Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Address to parents
 Note by the editor
 Robinson Crusoe
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Group Title: Young folks' Robinson Crusoe
Title: The Young folks' Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074449/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Young folks' Robinson Crusoe or, The adventures of an Englishman who lived alone for five years on an island of the Pacific Ocean
Physical Description: viii, 266 p. : ill. ; 21 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Macquoid, Thomas Robert, 1820-1912
Optic, Oliver, 1822-1897
Leitch, R. P ( Richard Pettigrew )
Linton, W. J ( William James ), 1812-1897
Marriott, R. S
Thomas, William Luson, 1830-1900
Wentworth, Frederick
Farrar, John, 1791-1870
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Lee and Shepard
Butterworth and Heath
Publisher: Lee and Shepard
Place of Publication: Boston (10 Milk St.)
Publication Date: 1898
Copyright Date: 1897
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1898   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1898   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States of America -- Massachusetts -- Boston
General Note: Some ill. by R.P. Leitch and T. MacQuoid; engraving by Butterworth & Heath, W.J. Linton, R.S. Marriott, Morison, W.L. Thomas, Wentworth, and Williamson.
General Note: Originally published as The Children's Robinson Crusoe by Mrs. Eliza Farrar in 1830.
General Note: This edition omits "most of the chapter relating to the early life of the hero, and condenses the rest of the volume." It is adapted "to the use of schools ... by simplifying many words and reducing the length of sentences. With these exceptions, the editor has taken few liberties with the text of Mrs. Farrar."--P. 3.
General Note: Based upon part I of Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Publisher's advertisement p. 4 of cover.
Statement of Responsibility: by a Lady ; edited and adapted by William T. Adams.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074449
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: lccn - SN01270
oclc - 27081349

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
    List of Illustrations
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Address to parents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Note by the editor
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Robinson Crusoe
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
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    Back Matter
        Page 267
        Page 268
    Back Cover
        Page 269
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Full Text

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I am monarch of all I survey,
My right there is none to dispute;
From the centre all round to the sea,
I am lord of the fowl and the brute

BOSTON, 1898:

COPYRIGHT, 1881, 1897,


NOTE BY THE EDITOR . . . . . .

III.- ALONE ON THE ISLAND . . . . . . 29
IV. -A HOME IN THE CAVE . . . . . . 36
V. -AN EXCURSION INLAND . . . . . 44
X. -THE RAINY SEASON . . . . . . 74
XIX. BUILDING A PYRAMID . . . . . . 128




. . . 175
. . . . 182
. . . . 189
. . 198
. . 206
. . . 213
. . . . 219
. . . . 223
. . . 228
. . . . 233
. . . 243
. . . . 251
. . 259


Robinson Crusoe's Home . . . . . Frontispiece
I must make choice of some business . . .. .... * 7
I felt miserably sick . . ............... 9
We rowed away from her as fast as we were able . . . 15
We spent two days at anchor in the sound . . . 21
We were close in with the land on the starboard side . . . . 23
The vessel must soon go to pieces .. . . 26
I held on by the rock . . . . . . . 28
In it I fixed myself .. . . 31
I found some fragments of the boat ... . . 34
I wandered about for several hours . . . 37
I soon saw a troop of four-legged creatures . . . . . 46
I found it to be a kind of turtle .. . . . 55
It was no trouble to me to weave the panniers . . . . 59
I added another column to my calendar . . . . 62
I went on very patiently with my clumsy tailoring . . 85
I used the limbs and branches .... . . . . 91
It was long before I could teach her .. . . 98
I climbed to the deck . . . . . . . 104
I pushed off from the side of the ship . . . . 107
I devoted most of the day to writing .. . . 122
I made several excursions .... . . . 132
A bay on the northeast side . . . . 135

I had abundant reason to be grateful to God . . . . 140
The barley planted in the autumn made its appearance . . 142
I sailed down the creek . . . . 145
I beheld the print of a human foot . . . 153
I lost myself in troubled sleep . . . . 155
The poor creature threw himself on his knees . . . . 163
I directed Friday's eyes toward it . . . . 185
I had cause to rejoice that it was done . . . 190
They were engaged in tearing down the timbers . . .. 194
I crossed the bay and landed . . . . 199
I found an old llama . . 202
Building a new shed for the llamas . . 208
Showing the island to the strangers . . .. 245
Cape Verde Islands . . . . 261
Robinson Crusoe at Home . . . 265



IT will very naturally be asked, why another is added to
the numerous stories, already in circulation, founded on
De Foe's interesting fiction, for the use of children. To
this it may be replied that the abridgments lose much of
the spirit and graphic manner of the original, while they
retain certain parts that are ill adapted to the perusal of
children of the present day.
The great merit of De Foe's work is its naturalness; it
seems to be exactly what it purports to be, the narrative
of a profane, ill-educated, runaway apprentice of the sev-
enteenth century ; and with perfect consistency of character
even his better feelings have a stamp of vulgarity and super-
stition. But can such a tale, though perfect in itself, be
suited to children who have been carefully guarded from
all profaneness, vulgarity, and superstition ? It was written
for grown persons, particularly that class to which the hero
is supposed to belong; and the very skilful manner in which
it was adapted to them makes it unfit for the perusal of
The best modern writers for children have considered it
important that characters which excite in them a deep in-


terest should be represented as models of those qualities
which we wish them to admire and cultivate; and it oc-
curred to the writer of the following story that the fasci-
nation of De Foe's hero might be enlisted on the side of
industry, perseverance, resignation to the will of God, and
numerous other good qualities of which he might be sup-
posed to be an example.
With this view, the Young Folks' Robinson Crusoe is here
represented as an amiable and well-educated youth, early
trained to habits of observation and reflection, and capable
of pure and exalted feelings of religion, a hero, in short,
whom children may safely love and admire, yet not faultless,
or they could not sympathize with him.
The religious sentiments here inculcated are not those of
any particular creed; nothing has been admitted which is
not common to all Christians.
The author thinks, with Rousseau, that Robinson Crusoe
might be made a great instrument in the education of chil-
dren, leading their minds to a philosophical investigation
of man's social nature, and introducing them to trains of
thought which no other story could so well suggest; and
the only considerations which induce the writer of this vol-
ume to offer it to the public are founded in the belief that
it comes nearer what is wanted than those which have pre-
ceded it; that its influence will be favorable to the cause of
truth, social order, and religion; and that it contains nothing
incompatible with that love and respect for childhood in
which it was written.


THE Children's Robinson Crusoe was written by Mrs.
ELIZA FARRAR, wife of Prof. John Farrar, of Harvard
College. She was born in 1792, and died at Springfield,
Mass., in 1870. Besides this work, she was the author of
a Life of Lafayette," of Howard," Youth's Letter
Writer," "Young Lady's Friend," and "Recollections of
Seventy Years."
This book was published in Boston more than fifty years
ago, by Hilliard, Gray, Little, & Wilkins. It is the only
Robinson Crusoe read by the editor until within a few years.
It was the standard edition used by those in this vicinity
who read children's books half a century ago, and doubtless
there are many who never read any other. The editor has
omitted most of the chapter relating to the early life of the
hero, and condensed the rest of the volume. He has also
endeavored to adapt the story to the use of schools as well
as families by simplifying many words and reducing the
length of sentences. With these exceptions, the editor has
taken few liberties with the text of Mrs. Farrar.
This book was originally published as The Children's
Robinson Crusoe "; but half a century of changes has some-
what modified the usage of the word children," and that
the title may not mislead any as to the class of readers for
whom the book is intended, the publishers prefer to call it
"The Young Folks' Robinson Crusoe."

Robinson Crusoe's Home.





WAS born in
S- the city of York,
in England, in
the year 1632.
My father was
a respectable bro-
ker, and took great
pains with my edu-
cation. He sent
me to the best
schools in York,
and supplied me
with entertaining
and instructive
books to read at
home. All my
brothers were much older than I was, so that there were no play-
mates for me in the family. Perhaps for this reason I was more
studious than most boys of my age.


When I was nine years old my father gave me a set of carpen-
ter's tools and a little room for a workshop. I could make boxes,
stools, and benches; and, though the boxes were not always very
neatly put together, and sometimes one leg of a stool would be
shorter than the rest, my parents encouraged me to persevere. In
basket-making I was very successful. I learned the art of an old
blind man, who lived near my father's house and maintained himself
by weaving baskets and mats.
I was very fond of studying natural history, and whenever there
was an exhibition of wild beasts in the city my father allowed me to
go and see them. I used to spend hours in reading and comparing
the description and the plates in my books with the real animals.
In this way I became acquainted with each specimen.
I took great pleasure in reading about the manners and customs
of different countries; and every book of voyages and travels I could
get hold of I read through with delight. When I grew older, my
fondness for this kind of reading increased; and as I could not
understand all the hardships and sufferings which travellers and
navigators are obliged to bear, I thought their life must be the
pleasantest in the world.
About this time, there was a great deal said about sailing around
the globe. Some very enterprising voyages were made, and the news-
papers and journals were full of accounts of newly found islands in
the Pacific Ocean. My head was filled with these things. Much
was then believed which has since been contradicted, and voyages
of discovery were the fashion of the day.
When I was fifteen years old my father told me I must make
choice of some business I would like to follow, and learn to provide
for myself, as my brothers had done.
From ten years of age I was possessed with the idea that a sailor's
life was the best in the world. I set my heart so firmly on follow-
ing the seas that nothing my parents and friends said could dissuade


me from it. I left a comfortable home and good prospects
to seek my fortune in sailing over the world, and to gratify :
osity in seeing different countries. I little thought how
my voyages would end, or that my knowledge of foreign pari
be confined to an uninhabited island of a few miles in extent
I well remember how much my heart misgave me, as the ti:
near for me to sail, and how sorrowful all my friends were.

4 Pu
&'4 ~

"I must make choice of sonime business."

body made discouraging speeches about my going to sea, and
it much harder than I expected to leave my happy home a
from my dear father and mother.
The last evening before I left home, I felt wretchedly. As
again it came into my head that I had better give it all up,
quietly where I was. All that my friends had said to me,
making the least impression upon me, now rushed into n


with great force. I saw how reasonable it was, and, at the bottom
of my heart, I wished I was not going, though I had not the courage
to say so. I was afraid of being laughed at, and ashamed to ac-
knowledge that I had changed my mind. Like a fool as I was, I
hid what was passing within me, kept to my determination, and thus
brought on myself all the misery I have since endured.
I passed a wretched night; and the next morning, when I em-
braced my weeping mother for the last time, I could hardly help say-
ing, "I will not go" ; but I shut my lips tight, and forced myself
away, in an agony of mind I cannot describe. If I had then known
all that was to happen to me, I could not have felt worse; and I
now think that I had those painful feelings because it was not right
for me to go.
I reached Hull just in time to join the good ship Neptune, Captain
Gordon. The crew were weighing anchor, and the bustle and novelty
of all around me turned my thoughts from home and the dear friends
I had left. I had now lost all the good opportunities of changing
my plan of life, and I resolved to bear its hardships as well as I
could, and make the best of everything. If I did not like the sea,
after one voyage, I could give it up, and spend the rest of my life
with my friends in England.
The weather was fine anid the waters of the Humber were smooth.
I recovered my spirits, as the ship, under full sail, glided down that
fine, broad river, which serves as a mouth for the Trent, the Ouse,
the Derwent, and several other streams.
I soon began talking with the sailors, and one of them, perceiving
my love of adventures, gave me a marvellous account of something
that I now believe never happened. I was taking it all for true,
when I suddenly felt so giddy that I could not stand without hold-
ing fast to something. Then I felt miserably sick, and, not knowing
what ailed me, I cried out, Oh dear! what is the matter with me ?"
This made the sailors burst out in a loud laugh. They told me I


was sea.-sick, and made such sport of my sufferings that I was glad
to get away, and creep into my berth, in the forecastle. I was
too sick to be of any use on deck, and I was allowed to lie there
all night.

" I felt miserably sick."

I could not sleep much, on account of the various noises all around
me. The dashing of the waves against the sides and bows of the
vessel sounded so loud, and seemed so near my ear, that I could


hardly believe the water was not coming into my berth. Then the
rattling of the ropes on the deck, the heavy tread of the sailors, the
singing noise they made in hoisting, with the whistling and rushing
of the wind through the rigging, were all sounds so new to me that
I could not help listening to them instead of sleeping.
When I came on deck, in the morning, I was extremely surprised
to find the ship so far from land; and I made the sailors laugh by
asking where the river was that we were sailing down the night
before. I was told that we were now on the North Sea, or German
Ocean, many leagues from the Humber; and that we were off Spurn
Head when I grew sick with the ocean swell, which we came into
just there. I was surprised to find so much motion in the water,
when there was so little wind; but I soon found that the waves of
the ocean never cease to roll, even in a dead calm.
For three days I continued very sick, but after that I began to get
better. When I had anything to do that I could not leave, it would
keep off the sickness for a while. As I was inclined to be indus-
trious, I learned my duty as a sailor very quickly, and often sur-
prised the old hands on board by imitating them so exactly. A
person who goes to sea for the first time is always laughed at and
called a "land-lublbfr" ; but I bore all the sailors' jokes good-hu-
moredly. By being civil and obliging to everybody, I soon became a
general favorite, and instead of faring the worse for being a green-
hand," every one seemed disposed to make my situation as agreeable
as possible, and to save me from any very hard duty.
The weather was remarkably fine, and the winds favorable. We
soon reached the Straits of Dover, and passed through the British
Channel. During this part of our voyage we could see the coast,
at a distance, all the time; but when we had passed Land's End
and the Scilly Isles, a brisk wind soon carried us entirely out of
sight of all land. Then there was nothing to be seen but the wide
waters all around, and the sky and clouds above.


A few days after we lost sight of land, I was surprised to hear the
captain give orders to take in most of the sails. It appeared to me
that we were sailing along very pleasantly, and I could see no reason
why we should shorten sail and go more slowly. I was surprised,
too, to observe with what activity the sailors sprung to their work,
and what haste everybody was in. I did not know, then, how
quickly sailors can see when it is going to blow very hard. They
are constantly looking at the water and the clouds, and observing
every little change in their appearance. They can perceive that the
wind is blowing very fresh, at a distance of several miles, some
minutes before it reaches them; then they take in most of the sails,
and prepare for the storm as well as they can.
They had just got everything snug on board the Neptune when
the squall struck her with such force that she was thrown on her
beam ends, or laid down on one side, so that her lower yards 1 almost
touched the water. I was thrown down by the suddenness of the
motion, and slid to the lower side of the deck. But I had presence
of mind enough to catch hold of something as I went, or I might
have gone overboard. In a few moments the vessel righted,
and I was able to get upon my feet. The ship pitched and tossed
about so violently that I was obliged to hold on to something all the
time, or I should have fallen again. One of the sailors told me that
if they had not seen the squall before it came, and prepared for it,
it would most likely have upset the vessel.
In half an hour the wind abated, and they set a little more sail.
I asked why they did that, when the sea was still so rough, and the
vessel tossed about as much as ever. I was told that the ship would
be much steadier under more sail, and, as the wind had gone down,
there was no risk in doing it. I was pleased to observe what com-
mand the captain's knowledge gave him over the vessel. Though I

1 Spars that cross the masts, to which the topsails are fastened.


was becoming more acquainted with the danger of the sea, I felt in-
creased confidence in the skill that could provide against it.
The sailors watched the weather very closely all the afternoon,
and before light closed in there was every sign of a heavy gale
coming on. The captain gave orders to prepare for it accordingly.
Seeing me look very serious, one of the sailors told me not to be
frightened, for with a good ship under them, like the Neptune, and
plenty of sea-room, there was very little danger, even in a storm.
I was glad to hear this; for though I was not frightened, I liked
to know how much danger they expected to be in. I resolved to
attend to everything that passed, and try to be as quiet and collected
as the most experienced sailors.
I had always felt a great curiosity to know what a storm at sea
really was. I was now about to be gratified, but I felt more serious
than I expected to be; and I could not help thinking of my pleasant
home and dear parents, and comparing their situation with my own.
My attention was, however, soon called away from these thoughts,
by. the duty I had to do. I was afterwards so occupied in watching
the vessel, listening to the wind, and observing the enormous waves,
that I thought no more of anything but the present scene. It blew
very hard all night, and I could not be persuaded to take my turn
below. I could not make up my mind to go to sleep in the midst
of such a gale, as some of the sailors did.
By daybreak the next morning, the wind had abated a little.
As it became fair for us to steer our course, we ran before it all day,
and went very fast, though we had only a foresail and close-reefed
main-topsail set. At last I was tired out with watching the vessel
and the weather. I went below, and slept most of the forenoon.
When I came on deck again, I was surprised to find no change
in the weather. I had no idea of a gale lasting so long, and
asked the sailors if it was not likely soon to be over. They shook
their heads, and said they thought it would blow harder before it


blew less. And sure enough, that afternoon the wind increased,
the clouds thickened, it suddenly became unusually dark, and thun-
dered and lightened terribly. I knew by the flashes of lightning
being followed so quickly by the thunder that the clouds, full of
electricity, must be very near us. As I had never before heard
such long and loud peals of thunder, or seen such very bright flashes
of lightning, I thought there must be great danger of the vessel being
struck by the lightning and shivered to pieces. But as I could not
discover any appearance of alarm in the countenances of those about
me, I kept my fears to myself, and stood ready to do as others did,
if anything should happen.
I now suppose that all on board the ship knew the danger they
were in from the lightning as well as I did; but they had been in
such storms before, and had escaped unhurt. They had besides
great confidence in their captain, who seemed to be as perfectly calm
and self-possessed as if it were fine weather. Every flash of light-
ning showed me the monstrous size of the waves, which looked, each
time they broke near the vessel, as if they would overwhelm her.
Sometimes we actually shipped a sea that swept the deck fore and
aft, and obliged every one to hold fast to avoid being carried over-
When the vessel rose on the top of a great wave, she seemed to be
on a pinnacle, with a deep gulf on every side of her. When she
sank down again into the trough of the sea, she appeared to be in a
deep pit, ready to be buried under the waters that rose on every side
of her, almost as high as her lower yards. But when I saw her
descend safely from the pinnacle, and rise as safely out of the deep
pit, a great many times, I became accustomed to the size of the
waves, and was not alarmed by them.
The storm lasted several hours. At length a flash of lightning,
more vivid than any before, struck the main-iAast 1 and mizzen-mast,2

1 Middle and highest mast.

2 The hindermost mast.


and shivered both. When the lightning struck the masts, and the
cracking of the wood was heard with the thunder, I thought the
whole vessel was split to pieces, and I expected to find myself in
the water the next minute. I was therefore astonished to hear
Captain Gordon give his orders to cut away the rigging, and clear
the deck of the broken masts, in the same calm voice he always used.
The behavior of the captain gave me fresh courage, and I helped
to execute the commands so coolly and distinctly given. The mate
was sent to ascertain whether the hull of the vessel had been injured
by the lightning. He returned with a face full of alarm, and told
the captain that the vessel had sprung a leak, and there was already
considerable water in her hold. This made our danger very great;
but the captain preserved his presence of mind, and quietly said,-
Man the pumps, and fire signal-guns! There may be some
vessel within hearing, though there is none in sight."
While some of the sailors were doing this, the captain ordered others
to throw overboard everything movable, in order to lighten the ship
as much as possible, and keep her from sinking as long as we could,
in hopes some other vessel would come to our assistance. Though
the men pumped as fast as they could, the water in the hold became
deeper -and deeper. The captain was convinced the ship must
soon sink, and he consulted with the mates as to what they had
better do.
The last flash of lightning had been followed by a torrent of rain,
which, though it appeared to me to increase the difficulties of our
situation, was, I found, of great use, in quieting the waters and
lessening the waves. The captain observed this, and as the wind
began to abate, he proposed that we should all take to the boats,
and, with some bread and water and a compass in each, row away
from the vessel before she sank under us. Whilst the rest were
lowering the boats and getting the provisions into them, the captain
and I continued to fire signal-guns as long as we could. My cour-


age was kept up by that of Captain Gordon, who was the last to
leave the vessel.
We rowed away from her as fast as we were able, and when we
were far enough off to escape being drawn in by the vortex she




"We rowed away from her as fast as we were able."

would make in going down, we lay upon our oars to see her sink.
After settling down lower and lower in the water, she suddenly
made a plunge, and went down stern foremost. There was some-
thing grand in that plunge, which made me shiver all over. Some
of the sailors looked very solemn, and spoke of the vessel as if it was


a living creature. We were all glad that we had left the ship in
time to avoid sinking with her. But what would become of us in
the midst of the ocean, in small boats, and with only a few days'
provision, was still very uncertain. We were considering the danger
of our situation, when, to our great relief, we heard a gun fired in
answer to our signals of distress.
When it stopped raining and the clouds cleared away, we could
see a large vessel coming directly towards us. The captain took off
his shirt, which was white, and, tying it by the sleeves to one of the
oars, stuck it up in the boat for a flag. He knew how much more
difficult it would be for the people on board the ship to see so low
an object as a boat than for those in the boats to see the ship. The
mate in the other boat did the same with his checked shirt. We
soon had the pleasure of observing a flag hoisted on board the ship,
which was to let us know that we were seen, and should be relieved.
In half an hour more we were all on board of a large Spanish
ship, bound to the west coast of South America. Being extremely
fatigued, as well as wet, cold, and hungry, we were very glad to
accept the kindness of strangers, and be where we could get shelter,
food, and dry clothes. All of these were freely offered us by the
Spaniards, who, though they could not speak or understand English,
made themselves intelligible by signs.



AFTER a sound and refreshing sleep, I went on deck. I found my
shipmates looking very dejected, and talking over the loss of the
Neptune. They regretted that the ship which had picked them up
was bound to South America. I had been so rejoiced that I never
once thought of the loss of my clothes and everything I had on
board the Neptune, till I heard the sailors talking of what they had
lost. Then I remembered that I now had nothing in the world but
one suit of clothes, and no money. I wondered what I should do;
but all my companions were in a like situation: I could do as they
did, and manage as well as they.
As soon as South America was mentioned, I inquired to what part
of it the ship was bound. Hearing that it was to Callao, in Peru,
I asked what they knew about that country. All they could tell
me was that the Spaniards would not suffer any other nation to
trade with them. They had plenty of gold and silver, but it would
cost an Englishman his life to pick any of it up, though he trod it
under foot at every step. As I could get no further information about
the state of Peru, I called to mind all I had rzad about it in the his-
tory of America. I felt a strong desire to see the places where the
events I had read about happened. On the whole, I considered the
change in our prospects, occasioned by the loss of the Neptune, as
favorable to my seeing the world. I could not help rejoicing on my
own account. I had neither money nor clothes; but I knew many
kinds of work by which I could earn a living.


Pleased as I was with my new prospects, I found a great many
disagreeable things in my present situation. The Spanish ship,
called the Santa Maria, and commanded by Captain Manegro, was
very different from the Neptune. She was ill-shaped, and a dull
sailer. She was besides extremely filthy and .full of vermin. The
berths were the worst that ever any decent person was obliged to
sleep in. The provisions also were so bad that I could hardly eat
The captain and crew of this ship were very much inferior to
those of the Neptune. Though I could not understand a word they
said, I found that the captain was a passionate man, neither respected
nor beloved by his crew. The sailors were lazy and disobedient,
fond of playing cards, smoking, and swearing. The Santa Maria
had lost several of her hands since she left Old Spain; and the
captain was very glad of the assistance of our mariners in working
the vessel.
The voyage now became extremely tedious to me. When we got
into the trade winds, which I longed for so much, the days were
more tedious than ever, for there was nothing at all to be done.
The sails remained in the same position from one week's end to an-
other. Even the variety of climate, on approaching the equator, was
less agreeable to me than I expected. I found the heat of the sun
so great that I wished myself again in a temperate zone.
The want of occupation very much increased my restless feelings.
Though I gladly joined my countrymen in doing all the work they
could find to do about the ship, there were many hours, each day,
that I was obliged to spend in idleness. 0, how I longed for some
book to read! The most uninteresting one would have been a
treasure to me. But no book could I get. Having lost all my
things, I had no pens, ink, or paper, that I might use in writing.
When we approached Cape Horn, the weather was tempestuous.
We became anxious, for our water and provisions were very short.


It was the intention of the Spanish captain to touch at the Falkland
Islands to get water and wild fowl; but the English sailors feared
that we had missed those islands altogether. Westerly winds had
prevailed for a long time, and had set us so far east that we might
run by them without being near enough to see them. We had no
confidence in the captain's navigation. There was no quadrant on
board, and the charts were very poor. The ship was badly worked,
and the voyage made longer than necessary by the bad seamanship of
the master. Yet lie was so obstinate and passionate that no one
dared to advise him. According to his reckoning we ought to have
seen the islands three days before they actually appeared. At last,
when the only salt meat on board was cooking and the last cask
of water was on tap, we were relieved from the worst apprehen-
sions by the thrilling sound of Land 0!" 0, what a welcome
sight was that group of uninhabited islands, after such a tedious
We entered a sound between the two largest of them, and found
good anchorage opposite a fine beach of hard sand. I was impa-
tient to set foot on the land, and, fortunately for me, the captain
ordered me into the boat that took him, the mate, and Captain
Gordon ashore.
When we ran the boat aground and jumped out on dry land, I was
almost wild with delight. I threw off my shoes and ran barefoot on
the sand for a mile. After being confined so long to the narrow
bounds of a vessel's deck the sensation of freedom was enchanting.
When I returned I found my comrades drinking largely at a rivulet
of pure. water, that was running and sparkling over the beach to the
sea. I could. not help throwing myself down by it and drinking of
it. After the bad water we had been using, the taste of this was
delicious; I could hardly drink enough of it. And so it was
with every one present; they drank as though they would never be


There were no trees to be seen; but the land was covered with
tall, rank grass. The beach was bordered with numerous little
hillocks, that seemed to be formed by the decay of the coarse grass
that grew upon them and hid the sand. I was amusing myself with
stepping, or jumping, from one of these hillocks to another, when
my bare foot slipped off the little eminence and rested on something
cold, wet, and slippery, and full of muscular motion. A sound
between a squeak and a grunt followed, and then a most hideous
roar. I lost my balance as a creature moved under my feet, and
fell down upon him. There I rolled about in the grass between two
hillocks that hindered my rising, with this roaring monster creeping
out from under me. I expected to be torn in pieces every instant.
At last I made out to rise and run to my companions, who looked
almost as much alarmed as I was. Turning around to face the
enemy at a distance, I saw seven great, shaggy animals issuing from
the border of the beach, and making towards us.
Captain .Gordon exclaimed, Kill all you can; they are very
good eating." Being near our boat we armed ourselves, some with
muskets, others with oars, and began our attack. The animals were
endeavoring to reach the water, but having only tails and fins they
advanced but slowly. We beat them over the back as hard as we
could, but without making any impression on them. We fired at
them, and several balls took effect; yet the creatures proceeded
toward the sea, upsetting every one who came in their way. At
last we discovered their noses to be the most vulnerable part. A
few blows there stopped their progress, and we made five of them
When we rested from our labors, I asked what these terrible-
looking creatures were, and was told they were sea-lions. Captain
Gordon called them shaggy seals, and said that their skins were
very valuable. They contained a great deal of blubber, which
made very good oil; and their flesh was palatable food. We


secured them in the boat, and then proceeded to explore the island
We found large flocks of ducks and other sea-fowl, so tame that
we could drive them before us and fire into them before they at-
tempted to fly. In this way great slaughter was made among them.

"We spent two days at anchor in the sound."

On advancing into the island our attention was suddenly fixed upon
a ridge of land just above us, on which were ranged, in the most
regular order, what appeared to me a number of little children of
the same age and size, and dressed alike, with their arms extended.
I could think of nothing but a school, the scholars wearing brown
frocks and white aprons. After gazing a moment in silent amaze-
ment, I perceived the heads to be those of birds, and recognized the
shape and position of the penguin.


We next had a battle with the penguins, but were not so success-
ful as with the seals. They bit so hard we could not hold them, and
we managed to carry only one on board the vessel. That one we
took alive, and kept him safe during the night. The captain ordered
us to put him in the pen with a pig, the last of our live-stock. We
did so, and left the two strangers to make each other's acquaintance.
In the morning we found there had been a combat between them,
which had ended in the death of the pig.
We spent two days at anchor in the sound, and all the ship's
company were allowed to go on shore and refresh themselves; but
there were no more adventures. We took in a good supply of ex-
cellent water; and on the third day after we made the land we pro-
ceeded on our voyage.
There were some deliberations as to the course we had best take:
we could leave the inlet the way we entered it, or find a passage
through the sound. Captain Gordon advised the former course, as
he found that no one on board had ever passed through the sound,
and they had no chart of it. This determined the obstinate Manegro
to try the passage through the islands. By keeping a boat but
ahead, to sound the way, we got safely through; but there were, in
some places, such quantities of sea-weed, that this of itself threat-
ened wholly to obstruct our passage; we could but just force the
ship through it.
After we got safely through the islands, we were glad we had
taken that course, as it would be easier to get round the cape. I
saw that Captain Gordon was anxious, and the English sailors were
very watchful. The third night after we left the Falkland Islands,
we were all startled by the cry of "Land 0 close aboard, over the
port 1 bow." Captain Gordon was on deck in a moment, and gave
the necessary orders for altering the vessel's course; for there was
not a moment to be lost, and the master of the vessel was below.
1 Left side looking ahead.


Every one was astonished at seeing land on our left; if it had been
on the right, we should have thought all was well. In a few min-

We were close in with the land on the starboard side."

utes we were close in with the land on the starboard I side. It looked
like a high wall; it was a bold shore, and we had only just time
1 Right side.


to tack and keep clear of the steep rocks that rose on either side
of us.
The Spaniards were very much alarmed. The captain admitted
that he did not know where we were. After consulting the miserable
charts on board, Captain Gordon came to the conclusion that we were
in the channel between Staten Island and the main land. Daylight
soon appeared, and we could see our way very well. The current was
so strong, and the eddies so numerous, that we were strangely whirled
about. By the good sense of Captain Gordon, and the good conduct
of the English sailors, we got safely through the strait, and reached
the open sea near the cape.
As soon as we were out of danger, Captain Gordon gave up his
command, and treated the master of the ship as though nothing had
happened. But Captain Manegro had one of those little minds that
cannot bear the superiority of others. He was shy and jealous of
Captain Gordon on account of the services he had rendered.
I was often provoked to see how uncivilly Manegro treated Cap-
tain Gordon, whom I loved and admired more and more every day for
his mildness and forbearance toward our ignorant commander.
We had a great deal of tempestuous weather in doubling Cape
Horn. The currents were very strong, and the sea rough. The
reckoning was poorly kept, and we hardly knew when we really
had doubled it. We continued to have heavy gales of wind, after
we were several hundred miles from the cape, and our voyage be-
came every day more unpleasant. Our provisions were scanty and
poor; we had been put on short allowance, and were heartily tired of
our voyage.
About three weeks after we left Cape Horn, we were sailing along
under close-reefed topsails, when we were all alarmed by the cry of
"Land dead ahead !" That which is so cheering a sound when ex-
pected, is an alarming one when not expected.
Manegro pretended to be very knowing. He said he knew very


well what land it was, and he meant to go ashore there, and get
some fresh provisions. Captain Gordon advised keeping off till the
wind abated, or sailing round the island, and entering a port to the
Our obstinate commander insisted upon keeping on just as we
were. The wind was increasing every moment. We were expect-
ing orders to shorten sail, or alter our course, when a gust came that
nearly capsized us, and carried away several sails. All was dismay
and confusion. Captain Manegro refused all aid from Captain Gor-
don, while he gave contradictory orders to his men. We suddenly
perceived breakers very near us. The wind was blowing us directly
upon a reef of rocks, and the vessel was unmanageable.
When it was too late, Captain Gordon's voice was heard, amid the
roar of the waves, the whistling of the wind, and the cracking of
spars. Anchors were let go; but the breakers were all around us,
and nothing could save the vessel from destruction. She was driven
upon the rocks with such force that no one could keep his feet; after
striking three times the ship was fixed upon the reef, and the sea
broke over her. The force of the waves filled me with fear and
amazement. I was convinced, from all I saw, that we were in the
greatest possible danger. The Spaniards gave themselves up to cries
and lamentations; but the Englishmen gathered around their captain
to consider what they had better do.
He said the vessel must soon go to pieces. Though the sea was so
rough, he thought they had better take to the boats, and see what
could be done in them. They might be carried towards the land,
without capsizing, and get into some sheltered bay or creek. Just
as they came to this determination, a great wave broke away part of
the stern, and carried off a boat that was hanging there. There was
then but one boat left, and that was only large enough to hold a part
of those on board. So one of the English sailors proposed that they
should go off in her and leave the Spaniards behind, as their obsti-

-~-~-'.- .'
-~ A

__ ~.\

--~ ,,.

k -~

" The vessel must soon go to pieces."


uacy and ignorance had brought us into this situation. Our good
captain would not listen to such selfish advice. He said, "They
saved our lives once, and we will try to save theirs now; at least
wu will give them a chance with ourselves." So, while his men
were getting ready to launch the long boat, Captain Gordon called
the Spaniards. As he had before saved them from shipwreck, they
came upon deck when they heard his voice. With his direction and
as.-istance the boat was launched, and all on deck got into her,
though not without great danger. The boat was so tossed about by
the( waves that we feared she would be broken in pieces against the
side of the ship.
We rowed as well as we could towards the land, and as the boat
dre'.v very little water, we passed over the reef on which the vessel
had stuck fast, and proceeded in safety about half a league. As we
approached the land, we saw nothing like a bay or inlet, and the
brIaking of the waves on the beach made it impossible to land. We
cold but just keep the boat from filling with water, where we were;
andI nearer the shore, it would be entirely out of our power.
ha this situation there was nothing more to be done. Those in
thlE boat were making up their minds to be drowned in a few min-
utbs, when a monstrous wave overturned the frail craft, and covered
us all with its mighty waters.
As I was a good swimmer, I did not lose my presence of mind,
when I found myself under water. I tried to rise to the surface, that
I might take breath. This, however, I could not do. I must have
suffocated if I had not been carried on the beach. The wave went
back and left me upon the sand in shallow water. Though much
exhausted with the exertions I had made, and the want of breath,
I advanced towards the land. I had not proceeded far before I saw
the sea coming after me like a high wall. I knew it would carry
me towards the shore, so I gave myself up to its power. In this
way I approached nearer and nearer to the land with every wave,


till at last I felt ground with my feet. The next moment my head
was out of water, and I could breathe freely.
I stood still a
moment to recover '.-
my breath, and -- -
then ran forward ---:. -
as hard as I could. ----- ~ :' -'
Again I was coyv- -.
ered many feet
deep. with water,
and borne along

As the sea was -
carrying me along
very swiftly, I ,
struck against a ,
ledge, which dis- All
abled me from
struggling against t :: ,
the waves; but,

happily for me, I hekl .-.I I-,- : ... 1: li
I remained, support .._, i",.-!I 11 1I ..- .: i
from the blow, while -' *--.t 'i. v.- ,1.- 1 1---.., -
me. A few more rau1 butL.cen thu bLieak l:
brought me quite out of the water. I had
just strength enough left to walk up the beach,
beyond the reach of the breakers, when my
knees bent under me, and I sank down on

~ Lflfl.~~~rti -


the dry sand. Exhausted by the great exertions I had made, I
fainted away.



How long my swoon lasted, it is impossible for me to say. On
recovering from it, it was some time before I could recollect what
Ihad happened to me. By degrees the wreck, the wind, and the
dashing waves helped me to recall the disaster which occasioned
my being where I now found myself. The dreadful certainty that
alone, of all that were on board, 'had reached the shore alive, burst
upon me, and made me miserable.
T was cold, wet, hungry, and thirsty, without anything in the
world but the wet clothes I had on. I was alone, in an unknown
country. It might be full of savages and wild beasts. I could see
/Io traces of cultivation. I had no fishing-tackle to get fish; no gun
to shoot birds; no means of lighting a fire. I was far from my
pleasant home and dear parents, and could not hope ever to see them
again. In this dismal situation, I could not rejoice in having saved
myself from drowning, for I expected a worse death. I walked up
and down the beach in a state of agitation not to be described. I
wrung my hands, sobbed aloud, and reproached myself for the folly
and obstinacy which had brought me to this wretched condition.
Quite exhausted, I sat down on a large stone; and, resting my head
on my knee, I fell into a silent agony of despair.
How long I sat there, I cannot tell; but I was roused from that
fit of dejection by a sensation of thirst. I bore this for some time.
At last. it overcame my reluctance to move, and I went in search of


I looked fearfully around to see if any savage'man or wild beast
was near me. Seeing no living creature, I walked slowly up the
beach, and made my way over long- grass and through shrubs in
search of a valley with a stream of fresh water in it. After wan-
dering about for some time, I came to a narrow vale, the sides of
which were clothed with flowering shrubs and trees; and there I
heard the pleasant sound of a brook. Winding among rocks, I
found a clear, sparkling stream, of which I drank plentifully.
Greatly refreshed, I seated myself on the grass, at the foot of a
large tree, and began to reflect more calmly on my sad condition.
My anguish subsided when I remembered that my Heavenly
Father was as near me there as in my own happy home. By
thinking of his power and goodness, my courage and strength re-
vived, and my soul was comforted. I resolved to trust in God en-
tirely, and do the best I could to continue the life that had been so
remarkably preserved.
Just as I had formed this good resolution, I heard the most,
melodious warbling of birds, in the bushes near me, and the sound
cheered my heart. "Those birds are happy here," said I to myself',.
" and why may not I be happy too ?" The thought that they had,
companions, while I had none, again filled my heart with sorrow.
The birds were not afraid of me, but flew about so near me thb-'
I could observe them getting their food. I said to myself, Will\
not the same Power that directs them to their proper nourishment
also supply me ?" I felt an assurance in my heart that it would;
and being very hungry, I returned to the beach for something to eat.
I had not walked far when I found some oysters. As I had been
accustomed to eat such shell-fish raw, I satisfied my appetite pretty
well. I had great difficulty in opening some of the oysters, for I had
no knife.
When I had finished my meal it was about sunset. The wind
had abated, but it began to rain very fast, and I returned to the


little valley to seek a shelter for the night. I could have found a
dry spot under the dense foliage, but I was afraid of wild beasts.
I knew that such animals keep very quiet during the day, and roam
about at night in search of their prey. Therefore it would not be safe
to lie on the grass. I had no means of making any defence; so I
thought my best plan would be to follow the example of the birds,
and sleep in a tree. I found one whose thick foliage would screen
me from rain, and whose numerous crooked branches made it easy
to climb. I fixed myself in it as securely as I could, and being very
tired I soon fell asleep.

In it I fixed myself."

Leaving my airy bed, I washed my hands and face in the brook,
and walked to the shore to look for shell-fish for my breakfast.
To my great disappointment the tide was high, and there were no
oysters to be found. The water was full of fishes, but I had not
the means of catching them.
It occurred to me that, as I had failed of getting oysters for my
Leavig my iry bd, I ashedmy hads an faceIntero,


breakfast, there might be wild fruits inland, that would satisfy my
appetite. I walked away from the shore towards a high hill about
a mile from the beach. I determined to ascend it, take a survey
of the country, and look for something eatable as I went along. I
walked for some distance till I came to rocks and bushes; but I
looked in vain for any berries. Everything was growing luxuri-
antly, and beautiful flowers met my eye, but no fruits were to be
seen. All the productions of the earth were those of spring. When
I reflected that I must be at least thirty degrees south of the equa-
tor, I was satisfied that it must be spring-time in this region. In
due season these beautiful blossoms would give place to berries and
fruits, that might prove to be wholesome food.
With this hope, I pursued my way, and began to ascend the hill
I had seen. I found it more difficult to climb than I had antici-
pated; and I was often obliged to go a great way around, in order
to avoid perpendicular cliffs or impassable woods. But my desire
to obtain a good view of the country, and ascertain whether I was
on an island or on the main land, and the hope of finding some ripe
fruit, urged me on. After a long and toilsome ascent, I found myself
on the bare summit of a high hill. I discovered that I was on a small
island, and could see nothing but the wide ocean all around me. I
looked for the wrecked vessel, but it had disappeared. The loss of
that last vestige of civilization made me feel more lonely than ever.
I looked in every direction to ascertain if the island was inhabited,
but could discover nothing. I felt very melancholy when convinced
that I was alone on an uninhabited island. "I must pass the re-
mainder of my life in this lonely place, far from my friends, who
will never know what has become of me. I shall never see the face
of any human being again. Here I must live and die alone," I said
to myself.
Almost exhausted by fasting and sorrow, I began to descend the
hill, intending to reach the shore by the time the tide left it, and


look for shell-fish to allay the pangs of hunger, which began to be
very severe.
My feet had become very sore and tender, with so much walking
on rough ground, and in thin, old shoes; and to favor them I took
the smoothest paths. In doing so I wandered away from the side of
the hill by which I went up. When I arrived at the bottom of it I
fotn d myself still very far from the shore, where I expected to get
the food I so much needed. I feared my strength would hardly last
t,, carry me back to that part of the coast where I had found the
oysters. The trees were so thick I could not see which way to go.
'By observing the sun, I could direct my steps; for I remembered
that the beach on which I landed was on the south side of the
island, and ran east and west.
As I walked along, frequently casting my eyes upward, to. see that
I kept the right course, I observed some very curious-looking trees,
viih tall, naked stems, and a great tuft of leaves on the top. I had
.'en such in paintings, but could not recall what they were. As I
approached them I saw, among the long, drooping leaves, some very
1.;ge three-sided things. Thinking they might be good to eat, I
;[rew stones at them, till I knocked one down. It was nearly as
Large as my head, covered with a husk that was tough and full of
lil res, which came off with difficulty. What was .my joy and delight
lhoien I ascertained by the inside shell that it was a cocoanut! I
had often eaten cocoanuts in England. I had never seen one with
the husk on, which was the reason I did not know what it was as
soon as I saw it.
I broke the shell on a stone, drank off the delicious milk it con-
tained, and then devoured the fruit. One did not satisfy me, half-
starved as I was; so I knocked down a second, and ate that as
voraciously as the first. While I was thus satisfying my appetite,
my eyes filled with tears of joy and gratitude for this new relief in


my distress. I felt more sensibly than ever that I ought not to
I had seen sketches of trees like these in books of travel. They
were called palm-trees. But the pictures gave me a poor idea of
them. I was now very much struck with their grand appearance.
Though I thought it likely there were more cocoanut palms on the

:--P -- '- /-' '-- ;*1. -

I found some fragments of the boat."

island, I marked the spot where this cluster of them stood. Taking
with me one of the broken nut-shells for a drinking-cup, I continued
on my way to the beach.
The tide had receded a considerable distance; but I could find
only a few oysters, not enough to make a meal, which made me glad
that I had eaten the cocoanuts. I did not eat the oysters I picked
,ip, but saved them for my next meal.


I found some fragments of the boat which had been dashed to
pieces on the rocks the day before, and a couple of oars that had
been washed ashore. The oars and fragments of the boat I carefully
collected, and carried them with my oysters to the shady valley of
the brook, where I meant to pass the night.
Relieved from the fear of danger from savages or wild beasts, as I
had seen no traces of either during my day's journey, I began to feel
something like security in this pleasant retreat. Seating myself on a
grassy bank, I tried to plan some kind of a habitation; but the want
of tools seemed to render it impossible for me to do anything. If I
had had any iron tool, I could have contrived many things for my
comfort and security; but without any implement, what could be
done I had lost my jackknife just after the wreck of the Neptune.
I had two more knives in my chest, but that went down with the ship.
I had reason to regret the loss of my knife more than I can express.
Every plan that came into my head for bettering my situation failed
for want of it. I went to my tree for the night, very much depressed
in spirits.



MY position in the tree, though improved by placing a piece of
plank among the branches, was not comfortable enough to make
me sleep after daylight. I made an early breakfast of the oysters
I had collected the evening before, and set off on a long walk, re-
solved to see as much as I could of the island before the noon-day
sun made it oppressively warm. I found the country beautifully
undulated, plentifully watered, and filled with a great variety of
vegetable productions. I looked at every plant and tree as I went
along, in hopes of discovering something that I might safely eat.
Everything looked strange to me, except a water-plant, which so
resembled the water-cress of England that I ventured to taste it.
Finding the flavor the same, I ate a good deal of it, and relished it
well. I regretted .that I knew nothing of botany, and remembered
with shame and sorrow that I used to laugh at a boy of my acquain-
tance for studying it. "Oh that I had done the same!" exclaimed
I, "and then I might find some wholesome food among these weeds,
and distinguish those which are poisonous." Though I knew noth-
ing of botany, my habit of observing everything I saw done enabled
me to make one valuable discovery during my walk.
I pulled up some long stalks of a plant, resembling a nettle, that
grew in my way. I observed that they were composed of fibres, so
tough that I could hardly break them. I had seen hemp dressed,
and this looked a good deal like it, only the plant was smaller. I
gathered a large bundle of it, and tied it up with some of the stalks,
that I might see, at my leisure, if it could be made into cordage.


The chief object of my excursion was to look for some natural
cave in the rocks, where I might sleep in safety, instead of perching
like a bird in a tree. I wished to find a spot, which should be

"I wandered about for several hours."

shaded from the noon-day sun, and yet high enough to command a
view of the ocean; for I looked continually for a vessel with which
I could communicate by signal. .


I wandered about for several hours among the wood and hills on
the side of the island where I first landed. I found a smooth, grassy
terrace on the south side of a steep, rocky hill. It looked as if a
piece of the hill had been cut out to make this level spot. The
rocks rose behind it, as steep as the side of a house, so that it was
perfectly protected on the north. This terrace was about two hun-
dred paces long and twenty broad. From the edge of it, the land
sloped gently down to the low ground near the beach. Large frag-
ments of rock were scattered over it, as if by some great convulsion
of the earth. Small clusters of trees adorned the terrace. Numer-
ous shrubs and plants grew among the rocks that bounded it on the
north, and it looked as if it were made for the site of a cottage.
No situation could have suited me better; but as I could not
make a shelter for myself without tools, I was obliged to look for
one ready made, in the earth or among the rocks, as wild animals
do. Being very warm and thirsty from my walk, I searched about
for a spring of water; and in so doing discovered a small, hollow
place in the steep side of the hill. This, enlarged a little, would be
exactly what I wanted; but how to make it big enough to sleep in
without any tools was the grand difficulty. I determined, however,
not to give up so fine a situation without exerting all my ingenuity
to adapt it to my purpose. I was still more encouraged to under-
take it when I perceived, at a short distance, a clear stream of water,
trickling out of a crevice in'the rock. The more I observed the ad-
vantages of this spot, the more determined I was to make it my
residence. Though I had nothing but my hands to work with, I
resolved to scoop out the earth with them rather than give up
sleeping in the cave.
Having refreshed myself with a good draught of water, I made the
best of my way back to the sea-side. I reached it by a much
shorter route than I had taken in discovering the terrace. I has-
tened to gather shell-fish while the. tide was low; and I was more


successful than before. While wandering over the beach, I found
a very large, strong shell, which I thought would serve me instead
of a spade to scoop out the earth from the little cave. With
the aid of this tool I hoped to make it large enough to sleep in
that night.
When I had satisfied my appetite, I carried my bundle of nettles
and the large shell to the side of the brook. There I tied up the
plant in small bunches, and put it in the water to rot the woody part
of the stalk, a process I had seen adopted with hemp. By the time
that was done, I was so tired that I lay down on the green bank to
rest myself; and before I was aware of it I fell fast asleep. My
position was much more comfortable than when perched in the tree.
I was more refreshed by that hour's nap than by any sleep I had
had for many nights. As wild beasts generally sleep during the
heat of the day, I thought it would be advisable for me to take a
nap every day on the grass at noon.
When I awoke I hastened to the terrace, carrying the great shell
with me. I began to work most industriously at enlarging the cave.
By patiently removing a little earth and a few stones at a time, I
made some progress; but it was much slower than I expected, and
I was obliged to give up all thought of sleeping there that night.
It also occurred to me that it would not be safe to lodge there with-
out some means of defending the entrance. Though it was well
guarded by the high rock at the back, there was nothing in front of
the terrace to keep off savages or wild beasts.
The cave, when made large enough to sleep in, would be too small
if the entrance were closed up entirely. It was therefore necessary
to contrive some barrier that would protect me, while the mouth of
the cave was left open. I was greatly puzzled to think of any kind
of defence which it was in my power to make; but, by reflecting
upon it while I was digging out the cave, a way of doing it came
into my head.


I had seen many young willow-trees at the foot of the hill which
I knew could be easily transplanted, as their roots do not grow deep
in the earth. I therefore resolved to pull up a number of them and
set them out close together in a semicircle around the entrance of
the cave. They would be some protection at once, and when they
grew larger would make a very effectual barrier.
I lodged as before that night, after a hard day's work, more com-
forted and cheerful than I had been since my shipwreck. I longed
to stretch my tired limbs at full length on the grass; but the fear
of wild animals sent me to my tree for the night.
For many days I continued to dig out my cave and transplant
trees. Though the want of proper tools made it very laborious, I
persevered, and succeeded beyond my expectations. While thus
occupied, I dined every day on shell-fish, and breakfasted and supped
on cocoanuts and water-cresses. I indulged myself with an after-
noon nap on the grassy bank by the side of the brook.
One day, thinking the nettles might have lain long enough in the
water, I took them out, and spread them in thin layers on the grass
to dry. I next pounded them with a large stick, as I had seen flax
pounded, and succeeded perfectly in freeing the fibres from the stein.
They were of good length and could be twisted into pack-thread.
Much pleased with the success of this experiment, I went on twisting
and doubling the string till I made some very strong cord. It was
not quite so even as that made by rope-makers, but it soon proved
of great service to me.
I worked diligently, and planted tree after tree until I formed a
complete semicircle around the cave. But as a single row of such
saplings did not seem sufficient, I planted a second row outside the
first. I then interwove the branches of the two rows together. I at
last hit upon the plan of filling up the space between with the earth
and stones from the cave. This made the barrier very strong. Every
morning and evening I watered my little hedge. This was a tedious


process, for I had nothing bigger than a cocoanut shell to carry
water in. I was rewarded for all my labor by seeing the willows
alive and growing after their removal.
My plan was to make no opening in the hedge, lest I should not
be able to secure it firmly. When I had nearly completed it, I
spent a whole day in making a rope-ladder out of my cordage. The
rock behind the cave was about as high as the second story of a
house. On the top of it was a tree, to which I fastened one end of
the ladder, and fixed the other to the ground beside the cave, by
means of stakes firmly driven. I then tried to mount by it, and
finding I could go up and down safely, I completed the barrier, and
piled up, on the inside of it, the rest of the rubbish taken from the
When I had worked a little longer at enlarging my cave, I came
to hard points of rock that I could not possibly remove with my
hands or shell. 0, how I longed for an iron bar! I knew that
wishing was of no use, and I tried to think of something that might
answer the purpose. I had seen on the beach some hard green
stones. On examining them I found one, the sight of which made
my heart leap for joy. It was nearly in the form of a wedge, with
a very sharp edge to it. I found another that was equally well-
fitted for my purpose. It was very thick and heavy at one end,
while the other was small and easily grasped. I could use the latter
as a mallet or hammer.
I set to work with my new tools immediately. I applied the
sharp edge of the wedge to the rock, and striking it with the mallet
I broke off a large piece. In this way I cleared the cave of all the
sharp rocks inside of it, and made it large enough for me to lie at
ease and be at some distance from the mouth.
I had before gathered a quantity of grass and dried it in the sun.
This hay I threw down into the enclosure, and made a most com-
fortable bed at the back part of my new lodging-room.


From this time I was able to sleep on a dry, soft bed, sheltered
from wind, rain, and sun. Those who have always been able to
stretch their weary limbs on a good bed, in a secure place, can hardly
imagine how delighted I was with my rude accommodations. I
went to sleep that night, feeling happier than I could have thought
it possible for me to be on this uninhabited island.
The following day was Sunday. I remembered it as soon as I
awoke. I had always been in the habit of putting on clean linen
on the Sabbath; but now I had no clothes of any kind, except those
I had worn so long. I determined, however, to make myself as
clean as I could; so I bathed in the brook, and left my shirt to soak
in the stream, tied by its sleeves to a bush.
On my way back to my new habitation, I gathered cocoanuts enough
to last all day, and then rested from my labors. I spent the day in
serious meditation, devout prayer, and tender recollections of my
distant home and the dear friends whom I feared I should never see
As I was counting over the number of days that I had been on
the island, and trying to remember on what day of the month I was
wrecked, it occurred to me that I should soon lose all knowledge of
time if I did not mark the days as they went by. The next morn-
ing I set to work to make myself an almanac by which I could
count the days regularly.
Having no paper, pens, ink, or anything on which I could write, I
chose one of several trees that stood close together and had very
smooth bark. On this I made a scratch with the edge of a shell, for
every day I had been on the island, with a long scratch for Sunday.
When this was done, I thought of a signal to give notice, if a
vessel should pass by, that there was somebody on the island who
needed assistance. I could easily find a tree for a flag-staff; but
what to use for a flag puzzled me. At last I made up my mind to
give up my only shirt for the purpose. I had but one, and when


in rags I must do without it. I had better give it up at once and
use it in the only way it could possibly do me any great service.
If it should make a vessel stop and take me off this desert island, it
would certainly be the best use I could put it to.
I washed my old shirt in the brook, made it look as white as I
could, and left it to dry in the. sun. I explored the hills on the
south side of the island, searching for a tall tree that could be con-
verted into a flag-staff.
On a point of land, higher than the hill on which 1 lived, I found
a solitary tree with a straight trunk that would serve my purpose.
I must get the branches off, and make it look enough like the work
of man to attract the attention of a sailor; but without any iron
tools this seemed impossible. I resolved to try my wedge and mallet;
and by patience and perseverance I removed many of the upper
branches. Finding it slow work, I concluded to leave the larger
boughs below, and fasten my shirt to the top of the bare stem.
After two days' hard labor I had the satisfaction of seeing my flag
flying in the air, well secured, in sight from the sea.
The high point of land I called Signal Hill; it was in sight from
the ground above my cave, and commanded a more extensive pros-
pect than the hill where I lived, to which I gave the name of Fort
Hill, from my fortifications on its side.



I HAD now eaten up the most of the cocoanuts that grew on the
only trees of the kind I had yet seen. The shore furnished me with
such a scanty supply of shell-fish that I began to be uneasy about
getting food enough to keep me from starving.
I had been so constantly employed in making a safe retreat to
sleep in that I had explored only a small part of the island; but
now I determined to travel over it, and look for more cocoanuts and
other articles of food.
I found the noon-day sun very oppressive; and having no hat, I
spent half a day in making an umbrella to shade me on my intended
journey. I had neither silk nor whalebone; yet I contrived to
make something that answered the purpose of a large parasol.
With a kind of willow I wove a circular piece of wicker-work,
like the cover of a round basket. To the hollow side I fastened a
stick, and made it firm by tying it with pack-thread. From a young
palm-tree I gathered some large leaves, with which I covered the
outside of my wicker-work. I was as much pleased with this basket-
work umbrella as any little girl ever was with a new parasol.
The rest of the day I employed in making a bag to hold any pro-
visions I might find in my excursion. Having a good stock of pack-
thread by me, I thought I would knit one with that. I took a piece
of reed to form the meshes on, and fastened the end of the string to
a smooth twig, six inches in length, for a needle. Before night I
had a good-sized bag, with a string in the top, by which I could
hang it around my neck.


Having thus completed the preparations for my journey, I went
to bed, and slept well. I rose as soon as the first rays of light made
their way into my apartment. I tied a large cord around my waist,
into which I put my stone mallet; and with my bag and umbrella
I began my day's march. I went first to the beach, and breakfasted
on what I could find there; then to the cocoanut trees, to furnish
my bag with a nut, that I might be sure of something to eat at noon.
The morning was delightful; the sun was rising in all his glory
out of the sea. A variety of birds were singing their morning songs;
the air was pure and refreshing, and the flowering shrubs gave out
the sweetest scents. I walked cheerfully on my tour of discovery.
As I was not yet sure the island did not contain beasts of prey or
savages, I avoided forests and thickets, and kept on open ground.
Seeing some pretty flowers that resembled the convolvulus, I gathered
several; in pulling at the vine, I happened to pluck up the roots.
They looked a little like potatoes, and thinking they might be eata-
ble, I put a couple of them in my bag with the flowers.
After wandering about all the forenoon, I felt the need of food
and rest. On the banks of a pretty rivulet, I sat down under the
shade of a branching tree to eat the cocoanut I had brought with
me. I had just begun my repast, when I heard a noise like the
tramping of many animals. I started to my feet, and, seizing my
stone mallet, I prepared to defend myself against the attack of any
wild beasts. I soon saw a troop of four-legged creatures coming
towards me. My alarm was turned into joy when I found them
to be that harmless and useful animal, the llama, or Peruvian camel.
They trotted by without appearing to see me, on their way to the
rivulet, where I suppose they were accustomed to drink. I watched
their movements unobserved. I had once seen a llama, at York, and
had read of the Peruvians taming them and using them as beasts of
burden. I knew that warm, soft clothing was made from their hair
or wool, and that their flesh was excellent food. I had a strong desire

" I soon saw a troop of four-legged creatures."


to taste a piece of meat, and I determined to kill one of the llamas,
if I could. I placed myself close to the spot they had passed. With
my mallet in my hand I waited their return from the rivulet. A
young one came very near my place of concealment, and I gave it a
blow on the back of its neck that laid it dead at my feet.
It did not occur to me till I had killed the llama that I had not
the means of lighting a fire. I had no flint, steel, matches, or tinder.
Though I could strike fire with two hard stones, I could make no
use of the spark without some kind of tinder, and I was at a loss to
procure it. I had read of savages rubbing two dry sticks together
till they take fire. I was satisfied I could do the same, and therefore
promised myself a good meal of cooked meat that evening.
Having rested and eaten a cocoanut, I prepared to carry home
my game. I threw the carcass over my shoulder, and turned my
steps towards the cave.
On my way I discovered a group of lemon-trees. They had fruit
and blossoms on them, and some ripe lemons had fallen to the
ground, which I picked up and put in my bag. After a long and
warm walk, I reached the terrace with my load. My eagerness to
eat a bit of meat made me set to work directly to skin the llama.
This I found to be impossible, with a stone wedge. After pulling
and hacking away at it for some time, I was obliged to content
myself with the tongue, which I succeeded in pulling out whole.
I could not help smacking my lips at the thought of eating such a
delicate morsel as I knew it would be when cooked.
I next set to work to kindle a fire by rubbing two pieces of dry
wood together, and expected to see them light at once. I rubbed so
briskly that the sweat ran down my face in large drops, but I could
not raise a spark. When the wood was heated enough to smoke, I
was so tired I could not rub a moment longer. While I stopped to
rest and recover my breath, the wood cooled, and all my labor was
lost. I worked away in this manner a long time, and tried many


different kinds of wood, but all to no purpose. I could never do
more than make the wood smoke a little. At last I gave up in de-
spair, threw away my sticks, and lay down on the grass, exhausted
and disappointed.
After some time spent in these mournful reflections, hunger made
me think of eating the meat raw; but on trying it I found it so
tough, I could hardly bite it. The taste was so unlike that of
cooked meat that I could not relish it at all; and I went to my
cave for the night, feeling very hungry, tired, and melancholy.
Sleep, however, soon came to my *relief, and I forgot my troubles
for a while.
The first thing I thought of, on awaking the next morning, was
the flesh of the llama, which only wanted a fire to make it deli-
cious food. As I lay trying to remember how savage nations cook
their meat, I recollected an account of the Tartars putting the meat
they mean to eat under their saddles, and cooking it by the heat of
the horse's body, as they ride along. This heat, I thought, might be
given to the meat in another way, and up I jumped to begin a new
experiment in cookery.
I found two thin, flat stones. Between them I placed the llama's
tongue, and began to strike upon the upper stone with my mallet.
These blows I continued for eight or ten minutes; and feeling the
stone grow hot, I went on striking it with redoubled activity for half
an hour or more.
By that time the meat had become, partly by the heat and partly
by the blows, quite tender and fit to eat. To one who had not eaten
any meat for such a length of time, it tasted very well. I was so
hungry that the llama's tongue did not half satisfy me. I made
great exertions to pull off a part of the skin, and get a piece of the
flesh to cook in the same manner; and at last I succeeded. I made
this still more palatable by squeezing a little lemon juice over
it; and an excellent meal repaid me for all my labor. I ate it


with a thankful heart, and was greatly refreshed and strengthened
by it.
I could not help feeling sad, when I reflected on the want of a
common pocket-knife. With that I could have skinned the llama,
and saved the skin whole for various purposes. I could have eaten
my meat, too, much more comfortably, with a knife to cut it. I
recalled what I had read about the llama, and then a happy thought
occurred to me. As the llamas suckle their young, they must have
milk; and if I could obtain one of the mothers alive, I could use
her milk as food. I was considering the best way to catch one
when a violent shower of rain obliged me to shelter myself in the
cave. It was the first shower that had fallen since I was cast upon
the island, though heavy dews" and fogs had partly supplied the
place of rain.
The rain became heavier every moment, till it seemed to run in
streams from the clouds. I had never seen such rain before, but I
had read of it as common in the West Indies. Presently it began
to thunder and lighten violently. After each flash of lightning
there came such loud claps of thunder as I had never before heard.
I rejoiced that I had a cave to shelter me from the rain, and only
feared that my barrier might be undermined by the floods of water
that came down on all sides. I kept my eyes fixed upon it with
some anxiety, and saw some of the earth and stones washed away.
It happened very fortunately that there was one weak place in this
barrier, at which the rain found a passage. Otherwise it would have
collected inside, till the quantity of water would have carried away
all my works of defence. As it was, it made an opening for itself
and ran off harmlessly.
The rain continued so long that I was obliged to give up making
any excursion that day. As I sat in my cave, looking at the breach
made in my barrier by the rain, I resolved not to close it up again,
but to leave a space by which to pass in and out, and secure it at


night as well as I could. Having never had any alarm, from man or
beast, since I came on the island, I began to think my precaution
unnecessary. The convenience of a passage in and out would be
very great, and save my climbing the ladder so often.
In the evening I made my gateway, and secured it with the two
oars I had till I could get something better. I went to bed, full of
schemes for catching llamas with nooses, as the Peruvians do wild
horses, and dreamed all night that I was in the midst of llamas,
horses, and Peruvians.



FULL of my new schemes for catching llamas alive, I rose with
the sun, and began my preparations for breakfasting on another piece
of meat. But the remaining flesh of the llama was spoiled, the
weather being extremely sultry when I killed it. I buried it at a
distance from my cave, and went to the beach in search of other
food. There I found, in the crevices of the rocks, some large,
round balls, that looked like eggs. Supposing them to be the pro-
duction of some large sea-fowl, I sucked one of them. I found it
palatable food, and made a very good breakfast in spite of my dis-
appointment about the meat.
I then prepared a noose so that it should not choke the llama, but
only draw up to the size of its neck. Throwing the rope over my
shoulder, I marched off. The country was greatly improved by the
rain; all the vegetable world seemed clad in new beauty, and the
birds sang over my head more merrily than ever. I followed new
paths, much more beautiful than I had before seen. I crossed some
pretty valleys, abounding in shrubs and flowers, berries and other
fruits. Some of these slightly resembled the fruits of my own coun-
try, but most of them were entirely new to me. The fear of being
poisoned did not restrain me from the tempting banquet, and I ate
without injury of several of the fruits.
Before noon I had crossed the range of hills that ran nearly east
and west, on the south side of which I lived. I went several miles
into the country without seeing any living creature except birds, or
discovering the least trace of any human being. I began to fear that,


in changing my course, I should miss the llamas altogether. See-
ing a winding river at a little distance, I walked that way, and pres-
ently came to a beautiful, wooded spot on its banks. I laid myself
down on a smooth, grassy bank, and forgot for a while my unhappy
situation, in contemplating the beauties of nature around me. Sud-
denly the well-remembered sound of the llamas' footsteps roused me
to action.
I jumped up, and had just time to place myself behind a large
tree, and adjust my noose properly, before they appeared. I fixed
my eye upon a mother with two young ones following her. As she
moved gently by my place of concealment, I had no difficulty in
throwing the loop over her head. The bound she gave on feeling
the rope drew it close round her throat, and had well-nigh pulled
the end of it out of my hand. Fearing that her struggles would
soon free her I made the end of the rope fast to the trunk of a small
tree. Thus secured, she jumped and pulled till she tired herself
out. The young ones played many pranks about her, wondering,
no doubt, what ailed their poor mother. I sympathized so much
with her unwillingness to be made a captive- that I had serious
thoughts of letting her go. Knowing how useful she would be to
me, and that she would, in time, be reconciled to captivity, I re-
solved to lead her home if I could.
I might have caught as many as I pleased, for my presence did
not alarm them in the least. They passed by me as if I were a tree
or a stone. This should have satisfied me that the island was unin-
habited; for wherever the power of man is felt, his approach is
feared by all inferior animals.
The flock of llamas drank at the river, and then trotted off into
the woods. When I thought my prisoner was sufficiently exhausted
to be manageable, I began to lead her to her future home, her kids
following close after us.
At first she stepped along very quietly, and I began to think I


should have no more trouble with her. She soon undeceived me,
and began such capers that I was obliged to throw away my um-
brella, and then, with both hands, I could but just hold her.
Occasionally she would allow me to lead her along for some dis-
tance; but at times she was very refractory. I was so worn out
with the exertions I had made that when I reached my terrace, I
could only tie her to a tree. I went at once to my soft bed of hay,
and falling asleep directly, my whole night's rest seemed like one
short nap.
My first sensation on awaking was hunger, for I had eaten nothing
for twenty-four hours but the eggs I found on the rocks, and some
wild fruits gathered on my long walk. This was a spare diet for
one who had taken so much exercise. I rose, determined to kill one
kid for present use, and secure to myself a part of the mother's milk.
When I joined my new companions, and saw the pretty gambols and
joyous faces of the young ones, and the subdued appearance of their
captive mother, I could not bring myself to take the life of either.
I went to the beach for a breakfast, and found more of the same
kind of eggs and plenty of oysters. I was now convinced that there
was no danger of my starving to death. But I foresaw many acci-
dents that might happen to cut off these resources. I strongly desired
to have a stock of vegetables and fruits near my cave, together with
a flock of llamas, and a fire to cook with. I had already done more
towards making my situation tolerable than I had at first thought
possible, and I intended to do a great deal more.
Again I turned my thoughts to the means of obtaining a fire. I
tried to make tinder of dried leaves, decayed wood, and the ravellings
of my cotton stockings ; but none of these would take fire from the
sparks produced by striking together two pieces of quartz. I la-
mented my ignorance of the substance called punk, used as tinder.
I remembered how it looked. I spent many hours looking for it
among the rocks and seaweed, but all in vain. As I was one day in


a thick wood, looking for cocoanuts, I seated myself under the shade
of a tree of a kind unknown to me. Examining its bark, I saw,
growing out of it, a fungus I could not doubt was the very thing I
had been in search of. I always carried two stones in my pocket
that would strike fire, and I made the experiment at once, but
without success: every spark fell lifeless on the fungus. I was
not discouraged.
It might require to be dried before it was used. I looked about
to find some that was dry, or for a dead tree, on which the fungus
might have grown and died with its parent stem. The latter was
soon found. I struck the stones together over this dry fungus, and
found to my great joy that it kindled immediately. With the lighted
punk I set fire to some dry leaves and broken twigs, and delighted
my eyes with the sight of a blaze, in order to realize that I possessed
the "best of servants, and worst of masters,"- a fire.
I had nothing with me to cook, and I let the fire burn out; but I
collected all the punk I could find, and carried it home. Having
no meat, I went to the beach for something to cook, intending, if I
found nothing else, to gather some oysters and roast them.
As I reached the sands, I saw something like a large, roundish stone,
where I had never observed one before. I perceived that it moved
on four legs. When I overtook it, I found it to be a kind of turtle,
though not exactly like the green turtles from the West Indies.
I stopped its march towards the sea by turning it on its back,
which made it quite helpless. Following its track, on the sands, to
the place it had just come from, I found, lightly covered, a large
deposit of the soft eggs, which I had' taken for birds' eggs. I was
now convinced that they belonged to this creature.
I put several of them in my bag with sea-weed, to prevent their
breaking. With the turtle on my shoulder, I walked back to my
terrace. I thought he weighed a good many pounds when I first
lifted him up; and before I reached home his weight seemed to be


doubled. I had scarcely strength to ascend the terrace, so much
was I weakened by the want of nourishing food.
From descriptions I had read of a terrapin, I knew this must be.
of the same kind, and very good to eat. I determined to kill him at
once, and dress some of the meat. This was easier said than done;

19 U b

"I found it to be a kind of turtle."

and, disliking to mangle the poor creature without killing him at
once, I determined to make a fire and roast my eggs, and let him
alone a while longer.
In looking for materials to light a fire, I found the roots I had
gathered long before, belonging to a vine like the convolvulus. These
I also thought of roasting; and having made a large fire, and got a
good bed of ashes, I put them and the eggs into it.


The eggs were done long before the roots; and as my appetite was
very keen, I could not wait for the whole dinner, but began on the
first dish. Never did anything taste so well to me. No one can
imagine the luxury of eating cooked victuals who has not lived for
months on raw provisions, as I had done. To me these eggs, though
of a coarse kind, and eaten without salt, which they very much
needed, tasted deliciously.
When I had done my dinner, I found the terrapin had walked off
to a considerable distance. As soon as I came near him, he shut
himself up as before. I put him on his back, within my enclosure,
and left him.
I now set to work to make a fishing-net of the string I had amused
myself with spinning from the fibres of the nettle. I could catch a
variety of fish, which, with the help of fire, would be excellent eating,
though quite useless to me without. I lived near the sea, in which
they abounded, and they would be a very convenient article of food.
I let my fire burn out, and withdrew the roots from the warm
ashes. I found them a most excellent vegetable, like a potato, but
much sweeter. Of these and a drink of llama's milk, obtained for
the first time, I made a luxurious supper; and went to bed in ex-
cellent spirits, full of schemes for the future.



NOT knowing that llamas have stomachs somewhat like camels,
and do not drink often, I thought it important to have a watering-
place for them. I put a large shell under the little stream that
flowed out of the rock near my cave. This shell was two feet long,
and sixteen inches broad, of oval shape, with scalloped edges, of a
pink color inside, and highly polished. The flow of the stream kept
it full of water, and made it run over at all the scallops. It had a
very pretty appearance, and doubly repaid me, by its beauty and
usefulness, for bringing it from the beach to my terrace.
I made myself a comfortable seat, under the shade of a tree near
my fountain, by placing a piece of the plank, washed ashore from the
wreck, on some stones. There I frequently sat to enjoy the company
of my dumb companions, the llamas, which had become quite tame.
The young ones followed me about, and put their noses into my
hand to find if I had any berries for them, for I often brought home
such as they liked from the woods. They soon learned to get their
own living, and I had the full benefit of the old one's milk. I kept
it in cocoanut-shells, which I also used as drinking-cups.
I was very desirous of eating some roast meat, not only for the sake
of its taste, but because it would restore my strength. So I went into
the country behind the hills, killed a young llama, and brought it
home on my back. I thought the load would tire me less than lead-
ing it home; and if I brought it home alive, I should be unwilling
to kill it at all.


Great was the trouble it cost me to tear off a part of the skin,
divide the limbs, and get off a piece of the flesh, without an edge
tool of any sort, unless the stone wedge might be so called.
When I had obtained a proper piece to roast, I made a good fire,
in a sheltered nook of the rocks, near my cave. I took for a spit a
slender branch, and, having run it through the meat, I rested the
ends on two forked sticks, stuck into the ground before the fire.
Having seen my mother's cook use salt and water for this purpose,
I put my meat a little way back from the fire, while I ran to the
sea-side, with two cocoanut-shells, for some salt water, to be used in
basting the meat. For a dripping-pan I took my shell-shovel,
washed it clean, and placed it under the meat, while I poured on
the salt water. It soon mixed, in the shell, with the juices that
dropped from the meat, and made very good gravy.
I made a basting-ladle by sticking a shell into a slit in the end
of a twig; and I basted the meat well, all the time it was roasting.
Considering my slender preparations, I performed the duties of a
cook entirely to my own satisfaction.
At last the meat was thoroughly done; and for want of a dish,
I took it up in the dripping-pan or shell-shovel, and placed it on a
large flat rock, for a table. Without a knife, fork, or plate, I was
obliged to use my fingers and eat out of the dish; but hunger and
necessity will reconcile one to many things. The meat certainly
tasted better than the best-dressed dish ever served up to me before.
All that was wanting to make the meal delicious was bread and
salt. The dryest crust, the blackest rye-bread, I ever saw, would
have been a treat to me. I regretted that I had not procured more
of the roots resembling potatoes sweetened, and roasted them to eat
with my meat; but that was a luxury reserved for another time.
Soon afterwards I made a business of gathering those roots; but, as
the vine was out of blossom, and I was not well acquainted with the
leaf, I had at first some difficulty in finding it.


fhe Peruvians use the llama as a beast of burthen. I determined
to make mine useful in that way. It was necessary to have some
contrivance for holding the load on the back of the llama; so I
thought I would make some panniers, such as are slung over the
backs of mules and other animals.

"It was no trouble to me to weave the panniers."

I found enough of the proper kind of willow for basket-work;
but I had great difficulty in getting off twigs enough for my purpose,
for I had nothing to cut it with. When once I had procured my
stock, it was no trouble to me to weave the panniers; for I learned


the art of basket-making when a boy, and had not forgotten how to
set to work. I succeeded tolerably well, and made a pair of pan-
niers, that were pretty good mates, and sufficiently large and strong.
I slung them over the back of the llama with a stout cord; and,
that this might not hurt her, I put it over a saddle of bark, stuffed
with grass.
I had for some time trained the old llama to be led about; and as
I often took her to graze on the herbs she liked best, she was always
willing to accompany me. But when I fastened the empty panniers
on her back, she was frightened, and tried to run away. To prevent
this, I made blinders of bark for her, and fastened them on with my
cordage. Though she was a little uneasy at first, on feeling some-
thing on her back, she did not attempt to run away. I accustomed
her first to a small load, and then to a heavier one, until by degrees
she did all the work I needed of her.
With the llama's help, I brought to my cave a good stock of the
sweet potatoes, as I called them, berries, fruits, and various kinds of
nuts, besides cocoanuts, that I found to be palatable food. I even
made her bear one of her own species on her back, when I had killed
it for eating.
I became very fond of this useful creature. On the journeys we
now made, the kids generally followed in our train, but were not old
enough to share our toils. Wild llamas would sometimes approach
us, and show some astonishment at seeing their sister in harness;
but she took little notice of them, and seemed perfectly contented
with her lot. The kids would join the herd and sport with them
awhile, but soon left them again, to return to my side, a proof of
attachment that pleased me very much.
The affection of these animals was a great comfort to me in my
solitude. I used to talk to them just as if they could understand
me. I feared I might forget how to speak, if I did not practise; and
as I always hoped to be taken off the island by a passing vessel, I


wished to be able to speak intelligibly. Every Sunday I used to
recite aloud all the hymns and chapters that I could remember. At
other time I would repeat songs, tell stories, and narrate my own
adventures, for the sake of practice.
My terrapin became one of my family, and finding I no longer
tried to injure him, he walked about at his ease within my barrier.
Occasionally I let him out on the terrace, when the kids would try
to play with him; but his grave demeanor baffled them.
The difficulty of preparing meat for eating made me live a great
deal on fish. I succeeded very well in contriving some fishing-tackle.
I knitted a bag and then fastened it to a hoop made of a twig. I got
a straight branch of a tree with a small fork at the end, to which I
secured the hoop. With this instrument I often scooped up three
or four fine fish at once, besides crabs, which I could roast in the
shell and eat them out of it. As I had no pot to boil anything in,
I was obliged to roast all my fish, or cook them in the ashes.
Procuring and preparing food, with such small means as I had,
took up a great deal of time. Everything spoiled so quickly, in this
warm climate, that I could do little more than provide for each day
as it came. It was fortunate for me that I had this constant em-
ployment; for when I was not obliged to exert myself, I spent hours
in melancholy reverie, with my eyes fixed on the ocean, hoping to
see a sail.
When I had been on the island six months, by my reckoning, I
found it would be inconvenient to count the weeks as they became
more numerous. Therefore I added another column to my calendar
by taking another tree and making a notch on that for every four
weeks. But as I hoped to get away before it would be necessary to
count years, I made no arrangements for such a long period.
On first coming here, I found everything in the beauty of spring;
the vegetable world was putting forth buds and blossoms in October,
just as it does in April and May, in England. The seasons were re-


versed, and I considered that I had a long summer before me. For
many months the weather was fine, though oppressively warm, with
occasional thunder-storms and squalls. When I had enjoyed this


"I added another column to my calendar."

fine weather for six months, I began to think what sort of change
I might expect. The few cocoanut and lemon trees I had found


convinced me that I need not fear any cold weather; but I had
read of mild climates subject to long-continued rains. I determined
to provide against a rainy time as well as I could.
I had not yet explored much of the island, or found out half its
resources, and I resolved on making an extensive tour while the fine
weather lasted; but, my shoes being soon worn out, my feet blistered,
and continued very tender for a long while. Besides, I always liked
to be in sight of the ocean from the south side of the island. Now
my feet were hardened by use, my fears were allayed by long-con-
tinued safety, and I prepared for an excursion of several days.
My umbrella was often inconvenient, and I made a cap of wicker-
work, covering it with leaves to defend my head from the sun. I
made a pair of smaller panniers and blinders for the young llamas,
and put halters about their necks, and pack-saddles, of bark and hay,
on their backs. Having trained them for a few days, and found them
very tractable, I thought I could make them carry the panniers al-
ternately. I could lead the one that was loaded, leaving the other
ait liberty to follow till her turn came.
I took with me spare ropes and string, my stone wedge and mallet,
a cocoanut-shell for a drinking-cup, some punk and stones to strike
lire with, my fishing-net, and the bag I wore suspended around my
neck. These were all the implements I had, except my shell-shovel,
and I resolved not to leave that behind. I took a few baked pota-
toes with me, trusting to obtain a further supply of eatables on the
way. Thus prepared I set forward.



I SET off in excellent spirits on my tour of observation and dis-
covery. I kept as -near the coast on my right hand as the rocks
would permit, for I wished to learn the shape of the island and know
all its bays and coves. The range of hills on my left was a general
After walking slowly about three hours, as I judged by the sun,
the hills gradually disappeared. I came to a smooth, grassy cape, oi
ridge of land, that sloped down to the coast on each side. The her-
bage here was short and sweet, and I let the llamas graze, while I
walked forward far enough to observe this point of land. The waves
washed the shore on each side, and the stillness of the water showed
that it was justly named the Pacific Ocean. There was not a cloud
in the sky, or a breath of air, and the heat was oppressive. Satisfied
that the cape terminated in a rocky point, I named it Land's End,
after the last corner I saw of old England. I hastened back to my
llamas to seek a shady spot, in which to rest myself and them.
I now followed the coast beyond the cape, and soon found myself
on the northern side of the range of hills. I then struck inland, and
came to a valley, that appeared to extend from the hills to the coast,
and to be full of trees. I did not doubt that I should there find
water as well as shade.
The sound of a mountain stream saluted my ear as soon as I began
to descend into this valley. From a rock, a few yards lower down, I
beheld the prettiest waterfall I ever saw.


A considerable stream leaped from a perpendicular cliff, at the
head of this valley, into a large basin, many yards below; and then
found its way by various windings to the sea.
The groves were free from underbrush and perfumed the air with
their sweet odors. I was lost in admiration at the great variety and
beauty of the trees around me. I had read a particular description
of the pimento, by which I knew it as soon as I saw and smelt it.
Its seeds are called allspice. I determined to return here when the
time came for gathering the berries, and supply myself with a stock
of spice, to season my food with, instead of salt.
The impatience of my dumb companions to reach a particular
kind of herbage that grew near the water aroused me from my reve-
rie. I followed them to a part of the stream, where its glassy sur-
face was unbroken by a ripple. Here I unloaded the llamas, and
gave them their liberty, while I refreshed myself with some milk
and the roasted potatoes I had brought with me.
At first, I thought I should be happier if living in this delightful
valley; but, on further consideration, I knew I could not bear to be
out of sight of the sea by which I looked for. deliverance from my
solitude. My first and last act, every day, was to climb to the high
land above the cave, and look out for a vessel. I resolved to con-
tinue my residence at the cave, but to make frequent visits to this
beautiful spot. I called this Gordon Vale, in remembrance of my
late friend and commander.
Having eaten my dinner, I fell asleep, and so passed away the
warmest part of the day. On awaking, I found my faithful animals
sleeping close by me, the head of one resting on my leg. As soon
as I moved, the llamas started up and seemed as ready as I was to
continue the journey. I reloaded them, and went down the vale to
the coast, where the mountain stream emptied itself into a pretty
little sheltered bay, so shallow we could easily ford it.
I followed the )ar d of the bay, and was examining some curious


seaweed, such as I had not before seen, when a most unexpected
sight fixed my eyes, fragments of sailors' clothes, like those I wore.
I could not account for the clothes being so torn ; but I supposed
it to be done by birds of prey. The pieces which had buttons on
them, I picked up and threw into my panniers, and also the shoes,
though much injured by salt water and the sun.
While' at this place I made a most valuable discovery, nothing
less than a jackknife! I found it tied to a button-hole of a jacket.
My joy seemed too much for me, and I cried and laughed by turns.
Finding this treasure induced me to look for other articles that
might be in the pockets, or fallen out from them. I was happy
enough to pick up another knife, a better one than the first, three
tobacco-boxes, and a broken watch, with chain, key, and seal, which
I knew to be Captain Gordon's. This made my tears flow afresh.
I also found some Spanish dollars and half-dollars ; but they were
so perfectly useless to me that I hardly thought it worth while to
pick them up. I could not help saying aloud, as I compared the
real value of silver and iron, I would not exchange one of my
rusty iron knives for a hundred pounds of silver, or of gold either."
When I had collected all these articles, and secured my precious
knives and the watch, I threw the rest into my panniers, putting
the money into the tobacco-boxes. I then marched from Gordon
Vale and Gordon Bay, feeling very rich in my new acquisitions.
Finding these things on this side of the island, made me think
it likely I might discover parts of the wrecked boat, and perhaps
of the Santa Maria. She disappeared the night after I reached
the island, and was probably dashed to pieces. I followed the coast
closer than ever; and visited every part where anything might have
washed on shore. I found nothing but some pieces of plank, too
heavy for me to carry away. I dragged them a little farther from
the water that they might not float off. I drew out all I could of
the rusty nails in them, and tied them up in a piece of cloth so as not


to lose one of them, knowing the value of any sharp-pointed iron,
like a nail.
I thought it was time now to look for a sheltered spot to spend
the night in, as well as for provisions for my supper. My fishing-
net soon procured me a crab and two or three fishes, which I put
in my panniers, lest the land productions should not serve me for
food. Calling this bay Nail Cove, I turned my steps inland, and
left the seashore for that day.
A beautiful wood, illumined by the red glow of the setting sun,
looked very inviting. I made my way to it over a plain covered
with grass as high as my shoulders, which made it very tiresome
walking. The llamas would not go first, to beat a path for me;
they knew better, and chose to follow me.
After walking at least three quarters of a mile through this high
grass, I came to a little sluggish stream, which separated me from
the wood where I intended to sleep. As the banks of it afforded
some sweet herbage for my llamas, I altered my mind, and resolved
to pass the night on this side of it.
I was glad I had brought my supper with me from the seashore,
for here I saw nothing eatable, except some cresses that grew in the
brook. I unloaded my llamas, and let them get their own meal,
while I cooked mine. But I soon found that this would prove no
place of rest for me, for I was beset by mosquitoes on every side;
the first I had met with on the island. I hastened to kindle a fire,
that I might save myself from the attacks of these tormenting in-
sects by getting into the smoke.
I roasted my crab, and tried to eat it, but could not enjoy my
supper on account of the mosquitoes. I determined to quit the
spot before I attempted to sleep. The moon had risen, and by her
light I found my way, with my reloaded llamas, across the stream,
which I called Mosquito River. A cloud of mosquitoes followed me,
and I feared I should not get rid of them by changing my camp.


But, as I ascended the high ground opposite, a brisk wind suddenly
delivered me from my tormentors. A long, barren slope led from
the river to the wood, which clothed the side of the hill. On reach-
ing the skirts of it, I turned to see the prospect, and had a very fine
view of the country below. I now saw that in crossing the plain of
high grass, I had ha.d the mouth of a large river on my .right, into
which emptied the small stream I had just crossed.
Being very much fatigued by my day's march, I threw myself
down on the first dry and sheltered spot I could find; and my
llamas were no sooner unloaded, than they did the same. They
never feed at night, but only sleep and ruminate, like the domestic
I was soon lost in a deep slumber. How long it continued, or what
awaked me, I know not; but on opening my eyes I beheld a most
appalling sight. Vast clouds of smoke and sheets of flame were
rolling over the plain below. I gazed in silent amazement at the
widespreading conflagration, so suddenly and unaccountably kindled.
A gentle breeze fanned the flame, and carried it over the plain at a
rapid rate. It was a grand sight. As I gazed upon it, I felt grate-
ful for my own safety, which I might possibly owe to those torment-
ing mosquitoes that drove me across the river.
I watched the progress of the fire, till it began to diminish for
want of dry fuel. When it was almost extinct, I dropped asleep
again, from exhaustion of mind and body.



MY second day's journey was much less remarkable than the first,
and I do not remember half so much about it. In the morning, the
plain presented a dismal appearance, blackened all over by the burnt
stalks of plants. As I gazed at it, I observed that this black appear-
ance extended, in one place, to the gravelly bank, by the side of which
I lighted my fire. The truth flashed on my mind. The fire had been
communicated by dry leaves and sticks to the grass on the plain,
and I was the cause of the destruction I had witnessed. I resolved
to take a lesson of caution, for the future, from this accident, and
never again to leave a large, blazing fire to burn out unheeded.
On crossing the top of the wooded hill, I saw the large river, the
mouth of which I had discovered by moonlight. It was flowing
majestically through a wide valley, bounded on each side by woody
mountains. I spent the whole day in travelling, sometimes in a
forest, sometimes on open ground, till I came to a height, from
which I could see the river, the course of which I was trying to
pursue. At night-fall, I found myself in that part of the vale
where a sudden bend of the river to the west seemed to enclose it
entirely. A dry nook, among some sheltering rocks, with a bed of
fern-leaves, received my weary limbs, after a light supper of milk
and berries; and undisturbed repose restored my vigor for the
My third day's journey was entirely among the mountains. As I
could not cross the river with my loaded llamas, I followed its course
among the hills; and was rewarded for my pains by discovering
new and beautiful productions.


Of various trees entirely new to me, one kind particularly attracted
my attention. It was as large as a middling-sized oak, but with a
straight trunk. The leaves were about a foot and a half long, and
the fruit was as remarkable as the foliage. Large, pale-green balls
hung from every part of it, heart-shaped, and of the size of a child's
head. I threw the end of a rope over one of the long horizontal
branches, and having pulled it down within my reach, gathered
several specimens of it. On breaking one open, I found a substance
more like new bread than anything else. It had very little taste,
and that was sweetish. While thinking about it, it came to my
mind that I had heard or read of a tree called the bread-fruit tree;
and that this might be it. As the fruit was not very palatable when
raw, I resolved to try it cooked; for it looked so good, I thought it
must be eatable.
Being about the time that I usually dined and rested, I unloaded
my llamas, and kindled a fire. This fruit seemed to be too tender to
bear baking in the ashes. As I had no utensil for boiling, I tried
roasting it. Every few minutes I tasted it, to find out what effect
the fire had on it. Every time it improved, till at last it was so like
bread that I could no longer doubt it was the true bread-fruit. I
had made another valuable discovery. With this bread and the
llama's milk I made an excellent meal; and before leaving the
spot, I gathered enough to load my llamas, with what was already
in their panniers.
I slept the third night in a pretty grove of trees, on the side of
a hill, surrounded by mountains. I did not fall asleep immediately,
but lay on a bed of dry leaves, looking at the moon and stars.
I was awakened the next morning by strange noises, that mingled
in my dreams before they roused me entirely. When quite awake,
I could not tell what to make of these sounds, until I discovered a
tree at some little distance, covered with parrots. They seemed to be
holding a council, in which all were talkers and none hearers.


I wished to catch one of these parrots alive, and carry it honie
with me, that I might teach it to talk, and have the pleasure of
hearing a few words uttered by a different voice from my own. I
hastily made some loops of twine, with slip-knots, and fastened
them to the ground by stakes, cut with my jackknife. I strewed
some crumbs of bread-fruit over them for bait, and withdrew to
eat my breakfast and watch my snares from a distance. The
saucy creatures came and ate up the crumbs, and looked very
knowingly at the loops and sticks. They walked over the string,
without catching their feet in one of the loops. I was too anxious
to reach the seashore to spend any more time in ensnaring parrots.
I named the grove after them; and resumed my walk as soon as I
had finished my breakfast and loaded my llamas.
I kept the rising sun on my left hand, and moved directly south.
I had been travelling in a northwesterly course since I left the Land's
End, and I thought it. would be but a short cut, across the country,
to my abode on the terrace. I found it, however, a much longer
journey than I expected; for, though the distance was not great,
the nature of the ground was such that I was three days in accom-
plishing it.
At the end of the first day I stretched my weary limbs on a grassy
bank. I had not fallen asleep when every nerve in me was shaken
by a loud, crashing noise, such as I had never before heard. It
reverberated among the mountains in the most solemn manner, and
then died away, making the stillness most striking and appalling.
The loud noise was new to me. I could not understand it; but I
came to the conclusion that it must be either a falling rock or a
falling tree. After asking the protection of God for the night, I fell
asleep and rested well.
In the morning, I surveyed the right bank of the river for some
place shallow enough to be forded. The stream was deep and rapid,
and there was no possibility of crossing it in that place. I was


forced to turn my face eastward, and go up the valley by the side
of the river. I soon found that it took a bend to the south, and by
going over a high hill, I saw no more of it. But the precipices and
chasms that I met with frequently turned me out of my way, and
prevented my getting much nearer the coast. The third day I was
allured from my course by a fertile-looking plain to the west. There
I met with a rich reward for all my toilsome journey over the moun-
tains, an abundance of fine ripe grapes, on which I feasted both
my eyes and palate. The vines hung in beautiful festoons from tree
to tree, and covered with their rich foliage and fruit the smaller
bushes and shrubs. I was very desirous of taking away with me
some of these delicious grapes. Tying some bunches to the edges of
the panniers on the inside, I brought off a small supply, resolving
to go there again very soon and procure more.
I also gathered some ripe lemons on this luxuriant spot, which I
called my vineyard. The river that lay to the south of this plain
intercepted my course homeward, and obliged me to go up its banks
till I found a shallow place at which to ford it. I now approached
the range of hills on the south side of which I lived, and saw a flock
of llamas sporting on their sides. Being now possessed of a knife, I
longed to eat some roast meat, properly dressed and carved. I had
neither time nor strength to go out of my way in search of them.
Attracted by the tame llamas, they came very near us. I had no
difficulty in knocking down a young one with my stbine mallet. On
seeing their comrade fall, they all took to their heels and scampered
off to the hills.
I shall never forget the satisfaction I felt in having a sharp instru-
ment with which to dress the llama. I put the carcass across the
back of the unloaded kid, and tied the feet under her. Soon after-
wards I reached. a part of the hill where I had frequently been
before, and felt something of the pleasure of travellers on approach-
ing their homes.


The sight of my flourishing hedge, pretty fountain, and comforta-
ble retreat made me glad to get back to my accustomed abode.
When I had reflected on the treasures I had acquired in my excur-
sion, I became quite cheerful. Being very hungry and in need of
nourishing food, I resolved to have a meat supper. I set about
skinning the dead llama with my jackknife. I cut off a good slice
of the haunch, and roasted it as well as I could. Having seasoned
it with lemon-juice, I ate it with a good relish, all the better too
for having a knife to cut it with, and some roasted bread-fruit to
eat with it. This was the best meal I had yet made on the island.
With a thankful heart I went to bed composed and happy.
When I lay down on my bed, I felt a great lump under me; and
on thrusting my hand through the hay to feel what it could be, I
discovered my old friend, the terrapin. He had probably taken pos-
session of my bed for one of his long naps of two or three months.
I soon showed him the way out of my sleeping apartment, and cov-.
ered him up with hay in a nook outside of the cave.



THE morning after my return from my journey, I spent in over-
hauling the treasure I had brought home with me. Rocks in my cave
served for shelves, on which I arranged my stores. The bunches of
grapes I hung up in the sun to dry. My precious jackknives I kept
always about me, well secured to button-holes, that I might not lose
them in any of my walks. I cut some small stakes, and stretched
out the llama's skin on the grass, that it might dry in the sun, and
be of some service to me afterwards.
It took up so much time to cook victuals three times a day that
I now prepared enough at once for several meals, and ate it cold.
As long as the llama's flesh lasted, I desired nothing but that and
the bread-fruit. A large portion of the meat spoiled before I could
eat it, and I tried to invent some way of preserving it. As I had no
salt, it was a very difficult task.
The Peruvians cut up their meat in long strips, and hang it in the
sun to dry. I tried this experiment; but it did not succeed, owing,
I suppose, to the air being moister here than in Peru, where it is
remarkably dry. I next tried to make the water of the ocean an-
swer instead of brine. The meat kept longer in the salt water than
in the open air, but not long enough for me to depend on a stock of
provisions so cured.
One day I found on the shore a fine, large terrapin. Happening
to have a stick in my hand with a fork at the end of it, I went softly
behind the creature, and pinned his head to the sand, in such a man-


ner that he could not draw it into his shell. Then I easily severed
it from his body with my jackknife. The nourishing food I had
been eating had so restored my strength that I easily shouldered
this heavy terrapin, and carried him to my terrace. I cut the body
from the shell and cooked some of the flesh. I found it to be deli-
cious food, of a much finer flavor than that of the llama. It was so
much fatter that I was at no loss for anything to baste it with. I
had found a deep recess in the rock, near my cave, where I made my
fire. Being sheltered from the wind, it burned pretty steadily. A
good quantity of ashes retained the heat, and enabled me to roast
and bake very well. Still I was greatly in want of cooking utensils,
and, next to a knife, an iron pot would have been the greatest gain
to me.
Having cooked as much of the terrapin as I could eat, I regretted
very much that the rest should spoil. While I was thinking what
I could possibly do with it, it suddenly came into my head that I
might preserve meat by smoking it. I wondered it had not occurred
to me before, for I had seen bacon smoked in the chimney of my
father's kitchen. Though'the meat was salted first at home, I trusted
that the smoke might do without the salt.
As I could not drive nails into the rock, I set two poles, and
suspended the meat between them in the thickest of the smoke. I
selected the leanest part of the terrapin to dry; and having hung it
up, and made a good fire under it, I preserved the fat, by melting
it in my shovel and pouring it while hot into a cocoanut-shell. This
would do to baste lean llama meat, or might be used as butter with
the bread-fruit or sweet potato, when I was too busy to prepare a dish
of meat. The upper shell of the terrapin I scraped out clean, and
set in the sun to dry. It made me an excellent vessel, fit for various
uses. The under shell I prepared in the same way, and used it as
a plate.
My plan of smoking meat succeeded so well that I made several


excursions after llamas, in order to prepare a stock of provisions foi
the winter. I found the animals had become shy of me and my tame
companions. I was obliged to spend hours in ambush, in order to
get a chance of killing one. I attempted to run down a young one;
and as my dexterity and speed increased much with practice, I was
soon able to catch them in this way. I kept some alive and in-
creased my flock of tame ones, and added to my store of smoked
meat. I occupied myself in digging up a fresh stock of sweet pota-
toes; and with the help of my llamas I brought home a large supply
of that excellent vegetable.
The grapes I hung up in the sun dried so well that I determined to
have a good store of them. I went to the rich plain I called my
vineyard, before the grapes were over-ripe. As I could not carry
home many in a fresh state, I resolved to gather a large quantity,
and leave them there to dry. I intended to go for them when they
had become raisins, and could bear transportation.
I brought home with me several dozens of limes and lemons from
the vineyard. As the best means of keeping them, I packed each
one in soft, dry hay, and stacked them up in a corner of my cave.
The dried grapes proved to be excellent. I brought home two large
panniers nearly full of them. Expecting a very rainy season when
the winter set in, I was anxious to have all my provisions within
the shelter of my cave; and that being only eleven feet deep by
nine wide, my bed and stores nearly filled it. As fast as the meat
which I hung in the smoke was sufficiently dried to keep, I re-
moved it to the cave. The llamas' tongues kept perfectly well for
When I had secured a good stock of these provisions, I determined
to make an excursion to Gordon Vale, and gather some of the all-
spice, which must be ripe by that time. I thought I would try to
make my old llama perform the duty of a saddle-horse. As I
mounted her very gently, while she wore blinders, she made no


opposition. But when I was seated on her back, I could not make
her go forward; she waited for me to be at her side. By degrees
I coaxed her to proceed; and by the time we were a mile from
home, she trotted off at a brisk pace. Her soft wool made a good
saddle, and I enjoyed my ride to Gordon Vale exceedingly.
The spot charmed me as much on my second visit as before; and,
had not the weather warned me to lose no time, I should have lin-
gered about the groves and waterfall for hours. As it was, however,
I hastened to fill the small panniers with the green berries that con-
tain the spice, and made the best of my way home again. I arrived
just in time to avoid a drenching shower. I only regretted that my
cave was not large enough to hold my llamas. A clump of trees
which grew on my terrace was their shelter. By feeding them every
evening, and keeping one tied, I easily prevented the others from
straying away.
It was the beginning of winter, and I was tolerably well prepared
for it. There were still many things left undone that would have
idded greatly to my comfort, by giving me employment when con-
lined to my cave. I regretted that I had not laid in a stock of the
fibrous nettle, ready for, twisting into pack-thread and cordage. That
would have been an excellent occupation for me during the many
hours I sat with nothing to do for several weeks.
A difficulty now presented itself which I had not thought of
before the rainy season set in; and that was, how to make a fire,
in the midst of so much rain. My cave was too small, and too
much crowded with combustible matter, for me to light one inside
of it; and without, everything was so wet that it was scarcely pos-
sible to make the wood burn. I was obliged, whenever I did imake
a fire, to rob myself of some of the hay in my bed for L 'I-. -I.---- :i
I ate my smoked meat. Cutting it in very thin -L.i. i.-: I learned
by degrees to like it tolerably well. Whenever the rain ceased long
enough for me to make a fire, I baked as much provision as I could


consume while it was good. In these intervals I visited the shore,
and picked up oysters and crabs to vary my diet.
I had to be very careful not to wet my clothes at this time, for if
I did I could not dry them again for a great while, having no fire
under cover, and no sunshine. The air was chilly, and as I had
no room to exercise in my cave, it would certainly make me ill,
if I sat still in wet clothes. I missed my accustomed exercise, and
felt the want of useful occupation so much that my time passed
very heavily. My food did not taste good to me as when I returned
to the cave after a day's hard work in the open air. During the
nights, which were now so long that I could not sleep through them,
I used to lie in the dark, thinking of my parents and friends, and
lamenting my unhappy condition.
One of my few amusements at this time was feeding my flock of
llamas on a kind of berry they liked, and of which I had laid in a
good stock for their use. After wandering about all day, sheltering
themselves from the rain among the trees and rocks, they would
come to the enclosure before my cave. When I let them in, they
eagerly devoured all I gave them. Sometimes they tried hard to
get into my cave, and it was as much as I could do to keep them
from helping themselves to my provisions. But as soon as they had
taken their allowance of berries, and I had patted them a while,
I drove them out of my enclosure, and barricaded the entrance with
One night, after doing this, I seated myself on a pannier, turned
upside down, at the entrance of my cave, to watch the last rays of
the sun. I was deep in thought, when I heard a sound behind me
like a person sighing deeply. It went through me like an electric
shock, and so amazed and startled me that my knees trembled under
me. I jumped up and stepped into the cave to learn whence the
sound proceeded. It was so dark I saw nothing, and so still I heard
nothing. I felt about, but could discover nothing, and concluded at


last that I must have been mistaken. Perhaps I had sighed myself,
and some part of the cave had returned the sound to my ear. I was
not satisfied, and I earnestly wished I had a light, to see if any living
thing was in the cave besides myself.
I then recollected the cocoanut shells I had filled with the fat of
the terrapin, which had soon become too rancid to eat. I knew it
would burn if I could contrive a wick for it. After trying several
things that would not do, I put my hand on the ravellings of my
cotton stockings, which I had attempted to use for tinder; doubling
up a short piece and twisting it slightly, I made a wick about as large
as that of a tallow candle. I stuck it into the grease, and having
struck fire on my punk, I blew it till it lighted the cotton wick.
This interesting occupation made me forget all about the sigh I
had heard. Looking around my cave, with my new lamp, I was
surprised and amused to perceive that I had an uninvited guest,
sleeping very quietly in the furthest corner. A young llama, which
had escaped my observation when I drove out the flock, had pre-
ferred good quarters to good company, and the sigh was a long breath
of hers.
I could not bear to turn her out that night in the rain; so after
amusing myself some time with my lamp, I put it out and went to



MY unavoidable idleness was a great trial to my patience. I did
not indulge in melancholy, but had many delightful meditations
upon the great Creator and his works. I still wished to find some-
thing for my hands to do, as I sat in my cave from morning till
At last, I thought of making some bows and arrows, and learn-
ing to shoot at a mark, which would prepare me for a new kind
of sport when the fine weather returned. I made several excursions
between the showers, or rather torrents, before I found anything
suitable for a bow. After mudh labor, I discovered a kind of wood
that was elastic enough for the purpose. It was so tough that I
had great difficulty in severing the branch with my jackknife. I
had much satisfaction in shaping it into a bow. I made a great
number of arrows, and winged them with the feathers of a large
bird I found dead on the shore. I knew they would not fly steadily
unless they were loaded with something heavy, nor do much execu-
tion without being sharp pointed. I had read that savages fix fish-
bones and sharp stones to the end of their arrows. I tried both, but
the bones were too light, and the stones were not sharp enough. I
made but a clumsy piece of work of it at that time.
In looking for wood to make my bow and arrows of, I came across
a large bed of that kind of nettle which furnished the fibres for my
twine and cordage. The rain had so completely soaked the stalks
that the fibres separated very easily. I carried home a good supply


of it, and had ample employment in spinning and twisting it for
future use. I made new fishing-nets, and a stock of strings for my
bow, which I took particular care to have smooth and strong.
I was so much occupied now that the dark, rainy days did not
give me daylight enough for all I wanted to do, and I found my
cocoanut lamp very convenient. As the fat was consumed, I cut
away the sides of the shell, that I might have all the advantage of
the light. By its decrease in height I judged how time passed, and
avoided sitting up too late.
I made myself a high bench for a table, and a three-legged stool,
out of the pieces of plank I picked up on the shore, after my ship-
wreck. With my jackknife I cut holes in the corners, and put in
legs, and wedged them very tight. These two articles added greatly
to my comfort, and could not have been procured without the use of
a knife.
I have related all that happened to me before I was taken sick.
This was a new and unexpected trial that came to me towards the
close of the rainy season.
I was seized with shivering fits, pains in my head and limbs, and
a burning thirst. All these symptoms came on so quickly that I had
only time to fill some cocoanut shells with water, and set them by
the side of my bed, before I was obliged to throw myself upon it, in
utter helplessness. I had often thought how miserable my condition
would be in case of sickness, but I had always hoped my active life
would preserve me from it. As I lived almost like wild animals, I
hoped to escape sickness, and die suddenly, as they generally do. I
now perceived that I was not to be so favored; I was to experience
the miseries of that situation in which we are most dependent on the
kindness of our friends, without the aid of any human being.
My heart sunk within me at the thought; and, overcome by
bodily and mental suffering, I wept aloud. This emotion increased
the pain in my head, and I soon found myself in a burning fever. I


felt so badly that I had no doubt death was near at hand. This idea
comforted and calmed me; for I had for some time past regarded
death as a friend that would deliver me from all my present trials,
and unite me forever to that Good Great Spirit, who had been my
support in this solitude. I dreaded a long fit of sickness, without
any one to assist me.
I was surprised to find how much less I felt the pain of my body
when my thoughts were fixed on God. How long I was sick I know
not. I suffered much from thirst after I had drained my nut-shells
dry, and I have an indistinct recollection of going to the fountain
and drinking plentifully of its crystal water. Whether I did so, or
only dreamed it, I cannot say; though it is probable that in the de-
lirium of fever, I went there and drank, and that it produced a favor-
able effect. I remember being in a profuse perspiration, and very
sleepy; and when I came to my reason, the fever had left me, and
all my pain was gone.
On trying to get up, I found myself so helpless that I could not
doubt I had been ill and delirious. I had hardly strength enough
to turn myself on my bed of hay, and I could not sit up five minutes,
or stand at all. What was to become of me ? There was no human
being to bring me the little nourishment I so much needed, and I ex-
pected nothing but to starve -to death. I soon became resigned even
to this fate. My heart was full of love to God, and I felt willing to
submit to anything. It was nearly sunset one day, when I heard the
sound of a llama's footsteps, and the next instant my old friend was
at my side. She seemed surprised to see me lying there, instead of
being ready to feed her. While she was surveying me I took an
empty cocoanut shell and tried to milk her. She no sooner per-
ceived my intention than she placed herself so that I easily drew
from her the milk I required and drank it off. Never was there a
more acceptable draught, or more seasonable relief; it gave new vigor
to my exhausted body.


I was very much puzzled to know how the llama found her way
into my enclosure. I have since concluded that I went to the foun-
tain in my delirium, and left the pass open on my return, thus en-
abling the faithful creature to render me this kind service. She
rewarded herself by eating heartily of the berries she was so fond of,
and then went away.
Revived by the milk, I contrived to crawl to that corner of my
cave where I kept my raisins. By eating a few of them, at several
different times the next day, I did very well till the llama came again,
and supplied me with another draught of milk. She was now
accompanied by the rest of the llamas, and they made an end of
their berries very quickly. If my raisins had not been well secured
they would have eaten them too; for I had no power to prevent their
doing as they pleased.
The rains had abated and the weather was very fine, or I suppose
I should have had the whole flock to sleep in my cave. As it was,
they preferred another lodging, much to my comfort and satisfaction.
In a few days I was able to walk about a little, and to enjoy the beau-
tiful appearance that everything was putting on since the rains had
ceased. The fineness of the weather aided much in my recovery; and
as soon as I was well enough to venture on a long walk, I went into
the woods with my bow and arrows to try my skill in shooting birds.
Considering the clumsiness of my arrows, I succeeded tolerably well,
for I killed two birds in twenty shots. Though it cost me a great
deal of fatigue and the loss of many arrows, I was well satisfied with
my day's sport. I had a good meal of the birds, which I roasted, and
ate with an excellent appetite.
I found the pimento very useful in seasoning my food, instead of
salt, the want of which was for several months a serious incon-
venience to me. I often considered the possibility of obtaining some,
not only to render my food more palatable, but as a means of pre-
serving meat; but all my schemes failed for want of proper tools.


The weather was now that of a mild spring, but vegetation was
more tardy than I had ever seen it in England. Nature seemed to
be taking advantage of the long summer before her, to do her work as
slowly as possibly. The singing of birds, however, and the agreeable
temperature, rendered my walks delightful.
About this time my clothes became so ragged and worn that at
every leap or run I took, they would give way in some new place. I
found it necessary to invent some kind of covering for my body.
I set about contriving some clothing out of the skins of the llamas
which I had killed for my stock of smoked meat. These skins I had
stretched and dried in the sun, but had not tanned them. They were
stiff and brittle, and proved very difficult materials to work into any
shape that could be worn. They were much too warm a covering for
the climate, but as I had nothing else I resolved to use these for the
present, and to tan some skins for future use.
I cut out a jacket and a pair of trowsers, as well as I could, using
my old clothes for a pattern, and making my new ones a good deal
larger. I sewed up the seams by making holes in the skin with a
sharp-pointed nail, and then pushing the thread through with my
fingers. This was very slow work, but still the edges were fastened
together, and I went on very patiently with my clumsy tailoring.
I had seen shoemakers fix a bristle to the end of their thread to
make it go through more easily. I could not get any bristles or
shoemakers' wax, but I thought I might find something that would
answer as well. After trying several things I found that a fish-bone
would do pretty well. A row of fine notches on one end enabled me
to tie the thread to it so that it would not slip off; and with this
contrivance I got on a little faster. The buttons on my old clothes,
being made of horn or metal, were not worn out; and I transferred
them to the new ones, making slits serve for button-holes.
After working very industriously, I completed my suit of clothes;
and, though they were shapeless things, they served to cover my


Doay without impeding its movements. As soon as I was equipped,
I took my bow and arrows, and went into the woods to shoot birds.
On my way I passed a little pond of water made by the late rains;
it was as smooth as glass, and reflected my image like a mirror.

" I went on very patiently with

my clumsy tailoring."

When I saw it, I was so astonished at my wild and savage appeal,
ance that I hardly knew myself.
My hair had grown very long and thick, and fell over my nech
and shoulders, while in front I parted it and kept it behind my ears.
My beard covered my upper lip and chin. This hairy appearance,


added to the fur of the llama-skins in which I was dressed, gave me
a wild look. My wicker hat, covered with leaves, was not the most
becoming head-dress in the world, and with my bow and arrows in
my hand, I might have passed for an Indian warrior among my
friends; for none of them could possibly have recognized in the fig-
ure I then cut the smooth-faced and blooming youth from whom
they parted in York.



WHEN equipped in my new suit of clothes I spent most of my
time in the open air, and made up for my long confinement to the
cave by wandering about the island a great deal. After I had re-
covered from my sickness my appetite became very keen. Having
plenty of animal food, and fire to cook it by, I soon regained my
strength, and became broader and stouter in my figure than ever
before. My chief amusement was chasing llamas, and I became
very swift of foot, and an expert climber among the crags and pre-
My greatest wants were salt, bread, and a kettle. For the first I
had used pimento, but it was a poor substitute; for the second I had
bread-fruit, when in season, but that was only a small part of the
year; as for the last, I could find nothing to supply its place.
The mealy roots which I called sweet potatoes were a very valu-
able article of food, and I determined to keep a good stock of them
always by me. It was no objection to me that the place where the
sweet potatoes grew wild was a good way from my cave. I had
nothing better to do than to go after them with my llama.
Two projects ran in my head, on which I dwelt a great deal; one
was for enlarging my cave, the other for making salt. The former
only required industry and perseverance in removing a loose, rocky
ledge; but the latter puzzled me extremely. I knew that sea-water
contained salt, in solution, but how to come at it I could not tell.


For making salt from salt springs or sea-water the process con-
sisted in boiling, and I had no utensil in which to boil anything.
Still I was not discouraged. I knew that the sun produced evapo-
ration; that the clouds were formed by the small particles of water
which his heat caused to rise from rivers, lakes, and oceans. I re-
solved to try whether the heat of the sun, which was very great here
in the middle of the day, would not evaporate the water and leave
the salt.
I formed a shallow vat of earth, and undertook to fill it with
sea-water; but the water would sink into the earth and disappear.
My next attempt was to form a vat of clay, and I made an excur-
sion with my llamas to a narrow valley where I had observed some
appearance of clay. On approaching the spot I could not recognize
it; the valley seemed to be filled up and changed entirely. On
scrambling up a bank of loose earth and stones, I beheld what I
had read of, but never expected to see. It was a slide of earth.
Since I was last there a large tract of land had slid down from the
side of the mountain, and half filled the valley.
After gazing some time at the novel scene before me I led my
llamas to the nearest part of a large bed of clay exposed by the
slide. Having loaded them I made the best of my way home.
It cost me a good deal of labor to construct my clay vat and fill
it; but it held the water so well that I hoped now to succeed in my
important undertaking. But as evaporation is a slow process, I
made up my mind to wait patiently for a considerable time.
I completed my clay vat, and filled it with salt water. Having
fed my llamas and made my daily notch on the tree, I sat down by
the fountain to enjoy the moonlight scene, and meditate a little
before I went to bed.
While reflecting I recollected that when I last numbered the
notches for months in my calendar, it wanted but a few weeks of
the anniversary of my shipwreck, the memorable 14th of October.
I had resolved to keep the day in religious exercises.


Wishing to plan my work with some reference to this intended
day of solemn rest, I examined my reckoning. As I had counted
only four weeks to a month, I knew it would require thirteen such
months and one day to make a year. I made my calculations, and
found that the evening of the long-expected anniversary had come.
I had spent the day in a far different way from what I intended. I
felt vexed and provoked with myself for missing the occasion.
The next day I turned my attention from my salt-vat; and, leav-
ing it to the power of the sun, I began my experiment in tanning
leather. As there were no oak-trees here, I was obliged to search for
other barks, and soak them in water to find out which had most of
the tanning principle in it. I pulled off a good deal more bark than
I then wanted, and piled it up for future use. I broke up the bark
as well as I could with my hands and knife. With great labor I
dug a deep .hole in the earth, and lined it with clay. I filled it with
bark and water, and suspended some llama-skins in the liquor.
Those which I first tried had the hair on; but I resolved, if I could
get any lime, to tan others without it, and make good leather if I
I knew lime could be made from shells. I collected a large
quantity, and put them in a dry and sheltered nook among the rocks.
Heaping up plenty of dry wood among them I set fire to the pile,
and tended it well to keep the shells in the hottest part of it.
When I thought, by their crumbling, that they were burnt enough,
I tried one'of them by wetting it with fresh water. I was delighted
to find that it immediately hissed and smoked, and could be mixed
into a paste with water, just like burnt lime-stone.
The success of this experiment was very important to me on
another account besides that of removing the hair from the llama-
skins. I hoped it would enable me to build a chimney and fire-
place, and make something like a kitchen, in which I could have
a fire in rainy weather.


With all these schemes in my head, and experiments on my hands,
I was very busy and tolerably cheerful from morning till night.
The idea that I had now entered on the second year of my banish-
ment from human society would come across my mind occasionally,
and make me feel very sad.
I did not go near my salt-vat for some time. When I did visit it I
found the clay all cracked to pieces, and the water had leaked out. I
wondered why my vat had failed me so entirely. Perhaps I had not
worked the clay enough; so I began again. After kneading and
mixing it well, I made another vat, and heaped up the sand around
the outside to protect the edges from the sun. Having filled it with
sea-water, I tried the experiment again. This time the water did
not leak out; it evaporated; and every time I tasted it, I found it
more salt; and though it became bitter also, I felt almost sure of
At last I was certain that my object was accomplished, for I saw
a white substance deposited in the bottom of the pan. Overjoyed at
this discovery, I let the water off, tasted the deposit, and found no
flavor of salt in it. I was never more surprised or more severely
disappointed. After some useless repining I thought I would try to
find out the reason of my failure.
The water had certainly been very salt and very bitter; yet here
was a substance that was neither, and the salt must still be in solu-
tion in the water. On tasting I found it excessively salt and some-
what bitter. I then saw the great mistake I had made -in drawing
off and wasting the water when the salt in it was probably just
about to crystallize. To prove whether my supposition was correct
or not, I removed all the white deposit, which looked like lime, and
which I have since found to be such. I left the small remaining
quantity of salt water to crystallize if it would; and the result
showed I was right. In a few days I found some perfect crystals of
salt in the vat. The liquid that remained was still very bitter, but

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