Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 The life and adventures of Robinson...
 The farther adventures of Robinson...
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Group Title: life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Title: Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074447/00001
 Material Information
Title: Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731 ( Author, Primary )
Publisher: DeWolfe, Fiske & Co.
Place of Publication: Boston
Publication Date: 1898
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074447
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: lccn - SN01270
oclc - 3188969

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
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        Page 13
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        Page 16
        Page 16a
        Page 16b
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        Page 80a
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        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
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        Page 132
        Page 133
    The farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
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    Back Matter
        Page 193
        Page 194
    Back Cover
        Page 195
        Page 196
Full Text

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Robinson Crusoe


Frofusely Illustrated in Black and White and
with Colored Plates.













I WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good
family, though not of that country, my father being a foreigner
of Bremen, who settled first at Hull: he got a good estate by
merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York,
from whence he had married my mother.
I had two brothers, one of which was lieutenant-colonel to an
English regiment of foot in Flanders, and was killed in a battle
against the Spaniards ; what became of my second brother I never
My head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts ;
my father had designed me for the law ; but I would be satisfied with
nothing but going to sea, and my inclination to this led me so
strongly against the will, nay the commands of my father, and
against all the entreaties and persuasions of my mother and other
friends, that there seemed to be something fatal in that propension
-of nature tending directly to the life of misery which was to befall
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and ex-
cellent counsel against what he foresaw was my design.
He pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate manner,
not to precipitate myself into miseries which nature and the station
of life I was born in seemed to have provided against.
I was sincerely affected, resolved not to think of going abroad,
but to settle at home according to my father's desire. But alas! a


few days wore it all off; and in short, to prevent any of my father's
farther importunities, I resolved to run quite away from him.
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose.
Being one day at Hull, where I went casually, and one of my com-
panions beitig going by sea to London, in his father's ship, and
prompting me to go with him, with the common allurement of sea-
faring men, that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I con-
sulted neither father or mother any more, nor so much as sent them
word of it; but leaving them to hear of it as they might, without
asking God's blessing, or my father's, without any consideration
of circumstances or consequences, and in an ill hour, God knows.
On the first of September, 1651, I went on board a ship bound
for London ; never any young adventurer's misfortunes, I believe,
began sooner, or continued longer than mine. The ship was no
sooner gotten out of the Humber, but the wind began to blow, and
the waves to rise in a most frightful manner; and as I had never
been at sea before, I was most inexpressibly sick in body, and terri-
fied in my mind; I began now seriously to reflect upon what I had
done, and how justly I was overtaken by the judgment of Heaven.
The storm increased, and the sea, which I had never been
upon before, went very high, though nothing like what I have seen
many times since; but it was enough to affect me then, who was
but a young sailor, and had never known anything of the matter.
I expected every wave would have swallowed us up, and that every
time the ship fell down, as I thought, in the trough or hollow of
the sea, we should never rise more; and in this agony of mind, I
made many vows and resolutions, that if it would please God here
to spare my life this one voyage, if ever I got once my foot upon
dry land again, I would go directly home to my father, and never
set it into a ship again while I lived; that I would take his advice,
and never run myself into such miseries as these any more.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm
continued, and indeed some time after; but the next day the wind
was abated and the sea calmer, and I began to be a little inured to
it; however, I was very grave for all that day, being also a little
sea-sick still; but towards night the weather cleared up, the


wind was quite over, and a charming fine evening followed; the
sun went down perfectly clear and rose so the next morning; and
having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon
it, the sight was, as I thought, the most delightful that ever I saw.


In a word, as the sea was returned to its smoothness of surface
and settled calmness by the abatement of that storm, so the hurry
of my thoughts being over, my fears and apprehensions of being
swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and the current of my


former desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises
that I made in my distress.
I found indeed some intervals of reflection, and the serious
thoughts did, as it were, endeavour to return again sometimes, but
I shook them off, and roused myself from them as it were from a
distemper, and applying myself to drink and company, soon mas-
tered the return of those fits, for so I called them, and I had in five
or six days got as complete a victory over conscience as any young
fellow that resolved not to be troubled with it, could desire.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth
roads ; the wind having been contrary, and the weather calm, we
had made but little way since the storm. Here we were obliged to
come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing contrary.
After we had lain there four or five days, it blew very hard.
However, the roads being reckoned as good as a harbour, the an-
chorage good, and our ground tackle very strong, our men were un-
concerned, and not in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent
the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the sea ; but the
eighth day in the morning, the wind increased, and we had all
hands at work to strike our topmasts, and make everything snug and
close, that the ship might ride as easy as possible. By noon the
sea went very high indeed, and we thought once or twice our
anchor had come home; upon which our master ordered out the
sheet anchor; so that we rode with two anchors a-head.
By this time it blew a terrible storm, and now I began to see
terror and amazement in the faces even of the seamen them-
selves. The master, though vigilant in the business of preserving
the ship, yet as he went in and out of his cabin by me, I could hear
him softly to himself say several times, Lord be merciful to us, we
shall be all lost, we shall be all undone; and the like.
The sea went mountains high, and broke upon us every three
or four minutes. I could see nothing but distress around us. The
ships that rid near us we found had cut their masts by the board,
being deep laden; and our men cried out, that a ship which rid
about a mile a-head of us was foundered.


Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master of
our ship to let them cut away the foremast, which he was very un-
willing to. But the boatswain protesting to him, that if he did not
the ship would founder, he consented; and when they had cut
away the foremast, the mainmast stood so loose, and shook the ship
so much, they were obliged to cut her away also, and make a clear
But the worst was not come yet, the storm continued with such
fury that the seamen themselves acknowledged they had never known
a worse. We had a good ship, but she was deep laden, and wal-
lowed in the sea, that the seamen every now and then cried out she
would founder. The storm was so violent that I saw what is not
often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some others more sensi-
ble than the rest, at their prayers, and expecting every moment
when the ship would go to the bottom.
In the middle of the night, one of the men cried out we had
sprung a leak; another said there was four foot water in the
hold. Then all hands were called to the pump.
We worked on, but the water increasing in the hold, it was ap-
parent that the ship would founder, and though the storm began to
abate a little, yet as it was not possible she could swim till we might
run into a port, so the master continued firing guns for help ; and a
light ship who had rid it out just a-head of us ventured a boat out
to help us. It was with the utmost hazard the boat came near us,
but it was impossible for us to get on board, till at last our men cast
them a rope over the stern with a buoy to it, which they after great
labour and hazard took hold of, and we hauled them close under
our stern, and got all into their boat.
It was to no purpose for them or us after we were in the boat
to think of reaching their own ship, so all agreed to let her drive
and only to pull her in towards shore as much as we could. Our
master promised them, that if the boat was staved upon the shore
he would make it good to their master, so partly rowing and partly
driving, our bcat went away to the northward, sloping towards the
shore almost as far as Winterton Ness.




We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our
ship before we saw her sink, and then I understood for the first time
what was meant by a ship foundering in the sea.
While we were in this condition, the men yet labouring at the
oar to bring the boat near the shore, we could see, a great many
people running along the shore to assist us. Where the land broke
off a little the violence of the wind, we got in, and though not
without much difficulty got all safe on shore, and walked afterwards
on foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were used with
great humanity, and had money given us sufficient to carry us either
to London or back to Hull, as we saw fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and have
gone home, I would have been happy, but my ill-fate pushed me on
now with an obstinacy that nothing could resist.
My comrade, who was, the master's son, spoke to me after we
were at Yarmouth, and looking very melancholy and shaking his
head, asked me how I did, and telling his father who I was, and
how I had come this voyage only for a trial in order to go farther
abroad; his father turning to me with a very grave and concerned
tone, 'Young man,' says he, 'you ought never to go to sea any
more, you ought to take this for a plain and visible token that you
are not to be a seafaring man ' Why, sir,' said I, will you go
to sea no more? ' That is another case,' said he, it is my calling,
and therefore my duty ; but as you made this voyage for a trial, you
see what a taste Heaven has given you of what you are to expect if
you persist; perhaps this is all befallen us on your account, like
Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. And, young man,' said he,
' depend upon it, if you do not go back, wherever you go, you will
meet with nothing but disasters and disappointments, till your
atb-er's words are fulfilled upon you.'
We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I saw
him no more. Having some money in my pocket, I travelled to
London by land; and there, as well as on the road, had many
struggles with myself, what course of life I should take, and whether
I should go home, or go to sea.


As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered
to my thoughts; and it immediately occurred to me how I should
be laughed at among the neighbours, and should be ashamed to see
not my father and mother only, but even everybody else.
That evil influence which carried me first away from my
father's house presented the most unfortunate of all enterprises to
my view; and I went on board a vessel bound to the coast of Africa.
I fell acquainted with the master of a ship who had been on
the coast of Guinea; and who having had very good success there,
was resolved to go again ; and who taking a fancy to my conver-
sation, which was not at all disagreeable at that time, hearing me
say I had a mind to see the world, told me if I would go the voy-
age with him I should be at no expense; I should be his messmate
and his companion, and if I could carry anything with me, I should
have all the advantage of it that the trade would admit; and per-
haps I might meet with some encouragement.
I embraced the offer, and entering into a strict friendship with
this captain, who was an honest and plain-dealing man, I went the
voyage with him, and carried a small adventure with me, which by
the disinterested honesty of my friend the captain, I increased very
considerably; for i carried about 40 in such toys and trifles as
the captain directed me to buy. This 40 I had mustered to-
gether by the assistance of some of my relations whom I corre-
sponded with, and who, I believe, got my father, or at least my
mother, to contribute so much as that to my first adventure.
This was the only voyage, which I may say was successful in
all my adventures, and which I owe to the integrity and honesty of
my friend the captain, under whom also I got a competent knowl-
edge of the mathematics and the rules of navigation, learned how
to keep an account of the ship's course, take an observation ; and
in short, to understand some things that were needful to be under-
stood by a sailor: for, as he took delight to instruct me, I took
delight to learn; for I brought home 5 pounds 9 ounces of gold
dust for my adventure, which yielded me in London at my return
almost /300, and this filled me with those aspiring thoughts which
have since so completed my ruin.


I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my
great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the
same voyage again, and I embarked in the same vessel with one
who was his mate in the former voyage, and had now got the com-
mand of the ship.
This was the unhappiest voyage that ever man made; for
though I did not carry quite 100oo of my new gained wealth, so
that I had 200 left, and which I lodged with my friend's widow,
who was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes in this
voyage; and the first was this :
Our ship making her course towards the Canary Islands, or
rather between those islands and the African shore, was surprised
in the grey of the morning, by a Turkish rover of Sallee, who gave
chase to us with all the sail she could make. We crowded also as
much canvas as our yards would spread, or our masts carry, to have
got clear; but finding the pirate gained upon us, and would cer-
tainly come up with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight; our
ship having 12 guns, and the rogue 18.
About three in the afternoon he came up with us, and bring-
ing to by mistake, just athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our
stern, as he intended, we brought 8 of our guns to bear on that
side, and poured in a broadside upon him, which made him sheer
off again, after returning our fire, and pouring in also his small
shot from near 200 men which he had on board. However, we
had not a man touched, all our men keeping close. He prepared
to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves ; but laying us on
board the next time upon our other quarter, he entered 6o men
upon our decks, who immediately fell to cutting and hacking the
decks and rigging. We plied them with small-shot, half-pikes,
powder-chests, and such like, and cleared our deck of them twice.
However, to cut short this melancholy part of our story, our
ship being disabled, and three of our men killed, and eight wounded,
we were obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee,
a port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I appre-
hended, nor was I carried up the country to the emperor's court, as


the rest of our men were, but was kept by the captain of the rover,
as his proper prize, and made his slave, being young and nimble,
and fit for his business. At this surprising change of my circum-
stances from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was perfectly over-


whelmed. But alas! this was but a taste of the misery I was to go
through, as will appear in the sequel of this story.
As my new patron or master had taken me home to his house,
so I was in hopes that he would take me with him when he went to
sea again, believing that it would some time or other be his fate to


be taken by a Spanish or Portugal man of war; and then that I
should be set at liberty. But this hope of mine was soon taken
away; for when he went to sea, he left me on shore to look after
his little garden, and do the common drudgery of slaves about his
house; and when he came home again from his cruise, he ordered
me to lie in the cabin to look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape; and what method I
might take to effect it, but found no way that had the least proba-
bility in it.
After about two years an odd circumstance presented itself,
which put the old thought of making some attempt for my liberty,
again in my head: my patron lying at home longer than usual,
without fitting out his ship, which, as I heard, was for want of
money; he used constantly, once or twice a week, sometimes
oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship's pinnace, and go
out into the road a fishing; and as he always took me and a young
Maresco with him to row the boat, we made him very merry, and I
proved very dexterous in catching fish; insomuch that sometimes
he would send me with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth
the Maresco, as they called him, to catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a fishing in a stark calm
morning, a fog rose so thick, that though we were not half a league
from the shore we lost sight of it; and rowing we knew not whither
or which way, we laboured all day and all the next night, and when
the morning came we found we had pulled off to sea instead of
pulling in for the shore; and that we were at least two leagues from
the shore; however, we got well in again, though with a great deal
of labour, and some danger; for the wind began to blow pretty
fresh in the morning; but particularly we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more
care of himself for the future; and having lying by him the long-
boat of our English ship we had taken, he ordered the carpenter of
his ship to build a little state room or cabin in the middle of the
long boat, like that of a barge. He had in it room for him to lie,
with a slave or two, and a table to eat on, with some small lockers.


to put in some bottles of such liquor as he thought fit to drink;
particularly his bread, rice, and coffee.
We went frequently out with this boat a fishing, and as I was
most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without me:
it happened that he had appointed to go out in this boat, either for
pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors of some distinction in
that place, and for whom he had provided extraordinarily; and had
therefore sent on board the boat over night, a larger store of pro-
visions than ordinary; and had ordered me to get ready three fuzees
with powder and shot, which were on board his ship; for that they
,designed some sport of fowling as well as fishing.
I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the next
morning with the boat, washed clean, her ancient and pendants out,
and everything to accommodate his guests; when by-and-by my
patron came on board alone, and told me his guests had put off
going, upon some business that fell out, and ordered me with the
man and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat and catch them some
fish, for that his friends were to sup at his house; and commanded
that as soon as I had got some fish I should bring it home to his
house; all which I prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into my
thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a little ship at my
command; and my master being gone, I prepared to furnish my-
self, not for a fishing business, but for a voyage.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this
Moor to get something for our subsistence on board; for I told him
we must not presume to eat of our patron's bread: he said, that was
true; so he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit of their kind,
and three jars with fresh water into the boat.
I knew where my patron's case of bottles stood, which it was
evident by the make were taken out of some English prize; and I
conveyed them into the boat while the Moor was on shore, as if
they had been there before, for our master; I conveyed also a
great lump of bees'-wax into the boat, which weighed above half a
hundred weight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw,


and a hammer, all which were of great use to us afterwards ; espec-
ially the wax to make candles.
Another trick I tried upon him, which he innocently came into
also; his name was Ismael, who they called Muly, or Moley, so I
called to him, Moley, said I, our patron's guns are on board the boat,
can you not get a little powder and shot, it may be we may kill some
Alcamies (a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves, for I know he
keeps the gunner's stores in the ship? Yes, says he, I'll bring
some; and accordingly he brought a great leather pouch which
held about a pound and a half of powder, or rather more; and
another with shot. Thus furnished with everything needful, we
sailed out of the port to fish.
The castle which is at the entrance of the port knew who we
were, and took no notice of us; and we were not above a mile out
of the port before we hauled in our sail, and set us down to fish.
After we had fished some time and catched nothing, for when
I had fish on my hook, I would not pull them up, that he might
not see them ; I said to the Moor, this will not do, our master will
not be thus served, we must stand farther off: he, thinking no
harm, agreed ; and being in the head of the boat set the sails ; and
as I had the helm I run the boat out near a league farther, and then
brought her to as if I would fish; when giving the boy the helm, I
stepped forward to where the Moor was, and making as if I stooped
for something behind him, I took him by surprise with my arm under
his twist, and tossed him clear overboard into the sea.
He rose immediately, for he swam like a cork, and called to
me, begged to be taken in,, told me he would go all over the
world with me; he swam so strong after the boat that he would
have reached me very quickly, there being but little wind; upon
which I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowling-
pieces, I presented it at him, and told him, I had done him no
hurt, and if he would be quiet I would do him none; but, said I,
you swim well enough to reach the shore, and the sea is calm,
make the best of your way to shore, and I will do you no harm, but
if you come near the boat I'll shoot you through the head. So he
turned himself about and swam for the shore, and I make no doubt




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but he reached it with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me,
and have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust
him. When he was gone I turned to the boy, who they called
Xury, and said to him, Xury, if you will be faithful to me I'll
make you a great man, but if you will not stroke your face to be
true. to me, that is, swear by Mahomet and his father's beard, I
must throw you into the sea; the boy smiled in my face, and
spoke so innocently that I could not mistrust him; and swore to be
faithful to me, and go all over the world with me.
As soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my course,
and steered directly south and by east, bending my course a little
towards the east, that I might keep in with the shore; and having
a fair fresh gale of wind, and a smooth quiet sea, I made such sail
that I believe by the next day at three o'clock in the afternoon,
when I first made the land, I could not be less than 150 miles
south of Sallee; quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco's domin-
ions, or indeed of any other king thereabouts, for we saw no
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the
dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that I
would not stop; the wind continuing fair, until I had sailed in that
manner five days: and then the wind shifted to the southward, I
concluded also that if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they
also would now give over; so I ventured to make to the coast, and
came to an anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew not what,
or where.
I neither saw, or desired to see any people, the principal
thing I wanted was fresh water: we came into this creek in the
evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and dis-
cover the country; but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such
dreadful noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild crea-
tures, of we know not what kinds, that the poor boy was ready to
die with fear, and begged of me not to go on shore till day. Well,
Xury, said I, then I won't, but it may be we may see men by day,
who will be as bad to us as those lions. Then we give them the


shoot gun, says Xury, laughing; make them run way. Such Eng-
lish Xury spoke by conversing among the slaves; however, I was
glad to see the boy so cheerful, and gave him a dram to cheer him
We dropped our little anchor and lay still all night; I say still,
for we slept none! for in two or three hours we saw vast great
creatures of many sorts, come down to the sea-shore and run into
the water, wallowing and washing themselves for the pleasure of
cooling themselves; and they made such hideous howlings and
yelling, that I never indeed heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too ; but we
were both more frighted when we heard one of those mighty creat-
ures come swimming towards our boat. Xury said it was a lion,
and cried to me to weigh the anchor and row away. No, says I,
Xury, we can slip our cable with the buoy to it and go off to sea,
they cannot follow us far. I had no sooner said so, but I perceived
the creature (whatever it was) within two oars' length, which some-
thing surprised me ; however, I immediately stepped to the cabin
door, and taking up my gun fired at him, upon which he immedi-
ately turned about and swam towards the shore again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrible noises, and hideous
cries and howlings, that were raised as well upon the edge of the
shore, as higher within the country, upon the noise of the gun; a
thing I have some reasons to believe those creatures had never heard
before. This convinced me that there was no going on shore for us
in the night upon that coast, and how to venture on shore in the
day was another question too ; for to have fallen into the hands of
any of the savages, had been as bad as to have fallen into the hands
of lions and tigers.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere
or other for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat. Xury
said, if I would let him go on shore with one of the jars, he would
find if there was any water and bring some to me. I asked him
why he would go ? why I should not go and he stay in the boat ?
The boy answered with so much affection that made me love him
ever after. Says he, If wild mans come, they eat me, you go way.



Well, Xury, said I, we will both go, and if the wild mans come, we
will kill them, they shall eat neither of us ; so I gave Xury a piece
of rusk bread to eat, and a dram out of our patron's case of bottles
which I mentioned before; and we hauled the boat in as near the
shore as .we thought was proper, and so waded on shore, carrying
nothing but our arms and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the com-
ing of canoes with savages down the river; but the boy seeing a
low place about a mile up the country rambled to it; and by-and-by
I saw him come running towards me. I thought he was pursued by
some savage, or frighted with some wild beast, and I run forward
towards him to help him, but when I came nearer to him, I saw
something hanging over his shoulders which was a creature that he
had shot, like a hare, but different in color, and longer legs ; how-
ever we were very glad of it, and it was very good meat ; but the
great joy that poor Xury came with, was to tell me he had found
good water and seen no wild mans.
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very well
that the islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd islands also,
lay not far off from the coast. My hope was, that if I stood along
this coast till I came to that part where the English traded, I should
find some of their vessels upon their usual design of trade, that
would relieve and take us in. I put the whole of my fortune upon
this single point, either that I must meet with some ship or must
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the
cabin and sat me down, Xury having the helm, when on a sudden,
the boy cried out, Master, Master, a ship with a sail! and the
foolish boy was frighted out of his wits, thinking it must needs
be some of his master's ships sent to pursue us, when I knew we
were gotten far enough out of their reach. I jumped out of the
cabin, and immediately saw not only the ship, but what she was
(viz.), that it was a Portuguese ship, and as I thought was bound
to the coast of Guinea for negroes.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to
come in their way, but that they would be gone by, before I could


make any signal to them; but after I had crowded to the utmost
and began to despair, they, it seems, saw me by the help of their
perspective-glasses, and that it was some European boat, which as
they supposed must belong to some ship that was lost, so they
shortened sail to let me come up. I was encouraged with.this, and
as I had my patron's ancient on board, I made a waft of it to them
for a signal of distress, and fired a gun, both which they saw, for
they told me they saw the smoke, though they did not hear the
gun ; upon these signals they very kindly brought to, and lay by for
me, and in about three hours' time I came up with them.
They ask me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and
in French, but I understood none of them; but at last a Scotch
sailor who was on board, called to me, and I answered him, and
told him I was an Englishman, that I had made my escape out of
slavery from the Moors at Sallee; then they bade me come on
board, and very kindly took me in and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, that any one will believe,
that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable
and almost hopeless condition as I was in, and I immediately
offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a return for my
deliverance; but he generously told me, he would take nothing
from me, but that all I had should be delivered safe to me when I
came to the Brazils.
As to my boat, it was a very good one, and that he saw, and
told me he would buy it of me for the ship's use, and asked me
what I would have for it ? I told him he had been so generous to
me in everything, that I could not offer to make any price of the
boat, but left it entirely to him, upon which he told me he would
give me a note to his hand to pay me 80 pieces of eight for it at
Brazil, and when it came there, if any one offered to give more he
would make it up. He offered me also 60 pieces of eight more for
my boy Xury, which I was loth to take, not that I was not willing
to let the captain have him, but I was very loth to sell the poor
boy's liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in procuring my own.
However, when I let him know my reason, he owned it to be just,
and offered me this medium, that he would give the boy an obli-


gation to set him free in ten years, if he turned Christian; upon
this, and Xury saying he was willing to go to him, I let the captain
have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and arrived in the
Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints' Bay, in about twenty-two
days after. And now I was once more delivered from the most
miserable of all conditions of life, and what to do next with myself
I was now to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never
enough remember; .in a word, I made about 220 pieces of eight
of all my cargo, and with this stock I went on shore in the
I had not been long here, but being recommended to the house
of a good honest man like himself, who had an Ingeino as they
call it; that is, a plantation and a sugar-house, I lived with him
some time, and acquainted myself by that means with the manner
of their planting and making of sugar; and seeing how well the
planters lived, and how they grew rich suddenly, I resolved, if I
could get licence to settle there, I would turn planter among them,
resolving in the meantime to find out some way to get my money which
I had left in London remitted to me. To this purpose getting a
kind of a letter of naturalization, I purchased as much land that
was uncured, as my money would reach, and formed a plan for my
plantation and settlement, and such a one as might be suitable to
the stock which I proposed to myself to receive from England.
I had a neighbour, whose name was Wells, and in much such
circumstances as I was. My stock was but low as well as his ; and
we rather planted for food, than anything else, for about two years.
However, we began to increase, and our land began to come into
order; so that the third year we planted some tobacco, and made
each of us a large piece of ground ready for planting canes in the
year to come; but we both wanted help; and now I found more
than before, I had done wrong in parting with my boy Xury.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of all my
adventures, my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the Portu-
gul captain at sea, the humanity of his behaviour, and in what


condition I was now in, with all other necessary directions for my
supply; and when this honest captain came to Lisbon, he found
means by some of the English merchants there, to send over not
the order only, but a full account of my story to a merchant at
London, who represented it effectually to her; whereupon, she not
only delivered the money, but out of her own pocket sent the
Portugal captain a very handsome present for his humanity and
charity to me.
I went on the next year with great success in my plantation:
I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on my ground, more than I had
disposed of for necessaries among my neighbours; and these fifty
rolls being each of above a hundredweight, were well cured and
laid by against the return of the fleet from Lisbon : and now in-
creasing in business and in wealth, my head began to be full of
projects and undertakings beyond my reach; such as are indeed
often the ruin of the best heads in business.
It happened, being in company with some merchants and
planters of my acquaintance, and talking of my voyages to the
coast of Guinea, three of them came to me the next morning, and
told me they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea, that they
had all plantations as well as I, and were straitened for nothing so
much as servants; that as it was a trade that could not be carried
on, because they could not publicly sell the negroes when they
came home, so they desired to make but one voyage, to bring the
negroes on shore privately, and divide them among their own plan-
tation ; and in a word, the question was, whether I would go their
supercargo in the ship to manage the trading part upon the coast of
Guinea? And they offered me that I should have my equal share
of the negroes without providing any part of the stock.
I told them I would go with all my heart, if they would under-
take to look after my plantation in my absence, and would dispose
of it to such as I should direct if I miscarried. This they all en-
gaged to do, and entered into writings or covenants to do so; and
I made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and effects, in
case of my death, making the captain of the ship that had saved my
life, as before, my universal heir, but obliging him to dispose of my


effects as I had directed in my will, one-half of the produce being
to himself, and the other to be shipped to England.
Accordingly the ship being fitted out, and the cargo furnished,
and all things done as by agreement, by my partners in the voyage,
I went on board in an evil hour, the first of September, 1659, being
the same day eight years that I went from my father and mother at
Hull, in order to act the rebel to their authority, and the fool to
my own interest.


Our ship was about 120 ton burthen, carried 6 guns, and 14
men, besides the master, his boy, and myself; we had on board no
large cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit for our trade with
the negroes, such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles,
especially little looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and the
The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to
the northward upon our own coast, with design to stretch over for
the African coast, when they came about 10o or 12 degrees of north-


ern latitude, which it seems was the manner of their course in those
days. We passed the line in about 12 days' time, and were by our
last observation in 7 degrees 22 min. northern latitude, when a
violent tornado or hurricane took us quite out of our knowledge ;
it began from the south-east, came about to the north-west, and
then settled into the north-east, from whence it blew in such a ter-
rible manner, that for 12 days together we could do nothing but
drive, and scudding away before it, let it carry us whither ever fate
and the fury of the winds directed; and during these 12 days, I
need not say, that I expected every day to be swallowed up, nor
indeed did any in the ship expect to save their lives.
In this distress, the wind blowing very hard, one of our men
early in the morning, cried out, Land and we had no sooner run
out of the cabin to look out in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the
world we were, but the ship struck upon a sand, and in a moment
her motion being so stopped, the sea broke over her in such a manner
that we expected we should all have perished immediately, and we
were immediately driven into our close quarters to shelter us from
the very foam and spray of the sea.
Now though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet
the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for
us to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful condition indeed,
and had nothing to do but think of saving our lives as well as we
could; we had a boat at our stern just before the storm, but she was
first staved by crashing against the ship's rudder, and in the next
place she broke away, and either sunk or was driven off to sea, so
there was no hope from her; we had another boat on board, but
how to get her off into the sea, was a doubtful thing; however,
there was no room to debate, for we fancied the ship would break
in pieces every minute, and some told us she was actually broken
In this distress, the mate of the vessel lays hold of the boat,
and with the help of the rest of the men, they got her slung over
the ship's side, and getting all into her, let go, and committed our-
selves, being eleven in number, to God's mercy, and the wild sea.


After we had owed, or rather driven about a league and a half,
as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling a-stern
of us, and bade us expect the coup-de-grace. In a word, it took
us with such a fury, that it overset the boat at once ; and separating
us as well from the boat, as from one another, gave us not time
hardly to say, 0 God for we were all swallowed up in a
The wave that came upon me, buried me at once 20 or 30 foot
deep in its own body; and I could feel myself carried with a
mighty force and swiftness towards the shore a very great way; but
I held my breath, and assisted myself to swim forward with all my
might. I was ready to burst with holding my breath, when, as I
felt myself rising up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my head
and hands shoot out above the surface of the water; and though it
was not two seconds of time that I could keep myself so, yet it re-
lieved me greatly gave me breath and new courage. I was covered
again with water a good while, but not so long but I held it out;
and finding the water had spent itself, and began to return, I struck
forward against the return of the waves, and felt ground with my
feet. I stood still a few minutes to recover breath, and till the water
went from me, and then took to my heels, and run with what
strength I had farther towards the shore. But neither would this
deliver me from the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me
again, and twice more I was lifted up by the waves, and carried
forwards as before, the shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well been near fatal to me; for
the sea having hurried me along as before, landed me, or rather
dashed me against a piece of rock, and that with such force, as
it left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own deliver-
ance; for the blow taking my side and breast, beat the breath as
it were quite out of my body; and had it returned again imme-
diately, I must have been strangled in the water; but I recovered
a little before the return of the waves, and seeing I should be
covered again with the water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece
of the rock, and so to hold my breath, if possible, till the wave
went back; now as the waves were not so high as at first, being


nearer land, I held my hold till the wave abated, and then fetched
another run, which brought me so near the shore, that the next
wave, though it went over me, yet did not so swallow me up as to
carry me away, and the next run I took, I got to the main land,
where, to my great comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the shore,
and sat me down upon the grass, free from danger, and ,quite out
of the reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up
and thank God that my life was saved in a case wherein there was
some minutes before scarce any room to hope.
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my
whole being, as I may say, wrapt up in the contemplation of my
deliverance, making a thousand gestures and motions which I can-
not describe, reflecting upon all my comrades that were drowned,
and that there should not be one soul saved but myself.
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my
condition, I began to look round me to see what kind of place I
was in, and what was next to be done, and I soon found my com-
forts abate. I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe,
and a little tobacco in a box, this was all my provision, and this
threw me into terrible agonies of mind, that for a while I ran about
like a madman; night coming upon me, I began with a heavy heart
to consider what would be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts
in that country, seeing at night they always come abroad for-their
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time, was,
to get up into a thick bushy tree like a fir, but thorny, which grew
near me, and where I resolved to sit all night, and consider the
next day what death I should die, for as yet I saw no prospect of
life; I walked about a furlong from the shore, to see if I could find
any fresh water to drink, which I did, to my great joy ; and having
drunk and put a little tobacco in my mouth to prevent hunger, I
went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured to place my-
self so, as that if I should sleep I might not fall; and having cut
me a short stick, like a truncheon, for my defence, I took up my
lodging, and having been excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep,



When I waked it was
Broad day, the weather
S*" clear, and the storm abat-
ed, so that the sea did not
rage and swell as before;
but that which surprised
me most, was, that the ship was
"; lifted off in the night from the
sand where she lay, by the swell-
"I FELL FAST ing of the tide, and driven up
"I FELL FAST ; almost as far as the rock which
ASLEEP." I first mentioned, where I had
"" '* been so bruised by the dashing
me against it; this being within
about a mile from the shore where I was, and the ship seeming
to stand upright still, I wished myself on board, that, at least, I
might have some necessary things for my use.

and slept as comfortably
as, I believe, few could
have done in my condi-
- tion.


When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked
about me again, and the first thing I found was a boat, which lay
as the wind and sea had tossed her up upon the land, about two
miles on my right hand. I walked as far as I could upon the shore
to have got to her, but found a neck or inlet of water between me
and the boat, which was about half a mile broad, so I came back
for the present, being more intent upon getting at the ship, where I
hoped to find something for my present subsistence.
A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the tide
ebbed so far out, that I could come within a quarter of a mile of.
the ship ; and here I found a fresh renewing of my grief, for I saw
evidently, that if we had kept on board, we had all been safe, that
is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had not been so mis-
erable as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort and company, as
I now was; this forced tears from my eyes again, but as there was
little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship, so I
pulled off my clothes, for the weather was hot to the extremity, and
took the water. When I came to the ship, my difficulty was still
greater to know how to get on board, for as she lay a-ground, and
high out of the water, there was nothing within my reach to lay hold
of. I swam round her twice, and the second time I spied a small
piece of rope, which I wondered I did not see at first, hang down
by the forechains so low, as that with great difficulty I got hold of
it, and by the help of that rope, got up into the forecastle of the
ship. I found that the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of
water in her hold, but that she lay so on the side of a bank of hard
sand, or rather earth, that her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and
her head low almost to the water; by this means all her quarter was
free, and all that was in that part was dry ; for you may be sure my first
work was to search and to see what was spoiled and what was free;
and first I found that all the ship's provisions were dry and untouched
by the water, and being very well disposed to eat, I went to the bread-
room and filled my pockets with biscuit, and eat it as I went about
other things, for I had no time to lose. I also found some rum in
the great cabin, of which I took a large dram, and which I had
indeed need enough of to spirit me for what was before me. Now


I wanted nothing but a boat to furnish myself with many things
which I foresaw would be very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had,
and this extremity roused my application; we had several spare
yards, and two or three large spars of wood,, and a spare topmast
or two in the ship. I resolved to fall to work with these, and flung
as many of them overboard as I could manage for their weight, tying
every one with a rope that they might not drive away; when this
was done I went down the ship's side, and pulling them to me, I
tied four of them fast together at both ends as well as I could, in
the form of a raft, and laying two or three short pieces of plank
upon them crossways, I found I could walk upon it very well, but
that it was not able to bear any great weight, the pieces being too
light; so I went to work, and with the carpenter's saw cut a spare
topmast into three lengths, and added them to my raft, with a great
deal of labour and pains, but hope of furnishing myself with neces-
saries encouraged me to go beyond what I should have been able to
have done upon another occasion.
My next care was what to load it with, and how to preserve
what I laid upon it from the surf of the sea. But I was not long
considering this : I first laid all the plank or boards upon it that I
could get, and having considered well what I most wanted, I first
got three of the seamen's chests, which I had broken open and
emptied, and lowered them down upon.my raft; the first of these
I filled with provisions, viz : bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five
pieces of dried goat's flesh, which we lived much upon, and a little
remainder of European corn which had been laid aside for some
fowls which we brought to sea with us, but the fowls were killed;
there had been some barley and wheat together, but to my great
disappointment, I found afterwards that the rats had eaten or
spoiled it all; as for liquors, I found several cases of bottles be-
longing to our skipper, in which there were some cordial waters,
and in all about five or six gallons of rack; these I stowed by
themselves, there being no need to put them into the chest, nor
no room for them.


~-~zZ-~ ~







After long searching I found out the carpenter's chest, which
was indeed a very useful prize to me, and much more valuable than
a ship-loading of gold would have been at that time. I got it down
to my raft, even whole as it was, without losing time to look into
it, for I knew in general what it contained.
There were two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and
two pistols; these I secured first, with some powder-horns, and a
small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords: I knew there were
three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where our gunner
had stowed them, but with much search I found them, two of them
dry and good, the third had taken water; those two I got to my
raft, with the arms, and now I thought myself pretty well freighted,
and began to think how I should get to shore with them, having
neither sail, oar, or rudder, and the least capfull of wind would have
overset all my navigation.
I had three encouragements, i. A smooth calm sea, 2. The
tide rising and setting in to the shore, 3. What little wind there
was blew me towards the land; and thus, having found two or three
broken oars belonging to the boat, and besides the tools which were
in the chest, I found two saws, an axe, and a hammer, and with this
cargo I put to sea. For a mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very
well, only that I found it drive a little distant from the place
where I had landed before, by which I perceived that there was
some indraft of the water, and consequently I hoped to find some
creek or river there, which I might make use of as a port to get to
land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was, there appeared before me a little
opening of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide set
into it, so I guided my raft as well as I could to keep in the middle
of the stream.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek,
to which with great pain and difficult I guided my raft, and at last
got so near, as that, reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust
her directly in, but here I had liked to have dipped all my cargo
into the sea again ; for that shore lying pretty steep, that is to say
sloping, there was no place to land, but where one end of my float,


if it run on shore, would lie so high, and the other sink lower as
before, that it would endanger my cargo again; all that I could do
was to wait till the tide was highest, keeping the raft with my oar
like an anchor to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat
piece of ground, which I expected the water would flow over; and
so it did; as soon as I found water enough, for my raft drew about
a foot of water, I thrust her on upon that flat piece of ground, and
there fastened or moored her by sticking my two broken oars into
the ground; one on one side near one end, and one on the other
side near the other end; and thus I lay till the water ebbed away,
and left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper
place for my habitation, and where to stow my goods to secure
them from whatever might happen ; where I was I yet knew not,
whether on the continent or on an island, whether inhabited or
not inhabited, whether in danger of wild beasts or not: there
was a hill not above a mile from me, which rose up very steep
and high, and which seemed to over-top some other hills which lay
as in a ridge from it northward; I took out one of the fowling-
pieces, and one of the pistols, and an horn of powder, and thus
armed I travelled for discovery up to the top of that hill, where,
after I had with great labour and difficulty got to the top, I saw
my fate to my great affliction, (viz.) that I was in an island en-
vironed every way with the sea, no land to be seen, except some
rocks which lay a great way off, and two small islands less than
this, which lay about three leagues to the west.
At my coming back, I shot at a great bird which I saw sitting
upon a tree on the side of a great wood: I believe it was the first
gun that had been fired there since the creation of the world; I
had no sooner fired, but from all the parts of the wood there arose
an innumerable number of fowls of many sorts, making a confused
screaming, and crying every one according to his usual note; but
not one of them of any kind that I knew; as for the creature I
killed, I took it to be a kind of a hawk, its colour and back re-
sembling it, but had no talons or claws more than common; its
flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.


I came back to my raft, and fell to work to bring my cargo on
shore, which took me up the rest of that day, and what to do with
myself at night I knew not, nor indeed where to rest; for I was
afraid to lie down on the ground, not knowing but some wild
beasts might devour me, though, as I afterwards found, there was
really no need for those fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round with
the chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and made a
kind of a hut for that night's lodging; as for food, I yet saw not
which way to supply myself, except that I had seen two or three
creatures like hares run out of the wood where I shot the fowl.
I now began to consider, that I might yet get a great many
things out of the ship, which would be useful to me, and par-
ticularly some of the rigging, and sails, and such other things as
might come to land, and I resolved to make another voyage on
board the vessel, if possible; and as I knew that the first storm that
blew must necessarily break her all in pieces.
I got on board the ship, as before, and prepared a second raft,
and having had experience of the first, I neither made this so un-
wieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought away several things
very useful to me; as first, in the carpenter's stores I found two or
three bags full of nails and spikes, a great screw-jack, a dozen or
two of hatchets, and above all, that most useful thing called a
grindstone. All these I secured together, with several things be-
longing to the gunner, particularly two or three iron crows, and
two barrels of musket-bullets, seven muskets, and another fowling-
piece, with some small quantity of powder more; a large bag full
of small shot, and a great roll of sheet-lead: but this last was so
heavy, I could not hoist it up to get it over the ship's side.
I took all the men's clothes that I could find, and a spare fore-
topsail, a hammock, and some bedding; and with this I loaded my
second raft, and brought them all safe on shore, to my very great
Having got my second cargo on shore, though I was fain to
open the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for they
were too heavy, being large casks, I went to work to make me a


little tent with the sail and some poles which I cut for that purpose,
and into this tent I brought everything that I knew would spoil,
either with rain or sun, and I piled all the empty chests and casks
up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from any sudden attempt,
either from man or beast.
When I had done this I blocked up the door of the tent with
some boards within, and an empty chest set up on end without,
and spreading one of the beds upon the ground, laying my two
pistols just at my head, and my gun at length by me, I went to bed
for the first time, and slept very quietly all night, for I was very
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever were laid
up, I believe, for one man, but I was not satisfied still; for while
the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought I ought to get every-
thing out of her that I could; so every day at low water I went on
board, and brought away something or other.
I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven
times on board the ship; in which time I had brought -away all
that one pair of hands could well be supposed capable to bring,
though I believe verily, had the calm weather held, I should have
brought away the whole ship piece by piece: but preparing the
12th time to go on board, I found the wind begin to rise.
However, at low water I went on board, and though I thought
I had rummaged the cabin so effectually, as that nothing more
could be found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers in it, in one
of which I found two or three razors, and one pair of large scis-
sors, with some ten or a dozen of good knives and forks ; in an-
other I found about thirty-six pounds value in money, some
European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold, some
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. 0 Drug said
I aloud, what art thou good for? thou art not worth to me, no not
the taking off of the ground: one of those knives is worth all this
heap ; I have no manner of use for thee, e'en remain where thou
art, and go to the bottom as a creature whose life is not worth
saving.. However, upon second thoughts, I took it away, and


wrapping all this in a piece of canvas, I began to think of making
another raft, but while I was preparing this, I found the sky over-
cast, and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it
blew a fresh gale from the shore.
It presently occurred to me, that it was in vain to pretend to
make a raft with the wind off shore, and that it was my business to
be gone before the tide of flood began, otherwise I might not be
able to reach the shore at all. Accordingly I let myself down into
the water, and swam cross the channel, which lay between the ship
and the sands, and even that with difficulty enough, partly with the
weight of the things I had about me, and partly the roughness of
the water, for the wind rose very hastily, and before it was quite
high water, it blew a storm.
But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I lay with all
my wealth about me very secure. It blew very hard all the night,
and in the morning when I looked out, behold no more ship was to
be seen ; I was a little surprised, but recovered myself with this
satisfactory reflection, viz.: that I had lost no time, nor abated no
diligence to get everything out of her that could be useful to me,
and that indeed there was little left in her that I was able to
bring away if I had had more time.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself
against either savages, if any should appear, or wild beasts if any
were in the island; and I had many thoughts of the method how
to do this, and what kind of dwelling to make, whether I should
make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the earth: and, in
short, I resolved upon both, the manner and description of which,
it may not be improper to give an account of.
I found a little plain on the side of a rising hill, whose front
towards this little plain was steep as a house-side, so that nothing
could come down upon me from the top ; on the side of this rock
there was a hollow place worn a little way in like the entrance or
door of a cave, but there was not really any cave or way into the
rock at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I re-
solved to pitch my tent; this plain was not above an hundred yards


broad and about twice as long, and lay like a green before my door,
and at the end of it descended irregularly every way down into the
low-grounds by the sea-side.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half circle before the hollow
place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter from the
rock, and twenty yards in its diameter, from its beginning and
In this half circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving
them into the ground till they stood very firm like piles, the biggest
end being out of the ground about five foot and a half, and sharp-
ened on the top : the two rows did not stand above six inches from
one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship,
and I laid them in rows one upon another, within the circle, be-
tween these two rows of stakes, up to the top, placing other stakes
in the inside, leaning against them, about two foot and a half high,
like a spur to a post, and this fence was so strong, that neither man
or beast could get into it or over it. This cost me a great deal of
time and labour, especially to cut the piles in the woods, bring
them to the place, and drive them into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be not by a door, but
by a short ladder to go over the top, which ladder, when I was in,
I lifted over after me, and so I was completely fenced in, and
Into this fence or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all
my riches, all my provisions, ammunition and stores, of which you
have the account above, and I made me a large tent, which, to
preserve me from the rains that in one part of the year are very
violent there, I made double, viz., one smaller tent within, and
one large tent above it, and covered the uppermost with a large
tarpaulin which I had saved among the sails.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that
would spoil by the wet, and having thus enclosed all my goods, I
made up the entrance, which till now I had left open, and so
passed and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.


When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock,
and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug out through my
tent, I laid them up within my
fence in the nature of a terrace,
*that co it raised the ground
within about a foot and a half;
and thus I made me a cave just
Lbe'ind my tent, which served
ne Ulke a cellar to my house.
In the interval of time while
t his k a t doing I went out once
at lea. every day with my gun,
a' I l to divert myself, as to see
IJ I would d kill anything fit for
Sfo1d, and as near as I could to
acquaint myself with
what the island pro-
duced. The first time
I went out I presently
discovered that there
.ere ..ats in the island, which
,as a great satisfaction to me.
Ther were so shy, so subtile, and
.o s...it of foot, that it was the
i rn, -tt d fficult thing in the world
to c:onie at them. But I was not
d is,:ou raged at this, not doubting
) but I night now and then shoot
...... V ore, as it soon happened, for
alter I had found their haunts
a little. I laid wait in this man-
ner for them: I observed if they
"THIE KID FOLLOWED ME." saw me in the valleys, though
they were upon the rocks, they
would run away as in a terrible fright; but if they were feeding in
.he valleys, and I was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me,


from whence I concluded, that by the position of their optics, their
sight was so directed downward, that they did not readily see objects
that were above them; so afterward I took this method, I always
climbed the rocks first to get above them, and then had frequently
a fair mark.
The first shot I made among these creatures, I killed a she-
goat which had a little kid by her which she gave suck to, which
grieved me heartily; but when the old one fell, the kid stood stock
still by her till I came and took her up : and not only so, but when
I carried the old one with me upon my shoulders, the kid followed
me quite to my enclosure, upon which I laid down the dam, and
took the kid in my arms, and carried it over my pale, in hopes to
have bred it up tame; but it would not eat, so I was forced to kill
it and eat it myself.
After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into
my thoughts, that I should lose my reckoning of time for want of
books and pen and ink, and should even forget the Sabbath days
from the working days.
To prevent this I cut it with my knife upon a large post, in
capital letters, and making it into a great cross I set it up on the
shore where I first landed, viz., I came on shore here on the 3oth
Sept., 1659. Upon the sides of this square post, I cut every day
a notch with my knife, and every seventh notch was as long again
as the rest, and every first day of the month as long again as that
long one, and thus I kept my calender, or weekly, monthly, and
yearly reckoning of time.
Among the many things which I brought out of the ship in the
several voyages which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got
several things of less value, but not all less useful to me ; in par-
ticular, pens, ink, and paper, three or four compasses, some mathe-
matical instruments, dials, perspectives, charts, and books of navi-
Also, I found three very good Bibles which came to me in
my cargo from England, and which I had packed up among my
things; some Portuguese books also, and among them, two or three


Popish prayer-books, and several other books, all of which I care-
fully secured.
And I must not forget, that we had in the ship a dog and two
cats, of whose eminent history I may have occasion to say some-
thing in its place ; for I carried both the cats with me; and as for


the dog, he jumped out of the ship of himself and swam on shore
to me the day after I went on shore with my first cargo, and was a
trusty servant to me many years.
I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the cir-
cumstance I was reduced to, and I drew up the state of my affairs
in writing; not so much to leave them to any that were to come


after me, for I was like to have but few heirs, as to deliver my
thoughts from daily poring upon them, and afflicting my mind; and
as my reason began now to master my despondency, I began to
comfort myself as well as I could, and to set the good against the
evil, that I might have something to distinguish my case from
worse ; and I stated it very impartially, like debtor and creditor,
the comforts I enjoyed, against the miseries I suffered, thus :

I am cast upon a horrible
desolate island, void of all hope
of recovery.
I am singled out and sepa-
rated, as it were, from all the
world to be miserable.

Jam dividedfrom mankind,
a solitaire, one banished from hu-
man society.
I have no clothes to cover me.

I am without any defence or
means to resist any violence of
man or beast.

Ihave no soul to speak to, or
relieve me.

But I am alive, and not
drowned as all my shiy's company
But I am singled out too
from all the ship's crew to be
spared from death ; and He that
miraculously saved me from
death, can deliver me from this
But I am not starved and
perishing on a barren place, af-
fording no sustenance.
But I am in a hot climate,
where if I had clothes I could
hardly wear them.
But I am cast on an island,
where I see no wild beasts to hurt
me, as I saw on the coast of
Africa : and what if I had been
shipwrecked there ?
But God wonderfully sent
the ship in near enough to the
shore, that I have gotten out so
many necessary things as will
either supply my wants, or enable
me to supply myself even as long
as I live.


Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony, that there
was scarce any condition in the world so miserable, but there was
something negative or something positive to be thankful for in it.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition,
and given over looking out to sea to see if I could spy a ship ; I
say, giving over these things, I began to apply myself to accommo-
date my way of living, and to make things as easy to me as
I could.
I set myself to enlarge my cave and works farther into the
earth, for it was a loose sandy rock, which yielded easily to the
labour I bestowed on it: and so when I found I was pretty safe as
to beasts of prey, I worked sideways to the right hand into the
rock, and then turning to the right again, worked quite out and
made me a door to come out, on the outside of my pale or fortifi-
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were i back-
way to my tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room to stow
my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary
things as I found I most wanted, as particularly a chair and a table,
for without these I was not able to enjoy the few comforts I had in
the world.
I had never handled a tool in my life, and yet in time by
labour, application, and contrivance, I found at last that I wanted
nothing but I could have made it, especially if I had had tools;
however I made abundance of things, even without tools, and some
with no more tools than an adze and a hatchet, which per-
haps were never made that way before, and that with infinite
For example, if I wanted a board, I had no other way but to
cut down a tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on
either side with mry axe, till I had brought it to be thin as a plank,
and then dub it smooth with my adze. However, I made me a
table and a chair, and some large shelves of the breadth of a foot


and half one over another, all along one side of my cave, to lay all
my tools, nails, and ironwork.
I began now to think my cave or vault finished, when on a-.
sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great quantity of earth
fell down from the top and one side, so much, that in short it
frighted me, and not without reason too ; for if I had been under
it I had never wanted a grave-digger. Upon this disaster I had a.
great deal of work to do over again; for I had the loose earth to
carry out, and, which was of more importance, I had the ceiling to
prop up, so that I might be sure no more would come down.
I went to work with it accordingly, and got two shores or posts
pitched upright to the top, with two pieces of boards across over
each post; this I finished the next day ; and setting more posts up
with boards, in about a week more I had the roof secured; and the
posts standing in rows, served me for partitions to part off my house.
During this time, I made my rounds in the woods for game
every day, when the rain admitted me, and made frequent dis-
coveries in these walks of something or other to my advantage ;
particularly I found a kind of wild pigeon, who built not as wood
pigeons, in a tree, but rather as house pigeons, in the holes of the
rocks; and taking some young ones, I endeavoured to breed them
up tame, and did so; but when they grew older they flew all away,
which perhaps was at first for want of feeding them, for I had
nothing to give them ; however I frequently found their nests, and
got their young ones, which were very good meat.
I was at a great loss for candle; so that as soon as ever it was
dark, which was generally by seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to
bed : I remembered the lump of beeswax with which I made candles
in my African adventure, but I had none of that now; the only
remedy I had was, that when I had killed a goat, I saved the
tallow, and with a little dish made of clay, which I baked in the
sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum, I made me a lamp;
and this gave me light, though not a clear steady light like a candle.
In the middle of all my labours it happened, that rummaging
my things, I found a little bag, which, as I hinted before, had been
filled with corn for the feeding of poultry, not for this voyage, but


before, as I suppose, when the ship came from Lisbon; what little
remainder of corn had been in the bag was all devoured with the
rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but husks and dust; and being
willing to have the bag for some other use, I think it was to put
powder in, when I divided
it for fear of the lightning,
or some such use, I shook
the husks of corn out of it
on one side of my fortifi-
cation under the rock.
It was a little before
the great rains, just now
mentioned, that I threw
'.z / this stuff away, taking no
S notice of anything, and
/ not so much as remember-
ing that I had thrown any-
athing there; when about a
month after, or thereabout,
I saw some few stalks of
something green shooting
out of the ground, which
I fancied might be some
plant I had not seen; but
_I was'surprised and per-
.4fectly astonished, when,
after a little longer time,
I saw about ten or twelve
ears come out, which were
perfectly green barley of the
GRINDING M Y TOOLS. same kind as our European,
nay, as our English barley.
I saw near it still, all along by the side of the rock, some
other straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks of rice, and
which'I knew, because I had seen it grow in Africa, when I was
ashore there.


I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure in their
season, which was about the end of June ; and laying up every corn,
I resolved to sow them all again, hoping in time to have some
quantity sufficient to supply me with bread.
The very next day after my wall was finished, I had almost had
all my labour overthrown at once, and myself killed; the case was
thus: As I was busy in the inside of it, behind my tent, just in the
entrance into my cave, I was terribly frightened with a most dread-
ful surprising thing indeed; for all on a sudden I found the earth
come crumbling down from the roof of my cave, and from the edge
of the hill over my head, and two of the posts I had set up in the
cave cracked in a frightful manner.
I was heartily scared, but thought nothing of what was really
the cause, only thinking that the top of my cave was falling in, as
some of it had done before; and for fear I should be buried in it, I
ran forward to my ladder, and not thinking myself safe there
neither, I got over my wall for fear of the pieces of the hill which
I expected might roll down upon me.
I was no sooner stepped down upon the firm ground, but I
plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake, for the ground I stood on
shook three times at about eight minutes' distance, with three such
shocks as would have overturned the strongest building that could
be supposed to have stood on the earth, and a great piece of the
top of a rock, which stood about half a mile from me next the sea,
fell down with such a terrible noise as I never heard in all my life:
I perceived also the very sea was put into violent motion by it; and
I believe the shocks were stronger under the water than on the island.
I was so amazed with the thing itself, having never felt the
like, or discoursed with any one that had, that I was like one dead.
or stupefied; and the motion of the earth made my stomach sick
like one that was tossed at sea; but the noise of the falling of the
rock awaked me as it were, and rousing me from the stupefied con-
dition I was in, filled me with horror, and I thought of nothing then
but the hill falling upon my tent and all my household goods, and
burying all at once; and this sunk my very soul within me a second,


After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some
time, I began to take courage, and yet I had not heart enough to
go over my wall again, for fear of being buried alive, but sat still
upon the ground, greatly cast down and disconsolate, not knowing
what to do: all this while I had not the least serious religious
thought, nothing but the common, Lord have mercy upon me; and
when it was over, that went away too.
While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow cloudy, as
if it would rain; soon after that the wind rose, by little and little,
so that, in less than half an hour, it blew a most dreadful hurricane:
the sea was all on a sudden covered with foam and froth, the shore was
covered with the breach of the water, the trees were torn up by the
roots, and a terrible storm it was ; and this held about three hours,
.and then began to abate, and in two hours more it was stark calm,
and began to rain very hard.
This violent rain forced me to a new work, viz., to cut a hole
through my new fortification like a sink to let the water go out,
which would else have drowned my cave. After I had been in my
cave some time, and found still no more shocks of the earthquake
follow, I began to be more composed; and now to support my
spirits, which indeed wanted it very much, I went to my little store
and took a small sup of rum, which however I did then and always
very sparingly, knowing I could have no more when that was gone.
It continued raining all that night, and great part of the next
*day, so that I could not stir abroad, but my mind being more com-
posed, I began to think of what I had best do, and resolved that I
would go to work with all speed to build me a wall with piles and
cables, etc., in a circle as before, and set my tent up in it when it
was finished, but that I would venture to stay where I was till it
was finished and fit to remove to.
The next morning I began to consider of means to put this
resolve in execution, but I was at a great loss about my tools; I
had three large axes and abundance of hatchets, but with much
chopping and cutting knotty hard wood, they were all full of notches
and dull, and though I had a grindstone I could not turn it and
grind my tools too. At length I contrived a wheel with a string, to


turn IL with my foot, that I might have both my hands at liberty.
This machine cost me a full week's work to bring it to perfection.
The rain fell continually for several days, and I stayed within.
I thought at the time that the rain felt cold, which was unusual in
that climate. The next day I was very ill; a high fever and violent
headache rendered me unfit for sleep at night or work in the day.
This was followed by a violent ague lasting seven hours, leaving me
alternately hot and cold, with faint sweats after it.
In a few days I felt better and being in want of fresh food, I
sallied out with my gun, and though still very weak, managed to
kill a she goat. I got it home and broiled some of it and ate
The ague became again so violent, that I lay a-bed all day, and
neither eat or drank. I was ready to perish for thirst, but so weak,
I had not strength to stand up, or to get myself any water to drink;
prayed to God again, but was light-headed, and when I was not, I
was so ignorant that I knew not what to say ; only I lay and cried,
Lord look upon me, Lord pity me, Lord have mercy upon me.
I suppose I did nothing else for two or three hours, till the fit
wearing off, I fell asleep, and did not wake till far in the night;
when I waked, I found myself much refreshed, but weak, and ex-
ceeding thirsty; however, as I had no water in my whole habita-
tion, I was forced to lie till morning, and went to sleep again. In
this second sleep, I had this terrible dream.
I thought that I was sitting on the ground on the outside of
my wall, where I sat when the storm blew after the earthquake, and
that I saw a man descend from a great black cloud, in a bright
flame of fire, and alight upon the ground: he was all over as bright
as a flame, so that I could but just bear to look towards him ; his
countenance was most inexpressibly dreadful, impossible for words
to describe; when he stepped upon the ground with his feet, I
thought the earth trembled, just as it had done before in the earth-
quake, and all the air looked, to my apprehension, as if it had been
filled with flashes of fire.
He was no sooner landed upon the earth, but he moved forward
towards me, with a long spear or weapon in his hand, to kill me;


and when he came to a rising ground, at some distance, he spoke to
me, or I heard a voice so terrible, that it is impossible to express
the terror of it; all that I can say I understood was this, Seeing
all these things have not brought thee to repentence, now thou
shalt die;' at which words, I thought he lifted up the spear that
was in his hand to kill me.
No one, that shall ever read this account, will expect that I
should be able to describe the horrors of my soul at this terrible
vision. I mean, that even while it was a dream, I even dreamed
of those horrors; nor is it any more possible to describe the im-
pression that remained upon my mind when I awaked and found it
was but a dream.
Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I had had,
and the fit being entirely off, I got up; and though the fright and
terror of my dream was very great, yet I considered, that the fit of
the ague would return again the next day, and now was my time to
get something to refresh and support myself when I should be ill.
The first thing I did, I filled a large square case bottle with
water, and set it upon my table, in reach of my bed; and to take
off the chill or aguish disposition of the water, I put about a quarter
of a pint of rum into it, and mixed them together; and then I got
me a piece of the goat's flesh, and broiled it on the coals, but
could eat very little. I walked about, but was very weak, and
withal very sad and heavy-hearted in the sense of my miserable
condition, dreading the return of my distemper the next day; at
night I made my supper of three of the turtle's eggs, which I roasted
in the ashes, and eat, as we call it, in the shell; and this was the
first bit of meat I had ever asked God's blessing to, even as I could
remember, in my whole life.
I took out from a chest one of the Bibles which I mentioned
before, and having opened the book casually, the first words that
occurred to me were these, Call on Me in the day of trouble, and
I will deliver thee, and thou shall glorify Me.'
The words were very apt to my case, and made some impres-
sion upon my thoughts at the time of reading them, and I mused
upon them very often. It grew now so late, that I inclined to,


sleep ; but before I lay down, I did what I never had done in my
life, I kneeled down and prayed to God to fulfil the promise to me,
that if I called upon Him in the day of trouble, He would deliver
me; and immediately upon this I went to bed.
I fell into a sound sleep, and waked no more till by the sun it
must necessarily be near three o'clock in the afternoon the next
day nay, to this hour I am partly of the opinion, that I slept all
the next day and night, and till almost three that day after; for
otherwise I knew not how I should lose a day out of my reckoning
in the days of the week, as it appeared some years after I had done;
for if I had lost it by crossing and recrossing the line, I should have
lost more than one day : but certainly I lost a day in my account,
and never knew which way.
Be that however one way or the other, when I awaked I found
myself exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively and cheerful;
when I got up, I was stronger than I was the day before, and my
stomach better, for I was hungry; and in short, I had no fit the
next day, but continued much altered for the better.
I had been now in this unhappy island above ten months, all
possibility of deliverance from this condition seemed to be entirely
taken from me; and I firmly believed, that no human shape had
ever set foot upon that place. Having now secured my habitation,
as I thought, fully to my mind, I had a great desire to make more
perfect discovery of the island, and to see what other productions I
might find, which I yet knew nothing of.
I went up the creek first, where, as I hinted, I brought my
rafts on shore; I found after I came about two mlles up, that the
tide did not flow any higher, and that it was no more than a little
brook of running water, and very fresh and good; but this being
the dry season, there was hardly any water in some parts of it.
On the bank of this brook I found many pleasant savanas, or
meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with grass; and on the
rising parts of them next to the higher grounds, where the water,
as it might be supposed, never overflowed, I found a great deal of
tobacco, green, and growing to a great and very strong stalk;
there were divers other plants which I had no notion of, or under-


standing about, and might perhaps have virtues of their own, which
I could not find out.
I searched for the cassava root, which the Indians in all that
climate make their bread of, but I could find none. I saw large
plants of aloes, but did not then understand them. I saw several
sugar-canes, but wild, and for want of cultivation, imperfect. I
contented myself with these discoveries for this time, and came
back musing with myself what course I might take to know the
virtue and goodness of any of the fruits or plants which I should
discover ; but could bring it to no conclusion ; for in short, I had
made so little observation while I was in the Brazils, that I knew
little of the plants in the field, at least very little that might serve
me to any purpose now in my distress.
The next day, I went up the same way again, and after going
something farther than I had gone the day before, I found the
brook, and the savanas began to cease, and the country became
more woody than before ; in this part I found different fruits, and
particularly I found melons upon the ground in great abundance,
and grapes upon the trees; the vines had spread indeed over the
trees, and the clusters of grapes were just now in their prime, very
ripe and rich. I found an excellent use for these grapes, and that
was to cure and dry them in the sun, and keep them as dried
grapes or raisins are kept, which I thought would be, as indeed
they were, as wholesome as agreeable to eat, when no grapes might
be to be had.
I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my habi-
tation, which by the way was the first night, as I might say, I had
lain from home. In the night I took my first contrivance, and got
up into a tree, where I slept well, and the next morning proceeded
upon my discovery, traveling near four miles, as I might judge by
the length of the valley, keeping still due north, with a ridge of
hills on the south and north side of me.
At the end of this march I came to an opening, where the
country seemed to descend to the west, and a little spring of fresh
water, which issued out of the side of the hill by me, run the other
way, that is due east; and the country appeared so fresh, so green,


so flourishing, everything being in a constant verdure, or flourish of
spring, that it looked like a planted garden.
I descended a little on the side of that delicious vale, surveying
it with a secret kind of pleasure (though mixed with my other
afflicting thoughts), to think that this was all my own, that I was
king and lord of all this country indefeasibly, and had a right of
possession ; and if I could convey it, I might have it in inheritance,
as completely as any lord of a manor in England.
I saw here abundance of cocoa trees, orange, and lemon, and
citron trees; but all. wild and very few bearing any fruit, at least
not then. However, the green limes that I gathered, were not only
pleasant to eat, but very wholesome; and I mixed their juice after-
wards with water which made it very wholesome, and very cool, and
I found now I had business enough to gather and carry home;
and I resolved to lay up a store, as well of grapes, as limes and
lemons, to furnish myself for the wet season, which I knew was ap-
When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with
great pleasure on the fruitfulness of that valley, and the pleasantness
of the situation, the security from storms on that side the water,
and the wood, and concluded, that I had pitched upon a place to
fix my abode, which was by far the worst part of the country.
Upon the whole I began to consider of removing my habitation;
and to look out for a place equally safe, as where I now was situate,
if possible, in that pleasant fruitful part of the island.
This thought run long in my head, and I was exceeding fond
of it for some time, the pleasantness of the place tempting me; but
when I came to a nearer view of it, and to consider that I was now
by the sea-side, where it was at least possible that something might
happen to my advantage, and by the same ill fate that brought me
hither, might bring some other unhappy wretches to the same place;
and though it was scarce probable that any such thing should ever
happen, yet to enclose myself among the hills and woods, in the
centre of the island, was to anticipate my bondage, and to render


such an affair not only improbable, but impossible; and that there-
fore I ought not by any means to remove.
However, I was so enamoured of this place, that I spent much
of my time there, for the whole remaining part of the month of
July; and though upon second thoughts I resolved as above, not to
remove, yet I built me a little kind of a bower, and surrounded it
at a distance with a strong fence, being a double hedge, as high as I
could reach, well staked, and filled between with brushwood; and
here I lay very secure, sometimes two or three nights together,
always going over it with a ladder, as before; so that I fancied now
I had my country house, and my sea-coast house : and this work
took me up to the beginning of August.
At the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my bower,
and began to enjoy myself. I found the grapes I had hung up were
perfectly dried, and indeed, were excellent good raisins of the sun;
so I began to take them down from the trees, and it was very happy
that I did so; for the rains which followed would have spoiled them,
and I had lost the best part of my winter food ; for I had above two
hundred large bunches of them. No sooner had I taken them all
down, and carried most of them home to my cave, but it began to
rain, and from hence, which was the fourteenth of August, it rained
more or less, every day, till the middle of October: and sometimes
so violently, that I could not stir out of my cave for several days.
In this season I was much surprised with the increase of my
family; I had been concerned for the loss of one of my cats, who
run away from me, or as I thought had been dead, and I heard no
more tale or tidings of her, till to my astonishment she came home
about the end of August with three kittens; this was the more
strange to me, because though I had killed a wild cat, as I called it,
with my gun; yet I thought it was a quite differing kind from our
European cats; yet the young cats were the same kind of house
breed like the old one; and both my cats being females, I thought
it very strange : but from these three cats, I afterwards came to be
so pestered with cats, that I was forced to kill them like vermin, or
wild beasts, and to drive them from my house as much as possible.
The rainy season, and the dry season, began now to appear


regular to me, and I learnt to divide them so, as to provide for
them accordingly. But I bought all my experience before I had it;
and this I am going to relate, was one of the most discouraging
experiments that I made at all: I have mentioned that I had saved
the few ears of barley and rice, which I had so surprisingly found
spring up, as I thought, of themselves, and believe there were
about thirty stalks of rice, and about twenty of barley; and now
I thought it a proper time to sow it after the rains, the sun being
in its southern position going from me.
Accordingly I dug up a piece of ground as well as I could with
my wooden spade, and dividing it into two parts, I sowed my
grain; but as I was sowing, it casually occurred to my thoughts,
that I would not sow it all at first, because I did not know when
was the proper time for it; so I sowed about two-thirds of the seed,
leaving about a handful of each.
Finding my first seed did not grow, which I easily imagined
was by the drought, I sought for' a moister piece of ground to make
another trial in, and I dug up a piece of ground near my new
bower, and sowed the rest of my seed in February, a little before
the vernal equinox; and this having the rainy months of March and
April to water it, sprung up very pleasantly, and yielded a very
good crop ; but having part of the seed left only, and not daring
to sow all that I had, I had but a small quantity at last, my whole
crop not amounting to above half a peck of each kind.
But by this experiment I was made master of my business, and
knew exactly when the proper season was to sow; and that I might
expect two seed times, and two harvests every year.
While this corn was growing, I made a little discovery which
was of use to me afterwards : as soon as the rains were over, and
the weather began to settle, which was about the month of Novem-
ber, I made a visit up the country to my bower, where though I
had not been some months, yet I found all things just as I left
them. The circle or double hedge that I had made, was not only
firm and entire; but the stakes which I had cut out of some trees
that grew thereabouts, were all shot out and grown with long
branches, as much as a willow-tree usually shoots the first year after


lopping its head. I could not tell what tree to call it, that these
stakes were cut from. I was surprised, and yet very well pleased,
to see the young trees grow; and I pruned them, and led them up
to grow as much alike as I could ; and it is scarce credible how


beautiful a figure they grew into in three years ; so that though the
hedge made a circle of about twenty-five yards in diameter, yet
the trees, for such I might now call them, soon covered it ; and it
was a complete shade, sufficient to lodge under all the dry season.


This made me resolve to cut some more stakes, and make me
a hedge like this in a semicircle round my wall; I mean that of
my first dwelling, which I did; and placing the trees or stakes in a
double row, at about eight yards' distance from my first fence, they
grew presently, and were at first a fine cover to my habitation, and
afterwards served for a defence also, as I shall observe in its order.
In this time I found much employment (and very suitable also
to the time) for I found great occasion of many things which I haI
no way to furnish myself with, but by hard labour and constant
application; particularly, I tried many ways to make myself a
basket, but all the twigs I could get for the purpose proved so
brittle, that they would do nothing. It proved of excellent advan-
tage to me now, that when I was a boy, I used to take great de-
light in standing at a basket-maker's, in the town where my father
lived, to see them make their wicker-ware; and being as boys usu-
ally are, very officious to help, and a great observer of the manner
how they worked those things, and sometimes lending a hand, I had
by this means full knowledge of the methods of it, that I wanted
nothing but the materials ; when it came into my mind, that the twigs
of that tree from whence I cut my stakes that grew, might possibly
be as tough as the sallows, and willows, and osiers in England, and
I resolved to try.
Accordingly, the next day, I went to my country-house, as I
called it, and cutting some of the smaller twigs, I found them to my
purpose as much as I could desire; whereupon I came the next
time prepared with a hatchet to cut down a quantity, which I soon
found, for there was great plenty of them; these I set up to dry
within my circle or hedge, and when they were fit for use, I carried
them to my cave, and here during the next season, I employed
myself in making, as well as I could, a great many baskets, both to
carry earth, or to carry or lay up anything as I had occasion ; and
though I did not finish them very handsomely, yet I made them
sufficiently serviceable for my purpose; and thus afterwards I took
care never to be without them ; and as my wicker-ware decayed, I
made more, especially, I made strong deep baskets to place my corn
in, instead of sacks, when I should come to have any quantity of if.


I mentioned before, that I had a great mind to see the whole
island, and that I had travelled up the brook, and so on to where I
built my bower, and where I had an opening quite to the sea on the
other side of the island. I now resolved to travel quite across to
the sea-shore on that side ; so taking my gun, a hatchet, and my
dog, and a larger quantity of powder and shot than usual, with two
biscuit cakes, and a great bunch of raisins in my pouch for my store,
I began my journey.
When I had passed the vale where my bower stood as above, I
came within view of the sea, to the west, and it being a very clear
day, I fairly described land, whether an island or a continent, I could
not tell; but it lay very high, extending from the west, to the
W.S.W. at a very great distance; by my guess it could not be less
than fifteen or twenty leagues off.
I could not tell what part of the world this might be, otherwise
than that I knew it must be part of America, and as I concluded by
all my observations, must be near the Spanish dominions, and per-
haps was all inhabited by savages, where if I should have landed, I
had been in a worse condition than I was now; and therefore I
acquiesced in the disposition of Providence, which I began now to
own, and to believe, ordered everything for the best; I say, I
quieted my mind with this, and left afflicting myself with fruitless
wishes of being there.
Besides, after some pause upon this affair, I considered, that if
this land was the Spanish coast, I should certainly, one time or
other, see some vessel pass or re-pass one way or the other; but if
not, then it was the savage coast between the Spanish country and
Brazils, which are indeed the worst of savages; for they are canni-
bals, or men-eaters, and fail not to murder and devour all the human
bodies that fall into their hands.
With these considerations I walked very leisurely forward, I
found that side of the island where I now was, much pleasanter than
mine, the open or savana fields sweet, adorned with flowers and
grass, and full of very fine woods. I saw abundance of parrots, and
fain I would have caught one, if possible to have kept it to be tame,
and taught it to speak to me. I did, after some painstaking, catch


a young parrot, for I knocked it down with a stick, and having
recovered it, I brought it home; but it was some years before I
could make him speak. However, at last I taught him to call me
by my name very familiarly; but the accident that followed, though
it be a trifle, will be very diverting in its place.
I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found in the
low grounds hares, as I thought them to be, and foxes, but they
differed greatly from all the other kinds I had met with; nor could
I satisfy myself to eat them, though I killed several.
As soon as I came to the sea-shore, I was surprised to see that
I had taken up my lot. on the worst side of the island; for here
indeed the shore was covered with innumerable turtles, whereas on
the other side I had found but three in a year and a half. Here
was also an infinite number of fowls, of many kinds, some which I
had seen, and some which I had not seen before, and many of them
very good meat; but such as I knew not the names of, except those
called penguins.
I took another way to come back than that I went, thinking I
could easily keep all the island so much in my view, that I could
not miss finding my first dwelling by viewing the country; but I
found myself mistaken; for being come about two or three miles, I
found myself descended into a very large valley; but so surrounded
with hills, and those hills covered with wood, that I could not see
which was my way by any direction but that of the sun, nor even
then, unless I knew very well the position of the sun at that time of
the day.
In this journey my dog surprised a young kid, and seized upon
it, and I running in to take hold of it, caught it and saved it alive
from the dog. I had a great mind to bring it home if I could; for
I had often been musing, whether it might not be possible to get a
kid or two, and so raise a breed of tame goats, which might supply
me when my powder and shot should be all spent.
I made a collar to this little creature, and with a string which
I had of some rope-yarn, which I always carried about with me, I
led him along, though with some difficulty, till I came to my bower,


and there I enclosed him, and left him ; for I was very impatient
to be at home, from whence I had been absent above a month.
I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me, to come into


my old hutch, and lie down in my hammock-bed. This little wan-
dering journey, without settled place of abode, had been so unpleas-
ant to me, that my own house, as I called it to myself, was a perfect
settlement to me, compared to that; and it rendered everything


about me so comfortable, that I resolved I would never go a great
way from it again, while it should be my lot to stay on the island.
I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale myself after
my long journey; during which, most of the time was taken up in
the weighty affair of making a cage for my poll, who began now to
be a mere domestic, and to be mighty well acquainted with me.
Then I began to think of the poor kid, which I had penned in
within my little circuit, and resolved to go and fetch it home, or
give it some food; accordingly I went,. and found it where I left it;
for indeed it could not get out, but almost starved for want of food.
I went and cut boughs of trees, and branches of such shrubs as I
could find, and threw it over, and having fed it, I tied it as I did
before, to lead it away; but it was so tame with being hungry, that
I had no need to have tied it; for it followed me like a dog; and
and as I continually fed it, the creature became so loving, so
gentle, and so fond that it became from that time one of my do-
mestics also, and would never leave me afterwards.
I was now expecting my crop of barley and rice. The ground
I had manured or dug up for them was not great; for as I observed,
my seed of each was not above the quantity of half a peck; for I
had lost one whole crop by sowing in the dry season; but now my
crop promised very well, when on a sudden I found I was in danger
of losing it all again by enemies of several sorts, which it was scarce
possible to keep from it; as first, the goats, and wild creatures
which I called hares, who tasting the sweetness of the blade, lay in
it night and day, as soon as it came up, and eat it so close, that it
could get no time to shoot up into stalk.
This I saw no remedy for, but by making an enclosure about
it with a hedge, which I did with a great deal of toil; and the more,
because it required speed. However, as my arable land was but
small, suited to my crop, I got it totally well fenced, in about three
weeks' time; and shooting some of the creatures in the daytime, I
set my dog to guard it in the night, tying him up to a stake at the
gate, where he would stand and bark all night long; so in a little
time the enemies forsook the place, and the corn grew very strong,
and well, and began to ripen apace.


But as the beasts ruined me before, while my corn was in the
blade; so the birds were as likely to ruin me now, when it was in
the ear; for going along by the place to see how it throve, I saw my
little crop surrounded with fowls of I know not how many sorts,
who stood as it were watching till I should be gone ; I immediately
let fly among them (for I always had my gun with me). I had no
sooner shot but there rose up a little cloud of fowls, which I had
not seen at all, from among the corn itself.
I stayed by it to load my gun, and then coming away I could
easily see the thieves sitting upon all the trees about me as if they
only waited till I was gone away, and the event proved to be so;
for as I walked off as if I was gone, I was no sooner out of their
sight, but they dropt down one by one into the corn again. I was
so provoked that I could not have patience to stay till more came
on, knowing that every grain that they eat now, was, as it might be
said, a peck-loaf to me in the consequence; but coming up to the
hedge, I fired again and killed three of them.
This was what I wished for; so I took them up, and served
them as we serve notorious thieves in England, viz., hanged them
in chains for a terror to others ; it is impossible to imagine almost,
that this should have such an effect, as it had; for the fowls would
not only not come at the corn, but in short they forsook all that
part of the island, and I could never see a bird near the place as
long as my scarecrows hung there.
This I was very glad of, you may be sure, and about the latter
end of December, which was our second harvest of the year, I
reaped my crop.
I was sadly put to it for a scythe or sickle to cut it down, and
all I could do was to make one as well as I could out of one of the
broadswords or cutlasses, which I saved among the arms out of the
ship. However, as my first crop was but small I had no great
difficulty to cut it down; in short, I reaped it my way, for I cut
nothing off but the ears, and carried it away in a great basket which
I had made, and so rubbed it out with my hands ; and at the end
of all my harvesting, I found that out of my half-peck of seed, I
had near two bushels of rice, and above two bushels and half of



Sbarl,-i, that is to
-ay, I.,% my guess,
1 .:,r I h:,a no meas-
Soliure at that tn e.
It ir.-t be truly
ia,,] that r-:iw I worked
for rnv brad ; it is a
liLtttle .-rInder' ul, aird hat I be-
Iie. e I..: PeOlle ha e thought
ru,:h upon, i .. I i the strange
niiilnride 01" iitlte things neces-
ir the pro:i'. i.roducing,
S during :-.:.r- mnukirig anrd finishing
th,: one ac,.:lr of l read
.. I ,li5j1 no piogi h t. turn up the
earth, no spade or -h:,.el to dig it.
\\ell, this I ..:.r..iered1. Iy. making a
:oodein paride. as I ol,:crned before;
but this did my work in but a wooden
iEM. manner, and though it cost me a great
many days to make it, yet for want of


iron it not only wore out the sooner, but made my work the harder,
and made it be performed much worse.
However, this I bore with, and was content to work it out
with patience, and bear with the badness of the performance.
When the corn was sowed, I had no harrow, but was forced to go
over it myself and drag a great heavy bough of a tree over it, to
scratch it, as it may be called, rather than rake or harrow it.
All this made everything laborious and tedious to me, but that
there was no help for; neither was my time so much loss to me,
because as I had divided it, a certain part of it was every day
appointed to these works; and as I resolved to use none of the
corn for bread till I had a greater quantity by me, I had the next
six months to apply myself wholly by labour and invention to
furnish myself with utensils proper for the performing all the
operations necessary for the making the corn (when I had it) fit
for my use.
Within doors, that is, when it rained, and I could not go out,
I found employment on the following occasions; always observing,
that all the while I was at work I diverted myself with talking to
my parrot, and teaching him to speak, and I quickly learned him
to know his own name, and at last to speak it out pretty loud POLL,
which was the first word I ever heard spoken in the island by any
mouth but my own.
I had long studied by some means or other, to make myself
some earthen vessels, which indeed I wanted sorely, but knew not
where to come at them However, considering the heat of the
climate, I did not doubt but if I could find out any such clay, I
might botch up some such pot, as might, being dried in the sun, be
hard enough, and strong enough to bear handling, and to hold any-
thing that was dry, and required to be kept so; and as this was
necessary in the preparing corn, meal, etc., which was the thing I
was upon, I resolved to make some as large as I could, and fit only
to stand like jars to hold what should be put into them.
It would make the reader pity me,or rather laugh at me, to tell
how many awkward ways I took to raise this paste, what odd mis-
shapen ugly things I made, how many of them fell in, and how


many feh out, the clay not being stiff enough to bear its own weight;
how many cracked by the over-violent heat of the sun, being set out
too hastily; and how many fell in pieces with only removing, as
well before as after they were dried; and in a word, how after hav-
ing laboured hard to find the clay, to dig it, to temper it, to bring
it home and work it; I could not make above two large earthen
ugly things, I cannot call them jars, in about two months' labour.
Though I miscarried so much in my design for large pots, yet
I made several smaller things with better success, such as little round
pots, flat dishes, pitchers and pipkins, and any things my hand
turned to, and the heat of the sun baked them strangely hard.
It happened after some time, making a pretty large fire for
cooking my meat, and I went to put it out after I had done with
it, I found a broken piece of one of my earthenware vessels in the
fire, burnt as hard as a stone, and red as a tile. I was agreeably
surprised to see it, and said to myself, that certainly they might be
made to burn whole if they would burn broken.
This set me to studying how to order my fire, so as to make it
burn me some pots. I had no notion of a kiln, such as the potters
burn in, or of glazing them with lead, though I had some lead to
do it with; but I placed three large pipkins, and two or three pots
in a pile one upon another, and placed my firewood all round it with
a great heap of embers under them; I piled the fire with fresh fuel
round the outside, and upon the top, till I saw the pots in the inside
red-hot quite through, and observed that they did not crack at all;
when I saw them clear red, I let them stand in that heat about 5 or
6 hours, till I found one of them, though it did not crack, did melt
or run, for the sand which was mixed with the clay melted by the
violence of the heat, and would have run into glass if I had gone on ;
so I slacked my fire gradually till the pots began to abate of the red
colour, and watching them all night, that I might not let the fire
abate too fast, in the morning I had three very good, I will not say
handsome, pipkins, and two other earthen pots, as hard burnt as
could be desired; and one of them perfectly glazed with the run-
ning of the sand.

-: *..^/f ':..


.t t


My next concern was, to get me a stone mortar, to stamp or
beat some corn in ; for as to the mill, there was no thought at arriv-
ing to that perfection of art, with one pair of hands. After a great deal
of time lost in searching for a stone, I gave it over, and resolved to
look out for a great block of hard wood, which I found indeed
much easier; and getting one as big as I had strength to stir, I
rounded it, and formed it in the outside with my axe and hatchet,


and then with the help of fire, and infinite labour, made a hollow
place in it, as the Indians in Brazil make their canoes. After this,
I made' a great heavy pestle or beater, of the wood.called the iron-
wood, and this I prepared and laid by against I had my next crop
of corn, when I proposed to myself, to grind, or rather pound my
corn into meal to make my bread.
My next difficulty was to make a sieve, to dress my meal, and
to part it from the bran. All the remedy that I found for this, was,


that at last I did remember I had among the seamen's clothes which
were saved out of the ship, some neckcloths of calico or muslin;
and with some pieces of these, I made three small sieves, but proper
enough for the work; and thus I made shift for some years; how I
did afterwards, I shall show in its place.
The baking part was the next thing to be considered, and how
I should make bread when I came to have corn; for first I had no
yeast; as to that part, as there was no supplying the want, so I did
not concern myself much about it. But for an oven, I was indeed
in great pain; at length I found out an experiment for that also,
which was this: I made some earthen vessels very broad, but not
deep; that is to say, about two foot diameter, and not above nine
inches deep; these I burnt in the fire, as I had done the other, and
laid them by; and when I wanted to bake, I made a great fire upon
my hearth, which I had paved with some square tiles of my own
making, and burning also; but I should not call them square.
When the firewood was burnt pretty much into embers, or live
coals, I drew them forward upon this hearth, so as to cover it all
over, and there I let them lie, till the hearth was very hot, then
sweeping away all the embers, I set down my loaf, or loaves, and
whelming down the earthen pot upon them, drew the embers all
round the outside of the pot, to keep in, and add to the heat; and
thus, as well as in the best oven in the world, I baked my barley
loaves, and became in little time a mere pastrycook into the bargain;
for I made myself several cakes of the rice, and puddings. Indeed,
I made no pies, neither had I anything to put in them, supposing I
had, except the flesh either of fowls or goats.
All the while these things were doing, you may be sure my
thoughts run many times upon the prospect of land which I had
seen from the other side of the island, and I was not without secret
wishes that I were on shore there, fancying the seeing the mainland,
and in an inhabited country, I might find some way or other to
convey myself farther, and perhaps at last find some means of escape.
Now I wished for my boy Xury, and the long boat, with the
shoulder of mutton sail, with which I sailed above a thousand miles
on the coast of Africa; but this was in vain. Then I thought I


would go and look at our ship's boat, which, as I have said, was
blown up upon the shore, a great way in the storm, when we were
first cast away. She lay almost where she did at first, but not quite;
and was turned by the force of the waves and the winds almost bot-
tom upward, against a high ridge of beachy rough sand; but no
water about her as before.
If I had had hands to have refitted her, and to have launched
her into the water, the boat would have done well enough, and I
might have gone back into the Brazils with her easily enough; but
I might have foreseen, that I could no more turn her, and set her
upright upon her bottom, than I could remove the island.
So I was forced to give it over; and yet, though I gave over
the hopes of the boat, my desire to venture over the main increased,
rather than decreased, as the means for it seemed impossible.
This at length put me upon thinking, whether it was not pos-
sible to make myself a canoe, or periagua, such as the natives of
those climates make, even without tools, or, as I might say, without
hands, viz., of the trunk of a great tree.
I went to work upon this boat, the most like a fool, that ever
man did, who had any of his senses awake. I pleased myself with
the design, without determining whether I was ever able to under-
take it, not but that the difficulty of launching my boat came often
into my head; but I put a stop to my own inquiries into it, by this
foolish answer which I gave myself, Let's first make it, I'll warrant
I'll find some way or other to get it along, when it is done.
This was a most preposterous method ; but the eagerness of my
fancy prevailed, and to work I went. I felled a cedar tree : I ques-
tion much whether Solomon ever had such a one for the building of
the temple at Jerusalem. It was five foot ten inches diameter at the
lower part next to the stump, and four foot eleven inches diameter at
the end of twenty-two foot, after which it lessened for a while, and
then parted into branches. It was not without infinite labour that
I felled this tree. I was twenty days hacking and hewing at it at
the bottom, I was fourteen more getting the branches and limbs,
and the vast spreading head of it, cut off, which I hacked and
hewed through with axe and hatchet, and inexpressible labour.


After this, it cost me a month to shape it, and dub it to proportion,
and to something like the bottom of a boat, that it might swim up-
right as it ought to do. It cost me near three months more to clear
the inside, and work it out so as to make an exact boat of it. This
I did indeed without fire, by mere mallet and chisel, and by the dint
of hard labour, till I had brought it to be a very handsome periagua,
and big enough to have carried six-and-twenty men, and conse-
quently big enough to have carried me and all my cargo.
But all my devices to get it into the water failed me; though
they cost me infinite labour too. It lay about one hundred yards
from the water, and not more. But the first inconvenience was, it
was uphill towards the creek; well, to take away this discourage-
ment, I resolved to dig into the surface of the earth, and so make a
declivity. This I begun, and it cost me a prodigious deal of pains;
but who grudge pains, that have their deliverance in view? But
when this was worked through, and this difficulty managed, it was
still much at one; for I could no more stir the canoe, than I could
the other boat.
Then I measured the distance of ground, and resolved to cut a
dock, or canal, to bring the water up to the canoe, seeing I could
not bring the canoe down to the water. Well, I began this work,
and when I began to enter into it, and calculate how deep it was to
be dug, how broad, how the stuff to be thrown out, I found, that
by the number of hands I had, being none but my own, it must
have been ten or twelve years before I should have gone through
with it; for the shore lay high, so that at the upper end, it must
have been at least twenty foot deep; .so at length, though with great
reluctancy, I gave this attempt over also.
This grieved me heartily, and now I saw, though too late, the
folly of beginning a work before we count the cost; and before we
judge rightly of our strength to go through with it.
I have mentioned that I saved the skins of all the creatures
that I killed, I mean four-footed ones, and I had hung them up
stretched out with sticks in the sun, by which means some of them
were so dry and hard that they were fit for little, but others it
seems were very useful. The first thing that I made of these was


a great cap for my r .
head, with the hair ,..'
on the outside to -
shoot off the rain; .
and this I perform- .
ed so well, that af-
ter this I made me
a suit of clothes -
wholly of these '
skins, that is to say,
a waistcoat, and
breeches open at
the knees, and both
loose, for they were
rather wanting to
keep me cool than
to keep me warm.
I spent a great
deal of time and
pains to make me
an umbrella. I took a world
of pains at it, and was a gr. -,I
while before I could mrnal
anything likely to hold ; Loi
at last I made one that
answered indifferently well
I could walk out in the hot
test of the weather %%il,
greater advantage than I
could before in the co'le.t.
and when I had no need of
it, could close it and carry it
under my arm.
I cannot say that after
this, for five years, any extra-
ordinary thing happened to




me, but I lived on in the same course, in the same posture and
place, just as before; the chief things I was employed in, besides
my yearly labour of planting my barley and rice, and curing my
raisins, of both which I always kept up just enough to have suffi-
cient stock of one year's provisions beforehand. I say, besides this
yearly labour, and my daily labour of going out with my gun, I
had one labour to make me a canoe, which at last I finished. So
that by digging a canal to it of six foot wide, and four foot deep,
I brought it into the creek, almost half a mile.
Though my little periagua was finished, yet the size of it was
not at all answerable to the design which I had in view, when I
made the first; I mean, of venturing over to the terra firma, where
it was about forty miles broad; accordingly, the smallness of my
boat assisted to put an end to that design, and now I thought no
more of it. But as I had a boat, my next design was to make a
tour round the island; for as I had been on the other side, in one
place, crossing as I have already described it, over the land; so
the discoveries I made in that little journey, made me very eager
to see other parts of the coast; and now I had a boat, I thought
of nothing but sailing round the island.
For this purpose, that I might do everything with discretion
and consideration, I fitted up a little mast to my boat, and made a
sail to it, out of some of the pieces of the ship's sail, which lay in
store; and of which I had a great stock by me.
Having fitted my mast and sail, and tried the boat, I found
she would sail very well. Then I made little lockers, or boxes,
at either end of my boat, to put provisions, necessaries and ammu-
nition, etc., into, to be kept dry, either from rain, or the spray of
the sea; and a little long hollow place I cut in the inside of the
boat, where I could lay my gun, making a flap to hang down over
it to keep it dry.
I fixed my umbrella also in a step at the stern, like a mast, to
stand over my head, and keep the heat of the sun off of me like an
awning; and thus I every now and then took a little voyage upon
the sea, but never went far out, nor far from the little creek; but at
last being eager to view the circumference of my little kingdom, I


resolved upon my tour, and accordingly I victualled my ship for
the voyage, putting in two dozen of my loaves (cakes I should
rather call them) of barley bread, an earthen pot full of parched
rice, a food I ate a great deal of, a little bottle of rum, half a goat,


and powder and shot for killing more, and two large watch-coats,
of those which, as I mentioned before, I had saved out of the sea-
men's chests; these I took, one to lie upon, and the other to cover
me in the night.


It was in the sixth year of my reign, or my captivity, which
you please, that I set out on this voyage, and I found it much
longer than I expected; for though the island itself was not very
large, yet when I came to the east side of it, I found a great ledge
of rocks lie out above two leagues into the sea, some above water,
some under it; and beyond that, a shoal of sand, lying dry half a
league more; so that I was obliged to go a great way out to sea to
double the point.
The third day in the morning, the wind having abated over
night, the sea was calm, and I ventured; but I am a warning piece
again, to all rash and ignorant pilots; for no sooner was I come to
the point, when even I was not my boat's length from the shore,
but I found myself in a great depth of water, and a current like the
sluice of a mill. It carried my boat along with it with such vio-
lence, that all I could do, could not keep her so much as on the
edge of it; but I found it hurried me farther and farther out from
the eddy, which was on my left hand.
However, I worked hard, till indeed my strength was almost
exhausted, and kept my boat as much to the northward, that is, to-
wards the side of the current which the eddy lay on, as possibly I
could ; when about noon, as the sun passed the meridian, I thought
I felt a little breeze of wind in my face, springing up from the
S.S.E. This cheered my heart a little, and especially when in
about half an hour more, it blew a pretty small gentle gale. By
this time I was gotten at a frightful distance from the island, and
had the least cloud or hazy weather intervened, I had been undone
another way too; for I had no compass on board, and should never
have known how to have steered towards the island, if I had but
once lost sight of it; but the weather continuing clear, I applied
myself to get up my mast again, spread my sail, standing away to
the north, as much as possible, to get out of the current.
When I was on shore I fell on my knees and gave God thanks
for my deliverancce, resolving to lay aside all thoughts of my
deliverance by my boat. I refreshed myself with such things as I
had, and having stowed my boat very safe, I went on. shore to look
about me and see where I was.


I began my march: the way was comfortable enough after such a
voyage as I had been upon, and I reached my old bower in the even-
ing, where I found everything standing as I left it; for I always



.z~ -c

-t~- -~ -

_--_ ._: _ -,- a


kept it in good order, being, as I said before, my country house.
I got over the fence, and laid me down in the shade to rest my
limbs; for I was very weary, and fell asleep : but judge you, if you
can, that read my story, what a surprise I must be in, when I was


waked out of my sleep by a voice calling me by my name several
times, Robin, Robin, Robin Crusoe, poor Robin Crusoe! where
are you, Robin Crusoe? Where are you? Where have you been ?
I was so dead asleep at first, being fatigued with rowing, or
paddling, as it is called, the first part of the day, and with walking
the latter part, that I did not wake thoroughly, but dozing between
sleeping and waking, thought I dreamed that somebody spoke to
me; but as the voice continued to repeat Robin Crusoe, Robin
Crusoe, at last I began to wake more perfectly, and was at first
dreadfully frighted, and started up in the utmost consternation;
but no sooner were my eyes open, but I saw my Poll sitting on the
top of the hedge; and immediately knew that it was he that spoke
to me; for just in such bemoaning language I had used to talk to
him, and teach him; and he had learned it so perfectly, that he
would sit upon my finger, and lay his bill close to my face, and
cry, Poor Robin Crusoe, where are you? Where have you been ?
How come you here ?-and such things as I had taught him.
Being now in the eleventh year of my residence, and my am-
munition growing low, I set myself to study some art to trap and
snare the goats, to see whether I could not catch some of them
alive, and particularly I wanted a she-goat great with young.
To this purpose I made snares to hamper them, and I do believe
they were more than once taken in them, but my tackle was not
good, for I had no wire, and I always found them broken, and my
bait devoured.
At length I resolved to try a pitfall, so I dug several large pits
in the earth, in places where I had observed the goats used to feed,
and over these pits I placed hurdles of my own making too, with a
great weight upon them; and several times I put ears of barley,
and dry rice, without setting the trap, and I could easily perceive
that the goats had gone in and eaten up the corn, for I could see
the marks of their feet. At length I set three traps in one night,
and going the next morning I found them all standing, and yet the
bait eaten and gone. This was very discouraging. However, I
altered my trap, and, not to trouble you with particulars, going one


morning to see my trap, I found in one of them a large old he-goat,
and in one of the other, three kids, a male and two females.
As to the old one, I knew not what to do with him, he was so
fierce I durst not go into the pit to him; that is to say, to go
about to bring him away alive, which was what I wanted. So I let
him out, and he ran awvay as if he had been frighted out of his
wits. Then I went to the three kids, and taking them one by one,
I tied them with strings together, and with some difficulty brought
them all home.
It was a good while before they would feed, but throwing them
some sweet corn, it tempted them and they began to be tame; and
now I found that if I expected to supply myself with goat's-flesh
when I had no powder or shot left, breeding some up tame was my
only way, when perhaps I might have them about my house like a
flock of sheep.
But then it presently occurred to me, that I must keep the tame
from the wild, or else they would always run wild when they grew
up, and the only way for this was to have some enclosed piece of
ground, well fenced either with hedge or pale, to keep them in so
effectually, that those within might not break out, or those without
break in.
I pitched upon a plain open piece of meadow-land or savanna,
which had two or three little rills of fresh water in it, and at one
end was very woody.
I was about three months hedging it in, and till I had done it
I tethered the three kids in the best part of it, and used them to
feed as near me as possible to make them familiar; and very often
I would go and carry them some ears of barley, or a handful of rice,
and feed them out of my hand; so that after my enclosure was
finished, and I let them loose, they would follow me up and down,
bleating after me for a handful of corn.
This answered my end, and in about a year and a half I had a
fiock of about twelve goats, kids and all; and in two years more I
had three-and-forty, besides several that I took and killed for my
food. And after that I enclosed five several pieces of ground to


feed them in, with little pens to drive them into, to take them as I
wanted, and gates out of one piece of ground into another.
But this was not all, for now I not only had goat's-flesh to feed
on when I pleased, but milk too, a thing which indeed in my begin-


ning I did not so much as think of, and which, when it came into
my thoughts, was really an agreeable surprise. For now I set up
my dairy, and had sometimes a gallon or two of milk in a day.
And as nature, who gives supplies of food to every creature, dictates


even naturally how to make use of it; so I that had never milked a
cow, much less a goat, or seen butter or cheese made, very readily
and handily, though after a great many essays and miscarriages,
made me both butter and cheese at last, and never wanted it after-
How like a king I dined all alone, attended by my servants !
Poll, as if he had been my favourite, was the only person permitted
to talk to me. My dog who was now grown very old and crazy,
and had found no species to multiply his kind upon, sat always at
my right hand, and two cats, one on one side the table, and one
on the other, expecting now and then a bit from my hand as a
mark of special favour.
It happened one day about noon, going towards my boat, I
was exceedingly surprised with the print of a man's naked foot on
the shore, which was very plain to be seen in the sand. I stood
like one thunderstruck, or as if I had seen an apparition; I listened,
I looked round me, I could hear nothing, nor see anything; I went
up to a rising ground to look farther, I went up the shore and down
the shore, but it was all one, I could see no other impression but
that one, I went to it again to see if there were any more, and to
observe if it might not be my fancy; but there was no room for that,
for there was exactly the very print of a foot, toes, heel, and every
part of a foot; how it came thither, I knew not, nor could in the
least imagine. But after innumerable fluttering thoughts, like a man
perfectly confused and out of myself, I came home to my fortifica-
tion, not feeling, as we say, the ground I went on, but terrified to
the last degree, looking behind me at every two or three steps, mis-
taking every bush and tree, and fancying every stump at a distance
to be a man; nor it is possible to describe how many various shapes
affrighted imagination represented things to me in, how many wild
ideas were found every moment in my fancy, and what strange un-
accountable whimsies came into my thoughts by the way.
When I came into my castle, for so I think I called it ever
after this, I fled into it like one pursued; whether I went over by
the ladder as first contrived, or went in at the hole in the rock,
which I called a door, I cannot remember; no, nor could I remem-


ber the next morning; for never frighted hare fled to cover, or fox
to earth, with more terror of mind than I to this retreat.
How strange a chequer-work of Providence is the life of man !
and by what secret differing springs are the affections hurried about
as differing circumstances present! To-day we love what to-morrow
we hate; to-day we seek what to-morrow we shun; to-day we desire
what to-morrow we fear; nay, even tremble at the apprehensions
of; this was exemplified in me at this time in the most lively man-
ner imaginable: that I should now tremble at the very apprehen-
sions of seeing a man, and was ready to sink into the ground at but
the shadow or silent appearance of a man's having set his foot in the
In the middle of the cogitations, apprehensions and reflections,
it came into my thought one day, that all this might be a mere
chimera of my own; and that this foot might be the print of my,
own foot, when I came on shore from my boat; this cheered me
up a little too, and I began to persuade myself it was all a delusion.
Now I began to take courage, and to peep abroad again; for I
had not stirred out of my castle for three days and nights ; so that
I began to starve for provisions ; for I had little or nothing within
doors, but some barley cakes and water. Then I knew that my
goats wanted to be milked too, which usually was my evening diver-
sion ; and the poor creatures were in great pain and inconvenience
for want of it; and indeed, it almost spoiled some of them, and
almost dried up their milk.
Heartening myself therefore with the belief that this was nothing
but the print of one of my own feet, and so I might be truly said to
start at my own shadow, I began to go abroad again, and went to my
country house, to milk my flock; but to see with what fear I went
forward, how often I looked behind me, how I was ready every now
and then to lay down my basket, and run for my life, it would have
made anyone have thought I was haunted with an evil conscience,
or that I had been lately most terribly frighted, and so indeed I had.
Now I began sorely to repent that I had dug my cave so large,
as to bring a door through again, which door, as I said, came out
beyond where my fortification joined to the rock; upon maturely






considering this therefore, I resolved to draw me a second fortifica-
tion, in the same manner of a semicircle, at a distance from my
wall, just where I had planted a double row of trees, about twelve
years before, of which I made mention: these trees having been
planted so thick before, they wanted but a few piles to be driven
between them, that they should be thicker, and stronger, and my
wall would be soon finished.
So that I had now a double wall, and my outer wall was thickened
with pieces of timber, old cables, and everything I could think of,
to make it strong; having in it seven little holes, about as big as I
might put my arm out at. In the inside of this, I thickened my
wall to above ten foot thick; with continual bringing earth out of
my cave, and laying it at the foot of the wall, and walking upon
it; and through the seven holes, I contrived to plant the muskets,
of which I took notice, that I got seven on shore out of the ship;
these, I say, I planted like my cannon, and fitted them into frames
that held them like a carriage, that so I could fire all the seven
guns in two minutes' time. This wall I was many a weary month a
finishing, and yet never thought myself safe till it was done.
When this was done, I stuck all the ground without my wall, for
a great way every way, as full with stakes or sticks of the osier-like
wood, which I found so apt to grow, as they could well stand; inso-
much, that I believe I might set in near twenty thousand of them,
leaving a pretty large space between them and my wall, that I might
have room to see an enemy, and they might have no shelter from
the young trees, if they attempted to approach my outer wall.
Thus in two years' time I had a thick grove, and in five or six
years' time I had a wood before my dwelling, growing so mon-
strous thick and strong, that it was indeed perfectly impassable;
and no men of what kind soever, would ever imagine that there
was anything beyond it, much less a habitation. As for the way
which I proposed to myself to go in and out, for I left no avenue,
it was by setting two ladders ; one to a part of the rock which was
low, and then broke in, and left room to place another ladder upon
that; so when the two ladders were taken down, no man living

e- ~?




could come down to me without mischieving himself; and if they
had come down, they were still on the outside of my outer wall.
Thus I took all the measures human prudence could suggest for
my own preservation; and it will be seen at length, that they were
not altogether without just reason ; though I foresaw nothing at that
time, more than my mere fear suggested to me.


While this was doing, I was not altogether careless of my other
affairs; for I had a great concern upon me, for my little herd of
goats: they were not only a present supply to me upon every occa-
sion, and began to be sufficient to me, without the expense of pow-
der and shot; but also without the fatigue of hunting after the wild
ones, and I was loth to lose the advantage of them, and to have all
to nurse up over again.


To this purpose, after long consideration, I could think of but
two ways to preserve them; one was to find another convenient
place to dig a cave under ground, and to drive them into it every
night; and the other was to enclose two or three little bits of land,
remote from one another and as much concealed as I could, where
I might keep about half a dozen young goats in each place. So
that if any disaster happened to the flock in general, I might be
able to raise them again with little trouble and time. And this,
though it would require a great deal of time and labour, I thought
was the most rational design.
Accordingly I spent some time to find out the most retired
parts of the island; and I pitched upon one which was as private
indeed as my heart could wish for; it was a little damp piece of
ground in the middle of the hollow and thick woods, where, as is
observed, I almost lost myself once before, endeavouring to come
back that way from the eastern part of the island. Here I found
a clear piece of land near three acres, so surrounded with woods,
that it was almost an enclosure by nature, at least it did not want
near so much labour to make it so, as the other pieces of ground I
had worked so hard at.
I immediately went to work with this piece of ground, and in
less than a month's time, I had so fenced it round, that my flock
or herd, call it which you please, who were not so wild now as at
first they might be supposed to be, were well enough secured in it.
So without any further delay, I removed ten young she-goats and
two he-goats to this piece; and when they were there, I continued
to perfect the fence till I had made it as secure as the other, which,
however, I did at more leisure, and it took me up more time by a
great deal.
After I had thus secured one part of my little living stock, I
went about the whole island, searching for another private place, to
make such another deposit; when wandering more to the west point
of the island than I had ever done yet, and looking out to sea, I
thought I saw a boat upon the sea, at a great distance; I had found
a perspective-glass, or two, in one of the seamen's chests, which I
saved out of our ship; but I had it not about me, and this was so


remote, that I could not tell what to make of it; though I looked
at it till my eyes were not able to hold to look any longer ; whether
it was a boat, or not, I do not know; but as I descended from the
hill I could see no more of it, so I gave it over; only I resolved to
go no more out without a perspective-glass in my pocket.
When I was come down the hill, to the end of the island,


where indeed I had never been before, I was presently convinced
that the print of a man's foot was not such a strange thing in the
island as I imagined; and but that it was a special providence that
I was cast upon the side of the island, where the savages never came.
I should easily have known, that nothing was more frequent than
for the canoes from the main, when they happened to be a little too


far out at sea, to shoot over to that side of the island for harbour;
likewise as they often met, and fought in their canoes, the victors
having taken any prisoners, would bring them over to this shore,
where according to their dreadful customs, being all cannibals, they
would kill and eat them; of which hereafter.
When I was come down the hill, to the shore, as I said above,
being the S. W. point of the island, I was perfectly confounded and
amazed; nor is it possible for me to express the horror of my mind,
at seeing the shore spread with skulls, hands, feet, and other bones
of human bodies ; and particularly I observed a place where there
had been a fire made, and a. circle dug in the earth, like a cockpit,
where it is supposed the savage wretches had sat down to their in-
human feastings upon the bodies of their fellow-creatures.
I was so astonished with the sight of these things, that I enter-
tained no notions of any danger to myself from it for a long while;
all my apprehensions were buried in the thoughts of such a pitch
of inhuman, hellish brutality, and the horror of the degeneracy of
human nature; which though I had heard of often, yet I never had
so near a view of before; in short, I turned away my face from the
horrid spectacle; my stomach grew sick, and I was just at the point
of fainting, so I gat me up the hill again, with all the speed I could,
and walked on towards my own habitation.
Time, however, and the satisfaction I had, that I was in no
danger of being discovered by these people, began to wear off my
uneasiness about them : and I began to live just in the same com-
posed manner as before; only with this difference, that I used more
caution, and kept my eyes more about me than I did before, lest I
should happen to be seen by any of them.
Particularly I was more cautious of firing my gun, lest any of
them being on the island, should happen to hear of it; and it was
therefore a very good providence to me, that I had furnished my-
self with a tame breed of goats, that I needed not hunt any more
about the woods, or shoot at them; and if I did catch any of them
after this, it was by traps and snares, as I had done before.
For two years after this, I believe I never fired my gun once
off, though I never went out without it; and .which was more, as I


had saved three pistols out of the ship, I always carried them out
with me, or at least two of them, sticking them in my goat-skin
belt; also I furbished up one of the great cutlasses, that I had out
of the ship, and made me a belt to put it on also.
I believe the reader of this will not think it strange if I confess
that these anxieties, these constant dangers I lived in, and the con-
cern that was now upon me, put an end to all invention, and to all
the contrivances that I had laid for my future accommodations and
conveniences. I had the care of my safety more now upon my
hands, than that of my food. I cared not to drive a nail, or chop
a stick of wood now, for fear the noise I should make should be
heard; much less would I fire a gun, for the same reason; and
above all, I was intolerably uneasy at making any fire, lest the
smoke which is visible at a great distance in the day should betray
me; and for this reason I removed that part of my business which
required fire, such as burning of pots, and pipes, etc., into my new
apartment in the woods.
I was afraid of making a smoke about my habitation, as I said
before; and yet I could not live there without baking my bread,
cooking my meat, etc., so I contrived to burn some wood, as I had
seen done in England, under turf, until it became chark, or dry
coal; and then putting the fire out, I preserved the coal to carry
home, and perform the other services which fire was wanting for at
home, without danger of smoke.
While I was cutting down some wood here, I perceived that
behind a very thick branch of low brushwood, or underwood, there
was a kind of hollow place; I was curious to look into it, and get-
ting with difficulty into the mouth of it, I found it was pretty large ;
that is to say, sufficient for me to stand upright in it, and perhaps
another with me; but I must confess to you, I made more haste
out than I did in, when looking farther into the place, and which
was perfectly dark, I saw two broad shining eyes of some creature,
which twinkled like two stars, the dim light from the cave's mouth
shining directly in and making the reflection.
However, after some pause, I recovered myself, and plucking
up courage, I took up a great firebrand, and in I rushed again, with


the stick flaming in my hand; I had not
Gone three steps in, but I was almost as
' .' much rnILht-ed a. I ,as before; for I heard
*i. a a er\ Ik.,d ih, like that of a man in
-ne [:pair. :and it was followed by a
SI.rke-n ri,, c, as if of words half ex-
.r-sd, and then a deep sigh
.' ..r, I stepped back, and was
i ,I:-, truck with such a sur-
*prise, that it put me
into a cold sweat;
and if I had had a
657 .. hat on my head, I
will not answer for
S it that my hair might
-not have lifted it off.
S But still plucking up
t (i Vmy spirits as well as
S ~I could, and encour-
aging myself a little
with considering
that the power and
presence of God was
everywhere, and was
able to protect me;
upon this I stepped
.... forward again, and
j' by the light of the
. '.. firebrand, holding it
up a little over my
head, I saw lying on
the ground a most
monstrous frightful
old he-goat, just
making his will, as
I STIRRED HIM A LITTr." we say, and gasping


for life, and dying indeed of mere old age. I stirred him a little
to see if I could get him out, and he essayed to get up, but was
not able to raise himself; and I thought with myself, he might even
lie there; for if he had frighted me so, he would certainly fright
any of the savages, if any of them should be so hardy as to come
in there, while he had any life in him.
I was now recovered from my surprise, and began to look
round me, when I found the cave was but very small, that is to say,
it might be about twelve foot over, but in no manner of shape,
either round or square, no hands ever having been employed in mak-
ing it, but those of mere nature; I observed also, that there was a
place at the farther side of it, that went in farther, but was so low,
that it required me to creep upon my hands and knees to go into
it, and whither I went I knew not; so having no candle, I gave it
over for some time; but resolved to come again the next day, pro-
vided with candles, and a tinder-box, which I had made of the
lock of one of the muskets, with some wildfire in the pan.
Accordingly, the next day I came provided with six large can-
dles of my own making; for I made very good candles now of
goat's tallow; and going into this low place, I was obliged to creep
upon all fours, as I have said, almost ten yards; which, by the
way, I thought was a venture bold enough, considering that I knew
not how far it might go, or what was beyond it. When I was got
through the strait, I found the roof rose higher up, I believe near
twenty feet; but never was such a glorious sight seen in the island,
I dare say, as it was, to look round the sides and roof of this vault
or cave. The walls reflected an hundred thousand lights to me
from my two candles. What it was in the rock, whether diamonds,
or any other precious stones, or gold, which I rather supposed it to
be, I knew not.
The place I was in was a most delightful cavity, or grotto, of
its kind, as could be expected, though perfectly dark; the floor
was dry and level, and had a sort of small loose gravel upon it, so
that there was no nauseous or venomous creature to be seen,
neither was there any damp or wet on the sides of the roof.
The only difficulty in it was the entrance, which however, as it


was a place of security, and such a retreat as I wanted, I thought
that was a convenience; so that I was really rejoiced at the dis-
covery, and resolved without any delay, to bring some of those
things which I was most anxious about, to this place; particularly,
I resolved to bring hither my magazine of powder, and all my spare
arms, viz., two fowling-pieces, for I had three in all ; and three
muskets, for of them I had eight in all; so I kept at my castle only
five, which stood ready mounted like pieces of cannon, on my out-
most fence; and were ready also to take out upon any expedition.
It was now the month of December, in my twenty-third year;
and this being the southern solstice, for winter I cannot call it, was
the particular time of my harvest, and required my being pretty
much abroad in the fields, when going out pretty early in the
morning, even before it was thorough daylight, I was surprised with
seeing a light of some fire upon the shore, at a distance from me, of
about two mile towards the end of the island, where I had observed
some savages had been as before; but not on the other side; but to
my great affliction, it was on my side of the island.
I was indeed terribly surprised at the sight, and stepped short
within my grove, not daring to go out, least I might be surprised ;
and yet I had no more peace within, from the apprehensions I had,
that if these savages in rambling over the island, should find my
corn standing, or cut, or any of my works and improvements, they
would immediately conclude, that there were people in the place,
and would then never give over till they had found me out. In
this extremity I went back directly to my castle, pulled up the
ladder after me, and made all things without look as wild and
natural as I could.
Then I prepared myself within, putting myself in a posture of
defence; I loaded all my cannon, as I called them; that is to say,
my muskets, which were mounted upon my new fortification, and all
my pistols, and resolved to defend myself to ,the last gasp, not for-
getting seriously to commend myself to the Divine protection, and
earnestly to pray to God to deliver me out of the hands of the bar-
barians; and in this posture I continued about two hours; but

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