Citation
The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe

Material Information

Title:
The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title:
Robinson Crusoe
Creator:
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Brock, C. E ( Charles Edmund ), 1870-1938 ( Illustrator )
Service & Paton ( Publisher )
Ballantyne, Hanson & Co ( Printer )
Ballantyne Press ( Printer )
Place of Publication:
London (5 Henrietta Street Covent Garden)
Publisher:
Service & Paton
Manufacturer:
Ballantyne, Hanson & Co., at the Ballantyne Press
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
[iv], 446, [2] p., [16] leaves of plates : ill. ; 20 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Castaways -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1864 ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1899 ( rbgenr )
Genre:
Imaginary voyages ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements ( rbgenr )
fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Spine title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note:
"C.E. Brock, 1898; copyright, Service & Paton, 1899"--Front.
General Note:
As described in Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe, 781, except that half title in this copy is printed on a separate leaf and Lovett copy has half title printed on recto of front.
General Note:
Publisher's advertisement for "The illustrated English library" ([2] p.) at end, in which this title is included.
General Note:
Contains parts 1 and 2.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Daniel Defoe ; with 16 illustrations by C. E. Brock.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
028862338 ( ALEPH )
30836221 ( OCLC )
AJN8011 ( NOTIS )

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Full Text
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ROBINSON CRUSOE





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Copyright, Service & Paton, 1899. ~Page 79



THE

LIFE AND ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE

BY

DANIEL DEFOE

WITH SIXTEEN ILLUSTRATIONS BY
Gy BE. BROGK

Lonvon
. SERVICE & PATON
5 HENRIETTA STREET
"COVENT ‘GARDEN



The Illustrations
in this Volume are the copyright of
SERVICE & Paron, London



CHAP.

VI.
VIII.
Ix.

XI.
xit.
XIII.
XIV.
XV.
XVI.
XVII.
XVIII.
XIX.
xX.

XXI.
XXII.
XXIII.
XXIV.
XXV.
XXVI.
XXVII.
XXVIII.
XXIX.
XXX.
XXXiI.
XXXII.
XXXIII.
XXXIV.
XXXV.
XXXVI.

CONTENTS

PART I
START IN LIFE ; :
SLAVERY AND ESCAPE. :
WRECKED ON A DESERT ISLAND
FIRST WEEKS ON THE ISLAND .
BUILDS A HOUSE. i
ILL AND CONSCIENCE-STRICKEN .
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIENCE
SURVEYS HIS POSITION
MAKES A BOAT :
TAMES GOATS . : : i ; 3
FINDS PRINT OF MAN’S FOOT ON THE SAND
A CAVE RETREAT . : :
WRECK OF A SPANISH SHIP
A DREAM REALISED .
FRIDAY S EDUCATION fe : 3
RESCUE OF PRISONERS FROM CANNIBALS
VISIT OF MUTINEERS : 3 3 ‘
THE SHIP RECOVERED.
RETURN TO ENGLAND. 2 ; -
FIGHT BETWEEN FRIDAY AND A BEAR.

PART II
REVISITS ISLAND . . . . °
INTERVENING HISTORY OF COLONY
FIGHT WITH CANNIBALS . .
RENEWED INVASION OF SAVAGES
A GREAT VICTORY . . ‘
THE FRENCH CLERGYMAN’S COUNSEL . .
CONVERSATION BETWIXT WILL ATKINS AND
SAILS FROM THE ISLAND FOR THE BRAZIIS
DREADFUL OCCURRENCES IN MADAGASCAR .
HE IS LEFT ON SHORE . . .
WARNED OF DANGER BY A COUNTRYMAN .
THE CARPENTERS WHIMSICAL CONTRIVANCE
ARRIVAL IN CHINA . . . . .
ATTACKED BY TARTARS . . . .

DESCRIPTION OF AN IDOL, WHICH THEY DESTROY

SAFE ARRIVAL IN ENGLAND. . °
iii

HIS WIFE

.

PAGH

16
26
41
58
68
79
87
96
109
119
129
143
154
167
179
193
205
219
231

242
258
272
284
304
315
341
352
365
378
385
394
403
414
422
435



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

By C. E. BROCK

I FOUND A LARGE TORTOISE OR TURTLE. ; : Frontispiece

PAGE
‘IF YOU COME NEAR THE BOAT I'LL SHOOT YOU THROUGH THE

HEAD”. : , : : : y ‘ is cea
THEY CAME TO MAKE A SECRET PROPOSAL TO ME. : 2 WOE
I TIED FOUR OF THEM TOGETHER IN THE FORM OF A RAFT . 42
I CAME TO MEASURE THE MARK WITH MY OWN FOOT . ee
I KNOCKED HIM DOWN WITH THE STOCK OF MY PIECE . AGL
THIS FRIDAY ADMIRED VERY MUCH : 3 ; 5 a7 169
““WHAT ARE YE, GENTLEMEN?” , : : : ; . 201
FIRED A VOLLEY OF THEIR SMALL ARMS : : : or 207,
THEY LEFT NOT THE LEAST STICK STANDING i 3 eee
KNOCKED THE BRUTE DOWN . ; : , z 3 . 285
THEY WERE SEIZED UPON AND BOUND . : 3 : 1 290
WE SAW HIM TAKE OUT HIS HANDKERCHIEF AND WIPE HER

EYES. : : : : : : : : . 3839
LEAPED BOTH INTO THE SEA ; ; : _ : . 395
ONE FED THE SQUIRE WITII A SPOON. ; . ; 3 42

SHOT HIM INTO THE HEAD ; : : . 421



THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE

FARI, 1

CHAPTER I
START IN LIFE

WAS born in tne year 1632, in the city of York, of a good

family, though not of that country, my father being a foreigner
of Bremen, who settled first at Hull. He got a good estate by
merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York,
from whence he had married my mother, whose relations were
named Robinson, a very good family in that country, and from
whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer ; but, by the usual cor-
ruption of words in England, we are now called—nay, we call
ourselves and write our name—Crusoe ; and so my companions
always called me.

I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel
to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded
by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle
near Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What became of my second
brother I never knew, any more than my father or mother knew
what became of me.

Being the third son of the family and not bred to any trade,
my head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts.
My father, who was very ancient, had given me a competent
share of learning, as far as house-education and a country free
school generally go, and designed me for the law ; but I would
be satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and my inclination
to this led me so strongly against the will, nay, the commands
of my father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of

;



THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE

FARI, 1

CHAPTER I
START IN LIFE

WAS born in tne year 1632, in the city of York, of a good

family, though not of that country, my father being a foreigner
of Bremen, who settled first at Hull. He got a good estate by
merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York,
from whence he had married my mother, whose relations were
named Robinson, a very good family in that country, and from
whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer ; but, by the usual cor-
ruption of words in England, we are now called—nay, we call
ourselves and write our name—Crusoe ; and so my companions
always called me.

I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel
to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded
by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle
near Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What became of my second
brother I never knew, any more than my father or mother knew
what became of me.

Being the third son of the family and not bred to any trade,
my head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts.
My father, who was very ancient, had given me a competent
share of learning, as far as house-education and a country free
school generally go, and designed me for the law ; but I would
be satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and my inclination
to this led me so strongly against the will, nay, the commands
of my father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of

;



6 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

my mother and other friends, that there seemed to be something
fatal in that propensity of nature, tending directly to the life of
misery which was to befall me.

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and ex-
cellent counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He
called me one morning into his chamber, where he was confined
by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with me upon this
subject. He asked me what reasons, more than a mere wander-
ing inclination, I had for leaving my father’s house and m
native country, where I might be well introduced, and had a
prospect of raising my fortune by application and industry, with
a life of ease and pleasure. He told me it was men of desperate
fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring, superior fortunes on the
other, who went abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise,
and make themselves famous in undertakings of a nature out of
the common road; that these things were all either too far above
, me or too far below me; that mine was the middle state, or
‘what might be called the upper station of low life, which he
had found, by long experience, was the best state in the world,
the most suited to human happiness, not exposed to the miseries
and hardships, the labour and sufferings of the mechanic part of
mankind, and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition,
and envy of the upper part of mankind. He told me I might
judge of the happiness of this state by this one thing—viz. that
this was the state of life which all other people envied; that
kings have frequently lamented the miserable consequence of
being born to great things, and wished they had been placed
in the middle of the two extremes, between the mean and the
great; that the wise man gave his testimony to this, as the
standard of felicity, when he prayed to have neither poverty
nor riches.

He bade me observe it, and I should always find that the
calamities of life were shared among the upper and lower part
of mankind, but that the middle station had the fewest disasters,
and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes as the higher or
lower part of mankind ; nay, they were not subjected to so many
distempers and uneasinesses, either of body or mind, as those
were who, by vicious living, luxury, and extravagances on the
one hand, or by hard labour, want of necessaries, and mean or
insufficient diet on the other hand, bring distemper upon them-
selves by the natural consequences of their way of living; that
the middle station of life was calculated for all kind of virtue
and all kind of enjoyments; that peace and plenty were the
handmaids of a middle fortune; that temperance, moderation,



ROBINSON CRUSOE 7

quietness, health, society, all agreeable diversions, and all desir-
able pleasures, were the blessings attending the middle station
of life; that this way men went silently and smoothly through
the world, and comfortably out of it, not embarrassed with the
labours of the hands or of the head, not sold to a life of slavery
for daily bread, nor harassed with perplexed circumstances,
which rob the soul of peace and the body of rest, nor enraged
with the passion of envy, or the secret burning lust of ambition
for great things; but, in easy circumstances, sliding gently
through the world, and sensibly tasting the sweets of living,
without the bitter; feeling that they are happy, and learning by
every day’s experience to know it more sensibly.

After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affection-
ate manner, not to play the young man, nor to precipitate
myself into miseries which nature, and the station of life I was
born in, seemed to have provided against ; that I was under no
necessity of seeking my bread; that he would do well for me,
and endeavour to enter me fairly into the station of life which ©
he had just been recommending to me; and that if I was not
very easy and happy in the world, it must be my mere fate or
fault that must hinder it; and that he should have nothing to
answer for, having thus discharged his duty in warning me
against measures which he knew would be to my hurt; in a
word, that as he would do very kind things for me if I would
stay and settle at home as he directed, so he would not have so
much hand in my misfortunes as to give me any encouragement
to go away; and to close all, he told me I had my elder brother
for an example, to whom he had used the same earnest persua-
sions to keep him from going into the Low Country wars, but
could not prevail, his young desires prompting him to run into
the army, where he was killed; and though he said he would
not cease to pray for me, yet he would venture to say to me,
that if I did take this foolish step, God would not bless me,
and I should have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having
neglected his counsel, when there might be none to assist in
my recovery.

I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly
prophetic, though I suppose my father did not know it to be so
himself—I say, I observed the tears run down his face very
plentifully, especially when he spoke of my brother who was
killed ; and that when he spoke of my having leisure to repent,
and none to assist me, he was so moved that he broke off the
discourse, and told me his heart was so full he could say no
more to me.



8 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

I was sincerely affected with this discourse, and, indeed, who
could be otherwise ? and I resolved not to think of going abroad
any more, but to settle at home according to my father’s desire.
But alas! a few days wore it all off; and, in short, to prevent
any of my father’s further importunities, in a few weeks after
I resolved to run quite away from him. However, I did not act
quite so hastily as the first heat of my resolution prompted ; but
I took my mother at a time when I thought her a little more
pleasant than ordinary, and told her that my thoughts were so
entirely bent upon seeing the world that I should never settle
to anything with resolution enough to go through with it, and
my father had better give me his consent than force me to go
without it; that I was now eighteen years old, which was too
late to go apprentice to a trade or clerk to an attorney ; that I
was sure if I did I should never serve out my time, but I should
certainly run away from my master before my time was out,
and go to sea; and if she would speak to my father to let me
go one voyage abroad, if I came home again, and did not
like it, I would go no more; and I would promise, by a double
diligence, to recover the time that I had lost.

This put my mother into a great passion; she told me she
knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any
such subject; that he knew too well what was my interest to
give his consent to anything so much for my hurt; and that she
wondered how I could think of any such thing after the dis-
course I had had with my father, and such kind and tender
expressions as she knew my father had used to me; and that,
in short, if I would ruin myself, there was no help for me; but
I might depend I should never have their consent to it; that
for her part she would not have so much hand in my destruc-
tion; and I should never have it to say that my mother was
willing when my father was not.

Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet I
heard afterwards that she reported all the discourse to him,
and that my father, after showing a great concern at it, said
to her, with a sigh, “That boy might be happy if he would
stay at home; but if he goes abroad, he will be the most
miserable wretch that ever was born: I can give no consent
tout.

It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose,
though, in the meantime, I continued obstinately deaf to all
proposals of settling to business, and frequently expostulated
with my father and mother about their being so positively de-
termined against what they knew my inclinations prompted me



ROBINSON CRUSOE 9

to. But being one day at Hull, where I went casually, and
without any purpose of making an elopement at that time; but,
I say, being there, and one of my companions being about to
sail to London in his father’s ship, and prompting me to go
with them with the common allurement of seafaring men, that
it should cost me nothing for my passage, I consulted neither
father nor mother any more, nor so much as sent them word of
it; but leaving them to hear of it as they might, without asking
God’s blessing or my father’s, without any consideration of cir-
cumstances or consequences, and in an ill hour, God knows,
on the Ist of September 1651, I went on board a ship bound
for London. Never any young adventurer’s misfortunes, I
believe, began sooner, or continued longer than mine. The ship
was no sooner out of the Humber than the wind began to blow
and the sea to rise in a most frightful manner; and, as I had
never been at sea before, I was most inexpressibly sick in body
and terrified in mind. I began now seriously to reflect upon
what I had done, and how justly I was overtaken by the judg-
ment of Heaven for my wicked leaving my father’s house, and
abandoning my duty. All the good counsels of my parents, my
father’s tears and my mother’s entreaties, came now fresh into
my mind; and my conscience, which was not yet come to the
pitch of hardness to which it has since, reproached me with
the contempt of advice, and the breach of my duty to God and
my father.

All this while the storm increased, and the sea went very
high, though nothing like what I have seen many times since ;
no, nor what I saw a few days after; but it was enough to affect
me then, who was but a young sailor, and had never known
anything of the matter. I expected every wave would have
swallowed us up, and that every time the ship fell down, as I
thought it did, in the trough or hollow of the sea, we should
never rise more ; in this agony of mind, I made many vows and
resolutions, that if it would please God to spare my life in this
one voyage, if ever I got once my foot upon dry land again, I
would go directly home to my father, and never set it into a
ship again while I lived; that I would take his advice, and
never run myself into such miseries as these any more. Now I
saw plainly the goodness of his observations about the middle
station of life, how easy, how comfortably he had lived all his
days, and never had been exposed to tempests at sea or troubles
on shore; and I resolved that I would, like a true repenting
prodigal, go home to my father.

These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the



10 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

storm lasted, and indeed some time after; but the next day the
wind was abated, and the sea calmer, and I began to be a little
inured to it: however, I was very grave for all that day, being
also a little sea-sick still ; but towards night the weather cleared
up, the wind was quite over, and a charming fine evening
followed ; the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the
next morning ; and having little or no wind, and a smooth sea,
the sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most
delightful that ever I saw,

I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick,
but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was
so rough and terrible the day before, and could be so calm and
so pleasant in so little a time after. And now, lest my good
resolutions should continue, my companion, who had enticed me
away, comes to me; “ Well, Bob,” says he, clapping me upon
the shoulder, “how do you do after it? I warrant you were
frighted, wer’n’t you, last night, when it blew but a capful of
wind?” “A capful d’you call it?” said I; “’twas a terrible
storm.”’ “A storm, you fool you,” replies he; “do you call that
a storm? why, it was nothing at all; give us but a good ship
and sea-room, and we think nothing of such a squall of wind as
that; but you’re but a fresh-water sailor, Bob. Come, let us
make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that; d’ye see what
charming weather ’tis now?” To make short this sad part of
my story, we went the way of all sailors; the punch was made,
and I was made half drunk with it: and in that one night’s
wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon
my past conduct, all my resolutions for the future. In a word,
as the sea was returned to its smoothness of surface and settled
calmness by the abatement of that storm, so the hurry of my
thoughts being over, my fears and apprehensions of being
swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and the current of
my former desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and
promises that I: made in my distress. I found, indeed, some
intervals of reflection; and the serious thoughts did, as it were,
endeavour to return again sometimes ; but I shook them off,
and roused myself from them as it were from a distemper,
and applying myself to drinking and company, soon mastered
the return of those fits—for so I called them ; and I had in
five or six days got as complete a victory over conscience as
any young fellow that resolved not to be troubled with it
could desire. But I was to have another trial for it still; and
Providence, as in such cases generally it does, resolved to
leave me entirely without excuse; for if I would not take this



ROBINSON CRUSOE : ‘11

for a deliverance, the next was to be such a one as the worst
and most hardened wretch among us would confess both the
danger and the mercy of.

The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth
Roads; the wind having been contrary and the weather calm,
we had made but little way since the storm. Here we were
obliged to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind con-
tinuing contrary—viz. at south-west—for seven or eight days,
during which time a great many ships from Newcastle came into
the same Roads, as the common harbour where the ships might
wait for a wind for the river.

We had not, however, rid here so long but we should have
tided it up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh, and after
we had lain four or five days, blew very hard. However, the
Roads being reckoned as good as a harbour, the anchorage good,
and our ground-tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned,
and not in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent the time
in rest and mirth, after the manner of the sea; but the eighth
day, in the morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands
at work to strike our topmasts, and make everything snug and
close, that the ship might ride as easy as possible. By noon the
sea went very high indeed, and our ship rode forecastle in,
shipped several seas, and we thought once or twice our anchor
had come home; upon which our master ordered out the sheet-
anchor, so that we rode with two anchors ahead, and the cables
veered out to the better end.

By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed ; and now I began
to see terror and amazement in the faces even of the seamen
themselves. The master, though vigilant in the business of
preserving the ship, yet as he went in and out of his cabin by
me, I could hear him softly to himself say, several times, “ Lord
be merciful to us! we shall be all lost! we shall be all undone!”
and the like. During these first hurries I was stupid, lying still
in my cabin, which was in the steerage, and cannot describe
my temper: I could ill resume the first penitence which I had
so apparently trampled upon and hardened myself against: I
thought the bitterness of death had been past, and that this
would be nothing like the first; but when the master himself
came by me, as I said just now, and said we should be all lost,
I was dreadfully frighted. I got up out of my cabin and looked
out; but such a dismal sight I never saw: the sea ran mountains
high, and broke upon us every three or four minutes; when I
could look about, I could see nothing but distress round us;
two ships that rode near us, we found, had cut their masts by



12 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

the board, being deep laden; and our men cried out that a ship
which rode about a mile ahead of us was foundered. Two
more ships, being driven from their anchors, were run out
of the Roads to sea, at all adventures, and that with not a
mast standing. The light ships fared the best, as not so much
labouring in the sea; but two or three of them drove, and
came close by us, running away with only their spritsail out
before the wind.

Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master
of our ship to let them cut away the fore-mast, which he was
very unwilling to do; but the boatswain protesting to him that
if he did not the ship would founder, he consented ; and when
they had cut away the fore-mast, the main-mast stood so loose,
and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut that away
also, and make a clear deck.

Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at all
this, who was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a
fright before at but a little. But if I can express at this dis-
tance the thoughts I had about me at that time, I was in ten-
fold more horror of mind upon account of my former convictions,
and the having returned from them to the resolutions I had
wickedly taken at first, than I was at death itself ; and these,
added to the terror of the storm, put me into such a condition
that I can by no words describe it. But the worst was not
come yet; the storm continued with such fury that the seamen
themselves acknowledged they had never seen a worse. We
had a good ship, but she was deep laden, and wallowed in the
sea, so that the seamen every now and then cried out she would
founder. It was my advantage, in one respect, that I did not
know what they meant by founder till I inquired. However,
the storm was so violent that I saw, what is not often seen,
the master, the boatswain, and some others more sensible than
the rest, at their prayers, and expecting every moment when the
ship would go to the bottom. In the middle of the night, and
under all the rest of our distresses, one of the men that had
been down to see cried out we had sprung a leak; another said
there was four feet water in the hold. Then all hands were
called to the pump. At that word, my heart, as I thought, died
within me: and I fell backwards upon the side of my bed where
I sat, into the cabin. However, the men roused me, and told
me that I, that was able to do nothing before, was as well able
to pump as another; at which I stirred up and went to the
pump, and worked very heartily. While this was doing the
master, seeing some light colliers, who, not able to ride out the





ROBINSON CRUSOE 13

storm, were obliged to slip and run away to sea, and would
come near us, ordered to fire a gun as a signal of distress. I,
who knew nothing what they meant, thought the ship had
broken, or some dreadful thing happened. In a word, I was so
surprised that I fell down in a swoon. As this was a time when
everybody had his own life to think of, nobody minded me, or
what was become of me; but another man stepped up to the
pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot, let me lie, think-
ing I had been dead; and it was a great while before I came
to myself.

We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it was
apparent that the ship would founder; and though the storm
began to abate a little, yet it was not possible she could swim till
we might run into any port; so the master continued firing guns
for help; and a light ship, who had rid it out just ahead of us,
ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the utmost hazard
the boat came near us; but it was impossible for us to get on
board, or for the boat to lie near the ship’s side, till at last the
men rowing very heartily, and venturing their lives to save
ours, our men cast them a rope over the stern with a buoy to
it, and then veered it out a great length, which they, after
much labour and hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them
close under our stern, and got all into their boat. It was
to no purpose for them or us, after we were in the boat, to
think of reaching their own ship; so all agreed to let her
drive, and only to pull her in towards shore as much as we
could; and our master promised them, that if the boat was
staved upon shore, he would make it good to their master: so
partly rowing and partly driving, our boat went away to the
northward, sloping towards the shore almost as far as Winterton
Ness.

We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our
ship till we saw her sink, and then I understood for the first
time what was meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I must
acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up when the seamen
told me she was sinking ; for from the moment that they rather
put me into the boat than that I might be said to go in,
my heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly with fright,
partly with horror of mind, and the thoughts of what was yet
before me.

While we were in this condition—the men yet labouring at
the oar to bring the boat near the shore—we could see (when,
our boat mounting the waves, we were able to see the shore)
@ great many people running along the strand to assist us when



14 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

we should come near; but we made but slow way towards the
shore ; nor were we able to reach the shore till, being past the
lighthouse at Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward
towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a little the violence
of the wind. Here we got in, and, though not without much
difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked afterwards on foot to
Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were used with great
humanity, as well by the magistrates of the town, who assigned
us good quarters, as by particular merchants and owners of ships,
and had money given us sufficient to carry us either to London
or back to Hull as we thought fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and
have gone home, I had been happy, and my father, as in our
blessed Saviour’s parable, had even killed the fatted calf for me;
for hearing the ship I went away in was cast away in Yarmouth
Roads, it was a great while before he had any assurances that I
was not drowned.

But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that
nothing could resist ; and though I had several times loud calls
from my reason and my more composed judgment to go home,
yet I had no power to do it. I know not what to call this, nor
will I urge that it is a secret overruling decree, that hurries us
on to be the instruments of our own destruction, even though
it be before us, and that we rush upon it with our eyes open.
Certainly, nothing but some such decreed unavoidable misery,
which it was impossible for me to escape, could have pushed me
forward against the calm reasonings and persuasions of my most
retired thoughts, and against two such visible instructions as I
had met with in my first attempt.

My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who
was the master’s son, was now less forward than I. The first
time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which was not
till two or three days, for we were separated in the town to
several quarters ; I say, the first time he saw me, it appeared his
tone was altered; and, looking very melancholy, and shaking
his head, he asked me how IJ did, and telling his father who I
was, and how I had come this voyage only for a trial, in order to
go further abroad, his father, turning to me with a very grave
and concerned tone, “ Young man,” says he, “you ought never
to go to sea any more; you ought to take this for a plain and
visible token that you are not to be a seafaring man.” “Why,
sir,” said I, “will you go to sea no more?” “That is another
case,” said he; “it is my calling, and therefore my duty ; but as
you made this voyage on trial, you see what a taste Heaven has







ROBINSON CRUSOE 15

given you of what you are to expect if you persist. Perhaps
this has all befallen us on your account, like Jonah in the ship
of Tarshish. Pray,” continues he, “what are you; and on what
account did you go to sea?” Upon that I told him some of my
story; at the end of which he burst out into a strange kind of
passion: “ What had I done,” says he, “that such an unhappy
wretch should come into my ship? I would not set my foot in
the same ship with thee again for a thousand pounds.” This
indeed was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits, which were yet
agitated by the sense of his loss, and was farther than he could
have authority to go. However, he afterwards talked very
gravely to me, exhorting me to go back to my father, and not
tempt Providence to my ruin, telling me I might see a visible
hand of Heaven against me. “ And, young man,” said he, “ de-
pend upon it, if you do not go back, wherever you go, you will
meet with nothing but disasters and disappointments, till your
father’s words are fulfilled upon you.”

We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I saw
him no more; which way he went I knew not. As for me,
having some money in my pocket, I travelled to London by
land; and there, as well as on the road, had many struggles
with myself what course of life I should take, and whether I
should go home or to sea.

As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered
to my thoughts, and it immediately occurred to me how I should
be laughed at among the neighbours, and should be ashamed to
see, not my father and mother only, but even everybody else ;
from whence I have since often observed, how incongruous and
irrational the common temper of mankind is, especially of youth,
to that reason which ought to guide them in such cases—viz.
that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent ;
not ashamed of the action for which they ought justly to be
esteemed fools, but are ashamed of the returning, which only
can make them be esteemed wise men.

In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain
what measures to take, and what course of life to lead. An
irresistible reluctance continued to going home; and as I stayed
away a while, the remembrance of the distress I had been in
wore off, and as that abated, the little motion I had in my
desires to return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside
the thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.



16 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

CHAPTER II
SLAVERY AND ESCAPE

HAT evil influence which carried me first away from my

father’s house—which hurried me into the wild and in-
digested notion of raising my fortune, and that impressed those
conceits so forcibly upon me as to make me deaf to all good
advice, and to the entreaties and even the commands of my
father—lI say, the same influence, whatever it was, presented the
most unfortunate of all enterprises to my view; and I went on
board a vessel bound to the coast of Africa; or, as our sailors
vulgarly called it, a voyage to Guinea.

It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I did
not ship myself as a sailor; when, though I might indeed have
worked a little harder than ordinary, yet at the same time I
should have learnt the duty and office of a fore-mast man, and
in time might have qualified myself for a mate or lieutenant, if
not for a master. But as it was always my fate to choose for the
worse, so I did here; for having money in my pocket and good
clothes upon my back, I would always go on board in the habit
of a gentleman; and so I neither had any business in the ship,
nor learned to do any.

It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in
London, which does not always happen to such loose and mis-
guided young fellows as I then was; the devil generally not
omitting to lay some snare for them very early; but it was not
so with me. I first got acquainted with the master of a ship
who had been on the coast of Guinea; and who, having had very
good success there, was resolved to go again. This captain taking
a fancy to my conversation, which was not at all disagreeable
at that time, hearing me say I had a mind to see the world, told
me if I would go the voyage with him I should be at no expense ;
I should be his messmate and his companion; and if I could
carry anything with me, I should have all the advantage of it
that the trade would admit; and perhaps I might meet with
some encouragement.

I embraced the offer; and entering into a strict friendship
with this captain, who was an honest, plain-dealing man, I went
the voyage with him, and carried a small adventure with me,
which, by the disinterested honesty of my friend the captain, I
increased very considerably; for I carried about £40 in such
toys and trifles as the captain directed me to buy. These £40 I





ROBINSON CRUSOE = oe

had mustered together by the assistance of some of my relations
whom I corresponded with; and who, I believe, got my father,
or at least my mother, to contribute so much as that to my first
adventure.

This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in
all my adventures, which I owe to the integrity and honesty of
my friend the captain; under whom also I got a competent
knowledge of the mathematics and the rules of navigation,
learned how to keep an account of the ship’s course, take an
observation, and, in short, to understand some things that were
needful to be understood by a sailor; for, as he took delight to
instruct me, I took delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage
made me both a sailor and a merchant; for I brought home five
pounds nine ounces of gold-dust for my adventure, which yielded
me in London, at my return, almost £300; and this filled me
with those aspiring thoughts which have since so completed
my ruin.

Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too ; particularly,
that I was continually sick, being thrown into a violent calenture
by the excessive heat of the climate ; our principal trading being
upon the coast, from latitude of 15 degrees north even to the
line itself.

I was now set up for a Guinea trader ; and my friend, to my
great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go
the same voyage again, and I embarked in the same vessel with
one who was his mate in the former voyage, and had now got the
command of the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage that
ever man made; for though I did not carry quite £100 of my
new-gained wealth, so that I had £200 left, which I had lodged
with my friend’s widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell into
terrible misfortunes. The first was this: our ship making her
course towards the Canary Islands, or rather between those
Islands and the African shore, was surprised in the grey of the
morning by a Turkish rover of Sallee, who gave chase to us with
all the sail she could make. We crowded also as much canvas
as our yards would spread, or our masts carry, to get clear; but
finding the pirate gained upon us, and would certainly come up
with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight; our ship having
twelve guns, and the rogue eighteen. About three in the after-
/noon he came up with us, and bringing to, by mistake, just
athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as he intended,
| we brought eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured
in a broadside upon him, which made him sheer off again, after
returning our fire, and pouring in also his small shot from near

*



18 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

two hundred men which he had on board. However, we had
not a man touched, all our men keeping close. He prepared to
attack us again, and we to defend ourselves. But Jaying us on
board the next time upon our other quarter, he entered sixty
men upon our decks, who immediately fell to cutting and hack-
ing the sails and rigging. We plied them with small shot, half-
pikes, powder-chests, and such like, and cleared our deck of them
twice. However, to cut short this melancholy part of our story,
our ship being disabled, and three of our men killed, and eight
wounded, we were obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners
into Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I appre-
hended ; nor was I carried up the country to the emperor's
court, as the rest of our men were, but was kept by the captain
of the rover as his proper prize, and made his slave, being
young and nimble, and fit for his business. At this surprising
change of my circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable
slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed ; and now I looked back
upon my father’s prophetic discourse to me, that I should be
miserable and have none to relieve me, which I thought was
now so effectually brought to pass that I could not be worse; for
now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone
without redemption ; but, alas! this was but a taste of the misery
I was to go through, as will appear in the sequel of this story.

As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house,
so I was in hopes that he would take me with him when he went
to sea again, believing that it would some time or other be his
fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portugal man-of-war ; and that
then I should be set at liberty. But this hope of mine was soon
taken away; for when he went to sea, he left me on shore to
look after his little garden, and do the common drudgery of
slaves about his house ; and when he came home again from his
cruise, he ordered me to lie in the cabin to look after the ship.

Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I
might take to effect it, but found no way that had the least proba-
bility in it; nothing presented to make the supposition of it
rational; for I had nobody to communicate it to that would
embark with me—no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or
Scotchman there but myself; so that for two years, though I
often pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had the
least encouraging prospect of putting it in practice.

After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself,
which put the old thought of making some attempt for my liberty
again in my head. My patron lying at home longer than usual



ROBINSON CRUSOE 19

without fitting out his ship, which, as I heard, was for want of
money, he used constantly, once or twice a week, sometimes
oftener if the weather was fair, to take the ship’s pinnace and
go out into the road a-fishing ; and as he always took me and
young Maresco with him to row the boat, we made him very
merry, and I proved very dexterous in catching fish ; insomuch
that sometimes he would send me with a Moor, one of his kins-
men, and the youth—the Maresco, as they called him—to catch
a dish of fish for him.

It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a calm morning,
a fog rose so thick that, though we were not half a league from
the shore, we lost sight of it; and rowing we knew not whither
or which way, we laboured all day, and all the next night; and
when the morning came, we found we had pulled off to sea
instead of pulling in for the shore; and that we were at least
two leagues from the shore. However, we got well in again,
though with a great deal of labour and some danger; for the
wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morning; but we were
ali very hungry.

But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more
care of himself for the future ; and having lying by him the long-
boat: of our English ship that he had taken, he resolved he would
not go a-fishing any more without a compass and some provision ;
so he ordered the carpenter of his ship, who also was an English
slave, to build a little state-room, or cabin, in the middle of the
long-boat, like that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it
to steer, and haul home the main-sheet ; the room before for a
hand or two to stand and work the sails. She sailed with what
we call a shoulder-of-mutton sail; and the boom jibed over the
top of the cabin, which lay very snug and low, and had in it
room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table to eat on,
with some small lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor as
he thought fit to drink ; and his bread, rice, and coffee.

We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing ; and as I was
most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without me.
It happened that he had appointed to go out in this boat, either
for pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors of some distinc-
tion in that place, and for whom he had provided extraordinarily,
and had, therefore, sent on board the boat overnight a larger
store of provisions than ordinary; and had ordered me to get
ready three fusees with powder and shot, which were on board
his ship, for that they designed some sport of fowling as well as
fishing.

I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the next





20 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

morning with the boat washed clean, her ancient and pendants
out, and everything to accommodate his guests; when by-and-by
my patron came on board alone, and told me his guests had put
off going, from some business that fell out, and ordered me, with
the man and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat and catch
them some fish, for that his friends were to sup at his house, and
commanded that as soon as I got some fish I should bring it
home to his house ; all which I prepared to do.

This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into
my thoughts, for now I found I was likely to have a little ship at
my command ; and my master being gone, I prepared to furnish
myself, not for fishing business, but for a voyage ; though I knew
not, neither did I so much as consider, whither I should steer—
anywhere to get out of that place was my desire.

My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this
Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board; for I told
him we must not presume to eat of our patron’s bread. He said
that was true; so he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit,
and three jars of fresh water, into the boat. I knew where my
patron’s case of bottles stood, which it was evident, by the make,
were taken out of some English prize, and I conveyed them
into the boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they had been
there before for our master. 1 conveyed also a great lump of
beeswax into the boat, which weighed about half a hundred-
weight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and
a hammer, all of which were of great use to us afterwards,
especially the wax, to make candles. Another trick 1 tried upon
him, which he innocently came into also: his name was Ismael,
which they call Muley, or Moely ; so I called to him—“ Moely,”
said I, “our patron’s guns are on board the boat; can you not
get a little powder and shot? It may be we may kill some
aleamies (a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves, for I know he
keeps the gunner’s stores in the ship.” “Yes,” says he, “I'll
bring some ;”’ and accordingly he brought a great leather pouch,
which held a pound and a half of powder, or rather more ;
and another with shot, that had five or six pounds, with some
bullets, and put all into the boat. At the same time I had
found some powder of my master’s in the great cabin, with which
I filled one of the large bottles in the case, which was almost
empty, pouring what was in it into another; and thus furnished
with everything needful, we sailed out of the port to fish. The
castle, which is at the entrance of the port, knew who we were,
and took no notice of us; and we were not above a mile out of
the port before we hauled in our sail and set us down to fish.






CE Rrecig,

1898



sa —
——————

te

So ——

"Eye Come near the boat
Ti Sook you through he Sead

Copyright, Service & Paton, 1899.



ROBINSON CRUSOE 21

The wind blew from the N.N.E., which was contrary to my
desire, for had it blown southerly I had been sure to have made
the coast of Spain, and at least reached to the bay of Cadiz; but
my resolutions were, blow which way it would, I would be gone
from that horrid place where I was, and leave the rest to fate.

After we had fished some time and caught nothing—for when
I had fish on my hook I would not pull them up, that he might
not see them—I said to the Moor, “ This will not do; our master
will not be thus served ; we must stand farther off.”. He, think-
ing no harm, agreed, and being in the head of the boat, set the
sails; and, as I had the helm, I ran the boat out near a league
farther, and then brought her to, as if I would fish; when,
giving the boy the helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor
was, and making as if I stooped for something behind him, I
took him by surprise with my arm under his waist, and tossed
him clear overboard into the sea. He rose immediately, for he
swam like a cork, and called to me, begged to be taken in, told
me he would go all over the world with me. He swam so
strong after the boat that he would have reached me very
quickly, there being but little wind; upon which I stepped into
the cabin, and fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented it
at him, and told him I had done him no hurt, and if he would
be quiet I would do him none: “ But,” said I, “you swim well
enough to reach to the shore, and the sea is calm; make the
best of your way to shore, and I will do you no harm; but if
you come near the boat I’ll shoot you through the head, for
I am resolved to have my liberty ;” so he turned himself about,
and swam for the shore, and I make no doubt but he reached it
with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.

I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me,
and have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust
him. When he was gone, I turned to the boy, whom they
called Xury, and said to him, “ Xury, if you will be faithful to
me, I’]] make you a great man; but if you will not stroke your
face to be true to me”—that is, swear by Mahomet and his
father’s beard—*“I must throw you into the sea too.” The boy
smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently that I could not
distrust him, and swore to be faithful to me, and go all over the
world with me.

While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood
out directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching to windward,
that they might think me gone towards the Straits’ mouth (as
indeed any one that had been in their wits must have been
supposed to do); for who would have supposed we were sailed



22 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

on to the southward, to the truly Barbarian coast, where whole
nations of negroes were sure to surround us with their canoes
and destroy us; where we could not go on shore but we should
be devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless savages of
human kind.

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my
course, and steered directly south and by east, bending my
course a little towards the east, that I might keep in with the
shore ; and having a fair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth, quiet
sea, I made such sail that I believe by the next day, at three
o'clock in the afternoon, when I first made the land, I could not
be less than one hundred and fifty miles south of Salee; quite
beyond the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions, or indeed of any
other king thereabouts, for we saw no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken of the Moors, and the
dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that I
would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an anchor; the wind
continuing fair till I had sailed in that manner five days; and
then the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also that
if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would now
give over; so I ventured to make to the coast, and came to an
anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew not what, nor
where, neither what latitude, what country, what nation, or
what river. I neither saw, nor desired to see any people ; the
principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came into this
creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it
was dark, and discover the country ; but as soon as it was quite
dark, we heard such dreadful noises of the barking, roaring, and
howling of wild creatures, of we knew not what kinds, that the
poor boy was ready to die with fear, and begged of me not to
go on shore till day. “ Well, Xury,” said I, “then I won’t; but
it may be that we may see men by day, who will be as bad to
us as those lions.’”” “Then we give them the shoot gun,” says
Xury, laughing, “make them run wey.” Such English Xury
spoke by conversing among us slaves. However, I was glad to
see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dram (out of our
patron’s case of bottles) to cheer him up. After all, Xury’s
advice was good, and I took it; we dropped our little anchor,
and lay still all night; I say still, for we slept none; for in two
or three hours we saw vast great creatures (we knew not what
to call them) of many sorts, come down to the sea-shore and
run into the water, wallowing and washing themselves for the
pleasure of cooling themselves; and they made such hideous
howlings and yellings, that I never indeed heard the like.



ROBINSON CRUSOE 23

Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but
we were both more frighted when we heard one of these mighty
creatures come swimming towards our boat; we could not see
him, but we might hear him by his blowing to be a monstrous
huge and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion, and it might
be so for aught I know; but poor Xury cried to me to weigh
the anchor and row away; “No,” says I, “Xury; we can slip
our cable, with the buoy to it, and go off to sea; they cannot
follow us far.” I had no sooner said so, but I perceived the
creature (whatever it was) within two oars’ length, which some-
thing surprised me; however, I immediately stepped to the
cabin door, and taking up my gun, fired at him ; upon which he
immediately turned about and swam towards the shore again.

But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises, and hideous
cries and howlings that were raised, as well upon the edge of
the shore as higher within the country, upon the noise or report
of the gun, a thing I have some reason to believe those creatures
had never heard before: this convinced me that there was no
going on shore for us in the night on that coast, and how to
venture on shore in the day was another question too; for to
have fallen into the hands of any of the savages had been as bad
as to have fallen into the hands of the lions and tigers ; at least
we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.

Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore some-
where or other for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat ;
when and where to get to it was the point. Xury said, if I
would let him go on shore with one of the jars, he would find
if there was any water, and bring some to me. I asked him
why he would go? why I should not go, and he stay in the
boat? The boy answered with so much affection as made me
love him ever after. Says he, “If wild mans come, they eat
me, you go wey.” “Well, Xury,” said I, “we will both go, and
if the wild mans come, we will kill them, they shall eat neither
of us.” So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a dram
out of our patron’s case of bottles which I mentioned before ;
and we hauled the boat in as near the shore as we thought was
proper, and so waded on shore, carrying nothing but our arms
and two jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the
coming of canoes with savages down the river; but the boy
seeing a low place about a mile up the country, rambled to it,
and by-and-by I saw him come running towards me. I thought
he was pursued by some savage, or frighted with some wild
beast, and I ran forward towards him to help him; but when

é



24 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

I came nearer to him I saw something hanging over his
shoulders, which was a creature that he had shot, like a hare,
but different in colour, and longer legs: however, we were very
glad of it, and it was very good meat; but the great joy that
poor Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good water
and seen no wild mans.

But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains
for water, for a little higher up the creek where we were we
found the water fresh when the tide was out, which flowed but
a little way up; so we filled our jars, and feasted on the hare
we had killed, and prepared to go on our way, having seen no
footsteps of any human creature in that part of the country.

As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very
well that the islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verde
Islands also, lay not far off from the coast. But as I had no
instruments to take an observation to know what latitude we
were in, and not exactly knowing, or at least remembering,
what latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for them,
or when to stand off to sea towards them; otherwise I might
now easily have found some of these islands. But my hope was,
that if I stood along this coast till I came to that part where the
English traded, I should find some of their vessels upon their
usual design of trade, that would relieve and take us in.

By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was
must be that country which, lying between the Emperor of
Morocco’s dominions and the negroes, lies waste and unin-
habited, except by wild beasts ; the negroes having abandoned it
and gone farther south for fear of the Moors, and the Moors not
thinking it worth inhabiting by reason of its barrenness; and
indeed, both forsaking it because of the prodigious number of
tigers, lions, leopards, and other furious creatures which harbour
there ; so that the Moors use it for their hunting only, where
they go like an army, two or three thousand men at a time;
and indeed for near a hundred miles together upon this coast
we saw nothing but a waste, uninhabited country by day, and
heard nothing but howlings and roaring of wild beasts by
night.

Once or twice in the daytime I thought I saw the Pico of
Teneriffe, being the high top of the Mountain Teneriffe in the
Canaries, and had a great mind to venture out, in hopes of
reaching thither; but having tried twice, I was forced in again
by contrary winds, the sea also going too high for my little
vessel ; so I resolved to pursue my first design, and keep along
the shore.



ROBINSON CRUSOE 25

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we
had left this place; and once in particular, being early in the
morning, we came to an anchor under a little point of land,
which was pretty high; and the tide beginning to flow, we lay
still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about him
than it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me that
we had best go farther off the shore; “ For,” says he, “look,
yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of that hillock,
fast asleep.’ I looked where he pointed, and saw a dreadful
monster indeed, for it was a terrible, great lion that lay on the
side of the shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill that
hung as it were a little over him. “Xury,” says I, “you shall
go on shore and kill him.” Xury looked frighted, and said,
“Me kill! he eat me at one mouth !”—one mouthful he meant.
However, I said no more to the boy, but bade him lie still, and
I took our biggest gun, which was almost musket-bore, and
loaded it with a good charge of powder, and with two slugs, and
laid it down; then I loaded another gun with two bullets; and
the third (for we had three pieces) I loaded with five smaller
bullets. I took the best aim I could with the first piece to
have shot him in the head, but he lay so with his leg raised a
little above his nose, that the slugs hit his leg about the knee
and broke the bone. He started up, growling at first, but
finding his leg broken, fell down again; and then got upon
three legs, and gave the most hideous roar that ever I heard.
I was a little surprised that I had not hit him on the head;
however, I took up the second piece immediately, and though
he began to move off, fired again, and shot him in the head, and
had the pleasure to see him drop and make but little noise, but
lie struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and would have
me let him go on shore. “Well, go,” said I: so the boy
jumped into the water, and taking a little gun in one hand,
swam to shore with the other hand, and coming close to the
creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him
in the head again, which despatched him quite.

This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I was
very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a
creature that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury said
he would have some of him; so he comes on board, and asked
me to give him the hatchet. “For what, Xury?” said I. “Me
cut off his head,” said he. However, Xury could not cut off his
head, but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him, and it was
a monstrous great one.

I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him



26 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

might, one way or other, be of some value to us; and I resolved
to take off his skin if I could. So Xury and I went to work
with him; but Xury was much the better workman at it, for I
knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us both up the
whole day, but at last we got off the hide of him, and spreading
it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two
days’ time, and it afterwards served me to lie upon.

CHAPTER III
WRECKED ON A DESERT ISLAND

AFTER this stop, we made on to the southward continually
for ten or twelve days, living very sparingly on our pro-
visions, which began to abate very much, and going no oftener
to the shore than we were obliged to for fresh water. My
design in this was to make the river Gambia or Senegal, that is
to say anywhere about the Cape de Verde, where I was in hopes
to meet with some European ship; and if I did not, I knew not
what course I had to take, but to seek for the islands, or perish
there among the negroes. I knew that all the ships from
Europe, which sailed either to the coast of Guinea or to Brazil,
or to the East Indies, made this cape, or those islands; and, in
a word, I put the whole of my fortune upon this single point,
either that I must meet with some ship or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as
I have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited ; and in
two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand upon
the shore to look at us; we could also perceive they were quite
black and naked. I was once inclined to have gone on shore to
them; but Xury was my better counsellor, and said to me, “ No
go, no go.” However, I hauled in nearer the shore that I might
talk to them, and I found they ran along the shore by me a good
way. I observed they had no weapons in their hand, except one,
who had a long slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and
that they could throw them a great way with good aim; so I
kept at a distance, but talked with them by signs as well as I
could; and particularly made signs for something to eat: they
beckoned to me to stop my boat, and they would fetch me some
meat. Upon this I lowered the top of my sail and lay by, and
two of them ran up into the country, and in less than half-an-
hour came back, and brought with them two pieces of dried



ROBINSON CRUSOE 27

flesh and some corn, such as is the produce of their country; but we
neither knew what the one or the other was ; however, we were
willing to accept it, but how to come at it was our next dispute, for
I would not venture on shore to them, and they were as much
afraid of us ; but they took a safe way for us all, for they brought
it to the shore and laid it down, and went and stood a great way
off till we fetched it on board, and then came close to us again.

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to
make them amends; but an opportunity offered that very instant
to oblige them wonderfully ; for while we were lying by the
shore came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the other (as we
took it) with great fury from the mountains towards the sea;
whether it was the male pursuing the female, or whether they
were in sport or in rage, we could not tell, any more than we
could tell whether it was usual or strange, but I believe it was
the latter; because, in the first place, those ravenous creatures
seldom appear but in the night ; and, in the second place, we
found the people terribly frighted, especially the women. The
man that had the lance or dart did not fly from them, but the
rest did; however, as the two creatures ran directly into the
water, they did not offer to fall upon any of the negroes, but
plunged themselves into the sea, and swam about, as if they had
come for their diversion; at last one of them began to come
nearer our boat than at first I expected; but I lay ready for
him, for I had loaded my gun with all possible expedition, and
bade Xury load both the others. As soon as he came fairly
within my reach, I fired, and shot him directly in the head; im-
mediately he sank down into the water, but rose instantly, and
plunged up and down, as if he were struggling for life, and so
indeed he was; he immediately made to the shore ; but between
the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the
water, he died just before he reached the shore.

It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor
creatures at the noise and fire of my gun; some of them were
even ready to die for fear, and fell down as dead with the very
terror; but when they saw the creature dead, and sunk in the
water, and that I made signs to them to come to the shore, they
took heart and came, and began to search for the creature. 1
found him by his blood staining the water; and by the help of
a rope, which I slung round him, and gave the negroes to haul,
they dragged him on shore, and found that it was a most curious
leopard, spotted, and fine to an admirable degree ; and the
negroes held up their hands with admiration, to think what it
was I had killed him with.



28 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the
noise of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to the
mountains from whence they came; nor could I, at that distance,
know what it was. I found quickly the negroes wished to eat
the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to have them take it
as a favour from me; which, when I made signs to them that
they might take him, they were very thankful for. Immediately
they fell to work with him; and though they had no knife, yet,
with a sharpened piece of wood, they took off his skin as readily,
and much more readily, than we could have done with a knife.
They offered me some of the flesh, which I declined, pointing
out that I would give it them; but made signs for the skin,
which they gave me very freely, and brought me a great deal
more of their provisions, which, though I did not understand,
yet I accepted. I then made signs to them for some water, and
held out one of my jars to them, turning it bottom upward, to
show that it was empty, and that I wanted to have it filled.
They called immediately to some of their friends, and there
came two women, and brought a great vessel made of earth, and
burnt, as I supposed, in the sun; this they set down to me, as
before, and I sent Xury on shore with my jars, and filled them
all three. The women were as naked as the men.

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and
water; and leaving my friendly negroes, I made forward for
about eleven days more, without offering to go near the shore,
till I saw the land run out a great length into the sea, at about
the distance of four or five leagues before me; and the sea being
very calm, I kept a large offing to make this point. At length,
doubling the point, at about two leagues from the land, I saw
plainly land on the other side, to seaward ; then I concluded, as
it was most certain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verde, and
those the islands called, from thence, Cape de Verde Islands.
However, they were at a great distance, and I could not well
tell what I had best to do; for if I should be taken with a fresh
of wind, I might neither reach one or other.

In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the
cabin and sat down, Xury having the helm; when, on a sudden,
the boy cried out, “ Master, master, a ship with a sail !”” and the
foolish boy was frighted out of his wits, thinking it must needs
be some of his master’s ships sent to pursue us, but I knew we
were far enough out of their reach. I jumped out of the cabin,
and immediately saw, not only the ship, but that it was a
Portuguese ship; and, as I thought, was bound to the coast of
Guinea, for negroes. But, when I observed the course she





ROBINSON CRUSOE 29

steered, I was soon convinced they were bound some other way,
and did not design to come any nearer to the shore ; upon which
I stretched out to sea as much as I could, resolving to speak
with them if possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able
to come in their way, but that they would be gone by before I
could make any signal to them: but after I had crowded to the
utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems, saw by the help of
their glasses that it was some European boat, which they sup-
posed must belong to some ship that was lost ; so they shortened
sail to let me come up. I was encouraged with this, and as I had
my patron’s ancient on board, I made a waft of it to them, for I
signal of distress, and fired a gun, both which they saw; for they
told me they saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun.
Upon these signals they very kindly brought to, and lay by for
me; and in about three hours’ time I came up with them.

They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and
in French, but I understood none of them; but at last a Scotch
sailor, who was on board, called to me: and J answered him, and
told him I was an Englishman, that I had made my escape out
of slavery from the Moors, at Sallee; they then bade me come
on board, and very kindly took me in, and all my goods.

It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will believe,
that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable
and almost hopeless condition as I was in; and I immediately
offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a return for my
deliverance ; but he generously told me he would take nothing
from me, but that all I had should be delivered safe to me when
I came to the Brazils. “For,” says he, “I have saved your life
on no other terms than I would be glad to be saved myself: and
it may, one time or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same
condition. Besides,” said he, “when I carry you to the Brazils,
so great a way from your own country, if I should take from you
what you have, you will be starved there, and then I only take
away that life [have given. No, no,’ says he: “ Seignior Inglese”’
(Mr. Englishman), “ I will carry you thither in charity, and those
things will help to buy your subsistence there, and your passage
home again.”

As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the
performance to a tittle; for he ordered the seamen that none
should touch anything that I had: then he took everything into
his own possession, and gave me back an exact inventory of
them, that I might have them, even to my three earthen jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw, and



30 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

told me he would buy it of me for his ship’s use; and asked me
what I would have for it? I told him he had been so generous
to me in everything that I could not offer to make any price of
the boat, but left it entirely to him: upon which he told me he
would give me a note of hand to pay me eighty pieces of eight
for it at Brazil ; and when it came there, if any one offered to give
more, he would make it up. He offered me also sixty pieces of
eight more for my boy Xury, which I was loth to take ; not that
I was unwilling to let the captain have him, but I was very loth
to sell the poor boy’s liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully
in procuring my own. However, when I let him know my
reason, he owned it to be just, and offered me this medium,
that he would give the boy an obligation to set him free in ten
years, if he turned Christian : upon this, and Xury saying he was
willing to go to him, I let the captain have him.

We bad a very eood voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived
in the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints’ Bay, in about
twenty-two days after. And now I was once more delivered
from the most miserable of all conditions of life ; and what to
do next with myself I was to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me I can never
enough remember: he would take nothing of me for my passage,

gave me twenty ducats for the leopard’s "skin, and forty for the
lion’s skin, which I had in my boat, and caused everything I
had in the ship to be punctually delivered to me; and what I
was willing to sell he bought of me, such as the case of botties,
two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of beeswax—for I
had made candles of the rest: in a word, I made about two
hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo; and with
this stock I went on shore in the Brazils.

I had not been long here before I was recommended to the
house of a good honest man like himself, who had an zngenio, as
they call it (that is, a plantation and a sugar-house). I lived
with him some time, and acquainted myself by that means
with the manner of planting and making of sugar; and seeing
how well the planters lived, and how they got rich suddenly, 1
resolved, if 1 could get a licence to settle there, I would turn
planter among them : resolving in the meantime to find out
some way to get my money, which I had left in London,
remitted to me. To this purpose, getting a kind of letter of
naturalisation, I purchased as much land that was uncured as
my money would reach, and formed a plan for my plantation
and settlement; such a one as might be suitable to the stock
which I proposed to myself to receive from England.






ROBINSON CRUSOE 31

I had a neighbour, a Portuguese, of Lisbon, but born of Eng-
lish parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such circum-
stances as I was. I call him my neighbour, because his plantation
lay next to mine, and we went on very sociably together. My
stock was but low, as well as his; and we rather planted for food
than anything else, for about two years. However, we began to
increase, and our land began to come into order; so that the
third year we planted some tobacco, and made each of us a large
piece of ground ready for planting canes in the year to come.
But we both wanted help ; and now I found, more than before,
I had done wrong in parting with my boy Xury.

But, alas! for me to do wrong that never did right, was no
great wonder. I had no remedy but to go on: I had got into
an employment quite remote to my genius, and directly con-
trary to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my
father’s house, and broke through all his good advice, Nay, I
was coming into the very middle station, or upper degree of
low life, which my father advised me to before, and which, if I
resolved to go on with, I might as well have stayed at home,
and never have fatigued myself in the world as I had done ; and
I used often to say to myself, I could have done this as well
in England, among my friends, as have gone five thousand miles
off to do it among strangers and savages, in a wilderness, and at
such a distance as never to hear from any part of the world that
had the least knowledge of me.

In this manner I used to look upon my condition with the
utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with, but now and
then this neighbour; no work to be done, but by the labour of
my hands; and I used to say, I lived just like a man cast away
upon some desolate island, that had nobody there but himself.
_ But how just has it been—and how should all men reflect, that
§ when they compare their present conditions with others that are
| Worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the exchange, and be
convinced of their former felicity by their experience—I say,
| how just has it been, that the truly solitary life I reflected on,
}in an island of mere desolation, should be my lot, who had so

often unjustly compared it with the life which I then led, in
which, had I continued, I had in all probability been exceeding
prosperous and rich,

| I was in some degree settled in my measures for carrying on
the plantation before my kind friend, the captain of the ship
that took me up at sea, went back—for the ship remained there, in
providing his lading and preparing for his voyage, nearly three
months—when, telling him what little stock I had left behind me
c



32 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

in London, he gave me this friendly and sincere advice :—
“ Seignior Inglese,” says he (for so he always called me), “ if you
will give me letters, and a procuration in form to me, with
orders to the person who has your money in London to send your
effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct, and in such
goods as are proper for this country, I will bring you the produce
of them, God willing, at my return, but, since human affairs are
all subject to changes and disasters, I would have you give orders
but for one hundred pounds sterling, which, you say, is half your
stock, and let the hazard be run for the first; so that, if it come
safe, you may order the rest the same way, and, if it misearry, you
may have the other half to have recourse to for your supply.”

This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I
could not but be convinced it was the best course I could take ;
so I accordingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman with whom
I had left my money, and a procuration to the Portuguese
captain, as he desired.

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full account of all my
adventures—my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the
Portuguese captain at sea, the humanity of his behaviour, and
what condition I was now in, with all other necessary directions
for my supply; and when this honest captain came to Lisbon,
he found means, by some of the English merchants there, to
send over, not the order only, but a full account of my story to
a merchant in London, who represented it effectually to her;
whereupon she not only delivered the money, but out of her
own pocket sent the Portugal captain a very handsome present
for his humanity and charity to me.

The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in
English goods, such as the captain had written for, sent them
directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me
to the Brazils; among which, without my direction (for I was
too young in my business to think of them), he had taken care
to have all sorts of tools, ironwork, and utensils necessary for my
plantation, and which were of great use to me.

When this cargo arrived I thought my fortune made, for I was
surprised with the joy of it; and my good steward, the captain,
had laid out the five pounds, which my friend had sent him for
a present for himself, to purchase and bring me over a servant,
under bond for six years’ service, and would not accept of any
consideration, except a little tobacco, which I would have him
accept, being of my own produce.

Neither was this all ; for my goods being all English manufac-
ture, such as cloths, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable



ROBINSON CRUSOE 33

and desirable in the country, I found means to sell them to a
very great advantage ; so that I might say I had more than four
times the value of my first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond
my poor neighbour—I mean in the advancement of my planta-
tion ; for the first thing I did, I bought me a negro slave, and
an European servant also—I mean another besides that which
the captain brought me from Lisbon. |

But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means of
our greatest adversity, so it was with me. I went on the next
year with great success in my plantation: I raised fifty great
rolls of tobacco on my own ground more than I had disposed of
for necessaries among my neighbours; and these fifty rolls,
being each of above a hundredweight, were well cured, and laid
by against the return of the fleet from Lisbon: and now increas-
_ ing in business and wealth, my head began to be full of projects
. and undertakings beyond my reach; such as are, indeed, often
the ruin of the best heads in business. Had I continued in the
station I was now in, I had room for all the happy things to
have yet befallen me for which my father so earnestly recom-
mended a quiet, retired life, and of which he had so sensibly
described the middle station of life to be full of ; but other things
attended me, and I was still to be the wilful agent of all my own
miseries ; and particularly, to increase my fault, and double the
reflections upon myself, which in my future sorrows I should have
leisure to make, all these miscarriages were procured by my ap-
parent obstinate adhering to my foolish inclination of wandering
| abroad, and pursuing that inclination, in contradiction to the
clearest views of doing myself good in a fair and plain pursuit of
those prospects, and those measures of life, which nature and
Providence concurred to present me with, and to make my duty.

As I had once done thus in my breaking away from my
} parents, so I could not be content now, but I must go and leave
» the happy view I had of being a rich and thriving man in my
© new plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of
» vising faster than the nature of the thing admitted ; and thus I
) cast myself down again into the deepest gulf of human misery
» that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent with life
» and a state of health in the world.

To come, then, by the just degrees to the particulars of this
part of my story. You may suppose, that having now lived
© almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive and
prosper very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned
the language, but had contracted acquaintance and friendship
among my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants at St.

Oe ——
























34 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

Salvador, which was our port ; and that, in my discourses among
them, I had frequently given them an account of my two voyages
to the coast of Guinea: the manner of trading with the negroes
there, and how easy it was to purchase upon the coast for trifles
__such as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and
the like—not only gold-dust, Guinea grains, elephants’ teeth, &c.,
but negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great numbers.

They listened always very attentively to my discourses on these
heads, but especially to that part which related to the buying of
negroes, which was a trade at that time, not only not far entered
into, but, as far as it was, had been carried on by assientos, or
permission of the kings of Spain and Portugal, and engrossed in
the public stock: so that few negroes were bought, and those
excessively dear.

It happened, being in company with some merchants and
planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very
earnestly, three of them came to me next morning, and told me
they had been musing very much upon what I had discoursed
with them of the last night, and they came to make a secret pro-
posal to me ; and, after enjoining me to secrecy, they told me that
they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that they had
all plantations as well as I, and were straitened for nothing so
much as servants; that as it was a trade that could not be carried
on, because they could not publicly sell the negroes when they
came home, so they desired to make but one voyage, to bring the
negroes on shore privately, and divide them among their own
plantations ; and, ina word, the question was whether I would go
their supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading part upon the
coast of Guinea ; and they offered me that I should have my equal
share of the negroes, without providing any part of the stock.

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been
made to any one that had not had a settlement and a plantation
of his own to look after, which was in a fair way of coming to be
very considerable, and with a good stock upon it; but for me,
that was thus entered and established, and had nothing to do
but to go on as I had begun, for three or four years more, and
to have sent for the other hundred pounds from England ; and
who in that time, and with that little addition, could scarce have
failed of being worth three or four thousand pounds sterling,
and that increasing too—for me to think of such a voyage was
the most preposterous thing that ever man in such circumstances
could be guilty of.

But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more
resist the offer than I could restrain my first rambling designs





Ce Coley

came To make? =
a Seared arabes T&S med

Copyright, Service & Paton, 1899.





—e

ROBINSON CRUSOE 35

when my father’s good counsel was lost upon me. Ina word, I
told them I would go with all my heart, if they would undertake
to look after my plantation in my absence, and would dispose of
it to such as I should direct, if I miscarried. This they all en-
gaged to do, and entered into writings or covenants to do so; and
I made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and effects in
case of my death, making the captain of the ship that had saved
my life, as before, my universal heir, but obliging him to dispose of
my effects as I had directed in my will; one half of the produce
being to himself, and the other to be shipped to England.

In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects and
to keep up my plantation. Had I used half as much prudence to
have looked into my own interest, and have made a judgment of
what I ought to have done and not to have done, I had certainly
never gone away from so prosperous an undertaking, leaving all
the probable views of a thriving circumstance, and gone upon a
voyage to sea, attended with all its common hazards, to say nothing
of the reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes to myself.

But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my
faney rather than my reason ; and, accordingly, the ship being
fitted out, and the cargo furnished, and all things done, as by
agreement, by my partners in the voyage, I went on board in an
evil hour, the Ist September 1659, being the same day eight
years that I went from my father and mother at Hull, in order to
act the rebel to their authority, and the fool to my own interests.

Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden,
carried six guns and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy,
and myself. We had on board no large cargo of goods, except
of such toys as were fit for our trade with the negroes, such as
beads, bits of glass, shells, and other trifles, especially little
looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.

The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to
the northward upon our own coast, with design to stretch over
for the African coast when we came about ten or twelve degrees
of northern latitude, which, it seems, was the manner of course
in those days. We had very good weather, only excessively hot,
all the way upon our own coast, till we came to the height of
Cape St. Augustino; from whence, keeping further off at sea,
we lost sight of land, and steered as if we were bound for the
isle Fernando de Noronha, holding our course N.E. by N., and
leaving those isles on the east. In this course we passed the
line in about twelve days’ time, and were, by our last observation,
in seven degrees twenty-two minutes northern latitude, when a
violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge.



36 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

It began from the south-east, came about to the north-west, and
then settled in the north-east; from whence it blew in such a
terrible manner, that for twelve days together we could do
nothing but drive, and, seudding away before it, let it carry us
whither fate and the fary of the winds derecrea ; and, during
these twelve days, I need not say that I expected every day to
be swallowed up; nor, indeed, did any in the ship expect
to save their lives.

In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm, one
of our men die of the calenture, and one man and the boy
washed overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather abating
a little, the master made an observation as well as he could, and
found that he was in about eleven degrees north latitude, but
that he was twenty-two degrees of longitude difference west
from Cape St. Augustino; so that he found he was upon the
coast of Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river
Amazon, toward that of the river Orinoco, commonly called
the Great River; and began to consult with me what course he
should take, for the ship was leaky, and very much disabled, and
he was going directly back to the coast of Brazil.

I was positively against that; and looking over the charts of
the sea-coast of America, with ian, we concluded there was no
inhabited country for us to have recourse to till we came within
the circle of the Caribbee Islands, and therefore resolved to
stand away for Barbadoes ; which, by keeping off at sea, to avoid
the indraft of the Bay or Gulf of Mexico, we might easily per-
form, as we hoped, in about fifteen days’ sail; whereas we could
not possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa without
some assistance both to our ship and to ourselves.

With this design we changed our course, and steered away
N.W. by W., in ‘order to reach some of our English islands,
where I hoped for relief. But our voyage was otherwise deter-
mined ; for, being in the latitude of twelve degrees eighteen
minutes, a second storm came upon us, which carried us away
with the same impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of the
way of all human commerce, that, had all our lives been saved
as to the sea, we were rather in danger of being devoured by
savages than ever returning to our own country.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our
men early in the morning cried out, “Land!” and we had no
sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing
whereabouts in the world we were, than the ship struck upon
a sand, and ina moment her motion being so stopped, the sea
broke over her in such a manner that we expected we should





ROBINSON CRUSOE 37

all have perished immediately ; and we were immediately driven
into our close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam and
spray of the sea.

It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like con-
dition to describe or conceive the consternation of men in such
circumstances. We knew nothing where we were, or upon what
land it was we were driven—whether an island or the main,
whether inhabited or not inhabited. As the rage of the wind
was still great, though rather less than at first, we could not so
much as hope to have the ship hold many minutes without
breaking into pieces, unless the winds, by a kind of miracle,
should turn immediately about. In a word, we sat looking
upon one another, and expecting death every moment, and
every man, accordingly, preparing for another world ; for there
was little or nothing more for us to do in this, That which was
our present comfort, and all the comfort we had, was that,
contrary to our expectation, the ship did not break yet, and
that the master said the wind began to abate.

Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate,
yet the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking
too fast for us to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful
condition indeed, and had nothing to do but to think of saving
our lives as well as we could. We had a boat at our stern just
before the storm, but she was first staved by dashing against
the ship’s rudder, and in the next place she broke away, and
either sunk or was driven off to sea; so there was no hope from
her. We had another boat on board, but how to get her off into
the sea was a doubtful thing. However, there was no time to
debate, for we fancied that the ship would break in pieces every
minute, and some told us she was actually broken already.

In this distress the mate of our vessel laid hold of the boat,
and with the help of the rest of the men got her slung over
the ship’s side ; and getting all into her, let go, and committed
ourselves, being eleven in number, to God’s merey and the
wild sea; for though the storm was abated considerably, yet
the sea ran dreadfully high upon the shore, and might be well
called den wild zee, as the Dutch eall the sea in a storm.

And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all saw
_ plainly that the sea went so high that the boat could not live,
_ and that we should be inevitably drowned. As to making sail,
_ We had none, nor if we had could we have done anything with
it; so we worked at the oar towards the land, though with
heavy hearts, like men going to execution; for we all knew
that when the boat came near the shore she would be dashed in



38 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

a thousand pieces by the breach of the sea. However, we com-
mitted our souls to God in the most earnest manner; and the
wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened our destruction
with our own hands, pulling as well as we could towards land.

What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep or
shoal, we knew not. The only hope that could rationally give
us the least shadow of expectation was, if we might find some
bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where by great chance
we might have run our boat in, or got under the lee of the land,
and perhaps made smooth water. But there was nothing like
this appeared; but as we made nearer and nearer the shore,
the land looked more frightful than the sea.

After we had rowed, or rather driven about a league and a half,
as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling
astern of us, and plainly bade us expect the coup de grace. It took
us with such a fury, that it overset the boat at once ; and separating
us as well from the boat as from one another, gave us no time to
say, “O God!” for we were all swallowed up in a moment.

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt
when I sank into the water; for though I swam very well,
yet I could not deliver myself from the waves so as to draw
breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather carried me, a
vast way on towards the shore, and having spent itself, went
back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but half dead with
the water I took in. I had so much presence of mind, as well
as breath left, that seeing myself nearer the mainland than I
expected, I got upon my feet, and endeavoured to make on
towards the land as fast as I could before another wave should
return and take me up again ; but I soon found it was impossible to
avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a great hill,
and as furious as an enemy, which I had no means or strength
to contend with: my business was to hold my breath, and raise
myself upon the water if I could; and so, by swimming, to pre-
serve my breathing, and pilot myself towards the shore, if possible,
my greatest concern now being that the sea, as it would carry me
a great way towards the shore when it came on, might not carry
me back again with it when it gave back towards the sea.

The wave that came upon me again buried me at once twenty
or thirty feet deep in its own body, and I could feel myself
carried with a mighty force and swiftness towards the shore a
very great way; but I held my breath, and assisted myself to
swim still forward with all my might. I was ready to burst with
holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising up, so, to my
immediate relief, I found my head and hands shoot out above







ROBINSON CRUSOE 39

the surface of the water; and though it was not two seconds of
time that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave
me breath, and new courage. I was covered again with water
2 good while, but not so long but I held it out; and finding the
water had spent itself, and began to return, I struck forward
against the return of the waves, and felt ground again with my
feet. I stood still a few moments to recover breath, and till the
waters went from me, and then took to my heels and ran with
what strength I had further towards the shore. But neither
would this deliver me from the fury of the sea, which came
pouring in after me again; and twice more I was lifted up by the
waves and carried forward as before, the shore being very flat.

The last time of these two had well-nigh been fatal to me, for
the sea having hurried me along as before, landed me, or rather
dashed me, against a piece of rock, and that with such force, that
it left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own deliver-
ance ; for the blow taking my side and breast, beat the breath
as it were quite out of my body; and had it returned again
immediately, I must have been strangled in the water; but I
recovered a little before the return of the waves, and seeing I
should be covered again with the water, I resolved to hold fast
by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath, if possible, till
the wave went back. Now, as the waves were not so high as at
first, being nearer land, I held my hold till the wave abated, and
then fetched another run, which brought me so near the shore
that the next wave, though it went over me, yet did not so
swallow me up as to carry me away; and the next run I took, I
got to the mainland, where, to my great comfort, I clambered
up the cliffs of the shore and sat me down upon the grass, free
from danger and quite out of the reach of the water.

I was now landed and safe on shore, and began to look up and
thank God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there was
some minutes before scarce any room to hope. I believe it is im-
possible to express, to the life, what the ecstasies and transports
of the soul are, when it is so saved, as I may say, out of the very
grave: and I do not wonder now at the custom, when a male-
factor, who has the halter about his neck, is tied up, and just
going to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought to him—I say,
I do not wonder that they bring a surgeon with it, to let him
blood that very moment they tell him of it, that the surprise may
not drive the animal spirits from the heart and overwhelm him.

‘For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.”

I walked about on the shore lifting up my hands, and my



40 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

whole being, as I may say, wrapped up in a contemplation of my
deliverance ; making a thousand gestures and motions, which I
cannot describe ; reflecting upon all my comrades that were
drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved but myself ;
for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign of
them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that
were not fellows.

I cast my eye to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and
froth of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far
off; and considered, Lord! how was it possible I could get on
shore ?

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my
condition, I began to look round me, to see what kind of place
I was in, and what was next to be done; and I soon found my
comforts abate, and that, in a word, I had a dreadful deliverance ;
for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor anything either
to eat or drink to comfort me; neither did I see any prospect
before me but that of perishing with hunger or being devoured
by wild beasts ; and that which was particularly afflicting to me
was, that I had no weapon, either to hunt and kill any creature
for my sustenance, or to defend myself against any other creature
that might desire to kill me for theirs. In a word, I had nothing
about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a
box. This was all my provisions; and this threw me into such
terrible agonies of mind, that for a while I ran about like a
madman. Night coming upon me, I began with a heavy heart to
consider what would be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts
in that country, as at night they always come abroad for their
prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time was
to get up into a thick bushy tree like a fir, but thorny, which
grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all night, and consider
the next day what death I should die, for as yet I saw no prospect
of life. I walked about a furlong from the shore, to see if I could
find any fresh water to drink, which I did, to my great joy; and
having drank, and put a little tobacco into my mouth to prevent
hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured
to place myself so that if I should sleep I might not fall. And
having cut me a short stick, like a truncheon, for my defence, I
took up my lodging; and having been excessively fatigued, I
fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could
have done in my condition, and found myself more refreshed
with it than, I think, I ever was on such an occasion.







ROBINSON CRUSOE 41

CHAPTER IV
FIRST WEEKS ON THE ISLAND

‘W HEN I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the

storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as
before. But that which surprised me most was, that the ship was
lifted off in the night from the sand where she lay by the swelling
of the tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock which I
at first mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the wave
dashing me against it. This being within about a mile from the
shore where I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I
wished myself on board, that at least I might save some necessary
things for my use.

When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked
about me again, and the first thing I found was the boat, which
lay, as the wind and the sea had tossed her up, upon the land,
about two miles on my right hand. I walked as far as I could
upon the shore to have got to her; but found a neck or inlet of
water between me and the boat which was about half-a-mile
broad ; so I came back for the present, being more intent upon
getting at the ship, where I hoped to find something for my
present subsistence.

A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the tide
ebbed so far out that I could come within a quarter of a mile of
the ship. And here I found a fresh renewing of my grief; for I
saw evidently that if we had kept on board we had been all safe
—that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had not been
so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort and
company as I now was. This forced tears to my eyes again; but
as there was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get to
the ship; so I pulled off my clothes—for the weather was hot to
extremity—and took the water. But when I came to the ship
my difficulty was still greater to know how to get on board; for,
as she lay aground, and high out of the water, there was nothing
within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and
the second time I spied a small piece of rope, which I wondered
I did not see at first, hung down by the fore-chains so low, as
that with great difficulty I got hold of it, and by the help of that
rope I got up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that
the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her hold,
but that she lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather
earth, that her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head



42 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

low, almost to the water. By this means all her quarter was free,
and all that was in that part was dry; for you may be sure my
first work was to search, and to see what was spoiled and what
was free. And, first, I found that all the ship’s provisions were
dry and untouched by the water, and being very well disposed. to
eat, I went to the bread-room and filled my pockets with biscuit,
and ate it as I went about other things, for I had no time to lose.
I also found some rum in the great cabin, of which I took a large
dram, and which I had, indeed, need enough of to spirit me for
what was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat to
furnish myself with many things which | foresaw would be very
necessary to me.

It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had ;
and this extremity roused my application. We had several spare
yards, and two or three large spars of wood, and a spare top-
mast or two in the ship; I resolved to fall to work with these,
and I flung as many of them overboard as I could manage for
their weight, tying every one with a rope, that they might not
drive away. When this was done I went down the ship’s side,
and pulling them to me, I tied four of them together at both
ends as well as I could, in the form of a raft, and laying two or
three short pieces of plank upon them crossways, I found I could
walk upon it very well, but that it was not able to bear any great
weight, the pieces being too light. So I went to work, and with
a carpenter's saw I cut a spare topmast into three lengths, and
added them to my raft, with a great deal of labour and pains.
But the hope of furnishing myself with necessaries encouraged
me to go beyond what I should have been able to have done
upon another occasion.

My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight.
My next care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what
I laid upon it from the surf of the sea; but I was not long con-
sidering this. I first laid all the planks or boards upon it that I
could get, and having considered well what I most wanted, I
got three of the seamen’s chests, which I had broken open,
and emptied, and lowered them down upon my raft; the first
of these I filled with provisions—viz. bread, rice, three Dutch
cheeses, five pieces of dried goat’s flesh (which we lived much
upon), and a little remainder of European corn, which had been
laid by for some fowls which we brought to sea with us, but
the fowls were killed. There had been some barley and wheat
together; but, to my great disappointment, I found afterwards
that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found
several cases of bottles belonging to our skipper, in which were





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ROBINSON CRUSOE 43

some cordial waters; and, in all, about five or six gallons of rack.
These I stowed by themselves, there being no need to put them
into the chest, nor any room for them. While I was doing this,
I found the tide begin to flow, though very calm; and I had
the mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I
had left on the shore, upon the sand, swim away. As for my
breeches, which were only linen, and open-kneed, I swam on
board in them and my stockings. However, this set me on
rummaging for clothes, of which I found enough, but took no
more than I wanted for present use, for I had other things which
my eye was more upon—as, first, tools to work with on shore.
And it was after long searching that I found out the carpenter’s
chest, which was, indeed, a very useful prize to me, and much
more valuable than a ship-load of gold would have been at that
time. I got it down to my raft, whole as it was, without losing
time to look into it, for I knew in general what it contained.

My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were
two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols.
These I secured first, with some powder-horns and a small bag
of shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there were three
barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where our gunner
had stowed them; but with much search I found them, two of
them dry and good, the third had taken water. Those two I
got to my raft, with the arms. And now I thought myself pretty
well freighted, and began to think how I should get to shore
with them, having neither sail, oar, nor rudder; and the least
capful of wind would have overset all my navigation.

I had three encouragements—1st, a smooth, calm sea; 2ndly,
the tide rising, and setting in to the shore; 3rdly, what little
wind there was blew me towards the land. And thus, having
found two or three broken oars belonging to the boat—and,
besides the tools which were in the chest, I found two saws, an
axe, and a hammer; with this cargo I put to sea. For a mile or
thereabouts my raft went very well, only that I found it drive a
little distant from the place where I had landed before ; by which
I perceived that there was some indraft of the water, and con-
sequently I hoped to find some creek or river there, which I
might make use of as a port to get to land with my cargo.

As I imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a little
opening of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide set
into it; sol guided my raft as well as I could, to keep in the
middle of the stream.

But here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck, which,
if I had, I think verily would have broken my heart ; for, knowing



ae LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

nothing of the coast, my raft ran aground at one end of it upon
a shoal, and not being aground at the other end, it wanted but
a little that all my cargo had slipped off towards the end that was
afloat, and so fallen into the water. I did my utmost, by setting
my back against the chests, to keep them in their places, but
could not thrust off the raft with all my strength; neither durst
I stir from the posture I was in; but holding up the chests with
all my might, I stood in that manner near half-an-hour, in which
time the rising of the water brought me a little more upon a
level; and a little after, the water still rising, my raft floated
again, and I thrust her off with the oar I had into the channel,
and then driving up higher, I at length found myself in the
mouth of a little river, with land on both sides, and a strong
current of tide running up. I looked on both sides for a proper
place to get to shore, for I was not willing to be driven too
high up the river: hoping in time to see some ships at sea, and
therefore resolved to place myself as near the coast as I could.

At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek,
to which with great pain and difficulty I guided my raft, and at
last got so near that, reaching ground with my oar, I could
thrust her directly in. But here I had like to have dipped all
my cargo into the sea again; for that shore lying pretty steep—
that is to say sloping—there was no place to land, but where
one end of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie so high, and the
other sink lower, as before, that it would endanger my cargo
again, All that I could do was to wait till the tide was at the
highest, keeping the raft with my oar like an anchor, to hold
the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of ground, which
I expected the water would flow over; and so it did. As soon
as I found water enough—for my raft drew about a foot of water
—TI thrust her upon that flat piece of ground, and there fastened
or moored her, by sticking my two broken oars into the ground,
one on one side, near one end, and one on the other side near
the other end; and thus I lay till the water ebbed away, and
left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.

My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper
place for my habitation, and where to stow my goods to secure
them from whatever might happen. Where I was, I yet knew
not; whether on the continent or on an island; whether in-
habited or not inhabited ; whether in danger of wild beasts or
not. There was a hill not above a mile from me, which rose up
very steep and high, and which seemed to overtop some other
hills, which lay as in a ridge from it northward. I took out one
of the fowling - pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn of



ROBINSON CRUSOE 45

powder ; and thus armed, I travelled for discovery up to the top
of that hill, where, after I had with great labour and difficulty
got to the top, I saw my fate, to my great affliction—viz. that I
was in an island environed every way with the sea: no land to be
seen except some rocks, which lay a great way off; and two small
islands, less than this, which lay about three leagues to the west.

I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw
good reason to believe, uninhabited except by wild. beasts, of
whom, however, I sawnone. Yet I saw abundance of fowls, but
knew not their kinds; neither when I killed them could I tell
what was fit for food, and what not. At my coming back, I shot
at a great bird which I saw sitting upon a tree on the side of a
great wood. I believe it was the first gun that had been fired
there since the creation of the world. I had no sooner fired,
than from all parts of the wood there arose an innumerable
number of fowls, of many sorts, making a confused screaming
and crying, and every one according to his usual note, but not
one of them of any kind that I knew. As for the creature |
killed, I took it to be a kind of hawk, its colour and beak re-
sembling it, but it had no talons or claws more than common.
Its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and
© fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the

| rest of that day. What to do with myself at night I knew not,
nor indeed where to rest, for I was afraid to lie down on the
ground, not knowing but some wild beast might devour me,
though, as I afterwards found, there was really no need for
those fears.

However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round with
the chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and made a
kind of hut for that night’s lodging. As for food, I yet saw not
| which way to supply myself, except that I had seen two or three
| creatures like hares run out of the wood where I shot the fowl.
| I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many

things out of the ship which would be useful to me, and par-
ticularly some of the rigging and sails, and such other things as
might come to land; and I resolved to make another voyage on
board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that the first storm
that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I resolved to
set all other things apart till I had got everything out of the
ship that I could get. Then I called a council—that is to say,
Hin my thoughts—whether I should take back the raft; but this
lappeared impracticable: so I resolved to go as before, when the
ide was down; and I did so, only that I stripped before I went




























46 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

from my hut, having nothing on but my chequered shirt, a pair
of linen drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.

I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft ;
and, having had experience of the first, I neither made this so
unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought away several
things very useful to me; as first, in the carpenter's stores |
found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great screw-
jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and, above all, that most useful
thing called a grindstone. All these I secured, together with
several things belonging to the gunner, particularly two or three
iron crows, and two barrels of musket bullets, seven muskets,
another fowling-piece, with some small qnantity of powder
more; a large bagful of small shot, and a great roll of sheet-
lead; but this last was so heavy, I could not hoist it up to get
it over the ship’s side.

Besides these things, I took all the men’s clothes that I could
find, and a spare fore-topsail, a hammock, and some bedding ;
and with this I loaded my second raft, and brought them all
safe on shore, to my very great comfort.

I was under some apprehension, during my absence from the
land, that at least my provisions might be devoured on shore:
but when I came back I found no sign of any visitor ; only there
sat a creature like a wild cat upon one of the chests, which,
when I came towards it, ran away a little distance, and then
stood still. She sat very composed and unconcerned, and looked
full in my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with me.
I presented my gun at her, but, as she did not understand it,
she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer to stir
away; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit, though, by the
way, I was not very free of it, for my store was not great: how-
ever, I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled at it,
and ate it, and looked (as if pleased) for more; but I thanked
her, and could spare no more: so she marched off.

Having got my second cargo on shore—though I was fain to
open the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for they
were too heavy, being large casks—I went to work to make me
a little tent with the sail and some poles which I cut for that
purpose: and into this tent I brought everything that I knew
would spoil either with rain or sun; and I piled all the empty
chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from
any sudden attempt, either from man or beast.

When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with
some boards within, and an empty chest set up on end without ;
and spreading one of the beds upon the ground, laying my two





ROBINSON CRUSOE 47

pistols just at my head, and my gun at length by me, I went to
bed for the first time, and slept very quietly all night, for I was
very weary and heavy; for the night before I had slept little,
and had laboured very hard all day to fetch all those things
from the ship, and to get them on shore.

I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was
laid up, I believe, for one man: but I was not satisfied still, for
while the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought I ought to
get everything out of her that I could: so every day at low
water I went on board, and brought away something or other;
but particularly the third time I went I brought away as much of
the rigging as I could, as also all the small ropes and rope-twine
I could get, with a piece of spare canvas, which was to mend the
sails upon occasion, and the barrel of wet gunpowder. Ina word,
I brought away all the sails, first and last ; only that I was fain to
cut them in pieces, and bring as much at a time as I could, for
they were no more useful to be sails, but as mere canvas only.

But that which comforted me more still, was, that last of all,
after I had made five or six such voyages as these, and thought
I had nothing more to expect from the ship that was worth m
meddling with—I say, after all this, I found a great hogshead of
bread, three large runlets of rum, or spirits, a box of sugar, and
a barrel of fine flour; this was surprising to me, because I had
given over expecting any more provisions, except what was spoiled
by the water. I soon emptied the hogshead of the bread, and
wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I
cut out ; and, in a word, I got all this safe on shore also.

The next day I made another voyage, and now, having plun-
dered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I began
with the cables. Cutting the great cable into pieces, such as I
could move, I got two cables and a hawser on shore, with all the
ironwork I could get; and having cut down the spritsail-yard,
and the mizzen-yard, and everything I could, to make a large raft,
I loaded it with all these heavy goods, and came away. But my
good luck began now to leave me; for this raft was so unwieldy,
and so overladen, that, after I had entered the little cove where
I had landed the rest of my goods, not being able to guide it so
handily as I did the other, it overset, and threw me and all my
cargo into the water. As for myself, it was no great harm, for I
was near the shore; but as to my cargo, it was a great part of it
lost, especially the iron, which I expected would have been of
great use to me; however, when the tide was out, I got most of
the pieces of the cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with
infinite labour; for I was fain to dip for it into the water, a work

D



48 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

which fatigued me very much. After this, I went every day on
board, and brought away what I could get.

I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven
times on board the ship, in which time I had brought away all
that one pair of hands could well be supposed capable to bring ;
though I believe verily, had the calm weather held, I should
have brought away the whole ship, piece by piece. But pre-
paring the twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind began
to rise: however, at low water I went on board, and though I
thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectually that nothing
more could be found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers in
it, in one of which I found two or three razors, and one pair of
large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good knives and forks :
in another I found about thirty-six pounds value in money—
some European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some
gold, and some silver.

I smiled to myself at the sight of this money: “O drug!”
said I, aloud, “what art thou good for? Thou art not worth to
me—no, not the taking off the ground; one of those knives is
worth all this heap; I have no manner of use for thee—e’en
remain where thou art, and go to the bottom, as a creature whose
life is not worth saving.’ However, upon second thoughts I
took it away; and wrapping all this in a piece of canvas, I began
to think of making another raft; but while I was preparing this,
I found the sky overcast, and the wind began to rise, and in a
quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore. It pre-
sently occurred to me that it was in vain to pretend to make a
raft with the wind off shore; and that it was my business to be
gone before the tide of flood began, otherwise I might not be
able to reach the shore at all. Accordingly, I let myself down
into the water, and swam across the channel, which lay between
the ship and the sands, and even that with difficulty enough,
partly with the weight of the things I had about me, and partly
the roughness of the water; for the wind rose very hastily, and
before it was quite high water it blew a storm.

But I had got home to my little tent, where I lay, with all my
wealth about me, very secure. It blew very hard all night, and
in the morning, when I locked out, behold, no more ship was to
seen! I was a little surprised, but recovered myself with the
satisfactory reflection that I had lost no time, nor abated any
diligence, to get everything out of her that could be useful to
me ; and that, indeed, there was little left in her that I was able
to bring away, if I had had more time.

I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of anything





ROBINSON CRUSOE 49

out of her, except what might drive on shore from her wreck ;
as, indeed, divers pieces of her afterwards did; but those things
were of small use to me.

My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing
myself against either savages, if any should appear, or wild
beasts, if any were in the island; and I had many thoughts of
the method how to do this, and what kind of dwelling to make
—whether I should make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon
the earth; and, in short, I resolved upon both; the manner
and description of which, it may not be improper to give an
account of.

I soon found the place I was in was not fit for my settlement,
because it was upon a low, moorish ground, near the sea, and I
believed it would not be wholesome, and more particularly
because there was no fresh water near it; so I resolved to find
a more healthy and more convenient spot of ground.

I consulted several things in my situation, which I found
would be proper for me: Ist, health and fresh water, I just now
mentioned; 2ndly, shelter from the heat of the sun; 3rdly,
security from ravenous creatures, whether man or beast ; 4thly,
a view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight, I might not
lose any advantage for my deliverance, of which I was not willing
to banish all my expectation yet.

In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on
the side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was
steep as a house-side, so that nothing could come down upon me
from the top. On the one side of the rock there was a hollow
place, worn a little way in, like the entrance or door of a cave ;
but there was not really any cave or way into the rock at all.

On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I
resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above a hundred
yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a green before
my door; and, at the end of it, descended irregularly every way
down into the low ground by the seaside. It was on the N.N.W.
side of the hill; so that it was sheltered from the heat every
day, till it came to a W. and by S. sun, or thereabouts, which, in
those countries, is near the setting.

Before I set up my tent I drew a half-circle before the hollow

_ place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter from

the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter from its beginning
and ending.

In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving

_ them into the ground till they stood very firm like piles, the
: biggest end being out of the ground above five feet and a-half,



50 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

and sharpened on the top. The two rows did not stand above
six inches from one another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship,
and laid them in rows, one upon another, within the circle,
between these two rows of stakes, up to the top, placing other
stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two feet and a
half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong, that
neither man nor beast could get into it or over it. This cost me
a great deal of time and labour, especially to cut the piles in the
woods, bring them to the place, and drive them into the earth.

The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but
by a short ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when I was
in, I lifted over after me; and so I was completely fenced in and
fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and consequently slept
secure in the night, which otherwise I could not have done;
though, as it appeared afterwards, there was no need of all this
caution from the enemies that I apprehended danger from.

Into this fence or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all
my riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which
you have the account above; and I made a large tent, which to
preserve me from the rains that in one part of the year are very
violent there, I made double—one smaller tent within, and one
larger tent above it; and covered the uppermost with a large
tarpaulin, which I had saved among the sails.

And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had
brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very
good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.

Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that
would spoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed all my goods,
I made up the entrance, which till now I had left open, and so
passed and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.

When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock,
and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down out
through my tent, I laid them up within my fence, in the nature
of a terrace, so that it raised the ground within about a foot and
a half; and thus I made me a cave, just behind my tent, which
served me like a cellar to my house.

It cost me much labour and many days before all these things
were brought to perfection; and therefore I must go back to
some other things which took up some of my thoughts. At the
same time it happened, after I had laid my scheme for the setting
up my tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain falling from
a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened, and
after that a great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it.



ROBINSON CRUSOE 51

I was not so much surprised with the lightning as I was with the
thought which darted into my mind as swift as the ligntning itself
—Oh, my powder! My very heart sank within me when I
thought that, at one blast, all my powder might be destroyed ;
on which, not my defence only, but the providing my food, as
I thought, entirely depended. I was nothing near so anxious
about my own danger, though, had the powder took fire, I
should never have known who had hurt me.

Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm
was over I laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying,
and applied myself to make bags and boxes, to separate the
powder, and to keep it a little and a little in a parcel, in the hope
that whatever might come, it might not all take fire at once; and
to keep it so apart that it should not be possible to make one
part fire another. I finished this work in about a fortnight; and
I think my powder, which in all was about two hundred and forty
pounds weight, was divided in not less than a hundred parcels.
As to the barrel that had been wet, I did not apprehend any
danger from that; so I placed it in my new cave, which, in my
fancy, I called my kitchen; and the rest I hid up and down in
holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking
very carefully where I laid it.

In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out once
at least every day with my gun, as well to divert myself as to see
if I could kill anything fit for food; and, as near as I could, to
acquaint myself with what the island produced. The first time
I went out, I presently discovered that there were goats in the
island, which was a great satisfaction to me; but then it was
attended with this misfortune to me—viz. that they were so shy,
so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the most difficult thing
in the world to come at them ; but I was not discouraged at this,
not doubting but I might now and then shoot one, as it soon
happened ; for after I had found their haunts a little, I Jaid wait
in this manner for them: I observed if they saw me in the
valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would run away,
as in a terrible fright ; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and
I was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence I
concluded that, by the position of their optics, their sight was so
directed downward that they did not readily see objects that were
above them ; so afterwards I took this method—lI always climbed
the rocks first, to get above them, and then had frequently a
fair mark.

The first shot I made among these creatures, I killed a she-
goat, which had a little kid by her, which she gave suck to, which












Be LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

grieved me heartily ; for when the old one fell, the kid stood stock
still by her, till I came and took her up; and not only so, but
when I carried the old one with me, upon my shoulders, the kid
followed me quite to my enclosure ; upon which I laid down the
dam, and took the kid in my arms, and carried it over my pale,
in hopes to have bred it up tame; but it would not eat; so I
was forced to kill it and eat it myself. These two supplied me
with flesh a great while, for I ate sparingly, and saved my pro-
visions, my bread especially, as much as possibly I could.

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary
to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn ; and what
I did for that, and also how I enlarged my cave, and what con-
veniences I made, I shall give a full account of in its place ; but I
must now give some little account of myself, and of my thoughts
about living, which, it may well be supposed, were not a few.

I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for as I was not cast
away upon that island without being driven, as is said, by a
violent storm, quite out of the course of our intended voyage, and
a great way, viz. some hundreds of leagues, out of the ordinary
course of the trade of mankind, I had great reason to consider it
as a determination of Heaven, that in this desolate place, and in
this desolate manner, I should end my life. The tears would run
plentifully down my face when I made these reflections; and some-
times I would expostulate with myself why Providence should
thus completely ruin His creatures, and render them so absolutely
miserable ; so without help, abandoned, so entirely depressed,
that it could hardly be rational to be thankful for such a life.

But something always returned swift upon me to check these
thoughts, and to reprove me; and particularly one day, walking
with my gun in my hand by the seaside, I was very pensive upon
the subject of my present condition, when reason, as it were,
expostulated with me the other way, thus: “ Well, you are in a
desolate condition, it is true; but, pray remember, where are the
rest of you? Did not you come eleven of you in the boat ?
Where are the ten? Why were they not saved, and you lost?
Why were you singled out? Is it better to be here or there?”
And then I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be considered
with the good that is in them, and with what worse attends them.

Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished for my
subsistence, and what would have been my case if it had not
happened (which was a hundred thousand to one) that the ship
floated from the place where she first struck, and was driven so
near to the shore that I had time to get all these things out of
her; what would have been my case, if I had been forced to have



ROBINSON CRUSOE 53

lived in the condition in which I at first came on shore, without
necessaries of life, or necessaries to supply and procure them?
“ Particularly,” said I, aloud (though to myself), “ what should I
have done without a gun, without ammunition, without any tools
to make anything, or to work with, without clothes, bedding,
a tent, or any manner of covering?” and that now I had all
these to sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to provide
myself in such a manner as to live without my gun, when my
ammunition was spent : so that I had a tolerable view of subsist-
ing, without any want, as long as I lived; for I considered from
the beginning how I would provide for the accidents that might
happen, and for the time that was to come, even not only after
my ammunition should be spent, but even after my health and
strength should decay.

I confess I had not entertained any notion of my ammunition
being destroyed at one blast—I mean my powder being blown
up by lightning; and this made the thoughts of it so surprising
to me, when it lightened and thundered, as I observed just now.

And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene
of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world
before, I shall take it from its beginning, and continue it in its
order. It was by my account the 30th of September, when, in
the manner as above said, I first set foot upon this horrid island ;
when the sun, being to us in its autumnal equinox, was almost over
my head; for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in the
latitude of nine degrees twenty-two minutes north of the line.

After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into
my thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time for want of
books, and pen and ink, and should even forget the Sabbath
days ; but to prevent this, I cut with my knife upon a large post,
in capital letters—and making it into a great cross, I set it up on
the shore where I first landed—“I came on shore here on the
30th September 1659.”

Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a notch with
my knife, and every seventh notch was as long again as the rest,
and every first day of the month as long again as that long one;
and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly
reckoning of time.

In the next place, we are to observe that among the many
things which I brought out of the ship, in the several voyages
which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got several things of
less value, but not at all less useful to me, which I omitted setting
down before; as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper, several
parcels in the captain’s, mate’s, gunner’s, and carpenter’s keep-



54 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

ing; three or four compasses, some mathematical instruments,
dials, perspectives, charts, and books of navigation, all which |
huddled together, whether I might want them or no; also, I
found three very good Bibles, which came to me in my cargo
from England, and which I had packed up among my things ;
some Portuguese books also; and among them two or three
Popish prayer-books, and several other books, all which I care-
fully secured. And I must not forget that we had in the ship a
dog and two cats, of whose eminent history I may have occasion to
say something in its place; for I carried both the cats with me; and
as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship of himself, and swam
on shore to me the day after I went on shore with my first cargo,
and was a trusty servant to me many years; I wanted nothing
that he could fetch me, nor any company that he could make up
tome; I only wanted to have him talk to me, but that would not
do. As I observed before, I found pens, ink, and paper, and I
husbanded them to the utmost; and I shall show that while my
ink lasted, | kept things very exact, but after that was gone I could
not, for I could not make any ink by any means that I could devise.

And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwith-
standing all that I had amassed together ; and of these, ink was
one ; as also a spade, pickaxe, and shovel, to dig or remove the
earth; needles, pins, and thread ; as for linen, I soon learned to
want that without much difficulty.

This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily ; and
it was near a whole year before I had entirely finished my little
pale, or surrounded my habitation. The piles, or stakes, which
were as heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in cutting
and preparing in the woods, and more, by far, in bringing home ;
so that I spent sometimes two days in cutting and bringing home
one of those posts, and a third day in driving it into the ground ;
for which purpose I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last
bethought myself of one of the iron crows ; which, however,
though I found it, made driving those posts or piles very laborious
and tedious work. But what need I have been concerned at the
tediousness of anything I had to do, seeing I had time enough
to do it in? nor had I any other employment, if that had been
over, at least that I could foresee, except the ranging the island
to seek for food, which I did, more or less, every day.

I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the circum-
stances I was reduced to; and I drew up the state of my affairs in
writing, not so much to leave them to any that were to come after
me—for I was likely to have but few heirs—as to deliver my
thoughts from daily poring over them, and afflicting my mind ; and



ROBINSON CRUSOE 55

as my reason began now to master my despondency, I began to
comfort myself as well as I could, and to set the good against the
evil, that I might have something to distinguish my case from
worse ; and I stated very impartially, like debtor and creditor,
the comforts I enjoyed against the miseries I suffered, thus :—

Evil.

I am cast upon a horrible,
desolate island, void of all hope
of recovery.

I am singled out and separ-
ated, as it were, from all the
world, to be miserable.

I am divided from mankind
a solitaire; one banished
from human society.

I have not clothes to cover
me.



I am without any defence,
or means to resist any violence
of man or beast.

I have no soul to speak to
or relieve me.

Good.

But I am alive; and not
drowned, as all my ‘ship’s com-
pany were.

But I am singled out, too,
from all the ship’s crew, to be
spared from death; and He
that miraculously saved me
from death can deliver me
from this condition.

But I am not starved, and
perishing on a barren place,
affording no sustenance.

But I am in a hot climate,
where, if I had clothes, I
could hardly wear them.

But I am cast on an island
where I see no wild beasts to
hurt me, as I saw on the coast
of Africa; and what if I had
been shipwrecked there ?

But God wonderfully sent
the ship in near enough to the
shore, that I have got out as
many necessary things as will
either supply my wants or en-
able me to supply myself, even
as long as I live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony that there
was scarce any condition in the world so miserable but there was
something negative or something positive to be thankful for in it ;
and let this stand as a direction from the experience of the most
miserable of all conditions in this world: that we may always find
in it something to comfort ourselves from, and to set, in the de-
scription of good and evil, on the credit side of the account.

Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition,
and given over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a ship—I



56 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

say, giving over these things, I began to apply myself to arrange
my way of living, and to make things as easy to me as I could.

[ have already described my habitation, which was a tent under
the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts and
cables: but I might now rather call it a wall, for I raised a kind
of wall up against it of turfs, about two feet thick on the outside ;
and after some time (I think it was a year and a half) I raised
rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched or covered it
with boughs of trees, and such things as I could get, to keep out
the rain; which I found at some times of the year very violent.

I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this
pale, and into the cave which I had made behind me. But I must
observe, too, that at first this was a confused heap of goods, which,
as they lay in no order, so they took up all my place; I had no
room to turn myself: so I set myself to enlarge my cave, and
work farther into the earth ; for it was a loose sandy rock, which
yielded easily to the labour I bestowed on it: and so when I
found I was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways,
to the right hand, into the rock ; and then, turning to the right
again, worked quite out, and made me a door to come out on the
outside of my pale or fortification. This gave me not only egress
and regress, as it was a back way to my tent and to my storehouse,
but gave me room to store my goods.

And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary
things as I found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a
table; for without these I was not able to enjoy the few
comforts I had in the world; I could not write or eat, or do
several things, with so much pleasure without a table: so I
went to work. And here I must needs observe, that as reason
is the substance and origin of the mathematics, so by stating
and squaring everything by reason, and by making the most
rational judgment of things, every man may be, in time, master
of every mechanic art. I had never handled a tool in my life;
and yet, in time, by labour, application, and contrivance, [
found at last that I wanted nothing but I could have made TE;
especially if I had had tools. However, I made abundance of
things, even without tools; and some with no more tools than
an adze and a hatchet, which perhaps were never made that
way before, and that with infinite labour. For example, if I
wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree, set
it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either side with my
axe, till I brought it to be thin as a plank, and then dub it
smooth with my adze. It is true, by this method I could make
but one board out of a whole tree; but this I had no remedy



ROBINSON CRUSOE 57

for but patience, any more than I had for the prodigious deal
of time and labour which it took me up to make a plank or
board : but my time or labour was little worth, and so it was as
well employed one way as another.

However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above,
in the first place; and this I did out of the short pieces of
boards that I brought on my raft from the ship. But when I
had wrought out some boards as above, I made large shelves, of
the breadth of a foot and a half, one over another all along one
side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and ironwork on;
and, in a word, to separate everything at large into their places,
that I might come easily at them. I knocked pieces into the
wall of the rock to hang my guns and all things that would
hang up; so that, had my cave been to be seen, it looked like
a general magazine of all necessary things; and I had every-
thing so ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me
to see all my goods in such order, and especially to find my
stock of all necessaries so great.

And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every day’s
employment ; for, indeed, at first I was in too much hurry, and
not only hurry as to labour, but in too much discomposure of
mind ; and my journal would have been full of many dull things ;
for example, I must have said thus: “ Sept. 30th.—After I had
got to shore, and had escaped drowning, instead of being thank-
ful to God for my deliverance, having first vomited, with the
great quantity of salt water which had got into my stomach, and
recovering myself a little, I ran about the shore wringing my
hands and beating my head and face, exclaiming at my misery,
and crying out, ‘I was undone, undone!’ till, tired and faint,
I was forced to lie down on the ground to repose, but durst not
sleep for fear of being devoured.”

Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship,
and got all that I could out of her, yet I could not forbear
getting up to the top of a little mountain and looking out to sea,
in hopes of seeing a ship; then fancy at a vast distance I spied
a sail, please myself with the hopes of it, and then after looking
steadily, till I was almost blind, lose it quite, and sit down and
weep like a child, and thus increase my misery by my folly.

But having gotten over these things in some measure, and
having settled my household staff and habitation, made me a table
and a chair, and all as handsome about me as I could, I began to
keep my journal ; of which I shall here give you the copy (though
in it will be told all these particulars over again) as long as it
lasted; tor having no more ink, I was forced to leave it off,



58 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

CHAPTER V

BUILDS A HOUSI:

THE JOURNAL

EPTEMBER 30, 1659.—I, poor miserable Robinson Crusoe,

being shipwrecked during a dreadful storm in the offing,
came on shore on this dismal, unfortunate island, which I called
“The Island of Despair”; all the rest of the ship’s company
being drowned, and myself almost dead.

All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at the
dismal circumstances I was brought to—viz. I had neither food,
house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to; and in despair of
any relief, saw nothing but death before me—either that I
should be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or
ies to death for want of food. At the approach of night

I slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures; but slept soundly,
though it rained all night.

Oc. tober 1.—In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the
ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven on shore
again much nearer the island 3 which, as it was some comfort, on
one hand—for, seeing her set upright, and not broken to pieces,
I hoped, if the wind ‘abi ited, I might get on board, and get some
food and necessaries out of her for my relief—so, on the other
hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades, who, I
imagined, if we had all stayed on board, might have saved the
ship, or, at least, that they would not have been all drowned,
as they were; and that, had the men been saved, we might
perhaps have built us a boat out of the ruins of the ship to
have carried us to some other part of the world. I spent great
part of this day in perplexing myself on these things; but at
length, seeing the ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as near
as I could, and then swam on board. This day also it continued
raining, though with no wind at all.

From the 1st of October to the 24th.—All these days entirely
spent in many several voyages to get all I could out of the ship,
which I brought on shore every tide of flood upon rafts. Much
rain also in the days, though with some intervals of fair weather ;
but it seems this was the rainy season.

Oct. 20.—I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got upon
it; but, being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly heavy,
I recovered many of them when the tide was out.

Oct. 25.—It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of





ROBINSON CRUSOE 59

wind ; during which time the ship broke in pieces, the wind
blowing a little harder than before, and was no more to be seen,
except the wreck of her, and that only at low water. I spent
this day in covering and securing the goods which I had saved,
that the rain might not spoil them.

Oct. 26.—I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out
a place to fix my habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself
from any attack in the night, either from wild beasts or men.
Towards night, I fixed upon a proper place, under a rock, and
marked out a semicircle for my encampment; which I resolved
to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification, made of double
piles, lined within with cables, and without with turf.

From the 26th to the 30th I worked very hard in carrying all
my goods to my new habitation, though some part of the time
it rained exceedingly hard.

The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with my
gun, to seek for some food, and discover the country ; when [
killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me home, which I after-
wards killed also, because it would not feed.

November 1.—I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there
for the first night; making it as large as I could, with stakes
driven in to swing my hammock upon.

Nov. 2.—I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces of
timber which made my rafts, and with them formed a fence
round me, a little within the place I had marked out for my
fortification.

Nov. 3.—I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like
ducks, which were very good food. In the afternoon went to
work to make me a table.

Nov. 4.—This morning I began to order my times of work, of
going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion—
viz. every morning I walked out with my gun for two or three
hours, if it did not rain; then employed myself to work till
about eleven o’clock ; then eat what I had to live on; and from
twelve to two I lay down to sleep, the weather being excessively
hot; and then, in the evening, to work again. The working
part of this day and of the next were wholly employed in making
my table, for I was yet but a very sorry workman, though time
and necessity made me a complete natural mechanic soon after,
as I believe they would do any one else.

Yov. 5.—This day went abroad with my gun and my dog, and
killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for
nothing; every creature that I killed I took off the skins and
preserved them. Coming back by the sea-shore, I saw many



60 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

sorts of sea-fowls, which I did not understand; but was surprised,
and almost frightened, with two or three seals, which, while I
was gazing at, not well knowing what they were, got into the
sea, and escaped me for that time.

Nov. 6.—After my morning walk I went to work with my
table again, and finished it, though not to my liking; nor was it
long before I learned to mend it.

Nov. 7.—Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th,
8th, 9th, 10th, and part of the 12th (for the 11th was Sunday) I
took wholly up to make me a chair, and with much ado brought
it to a tolerable shape, but never to please me; and even in the
making I pulled it in pieces several times.

Note.—I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for, omitting
my mark for them on my post, I forgot which was which.

Nov. 13.—This day it rained, which refreshed me exceedingly,
and cooled the earth; but it was accompanied with terrible
thunder and lightning, which frightened me dreadfully, for fear
of my powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved to separate
my stock of powder into as many little parcels as possible, that
it might not be in danger.

Nov. 14, 15, 16.—These three days I spent in making little
square chests, or boxes, which might hold about a pound, or two
pounds at most, of powder; and so, putting the powder in, I
stowed it in places as secure and remote from one another as
possible. On one of these three days I killed a large bird that
was good to eat, but 1 knew not what to call it.

Nov. 17.—This day I began to dig behind my tent into the
rock, to make room for my further conveniency.

Note.—Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work—
viz. a pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow or basket; so I de-
sisted from my work, and began to consider how to supply that
want, and make me some tools. As for the pickaxe, I made use
of the iron crows, which were proper enough, though heavy ;
but the next thing was a shovel or spade; this was so absolutely
necessary, that, indeed, I could do nothing effectually without
it; but what kind of one to make I knew not.

Nov. 18.—The next day, in searching the woods, I found a tree
of that wood, or like it, which in the Brazils they call the iron-
tree, for its exceeding hardness. Of this, with great labour, and
almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece, and brought it home, too,
with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy. The excessive
hardness of the wood, and my having no other way, made me a
long while upon this machine, for I worked it effectually by little
and little into the form of a shovel or spade; the handle exactly



ROBINSON CRUSOE 61

shaped like ours in England, only that the board part having no
iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not last me so long ; however,
it served well enough for the uses which I had occasion to put
it to; but never was a shovel, I believe, made after that fashion,
or so long in making.

I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket or a wheelbarrow.
A basket I could not make by any means, having no such things
as twigs that would bend to make wicker-ware_—at least, none
yet found out; and as to a wheelbarrow, I fancied I could make
all but the wheel ; but that I had no notion of ; neither did I know
how to go about it; besides, I had no possible way to make the
iron gudgeons for the spindle or axis of the wheel to run in ; So
I gave it over, and so, for carrying away the earth which I dug
out of the cave, Imade mea thing like a hod which the labourers
carry mortar in when they serve the bricklayers. This was not
so difficult to me as the making the shovel ; and yet this and the
shovel, and the attempt which I made in vain to make a wheel-
barrow, took me up no less than four days—I mean always except-
ing my morning walk with my gun, which I seldom failed, and
very seldom failed also bringing home something fit to eat.

Nov. 23.—My other work having now stood still, because of
my making these tools, when they were finished I went on, and
working every day, as my strength and time allowed, I spent
eighteen days entirely in widening and deepening my cave, that
it might hold my goods commodiously.

Note.—During all this time I worked to make this room or
cave spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse or maga-
zine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar. As for my lodging,
1 kept to the tent; except that sometimes, in the wet season
of the year, it rained so hard that I could not keep myself dry,
which caused me afterwards to cover all my place within my pale
with long poles, in the form of rafters, leaning against the rock,
and load them with flags and large leaves of trees, like a thatch.

December 10.—I began now to think my cave or vault finished,
when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great
quantity of earth fell down from the top on one side; so much
that, in short, it frighted me, and not without reason, too, for if I
had been under it, I had never wanted a gravedigger. I had now
a great deal of work to do over again, for I had the loose earth to
carry out; and, which was of more importance, I had the ceiling
to prop up, so that I might be sure no more would come down.

Dec. 11.—This day I went to work with it accordingly, and got
two shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with two pieces
of boards across over each post; this I finished the next day ;



62 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

and setting more posts up with boards, in about a week more I
had the roof secured, and the posts, standing in rows, served me
for partitions to part off the house.

Dec. 17.—From this day to the 20th I placed shelves, and
knocked up nails on the posts, to hang everything up that could
be hung up; and now I began to be in some order within doors.

Dec. 20.—Now I carried everything into the cave, and began
to furnish my house, and set up some pieces of boards like a
dresser, to order my victuals upon; but boards began to be very
scarce with me; also, I made me another table.

Dec. 24.—Much rain all night and all day. No stirring out.

Dec. 25.—Rain all day.

Dec. 26.—No rain, and the earth much cooler than before, and
pleasanter.

Dec. 27.—Killed a young goat, and lamed another, so that I
caught it and led it home in a string; when I had it at home, I
bound and splintered up its leg, which was broke.

N.B.—I took such care of it that it lived, and the leg grew
well and as strong as ever ; but, by my nursing it so long, it grew
tame, and fed upon the little green at my door, and would not
go away. This was the first time that I entertained a thought
of breeding up some tame creatures, that I might have food when
my powder and shot was all spent.

Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31.—Great heats, and no breeze, so that there
was no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food; this time
I spent in putting all my things in order within doors.

January 1.—Very hot still: but I went abroad early and late
with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day. This even-
ing, going farther into the valleys which lay towards the centre
of the island, I found there were plenty of goats, though exceed-
ingly shy, and hard to come at; however, I resolved to try if I
could not bring my dog to hunt them down.

Jan, 2.—Accordingly, the next day I went out with my dog,
and set him upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for they all
faced about upon the dog, and he knew his danger too well, for
he would not come near them.

Jan. 3.—I began my fence or wall; which, being still jealous
of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very thick
and strong.

N.B.—This wall being describe before, I purposely omit what
was said in the journal ; it is sufficient to observe, that I was no
less time than from the 2nd of January to the 14th of April work-
ing, finishing, and perfecting this wall, though it was no more
than about twenty-four yards in length, being a half-circle from





ROBINSON CRUSOE 63

one place in the rock to another place, about eight yards from it,
the door of the cave being in the centre behind it.

All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me
many days, nay, sometimes weeks together; but I thought I
should never be perfectly secure till this wall was finished ; and
it is scarce credible what inexpressible labour everything was
done with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods and
driving them into the ground; for I made them much bigger
than I needed to have done.

When this wall was finished, and the outside double fenced,
with a turf wall raised up close to it, I perceived myself that if
any people were to come on shore there, they would not perceive
anything like a habitation ; and it was very well I did so, as may
be observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable occasion.

During this time I made my rounds in the woods for game
every day when the rain permitted me, and made frequent dis-
coveries in these walks of something or other to my advantage ;
particularly, I found a kind of wild pigeons, which build, not as
wood-pigeons in a tree, but rather as house-pigeons, in the holes
of the rocks; and taking some young ones, I endeavoured to
breed them up tame, and did so ; but when they grew older they
flew away, which perhaps was at first for want of feeding them,
for I had nothing to give them; however, I frequently found
their nests, and got their young ones, which were very good meat.
And now, in the managing my household affairs, I found myself
wanting in many things, which I thought at first it was impos-
sible for me to make; as, indeed, with some of them it was:
for instance, I could never make a cask to be hooped. I had
a small runlet or two, as I observed before; but I could never
arrive at the capacity of making one by them, though I spent
many weeks about it; I could neither put in the heads, or join
the staves so true to one another as to make them hold water ;
so I gave that also over. In the next place, I was at a great loss
for candles; so that as soon as ever it was dark, which was
generally by seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I re-
membered the lump of beeswax with which I made candles in
my African adventure ; but I had none of that now; the only
remedy I had was, that when I had killed a goat I saved the
tallow, and with a little dish made of clay, which I baked in the
sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum, I made me a lamp;
and this gave me light, though not a clear, steady light, like a
candle. In the middle of all my labours it happened that, rum-
maging my things, I found a little bag which, as I hinted before,
had been filled with corn for the feeding of poultry—not for this

E



64. LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the ship came from Lisbon.
The little remainder of corn that had been in the bag was all
devoured by the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but husks
and dust ; and being willing to have the bag for some other use
(I think it was to put powder in, when I divided it for fear of the
lightning, or some such use), I shook the husks of corn out of it
on one side of my fortification, under the rock.

It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned that
I threw this stuff away, taking no notice, and not so much as
remembering that I had thrown anything there, when, about a
month after, or thereabouts, I saw some few stalks of something
green shooting out of the ground, which I fancied might be
some plant I had not seen; but I was surprised, and perfectly
astonished, when, after a little longer time, I saw about ten or
twelve ears come out, which were perfect green barley, of the
same kind as our European—nay, as our English barley.

It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of
my thoughts on this occasion. I had hitherto acted upon no
religious foundation at all; indeed, I had very few notions of
religion in my head, nor had entertained any sense of anything
that had befallen me otherwise than as chance, or, as we lightly
say, what pleases God, without so much as inquiring into the end
of Providence in these things, or His order in governing events
for the world. But after I saw barley grow there, in a climate
which I knew was not proper for corn, and especially that I knew
not how it came there, it startled me strangely, and I began to
suggest that God had miraculously caused His grain to grow
without any help of seed sown, and that it was so directed purely
for my sustenance on that wild, miserable place.

This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my
eyes, and I began to bless myself that such a prodigy of nature
should happen upon my account ; and this was the more strange
to me, because I saw near it still, all along by the side of the
rock, some other straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks of
rice, and which I knew, because I had seen it grow in Africa
when I was ashore there.

I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence
for my support, but not doubting that there was more in the place,
I went all over that part of the island, where I had been before,
peering in every corner, and under every rock, to see for more of
it, but I could not find any. At last it occurred to my thoughts
that I shook a bag of chickens’ meat out in that place; and then
the wonder began to cease; and I must confess my religious
thankfulness to God’s providence began to abate, too, upon the



ROBINSON CRUSOE 65

discovering that all this was nothing but what was common;
though I ought to have been as thankful for so strange and
unforeseen a providence as if it had been miraculous; for it was
really the work of Providence to me, that should order or appoint
that ten or twelve grains of corn should remain unspoiled, when
the rats had destroyed all the rest, as if it had been dropped from
heaven ; as also, that I should throw it out in that particular
place, where, it being in the shade of a high rock, it sprang up
immediately ; whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere else at that
time, it had been burnt up and destroyed.

I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in
their season, which was about the end of June; and, laying up
every corn, I resolved to sow them all again, hoping in time to
have some quantity sufficient to supply me with bread. But it
was not till the fourth year that I could allow myself the least
grain of this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly, as I shall
say afterwards, in its order; for I lost all that I sowed the first
season by not observing the proper time; for I sowed it just
before the dry season, so that it never came up at all, at least
not as it would have done; of which in its place.

Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty
stalks of rice, which I preserved with the same care and for the
same use, or to the same purpose—to make me bread, or rather
food ; for I found ways to cook it without baking, though I did
that also after some time.

But to return to my Journal.

I worked excessive hard these three or four months to get
my wall done; and the 14th of April I closed it up, contriving
to go into it, not by a door but over the wall, by a ladder, that
there might be no sign on the outside of my habitation.

April 16.—I finished the ladder; so I went up the ladder to
the top, and then pulled it up after me, and let it down in the
inside. This was a complete enclosure to me; for within I had
room enough, and nothing could come at me from without,
unless it could first mount my wall.

The very next day after this wall was finished I had almost
had all my labour overthrown at once, and myself killed. The
case was thus: As I was busy in the inside, behind my tent, just
at the entrance into my cave, I was terribly frighted with a most
dreadful, surprising thing indeed; for all on a sudden I found
the earth come crumbling down from the roof of my cave, and
from the edge of the hill over my head, and two of the posts I
had set up in the cave cracked in a frightful manner. I was
heartily scared; but thought nothing of what was really the



66 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

cause, only thinking that the top of my cave was fallen in, as
some of it had done before: and for fear I should be buried in it
I ran forward to my ladder, and not thinking myself safe there
neither, I got over my wall for fear of the pieces of the hill,
which I expected might roll down upon me. I had no sooner
stepped down upon the firm ground, than I plainly saw it was a
terrible earthquake ; for the ground I stood on shook three times
at about eight minutes’ distance, with three such shocks as would
have overturned the strongest building that could be supposed
to have stood on the earth; and a great piece of the top of a
rock which stood about half a mile from me next the sea fell
down with such a terrible noise as I never heard in all my tife.
I perceived also the very sea was put into violent motion by it ;
and I believe the shocks were stronger under the water than on
the island.

I was so much amazed with the thing itself, having never felt
the like, nor discoursed with any one that had, that I was like
one dead or stupefied; and the motion of the earth made my
stomach sick, like one that was tossed at sea; but the noise of
the falling of the rock awakened me, as it were, and rousing me
from the stupefied condition I was in, filled me with horror; and
I thought of nothing then but the hill falling upon my tent and
all my household goods, and burying all at once; and this sunk
my very soul within me a second time.

After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some
time, I began to take courage; and yet I had not heart enough
to go over my wall again, for fear of being buried alive, but sat
still upon the ground greatly cast down and disconsolate, not
knowing what to do. All this while I had not the least serious
religious thought ; nothing but the common “ Lord have mercy
upon me!” and when it was over that went away too.

While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow cloudy, as
if it would rain. Soon after that the wind arose by little and
little, so that in less than half-an-hour it blew a most dreadful
hurricane; the sea was all on a sudden covered over with foam
and froth ; the shore was covered with the breach of the water ;
the trees were torn up by the roots, and a terrible storm it was.
This held about three hours, and then began to abate ; and in two
hours more it was quite calm, and began to rain very hard. All
this while I sat upon the ground very much terrified and de-
jected ; when on a sudden it came into my thoughts, that these
winds and rain being the consequences of the earthquake, the
earthquake itself was spent and over, and I might venture into
my cave again. With this thought my spirits began to revive ;



ROBINSON CRUSOE 67

and the rain also helping to persuade me, I went in and sat
down in my tent. But the rain was so violent that my tent was
ready to be beaten down with it; and I was forced to go into
my cave, though very much afraid and uneasy, for fear it should
fall on my head. This violent rain forced me to a new work—
viz. to cut a hole through my new fortification, like a sink, to
let the water go out, which would else have flooded my cave.
After I had been in my cave for some time, and found still no
more shocks of the earthquake follow, I began to be more com-
posed. And now, to support my spirits, which indeed wanted it
very much, I went to my little store, and took a small sup of
rum; which, however, I did then and always very sparingly,
knowing I could have no more when that was gone. It con-
tinued raining all that night and great part of the next day, so
that I could not stir abroad ; but my mind being more composed,
I began to think of what I had best do; concluding that if the
island was subject to these earthquakes, there would be no living
for me in a cave, but I must consider of building a little hut in
an open place which I might surround with a wall, as I had done
here, and so make myself secure from wild beasts or men; for I
concluded, if I stayed where I was, I should certainly one time
or other be buried alive.

With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent from the
place where it stood, which was just under the hanging precipice
of the hill; and which, if it should be shaken again, would
certainly fall upon my tent; and I spent the two next days, being
the 19th and 20th of April, in contriving where and how to remove
my habitation. The fear of being swallowed up alive made me
that I never slept in quiet; and yet the apprehension of lying
abroad without any fence was almost equal to it; but still, when
I looked about, and saw how everything was put in order, how
pleasantly concealed I was, and how safe from danger, it made me
very loath to remove. In the meantime it occurred to me that
it would require a vast deal of time for me to do this, and that I
must be contented to venture where I was, till I had formed a
camp for myself, and had secured it so as to remove to it. So
with this resolution I composed myself for a time, and resolved
that I would go to work with all speed to build me a wall with
piles and cables, &c., in a circle, as before, and set my tent up in
it when it was finished ; but that I would venture to stay where
I was till it was finished, and fit to remove. This was the 21st.

April 22.—The next morning I began to consider of means to
put this resolve into execution; but I was at a great loss about
my tools. I had three large axes, and abundance of hatchets (for



68 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

we carried the hatchets for traffic with the Indians); but with
much chopping and cutting knotty hard wood, they were all full
of notches, and dull; and though I had a grindstone, I could not
turn it and grind my tools too. This cost me as much thought
as a statesman would have bestowed upon a grand point of
politics, or a judge upon the life and death of aman. At length
I contrived a wheel with a string, to turn it with my foot, that I
might have both my hands at liberty. Note.—I had never seen
any such thing in England, or at least, not to take notice how it
was done, though since I have observed it is very common there ;
besides that, my grindstone was very large and heavy. This
machine cost me a full week’s work to bring it to perfection.

April 28, 29.—These two whole days I took up in grinding ”
my tools, my machine for turning my grindstone performing
very well.

April 30.—Having perceived my bread had been low a great
while, now I took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one
biscuit cake a day, which made my heart very heavy.

May 1.—In the morning, looking towards the sea side, the tide
being low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary,
and it looked like a cask; when I came to it, I found a small
barrel, and two or three pieces of the wreck of the ship, which
were driven on shore by the late hurricane ; and looking towards
the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher out of the
water than it used to do. I examined the barrel which was
driven on shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder; but
it had taken water, and the powder was caked as hard as a stone ;
however, I rolled it farther on shore for the present, and went on
upon the sands, as near as I could to the wreck of the ship, to
look for more.

CHAPTER VI
ILL AND CONSCIENCE-STRICKEN

Wi EN I came down to the ship I found it strangely removed.

The forecastle, which lay before buried in sand, was heaved
up at least six feet, and the stern, which was broke in pieces and
parted from the rest by the force of the sea, soon after I had left
rummaging her, was tossed as it were up, and cast on one side;
and the sand was thrown so high on that side next her stern,
that whereas there was a great place of water before, so that I
could not come within a quarter of a mile of the wreck without



ROBINSON CRUSOE 69

swimming, I could now walk quite up to her when the tide was
out. I was surprised with this at first, but soon concluded it
must be done by the earthquake; and as by this violence the
ship was more broke open than formerly, so many things came
daily on shore, which the sea had loosened, and which the winds
and water rolled by degrees to the land.

This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of removing
my habitation, and I busied myself mightily, that day especially,
in searching whether I could make any way into the'ship; but I
found nothing was to be expected of that kind, for all the inside
of the ship was choked up with sand. However, as I had learned
not to despair of anything, I resolved to pull everything to pieces
that I could of the ship, concluding that everything I could get
from her would be of some use or other to me.

May 3.—I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam
through, which I thought held some of the upper part or quarter-
deck together, and when I had cut it through, I cleared away
the sand as well as I could from the side which lay highest ; but
the tide coming in, I was obliged to give over for that time.

May 4.—I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst
eat of, till I was weary of my sport; when, just going to leave
off, I caught a young dolphin. I had made me a long line of some
rope-yarn, but I had no hooks; yet I frequently caught fish
enough, as much as I cared to eat; all which I dried in the sun,
and ate them dry.

May 5.—Worked on the wreck; cut another beam asunder,
and brought three great fir planks off from the decks, which I
tied together, and made to float on shore when the tide of flood
came on.

May 6.—Worked on the wreck ; got several iron bolts out of
her and other pieces of ironwork. Worked very hard, and came
home very much tired, and had thoughts of giving it over.

May 7.—Went to the wreck again, not with an intent to work,
but found the weight of the wreck had broke itself down, the
beams being cut; that several pieces of the ship seemed to lie
loose, and the inside of the hold lay so open that I could see into
it; but it was almost full of water and sand.

May 8.—Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to
wrench up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the water or
sand. I wrenched open two planks, and brought them on shore
also with the tide. I left the iron crow in the wreck for next
day.

iy 9.—Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way into
the body of the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened them



70 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

with the crow, but could not break them up. I felt also a roll of
English lead, and could stir it, but it was too heavy to remove.

May 10-14,.—Went every day to the wreck; and got a great
many pieces of timber, and boards, or plank, and two or three
hundredweight of iron.

May 15.—I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a
piece off the roll of lead by placing the edge of one hatchet and
driving it with the other; but as it lay about a foot and a half
_in the water, I could not make any blow to drive the hatchet.

May 16.—It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck
appeared more broken by the force of the water; but I stayed
so long in the woods, to get pigeons for food, that the tide
prevented my going to the wreck that day.

May 17.—I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore, at
a great distance, near two miles off me, but resolved to see what
they were, and found it was a piece of the head, but too heavy
for me to bring away.

May 24.—Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck; and
with hard labour I loosened some things so much with the crow,
that the first flowing tide several casks floated out, and two of
the seamen’s chests; but the wind blowing from the shore,
nothing came to land that day but pieces of timber, and a
hogshead, which had some Brazil pork in it; but the salt water
and the sand had spoiled it. I continued this work every day
to the 15th of June, except the time necessary to get food,
which I always appointed, during this part of my employment,
to be when the tide was up, that I might be ready when it was
ebbed out; and by this time I had got timber and plank and
ironwork enough to have built a good boat, if I had known
how; and also I got, at several times and in several pieces, near
one hundredweight of the sheet lead.

June 16.—Going down to the seaside, I found a large tortoise
or turtle. This was the first I had seen, which, it seems, was
only my misfortune, not any defect of the place, or scarcity ; for
had I happened to be on the other side of the island, I might
have had hundreds of them every day, as I found afterwards ;
but perhaps had paid dear enough for them.

June 17.—I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her three-
score eggs; and her flesh was to me, at that time, the most
savoury and pleasant that ever I tasted in my life, having had no
flesh, but of goats and fowls, since I landed in this horrid place.

June 18.—Rained all day, and I stayed within. I thought at
this time the rain felt cold, and I was something chilly ; which
I knew was not usual in that latitude,



ROBINSON CRUSOE 71

June 19.—Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been
cold.

June 20.—No rest all night; violent pains in my head, and
feverish.

June 21.—Very ill; frighted almost to death with the appre-
hensions of my sad condition—to be sick, and no help. Prayed
to God, for the first time since the storm off Hull, but scarce
knew what I said, or why, my thoughts being all confused.

June 22.—A little better; but under dreadful apprehensions
of sickness.

June 23.—Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a
violent headache.

June 24.—Much better.

June 25.—An ague very violent ; the fit held me seven hours ;
cold fit and hot, with faint sweats after it.

June 26.—Better ; and having no victuals to eat, took my gun,
but found myself very weak. However, I killed a she-goat, and
with much difficulty got it home, and broiled some of it, and
ate. I would fain have stewed it, and made some broth, but
had no pot.

June 27.—The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all day,
and neither ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for thirst ; but
so weak, I had not strength to stand up, or to get myself any
water to drink. Prayed to God again, but was light-headed ;
and when I was not, I was so ignorant that I knew not what to
say ; only I lay and cried, “ Lord, look upon me! Lord, pity me!
Lord, have mercy upon me!” I suppose I did nothing else for
two or three hours; till, the fit wearing off, I fell asleep, and did
not wake till far in the night. When I awoke, I found myself
much refreshed, but weak, and exceeding thirsty. However, as
I had no water in my habitation, I was forced to lie till morning,
and went to sleep again. In this second sleep I had this terrible
dream: I thought that I was sitting on the ground, on the out-
side of my wall, where I sat when the storm blew after the
earthquake, and that I saw a man descend from a great black
cloud, in a bright flame of fire, and light upon the ground. He
was all over as bright as a flame, so that I could but just bear
to look towards him; his countenance was most inexpressibly
dreadful, impossible for words to describe. When he stepped
upon the ground with his feet, I thought the earth trembled,
just as it had done before in the earthquake, and all the air
looked, to my apprehension, as if it had been filled with flashes
of fire. He was no sooner landed upon the earth, but he moved
forward towards me, with a long spear or weapon in his hand, to



Tz LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

kill me ; and when he came to arising ground, at some distance,
he spoke to me—or I heard a voice so terrible that it is im-
possible to express the terror of it. All that I can say I under-
stood was this: “Seeing all these things have not brought thee
to repentance, now thou shalt die;” at which words, I thought
he lifted up the spear that was in his hand to kill me.

No one that shall ever read this account will expect that I
should be able to describe the horrors of my soul at this terrible
vision. I mean, that even while it was a dream, I even dreamed
of those horrors. Nor is it any more possible to describe the
impression that remained upon my mind when I awaked, and
found it was but a dream.

I had, alas! no divine knowledge. What I had received by
the good instruction of my father was then worn out by an un-
interrupted series, for eight years, of seafaring wickedness, and
a constant conversation with none but such as were, like myself,
wicked and profane to the last degree. I do not remember that
I had, in all that time, one thought that so much as tended either
to looking upwards towards God, or inwards towards a reflection
upon my own ways; but a certain stupidity of soul, without
desire of good, or conscience of evil, had entirely overwhelmed
me; and I was all that the most hardened, unthinking, wicked
creature among our common sailors can be supposed to be; not
having the least sense, either of the fear of God in danger, or of
thankfulness to God in deliverance.

In the relating what is already past of my story, this will be
the more easily believed when I shall add, that through all the
variety of miseries that had to this day befallen me, I never had
so much as one thought of it being the hand of God, or that it
was a just punishment for my sin—my rebellious behaviour
against my father—or my present sins, which were great—or so
much as a punishment for the general course of my wicked life.
When I was on the desperate expedition on the desert shores of
Africa, I never had so much as one thought of what would be-
come of me, or one wish to God to direct me whither I should
go, or to keep me from the danger which apparently surrounded
me, as well from voracious creatures as cruel savages. But I was
merely thoughtless of a God or a Providence, acted like a mere
brute, from the principles of nature, and by the dictates of
common sense only, and, indeed, hardly that. When I was
delivered and taken up at sea by the Portugal captain, well used,
and dealt justly and honourably with, as well as charitably, I had
not the least thankfulness in my thoughts. When, again, 1 was
shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger of drowning on this island,



ROBINSON CRUSOE 73

I was as far from remorse, or looking on it as a judgment. I only
said to myself often, that I was an unfortunate dog, and born to
be always miserable.

It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found all my
ship’s crew drowned and myself spared, I was surprised with a
kind of ecstasy, and some transports of soul, which, had the grace
of God assisted, might have come up to true thankfulness ; but
it ended where it began, in a mere common flight of joy, or, as
I may say, being glad I was alive, without the least reflection
upon the distinguished goodness of the hand which had preserved
me, and had singled me out to be preserved when all the rest
were destroyed, or an inquiry why Providence had been thus
merciful unto me. Even just the same common sort of joy which
seamen generally have, after they are got safe ashore from a ship-
wreck, which they drown all in the next bowl of punch, and
forget almost as soon as it is over; and all the rest of my life was
like it. Even when I was afterwards, on due consideration, made
sensible of my condition, how I was cast on this dreadful place,
out of the reach of human kind, out of all hope of relief, or
prospect of redemption, as soon as I saw but a prospect of living,
and that I should not starve and perish for hunger, all the sense
of my affliction wore off; and I began to be very easy, applied
myself to the works proper for my preservation and supply, and
was far enough from being afflicted at my condition, as a judg-
ment from heaven, or as the hand of God against me: these were
thoughts which very seldom entered my head.

The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my Journal, had
at first some little influence upon me, and began to affect me with
seriousness, as long as I thought it had something miraculous in
it; but as soon as ever that part of the thought was removed, all
the impression that was raised from it wore off also, as I have
noted already. Even the earthquake, though nothing could be
more terrible in its nature, or more immediately directing to the
invisible Power which alone directs such things, yet no sooner
was the first fright over, but the impression it had made went off
also. I had no more sense of God or His judgments—much less
of the present affliction of my circumstances being from His hand
—than if I had been in the most prosperous condition of life.
But now, when I began to be sick, and a leisurely view of the
miseries of death came to place itself before me ; when my spirits
began to sink under the burden of a strong distemper, and nature
was exhausted with the violence of the fever; conscience, that
had slept so long, began to awake, and I began to reproach my-
self with my past life, in which I had so evidently, by uncommon



74 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

wickedness, provoked the justice of God to lay me under un-
common strokes, and to deal with me in so vindictive a manner.
These reflections oppressed me for the second or third day of my
distemper; and in the violence, as well of the fever as of the
dreadful reproaches of my conscience, extorted some words from
me like praying to God, though I cannot say they were either a
prayer attended with desires or with hopes: it was rather the
voice of mere fright and distress. My thoughts were confused,
the convictions great upon my mind, and the horror of dying in
such a miserable condition raised vapours into my head with the
mere apprehension ; and in these hurries of my soul I knew not
what my tongue might express. But it was rather exclamation,
such as, “ Lord, what a miserable creature am I! If I should be
sick, I shall certainly die for want of help; and what will become
of me!” Then the tears burst out of my eyes, and I could say
no more fora good while. In this interval the good advice of
my father came to my mind, and presently his prediction, which
I mentioned at the beginning of this story—viz. that if I did
take this foolish step, God would not bless me, and I would have
leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neglected his counsel
when there might be none to assist in my recovery. “ Now,”
said I, aloud, “my dear father’s words are come to pass; God’s
justice has overtaken me, and I have none to help or hear me.
I rejected the voice of Providence, which had mercifully put me
in a posture or station of life wherein I might have been happy
and easy; but I would neither see it myself, nor learn to know
the blessing of it from my parents. I left them to mourn over
my folly, and now I am left to mourn under the consequences of
it. I refused their help and assistance, who would have lifted
me in the world, and would have made everything easy to me;
and now I have difficulties to struggle with, too great for even
nature itself to support, and no assistance, no help, no comfort,
no advice.” Then I cried out, “ Lord, be my help, for I am in
great distress.” This was the first prayer, if I may call it so, that
I had made for many years.

But to return to my Journal.

June 28.—Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I
had had, and the fit being entirely off, I got up; and though the
fright and terror of my dream was very great, yet I considered
that the fit of the ague would return again the next day, and now
was my time to get something to refresh and support myself when
I should be ill; and the first thing I did, I filled a large square
case-bottle with water, and set it upon my table, in reach of my
bed ; and to take off the chill or aguish disposition of the water,



ROBINSON CRUSOE 75

I put about a quarter of a pint of rum into it, and mixed them
together. Then I got me a piece of the goat’s flesh and broiled
it on the coals, but could eat very little. I walked about, but
was very weak, and withal very sad and heavy-hearted under a
sense of my miserable condition, dreading the return of my dis-
temper the next day. At night I made my supper of three of
the turtle’s eggs, which I roasted in the ashes, and ate, as we
call it, in the shell, and this was the first bit of meat I had ever
asked God’s blessing to, that I could remember, in my whole life.
After I had eaten I tried to walk, but found myself so weak that
I could hardly carry a gun, for I never went out without that;
so I went but a little way, and sat down upon the ground, look-
ing out upon the sea, which was just before me, and very calm
and smooth. AsI sat here, some such thoughts as these occurred
tome: What is this earth and sea, of which I have seen so much?
Whence is it produced? And what am I, and all the other
creatures wild and tame, human and brutal? Whence are we?
Sure we are all made by some secret Power, who formed the
earth and sea, the air and sky. And who is that? Then it
followed most naturally, it is God that has made all. Well, but
then it came on strangely, if God has made all these things, He
guides and governs them all, and all things that concern them ;
for the Power that could make all things must certainly have
power to guide and direct them. If so, nothing can happen in
the great circuit of His works, either without His knowledge or
appointment. ;

And if nothing happens without His knowledge, He knows
that I am here, and am in this dreadful condition; and if nothing
happens without His appointment, He has appointed all this to
befall me. Nothing occurred to my thought to contradict any
of these conclusions, and therefore it rested upon me with the
greater force, that it must needs be that God had appointed all
this to befall me; that I was brought into this miserable circum-
stance by His direction, He having the sole power, not of me
only, but of everything that happened in the world. Immedi-
ately it followed: Why has God done this to me? What have
I done to be thus used? My conscience presently checked me
in that inquiry, as if I had blasphemed, and methought it spoke
to me like a voice: “ Wretch ! dost thou ask what thou hast done?
Look back upon a dreadful misspent life, and ask thyself what
thou hast ot done? Ask, why is it that thou wert not long ago
destroyed? Why wert thou not drowned in Yarmouth Roads;
killed in the fight when the ship was taken by the Sallee man-
of-war ; devoured by the wild beasts on the coast of Africa; or



76 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

drowned here, when all the crew perished but thyself? Dost thou
ask, what have I done?” I was struck dumb with these reflec-
tions, as one astonished, and had not a word to say—no, not to
answer to myself, but rose up pensive and sad, walked back to
my retreat, and went up over my wall, as if I had been going
to bed; but my thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I had no
inclination to sleep; so I sat down in my chair, and lighted my
lamp, for it began to be dark. Now, as the apprehension of
the return of my distemper terrified me very much, it occurred
to my thought that the Brazilians take no physic but their
tobacco for almost all distempers, and I had a piece of a roll of
tobacco in one of the chests, which was quite cured, and some
also that was green, and not quite cured.

I went, directed by Heaven no doubt; for in this chest I found
a cure both for soul and body. I opened the chest, and found
what I looked for, the tobacco; and as the few books I had
saved lay there too, I took out one of the Bibles which I men-
tioned before, and which to this time I had not found leisure
or inclination to look into. I say, I took it out, and brought
both that and the tobacco with me to the table. What use to
make of the tobacco I knew not, in my distemper, or whether
it was good for it or no: but I tried several experiments with
it, as if I was resolved it should hit one way or other. I first
took a piece of leaf, and chewed it in my mouth, which, indeed,
at first almost stupefied my brain, the tobacco being green and
strong, and that I had not been much used to. Then I took
some and steeped it an hour or two in some rum, and resolved
to take a dose of it when I lay down; and lastly, I burnt some
upon a pan of coals, and held my nose close over the smoke of
it as long as I could bear it, as well for the heat as almost for
suffocation. In the interval of this operation I took up the
Bible and began to read ; but my head was too much disturbed
with the tobacco to bear reading, at least at that time; only,
having opened the book casually, the first words that occurred
to me were these, “Call on Me in the day of trouble, and I
will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify Me.” These words
were very apt to my case, and made some impression upon my
thoughts at the time of reading them, though not so much as
they did afterwards; for, as for being delivered, the word had
no sound, as I may say, to me; the thing was so remote, so im-
possible in my apprehension of things, that I began to say, as
the children of Israel did when they were promised flesh to eat,
“Can God spread a table in the wilderness?” so I began to
say, “Can God Himself deliver me from this place?’ And as it



ROBINSON CRUSOE 77

was not for many years that any hopes appeared, this prevailed
very often upon my thoughts; but, however, the words made a
great impression upon me, and I mused upon them very often.
It grew now late, and the tobacco had, as I said, dozed my head
so much that I inclined to sleep; so I left my lamp burning in
the cave, lest I should want anything in the night, and went
to bed. But before I lay down, I did what I never had done
in all my life—I kneeled down, and prayed to God to fulfil the
promise to me, that if I called upon Him in the day of trouble,
He would deliver me. After my broken and imperfect prayer
was over, I drank the rum in which I had steeped the tobacco,
which was so strong and rank of the tobacco that I could
scarcely get it down; immediately upon this I went to bed. I
found presently it flew up into my head violently; but I fell
into a sound sleep, and waked no more till, by the sun, it must
necessarily be near three o'clock in the afternoon the next day
—nay, to this hour I am partly of opinion that I slept all the
next day and night, and till almost three the day after; for
otherwise I know not how I should lose a day out of my reckon-
ing in the days of the week, as it appeared some years after
I had done; for if I had lost it by crossing and recrossing the
line, I should have lost more than one day; but certainly I
lost a day in my account, and never knew which way. Be that,
however, one way or the other, when I awaked I found myself
exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively and cheerful ; when I
got up I was stronger than I was the day before, and my stomach
better, for I was hungry ; and, in short, I had no fit the next day,
but continued much altered for the better. This was the 29th.

The 30th was my well day, of course, and I went abroad with
my gun, but did not care to travel too far. I killed a sea-fowl
or two, something like a brandgoose, and brought them home,
but was not very forward to eat them; so I ate some more of
the turtle’s eggs, which were very good. This evening I re-
newed the medicine, which I had supposed did me good the
day before—the tobacco steeped in rum; only I did not take
so much as before, nor did I chew any of the leaf, or hold my
head over the smoke; however, I was not so well the next
day, which was the first of July, as I hoped I should have been ;
for I had a little spice of the cold fit, but it was not much.

July 2.—I renewed the medicine all the three ways; and
dosed myself with it as at first, and doubled the quantity which
I drank.

July 3.—I missed the fit for good and all, though I did not
recover my full strength for some weeks after. While I was



78 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

thus gathering strength, my thoughts ran exceedingly upon this
Scripture, “I will deliver thee”; and the impossibility of my
deliverance lay much upon my mind, in bar of my ever expect-
ing it; but as I was discouraging myself with such thoughts, it
occurred to my mind that I pored so much upon my deliverance
from the main affliction, that I disregarded the deliverance I
had received, and I was as it were made to ask myself such
questions as these—viz. Have I not been delivered, and wonder-
fully too, from sickness—from the most distressed condition
that could be, and that was so frightful to me? and what notice
had I taken of it? Had I done my part? God had delivered
me, but I had not glorified Him—that is to say, I had not owned
and been thankful for that as a deliverance; and how could I
expect greater deliverance? This touched my heart very much;
and immediately I knelt down and gave God thanks aloud for
my recovery from my sickness,

July 4.—In the morning I took the Bible; and beginning
at the New Testament, I began seriously to read it, and im.
posed upon myself to read a while every morning and every
night; not tying myself to the number of chapters, but long as
my thoughts should engage me. It was not long after I set
seriously to this work till I found my heart more deeply and
sincerely affected with the wickedness of my past life. The
impression of my dream revived ; and the words, “ All these
things have not brought thee to repentance,’ ran_ seriously
through my thoughts. I was earnestly begging of God to give
me repentance, when it happened providentially, the very day,
that, reading the Scripture, I came to these words: « He is
exalted a Prince and a Saviour, to give repentance and to give
remission.” I threw down the book; and with my heart as
well as my hands lifted up to heaven, in a kind of ecstasy of
joy, I cried out aloud, « Jesus, thou son of David! Jesus, thou
exalted Prince and Saviour! give me repentance!” This was
the first time I could say, in the true sense of the words, that I
prayed in all my life; for now I prayed with a sense of my
condition, and a true Scripture view of hope, founded on the
encouragement of the Word of God; and from this time, I may
say, I began to hope that God would hear me.

Now I began to construe the words mentioned above, “ Call on
Me, and I will deliver thee,” in a different sense from what I had
ever done before; for then I had no notion of anything being
called deliverance, but my being delivered from the captivity I was
in ; for though I was indeed at large in the place, yet the island
was certainly a prison to me, and that in the worse sense in the —



‘ROBINSON CRUSOE 79

world. But now I learned to take it in another sense: now I
looked back upon my past life with such horror, and my sins
appeared so dreadful, that my soul sought nothing of God but
deliverance from the load of guilt that bore down all my comfort.
As for my solitary life, it was nothing; I did not so much as pray
to be delivered from it or think of it; it was all of no considera-
tion in comparison to this. And I add this part here, to hint to
whoever shall read it, that whenever they come to a true sense
of things, they will find deliverance from sin a much greater
blessing than deliverance from affliction.

But, leaving this part, I return to my Journal.

My condition began now to be, though not less miserable as
to my way of living, yet much easier to my mind: and my
thoughts being directed, by a constant reading the Scripture
and praying to God, to things of a higher nature, I had a great
deal of comfort within, which till now I knew nothing of; also,
my health and strength returned, I bestirred myself to furnish
myself with everything that I wanted, and make my way of
living as regular as I could.

From the 4th of July to the 14th I was chiefly employed in
walking about with my gun in my hand, a little and a little at a
time, as a man that was gathering up his strength after a fit of
sickness; for it is hardly to be imagined how low I was, and to
what weakness I was reduced. The application which I made
use of was perfectly new, and perhaps which had never cured an
ague before ; neither can I recommend it to any to practise, by
this experiment: and though it did carry off the fit, yet it rather
contributed to weakening me; for I had frequent convulsions in
my nerves and limbs for some time. I learned from it also this,
in particular, that being abroad in the rainy season was the most
pernicious thing to my health that could be, especially in those
rains which came attended with storms and hurricanes of wind ;
for as the rain which came in the dry season was almost always
accompanied with such storms, so I found that rain was much
more dangerous than the rain which fell in September and
October.

CHAPTER VII
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIENCE

I HAD now been in this unhappy island above ten months.

All possibility of deliverance from this condition seemed to

be entirely taken from me; and I firmly believe that no human
F



80 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

shape had ever set foot upon that place. Having now secured
my habitation, as I thought, fully to my mind, I had a great desire
to make a more perfect discovery of the island, and to see what
other productions I might find, which I yet knew nothing of.

It was on the 15th of July that I began to take a more par-
ticular survey of the island itself. I went up the creek first,
where, as I hinted, I brought my rafts on shore. I found, after
I came about two miles up, that the tide did not flow any higher,
and that it was no more than a little brook of running water, very
fresh and good ; but this being the dry season, there was hardly
any water in some parts of it—at least not enough to run in any
stream, so as it could be perceived. On the banks of this brook
I found many pleasant savannahs or meadows, plain, smooth, and
covered with grass ; and on the rising parts of them, next to the
higher grounds, where the water, as might be supposed, never
overflowed, I found a great deal of tobacco, green, and growing
to a great and very strong stalk. There were divers other plants,
which | had no notion of or understanding about, that might,
perhaps, have virtues of their own, which I could not find out.
I searched for the cassava root, which the Indians, in all that
climate, make their bread of, but I could find none. I saw large
plants of aloes, but did not understand them. I saw several
sugar-canes, but wild, and, for want of cultivation, imperfect. I
contented myself with these discoveries for this time, and came
back, musing with myself what course I might take to know the
virtue and goodness of any of the fruits or plants which I should
discover, but could bring it to no conclusion; for, in short, I had
made so little observation while I was in the Brazils, that I knew
little of the plants in the field; at least, very little that might
serve to any purpose now in my distress.

The next day, the sixteenth, I went up the same way again;
and after going something further than I had gone the day
before, I found the brook and the savannahs cease, and the
country become more woody than before. In this part I found
different fruits, and particularly I found melons upon the ground,
in great abundance, and grapes upon the trees. The vines had
spread, indeed, over the trees, and the clusters of grapes were
just now in their prime, very ripe and rich. This was a surpris-
ing discovery, and I was exceeding glad of them; but I was
warned by my experience to eat sparingly of them ; remembering
that when I was ashore in Barbary, the eating of grapes killed
several of our Englishmen, who were slaves there, by throwing
them into fluxes and fevers. But I found an excellent use for
these grapes; and that was, to cure or dry them in the sun, and



ROBINSON cRUSO#”. 81

keep them as dried grapes or raisins are kept, which I thought
would be, as indeed they were, wholesome and agreeable to eat
when no grapes could be had.

I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my habita-
tion; which, by the way, was the first night, as I might say, I
had lain from home. In the night I took my first contrivance,
and got up in a tree, where I slept well; and the next morning
proceeded upon my discovery ; travelling nearly four miles, as I
might judge by the length of the valley, keeping still due north,
with a ridge of hills on the south and north side of me. At the
end of this march I came to an opening, where the country
seemed to descend to the west; and a little spring of fresh
water, which issued out of the side of the hill by me, ran the
other way, that is, due east; and the country appeared so fresh,
so green, so flourishing, everything being in a constant verdure
or flourish of spring, that it looked like a planted garden. I
descended a little on the side of that delicious vale, surveying it
with a secret kind of pleasure, though mixed with my other
afflicting thoughts, to think that this was all my own; that I was
king and lord of all this country indefeasibly, and had a right of
possession ; and if I could convey it, I might have it in inherit-
ance as completely as any lord of a manor in England. I saw
here abundance of cocoa trees, orange, and lemon, and citron
trees ; but all wild, and very few bearing any fruit, at least not
then. However, the green limes that I gathered were not only
pleasant to eat, but very wholesome ; and I mixed their juice
afterwards with water, which made it very wholesome, and very
cool and refreshing. I found now I had business enough to
gather and carry home; and I resolved to lay up a store as well
of grapes as limes and lemons, to furnish myself for the wet
season, which I knew was approaching. In order to do this, I
gathered a great heap of grapes in one place, a lesser heap in
another place, and a great parcel of limes and lemons in another
place; and taking a few of each with me, I travelled homewards ;
resolving to come again, and bring a bag or sack, or what I could
make, to carry the rest home, Accordingly, having spent three
days in this journey, I came home (so I must now call my tent
and my cave); but before I got thither the grapes were spoiled ;
the richness of the fruit and the weight of the juice having
broken them and_ bruised them, they were good for little or
pir ena as to the limes, they were good, but I could bring but
a few.

The next day, being the nineteenth, I went back, having made
me two small bags to bring home my harvest; but I was sur-



82 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

prised, when coming to my heap of grapes, which were so rich
and fine when I gathered them, to find them all spread about,
trod to pieces, and dragged about, some here, some there, and
abundance eaten and devoured. By this I concluded there were
some wild creatures thereabouts, which had done this; but what
they were I knew not. However, as I found there was no laying
them up on heaps, and no carrying them away in a sack, but
that one way they would be destroyed, and the other way they
would be crushed with their own weight, I took another course ;
for I gathered a large quantity of the grapes, and hung them
upon the out-branches of the trees, that they might cure and
dry in the sun; and as for the limes and lemons, I carried as
many back as I could well stand under.

When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with
great pleasure the fruitfulness of that valley, and the pleasant-
ness of the situation ; the security from storms on that side of the
water, and the wood : and concluded that I had pitched upon a
place to fix my abode which was by far the worst part of the
country. Upon the whole, I began to consider of removing my
habitation, and looking out for a place equally safe as where now
I was situate, if possible, in that pleasant, fruitful part of the
island.

This thought ran long in my head, and I was exceeding fond
of it for some time, the pleasantness of the place tempting me;
but when I came to a nearer view of it, I considered that I was
now by the seaside, where it was at least possible that some-
thing might happen to my advantage, and, by the same ill fate
that brought me hither, might bring some other unhappy wretches
to the same place; and though it was scarce probable that any
such thing should ever happen, yet to enclose myself among the
hills and woods in the centre of the island was to anticipate
my bondage, and to render such an affair not only improbable,
but impossible ; and that therefore I ought not by any means
to remove. However, I was so enamoured of this place, that I
spent much of my time there for the whole of the remaining
part of the month of July; and though, upon second thoughts,
I resolved not to remove, yet I built me a little kind of a bower,
and surrounded it at a distance with a strong fence, being a
double hedge, as high as I could reach, well staked and filled
between with brushwood; and here I lay very secure, sometimes
two or three nights together ; always going over it with a ladder;
so that I fancied now I had my country house and my sea-coast
house ; and this work took me up to the beginning of August.

I had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy my



ROBINSON CRUSOE 83

labour, when the rains came on, and made me stick close to my
first habitation ; for though I had made me a tent like the other,
with a piece of a sail, and spread it very well, yet I had not the
shelter of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a cave behind me
to retreat into when the rains were extraordinary.

About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my
bower, and began to enjoy myself. The 3rd of August, I found
the grapes I had hung up perfectly dried, and, indeed, were
excellent good raisins of the sun; so I began to take them down
from the trees, and it was very happy that I did so, for the rains
which followed would have spoiled them, and I had lost the best
part of my winter food; for I had above two hundred large
bunches of them. No sooner had I taken them all down, and
carried the most of them home to my cave, than it began to rain ;
and from hence, which was the 14th of August, it rained, more
or less, every day till the middle of October ; and sometimes so
violently, that I could not stir out of my cave for several days.

In this season I was much surprised with the increase of my
family ; I had been concerned for the loss of one of my cats, who
ran away from me, or, as I thought, had been dead, and I heard
no more tidings of her till, to my astonishment, she came home
about the end of August with three kittens. This was the more
strange to me because, though I had killed a wild cat, as I called
it, with my gun, yet I thought it was quite a different kind from
our European cats; but the young cats were the same kind of
house-breed as the old one; and both my cats being females, I
thought it very strange. But from these three cats I afterwards
came to be so pestered with cats that I was forced to kill them
like vermin or wild beasts, and to drive them from my house as
much as possible.

From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain, so that I
could not stir, and was now very careful not to be much wet. In
this confinement, I began to be straitened for food: but ventur-
ing out twice, I one day killed a goat; and the last day, which
was the 26th, found a very large tortoise, which was a treat to
_ Mme, and my food was regulated thus: I ate a bunch of raisins
for my breakfast ; a piece of the goat’s flesh, or of the turtle, for
my dinner, broiled—for, to my great misfortune, I had no vessel
to boil or stew anything ; and two or three of the turtle’s eggs
for my supper.

During this confinement in my cover by the rain, I worked
daily two or three hours at enlarging my cave, and by degrees
worked it on towards one side, till 1 came to the outside of the
hill, and made a door or way out, which came beyond my fence



84 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

or wall; and so I came in and out this way. But I was not
perfectly easy at lying so open; for, as I had managed myself
before, I was in a perfect enclosure; whereas now I thought I
lay exposed, and open for anything to come in upon me; and
yet I could not perceive that there was any living thing to fear,
the biggest creature that I had yet seen upon the island being
a goat.

Sere 30.—I was now come to the unhappy anniversary of my
landing. I cast up the notches on my post, and found I had been
on shore three hundred and sixty-five days. I kept this day as
a solemn fast, setting it apart for religious exercise, prostrating
myself on the ground with the most serious humiliation, confess-
ing my sins to God, acknowledging His righteous judgments upon
me, and praying to Him to have mercy on me through Jesus
Christ ; and not having tasted the least refreshment for twelve
hours, even till the going down of the sun, I then ate a biscuit-
cake and a bunch of grapes, and went to bed, finishing the day
as I began it. I had all this time observed no Sabbath day ; for
as at first I had no sense of religion upon my mind, I had, after
some time, omitted to distinguish the weeks, by making a longer
notch than ordinary for the Sabbath day, and so did not really
know what any of the days were; but now, having cast up the
days as above, I found I had been there a year; so I divided it
into weeks, and set apart every seventh day for a Sabbath;
though I found at the end of my account I had lost a day or two
in my reckoning. A little after this, my ink began to fail me,
and so I contented myself to use it more sparingly, and to write
down only the most remarkable events of my life, without con-
tinuing a daily memorandum of other things.

The rainy season and the dry season began now to appear
regular to me, and I learned to divide them so as to provide for
them accordingly ; but I bought all my experience before I had
it, and this Iam going to relate was one of the most discouraging
experiments that I made.

I have mentioned that I had saved the few ears of barley and
rice, which I had so surprisingly found spring up, as I thought,
of themselves, and I believe there were about thirty stalks of
rice, and about twenty of barley ; and now I thought it a proper
time to sow it, after the rains, the sun being in its southern
position, going from me. Accordingly, I dug up a piece of
ground as well as I could with my wooden spade, and dividing
it into two parts, I sowed my grain; but as I was sowing, it
casually occurred to my thoughts that I would not sow it all at
first, because I did not know when was the proper time for it, so



ROBINSON CRUSOE 85

I sowed about two-thirds of the seed, leaving about a handful
of each. It was a great comfort to me afterwards that I did so,
for not one grain of what I sowed this time came to anything :
for the dry months following, the earth having had no rain after
the seed was sown, it had no moisture to assist its growth, and
never came up at all till the wet season had come again, and then
it grew as if it had been but newly sown. Finding my first seed
did not grow, which I easily imagined was by the drought, I
sought for a moister piece of ground to make another trial in,
and I dug up a piece of ground near my new bower, and sowed
the rest of my seed in February, a little before the vernal
equinox ; and this having the rainy months of March and April
to water it, sprung up very pleasantly, and yielded a very good
crop ; but having part of the seed left only, and not daring to sow
all that I had, I had but a small quantity at last, my whole crop
not amounting to above half a peck of each kind. But by this
experiment I was made master of my business, and knew exactly
when the proper season was to sow, and that I might expect two
seed-times and two harvests every year.

While this corn was growing I made a little discovery, which
was of use to me afterwards. As soon as the rains were over,
and the weather began to settle, which was about the month of
November, I made a visit up the country to my bower, where,
though I had not been some months, yet I found all things just
as I left them. ‘The circle or double hedge that I had made was
not only firm and entire, but the stakes which I had cut out of
some trees that grew thereabouts were all shot out and grown
with long branches, as much as a willow-tree usually shoots the
first year after lopping its head. I could not tell what tree to
call it that these stakes were cut from. I was surprised, and yet
very well pleased, to see the young trees grow , and I pruned
them, and led them up to grow as much alike as I could; and it
is scarce credible how beautiful a figure they grew into in three
years; so that though the hedge made a circle of about twenty-
five yards in diameter, yet the trees, for such I might now call
them, soon covered it, and it was a complete shade, sufficient to
lodge under all the dry season. This made me resolve to cut
some more stakes, and make me a hedge like this, in a semi-circle
round my wall (I mean that of my first dwelling), which I did;
and placing the trees or stakes in a double row, at about eight
yards distance from my first fence, they grew presently, and were
at first a fine cover to my habitation, and afterwards served for a
defence also, as I shall observe in its order.

I found now that the seasons of the year might generally be



86 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

divided, not into summer and winter, as in Europe, but into the
rainy seasons and the dry seasons, which were generally thus :—

The half of February, the whole of March, and the half of
April—rainy, the sun being then on or near the equinox.

The half of April, the whole of May, June, and July, and the
half of August—dry, the sun being then to the north of the line.

The half of August, the whole of September, and the half of
October—rainy, the sun being then come back.

The half of October, the whole of N ovember, December, and
January, and the half of F ebruary—dry, the sun being then to
the south of the line.

The rainy seasons sometimes held longer or shorter as the
winds happened to blow, but this was the general observation I
made. After I had found by experience the ill consequences
of being abroad in the rain, I took care to furnish myseif with
provisions beforehand, that I might not be obliged to go out, and
I sat within doors as much as possible during the wet months.
This time I found much employment, and very suitable also to
the time, for I found great occasion for many things which I had
no way to furnish myself with but by hard labour and constant
application ; particularly I tried many ways to make myself a
basket, but all the twigs I could get for the purpose proved so
brittle that they would do nothing. It proved of excellent advan-
tage to me now, that when I was a boy, I used to take great
delight in standing at a basket-maker’s, in the town where my
father lived, to see them make their wicker-ware ; and being,
as boys usually are, very officious to help, and a great observer
of the manner in which they worked those things, and sometimes
lending a hand, I had by these means full knowledge of the
methods of it, and I wanted nothing but the materials, when it
came into my mind that the twigs of that tree from whence I cut
my stakes that grew might possibly be as tough as the sallows,
willows, and osiers in England, and I resolved to try. Accord-
ingly, the next day I went to my country house, as I called it, and
cutting some of the smaller twigs, I found them to my purpose
as much as I could desire ; whereupon I came the next time pre-
pared with a hatchet to cut down a quantity, which I soon found,
for there was great plenty of them. These I set up to dry within
my circle or hedge, and when they were fit for use I carried them
to my cave; and here, during the next season, I employed myself
in making, as well as I could, a great many baskets, both to carry
earth or to carry or lay up anything, as I had occasion; and
though I did not finish them very handsomely, yet I made them
sufficiently serviceable for my purpose ; and thus, afterwards, I



ROBINSON CRUSOE 87

took care never to be without them; and as my wicker-ware
decayed, I made more, especially strong, deep baskets to place
my corn in, instead of sacks, when I should come to have any
quantity of it.

Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of time
about it, I bestirred myself to see, if possible, how to supply two
wants. I had no vessels to hold anything that was liquid, except
two runlets, which were almost full of rum, and some glass bottles
—some of the common size, and others which were case bottles,
square, forthe holding of water, spirits, &c. I had not so much
as a pot to boil anything, except a great kettle, which:I saved
out of the ship, and which was too big for such as I desired it—
viz. to make broth, and stew a bit of meat by itself. The second
thing I fain would have had was a tobacco-pipe, but it was im-
possible to me to make one; however, I found a contrivance for
that, too, at last. I employed myself in planting my second rows
of stakes or piles, and in this wicker-working all the summer or
dry season, when another business took me up more time than it
could be imagined I could spare.

CHAPTER VIII
SURVEYS HIS POSITION

I MENTIONED before that I had a great mind to see the

whole island, and that I had travelled up the brook, and so
on to where I built my bower, and where I had an opening quite
to the sea, on the other side of the island. 1 now resolved to
travel quite across to the sea-shore on that side; so, taking my
gun, a hatchet, and my dog, and a larger quantity of powder and
shot than usual, with two biscuit-cakes and a great bunch of
raisins in my pouch for my store, I began my journey. When I
had passed the vale where my bower stood, as above, I came
within view of the sea to the west, and it being a very clear day,
I fairly descried land—whether an island or a continent I could
not tell; but it lay very high, extending from the W. to the
W.S.W. at a very great distance; by my guess it could not be
less than fifteen or twenty leagues off.

I could not tell what part of the world this might be, otherwise
than that I knew it must be part of America, and, as I concluded
by all my observations, must be near the Spanish dominions, and
perhaps was all inhabited by savages, where, if I had landed, I

,



88 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

had been in a worse condition than I was now; and therefore I
acquiesced in the dispositions of Providence, which I began now
to own and to believe ordered everything for the best; I say I
quieted my mind with this, and left off afflicting myself with
fruitless wishes of being there.

Besides, after some thought upon this affair, I considered that
if this land was the Spanish coast, I should certainly, one time or
other, see some vessel pass or repass one way or other; but2if
not, then it was the savage coast between the Spanish country
and Brazils, where are found the worst of savages; for they are
cannibals, or men-eaters, and fail not to murder and devour all
the human bodies that fall into their hands.

With these considerations, I walked very leisurely forward. I
found that side of the island where I now was much pleasanter
than mine—the open or savannah fields sweet, adorned with
flowers and grass, and full of very fine woods. I saw abundance
of parrots, and fain I would have caught one, if possible, to have
kept it to be tame, and taught it to speak to me. I did, after
some painstaking, catch a young parrot, for I knocked it down
with a stick, and having recovered it, I brought it home; but it
was some years before I could made him speak; however, at
last 1 taught him to call me by name very familiarly. But
the accident that followed, though it be a trifle, will be very
diverting in its place.

I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found in the
low grounds hares (as I thought them to be) and foxes; but they
differed greatly from all the other kinds I had met with, nor
could I satisfy myself to eat them, though I killed several. But
I had no need to be venturous, for I had no want of food, and
of that which was very good too, especially these three sorts,
viz. goats, pigeons, and turtle, or tortoise, which, added to my
grapes, Leadenhall market could not have furnished a table
better than I, in proportion to the company; and though my
case was deplorable enough, yet I had great cause for thankful-
ness that I was not driven to any extremities for food, but had
rather plenty, even to dainties.

I never travelled in this journey above two miles outright in a
day, or thereabouts ; but I took so many turns and re-turns to see
what discoveries I could make, that I came weary enough to the
place where I resolved to sit down all night; and then I either
reposed myself in a tree, or surrounded myself with a row of
stakes set upright in the ground, either from one tree to another,
or so as no wild creature could come at me without waking me.

As soon as I came to the sea-shore, I was surprised to see that



ROBINSON CRUSOE 89

I had taken up my lot on the worst side of the island, for here,
indeed, the shore was covered with innumerable turtles, whereas
on the other side I had found but three in a year and a half.
Here was also an infinite number of fowls of many kinds, some
which I had seen, and some which I had not seen before, and
many of them very good meat, but such as I knew not the names
of, except those called penguins.

I could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very sparing
of my powder and shot, and therefore had more mind to killa
she-goat if I could, which I could better feed on; and though
there were many goats here, more than on my side the island,
yet it was with much more difficulty that I could come near
them, the country being flat and even, and they saw me much
sooner than when I was on the hills.

I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than
mine; but yet I had not the least inclination to remove, for as I
was fixed in my habitation it became natural to me, and I seemed
all the while I was here to be as it were upon a journey, and
from home. However, I travelled along the shore of the sea
towards the east, I suppose about twelve miles, and then setting
up a great pole upon the shore for a mark, I concluded I would
go home again, and that the next journey I took should be on
the other side of the island east from my dwelling, and so round
till I came to my post again.

I took another way to come back than that I went, thinking
I could easily keep all the island so much in my view that I
could not miss finding my first dwelling by viewing the country ;
but I found myself mistaken, for being come about two or three
miles, I found myself descended into a very large valley, but so
surrounded with hills, and those hills covered with wood, that I
could not see which was my way by any direction but that of the
sun, nor even then, unless I knew very well the position of the
sun at that time of the day. It happened, to my further mis-
fortune, that the weather proved hazy for three or four days
while I was in the valley, and not being able to see the sun, I
wandered about very uncomfortably, and at last was obliged to
find the seaside, look for my post, and come back the same way
I went: and then, by easy journeys, I turned homeward, the
weather being exceeding hot, and my gun, ammunition, hatchet,
and other things very heavy.

In this journey my dog surprised a young kid, and seized upon
it; and I, running in to take hold of it, caught it, and saved it
alive from the dog. I had a great mind to bring it home if I
could, for I had often been musing whether it might not be



90 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

possible to get a kid or two, and so raise a breed of tame goats,
which might supply me when my powder and shot should be all
spent. I made a collar for this little creature, and with a string,
which I made of some rope-yarn, which I always carried about
me, I led him along, though with some difficulty, till I came to
my bower, and there I enclosed him and left him, for I was very
impatient to be at home, from whence I had been absent above
a month.

I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come into
my old hutch, and lie down in my hammock-bed. This little
wandering journey, without settled place of abode, had been so
unpleasant to me, that my own house, as I called it to myself,
was a perfect settlement to me compared to that; and it rendered
everything about me so comfortable, that I resolved I would
never go a great way from it again while it should be my lot to
stay on the island.

I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale myself after
my long journey; during which most of the time was taken up
in the weighty affair of making a cage for my Poll, who began
now to be a mere domestic, and to be well acquainted with me.
Then I began to think of the poor kid which I had penned in
within my little circle, and resolved to go and fetch it home, or
give it some food ; accordingly I went, and found it where I left
it, for indeed it could not get out, but was almost starved for
want of food. I went and cut boughs of trees, and branches of
such shrubs as I could find, and threw it over, and having fed it,
1 tied it as I did before, to lead it away ; but it was so tame
with being hungry, that I had no need to have tied it, for it
followed me like a dog: and as I continually fed it, the creature
became so loving, so gentle, and so fond, that it became from
that time one of my domestics also, and would never leave me
afterwards.

The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come, and
I kept the 30th of September in the same solemn manner as
before, being the anniversary of my landing on the island, having
now been there two years, and no more prospect of being de-
livered than the first day I came there. 1 spent the whole day
in humble and thankful acknowledgments of the many wonder-
ful mercies which my solitary condition was attended with, and
without which it might have been infinitely more miserable. I
gave humble and hearty thanks that God had been pleased to
discover to me that it was possible I might be more happy in
this solitary condition than I should have been in the liberty
of society, and in all the pleasures of the world; that He could



ROBINSON CRUSOE 91

fully make up to me the deficiencies of my solitary state, and
the want of human society, by His presence and the communi-
cations of His grace to my soul; supporting, comforting, and
encouraging me to depend upon His providence here, and hope
for His eternal presence hereafter.

It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much more
happy this life I now led was, with all its miserable cireum-
stances, than the wicked, cursed, abominable life I led .all the
past part of my days; and now I changed both my sorrows and
my joys; my very desires altered, my affections changed their
gusts, and my delights were perfectly new from what they were
at my first coming, or, indeed, for the two years past.

Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting or for viewing
the country, the anguish of my soul at my condition would break
out upon me on a sudden, and my very heart would die within
me, to think of the woods, the mountains, the deserts I was
in, and how I was a prisoner, locked up with the eternal bars
and bolts of the ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness, without
redemption. In the midst of the greatest composure of my
mind, this would break out upon me like a storm, and make me
wring my hands and weep like a child. Sometimes it would
take me in the middle of my work, and I would immediately sit
down and sigh, and look upon the ground for an hour or two
together ; and this was still worse to me, for if I could burst out
into tears, or vent myself by words, it would go off, and the
grief, having exhausted itself, would abate.

But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts : I daily
read the word of God, and applied all the comforts of it to my
present state. One morning, being very sad, I opened the Bible
upon these words, “I will never, never leave thee, nor forsake
thee.” Immediately it occurred that these words were to me;
why else should they be directed in such a manner, just at the
moment when I was mourning over my condition, as one forsaken
of God and man? “Well, then,” said I, “if God does not for-
sake me, of what ill consequence can it be, or what matters it,
though the world should all forsake me, seeing on the other
hand, if I had all the world, and should lose the favour and
blessing of God, there would be no comparison in the loss?”

From this moment I began to conclude in my mind that it
was possible for me to be more happy in this forsaken, solitary
condition than it was probable I should ever have been in any
other particular state in the world ; and with this thought I was
going to give thanks to God for bringing me to this place. I
know not what it was, but something shocked my mind at that



92 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

thought, and I durst not speak the words. ‘“ How canst thou be-
come such a hypocrite,” said I, even audibly, “to pretend to be
thankful for a condition which, however thou mayest endeavour
to be contented with, thou wouldst rather pray heartily to be
delivered from?’ So I stopped there; but though I could not
say I thanked God for being there, yet I sincerely gave thanks
to God for opening my eyes, by whatever afflicting providences,
to see the former condition of my life, and to mourn for m
wickedness, and repent. I never opened the Bible, or shut it,
but my very soul within me blessed God for directing my friend
in England, without any order of mine, to pack it up among my
goods, and for assisting me afterwards to save it out of the wreck
of the ship.

Thus, and in this disposition of mind, I began my third year ;
and though I have not given the reader the trouble of so par-
ticular an account of my works this year as the first, yet in
general it may be observed that I was very seldom idle, but
having regularly divided my time according to the several daily
employments that were before me, such as: first, my duty to
God, and the reading the Scriptures, which I constantly set
apart some time for thrice every day; secondly, the going
abroad with my gun for food, which generally took me up three
hours in every morning, when it did not rain; thirdly, the
ordering, cutting, preserving, and cooking what I had killed or
caught for my supply; these took up great part of the day.
Also, it is to be considered, that in the middle of the day, when
the sun was in the zenith, the violence of the heat was too
great to stir out; so that about four hours in the evening was
all the time I could be supposed to work in, with this exception,
that sometimes I changed my hours of hunting and working,
and went to work in the morning, and abroad with my gun in
the afternoon.

To this short time allowed for labour I desire may be added
the exceeding laboriousness of my work ; the many hours which,
for want of tools, want of help, and want of skill, everything I
did took up out of my time. For example, I was full two and
forty days in making a board for a long shelf, which I wanted in
my cave; whereas, two sawyers, with their tools and a saw-pit,
would have cut six of them out of the same tree in half a day.

My case was this: it was to be a large tree which was to be
cut down, because my board was to be a broad one. This tree
I was three days in cutting down, and two more cutting off the
boughs, and reducing it to a log or piece of timber. With in-
expressible hacking and hewing I reduced both the sides of it



ROBINSON CRUSOE 93

into chips till it began to be light enough to move; then I turned
it, and made one side of it smooth and flat as a board from end
to end; then, turning that side downward, cut the other side till
I brought the plank to be about three inches thick, and smooth
on both sides. Any one may judge the labour of my hands in
such a piece of work ; but labour and patience carried me through
that, and many other things. I only observe this in particular,
to show the reason why so much of my time went away with so
little work—viz. that what might be a little to be done with help
and tools, was a vast labour and required a prodigious time to do
alone, and by hand. But notwithstanding this, with patience
and labour I got through everything that my circumstances made
necessary to me to do, as will appear by what follows.

I was now, in the months of November and December, expect-
ing my crop of barley and rice. The ground I had manured and
dug up for them was not great; for, as I observed, my seed of
each was not above the quantity of half a peck, for I had lost
one whole crop by sowing in the dry season. But now my crop
promised very well, when on a sudden I found I was in danger
of losing it all again by enemies of several sorts, which it was
scarcely possible to keep from it; as, first, the goats, and wild
creatures which I called hares, who, tasting the sweetness of the
blade, lay in it night and day, as soon as it came up, and eat it
so close, that it could get no time to shoot up into stalk.

This I saw no remedy for but by making an enclosure about it
with a hedge; which I did with a great deal of toil, and the more,
because it required speed. However, as my arable land was but
small, suited to my crop, I got it totally well fenced in about
three weeks’ time; and shooting some of the creatures in the
daytime, I set my dog to guard it in the night, tying him up to
a stake at the gate, where he would stand and bark all night
long ; so in a little time the enemies forsook the place, and the
corn grew very strong and well, and began to ripen apace.

But as the beasts ruined me before, while my corn was in the
blade, so the birds were as likely to ruin me now, when it was in
the ear; for, going along by the place to see how it throve, I saw
my little crop surrounded with fowls, of I know not how many
sorts, who stood, as it were, watching till I should be gone. I
immediately let fly among them, for I always had my gun with
me. I had no sooner shot, but there rose up a little cloud of
fowls, which I had not seen at all, from among the corn itself.

This touched me sensibly, for I foresaw that in a few days they
would devour all my hopes ; that I should be starved, and never
be able to raise a crop at all; and what to do I could not tell;



94 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

however, I resolved not to lose my corn, if possible, though I
should watch it night and day. In the first place, I went among
it to see what damage was already done, and found they had
spoiled a good deal of it; but that as it was yet too green for
them, the loss was not so great but that the remainder was likely
to be a good crop if it could be saved.

I stayed by it to load my gun, and then coming away, I could
easily see the thieves sitting upon all the trees about me, as if
they only waited till I was gone away, and the event proved it
to be so; for as I walked off, as if I was gone, I was no sooner
out of their sight than they dropped down one by one into the
corn again. I was so provoked, that I could not have patience
to stay till more came on, knowing that every grain that they
ate now was, as it might be said, a peck-loaf to me in the conse-
quence ; but coming up to the hedge, I fired again, and killed
three of them. This was what I wished for ; so I took them up,
and served them as we serve notorious thieves in England—
hanged them in chains, for a terror to others. It is impossible
to imagine that this should have such an effect as it had, for the
fowls would not only not come at the corn, but, in short, they
forsook all that part of the island, and I could never see a bird
near the place as long as my scarecrows hung there. This I was
very glad of, you may be sure, and about the latter end of
December, which was our second harvest of the year, I reaped
my corn.

I was sadly put to it for a scythe or sickle to cut it down, and
all I could do was to make one, as well as I could, out of one of
the broadswords, or cutlasses, which I saved among the arms out
of the ship. However, as my first crop was but small, I had no
great difficulty to cut it down; in short, I reaped it in my way,
for I cut nothing off but the ears, and carried it away in a great
basket which I had made, and so rubbed it out with my hands;
and at the end of all my harvesting, I found that out of my half-
peck of seed I had near two bushels of rice, and about two bushels
and a-half of barley; that is to say, by my guess, for I had no
measure at that time.

However, this was a great encouragement to me, and I foresaw
that, in time, it would please God to supply me with bread. And
yet here I was perplexed again, for I neither knew how to grind
or make meal of my corn, or indeed how to clean it and part it ;
nor, if made into meal, how to make bread of it; and if how to
make it, yet I knew not how to bake it. These things being
added to my desire of having a good quantity for store, and to
Secure a constant supply, I resolved not to taste any of this crop,



Full Text


THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE


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Copyright, Service & Paton, 1899. ~Page 79
THE

LIFE AND ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE

BY

DANIEL DEFOE

WITH SIXTEEN ILLUSTRATIONS BY
Gy BE. BROGK

Lonvon
. SERVICE & PATON
5 HENRIETTA STREET
"COVENT ‘GARDEN
The Illustrations
in this Volume are the copyright of
SERVICE & Paron, London
CHAP.

VI.
VIII.
Ix.

XI.
xit.
XIII.
XIV.
XV.
XVI.
XVII.
XVIII.
XIX.
xX.

XXI.
XXII.
XXIII.
XXIV.
XXV.
XXVI.
XXVII.
XXVIII.
XXIX.
XXX.
XXXiI.
XXXII.
XXXIII.
XXXIV.
XXXV.
XXXVI.

CONTENTS

PART I
START IN LIFE ; :
SLAVERY AND ESCAPE. :
WRECKED ON A DESERT ISLAND
FIRST WEEKS ON THE ISLAND .
BUILDS A HOUSE. i
ILL AND CONSCIENCE-STRICKEN .
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIENCE
SURVEYS HIS POSITION
MAKES A BOAT :
TAMES GOATS . : : i ; 3
FINDS PRINT OF MAN’S FOOT ON THE SAND
A CAVE RETREAT . : :
WRECK OF A SPANISH SHIP
A DREAM REALISED .
FRIDAY S EDUCATION fe : 3
RESCUE OF PRISONERS FROM CANNIBALS
VISIT OF MUTINEERS : 3 3 ‘
THE SHIP RECOVERED.
RETURN TO ENGLAND. 2 ; -
FIGHT BETWEEN FRIDAY AND A BEAR.

PART II
REVISITS ISLAND . . . . °
INTERVENING HISTORY OF COLONY
FIGHT WITH CANNIBALS . .
RENEWED INVASION OF SAVAGES
A GREAT VICTORY . . ‘
THE FRENCH CLERGYMAN’S COUNSEL . .
CONVERSATION BETWIXT WILL ATKINS AND
SAILS FROM THE ISLAND FOR THE BRAZIIS
DREADFUL OCCURRENCES IN MADAGASCAR .
HE IS LEFT ON SHORE . . .
WARNED OF DANGER BY A COUNTRYMAN .
THE CARPENTERS WHIMSICAL CONTRIVANCE
ARRIVAL IN CHINA . . . . .
ATTACKED BY TARTARS . . . .

DESCRIPTION OF AN IDOL, WHICH THEY DESTROY

SAFE ARRIVAL IN ENGLAND. . °
iii

HIS WIFE

.

PAGH

16
26
41
58
68
79
87
96
109
119
129
143
154
167
179
193
205
219
231

242
258
272
284
304
315
341
352
365
378
385
394
403
414
422
435
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

By C. E. BROCK

I FOUND A LARGE TORTOISE OR TURTLE. ; : Frontispiece

PAGE
‘IF YOU COME NEAR THE BOAT I'LL SHOOT YOU THROUGH THE

HEAD”. : , : : : y ‘ is cea
THEY CAME TO MAKE A SECRET PROPOSAL TO ME. : 2 WOE
I TIED FOUR OF THEM TOGETHER IN THE FORM OF A RAFT . 42
I CAME TO MEASURE THE MARK WITH MY OWN FOOT . ee
I KNOCKED HIM DOWN WITH THE STOCK OF MY PIECE . AGL
THIS FRIDAY ADMIRED VERY MUCH : 3 ; 5 a7 169
““WHAT ARE YE, GENTLEMEN?” , : : : ; . 201
FIRED A VOLLEY OF THEIR SMALL ARMS : : : or 207,
THEY LEFT NOT THE LEAST STICK STANDING i 3 eee
KNOCKED THE BRUTE DOWN . ; : , z 3 . 285
THEY WERE SEIZED UPON AND BOUND . : 3 : 1 290
WE SAW HIM TAKE OUT HIS HANDKERCHIEF AND WIPE HER

EYES. : : : : : : : : . 3839
LEAPED BOTH INTO THE SEA ; ; : _ : . 395
ONE FED THE SQUIRE WITII A SPOON. ; . ; 3 42

SHOT HIM INTO THE HEAD ; : : . 421
THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE

FARI, 1

CHAPTER I
START IN LIFE

WAS born in tne year 1632, in the city of York, of a good

family, though not of that country, my father being a foreigner
of Bremen, who settled first at Hull. He got a good estate by
merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York,
from whence he had married my mother, whose relations were
named Robinson, a very good family in that country, and from
whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer ; but, by the usual cor-
ruption of words in England, we are now called—nay, we call
ourselves and write our name—Crusoe ; and so my companions
always called me.

I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel
to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded
by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle
near Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What became of my second
brother I never knew, any more than my father or mother knew
what became of me.

Being the third son of the family and not bred to any trade,
my head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts.
My father, who was very ancient, had given me a competent
share of learning, as far as house-education and a country free
school generally go, and designed me for the law ; but I would
be satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and my inclination
to this led me so strongly against the will, nay, the commands
of my father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of

;
6 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

my mother and other friends, that there seemed to be something
fatal in that propensity of nature, tending directly to the life of
misery which was to befall me.

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and ex-
cellent counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He
called me one morning into his chamber, where he was confined
by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with me upon this
subject. He asked me what reasons, more than a mere wander-
ing inclination, I had for leaving my father’s house and m
native country, where I might be well introduced, and had a
prospect of raising my fortune by application and industry, with
a life of ease and pleasure. He told me it was men of desperate
fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring, superior fortunes on the
other, who went abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise,
and make themselves famous in undertakings of a nature out of
the common road; that these things were all either too far above
, me or too far below me; that mine was the middle state, or
‘what might be called the upper station of low life, which he
had found, by long experience, was the best state in the world,
the most suited to human happiness, not exposed to the miseries
and hardships, the labour and sufferings of the mechanic part of
mankind, and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition,
and envy of the upper part of mankind. He told me I might
judge of the happiness of this state by this one thing—viz. that
this was the state of life which all other people envied; that
kings have frequently lamented the miserable consequence of
being born to great things, and wished they had been placed
in the middle of the two extremes, between the mean and the
great; that the wise man gave his testimony to this, as the
standard of felicity, when he prayed to have neither poverty
nor riches.

He bade me observe it, and I should always find that the
calamities of life were shared among the upper and lower part
of mankind, but that the middle station had the fewest disasters,
and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes as the higher or
lower part of mankind ; nay, they were not subjected to so many
distempers and uneasinesses, either of body or mind, as those
were who, by vicious living, luxury, and extravagances on the
one hand, or by hard labour, want of necessaries, and mean or
insufficient diet on the other hand, bring distemper upon them-
selves by the natural consequences of their way of living; that
the middle station of life was calculated for all kind of virtue
and all kind of enjoyments; that peace and plenty were the
handmaids of a middle fortune; that temperance, moderation,
ROBINSON CRUSOE 7

quietness, health, society, all agreeable diversions, and all desir-
able pleasures, were the blessings attending the middle station
of life; that this way men went silently and smoothly through
the world, and comfortably out of it, not embarrassed with the
labours of the hands or of the head, not sold to a life of slavery
for daily bread, nor harassed with perplexed circumstances,
which rob the soul of peace and the body of rest, nor enraged
with the passion of envy, or the secret burning lust of ambition
for great things; but, in easy circumstances, sliding gently
through the world, and sensibly tasting the sweets of living,
without the bitter; feeling that they are happy, and learning by
every day’s experience to know it more sensibly.

After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affection-
ate manner, not to play the young man, nor to precipitate
myself into miseries which nature, and the station of life I was
born in, seemed to have provided against ; that I was under no
necessity of seeking my bread; that he would do well for me,
and endeavour to enter me fairly into the station of life which ©
he had just been recommending to me; and that if I was not
very easy and happy in the world, it must be my mere fate or
fault that must hinder it; and that he should have nothing to
answer for, having thus discharged his duty in warning me
against measures which he knew would be to my hurt; in a
word, that as he would do very kind things for me if I would
stay and settle at home as he directed, so he would not have so
much hand in my misfortunes as to give me any encouragement
to go away; and to close all, he told me I had my elder brother
for an example, to whom he had used the same earnest persua-
sions to keep him from going into the Low Country wars, but
could not prevail, his young desires prompting him to run into
the army, where he was killed; and though he said he would
not cease to pray for me, yet he would venture to say to me,
that if I did take this foolish step, God would not bless me,
and I should have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having
neglected his counsel, when there might be none to assist in
my recovery.

I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly
prophetic, though I suppose my father did not know it to be so
himself—I say, I observed the tears run down his face very
plentifully, especially when he spoke of my brother who was
killed ; and that when he spoke of my having leisure to repent,
and none to assist me, he was so moved that he broke off the
discourse, and told me his heart was so full he could say no
more to me.
8 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

I was sincerely affected with this discourse, and, indeed, who
could be otherwise ? and I resolved not to think of going abroad
any more, but to settle at home according to my father’s desire.
But alas! a few days wore it all off; and, in short, to prevent
any of my father’s further importunities, in a few weeks after
I resolved to run quite away from him. However, I did not act
quite so hastily as the first heat of my resolution prompted ; but
I took my mother at a time when I thought her a little more
pleasant than ordinary, and told her that my thoughts were so
entirely bent upon seeing the world that I should never settle
to anything with resolution enough to go through with it, and
my father had better give me his consent than force me to go
without it; that I was now eighteen years old, which was too
late to go apprentice to a trade or clerk to an attorney ; that I
was sure if I did I should never serve out my time, but I should
certainly run away from my master before my time was out,
and go to sea; and if she would speak to my father to let me
go one voyage abroad, if I came home again, and did not
like it, I would go no more; and I would promise, by a double
diligence, to recover the time that I had lost.

This put my mother into a great passion; she told me she
knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any
such subject; that he knew too well what was my interest to
give his consent to anything so much for my hurt; and that she
wondered how I could think of any such thing after the dis-
course I had had with my father, and such kind and tender
expressions as she knew my father had used to me; and that,
in short, if I would ruin myself, there was no help for me; but
I might depend I should never have their consent to it; that
for her part she would not have so much hand in my destruc-
tion; and I should never have it to say that my mother was
willing when my father was not.

Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet I
heard afterwards that she reported all the discourse to him,
and that my father, after showing a great concern at it, said
to her, with a sigh, “That boy might be happy if he would
stay at home; but if he goes abroad, he will be the most
miserable wretch that ever was born: I can give no consent
tout.

It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose,
though, in the meantime, I continued obstinately deaf to all
proposals of settling to business, and frequently expostulated
with my father and mother about their being so positively de-
termined against what they knew my inclinations prompted me
ROBINSON CRUSOE 9

to. But being one day at Hull, where I went casually, and
without any purpose of making an elopement at that time; but,
I say, being there, and one of my companions being about to
sail to London in his father’s ship, and prompting me to go
with them with the common allurement of seafaring men, that
it should cost me nothing for my passage, I consulted neither
father nor mother any more, nor so much as sent them word of
it; but leaving them to hear of it as they might, without asking
God’s blessing or my father’s, without any consideration of cir-
cumstances or consequences, and in an ill hour, God knows,
on the Ist of September 1651, I went on board a ship bound
for London. Never any young adventurer’s misfortunes, I
believe, began sooner, or continued longer than mine. The ship
was no sooner out of the Humber than the wind began to blow
and the sea to rise in a most frightful manner; and, as I had
never been at sea before, I was most inexpressibly sick in body
and terrified in mind. I began now seriously to reflect upon
what I had done, and how justly I was overtaken by the judg-
ment of Heaven for my wicked leaving my father’s house, and
abandoning my duty. All the good counsels of my parents, my
father’s tears and my mother’s entreaties, came now fresh into
my mind; and my conscience, which was not yet come to the
pitch of hardness to which it has since, reproached me with
the contempt of advice, and the breach of my duty to God and
my father.

All this while the storm increased, and the sea went very
high, though nothing like what I have seen many times since ;
no, nor what I saw a few days after; but it was enough to affect
me then, who was but a young sailor, and had never known
anything of the matter. I expected every wave would have
swallowed us up, and that every time the ship fell down, as I
thought it did, in the trough or hollow of the sea, we should
never rise more ; in this agony of mind, I made many vows and
resolutions, that if it would please God to spare my life in this
one voyage, if ever I got once my foot upon dry land again, I
would go directly home to my father, and never set it into a
ship again while I lived; that I would take his advice, and
never run myself into such miseries as these any more. Now I
saw plainly the goodness of his observations about the middle
station of life, how easy, how comfortably he had lived all his
days, and never had been exposed to tempests at sea or troubles
on shore; and I resolved that I would, like a true repenting
prodigal, go home to my father.

These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the
10 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

storm lasted, and indeed some time after; but the next day the
wind was abated, and the sea calmer, and I began to be a little
inured to it: however, I was very grave for all that day, being
also a little sea-sick still ; but towards night the weather cleared
up, the wind was quite over, and a charming fine evening
followed ; the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the
next morning ; and having little or no wind, and a smooth sea,
the sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most
delightful that ever I saw,

I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick,
but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was
so rough and terrible the day before, and could be so calm and
so pleasant in so little a time after. And now, lest my good
resolutions should continue, my companion, who had enticed me
away, comes to me; “ Well, Bob,” says he, clapping me upon
the shoulder, “how do you do after it? I warrant you were
frighted, wer’n’t you, last night, when it blew but a capful of
wind?” “A capful d’you call it?” said I; “’twas a terrible
storm.”’ “A storm, you fool you,” replies he; “do you call that
a storm? why, it was nothing at all; give us but a good ship
and sea-room, and we think nothing of such a squall of wind as
that; but you’re but a fresh-water sailor, Bob. Come, let us
make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that; d’ye see what
charming weather ’tis now?” To make short this sad part of
my story, we went the way of all sailors; the punch was made,
and I was made half drunk with it: and in that one night’s
wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon
my past conduct, all my resolutions for the future. In a word,
as the sea was returned to its smoothness of surface and settled
calmness by the abatement of that storm, so the hurry of my
thoughts being over, my fears and apprehensions of being
swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and the current of
my former desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and
promises that I: made in my distress. I found, indeed, some
intervals of reflection; and the serious thoughts did, as it were,
endeavour to return again sometimes ; but I shook them off,
and roused myself from them as it were from a distemper,
and applying myself to drinking and company, soon mastered
the return of those fits—for so I called them ; and I had in
five or six days got as complete a victory over conscience as
any young fellow that resolved not to be troubled with it
could desire. But I was to have another trial for it still; and
Providence, as in such cases generally it does, resolved to
leave me entirely without excuse; for if I would not take this
ROBINSON CRUSOE : ‘11

for a deliverance, the next was to be such a one as the worst
and most hardened wretch among us would confess both the
danger and the mercy of.

The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth
Roads; the wind having been contrary and the weather calm,
we had made but little way since the storm. Here we were
obliged to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind con-
tinuing contrary—viz. at south-west—for seven or eight days,
during which time a great many ships from Newcastle came into
the same Roads, as the common harbour where the ships might
wait for a wind for the river.

We had not, however, rid here so long but we should have
tided it up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh, and after
we had lain four or five days, blew very hard. However, the
Roads being reckoned as good as a harbour, the anchorage good,
and our ground-tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned,
and not in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent the time
in rest and mirth, after the manner of the sea; but the eighth
day, in the morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands
at work to strike our topmasts, and make everything snug and
close, that the ship might ride as easy as possible. By noon the
sea went very high indeed, and our ship rode forecastle in,
shipped several seas, and we thought once or twice our anchor
had come home; upon which our master ordered out the sheet-
anchor, so that we rode with two anchors ahead, and the cables
veered out to the better end.

By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed ; and now I began
to see terror and amazement in the faces even of the seamen
themselves. The master, though vigilant in the business of
preserving the ship, yet as he went in and out of his cabin by
me, I could hear him softly to himself say, several times, “ Lord
be merciful to us! we shall be all lost! we shall be all undone!”
and the like. During these first hurries I was stupid, lying still
in my cabin, which was in the steerage, and cannot describe
my temper: I could ill resume the first penitence which I had
so apparently trampled upon and hardened myself against: I
thought the bitterness of death had been past, and that this
would be nothing like the first; but when the master himself
came by me, as I said just now, and said we should be all lost,
I was dreadfully frighted. I got up out of my cabin and looked
out; but such a dismal sight I never saw: the sea ran mountains
high, and broke upon us every three or four minutes; when I
could look about, I could see nothing but distress round us;
two ships that rode near us, we found, had cut their masts by
12 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

the board, being deep laden; and our men cried out that a ship
which rode about a mile ahead of us was foundered. Two
more ships, being driven from their anchors, were run out
of the Roads to sea, at all adventures, and that with not a
mast standing. The light ships fared the best, as not so much
labouring in the sea; but two or three of them drove, and
came close by us, running away with only their spritsail out
before the wind.

Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master
of our ship to let them cut away the fore-mast, which he was
very unwilling to do; but the boatswain protesting to him that
if he did not the ship would founder, he consented ; and when
they had cut away the fore-mast, the main-mast stood so loose,
and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut that away
also, and make a clear deck.

Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at all
this, who was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a
fright before at but a little. But if I can express at this dis-
tance the thoughts I had about me at that time, I was in ten-
fold more horror of mind upon account of my former convictions,
and the having returned from them to the resolutions I had
wickedly taken at first, than I was at death itself ; and these,
added to the terror of the storm, put me into such a condition
that I can by no words describe it. But the worst was not
come yet; the storm continued with such fury that the seamen
themselves acknowledged they had never seen a worse. We
had a good ship, but she was deep laden, and wallowed in the
sea, so that the seamen every now and then cried out she would
founder. It was my advantage, in one respect, that I did not
know what they meant by founder till I inquired. However,
the storm was so violent that I saw, what is not often seen,
the master, the boatswain, and some others more sensible than
the rest, at their prayers, and expecting every moment when the
ship would go to the bottom. In the middle of the night, and
under all the rest of our distresses, one of the men that had
been down to see cried out we had sprung a leak; another said
there was four feet water in the hold. Then all hands were
called to the pump. At that word, my heart, as I thought, died
within me: and I fell backwards upon the side of my bed where
I sat, into the cabin. However, the men roused me, and told
me that I, that was able to do nothing before, was as well able
to pump as another; at which I stirred up and went to the
pump, and worked very heartily. While this was doing the
master, seeing some light colliers, who, not able to ride out the


ROBINSON CRUSOE 13

storm, were obliged to slip and run away to sea, and would
come near us, ordered to fire a gun as a signal of distress. I,
who knew nothing what they meant, thought the ship had
broken, or some dreadful thing happened. In a word, I was so
surprised that I fell down in a swoon. As this was a time when
everybody had his own life to think of, nobody minded me, or
what was become of me; but another man stepped up to the
pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot, let me lie, think-
ing I had been dead; and it was a great while before I came
to myself.

We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it was
apparent that the ship would founder; and though the storm
began to abate a little, yet it was not possible she could swim till
we might run into any port; so the master continued firing guns
for help; and a light ship, who had rid it out just ahead of us,
ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the utmost hazard
the boat came near us; but it was impossible for us to get on
board, or for the boat to lie near the ship’s side, till at last the
men rowing very heartily, and venturing their lives to save
ours, our men cast them a rope over the stern with a buoy to
it, and then veered it out a great length, which they, after
much labour and hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them
close under our stern, and got all into their boat. It was
to no purpose for them or us, after we were in the boat, to
think of reaching their own ship; so all agreed to let her
drive, and only to pull her in towards shore as much as we
could; and our master promised them, that if the boat was
staved upon shore, he would make it good to their master: so
partly rowing and partly driving, our boat went away to the
northward, sloping towards the shore almost as far as Winterton
Ness.

We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our
ship till we saw her sink, and then I understood for the first
time what was meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I must
acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up when the seamen
told me she was sinking ; for from the moment that they rather
put me into the boat than that I might be said to go in,
my heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly with fright,
partly with horror of mind, and the thoughts of what was yet
before me.

While we were in this condition—the men yet labouring at
the oar to bring the boat near the shore—we could see (when,
our boat mounting the waves, we were able to see the shore)
@ great many people running along the strand to assist us when
14 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

we should come near; but we made but slow way towards the
shore ; nor were we able to reach the shore till, being past the
lighthouse at Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward
towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a little the violence
of the wind. Here we got in, and, though not without much
difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked afterwards on foot to
Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were used with great
humanity, as well by the magistrates of the town, who assigned
us good quarters, as by particular merchants and owners of ships,
and had money given us sufficient to carry us either to London
or back to Hull as we thought fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and
have gone home, I had been happy, and my father, as in our
blessed Saviour’s parable, had even killed the fatted calf for me;
for hearing the ship I went away in was cast away in Yarmouth
Roads, it was a great while before he had any assurances that I
was not drowned.

But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that
nothing could resist ; and though I had several times loud calls
from my reason and my more composed judgment to go home,
yet I had no power to do it. I know not what to call this, nor
will I urge that it is a secret overruling decree, that hurries us
on to be the instruments of our own destruction, even though
it be before us, and that we rush upon it with our eyes open.
Certainly, nothing but some such decreed unavoidable misery,
which it was impossible for me to escape, could have pushed me
forward against the calm reasonings and persuasions of my most
retired thoughts, and against two such visible instructions as I
had met with in my first attempt.

My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who
was the master’s son, was now less forward than I. The first
time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which was not
till two or three days, for we were separated in the town to
several quarters ; I say, the first time he saw me, it appeared his
tone was altered; and, looking very melancholy, and shaking
his head, he asked me how IJ did, and telling his father who I
was, and how I had come this voyage only for a trial, in order to
go further abroad, his father, turning to me with a very grave
and concerned tone, “ Young man,” says he, “you ought never
to go to sea any more; you ought to take this for a plain and
visible token that you are not to be a seafaring man.” “Why,
sir,” said I, “will you go to sea no more?” “That is another
case,” said he; “it is my calling, and therefore my duty ; but as
you made this voyage on trial, you see what a taste Heaven has




ROBINSON CRUSOE 15

given you of what you are to expect if you persist. Perhaps
this has all befallen us on your account, like Jonah in the ship
of Tarshish. Pray,” continues he, “what are you; and on what
account did you go to sea?” Upon that I told him some of my
story; at the end of which he burst out into a strange kind of
passion: “ What had I done,” says he, “that such an unhappy
wretch should come into my ship? I would not set my foot in
the same ship with thee again for a thousand pounds.” This
indeed was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits, which were yet
agitated by the sense of his loss, and was farther than he could
have authority to go. However, he afterwards talked very
gravely to me, exhorting me to go back to my father, and not
tempt Providence to my ruin, telling me I might see a visible
hand of Heaven against me. “ And, young man,” said he, “ de-
pend upon it, if you do not go back, wherever you go, you will
meet with nothing but disasters and disappointments, till your
father’s words are fulfilled upon you.”

We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I saw
him no more; which way he went I knew not. As for me,
having some money in my pocket, I travelled to London by
land; and there, as well as on the road, had many struggles
with myself what course of life I should take, and whether I
should go home or to sea.

As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered
to my thoughts, and it immediately occurred to me how I should
be laughed at among the neighbours, and should be ashamed to
see, not my father and mother only, but even everybody else ;
from whence I have since often observed, how incongruous and
irrational the common temper of mankind is, especially of youth,
to that reason which ought to guide them in such cases—viz.
that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent ;
not ashamed of the action for which they ought justly to be
esteemed fools, but are ashamed of the returning, which only
can make them be esteemed wise men.

In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain
what measures to take, and what course of life to lead. An
irresistible reluctance continued to going home; and as I stayed
away a while, the remembrance of the distress I had been in
wore off, and as that abated, the little motion I had in my
desires to return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside
the thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.
16 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

CHAPTER II
SLAVERY AND ESCAPE

HAT evil influence which carried me first away from my

father’s house—which hurried me into the wild and in-
digested notion of raising my fortune, and that impressed those
conceits so forcibly upon me as to make me deaf to all good
advice, and to the entreaties and even the commands of my
father—lI say, the same influence, whatever it was, presented the
most unfortunate of all enterprises to my view; and I went on
board a vessel bound to the coast of Africa; or, as our sailors
vulgarly called it, a voyage to Guinea.

It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I did
not ship myself as a sailor; when, though I might indeed have
worked a little harder than ordinary, yet at the same time I
should have learnt the duty and office of a fore-mast man, and
in time might have qualified myself for a mate or lieutenant, if
not for a master. But as it was always my fate to choose for the
worse, so I did here; for having money in my pocket and good
clothes upon my back, I would always go on board in the habit
of a gentleman; and so I neither had any business in the ship,
nor learned to do any.

It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in
London, which does not always happen to such loose and mis-
guided young fellows as I then was; the devil generally not
omitting to lay some snare for them very early; but it was not
so with me. I first got acquainted with the master of a ship
who had been on the coast of Guinea; and who, having had very
good success there, was resolved to go again. This captain taking
a fancy to my conversation, which was not at all disagreeable
at that time, hearing me say I had a mind to see the world, told
me if I would go the voyage with him I should be at no expense ;
I should be his messmate and his companion; and if I could
carry anything with me, I should have all the advantage of it
that the trade would admit; and perhaps I might meet with
some encouragement.

I embraced the offer; and entering into a strict friendship
with this captain, who was an honest, plain-dealing man, I went
the voyage with him, and carried a small adventure with me,
which, by the disinterested honesty of my friend the captain, I
increased very considerably; for I carried about £40 in such
toys and trifles as the captain directed me to buy. These £40 I


ROBINSON CRUSOE = oe

had mustered together by the assistance of some of my relations
whom I corresponded with; and who, I believe, got my father,
or at least my mother, to contribute so much as that to my first
adventure.

This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in
all my adventures, which I owe to the integrity and honesty of
my friend the captain; under whom also I got a competent
knowledge of the mathematics and the rules of navigation,
learned how to keep an account of the ship’s course, take an
observation, and, in short, to understand some things that were
needful to be understood by a sailor; for, as he took delight to
instruct me, I took delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage
made me both a sailor and a merchant; for I brought home five
pounds nine ounces of gold-dust for my adventure, which yielded
me in London, at my return, almost £300; and this filled me
with those aspiring thoughts which have since so completed
my ruin.

Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too ; particularly,
that I was continually sick, being thrown into a violent calenture
by the excessive heat of the climate ; our principal trading being
upon the coast, from latitude of 15 degrees north even to the
line itself.

I was now set up for a Guinea trader ; and my friend, to my
great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go
the same voyage again, and I embarked in the same vessel with
one who was his mate in the former voyage, and had now got the
command of the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage that
ever man made; for though I did not carry quite £100 of my
new-gained wealth, so that I had £200 left, which I had lodged
with my friend’s widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell into
terrible misfortunes. The first was this: our ship making her
course towards the Canary Islands, or rather between those
Islands and the African shore, was surprised in the grey of the
morning by a Turkish rover of Sallee, who gave chase to us with
all the sail she could make. We crowded also as much canvas
as our yards would spread, or our masts carry, to get clear; but
finding the pirate gained upon us, and would certainly come up
with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight; our ship having
twelve guns, and the rogue eighteen. About three in the after-
/noon he came up with us, and bringing to, by mistake, just
athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as he intended,
| we brought eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured
in a broadside upon him, which made him sheer off again, after
returning our fire, and pouring in also his small shot from near

*
18 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

two hundred men which he had on board. However, we had
not a man touched, all our men keeping close. He prepared to
attack us again, and we to defend ourselves. But Jaying us on
board the next time upon our other quarter, he entered sixty
men upon our decks, who immediately fell to cutting and hack-
ing the sails and rigging. We plied them with small shot, half-
pikes, powder-chests, and such like, and cleared our deck of them
twice. However, to cut short this melancholy part of our story,
our ship being disabled, and three of our men killed, and eight
wounded, we were obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners
into Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I appre-
hended ; nor was I carried up the country to the emperor's
court, as the rest of our men were, but was kept by the captain
of the rover as his proper prize, and made his slave, being
young and nimble, and fit for his business. At this surprising
change of my circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable
slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed ; and now I looked back
upon my father’s prophetic discourse to me, that I should be
miserable and have none to relieve me, which I thought was
now so effectually brought to pass that I could not be worse; for
now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone
without redemption ; but, alas! this was but a taste of the misery
I was to go through, as will appear in the sequel of this story.

As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house,
so I was in hopes that he would take me with him when he went
to sea again, believing that it would some time or other be his
fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portugal man-of-war ; and that
then I should be set at liberty. But this hope of mine was soon
taken away; for when he went to sea, he left me on shore to
look after his little garden, and do the common drudgery of
slaves about his house ; and when he came home again from his
cruise, he ordered me to lie in the cabin to look after the ship.

Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I
might take to effect it, but found no way that had the least proba-
bility in it; nothing presented to make the supposition of it
rational; for I had nobody to communicate it to that would
embark with me—no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or
Scotchman there but myself; so that for two years, though I
often pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had the
least encouraging prospect of putting it in practice.

After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself,
which put the old thought of making some attempt for my liberty
again in my head. My patron lying at home longer than usual
ROBINSON CRUSOE 19

without fitting out his ship, which, as I heard, was for want of
money, he used constantly, once or twice a week, sometimes
oftener if the weather was fair, to take the ship’s pinnace and
go out into the road a-fishing ; and as he always took me and
young Maresco with him to row the boat, we made him very
merry, and I proved very dexterous in catching fish ; insomuch
that sometimes he would send me with a Moor, one of his kins-
men, and the youth—the Maresco, as they called him—to catch
a dish of fish for him.

It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a calm morning,
a fog rose so thick that, though we were not half a league from
the shore, we lost sight of it; and rowing we knew not whither
or which way, we laboured all day, and all the next night; and
when the morning came, we found we had pulled off to sea
instead of pulling in for the shore; and that we were at least
two leagues from the shore. However, we got well in again,
though with a great deal of labour and some danger; for the
wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morning; but we were
ali very hungry.

But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more
care of himself for the future ; and having lying by him the long-
boat: of our English ship that he had taken, he resolved he would
not go a-fishing any more without a compass and some provision ;
so he ordered the carpenter of his ship, who also was an English
slave, to build a little state-room, or cabin, in the middle of the
long-boat, like that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it
to steer, and haul home the main-sheet ; the room before for a
hand or two to stand and work the sails. She sailed with what
we call a shoulder-of-mutton sail; and the boom jibed over the
top of the cabin, which lay very snug and low, and had in it
room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table to eat on,
with some small lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor as
he thought fit to drink ; and his bread, rice, and coffee.

We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing ; and as I was
most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without me.
It happened that he had appointed to go out in this boat, either
for pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors of some distinc-
tion in that place, and for whom he had provided extraordinarily,
and had, therefore, sent on board the boat overnight a larger
store of provisions than ordinary; and had ordered me to get
ready three fusees with powder and shot, which were on board
his ship, for that they designed some sport of fowling as well as
fishing.

I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the next


20 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

morning with the boat washed clean, her ancient and pendants
out, and everything to accommodate his guests; when by-and-by
my patron came on board alone, and told me his guests had put
off going, from some business that fell out, and ordered me, with
the man and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat and catch
them some fish, for that his friends were to sup at his house, and
commanded that as soon as I got some fish I should bring it
home to his house ; all which I prepared to do.

This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into
my thoughts, for now I found I was likely to have a little ship at
my command ; and my master being gone, I prepared to furnish
myself, not for fishing business, but for a voyage ; though I knew
not, neither did I so much as consider, whither I should steer—
anywhere to get out of that place was my desire.

My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this
Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board; for I told
him we must not presume to eat of our patron’s bread. He said
that was true; so he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit,
and three jars of fresh water, into the boat. I knew where my
patron’s case of bottles stood, which it was evident, by the make,
were taken out of some English prize, and I conveyed them
into the boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they had been
there before for our master. 1 conveyed also a great lump of
beeswax into the boat, which weighed about half a hundred-
weight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and
a hammer, all of which were of great use to us afterwards,
especially the wax, to make candles. Another trick 1 tried upon
him, which he innocently came into also: his name was Ismael,
which they call Muley, or Moely ; so I called to him—“ Moely,”
said I, “our patron’s guns are on board the boat; can you not
get a little powder and shot? It may be we may kill some
aleamies (a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves, for I know he
keeps the gunner’s stores in the ship.” “Yes,” says he, “I'll
bring some ;”’ and accordingly he brought a great leather pouch,
which held a pound and a half of powder, or rather more ;
and another with shot, that had five or six pounds, with some
bullets, and put all into the boat. At the same time I had
found some powder of my master’s in the great cabin, with which
I filled one of the large bottles in the case, which was almost
empty, pouring what was in it into another; and thus furnished
with everything needful, we sailed out of the port to fish. The
castle, which is at the entrance of the port, knew who we were,
and took no notice of us; and we were not above a mile out of
the port before we hauled in our sail and set us down to fish.



CE Rrecig,

1898



sa —
——————

te

So ——

"Eye Come near the boat
Ti Sook you through he Sead

Copyright, Service & Paton, 1899.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 21

The wind blew from the N.N.E., which was contrary to my
desire, for had it blown southerly I had been sure to have made
the coast of Spain, and at least reached to the bay of Cadiz; but
my resolutions were, blow which way it would, I would be gone
from that horrid place where I was, and leave the rest to fate.

After we had fished some time and caught nothing—for when
I had fish on my hook I would not pull them up, that he might
not see them—I said to the Moor, “ This will not do; our master
will not be thus served ; we must stand farther off.”. He, think-
ing no harm, agreed, and being in the head of the boat, set the
sails; and, as I had the helm, I ran the boat out near a league
farther, and then brought her to, as if I would fish; when,
giving the boy the helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor
was, and making as if I stooped for something behind him, I
took him by surprise with my arm under his waist, and tossed
him clear overboard into the sea. He rose immediately, for he
swam like a cork, and called to me, begged to be taken in, told
me he would go all over the world with me. He swam so
strong after the boat that he would have reached me very
quickly, there being but little wind; upon which I stepped into
the cabin, and fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented it
at him, and told him I had done him no hurt, and if he would
be quiet I would do him none: “ But,” said I, “you swim well
enough to reach to the shore, and the sea is calm; make the
best of your way to shore, and I will do you no harm; but if
you come near the boat I’ll shoot you through the head, for
I am resolved to have my liberty ;” so he turned himself about,
and swam for the shore, and I make no doubt but he reached it
with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.

I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me,
and have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust
him. When he was gone, I turned to the boy, whom they
called Xury, and said to him, “ Xury, if you will be faithful to
me, I’]] make you a great man; but if you will not stroke your
face to be true to me”—that is, swear by Mahomet and his
father’s beard—*“I must throw you into the sea too.” The boy
smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently that I could not
distrust him, and swore to be faithful to me, and go all over the
world with me.

While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood
out directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching to windward,
that they might think me gone towards the Straits’ mouth (as
indeed any one that had been in their wits must have been
supposed to do); for who would have supposed we were sailed
22 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

on to the southward, to the truly Barbarian coast, where whole
nations of negroes were sure to surround us with their canoes
and destroy us; where we could not go on shore but we should
be devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless savages of
human kind.

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my
course, and steered directly south and by east, bending my
course a little towards the east, that I might keep in with the
shore ; and having a fair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth, quiet
sea, I made such sail that I believe by the next day, at three
o'clock in the afternoon, when I first made the land, I could not
be less than one hundred and fifty miles south of Salee; quite
beyond the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions, or indeed of any
other king thereabouts, for we saw no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken of the Moors, and the
dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that I
would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an anchor; the wind
continuing fair till I had sailed in that manner five days; and
then the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also that
if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would now
give over; so I ventured to make to the coast, and came to an
anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew not what, nor
where, neither what latitude, what country, what nation, or
what river. I neither saw, nor desired to see any people ; the
principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came into this
creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it
was dark, and discover the country ; but as soon as it was quite
dark, we heard such dreadful noises of the barking, roaring, and
howling of wild creatures, of we knew not what kinds, that the
poor boy was ready to die with fear, and begged of me not to
go on shore till day. “ Well, Xury,” said I, “then I won’t; but
it may be that we may see men by day, who will be as bad to
us as those lions.’”” “Then we give them the shoot gun,” says
Xury, laughing, “make them run wey.” Such English Xury
spoke by conversing among us slaves. However, I was glad to
see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dram (out of our
patron’s case of bottles) to cheer him up. After all, Xury’s
advice was good, and I took it; we dropped our little anchor,
and lay still all night; I say still, for we slept none; for in two
or three hours we saw vast great creatures (we knew not what
to call them) of many sorts, come down to the sea-shore and
run into the water, wallowing and washing themselves for the
pleasure of cooling themselves; and they made such hideous
howlings and yellings, that I never indeed heard the like.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 23

Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but
we were both more frighted when we heard one of these mighty
creatures come swimming towards our boat; we could not see
him, but we might hear him by his blowing to be a monstrous
huge and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion, and it might
be so for aught I know; but poor Xury cried to me to weigh
the anchor and row away; “No,” says I, “Xury; we can slip
our cable, with the buoy to it, and go off to sea; they cannot
follow us far.” I had no sooner said so, but I perceived the
creature (whatever it was) within two oars’ length, which some-
thing surprised me; however, I immediately stepped to the
cabin door, and taking up my gun, fired at him ; upon which he
immediately turned about and swam towards the shore again.

But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises, and hideous
cries and howlings that were raised, as well upon the edge of
the shore as higher within the country, upon the noise or report
of the gun, a thing I have some reason to believe those creatures
had never heard before: this convinced me that there was no
going on shore for us in the night on that coast, and how to
venture on shore in the day was another question too; for to
have fallen into the hands of any of the savages had been as bad
as to have fallen into the hands of the lions and tigers ; at least
we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.

Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore some-
where or other for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat ;
when and where to get to it was the point. Xury said, if I
would let him go on shore with one of the jars, he would find
if there was any water, and bring some to me. I asked him
why he would go? why I should not go, and he stay in the
boat? The boy answered with so much affection as made me
love him ever after. Says he, “If wild mans come, they eat
me, you go wey.” “Well, Xury,” said I, “we will both go, and
if the wild mans come, we will kill them, they shall eat neither
of us.” So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a dram
out of our patron’s case of bottles which I mentioned before ;
and we hauled the boat in as near the shore as we thought was
proper, and so waded on shore, carrying nothing but our arms
and two jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the
coming of canoes with savages down the river; but the boy
seeing a low place about a mile up the country, rambled to it,
and by-and-by I saw him come running towards me. I thought
he was pursued by some savage, or frighted with some wild
beast, and I ran forward towards him to help him; but when

é
24 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

I came nearer to him I saw something hanging over his
shoulders, which was a creature that he had shot, like a hare,
but different in colour, and longer legs: however, we were very
glad of it, and it was very good meat; but the great joy that
poor Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good water
and seen no wild mans.

But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains
for water, for a little higher up the creek where we were we
found the water fresh when the tide was out, which flowed but
a little way up; so we filled our jars, and feasted on the hare
we had killed, and prepared to go on our way, having seen no
footsteps of any human creature in that part of the country.

As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very
well that the islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verde
Islands also, lay not far off from the coast. But as I had no
instruments to take an observation to know what latitude we
were in, and not exactly knowing, or at least remembering,
what latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for them,
or when to stand off to sea towards them; otherwise I might
now easily have found some of these islands. But my hope was,
that if I stood along this coast till I came to that part where the
English traded, I should find some of their vessels upon their
usual design of trade, that would relieve and take us in.

By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was
must be that country which, lying between the Emperor of
Morocco’s dominions and the negroes, lies waste and unin-
habited, except by wild beasts ; the negroes having abandoned it
and gone farther south for fear of the Moors, and the Moors not
thinking it worth inhabiting by reason of its barrenness; and
indeed, both forsaking it because of the prodigious number of
tigers, lions, leopards, and other furious creatures which harbour
there ; so that the Moors use it for their hunting only, where
they go like an army, two or three thousand men at a time;
and indeed for near a hundred miles together upon this coast
we saw nothing but a waste, uninhabited country by day, and
heard nothing but howlings and roaring of wild beasts by
night.

Once or twice in the daytime I thought I saw the Pico of
Teneriffe, being the high top of the Mountain Teneriffe in the
Canaries, and had a great mind to venture out, in hopes of
reaching thither; but having tried twice, I was forced in again
by contrary winds, the sea also going too high for my little
vessel ; so I resolved to pursue my first design, and keep along
the shore.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 25

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we
had left this place; and once in particular, being early in the
morning, we came to an anchor under a little point of land,
which was pretty high; and the tide beginning to flow, we lay
still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about him
than it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me that
we had best go farther off the shore; “ For,” says he, “look,
yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of that hillock,
fast asleep.’ I looked where he pointed, and saw a dreadful
monster indeed, for it was a terrible, great lion that lay on the
side of the shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill that
hung as it were a little over him. “Xury,” says I, “you shall
go on shore and kill him.” Xury looked frighted, and said,
“Me kill! he eat me at one mouth !”—one mouthful he meant.
However, I said no more to the boy, but bade him lie still, and
I took our biggest gun, which was almost musket-bore, and
loaded it with a good charge of powder, and with two slugs, and
laid it down; then I loaded another gun with two bullets; and
the third (for we had three pieces) I loaded with five smaller
bullets. I took the best aim I could with the first piece to
have shot him in the head, but he lay so with his leg raised a
little above his nose, that the slugs hit his leg about the knee
and broke the bone. He started up, growling at first, but
finding his leg broken, fell down again; and then got upon
three legs, and gave the most hideous roar that ever I heard.
I was a little surprised that I had not hit him on the head;
however, I took up the second piece immediately, and though
he began to move off, fired again, and shot him in the head, and
had the pleasure to see him drop and make but little noise, but
lie struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and would have
me let him go on shore. “Well, go,” said I: so the boy
jumped into the water, and taking a little gun in one hand,
swam to shore with the other hand, and coming close to the
creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him
in the head again, which despatched him quite.

This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I was
very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a
creature that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury said
he would have some of him; so he comes on board, and asked
me to give him the hatchet. “For what, Xury?” said I. “Me
cut off his head,” said he. However, Xury could not cut off his
head, but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him, and it was
a monstrous great one.

I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him
26 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

might, one way or other, be of some value to us; and I resolved
to take off his skin if I could. So Xury and I went to work
with him; but Xury was much the better workman at it, for I
knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us both up the
whole day, but at last we got off the hide of him, and spreading
it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two
days’ time, and it afterwards served me to lie upon.

CHAPTER III
WRECKED ON A DESERT ISLAND

AFTER this stop, we made on to the southward continually
for ten or twelve days, living very sparingly on our pro-
visions, which began to abate very much, and going no oftener
to the shore than we were obliged to for fresh water. My
design in this was to make the river Gambia or Senegal, that is
to say anywhere about the Cape de Verde, where I was in hopes
to meet with some European ship; and if I did not, I knew not
what course I had to take, but to seek for the islands, or perish
there among the negroes. I knew that all the ships from
Europe, which sailed either to the coast of Guinea or to Brazil,
or to the East Indies, made this cape, or those islands; and, in
a word, I put the whole of my fortune upon this single point,
either that I must meet with some ship or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as
I have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited ; and in
two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand upon
the shore to look at us; we could also perceive they were quite
black and naked. I was once inclined to have gone on shore to
them; but Xury was my better counsellor, and said to me, “ No
go, no go.” However, I hauled in nearer the shore that I might
talk to them, and I found they ran along the shore by me a good
way. I observed they had no weapons in their hand, except one,
who had a long slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and
that they could throw them a great way with good aim; so I
kept at a distance, but talked with them by signs as well as I
could; and particularly made signs for something to eat: they
beckoned to me to stop my boat, and they would fetch me some
meat. Upon this I lowered the top of my sail and lay by, and
two of them ran up into the country, and in less than half-an-
hour came back, and brought with them two pieces of dried
ROBINSON CRUSOE 27

flesh and some corn, such as is the produce of their country; but we
neither knew what the one or the other was ; however, we were
willing to accept it, but how to come at it was our next dispute, for
I would not venture on shore to them, and they were as much
afraid of us ; but they took a safe way for us all, for they brought
it to the shore and laid it down, and went and stood a great way
off till we fetched it on board, and then came close to us again.

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to
make them amends; but an opportunity offered that very instant
to oblige them wonderfully ; for while we were lying by the
shore came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the other (as we
took it) with great fury from the mountains towards the sea;
whether it was the male pursuing the female, or whether they
were in sport or in rage, we could not tell, any more than we
could tell whether it was usual or strange, but I believe it was
the latter; because, in the first place, those ravenous creatures
seldom appear but in the night ; and, in the second place, we
found the people terribly frighted, especially the women. The
man that had the lance or dart did not fly from them, but the
rest did; however, as the two creatures ran directly into the
water, they did not offer to fall upon any of the negroes, but
plunged themselves into the sea, and swam about, as if they had
come for their diversion; at last one of them began to come
nearer our boat than at first I expected; but I lay ready for
him, for I had loaded my gun with all possible expedition, and
bade Xury load both the others. As soon as he came fairly
within my reach, I fired, and shot him directly in the head; im-
mediately he sank down into the water, but rose instantly, and
plunged up and down, as if he were struggling for life, and so
indeed he was; he immediately made to the shore ; but between
the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the
water, he died just before he reached the shore.

It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor
creatures at the noise and fire of my gun; some of them were
even ready to die for fear, and fell down as dead with the very
terror; but when they saw the creature dead, and sunk in the
water, and that I made signs to them to come to the shore, they
took heart and came, and began to search for the creature. 1
found him by his blood staining the water; and by the help of
a rope, which I slung round him, and gave the negroes to haul,
they dragged him on shore, and found that it was a most curious
leopard, spotted, and fine to an admirable degree ; and the
negroes held up their hands with admiration, to think what it
was I had killed him with.
28 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the
noise of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to the
mountains from whence they came; nor could I, at that distance,
know what it was. I found quickly the negroes wished to eat
the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to have them take it
as a favour from me; which, when I made signs to them that
they might take him, they were very thankful for. Immediately
they fell to work with him; and though they had no knife, yet,
with a sharpened piece of wood, they took off his skin as readily,
and much more readily, than we could have done with a knife.
They offered me some of the flesh, which I declined, pointing
out that I would give it them; but made signs for the skin,
which they gave me very freely, and brought me a great deal
more of their provisions, which, though I did not understand,
yet I accepted. I then made signs to them for some water, and
held out one of my jars to them, turning it bottom upward, to
show that it was empty, and that I wanted to have it filled.
They called immediately to some of their friends, and there
came two women, and brought a great vessel made of earth, and
burnt, as I supposed, in the sun; this they set down to me, as
before, and I sent Xury on shore with my jars, and filled them
all three. The women were as naked as the men.

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and
water; and leaving my friendly negroes, I made forward for
about eleven days more, without offering to go near the shore,
till I saw the land run out a great length into the sea, at about
the distance of four or five leagues before me; and the sea being
very calm, I kept a large offing to make this point. At length,
doubling the point, at about two leagues from the land, I saw
plainly land on the other side, to seaward ; then I concluded, as
it was most certain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verde, and
those the islands called, from thence, Cape de Verde Islands.
However, they were at a great distance, and I could not well
tell what I had best to do; for if I should be taken with a fresh
of wind, I might neither reach one or other.

In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the
cabin and sat down, Xury having the helm; when, on a sudden,
the boy cried out, “ Master, master, a ship with a sail !”” and the
foolish boy was frighted out of his wits, thinking it must needs
be some of his master’s ships sent to pursue us, but I knew we
were far enough out of their reach. I jumped out of the cabin,
and immediately saw, not only the ship, but that it was a
Portuguese ship; and, as I thought, was bound to the coast of
Guinea, for negroes. But, when I observed the course she


ROBINSON CRUSOE 29

steered, I was soon convinced they were bound some other way,
and did not design to come any nearer to the shore ; upon which
I stretched out to sea as much as I could, resolving to speak
with them if possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able
to come in their way, but that they would be gone by before I
could make any signal to them: but after I had crowded to the
utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems, saw by the help of
their glasses that it was some European boat, which they sup-
posed must belong to some ship that was lost ; so they shortened
sail to let me come up. I was encouraged with this, and as I had
my patron’s ancient on board, I made a waft of it to them, for I
signal of distress, and fired a gun, both which they saw; for they
told me they saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun.
Upon these signals they very kindly brought to, and lay by for
me; and in about three hours’ time I came up with them.

They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and
in French, but I understood none of them; but at last a Scotch
sailor, who was on board, called to me: and J answered him, and
told him I was an Englishman, that I had made my escape out
of slavery from the Moors, at Sallee; they then bade me come
on board, and very kindly took me in, and all my goods.

It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will believe,
that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable
and almost hopeless condition as I was in; and I immediately
offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a return for my
deliverance ; but he generously told me he would take nothing
from me, but that all I had should be delivered safe to me when
I came to the Brazils. “For,” says he, “I have saved your life
on no other terms than I would be glad to be saved myself: and
it may, one time or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same
condition. Besides,” said he, “when I carry you to the Brazils,
so great a way from your own country, if I should take from you
what you have, you will be starved there, and then I only take
away that life [have given. No, no,’ says he: “ Seignior Inglese”’
(Mr. Englishman), “ I will carry you thither in charity, and those
things will help to buy your subsistence there, and your passage
home again.”

As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the
performance to a tittle; for he ordered the seamen that none
should touch anything that I had: then he took everything into
his own possession, and gave me back an exact inventory of
them, that I might have them, even to my three earthen jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw, and
30 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

told me he would buy it of me for his ship’s use; and asked me
what I would have for it? I told him he had been so generous
to me in everything that I could not offer to make any price of
the boat, but left it entirely to him: upon which he told me he
would give me a note of hand to pay me eighty pieces of eight
for it at Brazil ; and when it came there, if any one offered to give
more, he would make it up. He offered me also sixty pieces of
eight more for my boy Xury, which I was loth to take ; not that
I was unwilling to let the captain have him, but I was very loth
to sell the poor boy’s liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully
in procuring my own. However, when I let him know my
reason, he owned it to be just, and offered me this medium,
that he would give the boy an obligation to set him free in ten
years, if he turned Christian : upon this, and Xury saying he was
willing to go to him, I let the captain have him.

We bad a very eood voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived
in the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints’ Bay, in about
twenty-two days after. And now I was once more delivered
from the most miserable of all conditions of life ; and what to
do next with myself I was to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me I can never
enough remember: he would take nothing of me for my passage,

gave me twenty ducats for the leopard’s "skin, and forty for the
lion’s skin, which I had in my boat, and caused everything I
had in the ship to be punctually delivered to me; and what I
was willing to sell he bought of me, such as the case of botties,
two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of beeswax—for I
had made candles of the rest: in a word, I made about two
hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo; and with
this stock I went on shore in the Brazils.

I had not been long here before I was recommended to the
house of a good honest man like himself, who had an zngenio, as
they call it (that is, a plantation and a sugar-house). I lived
with him some time, and acquainted myself by that means
with the manner of planting and making of sugar; and seeing
how well the planters lived, and how they got rich suddenly, 1
resolved, if 1 could get a licence to settle there, I would turn
planter among them : resolving in the meantime to find out
some way to get my money, which I had left in London,
remitted to me. To this purpose, getting a kind of letter of
naturalisation, I purchased as much land that was uncured as
my money would reach, and formed a plan for my plantation
and settlement; such a one as might be suitable to the stock
which I proposed to myself to receive from England.



ROBINSON CRUSOE 31

I had a neighbour, a Portuguese, of Lisbon, but born of Eng-
lish parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such circum-
stances as I was. I call him my neighbour, because his plantation
lay next to mine, and we went on very sociably together. My
stock was but low, as well as his; and we rather planted for food
than anything else, for about two years. However, we began to
increase, and our land began to come into order; so that the
third year we planted some tobacco, and made each of us a large
piece of ground ready for planting canes in the year to come.
But we both wanted help ; and now I found, more than before,
I had done wrong in parting with my boy Xury.

But, alas! for me to do wrong that never did right, was no
great wonder. I had no remedy but to go on: I had got into
an employment quite remote to my genius, and directly con-
trary to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my
father’s house, and broke through all his good advice, Nay, I
was coming into the very middle station, or upper degree of
low life, which my father advised me to before, and which, if I
resolved to go on with, I might as well have stayed at home,
and never have fatigued myself in the world as I had done ; and
I used often to say to myself, I could have done this as well
in England, among my friends, as have gone five thousand miles
off to do it among strangers and savages, in a wilderness, and at
such a distance as never to hear from any part of the world that
had the least knowledge of me.

In this manner I used to look upon my condition with the
utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with, but now and
then this neighbour; no work to be done, but by the labour of
my hands; and I used to say, I lived just like a man cast away
upon some desolate island, that had nobody there but himself.
_ But how just has it been—and how should all men reflect, that
§ when they compare their present conditions with others that are
| Worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the exchange, and be
convinced of their former felicity by their experience—I say,
| how just has it been, that the truly solitary life I reflected on,
}in an island of mere desolation, should be my lot, who had so

often unjustly compared it with the life which I then led, in
which, had I continued, I had in all probability been exceeding
prosperous and rich,

| I was in some degree settled in my measures for carrying on
the plantation before my kind friend, the captain of the ship
that took me up at sea, went back—for the ship remained there, in
providing his lading and preparing for his voyage, nearly three
months—when, telling him what little stock I had left behind me
c
32 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

in London, he gave me this friendly and sincere advice :—
“ Seignior Inglese,” says he (for so he always called me), “ if you
will give me letters, and a procuration in form to me, with
orders to the person who has your money in London to send your
effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct, and in such
goods as are proper for this country, I will bring you the produce
of them, God willing, at my return, but, since human affairs are
all subject to changes and disasters, I would have you give orders
but for one hundred pounds sterling, which, you say, is half your
stock, and let the hazard be run for the first; so that, if it come
safe, you may order the rest the same way, and, if it misearry, you
may have the other half to have recourse to for your supply.”

This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I
could not but be convinced it was the best course I could take ;
so I accordingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman with whom
I had left my money, and a procuration to the Portuguese
captain, as he desired.

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full account of all my
adventures—my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the
Portuguese captain at sea, the humanity of his behaviour, and
what condition I was now in, with all other necessary directions
for my supply; and when this honest captain came to Lisbon,
he found means, by some of the English merchants there, to
send over, not the order only, but a full account of my story to
a merchant in London, who represented it effectually to her;
whereupon she not only delivered the money, but out of her
own pocket sent the Portugal captain a very handsome present
for his humanity and charity to me.

The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in
English goods, such as the captain had written for, sent them
directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me
to the Brazils; among which, without my direction (for I was
too young in my business to think of them), he had taken care
to have all sorts of tools, ironwork, and utensils necessary for my
plantation, and which were of great use to me.

When this cargo arrived I thought my fortune made, for I was
surprised with the joy of it; and my good steward, the captain,
had laid out the five pounds, which my friend had sent him for
a present for himself, to purchase and bring me over a servant,
under bond for six years’ service, and would not accept of any
consideration, except a little tobacco, which I would have him
accept, being of my own produce.

Neither was this all ; for my goods being all English manufac-
ture, such as cloths, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable
ROBINSON CRUSOE 33

and desirable in the country, I found means to sell them to a
very great advantage ; so that I might say I had more than four
times the value of my first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond
my poor neighbour—I mean in the advancement of my planta-
tion ; for the first thing I did, I bought me a negro slave, and
an European servant also—I mean another besides that which
the captain brought me from Lisbon. |

But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means of
our greatest adversity, so it was with me. I went on the next
year with great success in my plantation: I raised fifty great
rolls of tobacco on my own ground more than I had disposed of
for necessaries among my neighbours; and these fifty rolls,
being each of above a hundredweight, were well cured, and laid
by against the return of the fleet from Lisbon: and now increas-
_ ing in business and wealth, my head began to be full of projects
. and undertakings beyond my reach; such as are, indeed, often
the ruin of the best heads in business. Had I continued in the
station I was now in, I had room for all the happy things to
have yet befallen me for which my father so earnestly recom-
mended a quiet, retired life, and of which he had so sensibly
described the middle station of life to be full of ; but other things
attended me, and I was still to be the wilful agent of all my own
miseries ; and particularly, to increase my fault, and double the
reflections upon myself, which in my future sorrows I should have
leisure to make, all these miscarriages were procured by my ap-
parent obstinate adhering to my foolish inclination of wandering
| abroad, and pursuing that inclination, in contradiction to the
clearest views of doing myself good in a fair and plain pursuit of
those prospects, and those measures of life, which nature and
Providence concurred to present me with, and to make my duty.

As I had once done thus in my breaking away from my
} parents, so I could not be content now, but I must go and leave
» the happy view I had of being a rich and thriving man in my
© new plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of
» vising faster than the nature of the thing admitted ; and thus I
) cast myself down again into the deepest gulf of human misery
» that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent with life
» and a state of health in the world.

To come, then, by the just degrees to the particulars of this
part of my story. You may suppose, that having now lived
© almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive and
prosper very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned
the language, but had contracted acquaintance and friendship
among my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants at St.

Oe ——





















34 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

Salvador, which was our port ; and that, in my discourses among
them, I had frequently given them an account of my two voyages
to the coast of Guinea: the manner of trading with the negroes
there, and how easy it was to purchase upon the coast for trifles
__such as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and
the like—not only gold-dust, Guinea grains, elephants’ teeth, &c.,
but negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great numbers.

They listened always very attentively to my discourses on these
heads, but especially to that part which related to the buying of
negroes, which was a trade at that time, not only not far entered
into, but, as far as it was, had been carried on by assientos, or
permission of the kings of Spain and Portugal, and engrossed in
the public stock: so that few negroes were bought, and those
excessively dear.

It happened, being in company with some merchants and
planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very
earnestly, three of them came to me next morning, and told me
they had been musing very much upon what I had discoursed
with them of the last night, and they came to make a secret pro-
posal to me ; and, after enjoining me to secrecy, they told me that
they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that they had
all plantations as well as I, and were straitened for nothing so
much as servants; that as it was a trade that could not be carried
on, because they could not publicly sell the negroes when they
came home, so they desired to make but one voyage, to bring the
negroes on shore privately, and divide them among their own
plantations ; and, ina word, the question was whether I would go
their supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading part upon the
coast of Guinea ; and they offered me that I should have my equal
share of the negroes, without providing any part of the stock.

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been
made to any one that had not had a settlement and a plantation
of his own to look after, which was in a fair way of coming to be
very considerable, and with a good stock upon it; but for me,
that was thus entered and established, and had nothing to do
but to go on as I had begun, for three or four years more, and
to have sent for the other hundred pounds from England ; and
who in that time, and with that little addition, could scarce have
failed of being worth three or four thousand pounds sterling,
and that increasing too—for me to think of such a voyage was
the most preposterous thing that ever man in such circumstances
could be guilty of.

But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more
resist the offer than I could restrain my first rambling designs


Ce Coley

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ROBINSON CRUSOE 35

when my father’s good counsel was lost upon me. Ina word, I
told them I would go with all my heart, if they would undertake
to look after my plantation in my absence, and would dispose of
it to such as I should direct, if I miscarried. This they all en-
gaged to do, and entered into writings or covenants to do so; and
I made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and effects in
case of my death, making the captain of the ship that had saved
my life, as before, my universal heir, but obliging him to dispose of
my effects as I had directed in my will; one half of the produce
being to himself, and the other to be shipped to England.

In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects and
to keep up my plantation. Had I used half as much prudence to
have looked into my own interest, and have made a judgment of
what I ought to have done and not to have done, I had certainly
never gone away from so prosperous an undertaking, leaving all
the probable views of a thriving circumstance, and gone upon a
voyage to sea, attended with all its common hazards, to say nothing
of the reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes to myself.

But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my
faney rather than my reason ; and, accordingly, the ship being
fitted out, and the cargo furnished, and all things done, as by
agreement, by my partners in the voyage, I went on board in an
evil hour, the Ist September 1659, being the same day eight
years that I went from my father and mother at Hull, in order to
act the rebel to their authority, and the fool to my own interests.

Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden,
carried six guns and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy,
and myself. We had on board no large cargo of goods, except
of such toys as were fit for our trade with the negroes, such as
beads, bits of glass, shells, and other trifles, especially little
looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.

The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to
the northward upon our own coast, with design to stretch over
for the African coast when we came about ten or twelve degrees
of northern latitude, which, it seems, was the manner of course
in those days. We had very good weather, only excessively hot,
all the way upon our own coast, till we came to the height of
Cape St. Augustino; from whence, keeping further off at sea,
we lost sight of land, and steered as if we were bound for the
isle Fernando de Noronha, holding our course N.E. by N., and
leaving those isles on the east. In this course we passed the
line in about twelve days’ time, and were, by our last observation,
in seven degrees twenty-two minutes northern latitude, when a
violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge.
36 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

It began from the south-east, came about to the north-west, and
then settled in the north-east; from whence it blew in such a
terrible manner, that for twelve days together we could do
nothing but drive, and, seudding away before it, let it carry us
whither fate and the fary of the winds derecrea ; and, during
these twelve days, I need not say that I expected every day to
be swallowed up; nor, indeed, did any in the ship expect
to save their lives.

In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm, one
of our men die of the calenture, and one man and the boy
washed overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather abating
a little, the master made an observation as well as he could, and
found that he was in about eleven degrees north latitude, but
that he was twenty-two degrees of longitude difference west
from Cape St. Augustino; so that he found he was upon the
coast of Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river
Amazon, toward that of the river Orinoco, commonly called
the Great River; and began to consult with me what course he
should take, for the ship was leaky, and very much disabled, and
he was going directly back to the coast of Brazil.

I was positively against that; and looking over the charts of
the sea-coast of America, with ian, we concluded there was no
inhabited country for us to have recourse to till we came within
the circle of the Caribbee Islands, and therefore resolved to
stand away for Barbadoes ; which, by keeping off at sea, to avoid
the indraft of the Bay or Gulf of Mexico, we might easily per-
form, as we hoped, in about fifteen days’ sail; whereas we could
not possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa without
some assistance both to our ship and to ourselves.

With this design we changed our course, and steered away
N.W. by W., in ‘order to reach some of our English islands,
where I hoped for relief. But our voyage was otherwise deter-
mined ; for, being in the latitude of twelve degrees eighteen
minutes, a second storm came upon us, which carried us away
with the same impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of the
way of all human commerce, that, had all our lives been saved
as to the sea, we were rather in danger of being devoured by
savages than ever returning to our own country.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our
men early in the morning cried out, “Land!” and we had no
sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing
whereabouts in the world we were, than the ship struck upon
a sand, and ina moment her motion being so stopped, the sea
broke over her in such a manner that we expected we should


ROBINSON CRUSOE 37

all have perished immediately ; and we were immediately driven
into our close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam and
spray of the sea.

It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like con-
dition to describe or conceive the consternation of men in such
circumstances. We knew nothing where we were, or upon what
land it was we were driven—whether an island or the main,
whether inhabited or not inhabited. As the rage of the wind
was still great, though rather less than at first, we could not so
much as hope to have the ship hold many minutes without
breaking into pieces, unless the winds, by a kind of miracle,
should turn immediately about. In a word, we sat looking
upon one another, and expecting death every moment, and
every man, accordingly, preparing for another world ; for there
was little or nothing more for us to do in this, That which was
our present comfort, and all the comfort we had, was that,
contrary to our expectation, the ship did not break yet, and
that the master said the wind began to abate.

Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate,
yet the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking
too fast for us to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful
condition indeed, and had nothing to do but to think of saving
our lives as well as we could. We had a boat at our stern just
before the storm, but she was first staved by dashing against
the ship’s rudder, and in the next place she broke away, and
either sunk or was driven off to sea; so there was no hope from
her. We had another boat on board, but how to get her off into
the sea was a doubtful thing. However, there was no time to
debate, for we fancied that the ship would break in pieces every
minute, and some told us she was actually broken already.

In this distress the mate of our vessel laid hold of the boat,
and with the help of the rest of the men got her slung over
the ship’s side ; and getting all into her, let go, and committed
ourselves, being eleven in number, to God’s merey and the
wild sea; for though the storm was abated considerably, yet
the sea ran dreadfully high upon the shore, and might be well
called den wild zee, as the Dutch eall the sea in a storm.

And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all saw
_ plainly that the sea went so high that the boat could not live,
_ and that we should be inevitably drowned. As to making sail,
_ We had none, nor if we had could we have done anything with
it; so we worked at the oar towards the land, though with
heavy hearts, like men going to execution; for we all knew
that when the boat came near the shore she would be dashed in
38 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

a thousand pieces by the breach of the sea. However, we com-
mitted our souls to God in the most earnest manner; and the
wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened our destruction
with our own hands, pulling as well as we could towards land.

What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep or
shoal, we knew not. The only hope that could rationally give
us the least shadow of expectation was, if we might find some
bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where by great chance
we might have run our boat in, or got under the lee of the land,
and perhaps made smooth water. But there was nothing like
this appeared; but as we made nearer and nearer the shore,
the land looked more frightful than the sea.

After we had rowed, or rather driven about a league and a half,
as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling
astern of us, and plainly bade us expect the coup de grace. It took
us with such a fury, that it overset the boat at once ; and separating
us as well from the boat as from one another, gave us no time to
say, “O God!” for we were all swallowed up in a moment.

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt
when I sank into the water; for though I swam very well,
yet I could not deliver myself from the waves so as to draw
breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather carried me, a
vast way on towards the shore, and having spent itself, went
back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but half dead with
the water I took in. I had so much presence of mind, as well
as breath left, that seeing myself nearer the mainland than I
expected, I got upon my feet, and endeavoured to make on
towards the land as fast as I could before another wave should
return and take me up again ; but I soon found it was impossible to
avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a great hill,
and as furious as an enemy, which I had no means or strength
to contend with: my business was to hold my breath, and raise
myself upon the water if I could; and so, by swimming, to pre-
serve my breathing, and pilot myself towards the shore, if possible,
my greatest concern now being that the sea, as it would carry me
a great way towards the shore when it came on, might not carry
me back again with it when it gave back towards the sea.

The wave that came upon me again buried me at once twenty
or thirty feet deep in its own body, and I could feel myself
carried with a mighty force and swiftness towards the shore a
very great way; but I held my breath, and assisted myself to
swim still forward with all my might. I was ready to burst with
holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising up, so, to my
immediate relief, I found my head and hands shoot out above




ROBINSON CRUSOE 39

the surface of the water; and though it was not two seconds of
time that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave
me breath, and new courage. I was covered again with water
2 good while, but not so long but I held it out; and finding the
water had spent itself, and began to return, I struck forward
against the return of the waves, and felt ground again with my
feet. I stood still a few moments to recover breath, and till the
waters went from me, and then took to my heels and ran with
what strength I had further towards the shore. But neither
would this deliver me from the fury of the sea, which came
pouring in after me again; and twice more I was lifted up by the
waves and carried forward as before, the shore being very flat.

The last time of these two had well-nigh been fatal to me, for
the sea having hurried me along as before, landed me, or rather
dashed me, against a piece of rock, and that with such force, that
it left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own deliver-
ance ; for the blow taking my side and breast, beat the breath
as it were quite out of my body; and had it returned again
immediately, I must have been strangled in the water; but I
recovered a little before the return of the waves, and seeing I
should be covered again with the water, I resolved to hold fast
by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath, if possible, till
the wave went back. Now, as the waves were not so high as at
first, being nearer land, I held my hold till the wave abated, and
then fetched another run, which brought me so near the shore
that the next wave, though it went over me, yet did not so
swallow me up as to carry me away; and the next run I took, I
got to the mainland, where, to my great comfort, I clambered
up the cliffs of the shore and sat me down upon the grass, free
from danger and quite out of the reach of the water.

I was now landed and safe on shore, and began to look up and
thank God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there was
some minutes before scarce any room to hope. I believe it is im-
possible to express, to the life, what the ecstasies and transports
of the soul are, when it is so saved, as I may say, out of the very
grave: and I do not wonder now at the custom, when a male-
factor, who has the halter about his neck, is tied up, and just
going to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought to him—I say,
I do not wonder that they bring a surgeon with it, to let him
blood that very moment they tell him of it, that the surprise may
not drive the animal spirits from the heart and overwhelm him.

‘For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.”

I walked about on the shore lifting up my hands, and my
40 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

whole being, as I may say, wrapped up in a contemplation of my
deliverance ; making a thousand gestures and motions, which I
cannot describe ; reflecting upon all my comrades that were
drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved but myself ;
for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign of
them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that
were not fellows.

I cast my eye to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and
froth of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far
off; and considered, Lord! how was it possible I could get on
shore ?

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my
condition, I began to look round me, to see what kind of place
I was in, and what was next to be done; and I soon found my
comforts abate, and that, in a word, I had a dreadful deliverance ;
for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor anything either
to eat or drink to comfort me; neither did I see any prospect
before me but that of perishing with hunger or being devoured
by wild beasts ; and that which was particularly afflicting to me
was, that I had no weapon, either to hunt and kill any creature
for my sustenance, or to defend myself against any other creature
that might desire to kill me for theirs. In a word, I had nothing
about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a
box. This was all my provisions; and this threw me into such
terrible agonies of mind, that for a while I ran about like a
madman. Night coming upon me, I began with a heavy heart to
consider what would be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts
in that country, as at night they always come abroad for their
prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time was
to get up into a thick bushy tree like a fir, but thorny, which
grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all night, and consider
the next day what death I should die, for as yet I saw no prospect
of life. I walked about a furlong from the shore, to see if I could
find any fresh water to drink, which I did, to my great joy; and
having drank, and put a little tobacco into my mouth to prevent
hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured
to place myself so that if I should sleep I might not fall. And
having cut me a short stick, like a truncheon, for my defence, I
took up my lodging; and having been excessively fatigued, I
fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could
have done in my condition, and found myself more refreshed
with it than, I think, I ever was on such an occasion.




ROBINSON CRUSOE 41

CHAPTER IV
FIRST WEEKS ON THE ISLAND

‘W HEN I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the

storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as
before. But that which surprised me most was, that the ship was
lifted off in the night from the sand where she lay by the swelling
of the tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock which I
at first mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the wave
dashing me against it. This being within about a mile from the
shore where I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I
wished myself on board, that at least I might save some necessary
things for my use.

When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked
about me again, and the first thing I found was the boat, which
lay, as the wind and the sea had tossed her up, upon the land,
about two miles on my right hand. I walked as far as I could
upon the shore to have got to her; but found a neck or inlet of
water between me and the boat which was about half-a-mile
broad ; so I came back for the present, being more intent upon
getting at the ship, where I hoped to find something for my
present subsistence.

A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the tide
ebbed so far out that I could come within a quarter of a mile of
the ship. And here I found a fresh renewing of my grief; for I
saw evidently that if we had kept on board we had been all safe
—that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had not been
so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort and
company as I now was. This forced tears to my eyes again; but
as there was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get to
the ship; so I pulled off my clothes—for the weather was hot to
extremity—and took the water. But when I came to the ship
my difficulty was still greater to know how to get on board; for,
as she lay aground, and high out of the water, there was nothing
within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and
the second time I spied a small piece of rope, which I wondered
I did not see at first, hung down by the fore-chains so low, as
that with great difficulty I got hold of it, and by the help of that
rope I got up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that
the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her hold,
but that she lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather
earth, that her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head
42 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

low, almost to the water. By this means all her quarter was free,
and all that was in that part was dry; for you may be sure my
first work was to search, and to see what was spoiled and what
was free. And, first, I found that all the ship’s provisions were
dry and untouched by the water, and being very well disposed. to
eat, I went to the bread-room and filled my pockets with biscuit,
and ate it as I went about other things, for I had no time to lose.
I also found some rum in the great cabin, of which I took a large
dram, and which I had, indeed, need enough of to spirit me for
what was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat to
furnish myself with many things which | foresaw would be very
necessary to me.

It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had ;
and this extremity roused my application. We had several spare
yards, and two or three large spars of wood, and a spare top-
mast or two in the ship; I resolved to fall to work with these,
and I flung as many of them overboard as I could manage for
their weight, tying every one with a rope, that they might not
drive away. When this was done I went down the ship’s side,
and pulling them to me, I tied four of them together at both
ends as well as I could, in the form of a raft, and laying two or
three short pieces of plank upon them crossways, I found I could
walk upon it very well, but that it was not able to bear any great
weight, the pieces being too light. So I went to work, and with
a carpenter's saw I cut a spare topmast into three lengths, and
added them to my raft, with a great deal of labour and pains.
But the hope of furnishing myself with necessaries encouraged
me to go beyond what I should have been able to have done
upon another occasion.

My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight.
My next care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what
I laid upon it from the surf of the sea; but I was not long con-
sidering this. I first laid all the planks or boards upon it that I
could get, and having considered well what I most wanted, I
got three of the seamen’s chests, which I had broken open,
and emptied, and lowered them down upon my raft; the first
of these I filled with provisions—viz. bread, rice, three Dutch
cheeses, five pieces of dried goat’s flesh (which we lived much
upon), and a little remainder of European corn, which had been
laid by for some fowls which we brought to sea with us, but
the fowls were killed. There had been some barley and wheat
together; but, to my great disappointment, I found afterwards
that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found
several cases of bottles belonging to our skipper, in which were


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ROBINSON CRUSOE 43

some cordial waters; and, in all, about five or six gallons of rack.
These I stowed by themselves, there being no need to put them
into the chest, nor any room for them. While I was doing this,
I found the tide begin to flow, though very calm; and I had
the mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I
had left on the shore, upon the sand, swim away. As for my
breeches, which were only linen, and open-kneed, I swam on
board in them and my stockings. However, this set me on
rummaging for clothes, of which I found enough, but took no
more than I wanted for present use, for I had other things which
my eye was more upon—as, first, tools to work with on shore.
And it was after long searching that I found out the carpenter’s
chest, which was, indeed, a very useful prize to me, and much
more valuable than a ship-load of gold would have been at that
time. I got it down to my raft, whole as it was, without losing
time to look into it, for I knew in general what it contained.

My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were
two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols.
These I secured first, with some powder-horns and a small bag
of shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there were three
barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where our gunner
had stowed them; but with much search I found them, two of
them dry and good, the third had taken water. Those two I
got to my raft, with the arms. And now I thought myself pretty
well freighted, and began to think how I should get to shore
with them, having neither sail, oar, nor rudder; and the least
capful of wind would have overset all my navigation.

I had three encouragements—1st, a smooth, calm sea; 2ndly,
the tide rising, and setting in to the shore; 3rdly, what little
wind there was blew me towards the land. And thus, having
found two or three broken oars belonging to the boat—and,
besides the tools which were in the chest, I found two saws, an
axe, and a hammer; with this cargo I put to sea. For a mile or
thereabouts my raft went very well, only that I found it drive a
little distant from the place where I had landed before ; by which
I perceived that there was some indraft of the water, and con-
sequently I hoped to find some creek or river there, which I
might make use of as a port to get to land with my cargo.

As I imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a little
opening of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide set
into it; sol guided my raft as well as I could, to keep in the
middle of the stream.

But here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck, which,
if I had, I think verily would have broken my heart ; for, knowing
ae LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

nothing of the coast, my raft ran aground at one end of it upon
a shoal, and not being aground at the other end, it wanted but
a little that all my cargo had slipped off towards the end that was
afloat, and so fallen into the water. I did my utmost, by setting
my back against the chests, to keep them in their places, but
could not thrust off the raft with all my strength; neither durst
I stir from the posture I was in; but holding up the chests with
all my might, I stood in that manner near half-an-hour, in which
time the rising of the water brought me a little more upon a
level; and a little after, the water still rising, my raft floated
again, and I thrust her off with the oar I had into the channel,
and then driving up higher, I at length found myself in the
mouth of a little river, with land on both sides, and a strong
current of tide running up. I looked on both sides for a proper
place to get to shore, for I was not willing to be driven too
high up the river: hoping in time to see some ships at sea, and
therefore resolved to place myself as near the coast as I could.

At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek,
to which with great pain and difficulty I guided my raft, and at
last got so near that, reaching ground with my oar, I could
thrust her directly in. But here I had like to have dipped all
my cargo into the sea again; for that shore lying pretty steep—
that is to say sloping—there was no place to land, but where
one end of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie so high, and the
other sink lower, as before, that it would endanger my cargo
again, All that I could do was to wait till the tide was at the
highest, keeping the raft with my oar like an anchor, to hold
the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of ground, which
I expected the water would flow over; and so it did. As soon
as I found water enough—for my raft drew about a foot of water
—TI thrust her upon that flat piece of ground, and there fastened
or moored her, by sticking my two broken oars into the ground,
one on one side, near one end, and one on the other side near
the other end; and thus I lay till the water ebbed away, and
left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.

My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper
place for my habitation, and where to stow my goods to secure
them from whatever might happen. Where I was, I yet knew
not; whether on the continent or on an island; whether in-
habited or not inhabited ; whether in danger of wild beasts or
not. There was a hill not above a mile from me, which rose up
very steep and high, and which seemed to overtop some other
hills, which lay as in a ridge from it northward. I took out one
of the fowling - pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn of
ROBINSON CRUSOE 45

powder ; and thus armed, I travelled for discovery up to the top
of that hill, where, after I had with great labour and difficulty
got to the top, I saw my fate, to my great affliction—viz. that I
was in an island environed every way with the sea: no land to be
seen except some rocks, which lay a great way off; and two small
islands, less than this, which lay about three leagues to the west.

I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw
good reason to believe, uninhabited except by wild. beasts, of
whom, however, I sawnone. Yet I saw abundance of fowls, but
knew not their kinds; neither when I killed them could I tell
what was fit for food, and what not. At my coming back, I shot
at a great bird which I saw sitting upon a tree on the side of a
great wood. I believe it was the first gun that had been fired
there since the creation of the world. I had no sooner fired,
than from all parts of the wood there arose an innumerable
number of fowls, of many sorts, making a confused screaming
and crying, and every one according to his usual note, but not
one of them of any kind that I knew. As for the creature |
killed, I took it to be a kind of hawk, its colour and beak re-
sembling it, but it had no talons or claws more than common.
Its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and
© fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the

| rest of that day. What to do with myself at night I knew not,
nor indeed where to rest, for I was afraid to lie down on the
ground, not knowing but some wild beast might devour me,
though, as I afterwards found, there was really no need for
those fears.

However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round with
the chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and made a
kind of hut for that night’s lodging. As for food, I yet saw not
| which way to supply myself, except that I had seen two or three
| creatures like hares run out of the wood where I shot the fowl.
| I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many

things out of the ship which would be useful to me, and par-
ticularly some of the rigging and sails, and such other things as
might come to land; and I resolved to make another voyage on
board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that the first storm
that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I resolved to
set all other things apart till I had got everything out of the
ship that I could get. Then I called a council—that is to say,
Hin my thoughts—whether I should take back the raft; but this
lappeared impracticable: so I resolved to go as before, when the
ide was down; and I did so, only that I stripped before I went

























46 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

from my hut, having nothing on but my chequered shirt, a pair
of linen drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.

I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft ;
and, having had experience of the first, I neither made this so
unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought away several
things very useful to me; as first, in the carpenter's stores |
found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great screw-
jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and, above all, that most useful
thing called a grindstone. All these I secured, together with
several things belonging to the gunner, particularly two or three
iron crows, and two barrels of musket bullets, seven muskets,
another fowling-piece, with some small qnantity of powder
more; a large bagful of small shot, and a great roll of sheet-
lead; but this last was so heavy, I could not hoist it up to get
it over the ship’s side.

Besides these things, I took all the men’s clothes that I could
find, and a spare fore-topsail, a hammock, and some bedding ;
and with this I loaded my second raft, and brought them all
safe on shore, to my very great comfort.

I was under some apprehension, during my absence from the
land, that at least my provisions might be devoured on shore:
but when I came back I found no sign of any visitor ; only there
sat a creature like a wild cat upon one of the chests, which,
when I came towards it, ran away a little distance, and then
stood still. She sat very composed and unconcerned, and looked
full in my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with me.
I presented my gun at her, but, as she did not understand it,
she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer to stir
away; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit, though, by the
way, I was not very free of it, for my store was not great: how-
ever, I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled at it,
and ate it, and looked (as if pleased) for more; but I thanked
her, and could spare no more: so she marched off.

Having got my second cargo on shore—though I was fain to
open the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for they
were too heavy, being large casks—I went to work to make me
a little tent with the sail and some poles which I cut for that
purpose: and into this tent I brought everything that I knew
would spoil either with rain or sun; and I piled all the empty
chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from
any sudden attempt, either from man or beast.

When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with
some boards within, and an empty chest set up on end without ;
and spreading one of the beds upon the ground, laying my two


ROBINSON CRUSOE 47

pistols just at my head, and my gun at length by me, I went to
bed for the first time, and slept very quietly all night, for I was
very weary and heavy; for the night before I had slept little,
and had laboured very hard all day to fetch all those things
from the ship, and to get them on shore.

I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was
laid up, I believe, for one man: but I was not satisfied still, for
while the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought I ought to
get everything out of her that I could: so every day at low
water I went on board, and brought away something or other;
but particularly the third time I went I brought away as much of
the rigging as I could, as also all the small ropes and rope-twine
I could get, with a piece of spare canvas, which was to mend the
sails upon occasion, and the barrel of wet gunpowder. Ina word,
I brought away all the sails, first and last ; only that I was fain to
cut them in pieces, and bring as much at a time as I could, for
they were no more useful to be sails, but as mere canvas only.

But that which comforted me more still, was, that last of all,
after I had made five or six such voyages as these, and thought
I had nothing more to expect from the ship that was worth m
meddling with—I say, after all this, I found a great hogshead of
bread, three large runlets of rum, or spirits, a box of sugar, and
a barrel of fine flour; this was surprising to me, because I had
given over expecting any more provisions, except what was spoiled
by the water. I soon emptied the hogshead of the bread, and
wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I
cut out ; and, in a word, I got all this safe on shore also.

The next day I made another voyage, and now, having plun-
dered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I began
with the cables. Cutting the great cable into pieces, such as I
could move, I got two cables and a hawser on shore, with all the
ironwork I could get; and having cut down the spritsail-yard,
and the mizzen-yard, and everything I could, to make a large raft,
I loaded it with all these heavy goods, and came away. But my
good luck began now to leave me; for this raft was so unwieldy,
and so overladen, that, after I had entered the little cove where
I had landed the rest of my goods, not being able to guide it so
handily as I did the other, it overset, and threw me and all my
cargo into the water. As for myself, it was no great harm, for I
was near the shore; but as to my cargo, it was a great part of it
lost, especially the iron, which I expected would have been of
great use to me; however, when the tide was out, I got most of
the pieces of the cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with
infinite labour; for I was fain to dip for it into the water, a work

D
48 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

which fatigued me very much. After this, I went every day on
board, and brought away what I could get.

I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven
times on board the ship, in which time I had brought away all
that one pair of hands could well be supposed capable to bring ;
though I believe verily, had the calm weather held, I should
have brought away the whole ship, piece by piece. But pre-
paring the twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind began
to rise: however, at low water I went on board, and though I
thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectually that nothing
more could be found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers in
it, in one of which I found two or three razors, and one pair of
large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good knives and forks :
in another I found about thirty-six pounds value in money—
some European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some
gold, and some silver.

I smiled to myself at the sight of this money: “O drug!”
said I, aloud, “what art thou good for? Thou art not worth to
me—no, not the taking off the ground; one of those knives is
worth all this heap; I have no manner of use for thee—e’en
remain where thou art, and go to the bottom, as a creature whose
life is not worth saving.’ However, upon second thoughts I
took it away; and wrapping all this in a piece of canvas, I began
to think of making another raft; but while I was preparing this,
I found the sky overcast, and the wind began to rise, and in a
quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore. It pre-
sently occurred to me that it was in vain to pretend to make a
raft with the wind off shore; and that it was my business to be
gone before the tide of flood began, otherwise I might not be
able to reach the shore at all. Accordingly, I let myself down
into the water, and swam across the channel, which lay between
the ship and the sands, and even that with difficulty enough,
partly with the weight of the things I had about me, and partly
the roughness of the water; for the wind rose very hastily, and
before it was quite high water it blew a storm.

But I had got home to my little tent, where I lay, with all my
wealth about me, very secure. It blew very hard all night, and
in the morning, when I locked out, behold, no more ship was to
seen! I was a little surprised, but recovered myself with the
satisfactory reflection that I had lost no time, nor abated any
diligence, to get everything out of her that could be useful to
me ; and that, indeed, there was little left in her that I was able
to bring away, if I had had more time.

I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of anything


ROBINSON CRUSOE 49

out of her, except what might drive on shore from her wreck ;
as, indeed, divers pieces of her afterwards did; but those things
were of small use to me.

My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing
myself against either savages, if any should appear, or wild
beasts, if any were in the island; and I had many thoughts of
the method how to do this, and what kind of dwelling to make
—whether I should make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon
the earth; and, in short, I resolved upon both; the manner
and description of which, it may not be improper to give an
account of.

I soon found the place I was in was not fit for my settlement,
because it was upon a low, moorish ground, near the sea, and I
believed it would not be wholesome, and more particularly
because there was no fresh water near it; so I resolved to find
a more healthy and more convenient spot of ground.

I consulted several things in my situation, which I found
would be proper for me: Ist, health and fresh water, I just now
mentioned; 2ndly, shelter from the heat of the sun; 3rdly,
security from ravenous creatures, whether man or beast ; 4thly,
a view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight, I might not
lose any advantage for my deliverance, of which I was not willing
to banish all my expectation yet.

In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on
the side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was
steep as a house-side, so that nothing could come down upon me
from the top. On the one side of the rock there was a hollow
place, worn a little way in, like the entrance or door of a cave ;
but there was not really any cave or way into the rock at all.

On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I
resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above a hundred
yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a green before
my door; and, at the end of it, descended irregularly every way
down into the low ground by the seaside. It was on the N.N.W.
side of the hill; so that it was sheltered from the heat every
day, till it came to a W. and by S. sun, or thereabouts, which, in
those countries, is near the setting.

Before I set up my tent I drew a half-circle before the hollow

_ place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter from

the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter from its beginning
and ending.

In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving

_ them into the ground till they stood very firm like piles, the
: biggest end being out of the ground above five feet and a-half,
50 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

and sharpened on the top. The two rows did not stand above
six inches from one another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship,
and laid them in rows, one upon another, within the circle,
between these two rows of stakes, up to the top, placing other
stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two feet and a
half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong, that
neither man nor beast could get into it or over it. This cost me
a great deal of time and labour, especially to cut the piles in the
woods, bring them to the place, and drive them into the earth.

The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but
by a short ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when I was
in, I lifted over after me; and so I was completely fenced in and
fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and consequently slept
secure in the night, which otherwise I could not have done;
though, as it appeared afterwards, there was no need of all this
caution from the enemies that I apprehended danger from.

Into this fence or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all
my riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which
you have the account above; and I made a large tent, which to
preserve me from the rains that in one part of the year are very
violent there, I made double—one smaller tent within, and one
larger tent above it; and covered the uppermost with a large
tarpaulin, which I had saved among the sails.

And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had
brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very
good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.

Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that
would spoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed all my goods,
I made up the entrance, which till now I had left open, and so
passed and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.

When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock,
and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down out
through my tent, I laid them up within my fence, in the nature
of a terrace, so that it raised the ground within about a foot and
a half; and thus I made me a cave, just behind my tent, which
served me like a cellar to my house.

It cost me much labour and many days before all these things
were brought to perfection; and therefore I must go back to
some other things which took up some of my thoughts. At the
same time it happened, after I had laid my scheme for the setting
up my tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain falling from
a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened, and
after that a great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 51

I was not so much surprised with the lightning as I was with the
thought which darted into my mind as swift as the ligntning itself
—Oh, my powder! My very heart sank within me when I
thought that, at one blast, all my powder might be destroyed ;
on which, not my defence only, but the providing my food, as
I thought, entirely depended. I was nothing near so anxious
about my own danger, though, had the powder took fire, I
should never have known who had hurt me.

Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm
was over I laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying,
and applied myself to make bags and boxes, to separate the
powder, and to keep it a little and a little in a parcel, in the hope
that whatever might come, it might not all take fire at once; and
to keep it so apart that it should not be possible to make one
part fire another. I finished this work in about a fortnight; and
I think my powder, which in all was about two hundred and forty
pounds weight, was divided in not less than a hundred parcels.
As to the barrel that had been wet, I did not apprehend any
danger from that; so I placed it in my new cave, which, in my
fancy, I called my kitchen; and the rest I hid up and down in
holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking
very carefully where I laid it.

In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out once
at least every day with my gun, as well to divert myself as to see
if I could kill anything fit for food; and, as near as I could, to
acquaint myself with what the island produced. The first time
I went out, I presently discovered that there were goats in the
island, which was a great satisfaction to me; but then it was
attended with this misfortune to me—viz. that they were so shy,
so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the most difficult thing
in the world to come at them ; but I was not discouraged at this,
not doubting but I might now and then shoot one, as it soon
happened ; for after I had found their haunts a little, I Jaid wait
in this manner for them: I observed if they saw me in the
valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would run away,
as in a terrible fright ; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and
I was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence I
concluded that, by the position of their optics, their sight was so
directed downward that they did not readily see objects that were
above them ; so afterwards I took this method—lI always climbed
the rocks first, to get above them, and then had frequently a
fair mark.

The first shot I made among these creatures, I killed a she-
goat, which had a little kid by her, which she gave suck to, which









Be LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

grieved me heartily ; for when the old one fell, the kid stood stock
still by her, till I came and took her up; and not only so, but
when I carried the old one with me, upon my shoulders, the kid
followed me quite to my enclosure ; upon which I laid down the
dam, and took the kid in my arms, and carried it over my pale,
in hopes to have bred it up tame; but it would not eat; so I
was forced to kill it and eat it myself. These two supplied me
with flesh a great while, for I ate sparingly, and saved my pro-
visions, my bread especially, as much as possibly I could.

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary
to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn ; and what
I did for that, and also how I enlarged my cave, and what con-
veniences I made, I shall give a full account of in its place ; but I
must now give some little account of myself, and of my thoughts
about living, which, it may well be supposed, were not a few.

I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for as I was not cast
away upon that island without being driven, as is said, by a
violent storm, quite out of the course of our intended voyage, and
a great way, viz. some hundreds of leagues, out of the ordinary
course of the trade of mankind, I had great reason to consider it
as a determination of Heaven, that in this desolate place, and in
this desolate manner, I should end my life. The tears would run
plentifully down my face when I made these reflections; and some-
times I would expostulate with myself why Providence should
thus completely ruin His creatures, and render them so absolutely
miserable ; so without help, abandoned, so entirely depressed,
that it could hardly be rational to be thankful for such a life.

But something always returned swift upon me to check these
thoughts, and to reprove me; and particularly one day, walking
with my gun in my hand by the seaside, I was very pensive upon
the subject of my present condition, when reason, as it were,
expostulated with me the other way, thus: “ Well, you are in a
desolate condition, it is true; but, pray remember, where are the
rest of you? Did not you come eleven of you in the boat ?
Where are the ten? Why were they not saved, and you lost?
Why were you singled out? Is it better to be here or there?”
And then I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be considered
with the good that is in them, and with what worse attends them.

Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished for my
subsistence, and what would have been my case if it had not
happened (which was a hundred thousand to one) that the ship
floated from the place where she first struck, and was driven so
near to the shore that I had time to get all these things out of
her; what would have been my case, if I had been forced to have
ROBINSON CRUSOE 53

lived in the condition in which I at first came on shore, without
necessaries of life, or necessaries to supply and procure them?
“ Particularly,” said I, aloud (though to myself), “ what should I
have done without a gun, without ammunition, without any tools
to make anything, or to work with, without clothes, bedding,
a tent, or any manner of covering?” and that now I had all
these to sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to provide
myself in such a manner as to live without my gun, when my
ammunition was spent : so that I had a tolerable view of subsist-
ing, without any want, as long as I lived; for I considered from
the beginning how I would provide for the accidents that might
happen, and for the time that was to come, even not only after
my ammunition should be spent, but even after my health and
strength should decay.

I confess I had not entertained any notion of my ammunition
being destroyed at one blast—I mean my powder being blown
up by lightning; and this made the thoughts of it so surprising
to me, when it lightened and thundered, as I observed just now.

And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene
of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world
before, I shall take it from its beginning, and continue it in its
order. It was by my account the 30th of September, when, in
the manner as above said, I first set foot upon this horrid island ;
when the sun, being to us in its autumnal equinox, was almost over
my head; for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in the
latitude of nine degrees twenty-two minutes north of the line.

After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into
my thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time for want of
books, and pen and ink, and should even forget the Sabbath
days ; but to prevent this, I cut with my knife upon a large post,
in capital letters—and making it into a great cross, I set it up on
the shore where I first landed—“I came on shore here on the
30th September 1659.”

Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a notch with
my knife, and every seventh notch was as long again as the rest,
and every first day of the month as long again as that long one;
and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly
reckoning of time.

In the next place, we are to observe that among the many
things which I brought out of the ship, in the several voyages
which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got several things of
less value, but not at all less useful to me, which I omitted setting
down before; as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper, several
parcels in the captain’s, mate’s, gunner’s, and carpenter’s keep-
54 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

ing; three or four compasses, some mathematical instruments,
dials, perspectives, charts, and books of navigation, all which |
huddled together, whether I might want them or no; also, I
found three very good Bibles, which came to me in my cargo
from England, and which I had packed up among my things ;
some Portuguese books also; and among them two or three
Popish prayer-books, and several other books, all which I care-
fully secured. And I must not forget that we had in the ship a
dog and two cats, of whose eminent history I may have occasion to
say something in its place; for I carried both the cats with me; and
as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship of himself, and swam
on shore to me the day after I went on shore with my first cargo,
and was a trusty servant to me many years; I wanted nothing
that he could fetch me, nor any company that he could make up
tome; I only wanted to have him talk to me, but that would not
do. As I observed before, I found pens, ink, and paper, and I
husbanded them to the utmost; and I shall show that while my
ink lasted, | kept things very exact, but after that was gone I could
not, for I could not make any ink by any means that I could devise.

And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwith-
standing all that I had amassed together ; and of these, ink was
one ; as also a spade, pickaxe, and shovel, to dig or remove the
earth; needles, pins, and thread ; as for linen, I soon learned to
want that without much difficulty.

This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily ; and
it was near a whole year before I had entirely finished my little
pale, or surrounded my habitation. The piles, or stakes, which
were as heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in cutting
and preparing in the woods, and more, by far, in bringing home ;
so that I spent sometimes two days in cutting and bringing home
one of those posts, and a third day in driving it into the ground ;
for which purpose I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last
bethought myself of one of the iron crows ; which, however,
though I found it, made driving those posts or piles very laborious
and tedious work. But what need I have been concerned at the
tediousness of anything I had to do, seeing I had time enough
to do it in? nor had I any other employment, if that had been
over, at least that I could foresee, except the ranging the island
to seek for food, which I did, more or less, every day.

I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the circum-
stances I was reduced to; and I drew up the state of my affairs in
writing, not so much to leave them to any that were to come after
me—for I was likely to have but few heirs—as to deliver my
thoughts from daily poring over them, and afflicting my mind ; and
ROBINSON CRUSOE 55

as my reason began now to master my despondency, I began to
comfort myself as well as I could, and to set the good against the
evil, that I might have something to distinguish my case from
worse ; and I stated very impartially, like debtor and creditor,
the comforts I enjoyed against the miseries I suffered, thus :—

Evil.

I am cast upon a horrible,
desolate island, void of all hope
of recovery.

I am singled out and separ-
ated, as it were, from all the
world, to be miserable.

I am divided from mankind
a solitaire; one banished
from human society.

I have not clothes to cover
me.



I am without any defence,
or means to resist any violence
of man or beast.

I have no soul to speak to
or relieve me.

Good.

But I am alive; and not
drowned, as all my ‘ship’s com-
pany were.

But I am singled out, too,
from all the ship’s crew, to be
spared from death; and He
that miraculously saved me
from death can deliver me
from this condition.

But I am not starved, and
perishing on a barren place,
affording no sustenance.

But I am in a hot climate,
where, if I had clothes, I
could hardly wear them.

But I am cast on an island
where I see no wild beasts to
hurt me, as I saw on the coast
of Africa; and what if I had
been shipwrecked there ?

But God wonderfully sent
the ship in near enough to the
shore, that I have got out as
many necessary things as will
either supply my wants or en-
able me to supply myself, even
as long as I live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony that there
was scarce any condition in the world so miserable but there was
something negative or something positive to be thankful for in it ;
and let this stand as a direction from the experience of the most
miserable of all conditions in this world: that we may always find
in it something to comfort ourselves from, and to set, in the de-
scription of good and evil, on the credit side of the account.

Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition,
and given over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a ship—I
56 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

say, giving over these things, I began to apply myself to arrange
my way of living, and to make things as easy to me as I could.

[ have already described my habitation, which was a tent under
the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts and
cables: but I might now rather call it a wall, for I raised a kind
of wall up against it of turfs, about two feet thick on the outside ;
and after some time (I think it was a year and a half) I raised
rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched or covered it
with boughs of trees, and such things as I could get, to keep out
the rain; which I found at some times of the year very violent.

I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this
pale, and into the cave which I had made behind me. But I must
observe, too, that at first this was a confused heap of goods, which,
as they lay in no order, so they took up all my place; I had no
room to turn myself: so I set myself to enlarge my cave, and
work farther into the earth ; for it was a loose sandy rock, which
yielded easily to the labour I bestowed on it: and so when I
found I was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways,
to the right hand, into the rock ; and then, turning to the right
again, worked quite out, and made me a door to come out on the
outside of my pale or fortification. This gave me not only egress
and regress, as it was a back way to my tent and to my storehouse,
but gave me room to store my goods.

And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary
things as I found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a
table; for without these I was not able to enjoy the few
comforts I had in the world; I could not write or eat, or do
several things, with so much pleasure without a table: so I
went to work. And here I must needs observe, that as reason
is the substance and origin of the mathematics, so by stating
and squaring everything by reason, and by making the most
rational judgment of things, every man may be, in time, master
of every mechanic art. I had never handled a tool in my life;
and yet, in time, by labour, application, and contrivance, [
found at last that I wanted nothing but I could have made TE;
especially if I had had tools. However, I made abundance of
things, even without tools; and some with no more tools than
an adze and a hatchet, which perhaps were never made that
way before, and that with infinite labour. For example, if I
wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree, set
it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either side with my
axe, till I brought it to be thin as a plank, and then dub it
smooth with my adze. It is true, by this method I could make
but one board out of a whole tree; but this I had no remedy
ROBINSON CRUSOE 57

for but patience, any more than I had for the prodigious deal
of time and labour which it took me up to make a plank or
board : but my time or labour was little worth, and so it was as
well employed one way as another.

However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above,
in the first place; and this I did out of the short pieces of
boards that I brought on my raft from the ship. But when I
had wrought out some boards as above, I made large shelves, of
the breadth of a foot and a half, one over another all along one
side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and ironwork on;
and, in a word, to separate everything at large into their places,
that I might come easily at them. I knocked pieces into the
wall of the rock to hang my guns and all things that would
hang up; so that, had my cave been to be seen, it looked like
a general magazine of all necessary things; and I had every-
thing so ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me
to see all my goods in such order, and especially to find my
stock of all necessaries so great.

And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every day’s
employment ; for, indeed, at first I was in too much hurry, and
not only hurry as to labour, but in too much discomposure of
mind ; and my journal would have been full of many dull things ;
for example, I must have said thus: “ Sept. 30th.—After I had
got to shore, and had escaped drowning, instead of being thank-
ful to God for my deliverance, having first vomited, with the
great quantity of salt water which had got into my stomach, and
recovering myself a little, I ran about the shore wringing my
hands and beating my head and face, exclaiming at my misery,
and crying out, ‘I was undone, undone!’ till, tired and faint,
I was forced to lie down on the ground to repose, but durst not
sleep for fear of being devoured.”

Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship,
and got all that I could out of her, yet I could not forbear
getting up to the top of a little mountain and looking out to sea,
in hopes of seeing a ship; then fancy at a vast distance I spied
a sail, please myself with the hopes of it, and then after looking
steadily, till I was almost blind, lose it quite, and sit down and
weep like a child, and thus increase my misery by my folly.

But having gotten over these things in some measure, and
having settled my household staff and habitation, made me a table
and a chair, and all as handsome about me as I could, I began to
keep my journal ; of which I shall here give you the copy (though
in it will be told all these particulars over again) as long as it
lasted; tor having no more ink, I was forced to leave it off,
58 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

CHAPTER V

BUILDS A HOUSI:

THE JOURNAL

EPTEMBER 30, 1659.—I, poor miserable Robinson Crusoe,

being shipwrecked during a dreadful storm in the offing,
came on shore on this dismal, unfortunate island, which I called
“The Island of Despair”; all the rest of the ship’s company
being drowned, and myself almost dead.

All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at the
dismal circumstances I was brought to—viz. I had neither food,
house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to; and in despair of
any relief, saw nothing but death before me—either that I
should be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or
ies to death for want of food. At the approach of night

I slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures; but slept soundly,
though it rained all night.

Oc. tober 1.—In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the
ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven on shore
again much nearer the island 3 which, as it was some comfort, on
one hand—for, seeing her set upright, and not broken to pieces,
I hoped, if the wind ‘abi ited, I might get on board, and get some
food and necessaries out of her for my relief—so, on the other
hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades, who, I
imagined, if we had all stayed on board, might have saved the
ship, or, at least, that they would not have been all drowned,
as they were; and that, had the men been saved, we might
perhaps have built us a boat out of the ruins of the ship to
have carried us to some other part of the world. I spent great
part of this day in perplexing myself on these things; but at
length, seeing the ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as near
as I could, and then swam on board. This day also it continued
raining, though with no wind at all.

From the 1st of October to the 24th.—All these days entirely
spent in many several voyages to get all I could out of the ship,
which I brought on shore every tide of flood upon rafts. Much
rain also in the days, though with some intervals of fair weather ;
but it seems this was the rainy season.

Oct. 20.—I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got upon
it; but, being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly heavy,
I recovered many of them when the tide was out.

Oct. 25.—It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of


ROBINSON CRUSOE 59

wind ; during which time the ship broke in pieces, the wind
blowing a little harder than before, and was no more to be seen,
except the wreck of her, and that only at low water. I spent
this day in covering and securing the goods which I had saved,
that the rain might not spoil them.

Oct. 26.—I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out
a place to fix my habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself
from any attack in the night, either from wild beasts or men.
Towards night, I fixed upon a proper place, under a rock, and
marked out a semicircle for my encampment; which I resolved
to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification, made of double
piles, lined within with cables, and without with turf.

From the 26th to the 30th I worked very hard in carrying all
my goods to my new habitation, though some part of the time
it rained exceedingly hard.

The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with my
gun, to seek for some food, and discover the country ; when [
killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me home, which I after-
wards killed also, because it would not feed.

November 1.—I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there
for the first night; making it as large as I could, with stakes
driven in to swing my hammock upon.

Nov. 2.—I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces of
timber which made my rafts, and with them formed a fence
round me, a little within the place I had marked out for my
fortification.

Nov. 3.—I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like
ducks, which were very good food. In the afternoon went to
work to make me a table.

Nov. 4.—This morning I began to order my times of work, of
going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion—
viz. every morning I walked out with my gun for two or three
hours, if it did not rain; then employed myself to work till
about eleven o’clock ; then eat what I had to live on; and from
twelve to two I lay down to sleep, the weather being excessively
hot; and then, in the evening, to work again. The working
part of this day and of the next were wholly employed in making
my table, for I was yet but a very sorry workman, though time
and necessity made me a complete natural mechanic soon after,
as I believe they would do any one else.

Yov. 5.—This day went abroad with my gun and my dog, and
killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for
nothing; every creature that I killed I took off the skins and
preserved them. Coming back by the sea-shore, I saw many
60 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

sorts of sea-fowls, which I did not understand; but was surprised,
and almost frightened, with two or three seals, which, while I
was gazing at, not well knowing what they were, got into the
sea, and escaped me for that time.

Nov. 6.—After my morning walk I went to work with my
table again, and finished it, though not to my liking; nor was it
long before I learned to mend it.

Nov. 7.—Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th,
8th, 9th, 10th, and part of the 12th (for the 11th was Sunday) I
took wholly up to make me a chair, and with much ado brought
it to a tolerable shape, but never to please me; and even in the
making I pulled it in pieces several times.

Note.—I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for, omitting
my mark for them on my post, I forgot which was which.

Nov. 13.—This day it rained, which refreshed me exceedingly,
and cooled the earth; but it was accompanied with terrible
thunder and lightning, which frightened me dreadfully, for fear
of my powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved to separate
my stock of powder into as many little parcels as possible, that
it might not be in danger.

Nov. 14, 15, 16.—These three days I spent in making little
square chests, or boxes, which might hold about a pound, or two
pounds at most, of powder; and so, putting the powder in, I
stowed it in places as secure and remote from one another as
possible. On one of these three days I killed a large bird that
was good to eat, but 1 knew not what to call it.

Nov. 17.—This day I began to dig behind my tent into the
rock, to make room for my further conveniency.

Note.—Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work—
viz. a pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow or basket; so I de-
sisted from my work, and began to consider how to supply that
want, and make me some tools. As for the pickaxe, I made use
of the iron crows, which were proper enough, though heavy ;
but the next thing was a shovel or spade; this was so absolutely
necessary, that, indeed, I could do nothing effectually without
it; but what kind of one to make I knew not.

Nov. 18.—The next day, in searching the woods, I found a tree
of that wood, or like it, which in the Brazils they call the iron-
tree, for its exceeding hardness. Of this, with great labour, and
almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece, and brought it home, too,
with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy. The excessive
hardness of the wood, and my having no other way, made me a
long while upon this machine, for I worked it effectually by little
and little into the form of a shovel or spade; the handle exactly
ROBINSON CRUSOE 61

shaped like ours in England, only that the board part having no
iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not last me so long ; however,
it served well enough for the uses which I had occasion to put
it to; but never was a shovel, I believe, made after that fashion,
or so long in making.

I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket or a wheelbarrow.
A basket I could not make by any means, having no such things
as twigs that would bend to make wicker-ware_—at least, none
yet found out; and as to a wheelbarrow, I fancied I could make
all but the wheel ; but that I had no notion of ; neither did I know
how to go about it; besides, I had no possible way to make the
iron gudgeons for the spindle or axis of the wheel to run in ; So
I gave it over, and so, for carrying away the earth which I dug
out of the cave, Imade mea thing like a hod which the labourers
carry mortar in when they serve the bricklayers. This was not
so difficult to me as the making the shovel ; and yet this and the
shovel, and the attempt which I made in vain to make a wheel-
barrow, took me up no less than four days—I mean always except-
ing my morning walk with my gun, which I seldom failed, and
very seldom failed also bringing home something fit to eat.

Nov. 23.—My other work having now stood still, because of
my making these tools, when they were finished I went on, and
working every day, as my strength and time allowed, I spent
eighteen days entirely in widening and deepening my cave, that
it might hold my goods commodiously.

Note.—During all this time I worked to make this room or
cave spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse or maga-
zine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar. As for my lodging,
1 kept to the tent; except that sometimes, in the wet season
of the year, it rained so hard that I could not keep myself dry,
which caused me afterwards to cover all my place within my pale
with long poles, in the form of rafters, leaning against the rock,
and load them with flags and large leaves of trees, like a thatch.

December 10.—I began now to think my cave or vault finished,
when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great
quantity of earth fell down from the top on one side; so much
that, in short, it frighted me, and not without reason, too, for if I
had been under it, I had never wanted a gravedigger. I had now
a great deal of work to do over again, for I had the loose earth to
carry out; and, which was of more importance, I had the ceiling
to prop up, so that I might be sure no more would come down.

Dec. 11.—This day I went to work with it accordingly, and got
two shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with two pieces
of boards across over each post; this I finished the next day ;
62 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

and setting more posts up with boards, in about a week more I
had the roof secured, and the posts, standing in rows, served me
for partitions to part off the house.

Dec. 17.—From this day to the 20th I placed shelves, and
knocked up nails on the posts, to hang everything up that could
be hung up; and now I began to be in some order within doors.

Dec. 20.—Now I carried everything into the cave, and began
to furnish my house, and set up some pieces of boards like a
dresser, to order my victuals upon; but boards began to be very
scarce with me; also, I made me another table.

Dec. 24.—Much rain all night and all day. No stirring out.

Dec. 25.—Rain all day.

Dec. 26.—No rain, and the earth much cooler than before, and
pleasanter.

Dec. 27.—Killed a young goat, and lamed another, so that I
caught it and led it home in a string; when I had it at home, I
bound and splintered up its leg, which was broke.

N.B.—I took such care of it that it lived, and the leg grew
well and as strong as ever ; but, by my nursing it so long, it grew
tame, and fed upon the little green at my door, and would not
go away. This was the first time that I entertained a thought
of breeding up some tame creatures, that I might have food when
my powder and shot was all spent.

Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31.—Great heats, and no breeze, so that there
was no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food; this time
I spent in putting all my things in order within doors.

January 1.—Very hot still: but I went abroad early and late
with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day. This even-
ing, going farther into the valleys which lay towards the centre
of the island, I found there were plenty of goats, though exceed-
ingly shy, and hard to come at; however, I resolved to try if I
could not bring my dog to hunt them down.

Jan, 2.—Accordingly, the next day I went out with my dog,
and set him upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for they all
faced about upon the dog, and he knew his danger too well, for
he would not come near them.

Jan. 3.—I began my fence or wall; which, being still jealous
of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very thick
and strong.

N.B.—This wall being describe before, I purposely omit what
was said in the journal ; it is sufficient to observe, that I was no
less time than from the 2nd of January to the 14th of April work-
ing, finishing, and perfecting this wall, though it was no more
than about twenty-four yards in length, being a half-circle from


ROBINSON CRUSOE 63

one place in the rock to another place, about eight yards from it,
the door of the cave being in the centre behind it.

All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me
many days, nay, sometimes weeks together; but I thought I
should never be perfectly secure till this wall was finished ; and
it is scarce credible what inexpressible labour everything was
done with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods and
driving them into the ground; for I made them much bigger
than I needed to have done.

When this wall was finished, and the outside double fenced,
with a turf wall raised up close to it, I perceived myself that if
any people were to come on shore there, they would not perceive
anything like a habitation ; and it was very well I did so, as may
be observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable occasion.

During this time I made my rounds in the woods for game
every day when the rain permitted me, and made frequent dis-
coveries in these walks of something or other to my advantage ;
particularly, I found a kind of wild pigeons, which build, not as
wood-pigeons in a tree, but rather as house-pigeons, in the holes
of the rocks; and taking some young ones, I endeavoured to
breed them up tame, and did so ; but when they grew older they
flew away, which perhaps was at first for want of feeding them,
for I had nothing to give them; however, I frequently found
their nests, and got their young ones, which were very good meat.
And now, in the managing my household affairs, I found myself
wanting in many things, which I thought at first it was impos-
sible for me to make; as, indeed, with some of them it was:
for instance, I could never make a cask to be hooped. I had
a small runlet or two, as I observed before; but I could never
arrive at the capacity of making one by them, though I spent
many weeks about it; I could neither put in the heads, or join
the staves so true to one another as to make them hold water ;
so I gave that also over. In the next place, I was at a great loss
for candles; so that as soon as ever it was dark, which was
generally by seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I re-
membered the lump of beeswax with which I made candles in
my African adventure ; but I had none of that now; the only
remedy I had was, that when I had killed a goat I saved the
tallow, and with a little dish made of clay, which I baked in the
sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum, I made me a lamp;
and this gave me light, though not a clear, steady light, like a
candle. In the middle of all my labours it happened that, rum-
maging my things, I found a little bag which, as I hinted before,
had been filled with corn for the feeding of poultry—not for this

E
64. LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the ship came from Lisbon.
The little remainder of corn that had been in the bag was all
devoured by the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but husks
and dust ; and being willing to have the bag for some other use
(I think it was to put powder in, when I divided it for fear of the
lightning, or some such use), I shook the husks of corn out of it
on one side of my fortification, under the rock.

It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned that
I threw this stuff away, taking no notice, and not so much as
remembering that I had thrown anything there, when, about a
month after, or thereabouts, I saw some few stalks of something
green shooting out of the ground, which I fancied might be
some plant I had not seen; but I was surprised, and perfectly
astonished, when, after a little longer time, I saw about ten or
twelve ears come out, which were perfect green barley, of the
same kind as our European—nay, as our English barley.

It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of
my thoughts on this occasion. I had hitherto acted upon no
religious foundation at all; indeed, I had very few notions of
religion in my head, nor had entertained any sense of anything
that had befallen me otherwise than as chance, or, as we lightly
say, what pleases God, without so much as inquiring into the end
of Providence in these things, or His order in governing events
for the world. But after I saw barley grow there, in a climate
which I knew was not proper for corn, and especially that I knew
not how it came there, it startled me strangely, and I began to
suggest that God had miraculously caused His grain to grow
without any help of seed sown, and that it was so directed purely
for my sustenance on that wild, miserable place.

This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my
eyes, and I began to bless myself that such a prodigy of nature
should happen upon my account ; and this was the more strange
to me, because I saw near it still, all along by the side of the
rock, some other straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks of
rice, and which I knew, because I had seen it grow in Africa
when I was ashore there.

I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence
for my support, but not doubting that there was more in the place,
I went all over that part of the island, where I had been before,
peering in every corner, and under every rock, to see for more of
it, but I could not find any. At last it occurred to my thoughts
that I shook a bag of chickens’ meat out in that place; and then
the wonder began to cease; and I must confess my religious
thankfulness to God’s providence began to abate, too, upon the
ROBINSON CRUSOE 65

discovering that all this was nothing but what was common;
though I ought to have been as thankful for so strange and
unforeseen a providence as if it had been miraculous; for it was
really the work of Providence to me, that should order or appoint
that ten or twelve grains of corn should remain unspoiled, when
the rats had destroyed all the rest, as if it had been dropped from
heaven ; as also, that I should throw it out in that particular
place, where, it being in the shade of a high rock, it sprang up
immediately ; whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere else at that
time, it had been burnt up and destroyed.

I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in
their season, which was about the end of June; and, laying up
every corn, I resolved to sow them all again, hoping in time to
have some quantity sufficient to supply me with bread. But it
was not till the fourth year that I could allow myself the least
grain of this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly, as I shall
say afterwards, in its order; for I lost all that I sowed the first
season by not observing the proper time; for I sowed it just
before the dry season, so that it never came up at all, at least
not as it would have done; of which in its place.

Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty
stalks of rice, which I preserved with the same care and for the
same use, or to the same purpose—to make me bread, or rather
food ; for I found ways to cook it without baking, though I did
that also after some time.

But to return to my Journal.

I worked excessive hard these three or four months to get
my wall done; and the 14th of April I closed it up, contriving
to go into it, not by a door but over the wall, by a ladder, that
there might be no sign on the outside of my habitation.

April 16.—I finished the ladder; so I went up the ladder to
the top, and then pulled it up after me, and let it down in the
inside. This was a complete enclosure to me; for within I had
room enough, and nothing could come at me from without,
unless it could first mount my wall.

The very next day after this wall was finished I had almost
had all my labour overthrown at once, and myself killed. The
case was thus: As I was busy in the inside, behind my tent, just
at the entrance into my cave, I was terribly frighted with a most
dreadful, surprising thing indeed; for all on a sudden I found
the earth come crumbling down from the roof of my cave, and
from the edge of the hill over my head, and two of the posts I
had set up in the cave cracked in a frightful manner. I was
heartily scared; but thought nothing of what was really the
66 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

cause, only thinking that the top of my cave was fallen in, as
some of it had done before: and for fear I should be buried in it
I ran forward to my ladder, and not thinking myself safe there
neither, I got over my wall for fear of the pieces of the hill,
which I expected might roll down upon me. I had no sooner
stepped down upon the firm ground, than I plainly saw it was a
terrible earthquake ; for the ground I stood on shook three times
at about eight minutes’ distance, with three such shocks as would
have overturned the strongest building that could be supposed
to have stood on the earth; and a great piece of the top of a
rock which stood about half a mile from me next the sea fell
down with such a terrible noise as I never heard in all my tife.
I perceived also the very sea was put into violent motion by it ;
and I believe the shocks were stronger under the water than on
the island.

I was so much amazed with the thing itself, having never felt
the like, nor discoursed with any one that had, that I was like
one dead or stupefied; and the motion of the earth made my
stomach sick, like one that was tossed at sea; but the noise of
the falling of the rock awakened me, as it were, and rousing me
from the stupefied condition I was in, filled me with horror; and
I thought of nothing then but the hill falling upon my tent and
all my household goods, and burying all at once; and this sunk
my very soul within me a second time.

After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some
time, I began to take courage; and yet I had not heart enough
to go over my wall again, for fear of being buried alive, but sat
still upon the ground greatly cast down and disconsolate, not
knowing what to do. All this while I had not the least serious
religious thought ; nothing but the common “ Lord have mercy
upon me!” and when it was over that went away too.

While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow cloudy, as
if it would rain. Soon after that the wind arose by little and
little, so that in less than half-an-hour it blew a most dreadful
hurricane; the sea was all on a sudden covered over with foam
and froth ; the shore was covered with the breach of the water ;
the trees were torn up by the roots, and a terrible storm it was.
This held about three hours, and then began to abate ; and in two
hours more it was quite calm, and began to rain very hard. All
this while I sat upon the ground very much terrified and de-
jected ; when on a sudden it came into my thoughts, that these
winds and rain being the consequences of the earthquake, the
earthquake itself was spent and over, and I might venture into
my cave again. With this thought my spirits began to revive ;
ROBINSON CRUSOE 67

and the rain also helping to persuade me, I went in and sat
down in my tent. But the rain was so violent that my tent was
ready to be beaten down with it; and I was forced to go into
my cave, though very much afraid and uneasy, for fear it should
fall on my head. This violent rain forced me to a new work—
viz. to cut a hole through my new fortification, like a sink, to
let the water go out, which would else have flooded my cave.
After I had been in my cave for some time, and found still no
more shocks of the earthquake follow, I began to be more com-
posed. And now, to support my spirits, which indeed wanted it
very much, I went to my little store, and took a small sup of
rum; which, however, I did then and always very sparingly,
knowing I could have no more when that was gone. It con-
tinued raining all that night and great part of the next day, so
that I could not stir abroad ; but my mind being more composed,
I began to think of what I had best do; concluding that if the
island was subject to these earthquakes, there would be no living
for me in a cave, but I must consider of building a little hut in
an open place which I might surround with a wall, as I had done
here, and so make myself secure from wild beasts or men; for I
concluded, if I stayed where I was, I should certainly one time
or other be buried alive.

With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent from the
place where it stood, which was just under the hanging precipice
of the hill; and which, if it should be shaken again, would
certainly fall upon my tent; and I spent the two next days, being
the 19th and 20th of April, in contriving where and how to remove
my habitation. The fear of being swallowed up alive made me
that I never slept in quiet; and yet the apprehension of lying
abroad without any fence was almost equal to it; but still, when
I looked about, and saw how everything was put in order, how
pleasantly concealed I was, and how safe from danger, it made me
very loath to remove. In the meantime it occurred to me that
it would require a vast deal of time for me to do this, and that I
must be contented to venture where I was, till I had formed a
camp for myself, and had secured it so as to remove to it. So
with this resolution I composed myself for a time, and resolved
that I would go to work with all speed to build me a wall with
piles and cables, &c., in a circle, as before, and set my tent up in
it when it was finished ; but that I would venture to stay where
I was till it was finished, and fit to remove. This was the 21st.

April 22.—The next morning I began to consider of means to
put this resolve into execution; but I was at a great loss about
my tools. I had three large axes, and abundance of hatchets (for
68 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

we carried the hatchets for traffic with the Indians); but with
much chopping and cutting knotty hard wood, they were all full
of notches, and dull; and though I had a grindstone, I could not
turn it and grind my tools too. This cost me as much thought
as a statesman would have bestowed upon a grand point of
politics, or a judge upon the life and death of aman. At length
I contrived a wheel with a string, to turn it with my foot, that I
might have both my hands at liberty. Note.—I had never seen
any such thing in England, or at least, not to take notice how it
was done, though since I have observed it is very common there ;
besides that, my grindstone was very large and heavy. This
machine cost me a full week’s work to bring it to perfection.

April 28, 29.—These two whole days I took up in grinding ”
my tools, my machine for turning my grindstone performing
very well.

April 30.—Having perceived my bread had been low a great
while, now I took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one
biscuit cake a day, which made my heart very heavy.

May 1.—In the morning, looking towards the sea side, the tide
being low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary,
and it looked like a cask; when I came to it, I found a small
barrel, and two or three pieces of the wreck of the ship, which
were driven on shore by the late hurricane ; and looking towards
the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher out of the
water than it used to do. I examined the barrel which was
driven on shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder; but
it had taken water, and the powder was caked as hard as a stone ;
however, I rolled it farther on shore for the present, and went on
upon the sands, as near as I could to the wreck of the ship, to
look for more.

CHAPTER VI
ILL AND CONSCIENCE-STRICKEN

Wi EN I came down to the ship I found it strangely removed.

The forecastle, which lay before buried in sand, was heaved
up at least six feet, and the stern, which was broke in pieces and
parted from the rest by the force of the sea, soon after I had left
rummaging her, was tossed as it were up, and cast on one side;
and the sand was thrown so high on that side next her stern,
that whereas there was a great place of water before, so that I
could not come within a quarter of a mile of the wreck without
ROBINSON CRUSOE 69

swimming, I could now walk quite up to her when the tide was
out. I was surprised with this at first, but soon concluded it
must be done by the earthquake; and as by this violence the
ship was more broke open than formerly, so many things came
daily on shore, which the sea had loosened, and which the winds
and water rolled by degrees to the land.

This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of removing
my habitation, and I busied myself mightily, that day especially,
in searching whether I could make any way into the'ship; but I
found nothing was to be expected of that kind, for all the inside
of the ship was choked up with sand. However, as I had learned
not to despair of anything, I resolved to pull everything to pieces
that I could of the ship, concluding that everything I could get
from her would be of some use or other to me.

May 3.—I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam
through, which I thought held some of the upper part or quarter-
deck together, and when I had cut it through, I cleared away
the sand as well as I could from the side which lay highest ; but
the tide coming in, I was obliged to give over for that time.

May 4.—I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst
eat of, till I was weary of my sport; when, just going to leave
off, I caught a young dolphin. I had made me a long line of some
rope-yarn, but I had no hooks; yet I frequently caught fish
enough, as much as I cared to eat; all which I dried in the sun,
and ate them dry.

May 5.—Worked on the wreck; cut another beam asunder,
and brought three great fir planks off from the decks, which I
tied together, and made to float on shore when the tide of flood
came on.

May 6.—Worked on the wreck ; got several iron bolts out of
her and other pieces of ironwork. Worked very hard, and came
home very much tired, and had thoughts of giving it over.

May 7.—Went to the wreck again, not with an intent to work,
but found the weight of the wreck had broke itself down, the
beams being cut; that several pieces of the ship seemed to lie
loose, and the inside of the hold lay so open that I could see into
it; but it was almost full of water and sand.

May 8.—Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to
wrench up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the water or
sand. I wrenched open two planks, and brought them on shore
also with the tide. I left the iron crow in the wreck for next
day.

iy 9.—Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way into
the body of the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened them
70 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

with the crow, but could not break them up. I felt also a roll of
English lead, and could stir it, but it was too heavy to remove.

May 10-14,.—Went every day to the wreck; and got a great
many pieces of timber, and boards, or plank, and two or three
hundredweight of iron.

May 15.—I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a
piece off the roll of lead by placing the edge of one hatchet and
driving it with the other; but as it lay about a foot and a half
_in the water, I could not make any blow to drive the hatchet.

May 16.—It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck
appeared more broken by the force of the water; but I stayed
so long in the woods, to get pigeons for food, that the tide
prevented my going to the wreck that day.

May 17.—I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore, at
a great distance, near two miles off me, but resolved to see what
they were, and found it was a piece of the head, but too heavy
for me to bring away.

May 24.—Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck; and
with hard labour I loosened some things so much with the crow,
that the first flowing tide several casks floated out, and two of
the seamen’s chests; but the wind blowing from the shore,
nothing came to land that day but pieces of timber, and a
hogshead, which had some Brazil pork in it; but the salt water
and the sand had spoiled it. I continued this work every day
to the 15th of June, except the time necessary to get food,
which I always appointed, during this part of my employment,
to be when the tide was up, that I might be ready when it was
ebbed out; and by this time I had got timber and plank and
ironwork enough to have built a good boat, if I had known
how; and also I got, at several times and in several pieces, near
one hundredweight of the sheet lead.

June 16.—Going down to the seaside, I found a large tortoise
or turtle. This was the first I had seen, which, it seems, was
only my misfortune, not any defect of the place, or scarcity ; for
had I happened to be on the other side of the island, I might
have had hundreds of them every day, as I found afterwards ;
but perhaps had paid dear enough for them.

June 17.—I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her three-
score eggs; and her flesh was to me, at that time, the most
savoury and pleasant that ever I tasted in my life, having had no
flesh, but of goats and fowls, since I landed in this horrid place.

June 18.—Rained all day, and I stayed within. I thought at
this time the rain felt cold, and I was something chilly ; which
I knew was not usual in that latitude,
ROBINSON CRUSOE 71

June 19.—Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been
cold.

June 20.—No rest all night; violent pains in my head, and
feverish.

June 21.—Very ill; frighted almost to death with the appre-
hensions of my sad condition—to be sick, and no help. Prayed
to God, for the first time since the storm off Hull, but scarce
knew what I said, or why, my thoughts being all confused.

June 22.—A little better; but under dreadful apprehensions
of sickness.

June 23.—Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a
violent headache.

June 24.—Much better.

June 25.—An ague very violent ; the fit held me seven hours ;
cold fit and hot, with faint sweats after it.

June 26.—Better ; and having no victuals to eat, took my gun,
but found myself very weak. However, I killed a she-goat, and
with much difficulty got it home, and broiled some of it, and
ate. I would fain have stewed it, and made some broth, but
had no pot.

June 27.—The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all day,
and neither ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for thirst ; but
so weak, I had not strength to stand up, or to get myself any
water to drink. Prayed to God again, but was light-headed ;
and when I was not, I was so ignorant that I knew not what to
say ; only I lay and cried, “ Lord, look upon me! Lord, pity me!
Lord, have mercy upon me!” I suppose I did nothing else for
two or three hours; till, the fit wearing off, I fell asleep, and did
not wake till far in the night. When I awoke, I found myself
much refreshed, but weak, and exceeding thirsty. However, as
I had no water in my habitation, I was forced to lie till morning,
and went to sleep again. In this second sleep I had this terrible
dream: I thought that I was sitting on the ground, on the out-
side of my wall, where I sat when the storm blew after the
earthquake, and that I saw a man descend from a great black
cloud, in a bright flame of fire, and light upon the ground. He
was all over as bright as a flame, so that I could but just bear
to look towards him; his countenance was most inexpressibly
dreadful, impossible for words to describe. When he stepped
upon the ground with his feet, I thought the earth trembled,
just as it had done before in the earthquake, and all the air
looked, to my apprehension, as if it had been filled with flashes
of fire. He was no sooner landed upon the earth, but he moved
forward towards me, with a long spear or weapon in his hand, to
Tz LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

kill me ; and when he came to arising ground, at some distance,
he spoke to me—or I heard a voice so terrible that it is im-
possible to express the terror of it. All that I can say I under-
stood was this: “Seeing all these things have not brought thee
to repentance, now thou shalt die;” at which words, I thought
he lifted up the spear that was in his hand to kill me.

No one that shall ever read this account will expect that I
should be able to describe the horrors of my soul at this terrible
vision. I mean, that even while it was a dream, I even dreamed
of those horrors. Nor is it any more possible to describe the
impression that remained upon my mind when I awaked, and
found it was but a dream.

I had, alas! no divine knowledge. What I had received by
the good instruction of my father was then worn out by an un-
interrupted series, for eight years, of seafaring wickedness, and
a constant conversation with none but such as were, like myself,
wicked and profane to the last degree. I do not remember that
I had, in all that time, one thought that so much as tended either
to looking upwards towards God, or inwards towards a reflection
upon my own ways; but a certain stupidity of soul, without
desire of good, or conscience of evil, had entirely overwhelmed
me; and I was all that the most hardened, unthinking, wicked
creature among our common sailors can be supposed to be; not
having the least sense, either of the fear of God in danger, or of
thankfulness to God in deliverance.

In the relating what is already past of my story, this will be
the more easily believed when I shall add, that through all the
variety of miseries that had to this day befallen me, I never had
so much as one thought of it being the hand of God, or that it
was a just punishment for my sin—my rebellious behaviour
against my father—or my present sins, which were great—or so
much as a punishment for the general course of my wicked life.
When I was on the desperate expedition on the desert shores of
Africa, I never had so much as one thought of what would be-
come of me, or one wish to God to direct me whither I should
go, or to keep me from the danger which apparently surrounded
me, as well from voracious creatures as cruel savages. But I was
merely thoughtless of a God or a Providence, acted like a mere
brute, from the principles of nature, and by the dictates of
common sense only, and, indeed, hardly that. When I was
delivered and taken up at sea by the Portugal captain, well used,
and dealt justly and honourably with, as well as charitably, I had
not the least thankfulness in my thoughts. When, again, 1 was
shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger of drowning on this island,
ROBINSON CRUSOE 73

I was as far from remorse, or looking on it as a judgment. I only
said to myself often, that I was an unfortunate dog, and born to
be always miserable.

It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found all my
ship’s crew drowned and myself spared, I was surprised with a
kind of ecstasy, and some transports of soul, which, had the grace
of God assisted, might have come up to true thankfulness ; but
it ended where it began, in a mere common flight of joy, or, as
I may say, being glad I was alive, without the least reflection
upon the distinguished goodness of the hand which had preserved
me, and had singled me out to be preserved when all the rest
were destroyed, or an inquiry why Providence had been thus
merciful unto me. Even just the same common sort of joy which
seamen generally have, after they are got safe ashore from a ship-
wreck, which they drown all in the next bowl of punch, and
forget almost as soon as it is over; and all the rest of my life was
like it. Even when I was afterwards, on due consideration, made
sensible of my condition, how I was cast on this dreadful place,
out of the reach of human kind, out of all hope of relief, or
prospect of redemption, as soon as I saw but a prospect of living,
and that I should not starve and perish for hunger, all the sense
of my affliction wore off; and I began to be very easy, applied
myself to the works proper for my preservation and supply, and
was far enough from being afflicted at my condition, as a judg-
ment from heaven, or as the hand of God against me: these were
thoughts which very seldom entered my head.

The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my Journal, had
at first some little influence upon me, and began to affect me with
seriousness, as long as I thought it had something miraculous in
it; but as soon as ever that part of the thought was removed, all
the impression that was raised from it wore off also, as I have
noted already. Even the earthquake, though nothing could be
more terrible in its nature, or more immediately directing to the
invisible Power which alone directs such things, yet no sooner
was the first fright over, but the impression it had made went off
also. I had no more sense of God or His judgments—much less
of the present affliction of my circumstances being from His hand
—than if I had been in the most prosperous condition of life.
But now, when I began to be sick, and a leisurely view of the
miseries of death came to place itself before me ; when my spirits
began to sink under the burden of a strong distemper, and nature
was exhausted with the violence of the fever; conscience, that
had slept so long, began to awake, and I began to reproach my-
self with my past life, in which I had so evidently, by uncommon
74 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

wickedness, provoked the justice of God to lay me under un-
common strokes, and to deal with me in so vindictive a manner.
These reflections oppressed me for the second or third day of my
distemper; and in the violence, as well of the fever as of the
dreadful reproaches of my conscience, extorted some words from
me like praying to God, though I cannot say they were either a
prayer attended with desires or with hopes: it was rather the
voice of mere fright and distress. My thoughts were confused,
the convictions great upon my mind, and the horror of dying in
such a miserable condition raised vapours into my head with the
mere apprehension ; and in these hurries of my soul I knew not
what my tongue might express. But it was rather exclamation,
such as, “ Lord, what a miserable creature am I! If I should be
sick, I shall certainly die for want of help; and what will become
of me!” Then the tears burst out of my eyes, and I could say
no more fora good while. In this interval the good advice of
my father came to my mind, and presently his prediction, which
I mentioned at the beginning of this story—viz. that if I did
take this foolish step, God would not bless me, and I would have
leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neglected his counsel
when there might be none to assist in my recovery. “ Now,”
said I, aloud, “my dear father’s words are come to pass; God’s
justice has overtaken me, and I have none to help or hear me.
I rejected the voice of Providence, which had mercifully put me
in a posture or station of life wherein I might have been happy
and easy; but I would neither see it myself, nor learn to know
the blessing of it from my parents. I left them to mourn over
my folly, and now I am left to mourn under the consequences of
it. I refused their help and assistance, who would have lifted
me in the world, and would have made everything easy to me;
and now I have difficulties to struggle with, too great for even
nature itself to support, and no assistance, no help, no comfort,
no advice.” Then I cried out, “ Lord, be my help, for I am in
great distress.” This was the first prayer, if I may call it so, that
I had made for many years.

But to return to my Journal.

June 28.—Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I
had had, and the fit being entirely off, I got up; and though the
fright and terror of my dream was very great, yet I considered
that the fit of the ague would return again the next day, and now
was my time to get something to refresh and support myself when
I should be ill; and the first thing I did, I filled a large square
case-bottle with water, and set it upon my table, in reach of my
bed ; and to take off the chill or aguish disposition of the water,
ROBINSON CRUSOE 75

I put about a quarter of a pint of rum into it, and mixed them
together. Then I got me a piece of the goat’s flesh and broiled
it on the coals, but could eat very little. I walked about, but
was very weak, and withal very sad and heavy-hearted under a
sense of my miserable condition, dreading the return of my dis-
temper the next day. At night I made my supper of three of
the turtle’s eggs, which I roasted in the ashes, and ate, as we
call it, in the shell, and this was the first bit of meat I had ever
asked God’s blessing to, that I could remember, in my whole life.
After I had eaten I tried to walk, but found myself so weak that
I could hardly carry a gun, for I never went out without that;
so I went but a little way, and sat down upon the ground, look-
ing out upon the sea, which was just before me, and very calm
and smooth. AsI sat here, some such thoughts as these occurred
tome: What is this earth and sea, of which I have seen so much?
Whence is it produced? And what am I, and all the other
creatures wild and tame, human and brutal? Whence are we?
Sure we are all made by some secret Power, who formed the
earth and sea, the air and sky. And who is that? Then it
followed most naturally, it is God that has made all. Well, but
then it came on strangely, if God has made all these things, He
guides and governs them all, and all things that concern them ;
for the Power that could make all things must certainly have
power to guide and direct them. If so, nothing can happen in
the great circuit of His works, either without His knowledge or
appointment. ;

And if nothing happens without His knowledge, He knows
that I am here, and am in this dreadful condition; and if nothing
happens without His appointment, He has appointed all this to
befall me. Nothing occurred to my thought to contradict any
of these conclusions, and therefore it rested upon me with the
greater force, that it must needs be that God had appointed all
this to befall me; that I was brought into this miserable circum-
stance by His direction, He having the sole power, not of me
only, but of everything that happened in the world. Immedi-
ately it followed: Why has God done this to me? What have
I done to be thus used? My conscience presently checked me
in that inquiry, as if I had blasphemed, and methought it spoke
to me like a voice: “ Wretch ! dost thou ask what thou hast done?
Look back upon a dreadful misspent life, and ask thyself what
thou hast ot done? Ask, why is it that thou wert not long ago
destroyed? Why wert thou not drowned in Yarmouth Roads;
killed in the fight when the ship was taken by the Sallee man-
of-war ; devoured by the wild beasts on the coast of Africa; or
76 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

drowned here, when all the crew perished but thyself? Dost thou
ask, what have I done?” I was struck dumb with these reflec-
tions, as one astonished, and had not a word to say—no, not to
answer to myself, but rose up pensive and sad, walked back to
my retreat, and went up over my wall, as if I had been going
to bed; but my thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I had no
inclination to sleep; so I sat down in my chair, and lighted my
lamp, for it began to be dark. Now, as the apprehension of
the return of my distemper terrified me very much, it occurred
to my thought that the Brazilians take no physic but their
tobacco for almost all distempers, and I had a piece of a roll of
tobacco in one of the chests, which was quite cured, and some
also that was green, and not quite cured.

I went, directed by Heaven no doubt; for in this chest I found
a cure both for soul and body. I opened the chest, and found
what I looked for, the tobacco; and as the few books I had
saved lay there too, I took out one of the Bibles which I men-
tioned before, and which to this time I had not found leisure
or inclination to look into. I say, I took it out, and brought
both that and the tobacco with me to the table. What use to
make of the tobacco I knew not, in my distemper, or whether
it was good for it or no: but I tried several experiments with
it, as if I was resolved it should hit one way or other. I first
took a piece of leaf, and chewed it in my mouth, which, indeed,
at first almost stupefied my brain, the tobacco being green and
strong, and that I had not been much used to. Then I took
some and steeped it an hour or two in some rum, and resolved
to take a dose of it when I lay down; and lastly, I burnt some
upon a pan of coals, and held my nose close over the smoke of
it as long as I could bear it, as well for the heat as almost for
suffocation. In the interval of this operation I took up the
Bible and began to read ; but my head was too much disturbed
with the tobacco to bear reading, at least at that time; only,
having opened the book casually, the first words that occurred
to me were these, “Call on Me in the day of trouble, and I
will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify Me.” These words
were very apt to my case, and made some impression upon my
thoughts at the time of reading them, though not so much as
they did afterwards; for, as for being delivered, the word had
no sound, as I may say, to me; the thing was so remote, so im-
possible in my apprehension of things, that I began to say, as
the children of Israel did when they were promised flesh to eat,
“Can God spread a table in the wilderness?” so I began to
say, “Can God Himself deliver me from this place?’ And as it
ROBINSON CRUSOE 77

was not for many years that any hopes appeared, this prevailed
very often upon my thoughts; but, however, the words made a
great impression upon me, and I mused upon them very often.
It grew now late, and the tobacco had, as I said, dozed my head
so much that I inclined to sleep; so I left my lamp burning in
the cave, lest I should want anything in the night, and went
to bed. But before I lay down, I did what I never had done
in all my life—I kneeled down, and prayed to God to fulfil the
promise to me, that if I called upon Him in the day of trouble,
He would deliver me. After my broken and imperfect prayer
was over, I drank the rum in which I had steeped the tobacco,
which was so strong and rank of the tobacco that I could
scarcely get it down; immediately upon this I went to bed. I
found presently it flew up into my head violently; but I fell
into a sound sleep, and waked no more till, by the sun, it must
necessarily be near three o'clock in the afternoon the next day
—nay, to this hour I am partly of opinion that I slept all the
next day and night, and till almost three the day after; for
otherwise I know not how I should lose a day out of my reckon-
ing in the days of the week, as it appeared some years after
I had done; for if I had lost it by crossing and recrossing the
line, I should have lost more than one day; but certainly I
lost a day in my account, and never knew which way. Be that,
however, one way or the other, when I awaked I found myself
exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively and cheerful ; when I
got up I was stronger than I was the day before, and my stomach
better, for I was hungry ; and, in short, I had no fit the next day,
but continued much altered for the better. This was the 29th.

The 30th was my well day, of course, and I went abroad with
my gun, but did not care to travel too far. I killed a sea-fowl
or two, something like a brandgoose, and brought them home,
but was not very forward to eat them; so I ate some more of
the turtle’s eggs, which were very good. This evening I re-
newed the medicine, which I had supposed did me good the
day before—the tobacco steeped in rum; only I did not take
so much as before, nor did I chew any of the leaf, or hold my
head over the smoke; however, I was not so well the next
day, which was the first of July, as I hoped I should have been ;
for I had a little spice of the cold fit, but it was not much.

July 2.—I renewed the medicine all the three ways; and
dosed myself with it as at first, and doubled the quantity which
I drank.

July 3.—I missed the fit for good and all, though I did not
recover my full strength for some weeks after. While I was
78 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

thus gathering strength, my thoughts ran exceedingly upon this
Scripture, “I will deliver thee”; and the impossibility of my
deliverance lay much upon my mind, in bar of my ever expect-
ing it; but as I was discouraging myself with such thoughts, it
occurred to my mind that I pored so much upon my deliverance
from the main affliction, that I disregarded the deliverance I
had received, and I was as it were made to ask myself such
questions as these—viz. Have I not been delivered, and wonder-
fully too, from sickness—from the most distressed condition
that could be, and that was so frightful to me? and what notice
had I taken of it? Had I done my part? God had delivered
me, but I had not glorified Him—that is to say, I had not owned
and been thankful for that as a deliverance; and how could I
expect greater deliverance? This touched my heart very much;
and immediately I knelt down and gave God thanks aloud for
my recovery from my sickness,

July 4.—In the morning I took the Bible; and beginning
at the New Testament, I began seriously to read it, and im.
posed upon myself to read a while every morning and every
night; not tying myself to the number of chapters, but long as
my thoughts should engage me. It was not long after I set
seriously to this work till I found my heart more deeply and
sincerely affected with the wickedness of my past life. The
impression of my dream revived ; and the words, “ All these
things have not brought thee to repentance,’ ran_ seriously
through my thoughts. I was earnestly begging of God to give
me repentance, when it happened providentially, the very day,
that, reading the Scripture, I came to these words: « He is
exalted a Prince and a Saviour, to give repentance and to give
remission.” I threw down the book; and with my heart as
well as my hands lifted up to heaven, in a kind of ecstasy of
joy, I cried out aloud, « Jesus, thou son of David! Jesus, thou
exalted Prince and Saviour! give me repentance!” This was
the first time I could say, in the true sense of the words, that I
prayed in all my life; for now I prayed with a sense of my
condition, and a true Scripture view of hope, founded on the
encouragement of the Word of God; and from this time, I may
say, I began to hope that God would hear me.

Now I began to construe the words mentioned above, “ Call on
Me, and I will deliver thee,” in a different sense from what I had
ever done before; for then I had no notion of anything being
called deliverance, but my being delivered from the captivity I was
in ; for though I was indeed at large in the place, yet the island
was certainly a prison to me, and that in the worse sense in the —
‘ROBINSON CRUSOE 79

world. But now I learned to take it in another sense: now I
looked back upon my past life with such horror, and my sins
appeared so dreadful, that my soul sought nothing of God but
deliverance from the load of guilt that bore down all my comfort.
As for my solitary life, it was nothing; I did not so much as pray
to be delivered from it or think of it; it was all of no considera-
tion in comparison to this. And I add this part here, to hint to
whoever shall read it, that whenever they come to a true sense
of things, they will find deliverance from sin a much greater
blessing than deliverance from affliction.

But, leaving this part, I return to my Journal.

My condition began now to be, though not less miserable as
to my way of living, yet much easier to my mind: and my
thoughts being directed, by a constant reading the Scripture
and praying to God, to things of a higher nature, I had a great
deal of comfort within, which till now I knew nothing of; also,
my health and strength returned, I bestirred myself to furnish
myself with everything that I wanted, and make my way of
living as regular as I could.

From the 4th of July to the 14th I was chiefly employed in
walking about with my gun in my hand, a little and a little at a
time, as a man that was gathering up his strength after a fit of
sickness; for it is hardly to be imagined how low I was, and to
what weakness I was reduced. The application which I made
use of was perfectly new, and perhaps which had never cured an
ague before ; neither can I recommend it to any to practise, by
this experiment: and though it did carry off the fit, yet it rather
contributed to weakening me; for I had frequent convulsions in
my nerves and limbs for some time. I learned from it also this,
in particular, that being abroad in the rainy season was the most
pernicious thing to my health that could be, especially in those
rains which came attended with storms and hurricanes of wind ;
for as the rain which came in the dry season was almost always
accompanied with such storms, so I found that rain was much
more dangerous than the rain which fell in September and
October.

CHAPTER VII
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIENCE

I HAD now been in this unhappy island above ten months.

All possibility of deliverance from this condition seemed to

be entirely taken from me; and I firmly believe that no human
F
80 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

shape had ever set foot upon that place. Having now secured
my habitation, as I thought, fully to my mind, I had a great desire
to make a more perfect discovery of the island, and to see what
other productions I might find, which I yet knew nothing of.

It was on the 15th of July that I began to take a more par-
ticular survey of the island itself. I went up the creek first,
where, as I hinted, I brought my rafts on shore. I found, after
I came about two miles up, that the tide did not flow any higher,
and that it was no more than a little brook of running water, very
fresh and good ; but this being the dry season, there was hardly
any water in some parts of it—at least not enough to run in any
stream, so as it could be perceived. On the banks of this brook
I found many pleasant savannahs or meadows, plain, smooth, and
covered with grass ; and on the rising parts of them, next to the
higher grounds, where the water, as might be supposed, never
overflowed, I found a great deal of tobacco, green, and growing
to a great and very strong stalk. There were divers other plants,
which | had no notion of or understanding about, that might,
perhaps, have virtues of their own, which I could not find out.
I searched for the cassava root, which the Indians, in all that
climate, make their bread of, but I could find none. I saw large
plants of aloes, but did not understand them. I saw several
sugar-canes, but wild, and, for want of cultivation, imperfect. I
contented myself with these discoveries for this time, and came
back, musing with myself what course I might take to know the
virtue and goodness of any of the fruits or plants which I should
discover, but could bring it to no conclusion; for, in short, I had
made so little observation while I was in the Brazils, that I knew
little of the plants in the field; at least, very little that might
serve to any purpose now in my distress.

The next day, the sixteenth, I went up the same way again;
and after going something further than I had gone the day
before, I found the brook and the savannahs cease, and the
country become more woody than before. In this part I found
different fruits, and particularly I found melons upon the ground,
in great abundance, and grapes upon the trees. The vines had
spread, indeed, over the trees, and the clusters of grapes were
just now in their prime, very ripe and rich. This was a surpris-
ing discovery, and I was exceeding glad of them; but I was
warned by my experience to eat sparingly of them ; remembering
that when I was ashore in Barbary, the eating of grapes killed
several of our Englishmen, who were slaves there, by throwing
them into fluxes and fevers. But I found an excellent use for
these grapes; and that was, to cure or dry them in the sun, and
ROBINSON cRUSO#”. 81

keep them as dried grapes or raisins are kept, which I thought
would be, as indeed they were, wholesome and agreeable to eat
when no grapes could be had.

I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my habita-
tion; which, by the way, was the first night, as I might say, I
had lain from home. In the night I took my first contrivance,
and got up in a tree, where I slept well; and the next morning
proceeded upon my discovery ; travelling nearly four miles, as I
might judge by the length of the valley, keeping still due north,
with a ridge of hills on the south and north side of me. At the
end of this march I came to an opening, where the country
seemed to descend to the west; and a little spring of fresh
water, which issued out of the side of the hill by me, ran the
other way, that is, due east; and the country appeared so fresh,
so green, so flourishing, everything being in a constant verdure
or flourish of spring, that it looked like a planted garden. I
descended a little on the side of that delicious vale, surveying it
with a secret kind of pleasure, though mixed with my other
afflicting thoughts, to think that this was all my own; that I was
king and lord of all this country indefeasibly, and had a right of
possession ; and if I could convey it, I might have it in inherit-
ance as completely as any lord of a manor in England. I saw
here abundance of cocoa trees, orange, and lemon, and citron
trees ; but all wild, and very few bearing any fruit, at least not
then. However, the green limes that I gathered were not only
pleasant to eat, but very wholesome ; and I mixed their juice
afterwards with water, which made it very wholesome, and very
cool and refreshing. I found now I had business enough to
gather and carry home; and I resolved to lay up a store as well
of grapes as limes and lemons, to furnish myself for the wet
season, which I knew was approaching. In order to do this, I
gathered a great heap of grapes in one place, a lesser heap in
another place, and a great parcel of limes and lemons in another
place; and taking a few of each with me, I travelled homewards ;
resolving to come again, and bring a bag or sack, or what I could
make, to carry the rest home, Accordingly, having spent three
days in this journey, I came home (so I must now call my tent
and my cave); but before I got thither the grapes were spoiled ;
the richness of the fruit and the weight of the juice having
broken them and_ bruised them, they were good for little or
pir ena as to the limes, they were good, but I could bring but
a few.

The next day, being the nineteenth, I went back, having made
me two small bags to bring home my harvest; but I was sur-
82 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

prised, when coming to my heap of grapes, which were so rich
and fine when I gathered them, to find them all spread about,
trod to pieces, and dragged about, some here, some there, and
abundance eaten and devoured. By this I concluded there were
some wild creatures thereabouts, which had done this; but what
they were I knew not. However, as I found there was no laying
them up on heaps, and no carrying them away in a sack, but
that one way they would be destroyed, and the other way they
would be crushed with their own weight, I took another course ;
for I gathered a large quantity of the grapes, and hung them
upon the out-branches of the trees, that they might cure and
dry in the sun; and as for the limes and lemons, I carried as
many back as I could well stand under.

When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with
great pleasure the fruitfulness of that valley, and the pleasant-
ness of the situation ; the security from storms on that side of the
water, and the wood : and concluded that I had pitched upon a
place to fix my abode which was by far the worst part of the
country. Upon the whole, I began to consider of removing my
habitation, and looking out for a place equally safe as where now
I was situate, if possible, in that pleasant, fruitful part of the
island.

This thought ran long in my head, and I was exceeding fond
of it for some time, the pleasantness of the place tempting me;
but when I came to a nearer view of it, I considered that I was
now by the seaside, where it was at least possible that some-
thing might happen to my advantage, and, by the same ill fate
that brought me hither, might bring some other unhappy wretches
to the same place; and though it was scarce probable that any
such thing should ever happen, yet to enclose myself among the
hills and woods in the centre of the island was to anticipate
my bondage, and to render such an affair not only improbable,
but impossible ; and that therefore I ought not by any means
to remove. However, I was so enamoured of this place, that I
spent much of my time there for the whole of the remaining
part of the month of July; and though, upon second thoughts,
I resolved not to remove, yet I built me a little kind of a bower,
and surrounded it at a distance with a strong fence, being a
double hedge, as high as I could reach, well staked and filled
between with brushwood; and here I lay very secure, sometimes
two or three nights together ; always going over it with a ladder;
so that I fancied now I had my country house and my sea-coast
house ; and this work took me up to the beginning of August.

I had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy my
ROBINSON CRUSOE 83

labour, when the rains came on, and made me stick close to my
first habitation ; for though I had made me a tent like the other,
with a piece of a sail, and spread it very well, yet I had not the
shelter of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a cave behind me
to retreat into when the rains were extraordinary.

About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my
bower, and began to enjoy myself. The 3rd of August, I found
the grapes I had hung up perfectly dried, and, indeed, were
excellent good raisins of the sun; so I began to take them down
from the trees, and it was very happy that I did so, for the rains
which followed would have spoiled them, and I had lost the best
part of my winter food; for I had above two hundred large
bunches of them. No sooner had I taken them all down, and
carried the most of them home to my cave, than it began to rain ;
and from hence, which was the 14th of August, it rained, more
or less, every day till the middle of October ; and sometimes so
violently, that I could not stir out of my cave for several days.

In this season I was much surprised with the increase of my
family ; I had been concerned for the loss of one of my cats, who
ran away from me, or, as I thought, had been dead, and I heard
no more tidings of her till, to my astonishment, she came home
about the end of August with three kittens. This was the more
strange to me because, though I had killed a wild cat, as I called
it, with my gun, yet I thought it was quite a different kind from
our European cats; but the young cats were the same kind of
house-breed as the old one; and both my cats being females, I
thought it very strange. But from these three cats I afterwards
came to be so pestered with cats that I was forced to kill them
like vermin or wild beasts, and to drive them from my house as
much as possible.

From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain, so that I
could not stir, and was now very careful not to be much wet. In
this confinement, I began to be straitened for food: but ventur-
ing out twice, I one day killed a goat; and the last day, which
was the 26th, found a very large tortoise, which was a treat to
_ Mme, and my food was regulated thus: I ate a bunch of raisins
for my breakfast ; a piece of the goat’s flesh, or of the turtle, for
my dinner, broiled—for, to my great misfortune, I had no vessel
to boil or stew anything ; and two or three of the turtle’s eggs
for my supper.

During this confinement in my cover by the rain, I worked
daily two or three hours at enlarging my cave, and by degrees
worked it on towards one side, till 1 came to the outside of the
hill, and made a door or way out, which came beyond my fence
84 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

or wall; and so I came in and out this way. But I was not
perfectly easy at lying so open; for, as I had managed myself
before, I was in a perfect enclosure; whereas now I thought I
lay exposed, and open for anything to come in upon me; and
yet I could not perceive that there was any living thing to fear,
the biggest creature that I had yet seen upon the island being
a goat.

Sere 30.—I was now come to the unhappy anniversary of my
landing. I cast up the notches on my post, and found I had been
on shore three hundred and sixty-five days. I kept this day as
a solemn fast, setting it apart for religious exercise, prostrating
myself on the ground with the most serious humiliation, confess-
ing my sins to God, acknowledging His righteous judgments upon
me, and praying to Him to have mercy on me through Jesus
Christ ; and not having tasted the least refreshment for twelve
hours, even till the going down of the sun, I then ate a biscuit-
cake and a bunch of grapes, and went to bed, finishing the day
as I began it. I had all this time observed no Sabbath day ; for
as at first I had no sense of religion upon my mind, I had, after
some time, omitted to distinguish the weeks, by making a longer
notch than ordinary for the Sabbath day, and so did not really
know what any of the days were; but now, having cast up the
days as above, I found I had been there a year; so I divided it
into weeks, and set apart every seventh day for a Sabbath;
though I found at the end of my account I had lost a day or two
in my reckoning. A little after this, my ink began to fail me,
and so I contented myself to use it more sparingly, and to write
down only the most remarkable events of my life, without con-
tinuing a daily memorandum of other things.

The rainy season and the dry season began now to appear
regular to me, and I learned to divide them so as to provide for
them accordingly ; but I bought all my experience before I had
it, and this Iam going to relate was one of the most discouraging
experiments that I made.

I have mentioned that I had saved the few ears of barley and
rice, which I had so surprisingly found spring up, as I thought,
of themselves, and I believe there were about thirty stalks of
rice, and about twenty of barley ; and now I thought it a proper
time to sow it, after the rains, the sun being in its southern
position, going from me. Accordingly, I dug up a piece of
ground as well as I could with my wooden spade, and dividing
it into two parts, I sowed my grain; but as I was sowing, it
casually occurred to my thoughts that I would not sow it all at
first, because I did not know when was the proper time for it, so
ROBINSON CRUSOE 85

I sowed about two-thirds of the seed, leaving about a handful
of each. It was a great comfort to me afterwards that I did so,
for not one grain of what I sowed this time came to anything :
for the dry months following, the earth having had no rain after
the seed was sown, it had no moisture to assist its growth, and
never came up at all till the wet season had come again, and then
it grew as if it had been but newly sown. Finding my first seed
did not grow, which I easily imagined was by the drought, I
sought for a moister piece of ground to make another trial in,
and I dug up a piece of ground near my new bower, and sowed
the rest of my seed in February, a little before the vernal
equinox ; and this having the rainy months of March and April
to water it, sprung up very pleasantly, and yielded a very good
crop ; but having part of the seed left only, and not daring to sow
all that I had, I had but a small quantity at last, my whole crop
not amounting to above half a peck of each kind. But by this
experiment I was made master of my business, and knew exactly
when the proper season was to sow, and that I might expect two
seed-times and two harvests every year.

While this corn was growing I made a little discovery, which
was of use to me afterwards. As soon as the rains were over,
and the weather began to settle, which was about the month of
November, I made a visit up the country to my bower, where,
though I had not been some months, yet I found all things just
as I left them. ‘The circle or double hedge that I had made was
not only firm and entire, but the stakes which I had cut out of
some trees that grew thereabouts were all shot out and grown
with long branches, as much as a willow-tree usually shoots the
first year after lopping its head. I could not tell what tree to
call it that these stakes were cut from. I was surprised, and yet
very well pleased, to see the young trees grow , and I pruned
them, and led them up to grow as much alike as I could; and it
is scarce credible how beautiful a figure they grew into in three
years; so that though the hedge made a circle of about twenty-
five yards in diameter, yet the trees, for such I might now call
them, soon covered it, and it was a complete shade, sufficient to
lodge under all the dry season. This made me resolve to cut
some more stakes, and make me a hedge like this, in a semi-circle
round my wall (I mean that of my first dwelling), which I did;
and placing the trees or stakes in a double row, at about eight
yards distance from my first fence, they grew presently, and were
at first a fine cover to my habitation, and afterwards served for a
defence also, as I shall observe in its order.

I found now that the seasons of the year might generally be
86 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

divided, not into summer and winter, as in Europe, but into the
rainy seasons and the dry seasons, which were generally thus :—

The half of February, the whole of March, and the half of
April—rainy, the sun being then on or near the equinox.

The half of April, the whole of May, June, and July, and the
half of August—dry, the sun being then to the north of the line.

The half of August, the whole of September, and the half of
October—rainy, the sun being then come back.

The half of October, the whole of N ovember, December, and
January, and the half of F ebruary—dry, the sun being then to
the south of the line.

The rainy seasons sometimes held longer or shorter as the
winds happened to blow, but this was the general observation I
made. After I had found by experience the ill consequences
of being abroad in the rain, I took care to furnish myseif with
provisions beforehand, that I might not be obliged to go out, and
I sat within doors as much as possible during the wet months.
This time I found much employment, and very suitable also to
the time, for I found great occasion for many things which I had
no way to furnish myself with but by hard labour and constant
application ; particularly I tried many ways to make myself a
basket, but all the twigs I could get for the purpose proved so
brittle that they would do nothing. It proved of excellent advan-
tage to me now, that when I was a boy, I used to take great
delight in standing at a basket-maker’s, in the town where my
father lived, to see them make their wicker-ware ; and being,
as boys usually are, very officious to help, and a great observer
of the manner in which they worked those things, and sometimes
lending a hand, I had by these means full knowledge of the
methods of it, and I wanted nothing but the materials, when it
came into my mind that the twigs of that tree from whence I cut
my stakes that grew might possibly be as tough as the sallows,
willows, and osiers in England, and I resolved to try. Accord-
ingly, the next day I went to my country house, as I called it, and
cutting some of the smaller twigs, I found them to my purpose
as much as I could desire ; whereupon I came the next time pre-
pared with a hatchet to cut down a quantity, which I soon found,
for there was great plenty of them. These I set up to dry within
my circle or hedge, and when they were fit for use I carried them
to my cave; and here, during the next season, I employed myself
in making, as well as I could, a great many baskets, both to carry
earth or to carry or lay up anything, as I had occasion; and
though I did not finish them very handsomely, yet I made them
sufficiently serviceable for my purpose ; and thus, afterwards, I
ROBINSON CRUSOE 87

took care never to be without them; and as my wicker-ware
decayed, I made more, especially strong, deep baskets to place
my corn in, instead of sacks, when I should come to have any
quantity of it.

Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of time
about it, I bestirred myself to see, if possible, how to supply two
wants. I had no vessels to hold anything that was liquid, except
two runlets, which were almost full of rum, and some glass bottles
—some of the common size, and others which were case bottles,
square, forthe holding of water, spirits, &c. I had not so much
as a pot to boil anything, except a great kettle, which:I saved
out of the ship, and which was too big for such as I desired it—
viz. to make broth, and stew a bit of meat by itself. The second
thing I fain would have had was a tobacco-pipe, but it was im-
possible to me to make one; however, I found a contrivance for
that, too, at last. I employed myself in planting my second rows
of stakes or piles, and in this wicker-working all the summer or
dry season, when another business took me up more time than it
could be imagined I could spare.

CHAPTER VIII
SURVEYS HIS POSITION

I MENTIONED before that I had a great mind to see the

whole island, and that I had travelled up the brook, and so
on to where I built my bower, and where I had an opening quite
to the sea, on the other side of the island. 1 now resolved to
travel quite across to the sea-shore on that side; so, taking my
gun, a hatchet, and my dog, and a larger quantity of powder and
shot than usual, with two biscuit-cakes and a great bunch of
raisins in my pouch for my store, I began my journey. When I
had passed the vale where my bower stood, as above, I came
within view of the sea to the west, and it being a very clear day,
I fairly descried land—whether an island or a continent I could
not tell; but it lay very high, extending from the W. to the
W.S.W. at a very great distance; by my guess it could not be
less than fifteen or twenty leagues off.

I could not tell what part of the world this might be, otherwise
than that I knew it must be part of America, and, as I concluded
by all my observations, must be near the Spanish dominions, and
perhaps was all inhabited by savages, where, if I had landed, I

,
88 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

had been in a worse condition than I was now; and therefore I
acquiesced in the dispositions of Providence, which I began now
to own and to believe ordered everything for the best; I say I
quieted my mind with this, and left off afflicting myself with
fruitless wishes of being there.

Besides, after some thought upon this affair, I considered that
if this land was the Spanish coast, I should certainly, one time or
other, see some vessel pass or repass one way or other; but2if
not, then it was the savage coast between the Spanish country
and Brazils, where are found the worst of savages; for they are
cannibals, or men-eaters, and fail not to murder and devour all
the human bodies that fall into their hands.

With these considerations, I walked very leisurely forward. I
found that side of the island where I now was much pleasanter
than mine—the open or savannah fields sweet, adorned with
flowers and grass, and full of very fine woods. I saw abundance
of parrots, and fain I would have caught one, if possible, to have
kept it to be tame, and taught it to speak to me. I did, after
some painstaking, catch a young parrot, for I knocked it down
with a stick, and having recovered it, I brought it home; but it
was some years before I could made him speak; however, at
last 1 taught him to call me by name very familiarly. But
the accident that followed, though it be a trifle, will be very
diverting in its place.

I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found in the
low grounds hares (as I thought them to be) and foxes; but they
differed greatly from all the other kinds I had met with, nor
could I satisfy myself to eat them, though I killed several. But
I had no need to be venturous, for I had no want of food, and
of that which was very good too, especially these three sorts,
viz. goats, pigeons, and turtle, or tortoise, which, added to my
grapes, Leadenhall market could not have furnished a table
better than I, in proportion to the company; and though my
case was deplorable enough, yet I had great cause for thankful-
ness that I was not driven to any extremities for food, but had
rather plenty, even to dainties.

I never travelled in this journey above two miles outright in a
day, or thereabouts ; but I took so many turns and re-turns to see
what discoveries I could make, that I came weary enough to the
place where I resolved to sit down all night; and then I either
reposed myself in a tree, or surrounded myself with a row of
stakes set upright in the ground, either from one tree to another,
or so as no wild creature could come at me without waking me.

As soon as I came to the sea-shore, I was surprised to see that
ROBINSON CRUSOE 89

I had taken up my lot on the worst side of the island, for here,
indeed, the shore was covered with innumerable turtles, whereas
on the other side I had found but three in a year and a half.
Here was also an infinite number of fowls of many kinds, some
which I had seen, and some which I had not seen before, and
many of them very good meat, but such as I knew not the names
of, except those called penguins.

I could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very sparing
of my powder and shot, and therefore had more mind to killa
she-goat if I could, which I could better feed on; and though
there were many goats here, more than on my side the island,
yet it was with much more difficulty that I could come near
them, the country being flat and even, and they saw me much
sooner than when I was on the hills.

I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than
mine; but yet I had not the least inclination to remove, for as I
was fixed in my habitation it became natural to me, and I seemed
all the while I was here to be as it were upon a journey, and
from home. However, I travelled along the shore of the sea
towards the east, I suppose about twelve miles, and then setting
up a great pole upon the shore for a mark, I concluded I would
go home again, and that the next journey I took should be on
the other side of the island east from my dwelling, and so round
till I came to my post again.

I took another way to come back than that I went, thinking
I could easily keep all the island so much in my view that I
could not miss finding my first dwelling by viewing the country ;
but I found myself mistaken, for being come about two or three
miles, I found myself descended into a very large valley, but so
surrounded with hills, and those hills covered with wood, that I
could not see which was my way by any direction but that of the
sun, nor even then, unless I knew very well the position of the
sun at that time of the day. It happened, to my further mis-
fortune, that the weather proved hazy for three or four days
while I was in the valley, and not being able to see the sun, I
wandered about very uncomfortably, and at last was obliged to
find the seaside, look for my post, and come back the same way
I went: and then, by easy journeys, I turned homeward, the
weather being exceeding hot, and my gun, ammunition, hatchet,
and other things very heavy.

In this journey my dog surprised a young kid, and seized upon
it; and I, running in to take hold of it, caught it, and saved it
alive from the dog. I had a great mind to bring it home if I
could, for I had often been musing whether it might not be
90 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

possible to get a kid or two, and so raise a breed of tame goats,
which might supply me when my powder and shot should be all
spent. I made a collar for this little creature, and with a string,
which I made of some rope-yarn, which I always carried about
me, I led him along, though with some difficulty, till I came to
my bower, and there I enclosed him and left him, for I was very
impatient to be at home, from whence I had been absent above
a month.

I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come into
my old hutch, and lie down in my hammock-bed. This little
wandering journey, without settled place of abode, had been so
unpleasant to me, that my own house, as I called it to myself,
was a perfect settlement to me compared to that; and it rendered
everything about me so comfortable, that I resolved I would
never go a great way from it again while it should be my lot to
stay on the island.

I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale myself after
my long journey; during which most of the time was taken up
in the weighty affair of making a cage for my Poll, who began
now to be a mere domestic, and to be well acquainted with me.
Then I began to think of the poor kid which I had penned in
within my little circle, and resolved to go and fetch it home, or
give it some food ; accordingly I went, and found it where I left
it, for indeed it could not get out, but was almost starved for
want of food. I went and cut boughs of trees, and branches of
such shrubs as I could find, and threw it over, and having fed it,
1 tied it as I did before, to lead it away ; but it was so tame
with being hungry, that I had no need to have tied it, for it
followed me like a dog: and as I continually fed it, the creature
became so loving, so gentle, and so fond, that it became from
that time one of my domestics also, and would never leave me
afterwards.

The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come, and
I kept the 30th of September in the same solemn manner as
before, being the anniversary of my landing on the island, having
now been there two years, and no more prospect of being de-
livered than the first day I came there. 1 spent the whole day
in humble and thankful acknowledgments of the many wonder-
ful mercies which my solitary condition was attended with, and
without which it might have been infinitely more miserable. I
gave humble and hearty thanks that God had been pleased to
discover to me that it was possible I might be more happy in
this solitary condition than I should have been in the liberty
of society, and in all the pleasures of the world; that He could
ROBINSON CRUSOE 91

fully make up to me the deficiencies of my solitary state, and
the want of human society, by His presence and the communi-
cations of His grace to my soul; supporting, comforting, and
encouraging me to depend upon His providence here, and hope
for His eternal presence hereafter.

It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much more
happy this life I now led was, with all its miserable cireum-
stances, than the wicked, cursed, abominable life I led .all the
past part of my days; and now I changed both my sorrows and
my joys; my very desires altered, my affections changed their
gusts, and my delights were perfectly new from what they were
at my first coming, or, indeed, for the two years past.

Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting or for viewing
the country, the anguish of my soul at my condition would break
out upon me on a sudden, and my very heart would die within
me, to think of the woods, the mountains, the deserts I was
in, and how I was a prisoner, locked up with the eternal bars
and bolts of the ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness, without
redemption. In the midst of the greatest composure of my
mind, this would break out upon me like a storm, and make me
wring my hands and weep like a child. Sometimes it would
take me in the middle of my work, and I would immediately sit
down and sigh, and look upon the ground for an hour or two
together ; and this was still worse to me, for if I could burst out
into tears, or vent myself by words, it would go off, and the
grief, having exhausted itself, would abate.

But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts : I daily
read the word of God, and applied all the comforts of it to my
present state. One morning, being very sad, I opened the Bible
upon these words, “I will never, never leave thee, nor forsake
thee.” Immediately it occurred that these words were to me;
why else should they be directed in such a manner, just at the
moment when I was mourning over my condition, as one forsaken
of God and man? “Well, then,” said I, “if God does not for-
sake me, of what ill consequence can it be, or what matters it,
though the world should all forsake me, seeing on the other
hand, if I had all the world, and should lose the favour and
blessing of God, there would be no comparison in the loss?”

From this moment I began to conclude in my mind that it
was possible for me to be more happy in this forsaken, solitary
condition than it was probable I should ever have been in any
other particular state in the world ; and with this thought I was
going to give thanks to God for bringing me to this place. I
know not what it was, but something shocked my mind at that
92 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

thought, and I durst not speak the words. ‘“ How canst thou be-
come such a hypocrite,” said I, even audibly, “to pretend to be
thankful for a condition which, however thou mayest endeavour
to be contented with, thou wouldst rather pray heartily to be
delivered from?’ So I stopped there; but though I could not
say I thanked God for being there, yet I sincerely gave thanks
to God for opening my eyes, by whatever afflicting providences,
to see the former condition of my life, and to mourn for m
wickedness, and repent. I never opened the Bible, or shut it,
but my very soul within me blessed God for directing my friend
in England, without any order of mine, to pack it up among my
goods, and for assisting me afterwards to save it out of the wreck
of the ship.

Thus, and in this disposition of mind, I began my third year ;
and though I have not given the reader the trouble of so par-
ticular an account of my works this year as the first, yet in
general it may be observed that I was very seldom idle, but
having regularly divided my time according to the several daily
employments that were before me, such as: first, my duty to
God, and the reading the Scriptures, which I constantly set
apart some time for thrice every day; secondly, the going
abroad with my gun for food, which generally took me up three
hours in every morning, when it did not rain; thirdly, the
ordering, cutting, preserving, and cooking what I had killed or
caught for my supply; these took up great part of the day.
Also, it is to be considered, that in the middle of the day, when
the sun was in the zenith, the violence of the heat was too
great to stir out; so that about four hours in the evening was
all the time I could be supposed to work in, with this exception,
that sometimes I changed my hours of hunting and working,
and went to work in the morning, and abroad with my gun in
the afternoon.

To this short time allowed for labour I desire may be added
the exceeding laboriousness of my work ; the many hours which,
for want of tools, want of help, and want of skill, everything I
did took up out of my time. For example, I was full two and
forty days in making a board for a long shelf, which I wanted in
my cave; whereas, two sawyers, with their tools and a saw-pit,
would have cut six of them out of the same tree in half a day.

My case was this: it was to be a large tree which was to be
cut down, because my board was to be a broad one. This tree
I was three days in cutting down, and two more cutting off the
boughs, and reducing it to a log or piece of timber. With in-
expressible hacking and hewing I reduced both the sides of it
ROBINSON CRUSOE 93

into chips till it began to be light enough to move; then I turned
it, and made one side of it smooth and flat as a board from end
to end; then, turning that side downward, cut the other side till
I brought the plank to be about three inches thick, and smooth
on both sides. Any one may judge the labour of my hands in
such a piece of work ; but labour and patience carried me through
that, and many other things. I only observe this in particular,
to show the reason why so much of my time went away with so
little work—viz. that what might be a little to be done with help
and tools, was a vast labour and required a prodigious time to do
alone, and by hand. But notwithstanding this, with patience
and labour I got through everything that my circumstances made
necessary to me to do, as will appear by what follows.

I was now, in the months of November and December, expect-
ing my crop of barley and rice. The ground I had manured and
dug up for them was not great; for, as I observed, my seed of
each was not above the quantity of half a peck, for I had lost
one whole crop by sowing in the dry season. But now my crop
promised very well, when on a sudden I found I was in danger
of losing it all again by enemies of several sorts, which it was
scarcely possible to keep from it; as, first, the goats, and wild
creatures which I called hares, who, tasting the sweetness of the
blade, lay in it night and day, as soon as it came up, and eat it
so close, that it could get no time to shoot up into stalk.

This I saw no remedy for but by making an enclosure about it
with a hedge; which I did with a great deal of toil, and the more,
because it required speed. However, as my arable land was but
small, suited to my crop, I got it totally well fenced in about
three weeks’ time; and shooting some of the creatures in the
daytime, I set my dog to guard it in the night, tying him up to
a stake at the gate, where he would stand and bark all night
long ; so in a little time the enemies forsook the place, and the
corn grew very strong and well, and began to ripen apace.

But as the beasts ruined me before, while my corn was in the
blade, so the birds were as likely to ruin me now, when it was in
the ear; for, going along by the place to see how it throve, I saw
my little crop surrounded with fowls, of I know not how many
sorts, who stood, as it were, watching till I should be gone. I
immediately let fly among them, for I always had my gun with
me. I had no sooner shot, but there rose up a little cloud of
fowls, which I had not seen at all, from among the corn itself.

This touched me sensibly, for I foresaw that in a few days they
would devour all my hopes ; that I should be starved, and never
be able to raise a crop at all; and what to do I could not tell;
94 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

however, I resolved not to lose my corn, if possible, though I
should watch it night and day. In the first place, I went among
it to see what damage was already done, and found they had
spoiled a good deal of it; but that as it was yet too green for
them, the loss was not so great but that the remainder was likely
to be a good crop if it could be saved.

I stayed by it to load my gun, and then coming away, I could
easily see the thieves sitting upon all the trees about me, as if
they only waited till I was gone away, and the event proved it
to be so; for as I walked off, as if I was gone, I was no sooner
out of their sight than they dropped down one by one into the
corn again. I was so provoked, that I could not have patience
to stay till more came on, knowing that every grain that they
ate now was, as it might be said, a peck-loaf to me in the conse-
quence ; but coming up to the hedge, I fired again, and killed
three of them. This was what I wished for ; so I took them up,
and served them as we serve notorious thieves in England—
hanged them in chains, for a terror to others. It is impossible
to imagine that this should have such an effect as it had, for the
fowls would not only not come at the corn, but, in short, they
forsook all that part of the island, and I could never see a bird
near the place as long as my scarecrows hung there. This I was
very glad of, you may be sure, and about the latter end of
December, which was our second harvest of the year, I reaped
my corn.

I was sadly put to it for a scythe or sickle to cut it down, and
all I could do was to make one, as well as I could, out of one of
the broadswords, or cutlasses, which I saved among the arms out
of the ship. However, as my first crop was but small, I had no
great difficulty to cut it down; in short, I reaped it in my way,
for I cut nothing off but the ears, and carried it away in a great
basket which I had made, and so rubbed it out with my hands;
and at the end of all my harvesting, I found that out of my half-
peck of seed I had near two bushels of rice, and about two bushels
and a-half of barley; that is to say, by my guess, for I had no
measure at that time.

However, this was a great encouragement to me, and I foresaw
that, in time, it would please God to supply me with bread. And
yet here I was perplexed again, for I neither knew how to grind
or make meal of my corn, or indeed how to clean it and part it ;
nor, if made into meal, how to make bread of it; and if how to
make it, yet I knew not how to bake it. These things being
added to my desire of having a good quantity for store, and to
Secure a constant supply, I resolved not to taste any of this crop,


ROBINSON CRUSOE 95

but to preserve it all for seed against the next season; and in
the meantime to employ all my study and hours of working
to accomplish this great work of providing myself with corn
and bread.

It might be truly said, that now I worked for my bread.
I believe few people have thought much upon the strange
multitude of little things necessary in the providing, producing,
curing, dressing, making, and finishing this one article of
bread.

I, that was reduced to a mere state of nature, found this to
my daily discouragement; and was made more sensible of it
every hour, even after I had got the first handful of seed-corn,
which, as I have said, came up unexpectedly, and indeed to a
surprise.

First, I had no plough to turn up the earth—no spade or shovel
to dig it. Well, this I conquered by making me a wooden spade,
as I observed before; but this did my work but in a wooden
manner ; and though it cost me a great many days to make it,
yet, for want of iron, it not only wore out soon, but made my
work the harder, and made it be performed much worse. How-
ever, this I bore with, and was content to work it out with
patience, and bear with the badness of the performance. When
the corn was sown, I had no harrow, but was forced to go over it
myself, and drag a great heavy bough of a tree over it, to scratch
it, as it may be called, rather than rake or harrow it. When it
was growing, and grown, I have observed already how many
things I wanted to fence it, secure it, mow or reap it, cure and
carry it home, thrash, part it from the chaff, and save it. Then
I wanted a mill to grind it, sieves to dress it, yeast and salt to
make it into bread, and an oven to bake it; but all these things
I did without, as shall be observed; and yet the corn was an
inestimable comfort and advantage to me too. ll this, as I said,
made everything laborious and tedious to me; but that there
was no help for. Neither was my time so much loss to me,
because, as I had divided it, a certain part of it was every
day appointed to these works; and as I had resolved to use
none of the corn for bread till I had a greater quantity by me,
I had the next six months to apply myself wholly, by labour
and invention, to furnish myself with utensils proper for the
performing all the operations necessary for making the corn,
when I had it, fit for my use.
96 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

CHAPTER IX
MAKES A BOAT

UT first I was to prepare more land, for I had now seed
enough to sow above an acre of ground. Before I did this,
I had a week’s work at least to make me a spade, which, when
it was done, was but a sorry one indeed, and very heavy, and
required double labour to work with it. However, | got through
that, and sowed my seed in two large flat pieces of ground, as
near my house as I could find them to my mind, and fenced them
in with a good hedge, the stakes of which were all cut off that
wood which I had set before, and knew it would grow; so that,
in a year’s time, I knew I should have a quick or living hedge,
that would want but little repair. This work did not take me up
less than three months, because a great part of that time was the
wet season, when I could not go abroad. Within-doors, that is
when it rained and I could not go out, I found employment in
the following occupations—always observing, that all the while
I was at work I diverted myself with talking to my parrot, and
teaching him to speak; and I quickly taught him to know his
own name, and at last to speak it out pretty loud, “ Poll,” which
was the first word I ever heard spoken in the island by any
mouth but my own. This, therefore, was not my work, but an
assistance to my work ; for now, as I said, I had a great employ-
ment upon my hands, as follows: I had long studied to make,
by some means or other, some earthen vessels, which, indeed, I
wanted sorely, but knew not where to come at them. However,
considering the heat of the climate, I did not doubt but if I could
find out any clay, I might make some pots that might, being
dried in the sun, be hard enough and strong enough to bear
handling, and to hold anything that was dry, and required to be
kept so; and as this was necessary in the preparing corn, meal,
&c., which was the thing I was doing, I resolved to make some
as large as I could, and fit only to stand like jars, to hold what
should be put into them.

It would make the reader pity me, or rather laugh at me, to
tell how many awkward ways I took to raise this paste; what
odd, misshapen, ugly things I made; how many of them fell in
and how many fell out, the clay not being stiff enough to bear
its own weight ; how many cracked by the over-violent heat of
the sun, being set out too hastily; and how many fell in pieces
with only removing, as well before as after they were dried;


ROBINSON CRUSOE 97

and, in a word, how, after having laboured hard to find the clay
—to dig it, to temper it, to bring it home, and work it—I could
not make above two large earthen ugly things (I cannot call
them jars) in about two months’ labour.

However, as the sun baked these two very dry and hard, I
lifted them very gently up, and set them down again in two
great wicker baskets, which I had made on purpose for them,
that they might not break; and as between the pot and the
basket there was a little room to spare, I stuffed it full of the
rice and barley straw; and these two pots being to stand always
dry I thought would hold my dry corn, and perhaps the meal,
when the corn was bruised.

Though I miscarried so much in my design ‘for large pots, yet
I made several smaller things with better success; such as little
round pots, flat dishes, pitchers, and pipkins, and any things my
hand turned to; and the heat of the sun baked them quite hard.

But all this would not answer my end, which was to get an
earthen pot to hold what was liquid, and bear the fire, which none
of these could do. It happened after some time, making a pretty
large fire for cooking my meat, when I went to put it out after I
had done with it, I found a broken piece of one of my earthen-
ware vessels in the fire, burnt as hard as a stone, and red as a
tile. I was agreeably surpised to see it, and said to myself, that
certainly they might be made to burn whole, if they would burn
broken.

This set me to study how to order my fire, so as to make it
burn some pots. I had no notion of a kiln, such as the potters
burn in, or of glazing them with lead, though I had some lead to
do it with ; but I placed three large pipkins and two or three
pots in a pile, one upon another, and placed my firewood all
round it, with a great heap of embers under them. I plied the
fire with fresh fuel round the outside and upon the top, till I saw
the pots in the inside red-hot quite through, and observed that
they did not crack at all. When I saw them clear red, I let them
stand in that heat about five or six hours, till I found one of them,
though it did not crack, did melt or run; for the sand which was
mixed with the clay melted by the violence of the heat, and
would have run into glass if I had gone on; so I slacked my fire
gradually till the pots began to abate of the red colour; and
watching them all night, that I might not let the fire abate too
fast, in the morning I had three very good (I will not say hand-
some) pipkins, and two other earthen pots, as hard burnt as could

be desired, and one of them perfectly glazed with the running
of the sand.
98 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

After this experiment, I need not say that I wanted no sort of
earthenware for my use; but I must needs say as to the shapes of
them, they were very indifferent, as any one may suppose, when I
had no way of making them but as the children make dirt pies, or
as a woman would make pies that never learned to raise paste.

No joy at a thing of so mean a nature was ever equal to mine,
when I found I had made an earthen pot that would bear the
fire ; and I had hardly patience to stay till they were cold before I
set one on the fire again with some water in it to boil me some
meat, which it did admirably well; and with a piece of a kid I
made some very good broth, though I wanted oatmeal, and
several other ingredients requisite to make it as good as I would
have had it been.

My next concern was to get me a stone mortar to stamp or
beat some corn in; for as to the mill, there was no thought of
arriving at that perfection of art with one pair of hands. To
supply this want, I was at a great loss; for, of all the trades in
the world, I was as perfectly unqualified for a stone-cutter as
for any whatever; neither had I any tools to go about it with.
I spent many a day to find out a great stone big enough to cut
hollow, and make fit for a mortar, and could find none at all,
except what was in the solid rock, and which I had no way to
dig or cut out; nor indeed were the rocks in the island of hard-
ness sufficient, but were all of a sandy, crumbling stone, which
neither would bear the weight of a heavy pestle, nor would
break the corn without filling it with sand. So, after a great
deal of time lost in searching for a stone, I gave it over, and
resolved to look out for a great block of hard wood, which I
found, indeed, much easier; and getting one as big as I had
strength to stir, I rounded it, and formed it on the outside with
my axe and hatchet, and then with the help of fire and infinite
labour, made a hollow place in it, as the Indians in Brazil make
their canoes. After this, I made a great heavy pestle or beater
of the wood called the iron-wood ; and this I prepared and laid
by against I had my next crop of corn, which I proposed to
myself to grind, or rather pound into meal to make bread.

My next difficulty was to make a’sieve or searce, to dress my
meal, and to part it from the bran and the husk ; without which
I did not see it possible I could have any bread. This was a
most difficult thing even to think on, for to be sure I had nothing
like the necessary thing to make it—I mean fine thin canvas or
stuff to searce the meal through. And here I was at a full stop
for many months; nor did I really know what to do. Linen I
had none left but what was mere rags; I had goat’s hair, but


ROBINSON CRUSOE 99

neither knew how to weave it or spin it; and had I known how,
here were no tools to work it with. All the remedy that I
found for this was, that at last I did remember I had, among
the seamen’s clothes which were saved out of the ship, some
neckcloths of calico or muslin; and with some pieces of these
I made three small sieves proper enough for the work; and
thus I made shift for some years: how I did afterwards, I shall
show in its place.

The baking part was the next thing to be considered, and
how I should make bread when I came to have corn; for first,
I had no yeast. As to that part, there was no supplying the
want, so I did not concern myself much about it. But for an
oven I was indeed in great pain. At length I found out an
experiment for that also, which was this: I made some earthen
vessels very broad but not deep, that is to say, about two feet
diameter, and not above nine inches deep. These I burned in
the fire, as I had done the other, and laid them by; and when
I wanted to bake, I made a great fire upon my hearth, which
I had paved with some square tiles of my own baking and
burning also; but I should not call them square.

When the firewood was burned pretty much into embers or
live coals, I drew them forward upon this hearth, so as to cover
it all over, and there I let them lie till the hearth was very hot.
Then sweeping away all the embers, I set down my loaf or
loaves, and whelming down the earthen pot upon them, drew
the embers all round the outside of the pot, to keep in and add
to the heat; and thus as well as in the best oven in the world,
I baked my barley-loaves, and became in little time a good
pastrycook into the bargain; for I made myself several cakes
and puddings of the rice; but I made no pies, neither had I
anything to put into them supposing I had, except the flesh
either of fowls or goats.

It need not be wondered at if all these things took me up
most part of the third year of my abode here; for it is to be
observed that in the intervals of these things I had my new
harvest and husbandry to manage; for I reaped my corn in its
season, and carried it home as well as I could, and laid it up in
the ear, in my large baskets, till I had time to rub it out, for I
had no floor to thrash it on, or instrument to thrash it with.

And now,’indeed, my stock of corn increasing, I really wanted
to build my barns bigger; I wanted a place to lay it up in, for
the increase of the corn now yielded me so much, that I had of
the barley about twenty bushels, and of the rice as much or
more ; insomuch that now I resolved to begin to use it freely ;
100 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

for my bread had been quite gone a great while; also I resolved
to see what quantity would be sufficient for me a whole year,
and to sow but once a year.

Upon the whole, I found that the forty bushels of barley and
rice were much more than I could consume in a year; so I
resolved to sow just the same quantity every year that I sowed
the last, in hopes that such a quantity would fully provide me
with bread, &c.

All the while these things were doing, you may be sure my
thoughts ran many times upon the prospect of land which I had
seen from the other side of the island; and I was not without
secret wishes that I were on shore there, fancying that, seeing
the mainland, and an inhabited country, I might find some way
or other to convey myself further, and perhaps at last find some
means of escape.

But all this while I made no allowance for the dangers of
such an undertaking, and how I might fall into the hands of
savages, and perhaps such as I might have reason to think far
worse than the lions and tigers of Africa: that if I once came
in their power, I should run a hazard of more than a thousand
to one of being killed, and perhaps of being eaten; for I had
heard that the people of the Caribbean coast were cannibals or
man-eaters, and I knew by the latitude that I could not be far
from that shore. Then, supposing they were not cannibals,
yet they might kill me, as many Europeans who had fallen into
their hands had been served, even when they had been ten or
twenty together—much more I, that was but one, and could
make little or no defence; all these things, I say, which I ought
to have considered well, and did come into my thoughts after-
wards, yet gave me no apprehensions at first, and my head ran
mightily upon the thought of getting over to the shore.

Now I wished for my boy Xury, and the long-boat with
shoulder-of-mutton sail, with which I sailed above a thousand
miles on the coast of Africa ; but this was in vain: then I thought
I would go and look at our ship’s boat, which, as I have said, was
blown up upon the shore a great way, in the storm, when we were
first cast away. She lay almost where she did at first, but not
quite ; and was turned, by the force of the waves and the winds,
almost bottom upward, against a high ridge of beachy, rough
sand, but no water about her. If I had had hands to have re-
fitted her, and to have launched her into the water, the boat
would have done well enough, and I might have gone back into
the Brazils with her easily enough ; but I might have foreseen
that I could no more turn her and set her upright upon her
ROBINSON CRUSOE 101

bottom than I could remove the island ; however, I went to the
woods, and cut levers and rollers, and brought them to the boat,
resolving to try what I could do; suggesting to myself that if I
could but turn her down, I might repair the damage she had
received, and she would be a very good boat, and I might go to
sea in her very easily.

I spared no pains, indeed, in this piece of fruitless toil, and
spent, I think, three or four weeks about it; at last finding it
impossible to heave it up with my little strength, I fell to digging
away the sand, to undermine it, and so to make it fall down,
setting pieces of wood to thrust and guide it right in the fall.

But when I had done this, I was unable to stir it up again, or
to get under it, much less to move it forward towards the water ;
so I was forced to give it over; and yet, though I gave over
the hopes of the boat, my desire to venture over for the main
increased, rather then decreased, as the means for it seemed
impossible.

This at length put me upon thinking whether it was not
possible to make myself a canoe, or periagua, such as the natives
of those climates make, even without tools, or, as I might say,
without hands, of the trunk of a great tree. This I not only
thought possible, but easy, and pleased myself extremely with
the thoughts of making it, and with my having much more con-
venience for it than any of the negroes or Indians; but not at
all considering the particular inconveniences which I lay under
more than the Indians did—viz. want of hands to move it, when
it was made, into the water—a difficulty much harder for me to
surmount than all the consequences of want of tools could be to
them ; for what was it to me, if when I had chosen a vast tree in
the woods, and with much trouble cut it down, if I had been able
with my tools to hew and dub the outside into the proper shape
of a boat, and burn or cut out the inside to make it hollow, so as
to make a boat of it—if, after all this, I must leave it just there
where I found it, and not be able to launch it into the water?

One would have thought I could not have had the least reflec-
tion upon my mind of my circumstances while I was making this
boat, but I should have immediately thought how I should get
it into the sea; but my thoughts were so intent upon my voyage
over the sea in it, that I never once considered how I should get
it off the land: and it was really, in its own nature, more easy for
me to guide it over forty-five miles of sea than about forty-five
fathoms of land, where it lay, to set it afloat in the water.

I went to work upon this boat the most like a fool that ever
man did who had any of his senses awake. 1 pleased myself with
102 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

the design, without determining whether I was ever able to
undertake it; not but that the difficulty of launching my boat
came often into my head ; but I put a stop to my inquiries into
it by this foolish answer which I gave myself—*« Let me first
make it; I warrant I will find some way or other to get it along
when it is done.”

This was a most preposterous method; but the eagerness of
my fancy prevailed, and to work I went. I felled a cedar-tree,
and I question much whether Solomon ever had such a one for
the building of the Temple of Jerusalem; it was five feet ten
inches diameter at the lower part next the stump, and four feet
eleven inches diameter at the end of twenty-two feet; after
which it lessened for a while, and then parted into branches.
It was not without infinite labour that I felled this tree; I was
twenty days hacking and hewing at it at the bottom; I was
fourteen more getting the branches and limbs and the vast
spreading head cut off, which I hacked and hewed through with
axe and hatchet, and inexpressible labour: after this, it cost me
a month to shape it and dub it to a proportion, and to something
like the bottom of a boat, that it might swim upright as it ought
to do. It cost me near three months more to clear the inside,
and work it out so as to make an exact boat of it; this I did,
indeed, without fire, by mere mallet and chisel, and by the dint
of hard labour, till I had brought it to be a very handsome
periagua, and big enough to have carried six-and-twenty men, and
consequently big enough to have carried me and all my cargo.

When I had gone through this work I was extremely delighted
with it. The boat was really much bigger than ever I sawa
canoe or periagua, that was made of one tree, in 7 life. Many
a weary stroke it had cost, you may be sure; and had I gotten
it into the water, I make no question, but I should have begun
the maddest voyage, and the most unlikely to be performed,
that ever was undertaken.

But all my devices to get it into the water failed me; though
they cost me infinite labour too, It lay about one hundred
yards from the water, and not more; but the first inconvenience
was, it was up hill towards the creek. Well, to take away this
discouragement, I resolved to dig into the surface of the earth,
and so make a declivity: this I began, and it cost me a pro-
digious deal of pains (but who grudge pains who have their
deliverance in view ?); but when this was worked through, and
this difficulty managed, it was still much the same, for I could
no more stir the canoe than I could the other boat. Then I
measured the distance of ground, and resolved to cut a dock or


ROBINSON CRUSOE 108

canal, to bring the water up to the canoe, seeing I could not
bring the canoe down to the water. Well, I began this work ;
and when I began to enter upon it, and calculate how deep it
was to be dug, how broad, how the stuff was to be thrown out, I
found that, by the number of hands I had, being none but my
own, it must have been ten or twelve years before I could have
gone through with it; for the shore lay so high, that at the
upper end it must have been at least twenty feet deep; so at
length, though with great reluctancy, I gave this attempt over
also.

This grieved me heartily ; and now I saw, though too late, the
folly of beginning a work before we count the cost, and before
we judge rightly of our own strength to go through with it.

In the middle of this work I finished my fourth year in this
place, and kept my anniversary with the same devotion, and with
as much comfort as ever before; for, by a constant study and
serious application to the Word of God, and by the assistance of
His grace, I gained a different knowledge from what I had before.
I entertained different notions of things. I looked now upon the
world as a thing remote, which I had nothing to do with, no
expectations from, and, indeed, no desires about: in a word, I
had nothing indeed to do with it, nor was ever likely to have,
so I thought it looked, as we may perhaps look upon it hereafter
—viz. as a place I had lived in, but was come out of it; and well
might I say, as Father Abraham to Dives, “ Between me and thee
is a great gulf fixed.”

In the first place, I was removed from all the wickedness of
the world here; I had neither the lusts of the flesh, the lusts of
the eye, nor the pride of life, I had nothing to covet, for I had
all that I was now capable of enjoying; I was lord of the whole
manor; or, if I pleased, I might call myself king or emperor
over the whole country which I had possession of: there were
no rivals; I had no competitor, none to dispute sovereignty or
command with me: I might have raised ship-loadings of corn,
but I had no use for it; so I let as little grow as I thought
enough for my occasion. I had tortoise or turtle enough, but
now and then one was as much as I could put to any use: I had
timber enough to have built a fleet of ships; and I had grapes
enough to have made wine, or to have cured into raisins, to
have loaded that fleet when it had been built.

But all:I could make use of was all that was valuable: I had
enough to eat and supply my wants, and what was all the rest to
me? IfI killed more flesh than I could eat, the dog must eat
it, or vermin; if I sowed more corn than I could eat, it must be
104 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

spoiled; the trees that I cut down were lying to rot on the
ground; I could make no more use of them but for fuel, and
that I had no occasion for but to dress my food.

In a word, the nature and experience of things dictated to me,
upon just reflection, that all the good things of this world are no
farther good to us than they are for our use; and that, whatever
we may heap up to give others, we enjoy just as much as we can
use, and nomore. The most covetous, griping miser in the world
would have been cured of the vice of covetousness if he had been
in my case; for I possessed infinitely more than I knew what to
do with. I had no room for desire, except it was of things which
I had not, and they were but trifles, though, indeed, of great use
tome. I had, as I hinted before, a parcel of money, as well gold
as silver, about thirty-six pounds sterling. Alas! there the sorry,
useless stuff lay ; I had no more manner of business for it; and
often thought with myself that I would have given a handful of
it for a gross of tobacco-pipes; or for a hand-mill to grind my
corn; nay, I would have given it all for a sixpenny-worth of
turnip and carrot seed out of England, or for a handful of peas
and beans, and a bottle of ink. As it was, I had not the least
advantage by it or benefit from it; but there it lay in a drawer,
and grew mouldy with the damp of the cave in the wet seasons;
and if I had had the drawer full of diamonds, it had been the
same case—they had been of no manner of value to me, because
of no use.

I had now brought my state of life to be much easier in itself
than it was at first, and much easier to my mind, as well as to my
body. I frequently sat down to meat with thankfulness, and
admired the hand of God’s providence, which had thus spread
my table in the wilderness. I learned to look more upon the
bright side of my condition, and less upon the dark side, and to
consider what I enjoyed rather than what I wanted; and this
gave me sometimes such secret comforts, that I cannot express
them ; and which I take notice of here, to put those discontented
people in mind of it, who cannot enjoy comfortably what God
has given them, because they see and covet something that He
has not given them. All our discontents about what we want
appeared to me to spring from the want of thankfulness for what
we have.

Another reflection was of great use to me, and doubtless would
be so to any one that should fall into such distress as mine was ;
and this was, to compare my present condition with what I at
first expected it would be; nay, with what it would certainly
have been, if the good providence of God had not wonderfully


ROBINSON CRUSOE 105

ordered the ship to be cast up nearer to the shore, where I not
only could come at her, but could bring what I got out of her
to the shore, for my relief and comfort; without which, I had
wanted for tools to work, weapons for defence, and gunpowder
and shot for getting my food.

I spent whole hours, I may say whole days, in representing to
myself, in the most lively colours, how I must have acted if I
had got nothing out of the ship. How I could not have so much
as got any food, except fish and turtles; and that, as it was long
before I found any of them, I must have perished first; that I
should have lived, if I had not perished, like a mere savage ;
that if I had killed a goat or a fowl, by any contrivance, I had
no way to flay or open it, or part the flesh from the skin and the
bowels, or to cut it up; but must gnaw it with my teeth, and
pull it with my claws, like a beast.

These reflections made me very sensible of the goodness of
Providence to me, and very thankful for my present condition,
with all its hardships and misfortunes ; and this part also I cannot
but recommend to the reflection of those who are apt, in their
misery, to say, “ Is any affliction like mine?’’ Let them consider
how much worse the cases of some people are, and their case
might have been, if Providence had thought fit.

I had another reflection, which assisted me also to comfort my
mind with hopes; and this was comparing my present situation
with what I had deserved, and had therefore reason to expect
from the hand of Providence. I had lived a dreadful life, per-
fectly destitute of the knowledge and fear of God. I had been
well instructed by father and mother; neither had they been
wanting to me in their early endeavours to infuse a religious awe
of God into my mind, a sense of my duty, and what the nature
and end of my being required of me. But, alas! falling early
into the seafaring life, which of all lives is the most destitute of
the fear of God, though His terrors are always before them; I
say, falling early into the seafaring life, and into seafaring
company, all that little sense of religion which I had entertained
was laughed out of me by my messmates; by a hardened de-
spising of dangers, and the views of death, which grew habitual
to me by my long absence from all manner of opportunities
to converse with anything but what was like myself, or to hear
anything that was good or tended towards it.

So void was I of everything that was good, or the least sense
of what I was, or was to be, that, in the greatest deliverances I
enjoyed—such as my escape from Sallee; my being taken up by
the Portuguese master of the ship; my being planted so well in
106 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

the Brazils; my receiving the cargo from England, and the like
—I never had once the words “Thank God!” so much as on my
mind, or in my mouth; nor in the greatest distress had I so much
as a thought to pray to Him, or so much as to say, “ Lord, have
mercy upon me!” no, nor to mention the name of God, unless
it was to swear by, and blaspheme it.

I had terrible reflections upon my mind for many months, as I
have already observed, on account of my wicked and hardened
life past; and when I looked about me, and considered what
particular providences had attended me since my coming into this
place, and how God had dealt bountifully with me—had not only
punished me less than my iniquity had deserved, but had so
plentifully provided for me—this gave me great hopes that my
repentance was accepted, and that God had yet mercy in store
for me.

With these reflections I worked my mind up, not only to a
resignation to the will of God in the present disposition of my
circumstances, but even to a sincere thankfulness for my con-
dition ; and that I, who was yet a living man, ought not to com-
plain, seeing I had not the due punishment of my sins; that I
enjoyed so many mercies which I had no reason to have expected
in that place; that I ought never more to repine at my condition,
but to rejoice, and to give daily thanks for that daily bread, which
nothing but a crowd of wonders could have brought ; that I ought
to consider I had been fed even by a miracle, even as great as that
of feeding Elijah by ravens, nay, by a long series of miracles ; and
that I could hardly have named a place in the uninhabitable part
of the world where I could have been cast more to my advan-
tage ; a place where, as I had no society, which was my affliction
on one hand, so I found no ravenous beasts, no furious wolves
or tigers, to threaten my life ; no venomous creatures, or poisons,
which I might feed on to my hurt; no savages to murder and
devour me. In a word, as my life was a life of sorrow one way,
so it was a life of mercy another ; and I wanted nothing to make
it a life of comfort but to be able to make my sense of God’s
goodness to me, and care over me in this condition, be my daily
consolation ; and after I did make a just improvement on these
things, I went away, and was no more sad._I had now been here
so long that many things which I had brought on shore for my
help were either quite gone, or very much wasted and near
spent.

My ink, as I observed, had been gone some time, all but a very
little, which I eked out with water, a little and a little, till it was
so pale, it scarce left any appearance of black upon the paper. As
ROBINSON CRUSOE 107

long as it lasted I made use of it to minute down the days of the
month on which any remarkable thing happened to me; and first,
by casting up times past, I remembered that there was a strange
concurrence of days in the various providences which befell me,
and which, if I had been superstitiously inclined to observe days
as fatal or fortunate, I might have had reason to have looked
upon with a great deal of curiosity.

First, 1 had observed that the same day that I broke away
from my father and friends and ran away to Hull, in order to
go to sea, the same day afterwards I was taken by the Sallee
man-of-war, and made a slave; the same day of the year that I
escaped out of the wreck of that ship in Yarmouth Roads, that
same day-year afterwards I made my escape from Sallee in a
boat ; the same day of the year I was born on—viz. the 30th of
September, that same day I had my life so miraculously saved
twenty-six years after, when I was cast on shore in this island ;
so that my wicked life and my solitary life began both on a day.

The next thing to my ink being wasted was that of my bread
—I mean the biscuit which I brought out of the ship; this I
had husbanded to the last degree, allowing myself but one cake
of bread a-day for above a year; and yet I was quite without
bread for near a year before I got any corn of my own, and great
reason I had to be thankful that I had any at all, the getting it
being, as has been already observed, next to miraculous.

My clothes, too, began to decay ; as to linen, I had had none
a good while, except some chequered shirts which I found in the
chests of the other seamen, and which I carefully preserved ;
because many times I could bear no other clothes on but a shirt;
and it was a very great help to me that I had, among all the
men’s clothes of the ship, almost three dozen of shirts. There
were also, indeed, several thick watch-coats of the seamen’s which
were left, but they were too hot to wear; and though it is true
that the weather was so violently hot that there was no need of
clothes, yet I could not go quite naked—no, though I had been
inclined to it, which I was not—nor could I abide the thought
of it, though I was alone. The reason why I could not go naked
was, I could not bear the heat of the sun so well when quite
naked as with some clothes on; nay, the very heat frequently
blistered my skin: whereas, with a shirt on, the air itself made
some motion, and whistling under the shirt, was twofold cooler
than without it. No more could I ever bring myself to go out
in the heat of the sun without a cap or a hat; the heat of the
sun, beating with such violence as it does in that place, would
give me the headache presently, by darting so directly on my
‘108 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

head, without a cap or hat on, so that I could not bear it;
whereas, if I put on my hat it would presently go away.

Upon these views I began to consider about putting the few
rags I had, which I called clothes, into some order; I had worn
out all the waistcoats I had, and my business was now to try if
I could not make jackets out of the great watch-coats which I
had by me, and with such other materials as I had; so I set to
work, tailoring, or rather, indeed, botching, for I made most
piteous work of it. However, I made shift to make two or three
new waistcoats, which I hoped would serve me a great while:
as for breeches or drawers, I made but a very sorry shift indeed
till afterwards.

I have mentioned that I saved the skins of all the creatures
that I killed, I mean four-footed ones, and I had them hung up,
stretched out with sticks in the sun, by which means some of
them were so dry and hard that they were fit for little, but
others were very useful. The first thing I made of these was a
great cap for my head, with the hair on the outside, to shoot off
the rain; and this I performed so well, that after I made me a
suit of clothes wholly of these skins—that is to say, a waistcoat,
and breeches open at the knees, and both loose, for they were
rather wanting to keep me cool than to keep me warm. I must
not omit to acknowledge that they were wretchedly made; for
if I was a bad carpenter, I was a worse tailor. However, they
were such as I made very good shift with, and when I was out,
if it happened to rain, the hair of my waistcoat and cap being
outermost, I was kept very dry.

After this, I spent a great deal of time and pains to make an
umbrella; I was, indeed, in great want of one, and had a great
mind to make one: I had seen them made in the Brazils, where
they are very useful in the great heats there, and I felt the
heats every jot as great here, and greater too, being nearer the
equinox ; besides, as I was obliged to be much abroad, it was a
most useful thing to me, as well for the rains as the heats. I
took a world of pains with it, and was a great while before I
could make anything likely to hold: nay, after I had thought
I had hit the way, I spoiled two or three before I made one to
my mind: but at last I made one that answered indifferently
well: the main difficulty I found was to make it let down. I
could make it spread, but if it did not let down too, and draw
in, it was not portable for me any way but just over my head,
which would not do. However, at last, as I said, I made one to
answer, and covered it with skins, the hair upwards, so that it
cast off the rain like a pent-house, and kept off the sun so
ROBINSON CRUSOE 109

effectually, that I could walk out in the hottest of the weather
with greater advantage than I could before in the coolest, and
when I had no need of it could close it, and carry it under
my arm.

Thus I lived mighty comfortably, my mind being entirely
composed by resigning myself to the will of God, and throwing
myself wholly upon the disposal of His providence. This made
my life better than sociable, for when I began to regret the
want of conversation, I would ask myself, whether thus convers-
ing mutually with my own thoughts, and (as I hope I may say)
with even God Himself, by ejaculations, was not better than the
utmost enjoyment of human society in the world?

CHAPTER X
TAMES GOATS

CANNOT say that after this, for five years, any extraordinary

thing happened to me, but I lived on in the same course, in
the same posture and place, as before; the chief things I was
employed in, besides my yearly labour of planting my barley and
rice, and curing my raisins, of both which I always kept up just
enough to have sufficient stock of one year’s provisions before-
hand ; I say, besides this yearly labour, and my daily pursuit of
going out with my gun, I had one labour, to make a canoe, which
at last I finished : so that, by digging a canal to it of six feet wide
and four feet deep, I brought it into the creek, almost half a
mile. As for the first, which was so vastly big, for I made it
without considering beforehand, as I ought to have done, how I
should be able to launch it, so, never being able to bring it into
the water, or bring the water to it, I was obliged to let it lie
where it was as a memorandum to teach me to be wiser the next
time: indeed, the next time, though I could not get a tree
proper for it, and was in a place where I could not get the water
to it at any less distance than, as I have said, near half a mile,
yet, as I saw it was practicable at last, I never gave it over; and
though I was near two years about it, yet I never grudged my
labour, in hopes of having a boat to go off to sea at last.

However, though my little periagua was finished, yet the size
of it was not at all answerable to the design which I had in view
when I made the first; I mean of venturing over to the terra
Jirma, where it was above forty miles broad ; accordingly, the
110 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

smallness of my boat assisted to put an end to that design, and
now I thought no more of it. As I had a boat, my next design
was to make a cruise round the island; for as I had been on the
other side in one place, crossing, as I have already described it,
over the land, so the discoveries I made in that little journey
made me very eager to see other parts of the coast; and now I
had a boat, I thought of nothing but sailing round the island.

For this purpose, that I might do everything with discretion
and consideration, I fitted up a little mast in my boat, and made
a sail too out of some of the pieces of the ship’s sails which lay
in store, and of which I had a great stock by me. Having fitted
my mast and sail, and tried the boat, I found she would sail very
well; then I made little lockers or boxes at each end of my boat,
to put provisions, necessaries, ammunition, &c. , into, to be kept
dry, either from rain or the spray of the sea; and a little, long,
hollow place I cut in the inside of the boat, where I could lay
my gun, making a flap to hang down over it to keep it dry.

I fixed my umbrella also in the step at the stern, like a mast,
to stand over my head, and keep the heat of the sun off me, like
an awning ; and thus I every now and then took a little voyage
upon the sea, but never went far out, nor far from the little
creek. At last, being eager to view the circumference of my little
kingdom, I resolved upon my cruise; and accordingly I victualled
my ship for the voyage, putting in two dozen of loaves (cakes
I should call them) of barley-bread, an earthen pot full of parched
rice (a food I ate a good deal of), a little bottle of rum, half a
goat, and powder and shot for killing more, and two large watch-
coats, of those which, as I mentioned before, I had saved out of
the seamen’s chests; these I took, one to lie upon, and the other
to cover me in the night.

It was the 6th of November, in the sixth year of my reign—
or my captivity, which you please—that I set out on this voyage,
and I found it much longer than I expected; for though the
island itself was not very large, yet when I came to the east side
of it, I found a great ledge of rocks lie out about two leagues
into the sea, some above water, some under it; and beyond that
a shoal of sand, lying dry half a league more, so that I was obliged
to go a great way out to sea to double the point.

When I first discovered them, I was going to give over my
enterprise, and come back again, not knowing how far it might
oblige me to go out to sea; and above all, doubting how I should
get back again : so I came to an anchor; for I had made a kind
of an anchor with a piece of a broken grappling which I got out
of the ship.
‘ROBINSON CRUSOE 111

Having secured my boat, I took my gun and went on shore,
climbing up a hill, which seemed to overlook that point where I
saw the full extent of it, and resolved to venture.

In my viewing the sea from that hill where I stood, I perceived
a strong, and indeed a most furious current, which ran to the
east, and even came close to the point; and I took the more
notice of it because I saw there might be some danger that when
I came into it I might be carried out to sea by the strength of
it, and not be able to make the island again ; and indeed, had I
not got first upon this hill, I believe it would have been so; for
there was the same current on the other side the island, only that
it set off at a further distance, and I saw there was a strong eddy
under the shore; so I had nothing to do but to get out of the
first current, and I should presently be in an eddy.

I lay here, however, two days, because the wind blowing pretty
fresh at E.S.E., and that being just contrary to the current, made
a great breach of the sea upon the point: so that it was not safe
for me to keep too close to the shore for the breach, nor to go
too far off, because of the stream.

The third day, in the morning, the wind having abated over-
night, the sea was calm, and I ventured : but Tama warning to
all rash and ignorant pilots; for no sooner was I come to the
point, when I was not even my boat’s length from the shore,
but I found myself in a great depth of water, and a current like
the sluice of a mill; it carried my boat along with it with such
violence that all I could do could not keep her so much as on
the edge of it; but I found it hurried me farther and farther
out from the eddy, which was on my left hand. There was no
wind stirring to help me, and all I’ could do with my paddles
signified nothing: and now I began to give myself over for lost;
for as the current was on both sides of the island, I knew in a
few leagues distance they must join again, and then I was irre-
coverably gone; nor did I see any possibility of avoiding it; so
that I had no prospect before me but of perishing, not by
the sea, for that was calm enough, but of starving from hunger.
I had, indeed, found a tortoise on the shore, as big almost as I
could lift, and had tossed it into the boat; and I had a great
jar of fresh water, that is to say, one of my earthen pots; but
what was all this to being driven into the vast ocean, where, to
be sure, there was no shore, no mainland or island, for a thousand
leagues at least ?

And now I saw how easy it was for the providence of God to
make even the most miserable condition of mankind worse.
Now 1 looked back upon my desolate, solitary island as the

H
112 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

most pleasant place in the world, and all the happiness my heart
could wish for was to be but there again. I stretched out my
hands to it, with eager wishes—“O happy desert!” said I, “I
shall never see thee more. O miserable creature! whither am
I going?” Then I reproached myself with my unthankful
temper, and that I had repined at my solitary condition ; and
now what would I give to be on shore there again! Thus, we
never see the true state of our condition till it is illustrated to
us by its contraries, nor know how to value what we enjoy, but
by the want of it. It is scarcely possible to imagine the con-
sternation I was now in, being driven from my beloved island
(for so it appeared to me now to be) into the wide ocean, almost
two leagues, and in the utmost despair of ever recovering it
again. However, I worked hard till, indeed, my strength was
almost exhausted, and kept my boat as much to the northward,
that is, towards the side of the current which the eddy lay on,
as possibly I could; when about noon, as the sun passed the
meridian, I thought I felt a little breeze of wind in my face,
springing up from S.S.E. This cheered my heart a little, and
especially when, in about half-an-hour more, it blew a pretty
gentle gale. By this time I had got at a frightful distance from
the island, and had the least cloudy or hazy weather intervened,
I had been undone another way, too; for I had no compass on
board, and should never have known how to have steered towards
the island, if I had but once lost sight of it; but the weather
continuing clear, I applied myself to get up my mast again, and
spread my sail, standing away to the north as much as possible,
to get out of the current.

Just as I had set my mast and sail, and the boat began to
stretch away, I saw even by the clearness of the water some
alteration of the current was near; for where the current was
so strong the water was foul; but perceiving the water clear,
I found the current abate ; and presently I found to the east,
at about half a mile, a breach of the sea upon some rocks : these
rocks I found caused the current to part again, and as the main
stress of it ran away more southerly, leaving the rocks to the
north-east, so the other returned by the repulse of the rocks,
and made a strong eddy, which ran back again to the north-
west, with a very sharp stream.

They who know what it is to have a reprieve brought to them
upon the ladder, or to be rescued from thieves just going to
murder them, or who have been in such extremities, may guess
what my present surprise of joy was, and how gladly I put my
boat into the stream of this eddy ; and the wind also freshening,
ROBINSON CRUSOE 113

how gladly I spread my sail to it, running cheerfully before the
wind, and with a strong tide or eddy underfoot.

This eddy carried me about a league in my way back again,
directly towards the island, but about two leagues more to the
northward than the current which carried me away at first; so
that when I came near the island, I found myself open to the
northern shore of it, that is to say, the other end of the island,
opposite to that which I went out from.

When I had made something more than a league of way by
the help of this current or eddy, I found it was spent, and
served me no further. However, I found that being between
two great currents—viz. that on the south side, which had
hurried me away, and that on the north, which lay about a
league on the other side; I say, between these two, in the wake
of the island, I found the water at least still, and running no
way; and having still a breeze of wind fair for me, I kept on
steering directly for the island, though not making such fresh
way as I did before.

About four o’clock in the evening, being then within a league
of the island, I found the point of the rocks which occasioned
this disaster stretching out, as is described before, to the south-
ward, and casting off the current more southerly, had, of course,
made another eddy to the north; and this I found very strong,
but not directly setting the way my course lay, which was due
west, but almost full north. However, having a fresh gale, I
stretched across this eddy, slanting north-west; and in about
an hour came within about a mile of the shore, where, it being
smooth water, I soon got to land.

When I was on shore, I fell on my knees and gave God
thanks for my deliverance, resolving to lay aside all thoughts
of my deliverance by my boat; and refreshing myself with
such things as I had, I brought my boat close to the shore,
in a little cove that I had spied under some trees, and laid me
down to sleep, being quite spent with the labour and fatigue
of the voyage.

I was now at a great loss which way to get home with my boat !
I had run so much hazard, and knew too much of the case, to
think of attempting it by the way I went out; and what might
be at the other side (I mean the west side) I knew not, nor had
I any mind to run any more ventures: so I resolved on the next
morning to make my way westward along the shore, and to see
if there was no creek where I might lay up my frigate in safety,
So as to have her again if I wanted her. In about three miles or
thereabouts, coasting the shore, I came to a very good inlet or
114 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

bay, about a mile over, which narrowed till it came to a very little
rivulet or brook, where I found a very convenient harbour for
my boat, and where she lay as if she had been in a little dock
made on purpose for her. Here I put in, and having stowed
my boat very safe, I went on shore to look about me, and see
where I was.

I soon found I had but a little passed by the place where I had
been before, when I travelled on foot to that shore; so taking
nothing out of my boat but my gun and umbrella, for it was
exceedingly hot, I began my march. The way was comfortable
enough after such a voyage as I had been upon, and I reached
my old bower in the evening, where I found everything standing
as I left it; for I always kept it in good order, being, as I said
before, my country house.

I got over the fence, and laid me down in the shade to rest my
limbs, for I was very weary, and fell asleep; but judge you, if
you can, that read my story, what a surprise I must be in when
I was awaked out of my sleep by a voice calling me by my name
several times, “ Robin, Robin, Robin Crusoe: poor Robin Crusoe !
Where are you, Robin Crusoe? Where are you?) Where have
you been?”

I was so dead asleep at first, being fatigued with rowing, or
paddling, as it is called, the first part of the day, and with walk-
ing the latter part, that I did not wake thoroughly ; but dozing
between sleeping and waking, thought I dreamed that somebody
spoke to me; but as the voice continued to repeat, “ Robin
Crusoe, Robin Crusoe,” at last I began to wake more perfectly,
and was at first dreadfully frightened, and started up in the
utmost consternation ; but no sooner were my eyes open, but I
saw my Poll sitting on the top of the hedge; and immediately
knew that it was he that spoke to me ; for just in such bemoan-
ing language I had used to talk to him and teach him; and he
had learned it so perfectly that he would sit upon my finger,
and lay his bill close to my face and cry, “ Poor Robin Crusoe !
Where are you? Where have you been? How came you
here ?” and such things as I had taught him.

However, even though I knew it was the parrot, and that
indeed it could be nobody else, it was a good while before I could
compose myself. First, I was amazed how the creature got
thither; and then, how he should just keep about the place, and
nowhere else; but as I was well satisfied it could be nobody but
honest Poll, I got over it ; and holding out my hand, and calling
him by his name, “ Poll,” the sociable creature came to me, and
sat upon my thumb, as he used to do, and continued talking to
ROBINSON CRUSOE 115

me, “ Poor Robin Crusoe ! and how did I come here? and where
had I been ?” just as if he had been overjoyed to see me again ;
and so I carried him home along with me.

I had now had enough of rambling to sea for some time, and
had enough t6 do for many days to sit still and reflect upon the
danger I had been in. I would have been very glad to have had
my boat again on my side of the island; but I knew not how it
was practicable to get it about. As to the east side of the island,
which I had gone round, I knew well enough there was no
venturing that way; my very heart would shrink, and my very
blood run chill, but to think of it ; and as to the other side of
the island, I did not know how it might be there; but supposing
the current ran with the same force against the shore at the east
as it passed by it on the other, I might run the same risk of being
driven down the stream, and carried by the island, as I had been
before of being carried away from it: so with these thoughts, I
contented myself to be without any boat, though it had been
the product of so many months’ labour to make it, and of so
many more to get it into the sea.

In this government of my temper I remained near a year; and
lived a very sedate, retired life, as you may well suppose; and
my thoughts being very much composed as to my condition, and
fully comforted in resigning myself to the dispositions of Provi-
dence, I thought I lived really very happily in all things except
that of society.

L improved myself in this time in all the mechanic exercises
which my necessities put me upon applying myself to; and I
believe I should, upon occasion, have made a very good carpenter,
especially considering how few tools I had.

Besides this, I arrived at an unexpected perfection in my
earthenware, and contrived well enough to make them with a
wheel, which I found infinitely easier and better ; because I made
things round and shaped, which before were filthy things indeed
to look on. But I think I was never more vain of my own per-
formance, or more joyful for anything I found out, than for my
being able to make a tobacco-pipe ; and though it was a very
ugly, clumsy thing when it was done, and only burned red, like
other earthenware, yet as it was hard and firm, and would draw
the smoke, I was exceedingly comforted with it, for I had been
always used to smoke; and there were pipes in the ship, but I
forgot them at first, not thinking there was tobacco in the island ‘
and afterwards, when I searched the ship again, I could not
come at any pipes. .

In my wicker-ware also I improved much, and made abund-
116 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

ance of necessary baskets, as well as my invention showed me;
though not very handsome, yet they were such as were very
handy and convenient for laying things up in, or fetching things
home. For example, if I killed a goat abroad, I could hang it
up in a tree, flay it, dress it, and cut it in pieces, and bring it -
home in a basket; and the like by a turtle; I could cut it up,
take out the eggs and a piece or two of the flesh, which was
enough for me, and bring them home in a basket, and leave
the rest behind me. Also, large deep baskets were the receivers
of my corn, which I always rubbed out as soon as it was dry
and cured, and kept it in great baskets.

I began now to perceive my powder abated considerably ; this
was a want which it was impossible for me to supply, and I
began seriously to consider what I must do when I should have
no more powder; that is to say, how I should kill any goats.
I had, as is observed in the third year of my being here, kept a
young kid, and bred her up tame, and I was in hopes of getting
a he-goat; but I could not by any means bring it to pass, till
my kid grew an old goat; and as I could never find in my heart
to kill her, she died at last of mere age.

But being now in the eleventh year of my residence, and, as
I have said, my ammunition growing low, I set myself to study
some art to trap and snare the goats, to see whether I could not
catch some of them alive; and particularly I wanted a she-goat
great with young. For this purpose 1 made snares to hamper
them; and I do believe they were more than once taken in
them ; but my tackle was not good, for I had no wire, and I
always found them broken and my bait devoured. At length I
resolved to try a pitfall; so I dug several large pits in the earth,
in places where I had observed the goats used to feed, and over
those pits I placed hurdles of my own making too, with a great
weight upon them; and several times I put ears of barley and
dry rice without setting the trap; and I could easily perceive
that the goats had gone in and eaten up the corn, for I could
see the marks of their feet. At length I set three traps in one
night, and going the next morning I found them all standing,
and yet the bait eaten and gone; this was very discouraging.
However, I altered my traps; and not to trouble you with
particulars, going one morning to see my traps, I found in one
of them a large old he-goat; and in one of the others three
kids, a male and two females.

As to the old one, I knew not what to do with him; he was
s0 fierce I durst not go into the pit to him; that is to say, to
bring him away alive, which was what I wanted. I could have
ROBINSON CRUSOE 117

killed him, but that was not my business, nor would it answer
my end; so I even let him out, and he ran away as if he had
been frightened out of his wits. But I did not then know what
I afterwards learned, that hunger will tame a lion. If I had let
him stay three or four days without food, and then have carried
him some water to drink and then a little corn, he would have
been as tame as one of the kids; for they are mighty sagacious,
tractable creatures, where they are well used.

However, for the present I let him go, knowing no better at
that time: then I went to the three kids, and taking them one
by one, I tied them with strings together, and with some diffi-
culty brought them all home.

It was a good while before they would feed; but throwing
them some sweet corn, it tempted them, and they began to be
tame. And now I found that if I expected to supply myself
with goats’ flesh, when I had no powder or shot left, breed-
ing some up tame was my only way, when, perhaps, I might
have them about my house like a flock of sheep. But then it
occurred to me that I must keep the tame from the wild, or
else they would always run wild when they grew up; and the
only way for this was to have some enclosed piece of ground,
well fenced either with hedge or pale, to keep them in so
effectually, that those within might not break out, or those
without break in.

This was a great undertaking for one pair of hands; yet, as I
saw there was an absolute necessity for doing it, my first work
was to find out a proper piece of ground, where there was likely
to be herbage for them to eat, water for them to drink, and cover
to keep them from the sun.

Those who understand such enclosures will think I had very
little contrivance when I pitched upon a place very proper for
all these (being a plain, open piece of meadow land, or savannah,
as our people call it in the western colonies), which had two or
three little drills of fresh water in it, and at one end was very
woody—I say, they will smile at my forecast, when I shall tell
them I began by enclosing this piece of ground in such a manner
that my hedge or pale must have been at least two miles about.
Nor was the madness of it so great as to the compass, for if
it was ten miles about, I was like to have time enough to do
itin; but I did not consider that my goats would be as wild
in so much compass as if they had had the whole island, and I
should have so much room to chase them in that I should never
catch them.

My hedge was begun and carried on, I believe, about fifty
118 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

yards when this thought occurred to me; so I presently stopped
short, and, for the beginning, I resolved to enclose a piece of
about one hundred and fifty yards in length, and one hundred
yards in breadth, which, as it would maintain as many as I should
have in any reasonable time, so, as my stock increased, I could
add more ground to my enclosure.

This was acting with some prudence, and I went to work with
courage. I was about three months hedging in the first piece ;
and, till I had done it, I tethered the three kids in the best part
of it, and used them to feed as near me as possible, to make them
familiar ; and very often I would go and carry them some ears of
barley, or a handful of rice, and feed them out of my hand; so
that after my enclosure was finished and I let them loose, they
would follow me up and down, bleating after me for a handful
of corn.

This answered my end, and in about a year and a half I had
a flock of about twelve goats, kids and all; and in two years
more I had three-and-forty, besides several that I took and
killed for my food. After that, I enclosed five several pieces
of ground to feed them in, with little pens to drive them into,
to take them as I wanted, and gates out of one piece of ground
into another.

But this was not all; for now I not only had goat’s flesh to
feed on when I pleased, but milk too—a thing which, indeed, in
the beginning, I did not so much as think of, and which, when it
came into my thoughts, was really an agreeable surprise, for now
I set up my dairy, and had sometimes a gallon or two of milk
in aday. And as Nature, who gives supplies of food to every
creature, dictates even naturally how to make use of it, so I, that
had never milked a cow, much less a goat, or seen butter or cheese
made only when I was a boy, after a great many essays and mis-
carriages, made both butter and cheese at last, also salt (though
I found it partly made to my hand by the heat of the sun upon
some of the rocks of the sea), and never wanted it afterwards.
How mercifully can our Creator treat His creatures, even in those
conditions in which they seemed to be overwhelmed in destruc-
tion! How can He sweeten the bitterest providences, and give
us cause to praise Him for dungeons and prisons! What a table
was here spread for me in the wilderness, where I saw nothing
at first but to perish for hunger !


ROBINSON CRUSOE 119

CHAPTER XI
FINDS PRINT OF MAN'S FOOT ON THE SAND

Ec would have made a Stoic smile to have seen me and my little

family sit down to dinner. There was my majesty, the prince
and lord of the whole island ; I had the lives of all my subjects at
my absolute command ; I could hang, draw, give liberty, and take
it away, and no rebels among all my subjects. Then, to see how
like a king I dined, too, all alone, attended by my servants !
Poll, as if he had been my favourite, was the only person per-
mitted to talk to me. My dog, who was now grown old and
crazy, and had found no species to multiply his kind upon, sat
always at my right hand; and two cats, one on one side of the
table and one on the other, expecting now and then a bit from
my hand, as a mark of especial favour.

But these were not the two cats which I brought on shore at
first, for they were both of them dead, and had been interred
near my habitation by my own hand; but one of them having
multiplied by I know not what kind of creature, these were two
which I had preserved tame; whereas the rest ran wild in the
woods, and became indeed troublesome to me at last, for they
would often come into my house, and plunder me too, till at last
I was obliged to shoot them, and did kill a great many ; at length
they left me. With this attendance and in this plentiful manner
I lived ; neither could I be said to want anything but society ;
and of that, some time after this, I was likely to have too much.

I was something impatient, as I have observed, to have the use
of my boat, though very loath to run any more hazards; and
therefore sometimes I sat contriving ways to get her about the
island, and at other times I sat myself down contented enough
without her. But I had a strange uneasiness in my mind to go
down to the point of the island where, as I have said in my last
ramble, I went up the hill to see how the shore lay, and how the
current set, that I might see what I had to do: this inclination
increased upon me every day, and at length I resolved to travel
thither by land, following the edge of the shore. I did so; but
had any one in England met such a man as I was, it must either
have frightened him, or raised a great deal of laughter ; and as I
frequently stood still to look at myself, I could not but smile at
the notion of my travelling through Yorkshire with such an
€quipage, and in such a dress. Be pleased to take a sketch of
my figure, as follows.
120 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

I had a great high shapeless cap, made of a goat’s skin, with a
flap hanging down behind, as well to keep the sun from me as to
shoot the rain off from running into my neck, nothing being so
hurtful in these climates as the rain upon the flesh under the
clothes.

I had a short jacket of goat’s skin, the skirts coming down to
about the middle of the thighs, and a pair of open-kneed breeches
of the same ; the breeches were made of the skin of an old he-
goat, whose hair hung down such a length on either side that,
like pantaloons, it reached to the middle of my legs; stockings
and shoes I had none, but had made me a pair of somethings, I
scarce knew what to call them, like buskins, to flap over my
legs, and lace on either side like spatterdashes, but of a most
barbarous shape, as indeed were all the rest of my clothes.

I had on a broad belt of goat’s skin dried, which I drew to-
gether with two thongs of the same instead of buckles, and in a
kind of a frog on either side of this, instead of a sword and dagger,
hung a little saw and a hatchet, one on one side and one on the
other. I had another belt not so broad, and fastened in the same
manner, which hung over my shoulder, and at the end of it, under
my left arm, hung two pouches, both made of goat’s skin too, in
one of which hung my powder, in the other my shot. At my back
I carried my basket, and on my shoulder my gun, and over my
head a great clumsy, ugly, goat’s-skin umbrella, but which, after
all, was the most necessary thing I had about me next to my gun.
As for my face, the colour of it was really not so mulatto-like as
one might expect from a man not at all careful of it, and living
within nine or ten degrees of the equinox. My beard I had once
suffered to grow till it was about a quarter of a yard long; but
as I had both scissors and razors sufficient, I had cut it pretty
short, except what grew on my upper lip, which I had trimmed
into a large pair of Mahometan whiskers, such as I had seen worn
by some Turks at Sallee, for the Moors did not wear such, though
the Turks did; of these moustachios, or whiskers, I will not say
they were long enough to hang my hat upon them, but they
were of a length and shape monstrous enough, and such as in
England would have passed for frightful.

But all this is by-the-bye ; for as to my figure, I had so few to
observe me that it was of no manner of consequence, so I say no
more of that. In this kind of dress I went my new journey, and
was out five or six days. I travelled first along the sea-shore,
directly to the place where I first brought my boat to an anchor
to get upon the rocks; and having no boat now to take care of,
I went over the land a nearer way to the same height that I was
ROBINSON CRUSOE 121

upon before, when, looking forward to the points of the rocks
which lay out, and which I was obliged to double with my boat,
as is said above, I was surprised to see the sea all smooth and
quiet—no rippling, no motion, no current, any more there than
in other places. I was at a strange loss to understand this, and
resolved to spend some time in the observing it, to see if nothing
from the sets of the tide had occasioned it; but I was presently
convinced how it was—viz. that the tide of ebb setting from the
west, and joining with the current of waters from some great
river on the shore, must be the occasion of this current, and that,
according as the wind blew more forcibly from the west or from
the north, this current came nearer or went farther from the
shore; for, waiting thereabouts till evening, I went up to the
rock again, and then the tide of ebb being made, I plainly saw
the current again as before, only that it ran farther off, being
near half a league from the shore, whereas in my case it set close
upon the shore, and hurried me and my canoe along with it,
which at another time it would not have done.

This observation convinced me that I had nothing to do but
to observe the ebbing and the flowing of the tide, and I might
very easily bring my boat about the island again ; but when I
began to think of putting it in practice, I had such terror upon
my spirits at the remembrance of the danger I had been in, that
I could not think of it again with any patience, but, on the con-
trary, I took up another resolution, which was more safe, though
more laborious—and this was, that I would build, or rather make,
me another periagua or canoe, and so have one for one side of
the island, and one for the other.

You are to understand that now I had, as I may call it, two
plantations in the island—one my little fortification or tent, with
the wall about it, under the rock, with the cave behind me, which
by this time I had enlarged into several apartments or caves, one
within another. One of these, which was the driest and largest,
and had a door out beyond my wall or fortification—that is to
say, beyond where my wall joined to the rock—was all filled up
with the large earthen pots of which I have given an account,
and with fourteen or fifteen great baskets, which would hold five
or six bushels each, where I laid up my stores of provisions,
especially my corn, some in the ear, cut off short from the straw,
and the other rubbed out with my hand.

As for my wall, made, as before, with long stakes or piles,
those piles grew all like trees, and were by this time grown so
big, and spread so very much, that there was not the least appear-
ance, to any one’s view, of any habitation behind them.
122 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

Near this dwelling of mine, but a little farther within the
Jand, and upon lower ground, lay my two pieces of corn land,
which I kept duly cultivated and sowed, and which duly yielded
me their harvest in its season; and whenever I had occasion
for more corn, I had more land adjoining as fit as that.

Besides this, I had my country seat, and I had now a tolerable
plantation there also; for, first, I had my little bower, as I called
it, which I kept in repair—that is to say, I kept the hedge which
encircled it in constantly fitted up to its usual height, the ladder
standing always in the inside. I kept the trees, which at first
were no more than stakes, but were now grown very firm and
tall, always cut, so that they might spread and grow thick and
wild, and make the more agreeable shade, which they did effectu-
ally to my mind. In the middle of this I had my tent always
standing, being a piece of a sail spread over poles, set up for
that purpose, and which never wanted any repair or renewing ;
and under this I had made me a squab or couch with the skins
of the creatures I had killed, and with other soft things, and a
blanket laid on them, such as belonged to our sea-bedding, which
I had saved; and a great watch-coat to cover me. And here,
_ whenever I had occasion to be absent from my chief seat, I took
up my country habitation.

Adjoining to this I had my enclosures for my cattle, that is to
say my goats, and I had taken an inconceivable deal of pains to
fence and enclose this ground. I was so anxious to see it kept
entire, lest the goats should break through, that I never left off
till, with infinite labour, I had stuck the outside of the hedge so
full of small stakes, and so near to one another, that it was rather
a pale than a hedge, and there was scarce room to put a hand
through between them; which afterwards, when those stakes
grew, as they all did in the next rainy season, made the enclosure
strong like a wall, indeed stronger than any wall.

This will testify for me that I was not idle, and that I spared
no pains to bring to pass whatever appeared necessary for my
comfortable support, for I considered the keeping up a breed of
tame creatures thus at my hand would be a living magazine of
flesh, milk, butter, and cheese for me as long as I lived in the
place, if it were to be forty years; and that keeping them in
my reach depended entirely upon my perfecting my enclosures
to such a degree that I might be sure of keeping them together;
which by this method, indeed, I so effectually secured, that
when these little stakes began to grow, I had planted them so
very thick that I was forced to pull some of them up again.

In this place also I had my grapes growing, which I princi-
ROBINSON CRUSOE #28

pally depended on for my winter store of raisins, and which I
never failed to preserve very carefully, as the best and most
agreeable dainty of my whole diet; and indeed they were not
only agreeable, but medicinal, wholesome, nourishing, and re-
freshing to the last degree.

As this was also about half-way between my other habitation
and the place where I had laid up my boat, I generally stayed
and lay here in my way thither, for I used frequently to visit my
boat; and I kept all things about or belonging to her in very
good order. Sometimes I went out in her to divert myself, but
no more hazardous voyages would I go, scarcely ever above a
stone’s cast or two from the shore, I was so apprehensive of being
hurried out of my knowledge again by the currents or winds, or
any other accident. But now I come to a new scene of my life.

It happened one day, about noon, going towards my boat, I
was exceedingly surprised with the print of a man’s naked foot
on the shore, which was very plain to be seen on the sand. I
stood like one thunderstruck, or as if I had seen an apparition.
I listened, I looked round me, but I could hear nothing, nor
see anything; I went up to a rising ground to look farther; I
went up the shore and down the shore, but it was all one; I
could see no other impression but that one. I went to it again
to see if there were any more, and to observe if it might not be
my fancy ; but there was no room for that, for there was exactly
the print of a foot—toes, heel, and every part of a foot. How
it came thither I knew not, nor could I in the least imagine ;
but after innumerable fluttering thoughts, like a man perfectly
confused and out of myself, I came home to my fortification,
not feeling, as we say, the ground I went on, but terrified to the
last degree, looking behind me at every two or three steps,
mistaking every bush and tree, and fancying every stump at a
distance to be aman. Nor is it possible to describe how many
various shapes my affrighted imagination represented things to
me in, how many wild ideas were found every moment in my
fancy, and what strange, unaccountable whimsies came into my
thoughts by the way.

When I came to my castle (for so I think I called it ever
after this), I fled into it like one pursued. Whether I went over
by the ladder, as first contrived, or went in at the hole in the rock,
which I had called a door, I cannot remember ; no, nor could I re-
member the next morning, for never frightened hare fled to cover,
or fox to earth, with more terror of mind than I to this retreat.

I slept none that night; the farther I was from the occasion
of my fright, the greater my apprehensions were, which is some-
124 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

thing contrary to the nature of such things, and especially to the
usual practice of all creatures in fear ; but I was so embarrassed
with my own frightful ideas of the thing, that I formed nothing
but dismal imaginations to myself, even though I was now a
great way off. Sometimes I fancied it must be the devil, and
reason joined in with me in this supposition, for how should any
other thing in human shape come into the place? Where was
the vessel that brought them? What marks were there of any
other footstep? And how was it possible a man should come
there? But then, to think that Satan should take human shape
upon him in such a place, where there could be no manner of
occasion for it, but to leave the print of his foot behind him, and
that even for no purpose too, for he could not be sure I should see
it—this was an amusement the other way. I considered that the
devil might have found out abundance of other ways to have terri-
fied me than this of the single print of a foot; that as I lived quite
on the other side of the island, he would never have been so simple
as to leave a mark in a place where it was ten thousand to one
whether I should ever see it or not, and in the sand too, which the
first surge of the sea, upon a high wind, would have defaced en-
tirely. All this seemed inconsistent with the thing itself, and with
all the notions we usually entertain of the subtlety of the devil.

Abundance of such things as these assisted to argue me out
of all apprehensions of its being the devil; and I presently con-
cluded then that it must be some more dangerous creature—
viz. that it must be some of the savages of the mainland oppo-
site who had wandered out to sea in their canoes, and either
driven by the currents or by contrary winds, had made the
island, and had been on shore, but were gone away again to
sea; being as loath, perhaps, to have stayed in this desolate
island as I would have been to have had them.

While these reflections were rolling in my mind, I was very
thankful in my thoughts that I was so happy as not to be there-
abouts at that time, or that they did not see my boat, by which
they would have concluded that some inhabitants had been in the
place, and perhaps have searched farther for me. Then terrible
thoughts racked my imagination about their having found out my
boat, and that there were people here; and that, if so, I should
certainly have them come again in greater numbers and devour
me; that if it should happen that they should not find me, yet they
would find my enclosure, destroy all my corn, and carry away all
my flock of tame goats, and I should perish at last for mere want.

Thus my fear banished all my religious hope, all that former
confidence in God, which was founded upon such wonderful
ROBINSON CRUSOE 125

experience as I had had of His goodness; as if He that had fed
me by miracle hitherto could not preserve, by His power, the
provision which He had made for me by His goodness. I re-
proached myself with my laziness, that would not sow any more
corn one year than would just serve me till the next season, as
if no accident could intervene to prevent my enjoying the crop
that was upon the ground; and this I thought so just a reproof,
that I resolved for the future to have two or three years’ corn
beforehand ; so that, whatever might come, I might not perish
for want of bread.

How strange a chequer-work of Providence is the life of man!
and by what secret different springs are the affections hurried
about, as different circumstances present! To-day we love what
to-morrow we hate ; to-day we seek what to-morrow we shun ;
to-day we desire what to-morrow we fear, nay, even tremble at
the apprehensions of. This was exemplified in me, at this time,
in the most lively manner imaginable; for I, whose only afflic-
tion was that I seemed banished from human society, that I was
alone, circumscribed by the boundless ocean, cut off from man-
kind, and condemned to what I call silent life ; that I was as
one whom Heaven thought not worthy to be numbered among
the living, or to appear among the rest of His creatures; that to
have seen one of my own species would have seemed to me a
raising me from death to life, and the greatest blessing that
Heaven itself, next to the supreme blessing of salvation, could
bestow ; I say, that I should now tremble at the very apprehen-
sions of seeing a man, and was ready to sink into the ground at
but the shadow or silent appearance of a man having set his
foot in the island.

Such is the uneven state of human life; and it afforded me a
great many curious speculations afterwards, when I had a little
recovered my first surprise. I considered that this was the
station of life the infinitely wise and good providence of God
had determined for me; that asI could not foresee what the
ends of Divine wisdom might be in all this, so I was not to
dispute His sovereignty; who, as I was His creature, had an
undoubted right, by creation, to govern and dispose of me
absolutely as He thought fit; and who, as I was a creature that
had offended Him, had likewise a judicial right to condemn me
to what punishment He thought fit; and that it was my part to
submit to bear His indignation, because I had sinned against
Him. I then reflected, that as God, who was not only righteous
but omnipotent, had thought fit thus to punish and afflict me,
so He was able to deliver me: that if he did not think fit to do
126 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

so, it was my unquestioned duty to resign myself absolutely and
entirely to His will; and, on the other hand, it was my duty
also to hope in Him, pray to Him, and quietly to attend to the
dictates and directions of His daily providence.

These thoughts took me up many hours, days, nay, I may say
weeks and months: and one particular effect of my cogitations
on this occasion I cannot omit. One morning early, lying in my
bed, and filled with thoughts about my danger from the appear-
ances of savages, I found it discomposed me very much; upon
which these words of the Scripture came into my thoughts,
“Call upon Me in the day of trouble, and I will deliver thee,
and thou shalt glorify Me.” Upon this, rising cheerfully out of
my bed, my heart was not only comforted, but I was guided and
encouraged to pray earnestly to God for deliverance: when I
had done praying I took up my Bible, and opening it to read,
the first words that presented to me were, “Wait on the Lord,
and be of good cheer, and He shall strengthen thy heart; wait,
I say, on the Lord.” It is impossible to express the comfort
this gave me. In answer, I thankfully laid down the book, and
was no more sad, at least on that occasion.

In the middle of these cogitations, apprehensions, and reflec-
tions, it came into my thoughts one day that all this might be a
mere chimera of my own, and that this foot might be the print
of my own foot, when I came on shore from my boat: this
cheered me up a little, too, and I began to persuade myself it
was all a delusion; that it was nothing else but my own foot ;
and why might I not come that way from the boat, as well as
I was going that way to the boat? Again, I considered also
that I could by no means tell for certain where I had trod, and
where I had not; and that if, at last, this was only the print of
my own foot, I had played the part of those fools who try to
make stories of spectres and apparitions, and then are frightened
at them more than anybody.

Now I began to take courage, and to peep abroad again, for I
had not stirred out of my castle for three days and nights, so
that I began to starve for provisions; for I had little or nothing
within doors but some barley-cakes and water; then I knew
that my goats wanted to be milked too, which usually was my
evening diversion: and the poor creatures were in great pain
and inconvenience for want of it; and, indeed, it almost spoiled
some of them, and almost dried up their milk. Encouraging
myself, therefore, with the belief that this was nothing but the
print of one of my own feet, and that I might be truly said to
start at my own shadow, I began to go abroad again, and went







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ROBINSON CRUSOE 127

to my country house to milk my flock: but to see with what
fear I went idued, how often I looked behind me, how lewas
ready every now and then to lay down my basket and run for
my life, it would have made any one have thought I was haunted
with an evil conscience, or that I had been lately most terribly
frightened ; and so, indeed, I had. However, I went down thus
two or three days, and having seen nothing, I began to be a
little bolder, and to think there was really nothing in it but ‘m
own imagination; but I could not persuade myself fully of this
till I should go down to the shore again, and see this print of
a foot, and measure it by my own, and see if there was any
similitude or fitness, that I might be assured it was my own
foot: but when I came to the place, first, it appeared evidently
to me, that when I laid up my boat I could not possibly be on
shore anywhere thereabouts ; secondiy, when I came to measure
the mark with my own foot, I found my foot not so large by a
great deal. Both these things filled my head with new imagina-
tions, and gave me the vapours again to the highest degree, so
that I shook with cold like one in an ague ; and I went home
again, filled with the belief that some man or men had been on
shore there; or, in short, that the island was inhabited, and I
might be surprised before I was aware ; and what course to take
for my security I knew not.

Oh, what ridiculous resolutions men take when possessed with
fear! It deprives them of the use of those means which reason
offers for their relief. The first thing I proposed to myself was,
to throw down my enclosures, and turn all my tame cattle wild
into the woods, lest the enemy should find them, and then fre-
quent the island in prospect of the same or the like booty: then
the simple thing of digging up my two corn-fields, lest they
should find such a grain there, and still be prompted to frequent
the island: then to demolish my bower and tent, that they
might not see any vestiges of habitation, and be prompted to
look farther, in order to find out the persons inhabiting.

These were the subject of the first night’s cogitations after I
was come home again, while the apprehensions which had so
overrun my mind were fresh upon me, and my head was full of
vapours. Thus, fear of danger is ten thousand times more terrify-
ing than danger itself, when apparent to the eyes; and we find
the burden of anxiety greater, by much, than the evil which we
are anxious about: and what was worse than all this, I had not
that relief in this trouble that from the resignation I used to
practise I hoped to have. I looked, I thought, like Saul, who
complained not only that the Philistines were upon him, but

I
128 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

that God had forsaken him; for I did not now take due ways
to campose my mind, by crying to God in my distress, and rest-
ing upon His providence, as I had done before, for my defence
and deliverance; which, if I had done, I had at least been
more cheerfully supported under this new surprise, and perhaps
carried through it with more resolution.

This confusion of my thoughts kept me awake all night; but
in the morning I fell asleep; and having, by the amusement of
my mind, been as it were tired, and my spirits exhausted, I
slept very soundly, and waked much better composed than I had
ever been before. And now I began to think sedately ; and,
upon debate with myself, I concluded that this island (which was
so exceedingly pleasant, fruitful, and no farther from the main-
land than as I had seen) was not so entirely abandoned as I
might imagine ; that although there were no stated inhabitants
who lived on the spot, yet that there might sometimes come
boats off from the shore, who, either with design, or perhaps
never but when they were driven by cross winds, might come
to this place; that I had lived there fifteen years now and had
not met with the least shadow or figure of any people yet; and
that, if at any time they should be driven here, it was probable
they went away again as soon as ever they could, seeing they
had never thought fit to fix here upon any occasion; that the
most I could suggest any danger from was from any casual
accidental landing of straggling people from the main, who, as
it was likely, if they were driven hither, were here against their
wills, so they made no stay here, but went off again with all
possible speed ; seldom staying one night on shore, lest they
should not have the help of the tides and daylight back again ;
and that, therefore, I had nothing to do but to consider of some
safe retreat, in case I should see any savages land upon the spot.

Now I began sorely to repent that I had dug my cave so large
as to bring a door through again, which door, as I said, came
out beyond where my fortification joined to the rock: upon
maturely considering this, therefore, I resolved to draw me a
second fortification, in the manner of a semicircle, at a distance
from my wall, just where I had planted a double row of trees
about twelve years before, of which I made mention: these
trees having been planted so thick before, they wanted but few
piles to be driven between them, that they might be thicker
and stronger, and my wall would be soon finished. So that I
had now a double wall; and my outer wall was thickened with
pieces of timber, old cables, and everything I could think of,
to make it strong; having in it seven little holes, about as big
ROBINSON CRUSOE 129

as I might put my arm out at. In the inside of this I thickened
my wall to about ten feet thick with continually bringing earth
out of my cave, and laying it at the foot of the wall, and walking
upon it; and through the seven holes I contrived to plant the
muskets, of which I took notice that I had got seven on shore
out of the ship; these I planted like my cannon, and fitted them
into frames, that held them like a carriage, so that I could fire
all the seven guns in two minutes’ time; this wall I was many
a weary month in finishing, and yet never thought myself safe
till it was done.

When this was done I stuck all the ground without my wall,
for a great length every way, as full with stakes or sticks of the
osier-like wood, which I found so apt to grow, as they could
well stand ; insomuch that I believe I might set in near twenty
thousand of them, leaving a pretty large space between them
and my wall, that I might have room to see an enemy, and they
might have no shelter from the young trees, if they attempted
to approach my outer wall.

Thus in two years’ time I had a thick grove; and in five or
six years’ time I had a wood before my dwelling, growing so
monstrously thick and strong that it was indeed perfectly im-
passable: and no men, of what kind soever, could ever imagine
that there was anything beyond it, much less a habitation. As
for the way which I proposed to myself to go in and out (for I
left no avenue), it was by setting two ladders, one to a part of
the rock which was low, and then broke in, and left room to
place another ladder upon that ; so when the two ladders were
taken down no man living could come down to me without
doing himself mischief; and if they had come down, they were
still on the outside of my outer wall.

Thus I took all the measures human prudence could suggest
for my own preservation; and it will beseen at length that
they were not altogether without just reason; though I foresaw
nothing at that time more than my mere fear suggested to me.

CHEAP TERY X11
A CAVE RETREAT

WHILE this was doing, I was not altogether careless of my
other affairs; for I had a great concern upon me for my
little herd of goats: they were not only a ready supply to me on
130 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

every occasion, and began to be sufficient for me, without the
expense of powder and shot, but also without the fatigue of
hunting after the wild ones; and I was loath to lose the advan-
tage of them, and to have them all to nurse up over again.

For this purpose, after long consideration, I could think of but
two ways to preserve them: one was, to find another convenient
place to dig a cave underground, and to drive them into it every
night; and the other was to enclose two or three little bits of
jand, remote from one another, and as much concealed as I could,
where I might keep about half-a-dozen young goats in each
place ; so that if any disaster happened to the flock in general, I
might be able to raise them again with little trouble and time:
and this, though it would require a good deal of time and labour,
I thought was the most rational design.

Accordingly, I spent some time to find out the most retired
parts of the island ; and I pitched upon one, which was as private,
indeed, as my heart could wish: it was a little damp piece of
ground in the middle of the hollow and thick woods, where, as
is observed, I almost lost myself once before, endeavouring to
come back that way from the eastern part of the island. Here
I found a clear piece of land, near three acres, so surrounded with
woods that it was almost an enclosure by nature ; at least, it did
not want near so much labour to make it so as the other piece of
ground I had worked so hard at.

I immediately went to work with this piece of ground; and in
less than a month’s time I had so fenced it round that my flock,
or herd, call it which you please, which were not so wild now as
at first they might be supposed to be, were well enough secured
in it: so, without any further delay, I removed ten young she-
goats and two he-goats to this piece, and when they were there
I continued to perfect the fence till I had made it as secure as
the other; which, however, I did at more leisure, and it took me
up more time by a great deal. All this labour I was at the ex-
pense of, purely from my apprehensions on account of the print
of a man’s foot; for as yet I had never seen any human creature
come near the island; and I had now lived two years under this
uneasiness, which, indeed, made my life much less comfortable
than it was before, as may be well imagined by any who know
what it is to live in the constant snare of the fear of man. And
this I must observe, with grief, too, that the discomposure of my
mind had great impression also upon the religious part of my
thoughts; for the dread and terror of falling into the hands of
savages and cannibals lay so upon my spirits, that I seldom found
myself in a due temper for application to my Maker; at least,
ROBINSON CRUSOE 131

not with the sedate calmness and resignation of soul which I was
wont to do: I rather prayed to God as under great affliction and
pressure of mind, surrounded with danger, and in expectation
every night of being murdered and devoured before morning;
and I must testify, from my experience, that a temper of peace,
thankfulness, love, and affection, is much the more proper frame
for prayer than that of terror and discomposure: and that under
the dread of mischief impending, a man is no more fit for a
comforting performance of the duty of praying to God than he
is for a repentance on a sick-bed ; for these discomposures affect
the mind, as the others do the body; and the discomposure of
the mind must necessarily be as great a disability as that of the
body, and much greater; praying to God being properly an act
of the mind, not of the body.

But to go on. After I had thus secured one part of my little
living stock, I went about the whole island, searching for another
private place to make such another deposit; when, wandering
more to the west point of the island than I had ever done yet,
and looking out to sea, I thought I saw a boat upon the sea, at a
great distance. I had found a perspective glass or two in one of
the seamen’s chests, which I saved out of our ship, but I had it
not about me; and this was so remote that I could not tell what
to make of it, though I looked at it till my eyes were not able to
hold to look any longer; whether it was a boat or not I do not
know, but as I descended from the hill I could see no more of it,
so I gave it over; only I resolved to go no more out without a
perspective glass in my pocket. When I was come down the hill
to the end of the island, where, indeed, I had never been before,
I was presently convinced that the seeing the print of a man’s
foot was not such a strange thing in the island as I imagined ;
and but that it was a special providence that I was cast upon the
side of the island where the savages never came, I should easily
have known that nothing was more frequent than for the canoes
from the main, when they happened to be a little too far out at
sea, to shoot over to that side of the island for harbour: likewise,
as they often met and fought in their canoes, the victors, having
taken any prisoners, would bring them over to this shore, where,
according to their dreadful customs, being all cannibals, they
would kill and eat them; of which hereafter.

When I was come down the hill to the shore, as I said above,
being the S.W. point of the island, I was perfectly confounded
and amazed; nor is it possible for me to express the horror of
my mind at seeing the shore spread with skulls, hands, feet, and
other bones of human bodies ; and particularly I observed a place
132 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

where there had been a fire made, and a circle dug in the earth,
like a cockpit, where I supposed the savage wretches had sat
down to their inhuman feastings upon the bodies of their fellow-
creatures.

I was so astonished with the sight of these things, that I enter-
tained no notions of any danger to myself from it for a long
while : all my apprehensions were buried in the thoughts of such
a pitch of inhuman, hellish brutality, and the horror of the
degeneracy of human nature, which, though I had heard of it
often, yet I never had so near a view of before; in short, I
turned away my face from the horrid spectacle ; my stomach
grew sick, and I was just at the point of fainting, when nature
discharged the disorder from my stomach; and having vomited
with uncommon violence, I was a little relieved, but could not
bear to stay in the place a moment; so I got up the hill again
with all the speed I could, and walked on towards my own
habitation.

When I came a little out of that part of the island I stood still
awhile, as amazed, and then, recovering myself, I looked up with
the utmost affection of my soul, and, with a flood of tears in my
eyes, gave God thanks, that had cast my first lot in a part of the
world where I was distinguished from such dreadful creatures as
these ; and that, though I had esteemed my present condition
very miserable, had yet given me so many comforts in it that I
had still more to give thanks for than to complain of: and this,
above all, that I had, even in this miserable condition, been
comforted with the knowledge of Himself, and the hope of His
blessing : which was a felicity more than sufficiently equivalent
to all the misery which I had suffered, or could suffer.

In this frame of thankfulness I went home to my castle, and
began to be much easier now, as to the safety of my circum-
stances, than ever I was before : for I observed that these wretches
never came to this island in search of what they could get;
perhaps not seeking, not wanting, or not expecting anything
here; and having often, no doubt, been up the covered, woody
part of it without finding anything to their purpose. I knew I
had been here now almost eighteen years, and never saw the
least footsteps of human creature there before; and I might be
eighteen years more as entirely concealed as I was now, if I did
not discover myself to them, which I had no manner of occasion
to do; it being my only business to keep myself entirely con-
cealed where I was, unless I found a better sort of creatures than
cannibals to make myself known to. Yet I entertained such an
abhorrence of the savage wretches that I have been speaking of,
ROBINSON CRUSOE 133

and of the wretched, inhuman custom of their devouring and
eating one another up, that I continued pensive and sad, and
kept close within my own circle for almost two years after this:
when I say my own circle, I mean by it my three plantations
—viz. my castle, my country seat (which I called my bower), and
my enclosure in the woods: nor did I look after this for any
other use than an enclosure for my goats ; for the aversion which
nature gave me to these hellish wretches was such, that I was as
fearful of seeing them as of seeing the devil himself. I did not
so much as go to look after my boat all this time, but began
rather to think of making another; for I could not think of ever
making any more attempts to bring the other boat round the
island to me, lest I should meet with some of these creatures at
sea; in which case, if I had happened to have fallen into their
hands, I knew what would have been my lot.

Time, however, and the satisfaction I had that I was in no
danger of being discovered by these people, began to wear off
my uneasiness about them; and I began to live just in the same
composed manner as before, only with this difference, that I used
more caution, and kept my eyes more about me than I did before,
lest I should happen to be seen by any of them ; and particularly,
I was more cautious of firing my gun, lest any of them, being on
the island, should happen to hear it. It was, therefore, a very
good providence to me that I had furnished myself with a tame
breed of goats, and that I had no need to hunt any more about
the woods, or shoot at them; and if I did catch any of them
after this, it was by traps and snares, as I had done before ; so
that for two years after this I believe I never fired my gun once
off; though I never went out without it; and what was more, as
I had saved three pistols out of the ship, I always carried them out
with me, or at least two of them, sticking them in my goat-skin
belt. I also furbished up one of the great cutlasses that I had
out of the ship, and made me a belt to hang it on also; so that
I was now a most formidable fellow to look at when I went
abroad, if you add to the former description of myself the par-
ticular of two pistols, and a broadsword hanging at my side in a
belt, but without a scabbard.

Things going on thus, as I have said, for some time, I seemed,
excepting these cautions, to be reduced to my former calm,
sedate way of living. All these things tended to show me more
and more how far my condition was from being miserable, com-
pared to some others ; nay, to many other particulars of life which
it might have pleased God to have made my lot. It put me upon
reflecting how little repining there would be among mankind at
134 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

any condition of life if people would rather compare their con-
dition with those that were worse, in order to be thankful, than
be always comparing them with those which are better, to assist
their murmurings and complainings.

As in my present condition there were not really many things
which I wanted, so indeed I thought that the frights I had been
in about these savage wretches, and the concern I had been in
for my own preservation, had taken off the edge of my invention
for my own conveniences; and I had dropped a good design,
which I had once bent my thoughts upon, and that was to try if
I could not make some of my barley into malt, and then try to
brew myself some beer. This was really a whimsical thought, and
{ reproved myself often for the simplicity of it: for I presently
saw there would be the want of several things necessary to the
making my beer that it would be impossible for me to supply ; as,
first, casks to preserve it in, which was a thing that, as I have
observed already, I could never compass : no, though I spent not
only many days, but weeks, nay months, in attempting it, but to
no purpose. In the next place, I had no hops to make it keep,
no yeast to make it work, no copper or kettle to make it boil :
and yet with all these things wanting, I verily believe, had not
the frights and terrors I was in about the savages intervened, I
had undertaken it, and perhaps brought it to pass too; for I
seldom gave anything over without accomplishing it, when once
I had it in my head to begin it. But my invention now ran quite
another way; for night and day I could think of nothing but
how I might destroy some of the monsters in their cruel, bloody
entertainment, and if possible save the victim they should bring
hither to destroy. It would take up a larger volume than this
whole work is intended to be to set down all the contrivances I
hatched, or rather brooded upon, in my thoughts, for the destroy-
ing these creatures, or at least frightening them so as to prevent
their coming hither any more: but all this was abortive ; nothing
could be possible to take effect, unless I was to be there to do it
myself: and what could one man do among them, when perhaps
there might be twenty or thirty of them together with their darts,
or their bows and arrows, with which they could shoot as true to
a mark as I could with my gun?

Sometimes I thought of digging a hole under the place where
they made their fire, and putting in five or six pounds of gun-
powder, which, when they kindled their fire, would consequently
take fire, and blow up all that was near it: but as, in the first
place, I should be unwilling to waste so much powder upon them,
my store being now within the quantity of one barrel, so neither
ROBINSON CRUSOE 135

could I be sure of its going off at any certain time, when it might
surprise them ; and, at best, that it would do little more than just
blow the fire about their ears and fright them, but not sufficient
to make them forsake the place : so I laid it aside ; and then pro-
posed that I would place myself in ambush in some convenient
place, with my three guns all double-loaded, and in the middle
of their bloody ceremony let fly at them, when I should be sure
to kill or wound perhaps two or three at every shot; and then
falling in upon them with my three pistols and my sword, I made
no doubt but that, if there were twenty, I should kill them all.
This fancy pleased my thoughts for some weeks, and I was so full
of it that I often dreamed of it, and, sometimes, that I was just
going to let fly at them in my sleep. I went so far with it in my
imagination that I employed myself several days to find out proper
places to put myself in ambuscade, as I said, to watch for them,
and I went frequently to the place itself, which was now grown
more familiar to me; but while my mind was thus filled with
thoughts of revenge and a bloody putting twenty or thirty of
them to the sword, as I may call it, the horror I had at the place,
and at the signals of the barbarous wretches devouring one
another, abetted my malice. Well, at length I found a place in
the side of the hill where I was satisfied I might securely wait
till I saw any of their boats coming ; and might then, even before
they would be ready to come on shore, convey myself unseen into
some thickets of trees, in one of which there was a hollow large
enough to conceal me entirely ; and there I might sit and observe
all their bloody doings, and take my full aim at their heads, when
they were so close together as that it would be next to impossible
that I should miss my shot, or that I could fail wounding three
or four of them at the first shot. In this place, then, I resolved
to fulfil my design ; and accordingly I prepared two muskets and
my ordinary fowling-piece. The two muskets I loaded with a
brace of slugs each, and four or five smaller bullets, about the
size of pistol bullets; and the fowling-piece I loaded with near a
handful of swan-shot of the largest size ; I also loaded my pistols
with about four bullets each ; and, in this posture, well provided
with ammunition for a second and third charge, I prepared myself
for my expedition.

After I had thus laid the scheme of my design, and in my
imagination put it in practice, I continually made my tour every
morning to the top of the hill, which was from my castle, as I
called it, about three miles or more, to see if I could observe any
boats upon the sea, coming near the island, or standing over
towards it; but J began to tire of this hard duty, after I had for
136 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

two or three months constantly kept my watch, but came always
back without any discovery ; there having not, in all that time,
been the least appearance, not only on or near the shore, but on
the whole ocean, so far as my eye or glass could reach every way.

As long as I kept my daily tour to the hill to look out, so long
also I kept up the vigour of my design, and my spirits seemed to
be all the while in a suitable frame for so outrageous an execution
as the killing twenty or thirty naked savages, for an offence
which I had not at all entered into any discussion of in my
thoughts, any farther than my passions were at first fired by the
horror I conceived at the unnatural custom of the people of that
country, who, it seems, had been suffered by Providence, in His
wise disposition of the world, to have no other guide than that of
their own abominable and vitiated passions; and consequently
were left, and perhaps had been so for some ages, to act such
horrid things, and receive such dreadful customs, as nothing but
nature, entirely abandoned by Heaven, and actuated by some
hellish degeneracy, could have run them into. But now, when,
as I have said, I began to be weary of the fruitless excursion
which I had made so long and so far every morning in vain, so
my opinion of the action itself began to alter; and I began, with
cooler and calmer thoughts, to consider what I was going to
engage in; what authority or call I had to pretend to be judge
and executioner upon these men as criminals, whom Heaven had
thought fit for so many ages to suffer unpunished to go on, and
to be as it were the executioners of His judgments one upon
another; how far these people were offenders against me, and
what right I had to engage in the quarrel of that blood which
they shed promiscuously upon one another. I debated this very
often with myself thus: “How do I know what God himself
judges in this particular case? It is certain these people do not
commit this as a crime; it is not against their own consciences
reproving, or their light reproaching them ; they do not know it
to be an offence, and then commit it in defiance of divine justice,
as we do in almost all the sins we commit. They think it no
more a crime to kill a captive taken in war than we do to kill an
ox; or to eat human flesh than we do to eat mutton.”

When I considered this a little, it followed necessarily that
I was certainly in the wrong; that these people were not
murderers, in the sense that I had before condemned them in
my thoughts, any more than those Christians were murderers
who often put to death the prisoners taken in battle; or more
frequently, upon many occasions, put whole troops of men to the
sword, without giving quarter, though they threw down their
ROBINSON CRUSOE 137

arms and submitted. In the next place, it occurred to me that
although the usage they gave one another was thus brutish and
inhuman, yet it was really nothing to me: these people had done
me no injury: that if they attempted, or I saw it necessary, for
my immediate preservation, to fall upon them, something might
be said for it: but that I was yet out of their power, and they
really had no knowledge of me, and consequently no design upon
me; and therefore it could not be just for me to fall upon them;
that this would justify the conduct of the Spaniards in all their
barbarities practised in America, where they destroyed millions of
these people ; who, however they were idolaters and barbarians,
and had several bloody and barbarous rites in their customs, such
as sacrificing human bodies to their idols, were yet, as to the
Spaniards, very innocent people ; and that the rooting them out
of the country is spoken of with the utmost abhorrence and
detestation by even the Spaniards themselves at this time, and
by all other Christian nations of Europe, as a mere butchery, a
bloody and unnatural piece of cruelty, unjustifiable either to God
or man; and for which the very name of a Spaniard is reckoned
to be frightful and terrible to all people of humanity or of
Christian compassion ; as if the kingdom of Spain were particu-
larly eminent for the produce of a race of men who were without
principles of tenderness, or the common bowels of pity to the
miserable, which is reckoned to be a mark of generous temper
in the mind.

These considerations really put me to a pause, and to a kind
of a full stop; and I began by little and little to be off my
design, and to conclude I had taken wrong measures in my
resolution to attack the savages ; and that it was not my business
to meddle with them, unless they first attacked me; and this it
was my business, if possible, to prevent: but that, if I were
discovered and attacked by them, I knew my duty. On the
other hand, I argued with myself that this really was the way
not to deliver myself, but entirely to ruin and destroy myself ;
for unless I was sure to kill every one that not only should be on
shore at that time, but that should ever come on shore after-
wards, if but one of them escaped to tell their country-people
what had happened, they would come over again by thousands
to revenge the death of their fellows, and I should only bring
upon myself a certain destruction, which, at present, I had no
manner of occasion for. Upon the whole, I concluded that I
ought, neither in principle nor in policy, one way or other, to
concern myself in this affair: that my business was, by all possible
means to conceal myself from them, and not to leave the least
138 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

sign for them to guess by that there were any living creatures
upon the island—I mean of human shape. Religion joined in
with this prudential resolution ; and I was convinced now, many
ways, that I was perfectly out of my duty when I was laying all
my bloody schemes for the destruction of innocent creatures—I
mean innocent as to me. As to the crimes they were guilty of
towards one another, I had nothing to do with them; they were
national, and I ought to leave them to the justice of God, who
is the Governor of nations, and knows how, by national punish-
ments, to make a just retribution for national offences, and to
bring public judgments upon those who offend in a public
manner, by such ways as best please Him. This appeared so
clear to me now, that nothing was a greater satisfaction to me
than that I had not been suffered to do a thing which I now saw
so much reason to believe would have been no less a sin than
that of wilful murder if I had committed it; and I gave most
humble thanks on my knees to God, that He had thus delivered
me from blood-guiltiness; beseeching Him to grant me the
protection of His providence, that I might not fall into the
hands of the barbarians, or that I might not lay my hands upon
them, unless I had a more clear call from Heaven to do it, in
defence of my own life.

In this disposition I continued for near a year after this; and
so far was I from desiring an occasion for falling upon these
wretches, that in all that time I never once went up the hill
to see whether there were any of them in sight, or to know
whether any of them had been on shore there or not, that I
might not be tempted to renew any of my contrivances against
them, or be provoked by any advantage that might present itself
to fall upon them; only this I did: I went and removed my
boat, which I had on the other side of the island, and carried it
down to the east end of the whole island, where I ran it into a
little cove, which I found under some high rocks, and where I
knew, by reason of the currents, the savages durst not, at least
would not, come with their boats upon any account whatever.
With my boat I carried away everything that I had left there
belonging to her, though not necessary for the bare going thither
—viz. a mast and sail which I had made for her, and a thing
like an anchor, but which, indeed, could not be called either
anchor or grapnel ; however, it was the best I could make of its
kind: all these I removed, that there might not be the least
shadow for discovery, or appearance of any boat, or of any human
habitation upon the island. Besides this, I kept myself, as I
said, more retired than ever, and seldom went from my cell
ROBINSON CRUSOE 139

except upon my constant employment, to milk my she-goats, and
manage my little flock in the wood, which, as it was quite on the
other part of the island, was out of danger; for certain it is that
these savage people, who sometimes haunted this island, never
came with any thoughts of finding anything here, and conse-
quently never wandered off from the coast, and I doubt not but
they might have been several times on shore after my appre-
hensions of them had made me cautious, as well as before.
Indeed, I looked back with some horror upon the thoughts of
what my condition would have been if I had chopped upon them
and been discovered before that; when, naked and unarmed,
except with one gun, and that loaded often only with small
shot, I walked everywhere, peeping and peering about the island,
to see what I could get; what a surprise should I have been in
if, when I discovered the print of a man’s foot, 1 had, instead of
that, seen fifteen or twenty savages, and found them pursuing
me, and by the swiftness of their running no possibility of my
escaping them! The thoughts of this sometimes sank my very
soul within me, and distressed my mind so much that I could
not soon recover it, to think what I should have done, and how
I should not only have been unable to resist them, but even
should not have had presence of mind enough to do what
I might have done; much less what now, after so much con-
sideration and preparation, I might be able to do. Indeed, after
serious thinking of these things, I would be melancholy, and
sometimes it would last a great while; but I resolved it all at
last into thankfulness to that Providence which had delivered
me from so many unseen dangers, and had kept me from those
mischiefs which I could have no way been the agent in deliver-
ing myself from, because I had not the least notion of any such
thing depending, or the least supposition of its being possible.
This renewed a contemplation which often had come into my
thoughts in former times, when first I began to see the merciful
dispositions of Heaven, in the dangers we run through in this
life ; how wonderfully we are delivered when we know nothing
of it; how, when we are in a quandary as we call it, a doubt
or hesitation whether to go this way or that way, a secret hint
shall direct us this way, when we intended to go that way: nay,
when sense, our own inclination, and perhaps business has called
us to go the other way, yet a strange impression upon the mind,
from we know not what springs, and by we know not what
power, shall overrule us to go this way ; and it shall afterwards
appear that had we gone that way which we should have gone,
and even to our imagination ought to have gone, we should have
140 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

been ruined and lost. Upon these and many like reflections I
afterwards made it a certain rule with me, that whenever I found
those secret hints or pressings of mind to doing or not doing
anything that presented, or going this way or that way, I never
failed to obey the secret dictate ; though I knew no other reason
for it than such a pressure or such a hint hung upon my mind.
I could give many examples of the success of this conduct in the
course of my life, but more especially in the latter part of my
inhabiting this unhappy island ; besides many occasions which it
is very likely I might have taken notice of, if I had seen with
the same eyes then that I see with now. But it is never too
late to be wise; and I cannot but advise all considering men,
whose lives are attended with such extraordinary incidents as
mine, or even though not so extraordinary, not to slight such
secret intimations of Providence, let them come from what in-
visible intelligence they will. That I shall not discuss, and
perhaps cannot account for; but certainly they are a proof of
the converse of spirits, and a secret communication between
those embodied and those unembodied, and such a proof as can
never be withstood ; of which I shall have occasion to give some
remarkable instances in the remainder of my solitary residence
in this dismal place.

I believe the reader of this will not think it strange if I con-
fess that these anxieties, these constant dangers I lived in, and
the concern that was now upon me, put an end to all invention,
and to all the contrivances that I had laid for my future accom-
modations and conveniences. I had the care of my safety more
now upon my hands than that of my food. I cared not to drive
a nail, or chop a stick of wood now, for fear the noise I might
make should be heard: much less would I fire a gun for the
same reason: and above all I was intolerably uneasy at making
any fire, lest the smoke, which is visible at a great distance in
the day, should betray me. For this reason, I removed that
part of my business which required fire, such as burning of pots
and pipes, &c., into my new apartment in the woods; where,
after I had been some time, I found, to my unspeakable consola-
tion, a mere natural cave in the earth, which went in a vast way,
and where, I daresay, no savage, had he been at the mouth of
it, would be so hardy as to venture in; nor, indeed, would any
man else, but one who, like me, wanted nothing so much as a
safe retreat.

The mouth of this hollow was at the bottom of a great rock,
where, by mere accident (I would say, if I did not see abundant
reason to ascribe all such things now to Providence), I was
ROBINSON CRUSOE 141

cutting down some thick branches of trees to make charcoal ;
and before I go on I must observe the reason of my making
this charcoal, which was this—I was afraid of making a smoke
about my habitation, as I said before ; and yet I could not live
there without baking my bread, cooking my meat, &e.; so I
contrived to burn some wood here, as I had seen done in
England, under turf, till it became chark or dry coal: and then
putting the fire out, I preserved the coal to carry home, and
perform the other services for which fire was wanting, without
danger of smoke. But this is by-the-bye. While I was cutting
down some wood here, I perceived that, behind a very thick
branch of low brushwood or underwood, there was a kind of
hollow place: I was curious to look in it; and getting with
difficulty into the mouth of it, I found it was pretty large, that
is to say, sufficient for me to stand upright in it, and perhaps
another with me: but I must confess to you that I made more
haste out than I did in, when looking farther into the place, and
which was perfectly dark, I saw two broad shining eyes of some
creature, whether devil or man I knew not, which twinkled like
two stars; the dim light from the cave’s mouth shining directly
in, and making the reflection. However, after some pause I
recovered myself, and began to call myself a thousand fools, and
to think that he that was afraid to see the devil was not fit to
live twenty years in an island all alone ; and that I might well
think there was nothing in this cave that was more frightful
than myself. Upon this, plucking up my courage, I took up a
firebrand, and in I rushed again, with the stick flaming in my
hand: I had not gone three steps in before I was almost as
frightened as before; for I heard a very loud sigh, like that of
a man in some pain, and it was followed by a broken noise, as
of words half expressed, and then a deep sigh again. I stepped
back, and was indeed struck with such a surprise that it put me
into a cold sweat, and if I had had a hat on my head, I will not
answer for it that my hair might not have lifted jt off. But
still plucking up my spirits as well as I could, and encouraging
myself a little with considering that the power and presence of
God was everywhere, and was able to protect me, I stepped
forward again, and by the light of the firebrand, holding it up
a little over my head, I saw lying on the ground a monstrous,
frightful old he-goat, just making his will, as we say, and gasp-
ing for life, and dying, indeed, of mere old age. I stirred him
a little to see if I could get him out, and he essayed to get up,
but was not able to raise himself; and I thought with myself
he might even lie there—for if he had frightened me, so he
142 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

would certainly fright any of the savages, if any of them should
be so hardy as to come in there while he had any life in him.

I was now recovered from my surprise, and began to look
round me, when I found the cave was but very small—that is to
say, it might be about twelve feet over, but in no manner of
shape, neither round nor square, no hands having ever been
employed in making it but those of mere Nature. I observed
also that there was a place at the farther side of it that went in
further, but was so low that it required me to creep upon my
hands and knees to go into it, and whither it went I knew not ;
so, having no candle, I gave it over for that time, but resolved
to go again the next day provided with candles and a tinder-
box, which I had made of the lock of one of the muskets, with
some wildfire in the pan.

Accordingly, the next day I came provided with six large
candles of my own making (for I made very good candles now
of goat’s tallow, but was hard set for candle-wick, using some-
times rags or rope-yarn, and sometimes the dried rind of a weed
like nettles); and going into this low place I was obliged to
creep upon all-fours as I have said, almost ten yards—which, by
the way, I thought was a venture bold enough, considering that
I knew not how far it might go, nor what was beyond it. When
I had got through the strait, I found the roof rose higher up, I
believe near twenty feet; but never was such a glorious sight
seen in the island, I daresay, as it was to look round the sides
and roof of this vault or cave—the wall reflected a hundred
thousand lights to me from my two candles. What it was in
the rock—whether diamonds or any other precious stones, or
gold—which I rather supposed it to be—I knew not. The
place I was in was a most delightful cavity, or grotto, though
perfectly dark ; the floor was dry and level) and had a sort of a
small loose gravel upon it, so that there was no nauseous. or
venomous creature to be seen, neither was there any damp or
wet on the sides or roof. The only difficulty in it was the
entrance—which, however, as it was a place of security, and
such a retreat as I wanted, I thought was a convenience; so
that I was really rejoiced at the discovery, and resolved, with-
out any delay, to bring some of those things which I was most
anxious about to this place; particularly, I resolved to bring
hither my magazine of powder, and all my spare arms—viz.
two fowling-pieces—for I had three in all—and three muskets
—for of them I had eight in all; so I kept in my castle only
five, which stood ready mounted like pieces of cannon on my
outmost fence, and were ready also to take out upon any ex- -
ROBINSON CRUSOE 143

pedition. Upon this occasion of removing my ammunition I
happened to open the barrel of powder which I took up out of
the sea, and which had been wet, and I found that the water
had penetrated about three or four inches into the powder on
every side, which caking and growing hard, had preserved the
inside like a kernel in the shell, so that I had near sixty pounds
of very good powder in the centre of the cask. This was a very
agreeable discovery to me at that time; so I carried all away
thither, never keeping above two or three pounds of powder
with me in my castle, for fear of a surprise of any kind ; I also
carried thither all the lead I had left for bullets.

I fancied myself now like one of the ancient giants who were
said to live in caves and holes in the rocks, where none could
come at them ; for I persuaded myself, while I was here, that if
five hundred savages were to hunt me, they could never find me
out—or if they did, they would not venture to attack me here.
The old goat whom I found expiring died in the mouth of the
cave the next day after I made this discovery ; and I found it
much easier to dig a great hole there, and throw him in and
cover him with earth, than to drag him out; so I interred him
there, to prevent offence to my nose.

CHAPTER XIII
WRECK OF A SPANISH SHIP

[ WAS now in the twenty-third year of my residence in this

island, and was so naturalised to the place and the manner of
living, that, could I but have enjoyed the certainty that no
savages would come to the place to disturb me, I could have been
content to have capitulated for spending the rest of my time
there, even to the last moment, till I had laid me down and
died, like the old goat in the cave. I had also arrived to some
little diversions and amusements, which made the time pass a
great deal more pleasantly with me than it did before—first, I
had taught my Poll, as I noted before, to speak ; and he did it
so familiarly, and talked so articulately and plain, that it was very
pleasant to me; and he lived with me no less than six-and-twenty
years. How long he might have lived afterwards I know not,
though I know they have a notion in the Brazils that they live
a hundred years. My dog was a pleasant and loving companion
to me for no less than sixteen years of my time, and then died of

K
14:4 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

mere old age. As for my cats, they multiplied, as I have observed,
to that degree that I was obliged to shoot several of them at first,
to keep them from devouring me and all I had; but at length,
when the two old ones I brought with me were gone, and after
some time continually driving them from me, and letting them
have no provision with me, they all ran wild into the woods, ex-
cept two or three favourites, which I kept tame, and whose young,
when they had any, I always drowned; and these were part of
my family. Besides these I always kept two or three household
kids about me, whom I taught to feed out of my hand; and I
had two more parrots, which talked pretty well, and would all
call “ Robin Crusoe,’ but none like my first; nor, indeed, did
I take the pains with any of them that I had done with him. I
had also several tame sea-fowls, whose name I knew not, that I
caught upon the shore, and cut their wings; and the little stakes
which I had planted before my castle-wall being now grown up
to a good thick grove, these fow]s all lived among these low trees,
and bred there, which was very agreeable to me; so that, as I
said above, I began to be very well contented with the life I
led, if I could have been secured from the dread of the savages.
But it was otherwise directed; and it may not be amiss for
all people who shall meet with my story to make this just
observation from it: How frequently, in the course of our
lives, the evil which in itself we seek most to shun, and which,
when we are fallen into, is the most dreadful to us, is often-
times the very means or door of our deliverance, by which
alone we can be raised again from the affliction we are fallen
into. I could give many examples of this in the course of my
unaccountable life; but in nothing was it more particularly re-
markable than in the circumstances of my last years of solitary
residence in this island.

It was now the month of December, as I said above, in my
twenty-third year; and this, being the southern solstice (for
winter I cannot call it), was the particular time of my harvest,
and required me to be pretty much abroad in the fields, when,
going out early in the morning, even before it was thorough
daylight, I was surprised with seeing a light of some fire upon
the shore, at a distance from me of about two miles, toward that
part of the island where I had observed some savages had been,
as before, and not on the other side; but, to my great affliction,
it was on my side of the island.

I was indeed terribly surprised at the sight, and stopped short
within my grove, not daring to go out, lest I might be surprised ;
and yet I had no more peace within, from the apprehensions I
ROBINSON CRUSOE 145

had that if these savages, in rambling over the island, should find
my corn standing or cut, or any of my works or improvements,
they would immediately conclude that there were people in the
place, and would then never rest till they had found me out. In
this extremity I went back directly to my castle, pulled up the
ladder after me, and made all things without look as wild and
natural as I could,

Then I prepared myself within, putting myself in a posture of
defence. I loaded all my cannon, as I called them—that is to
say, my muskets, which were mounted upon my new fortification
—and all my pistols, and resolved to defend myself to the last
gasp—not forgetting seriously to commend myself to the Divine
protection, and earnestly to pray to God to deliver me out of the
hands of the barbarians. | continued in this posture about two
hours, and began to be impatient for intelligence abroad, for I
had no spies to send out. After sitting a while longer, and
musing what I should do in this case, I was not able to bear sitting
in ignorance longer; so setting up my ladder to the side of the
hill, where there was a flat place, as I observed before, and then
pulling the ladder after me, I set it up again and mounted the
top of the hill, and pulling out my perspective glass, which I had
taken on purpose, I laid me down flat on my belly on the ground,
and began to look for the place. I presently found there were
no less than nine naked Savages sitting round a small fire the
had made, not to warm them, for they had no need of that, the
weather being extremely hot, but, as I supposed, to dress some
of their barbarous diet of human flesh which they had brought
with them, whether alive or dead I could not tell.

They had two canoes with them, which they had hauled up
upon the shore; and as it was then ebb of tide, they seemed to
me to wait for the return of the flood to gO away again. It
is not easy to imagine what confusion this sight put me into,
especially seeing them come on my side of the island, and so
near to me; but when I considered their coming must be always
with the current of the ebb, I began afterwards to be more sedate
in my mind, being satisfied that I might go abroad with safety
all the time of the flood of tide, if they were not on shore before ;
and having made this observation, I went abroad about my harvest
work with the more composure.

As I expected, so it proved; for as soon as the tide made to
the westward I saw them all take boat and row (or paddle as we
call it) away. I should have observed, that for an hour or more
before they went off they were dancing, and I could easily discern
their postures and gestures by my glass, I could not perceive,
146 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

by my nicest observation, but that they were stark naked, and
had not the least covering upon them; but whether they were
men or women I could not distinguish.

As soon as I saw them shipped and gone, I took two guns upon
my shoulders, and two pistols in my girdle, and my great sword
by my side without a scabbard, and with all the speed I was able
to make went away to the hill where I had discovered the first
appearance of all; and as soon as | got thither, which was not in
less than two hours (for I could not go quickly, being so loaded
with arms as I was), I perceived there had been three canoes
more of the savages at that place ; and Jooking out farther, I saw
they were all at sea together, making over for the main. This
was a dreadful sight to me, especially as, going down to the shore,
I could see the marks of horror which the dismal work they had
been about had left behind it—viz. the blood, the bones, and
part of the flesh of human bodies eaten and devoured by those
wretches with merriment and sport. I was so filled with in-
dignation at the sight, that I now began to premeditate the
destruction of the next that I saw there, let them be whom or
how many soever. It seemed evident to me that the visits which
they made thus to this island were not very frequent, for it was
above fifteen months before any more of them came on shore there
again—that is to say, I neither saw them nor any footsteps or
signals of them in all that time; for as to the rainy seasons, then
they are sure not to come abroad, at least not so far. Yet all
this while I lived uncomfortably, by reason of the constant appre-
hensions of their coming upon me by surprise: from whence I
observe, that the expectation of evil is more bitter than the
suffering, especially if there is no room to shake off that expecta-
tion or those apprehensions.

During all this time I was in a murdering humour, and spent
most of my hours, which should have been better employed, in
contriving how to circumvent and fall upon them the very next
time I should see them—especially if they should be divided, as
they were the last time, into two parties; nor did I consider at
all that if I killed one party—suppose ten or a dozen—I was
still the next day, or week, or month, to kill another, and so
another, even ad infinitum, till I should be, at length, no less a
murderer than they were in being man-eaters—and perhaps much
more so. I spent my days now in great perplexity and anxiety
of mind, expecting that I should one day or other fall into the
hands of these merciless creatures; and if I did at any time
venture abroad, it was not without looking around me with the
greatest care and caution imaginable. And now I found, to my
ROBINSON CRUSOE 147

great comfort, how happy it was that I had provided a tame flock
or herd of goats, for I durst not upon any account fire my gun,
especially near that side of the island where they usually came,
lest I should alarm the savages; and if they had fled tian me
now, I was sure to have them come again with perhaps two or
three hundred canoes with them in a few days, and then I knew
what to expect. However, I wore out a year and three months
more before I ever saw any more of the savages, and then I found
them again, as I shall soon observe. It is true they might have
been there once or twice; but either they made no stay, or at
least I did not see them ; but in the month of May, as near as I
could calculate, and in my four-and-twentieth year, I had a very
strange encounter with them; of which in its place.

The perturbation of my mind during this fifteen or sixteen
months’ interval was very great; I slept unquietly, dreamed
always frightful dreams, and often started out of my sleep in the
night. In the day great troubles overwhelmed my mind; and
in the night I dreamed often of killing the savages and of the
reasons why I might justify doing it.

But to waive all this for a while. It was in the middle of May,
on the sixteenth day, I think, as well as my poor wooden calendar
would reckon, for I marked all upon the post still; I say, it was
on the sixteenth of May that it blew a very great storm of wind
all day, with a great deal of lightning and thunder, and a very
foul night it was after it. I knew not what was the particular
occasion of it, but as I was reading in the Bible, and taken up
with very serious thoughts about my present condition, I was
surprised with the noise of a gun, as I thought, fired at sea. This
was, to be sure, a surprise quite of a different nature from any I
had met with before ; for the notions this put into my thoughts
were quite of another kind. I started up in the greatest haste
imaginable; and, in a trice, clapped my ladder to the middle place
of the rock, and pulled it after me; and mounting it the second
time, got to the top of the hill the very moment that a flash of
fire bid me listen for a second gun, which, accordingly, in about
half a minute I heard ; and by the sound, knew that it was from
that part of the sea where I was driven down the current in my
boat. I immediately considered that this must be some ship in
distress, and that they had some comrade, or some other ship in
company, and fired these for signals of distress, and to obtain help.
I had the presence of mind at that minute to think, that though
I could not help them, it might be that they might help me:
so I brought together all the dry wood I could get at hand, and
making a good handsome pile, I set it on fire upon the hill. The
148 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

wood was dry, and blazed freely ; and, though the wind blew very
hard, yet it burned fairly out ; so that I was certain, if there was
any such thing as a ship, they must needs see it. And no doubt
they did; for as soon as ever my fire blazed up, I heard another
gun, and after that several others, all from the same quarter. I
plied my fire all night long, till daybreak : and when it was broad
day, and the air cleared up, I saw something at a great distance
at sea, full east of the island, whether a sail or a hull I could not
distinguish—no, not with my glass; the distance was so great,
and the weather still something hazy also; at least, it was so out
at sea.

I looked frequently at it all that day, and soon perceived that
it did not move; so I presently concluded that it was a ship at
anchor ; and being eager, you may be sure, to be satisfied, I took
my gun in my hand, and ran towards the south side of the island,
to the rocks where I had formerly been carried away by the
current ; and getting up there, the weather by this time being
perfectly clear, I could plainly see, to my great sorrow, the wreck
of a ship, cast away in the night upon those concealed rocks which
I found when I was out in my boat; and which rocks, as they
checked the violence of the stream, and made a kind of counter-
stream, or eddy, were the occasion of my recovering from the
most desperate, hopeless condition that ever I had been in in all
my life. Thus, what is one man’s safety is another man’s de-
struction ; for it seems these men, whoever they were, being out
of their knowledge, and the rocks being wholly under water, had
been driven upon them in the night, the wind blowing hard at
E.N.E. Had they seen the island, as I must necessarily suppose
they did not, they must, as I thought, have endeavoured to have
saved themselves on shore by the help of their boat; but their
firing off guns for help, especially when they saw, as I imagined,
my fire, filled me with many thoughts. First, I imagined that
upon seeing my light they might have put themselves into their
boat, and endeavoured to make the shore: but that the sea run-
ning very high, they might have been cast away. Other times I
imagined that they might have lost their boat before, as might
be the case many ways ; particularly by the breaking of the sea
upon their ship, which many times obliged men to stave, or take
in pieces, their boat, and sometimes to throw it overboard with
their own hands. Other times I imagined they had some other
ship or ships in company, who, upon the signals of distress they
made, had taken them up, and carried them off. Other times
I fancied they were all gone off to sea in their boat, and
being hurried away by the current that I had been formerly
ROBINSON CRUSOE 149

in, were carried out into the great ocean, where there was
nothing but misery and perishing: and that, perhaps, they
might by this time think of starving, and of being in a condi-
tion to eat one another.

As all these were but conjectures at best, so, in the condition
I was in, I could do no more than look on upon the misery of the
poor men, and pity them; which had still this good effect upon
my side, that it gave me more and more cause to give thanks to
God, who had so happily and comfortably provided for me in my
desolate condition ; and that of two ships’ companies, who were
now cast away upon this part of the world, not one life should
be spared but mine. I learned here again to observe, that it is
very rare that the providence of God casts us into any condition
so low, or any misery so great, but we may see something or other
to be thankful for, and may see others in worse circumstances
than our own. Such certainly was the case of these men, of whom
I could not so much as see room to suppose any were saved ;
nothing could make it rational so much as to wish or expect that
they did not all perish there, except the possibility only of their
being taken up by another ship in company; and this was but
mere possibility indeed, for I saw not the least sign or appearance
of any such thing. I cannot explain, by any possible energy of
words, what a strange longing I felt in my soul upon this sight,
breaking out sometimes thus: “Oh that there had been but one
or two, nay, or but one soul saved out of this ship, to have escaped
to me, that I might but have had one companion, one fellow-
creature, to have spoken to me and to have conversed with!” In
all the time of my solitary life I never felt so earnest, so strong a
desire after the society of my fellow-creatures, or so deep a regret
at the want of it.

There are some secret springs in the affections which, when
they are set a-going by some object in view, or, though not in
view, yet rendered present to the mind by the power of imagina-
tion, that motion carries out the soul, by its impetuosity, to such
violent, eager embracings of the object, that the absence of it
is insupportable. Such were these earnest wishings that but
one man had been saved. I believe I repeated the words, “Oh
that it had been but one!” a thousand times; and my desires
were so moved by it, that when I spoke the words my hands
would clinch together, and my fingers would press the palms of
my hands, so that if I had had any soft thing in my hand I
should have crushed it involuntarily ; and the teeth in my head
would strike together, and set against one another so strong,
that for some time I could not part them again, Let the
150 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

naturalists explain these things, and the reason and manner of
them. All I can do is to describe the fact, which was even
surprising to me when I found it, though I knew not from
whence it proceeded; it was doubtless the effect of ardent
wishes, and of strong ideas formed in my mind, realising the
comfort which the conversation of one of my fellow-Christians
would have been to me. But it was not to be; either their fate
or mine, or both, forbade it; for, till the last year of my being
on this island, I never knew whether any were saved out of
that ship or no; and had only the affliction, some days after, to
see the corpse of a drowned boy come on shore at the end of
the island which was next the shipwreck. He had no clothes
on but a seaman’s waistcoat, a pair of open-kneed linen drawers,
and a blue linen shirt ; but nothing to direct me so much as to
guess what nation he was of. He had nothing in his pockets
but two pieces of eight and a tobacco pipe—the last was to me
of ten times more value than the first.

It was now calm, and I had a great mind to venture out in
my boat to this wreck, not doubting but I might find something
on board that might be useful tome. But that did not alto-
gether press me so much as the possibility that there might be
yet some living creature on board, whose life I might not only
save, but might, by saving that life, comfort my own to the last
degree ; and this thought clung so to my heart that I could not
be quiet night or day, but I must venture out in my boat on
board this wreck ; and commiting the rest to God’s providence,
I thought the impression was so strong upon my mind that it
could not be resisted—that it must come from some invisible
direction, and that I should be wanting to myself if I did
not go.

Under the power of this impression, I hastened back to my
castle, prepared everything for my voyage, took a quantity of
bread, a great pot of fresh water, a compass to steer by, a bottle
of rum (for I had still a great deal of that left), and a basket of
raisins; and thus, loading myself with everything necessary, I
went down to my boat, got the water out of her, got her afloat,
loaded all my cargo in her, and then went home again for more.
My second cargo was a great bag of rice, the umbrella to set up
over my head for a shade, another large pot of water, and about
two dozen of small loaves, or barley cakes, more than before,
with a bottle of goat’s milk and a cheese; all which with great
labour and sweat I carried to my boat; and praying to God to
direct my voyage, I put out, and rowing or paddling the canoe
along the shore, came at last to the utmost point of the island
ROBINSON CRUSOE 151

on the north-east side. And now I was to launch out into the
ocean, and either to venture or not to venture, I looked on the
rapid currents which ran constantly on both sides of the island
at a distance, and which were very terrible to me from the
remembrance of the hazard I had been in before, and my heart
began to fail me; for I foresaw that if I was driven into either
of those currents, I should be carried a great way out to sea,
and perhaps out of my reach or sight of the island again; and
that then, as my boat was but small, if any little gale of wind
should rise, I should be inevitably lost.

These thoughts so oppressed my mind that I began to give
over my enterprise; and having hauled my boat into a little
creek on the shore, I stepped out, and sat down upon a rising
bit of ground, very pensive and anxious, between fear and
desire, about my voyage ; when, as I was musing, I could per-
ceive that the tide was turned, and the flood come on; upon
which my going was impracticable for so many hours. Upon
this, presently it occurred to me that I should go up to the
highest piece of ground I could find, and observe, if I could,
how the sets of the tide or currents lay when the flood came
in, that I might judge whether, if I was driven one way out, I
might not expect to be driven another way home, with the
same rapidity of the currents. This thought was no sooner in
my head than I cast my eye upon a little hill which sufficiently
overlooked the sea both ways, and from whence I had a clear
view of the currents or sets of the tide, and which way I was
to guide myself in my return. Here I found, that as the
current of ebb set out close by the south point of the island,
so the current of the flood set in close by the shore of the
north side; and that I had nothing to do but to keep to
the north side of the island in my return, and I should do
well enough.

Encouraged by this observation, I resolved the next morning
to set out with the first of the tide ; and reposing myself for the
night in my canoe, under the watch-coat I mentioned, I launched
out. I first made a little out to sea, full north, till I began to
feel the benefit of the current, which set eastward, and which
carried me at a great rate; and yet did not so hurry me as the
current on the south side had done before, so as to take from
me all government of the boat; but having a strong steerage
with my paddle, I went at a great rate directly for the wreck,
and in less than two hours I came up to it. It was a dismal
sight to look at; the ship, which by its building was Spanish,
stuck fast, jammed in between two rocks. All the stern and
152 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

quarter of her were beaten to pieces by the sea; and as her
forecastle, which stuck in the rocks, had run on with great
violence, her mainmast and foremast were brought by the board
—that is to say, broken short off; but her bowsprit was sound,
and the head and bow appeared firm. When I came close to
her, a dog appeared upon her, who, seeing me coming, yelped
and cried ; and as soon as I called him, jumped into the sea to
come to me. I took him into the boat, but found him almost
dead with hunger and thirst. I gave him a cake of my bread,
and he devoured it like a ravenous wolf that had been starving
a fortnight in the snow; I then gave the poor creature some
fresh water, with which, if I would have let him, he would have
burst himself. After this I went on board ; but the first sight
I met with was two men drowned in the cook-room, or fore-
castle of the ship, with their arms fast about one another. I
concluded, as is indeed probable, that when the ship struck, it
being in a storm, the sea broke so high and so continually over
her, that the men were not able to bear it, and were strangled
with the constant rushing in of the water, as much as if they
had been under water. Besides the dog, there was nothing left
in the ship that had life; nor any goods, that I could see, but
what were spoiled by the water. There were some casks of
liquor, whether wine or brandy I knew not, which lay lower in
the hold, and which, the water being ebbed out, I could see;
but they were too big to meddle with. I saw several chests,
which I believe belonged to some of the seamen; and I got
two of them into the boat, without examining what was in them.
Had the stern of the ship been fixed, and the forepart broken
off, I am persuaded I might have made a good voyage; for by
what I found in those two chests I had room to suppose the
ship had a great deal of wealth on board; and, if 1 may guess
from the course she steered, she must have been bound from
Buenos Ayres, or the Rio de la Plata, in the south part of
America, beyond the Brazils to the Havannah, in the Gulf of
Mexico, and so perhaps to Spain. She had, no doubt, a great
treasure in her, but of no use, at that time, to anybody; and
what became of the crew I then knew not.

I found, besides these chests, a little cask full of liquor, of
about twenty gallons, which I got into my boat with much
difficulty. There were several muskets in the cabin, and a great
powder-horn, with about four pounds of powder in it; as for the
muskets, I had no occasion for them, so I left them, but took the
powder-horn. I took a fire-shovel and tongs, which I wanted
extremely, as also two little brass kettles, a copper pot to make
ROBINSON CRUSOE 153

chocolate, and a gridiron; and with this cargo, and the dog, I
came away, the tide beginning to make home again—and the
same evening, about an hour within night, I reached the island
again, weary and fatigued to the last degree. I reposed that
night in the boat; and in the morning I resolved to harbour
what I had got in my new cave, and not carry it home to my
castle. After refreshing myself, I got all my cargo on shore, and
began to examine the particulars. The cask of liquor I found to
be a kind of rum, but not such as we had at the Brazils; and, in
a word, not at all good ; but when I came to open the chests, I
found several things of great use to me—for example, I found in
one a fine case of bottles, of an extraordinary kind, and filled with
cordial waters, fine and very good; the bottles held about three
pints each, and were tipped with silver. I found two pots of very
good succades, or sweetmeats, so fastened also on the top that
the salt-water had not hurt them; and two more of the same,
which the water had spoiled. I found some very good shirts,
which were very welcome to me; and about a dozen and a half
of white linen handkerchiefs and coloured neckcloths ; the former
were also very welcome, being exceedingly refreshing to wipe
my face in a hot day. Besides this, when I came to the till in
the chest, I found there three great bags of pieces of eight, which
held about eleven hundred pieces in all; and in one of them,
wrapped up in a paper, six doubloons of gold, and some small
bars or wedges of gold; I suppose they might all weigh near a
pound. In the other chest were some clothes, but of little value ;
but, by the circumstances, it must have belonged to the gunner’s
mate; though there was no powder in it, except two pounds of
fine glazed powder, in three flasks, kept, I suppose, for charging
their fowling-pieces on occasion. Upon the whole, I got very
little by this voyage that was of any use to me; for, as to the
money, I had no manner of occasion for it; it was to me as the
dirt under my feet, and I would have given it all for three or
four pair of English shoes and stockings, which were things I
greatly wanted, but had had none on my feet for many years.
I had, indeed, got two pair of shoes now, which I took off the
feet of two drowned men whom I saw in the wreck, and I found
two pair more in one of the chests, which were very welcome to
me; but they were not like our English shoes, either for ease or
service, being rather what we call pumps than shoes, I found
in this seaman’s chest about fifty pieces of eight, in rials, but
no gold: I supposed this belonged to a poorer man than the
other, which seemed to belong to some officer. Well, however,
I lugged this money home to my cave, and laid it up, as I had
154 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

done that before which I had brought from our own ship; but
it was a great pity, as I said, that the other part of this ship
had not come to my share: for I am satisfied I might have
loaded my canoe several times over with money ; and, thought
I, if I ever escape to England, it might lie here safe enough
till I come again and fetch it.

CHAPTER XIV
A DREAM REALISED

AVING now brought all my things on shore and secured
them, I went back to my boat, and rowed or paddled her
along the shore to her old harbour, where I laid her up, and
made the best of my way to my old habitation, where I found
everything safe and quiet. I began now to repose myself, live
after my old fashion, and take care of my family affairs; and for
a while I lived easy enough, only that I was more vigilant than
I used to be, looked out oftener, and did not go abroad so much ;
and if at any time I did stir with any freedom, it was always
to the east part of the island, where I was pretty well satisfied
the savages never came, and where I could go without so many
precautions, and such a load of arms and ammunition as I always
carried with me if I went the other way. I lived in this con-
dition near two years more; but my unlucky head, that was
always to let me know it was born to make my body miserable,
was all these two years filled with projects and designs how, if
it were possible, I might get away from this island: for some-
times I was for making another voyage to the wreck, though my
reason told me that there was nothing left there worth the
hazard of my voyage; sometimes for a ramble one way, some-
times another—and I believe verily, if I had had the boat
that I went from Sallee in, I should have ventured to sea,
bound anywhere, I knew not whither. I have been, in all my
circumstances, a memento to those who are touched with the
general plague of mankind, whence, for aught I know, one half
of their miseries flow: I mean that of not being satisfied with
the station wherein God and Nature hath placed them—for, not
to look back upon my primitive condition, and the excellent
advice of my father, the opposition to which was, as I may call
it, my original sin, my subsequent mistakes of the same kind had
been the means of my coming into this miserable condition; for
ROBINSON CRUSOE 155

had that Providence which so happily seated me at the Brazils
as a planter blessed me with confined desires, and I could have
been contented to have gone on gradually, I might have been
by this time—I mean in the time of my being in this island—
one of the most considerable planters in the Brazils—nay, I am
persuaded, that by the improvements I had made in that little
time I lived there, and the increase I should probably have made
if I had remained, I might have been worth a hundred thousand
moidores—and what business had I to leave a settled fortune,
a well-stocked plantation, improving and increasing, to turn
supercargo to Guinea to fetch negroes, when patience and time
would have so increased our stock at home, that we could have
bought them at our own door from those whose business it was
to fetch them? and though it had cost us something more, yet
the difference of that price was by no means worth saving at so
great a hazard. But as this is usually the fate of young heads,
so reflection upon the folly of it is as commonly the exercise of
more years, or of the dear-bought experience of time—-so it was
with me now; and yet so deep had the mistake taken root in
my temper, that I could not satisfy myself in my station, but
was continually poring upon the means and possibility of my
escape from this place; and that I may, with greater pleasure
to the reader, bring on the remaining part of my story, it may
not be improper to give some account of my first conceptions on
the subject of this foolish scheme for my escape, and how, and
upon what foundation, I acted.

I am now to be supposed retired into my castle, after my late
voyage to the wreck, my frigate laid up and secured under
water, as usual, and my condition restored to what it was before :
I had more wealth, indeed, than I had before, but was not at all
the richer; for I had no more use for it than the Indians of
Peru had before the Spaniards came there.

It was one of the nights in the rainy season in March, the
four-and-twentieth year of my first setting foot in this island of
solitude, I was lying in my bed or hammock, awake, very well
in health, had no pain, no distemper, no uneasiness of body, nor
any uneasiness of mind more than ordinary, but could by no
means close my eyes, that is, so as to sleep; no, not a wink all
night long, otherwise than as follows: It is impossible to set
down the innumerable crowd of thoughts that whirled through
that great thoroughfare of the brain, the memory, in this night’s
time: I ran over the whole history of my life in miniature, or
by abridgment, as I may call it, to my coming to this island, and
also of that part of my life since I came to this island. In my
156 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

reflections upon the state of my case since I came on shore on
this island, I was comparing the happy posture of my affairs in
the first years of my habitation here, with the life of anxiety,
fear, and care which I had lived in ever since I had seen the
print of a foot in the sand. Not that I did not believe the
savages had frequented the island even all the while, and might
have been several hundreds of them at times on shore there;
but I had never known it, and was incapable of any apprehen-
sions about it; my satisfaction was perfect, though my danger
was the same, and I was as happy in not knowing my danger as
if I had never really been exposed to it. This furnished my
thoughts with many very profitable reflections, and particularly
this one: How infinitely good that Providence is, which has
provided, in its government of mankind, such narrow bounds to
his sight and knowledge of things; and though he walks in the
midst of so many thousand dangers, the sight of which, if dis-
covered to him, would distract his mind and sink his spirits, he
is kept serene and calm, by having the events of things hid from
his eyes, and knowing nothing of the dangers which surround
him.

After these thoughts had for some time entertained me, I
came to reflect seriously upon the real danger I had been in for
so many years in this very island, and how I had walked about
in the greatest security, and with all possible tranquillity, even
when perhaps nothing but the brow of a hill, a great tree, or
the casual approach of night, had been between me and the
worst kind of destruction—viz. that of falling into the hands of
cannibals and savages, who would have seized on me with the
same view as I would on a goat or turtle; and have thought it
no more crime to kill and devour me than I did of a pigeon or a
curlew. I would unjustly slander myself I if should say I was not
sincerely thankful to my great Preserver, to whose singular pro-
tection I acknowledged, with great humility, all these unknown
deliverances were due, and without which I must inevitably
have fallen into their merciless hands.

When these thoughts were over, my head was for some time
taken up in considering the nature of these wretched creatures,
I mean the savages, and how it came to pass in the world that
the wise Governor of all things should give up any of His
creatures to such inhumanity—nay, to something so much below
even brutality itself—as to devour its own kind : but as this ended
in some (at that time) fruitless speculations, it occurred to me to
inquire what part of the world these wretches lived in? how far
off the coast was from whence they came? what they ventured
ROBINSON CRUSOE 157

over so far from home for? what kind of boats they had? and
why I might not order myself and my business so that I might
be able to go over thither, as they were to come to me?

I never so much as troubled myself to consider what I should
do with myself when I went thither ; what would become of me
if I fell into the hands of these savages ; or how I should escape
them if they attacked me; no, nor so much as how it was possible
for me to reach the coast, and not be attacked by some or other
of them, without any possibility of delivering myself: and if I
should not fall into their hands, what I should do for provision,
or whither I should bend my course: none of these thoughts, I
say, so much as came in my way; but my mind was wholly bent
upon the notion of my passing over in my boat to the mainland.
I looked upon my present condition as the most miserable that
could possibly be; that I was not able to throw myself into any-
thing but death, that could be called worse ; and if I reached
the shore of the main I might perhaps meet with relief, or I
might coast along, as I did on the African shore, till I came to
some inhabited country, and where I might find some relief ;
and after all, perhaps I might fall in with some Christian ship
that might take me in: and if the worst came to the worst, I
could but die, which would put an end to all these miseries at
once. Pray note, all this was the fruit of a disturbed mind, an
impatient temper, made desperate, as it were, by the long con-
tinuance of my troubles, and the disappointments I had met in
the wreck I had been on board of, and where I had been so near
obtaining what I so earnestly longed for—somebody to speak
to, and to learn some knowledge from them of the place where
I was, and of the probable means of my deliverance. I was
agitated wholly by these thoughts; all my calm of mind, in my
resignation to Providence, and waiting the issue of the disposi-
tions of Heaven, seemed to be suspended ; and I had as it were
no power to turn my thoughts to anything but to the project of
a voyage to the main, which came upon me with such force, and
such an impetuosity of desire, that it was not to be resisted.

When this had agitated my thoughts for two hours or more,
with such violence that it set my very blood into a ferment, and
my pulse beat as if I had been in a fever, merely with the extra-
ordinary fervour of my mind about it, Nature—as if I had been
fatigued and exhausted with the very thoughts of it—threw
me into a sound sleep. One would have thought I should have
dreamed of it, but I did not, nor of anything relating to it, but
I dreamed that as I was going out in the morning as usual from
my castle, I saw upon the shore two canoes and eleven savages
158 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

coming to land, and that they brought with them another savage
whom they were going to kill in order to eat him; when, on a
sudden, the savage that they were going to kill jumped away, and
ran for his life; and I thought in my sleep that he came running
into my little thick grove before my fortification, to hide himself ;
and that I seeing him alone, and not perceiving that the others
sought him that way, showed myself to him, and smiling upon
him, encouraged him: that he kneeled down to me, seeming to
pray me to assist him; upon which I showed him my ladder,
made him go up, and carried him into my cave, and he became
my servant; and that as soon as I had got this man, I said
to myself, “Now I may certainly venture to the mainland, for
this fellow will serve me as a pilot, and will tell me what to do,
and whither to go for provisions, and whither not to go for fear
of being devoured; what places to venture into, and what to
shun.” I waked with this thought ; and was under such inex-
pressible impressions of joy at the prospect of my escape in my
dream, that the disappointments which I felt upon coming to
myself, and finding that it was no more than a dream, were
equally extravagant the other way, and threw me into a very
great dejection of spirits.

Upon this, however, I made this conclusion : that my only way
to go about to attempt an escape was, to endeavour to get a
savage into my possession: and, if possible, it should be one of
their prisoners, whom they had condemned to be eaten, and
should bring hither to kill’ But these thoughts still were at-
tended with this difficulty : that it was impossible to effect this
without attacking a whole caravan of them, and killing them all;
and this was not only a very desperate attempt, and might mis-
carry, but, on the other hand, I had greatly scrupled the lawful-
ness of it to myself; and my heart trembled at the thoughts of
shedding so much blood, though it was for my deliverance. I
need not repeat the arguments which occurred to me against
this, they being the same mentioned before; but though I had
other reasons to offer now—viz. that those men were enemies to
my life, and would devour me if they could ; that it was self-
preservation, in the highest degree, to deliver myself from this
death of a life, and was acting in my own defence as much as if
they were actually assaulting me, and the like; I say though
these things argued for it, yet the thoughts of shedding human
blood for my deliverance were very terrible to me, and such as I
could by no means reconcile myself to for a great while. How-
ever, at last, after many secret disputes with myself, and after
great perplexities about it (for all these arguments, one way and
ROBINSON CRUSOE . 159

another, struggled in my head a long time), the eager prevailing
desire of deliverance at length mastered all the rest; and I
resolved, if possible, to get one of these savages into my hands,
cost what it would. My next thing was to contrive how to do
it, and this, indeed, was very difficult to resolve on; but as I
could pitch upon no probable means for it, so I resolved to put
myself upon the watch, to see them when they came on shore,
and leave the rest to the event; taking such measures as the
opportunity should present, let what would be.

With these resolutions in my thoughts, I set myself upon the
scout as often as possible, and indeed so often that I was heartily
tired of it; for it was above a year and a half that I waited ; and
for great part of that time went out to the west end, and to the
south-west corner of the island almost every day, to look for
canoes, but none appeared. This was very discouraging, and
began to trouble me much, though I cannot say that it did in
this case (as it had done some time before) wear off the edge of
my desire to the thing; but the longer it seemed to be delayed,
the more eager I was for it: in a word, I was not at first so
careful to shun the sight of these savages, and avoid being seen
by them, as I was now eager to be upon them. Besides, I
fancied myself able to manage one, nay, two or three savages, if
I had them, so as to make them entirely slaves to me, to do
whatever I should direct them, and to prevent their being able
at any time to do me any hurt. It was a great while that I
pleased myself with this affair; but nothing still presented
itself; all my fancies and schemes came to nothing, for no
savages came near me for a great while.

About a year and a half after I entertained these notions (and
by long musing had, as it were, resolved them all into nothing,
for want of an occasion to put them into execution), I was sur-
prised one morning by seeing no less than five canoes all on shore
together on my side the island, and the people who belonged to
them all landed and out of my sight. The number of them broke
all my measures; for seeing so many, and knowing that they
always came four or six, or sometimes more in a boat, I could
not tell what to think of it, or how to take my measures to attack
twenty or thirty men single-handed ; so lay still in my castle,
perplexed and discomforted. However, I put myself into the
same position for an attack that I had formerly provided, and was
just ready for action, if anything had presented. Having waited
a good while, listening to hear if they made any noise, at length,
being very impatient, I set my guns at the foot of my ladder, and
clambered up to the top of the hill, by my two stages, as usual ;

L
160 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

standing so, however, that my head did not appear above the hill,
so that they could not perceive me by any means. Here I
observed, by the help of my perspective glass, that they were no
less than thirty in number; that they had a fire kindled, and that
they had meat dressed. How they had cooked it I knew not, or
what it was; but they were all dancing, in I know not how many
barbarous gestures and figures, their own way, round the fire.

While I was thus looking on them, I perceived, by my perspec-
tive, two miserable wretches dragged from the boats, where, it
seems, they were laid by, and were now brought out for the
slaughter. I perceived one of them immediately fall; being
knoeked down, I suppose, with a club or wooden sword, for that
was their way; and two or three others were at work immediately,
cutting him open for their cookery, while the other victim was
left standing by himself, till they should be ready for him. In
that very moment this poor wretch, seeing himself a little at
liberty and unbound, Nature inspired him with hopes of life, and
he started away from them, and ran with incredible swiftness
along the sands, directly towards me ; I mean towards that part of
the coast where my habitation was. I was dreadfully frightened,
I must acknowledge, when I perceived him run my way; and
especially when, as I thought, I saw him pursued by the whole
body: and now I expected that part of my dream was coming to
pass, and that he would certainly take shelter in my grove; but
I could not depend, by any means, upon my dream, that the
other savages would not pursue him thither and find him there.
However, I kept my station, and my spirits began to recover
when I found that there was not above three men that followed
him; and still more was I encouraged, when I found that he
outstripped them exceedingly in running, and gained ground on
them ; so that, if he could but hold out for half-an-hour, I saw
easily he would fairly get away from them all.

There was between them and my castle the creek, which I
mentioned often in the first part of my story, where I landed my
cargoes out of the ship; and this I saw plainly he must neces-
sarily swim over, or the poor wretch would be taken there ; but
when the savage escaping came thither, he made nothing of it,
though the tide was then up; but plunging in, swam through in
about thirty strokes, or thereabouts, landed, and ran with ex-
ceeding strength and swiftness. When the three persons came
to the creek, I found that two of them could swim, but the third
could not, and that, standing on the other side, he looked at the
others, but went no farther, and soon after went softly back again;
which, as it happened, was very well for him in the end. I ob-




iy Pa



7 Perey <=
5 Ve



. ked hirn down ”
one Kooc Sie! the stack of my piece)

Copyright, Service & Paton, 1899.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 161

served that the two who swam were yet more than twice as long
swimming over the creek as the fellow was that fled from them,
It came very warmly upon my thoughts, and indeed irresistibly,
that now was the time to get me a servant, and, perhaps, a com-
panion or assistant; and that I was plainly called by Providence
to save this poor creature’s life. I immediately ran down the
ladders with all possible expedition, fetched my two guns, for
they were both at the foot of the ladders, as I observed before,
and getting up again with the same haste to the top of the hill,
I crossed towards the sea; and having a very short cut, and all
down hill, placed myself in the way between the pursuers and
the pursued, hallooing aloud to him that fled, who, looking back,
was at first perhaps as much frightened at me as at them ; but I
beckoned with my hand to him to come back ; and, in the mean-
time, I slowly advanced towards the two that followed ; then
rushing at once upon the foremost, I knocked him down with
the stock of my piece. I was loath to fire, because I would not
have the rest hear; though, at that distance, it would not have
been easily heard, and being out of sight of the smoke, too, they
would not have known what to make of it, Having knocked
this fellow down, the other who pursued him stopped, as if he
had been frightened, and I advanced towards him: but as I
came nearer, I perceived presently he had a bow and arrow, and
was fitting it to shoot at me: so 1 was then obliged to shoot at
him first, which I did, and killed him at the first shot. The poor
savage who fled, but had stopped, though he saw both his enemies
fallen and killed, as he thought, yet was so frightened with the
fire and noise of my piece that he stood stock still, and neither
came forward nor went backward, though he seemed rather in-
clined still to fly than to come on. I hallooed again to him, and
made signs to come forward, which he easily understood, and
came a little way ; then stopped again, and then a little farther,
and stopped again; and I could then perceive that he stood
trembling, as if he had been taken prisoner, and had just been
to be killed, as his two enemies were. I beckoned to him again
to come to me, and gave him all the signs of encouragement
that I could think of; and he came nearer and nearer, kneeling
down every ten or twelve steps, in token of acknowledgment
for saving his life. I smiled at him, and looked pleasantly, and
beckoned to him to come still nearer; at length he came close
to me; and then he kneeled down again, kissed the ground,
and laid his head upon the ground, and taking me by the foot,
set my foot upon his head ; this, it seems, was in token of swear-
ing to be my slave for ever. I took him up and made much of
162 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

him, and encouraged him all I could. But there was more
work to do yet; for I perceived the savage whom I had knocked
down was not killed, but stunned with the blow, and began to
come to himself: so I pointed to him, and showed him the
savage, that he was not dead; upon this he spoke some words
to me, and though I could not understand them, yet I thought
they were pleasant to hear; for they were the first sound of a
man’s voice that I had heard, my own excepted, for above
twenty-five years. But there was no time for such reflectiqns
now; the savage who was knocked down recovered himself so
far as to sit up upon the ground, and I perceived that my savage
began to be afraid; but when I saw that, I presented my other
piece at the man, as if I would shoot him: upon this my savage,
for so I call him now, made a motion to me to lend him my
sword, which hung naked ina belt by my side, which I did.
He no sooner had it, but he runs to his enemy, and at one blow
cut off his head so cleverly, no executioner in Germany could
have done it sooner or better; which I thought very strange
for one who, I had reason to believe, never saw a sword in his
life before, except their own wooden swords: however, it seems,
as I learned afterwards, they make their wooden swords so
sharp, so heavy, and the wood is so hard, that they will even cut
off heads with them, ay, and arms, and that at one blow, too.
When he had done this, he comes laughing to me in sign of
triumph, and brought me the sword again, and with abundance
of gestures which I did not understand, laid it down, with the
head of the savage that he had killed, just before me. But
that which astonished him most was to know how I killed the
other Indian so far off; so, pointing to him, he made signs to
me to let him go to him; and I bade him go, as well as I could.
When he came to him, he stood like one amazed, looking at
him, turning him first on one side, then on the other; looked
at the wound the bullet had made, which it seems was just in
his breast, where it had made a hole, and no great quantity of
blood had followed ; but he had bled inwardly, for he was quite
dead. He took up his bow and arrows, and came back; so I
turned to go away, and beckoned him to follow me, making
signs to him that more might come after them. Upon this he
made signs to me that he should bury them with sand, that
they might not be seen by the rest, if they followed ; and so I
made signs to him again to do so. He fell to work; and in an
instant he had scraped a hole in the sand with his hands big
enough to bury the first in, and then dragged him into it, and
covered him; and did so by the other also; I believe he had
ROBINSON CRUSOE 163

buried them both in a quarter of an hour. Then, calling him
away, I carried him, not to my castle, but quite away to my
cave, on the farther part of the island: sol did not let my
dream come to pass in that part, that he came into my grove
for shelter. Here I gave him bread and a bunch of raisins to
eat, and a draught of water, which I found he was indeed in
great distress for, from his running: and having refreshed him,
I made signs for him to go and lie down to sleep, showing him
a place where I had laid some rice-straw, and a blanket upon
it, which I used to sleep upon myself sometimes; so the poor
creature lay down, and went to sleep.

He was a comely, handsome fellow, perfectly well made, with
straight, strong limbs, not too large ; tall, and well-shaped ; and,
as I reckon, about twenty-six years of age. He had a very good
countenance, not a fierce and surly aspect, but seemed to have
something very manly in his face; and yet he had all the sweet-
ness and softness of a European in his countenance, too, especially
when he smiled. His hair was long and black, not curled like
wool ; his forehead very high and large ; and a great vivacity and
sparkling sharpness in his eyes. The colour of his skin was not
quite black, but very tawny ; and yet not an ugly, yellow, nauseous
tawny, as the Brazilians and Virginians, and other natives of
America are, but of a bright kind of a dun olive-colour, that had
in it something very agreeable, though not very easy to describe.
His face was round and plump; his nose small, not flat, like the
negroes ; a very good mouth, thin lips, and his fine teeth well
set, and as white as ivory.

After he had slumbered, rather than slept, about half-an-hour,
he awoke again, and came out of the cave to me: for I had been
milking my goats which I had in the enclosure just by: when he
espied me he came running to me, laying himself down again
upon the ground, with all the possible signs of an humble, thank-
ful disposition, making a great many antic gestures to show it.
At last he lays his head flat upon the ground, close to my foot,
and sets my other foot upon his head, as he had done before ; and
after this made all the signs to me of subjection, servitude, and
submission imaginable, to let me know how he would serve me
so long as he lived. I understood him in many things, and let
him know I was very well pleased with him. In a little time I
began to speak to him; and teach him to speak to me: and first,
I let him know his name should be Friday, which was the da
I saved his life: I called him so for the memory of the time. I
likewise taught him to say Master; and then let him know that
was to be my name: I likewise taught him to say Yes and No,
164 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

and to know the meaning of them. I gave him some milk in an
earthen pot, and let him see me drink it before him, and sop my
bread in it; and gave him a cake of bread to do the like, which
he quickly complied with, and made signs that it was very good
for him. I kept there with him all that night ; but as soon as it
was day I beckoned to him to come with me, and let him know
I would give him some clothes; at which he seemed very glad,
for he was stark naked. As we went by the place where he had
buried the two men, he pointed exactly to the place, and showed
me the marks that he had made to find them again, making signs
to me that we should dig them up again and eat them. At this
I appeared very angry, expressed my abhorrence of it, made as
if I would vomit at the thoughts of it, and beckoned with my
hand to him to come away, which he did immediately, with great
submission. I then led him up to the top of the hill, to see if
his enemies were gone; and pulling out my glass I looked, and
saw plainly the place where they had been, but no appearance
of them or their canoes; so that it was plain they were gone,
and had left their two comrades behind them, without any search
after them.

But I was not content with this discovery; but having now
more courage, and consequently more curiosity, I took my man
Friday with me, giving him the sword in his hand, with the bow
and arrows at his back, which I found he could use very dexter-
ously, making him carry one gun for me, and I two for myself;
and away we marched to the place where these creatures had
been; for I had a mind now to get some further intelligence of
them. When I came to the place my very blood ran chill in my
veins, and my heart sunk within me, at the horror of the
spectacle ; indeed, it was a dreadful sight, at least it was so to
me, though Friday made nothing of it. The place was covered
with human bones, the ground dyed with their blood, and great
pieces of flesh left here and there, half-eaten, mangled, and
scorched ; and, in short, all the tokens of the triumphant feast
they had been making there, after a victory over their enemies.
I saw three skulls, five hands, and the bones of three or four legs
and feet, and abundance of other parts of the bodies ; and Friday,
by his signs, made me understand that they brought over four
prisoners to feast upon ; that three of them were eaten up, and
that he, pointing to himself, was the fourth ; that there had been
a great battle between them and their next king, of whose
subjects, it seems, he had been one, and that they had taken a
great number of prisoners; all which were carried to several
places by those who had taken them in the fight, in order to
ROBINSON CRUSOE 165

feast upon them, as was done here by these wretches upon those
they brought hither.

I caused Friday to gather all the skulls, bones, flesh, and what-
ever remained, and lay them together in a heap, and make a
great fire upon it, and burn them all to ashes. I found Friday
had still a hankering stomach after some of the flesh, and was
still a cannibal in his nature ; but I showed so much abhorrence
at the very thoughts of it, and at the least appearance of it, that
he durst not discover it: for I had, by some means, let him know
that I would kill him if he offered it:

When he had done this, we came back to our castle; and there
I fell to work for my man Friday ; and first of all, I gave him a
pair of linen drawers, which I had out of the poor gunner’s chest
I mentioned, which I found in the wreck, and which, with a little
alteration, fitted him very well; and then I made him a jerkin
of goat’s skin, as well as my skill would allow (for I was now
grown a tolerably good tailor); and I gave him a cap which I
made of hare’s skin, very convenient, and fashionable enough ;
and thus he was clothed, for the present, tolerably well, and was
mighty well pleased to see himself almost as well clothed as his
master. It is true he went awkwardly in these clothes at first :
wearing the drawers was very awkward to him, and the sleeves
of the waistcoat galled his shoulders and the inside of his arms ;
but a little easing them where he complained they hurt him,
and using himself to them, he took to them at length very
well.

The next day, after I came home to my hutch with him, I began
to consider where I should lodge him : and that I might do well
for him and yet be perfectly easy myself, I made a little tent for
him in the vacant place between my two fortifications, in the
inside of the last, and in the outside of the first. As there was a
door or entrance there into my cave, I made a formal framed door-
case, and a door to it, of boards, and set it up in the passage, a
little within the entrance ; and, causing the door to open in the
inside, I barred it up in the night, taking in my ladders, too; so
that Friday could no way come at me in the inside of my inner-
most wall, without making so much noise in getting over that it
must needs awaken me; for my first wall had now a complete
roof over it of long poles, covering all my tent, and leaning up
to the side of the hill; which was again laid across with smaller
sticks, instead of laths, and then thatched over a great thickness
with the rice-straw, which was strong, like reeds; and at the hole
or place which was left to go in or out by the ladder I had placed
a kind of trap-door, which, if it had been attempted on the out-
166 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

side, would not have opened at all, but would have fallen down
and made a great noise—as to weapons, I took them all into my
side every night. But I needed none of all this precaution ; for
never man had a more faithful, loving, sincere servant than F riday
was to me; without passions, sullenness, or designs, perfectly
obliged and engaged; his very affections were tied to me, like
those of a child to a father; and I daresay he would have sacri-
ficed his life to save mine upon any occasion whatsoever—the
many testimonies he gave me of this put it out of doubt, and
soon convinced me that I needed to use no precautions for my
safety on his account.

This freqently gave me occasion to observe, and that with
wonder, that however it had pleased God in His providence, and
in the government of the works of His hands, to take from so
great a part of the world of His creatures the best uses to which
their faculties and the powers of their souls are adapted, yet that
He has bestowed upon them the same powers, the same reason,
the same affections, the same sentiments of kindness and obliga-
tion, the same passions and resentments of wrongs, the same
sense of gratitude, sincerity, fidelity, and all the capacities of
doing good and receiving good that He has given to us; and that
when He pleases to offer them occasions of exerting these, they
are as ready, nay, more ready, to apply them to the right uses
for which they were bestowed than we are. This made me very
melancholy sometimes, in reflecting, as the several occasions pre-
sented, how mean a use we make of all these, even though we
have these powers enlightened by the great lamp of instruction,
the Spirit of God, and by the knowledge of His word added to
our understanding ; and why it has pleased God to hide the like
saving knowledge from so many millions of souls, who, if I might
judge by this poor savage, would make a much better use of it
than we did. From hence I sometimes was led too far, to invade
the sovereignty of Providence, and, as it were, arraign the justice
of so arbitrary a disposition of things, that should hide that sight
from some, and reveal it to others, and yet expect a like duty from
both ; but I shut it up, and checked my thoughts with this con-
clusion : first, that we did not know by what light and law these
should be condemned; but that as God was necessarily, and by
the nature of His being, infinitely holy and just, so it could not
be, but if these creatures were all sentenced to absence from
Himself, it was on account of sinning against that light which,
as the Scripture says, was a law to themselves, and by such rules
as their consciences would acknowledge to be just, though the
foundation was not discovered to us; and secondly, that still as
ROBINSON CRUSOE 167

we all are the clay in the hand of the potter, no vessel could say
to him, “ Why hast thou formed me thus ?”

But to return to my new companion. I was greatly delighted
with him, and made it my business to teach him everything that
was proper to make him useful, handy, and helpful; but especially
to make him speak, and understand me when I spoke ; and
he was the aptest scholar that ever was; and particularly was
so merry, so constantly diligent, and so pleased when he could
but understand me, or make me understand him, that it was
very pleasant to me to talk to him. Now my life began to be
so easy that I began to say to myself that could I but have
been safe from more savages, I cared not if I was never to
remove from the place where I lived.

CHAPTER XV
FRIDAYS EDUCATION

AF TER I had been two or three days returned to my castle, I
thought that, in order to bring Friday off from his horrid way
of feeding, and from the relish of a cannibal’s stomach, I ought
to let him taste other flesh ; so I took him out with me one morn-
ing to the woods. I went, indeed, intending to kill a kid out of
my own flock; and bring it home and dress it; but as I was
going I saw a she-goat lying down in the shade, and two young
kids sitting by her. I catched hold of Friday. “ Hold,” said
I, “stand still;’’ and made signs to him not to stir: immedi-
ately I presented my piece, shot, and killed one of the kids.
The poor creature, who had at a distance, indeed, seen me kill
the savage, his enemy, but did not know, nor could imagine
how it was done, was sensibly surprised, trembled, and shook,
and looked so amazed that I thought he would have sunk down.
He did not see the kid I shot at, or perceive I had killed
it, but ripped up his waistcoat to feel whether he was not
wounded ; and, as I found presently, thought I was resolved to
kill him: for he came and kneeled down to me, and embracing
my knees, said a great many things I did not understand;
but I could easily see the meaning was to pray me not to
kill him.
I soon found a way to convince him that I would do him no
harm; and taking him up by the hand, laughed at him, and
pointing to the kid which I had killed, beckoned to him to run
168 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

and fetch it, which he did: and while he was wondering, and
looking to see how the creature was killed, I loaded my gun
again. By-and-by I saw a great fowl, like a hawk, sitting
upon a tree within shot; so, to let Friday understand a little
what I would do, I called him to me again, pointed at the fowl,
which was indeed a parrot, though I thought it had been a
hawk ; I say, pointing to the parrot, and to my gun, and to the
ground under the parrot, to let him see I would make it fall, I
made him understand that I would shoot and kill that bird ;
accordingly, I fired, and bade him look, and immediately he
saw the parrot fall. He stood like one frightened again, not-
withstanding all I had said to him; and I found he was the
more amazed, because he did not see me put anything into the
gun, but thought that there must be some wonderful fund of
death and destruction in that thing, able to kill man, beast,
bird, or anything near or far off; and the astonishment this
created in him was such as could not wear off for a long time;
and I believe, if I would have let him, he would have
worshipped me and my gun. As for the gun itself, he would
not so much as touch it for several days after; but he would
speak to it and talk to it, as if it had answered him, when he
was by himself; which, as I afterwards learned of him, was to
desire it not to kill him. Well, after his astonishment was a
little over at this, I pointed to him to run and fetch the bird
I had shot, which he did, but stayed some time; for the parrot,
not being quite dead, had fluttered away a good distance from
the place where she fell: however, he found her, took her up,
and brought her to me; and as I had perceived his ignorance
about the gun before, I took this advantage to charge the gun
again, and not to let him see me do it, that I might be ready
for any other mark that might present; but nothing more
offered at that time: so I brought home the kid, and the same
evening I took the skin off, and cut it out as well as I could;
and having a pot fit for that purpose, I boiled or stewed some
of the flesh, and made some very good broth. After I had
begun to eat some I gave some to my man, who seemed very
glad of it, and liked it very well; but that which was strangest
to him was to see me eat salt with it. He made a sign to me
that the salt was not good to eat; and putting a little into his
own mouth, he seemed to nauseate it, and would spit and
sputter at it, washing his mouth with fresh water after it: on
the other hand, I took some meat into my mouth without salt,
and I pretended to spit and sputter for want of salt, as much
as he had done at the salt; but it would not do; he would


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Copyright, Service & Paton, 1899.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 169

never care for salt with meat or in his broth; at least, not for
a great while, and then but a very little.

Having thus fed him with boiled meat and broth, I was
resolved to feast him the next day by roasting a piece of the
kid: this I did by hanging it before the fire ona string, as I
had seen many people do in England, setting two poles up, one
on each side of the fire, and one across the top, and tying the
string to the cross stick, letting the meat tum continually.
This Friday admired very much; but when he came to taste
the flesh, he took so many ways to tell me how well he liked
it, that I could not but understand him: and at last he told
me, as well as he could, he would never eat man’s flesh any
more, which I was very glad to hear.

The next day I set him to work beating some corn out, and
sifting it in the manner I used to do, as I observed before ; and
he soon understood how to do it as well as I, especially after he
had seen what the meaning of it was, and that it was to make
bread of; for after that I let him see me make my bread, and
bake it too; and in a little time F riday was able to do all the
work for me as well as I could do it myself.

I began now to consider, that having two mouths to feed
instead of one, I must provide more ground for my harvest, and
plant a larger quantity of corn than I used to do; so I marked
out a larger piece of land, and began the fence in the same
manner as before, in which Friday worked not only very
willingly and very hard, but did it very cheerfully : and I told
him what it was for; that it was for corn to make more bread,
because he was now with me, and that I might have enough for
him and myself too. He appeared very sensible of that part,
and let me know that he thought I had much more labour upon
me on his account than I had for myself; and that he would
work the harder for me if I would tell him what to do.

This was the pleasantest year of all the life I led in this place.
Friday began to talk pretty well, and understand the names of
almost everything I had occasion to call for, and of every place
I had to send him to, and talked a great deal to me; so that,
in short, I began now to have some use for my tongue again,
which, indeed, I had very little occasion for before. Besides the
pleasure of talking to him, I had a singular satisfaction in the
fellow himself: his simple, unfeigned honesty appeared to me
more and more every day, and I began really to love the
creature ; and on his side I believe he loved me more than it
was possible for him ever to love anything before.

I had a mind once to try if he had any inclination for his own
170 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

country again ; and having taught him English so well that he
could answer me almost any question, I asked him whether the
nation that he belonged to never conquered in battle? At
which he smiled, and said—* Yes, yes, we always fight the
better;” that is, he meant always get the better in fight; and
so we began the following discourse :—

Master.—You always fight the better; how came you to be
taken prisoner, then, Friday ?

Friday.—My nation beat much for all that.

Master.—How beat? If your nation beat them, how came
you to be taken?

Friday.—They more many than my nation, in the place where
me was; they take one, two, three, and me: my nation over-
beat them in the yonder place, where me no was; there my
nation take one, two, great thousand.

Master.—But why did not your side recover you from the
hands of your enemies, then ?

Friday.—They run, one, two, three, and me, and make go in
the canoe ; my nation have no canoe that time.

Master.—Well, F riday, and what does your nation do with the
men they take? Do they carry them away and eat them, as
these did?

Friday.—Yes, my nation eat mans too: eat all up.

Master.—Where do they carry them ?

Friday.—Go to other place, where they think.

Master.—Do they come hither ?

Friday.—Yes, yes, they come hither; come other else place.

Master.—Have you been here with them ?

Friday.—Yes, I have been here (points to the N.W. side of
the island, which, it seems, was their side).

By this I understood that my man Friday had formerly been
among the savages who used to come on shore on the farther
part of the island, on the same man-eating occasions he was now
brought for; and some time after, when I took the courage to
carry him to that side, being the same I formerly mentioned, he
presently knew the place, and told me he was there once, when
they ate up twenty men, two women, and one child; he could
not tell twenty in English, but he numbered them by laying so
many stones in a row, and pointing to me to tell them over.

I have told this passage, because it introduces what follows:
that after this discourse I had with him, I asked him how far it
was from our island to the shore, and whether the canoes were
not often lost. He told me there was no danger, no canoes ever
lost: but that after a little way out to sea, there was a current
ROBINSON CRUSOE 171

and wind, always one way in the morning, the other in the
afternoon. This I understood to be no more than the sets of
the tide, as going out or coming in; but I afterwards understood
it was occasioned by the great draft and reflux of the mighty
river Orinoco, in the mouth or gulf of which river, as I found
afterwards, our island lay ; and that this land, which I perceived
to be W. and N.W., was the great island Trinidad, on the north
point of the mouth of the river. I asked Friday a thousand
questions about the country, the inhabitants, the sea, the coast,
and what nations were near; he told me all he knew with the
greatest openness imaginable. I asked him the names of the
several nations of his sort of people, but could get no other name
than Caribs; from whence I easily understood that these were
the Caribbees, which our maps place on the part of America
which reaches from the mouth of the river Orinoco to Guiana,
and onwards to St. Martha. He told me that up a great way
beyond the moon, that was beyond the setting of the moon,
which must be west from their country, there dwelt white
bearded men, like me, and pointed to my great whiskers, which
I mentioned before; and that they had killed much mans, that
was his word : by all which I understood he meant the Spaniards,
whose cruelties in America had been spread over the whole
country, and were remembered by all the nations from father
to son.

I inquired if he could tell me how I might go from this island,
and get among those white men. He told me, “ Yes, yes, you
may go in two canoe.” I could not understand what he meant,
or make him describe to me what he meant by two canoe, till at
last, with great difficulty, I found he meant it must be in a large
boat, as big as two canoes. This part of Friday’s discourse I
began to relish very well; and from this time I entertained some
hopes that, one time or other, I might find an opportunity to
make my escape from this place, and that this poor savage
might be a means to help me.

During the long time that Friday had now been with me, and
that he began to speak to me, and understand me, I was not
wanting to lay a foundation of religious knowledge in his mind;
particularly I asked him one time, who made him. The poor
creature did not understand me at all, but thought I had asked
who was his father—but I took it up by another handle, and
asked him who made the sea, the ground we walked on, and the
hills and woods. He told me, “It was one Benamuckee, that
lived beyond all ;” he could describe nothing of this great person,
but that he was very old, “much older,” he said, “than the sea
172 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

or land, than the moon or the stars.” I asked him then, if this
old person had made all things, why did not all things worship
him? He looked very grave, and, with a perfect look of in-
nocence, said, “ All things say O to him.” I asked him if the
people who die in his country went away anywhere? He said,
“Yes; they all went to Benamuckee.” Then I asked him
whether those they eat up went thither too. He said, “ Yes.”
From these things, | began to instruct him in the knowledge
of the true God; I told him that the great Maker of all things
lived up there, pointing up towards heaven; that He governed
the world by the same power and providence by which He made
it; that He was omnipotent, and could do everything for us,
give everything to us, take everything from us; and thus, by
degrees, | opened his eyes. He listened with great attention,
and received with pleasure the notion of Jesus Christ being sent
to redeem us; and of the manner of making our prayers to God,
and His being able to hear us, even in heaven. He told me one
day, that if our God could hear us, up beyond the sun, he must
needs be a greater God than their Benamuckee, who lived but
a little way off, and yet could not hear till they went up to the
great mountains where he dwelt to speak to them. I asked him
if ever he went thither to speak to him. He said, “No; they
never went that were young men; none went thither but the
old men,” whom he called their Oowokakee ; that is, as I made
him explain to me, their religious, or clergy ; and that they went
to say O (so he called saying prayers), and then came back and
told them what Benamuckee said. By this I observed, that there
is priesteraft even among the most blinded, ignorant pagans in
the world ; and the policy of making a secret of religion, in order
to preserve the veneration of the people to the clergy, not only
to be found in the Roman, but, perhaps, among all religions in
the world, even among the most brutish and barbarous savages.
I endeavoured to clear up this fraud to my man Friday ; and
told him that the pretence of their old men going up to the
mountains to say O to their god Benamuckee was a cheat; and
their bringing word from thence what he said was much more
so; that if they met with any answer, or spake with any one there,
it must be with an evil spirit; and then I entered into a long
discourse with him about the devil, the origin of him, his rebellion
against God, his enmity to man, the reason of it, his setting him-
self up in the dark parts of the world to be worshipped instead
of God, and as God, and the many stratagems he made use of to
delude mankind to their ruin; how he had a secret access to our
passions and to our affections, and to adapt his snares to our
ROBINSON CRUSOE 178

inclinations, so as to cause us even to be our own tempters, and
run upon our destruction by our own choice.

I found it was not so easy to imprint right notions in his mind
about the devil as it was about the being of a God. Nature
assisted all my arguments to evidence to him even the necessity
of a great First Cause, an overruling, governing Power, a secret
directing Providence, and of the equity and justice of paying
homage to Him that made us, and the like; but there appeared
nothing of this kind in the notion of an evil spirit, of his origin,
his being, his nature, and above all, of his inclination to do evil,
and to draw us in to do so too; and the poor creature puzzled
me once in such a manner, by a question merely natural and
innocent, that I scarce knew what to say to him. I had been
talking a great deal to him of the power of God, His omnipotence,
His aversion to sin, His being a consuming fire to the workers of
iniquity ; how, as He had made us all, He could destroy us and
all the world in a moment; and he listened with great serious-
ness to me all the while. After this I had been telling him
how the devil was God’s enemy in the hearts of men, and used
all his malice and skill to defeat the good designs of Providence,
and to ruin the kingdom of Christ in the world, and the like.
“Well,” says Friday, “but you say God is so strong, so great;
is He not much strong, much might as the devil?” “ Yes, yes,”
says I, “Friday; God is stronger than the devil—God is above
the devil, and therefore we pray to God to tread him down
under our feet, and enable us to resist his temptations and
quench his fiery darts.” “ But,” says he again, “if God much
stronger, much might as the wicked devil, why God no kill the
devil, somake him no more do wicked?” I was strangely
surprised at this question; and, after all, though I was now an
old man, yet I was but a young doctor, and ill qualified for a
casuist or a solver of difficulties; and at first I could not tell
what to say; so I pretended not to hear him, and asked him
what he said; but he was too earnest for an answer to forget
his question, so that he repeated it in the very same broken
words as above. By this time I had recovered myself a little,
and I said, “ God will at last punish him severely; he is reserved
for the judgment, and is to be cast into the bottomless pit, to
dwell with everlasting fire.” This did not satisfy Friday ; but
he returns upon me, repeating my words, “‘ Reserve at last !’ me
no understand—but why not kill the devil now; not kill great
ago?’ You may as well ask me,” said I, “why God does not kill
you or me, when we do wicked things here that offend Him—
we are preserved to repent and be pardoned.”” He mused some
174 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

time on this, “Well, well,” says he, mighty affectionately,
“that well—so you, I, devil, all wicked, all preserve, repent, God
pardon all.” Here I was run down again by him to the last
degree ; and it was a testimony to me, how the mere notions
of nature, though they will guide reasonable creatures to the
knowledge of a God, and of a worship or homage due to the
supreme being of God, as the consequence of our nature, yet
nothing but divine revelation can form the knowledge of Jesus
Christ, and of redemption purchased for us; of a Mediator of
the new covenant, and of an Intercessor at the footstool of God’s
throne; I say, nothing but a revelation from Heaven can form
these in the soul; and that, therefore, the gospel of our Lord
and Saviour Jesus Christ, I mean the Word of God, and the Spirit
of God, promised for the guide and sanctifier of His people, are
the absolutely necessary instructors of the souls of men in the
saving knowledge of God and the means of salvation.

I therefore diverted the present discourse between me and
my man, rising up hastily, as upon some sudden occasion of
going out; then sending him for something a good way off, I
seriously prayed to God that he would enable me to instruct
savingly this poor savage ; assisting, by His Spirit, the heart of
the poor ignorant creature to receive the light of the knowledge
of God in Christ, reconciling him to Himself, and would guide
me so to speak to him from the Word of God that his conscience
might be convinced, his eyes opened, and his soul saved. When
he came again to me, I entered into a long discourse with him
upon the subject of the redemption of man by the Saviour of
the world, and of the doctrine of the gospel preached from
Heaven, viz. of repentance towards God, and faith in our
blessed Lord Jesus. I then explained to him as well as I could
why our blessed Redeemer took not on Him the nature of angels
but the seed of Abraham; and how, for that reason, the fallen
angels had no share in the redemption ; that He came only to
the lost sheep of the house of Israel, and the like.

I had, God knows, more sincerity than knowledge in all the
methods I took for this poor creature’s instruction, and must
acknowledge, what I believe all that act upon the same principle
will find, that in laying things open to him, I really informed
and instructed myself in many things that either I did not know
or had not fully considered before, but which occurred naturally
to my mind upon searching into them, for the information of
this poor savage ; and I had more affection in my inquiry after
things upon this occasion than ever I felt before: so that,
whether this poor wild wretch was better for me or no, I had
ROBINSON CRUSOE 175

great reason to be thankful that ever he came to me; my grief
sat lighter upon me; my habitation grew comfortable to me
beyond measure: and when I reflected that in this solitary life
which I have been confined to, I had not only been moved to
look up to heaven myself, and to seek the Hand that had brought
me here, but was now to be made an instrument, under Provi-
dence, to save the life, and, for aught I knew, the soul of a
poor savage, and bring him to the true knowledge of religion
and of the Christian doctrine, that he might know Christ Jesus,
in whom is life eternal; I say, when I reflected upon all these
things, a secret joy ran through every part of my soul, and I
frequently rejoiced that ever I was brought to this place, which
I had so often thought the most dreadful of all afflictions that
could possibly have befallen me.

I continued in this thankful frame all the remainder of my
time ; and the conversation which employed the hours between
Friday and me was such as made the three years which we lived
there together perfectly and completely happy, if any such
thing as complete happiness can be formed in a sublunary state.
This savage was now a good Christian, a much better than I;
though I have reason to hope, and bless God for it, that we
were equally penitent, and comforted, restored penitents. We
had here the Word of God to read, and no farther off from His
Spirit to instruct than if we had been in England. I always
applied myself, in reading the Scripture, to let him know, as
well as I could, the meaning of what I read; and he again, by
his serious inquiries and questionings, made me, as I said before,
a much better scholar in the Scripture knowledge than I should
ever have been by my own mere private reading. Another
thing I cannot refrain from observing here also, from experience
in this retired part of my life, viz. how infinite and inexpres-
sible a blessing it is that the knowledge of God, and of the
doctrine of salvation by Christ Jesus, is so plainly laid down in
the Word of God, so easy to be received and understood, that,
as the bare reading the Scripture made me capable of under-
standing enough of my duty to carry me directly on to the
great work of sincere repentance for my sins, and laying hold
of a Saviour for life and salvation, to a stated reformation in
practice, and obedience to all God’s commands, and this with-
out any teacher or instructor, I mean human; so the same plain
instruction sufficiently served to the enlightening this savage
creature, and bringing him to be such a Christian as I have
known few equal to him in my life.

As to all the disputes, wrangling, strife, and contention which

M
176 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

have happened in the world about religion, whether niceties in
doctrines or schemes of church government, they were all per-
fectly useless to us, and, for aught I can yet see, they have been
so to the rest of the world. We had the sure guide to heaven,
viz. the Word of God; and we had, blessed be God, comfort-
able views of the Spirit of God teaching and instructing by His
word, leading us into all truth, and making us both willing and
obedient to the instruction of His word. And I cannot see the
least use that the greatest knowledge of the disputed points of
religion, which have made such confusion in the world, would
have been to us, if we could have obtained it. But I must go
on with the historical part of things, and take every part in
its order.

After Friday and I became more intimately acquainted, and
that he could understand almost all I said to him, and speak
pretty fluently, though in broken English, to me, I acquainted
him with my own history, or at least so much of it as related to
my coming to this place: how I had lived there, and how long ;
I let him into the mystery, for such it was to him, of gunpowder
and bullet, and taught him how to shoot. I gave him a knife,
which he was wonderfully delighted with; and I made him a
belt, with a frog hanging to it, such as in England we wear
hangers in; and in the frog, instead of a hanger, I gave hima
hatchet, which was not only as good a weapon in some cases,
but much more useful upon other occasions.

I described to him the country of Europe, particularly England,
which I came from; how we lived, how we worshipped God,
how we behaved to one another, and how we traded in ships
to all parts of the world. I gave him an account of the wreck
which I had been on board of, and showed him, as near as I
could, the place where she lay; but she was all beaten in pieces
before, and gone. I showed him the ruins of our boat, which
we lost when we escaped, and which I could not stir with my
whole strength then; but was now fallen almost all to pieces.
Upon seeing this boat, Friday stood musing a great while, and
said nothing. I asked him what it was he studied upon. At
last says he, “ Me see such boat like come to place at my nation.”
I did not understand him a good while; but at last, when I had
examined further into it, I understood by him that a boat, such
as that had been, came on shore upon the country where he
lived : that is, as he explained it, was driven thither by stress of
weather. I presently imagined that some European ship must
have been cast away upon their coast, and the boat might get
loose and drive ashore; but was so dull that I never once
ROBINSON CRUSOE 177

thought of men making their cscape from a wreck thither,
much less whence they might come: so I only inquired after a
description of the boat.

Friday described the boat to me well enough; but brought
me better to understand him when he added with some warmth,
“We save the white mans from drown.” Then I presently
asked if there were any white mans, as he called them, in the
boat. “Yes,” he said; “the boat full of white mans.” I asked
him how many. He told upon his fingers seventeen. I asked
him then what became of them. He told me, “ They live, they
dwell at my nation.”

This put new thoughts into my head ; for I presently imagined
that these might be the men belonging to the ship that was
cast away in the sight of my island, as I now called it; and
who, after the ship was struck on the rock, and they saw her
inevitably lost, had saved themselves in their boat, and were
landed upon that wild shore among the savages. Upon this I
inquired of him more critically what was become of them. He
assured me they lived still there; that they had been there
about four years; that the savages left them alone, and gave
them victuals to live on. I asked him how it came to pass they
did not kill them and eat them. He said, “No, they make
brother with them ;” that is, as I understood him, a truce; and
then he added, “They no eat mans but when make the war
fight ;” that is to say, they never eat any men but such as come
to fight with them and are taken in battle.

It was after this some considerable time, that being upon the
top of the hill at the east side of the island, from whence, as I
have said, I had, in a clear day, discovered the main or continent
of America, Friday, the weather being very serene, looks very
earnestly towards the mainland, and, in a kind of surprise, falls
a jumping and dancing, and calls out to me, for I was at some
distance from him. I asked him what was the matter. “Oh,
joy!” says he; “Oh, glad! there see my country, there my
nation !’” I observed an extraordinary sense of pleasure appeared
in his face, and his eyes sparkled, and his countenance discovered
a strange eagerness, as if he had a mind to be in his own country
again. This observation of mine put a great many thoughts into
me, which made me at first not so easy about my new man
Friday as I was before ; and I made no doubt but that, if Friday
could get back to his own nation again, he would not only forget
all his religion but all his obligation to me, and would be forward
enough to give his countrymen an account of me, and come
back, perhaps with a hundred or two of them, and make a feast
178 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

upon me, at which he might be as merry as he used to be with
those of his enemies when they were taken in war. But I
wronged the poor honest creature very much, for which I was
very sorry afterwards. However, as my jealousy increased, and
held some weeks, I was a little more circumspect, and not so
familiar and kind to him as before: in which I was certainly
wrong too; the honest, grateful creature having no thought
about it but what consisted with the best principles, both as a
religious Christian and as a grateful friend, as appeared afterwards
to my full satisfaction.

While my jealousy of him lasted, you may be sure I was every
day pumping him to see if he would discover any of the new
thoughts which I suspected were in him ; but I found everything
he said was so honest and so innocent, that I could find nothing
to nourish my suspicion; and in spite of all my uneasiness, he
made me at last entirely his own again ; nor did he in the least
perceive that I was uneasy, and therefore I could not suspect
him of deceit.

One day, walking up the same hill, but the weather being
hazy at sea, so that we could not see the continent, I called to
him, and said, “ Friday, do not you wish yourself in your own
country, your own nation?” “Yes,” he said, “I be much O
glad to be at my own nation.” “ What would you do there?”
said I. “Would you turn wild again, eat men’s flesh again, and
be a savage as you were before?” He looked full of concern,
and shaking his head, said, “No, no, Friday tell them to live
good; tell them to pray God; tell them to eat corn-bread,
cattle flesh, milk; no eat man again.” “ Why, then,” said I to
him, “they will kill you.” He looked grave at that, and then
said, “No, no, they no kill me, they willing love learn.” He
meant by this, they would be willing to learn. He added, they
learned much of the bearded mans that came in the boat. Then
I asked him if he would go back to them. He smiled at that,
and told me that he could not swim so far. I told him T would
make a canoe for him. He told me he would go if I would go
with him. “I go!” says I; “why, they will eat me if I come
there.” “No, no,” says he, “me make they no eat you; me
make they much love you.” He meant, he would tell them
how I had killed his enemies, and saved his life, and so he would
make them love me. Then he told me, as well as he could, how
kind they were to seventeen white men, or bearded men, as he
called them, who came on shore there in distress.

From this time, I confess, I had a mind to venture over, and
see if I could possibly join with those bearded men, who I made
ROBINSON CRUSOE 179

no doubt were Spaniards and Portuguese ; not doubting but, if
I could, we might find some method to escape from thence,
being upon the continent, and a good company together, better
than I could from an island forty miles off the shore, alone and
without help. So, after some days, I took Friday to work again
by way of discourse, and told him I would give him a boat to
go back to his own nation ; and, accordingly, I carried him to
my frigate, which lay on the other side of the island, and having
cleared it of water (for I always kept it sunk in water), I brought
it out, showed it him, and we both went into it. I found he
was a most dexterous fellow at managing it, and would make
it go almost as swift again as I could. So when he was in, I
said to him, “ Well, now, Friday, shall we go to your nation rt
He looked very dull at my saying so; which it seems was because
he thought the boat was too small to go so far. I then told him
I had a bigger; so the next day I went to the place where the
first boat lay which I had made, but which I could not get into
the water. He said that was big enough; but then, as I had
taken no care of it, and it had lain two or three and twenty
years there, the sun had so split and dried it, that it was rotten.
Friday told me such a boat would do very well, and would carry
“much enough vittle, drink, bread”; this was his way of talking.

CHAPTER XVI
RESCUE OF PRISONERS FROM CANNIBALS

UPON the whole, I was by this time so fixed upon my design
of going over with him to the continent that I told him we
would go and make one as big as that, and he should go home
in it. He answered not one word, but looked very grave and
sad. I asked him what was the matter with him. He asked
me again, “ Why you angry mad with F riday ?—what me done?”
Lasked him what he meant. I told him I was not angry with
him at all. “No angry!” says he, repeating the words, several
times ; “why send Friday home away to my nation p??, SeWhy,;”
says I, “ Friday, did not you say you wished you were there?”
«Yes, yes,” says he, “ wish we both there; no wish Friday there,
no master there.” In a word, he would not think of going there
without me. “I go there, Friday?” says I; “what shall I do
there?” He turned very quick upon me at this. “ You do
great deal much good,” says he; “you teach wild mans be good,
180 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

sober, tame mans; you tell them know God, pray God, and live
new life.” “Alas, Friday!” says I, “thou knowest not what
thou sayest; I am but an ignorant man myself.” “Yes, yes,”
says he, “ you teachee me good, you teachee them good.” “No,
no, Friday,” says I, “you shall go without me; leave me here
to live by myself, as I did before.” He looked confused again
at that word ; and running to one of the hatchets which he used
to wear, he takes it up hastily, and gives it to me. ‘“ What
must I do with this?” says I to him. You take kill Friday,”
sayshe. “What must I kill you for?” said I again. He returns
very quick—“ What you send Friday away for? Take kill
Friday, no send Friday away.’ This he spoke so earnestly that
I saw tears stand in his eyes. In a word, I so plainly discovered
the utmost affection in him to me, and a firm resolution in him,
that I told him then and often after, that I would never send
him away from me if he was willing to stay with me.

Upon the whole, as I found by all his discourse a settled affec-
tion to me, and that nothing could part him from me, so I found
all the foundation of his desire to go to his own country was
laid in his ardent affection to the people, and his hopes of my
doing them good; a thing which, as I had no notion of myself,
so I had not the least thought or intention, or desire of under-
taking it. But still I found a strong inclination to attempting
my escape, founded on the supposition gathered from the dis-
course, that there were seventeen bearded men there; and
therefore, without any more delay, I went to work with Friday
to find out a great tree proper to fell, and make a large periagua,
or canoe, to undertake the voyage. There were trees enough
in the island to have built a little fleet, not of periaguas or
canoes, but even of good, large vessels; but the main thing I
looked at was, to get one so near the water that we might
launch it when it was made, to avoid the mistake I committed
at first. At last Friday pitched upon a tree; for I found he
knew much better than I what kind of wood was fittest for it;
nor can I tell to this day what wood to call the tree we cut
down, except that it was very like the tree we call fustic, or
between that and the Nicaragua wood, for it was much of the
same colour and smell. Friday wished to burn the hollow or
cavity of this tree out, to make it for a boat, but I showed him
how to cut it with tools; which, after I had showed him how
to use, he did very handily; and in about a month’s hard labour
we finished it and made it very handsome; especially when,
with our axes, which I showed him how to handle, we cut and
hewed the outside into the true shape of a boat. After this,.


ROBINSON CRUSOEK 181

however, it cost us near a fortnight’s time to get her along, as
it were inch by inch, upon great rollers into the water; but
when she was in, she would have carried twenty men with
great case.

When she was in the water, though she was so big, it amazed
me to see with what dexterity and how swift my man Friday
could manage her, turn her, and paddle her along. So I asked
him if he would, and if we might venture over in her. “ Yes,”
he said, “we venture over in her very well, though great blow
wind.” However, I had a further design that he knew nothing
of, and that was, to make a mast and a sail, and to fit her with
an anchor and cable. As to a mast, that was easy enough to
get; so 1 pitched upon a straight young cedar-tree, which I
found near the place, and which there were great plenty of in
the island, and I set Friday to work to cut it down, and gave
him directions how to shape and order it. But as to the sail,
that was my particular care. I knew L had old sails, or rather
pieces of old sails, enough ; but as L had had them now six-and-
twenty years by me, and had not been very careful to preserve
them, not imagining that I should ever have this kind of use
for them, I did not doubt but they were all rotten ; and, indeed,
most of them were so. However, I found two pieces which
appeared pretty good, and with these I went to work ; and with
a great deal of pains, and awkward stitching, you may be sure,
for want of needles, I at length made a three-cornered ugly
thing, like what we call in England a shoulder-of-mutton sail,
to go with a boom at bottom, and a little short sprit at the top,
such as usually our ships’ long-boats sail with, and such as I
best knew how to manage, as it was such a one as I had to the
boat in which I made my escape from Barbary, as related in the
first part of my story.

I was near two months performing this last work, viz. rigging
and fitting my masts and sails; for I finished them very com-
plete, making a small stay, and a sail, or foresail, to it, to
assist if we should turn to windward ; and, what was more than
all, | fixed a rudder to the stern of her to steer with. I was
but a bungling shipwright, yet as I knew the usefulness and
even necessity of such a thing, I applied myself with so much
pains to do it, that at last 1 brought it to pass ; though, con-
sidering the many dull contrivances L had for it that failed, I
think it cost me almost as much labour as making the boat.

After all this was done, I had my man Friday to teach as to
what belonged to the navigation of my boat; for, though he
knew very well how to paddle a canoe, he knew nothing of
182 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

what belonged to a sail and a rudder ; and was the most amazed
when he saw me work the boat to and again in the sea by the
rudder, and how the sail jibed, and filled this way or that way
as the course we sailed changed; I say when he saw this he
stood like one astonished and amazed. However, with a little
use, I made all these things familiar to him, and he became an
expert sailor, except that of the compass I could make him
understand very little. On the other hand, as there was very
little cloudy weather, and seldom or never any fogs in those
parts, there was the less occasion for a compass, seeing the stars
were always to be seen by night, and the shore by day, except
in the rainy seasons, and then nobody cared to stir abroad either
by land or sea.

I was now entered on the seven-and-twentieth year of my

captivity in this place; though the three last years that I had

this creature with me ought rather to be left out of the account,
my habitation being quite of another kind than in all the rest
of the time. I kept the anniversary of my landing here with
the same thankfulness to God for His mercies as at first: and
if I had such cause of acknowledgment at first, I had much
more so now, having such additional testimonies of the care of
Providence over me, and the great hopes | had of being effectu-
ally and speedily delivered ; for I had an invincible impression
upon my thoughts that my deliverance was at hand, and that I
should not be another year in this place. 1 went on, however,
with my husbandry ; digging, planting, and fencing as usual. I
gathered and cured my grapes, and did every necessary thing
as before.

The rainy season was in the meantime yea me, when I kept
more within doors than at other times. e had stowed our
new vessel as secure as we could, bringing Ril up into the creek,
where, as I said in the beginning, I landed my rafts from the
ship; and hauling her up to the shore at high-water mark, I
made my man Friday dig a little dock, just big enough to hold
her, and just deep enough to give her water enough to float in ;
and then, when the tide was out, we made a strong dam across
the end of it, to keep the water out; and so she lay dry as to
the tide from the sea: and to keep the rain off we laid a great
many boughs of trees, so thick that she was as well thatched as
a house; and thus we waited for the months of November and
December, in which I designed to make my adventure.

When the settled season : began to come in, as the thought of
my design returned with the fair weather, I was preparing daily
for the voyage. And the first thing I did was to lay by a certain
ROBINSON CRUSOE 188

quantity of provisions, being the stores for our voyage ; and in-
tended in a week or a fortnight’s time to open the dock, and
launch out our boat. I was busy one morning upon something
of this kind, when I called to Friday, and bid him to go to the
sea-shore and see if he could find a turtle or a tortoise, a thing
which we generally got once a week, for the sake of the eggs
as well as the flesh. Friday had not been long gone when he
came running back, and flew over my outer wall or fence, like one
that felt not the ground or the steps he set his foot on; and before
I had time to speak to him he cries out to me, “O master !
O master! O sorrow ! O bad !”—‘ What's the matter, Friday? .
says I. “O yonder there,” says he, “one, two, three canoes ;
one, two, three!” By this way of speaking I concluded there
were six; but on inquiry I found there were but three. “ Well,
Friday,” says I, “do not be frightened.” So I heartened him
up as well as I could. However, I saw the poor fellow was most
terribly scared, for nothing ran in his head but that they were
come to look for him, and would cut him in pieces and eat him ;
and the poor fellow trembled so that I scarcely knew what to do
with him. I comforted him as well as I could, and told him I
was in as much danger as he, and that they would eat me as
well as him. “But,” says I “ Friday, we must resolve to fight
them. Can you fight, Friday?” “Me shoot,” says he, “but
there come many great number.” “No matter for that,” said I
again; “our guns will fright them that we do not kill.” So I asked
him whether, if I resolved to defend him, he would defend me,
and stand by me, and do just as I bid him. He said, “ Me die
when you bid die, master.” _ So I went and fetched a good dram
of rum and gave him; for I had been so good a husband of my
rum that I had a great deal left. When we had drunk it, I
made him take the two fowling-pieces, which we always carried,
and loaded them with large swan-shot, as big as small pistol-
bullets. ‘Then I took four muskets, and loaded them with two
slugs and five small bullets each; and my two pistols I loaded
with a brace of bullets each. I hung my great sword, as usual,
naked by my side, and gave Friday his hatchet. When I had
thus prepared myself, I took my perspective glass, and went up
to the side of the hill, to see what I could discover; and I found
quickly by my glass that there were one-and-twenty savages,
three prisoners, and three canoes ; and that their whole business
seemed to be the triumphant banquet upon these three human
bodies : a barbarous feast, indeed! but nothing more than, as I
had observed, was usual with them. I observed also that they
had landed, not where they had done when Friday made his
184 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

escape, but nearer to my creek, where the shore was low, and
where a thick wood came almost close down to the sea. This,
with the abhorrence of the inhuman errand these wretches came
about, filled me with such indignation that I came down again
to Friday, and told him I was resolved to go down to them and
kill them all; and asked him if he would stand by me. He had
now got over his fright, and his spirits being a little raised with
the dram I had given him, he was very cheerful, and told me, as
before, he would die when I bid die.

In this fit of fury I divided the arms which I had charged, as
before, between us; I gave Friday one pistol to stick in his girdle,
and three guns upon his shoulder, and I took one pistol and the
other three guns myself; and in this posture we marched out.
I took a small bottle of rum in my pocket, and gave Friday a
large bag with more powder and bullets; and as to orders, I
charged him to keep close behind me, and not to stir, or shoot,
or do anything till I bid him, and in the meantime not to speak
a word. In this posture I fetched a compass to my right hand
of near a mile, as well to get over the creek as to get into the
wood, so that I could come within shot of them before I should
be discovered, which I had seen by my glass it was easy to do.

While I was making this march, my former thoughts returning,
I began to abate my resolution: I do not mean that I enter-
tained any fear of their number, for as they were naked, unarmed
wretches, it is certain I was superior to them—nay, though I had
been alone. But it occurred to my thoughts, what call, what
occasion, much less what necessity I was in to go and dip my
hands in blood, to attack people who had neither done or in-
tended me any wrong? who, as to me, were innocent, and whose
barbarous customs were their own disaster, being in them a token,
indeed, of God’s having left them, with the other nations of that
part of the world, to such stupidity, and to such inhuman courses,
but did not call me to take upon me to be a judge of their actions,
much less an executioner of His justice—that whenever He
thought fit He would take the cause into His own hands, and
by national vengeance punish them as a people for national crimes,
but that, in the meantime, it was none of my business—that it
was true Friday might justify it, because he was a declared
enemy, and in a state of war with those very particular people,
and it was lawful for him to attack them—but I could not say
the same with regard to myself. These things were so warmly
pressed upon my thoughts all the way as I went, that I resolved
I would only go and place myself near them that I might observe
their barbarous feast, and that I would act then as God should
‘ROBINSON CRUSOE 185

direct ; but that unless something offered that was more a call
to me than yet I knew of, I would not meddle with them.

With this resolution I entered the wood, and, with all possible
wariness and silence, Friday following close at my heels, I
marched till I came to the skirts of the wood on the side which
was next to them, only that one corner of the wood lay between
me and them. Here I called softly to Friday, and showing him
a great tree which was just at the corner of the wood, I bade
him go to the tree, and bring me word if he could see there
plainly what they were doing. He did so, and came immedi-
ately back to me, and told me they might be plainly viewed
there—that they were all about their fire, eating the flesh of
one of their prisoners, and that another lay bound upon the
sand a little from them, whom he said they would kill next ; and
this fired the very soul within me. He told me it was not one
of their nation, but one of the bearded men he had told me of,
that came to their country in the boat. I was filled with horror
at the very naming of the white bearded man ; and going to the
tree, I saw plainly by my glass a white man, who lay upon the
beach of the sea with his hands and his feet tied with flags,
or things like rushes, and that he was an European, and had
clothes on.

There was another tree and a little thicket beyond it, about
fifty yards nearer to them than the place where I was, which, by
going a little way about, I saw I might come at undiscovered,
and that then I should be within half a shot of them; so I with-
held my passion, though I was indeed enraged to the highest
degree; and going back about twenty paces, I got behind some
bushes, which held all the way till I came to the other tree, and
then came to a little rising ground, which gave me a full view
of them at the distance of about eighty yards.

I had now not a moment to lose, for nineteen of the dreadful
wretches sat upon the ground, all close huddled together, and
had just sent the other two to butcher the poor Christian, and
bring him perhaps limb by limb to their fire, and they were
stooping down to untie the bands at his feet. I turned to
Friday. ‘Now, Friday,” said I, “do as I bid thee.” Friday
said he would. “Then, Friday,” says I, “do exactly as you see
me do; fail in nothing.’ So I set down one of the muskets and
the fowling-piece upon the ground, and Friday did the like by
his, and with the other musket I took my aim at the savages,
bidding him to do the like; then asking him if he was ready,
he said, “ Yes.” “Then fire at them,” said 1; and at the same
moment I fired also,
186 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

Friday took his aim so much better than I, that on the side
that he shot he killed two of them, and wounded three more ;
and on my side I killed one, and wounded two. They were,
you may be sure, in a dreadful consternation: and all of them
that were not hurt jumped upon their feet, but did not immedi-
ately know which way to run, or which way to look, for they
knew not from whence their destruction came. Friday kept
his eyes close upon me, that, as I had bid him, he might observe
what I did; so, as soon as the first shot was made, I threw down
the piece, and took up the fowling-piece, and Friday did the
like; he saw me cock and present; he did the same again.
“ Are you ready, Friday?” said I. “Yes,” says he. ‘Let fly,
then,” says I, ‘in the name of God!” and with that I fired
again among the amazed wretches, and so did Friday ; and as
our pieces were now loaded with what I call swan-shot, or small
pistol-bullets, we found only two drop; but so many were
wounded that they ran about yelling and screaming like mad
creatures, all bloody, and most of them miser: ably wounded ;
whereof three more fell aneee after, though not quite dead.

“Now, Friday,” says I, laying down the dischar ged pieces,
and taking up the sett: w hich was yet loaded, “ follow me,
which he did with a great deal of courage ; upon which I rushed
out of the wood and showed myself, and Friday close at my foot.
As soon as I perceived they saw me, I shouted as loud as I ‘could,
and bade Friday do so too, and running as fast as I could, which,
by the way, was not very fast, being loaded with arms as I was,
I made directly towards the poor victim, who was, as I said,
lying upon the beach or shore, between the place where they
sat and the sea. The two butchers who were just going to
work with him had left him at the surprise of our first fire, and
fled ina terrible fright to the seaside, and had jumped into a
canoe, and three more of the rest made the same way. I turned
to Friday, and bade him step forwards and fire at them; he
understood me immediately, and running about forty yards, to
be nearer them, he shot at them; and I thought he had killed
them all, for I saw them all fall of a heap into the boat, though
I saw two of them up again quickly ; however, he killed two of
them, and wounded the third, so that he lay down in the bottom
of the boat as if he had been dead.

While my man Friday fired at them, I pulled out my knife
and cut the flags that bound the poor victim; and loosing his
hands and feet, I lifted him up, and asked him in the Portuguese
tongue what he was. He answered in Latin, Christianus; but
was so weak and faint that he could scarce stand or speak. I
ROBINSON CRUSOE 187

took my bottle out of my pocket and gave it him, making signs
that he should drink, which he did; and I gave him a piece of
bread, which he ate. Then I asked him what countryman he
was: and he said, Espagniole ; and being a little recovered, let
me know, by all the signs he could possibly make, how much
he was in my debt for his deliverance. “ Seignior,” said I, with
as much Spanish as I could make up, “we will talk afterwards,
but we must fight now: if you have any strength left, take this
pistol and sword, and lay about you.” He took them very
thankfully ; and no sooner had he the arms in his hands, but,
as if they had put new vigour into him, he flew upon his
murderers like a fury, and had cut two of them in pieces in an
instant; for the truth is, as the whole was a surprise to them,
so the poor creatures were so much frightened with the noise
of our pieces that they fell down for mere amazement and fear,
and had no more power to attempt their own escape than their
flesh had to resist our shot ; and that was the case of those five
that Friday shot at in the boat; for as three of them fell with
the hurt they received, so the other two fell with the fright.

I kept my piece in my hand still without firing, being willing
to keep my charge ready, because I had given the Spaniard my
pistol and sword: so I called to Friday, and bade him run up to
the tree from whence we first fired, and fetch the arms which
lay there that had been discharged, which he did with great
swiftness ; and then giving him my musket, I sat down myself to
load all the rest again, and bade them come to me when they
wanted. While I was loading these pieces, there happened a
fierce engagement between the Spaniard and one of the savages,
who made at him with one of their great wooden swords, the
weapon that was to have killed him before, if I had not prevented
it. The Spaniard, who was as bold and brave as could be imagined,
though weak, had fought the Indian a good while, and had cut
two great wounds on his head ; but the savage being a stout,
lusty fellow, closing in with him, had thrown him down, being
faint, and was wringing my sword out of his hand; when the
Spaniard, though undermost, wisely quitting the sword, drew
the pistol from his girdle, shot the savage through the body, and
killed him upon the spot, before I, who was running to help him,
could come near him.

Friday, being now left to his liberty, pursued the flying
wretches, with no weapon in his hand but his hatchet: and with
that he despatched those three who, as I said before, were
wounded at first, and fallen, and all the rest he could come up
with ; and the Spaniard coming to me for a gun, I gave him one
188 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

of the fowling-pieces, with which he pursued two of the savages,
and wounded them both; but as he was not able to run, they
both got from him into the wood, where Friday pursued them,
and killed one of them, but the other was too nimble for him ;
and though he was wounded, yet had plunged himself into the
sea, and swam with all his might off to those two who were left
in the canoe ; which three in the canoe, with one wounded, that
we knew not whether he died or no, were all that escaped our
hands of one-and-twenty. The account of the whole is as follows :
Three killed at our first shot from the tree; two killed at the
next shot; two killed by Friday in the boat ; two killed by Friday
of those at first wounded ; one killed by Friday in the wood ;
three killed by the Spaniard ; four killed, being found dropped
here and there, of the wounds, or killed by Friday in his chase
of them; four escaped in the boat, whereof one wounded, if not
dead —twenty-one in all.

Those that were in the canoe worked hard to get out of gun-
shot, and though Friday made two or three shots at them, I did
not find that he hit any of them. Friday would fain have had
me take one of their canoes, and pursue them; and indeed I
was very anxious about their escape, lest, carrying the news home
to their people, they should come back perhaps with two or three
hundred of the canoes and devour us by mere multitude; so I
consented to pursue them by sea, and running to one of their
canoes, I jumped in and bade Friday follow me: but when I was
in the canoe I was surprised to find another poor creature lie
there, bound hand and foot, as the Spaniard was, for the slaughter,
and almost dead with fear, not knowing what was the matter ;
for he had not been able to look up over the side of the boat,
he was tied so hard neck and heels, and had been tied so long
that he had really but little life in him.

I immediately cut the twisted flags or rushes which they had
bound him with, and would have helped him up; but he could
not stand or speak, but groaned most piteously, believing, it seems,
still, that he was only unbound in order to be killed. When
Friday came to him I bade him speak to him, and tell him of his
deliverance ; and pulling out my bottle, made him give the poor
wretch a dram, which, with the news of his being delivered,
revived him, and he sat up in the boat. But when Friday came
to hear him speak, and lcok in his face, it would have moved
any one to tears to have seen how Friday kissed him, embraced
him, hugged him, cried, laughed, hallooed, jumped about, danced,
sang’; then cried again, wrung his hands, beat his own face and
head ; and then sang and jumped about again like a distracted


ROBINSON CRUSOE 189

creature. It was a good while before I could make him speak
to me or tell me what was the matter; but when he came a
little to himself he told me that it was his father.

It is not easy for me to express how it moved me to see what
ecstasy and filial affection had worked in this poor savage at the
sight of his father, and of his being delivered from death ; nor
indeed can 1 describe half the extravagances of his affection
after this: for he went into the boat and out of the boat a great
many times: when he went in to him he would sit down by him,
open his breast, and hold his father’s head close to his bosom for
many minutes together, to nourish it; then he took his arms and
ankles, which were numbed and stiff with the binding, and chafed
and rubbed them with his hands; and I, perceiving what the
case was, gave him some rum out of my bottle to rub them with,
which did them a great deal of good.

This affair put an end to-our pursuit of the canoe with the
other savages, who were now almost out of sight; and it was
happy for us that we did not, for it blew so hard within two
hours after, and before they could be got a quarter of their
way, and continued blowing so hard all night, and that from the
north-west, which was against them, that I could not suppose
their boat could live, or that they ever reached their own coast.

But to return to Friday ; he was so busy about his father that
I could not find in my heart to take him off for some time ; but
after | thought he could leave him a little, I called him to me,
and he came jumping and laughing, and pleased to the highest
extreme : then I asked him if he had given his father any bread.
He shook his head, and said, “ None; ugly dog eat all up self.”
I then gave hima cake of bread out of a little pouch I carried on
purpose ; I also gave him a dram for himself; but he would not
taste it, but carried it to his father. I had in my pocket two or
three bunches of raisins, so I gave him a handful of them for his
father. He had no sooner given his father these raisins but I
saw him come out of the boat, and run away as if he had been
bewitched, for he was the swiftest fellow on his feet that ever I
saw: I say, he ran at such a rate that he was out of sight, as it
were, in an instant ; and though I called, and hallooed out too
after him, it was all one—away he went; and in a quarter of an
hour I saw him come back again, though not so fast as he went ;
and as he came nearer I found his pace slacker, because he had
something in his hand. When he came up to me I found he had
been quite home for an earthen jug or pot, to bring his father
some fresh water, and that he had got two more cakes or loaves
of bread: the bread he gave me, but the water he carried to his
190 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

father ; however, as I was very thirsty too, I took a little of it.
The water revived his father more than all the rum or spirits I
had given him, for he was fainting with thirst.

When his father had drunk, I called to him to know if there
was any water left. He said, “ Yes”; and I bade him give it to
the poor Spaniard, who was in as much want of it as his father ;
and I sent one of the cakes that Friday brought to the Spaniard
too, who was indeed very weak, and was reposing himself upon
a green place under the shade of a tree; and whose limbs were
also very stiff, and very much swelled with the rude bandage he
had been tied with. When I saw that upon Friday’s coming to
him with the water he sat up and drank, and took the bread and
began to eat, I went to him and gave him a handful of raisins.
He looked up in my face with all the tokens of gratitude and
thankfulness that could appear in any countenance; but was so
weak, notwithstanding he had so exerted himself in the fight,
that he could not stand up upon his feet—he tried to do it two
or three times, but was really not able, his ankles were so swelled
and so painful to him ; so I bade him sit still, and caused Friday
to rub his ankles, and bathe them with rum, as he had done his
father’s.

I observed the poor affectionate creature, every two minutes,
or perhaps less, all the while he was here, turn his head about
to see if his father was in the same place and posture as he left
him sitting; and at last he found he was not to be seen; at
which he started up, and, without speaking a word, flew with
that swiftness to him that one could scarce perceive his feet to
touch the ground as he went; but when he came, he only found
he had laid himself down to ease his limbs, so Friday came back
to me presently ; and then I spoke to the Spaniard to let Friday
help him up if he could, and lead him to the boat, and then he
should carry him to our dwelling, where I would take care of
him. But Friday, a lusty, strong fellow, took the Spaniard upon
his back, and carried him away to the boat, and set him down
softly upon the side or gunnel of the canoe, with his feet in the
inside of it; and then lifting him quite in, he set him close to
his father; and presently stepping out again, launched the boat
off, and paddled it along the shore faster than I could walk,
though the wind blew pretty hard too; so he brought them
both safe into our creek, and leaving them in the boat, ran
away to fetch the other canoe. As he passed me I spoke to
him, and asked him whither he went. He told me, “Go fetch
more boat ;’’ so away he went like the wind, for sure never man
or horse ran like him; and he had the other canoe in the creek
ROBINSON CRUSOE 191

almost as soon as I got to it by land; so he wafted me over,
and then went to help our new guests out of the boat, which he
did; but they were neither of them able to walk; so that poor
Friday knew not what to do.

To remedy this, I went to work in my thought, and calling to
Friday to bid them sit down on the bank while he came to me,
I soon made a kind of hand-barrow to lay them on, and Friday
and I carried them both up together upon it between us.

But when we got them to the outside of our wall, or fortifica-
tion, we were at a worse loss than before, for it was impossible
to get them over, and I was resolved not to break it down ; so
I set to work again, and Friday and I, in about two hours’ time,
made a very handsome tent, covered with old sails, and above
that with boughs of trees, being in the space without our out-
ward fence, and between that and the grove of young wood
which I had planted ; and heye we made them two beds of such
things as I had—viz. of good rice-straw, with blankets laid upon
it to lie on, and another to cover them, on each bed.

My island was now peopled, and I thought myself very rich
in subjects; and it was a merry reflection, which I frequently
made, how like a king I looked. First of all, the whole country
was my own property, so that I had an undoubted right of
dominion. Secondly, my people were perfectly subjected—I
was absolutely lord and lawgiver—they all owed their lives to
me, and were ready to lay down their lives, if there had been
occasion for it, for me. It was remarkable, too, I had but three
subjects, and they were of three different religions—my man
Friday was a Protestant, his father was a Pagan and a cannibal,
and the Spaniard was a Papist. However, I allowed liberty of
conscience throughout my dominions. But this is by the way.

As soon as I had secured my two weak, rescued prisoners, and
given them shelter, and a place to rest them upon, I began to
think of making some provision for them; and the first thing I
did, I ordered Friday to take a yearling goat, betwixt a kid and
a goat, out of my particular flock, to be killed ; when I cut off
the hinder-quarter, and chopping it into small pieces, I set Friday
to work to boiling and stewing, and made them a very good dish,
I assure you, of flesh and broth ; and as I cooked it without doors,
for I made no fire within my inner wall, so I carried it all into
the new tent, and having set a table there for them, I sat down,
and ate my own dinner also with them, and, as well as I could,
cheered them and encouraged them. Friday was my interpreter,
especially to his father, and, indeed, to the Spaniard too; for the
Spaniard spoke the language of the savages pretty well.

N
192 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

After we had dined, or rather supped, I ordered Friday to
take one of the canoes, and go and fetch our muskets and other
firearms, which, for want of time, we had left upon the place of
battle ; and the next day I ordered him to go and bury the dead
bodies of the savages, which lay open to the sun, and would
presently be offensive. I also ordered him to bury the horrid
remains of their barbarous feast, which I could not think of
doing myself; nay, I could not bear to see them if I went that
way ; all which he punctually performed, and effaced the very
appearance of the savages being there; so that when I went
again, I could scarce know where it was, otherwise than by the
corner of the wood pointing to the place.

I then began to enter into a little conversation with my two
new subjects; and, first, I set Friday to inquire of his father
what he thought of the escape of the savages in that canoe,
and whether we might expect a return of them, with a power
too great for us to resist. His first opinion was, that the savages
in the boat never could live out the storm which blew that
night they went off, but must of necessity be drowned, or
driven south to those other shores, where they were as sure to
be devoured as they were to be drowned if they were cast away;
but, as to what they would do if they came safe on shore, he
said he knew not; but it was his opinion that they were so
dreadfully frightened with the manner of their being attacked,
the noise, and the fire, that he believed they would tell the
people they were all killed by thunder and lightning, not by
the hand of man; and that the two which appeared — viz.
Friday and I—were two heavenly spirits, or furies, come down to
destroy them, and not men with weapons. This, he said, he
knew; because he heard them all cry out so, in their language,
one to another ; for it was impossible for them to conceive that
a man could dart fire, and speak thunder, and kill at a distance,
without lifting up the hand, as was done now: and this old
savage was in the right; for, as I understood since, by other
hands, the savages never attempted to go over to the island
afterwards, they were so terrified with the accounts given by
those four men (for it seems they did escape the sea), that
they believed whoever went to that enchanted island would be
destroyed with fire from the gods. This, however, I knew not ;
and therefore was under continual apprehensions for a good
while, and kept always upon my guard, with all my army: for,
as there were now four of us, I would have ventured upon a
hundred of them, fairly in the open field, at any time.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 193

CHAPTER XVII
VISIT OF MUTINEERS

N a little time, however, no more canoes appearing, the fear
of their coming wore off; and I began to take my former
thoughts of a voyage to the main into consideration; being
likewise assured by Friday’s father that I might depend upon
good usage from their nation, on his account, if I would go.
But my thoughts were a little suspended when I had a serious
discourse with the Spaniard, and when I understood that there
were sixteen more of his countrymen and Portuguese, who
having been cast away and made their escape to that side, lived
there at peace, indeed, with the savages, but were very sore put
to it for necessaries, and, indeed, for life. I asked him all the
particulars of their voyage, and found they were a Spanish ship,
bound from the Rio de la Plata to the Havanna, being directed
to leave their loading there, which was chiefly hides and silver,
and to bring back what European goods they could meet with
there; that they had five Portuguese seamen on board, whom
they took out of another wreck; that five of their own men
were drowned when first the ship was lost, and that these
escaped through infinite dangers and hazards, and arrived, almost
starved, on the cannibal coast, where they expected to have
been devoured every moment. He told me they had some
arms with them, but they were perfectly useless, for that they
had neither powder nor ball, the washing of the sea having
spoiled all their powder but a little, which they used at their
first landing to provide themselves with some food.

I asked him what he thought would become of them there,
and if they had formed any design of making their escape. He
said they had many consultations about it; but that having
neither vessel nor tools to build one, nor provisions of any kind,
their councils always ended in tears and despair. I asked him
how he thought they would receive a proposal from me, which
might tend towards an escape; and whether, if they were all
here, it might not be done. I told him with freedom, I feared
mostly their treachery and ill-usage of me, if I put my life in
their hands ; for that gratitude was no inherent virtue in the
nature of man, nor did men always square their dealings by the
obligations they had received so much as they did by the advan-
tages they expected. I told him it would be very hard that I
should be made the instrument of their deliverance, and that
194 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

they should afterwards make me their prisoner in New Spain,
where an Englishman was certain to be made a sacrifice, what
necessity or what accident soever brought him thither ; and that
I had rather be delivered up to the savages, and be devoured
alive, than fall into the merciless claws of the priests, and be
carried into the Inquisition. I added that, otherwise, I was
persuaded, if they were all here, we might, with so many hands,
build a barque large enough to carry us all away, either to the
Brazils southward, or to the islands or Spanish coast northward ;
but that if, in requital, they should, when I had put weapons
into their hands, carry me by force among their own people, I
might be ill-used for my kindness to them, and make my case
worse than it was before.

He answered, with a great deal of candour and ingenuous-
ness, that their condition was so miserable, and that they were
so sensible of it, that he believed they would abhor the thought
of using any man unkindly that should contribute to their
deliverance ; and that, if I pleased, he would go to them with
the old man, and discourse with them about it, and return again
and bring me their answer; that he would make conditions
with them upon their solemn oath, that they should be ab-
solutely under my direction as their commander and captain ;
and they should swear upon the holy sacraments and gospel to
be true to me, and go to such Christian country as I should
agree to, and no other; and to be directed wholly and ab-
solutely by my orders till they were landed safely in such
country as I intended, and that he would bring a contract from
them, under their hands, for that purpose. Then he told me
he would first swear to me himself that he would never stir
from me as long as he lived till I gave him orders; and that he
would take my side to the last drop of his blood, if there should
happen the least breach of faith among his countrymen. He
told me they were all of them very civil, honest men, and they
were under the greatest distress imaginable, having neither
weapons nor clothes, nor any food, but at the mercy and dis-
cretion of the savages; out of all hopes of ever returning to
their own country; and that he was sure, if I would undertake
their relief, they would live and die by me.

Upon these assurances, I resolved to venture to relieve them,
if possible, and to send the old savage and this Spaniard over to
them to treat. But when we had got all things in readiness to
go, the Spaniard himself started an objection, which had so
much prudence in it on one hand, and so much sincerity on the
other hand, that I could not but be very well satisfied in it;
ROBINSON CRUSOE 195

and, by his advice, put off the deliverance of his comrades for at
least half a year. The case was thus: he had been with us now
about a month, during which time I had let him see in what
manner I had provided, with the assistance of Providence, for
my support ; and he saw evidently what. stock of corn and rice
I had laid up; which, though it was more than sufficient for
myself, yet it was not sufficient, without good husbandry, for
my family, now it was inereased to four; but much less would
it be sufficient if his countrymen, who were, as he said, sixteen,
still alive, should come over; and least of all would it be suffi-
cient to victual our vessel, if we should build one, for a voyage
to any of the Christian colonies of America; so he told me he
thought it would be’ more advisable to let him and the other two
dig and cultivate some more land, as much as I could spare seed
to sow, and that we should wait another harvest, that we might
have a supply of corn for his countrymen, when they should
come; for want might be a temptation to them to disagree, or
not to think themselves delivered, otherwise than out of one
difficulty into another. ‘ You know,” says he, “the children
of Israel, though they rejoiced at first for their being delivered
out of Egypt, yet rebelled even against God Himself, that
delivered them, when they came to want bread in the wilder-
ness.

His caution was so seasonable, and his advice so good, that I
could not but be very well pleased with his proposal, as well as
I was satisfied with his fidelity; so we fell to digging, all four
of us, as well as the wooden tools we were furnished with per-
mitted ; and in about a month’s time, by the end of which it
was seed-time, we had got as much land cured and trimmed up
as we sowed two-and-twenty bushels of barley on, and sixteen
jars of rice, which was, in short, all the seed we had to spare:
indeed, we left ourselves barely sufficient for our own food for
the six months that we had to expect our crop; that is to say
reckoning from the time we set our seed aside for sowing; for
it is not to be supposed it is six months in the ground in that
country.

Having now society enough, and our numbers being sufficient
to put us out of fear of the savages, if they had come, unless
their number had been very great, we went freely all over the
island, whenever we found occasion ; and as we had our escape
or deliverance upon our thoughts, it was impossible, at least for
me, to have the means of it out of mine. For this purpose I
marked out several trees, which I thought fit for our work, and
I set Friday and his father to cut them down; and then I
196 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

caused the Spaniard, to whom I imparted my thoughts on that
affair, to oversee and direct their work. I showed them with
what indefatigable pains I had hewed a large tree into single
planks, and I caused them to do the like, till they made about
a dozen large planks, of good oak, near two feet broad, thirty-
five feet long, and from two inches to four inches thick: what
prodigious labour it took up any one may imagine.

At the same time I contrived to increase my little flock of
tame goats as much as I could; and for this purpose I made
Friday and the Spaniard go out one day, and myself with
Friday the next day (for we took our turns), and by this means
we got about twenty young kids to breed up with the rest ; for
whenever we shot the dam, we saved the kids, and added them
to our flock. But above all, the season for curing the grapes
coming on, I caused such a prodigious quantity to be hung up
in the sun, that, I believe, had we been at Alicant, where the
raisins of the sun are cured, we could have filled sixty or eighty
barrels; and these, with our bread, formed a great part of
our food —very good living too, I assure you, for they are
exceedingly nourishing.

It was now harvest, and our crop in good order: it was not
the most plentiful increase I had seen in the island, but, how-
ever, it was enough to answer our end; for from twenty-two
bushels of barley we brought in and thrashed out above two
hundred and twenty bushels; and the like in proportion of the
rice ; which was store enough for our food to the next harvest,
though all the sixteen Spaniards had been on shore with me;
or, if we had been ready for a voyage, it would very plentifully
have victualled our ship to have carried us to any part of the
world ; that is to say, any part of America. When we had thus
housed and secured our magazine of corn, we fell to work to
make more wicker-ware, viz. great baskets, in which we kept
it; and the Spaniard was very handy and dexterous at this
part, and often blamed me that I did not make some things for
defence of this kind of work; but I saw no need of it.

And now, having a full supply of food for all the guests I
expected, I gave the Spaniard leave to go over to the main, to
see what he could do with those he had left behind him there.
I gave him a strict charge not to bring any man who would not
first swear in the presence of himself and the old savage that he
would in no way injure, fight with, or attack the person he
should find in the island, who was so kind as to send for them
in order to their deliverance; but that they would stand by
him and defend him against all such attempts, and wherever
ROBINSON CRUSOE 197

they went would be entirely under and subjected to his com-
mand; and that this should be put in writing, and signed in
their hands. How they were to have done this, when I knew
they had neither pen nor ink, was a question which we never
asked. Under these instructions, the Spaniard and the old
savage, the father of Friday, went away in one of the canoes
which they might be said to have come in, or rather were
brought in, when they came as prisoners to be devoured by the
savages. I gave each of them a musket, with a firelock on it,
and about eight charges of powder and ball, charging them to
be very good husbands of both, and not to use either of them
but upon urgent occasions.

This was a cheerful work, being the first measures used by
me in view of my deliverance for now twenty-seven years and
some days. I gave them provisions of bread and of dried grapes,
sufficient for themselves for many days, and sufficient for all the
Spaniards for about eight days’ time; and wishing them a good
voyage, I saw them go, agreeing with them about a signal they
should hang out at their return, by which I should know them
again when they came back, at a distance, before they came on
shore. They went away with a fair gale on the day that the
moon was at full, by my account in the month of October ; but
as for an exact reckoning of days, after I had once lost it I
could never recover it again; nor had I kept even the number
of years so punctually as to be sure I was right; though, as it
proved when I afterwards examined my account, I found I had
kept a true reckoning of years.

It was no less than eight days I had waited for them, when a
strange and unforeseen accident intervened, of which the like
has not, perhaps, been heard of in history. I was fast asleep in
my hutch one morning, when my man Friday came running in
to me, and called aloud, “ Master, master, they are come, they
are come!” I jumped up, and regardless of danger I went, as
soon as I could get my clothes on, through my little grove,
which, by the way, was by this time grown to be a very thick
wood; I say, regardless of danger I went without my arms,
which was not my custom to do; but I was surprised when,
turning my eyes to the sea, I presently saw a boat at about a
league and a half distance, standing in for the shore, with a
shoulder-of-mutton sail, as they call it, and the wind blowing
pretty fair to bring them in: also I observed, presently, that
they did not come from that side which the shore lay on, but
from the southernmost end of the island. Upon this I called
Friday in, and bade him lie close, for these were not the people
198 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

we looked for, and that we might not know yet whether they
were friends or enemies. In the next place I went in to fetch
my perspective glass to see what I could make of them: and
having taken the ladder out, I climbed up to the top of the hill,
as I used to do when I was apprehensive of anything, and to
take my view the plainer without being discovered. 1 had
scarce set my foot upon the hill when my eye plainly dis-
covered a ship lying at anchor, at about two leagues and a half
distance from me, S.S.E., but not above a league and a half
from the shore. By my observation it appeared plainly to be
an English ship, and the boat appeared to be an English long-
boat.

I cannot express the confusion I was in, though the joy of
seeing a ship, and one that I had reason to believe was manned
by my own countrymen, and consequently friends, was such as
I cannot describe; but yet I had some secret doubts hung
about me—TI cannot tell from whence they came—bidding me
keep upon my guard. In the first place, it occurred to me to
consider what business an English ship could have in that part
of the world, since it was not the way to or from any part of
the world where the English had any traffic; and I knew there
had been no storms to drive them in there in distress ; and that
if they were really English it was most probable that they were
here upon no good design; and that I had better continue as I
was than fall into the hands of thieves and murderers.

Let no man despise the secret hints and notices of danger
which sometimes are given him when he may think there is no
possibility of its being real. That such hints and notices are
given us I believe few that have made any observation of things
ean deny; that they are certain discoveries of an invisible
world, and a converse of spirits, we cannot doubt; and if the
tendency of them seems to be to warn us of danger, why
should we not suppose they are from some friendly agent
(whether supreme, or inferior and subordinate, is not the ques-
tion), and that they are given for our good ?

The present question abundantly confirms me in the justice
of this reasoning; for had I not been made cautious by this
secret admonition, come it from whence it will, I had been done
inevitably, and in a far worse condition than before, as you will
see presently. I had not kept myself long in this posture till I
saw the boat draw near the shore, as if they looked for a creek
to thrust in at, for the convenience of landing; however, as
they did not come quite far enough, they did not see the little
inlet where I formerly landed my rafts, but ran their boat on
ROBINSON CRUSOE 199

shore upon the beach, at about half a mile from me, which was
very happy for me; for otherwise they would have landed just
at my door, as I may say, and would soon have beaten me out
of my castle, and perhaps have plundered me of all I had.
When they were on shore I was fully satisfied they were
Englishmen, at least most of them; one or two I thought were
Dutch, but it did not prove so; there were in all eleven men,
whereof three of them I found were unarmed and, as I thought,
bound ; and when the first four or five of them were jumped on
shore, they took those three out of the boat as prisoners: one of
the three I could perceive using the most passionate gestures of
entreaty, affliction, and despair, even to a kind of extravagance ;
the other two, I could perceive, lifted up their hands sometimes,
and appeared concerned indeed, but not to such a degree as the
first. Iwas perfectly confounded at the sight, and knew not
what the meaning of it should be. Friday called out to me in
English, as well as he could, “O master! you see English mans
eat prisoner as well as savage mans.” “ Why, Friday,” says I,
“do you think they are going to eat them, then?” “Yes,”
says Friday, “they will eat them.” “No, no,” says I, “ Friday ;
I am afraid they will murder them, indeed; but you may be
sure they will not eat them.”

All this while I had no thought of what the matter really was,
but stood trembling with the horror of the sight, expecting
every moment when the three prisoners should be killed; nay,
once I saw one of the villains lift up his arm with a great
cutlass, as the seamen ‘call it, or sword, to strike one of the poor
men; and I expected to see him fall every moment; at which
all the blood in my body seemed to run chill in my veins. I
wished heartily now for the Spaniard, and the savage that had
gone with him, or that I had any way to have come undis-
covered within shot of them, that I might have secured the
three men, for I saw no firearms they had among them; but it
fell out to my mind another way. After I had observed the
outrageous usage of the three men by the insolent seamen, I
observed the fellows run scattering about the island, as if they
wanted to see the country. I observed that the three other
men had liberty to go also where they pleased; but they sat
down all three upon the ground, very pensive, and looked like
men in despair. This put me in mind of the first time when I
came on shore, and began to look about me ; how I gave myself
over for lost; how wildly I looked round me; what dreadful
apprehensions I had; and how I lodged in the tree all night
for fear of being devoured by wild beasts. As I knew nothing
200 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

that night of the supply I was to receive by the providential
driving of the ship nearer the land by the storms and tide, by
which I have since been so long nourished and supported ; so
these three poor desolate men knew nothing how certain of
deliverance and supply they were, how near it was to them, and
how effectually and really they were in a condition of safety,
at the same time that they thought themselves lost and their
case desperate. So little do we see before us in the world, and
so much reason have we to depend cheerfully upon the great
Maker of the world, that He does not leave His creatures so
absolutely destitue, but that in the worst circumstances they
have always something to be thankful for, and sometimes are
nearer deliverance than they imagine; nay, are even brought
to their deliverance by the means by which they seem to be
brought to their destruction.

It was just at high-water when these people came on shore;
and while they rambled about to see what kind of a place they
were in, they had carelessly stayed till the tide was spent, and
the water was ebbed considerably away, leaving their boat
aground. They had left two men in the boat, who, as I found
afterwards, having drunk a little to much brandy, fell asleep;
however, one of them waking a little sooner than the other and
finding the boat too fast aground for him to stir it, hallooed out
for the rest, who were straggling about: upon which they all
soon came to the boat: but it was past all their strength to
launch her, the boat being very heavy, and the shore on that
side being a soft oozy sand, almost like a quicksand. In this
condition, like true seamen, who are, perhaps, the least of all
mankind given to forethought, they gave it over, and away they
strolled about the country again; and I heard one of them say
aloud to another, calling them off from the boat, “Why, let her
alone, Jack, can’t you? she'll float next tide;” by which I was
fully confirmed in the main inquiry of what countrymen they
were. All this while I kept myself very close, not once daring
to stir out of my castle any farther than to my place of observa-
tion near the top of the hill: and very glad I was to think how
well it was fortified. I knew it was no less than ten hours
before the boat could float again, and by that time it would be
dark, and I might be at more liberty to see their motions,
and to hear their discourse, if they had any. In the meantime
I fitted myself up for a battle as before, though with more
caution, knowing I had to do with another kind of enemy than
I had at first. I ordered Friday also, whom I had made an
excellent marksman with his gun, to load himself with arms.
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ROBINSON CRUSOE 201

I took myself two fowling-pieces, and I gave him three muskets.
My figure, indeed, was very fierce; I had my formidable goat-
skin coat on, with the great cap I have mentioned, a naked
sword by my side, two pistols in my belt, and a gun upon each
shoulder.

It was my design, as I said above, not to have made any
attempt till it was dark ; but about two o'clock, being the heat
of the day, I found that they were all gone straggling into the
woods, and, as I thought, laid down to sleep. The three poor
distressed men, too anxious for their condition to get any sleep,
had, however, sat down under the shelter of a great tree, at
about a quarter of a mile from me, and, as I thought, out of
sight of any of the rest. Upon this I resolved to discover
myself to them, and learn something of their condition ; imme-
diately I marched as above, my man Friday at a good. distance
behind me, as formidable for his arms as I, but not making quite
so staring a spectre-like figure as I did. I came as near them
undiscovered as I could, and then, before any of them saw me,
I called aloud to them in Spanish, “ What are ye, gentlemen?”
They started up at the noise, but were ten times more con-
founded when they saw me, and the uncouth figure that I made.
They made no answer at all, but I thought I perceived them
just going to fly from me, when I spoke to them in English.
“ Gentlemen,” said I, “do not be surprised at me ; perhaps you
may have a friend near when you did not expect it.” “He
must be sent directly from heaven then,” said one of them very
gravely to me, and pulling off his hat at the same time to me ;
for our condition is past the help of man.” “All help is from
heaven, sir,” said I— but can you put a stranger in the way to
help you? for you seem to be in some great distress. I saw you
when you landed; and when you seemed to make application
to the brutes that came with you, I saw one of them lift up his
sword to kill you.”

The poor,man, with tears running down his face, and trembling,
looking like one astonished, returned, “ Am I talking to God or
man? Is ita real man or an angel?” “Be in no fear about
that, sir,” said I; “if God had sent an angel to relieve you,
he would have come better clothed, and armed after another
manner than you see me; pray lay aside your fears; I am a
man, an Englishman, and disposed to assist you ; you see I have
- one servant only ; we have arms and ammunition ; tell us freely,
can we serve you? What is your case?” “Our case, sir,” said
he, “is too long to tell you while our murderers are so near us ;
but, in short, sir, I was commander of that ship—my men have
202 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

mutinied against me; they have been hardly prevailed on not
to murder me, and, at last, have set me on shore in this desolate
place, with these two men with me—one my mate, the other a
passenger—where we expected to perish, believing the place to
be uninhabited, and know not yet what to think of it.’ « Where
are these brutes, your enemies?” said I; “do you know where
they are gone?” “There they lie, sir,” said he, pointing toa
thicket of trees; “my heart trembles for fear they have seen us
and heard you speak ; if they have, they will certainly murder
us all.” “ Have they any firearms?” said I. He answered,
“They had only two pieces, one of which they left in the boat.”
“Well, then,” said I, “leave the rest to me; I see they are all
asleep ; it is an easy thing to kill them all; but shall we rather
take them prisoners?” He told me there were two desperate
villains among them that it was scarce safe to show any mercy
to; but if they were secured, he believed all the rest would
return to their duty. I asked him which they were. He told
me he could not at that distance distinguish them, but he would
obey my orders in anything I would direct, Well,” says I,
“let us retreat out of their view or hearing, lest they awake,
and we will resolve further.” So they willingly went back with
me, till the woods covered us from them.

“Look you, sir,” said I, “if I venture upon your deliverance,
are you willing to make two conditions with me?” He antici.
pated my proposals by telling me that both he and the ship, if
recovered, should be wholly directed and commanded by me in
everything; and if the ship was not recovered, he would live
and die with me in what part of the world soever I would send
him; and the two other men said the same. ‘ Well,” says I,
“my conditions are but two; first, that while you stay in this
island with me, you will not pretend to any authority here; and
if I put arms in your hands, you will, upon all occasions, give
them up to me, and do no prejudice to me or mine upon this
island, and in the meantime be governed by my orders ; secondly,
that if the ship is or may be recovered, you will carry me and
my man to England passage free.”

He gave me all the assurances that the invention or faith of
man could devise that he would comply with these most reason-
able demands, and besides would owe his life to me, and ac-
knowledge it upon all occasions as long as he lived. “Well,
then,” said I, “here are three muskets for you, with powder and
ball; tell me next what you think is proper to be done.” He
showed all the testimonies of his gratitude that he was able, but
offered to be wholly guided by me. I told him I thought it was
ROBINSON CRUSOE 203

very hard venturing anything; but the best method I could
think of was to fire on them at once as they lay, and if any were
not killed at the first volley, and offered to submit, we might
save them, and so put it wholly upon God’s providence to direct
the shot. He said, very modestly, that he was loath to kill them
if he could help it; but that those two were incorrigible villains,
and had been the authors of all the mutiny in the ship, and if
they escaped, we should be undone still, for they would go on
board and bring the whole ship’s company, and destroy us all.
“Well, then,” says I, “ necessity legitimates my advice, for it is
the only way to save our lives.’”” However, seeing him still
cautious of shedding blood, I told him they should go themselves,
and manage as they found convenient.

In the middle’ of this discourse we heard some of them awake,
and soon after we saw two of them on their feet. I asked him if
either of them were the heads of the mutiny? He said, “ No.”
“Well, then,” said I, “you may let them escape; and Provi-
dence seems to have awakened them on purpose to save them-
selves. Now,” says I, “if the rest escape you, it is your fault.”
Animated with this, he took the musket I had given him in his
hand, and a pistol in his belt, and his two comrades with him,
with each a piece in his hand ; the two men who were with him
going first made some noise, at which one of the seamen who
was awake turned about, and seeing them coming, cried out to
the rest; but was too late then, for the moment he cried out
they fired—I mean the two men, the captain wisely reserving
his own piece. They had so well aimed their shot at the men
they knew, that one of them was killed on the spot, and the
other very much wounded ; but not being dead, he started up
on his feet, and called eagerly for help to the other; but the
captain stepping to him, told him it was too late to cry for help,
he should call upon God to forgive his villainy, and with that
word knocked him down with the stock of his musket, so that
he never spoke more; there were three more in the company,
and one of them was slightly wounded. By this time I was
come; and when they saw their danger, and that it was in vain
to resist, they begged for mercy. The captain told them he
would spare their lives if they would give him an assurance of
their abhorrence of the treachery they had been guilty of, and
would swear to be faithful to him in recovering the ship, and
afterwards in carrying her back to Jamaica, from whence they
came. They gave him all the protestations of their sincerity
that could be desired; and he was willing to believe them, and
spare their lives, which I was not against, only that I obliged
204 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

him to keep them bound hand and foot while they were on the
island.

While this was doing, I sent Friday with the captain’s mate
to the boat with orders to secure her, and bring away the oars
and sails, which they did; and by-and-by three straggling men,
that were (happily for them) parted from the rest, came back
upon hearing the guns fired; and seeing the captain, who was
before their prisoner, now their conqueror, they submitted to be
bound also; and so our victory was complete.

It now remained that the captain and I should inquire into
one another's circumstances. I began first, and told him my
whole history, which he heard with an attention even to amaze-
ment—and particularly at the wonderful manner of my being
furnished with provisions and ammunition; and, indeed, as my
story is a whole collection of wonders, it affected him deeply.
But when he reflected from thence upon himself, and how I
seemed to have been preserved there on purpose to save his life,
the tears ran down his face, and he could not speak a word
more. After this communication was at an end, I carried him
and his two men into my apartment, leading them in just where I
came out, viz. at the top of the house, where | refreshed them with
such provisions as 1 had, and showed them all the contrivances
I had made during my long, long inhabiting that place. .

All I showed them, all | said to them, was perfectly amazing ;
but above all, the captain admired my fortification, and how
pertectly I had concealed my retreat with a grove of trees,
which having been now planted nearly twenty years, and the
trees growing much faster than in England, was become a little
wood, so thick that it was impassable in any part of it but at
that one side where I had reserved my little winding passsage
into it. I told him this was my castle and my residence, but
that I-had a seat in the country, as most princes have, whither
I could retreat upon occasion, and I would show him that too
another time ; but at present our business was to consider how
to recover the ship. He agreed with me as to that, but told me
he was perfectly at a loss what measures to take, for that there
were still six-and-twenty hands on board, who, having entered
into a cursed conspiracy, by which they had all forfeited their
lives to the law, would be hardened in it now by desperation,
and would carry it on, knowing that if they were subdued they
would be brought to the gallows as soon as they came to
England, or to any of the English colonies, and that, therefore,
there would be no attacking them with so small a number as
we were.


ROBINSON CRUSOE 205

I mused for some time on what he had said, and found it was
a very rational conclusion, and that therefore something was
to be resolved on speedily, as well to draw the men on board
into some snare for their surprise as to prevent their landing
upon us, and destroying us. Upon this, it presently occurred
to me that in a little while the ship’s crew, wondering what
was become of their comrades and of the boat, would certainly
come on shore in their other boat to look for them, and that
then, perhaps, they might come armed, and be too strong for
us: this he allowed to be rational. Upon this, I told him the
first thing we had to do was to stave the boat which lay upon
the beach, so that they might not carry her off, and taking
everything out of her, leave her so far useless as not to be fit to
swim. Accordingly, we went on board, took the arms which
were left on board out of her, and whatever else we found
there—which was a bottle of brandy, and another of rum, a few
biseuit-cakes, a horn of powder, and a great lump of sugar ina
piece of canvas (the sugar was five or six pounds): all which
was very welcome to me, especially the brandy and sugar, of
which I had had none left for many years.

When we had carried all these things on shore (the oars,
mast, sail, and rudder of the boat were carried away before), we
knocked a great hole in her bottom, that if they had come
strong enough to master us, yet they could not carry off the
boat. Indeed, it was not much in my thoughts that we could
be able to recover the ship; but my view was, that if they went
away without the boat, I did not much question to make her
again fit to carry us to the Leeward Islands, and call upon our
friends the Spaniards in my way, for I had them still in my
thoughts.

CHAPTER XVIII
THE SHIP RECOVERED

HILE we were thus preparing our designs, and had first,

by main strength, heaved the boat upon the beach, so

high that the tide would not float her off at high-water mark,
and besides, had broke a hole in her bottom too big to be
quickly stopped, and were set down musing what we should do,
we heard the ship fire a gun, and make a waft with her ensign
2s a signal for the boat to come on board—but no boat stirred ;
and they fired several times, making other signals for the boat.
206 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

At last, when all their signals and firing proved fruitless, and
they found the boat did not stir, we saw them, by the help of
my glasses, hoist another boat out and row towards the shore ;
and we found, as they approached, that there were no less than
ten men in her, and that they had firearms with them.

As the ship lay almost two leagues from the shore, we had a
full view of them as they came, and a plain sight even of their
faces; because the tide having set them a little to the east of
the other boat, they rowed up under shore, to come to the same
place where the other had landed, and where the boat lay ; by
this means, I say, we had a full view of them, and the captain
knew the persons and characters of all the men in the boat, of
whom, he said, there were three very honest fellows, who, he
was sure, were led into this conspiracy by the rest, being over-
powered and frightened ; but that as for the boatswain, who it
seems was the chief officer among them, and all the rest, they
were as outrageous as any of the ship’s crew, and were no doubt
made desperate in their new enterprise ; and terribly appre-
hensive he was that they would be too powerful for us. I
smiled at him, and told him that men in our circumstances were
past the operation of fear; that seeing almost every condition
that could be was better than that which we were supposed to
be in, we ought to expect that the consequence, whether death
or life, would be sure to be a deliverance. I asked him what
he thought of the circumstances of my life, and whether a
deliverance were not worth venturing for? “ And where, sir,”
said I, “is your belief of my being preserved here on purpose to
save your life, which elevated you a little while ago? For my
part,” said I, “ there seems to be but one thing amiss in all the
prospect of it.” “ What is that ?”” says he. “Why,” said I, “it is,
that as you say there are three or four honest fellows among them
which should be spared, had they been all of the wicked part of
the crew I should have thought God's providence had singled
them out to deliver them into your hands ; for depend upon it,
every man that comes ashore is our own, and shall die or live
as they behave to us.” As I spoke this with a raised voice and
cheerful countenance, I found it greatly encouraged him ; so we
set vigorously to our business.

We had, upon the first appearance of the boat’s coming from
the ship, considered of separating our prisoners ; and we had,
indeed, secured them effectually. Two of them, of whom the
captain was less assured than ordinary, I sent with Friday, and
one of the three delivered men, to my cave, where they were
remote enough, and out of danger of being heard or discovered,


Flired a volley on eee r geval
of their small arms * > S '

Copyright, Service & Paton, 1899.




|

eee

EN ae Sew en Tne SNe Ca

ROBINSON CRUSOE 207

or of finding their way out of the woods if they could have
delivered themselves. Here they left them bound, but gave
them provisions ; and promised them, if they continued there
quietly, to give them their liberty in a day or two; but that if
they attempted their escape they should be put to death without
mercy. They promised faithfully to bear their confinement
with patience, and were very thankful that they had such good
usage as to have provisions and light left them ; for Friday gave
them candles (such as we made ourselves) for their comfort ;
and they did not know but that he stood sentinel over them at
the entrance.

The other prisoners had better usage; two of them were
kept pinioned, indeed, because the captain was not able to trust
them ; but the other two were taken into my service, upon the
captain’s recommendation, and upon their solemnly engaging to
live and die with us; so with them and the three honest men
we were seven men, well armed; and I made no doubt we
should be able to deal well enough with the ten that were
coming, considering that the captain had said there were three
or four honest men among them also. As soon as they got to
the place where their other boat lay, they ran their boat into
the beach and came all on shore, hauling the boat up after
them, which I was glad to see, for I was afraid they would
rather have left the boat at an anchor some distance from the
shore, with some hands in her to guard her, and so we should
not be able to seize the boat. Being on shore, the first thing
they did, they ran all to their other boat; and it was easy to
see they were under a great surprise to find her stripped, as
above, of all that was in her, and a great hole in her bottom.
After they had mused a while upon this, they set up two or
three great shouts, hallooing with all their might, to try if they
could make their companions hear; but all was to no purpose.
Then they came all close in a ring, and fired a volley of their
small arms, which indeed we heard, and the echoes made the
woods ring. But it was all one; those in the cave, we were
sure, could not hear; and those in our keeping, though they
heard it well enough, yet durst give no answer to them. They
were so astonished at the surprise of this, that, as they told us
afterwards, they resolved to go all on board again to their ship,
and let them know that the men were all murdered, and the
long-boat staved ; accordingly, they immediately launched their
boat again, and got all of them on board.

‘The captain was terribly amazed, and even confounded, at
this, believing they would go on board the ship again and set

o
208 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

sail, giving their comrades over for lost, and so he should still
lose the ship, which he was in hopes we should have recovered ;
but he was quickly as much frightened the other way.

They had not been long put off with the boat, when we per-
ceived them all coming on shore again; but with this new
measure in their conduct, which it seems they consulted to-
gether upon, viz. to leave three men in the boat, and the rest
to go on shore, and go up into the country to look for their
fellows. This was a great disappointment to us, for now we
were at a loss what to do, as our seizing those seven men on
shore would be no advantage to us if we let the boat escape ;
because they would row away to the ship, and then the rest of
them would be sure to weigh and set sail, and so our recovering
the ship would be lost. However we had no remedy but to
wait and see what the issue of things might present. The
seven men came on shore, and the three who remained in the
boat put her off to a good distance from the shore, and came to
an anchor to wait for them; so that it was impossible for us to
come at them in the boat. Those that came on shore kept
close together, marching towards the top of the little hill under
which my habitation lay; and we could sce them plainly,
though they could not perceive us. We should have been very
glad if they would have come nearer us, so that we might have
fired at them, or that they would have gone farther off, that we
might come abroad. But when they were come to the brow
of the hill where they could see a great way into the valleys
and woods, which lay towards the north-east part, and where
the island lay lowest, they shouted and hallooed till they were
weary ; and not caring, it seems, to venture far from the shore,
nor far from one another, they sat down together under a tree to
consider it. Had they thought fit to have gone to sleep there,
as the other part of them had done, they had done the job for
us ; but they were too full of apprehensions of danger to venture
to go to sleep, though they could not tell what the danger was
they had to fear.

The captain made a very just proposal to me upon this con-
sultation of theirs, viz. that perhaps they would all fire a
volley again, to endeavour to make their fellows hear, and that
we should all sally upon them just at the juncture when their
pieces were all discharged, and they would certainly yield, and
we should have them without bloodshed. I liked this proposal,
provided it was done while we were near enough to come up to
them before they could load their pieces again. But this event
did not happen; and we lay still a long time, very irresolute


:

ROBINSON CRUSOE 209

what course to take. At length I told them there would be
nothing done, in my opinion, till night; and then, if they did
not return to the boat, perhaps we might find a way to get
between them and the shore, and so might use some stratagem
with them in the boat to get them on shore. We waited a
great while, though very impatient for their removing; and
were very uneasy when, after long consultation, we saw them
all start up and march down towards the sea; it seems they
had such dreadful apprehensions of the danger of the place that
they resolved to go on board the ship again, give their com-
panions over for lost, and so go on with their intended voyage
with the ship.

As soon as I perceived them go towards the shore, I imagined
it to be as it really was that they had given over their search,
and were going back again; and the captain, as soon as I told
him my thoughts, was ready to sink at the apprehensions of
it; but I presently thought of a stratagem to fetch them back
again, and which answered my end to a tittle. I ordered
Friday and the captain’s mate to go over the little creek west-
ward, towards the place where the savages came on shore, when
Friday was rescued, and so soon as they came to a little rising
ground, at about half a mile distant, I bid them halloo out, as
loud as they could, and wait till they found the seamen heard
them ; that as soon as ever they heard the seamen answer them,
they should return it again; and then, keeping out of sight,
take a round, always answering when the others hallooed, to
draw them as far into the island and among the woods as
possible, and then wheel about again to me by such ways as I
directed them.

They were just going into the boat when Friday and the
mate hallooed ; and they presently heard them, and answering,
ran along the shore westward, towards the voice they heard,
when they were stopped by the creek, where the water being
up, they could not get over, and called for the boat to come up
and set them over; as, indeed, I expected. When they had set
themselves over, I observed that the boat being gone a good
way into the creek, and, as it were, in a harbour within the
land, they took one of the three men out of her, to go along
with them, and left only two in the boat, having fastened her
to the stump of a little tree on the shore. This was what I
wished for; and immediately leaving Friday and the captain’s
mate to their business, I took the rest with me; and, crossing
the creek out of their sight, we surprised the two men before
they were aware—one of them lying on the shore, and the
210 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

other being in the boat. The fellow on shore was between
sleeping and waking, and going to start up; the captain, who
was foremost, ran in upon him, and knocked him down; and
then called out to him in the boat to yield, or he was a dead
man. They needed very few arguments to persuade a single
man to yield, when he saw five men upon him and his comrade
knocked down: besides, this was, it seems, one of the three
who were not so hearty in the mutiny as the rest of the crew,
and therefore was easily persuaded not only to yield, but after-
wards to join very sincerely with us. In the meantime, Friday
and the captain’s mate so well managed their business with the
rest that they drew them, by hallooing and answering, from one
hill to another, and from one wood to another, till they not
only heartily tired them, but left them where they were, very
sure they could not reach back to the boat before it was dark ;
and, indeed, they were heartily tired themselves also, by the
time they came back to us.

We had nothing now to do but to watch for them in the dark,
and to fall upon them, so as to make sure work with them. It
was several hours after Friday came back to me before they came
back to their boat ; and we could hear the foremost of them, long
before they came quite up, calling to those behind to come along :
and could also hear them answer, and complain how lame and
tired they were, and not able to come any faster: which was very
welcome news to us. At length they came up to the boat: but
it is impossible to express their confusion when they found the
boat fast aground in the creek, the tide ebbed out, and their two
men gone. We could hear them call one to another in a most
lamentable manner, telling one another they were got into an
enchanted island; that either there were inhabitants in it,
and they should all be murdered, or else there were devils and
spirits in it, and they should be all carried away and devoured.
They hallooed, again, and called their two comrades by their
names a great many times; but no answer. After some time
we could see them, by the little light there was, run about,
wringing their hands like men in despair, and sometimes they
would go and sit down in the boat to rest themselves : then come
ashore again, and walk about again, and so the same thing over
again. My men would fain have had me give them leave to fall
upon them at once in the dark; but I was willing to take them
at some advantage, so as to spare them, and kill as few of them
as I could; and especially I was unwilling to hazard the killing
of any of our men, knowing the others were very well armed. [|
resolved to wait, to see if they did not separate; and therefore,
ROBINSON CRUSOE 211

to make sure of them, I drew my ambuscade nearer, and ordered
Friday and the captain to creep upon their hands and feet, as
close to the ground as they could, that they might not be dis-
covered, and get as near them as they could possibly before
they offered to fire.

They had not been long in that posture when the boatswain,
who was the principal ringleader of the mutiny, and had now
shown himself the most dejected and dispirited of all the rest,
came walking towards them, with two more of the crew; the
captain was so eager at having this principal rogue so much in
his power, that he could hardly have patience to let him come
so near as to be sure of him, for they only heard his tongue
before: but when they came nearer, the captain and Friday,
starting up on their feet, let fly at them. The boatswain was
killed upon the spot: the next man was shot in the body, and
fell just by him, though he did not die till an hour or two after ;
and the third ran for it. At the noise of the fire I immediately
advanced with my whole army, which was now eight men, viz.
myself, generalissimo ; Friday, my lieutenant-general ; the cap-
tain and his two men, and the three prisoners of war whom we
had trusted with arms. We came upon them, indeed, in the
dark, so that they could not see our number; and I made the
man they had left in the boat, who was now one of us, to call
them by name, to try if I could bring them to a parley, and so
perhaps might reduce them to terms; which fell out just as
we desired : for indeed it was easy to think, as their condition
then was, they would be very willing to capitulate. So he calls
out as loud as he could to one of them, “Tom Smith! Tom
Smith!’ Tom Smith answered immediately, “Is that Robin-
son?” for it seems he knew the voice. The other answered,
“Ay, ay; for God’s sake, Tom Smith, throw down your arms
and yield, or you are all dead men this moment.” “Who must
we yield to? Where are they?” says Smith again. “Here
they are,” says he; “here’s our captain and fifty men with him,
have been hunting you these two hours; the boatswain is
killed ; Will Fry is wounded, and I am a prisoner; and if you
do not yield you are all lost.” “Will they give us quarter,
then?” says Tom Smith, “and we will yield.” “I'll go and
ask, if you promise to yield,” said Robinson: so he asked the
captain, and the captain himself then calls out, “You, Smith,
you know my voice; if you lay down your arms immediately
and submit, you shall have your lives, all but Will Atkins.”

Upon this Will Atkins cried out, “For God's sake, captain,
give me quarter; what have I done? They have all been as
212 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

bad as I:” which, by the way, was not true; for it seems this
Will Atkins was the first man that laid hold of the captain
when they first mutinied, and used him barbarously in tying his
hands and giving him injurious language. However, the captain
told him he must lay down his arms at discretion, and trust
to the governor's mercy : by which he meant me, for they all
called me governor. In a word, they all laid down their arms
and begged their lives; and I sent the man that had _ parleyed
with them, and two more, who bound them all; und then my
great army of fifty men, which, with those three, were in all
but eight, came up and seized upon them, and upon their boat ;
only that I kept myself and one more out of sight for reasons of
state.

Our next work was to repair the boat, and think of seizing the
ship: and as for the captain, now he had leisure to parley with
them, he expostulated with them upon the villainy of their
practices with him, and upon the further wickedness of their
design, and how certainly it must bring them to misery and
distress in the end, and perhaps to the gallows. They all
appeared very penitent, and begged hard for their lives, As for
that, he told them they were not his prisoners, but the com-
mander’s of the island; that they thought they had set him on
shore in a barren, uninhabited island ; but it had pleased God
so to direct them that it was inhabited, and that the governor
was an Englishman; that he might hang them all there, if he
pleased ; but as he had given them all quarter, he supposed he
would send them to England, to be dealt with there as justice
required, except Atkins, whom he was commanded by the
governor to advise to prepare for death, for that he would be
hanged in the morning.

Though this was all but a fiction of his own, yet it had its
desired effect ; Atkins fell upon his knees to beg the captain to
intercede with the governor for his life; and all the rest begged
of him, for God’s sake, that they might not be sent to England.

It now occurred to me that the time of our deliverance was
come, and that it would be a most easy thing to bring these
fellows in to be hearty in getting possession of the ship; so I
retired in the dark from them, that they might not see what
kind of a governor they had, and called the captain to me; when
I called, at a good distance, one of the men was ordered to speak
again, and say to the captain, “ Captain, the commander calls for
you;”’ and presently the captain replied, “Tell his excellency I
am just coming.” This more perfectly amazed them, and they
all believed that the commander was just by, with his fifty men.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 218

Upon the captain coming to me, I told him my project for
seizing the ship, which he liked wonderfully well, and resolved
to put it in execution the next morning. But, in order to
execute it with more art, and to be secure of success, I told him
we must divide the prisoners, and that he should go and take
Atkins, and two more of the worst of them, and send them
pinioned to the cave where the others lay. This was committed
to Friday and the two men who came on shore with the captain.
They conveyed them to the cave as to a prison: and it was, in-
deed, a dismal place, especially to men in their condition. The
others I ordered to my bower, as I called it, of which I have
given a full description: and as it was fenced in, and they
pinioned, the place was secure enough, considering they were
upon their behaviour.

To these in the morning I sent the captain, who was to enter
into a parley with them; in a word, to try them, and tell me
whether he thought they might be trusted or not to go on
board and surprise the ship. He talked to them of the injury
done him, of the condition they were brought to, and that
though the governor had given them quarter for their lives as
to the present action, yet that if they were sent to England
they would all be hanged in chains; but that if they would join
in so just an attempt as to recover the ship, he would have the
governor’s engagement for their pardon.

Any one may guess how readily such a proposal would be
accepted by men in their condition; they fell down on their
knees to the captain, and promised, with the deepest impreca-
tions, that they would be faithful to him to the last drop, and
that they should owe their lives to him, and would go with him
all over the world; that they would own him as a father to
them as long as they lived. “ Well,” says the captain, “I must
go and tell the governor what you say, and see what I can do to
bring him to consent to it.” So he brought me an account of
the temper he found them in, and that he verily believed they
would be faithful. However, that we might be very secure, I
told him he should go back again and choose out those five, and
tell them, that they might see he did not want men, that he
would take out those five to be his assistants, and that the
governor would keep the other two, and the three that were
sent prisoners to the castle (my cave), as hostages for the fidelity
of those five; and that if they proved unfaithful in the execu-
tion, the five hostages should be hanged in chains alive on
the shore. This looked severe, and convinced them that the
governor was in earnest; however, they had no way left them
214 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

but to accept it; and it was now the business of the prisoners,
as much as of the captain, to persuade the other five to do
their duty.

Our strength was now thus ordered for the expedition : first,
the captain, his mate, and passenger; second, the two prisoners
of the first gang, to whom, having their character from the
captain, I had given their liberty, and trusted them with arms ;
third, the other two that I had kept till now in my bower,
pinioned, but on the captain’s motion had now released; fourth,
these five released at last; so that there were twelve in all,
besides five we kept prisoners in the cave for hostages.

I asked the captain if he was willing to venture with these
hands on board the ship; but as for me and my man Friday, |
did not think it was proper for us to stir, having seven men left
behind; and it was employment enough for us to keep them
asunder, and supply them with victuals. As to the five in the
cave, I resolved to keep them fast, but Friday went in twice
a day to them, to supply them with necessaries; and I made
the other two carry provisions to a certain distance, where
Friday was to take them.

When I showed myself to the two hostages, it was with the
captain, who told them I was the person the governor had
ordered to look after them; and that it was the governor’s
pleasure they should not stir anywhere but by my direction ;
that if they did, they would be fetched into the castle, and be
laid in irons: so that as we never suffered them to see me as
governor, I now appeared as another person, and spoke of
the governor, the garrison, the castle, and the like, upon all
occasions.

The captain now had no difficulty before him, but to furnish
his two boats, stop the breach of one, and man them. He made
his passenger captain of one, with four of the men; and himself,
his mate, and five more, went in the other; and they contrived
their business very well, for they came up to the ship about
midnight. As soon as they came within call of the ship, he made
Robinson hail them, and tell them they had brought off the men
and the boat, but that it was a long time before they had found
them, and the like, holding them in a chat till they came to the
ship’s side ; when the captain and the mate entering first with
their arms, immediately knocked down the second mate and
carpenter with the butt-end of their muskets, being very faith-
fully seconded by their men ; they secured all the rest that were
upon the main and quarter decks, and began to fasten the hatches,
to keep them down that were below ; when the other boat and
stpenenssiintiaiedeiaeieai

ROBINSON CRUSOE 215

their men, entering at the forechains, secured the forecastle of
the ship, and the scuttle which went down into the cook-room,
making three men they found there prisoners. When this was
done, and all safe upon deck, the captain ordered the mate, with
three men, to break into the round-house, where the new rebel
captain lay, who, having taken the alarm, had got up, and with
two men and a boy had got firearms in their hands; and when
the mate, with a crow, split open the door, the new captain and
his men fired boldly among them, and wounded the mate with a
musket ball, which broke his arm, and wounded two more of the
men, but killed nobody. The mate, calling for help, rushed,
however, into the round-house, wounded as he was, and, with his
pistol, shot the new captain through the head, the bullet enter-
ing at his mouth, and came out again behind one of his ears, so
that he never spoke a word more : upon which the rest yielded,
and the ship was taken effectually, without any more lives lost.

As soon as the ship was thus secured, the captain ordered
seven guns to be fired, which was the signal agreed upon with me
to give me notice of his success, which, you may be sure, I was
very glad to hear, having sat watching upon the shore for it till
near two o'clock in the morning. Having thus heard the signal
plainly, I laid me down; and it having been a day of great
fatigue to me, I slept very sound, till I was surprised with the
noise of a gun; and presently starting up, I heard a man call me
by the name of “Governor! Governor!” and presently I knew
the captain’s voice; when, climbing up to the top of the hill,
there he stood, and, pointing to the ship, he embraced me in his
arms, “My dear friend and deliverer,” says he, “ there’s your
ship ; for she is all yours, and so are we, and all that belong to
her.” I cast my eyes to the ship, and there she rode, within
little more than half a mile of the shore; for they had weighed
her anchor as soon as they were masters of her,and, the weather
being fair, had brought her to an anchor just against the mouth
of the little creek; and the tide being up, the captain had brought
the pinnace in near the place where I had first landed my rafts,
and so landed just at my door. I was at first ready to sink down
with the surprise ; for I saw my deliverance, indeed, visibly put
into my hands, all things easy, and a large ship just ready to
carry me away whither I pleased to go, At first, for some time,
I was not able to answer him one word ; but as he had taken me
in his arms, I held fast by him, or I should have fallen to the
ground. He perceived the surprise, and immediately pulled a
Duttle out of his pocket and gave me a dram of cordial, which
he had brought on purpose for me. After I had drunk it, I sat
216 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

down upon the ground; and though it brought me to myself, yet
it was a good while before I could speak a word to him. All
this time the poor man was in as great an ecstasy as I, only not
under any surprise as I was; and he said a thousand kind and
tender things to me, to compose and bring me to myself; but
such was the flood of joy in my breast, that it put all my spirits
into confusion: at last it broke out into tears, and in a little
while after I recovered my speech; I then took my turn, and
embraced him as my deliverer, and we rejoiced together. I told
him I looked upon him as a man sent by Heaven to deliver me,
and that the whole transaction seemed to be a chain of wonders;
that such things as these were the testimonies we had of a secret
hand of Providence governing the world, and an evidence that
the eye of an infinite Power could search into the remotest corner
of the world, and send help to the miserable whenever He pleased.
I forgot not to lift up my heart in thankfulness to Heaven; and
what heart could forbear to bless Him, who had not only in a
miraculous manner provided for me in such a wilderness, and in
such a desolate condition, but from whom every deliverance must
always be acknowledged to proceed.

When we had talked a while, the captain told me he had
brought me some little refreshment, such as the ship afforded,
and such as the wretches that had been so long his masters had
not plundered him of. Upon this, he called aloud to the boat,
and bade his men bring the things ashore that were for the
governor ; and, indeed, it was a present as if I had been one that
was not to be carried away with them, but as if I had been to
dwell upon the island still. First, he had brought me a case
of bottles full of excellent cordial waters, six large bottles of
Madeira wine (the bottles held two quarts each), two pounds of
excellent good tobacco, twelve good pieces of the ship’s beef,
and six pieces of pork, with a bag of peas, and about a hundred-
weight of biscuit; he also brought me a box of sugar, a box
of flour, a bag full of lemons, and two bottles of lime-juice, and
abundance of other things. Bu® besides these, and what was a
thousand times more useful to me, he brought me six new clean
shirts, six very good neckcloths, two pair of gloves, one pair of
shoes, a hat, and one pair of stockings, with a very good suit of
clothes of his own, which had been worn but very little: in a
word, he clothed me from head to foot. It was a very kind and
agreeable present, as any one may imagine, to one in my circum-
stances, but never was anything in the world of that kind so
unpleasant, awkward, and uneasy as it was to me to wear such
clothes at first.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 217

After these ceremonies were past, and after all his good things
were brought into my little apartment, we began to consnlt what
was to be done with the prisoners we had; for it was worth con-
sidering whether we might venture to take them with us or no,
especially two of them, whom he knew to be incorrigible and
refractory to the last degree ; and the captain said he knew they
were such rogues that there was no obliging them, and if he did
carry them away, it must be in irons, as malefactors, to be de-
livered over to justice at the first English colony he could come
to; and I found that the captain himself was very anxious about
it. Upon this, I told him that, if he desired it, I would under-
take to bring the two men he spoke of to make it their own
request that he should leave them upon the island. “I should
be very glad of that,” says the captain, “with all my heart.”
« Well,” says I, “I will send for them up and talk with them for
you.” Sol caused Friday and the two hostages, for they were
now discharged, their comrades having performed their promise ;
I say, I caused them to go to the cave, and bring up the five
men, pinioned as they were, to the bower, and keep them there
till came. After some time, I came thither dressed in my new
habit; and now I was called governor again. Being all met,
and the captain with me, I caused the men to be brought before
me, and I told them I had gota full account of their villainous
behaviour to the captain, and how they had run away with the
ship, and were preparing to commit further robberies, but that
Providence had ensnared them in their own ways, and that they
were fallen into the pit which they had dug for others. I let
them know that by my direction the ship had been seized ; that
she lay now in the road ; and they might see by-and-by that
their new captain had received the reward of his villainy, and
that they would see him hanging at the yard-arm ; that, as to
them, I wanted to know what they had to say why I should not
execute them as pirates taken in the fact, as by my commission
they could not doubt but I had authority so to do.

One of them answered in the name of the rest, that they had
nothing to say but this, that when they were taken the captain
promised them their lives, and they humbly implored my mercy.
But I told them I knew not what mercy to show them; for as
for myself, I had resolved to quit the island with all my men,
and had taken passage with the captain to go to England ; and as
for the captain, he could not carry them to England other than as
prisoners in irons, to be tried for mutiny and running away with
the ship; the consequence of which, they must needs know,
would be the gallows ; so that I could not tell what was best for
218 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

them, unless they had a mind to take their fate in the island. If
they desired that, as I had liberty to leave the island, I had some
inclination to give them their lives, if they thought they could
shift on shore. They seemed very thankful for it, and said they
would much rather venture to stay there than be carried to
England to be hanged. So I left it on that issue.

However, the captain seemed to make some difficulty of it, as
if he durst not leave them there. Upon this I seemed a little
angry with the captain, and told him that they were my prisoners,
not his; and that seeing I had offered them so much favour, I
would be as good as my word; and that if he did not think fit
to consent to it I would set them at liberty, as I found them:
and if he did not like it he might take them again if he could
catch them. Upon this they appeared very thankful, and I
accordingly set them at liberty, and bade them retire into the
woods, to the place whence they came, and I would leave them
some firearms, some ammunition, and some directions how they
should live very well if they thought fit. Upon this I prepared
to go on board the ship; but told the captain I would stay that
night to prepare my things, and desired him to go on board in
the meantime, and keep all right in the ship, and send the boat
on shore next day for me; ordering him, at all events, to cause
the new captain, who was killed, to be hanged at the yard-arm,
that these men might see him.

When the captain was gone I sent for the men up to me to
my apartment, and entered seriously into discourse with them
on their circumstances. I told them I thought they had made
a right choice; that if the captain had carried them away they
would certainly be hanged. I showed them the new captain
hanging at the yard-arm of the ship, and told them they had
nothing less to expect.

When they had all declared their willingness to stay, I then
told them I would let them into the story of my living there,
and put them into the way of making it easy to them. Accord-
ingly, I gave them the whole history of the place, and of my
coming to it; showed them my fortifications, the way I made
my bread, planted my corn, cured my grapes; and, in a word,
all that was necessary to make them easy. I told them the
story also of the seventeen Spaniards that were to be expected,
for whom I left a letter, and made them promise to treat them
in common with themselves. Here it may be noted that the
captain, who had ink on board, was greatly surprised that I
never hit upon a way of making ink of charcoal and water, or of
something else, as I had done things much more difficult.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 219

I left them my firearms—viz. five muskets, three fowling-
pieces, and three swords. I had above a barrel and a half of
powder left; for after the first year or two I used but little, and
wasted none. I gave them a description of the way I managed
the goats, and directions to milk and fatten them, and to make
both butter and cheese. In a word, I gave them every part of
my own story; and told them I should prevail with the captain
to leave them two barrels of gunpowder more, and some garden-
seeds, which I told them I would have been very glad of. Also,
I gave them the bag of peas which the captain had brought me
to eat, and bade them be sure to sow and increase them.

CHAPTER XIX
RETURN TO ENGLAND

HAVING done all this I left them the next day, and went

on board the ship. We prepared immediately to sail, but
did not weigh that night. The next morning early, two of the
five men came swimming to the ship’s side, and making the most
lamentable complaint of the other three, begged to be taken
into the ship for God’s sake, for they should be murdered, and
begged the captain to take them on board, though he hanged
them immediately. Upon this the captain pretended to have
no power without me; but after some difficulty, and after their
solemn promises of amendment, they were taken on board, and
were, some time after, soundly whipped and pickled; after
which they proved very honest and quiet fellows.

Some time after this, the boat was ordered on shore, the tide
being up, with the things promised to the men; to which the
captain, at my intercession, caused their chests and clothes to
be added, which they took, and were very thankful for. I also
encouraged them, by telling them that if it lay in my power to
send any vessel to take them in, I would not forget them.

When I took leave of this island, I carried on board, for
relics, the great goat-skin cap I had made, my umbrella, and
one of my parrots; also, I forgot not to take the money I
formerly mentioned, which had lain by me so long useless that
it was grown rusty or tarnished, and could hardly pass for silver
till it had been a little rubbed and handled, as also the money
T found in the wreck of the Spanish ship. And thus I left the
island, the 19th of December, as I found by the ship’s account,
220 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

in the year 1686, after I had been upon it eight-and-twenty
years, two months, and nineteen days; being delivered from
this second captivity the same day of the month that I first made
my escape in the long-boat from among the Moors of Sallee.
In this vessel, after a long voyage, I arrived in England the 11th
of June, in the year 1687, having been thirty-five years absent.

When I came to England I was as perfect a stranger to all the
world as if I had never been known there. My benefactor and
faithful steward, whom I had left my money in trust with, was
alive, but had had great misfortunes in the world; was become
a widow the second time, and very low in the world. I made
her very easy as to what she owed me, assuring her I would give
her no trouble; but, on the contrary, in gratitude for her former
care and faithfulness to me, I relieved her as my little stock
would afford; which at that time would, indeed, allow me to
do but little for her; but I assured her I would never forget
her former kindness to me; nor did I forget her when I had
sufficient to help her, as shall be observed in its proper place.
I went down afterwards into Yorkshire ; but my father was dead,
and my mother and all the family extinct, except that I found
two sisters, and two of the children of one of my brothers ; and
as I had been long ago given over for dead, there had been no
provision made for me; so that, in a word, I found nothing to
relieve or assist me; and that the little money I had would not
do much for me as to settling in the world.

I met with one piece of gratitude indeed, which I did not
expect ; and this was, that the master of the ship, whom I had
so happily delivered, and by the same means saved the ship and
cargo, having given a very handsome account to the owners of
the manner how I had saved the lives of the men and the ship,
they invited me to meet them and some other merchants con-
cerned, and all together made me a very handsome compliment
upon the subject, and a present of almost £200 sterling.

But after making several reflections upon the circumstances
of my life, and how little way thig would go towards settling me
in the world, I resolved to go to Lisbon, and see if I might not
come at some information of the state of my plantation in the
Brazils, and of what was become of my partner, who, I had
reason to suppose, had some years past given me over for dead.
With this view I took shipping for Lisbon, where I arrived in
April following, my man Friday accompanying me very honestly
in all these ramblings, and proving a most faithful servant upon
all occasions. When I came to Lisbon, I found out, by inquiry,
and to my particular satisfaction, my old friend, the captain of
ROBINSON CRUSOE 221

the ship who first took me up at sea off the shore of Africa. He
was now grown old, and had left off going to sea, having put
his son, who was far from a young man, into his ship, and who
still used the Brazil trade. The old man did not know me, and
indeed I hardly knew him. But I soon brought him to my
remembrance, and as soon brought myself to his remembrance,
when I told him who I was.

After some passionate expressions of the old acquaintance
between us, I inquired, you may be sure, after my plantation
and my partner. The old man told me he had not been in the
3razils for about nine years; but that he could assure me that
when he came away my partner was living, but the trustees
whom I had joined with him to take cognisance of my part
were both dead: that, however, he believed 1 would have a very
good account of the improvement of the plantation; for that,
upon the general belief of my being cast away and drowned, my
trustees had given in the account of the produce of my part of
the plantation to the procurator-fiscal, who had appropriated it,
in ease I never came to claim it, one-third to the king, and two-
thirds to the monastery of St. Augustine, to be expended for the
benefit of the poor, and for the conversion of the Indians to the
Catholic faith: but that, if I appeared, or any one for me, to
claim the inheritance, it would be restored; only that the im-
provement, or annual production, being distributed to charitable
uses, could not be restored: but he assured me that the steward
of the king’s revenue from lands, and the providore, or steward
of the monastery, had taken great care all along that the incum-
bent, that is to say my partner, gave every year a faithful
account of the produce, of which they had duly received my
moiety. I asked him if he knew to what height of improvement
he had brought the plantation, and whether he thought it
might be worth looking after; or whether, on my going thither,
I should meet with any obstruction to my possessing my just
right in the moiety. He told me he could not tell exactly to
what degree the plantation was improved; but this he knew,
that my partner was grown exceeding rich upon the enjoying
his part of it; and that, to the best of his remembrance, he had
heard that the king’s third of my part, which was, it seems,
granted away to some other monastery or religious house,
amounted to above two hundred moidores a year: that as to
my being restored to a quiet possession of it, there was no
question to be made of that, my partner being alive to witness
my title, and my name being also enrolled in the register of the
country ; also he told me that the survivors of my two trustees
222 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

were very fair, honest people, and very wealthy; and he
believed I would not only have their assistance for putting me
in possession, but would find a very considerable sum of money
in their hands for my account, being the produce of the farm
while their fathers held the trust, and before it was given up, as
above ; which, as he remembered, was for about twelve years.

I showed myself a little concerned and uneasy at this account,
and inquired of the old captain how it came to pass that the
trustees should thus dispose of my effects, when he knew that I
had made my will, and had made him, the Portuguese captain,
my universal heir, &c.

He told me that was true; but that as there was no proof of
my being dead, he could not act as executor until some certain
account should come of my death; and, besides, he was not
willing to intermeddle with a thing so remote: that it was true
he had registered my will, and put in his claim; and could he
have given any account of my being dead or alive, he would
have acted by procuration, and taken possession of the ingenio
(so they call the sugar-house), and have given his son, who was
now at the Brazils, orders to do it. ‘ But,” says the old man,
“I have one piece of news to tell you, which perhaps may not
be so acceptable to you as the rest; and that is, believing you
were lost, and all the world believing so also, your partner and
trustees did offer to account with me, in your name, for the first
six or eight years’ profits, which I received. There being at
that time great disbursements for increasing the works, building
an ingenio, and buying slaves, it did not amount to near so much
as afterwards it produced ; however,” says the old man, “I shall
give you a true account of what I have received in all, and how
I have disposed of it.”

After a few days’ further conference with this ancient friend,
he brought me an account of the first six years’ income of my
plantation, signed by my partner and the merchant-trustees,
being always delivered in goods, viz. tobacco in roll, and sugar
in chests, besides rum, molasses, &c., which isthe consequenee
of a sugar-work ; and I found by this account, that every year
the income considerably increased; but, as above, the disburse-
ments being large, the sum at first was small: however, the old
man let me see that he was debtor to me four hundred and
seventy moidores of gold, besides sixty chests of sugar and
fifteen double rolls of tobacco, which were lost in his ship; he
having been shipwrecked coming home to Lisbon, about eleven
years after my leaving the place. The good man then began to
complain of his misfortunes, and how he had been obliged to
ROBINSON CRUSOE 223

make use of my money to recover his losses, and buy him a share
in a new ship. “ However, my old friend,” says he, “ you shall
not want a supply in your necessity; and as soon as my son
returns you shall be fully satisfied.” Upon this he pulls out
an old pouch, and gives me one hundred and sixty Portugal
moidores in gold; and giving the writings of his title to the
ship, which his son was gone to the Brazils in, of which he was
quarter-part owner, and his son another, he puts them both into
my hands for security of the rest.

I was too much moved with the honesty and kindness of the
poor man to be able to bear this; and remembering what he
had done for me, how he had taken me up at sea, and how
generously he had used me on all occasions, and particularly
how sincere a friend he was now to me, I could hardly refrain
weeping at what he had said to me; therefore I asked him if
his circumstances admitted him to spare so much money at that
time, and if it would not straiten him? He told me he could
not say but it might straiten him a little; but, however, it was
my money, and I might want it more than he.

Everything the good man said was full of affection, and I
could hardly refrain from tears while he spoke ; in short, I took
one hundred of the moidores, and called for a pen and ink to
give him a receipt for them: then I returned him the rest, and
told him if ever I had possession of the plantation I would
return the other to him also (as, indeed, I afterwards did); and
that as to the bill of sale of his part in his son’s ship, I would
not take it by any means; but that if I wanted the money, I
found he was honest enough to pay me; and if I did not, but
came to receive what he gave me reason to expect, I would
never have a penny more from him.

When this was past, the old man asked me if he should put
me into a method to make my claim to my plantation. I told
him I thought to go over to it myself. He said I might do so
if I pleased, but that if I did not, there were ways enough to
secure my right, and immediately to appropriate the profits to
my use: and as there were ships in the river of Lisbon just
ready to go away to Brazil, he made me enter my name in a
public register, with his affidavit, affirming, upon oath, that I
was alive, and that I was the same person who took up the land
for the planting the said plantation at first. This being regularly
attested by a notary, and a procuration affixed, he directed me
to send it, with a letter of his writing, to a merchant of his
acquaintance et the place; and then proposed my staying with
him till an account came of the return.

P
224 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

Never was anything more honourable than the proceedings
upon this procuration ; for in less than seven months I reecived
a large packet from the survivors of my trustees, the merchants,
for whose account I went to sea, in which were the following
particular letters and papers enclosed :—

Virst, there was the account-current of the produce of my
farm or plantation, from the year when their fathers had
balanced with my old Portugal captain, being for six years; the
balance appeared to be one thousand one hundred and seventy-
four moidores in my favour.

Secondly, there was the account of four years more, while
they kept the effects in their hands, before the government
claimed the administration, as being the effects of a person not
to be found, which they called civil death; and the balance of
this, the value of the plantation increasing, amounted to nine-
teen thousand four hundred and forty-six crusadoes, being about
three thousand two hundred and forty moidores.

Thirdly, there was the Prior of St. Augustine’s account, who
had received the profits for above fourteen years ; but not being
able to account for what was disposed of by the hospital, very
honestly declared he had eight hundred and seventy-two moi-
dores not distributed, which he acknowledged to my account :
as to the king’s part, that refunded nothing.

There was a letter of my partner's, congratulating me very
affectionately upon my being alive, giving me an account how
the estate was improved, and what it produced a year; with
the particulars of the number of squares or acres that it con-
tained, how planted, how many slaves there were upon it: and
making two-and-twenty crosses for blessings, told me he had
said so many dve Marias to thank the Blessed Virgin that I was
alive ; inviting me very passionately to come over and take
possession of my own, and in the meantime to give him orders
to whom he should deliver my effects if I did not come myself ;
concluding with a hearty tender of his friendship, and that of
his family; and sent me as a present seveg fine leopards’ skins,
which he had, it seems, received from Africa, by some other
ship that he had sent thither, and which, it seems, had made a
better voyage than I. He sent me also five chests of excellent
sweetmeats, and a hundred pieces of gold uncoined, not quite
so large as moidores. By the same fleet my two merchant-
trustees shipped me one thousand two hundred chests of
sugar, eight hundred rolls of tobacco, and the rest of the whole
account in gold.

1 might well say now, indeed, that the latter end of Job was
ROBINSON CRUSOE 225

better than the beginning. It is impossible to express the
flutterings of my very heart when I found all my wealth about
me; for as the Brazil ships come all in fleets, the same ships
which brought my letters brought my goods: and the effects
were safe in the river before the letters came to my hand. In
a word, I turned pale, and grew sick; and, had not the old
man run and fetched me a cordial, I believe the sudden surprise
of joy had overset nature, and I had died upon the spot: nay,
after that I continued very ill, and was so some hours, till a
physician being sent for, and something of the real cause of my
illness being known, he ordered me to be let blood ; after which
I had relief, and grew well: but I verily believe, if I had not
been eased by a vent given in that manner to the spirits, I
should have died.

I was now master, all on a sudden, of above five thousand
pounds sterling in money, and had an estate, as I might well
call it, in the Brazils, of above a thousand pounds a year, as sure
as an estate of lands in England: and, in a word, I was in a
condition which I scarce knew how to understand, or how to
compose myself for the enjoyment of it. The first thing I did
was to recompense my original benefactor, my good old captain,
who had been first charitable to me in my distress, kind to me
in my beginning, and honest to me at the end. I showed him
all that was sent to me; I told him that, next to the providence
of Heaven, which disposed all things, it was owing to him; and
that it now lay on me to reward him, which I would do a
hundred-fold : so I first returned to him the hundred moidores
I had received of him; then I sent for a notary, and caused him
to draw up a general release or discharge from the four hundred
and seventy moidores, which he had acknowledged he owed me,
in the fullest and firmest manner possible. After which I
caused a procuration to be drawn, empowering him to be the
receiver of the annual profits of my plantation: and appointing
my partner to account with him, and make the returns, by the
usual fleets, to him in my name; and by a clause in the end,
made a grant of one hundred moidores a year to him during his
life, out of the effects, and fifty moidores a year to his son after
him, for his life: and thus I requited my old man.

I had now to consider which way to steer my course next,
and what to do with the estate that Providence had thus put
into my hands; and, indeed, I had more care upon my head
now than I had in my state of life in the island where I wanted
nothing but what I had, and had nothing but what I wanted ;
whereas I had now a great charge upon me, and my business
226 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

was how to secure it. I had not a eave now to hide my money
in, or a place where it might lie without lock or key, till it grew
mouldy and tarnished before anybody would meddle with it;
on the contrary , 1 knew not where to put it, or whom to trust
with it. My old patron, the captain, indeed, was honest, and
that was the only refuge I had. In the next place, my interest
in the Brazils seemed to summon me thither; but now I could
not tell how to think of going thither till I had settled my affairs,
and left my effects in some safe hands behind me. At first I
thought of my old friend the widow, who | knew was honest,
and would be just to me; but then she was in years, and but
poor, and, for aught I knew, might be in debt: so that, in a
word, L had no way but to go back to England myself and take
my effects with me.

It was some months, however, before I resolved upon this;
and, therefore, as | had rewarded the old captain fully, and to
his satisfaction, who had been my former benefactor, so I began
to think of the poor widow, whose husband had been my first
benefactor, and she, while it was in her power, my faithful
steward and instructor. So, the first thing I did, I got a mer-
chant in Lisbon to write to his correspondent in London, not
only to pay a bill, but to go find her out, and carry her, in
money, a hundred pounds from me, and to talk with her, and
comfort her in her poverty, by telling her she should, if I lived,
have a further supply: at the same time I sent my two sisters
in the country a hundred pounds each, they being, though not
in want, yet not in very good circumstances ; one having been
married and left a widow; and the other having a husband not
so kind to her as he should be. But among all my relations or
acquaintances I could not yet pitch upon one to whom I durst
commit the gross of my stock, that I might go away to the
Brazils, and leave things safe behind me; and this greatly per-
plexed me.

I had once a mind to have gone to the Brazils and have
settled myself there, for I was, as it ware, naturalised to the
place ; but I had some little scruple in my mind about religion,
which insensibly drew me back. However, it was not religion
that kept me from going there for the present; and as I had
made no scruple of being openly of the religion of the country
all the while 1 was among them; so neither did I yet; only that,
now and then, having of late thought more of it than formerly,
when I began to think of living and dying among them, I began
to regret having professed myself a Papist, and thought it might
not be the best religion to die with.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 227

But, as I have said, this was not the main thing that kept me
from going to the Brazils, but that really I did not know with
whom to leave my effects behind me; so I resolved at last to
go to England, where, if I arrived, I concluded that I should
make some acquaintance, or find some relations, that would be
faithful to me; and, accordingly, I prepared to go to England
with all my wealth.

In order to prepare things for my going home, I first (the
Brazil fleet being just going away) resolved to give answers
suitable to the just and faithful account of things I had from
thence ; and, first, to the Prior of St. Augustine I wrote a letter
full of thanks for his just dealings, and the offer of the eight
hundred and seventy-two moidores which were undisposed of,
which I desired might be given, five hundred to the monastery,
and three hundred and seventy-two to the poor, as the prior
should direct ; desiring the good padre’s prayers for me, and
the like. I wrote next a letter of thanks to my two trustees,
with all the acknowledgment that so much justice and honesty
called for: as for sending them any present, they were far
above having any occasion of it. Lastly, I wrote to my partner,
acknowledging his industry in the improving the plantation,
and his integrity in increasing the stock of the works; giving
him instructions for his future government of my part, according
to the powers I had left with my old patron, to whom I de-
sired him to send whatever became due to me, till he should
hear ffom me more particularly ; assuring him that it was my
intention not only to come to him, but to settle myself there
for the remainder of my life. ‘To this I added a very handsome
present of some Italian silks for his wife and two daughters,
for such the captain’s son informed me he had; with two
Bo of fine English broadcloth, the best I could get in

Lisbon, five pieces of black baize, and some Flanders lace of
a good value.

Hi wing thus settled my affairs, sold my cargo, and turned all
my effects into good bills of exchange, my next difficulty was
which way to go to England: I had been accustomed enough
to the sea, and yet 1 had a strange aversion to go to England
by sea at that time; and though I could give no reason for it,
yet the difticulty increased upon me so much, that though I had
once shipped my baggage in order to go, yet I altered my mind,
and that not once but two or three times.

It is true I had been very unfortunate by sea, and this might
be one of the reasons; but let no man slight the strong im-
pulses of his own thoughts in cases of such moment : two of the
228 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

ships which I had singled out to go in, I mean more particularly
singled out than any other, having put my things on board one
of them, and in the other having agreed with the captain ; I say
two of these ships miscarried. One was taken by the Algerines,
and the other was lost on the Start, near Torbay, and all the
people drowned except three ; so that in either of those vessels
I had been made miserable.

Having been thus harassed in my thoughts, my old pilot, to
whom I communicated everything, pressed me earnestly not to
go by sea, but cither to go by land to the Groyne, and cross over
the Bay of Biseay to Rochelle, from whence it was but an easy
and safe journey by land to Paris, and so to Calais and Dover;
or to go up to Madrid, and so all the way by land through
France. Ina word, I was so prepossessed against my going by
sea at all, except from Calais to Dover, that I resolved to travel
all the way by land; which, as I was not in haste, and did not
value the charge, was by much the pleasanter way : and to make
it more so, my old captain brought an English gentleman, the
son of a merchant in Lisbon, who was willing to travel with me;
after which we picked up two more English merchants also, and
two young Portuguese gentlemen, the last going to Paris only ;
so that in all there were six of us and five servants; the two
merchants and the two Portuguese contenting themselves with
one servant between two, to save the charge ; and as for me,
{ got an English sailor to travel with me as a servant, besides
my man Friday, who was too much a stranger to be capable of
supplying the place of a servant on the road.

In this manner I set out from Lisbon; and our company being
very well mounted and armed, we made a little troop, whereof
they did me the honour to call me captain, as well because I was
the oldest man, as because I had two servants, and, indeed, was
the origin of the whole journey.

As I have troubled you with none of my sea journals, so I shall
trouble you now with none of my land journals ; but some adven-
tures that happened to us in this tedioug and difficult journey |
must not omit.

When we came to Madrid, we, being all of us strangers to
Spain, were willing to stay some time to see the court of Spain,
and what was worth observing; but it being the latter part of
the summer, we hastened away, and set out from Madrid about
the middle of October; but when we came to the edge of
Navarre, we were alarmed, at several towns on the way, with an
account that so much snow was falling on the French side of
the mountains, that several travellers were obliged to come back


ROBINSON CRUSOE 229

to Pampeluna, after having attempted at an extreme hazard to
pass on,

When we came to Pampeluna itself, we found it so indeed ;
and to me, that had been always used to a hot climate, and to
countries where I could scarce bear any clothes on, the cold was
insufferable; nor, indeed, was it more painful than surprising to
come but ten days before out of Old Castile, where the weather
was not only warm but very hot, and immediately to feel a wind
from the Pyrenean Mountains so very keen, so severely cold, as
to be intolerable and to endanger benumbing and _perishing of
our fingers and toes.

Poor Friday was really frightened when he saw the mountains
all covered with snow, and felt cold weather, which he had
never seen or felt before in his life. ‘lo mend the matter, when
we came to Pampeluna it continued snowing with so much
violence and so long, that the people said winter was come
before its time ; and the roads, which were difficult before, were
now quite impassable ; for, in a word, the snow lay in some
places too thick for us to travel, and being not hard frozen, as
is the case in the northern countries, there was no going without
being in danger of being buried alive every step. We stayed no
less than twenty days at Pampeluna; when (secing the winter
coming on, and no likelihood of its being better, for it was
the severest winter all over Europe that had been known in the
memory of man) I proposed that we should go away to Font-
arabia, and there take shipping for Bordeaux, which was a very
little voyage. But, while I was considering this, there came in
four French gentlemen, who, having been stopped on the French
side of the passes, as we were on the Spanish, had found out a
guide, who, traversing the country near the head of Languedoc,
had brought them over the mountains by such ways that they
were not much incommoded with the snow; for where they met
with snow in any quantity, they said it was frozen hard enough
to bear them and their horses. We sent for this guide, who
told us he would undertake to carry us the same way, with no
hazard from the snow, provided we were armed sufficiently to
protect ourselves from wild beasts ; for, he said, in these great
snows it was frequent for some wolves to show themselves at the
foot of the mountains, being made ravenous for want of food, the
ground being covered with snow. We told him we were well
enough prepared for such creatures as they were, if he would
insure us from a kind of two-legged wolves, which we were told
we were in most danger from, especially on the French side of
the mountains, He satisfied us that there was no danger of that
230 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

kind in the way that we were to go; so we readily agreed to
follow him, as did also twelve other gentlemen with their ser-
vants, some French, some Spanish, who, as I said, had attempted
to go, and were obliged to come back again.

Accordingly, we set out from Pampeluna with our guide
on the 15th of November; and indeed I was surprised when,
instead of going forward, he came directly back with us on the
same road that we came from Madrid, about twenty miles; when,
having passed two rivers, and come into the plain country, we
found ourselves in a warm climate again, where the country was
pleasant, and no snow to be seen; but, on a sudden, turning to
his left, he approached the mountains another way; and though
it is true the hills and precipices looked dreadful, yet he made
so many tours, such meanders, and led us by such winding ways,
that we insensibly passed the height of the mountains without
being much encumbered with the snow ; and all on a sudden he
showed us the pleasant and fruitful provinces of Languedoc and
Gascony, all green and flourishing, though at a great distance,
and we had some rough way to pass still.

We were a little uneasy, however, when we found it snowed
one whole day and a night so fast that we could not travel; but
he bid us be easy ; we should soon be past it all: we found,
indeed, that we began to descend every day, and to come more
north than before; and so, depending upon our guide, we
went on.

It was about two hours before night when, our guide being
something before us, and not just in sight, out rushed three
monstrous wolves, and after them a bear, from a hollow way
adjoining to a thick wood: two of the wolves made at the
guide, and had he been far before us, he would have been de-
voured before we could have helped him ; one of them fastened
upon his horse, and the other attacked the man with such
violence, that he had not time, or presence of mind enough, to
draw his pistol, but hallooed and cried out to us most lustily.
My man Friday being next me, I bade him ride up and see
what was the matter. As soon as F riday came in sight of
the man, he hallooed out as loud as the other, “O master!
O master!” but like a bold fellow, rode directly up to the
poor man, and with his pistol shot the wolf in the head that
attacked him.

It was happy for the poor man that it was my man Friday ;
for, having been used to such creatures in his country, he had
no fear upon him, but went close up to him and shot him;
whereas, any other of us would have fired at a farther distance,
co

ROBINSON CRUSOE 231

s

and have perhaps either missed the wolf or endangered shooting
the man.

But it was enough to have terrified a bolder man than I;
and, indeed, it alarmed all our company, when, with the noise of
Friday’s pistol, we heard on both sides the most dismal howl-
ing of wolves; and the noise, redoubled by the echo of the
mountains, appeared to us as if there had been a prodigious
number of them; and perhaps there was not such a few as
that we had no cause of apprehension : however, as Friday had
killed this wolf, the other that had fastened upon the horse
left him immediately, and fled, without doing him any damage,
having happily fastened upon his head, where the bosses of the
bridle had stuck in his teeth. But the man was most hurt; for
the raging creature had bit him twice, once in the arm, and the
other time a little above his knee; and though he had made
some defence, he was just tumbling down by the disorder of
his horse, when Friday came up and shot the wolf.

It is easy to suppose that at the noise of Friday’s pistol we all
mended our pace, and rode up as fast as the way, which was
very difficult, would give us leave, to see what was the matter.
As soon as we came clear of the trees, which blinded us before,
we saw clearly what had been the case, and how Friday had
disengaged the poor guide, though we did not presently discern
what kind of creature it was he had killed.

CHAPTER XX
FIGHT BETWEEN FRIDAY AND A BEAR

UT never was a fight managed so hardily, and in such a sur-

prising manner as that which followed between Friday and
the bear, which gave us all, though at first we were surprised
and afraid for him, the greatest diversion imaginable. As the
bear is a heavy, clumsy creature, and does not gallop as the
wolf does, who is swift and light, so he has two particular
qualities, which generally are the rule of his actions; first, as to
men, who are not his proper prey (he does not usually attempt
them, except they first attack him, unless he be excessively
hungry, which it is probable might now be the case, the ground
being covered with snow), if you do not meddle with him, he
will not meddle with you; but then you must take care to be
very civil to him, and give him the road, for he is a very nice
282 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

gentleman ; he will not goa step out of his way for a prince ;
nay, if you are really afraid, your best way is to look another
way and keep going on; for sometimes if you stop, and stand
still, and look steadfastly at him, he takes it for an affront ; but
if you throw or toss anything at him, though it were but a bit
of stick as big as your finger, he thinks himself abused, and sets
all other business aside to pursue his revenge, and will have
satisfaction in point of honour—that is his first quality : the next
is, if he be once affronted, he will never leave you, night or day,
till he has his revenge, but follows ata good round rate till he
overtakes you,

My man Friday had delivered our guide, and when we came
up to him he was helping him off his horse, for the man was
both hurt and frightened, when on a sudden we espied the bear
come out of the wood ; and a monstrous one it was, the biggest
by far that ever I saw. We were alla little surprised when we
saw him; but when Friday saw him, it was easy to see joy and
courage in the fellow’s countenance. “O!LOQ!tQOL” says Friday,
three times, pointing to hin; ©O master, you give me te leave,
me shakee te hand with him; me makee you good laugh,”

I was surprised to see the fellow so well pleased.“ You fool,”
says I, “ he will cat you up.” Katee me up! eatee me up!”
says Friday, twice over again; “me eatee him up; me makee
you good laugh ; you all stay here, me show you good laugh.”
So down he sits, and gets off his boots in a moment, and puts
ona pair of pumps (as we call the flat shoes they wear, and
which he had in his pocket), gives my other servant his horse,
and with his gun away he flew, swift like the wind.

The bear was walking softly on, and offered to meddle with
nobody, till Friday coming pretty near, calls to him, as if the
bear could understand him.“ Hark ye, hark ye,” says Friday,
“me speakee with you.” We followed ata distance, for now
being down on the Gascony side of the mountains, we were
entered a vast forest, where the country was plain and pretty
open, though it had many trees in itscattered here and there.
Friday, who had, as we say, the heels of the bear, came up with
him quickly, and took up a great stone, and threw it at him, and
hit him just on the head, but did him no more harm than if he
had thrown it against a wall; but it answered Friday’s end, for
the rogue was so void of fear that he did it purely to make the
bear follow him, and show us some laugh as he called it. As
soon as the bear felt the blow, and saw him, he turns about and
comes after him, taking very long strides, and shuffling on at a
strange rate, so as would have put a horse to a middling gallop ;
ROBINSON CRUSOE 233

away runs Friday, and takes his course as if he ran towards us
for help; so we all resolved to fire at once upon the bear, and
deliver my man; though I was angry at him for bringing the
bear back upon us, when he was going about his own business
another way; and especially I was angry that he had turned
the bear upon us, and then ran away; and I called out, “ You
dog ! is this your making us laugh? Come away, and take your
horse, that we may shoot the creature.” He heard me, and
cried out, “No shoot, no shoot; stand still, and you get much
laugh :” and as the nimble creature ran two feet for the bear's
one, he turned on a sudden on one side of us, and seeing a great
oak-tree fit for his purpose, he beckoned to us to follow; and
doubling his pace, he got nimbly up the tree, laying his gun
down upon the ground, at about five or six yards from the
bottom of the tree. The bear soon came to the tree, and we
followed at a distance: the first. thing he did he stopped at the
gun, smelt at it, but let it lie, and up he scrambles into the
tree, climbing like a cat, though so monstrous heavy. I was
amazed at the folly, as I thought it, of my man, and could not
for my life see anything to laugh at, till seeing the bear get up
the tree, we all rode near to him.

When we came to the tree, there was Friday got out to the
small end of a large branch, and the bear got about half-way to
him. As soon as the bear got out to that part where the limb
of the tree was weaker, “Ha!” says he to us, “now you see
me teachee the bear dance: ” so he began jumping and shaking
the bough, at which the bear began to totter, but stood still, and
began to look behind him, to see how he should get back ; then,
indeed, we did laugh heartily. But Friday had not done with
him by a great deal; when seeing him stand still, he called out
to him again, as if he had supposed the bear could speak English,
“ What, you no come farther? pray you come farther;” so he
left jumping and shaking the tree; and the bear, just as if he
understood what he said, did come a little farther; then he
began jumping again, and the bear stopped again. We thought
now was a good time to knock him in the head, and called to
Friday to stand still and we should shoot the bear: but he cried
out earnestly, “Oh, pray! Oh, pray ! no shoot, me shoot by and
then:” he would have said by-and-by. However, to shorten
the story, Friday danced so much, and the bear stood so ticklish,
that we had laughing enough, but still could not imagine what
the fellow would do: for first we thought he depended upon
shaking the bear off; and we found the bear was too cunning
for that too; for he would not go out far enough to be thrown


234 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

down, but clung fast with his great broad claws and feet, so
that we could not imagine what would be the end of it, and
what the jest would be at last. But Friday put us out of doubt
quickly: for seeing the bear cling fast to the bough, and that
he would not be persuaded to come any farther, “ Well, well,”
says lriday, “‘ you no come farther, me go; you no come to me,
me come to you ;”’ and upon this he went out to the smaller end
of the bough, where it would bend with his weight, and gently
let himself down by it, sliding down the bough till he came near
enough to jump down on his feet, and away he ran to his gun,
took it up, and stood still. Well,” said I to him, “ Friday,
what will you do now? Why don’t you shoot him?” “No
shoot,” says Friday, “no yet; me shoot now, me no kill; me
stay, give you one more laugh:” and, indeed, so he did; for
when the bear saw his enemy gone, he came back from the
bough, where he stood, but did it very cautiously, looking
behind him every step, and coming backward till he got into
the body of the tree; then, with the same hinder end foremost,
he came down the tree, grasping it with his claws, and moving
one foot at a time, very leisurely. At this juncture, and just
before he could set his hind foot on the ground, Friday stepped
up close to him, clapped the muzzle of his piece into his ear, and
shot him dead. Then the rogue turned about to see if we did
not laugh; and when he saw we were pleased by our looks, he
began to laugh very loud. “So we kill bear in my country,”
says Friday. “So you kill them?” says I; “ why, you have no
guns.”’—‘« No,” says he, “no gun, but shoot great much long
arrow.” ‘This was a good diversion to us; but we were still in
a wild place, and our guide very much hurt, and what to do we
hardly knew; the howling of wolves ran much in my head;
and, indeed, except the noise I once heard on the shore of
Africa, of which I have said something already, I never heard
anything that filled me with so much horror.

These things, and the approach of night, called us off, or else,
as Friday would have had us, we should certainly have taken
the skin of this monstrous creature off® which was worth saving ;
but we had near three leagues to go, and our guide hastened us ;
so we left him, and went forward on our journey.

The ground was still covered with snow, though not so deep
and dangerous as on the mountains ; and the ravenous creatures,
as we heard afterwards, were come down into the forest and
plain country, pressed by hunger, to seek for food, and had done
a great deal of mischief in the villages, where they surprised
the country people, killed a great many of their sheep and
ROBINSON CRUSOE 235

horses, and some people too. We had one dangerous place to
pass, and our guide told us if there were more wolves in the
country we should find them there; and this was a small plain,
surrounded with woods on every side, and a long, narrow defile,
or lane, which we were to pass to get through the wood, and
then we should come to the village where we were to lodge. It
was within half-an-hour of sunset when we entered the wood,
and a little after sunset when we came into the plain: we met
with nothing in the first wood, except that in a little plain
within the wood, which was not above two furlongs over, we
saw five great wolves cross the road, full speed, one after
another, as if they had been in chase of some prey, and had it
in view ; they took no notice of us, and were gone out of sight
in a few moments. Upon this, our guide, who, by the way, was
but a faint-hearted fellow, bid us keep in a ready posture, for
he believed there were more wolves a-coming. We kept our
arms ready, and our eyes about us; but we saw no more wolves
till we came through that wood, which was near half a league,
and entered the plain. As soon as we came into the plain, we
had oceasion enough to look about us. The first object we met
with was a dead horse; that is to say, a poor horse which the
wolves had killed, and at least a dozen of them at work, we
could not say eating him, but picking his bones rather; for they
had eaten up all the flesh before. We did not think fit to dis-
turb them at their feast, neither did they take much notice of
us. Friday would have let fly at them, but I would not suffer
him by any means; for I found we were like to have more
business upon our hands than we were aware of. We had not
gone half over the plain when we began to hear the wolves
howl in the wood on our left in a frightful manner, and presently
after we saw about a hundred coming on directly towards us,
all in a body, and most of them in a line, as regularly as an
army drawn up by experienced officers. I scarce knew in what
manner to receive them, but found to draw ourselves in a close
line was the only way; so we formed in a moment; but that
we might not have too much interval, I ordered that only every
other man should fire, and that the others, who had not fired,
should stand ready to give them a second volley immediately, if
they continued to advance upon us; and then that those that
had fired at first should not pretend to load their fusees again,
but stand ready, every one with a pistol, for we were all armed
with a fusee and a pair of pistols each man; so we were, by this
method, able to fire six volleys, half of us at a time: however,
at present we had no necessity ; for upon firing the first volley,
236 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

the enemy made a full stop, being terrified as well with the noise
as with the fire. our of them being shot in the head, dropped ;
several others were wounded, and went bleeding off, as we could
see by the snow. I found they stopped, but did not imme-
diately retreat ; whereupon, remembering that I had been told
that the fiercest creatures were terrified at the voice of a man,
I caused all the company to halloo as loud as they could; and I
found the notion not altogether mistaken ; for upon our shout
they began to retire and turn about. I then ordered a second
volley to be fired in their rear, which put them to the gallop,
and away they went to the woods, This gave us leisure to
charge our pieces again; and that we might lose no time, we
kept going ; but we had but little more than loaded our fusees,
and put ourselves in readiness, when we heard a terrible noise
in the same wood on our left, only that it was farther onward,
the same way we were to go.

The night was coming on, and the light began to be dusky,
which made it worse on our side; but the noise increasing, we
could easily perceive that it was the howling and yelling of
those hellish creatures; and on a sudden we perceived three
troops of wolves, one on our left, one behind us, and one in our
front, so that we seemed to be surrounded with them: however,
as they did not fall upon us, we kept our way forward, as fast as
we could make our horses go, which, the way being very rough,
was only a good hard trot. In this manner, we came in view
of the entrance of a wood, through which we were to pass, at
the farther side of the plain; but we were greatly surprised,
when coming nearer the lane or pass, we saw a confused number
of wolves standing just at the entrance. On a sudden, at
another opening of the wood, we heard the noise of a gun, and
looking that way, out rushed a horse, with a saddle and a bridle
on him, flying like the wind, and sixteen or seventeen wolves
after him, full speed: the horse had the advantage of them;
but as we supposed that he could not hold it at that rate, we
doubted not but’ they would get up with him at last: no
question but they did. bs

But here we had a most horrible sight ; for riding up to the
entrance where the horse came out, we found the carcasses of
another horse and of two men, devoured by the ravenous
creatures; and one of the men was no doubt the same whom
we heard fire the gun, for there lay a gun just by him fired
off; but as to the man, his head and the upper part of his body
was eaten up. This filled us with horror, and we knew not
what course to take; but the creatures resolved us soon, for
ROBINSON CRUSOE 237

they gathered about us presently, in hopes of prey; and I
verily believe there were three hundred of them. It happened,
very much to our advantage, that at the entrance into the
wood, but a little way from it, there lay some large timber-
trees, which had been cut down the summer before, and I
suppose lay there for carriage. I drew my little troop in
among those trees, and placing ourselves in a line behind one
long tree, I advised them all to alight, and keeping that tree
before us for a breastwork, to stand in a triangle, or three
fronts, enclosing our horses in the centre. We did so, and
it was well we did; for never was a more furious charge than
the creatures made upon us in this place. They came on with
a growling kind of noise, and mounted the piece of timber,
which, as I said, was our breastwork, as if they were only
rushing upon their prey; and this fury of theirs, it seems, was
principally occasioned by their seeing our horses behind us.
I ordered our men to fire as before, every other man; and they
took their aim so sure that they killed several of the wolves
at the first volley ; but there was a necessity to keep a con-
tinual firing, for they came on like devils, those behind pushing
on those before.

When we had fired a second volley of our fusees, we thought
they stopped a little, and I hoped they would have gone off, but
it was but a moment, for others came forward again ; so we fired
two volleys of our pistols ; and I believe in these four firings we
had killed seventeen or eighteen of them, and lamed twice as
many, yet they come on again. I'was loth to spend our shot
too hastily ; so I called my servant, not my man Friday, for he
was better employed, for, with the greatest dexterity imaginable,
he had charged my fusee and his own while we were engaged—
but, as I said, I called my other man, and giving him a horn of
powder, I bade him lay a train all along the piece of timber, and
let it be a large train. He did so, and had but just time to get
away, when the wolves came up to it, and some got upon it,
when I, snapping an uncharged pistol close to the powder, set it
on fire ; those that were upon the timber were scorched with it,
and six or seven of them fell; or rather jumped in among us
with the force and fright of the fire; we despatched these in an
instant, and the rest were so frightened with the light, which
the night—for it was now very near dark—made more terrible,
that they drew back a little; upon which I ordered our last
pistols to be fired off in one volley, and after that we gave a
shout ; upon this the wolves turned tail, and we sallied immedi-
ately upon near twenty lame ones that we found struggling on
238 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

the ground, and fell to cutting them with our swords, which
answered our expectation, for the crying and howling they made
was better understood by their fellows ; so that they all fled and
left us.

We had, first and last, killed about threescore of them, and
had it been daylight we had killed many more. The field of
battle being thus cleared, we made forward again, for we had
still near a league to go. We heard the ravenous creatures
howl and yell in the woods as we went several times, and some-
times we fancied we saw some of them; but the snow dazzling
our eyes, we were not certain, In about an hour more we came
to the town where we were to lodge, whiclr we found in a terrible
fright and all in arms; for, it seems, the night before the wolves
and some bears had broken into the village, and put them in
such terror that they were obliged to keep guard night and day,
but espeeially in the night, to preserve their cattle, and indeed
their people.

The next morning our guide was so ill, and his limbs swelled
so much with the rankling of his two wounds, that he could go
no farther ; so we were obliged to take a new guide here, and
go to Toulouse, where we found a warm climate, a fruitful,
pleasant country, and no snow, no wolves, nor anything like
them; but when we told our story at ‘Toulouse, they told us it
was nothing but what was ordinary in the great forest at the
foot of the mountains, especially when the snow lay on the
ground ; but they inquired much what kind of guide we had
got who would venture to bring us that way in such a severe
season, and told us it was surprising we were not all devoured.
When we told them how we placed ourselves and the horses in
the middle, they blamed us exceedingly, and told us it was fift
to one but we had been all destroyed, for it was the sight of the
horses which made the wolves so furious, seeing their prey, and
that at other times they are really afraid of a gun; but being
excessively hungry, and raging on that account, the eagerness
to come at the horses had made them senseless of danger, and
that if we had not by the conti®ual fire, and at last by the
stratagem of the train of powder, mastered them, it had been
great odds but that we had been torn to pieces; whereas, had
we been content to have sat still on horseback, and fired as
horsemen, they would not have taken the horses so much for
their own, when men were on their backs, as otherwise; and
withal, they told us that at last, if we had stood altogether, and
left our horses, they would have been so eager to have devoured
them, that we might have come off safe, especially having our
ROBINSON CRUSOE 239

firearms in our hands, being so many in number. For my part,
I was never so sensible of danger in my life; for, seeing above
three hundred devils come roaring and open-mouthed to devour
us, and having nothing to shelter us or retreat to, I gave myself
over for lost ; and, as it was, I believe I shall never care to cross
those mountains again: I think I would much rather go a
thousand leagues by sea, though I was sure to meet with a storm
once a-week.

I have nothing uncommon to take notice of in my passage
through France—nothing but what other travellers have given
an account of with much more advantage than I can. I travelled
from Toulouse to Paris, and without any considerable stay came
to Calais, and landed safe at Dover the 14th of January, after
having had a severe cold season to travel in.

I was now come to the centre of my travels, and had in a little
time all my new-discovered estate safe about me, the bills of
exchange which I brought with me having been currently paid.

My principal guide and _privy-counsellor was my good ancient
widow, who, in gratitude for the money I had sent her, thought
no pains too much nor care too great to employ for me; and I
trusted her so entirely that I was perfectly easy as to the security
of my effects ; and, indeed, I was very happy from the beginning,
and now to the end, in the unspotted integrity of this good
gentlewoman.

And now, having resolved to dispose of my plantation in the
Brazils, I wrote to my old friend at Lisbon, who, having offered
it to the two merchants, the survivors of my trustees, who lived
in the Brazils, they accepted the offer, and remitted thirty-three
thousand pieces of eight to a correspondent of theirs at Lisbon
to pay for it.

In return, I signed the instrument of sale in the form which
they sent from Lisbon, and sent it to my old man, who sent me
the bills of exchange for thirty-two thousand eight hundred
pieces of eight for the estate, reserving the payment of one
hundred moidores a year to him (the old man) during his life,
and fifty moidores afterwards to his son for his life, which I had
promised them, and which the plantation was to make good asa
rent-charge. And thus I have given the first part of a life of
fortune and adventure—a life of Providence’s chequer-work, and
of a variety which the world will seldom be able to show the
like of; beginning foolishly, but closing much more happily
than any part of it ever gave me leave so much as to hope for.

Any one would think that in this state of complicated good
fortune I was past running any more hazards—and s0, indeed, I

Q
240 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

had been, if other cireumstances had concurred ; but I was inured
to a wandering life, had no family, nor many relations; nor, how-
ever rich, had I contracted fresh acquaintance; and though I
had sold my estate in the Brazils, yet I could not keep that
country out of my head, and had a great mind to be upon the
wing again; especially I could not resist the strong inclination I
had to see my island, and to know if the poor Spaniards were in
being there. My true friend, the widow, earnestly dissuaded
me from it, and so far prevailed with me, that for almost seven
years she prevented my running abroad, during which time I
took my two nephews, the children of one of my brothers, into
my care; the eldest, having something of his own, I bred up as
a gentleman, and gave him a settlement of some addition to his
estate after my decease. The other I placed with the captain
of a ship; and after five years, finding him a sensible, bold,
enterprising young fellow, I put him into a good ship, and sent
him to sea; and this young fellow afterwards drew me in, as old
as I was, to further adventures myself.

In the meantime, I in part settled myself here ; for, first of
all, I married, and that not either to my disadvantage or dis-
satisfaction, and had three children, two sons and one daughter ;
but my wife dying, and my nephew coming home with good
success from a voyage to Spain, my inclination to go abroad, and
his importunity, prevailed, and engaged me to go in his ship as
a private trader to the East Indies ; this was in the year 1694,

In this voyage I visited my new colony in the island, saw my
successors the Spaniards, had the old story of their lives and of
the villains I left there; how at first they insulted the poor
Spaniards, how they afterwards agreed, disagreed, united, sepa-
rated, and how at last the Spaniards were obliged to use violence
with them; how they were subjected to the Spaniards, how
honestly the Spaniards used them—a history, if it were entered
into, as full of variety and wonderful accidents as my own part—
particularly, also, as to their battles with the Caribbeans, who
landed several times upon the island, and as to the improvement
they made upon the island itself,"and how five of them made an
attempt upon the mainland, and brought away eleven men and
five woinen prisoners, by which, at my coming, I found about
twenty young children on the island.

Here I stayed about twenty days, left them supplies of all
necessary things, and particularly of arms, powder, shot, clothes,
tools, and two workmen, which I had brought from England
with me, viz. a carpenter and a smith.

Besides this, I shared the lands into parts with them, reserved
ROBINSON CRUSOE 241

to myself the property of the whole, but gave them such parts
respectively as they agreed on; and having settled all things
with them, and engaged them not to leave the place, I left
them there.

From thence | touched at the Brazils, from whence I sent a
bark, which | bought there, with more people to the island ; and
in it, besides other supplies, | sent seven women, being such as
I found proper for service, or for wives to such as would take
them. As to the Englishmen, I promised to send them some
women from England, with a good cargo of necessaries, if they
would apply themselves to planting—which IL afterwards could
not perform. ‘The fellows proved very honest and diligent after
they were mastered and had their properties set apart for them.
I sent them, also, from the Brazils, five cows, three of them being
big with calf, some sheep, and some hogs, which when I came
again were considerably increased.

But all these things, with an account how three hundred
Caribbees came and invaded them, and ruined their plantations,
and how they fought with that whole number twice, and were
at first defeated, and one of them killed ; but at last, a storm
destroying their enemies’ canoes, they famished or destroyed
almost all the rest, and renewed and recovered the possession
of their plantation, and still lived upon the island.

All these things, with some very surprising incidents in some
new adventures of my own, for ten years more, I shall give a
farther account of in the Second Part of my Story,
PART II

CHAPTER XXI
EVISITS ISLAND

TH AT homely proverb, used on so many occasions in England,

viz. “That what is bred in the bone will not go out of the
flesh,” was never more verified than in the story of my Life.
Any one would think that after thirty-five years’ affliction, and
a variety of unhappy circumstances, which few men, if any, ever
went through before, and after near seven years of peace and
enjoyment in the fulness of all things; grown old, and when, if
ever, it might be allowed me to have had experience of every
state of middle life, and to know which was most adapted to
make a man completely happy; I say, after all this, any one
would have thought that the native propensity to rambling
which I gave an account of in my first setting out in the world
to have been so predominant in my thoughts, should be worn
out, and I might, at sixty-one years of age, have been a little
inclined to stay at home, and have done venturing life and
fortune any more.

Nay, farther, the common motive of foreign adventures was
taken away in me, for I had no fortune to make; I had nothing
to seek: if I had gained ten thousand pounds I had been no
richer; for I had already sufficient for me, and for those I had
to leave it to; and what I had was visibly increasing; for, having
no great family, I could not spehd the income of what I had
unless I would set up for an expensive way of living, such as
a great family, servants, equipage, gaiety, and the like, which
were things I had no notion of, or inclination to; so that I had
nothing, indeed, to do but to sit still, and fully enjoy what I
had got, and see it increase daily upon my hands. Yet all these
things had no effect upon me, or at least not enough to resist
the strong inclination I had to go abroad again, which hung

about me like a chronic distemper. In particular, the desire of
242
ROBINSON CRUSOE 243

secing my new plantation in the island, and the colony I left
there, ran in my head continually. I dreamed of it all night,
and my imagination ran upon it all day: it was uppermost in all
my thoughts, and my fancy worked so steadily and strongly
upon it that I talked of it in my sleep; in short, nothing could
remove it out of my mind: it even broke so violently into all
my discourses that it made my conversation tiresome, for I could
talk of nothing else ; all my discourse ran into it, even to imper-
tinence ; and I saw it myself.

I have often heard persons of good judgment say that all the
stir that people make in the world about ghosts and appari-
tions is owing to the strength of imagination, and the powerful
operation of fancy in their minds; that there is no such thing
as a spirit appearing, or a ghost walking; that people’s poring
affectionately upon the past conversation of their deceased
friends so realises it to them that they are capable of fancying,
upon some extraordinary circumstances, that they see them, talk
to them, and are answered by them, when, in truth, there is
nothing but shadow and vapour in the thing, and they really
know nothing of the matter.

Vor my part, | know not to this hour whether there are any
such things as real apparitions, spectres, or walking of people
after they are dead; or whether there is anything in the stories
they tell us of that kind more than the product of vapours,
sick minds, and wandering fancies: but this I know, that my
imagination worked up to such a height, and brought me into
such excess of vapours, or what else 1 may call it, that I actually
supposed myself often upon the spot, at my old castle, behind
the trees; saw my old Spaniard, Vriday’s father, and the re-
probate sailors I left upon the island; nay, I fancied I talked
with them, and looked at them steadily, though I was broad
awake, as at persons just before me; and this I did till I often
frightened myself with the images my fancy represented to me.
One time, in my sleep, I had the villainy of the three pirate
sailors so lively related to me by the first Spaniard, and Friday’s
father, that it was surprising: they told me how they barbar-
ously attempted to murder all the Spaniards, and that they set
fire to the provisions they had laid up, on purpose to distress
and starve them; things that I had never heard of, and that,
indeed, were never all of them true in fact: but it was so warm
in my imagination, and so realised to me, that, to the hour I
saw them, I could not be persuaded but that it was or would
be true ; also how I resented it, when the Spaniard complained
to me; and how I brought them to justice, tried them, and
244 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

ordered them all three to be hanged. What there was really in
this shall be seen in its place; for however I came to form such
things in my dream, and what secret converse of spirits in-
jected it, yet there was, I say, much of it true. I own that this
dream had nothing in it literally and specifically true; but the
gencral part was so true—the base, villainous behaviour of these
three hardened rogues was such, and had been so much worse
than all I can describe, that the dream had too much similitude
of the fact; and as 1 would afterwards have punished them
severely, so, if I had hanged them all, I had been much in the
right, and even should have been justified both by the laws of
God and man.

But to return to my story. In this kind of temper I lived
some years; I had no enjoyment of my life, no pleasant hours,
no agreeable diversion but what had something or other of this
in it; so that my wife, who saw my mind wholly bent upon it,
told me very seriously one night that she believed there was
some secret, powerful impulse of Providence upon me, which
had determined me to go thither again; and that she found
nothing hindered me going but my being engaged to a wife and
children. She told me that it was true she could not think of
parting with me: but as she was assured that if she was dead
it would be the first thing I would do, so, as it seemed to her
that the thing was determined above, she would not be the only
obstruction; for, if I thought fit and resolved to go [Here
she found me very intent upon her words, and that I looked
very earnestly at her, so that it a little disordered her, and she
stopped. I asked her why she did not go on, and say out what
she was going to say? But I perceived that her heart was too
full, and some tears stood in her eyes.] “Speak out, my dear,”
said 1; “are you willing I should go?”— No,” says she, very
affectionately, “ I am far from willing ; but if you are resolved to
go,” says she, “rather than I would be the only hindrance, I
will go with you: for though I think it a most preposterous thing
for one of your years, and in your condition, yet, if it must be,”
said she, again weeping, “I would not leave you; for if it be of
Heaven you must do it, there is no resisting it; and if Heaven
make it your duty to go, He will also make it mine to go with
you, or otherwise dispose of me, that I may not obstruct it.” ”

This affectionate behaviour of my wife’s brought me a little
out of the vapours, and I began to consider what I was doing; I
corrected my wandering fancy, and began to argue with myself
sedately what business I had after threescore years, and after
such a life of tedious sufferings and disasters, and closed in so


ROBINSON CRUSOE 245

happy and easy a manner; I say, what business had I to rush
into new hazards, and put myself upon adventures fit only for
youth and poverty to run into?

With those thoughts I considered my new engagement ; that I
had a wife, one child born, and my wife then great with child of
another; that I had all the world could give me, and had no
need to seek hazard for gain; that I was declining in years, and
ought to think rather of leaving what I had gained than of
secking to increase it; that as to what my wife had said of its
being an impulse from Heaven, and that it should be my duty to
go, | had no notion of that ; so, after many of these cogitations,
I struggled with the power of my imagination, reasoned myself
out of it, as I believe people may always do in like cases if
they will: in a word, I conquered it, composed myself with such
arguments as occurred to my thoughts, and which my present
condition furnished me plentifully with; and particularly, as the
most effectual method, I resolved to divert myself with other
things, and to engage in some business that might effectually tie
me up from any more excursions of this kind; for I found that
thing return upon me chiefly when I was idle, and had nothing
to do, nor anything of moment immediately before me. To this
purpose, | bought a little farm in the county of Bedford, and
resolved to remove myself thither. I had a little convenient
house upon it, and the land about it, | found, was capable of
great improvement ; and it was many ways suited to my inclina-
tion, which delighted in cultivating, managing, planting, and
improving of land; and particularly, being an inland country,
I was removed from conversing among sailors and things re-
lating to the remote parts of the world. I went down to
my farm, settled my family, bought ploughs, harrows, a cart,
waggon-horses, cows, and sheep, and, setting seriously to work,
became in one half-year a mere country gentleman. My
thoughts were entirely taken up in managing my _ servants,
cultivating the ground, enclosing, planting, &e. ; and I lived,
as LT thought, the most agreeable life that nature was capable
of directing, or that a man always bred to misfortunes was
capable of retreating to.

I farmed upon my own land ; I had no rent to pay, was limited
by no articles; 1 could pull up or cut down as I pleased; what I
planted was for myself, and what I improved was for my family ;
and having thus left off the thoughts of wandering, I had not the
least discomfort in any part of life as to this world. Now I
thought, indeed, that I enjoyed the middle state of life which
my father so carnestly recommended to me, and lived a kind of
246 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF

heavenly life, something like what is described by the poet, upon
the subject of a country life :—

“Free from vices, free from care,
Age has no pain, and youth no snare,”

But in the middle of all this felicity, one blow from unseen
Providence unhinged me at once ; and not only made a breach
upon me inevitable and incurable, but drove me, by its conse-
quences, into a deep relapse of the wandering disposition, which,
as | may say, being born in my very blood, soon recovered its
hold of me; and, like the returns of a violent distemper, came on
with an irresistible foree upon me. This blow was the loss of my
wife. It is not my business here to write an elegy upon my
wife, give a character of her particular virtues, and make my
court to the sex by the flattery of a funeral sermon. She was, in
a few words, the stay of all my affairs; the centre of all my enter-
prises; the engine that, by her prudence, reduced me ‘to that
happy compass L was in, from the most extravagant and ruinous
project that filled my head, and did more to guide my rambling
genius than a mother's tears, a father’s instructions, a friend's
counsel, or all my own reasoning powers could do. | was happy
in listening to her, and in being moved by her entreaties : and to
the last degree desolate and dislocated in the world by the loss
of her.

When she was gone, the world looked awkwardly round me.
I was as much a stranger in it, in my thoughts, as I was in the
Brazils, when I first went on shore there ; and as much alone,
except for the assistance of servants, as | was in my island. — I
knew neither what to think nor what to do. T saw the world
busy around me: one part labouring for bread, another part
squandering in vile excesses. or empty pleasures, but equally
miserable beeause the end they proposed. still fled from them:
for the men of pleasure every day surfeited of their vice, and
heaped up work for sorrow and repentance ; and the men of
labour spent their strength in daily struggling for bread to

maintain the vital strength the? laboured with; so living in a
daily circulation of sorrow, living but to work, and working but
to live, as if daily bread were the only end of wearisome life, and
a wearisome life the only oceasion of daily bread.

This put me in mind of the life L lived in my kingdom, the
island ; where I suffered no more corn to grow, because | did not
want it; and bred no more goats, because 1 had no more use for
them; where the money lay in the drawer till it grew mouldy,
and had scarce the favour to be looked upon in twenty years.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 247
All these things, had I improved them as I ought to have done,
and as reason and religion had dictated to me, would have
taught me to search farther than human enjoyments for a full
felicity ; and that there was something which certainly was the
reason and end of life superior to all these things, and which
was cither to be possessed, or at least hoped for, on this side of
the grave.

But my sage counsellor was gone ; I was like a ship without
a pilot, that could only run afore the wind. My thoughts ran
all away again into the old affair ; my head was quite turned
with the whimsies of foreign adventures; and all the pleasant,
innocent amusements of my farm, my garden, my cattle, and
my family, which before entirely possessed me, were nothing to
me, had no relish, and were like music to one that has no ear,
or food to one that has no taste. In a word, I resolved to leave
off housekeeping, let my farm, and return to London; and in a
few months after 1 did so.

When I eame to London, I was still as uneasy as I was before ;
I had no relish for the place, no employment in it, nothing to
do but to saunter about like an idle person, of whom it may be
said he is perfectly useless in God's creation, and it is not one
farthing’s matter to the rest of his kind whether he be dead or
alive. This also was the thing which, of all circumstances of
life, was the most my aversion, who had been all my days used
to an active life ; and I would often say to myself, “A state of
idleness is the very dregs of life;” and, indeed, I thought 1
was much more suitably employed when I was twenty-six days
making a deal board.

It was now the beginning of the year 1693, when my nephew,
whom, as I have observed before, I had brought up to the sea,
and had made him commander of a ship, was come home from a
short voyage to Bilboa, being the first he had made. He came
to me, and told me that some merchants of his acquaintance
had been proposing to him to go a voyage for them to the Fast
Indies, and to China, as private traders. “And now, uncle,”
says he, “if you will go to sea with me, I will engage to land
you upon your old habitation in the island; for we are to touch
at the Brazils.”’

Nothing can be a greater demonstration of a future state, and
of the existence of an invisible world, than the concurrence of
second causes with the idea of things which we form in our
minds, perfectly reserved, and not communicated to any in the
world.