcoat, to feel whether he was not
woundedd; and, as I found, presently,
thought I was resolved t.-: kill himn: for
he came and kneeled: down tjo nme, and i
emlbracing imy knees, sai'. a great many .l
things I did not understand; 1 bt I .could '
easily s'ee the meaning was to pray me '
not t.-, kill him.
I .joon flin':l a way to convince him 111

n r it;o anud takei ng
hiIn up ibY the handle,
S uwhe Zl at hiin, and
S: pinting to t.he kid
which I had kill-d,
ljekonetd to lii111 to
t.run and fetch it, huich

He would not so
I PRESENTED MY PIECE. He would not so
much as touch the gun
for several days after; but he would speak to it and talk to it, as if it
had answered him, when he was by himself; which, as I afterwards
learned of him, was to desire it not to kill him. I brought home the
kid, and the same evening I took the skin off, and stewed some of

the flesh, and made some very good broth. After I had begun to eat
some, I gave some to my man, who seemed very glad of it, and liked
it very well. Having thus fed him with broiled meat and broth, I
was resolved to feast him the next day with roasting a piece of the
kid: this I did by hanging it before the fire on a string, setting two
poles up, one on each side of the fire, and one across on the top, and
tying the string to the cross-stick, letting the meat turn continually.
This Friday admired very much ; but when he came to taste the
flesh, he took so many ways to tell me how well he liked it, that I
could not but understand him.
The next day I set him to work to beating some corn out, and sift-
ing it in the manner I used to do, as I observed before; and he soon
understood how to do it as well as I. After that I let him see me
make my bread, and bake it, too; and in a little time Friday was
able to do all the work for me, as well as I could do it myself.
I began now to consider that, having two mouths to feed instead
of one, I must plant a larger quantity of corn than I used to do; so I
marked out a larger piece of land, and began the fence in the same
manner as before, in which Friday worked very willingly and very
hard; and I told him that it was for corn to make more bread, be-
cause he was now with me, and that I might have enough for him
and myself too. He let me know that he thought I had much more
labor upon me on his account than I had for myself; and that he
would work the harder for me, if I would tell him what to do.
This was the pleasantest year of all the life I led in this place.
Friday began to talk pretty well, and understand the names of al-
most everything I had occasion to call for, and of every place I had
to send him to, and talk a great deal to me; so that, in short, I began
now to have some use for my tongue again, which, indeed, I had
very little occasion for before; that is to say, about speech. Besides
the pleasure of talking to him, I had a singular satisfaction in the
fellow himself: his simple, unfeigned honesty appeared to me more
and more every day, and I began really to love the creature; and on
his side I believe he loved me more than it was possible for him ever
to love anything before.
I once asked him if the nation he belonged to never conquered in
battle, and when he told me that they did, I asked whether they ate

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