Citation
Life and strange surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe

Material Information

Title:
Life and strange surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe : of York, mariner, as related by himself
Creator:
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731 ( Author, Primary )
Paget, Walter ( Illustrator )
McLoughlin Bros., inc ( Publisher )
Place of Publication:
New York
Publisher:
McLoughlin Brothers
Manufacturer:
Cassell and Company, electroptypers
Language:
English
Physical Description:
viii, 416 p., [12] leaves of plates : ill. ; 24 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Castaways -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1864 ( rbgenr )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Genre:
Imaginary voyages ( local )
Spatial Coverage:
United States--New York--New York

Notes

General Note:
"By arrangement with Messrs. Cassell and Company ... the illustrations ... have been printed from electrotypes from the original wood engravings."--Publisher's note.
General Note:
Lovett does not list this reissue by McLoughlin of the text originally published in 1891 by Cassell & Co. This issue has the publishers's note in place of the publisher's emblem on the verso of the t.p. Cf. Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe, 727.
General Note:
Front. is included in pagination.
General Note:
Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe. Part II originally published under title: Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Daniel Defoe ; with one hundred and twenty original illustrations by Walter Paget

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
SN01270 ( LCCN )
4660125 ( OCLC )
001825738 ( aleph )

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Full Text
COPY RIGHT 1897 BY

“os Joderuiy,
Rha

‘ NewYorrm















THE
‘LIFE AND ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE.























“THIS WAS GAME INDEED.”

(See p. 2c.)



The Life and Strange
Ss Oe Adventures of
ROBINSON CRUSOE,

Oi Vork Mariner, as Related
by Himself. |

BY

DaNIEL DEFOE,



With One Hundred and Twenty Original Illustrations by
WALTER PAGET.



McLOUGHEIN BROTHERS,

New-York.



PUBLISHERS’ NOTE.
By arrangement with Messrs. Cassell and Company,
London, the illustrations to this edition of ‘‘ Robinson
Crusoe”? have been printed from electrotypes from the

original wood engravings.





PAGE

“THIS WAS GAME INDEED” . : ; . . : : . (Frontispiece)
HEADPIECE . . : : . . : : : ; : 7 wd
“*you’RE BUT A FRESH-WATER SAILOK’” . — . : : ts 2 25
“WE WALKED ON FOOT TO YARMOUTH” ; : es : . » 8
“SURPRISED IN THE GRAY OF THE MORNING” . : . ° : . 12
“T PROVED VERY DEXTEROUS” . . . : : oo. ° « I3
“*Tr yOU COME NEAR THE BOAT, ’LL SHOOT you’” . ; : é . 16
“WE FILLED OUR JARS” : 7 : ; ; : . : 7 - 17
“] BOUGHT ME A NEGRO SLAVE” . ; : . : . : i 2
“LOOKING OVER THE CHARTS”. : ~ a . , ; : . 28
“WE HASTENED OUR DESTRUCTION WITH OUR OWN HANDS” . . . 29
“T WAS NOW LANDED” . . : : : : . ; : . 32
“SHOES THAT WERE NOT FELLOWS” . ; : : ; : : . 33
“] ESPIED A SMALL PIECE OF ROPE” . : ‘ : : : to face 33
“TY PELL FAST ASLEEP” : ; ; oo. : . : . . 36
“A CONFUSED SCREAMING AND CRYING” : . . : . : . 40
“THE KID FOLLOWED ME” . : ; : : : ; . : » 45
“T WANTED NOTHING THAT HE COULD FETCH ME” : : Loe . 48
“THEY ALL FACED ABOUT UPON THE DOG”. |. : : . : - 52
“A KIND OF WILD PIGEONS” : : ‘ . : 2 : . 53
“T WAS SURPRISED AND. PERFECTLY ASTONISHED” . a . - 56
“GRINDING MY TOOLS” . . . . . . : ; : - 587
“T CAUGHT A YOUNG DOLPHIN” . : ‘ ; j : . . . 60
“A LARGE TORTOISE, OR TURTLE” . . : ; : ; : . 61

“BROILED IT ON THE COALS” A : ; 7 * : : : . 65



vi ROBINSON CRUSOE.

PAGE
“T WENT UP THE CREEK FIRST” . : . . . : ° : . 69
“T SOWED MY GRAIN” . . : : wad it 8 : 72

I DESCENDED A LITTLE ON. ‘THE SIDE OF THAT DELICIOUS VALLEY e to face 72

“I KNOCKED IT DOWN WITH A STICK” - . i . . : be 99
“AN INFINITE NUMBER OF FOWLS” ; . : : . : : . 80
“] FIRED AGAIN” : : : : : ‘ : : : : . 84
“] HANGED THEM IN CHAINS”. . . : : : : . . 85
“WHAT ODD, MISSHAPEN, UGLY THINGS I MADE” . : ; . . 89
“T RESOLVED TO DIG INTO THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH”. * : . - 93
“J MADE ME-A SUIT OF CLOTHES” . : . . : . : . 97
“T BROUGHT IT INTO THE CREEK” ; ‘ : : : . : . 100
“] FELL ON MY KNEES” fis ; . : : : : : . 105
“HOW LIKE A KING I DINED”. . . . : . . : . 109
“1 sTOOD LIKE ONE THUNDERSTRUCK” 3 : ‘ . ; to face 112
“JT HAD MY COUNTRY SEAT” ; : . : é . . . 093
‘““My EVENING DIVERSION” 117
“4 PLACE WHERE THERE HAD BEEN A FIRE MADE”. : : : . 120
“TO SEE IF I COULD OBSERVE ANY BOATS” : : ; : . . 124
“7 STIRRED HIM A LITTLE” . : . : : : ! : . 128
‘, LIGHT OF SOME FIRE UPON THE SHORE” . : : : : . 132
“THE CORPSE OF A DROWNED BOY”. ; : ; : : . . 137
“DBEGAN TO EXAMINE THE PARTICULARS”. } : : : : . 140
“DANCING ROUND THE FIRE” . . : : . . . oT
“T WAS THEN OBLIGED TO SHOOT” : . : : : : to face 145
“aT ONE BLOW CUT OFF HIS HEAD” . : : : : : ‘ . 148
“T PRESENTED MY PIECE” . : . . . . . . . . 153
“{ ENTERED INTO A LONG DISCOURSE” — . . . : . ; . 157
“UPON SEEING THIS ROAT, FRIDAY STOOD MUSING A GREAT WHILE”. . 161
“INCH BY INCH UPON GREAT ROLLERS” 164
“IN THIS POSTURE WE MARCHED OUT” eee : : = 7-4 , 168
“] FIRED AGAIN AMONG THE AMAZED WRETCHES ” . : : : . 169
“1 MADE DIRECTLY TOWARDS ‘THE POOR VICTIM” 5 : : lo face 169
“WRINGING MY SWORD OUT OF HIS HAND” —_. : . é 7 . 173
“My EYE PLAINLY DISCOVERED A SHIP LYING AT AN ANCHOR”. . 0. 177
“WHAT ARE YE, GENTLEMEN? ’” : . es : ‘ 2 2 e0 RSI
“THEY BEGGED FOR MERCY” : : ; : : : : é . 184
“HE MADE ROBINSON HAIL THEM” ; : ; . : ‘ : . 192

“sHoT THE NEW CAPTAIN THROUGH THE HEAD” . ; to face 192



LIST: OF I1,LUSTRATIONS.

“7 SHOWED THEM ‘THE NEW CAPTAIN HANGING AT THE YARD-ARM OF THE SHIP”

“UPON THIS HE PULLS OUT AN- OLD POUCH”
“mvO OF THE WOLVES FLEW UPON THE GUIDE”. .

“*wHatT, YOU NO COME FARTHER?’” . ; :

“THEY CAME ON US WITH A GROWLING KIND OF A NOISE”-

Part HK.

“T FARMED UPON MY OWN LAND” ; , : 3
“I~ WAS ALL TO NO PURPOSE” . : ; : i
“THE SHIP BLEW UP” , : . ; . : :
“THE MATE BROUGHT SIX MEN WITH HIM” . . ‘

ey FOUND THE POOR MEN ON BOARD ALMOST IN A TUMULT

”

“T CAME FAIR ON THE SOUTH SIDE OF MY ISLAND
“po you NOT KNOW ME ?’”

“BADE THEM STAND OFF”

“WITH ONE BLOW OF HIS FIST KNOCKED HIM DOWN”
“THEY CAME UP IN A VERY SUBMISSIVE, HUMBLE MANNER”
“THEY WERE SURPRISED WITH SEEING A LIGHT”

“INDIANS JUST COMING ON SHORE”. . : .
“PLACED HIMSELF BETWEEN HIM AND THE SAVAGE”
“THREE STRANGE MEN COMING TOWARDS HIM”. .
“DREW LOTS AMONG THEM”.

”

“THREE SAVAGES LEFT BEHIND, AND LYING FAST ASLEEP

“ALL THEIR HUTS AND HOUSEHOLD STUFF FLAMING UP TOGETHER

“CAME RANGING ALONG THE SHORE” . : : .
“DISPATCHED THESE POOR CREATURES” ‘ . :
“ATE THEIR PROVISIONS VERY THANKFULLY ”

“IN THIS GREAT BEE-HIVE LIVED THE THREE FAMILIES”
“WE MADE A SPLENDID FEAST”

“MADE EVERY ONE A LIGHT COAT”. . . :
“WE WALKED ON” : i ; ‘
“MADE ME A VERY LOW BOW”. . . : :
“THEY ALL CAME TO ME”, : : : . :
“ATKINS AND HIS TAWNY WIFE” . . . ; i
“WE CALLED HIM IN ALONE”

“MADE HER KNEEL BY HIM”

°

”

to fuce

to face

to face

vil
PAGE

197
201

205
209

212

257
261

2604
272
277

280

288

321



viii ROBINSON CRUSOE.

“WE MARRIED THEM THE-SAME DAY”

“| HAVE BROUGHT YOU AN ASSISTANT” : .
“GAVE THEM SUCH A BROADSIDE” . :
“GIVING THEM A SALUTE OF FIVE GUNS”, :
“KILLED POOR FRIDAY” : : . : 3
“WE GAVE THEM A VOLLEY” : : tees
“THE COW WENT ON BEFORE THEM” . : :
“HE SHOWED ME THE POOR FELLOW HANGING” .
“COMES TO ME ONE DAY AN ENGLISHMAN” . .
“COULD SEE THE BOATS AT A DISTANCE” . :
“THEY HAULED HER SAIL” . foe .
“WELL DONE, JACK! GIVE THEM SOME MORE OF IT
“A BOAT CAME OFF” . ;
“BROUGHT ABUNDANCE OF THINGS TO SELL”

“WE CAME TO ME WITH ONE OF THE MISSIONARY PRIESTS”

“aS SOON AS THEY SAW US, ONE OF THEM BLEW A KIND OF

“ KILLED THE SECOND WITH. HIS PISTOL”

“TWO OF THEM SEIZED THE FELLOW AND TOOK THE CAMEL”

“SENT THREE MESSENGERS TO US”
“BROUGHT US IN FINE VENISON”
TAILPIECE —. : cy ‘ ° ’ .



299

HORN

”

369
372

394
403
407
416





~ ROBINSON CRUSOE.

WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good family, though not
of that country, my father being a foreigner, of Bremen, who settled first at
Hull: he got a good estate by merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived

afterwards at York; from whence he had married my mother, whose relations were
named Robinson, a very good family in that country, and from whom I was called
Robinson Kreutznaer; but, by the usual corruption of words in England, we are now
called, nay, we call ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe; and so my companions
always called me. -

I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel to an English
regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded by the famous Colonel Lockhart,
and was killed at the battle near Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What became of
my second brother I never knew, any more than my father or mother did know what
was become of me.

Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade, my head began to be
filled very early with rambling thoughts: my father, who was very ancient, had given
me a competent share of learning, as far as house-education and a country free-school
generally goes, and designed me for the law; but I would be satisfied with nothing
but going to sea; and my inclination to this led me so strongly against the will, nay,
the commands, of my father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of my
mother and other friends, that there seemed to be something fatal in that propension
of nature, tending directly to the life of misery which was to befall me.

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent counsel against
what he foresaw was my design. He called me one morning into his chamber, where
he was confined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with me upon this subject :
he asked me what reasons, more than a mere wandering inclination, I had for leaving



2 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

my father’s house and my native country, where I might be well introduced, and had
a prospect of raising my fortune by application and industry, with a life of ease and
pleasure. He told me it was men of desperate fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring,
superior fortunes on the other, who went abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise
and make themselves famous in undertakings of a nature out of the common road;
that these things were all either too far above me or too far below me; that mine was
the middle state, or what might be called the upper station of low life, which he had
found by long experience was the best state in the world, the most suited. to human
happiness, not exposed to the miseries and hardships, the labor and sufferings of the
mechanic part of mankind, and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and
envy of the upper part of mankind. He told me, I might judge of the happiness of
this state by this one thing, viz., that this was the state of life which all other people
envied; that kings have frequently lamented the miserable consequence of being born
to great things, and wished they had been placed in the middle of the two extremes,
between the mean and the great; that the wise man gave his testimony to this, as the
just standard of true felicity, when he prayed to have neither poverty nor riches.

He bade me observe it, and I should always find, that the calamities of life were
shared among the upper and lower part of mankind; but that the middle station
had the fewest disasters, and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes as the higher
or lower part of mankind; nay, they were not subjected to so many distempers and
uneasiness, either of body or mind, as those were who, by vicious living, luxury, and
extravagances on one hand, or by hard labor, want of necessaries, and mean or
insufficient diet on the other hand, bring distempers upon themselves by the natural
consequences of their way of living; that the middle station of life was calculated for
all kind of virtues and all kind of enjoyments; that peace and plenty were the hand-
maids of a middle fortune; that temperance, moderation, quietness, health, society, all
agreeable diversions, and all desirable pleasures, were the blessings attending the
middle station of life; that this way men went silently and smoothly through the
world, and comfortably out of it, not embarrassed with the labors of the hands or of
the head, not sold to a life of slavery for daily bread, nor harassed with perplexed
circumstances, which rob the soul of peace, and the body of rest; nor enraged with
the passion of envy, or the secret burning lust of ambition for great things; but, in
easy circumstances, sliding gently through the world, and sensibly tasting the sweets
of living, without the bitter; feeling that they are happy, and learning by every day’s
experience to know it more sensibly.

After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate manner, not to
play the young man, nor to precipitate myself into miseries which nature, and the
station of life I was born in, seemed to have provided against; that I was under no
necessity of seeking my bread; that he would do well for me, and endeavor to
enter me fairly into the station of life which he had just been recommending to me;
and that if I was not very easy and happy in the world, it must be my mere fate or
fault that must hinder it; and that he should have nothing to answer for, having thus
discharged his duty in warning me against measures which he knew would be to my
hurt; in a word, that as he would do very kind things for me, if I would stay and



My FATHER’S ADVICE. 3

settle at home as he directed, so he would not have so much hand in my misfortunes
as to give me any encouragement to go away; and to close all, he told me I had my
elder brother for an example, to whom he had used the same earnest persuasions to
keep him from going into the Low Country wars, but could not prevail, his young
desires prompting him to run into the army, where he was killed; and though he said
he would not cease to pray for me, yet he would venture to say to me, that if I did
take this foolish step, God would not bless me, and I should have leisure hereafter to
reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there might be none to assist in my
recovery.

I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly prophetic, though I
suppose my father did not know it to be so himself—I say, I observed the tears run
down his face very plentifully, especially when he spoke of my brother who was
killed; and that when he spoke of my having leisure to repent, and none to assist me,
he was so moved that he broke off the discourse, and told me his heart was so full
he could say no more to me.

I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed who could be otherwise?
and I resolved not to think of going abroad any more, but to settle at home
according to my father’s desire. But, alas! a few days wore it all off; and, in short,
to prevent any of my father’s further importunities, in a few weeks after I resolved to
run quite away from him. However, I did not act quite so hastily neither as the first
heat of my resolution prompted, but I took my mother at a time when I thought her a
little more pleasant than ordinary, and told her that my thoughts were so entirely bent
upon seeing the world, that I should never settle to anything with resolution enough
to go through with it, and my father had better give me his consent than force me to
go without it; that I was now eighteen years old, which was too late to go apprentice
to a trade, or clerk to an attorney; that I was sure, if I did, I should never serve out
my time, but I should certainly run away from my master before my time was out, and
go to sea; and if she would speak to my father to let me go one voyage abroad, if I
came home again, and did not like it, I would go no more, and I would promise, by a
double diligence, to recover the time that I had lost.

This put my mother into a great passion; she told me she knew it would be to no
purpose to speak to my father upon any such subject; that he knew too well what
was my interest to give his consent to anything so much for my hurt; and that she
wondered how I could think of any such thing after the discourse I had had with my
father, and such kind and tender expressions as she knew my father had used to me;
and that, in short, if I would ruin myself, there was no help for me; but I might
depend I should never have their consent to it; that for her part, she would not have
so much hand in my destruction; and I should never have it to say that my mother
was willing when my father was not.

Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet I heard afterwards that she
reported all the discourse to him, and that my father, after showing a great concern
at it, said to her with a sigh: ‘That boy might be happy if he would stay at home;
but if he goes abroad, he will be the most miserable wretch that ever was born; I
can give no consent to it.”



4 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose, though, in the mean-
time, I continued obstinately deaf to all proposals of settling to business, and fre-
quently expostulated with my father and mother about their being so positively
determined against what they knew my inclinations prompted me to. But being one
day at Hull, whither I went casually, and without any purpose of making an elope-
ment at that time—but I say, being there, and one of my companions being going by
sea to London in his father’s ship, and prompting me to go with them, with the common
allurement of a sea-faring man, that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I con-
sulted neither father nor mother any more, nor so much as sent them word of it; but
leaving them to hear of it as they might, without asking God’s blessing, or my father’s,
without any consideration of circumstances or consequences, and in an ill hour, God
knows, on the rst of September, 1651, I went on board a ship bound for London.
Never any young adventurer’s misfortunes, I believe, began sooner or continued
longer than mine. The ship was no sooner got out of the Humber than the wind
began to blow, and the sea to rise, in a most frightful manner; and, as I had never
been at sea before, I was most inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified in mind. I
began now seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and how justly I was overtaken
by the judgment of Heaven for my wicked leaving my father’s house, and abandoning
my duty. All the good counsels of my parents, my father’s tears and my mother’s
entreaties, came now fresh into my mind; and my conscience, which was not yet
come-to the pitch of hardness-to which it has come since, reproached me with the
contempt of advice, and the breach of my duty to God and my father.

All this while the storm increased, and the sea went very high, though nothing
like what I have seen many times since; no, nor what I saw a few days after; but it
was enough to affect me then, who was but a young sailor, and had never known
anything of the matter. JI expected every wave would have swallowed us up, and that
every time the ship fell down, as I thought it did, in the trough or hollow of the sea,
we should never rise more: ‘in this agony of mind I made many vows and resolutions,
that if it would please God to spare my life in this one voyage, if ever I got once my
foot upon dry land again, I would go directly home to my father, and never set it
into a ship again while I lived; that I would take his advice, and never run myself
into such miseries as these any more. Now I saw plainly the goodness of his
observations about the middle station of life, how easy, how comfortable he had lived
all his days, and never had been exposed to tempests at sea, or troubles on shore;
and, in short, I resolved that I would, like a true repenting prodigal, go home
to my father.

These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm lasted, and
indeed some time after; but the next day the wind was abated, and the sea calmer,
and I began to be a little inured to it: however, I was very grave for all that day,
being also a little sea-sick still; but towards night the weather:cleared up, the wind
was quite over, and a charming fine evening followed; the sun went down perfectly
clear, and rose so the next morning; and having little or no wind, and a smooth sea,
the sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most delightful that ever I saw.

I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick, but very cheerful,



AFTER THE STORM. 5

looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough and terrible the day before, and
could be so calm and so pleasant in so little a time after. And now, lest my good
resolutions should continue, my companion who had enticed me away comes to me.



“oe

YOU’RE BUT A FRESH-WATER SAILOR’” (jf. 6).

“Well, Bob,” says he, clapping me upon the shoulder, “how do you do after it?

I warrant you were frighted, wer’n’t you, last night, when it blew but a capful of
wind? ”

“A capful d’you call it?” said I; “’twas a terrible storm.”

“A storm; you fool, you!” replies he; “do you call that a storm? why, it was
nothing at all; give us but a good ship and sea-room, and we think nothing of such a



6 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

squall of wind as that; but you're but a fresh-water sailor, Bob. Come, let us make a
bowl of punch, and we’ll forget all that; d’ye see what charming weather ’tis now?”

To make short this sad part of my story, we went the way of all sailors; the punch
was made, and I was made half drunk with it; and in that one night’s wickedness I
drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon my past conduct, all my resolutions
for the future. In a word, as the sea was returned to its smoothness of surface and
settled calmness by the abatement of that storm, so the hurry of my thoughts being
over, my fears and apprehensions of being swallowed up by the sea being forgotten,
and the current of my former desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises
that I made in my distress. J found, indeed, some intervals of reflection; and the
serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavor to return again sometimes; but I shook
them off, and roused myself from them as it were from a distemper, and applying
myself to drinking and company, soon mastered the return of those fits, for so I called
them; and I had, in five or six days, got as complete a victory over my conscience as
any young fellow that resolved not to be troubled with it could desire. But I was to
have another trial for it still; and Providence, as in such cases generally it does,
resolved to leave me entirely without excuse; for if I would not take this for a
deliverance, the next was to be such a one as the worst and most hardened wretch
among us would confess both the danger and the mercy.

The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads; the wind having
been contrary, and the weather calm, we had made but little way since the storm.
Here we were obliged to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing
contrary, viz., at south-west, for seven or eight days, during which time a great many
ships from Newcastle came into the same Roads, as the common harbor where the
ships might wait. for a wind for the river.

We had not, however, rid here so long but we should have tided it up the river,
but that the wind blew-too fresh, and, after we had lain four or five days, blew very
hard. However, the Roads being reckoned as good as an harbor, the anchorage
good, and our ground-tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned, and not in the
least apprehensive of danger, but spent the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of
the sea; but the eighth day, in the morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands
at work to strike our top-masts, and make everything snug and close, that the ship
might ride as easy as possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship
rode forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought once or twice our anchor had
come home; upon which our master ordered out the sheet-anchor, so that we rode
with two anchors ahead, and the cables veered out to the better end.

By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began to see terror and
amazement in the faces even of the seamen themselves. The master, though vigilant
in the business of preserving the ship, yet as he went in and out of his cabin by me,
I could hear him softly to himself say, several times, “ Lord, be merciful to us! we
shall be all lost! we shall be all undone!” and the like. During these first hurries I:
was stupid, lying still in my cabin, which was in the steerage, and cannot describe my
temper. I could ill resume the first penitence, which I had so apparently trampled
upon, and hardened myself against: I thought the bitterness of death had been past,



THE STORM IN VARMOUTIT ROADS. 7

and that this would be nothing too, like the first; but when the master himself came
by me, as I said just now, and said we should be all lost, I was dreadfully frighted. ~ I
got up out of my cabin, and looked out; but such a dismal sight I never saw; the
sea ran mountains high, and broke upon us every three or four minutes. When
I could look about, I could see nothing but distress round us; two ships that rode near
us, we found, had cut their’ masts by the board, being deep-laden; and our men cried
out that a ship which rode about a mile ahead of us was foundered. Two more ships,
being driven from their anchors, were run out of the Roads to sea, at all adventures,
and that not with a mast standing. ‘The light ships fared the best, as not so much
laboring in the sea; but two or three of them drove, and came close by us, running
away with only their spritsail out before the wind.

Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master of our ship to let them
cut away the foremast, which he was very unwilling to do; but the boatswain
protesting to him that if he did not the ship would founder, he consented; and when
they had cut away the foremast, the mainmast stood so loose, and shook the ship so
much, they were obliged to cut that away also, and make a clear deck.

And one must judge what a condition I must be in at all this, who was but a young
sailor, and who had been in such a fright before at but a little. But if I can express
at this distance the thoughts I had about me at that time, I was in tenfold more horror
of mind upon account of my former convictions, and the having returned from them to
the resolutions I had wickedly taken at first, than I was at death itself; and these,
added to the terror of the storm, put me into such a condition, that I can by no words
describe it. But the worst was not come yet; the storm continued with such fury,
that the seamen themselves acknowledged they had never seen a worse. We hada
good ship, but she was deep-laden, and wallowed in the sea, so that the seamen every
now and then cried out she would founder. It was my advantage, in one respect,
that I did not know what they meant by founder, till J inquired. However, the storm
was so violent that I saw, what is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some
others more sensible than the rest, at their prayers, and expecting every moment when
the ship would go to the bottom. In the middle of the night, and under all the rest of
our distresses, one of the men that had been down to see, cried out we had sprung a
leak ; another said there was four feet water in the hold. Then all hands were called
to the pump. At that word, my heart, as I thought, died within me; and I fell back-
wards upon the side of my bed, where I sat, into the cabin. However, the men
roused me, and told me that I, that was able to do nothing before, was as well able
to pump as another; at which I stirred up, and went to the pump, and worked very
heartily. While this was doing, the master seeing some light colliers who, not
able to ride out the storm, were obliged to slip and run away to the sea, and would
come near us, ordered to fire a gun as a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing what
they meant, thought the ship had broken, or some dreadful thing happened. Ina
word, I was so surprised that I fell down in a swoon. As this was a time when every-
body had his own life to think of, nobody minded me, or what was become of me;
but another man stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot, let me
lie, thinking I had been dead; and it was a great ‘while before I came to myself.



8. ROBINSON CRUSOE.

We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it was apparent that the ship
would founder; and though the storm began to abate a little, yet as 1t was not possible
she could swim till we might run into any port, so the master continued firing guns for
help; and a light ship, who had rid it out just ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help



‘‘'WE WALKED ON FOOT TO
YARMOUTH” (f. 9).

us. It was with the utmost hazard the boat came near us; but it was impossible for
us to get on board or for the boat to lie near the ship’s.side, till at last the men rowing
very heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope over the
stern with a buoy to it, and then veered it out a great length, which they, after much
labor and hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them close under our stern, and got all
into their boat. It was to no purpose for them or us, after we were in the boat, to



My OBSTINACY. 9

think of reaching to their own ship; so all agreed to let her drive, and only to pull her
in towards shore as much as we could; and our master promised them that if the
boat was staved upon shore, he would make it good to their master: so partly rowing,
and partly driving, our boat went away to the northward, sloping towards the shore
almost as far as Winterton Ness.

We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our ship till we saw her
sink, and then I understood for the first time what was meant by a ship foundering in
the sea. I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up when the seamen told me
she was sinking; for from the moment that they rather put me into the boat, than
that I might be said to go in, my heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly with
fright, partly with horror of mind, and the thoughts of what was yet before me.

While we were in this condition, the men yet laboring at the oar to bring the
boat near the shore, we could see (when, our boat mounting the waves, we were
able to see the shore) a great many people running along the strand, to assist us
when we should come near; but we made but slow way towards the shore; nor were
we able to reach the shore till, being past the lighthouse at Winterton, the shore
falls off to the westward, towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a little the violence
of the wind. Here we got in, and, though not without much difficulty, got all safe on
shore, and walked afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were
used with great humanity, as well by the magistrates of the town, who assigned us good
quarters, as by particular merchants and owners of ships, and had money given us
sufficient to carry us either to London or back to Hull, as we thought fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and have gone home, I had
been happy, and my father, an emblem of our blessed Saviour’s parable, had even
killed the fatted calf for me; for nearing the ship I went away in was cast away in
Yarmouth Roads, it was a great while before he had any assurances that I was not
drowned.

But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that nothing could resist ; and
though I had several times loud calls from my reason, and my more composed
judgment, to go home, yet I had no power to do it. I know not what to call this,
nor will I urge that it is a secret overruling decree that hurries us on to be the
instruments of our own destruction, even though it be before us, and that we rush
upon it with our eyes open. Certainly, nothing but some such decreed unavoidable
misery attending, and which it was impossible for me to escape, could have pushed me
forward against the calm reasonings and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and
against two such visible obstructions as I had met with in my first attempt.

My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who was the master’s
son, was now less forward than I. The first time he spoke to me after we were at
Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days, for we were separated in the town to
several quarters—I say, the first time he saw me, it appeared his tone was altered;
and looking very melancholy, and shaking his head, he asked me how I did, and
telling his father who I was, and how I had come this voyage only for a trial, in order
to go farther abroad: his father turning to me with a very grave and concerned tone,
“Young man,” says he, “ you ought never to go to sea any more; you ought to take



10 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

this for a plain and visible token that you are not to be a sea-faring man.” ‘ Why,
sir,” said I, “will you go to sea no more?” ‘That is another case,” said he; ‘‘it is
my calling, and therefore my duty; but as you made this voyage for a trial, you see
what a taste Heaven has given you of what you are to expect if you persist. Perhaps
this has all befallen us on your account, like Jonah in the ship of ‘Tarshish. Pray,”
continues he, “what are you; and on what account did you go to sea?” Upon that
I told him some of my story; at the end of which he burst out into a strange kind of
passion: ‘What had I done,” says he, ‘that such an unhappy wretch should come
into my ship? I would not set my foot in the same ship with- thee again for a
thousand pounds.” ‘This indeed was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits, which were
yet agitated by the sense of his loss, and was farther than he could have authority to
go. However, he afterwards talked very gravely to me, exhorting me to go back to
my father, and not tempt Providence to my ruin; telling me I might see a visible hand
of Heaven against me. “And, young man,” said he, “depend upon it, if you do not
go back, wherever you go, you will meet with aeline but disasters and disappoint:
ments, till your father’s words are fulfilled upon you.”

We parted soon after, for I made him little answer, and I saw him no more; which
way he went Iknownot. As for me, having some money in my pocket, I traveled to
London by land; and there, as well as on the road, had many struggles with myself
what course of life I should take, and whether I should go home or go to sea.

As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered to my thoughts ;
and it immediately occurred to me how I should be laughed at among the neighbors,
and should be ashamed to see, not my father and mother only, but even everybody
else; from whence I have often since observed how incongruous and irrational the
common temper of mankind is, especially of youth, to that, reason which ought to
guide them in such cases, viz., that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed
to repent; not ashamed of the action for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools,
but are ashamed of the returning which only can make them be esteemed wise men.

In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain what measures to
take, and what course of life to lead. An irresistible reluctance continued to going
home; and as I stayed“awhile, the remembrance of the distress I had been in wore
off; and as that abated, the little motion I had in my desires to a return wore off with
it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.

That evil influence which carried me first away from my father’s house, which
hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of raising my fortune; and that
impressed those conceits so forcibly upon me, as to make me deaf to all good advice,
and to the entreaties and even the commands of my father—I say, the same influence,
whatever it was, presented the most unfortunate of all enterprises to my view; and I
went on board a vessel bound to the coast of Africa; or, as our sailors vulgarly call
it, a voyage to Guinea.”

* Guinea.—A district of that part of the West Coast of Africa where the land runs nearly due
east and west. The six countries into which it is divided are known to sailors under the names
of Sierra Leone, Grain Coast, Ivory Coast, Gold Coast, S!ave Coast, and Benin.



A VOVAGE TO GUINEA. II

It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I did not ship myself as a
sailor; when, though I might indeed have worked a little harder than ordinary, yet at
the same time I should have learned the duty and office of a foremast man, and in time
might have qualified myself for a mate or lieutenant, if not for a master. But as it
was always my fate to choose for the worst, so I did here; for having money in my
pocket, and good clothes upon. my back, I would always go on board in the habit of a
gentleman; and so I neither had any business in the ship nor learned to do any.

It was my lot first of all to-fall into pretty. good company in London, which does
not always happen to such loose and misguided young fellows as I then was; the devil
generally not omitting to lay some snare for them very early; but it was not so with
me. I first got acquainted with the master of a ship who had been on the coast of
Guinea; and who, having had very good success there, was resolved to go again; this
captain taking a fancy to my conversation, which was not at all disagreeable at that
time, hearing me say I had a mind to see the world, told me if I would go the voyage
with him, I should be at no expense; I should be his messmate and his companion;
and if I could carry anything with me, I should have all the advantage of it that the
trade would admit; and perhaps I might meet with some encouragement.

I embraced the offer; and entering into a strict friendship with this captain, who
was an honest, plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with him, and carried a small
adventure with me, which, by the disinterested honesty of my friend the captain, I
increased very considerably ; for I carried about £40 in such toys and trifles as the
captain directed me to buy. This £40 I had mustered together by the assistance of
some of my relations whom I corresponded with, and who, I believe, got my father, or
at least my mother, to contribute so.much as that to my first adventure.

This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in all my adventures, and
which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my friend the captain ; under whom also I
got a competent knowledge of the mathematics and the rules of navigation, learned
how to keep an account of the ship’s course, take an observation, and, in short, to
understand some things that were needful to be understood by a sailor; for, as he
took delight to instruct me, I took delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage made
me both a sailor and a merchant; for I brought home five pounds nine ounces of
gold-dust for my adventure, which yielded me in London, at my return, almost
#300; and this filled me with'those aspiring thoughts which have since so completed
my ruin.

Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too; particularly, that I was con-
tinually sick, being thrown into a violent calenture by the excessive heat of the climate;
our principal trading being upon the coast, from the latitude of fifteen degrees north,
even to the line itself.

I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my great misfortune,
dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage again, and I embarked
in the same vessel with one who was his mate in the former voyage, and had now got
the command of the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage that ever man made; for
though I did not carry quite £100 of my new-gained wealth, so that I had £200 left
which I had lodged with my friend’s widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell into



ROBINSON CRUSOE.

fe
wo



““SURPRISED IN THE GRAY OF THE
MORNING.”



terrible misfortunes in this voyage; and the first was this, viz., our ship making her
course towards the Canary Islands, or rather between those islands and the African
shore, was surprised in the gray of the morning by a Moorish rover of Sallee, who gave
chase to us with all the sail she could make. We crowded also as much canvas as our
yards would spread, or our masts carry, to have got clear; but finding the pirate
gained upon us, and would certainly come up with us in a few hours, we prepared to
fight; our ship having twelve guns, and the rogue eighteen. About three in the
afternoon he came up with us, and bringing-to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter,
instead of athwart our stern as he intended, we brought eight of our guns to bear on
that side, and poured in a broadside upon him, which made him sheer off again, after
returning our fire, and pouring in also his small shot from near two hundred men
which he had on board. However, we had not a man touched, all our men keeping
close. He prepared to attack-us again, and we to defend ourselves; but laying us on
board the next time upon our other quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks,
who immediately fell to cutting and hacking the sails and rigging. We plied them
with small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and such like, and cleared our deck of them
twice. However, to cut short this melancholy part of our story, our ship being
disabled, and three of our men killed, and eight wounded, we were obliged to yield,
and were carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I apprehended; nor was
I carried up the country to the Emperor’s court, as the rest of our men were, but was
kept by the captain of the rover as his proper prize, and made his slave, being young



PRISONER AT SALLEE. 13

and nimble, and fit for his business. At this surprising change of my circumstances
from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed ; and now I looked
back upon my father’s prophetic discourse to me, that I should be miserable and have
none to relieve me; which J thought was now so effectually brought to pass, that I
could not be worse; for now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and-I was un-
done without redemption. But, alas! this was but a taste of the misery I was to go
through, as will appear in the sequel of this story.

As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house, so I was in hopes
that he would take me with him when he went to sea again, believing that it would some
time or. other be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portuguese man-of-war; and
that then I should be set. at liberty. But this hope of mine was soon taken away ;
for when he went to sea, he left me on shore to look after his little garden, and do
the common drudgery of slaves about his house; and when he came home again from
his cruise, he ordered me to lie in the cabin to look after the ship.

Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I might take to
effect it; but found no way that had the least probability in it; nothing presented
to make the supposition of it rational; for I had nobody to communicate it to that
would embark with me; no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or Scotsman there
but myself; so that for two years, though I often pleased myself with the imagination,
yet I never had the least encouraging prospect of putting it in practice.

After. about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself, which put the old
thought of making some attempt for my liberty again in my head. My patron lying .
at home longer than usual without |
fitting out his ship, which, as I
heard, was for want of money, he
used constantly, once or twice a
week, sometimes oftener, if the
weather was fair, to take. the
ship’s pinnace, and go out into
the road a-fishing; and as he
always took me and a young
Moresco with him to row the boat,
we made him very merry; and I
proved very dexterous in catching
fish; insomuch. that sometimes he
would send me with a Moor, one

of his kinsmen, and the youth, the
Moresco, as they called him, to 2
catch a dish of fish for him. Ae

It happened one time that,
going a-fishing with him in a calm.
morning, a fog rose so thick, that
though we were not half a league
trom the shore, we lost sight of “T PROVED VERY DEXTEROUS.”





14 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

it; and rowing we knew not whither or which way, we labored all day, and all the
next night; and when the morning came, we found we had pulled out to sea instead
of pulling in for the shore; and that we were at least two leagues from the land.
However, we got well in again, though with 4 great deal of labor, and some danger ;
for the wind began to blow picay {fresh in the morning; but particularly we were all
very hungry.

But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more care of himself
for the future; and having lying by him the long-boat of our English ship which he
had taken, he resolved he would not go a-fishing any more without a compass and
some provision; so he ordered the carpenter of his ship, who also was an English
slave, to build a little state-room, or cabin, in the middle of the long-boat, like that of
a barge, with a place to stand behind it to steer, and haul home the main-sheet; and
room before for a.hand or two to stand and work the sails. She sailed with what we
call a shoulder-of-mutton sail; and the boom jibbed over the top of the cabin, which
lay very snug and low, and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a
table to eat on, with some small lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor as he
thought fit to drink; and particularly his bread, rice, and coffee.

We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing; and as I was most dexterous to
catch fish for him, he never went without me. It happened that he had appointed
to go out in this boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors of
some distinction in that place, and for whom he had provided extraordinarily, and had
therefore sent on board the boat over-night a larger store of provisions than usual;
and had ordered me to get ready three fusils * with powder and shot, which were on
board his ship, for that they designed some sport of fowling as well as fishing.

I got all things ready as he had directed; and waited the next morning with
the boat washed clean, her ancient t and pendants out, and everything to accommo-
date his guests; when by and by my patron came on board alone, and told me his
guests had put off going, from some business that fell out, and ordered me, with
the man and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat and catch them some fish; for
that his friends were to sup at his house; he commanded me, too, that as soon as I had
got some fish, I should bring it home to his house: all which I prepared to do.

This moment, my former notions of deliverance darted into my thoughts, for now
I found I was likely to have a little ship at my command; and my master being gone,
I prepared to furnish myself, not for fishing business, but for a voyage; though I knew
not, neither did Iso much as consider, whither I would steer; for anywhere to get
out of that place was my desire. : .

My first contrivance was to make a pretense to speak to this Moor, to get something
for our subsistence on board; for I told him we must not presume to eat of our
patron’s bread. He said, that was true; so he brought a large basket of rusk or
biscuit of their kind, and three jars with fresh water, into the boat. I knew where my
patron’s case of bottles stood, which it was evident, by the make, were taken out of

* Fusil, a French word, meaning a light musket or firelock.
t Ancient, the old word, derived from the French exseiyne, for a flag, or the man who carries it.



My ESCAPE. 15

some English prize, and I conveyed them into the boat while the Moor was on
shore, as if they had been there before for our master. I conveyed also a great lump of
beeswax into the boat, which weighed about half an hundredweight, with a parcel of
‘twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all of which were of great use to
us afterwards, especially the wax to make candles. Another trick I tried upon him
which he innocently came into also: his name was Ismael, which they call Muley,
or Moely; so I called to him: “ Moely,” said I, “ our patron’s guns are all on board
the boat; can you not get a little powder and shot? It may be we may kill some
alcamies” (a fowl like our curlews) “for ourselves, for I know he keeps the gunner’s
stores in the ship.” “Yes,” says he, “I'll bring some: ” accordingly, he brought a
great leather pouch, which held about a pound and a half of powder, or rather more;
‘and another with shot, that had five or six pounds, with some builets, and put all into
the boat. At the same time, I had found some powder of my master’s in the great
cabin, with which I filled one of the large bottles in the case, which was almost empty,
‘pouring what was in it into another; and thus furnished with everything needful, we
sailed out of the port to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of the port, knew
who we were, and took no notice of us; and we were not above a mile out of the
port before we hauled in our sail, and sat us down to fish. The wind blew from the
N.N.E., which was contrary to my desire; for had it blown southerly, I had been sure
to have made the coast of Spain, and at least reached to the bay of Cadiz; but my
resolutions were, blow which way it would, I would be gone from that horrid place
where I was, and leave the rest to fate..

After we had fished. some time and caught nothing, for when I had fish on my
hook I would not pull them up, that he might not see them, I said to the Moor,
“This will not. do; our master will not be thus served; we must stand farther off.”
He, thinking no harm, agreed, and, being in the head of the boat, set the sails; and,
as I had the helm, I ran the boat out near a league farther, and then brought her to
as if I would fish; when, giving the boy the helm, I stepped forward to where the
Moor was, and making as if I stooped for something behind him, I took him by
surprise with my arm under his waist, and tossed him clear overboard into the sea.
: He rose immediately, for he swam like a cork, and called to me, begged to be taken
in, telling me he would go all over the world with me. He swam so strong after the
boat, that he would have-reached me very quickly, there being but little wind; upon
which I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented it
at him, and-told him ‘I had done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I would do
him none: “But,” said I, “ you swim well enough to reach the shore, and the sea is
‘calm; make the best of your way to shore, and I will do you no harm; but if you
‘come near the boat, I'll shoot you through the head, for I am resolved to have my
liberty.” So he turned himself about, and swam for the shore, and I make no doubt
-but he reached it with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.

I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me, and have drowned
the boy, but there was no venturing to trust him. When he was gone, I turned to the
boy, whom they called Xury, and said to him, “ Xury, if you will be faithful to me, I’ll
make youa great man; but if you will not stroke your face to be true to me” (that is,

























































































































































































































































«


Wir XURY IN THE BOAT. 17

swear by Mahomet and his father’s beard), “I must throw you into the sea too.” The
boy smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently, that I could not mistrust him, and
swore to be faithful to me, and go all over the world with me.

While-I was in the view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood out directly to
sea, with the boat rather stretching to windward, that they might think me gone.



“WE FILLED OUR JARS” (jf. 19).

towards the Straits’ * mouth (as indeed any one that had been in their wits must have
been supposed to do): for who would have supposed we were sailing on to the
southward, to the truly barbarian coast, where whole nations of negroes were sure to
surround us with their canoes, and destroy us; where we could never once go on

shore but we should be devoured by savage beasts, or mere merciless savages of
human kind? a
* Straits, the Straits of Gibraltar.



18 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my course, and steered
directly south and by east, bending my course a little towards the east, that I might
keep in with the shore; and having a fair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth, quiet
sea, I made such sail that I believe by the next day at three o’clock in the afternoon,
when I first made the land, I could not be less than one hundred and fifty miles
south of Sallee: quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions, or indeed of
any other king thereabouts, for we saw no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the dreadful apprehensions
I had of falling into their hands, that I would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an
anchor, the wind continuing fair, till I had sailed in that manner five days; and then,
the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also that if any of our vessels were
in chase of me, they also would now give over; so I ventured to make to the coast,
and came to an anchor in the mouth ofa little river, I knew not what nor where;
neither what latitude, what country, what nation, or what river. I neither saw nor
desired to see any people; the principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came
into this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark,
and discover the country; but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful
noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures, of we knew not what
kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and begged of me not to go
on shore till day. “Well, Xury,” said I, “then I won’t; but it may be we may
see men by day, who will be as bad to us as those lions.” “ ‘Then we give them
the shoot-gun,” says Xury, laughing, “make them run wey.” Such English Xury
spoke by conversing among us slaves. However, I was glad to see the boy so
cheerful, and I gave him a dram (out of our patron’s case of bottles) to cheer him up.
After all, Xury’s advice was good, and I took it: we dropped our little anchor,
and lay still all night: I say still, for we slept none; for in two or three hours we
saw vast great creatures (we knew not what to call them), of many sorts, come
down to the sea-shore, and run into the water, wallowing and washing themselves
for the pleasure of cooling themselves; and they made such hideous howlings and
yellings that I never indeed heard the like.

Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but we were both more
frighted when we heard one mighty creature.come swimming towards our boat; we
could not see him, but we might hear him by his blowing to be a monstrous, huge,
and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion, and it might be so for aught I know;
but poor Xury cried to me to weigh the anchor and row away. “No,” says I, “ Xury,
we can slip our cable, with the buoy to it, and go to sea; they cannot follow us far.”
I had no sooner said- so but I perceived the creature, whatever it was, within two
oars’ length, which something surprised me; however, I immediately stepped to the
cabin-door, and taking up my gun, fired at him; upon which he immediately turned
about, and swam towards the shore again.

But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises and hideous cries and howlings
that were raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as higher within the country,
upon the noise or report of a gun, a thing I have some reason to believe those
creatures had never heard before. ‘This convinced me that there was no going on



We VENTURE ON S/IORE. 19

shore for us in the night upon that coast; and how to venture on shore in the day was
another question too; for to have fallen into the hands of any of the savages, had
been as bad as to have fallen into the paws of lions and tigers; at least we were
equally apprehensive of the danger of it.

Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere or other for water,
for we had not a pint left in the boat; when or where to get it was the point. Xury
said, if I would let him go on shore with one of the jars, he would find ir there was
any water, and bring some to me. I asked him why he would go? why I should not
go, and he stay in the boat? The boy answered with so much affection, that made
me love him ever after. Says he, “If wild mans come, they eat me, you go wey.”
“Well, Xury,” said I, “we will both go, and if the wild mans come, we will kill them,
they shall eat neither of us.” So I gave Xury a piece of rusk-bread to eat, and a dram
out of our patron’s case of bottles which I mentioned before; and we hauled the boat
in as near the shore as we thought was proper, and waded on shore, carrying nothing
Lut our arms, and two jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming of canoes with
savages down the river; but the boy, seeing a low place about a mile up the country,
rambled to it, and by and by I saw him come running towards me. I thought he was
pursued by some savage, or frighted with some wild beast, and I ran forward towards
him to help him; but when I came nearer to him, I saw something hanging over his
shoulders, which was a creature that he had shot, like a hare, but different in color,
and longer legs; however, we were very glad of it, and it was very good meat; but
the great joy that poor Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good water, and
seen no wild mans.

But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for water, for a little
higher up the creek where we were, we found the water fresh when the tide was out,
which flows but a little way up; so we filled our jars, and feasted on the hare we had
killed, and prepared to go on our way, having seen no footsteps of any human creature
in that part of the country.

As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very well that the Islands of
the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd Islands also, lay not far off from the coast. But
as I had no instruments to take an observation to know what latitude we were in, and
did not exactly know, or at least not remember, what latitude they were in, I knew not
where to look for them, or when to stand off to sea towards them; otherwise I might
now easily have found some of these islands. But my hope was that if I stood along
this coast till I came to that part where the English traded, I should find some of their
vessels upon their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take us in.

By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was must be that country
which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions and the negroes, lies waste
and uninhabited, except by wild beasts; the negroes having abandoned it, and gone
farther south, for fear of the Moors; and the Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting,
by reason of its barrenness; and indeed both forsaking it because of the prodigious
numbers of tigers, lions, leopards, and other furious creatures which harbor there; so
that the Moors use it for their hunting only, where they go like an army, two or three



20 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

thousand men at a time: and, indeed, for near a hundred miles together upon this
coast, we saw nothing but a waste uninhabited country by day, and heard nothing but
howlings and roarings of wild beasts by night.

Once or twice in the day-time, I thought I saw the Pico of Teneriffe, being the
high top of the mountain Teneriffe in the Canaries; and had a great mind to venture
out, in hopes of reaching thither; but having failed twice, I was forced in again by
contrary winds, the sea also going too high for my little vessel;'so I resolved to
pursue my first design, and keep along the shore.

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we had left this place;
and once in particular, being early in the morning, we came to an anchor under a little
point of land, which was pretty high; and the tide beginning to flow, we lay still to go
farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about him than it seems mine were, calls
softly to me, and tells me that we had best go farther off the shore; “for,” says he,
“look, yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fast asleep.” -I
looked where he pointed; and saw a dreadful monster indeed, for it was a terrible
great lion that lay on the side of the shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill that
hung as it were a little over him. “ Xury,” says I, “you shall go on sore and kill
him.” Xury looked frighted, and said, “Me kill! he eat me at one mouth;” one
mouthful he meant. However, I said no more to the boy, but bade him be still, and
took our biggest gun, which was almost musket-bore, and loaded it with a good charge
of powder, and with two slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded another gun with two
bullets; and the third (for we had three pieces) I loaded with five smaller bullets.
I took the best aim I could with the first piece to have shot him in the head, but he
lay so, with his leg raised a little above his nose, that the slugs hit his leg about the
knee, and broke the bone. He started up growling at first, but finding his leg broke,
fell down again; and then got up upon three legs, and gave the most hideous roar
that ever I heard. I was a little surprised that I had not hit him on the head;
however, I took up the second piece immediately, and though he began to move off,
fired again, and shot him in the head, and had the pleasure to see him drop; and
making but little noise, he lay struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and would
have me let him go onshore. “Well, go,” said I; so the boy jumped into the water,
and taking the little gun in one hand, swam to shore with the other hand, and coming
close to the creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him in the head
again, which dispatched him quite.

This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I sd very sorry to lose
three charges of powder and shot upon a creature that was good for nothing to us.
However, Xury said he would have some of him; so he comes on board, and asked
me to give him the hatchet. “For what, Xury?” said I. “Me cut off his head,”
said he. However, Xury could not cut off his head, but he cut off a foot, and brought
it with him, and it was a monstrous great one.

I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him might, one way or other,
be of some value to us; and I resolved to take off his skin if Icould. So Xury and I
went to work with him; but Xury was much the better workman at it, for I knew very
ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us up both the whole day, but at last we got off the



TRAFFIC WITH THE NEGROES. 21

hide of him, and spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in
two days’ time, and it afterwards served me to lie upon. ~-

After this stop, we made-on to the southward continually for ten or twelve: days,
living very sparingly on our provisions, which began to abate very much, and going no
oftener into the shore than we were obliged to for fresh water. My design in this was
to make the River Gambia or Senegal; that is to say, anywhere about the Cape de
‘Verd, where I was in hopes to meet with some European ship; and if I did not,
I knew not what course I had to take, but to seek for the islands, or perish there
among the negroes. I knew that all the ships from Europe, which sailed either to the
coast of Guinea or to Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this cape, or those islands ;
-and, in a word, I put the whole of my fortune upon this single point, either that I must
meet with some ship, or must perish. é

When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I have said, I began
to see that the land was inhabited; and in two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw
people stand upon the shore to look at's; we could also perceive they were quite
black, and stark naked. I was once inclined to have gone on shore to them; but
Xury was my better counselor, and said to me, ““No go, no go.” However, I hauled
in nearer the shore that I might talk to them, and I found they ran along the shore by
mea good way: I observed they had no weapons in their hands, except one, who had
a long slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they could throw them a
great way with good aim: so. I kept at a distance, but talked with them by signs as
well as I could; and particularly made signs for something to eat: they beckoned to
me. to stop my boat, and they would fetch me some meat. Upon this, I lowered the
top of my sail, and lay by, and two of them ran up into the country, and in less than
half an hour came back, and brought with them two pieces of dry flesh and some corn,
such as is: the produce of their country; but we neither knew what the one or the
other was: however, we were willing to accept it, but how to come at it was our next
dispute, for I would-not venture on shore to them, and they were as much afraid of us:
but they took a safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore and laid it down,
and went and Sigod: a great way off till we fetched it on board, and then came close
to us again. ze

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make them amends; but
an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige them wonderfully : for while we were
lying on the shore, came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took
it) with great fury from the mountains towards the sea; whether it was the male
pursuing the female, or whether they were in sport or in rage, we could not tell, any
more than-we could tell whether it was usual or strange: but I believe it was the
latter; because, in the first place, those ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the
night ; and, in the second place, we found the people terribly frighted, especially the
women. ‘The man that had the lance’or dart did not fly from them, but the rest did;
however, as the two creatures ran directly into the water, they did not offer to fall upon
any of the negroes, but plunged themselves into the sea, and swam about, as if they
had come for their diversion: at last one of them began to come nearer our boat than
at first I expected; but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with



22 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

all possible expedition, and bade Xury load both the others. ‘As soon as he came
fairly within my reach, I fired, and shot him directly in the head: immediately he
sank down into the water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and down, as‘if he was
struggling for life, and so indeed he was: he immediately made to the shore; but
between the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the water, he died
just before he reached the shore. ;

It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor creatures at the noise
and fire of my gun; some of them were ready even to die for fear, and fell down as
dead with the very terror. But when they saw the creature dead, and sunk into the
water, and that I made signs to them to come to the shore, they took heart and came
to the shore, and began to search for the creature. I found him by his blood staining
the water; and by the help of a rope, which I slung round him, and gave the negroes
to haul, they dragged him on shore, and found that it was a most curious leopard,
spotted, and fine to an admirable degree; and the negroes held up their hands with
admiration, to think what it was I killed him with.

‘The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the noise of the gun, swam to
the shore, and ran up directly to the mountains from whence they came; nor could I
at that distance know what it was. I found quickly the negroes were for eating the
flesh of this creature, so I was willing to have them take it as a favor from me;
which, when I made signs to them that they might take it, they were very thankful for.
Immediately they fell to work with him; and though they had no knife, yet, with a
sharpened piece of wood, they took off his skin as readily, and much more readily,
than we would have done with a knife. They offered me some of the flesh, which I
declined, making as if I would give it them; but made signs for the skin, which they
gave me very freely, and brought me a great deal more of their provision, which,
though I did not understand, yet I accepted. Then I made signs to them for some
water, and held out one of my jars to them, turning its bottom upward, to show that it
was empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They called immediately to some of
their friends, and there came two women, and brought a great vessel made of earth,
and burnt, as I suppose, in the sun; this they set down for me, as before, and I sent
Xury on shore with my jars and filled them all three. The women were as stark
naked as the men.

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and water; and leaving
my friendly negroes, I made forward for about eleven days more, without offering to
go near the shore, till I saw the land run out a great length into the sea, at about the
distance of four or five leagues before me; and the sea being very calm, I kept a large
offing to make this point. At length, doubling the point at about two leagues from the
land, I saw plainly land on the other side, to seaward: then I concluded, as it was
most certain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands called, from
thence, Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were ata great distance, and I could
not well tell what I had best do; for if I should be taken with a fresh gale of wind, I
might neither reach one nor other.

In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the cabin, and sat me down,
Xury having the helm; when, on a sudden, the boy cried out, “ Master, master, a ship



PICKED UP BY A PORTUGUESE SHIP. 23

with a sail!” and the foolish boy was frighted out of his wits, thinking it must needs
be some of his master’s ships sent to pursue us, when I knew we were gotten far
enough out of their reach. I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only
the ship, but that it was a Portuguese ship; and, as I thought, was bound to the coast
of Guinea, for negroes. But, when I observed the course she steered, I was soon
convinced they were bound some other way, and did not design to go any nearer the
shore: upon which I stretched out to the sea as much as I could, resolving to speak
with them if possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to come in their way,
but that they would be gone by before I could make any signal to them; but after I
had crowded to the utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems, saw me by the help
of their perspective glasses, and that it was some European boat, which they supposed
must belong to some ship that was lost; so they shortened sail to let me come up.
I was encouraged with this, and as I had my patron’s ancient on board, I made a waft
of it to them for a signal of distress, and fired a gun, both of which they saw; for they
told me they saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon these signals
they very kindly brought to, and lay by for me; and in about three hours’ time I came
up with them.

They asked me what i was, in. Portuguese, and in Spanish, and in French, but I
understood none of them; but at last a Scotch sailor, who was on board, called to me;
and I answered him, and told him I was an Englishman, that had made my escape out
of slavery from the Moors at Sallee; they then bade me come on board, and very
kindly took me in, and all my goods.

It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will believe, that I was thus
delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable and almost hopeless condition as I
was in; and I immediately offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a return for
my deliverance; but he generously told me, he would take nothing from me, but that
all I had should be delivered safe to me, when I came to the Brazils. ‘‘ For,” says he,
“T have saved your life on no other terms than as I would be glad to be saved myself ;
and it may; one time or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same condition.
Besides,” said he, “when I carry you to the Brazils, so great a way from your own
country, if I should take from you what you have, you will be starved there, and then
I only take away that life I have given. No, no,” says he; “Seignor Inglese” (Mr.
Englishman), “I will carry you thither in charity, and these things will help you to
buy your subsistence there, and your passage home again.”

As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the performance to a tittle ;
for he ordered the seamen that none should offer to touch anything I had: then he
took everything into his own possession, and gave me back an exact inventory of them,
that I might have them, even to my three earthen jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw, and told me, he would
buy it of me for the ship’s use; and asked me what I would have for it. I told him,
he had been so generous to me in everything, that I could not offer to make any price
of the boat, but left it entirely to him: upon which, he told me, he would give me a
note of his hand to pay me eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil; and when it came



24 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

there, if any one offered to give more, he would make it up. He offered me also sixty
pieces of eight more for my boy Xury, which I was loth to take; not that I was
unwilling to let the captain have him, but I was very loth to sell the poor boy’s liberty,
who had assisted me so faithfully in procuring my own. However, when I let him know
my reason, he owned it to be just, and offered me this medium, that he would give the
boy an obligation to set him free in ten years, if he turned Christian; upon this, and
Xury saying he. was willing to go to him, I let the captain have him.

We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived in the Bay de Todos los
Santos, or All Saints Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And now I was once more
delivered from the most miserable of all conditions of life; and what to do next with
myself I was to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never enough remember : the
would take nothing of me for my passage, gave me twenty ducats for the leopard’s
skin, and forty for the lion’s skin, which I .had in my boat, and caused everything I
had in the ship to be punctually delivered to me; and what I was willing to sell, he
bought of me: such as the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of
beeswax, for I had made candles of the rest: in a word, I made about two hundred
and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo; and with this stock, I went on shore.in the
Brazils. i
I had not been long here, but being pasoeamended to the house’ of a good, honest
man, like himself, who had an zmgenio, as they call it (that is, a plantation and.a sugar-
house), I lived with him some. time, and acquainted myself, by that means, with the
manner of their planting and making of sugar; and seeing how well the planters lived,
and how they got rich suddenly,-I resolved, if I.could get a license to settle there, I
would turn planter among them; resolving, in the-meantime, to find out some way to
get my money, which I had left in London, remitted tome. ‘To this purpose, getting
a kind of letter of naturalization, I purchased as much land that was uncured_as. my
money would reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and settlement; such a one
as might be suitable to the stock which I proposed to myself to receive from England.

I had a neighbor, a- Portuguese, of Lisbon, but. born of English parents, whose
name was Wells, and in much such. circumstances as I was. I call him neighbor,
because his plantation lay next to mine, and we went on very sociably. together. My.
stock was but.low, as well as his; and we rather planted for food than anything else,
for about two years. However, we began to increase,.and our land began to come
into order; so that the third year we planted some.tobacco, and made each of us a
large piece of ground ready for planting canes in the year.to come; but we both
wanted help; and now I found, more than before, I had done mE in parting with
my boy Xury. as

But, alas! for me to do wrong that never did right, was no baat ioledien 4 chad
no remedy but to go on: I had got into employment.quite remote to my genius and
directly contrary to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my father’s house,
and broke through all his good.advice; nay, I was coming into the very middle station,
or upper degree of low life, which my father advised me to before, and which, if I
resolved to go on with, I might as well have stayed at home, and never fatigued myself



IN. THE BRAZILS. 25
in the world, as I have done; -and I used often to say to myself, “ I could have done
this as-well in England, among my friends, as have gone five thousand miles off to do
it among strangers and savages, in-a wilderness, and. at such a distance as. never to
hear from any part of the world that had the least: knowledge of me.”

In this manner I used to look upon my condition with-the utmost regret.. I had-
nobody to converse with but now and then this neighbor; no work to be done
but by the labor of my
hands; and I used to say,
I lived just like a man
cast away upon some’ des-
olate island, that had no-
body there but himself.
But how just has it been;
and how should all men
reflect, that. when they
‘compare their presentcon |
ditions with others that.
are worse, Heaven may
oblige them to make the
exchange, and be con-
vinced of their former fe- -
licity by their-experience—
I say, how just has it been
that the truly solitary life
I reflected on, in an island,
or mere desolation, should
be my lot, who had so
often unjustly compared it-
with the life which I then
led, in which, had I con-
tinued, I had in all prob-
ability been exceedingly
prosperous and rich. .

I was, in some degree,
settled in my measures for
carrying on .the plantation
before my kind friend, the captain of the ship that took me up at sea, went back;
for the ship remained there, in providing her lading, and preparing for her voyage,
near three months; when, telling him what little stock I had left behind-me in
London, he gave me this friendly and sincere advice :—“ Seignor Inglese,” says he
(for so he always called me), “if you will give me letters, and a procuration here
in form to me, with orders to the person who has your money in London, to send
your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct, and in such goods as
are. proper for this country, I will bring you the produce of them, God willing, at



‘| BOUGHT ME A NEGRO SLAVE” (#. 26).



26 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

my return; but, since human affairs are all subject to changes and disasters, I would
have you give orders but for one hundred pounds sterling, which, you say, is half
your stock, and let the hazard be run fer the first; so that, if it come safe, you may
order the rest the same way; and if it miscarry, you may have the other half to have
recourse to for your supply.”

This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I could not but be
convinced it was the best course I could take; so I accordingly prepared letters to
the gentlewoman with whom I had left my money, and a procuration to the Portuguese
captain, as he desired.

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full account of all my adventures, my
slavery, escape, and how I had met with the Portuguese captain at sea, the humanity
of his behavior, and what condition I was now in, with all other necessary directions
for my supply; and when this honest captain came to Lisbon, he found means, by
some of the English merchants there, to send over not the order only, but a full
account of my story, to a merchant at London, who represented it effectually to her;
whereupon she not only delivered the money, but out of her own pocket sent the
Portugal captain a. very handsome present for his humanity and charity to me.

The merchant in London vested this hundred pounds in English goods, such as
the captain had written for, sent them directly to him at Lisbon, and- he brought
them all safe to me to the Brazils; among which, without my direction (for I was too
young in my business to think of them), he had taken care to have all sorts of
tools, iron work, and utensils necessary for my plantation, and which were of great use
to me.

When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made, for I was surprised with the
joy of it; and my good steward, the captain, had laid out the five pounds, which my
friend had sent him for a present for himself, to purchase and bring me over a servant,
under bond for six years’ service, and would not accept of any consideration, except a
little tobacco, which I would have him accept, being of my own produce.

Neither was this all; for my goods being all English manufacture, such as cloth,
stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable and desirable in the country, I found
means to sell them at a very great advantage; so that I may say I had more than
four times the value of my first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond my poor
neighbor—I mean in the advancement of my plantation; for the first thing I did,
I bought me a negro slave and an European servant also: I mean another besides that
which the captain brought me from Lisbon.

But as abused prosperity is oftentimes: made the very means of our Senne
adversity, so was it with me. I went on the next year with great success in my
plantation: I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on my own ground, more than I
had disposed of for necessaries among my neighbors; and these fifty rolls, being each
of above a hundredweight, were well cured, and laid by against the return of the fleet
from Lisbon. And now increasing in business and wealth, my head began to be full
of projects and undertakings beyond my reach; such as are indeed often the ruin of
the best heads in business. Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had room
for all the happy things to have yet befallen me, for which my father so earnestly



My PLANTATION IN THE BRAZILS. 27

recommended a quiet, retired life, and which he had so sensibly described the middle
station of life to be full of; but other things attended me, and I was still to be the
willful agent of all my own miseries; and particularly, to increase my fault, and double
the reflections upon myself, which in my future sorrows I should have leisure to make,
all these miscarriages were procured by my apparent obstinate adhering to my foolish
inclination of wandering abroad, and pursuing that inclination, in contradiction to the
clearest views of doing myself good in a fair and plain pursuit of those prospects and
those-measures of life which nature and Providence concurred to present me with, and
to make my duty.

As I had once done thus in breaking away from my parents, so I could not be
content now, but I must go and leave the happy view I had of being a rich and
thriving man in my new plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of
rising faster than the nature of the thing admitted; and thus I cast myself down again
into the deepest gulf of human misery that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be
consistent with life, and a state of health in the world.

To come then by just degrees to the particulars of this part of my story :—You

"may suppose that having now lived almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning to
thrive and prosper very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned the language,
but had contracted acquaintance and friendship among my fellow-planters, as well as
among the merchants of St. Salvadore, which was our port; and that, in my discourse
among them, I had frequently given them an account of my two voyages to the coast
of Guinea, the manner of trading with the negroes there, and how easy it was to
purchase upon the coast for trifles—such as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits
of glass, and the like—not only gold-dust, Guinea grains, elephants’ teeth, etc., but
negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great numbers.

They listened always very attentively to my discourses on these heads, but especially
to that part which related to the buying negroes; which was a trade, at that time, not
only not far entered into, but, as far as it was, had been carried on by the Assiento,
or permission, of the King of Spain.and Portugal, and engrossed in the public stock ;
so that few negroes were brought, and those excessively dear.

It happened, being in company one day with some merchants and planters of my
acquaintance, and talking of those things very earnestly, three of them came to me the
next morning, and told me they had been musing very much upon what I had dis-
coursed of with them the last night, and they came to make a secret proposal to me;
and, after enjoining me secrecy, they told me that they had a mind to fit out a ship to
go to Guinea; that they had all plantations as well as I, and were straitened for
nothing so much as servants; that as it was a trade that could not be carried on,
because they could not publicly sell the negroes when they came home, so they desired
to make but one voyage, to bring the negroes on shore privately, and divide them
among their own plantations; and, in a word, the question was, whether I would go
their supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast of Guinea;
and they offered me that I should have my equal share of the negroes, without pro-
viding any part of the stock.

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made to any one that



28 . ROBINSON CRUSOE.

had not had a settlement and plantation of his own to look after, which was in a
fair way of coming to be very considerable, and with a good stock upon it. But for
me, that was thus entered and established, and had nothing to do but go on as I had
begun, for three or four years more, and to have sent for the other hundred pounds
from England; and
who in that time,
and with that little
addition,.could
scarce have failed of
being worth three or
four thousand pounds
sterling, and that in-
- creasing too—for me
to think of such a
voyage was the most
preposterous thing
that ever man in such
circumstances could
be. guilty of.
But I,. that was
born to be my own.-
destroyer, . could - no
mrore resist the offer
than I could. restrain
my first rambling
designs, when my
father’s good coun-
sel was lost upon
me. In a word, I
told them. I. would
go with all. my heart,
if they would un-
. dertake to look after

my plantation in my
absence, and would dispose of it as I should dined, i€ I miscarried. This they all
engaged to do, and entered into writings and covenants to do so; I made a formal
will, disposing of my plantat’on and effects in case of my death, making the captain
of the ship that had saved my life, as before; my universal heir, but obliging him
to dispose of my effects as I had directed in my will; one-half of the a being
to himself, and the other to be shipped to England... :

In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects, and. to keep up my
plantation. Had I used half as much prudence to have looked into my own interest,
and have made a judgment of what I ought to have done, and not to have done, I had
certainly never gone away from so prosperous an undertaking, leaving all the probable















“LOOKING OVER THE CHARTS” (f. 30).



A VIOLENT TCRNADO. 29

views of a thriving circumstance, and gone upon a voyage to sea, attended with all its
common hazards, to say nothing of the reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes
to myself.

But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my fancy rather than my
reason; and, accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and the cargo finished, and all
things done as by agreement, by my partners in the voyage, I went on board in an
evil hour again, the 1st of September, 1659, being the same day eight years that I
went from my father and mother at Hull, in order to act the rebel to their authority
and the fool to my own interest.

Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden, carried six guns, and
fourteen men, besides the master, his boy, and myself; we had on board no large
cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit for our trade with the negroes, such as
beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles, especially little looking-glasses, knives,
scissors, hatchets, and the lke.

_ The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to the northward upon
our own coasts, with design to stretch over for the African coast, when they came
into about ten or twelve degrees of northern latitude; which, it seems, was the manner
of their course in those days. We had very good weather, only excessively hot, all the
way upon our own coast till we came to the height of Cape St. Augustino; from
whence, keeping farther off at sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if we were
bound for the isle Fernando de Noronha, holding our course N.E. by N., and leaving
those isles on the east. In this course we passed the line in about twelve days’ time,
and were, by our last observation, in seven degrees twenty-two minutes northern
latitude, when a violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge,



‘‘WE HASTENED OUR DESTRUCTION WITH OUR OWN HANDS” (/. 31).



30 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

It began from the south-east, came about to the north-west, and then settled into the
north-east; from whence it blew in such a terrible manner, that for twelve days
together we could do nothing but drive, and, scudding away before it, let it carry us
wherever fate and the fury of the winds directed ; and during these twelve days, I need
not say that I expected every day to be swallowed up; nor did any in the ship expect
to save their lives. ; :

In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of our men died of
the calenture, and a man and a boy washed overboard. About the twelfth day, the
weather abating a little, the master made an observation as well as he could, and found
that he was in about eleven degrees of north latitude, but that he was twenty-two
degrees of longitude difference west from Cape St. Augustino; so that he found he was
gotten upon the coast of Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river
Amazones, towards that of the river Oroonoque, commonly called the Great River;
and now he began to consult with me what course he should take; for the ship was
leaky, and very much disabled, and he was for going directly back to the coast of Brazil.

I was positively against that; and looking over the charts of the sea-coast of
America with him, we concluded there was no inhabited country for us to have
recourse to till we came within the circle of the Caribbee Islands, and therefore
resolved to stand away for Barbadoes; which, by keeping off at sea, to avoid the
in-draft cf the Bay or Gulf of Mexico, we might easily perform, as we hoped, in about
fifteen days’ sail; whereas we could not possibly make our voyage to the coast of
Africa without some assistance both to our ship and to ourselves.

With this design we changed our course, and steered away N.W. by W., in order
to reach some of our English islands, where I hoped for relief; but our voyage was
otherwise determined; for, being in the latitude of twelve degrees eighteen minutes,
a second storm came upon us, which carried us away with the same impetuosity
westward, and drove us so out of the way of all human commerce, that had all our
lives been saved as to the sea, we were rather in danger of being devoured by savages
than ever returning to our own country.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our men early one morning
cried out, “ Land!” and we had no sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes
of seeing whereabouts in the world we were, than the ship struck upon a sand, and in
a moment, her motion being so stopped, the sea broke over her in such a manner that
we expected we should all have perished immediately, and we were even driven into
our close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam and spray of the sea.

It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like condition to, describe or
conceive the consternation of men in such circumstances. We knew nothing where
we were, or upon what land it was we were driven; whether an island or the main,
whether inhabited or not inhabited. As the rage of the wind was still great, though
rather less than at first, we could not:so much as hope to have the ship hold many
minutes without breaking in pieces, unless the winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn
immediately about. Ina word, we sat looking one upon another, and expecting death
every moment, and every man acting accordingly, as preparing for another world; for
there was little or nothing more for us to do in this; that which was our present



SHIPWRECKED. 31

comfort, and all the comfort we had, was that, contrary to our expectation, the ship
did not break yet, and that the master said the wind began to abate.

Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet the ship having thus
struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us to expect her getting off, we were in
a dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing to do but to think of saving our lives as
well as we could. We had a boat at our stern just before the storm, but she was first
staved by dashing against the ship’s rudder, and in the next place, she broke away,
and either sunk or was driven off to sea; so there was no hope from her. We had
another boat on board, but how to get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing;
however, there was no room to debate, for we fancied the ship would break in pieces
every minute, and some told us she was actually broken already.

In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of the boat, and with the help of
the rest of the men, they got her flung over the ship’s side; and getting all into her,
let go, and committed ourselves, being eleven in number, to God’s mercy and the wild
sea: for though the storm was abated considerably, yet the sea went dreadfully high
upon the shore, and might be well called den wild sce, as the Dutch call the sea in a
storm. :

And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all saw plainly that the sea
went so high that the boat could not escape, and that we should be inevitably
drowned. As to making sail, we had none, nor, if we had, could we have done
anything with it; so we worked at the oar towards the land, though with heavy hearts,
like men going to execution; for we all knew that when the boat came near the shore,
she would be dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach of the sea. However, we
committed our souls to God in the most earnest manner; and the wind driving us
towards the shore, we hastened our destruction with our own eae pulling as well as
we could. towards land.

What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep or shoal, we knew not;
the only hope that could rationally give us the least shadow of expectation, was if we
might happen into some bay or gulf, or the mouth cf some river, where by great chance
we might have run our boat in, or got under the lee of the land, and perhaps made
smooth water. But there was nothing of this appeared; but as we made nearer and
nearer the shore, the land looked more frightful than the sea.

After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and a half, as we reckoned
it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling astern of us, and plainly bade us expect
the coup de grace. Ina word, it took us with such a fury that it overset the boat at
once; and separating us as well from the boat as from one another, gave us not time
hardly to say, “ O God!” for we were all swallowed up in a moment.

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt, when I sank into the
water; for though I swam very well, yet I could not deliver myself from the waves so
as to draw breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather carried me, a vast way on
towards the shore, and having spent itself, went back, and left me upon the land
almost dry, but half dead with the water I took in. I had so much presence of mind,
as well as breath left, that seeing myself nearer the mainland than I expected, I got
upon my feet, and endeavored to make on towards the land as fast as I could, before



32 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

another wave should return and take me up again; but I soon found it was impossible
to avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a great hill, and as furious as
an enemy, which I had no means or strength to contend with: my business was to
hold my breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I could; and so by swimming to
preserve my breathing, and pilot myself towards the shore if possible; my greatest
concern now being that the wave, as it would carry me a great way towards the shore
when it came on, might not carry me back again with it when it gave back towards

the sea.



““T WAS NOW LANDED” (. 33).

The wave that came upon me again buried me at once twenty or thirty feet
deep in its own body, and I could feel myself carried with a mighty force and
swiftness towards the shore a very great way; but I held my breath, and assisted
myself to swim still forward with all my might. I was ready to burst with holding
my breath, when as I felt myself rising up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my
head and hands shoot out above the surface of the water; and though it was not
two seconds of time that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave
me breath and new courage. I was covered again with water a good while, but
not so long but I held it out; and finding the water had spent itself, and began
to return, I struck forward against the return of the waves, and felt ground again with
my feet. I stood still a few moments to recover breath, and till the waters went
from me, and then took to my heels, and ran with what strength I had, farther
towards the shore. But neither would this deliver me from the fury of the sea,
which came pouring in after me again; and twice more I was lifted up by the
waves and carried forwards as before, the shore being very flat.


























































“7 ESPIED A SMALL PIECE OF.ROPE.”

(See A. 35.)



SAFE ON SHORE. 33

The last time of these two had -well-nigh been fatal to me; for the sea having
hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather dashed me, against.a piece of
a rock, and that with such force as it left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my
own deliverance; for the blow, taking my side and breast, beat the breath as it were
quite out of my body; and had it returned again immediately, I must have been
strangled in the water; but I recovered a little before the return of the waves, and
seeing I should be covered again with the water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece of
the rock, and so to hold my breath, if possible, till the wave went back. Now, as the
waves were not so high as at first, being nearer land, I held my hold till the wave
abated, and then fetched another run, which brought me so near the shore that the
next wave, though it went over me, yet did not so swallow me up as to carry me away ;
and the next run I took I got to the mainland; where, to my great comfort, I
clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and sat me down upon the grass, free from danger
and quite out of the reach of the water.

I was now landed, and safe on shore, and penan to look up and thank God that my
life was saved,.in a case wherein there was some minutes before scarce any room to
hope. I believe it is impossible to express, to the life, what the ecstasies and transports
of the soul are when it is so saved, as I may say, out of the very grave: and I do not
wonder now at that custom, when a malefactor, who has the halter about his neck, is
tied up, and just going to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought to him—I say, I
do not wonder that they bring a surgeon with it, to let him blood that very moment
they tell him of it, that the surprise may not drive the animal spirits from the heart,
and overwhelm him.

“For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.”

.° T walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my whole being, as I may
say, wrapt up in a contemplation of my deliverance; making a thousand gestures and
motions, which I cannot describe; reflecting upon all my comrades that were drowned,
and that there should not be one soul saved but myself; for, as for them, I never saw



‘“ SHOES THAT WERE NOT FELLOWS” (/. 34)-



34 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

them afterwards, or any sign of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes
that were not fellows.

I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and froth of the sea being
so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far off; and considered, Lord! how was it
possible I could get on shore?

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my condition, I began
to look round me, to see what kind of place I was in, and what was next to be done:
and I soon found my comforts abate, and that, in a word, I had a dreadful deliverance:
for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor anything either to eat or drink, to
comfort me; neither did I see any prospect before me but that of perishing with
hunger, or being devoured by wild beasts: and that which was particularly afflicting to
me was, that I had no weapon, either to hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance,
or to defend myself against any other creature that might desire to kill me for theirs.
In a word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco ina
box. This was all my provision; and this threw me into terrible agonies of mind, that
for awhile I ran about likea madman. Night coming upon me, I began, with a heavy
heart, to consider what would be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that
country, seeing at night they always come abroad for their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time, was to get up into a thick
bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny, which grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all
night, and consider the next day what death I should die, for as yet I saw no prospect
of life. I walked about a furlong from the shore, to see if I could find any fresh water
to drink, which I did to my great joy; and having drunk, and put a little tobacco in
my mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavored
to place myself so that if I should sleep I might not fall. And having cut me a short
stick, like a truncheon, for my defense, I took up my lodging; and being excessively
fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could have done
in my condition, and found myself more refreshed with it than I think I ever was on
such an occasion. .

When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the storm abated, so that
the sea did not rage and swell as before; but that which surprised me most was, that
the ship was lifted off in the night from the sand where she lay, by-the swelling of the
tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock which I at first mentioned, where I
had been so bruised by the wave dashing me against it. ‘This being within about a
mile from the shore where I was, and the-ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished
myself on board, that at least I might save some necessary things for my use.

When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked about me again, and
the first thing I found was the boat, which lay, as the wind and sea had tossed her up,
upon the land, about two miles on my right hand. I walked as far as I could upon
the shore to have got to her; but found a neck, or inlet, of water between me and the
boat, which was about half a mile broad; so I came back for the present, being more
intent upon getting at the ship, where I hoped to find something for my present
subsistence.

A little after ncon I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed so far out, that



A VISIT TO THE WRECK. 35

I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship. And here I found a fresh
renewing of my grief; for I saw evidently that if we had kept on board, we had been
all safe: that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had not been so miserable
as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort and company, as I now was. This forced
tears to my eyes again; but as there was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to
get to the ship; so I pulled off my clothes, for the weather was hot to extremity, and
took the water. But when I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know
how to get on board; for, as she lay aground, and high out of the water, there was
nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and the second
time I espied a small piece of rope, which I wondered I did not see at first, hanging
down by the fore-chains so low that, with great difficulty, I got hold of it, and by the
help of that rope got up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that the ship
was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her hold; but that she lay so on the side
of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and
her head low, almost to the water. By this means all her quarter was free, and all
that was in that part was dry; for you may be sure my first work was to search, and to
see what was spoiled and what was free. And, first, I found that all the ship’s
provisions were dry and untouched by the water, and being very well disposed to eat,
I went to the bread-room, and filled my pockets with biscuit, and ate it as I went
about other things, for I had no time to lose. I also found some rum in the great
cabin, of which I took a large dram, and which I had, indeed, need enough of to
spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat, to furnish myself
with many things which I foresaw would be very necessary to me.

It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had; and this extremity
roused my application. We had several spare yards, and two or three large spars of
wood, and a spare topmast or two in the ship: I resolved to fall to work with these,
and I flung as many of them overboard as I could manage for their weight, tying every
one with a rope, that they might not drive away. When this was done I went down
the ship’s side, and pulling them to me I tied four of them together at both ends, as
well as I could, in the form of a raft, and laying two or three short pieces of plank
upon them, crossways, I found I could walk upon it very well, but that it was not
able to bear any great weight, the pieces being too light. So I went to work, and with
the carpenter’s saw I cut a spare topmast into three lengths, and added them to my
raft, with a great deal of labor and pains. But the hope of furnishing myself with
necessaries encouraged me to go beyond what I should have been able to have done
upon another occasion.

My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight. My next care was
what to load it with, and how to preserve what I laid upon it from the surf of the sea:
but I was not long considering this. I first laid all the planks or boards upon it that
I could get, and having considered well what I most wanted, I first got three of
the seamen’s chests, which I had broken open and emptied, and lowered them down
upon my raft; the first of these I filled with provisions—viz., bread, rice, three Dutch
cheeses, five pieces of dried goat’s flesh (which we lived much upon); and a little
remainder of European corn, which had been.laid by for some fowls which we brought



36 ROBINSON CRUSOE.




to sea with us, but the fowls
were killed. There had been
some barley and wheat. to-
gether; but, to my great dis-
appointment, I found after-
wards that the rats had eaten
or spoiled it all. As for
liquors, I found several cases
of bottles belonging to our
skipper, in which were some cordial
waters; and, in all, about five or six
gallons of arrack. These I stowed by
themselves, there being no need to
put them into the chest, nor any room
for them. While I was doing this, I
found the tide began to flow, though
very calm; and I had the mortifica-
“] FELL FAST ASLEEP” (/. 34). tion to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat,
which I had left on shore upon the sand,
swim away. As for my breeches, which
were only linen, and open-kneed, I swam on board in them and my stockings.
However, this put me upon rummaging for clothes, of which I found enough, but took
no more than I wanted for present use, for I had other things which my eye was more
upon; as, first, tools to work with on shore: and it was after long searching that I
found out the carpenter’s chest, which was indeed a very useful prize to me, and much
more valuable than a ship-lading of gold would have been at that time. I got it down
to my raft, whole as it was, without losing time to look into it, for I knew in general
what it contained,



LOADING THE RAFT. 37

My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were two very good
fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols. These I secured first, with some
powder-horns, a small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there were three
barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where our gunner had stowed them; but
with much search I found them, two of them dry and good, the third had taken water.
Those two I got to my raft, with the arms. And now | thought myself pretty well
freighted, and began to think how I should get to shore with them, having neither sail,
oar, nor rudder; and the least capful of wind would have overset all my navigation.

I had three encouragements: first, a smooth, calm sea; secondly, the tide rising,
and setting in to the shore; thirdly, what little wind there was blew me towards the
land, And thus, having found two or three broken oars, belonging to the boat, and
besides the tools which were in the chest, two saws, an axe, and a hammer, with this
cargo I put to sea. Fora mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that I
found it drive a little distant from the place where I had landed before: by which I
perceived that there was some indraught of the water, and consequently, I hoped to
find some creck or river there, which I might make use of as a port to get to land with
my cargo.

As I imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a little opening of the land.
I found a strong current of the tide set into it; so I guided my raft as well as I could,
to keep in the middle of the stream.

But here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if I had, I think
verily would have broken my heart; for, knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran
aground at one.end of it upon a shoal, and not being aground at the other end, it
wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped off towards the end that was afloat,
and so fallen into the water. I did my utmost, by setting my back against the chests,
to keep them in their places, but could not thrust off the raft with all my strength ;
neither durst I stir from the posture I was in; but holding up the chests with all my
might, I stood in that manner near half an-hour, in which time the rising of the water
brought me a little more upon a level; and a little after, the water still rising, my raft
floated again, and IJ thrust her off with the oar I had into the channel, and then driving
up higher, I at length.found myself in the mouth of a little river, with land on both
sides, and a strong current or tide running up. I looked on both sides for a proper
place to get to shore, for I was not willing to be driven too high up the river; hoping
in time to see some ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place myself as near the
coast as I could. :

' At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek, to which, with great
pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last got so near, that reaching ground with
my oar, I could thrust her directly in. But here I had like to have dipped all my
cargo into the sea again; for that shore lying pretty steep—that is to say, sloping—
there was no place to land but where one end of my. float, if it ran on shore, would
lie so high, and the other sink lower, as before, that it would endanger my cargo again.
All that I could do was to wait till the tide was at the highest, keeping the raft with my
oar like an anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of ground,
which I expected the water-would flow over; andso it did. Assoonas I found water



38 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

enough, for my raft drew about a foot of water, I thrust her upon that flat piece of
ground, and there fastened or moored her, by sticking my two broken oars into the
ground—one on one side, near one end, and one on the other side, near the other
end; and thus I lay till the water ebbed away, and left my raft and all my cargo safe
on shore.

My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper place for my habitation,
and where to stow my goods, to secure them from whatever might happen. Where I
was, I yet knew not; whether on the continent or an island; whether inhabited or not
inhabited; whether in danger of wild beasts or not. There was a hill not above a
mile from me, which rose up very steep and high, and which seemed to overtop some
other hills, which lay as in a ridge from it, northward. I took out one of the fowling-
pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn of powder; and thus armed, I traveled for
discovery up to the top of that hill, where, after I had with great labor and difficulty
got to the top, I saw my fate, to my great affliction—viz., that I was in an island
environed every way with the sea: no land to be seen except some rocks, which lay a
great way off, and two small islands, less than this, which lay about three leagues to
the west.

I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw good reason to
believe, uninhabited, except by wild beasts, of which, however, Isawnone. Yet I saw
abundance of fowls, but knew not their kinds; neither, when I killed them, could I
tell what was fit for food, and what not. At my coming back, I shot at a great
bird, which I saw sitting upon a tree,.on the side of a great wood. . I believe it was
the first gun that had been fired there since the creation of the world. I had no
sooner fired but from all parts of the wood there arose an innumerable number of
fowls of many sorts, making a confused screaming and crying, every one according to
his usual note, but not one of them of any kind that I knew. As for the creature I
killed, I took it to bea kind of hawk, its color and beak resembling it, but it had
no talons or claws more than common. Its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and fell to work to bring
my cargo on shore, which took me up the rest of the day: what to do with myself at
night I knew not, nor indeed where to rest, for J was afraid to lie down on the ground,
not knowing but some wild beast might devour me; though, as I afterwards found,
there was really no need for those fears.

However, as well as I could, I barricaded sek round with the chests and boards
that I had brought on shore, and made a kind of hut for that night’s lodging. As for
food, I yet saw not which way to supply myself, except that I had seen two or three
creatures, like hares, run out of the wood where I shot the fowl.

I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many things out of the ship
which would be useful to me, and particularly some of the rigging and sails, and such
other things as might come to land; and I resolved to make another voyage on board
the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that the first storm that blew must necessarily
break her all in pieces, I resolved to set all other things apart, till I got everything out
of the ship that I could get. Then I called a council—that is to say, in my thoughts—
whether I should take back the raft, but this appeared impracticable: so I resolved to



A SECOND CARGO. 39

~ go as before, when the tide was down; and I did so, only that I stripped before I went
from my hut, having nothing on but a checkered shirt, a pair of linen drawers, and a
pair of pumps on my feet.

I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft; and, having had
experience of the first, I neither made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but yet
I brought away several things very useful to me; as, first, in the carpenter’s stores I
found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great screw-jack, a dozen or two of
hatchets, and, above all, that most useful thing called a grindstone. All these I
secured, together with several things belonging to the gunner, particularly two or three
iron crows, and two barreis of musket bullets, seven muskets, and another fowling-
piece, with some smail quantity of powder more; a large bag full of small shot, anda
great roll of sheet lead; but this last was so heavy I could not hoist it up to get it
over the ship’s side.

Besides these things, I took all the men’s clothes that I could find, and a spare fore-
topsail, a hammock, and some bedding; and with this I loaded my second raft, and
brought them all safe on shore, to my very great comfort.

I was under some apprehension during my absence from the land, that at least my
provisions might be devoured on shore; but when I-came back I found no sign of
any visitor; only there sat a creature like a wild cat upon one of the chests, which,
when I care towards it, ran away a little distance, and then stood still. She sat very
composed and unconcerned, and looked full in my face, as if she had a mind to be
acquainted with me. I presented my gun to her, but, as she did not understand it, she
was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer to stir away; upon which I tossed
her a bit of biscuit, though, by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store was not
great; however, I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled at it, and ate it,
and looked (as pleased) for more; but I thanked her, and could spare no more: so
she marched off. i

Having got my second cargo on shore—though I was obliged to open the barrels
of powder, and bring them by parcels, for they were too heavy, being large casks—I
went to work to make me a little tent, with the sail, and some poles which I cut for
that purpose; and into this tent I brought everything that I knew would spoil either
with rain or sun; and I piled all the empty chests and casks up in a circle round the
tent, to fortify it from any sudden attempt, either from man or beast.

When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with some boards within,
and an empty chest set up on end without; and spreading one of the beds upon the
ground, laying my two pistols just at my head, and my gun at length by me, I went to
bed for the first time, and slept very quietly all night. I was very weary and heavy ;
for the night before I had slept little, and had labored very hard all day, as well to
fetch those things from the ship, as to get them on shore.

I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid up, I believe, for one
man; but still I was not satisfied, for while the ship sat upright in that posture, I
thought I ought to get everything out of her that I could; so every day, at low water,
I went on board, and brought away something or other; but particularly the third
time I went, I brought away as much of the rigging as I could, as also all the



40 ROBINSON CRUSCE.



















small ropes and =~ . ce eee

rope twine I # tee és : ‘2
could get, with ‘of aR
a piece of spare
canvas, which was to mend the sails upon Lie
occasion, and the barrel of wet gunpowder.
In a word, I brought away all the sails, £
first and last; only that I was fain to cut
them in pieces, and bring as much at a
time ag I could, for they were no more
useful to me for sails, but as mere canvas
only. ;
But that which comforted me more
still was that at last of all, after I had
made five or six.such-voyages as these,
and thought I had nothing more to ex-
pect from the ship that was worth my
meddling with —TI say, after all this, I
found a great hogshead of bread, three
large runlets of rum, or spirits, a box of
fine sugar, and a barrel of fine flour: this
was surprising ‘
to me, because
Thad given over
expecting any
more provisions
except what was
spoiled by the
water. I soon
emptied the
hogshead of the
bread, and wrap-
ped it up, parcel
by parcel, in
pieces of the
sails, which I cut
out; and, in a
word, I got all
this safe on shore
also, though at
several times.

The next day
I made another -

« at 4 CONFUSED SCREAMING AND

voyage, and CRYING”? (J. 38).





THE LAST OF THE SHIP. Al

now, having plundered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I
began with the cable; cutting the great cable into pieces such as I could move, I
got two cables and a hawser on shore, with all the iron-work I could get; and
having cut down the spritsail yard, and the mizzen yard, and everything I could to
make a large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods and came away. But my
good luck began to leave me, for this raft was so unwieldy, and so overladen, that
after I was entered the little cove, where I had landed the rest of my goods, not being
able to guide it so handily as I did the other, it overset, and threw me and all my
cargo into the water. As for myself, it was no great harm, for I was near the
shore; but as to my cargo, it was great part of it lost, especially the iron, which I
expected would have been of great use to me; however, when the tide was ‘out, I
got most of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with infinite
labor; for I was fain to dip for it into the water, a work which fatigued me very much.
After this, I went every day on board, and brought away what I could get,

I had now been thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven times on board the
ship, in which time I had brought away all that one pair of hands could well be sup-
posed capable of bringing; though I verily believe, had the calm weather held, I
should have brought away the whole ship, piece by piece; but preparing the twelfth
time to go on board, I found the wind began to rise. However, at low water I went on
board, and though I thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectually that nothing
more could be found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers in it, in one of which I
found two or three razors, and one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of
good knives and forks; in another I found about thirty-six pounds value in money—
some European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold, and some silver.

I smiled to myself at the sight of thismoney. “Oh, drug!” said I aloud, “ what
art thou good for? ‘Thou art not worth to me—no, not the taking off the ground; one
of those knives is worth all this heap; I have no manner of use for thee; e’en remain
where thou art, and go to the bottom, as a creature whose life is not worth saving.”
However, upon second thoughts, I took it away; and-wrapping all in a piece of canvas,
I began to think of making another raft; but while I was preparing this, I found the
sky overcast, and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale
from the shore. It presently occurred to me that it was in vain to pretend to make a
raft with the wind off shore; and that it was my business to be gone before the tide of
flood began, otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore at all. Accordingly, I
let myself down into the water, and swam across the channel which lay between the
ship and the sands, and-even that with difficulty enough, partly with the weight of the
things I had about me, and partly from the roughness of the water; for the wind rose
very hastily, and before it was quite high water it blew a storm.

But Iwas gotten home to my little tent, where I-lay, with all my wealth about me
very secure. It blew very hard all that night, and in the morning, when I looked out,
behold, no more ship was to be seen. I was a little surprised, but recovered myself
with this satisfactory reflection, that I had lost no time, nor abated any diligence, to
get everything out of her that could be useful tome; and that, indeed, there was little
left in her that I was able to bring away, if I had had more time.



42 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of anything out of her, except
what might drive on shore from her wreck ; as, indeed, divers pieces of her afterwards
did; but those things were of small use to me.

My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself against either
savages, if any should appear, or wild beasts, if any were in the island; and I had
many thoughts of the method how to do this, and what kind of dwelling to make—
whether I should make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the earth; and, in short,
I resolved upon both; the manner and description of which it may not be improper to
give an account of.

I soon found the place I was in was not fit for my settlement, particularly because
it was upon a low moorish ground near the sea, and I believed would not be whole-
some, and more particularly because there was no fresh water near it; so I resolved to
find a more healthy and more convenient spot of ground.

I consultéd several things in my situation, which I found would be proper for me;
first, health and fresh water, I just now mentioned; secondly, shelter from the heat of
the sun; thirdly, security from ravenous creatures, whether man or beast; fourthly, a
view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight, I might not lose any advantage for
my deliverance, of which I was not willing to banish my expectation yet.

In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on the side of a rising hill,
whose front towards this little plain was steep as a house-side, so that nothing could
come down upon me from the top. On the side of the rock there was a hollow place,
worn a little way in, like the entrance or door of a cave; but there was not really any
cave, or way into the rock, at all.

On the flat of the green, just below this hollow place, I resolved to pitch my tent.
This plain was not above a hundred yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay like
a green before my door; and, at the end of it, descended irregularly every way down
into the low ground by the sea-side. It was on the N.N.W. side of the hill; so that
it was sheltered from the heat every day, till it came to the W. and by S. sun or
thereabouts, which, in those countries, is near the setting.

Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the hollow place, which took in
about ten yards in its semi-diameter from the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter
from its beginning and ending.

In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving them into the ground
till they stood very firm like piles, the biggest end being out of the ground above five
feet and a half, and sharpened on the top. The two rows did not stand above six
inches from one another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship, and laid them in rows,
upon one another, within the circle, between these two rows of stakes, up to the top,
placing other stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two feet and a half high,
like a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong that neither man nor beast could
get into it or over it. This cost me a great deal of time and labor, especially to cut
the piles in the woods, bring them to the place, and drive them into the earth.

The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but by a short ladder to
go over the top; which ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after me; and so I was



My FORTRESS. © 43

completely fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and consequently
slept secure in the night, which otherwise I could not have done; though, as it
appeared afterwards, there was no need of all this caution from the enemies that I
apprehended danger from.

Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labor, I carried all my riches, all my
provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you have the account above ; and I made
me a large tent also, to preserve me from the rains, that in one part of the year are
very violent there: I made it double—viz., one smaller tent within, and one larger
tent above it; and covered the Upper part of it with a large tarpaulin, which I had
saved among the sails. .

And now I lay no more for awhile in the bed which I had peoaeet on shore, but
in a hammock, which was indeed a very good one, and belonged to the mate of the
ship.

Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that would spoil by the
wet; and having thus inclosed all my goods, I made up the entrance, which till now
I had left open, and so passed and re-passed, as I said, by a short ladder.

When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock, and bringing all the
earth and stones that I dug down out through my tent, I laid them up within my
fence, in the nature of a terrace, so that it raised the ground within about a foot and a
half; and thus I made me a cave, just behind my tent, which served me like a cellar
to my house.

It cost me much labor and many days before all these things were brought to
perfection; and therefore I must go back to some other things which took up some of
my thoughts. At the same time it occurred, after I had laid my scheme for ‘the
setting up the tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain falling from a thick,
dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened, and after that, a great clap of
thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I was not so much surprised with the
lightning, as I was with the thought which darted into my mind as swift as the
uightning itself, “Oh, my powder!” My very heart sank within me when I thought
that, at one blast, all my powder might be destroyed; on which not my defense only,
but the providing me food, as I thought, entirely depended. I was nothing near so
anxious about my own danger; though, had the powder took fire, I had never known
who had hurt me.

Such impression did-this make upon me, that after the storm was over, I laid
aside all my work, my building and fortifying, and applied myself to make bags
and boxes to separate my powder, and to keep it a little and a little in a parcel, in
hopes that, whatever might come, it might not all take fire at once; and to keep it so
apart that it should not be possible to make one part’ fire another. I finished this
work in about a fortnight; and I think my powder, which in all was about one
hundred and forty pounds weight, was divided into no less than a hundred parcels.
As to the barrel that had been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from that; so I
placed it in my new cave, which, in my fancy, I called my kitchen; and the rest I hid
up and down in holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking very
carefully where I laid it.



44 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out at least once every day with
my gun, as well to divert myself as to see if I could kill anything fit for food; and, as
near as I could, to acquaint myself with what the island produced. ‘The first time I
went out, I presently discovered that there were goats in the island, which was a great
satisfaction to me; but then it was attended with this misfortune to me,-viz., that they
-were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the most difficult thing in the
world. to come at them; but I was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I
might now and then shoot one, as it soon happened; for after I had found their haunts
a little, I laid wait in this manner for them: I observed if they saw me in the valleys,
though they were upon the rocks, they would run away, as in a terrible fright; but if
they were feeding in the valleys, and I was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me;
from whence.I concluded that, by the position of their optics, their sight was so directed
downward -that they did not readily see objects that were above them; so afterwards
I took this method—I always climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and then had
frequently. a fair mark.

The first. shot I made among these creatures, I killed a she-goat, which had a little
kid by her, which she gave suck to, which grieved me heartily; for, when the old one
fell, the kid. stood stock-still by her, till I came and took her up; and not only so, but
when I carried the old one with me upon my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to
my inclosure ;. upon which I laid down the dam, and took the kid in my arms, and
carried it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame; but it would not eat; so I
was forced to kill it and eat it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great while,
for I ate sparingly and saved my provisions, my bread especially, as much as I possibly
could. : ;

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary to provide a place
to make a fire in, and fuel to burn; and what I did for that, as also how I enlarged
my cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a full account of in its place;
but I must now give some little account of myself, and of my thoughts about living,
which, it may well be supposed, were not a few.

I had a dismal prospect of my condition, for as I was not cast away upon that
island.without being driven, as is said, by a violent storm quite out of the course of
our. intended voyage, and a great way, viz., some hundreds of leagues, out of the
ordinary course of the trade of mankind, I had great reason to consider it as a deter-
mination of Heaven that in this desolate place, and in this desolate manner, I should
end my life. The tears would run plentifully down my face when I made these
reflections; and sometimes I would expostulate with myself why Providence should
thus completely ruin its creatures, and render them so absolutely miserable, so without
help abandoned, and so entirely depressed, that it could hardly be rational to be
thankful for such a life. ;

But something always returned swift upon me to check these thoughts, and to
reprove me; and particularly one day walking with my gun in my hand by the sea-side,
I was very pensive upon the subject of my present condition, when Reason, as it were,
put in expostulating with me the other way, thus: “Well, you are in a desolate
condition, it is true; but, pray remember, where are the rest of you? Did not you



COMFORTING REFLECTIONS. 45

come eleven of you into the boat? Where are the ten? Why were not they saved,
and you lost? Why are yousingled cut ? Is it better to be here or there?” And
then I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be considered with the good that is in them
and with what worse attended them.

Then it occurred to me again, how
well I was furnished for my subsist-
ence, and what would have been my
case if it had not happened (which
was a hundred thousand to one) that
the ship floated from the place where
first she struck, and was driven so near
to the shore that I had time to get all
these things out of her?’ What would
have been my case, if I had been
forced to have lived in the condition
in which I at first came on shore, with-
out necessaries of life, or any means
to supply and procure them? “ Par-
ticularly,” said I aloud (though to
myself), “what should I
have done without a gun,
without ammunition, with-
out any tools to make
-anything, or to work with ?
without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any
manner of coverings ?” and that now
I had all these to a sufficient quantity,
and was in a fair way to provide my-
self in such a manner as to live without
my gun, when my ammunition was
spent: so that I had a tolerable view
of subsisting without any want as long
as I lived; for I considered from the
beginning how I would provide for
the accidents that might happen, and
for the time that was to come, even

‘THE KID FOLLOWED ME” (f. 44). not only after my ammunition should
be spent, but even after my health
and strength should decay.

I confess I had not then entertained any notion of my ammunition being de-
stroyed at one blast—I mean my powder being blown up by lightning; and this
made the thoughts of it surprising to me, when it lightened and thundered, as I
observed just now.

And now, being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene of silent life, such,


















46 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

perhaps, as was never heard of in the world before; I shall take it from its beginning,
and continue it in its order. It was, by my account, the 30th of September when, in
the manner as above said, I first set foot upon this horrid island; when the sun
being to us in its autumnal equinox, was almost just over my head: for I reckoned
myself, by observation, to be in the latitude of nine degrees twenty-two minutes north
of the line.

After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into my thoughts that I
should lose my reckoning of time for want of books, and pen, and ink, and should
even forget the Sabbath-day from the working days; but to prevent this, I cut it with
my knife upon a large post, in capital letters; and making it into a’great cross, I set
it up on the snere where I first landed, viz., ““I came on shore here on the goth of
September, 1659.” .

Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a notch wae my knife, and every
seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and every first day of the month as long
again as that long one; and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly; and yearly
reckoning of time.

In the next place, we are to observe that among the many things which I brought
from the ship in the several voyages which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got
several things of less value, but not at all less useful to me, which I omitted setting
down before; as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper; several parcels in the captain’s,
mate’s, gunner’s, and carpenter’s keeping; three or four compasses, some mathematical
instruments, dials, perspectives, charts, and books of navigation; all which I huddled
together, whether I might want them or no: also I found three very good Bibles,
which came to me in my cargo from England, and which I had packed up among my
things; some Portuguese books also; and, among them, two or. three Popish prayer-
books, andseveral other books; all which I carefully secured. And I must not forget.
that we had in the ship a dog and two cats, of whose eminent history I must have
occasion to say something in its place, for I carried both the cats with me; and as for
the dog, he jumped out of the ship of himself, and swam on shore to me the day after
I went on shore with my first cargo, and was a trusty servant to me many years; I
wanted nothing that he could fetch me, nor any company that he could.make up to
me; I only wanted to have him talk to me, but that he could not do. As I observed
before, I found pens, ink, and paper, and I husbanded them to the utmost; and I shall
show that while my ink lasted I kept things very exact; but after that was gone I could
not, for I could not make any ink by any means that I could devise.

And this put me in mind that I wanted many things,-notwithstanding all that I had
amassed together; and of these, ink was one: as also a spade, pickaxe, and shovel to
dig or remove the earth; needles, pins, and thread: as for linen, I soon learned to
want that without much difficulty.

This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily; and it was near a whole
year before I had entirely finished my little pale, or surrounded habitation. The piles
or stakes, which were as heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in cutting and
preparing in the woods, and more, by far, in bringing home; so that I spent sometimes
two days in cutting and bringing home one of those posts, and a third day in driving



THE EviL-—THE Goop. 47

it into the ground; for which purpose I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last
bethought myself of one of the iron crows; which, however, though I found it, yet
made. driving those posts or piles very laborious and tedious work. But what need I
have been concerned at the tediousness of anything I had to do, seeing I had time
enough to do it in? nor had I any other employment, if that had been over, at least
that I could foresee, except the ranging the island to seek for food, which I did, more
or less, every day.

I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the circumstances I was
reduced to; and I drew up the state of my affairs in writing, not so much to leave
them to any that were to come after me, for I was like to have but few heirs, as to
deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon them, and afflicting my mind; and as my
reason began now to. master my despondency, I began to comfort myself as well as I
could, and to set the good against the evil, that I might have something to distinguish
my case from worse, and I stated it very impartially, like debtor and creditor, the
comfort I enjoyed against the miseries I suffered, thus :—

EVIL. GOOD.
Iam cast upon a horrible, desvlate isl- But I am alive; and not drowned, as’all my ship’s
and; void of all hope of recovery. company was. Py
I am singled out and’ separated, as. it But I am singled out, too, from all the ship’s crew, to

were, from all the world, to be miserable. be spared from death; and He that miraculously saved
me from death can deliver me from this condition.

I am divided from mankind, a solitary ; But I am not starved, and perishing on a barren place,
one banished from human society. affording no sustenance.
I have no clothes to cover me. But I am in a hot climate, where if I had clothes, I
/ ‘could hardly wear them.
I'am without any defense, or means to But I am cast on an island where I see no wild beasts
resist any violence of man or beast. to hurt me, as I saw on the coast of Africa; and what if
= I had been shipwrecked there? :
I have no sot to speak to or relieve me. But God wonderfully sent the ship ir in near enough to

the shore, that I have got out so many necessary things
as will either supply my wants or enable me to supply
myself, even as long as I live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony that there was scarce any
condition in the world so miserable but there was something negative, or something
positive to be thankful for in it: and let this stand as a direction, from the experience
of the most miserable of all conditions in this world—that we may always find in it
something to comfort ourselves from, and to set, in the description of good and evil,
on the credit side of the account. -

Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition, and giving over
looking out to sea if I could spy a ship—I say, giving ‘over these things, I. began to
apply myself to accommodate my way of living, and to make things as easy to me as I
could.

I have already described my habitation, which was a tent under the side of a rock,
surrounded with a strong pale of posts and cables; but I might now rather call it a
wall, for I raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs, about two feet thick, on the
outside; and after some time (I think it was a year and a half) I raised rafters from it,



48 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

leaning to the rock, and thatched or covered it with boughs of trees, and such things as I
could get to keep out the rain, which I found at some times of the year very violent.

I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this pale, and into the
cave which I had made behind me. But I must observe, too, that at first this was a
confused heap of goods, which, as they lay in no order, so they took up all my place ;
I had no room to turn myself: so I set myself to enlarge my cave, and worked farther



“I WANTED NOTHING THAT HE COULD FETCH ME” (f. 46).

into the earth; for it was a loose, sandy rock, which yielded easily to the labor I
bestowed on it: and so when I found I was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked
sideways, to the right hand, into the rock, and then turning to the right again, worked
quite out, and made me a door to come out on the outside of my pale or fortification.

This gave me not only egress and regress, as it was a back way to my tent and to
my storehouse, but gave me room to stow my goods.

And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary things as I found I most
wanted, particularly a chair and a table; for without these I was not able to enjoy the
few comforts I had in the world; I could not write, or eat, or do several things with
so much pleasure without a table.

So I went to work; .and here I must needs observe that as reason is the substance



f BEGIN MY JOURNAL. 49

and original of the mathematics, so by stating and squaring everything by reason, ‘and
by making the most rational judgment of things, every man may be, in time, master
of every mechanic art. I had never handied a tool in my life; and yet, in time, by
labor, application, and contrivance, I found, at last, that I wanted nothing but I could
have made it, especially if I had had tools. However, I made abundance of things
even without tools; and some with no more tools than an adze and a hatchet, which,
perhaps, were never made that way before, and that with infinite labor. For example,
if I wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down-a tree, set it on an edge
before me, and hew it flat on either side with my axe, till I had brought it to be as thin
as a plank and then dub it smooth with my adze. It is true, by this method I could
make but one board out of a whole tree; but this I had no remedy for but patience,
any more than I had for the prodigious deal of time and labor which it took me up to
make a plank or board; but my time or labor was little worth, and so it was as well
employed one way as another.

However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above, in the first place;
and this I did out of the short pieces of boards that I brought on my raft from the
ship. But when I had wrought out some boards as above, I made large shelves,
of the breadth of a foot and a half, one over another, all along one side of my
cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work on; and, in a word, to separate
everything at large into their places that I might come easily at them; also I
knocked pieces into the wall of the rock to hang my guns and all things that
would hang up: so that had my cave been to be seen, it looked like a general
magazine of all necessary things; and I had everything so ready at my hand,
that it was a great pleasure to me to see all my goods in such order, and
especially to find my stock of all necessaries so great.

And now it was when I began to keep a Journal of every day’s employment; for,
indeed, at first I was in too much hurry, and not only a hurry as to labor, but in
too much discomposure of mind; and my Journal would have been full of many dull
things: for example, I must have said thus: “ Sept. the 30¢2.—After I had got to
shore, and had escaped drowning, instead of being thankful to God for my deliverance,
having first vomited, with the great quantity of salt water which was gotten into my
stomach, and recovering myself a little, I ran about the shore wringing my hands and
beating my head and face, exclaiming at my misery, and crying out I was undone,
undone! till, tired and faint, I was forced to lie down on the ground to repose, but
durst not sleep, for fear of being devoured.”

Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship, and had got all I
could out of her, yet I could not forbear getting up to the top of a little mountain, and
looking out to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship: then fancy at a vast distance I espied a
sail, please myself with the hopes of it, and then, after looking steadily till I was
almost blind, lose it quite, and sit down and weep like a child, and thus increase my
misery by my folly.

But having gotten over these things in some measure, and having settled my
household stuff and habitation, made me a table and a chair, and all as handsome
about me as I could, I began, I say, to keep my Journal; of which I shall here give you



50 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the copy (though in it will be told all these particulars over again), as long as it lasted;
for at last, having no more ink, I was forced to leave it off.

THE JOURNAL.

September 30, 1659.—I, poor miserable Robinson Crusoe, being shipwrecked,
during a dreadful storm, in the offing, came on shore on this dismal, unfortunate
island, which I called “The Island of Despair; ” all the rest of the ship’s company
being drowned, and myself almost dead. ee

All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at the dismal circumstances I was
brought to: viz., I had neither food, house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to; and,
in despair of any relief, saw nothing but death before me: either that I should be
devoured by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or starved to death for want of food.
At the approach of night I slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures; but slept soundly,
though it rained all night. :

October 1.—In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the ship had floated with
the high tide, and was driven on shore again, much nearer the island ; which, as it was
some comfort, on one hand (for seeing her sit upright, and not broken to pieces, I
hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board, and get some food and necessaries
out of her for my relief), so, on the other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my
comrades, who, I imagined, if we had all stayed on board, might have saved the ship,
or, at least, that they would not have been all drowned, as they were; and that, had
the men been saved, we might perhaps have built us a boat out of the ruins of the ship
to have carried us to some other part of the world. I spent great part of this day in
perplexing myself on these things; but at-length, seeing the ship almost dry, I went
upon the sand as near as I could, and then swam on board. — This day. also it continued
raining, though with no wind at all.

From the ist of October to the 24th.—All these days entirely spent in many several
voyages to get all I could out of the ship, which I brought on shore, every tide of
flood, upon rafts. Much rain also, in these days, though with some intervals of fair
weather; but it seems this was the rainy season.

Oct, 24.—I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got upon it; but being in
shoal-water, and the things being chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them when the
tide was out.

Oct. 25.—It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of wind ; during which
time the ship broke in pieces, the wind blowing a little harder than belor e, and was no
more to be seen, except the wreck of her, and that only at low water. I spent this day
in covering and securing the goods which I saved, that the rain might not spoil them.

Oct. 26.—I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out a place to fix my
habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself from any attack in the night, either from
wild beasts or men. ‘Towards night I fixed upon a proper place, under a rock, and
marked out a semi-circle for my encampment, which I resolved to strengthen with a
work, wall, or fortification, made of double piles, lined within with cables, and without
with turf.



My JOURNAL. 51

From the 26th to the 30th, I worked very hard in carrying all my goods to my new
habitation, though some -part of the time it rained exceeding hard.

The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with my gun, to seek for some
food, and discover the country; when I killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me
home, which I afterwards killed also, because it would not feed.

November 1.—I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there for the first night;
making it as large as I could, with stakes drivén in to swing my hammock upon.

Nov. 2.—I set up all my chests and boards and the pieces of timber which made
my rafts, and with them formed a fence round me, a little within the place I had
marked out for my fortification. -

LVov. 3.—I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like ducks, which were very
good food. In the afternoon went to work to make me a table.

Nov. 4.—This morning I began to order my times of work, of going out with my
gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion: viz., every morning I walked out with my
gun for two or three hours, if it did not rain; then employed myself to work till about
eleven o’clock; then ate what I had to live on; and from twelve to two I lay down
to sleep, the weather being excessive hot; and then, in the evening, to work again.
The working part of this day and the next were wholly employed in making this table,
for I was yet but a very sorry workman, though time and necessity made me a com-
plete natural mechanic soon after, as I believe they would do any one else.

Vou. 5.—This day I went abroad with my gun and my dog, and killed.a wild cat;
her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for nothing. Every creature I killed, I took off
the skins and preserved them. Coming back by the sea-shore, I saw many sorts of
sea-fowls, which I did not understand ;- but was surprised, and almost frighted, with two
or three seals, which, while-I was gazing at, not well knowing what ‘they were, got into
the sea, and escaped me for that time.

Vou. 6.—After my morning walk, I went to work with my table again, and finished
it, though not to my liking; nor was it long before I learned to mend it.

Nov. 7.—Now it began to be settled fair weather: ‘The 7th, 8th, gth, roth, and
part of the 12th (for the rrth was Sunday according to my reckoning), I took wholly
up to make mea chair, and with much ado brought it to a tolerable shape, but never
to please me; and even in the making I pulled it to pieces several times.

LVote.—I soon neglected keeping Sundays; for, omitting my mark for them on my
post, I forgot which was which.

Vou. 13.—This day it rained, which refreshed me exceedingly, and cooled the
earth; but it was accompanied with terrible thunder and lightning, which frighted me
dreadfully for fear of my powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved to separate
my stock of powder into’ as many little parcels as possible, that it might not be
in danger...

Nov. 14, 15, 16.—These three days I spent in making little square chests, or boxes,
which might hold about.a pound, or two pounds at most, of powder; and so, putting
the powder in, I stowed it in places as secure and remote from one another as possible.
On one of these three days I killed a large bird that was good to eat, but I knew not
what to call it.



52 ROBINSON CRUSCE,

NVov. 17.—This day I began to
dig behind my tent into the rock,
to make room for my further con-
veniency. .

NVote.—Three things I wanted
exceedingly for this work: viz., a

“THEY ALL FACED ABOUT UPON
THE DOG” (f. 54).

Brazils they call the iron-tree, for its
exceeding hardness; of this, with
great labor, and almost spoiling
my axe, I cut a piece, and brought
it home, with difficulty enough, for
it was exceeding heavy. The exces-
sive hardness of the wood, and hav-
ing no other way, made me a long
while upon this machine, for I
worked it effectually by little and































pickaxe, a
shovel, and a
wheelbarrow,
or basket; so
I desisted
from my _ work,
and began to con-
sider how to supply
that want, and
make me some
tools. As for the
pickaxe, I made use of the
iron crows, which were pro-
per enough, though heavy ;
but the next thing was a
shovel or spade; this was
so absolutely necessary that
indeed I could do nothing
effectually without it; but
what kind of one to make
I knew not.

Vou. 18.—The next day,
in searching the woods, I
found a tree of that wood,
or like it, which in the





My Diary CONTINUED. 53

little into the form of a shovel or spade; the handle exactly shaped like ours in
England, only that the board part having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it
would not last me so long; however, it served well enough for the uses which
I had occasion to put it to; but never was a shovel, I believe, made after that
fashion, or so long making.

I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket, or a wheelbarrow. A basket I could
not make by any means, having ,
no such things as twigs that would
bend to make wicker-ware—at
least, none yet found out; and
as to the wheelbarrow, I fancied
I could make all but the wheel;
but that I had no notion of;
neither did I know how to go
about it; besides, I had no pos-
sible way to make iron gudgeons
for the spindle or axis of the
wheel to run in; so I gave it
over, and so, for carrying away
the earth which I dug out of the
cave, I made me a thing like a
hod, which the laborers carry
mortar in when they serve the
bricklayers. ‘This was not so dif-
ficult to me as the making the
shovel; and yet this and the ‘4 KIND OF WILD PIGEONS” (f. 55).
shovel, and the attempt which I
made in vain to make a wheel-
barrow, took me up no less than four days, I mean always excepting my morning’s
walk with my gun, which I seldom failed, and very seldom failed also of bringing



home something fit to eat.

Nov, 23.—My other work having stood still, because of my making these tools,
when they were finished I went on, and working every day, as my strength and time
allowed, I spent eighteen days entirely in widening and deepening my cave, that it
might hold my goods commodiously.

Vote.—During all this time I worked to make this room, or cave, spacious enough
to accommodate me as a warehouse cr magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar.
As fora lodging, I kept to the tent; except that sometimes, in the wet season of
the year, it rained so hard that I could not keep myself dry, which caused me
afterwards to cover all my place within my pale with long poles, in the form of
rafters, leaning against the rock, and load them with flags and large leaves of trees,
like a thatch.

December 1o.—I began now to think my cave or vault finished, when on a sudden
(it seems I had made it too large) a great quantity of earth fell down from the top and



54 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

one side; so much that, in short, it frighted me, 1nd not without reason, too; for if I
had been under it, I had never wanted a grave-digger. Upon this disaster I had a
great deal of work to do over again, for 1 had the loose earth to carry out; and, which

was. of more importance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no more
would come down,

Dec. 11.—This day I went to work with it accordingly, and got two shores or posts
pitched upright to the top, with two pieces of board across over each post; this I
finished the next day, and setting more posts up with boards, in about a week more
I had the roof secured; and the posts, standing in rows, served me for partitions to
part off my house.

Dec. 17.—¥rom this day to the 2oth I placed shelves, and knocked up nails on the
posts to hang everything up that could be hung up; and now I began to be in some
order within doors.

Dec. 20.—Now I carried everything into the cave, and began to furnish my house,
and set-up some pieces of board like a dresser, to order my victuals upon; but board
began to be very scarce with me: also I made me another table.

Dec. 24.—Much rain all night and all day; no stirring out.

Dec. 25.—Rain all day.

Dec. 26.—No rain, and the earth much cooler than before, and pleasanter.

Dee. 27.—Killed a young goat, and lamed another so that I catched it, and led it
home in a string; when I had it at home, I bound and splintered up its leg, which was
broke.

LV.B.—I took such care of it that it lived, and the leg grew well and as strong as
ever; but by nursing it so long it grew tame, and fed upon the little green at my door,
and would not go away. ‘This was the first time that I entertained a thought of
breeding up some tame creatures, that I might have food when my powder and shot
were all spent.

Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31.—Great heats, and no breeze, so that there was no stirring
abroad, except in the evening, for food; this time I spent in putting all my things in
order within doors. :

January 1.—Very hot still: but I went abroad early and late with my gun, and
lay still in the middle of the day. This evening, going farther into the valleys
which lay towards the centre of the island, I found there was plenty of goats, though
exceedingly shy, and hard to come at; however, I resolved to try if I could not
bring my dog to hunt them down.

Jan, 2,—Accordingly, the next day I went out with my dog, and set him upon the
goats; but I was mistaken, for they all faced about upon the dog, and he knew his
danger too well,.for he would not come near them.

Jan. 3.—I began my fence, or wall; which, being still jealous of my being attacked
by somebody, I resolved to make very thick and strong.

4V.B.—This wall being described before, I purposely omit what was said in the
Journal; it is sufficient to observe that I was no less time than from the 3d of January
to the 14th of April working, finishing, and perfecting this wall, though it was no more
than about twenty-four yards in length, being a half-circle, from one place in the rock



. HOUSEHOLD AFFAIRS. - 55

to another place, about eight yards from it, the door of the cave being in the center
behind it. ,

All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me many days, nay, some-
times weeks together; but I thought I should never be perfectly secure till this wall
was finished; and it is scarce credible what inexpressible labor everything was done
with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods, and driving them into the ground,
for I made them much bigger than I needed to have done.

When this wall was finished, and the outside double-fenced, with a turf wall raised
up close to it, I persuaded myself that if any people were to come on shore there, they
would not perceive anything like a habitation; and it was very well I did so, as may
be observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable occasion.

During this time I made rounds in the woods for game every day, when the rain
permitted me, and made frequent discoveries in these walks of something or other to
my advantage; particularly I found a kind of wild pigeons, which build, not as wood-
pigeons in a tree, but rather as house-pigeons, in the holes of the rocks; and taking
some young ones, I endeavored to breed them up tame, and did so; but when they
grew older they flew all away, which perhaps was at first for want of feeding them, for
I had nothing to give them; however, I frequently found their nests and got, their
young ones, which were very good meat.

And now, in the managing my household affairs, I found myself wanting in many
things, which I thought at first jt was impossible for me to make; as, indeed, as to
some of them it was: for instance, I could never make a cask to be hooped. I hada
small runlet or two, as I observed before; but I could never arrive to the capacity of
making one by them, though I spent many weeks about it; I could neither put in
the heads, nor join the staves so true to one another as to make them hold water; so
I gave that also over.

In the next place, I was at a great loss for candles; so that as soon as it was dark,
which was generally by seven o’clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I remembered the
lump of beeswax with which I made candles in my African adventure ; but I had none
of that now; the only remedy I had was, that when I had killed a goat I saved the
tallow, and with a little dish made of clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I added
a wick of some oakum, I made mea lamp; and this gave me light, though not a clear
steady light like a candle. Inthe middle of all my labors it happened that, rummaging
my things, I found a little bag which, as I hinted before, had been filled with corn for
the feeding of poultry—not for this voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the ship
came from Lisbon. What little remainder of corn had been in the bag was all
devoured by the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but husks and dust; and being
willing- to have the bag for some other use (I think it was to put powder in, when I
divided it for fear of the lightning, or some such use), I shook the husks of corn out
of it on one side of my fortification, under the rock.

It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned that I threw this stuff
away, taking no notice of anything, and not so much as remembering that I had thrown
anything there, when, about a month after, or thereabouts, I saw some few stalks of
something green shooting upon the ground, which I fancied might be some plant I



56 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

had not seen; but J was surprised and perfectly astonished when, after a little longer
time, I saw about ten or twelve ears come out which were perfectly green barley, of the



same kind as our European

nay, as our English barley.

It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of my thoughts on this
occasion; I had hitherto acted upon no religious foundation at all; indeed, I had very
few notions of religion in my head, nor had entertained any sense of anything that had
befallen me, otherwise than as a chance, or, as we lightly say, what pleases God, without
so much as inquiring into the end of Providence in these things, or His order in

governing events in the world. But after I saw barley
grow there in a climate which I knew-was not proper











“I WAS SURPRISED AND PERFECTLY ASTONISHED.”

for corn, and especially that I knew~ not how it came
there, it startled me strangely, and I began to suggest
that God had miraculously caused this grain to grow
without any help of seed sown, and that it
was so directed purely for my sustenance in
that wild, miserable place.

This touched my heart a little, and brought
tears out of my eyes, and I began to bless: my-
self that such a prodigy of Nature should
happen upon my account; and this was the

more strange to me
because J saw near
it still, all along by
the side of the rock,
some other straggling
stalks, which proved
to be stalks of rice,
and which I knew,
because I had seen
it grow in Africa when
I was ashore there.

I not only thought
these the pure pro-
ductions of Provi-
dence for my support,
but not doubting but
that there was more
in the place, I went
all over that part of
the island where I
had been before, peer-
ing in every corner
and under every rock,
to see for more of it,



AN UNEXPECTED CROP. 57

but I could not find any. At last it occurred to my thoughts that I had shaken
the bag of chickens’ meat out in that place; and the wonder began to cease;
and I must confess, my religious thankfulness to God’s providence began to abate
too, upon the discovering that all this was nothing but what was common; though I
ought to have been as thankful
for so strange and unforeseen
providence as if it had been
miraculous; for it was really
the work of Providence as to
me, that should order or appoint
that ten or twelve grains of corn
should remain unspoiled, when
the rats had destroyed all the
rest, as if it had been dropped
from heaven; as also that I
should throw it out into that
particular place, where, it being
in the shade of a high rock, it
sprang up immediately ; whereas,
if I had thrown it anywhere else
at that time, it had been burnt
up and destroyed.

I carefully saved the ears of
this corn, you. may be sure, in
their season, which was about
the end of June; and laying up
every corn, I resolved to sow
them all again, hoping in time
to have some quantity, sufficient
to supply me with bread. But
it was not till the fourth year that
I would allow myself the least
grain of this corn to eat, and
even then but sparingly, as I
shall say afterwards, in its order ;
for I lost all that I sowed the
first season, by not observing the
proper time; for I sowed it just before the dry season, so that it never came up at
all, at least, not as it would have done: of which in its place.

Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks of rice, which I
preserved with the same care, and whose use was of the same kind, or to the same
purpose, viz., to make me bread, or rather food; for I found ways to cook it up
without baking, though I did that also after some time.

But to return to my Journal :—



‘“GRINDING MY TOOLS” (f. 60).



58 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I worked excessive hard these three or four months, to get my wall done; and the
14th of April I closed it up, contriving to go into it, not by a door, but over a wall,
by a ladder, that there might be no sign on the outside of my habitation,

April 16.—I finished the ladder; so I went up the ladder to the top, and then
pulled it up after me, and let it down on the inside: this was a complete inclosure to
me; for within I had room enough, and nothing could come at me from without,
unless it could first mount my ‘wall.

The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost had all my labor
overthrown at once, and myself killed. The case was thus :—As I was busy in the
inside of it, behind my tent, just in the entrance into my cave, I was terribly frightened
with a most dreadful surprising thing indeed: for, all on a sudden, I found the earth
came tumbling down from the roof of.my cave, and from the edge of the hill over my
head, and two of the posts I had set up in the cave cracked in a frightful manner. I
was heartily scared; but thought nothing of what really was the cause, only thinking
that the top of my cave was falling in, as some of it had done before: and for fear I
should be buried in it, I ran forwards to my ladder, and not thinking myself safe there
neither, I got over my wall for fear of the pieces of the hill, which F expected might
roll down upon me. I was no sooner stepped down upon the firm ground, than I
plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake; for the ground I stood on shook three times
at about eight minutes’ distance, with three such shocks as would have overturned the
strongest building that could be supposed to have stood upon the earth; anda great
piece of the top of the rock which stood about half a mile from me, next the sea, fell
down with such a terrible noise as I never heard in all my life. I perceived also the
very sea was put into a violent motion by it; and I believe the shocks were stronger
under the water than on the-island.

I was so amazed with the thing itself, having never felt the like, or discoursed with
any one that had, that I was like one dead or stupefied; and the motion of the earth
made my stomach sick like one that was tossed at sea; but the noise of the falling
of the rock awaked me as it were, and rousing me from the stupefied condition I was
in, filled me with horror, and I thought of nothing then but the hill falling upon my
tent and all my household goods, and burying all at once; and this sunk my very soul
within me a second time.

After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some time, I began to take
courage; and yet-I had not heart enough to get over my wall again, for fear of being
buried alive, but still sat upon the ground, greatly cast down and disconsolate, not
knowing what to do. All this while, I had not the least serious religious thought ;
nothing but the common “ Lord have mercy upon me!” and when it was over, that
went away too.

While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and it grew cloudy, as if it would rain;
soon after that, the wind arose by little and little, so that in less than half an hour it
blew a most dreadful hurricane of wind: the sea was, all on a sudden, covered with
foam and froth; the shore was covered with the. breach of the water; the trées were
torn up by the roots; and a terrible storm it was. ‘This held about three hours, and
then began to abate; and then in two hours more it was calm, and began to rain very



EARTHQUAKE AND STOR@. 59

hard. All this while I sat upon the ground very much terrified and dejected; when
ona sudden it came into my thoughts that these winds and rain being the consequences
of the earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent and over, and I might venture into
my cave again. With this thought, my spirits began to revive; and the rain also
helping to persuade me, I went in and sat down in my tent; but the rain was so
violent that my tent was ready to be beaten down with it; and I was forced to go into
my cave, though very much afraid and uneasy, for fear it should fall on my head.
This violent rain forced me to a new work, viz., to cut a hole through my new
fortifications, like a sink, to let the water go out, which would else have drowned my
cave. After I had been in my cave some time, and found still no more shocks of the
earthquake follow, I began to be more composed. And now to support my spirits,
which indeed wanted it very much, I went to my little store, and took a small sup of
rum; which, however, I did then and always very sparingly, knowing I could have no
more when that was gone. It continued raining all that night, and great part of the
next day, so that I could not stir abroad; but my mind being more composed, I began
to think of what I had best to do; concluding that if the island was subject to these
earthquakes, there would be no living for me ina cave, but I must consider of building
me some little hut in an open place which I might surround with a wall, as I had done
here, and so make myself secure from wild beasts or men; for I concluded if I stayed
where I was, I should certainly, one time or other, be buried alive.

With these thoughts, I resolved to move my tent from the place where it now
stood, which was just under the hanging precipice of the hill; and which, if it should
be shaken again, would certainly fall upon my tent: and I spent the two next days,
being the 19th and 2oth of April, in contriving where and how to remove my
habitation. The fear of being swallowed .up alive made me that I never slept in
quiet ; and yet the apprehensions of lying abroad without any fence were almost equal
to it; but still, when I looked about, and saw how everything was put in order, how
pleasantly concealed I was, and how safe from danger, it made me loth to remove.
In the meantime, it occurred to me that it would require a vast deal of time for me to
do this, and that I must be contented to run the venture where I was, till I had
formed a camp for myself, and had secured it so as to remove to it. So with this
resolution I composed myself for a time, and resolved that I would go to work with all
speed to build me a wall with piles and cables, etc., in a circle, as before, and set my
tent up init, when it was finished; but that I would venture to stay where I was till it
was finished, and fit to remove to. This was the 21st.

April 22.—The next morning I began to consider of means to put this resolve in
execution; but I was at a great loss about my tools. I had three large axes, and
abundance of hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for traffic with the Indians); but
with much chopping and cutting knotty hard wood, they were all full of notches, and
dull; and though I had a grindstone, I could not turn it and grind my tools too.
This cost me as much thought as a statesman would have bestowed upon a grand
point of politics, or a judge upon the life and death of a man. At length I contrived
a wheel with a string to tum it with my foot, that I might have both my hands at
liberty.



60 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Note —I had
not seen any such
thing in England,
or at Icast not to
take notice how it
was done, though
since I have ob-
served it was very
common there;
besides that, my
grindstone was
very large and
heavy. This
machine cost me
a full week’s work
to bring it to
perfection.

April 28, 29.—
These two whole
days I took up in grinding my
tools, my machine for turning my
grindstone performing very well.

April 30.—Having perceived
my bread had been low a great
while, I now took a survey of it,
and reduced myself to one biscuit-
cake a day, which made my heart




very heavy.

May 1.—In the morning, look-
ing towards the sea-side, the tide
being low, I saw something lie on
the shore bigger than ordinary,
and it looked like a cask; when
I came to it, I found a small

- barrel, and two or three pieces of
the wreck of the ship, which were
driven on shore by the late hurri-
cane; and looking towards the
wreck itself, I thought it seemed
to lie higher out of the water than
it used to do. I examined the
barrel which was driven on shore,

and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder; but it had taken water, and the powder

“I CAUGHT A YOUNG DOLPHIN” (fp. 62).

was caked as hard as a stone: however, I rolled it farther on shore for the


























was more broken
open than formerly,
so many things
came daily on
shore, which the
sea had loosened,
and which the
winds and water
rolled by degrees
to the land.

This wholly di-
verted my thoughts

A Visrr 70 THE WRECK. . 61

present, and went on upon the sands, as
near as I could to the wreck of the ship,
to look for more.

When I came down to the ship I found
“it strangely removed. The forecastle, which
lay before buried in sand, was heaved up
at least six feet, and the stern, which was
broken to pieces and parted from the rest
by the force of the sea soon after I had
left rummaging of her, was tossed, as it
were, up, and cast on one side; and the
sand was thrown so high on that side next
the stern, that whereas there was a great
place of water before, so that I could not
come within a quarter of a mile of the
wreck without swimming, I could now
walk quite up to her when the tide was
out. I was surprised with this at first,
but soon concluded it must be
done by the earthquake; and
as by this violence the ship

























“A LARGE TORTOISE, OR TURTLE” (f. 63).

from the design of removing my habitation, and I busied myself mightily, that day
especially, in searching whether I could make any way into the ship; but I found
nothing was to be expected of that kind, for that all the inside of the ship was



62 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

choked up with sand. However, as I had learned not to despair of anything, I
resolved to pull everything to pieces that I could of the ship, concluding that every-
thing I could get from her would be of some use or other to me.

May 3.—I1 began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam through, which I thought
held some of the upper part or quarter-deck together, and when I had cut it through,
I cleared away the sand as well as I could from the side which lay highest; but the
tide coming in, I was obliged to give over for that time.

May 4.—I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst eat of, till I was
weary of my sport; when, just going to leave off, I caught a young dolphin. I had
made me a long line of some rope-yarn, but I had no hooks; yet I frequently caught
fish enough, as much as I cared to eat; all which I dried in the sun, and ate
them dry.

May 5.—Worked on the.wreck; cut another beam asunder, and brought three
great fir planks off from the decks, which I tied together, and made swim on shore
when the tide of flood came on,

May 6.—Worked on the wreck; got several iron bolts out of her, and other pieces
of iron-work; worked very hard, and came home very much tir eds and had thoughts
of giving it over.

May 7.—Went to the wreck again, witha an intent not to work, but found the weight
ofthe wreck had broken itself down, the beams being cut; that several pieces of the
ship seemed to lie loose, and the inside of the hold lay so open that I could see into
it; but it was almost full of water and sand.

May 8.—Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to wrench up the deck, which
lay now quite clear of the water or sand. I wrenched open two planks, and brought
them on shore also with the tide. I left the iron crow in the wreck for next day.

May 9.—Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way into the body of the
wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened them with the crow, but could not break
them up. I felt also a roll of English lead, and could stir it, but it was too heavy to
move.

May 10, 11, 12, 13, 14.—Went every day to the wreck; and got a great deal of
pieces of timber, and boards, or planks, and two or three hundredweight of iron.

May 15.—I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a piece off the roll of
lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet, and driving it with the other; but as it lay
about a foot and a half in the water, I could not make any blow to drive the hatchet.

May 16.—It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck appeared more broken by
the force of the water; but I stayed so long in the woods, to get pigeons for food, that
the tide prevented me going to the wreck that day.

May 17.—I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore, at a great distance, near
two miles off me, but resolved to see what they were, and found they were pieces of
the head, but too heavy for me to bring away.

May 24.—Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck; and with hard labor I
loosened some things so much with the crow, that the first flowing tide several casks
floated out, and two of the seamen’s chests; but the wind blowing from the shore,
nothing came to land that day but pieces of timber, and a hogshead, which had some.



VIOLENT AGUE. 63

Brazil pork in it; but the salt water and the sand had spoiled it. I continued this
work every day to the 15th of June, except the time necessary to get food, which I
always appointed, during this part of my employment, to be when the tide was up, that
I might be ready when it was ebbed out; -and by this time I had gotten timber, and
plank, and iron-work enough to have built a good boat, if I had known how; and
also I got, at several times, and in several pieces, near one hundredweight of the
sheet-lead. ; ; a

June 16.—Going down to the sea-side, I found a large tortoise, or turtle. This
was the first I had seen, which, it seems, was only my misfortune, not any defect of the
place or the scarcity; for had I happened to be on the other side of the island, I
might have had hundreds of them every day, as I found afterwards, but perhaps had
paid dear enough for them.

June 17 I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her threescore eggs; and her
flesh was to me, at that time, the most savory and pleasant that ever I tasted in my
life, having had no flesh, but of goats and fowls, since I landed in this horrible place.

June 18.—Rained all the day, and I stayed within. I thought, at this time, the
rain felt cold, and I was something chilly, which I knew was not usual in that latitude.

June 19.—Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been cold.

June 20.—No rest all night; violent pains in my head, and feverish.

June 21.—Very ill; frighted almost to death with the apprehensions of my sad
condition—to be sick, and no help: prayed to God, for the first time since the storm
off Hull, but scarce knew what I said or why; my thoughts being all confused.

June 22.—A little better; but under dreadful apprehensions of sickness.

June 23.—Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a violent headache.

June 24.—Much better.

June 25.—An ague, very violent: the fit held me seven hours; cold fit, and hot
with faint sweats after it. -

June 26.—Better; and having no victuals to eat, took my gun, but found myself
very weak; however, I killed a she-goat, and with much difficulty got it home, and
broiled some of it, and ate. I would fain have stewed it and made some broth, but
had no pot.

June 27.—The. ague again so violent that I lay abed all day and neither ate nor
drank. I was ready to perish for thirst; but so weak I had no strength to stand up,
or to get myself any water to drink. Prayed to God again, but was light-headed; and
when I was not, I was so ignorant that I knew not what to say; only I lay and cried,
“Lord, look upon me! Lord, pity me ! Lord, have mercy upon me!” I suppose I did
nothing else for two or three hours; tui the fit wearing off, I fell asleep, and did not
awake till far in the night. When I awoke, I found myself much refreshed, but weak,
and exceeding thirsty; however, as I had no water in my whole habitation, I was
forced to lie till morning, and went to. sleep again. In this second sleep, I had this
terrible dream: I thought that I was sitting on the ground, on the outside of my wall,
where I sat when the storm blew after the earthquake, and that I saw a man descend
from a great black cloud, in a bright flame of fire, and light upon the ground: he was
all over as bright as a flame, so that I could but just bear to look towards him: his



64 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

countenance was most inexpressibly dreadful, impossible for words to describe ; when
he stepped upon the ground with his feet, I thought the earth trembled, just as it had
done before in the earthquake, and all the air looked, to my apprehension, as if it had
been filled with flashes of fire. He was no sooner landed upon the earth but he
moved forwards towards me, with a long spear or weapon in his hand to kill me; and
when he came to a rising ground, at some distance, he spoke to me—or I heard a
voice so terrible that it is impossible to express the terror of it. All that I can say I
understood was this :—‘‘ Seeing all these things have not brought thee to repentance,
now thou shalt die; ” at which words, I thought he lifted up the spear that was in his
hand to kill me. ,

No one that shall ever read this account will expect that I should be able to
describe the horrors of my soul at this terrible vision. JI mean that even while it was
a dream, I even dreamed of those horrors. Nor is it any more possible to describe
the impression that remained upon my mind when I awaked, and found it was but
a dream. ;

I had, alas! no divine knowledge. What I had received by the good instruction
of my father was then worn out by an uninterrupted series, for eight years, of sea-faring
wickedness, and a constant conversation with none but such as were, like myself,
wicked and profane to the last degree. I do not remember that I had, in all that time,
one thought that so much as tended either to looking upwards towards God, or inwards
towards a reflection upon my own ways; but a certain stupidity of soul, without desire
of good, or conscience of evil, had entirely overwhelmed me; and I was all that the
most hardened, unthinking, wicked creature among our common sailors can be
supposed to be—not having the least sense, either of the fear of God in dangers, or
of thankfulness to God in deliverances.

In the relating what is already past of my story, this will be the more easily believed
when I shall add, that through all the variety of miseries that had to this day befallen
me, I never had so much as one thought of its being the hand of God, or that it was
a just punishment for my sins—my rebellious behavior against my father—or my
present sins, which were great—or so much as a punishment for the general course of
my wicked life. When I was on the desperate expedition on the desert shores of
Africa, I never had so much as one thought of what would become of me, or one
wish to God to direct me whither I should go, or to keep me from the danger which
apparently surrounded me, as well from voracious creatures as cruel savages; but I
was merely thoughtless of God or a Providence—I acted like a mere brute, from the
principles of nature, and by the dictates of common sense only, and indeed hardly
that. When I was delivered and taken up at sea by the Portugal captain, well used,
and dealt justly and honorably with, as well as charitably, I had not the least thank-
fulness in my thoughts. When, again, I was shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger of
drowning on this island, I was as far from remorse, or looking on it as a judgment.
I only said to myself often that I was an unfortunate dog, and born to be always
miserable.

It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found all my ship’s crew drowned,
and myself spared, I was surprised with a kind of ecstasy, and some transports of soul,



THOUGHTS IN SICKNESS. 65

which, had the grace of God assisted, might have come up to true thankfulness; but
it ended where it began, in a mere common flight of joy, or, as I may say, being glad
I was alive. without the least reflection upori the distinguishing goodness of the Hand
which had preserved me, and had
singled me out to be preserved
when all the rest were destroyed,
or an inquiry whv Providence had
been thus merciful to me.






Even

“BROILED IT ON THE COALS”? (/. 67).

just the same common sort of joy which seamen generally have after they have got safe
ashore from a shipwreck, all which they drown in the next bowl of punch, and forget
almost as soon as it is over, and all the rest of my life was like it. Even when I was
afterwards, on due consideration, made sensible of my condition, how I was cast on this
dreadful place, out of the reach of humankind, out of all hope of relief, or prospect of
redemption, as soon as I saw a probability of living, and that I should not starve and
perish for hunger, all the sense of my affliction wore off; and I began to be very easy,
applied myself to the works proper for my preservation and supply, and was far enough
from being afflicted at my condition, as a ‘judgment from Heaven, or as the hand of
God against me: these were thoughts which very seldom entered into my head.



66 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my Journal, had, at first, some little
influence upon me, and began to affect me with seriousness, as long as I thought it
had something miraculous in it; but as soon as ever that part of the thought was
removed, all the impression which was raised from it wore off also, as I have noted
already. Even the earthquake, though nothing could be more terrible in its nature,
or more immediately directing to the invisible Power which alone directs such things,
yet no sooner was the first fright over but the impression it had made went off also.
I had no more sense of God, or His judgments—much less of the present affliction
of my circumstances being from His hand—than if I had been in the most prosperous
condition of life. But now, when I began to be sick, and a leisurely view of the
miseries of death came to place itself before me ; when my spirits began to sink under
the burden of a strong distemper, and nature was exhausted with the violence of the
fever, conscience, that had slept so long, began to awake, and I began to reproach
myself with my past life, in which I had so evidently, by uncommon wickedness,
provoked the justice of God to lay me under uncommon strokes, and to deal with
me in so vindictive a manner. These reflections oppressed me from the second
or third day of my distemper; and in the violence, as well of the fever as of the
dreadful reproaches of my conscience, extorted some words from me like praying to
God, though I cannot say they were either a prayer attended with desires or with
hopes: it was rather the voice of mere fright and distress. My thoughts were confused,
the convictions great upon my mind, and the horror of dying in such a miserable
condition raised vapors into my head with the mere apprehensions; and in these
hurries of my soul, I knew not what my tongue might express. But it was rather
exclamation, such as, “ Lord, what a miserable creature am I! If I should be sick, I
shall certainly-die for want of help, and what will become of me?” Then, the tears
burst out of my eyes, and I could say no more for a good while. In this interval, the
good advice of my father came to my mind, and presently his prediction, which I
mentioned at the beginning of this story, viz., that if I did take this foolish step, God
would not bless me, and I would have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neglected
his counsel, when there might be none to assist me in my recovery. “ Now,” said I
aloud, “my dear father’s words are come to pass ; God’s justice has overtaken me, and
I have none to help or hear me. I rejected the voice of Providence, which had
mercifully put me in a posture or station of life wherein I might have been happy and
easy; but I would neither see it myself, nor learn to know the blessing of it from my
parents. I left them to mourn over my folly; and now I am left to mourn under the
consequences of it. I refused their help and assistance, who would have lifted me into
the world, and would have made everything easy to me; and now I have difficulties to
struggle with too great for even nature itself to support, and no assistance, no help,
no comfort, no advice.” Then I cried out, “ Lord, be my help, for I am in great
distress.” This was the first prayer, if I might call it so, that I had made for many
years. But I return to my Journal :—

June 28.—Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I had had, and the fit
being entirely off, J got up; and though the fright and terror of my dream was very
great, yet I considered that the fit of the ague would return again the next day, and



I REFLECT ON MY INGRATITUDE. 67

now was my time to get something to refresh and support myself when 1 should be ill:
and the first thing I did, I filled a large square case-bottle with water, and set it upon
my table, in reach of my bed; and to take off the chill or aguish disposition of the
water, I put about a quarter of a pint of rum into It, and mixed them together. Then
I got me a piece of the goat’s flesh, and broiled it on the coals, but could eat very
little. I walked about, but was very weak, and withal very sad and heavy-hearted in
the sense of my miserable condition, dreading the return of my distemper the next day.
At night, I made my supper of three of the turtle’s eggs, which I roasted in the ashes,
and ate, as we call it, in the shell, and this was the first bit of meat I had ever asked
God’s blessing to, even, as I could remember, in my whole life.

After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself so weak that I could hardly
carry the gun, for I never went out without that; so I went out but a little way, and
sat down upon the ground, looking out upon the sea, which was just before me, and
very calm and smooth. As I sat there, some thoughts such as these occurred to me :—
“What is the earth and sea, of which I have seen so much? Whence is it produced?
And what am I, and all the other creatures, wild and tame, human and brutal?
Whence are we? Sure we are all made by some secret Power, who formed the earth
and sea, the air and sky. And who is that?” ‘Then it followed most naturally—“ It is
God, that has made it all. Well, but then,” it came on strongly, “if God has made all
these things, He guides and governs them all, and all things that concern them; for
the Being that could make all things must certainly have power to guide and direct
them. Ifso, nothing can happen, in the great circuit of His works, either without His
knowledge or appointment.

“ Andif nothing happens without His knowledge, He knows that I am here, and am
in this dreadful condition; and if nothing happens without His appointment, He has
appointed all this to befall me.” Nothing occurred to my thoughts to contradict any
of these conclusions, and therefore it rested upon me with the greater force, that it
must needs be that God had appointed all this to befall me; that I was brought to
this miserable circumstance by His direction, He having the sole power, not of me only,
but of everything that happened in the world. Immediately it followed—“ Why has
God done this tome? What have I done to be thus used?” My conscience presently
checked me in that inquiry, as if I had blasphemed, and methought it spoke to me
like a voice, “ Wretch, dost ¢iow ask what thou hast done? Look back upon a
dreadful misspent life, and ask thyself, what thou hast zo¢ done? Ask, why is it that
thou wert not long ago destroyed? Why wert thou not drowned in Yarmouth
Roads? killed in the fight, when the ship was taken by the Salle man-of-war?
devoured by the wild beasts off the coast of Africa? or drowned /ere, when all the
crew perished but thyself? Dost ¢row ask, ‘What have I done?’” I was struck dumb
with these reflections, as one astonished, and had not a word to say—no, not to
answer to myself—but rose up pensive and sad, walked back to my retreat, and went
up over my wall, as if I had been going to bed; but my thoughts were sadly disturbed,
and I had no inclination to sleep; so I sat down in my chair, and lighted my lamp,
for it began to be dark. Now, as the apprehensions of the return of my distemper
terrified me very much, it occurred to my thought that the Brazilians take no physic



68 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

but their tobacco for almost all distempers, and I had a piece of a roll of tobacco in
one of the chests, which was quite cured, and some also that was green, and not quite
cured. :

I went, directed by Heaven, no doubt; for in this chest I found a cure both for
soul and body. I opened the chest, and found what I looked for, viz., the tobacco ;
and as the few books I had saved lay there too, I took out one of the Bibles which I
mentioned before, and which to this time I had not found leisure, or so much as
inclination, to look into.~ I say I took it out, and brought both that and the tobacco
with me to the table. What use to make of the tobacco I knew not, as to my
distemper, or whether it was good for it or no; but I tried several experiments with
it, as if I was resolved it should heal one way or other. I first took a piece of leaf,
and chewed it in my mouth, which indeed, at first, almost stupefied my brain, the
tobacco being green and strong, and that I had not been much used to it) Then I
took some and steeped it an hour or two in some rum, and resolved to take a dose of
it when I lay down; and, lastly, I burnt some upon a pan of coals, and held my nose
close over the smoke of it as long as I could bear it, as well for the heat as the virtue of
it, and I held it almost to suffocation. In the interval of this operation, I took up the
Bible, and began to read; -but my head was too much disturbed with the tobacco to
bear reading, at least at that time: only having opened the book casually, the words
first that occurred to me were these, “ Call upon Me in the day of trouble, and I will
deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify Me.” ‘These words were very apt to my case, and
made some impression upon my thoughts at the time of reading them, though not so
much as they did afterwards; for, as for being de/ivered, the word had no sound, as I
may say, to me: the thing was so remote, so impossible in my apprehension of things,
that I began to say, as the children of Israel did when they were promised flesh to
eat, “Can God spread a table in the wilderness?” so I began to say, “Can God
Himself deliver me from this place?” And as it was not for many years that any
hopes appeared, this prevailed very often upon my thoughts; but, however, the words
made a great impression upon me, and I mused upon them very often It grew now
late, and the tobacco had, as I said, dozed my head so much that I inclined to sleep:
so I left my lamp burning in the cave, lest I should want anything in the night, and
went to bed. But before I lay down, I did what I never had done in all my life: T
kneeled down, and prayed to God to fulfill the promise to me, that if I called upon
Him in the day of trouble, He would deliver me. After my broken and imperfect
prayer was over, I drank the rum in which I had steeped the tobacco, which was so
strong and rank of the tobacco, that indeed I could scarcely get it down; immediately
upon this I went to bed; and I found presently it flew up into my head violently ;
but I fell into a sound sleep, and waked no more till, by the sun, it must necessarily
be near three o’clock in the afternoon the next day; nay, to this hour I am partly of
opinion that I slept all the next day and night, and till almost three the day after; for
otherwise I know not how I should lose a day out of my reckoning in the days of the
week, as it appeared some years after I had done; for if I had lost it by crossing and
re-crossing the line, I should have lost more than one day; but in my account it was
lost, and I never knew which way. Be that, however, one way or other, when I



GRADUAL RECOVERY. 69

awaked I found myself exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively and cheerful; when
I got up I was stronger than I was the day before, and my stomach better, for I was
hungry; and, in short, I had no fit the next day, but continued much altered for the
better. This was the 2gth.

The 30th was my well fi
day, of course, and I went ie
abroad with my gun, but
did not care to travel too
far. I killed a sea-fowl or
two, something like a brand
goose, and brought them
home ; but was not very for-
ward to eat them; so I ate
some more of the turtle’s
eggs, which were very good.
This evening I renewed the
medicine, which I had sup-
posed did me good the day
before, viz., the tobacco
steeped in rum; only I did
not take so much as before,
nor did I chew any of the
leaf, or hold my head over
the smoke; however, I was
not so well the next day,
which was the 1st of July,
as I hoped I should have
been; for I had a little
spice of the cold fit, but
it was not much.

July 2,—I renewed the
medicine all the three ways ;
and dosed myself with it as
at first, and doubled the
quantity which I drank.

July 3.—I missed the fit
for good and all, though I
did not recover my full
strength for some weeks
after. While I was thus gathering strength, my thoughts ran exceedingly upon
this Scripture, “I will deliver thee; and the impossibility of my deliverance lay
much upon my mind, in bar of my ever expecting it; but as I was discouraging
myself with such thoughts, it occurred to my mind that I pored so much upon my
deliverance from the main affliction, that I disregarded the deliverance I had







tp NW

“| WENT UP THE CREEK FIRST” (f. 71).



70 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

received, and I was, as it were, made to ask myself such questions as these, viz. :
“Have I not been delivered, and wonderfully too, from sickness? from the most
distressed condition that could be, and that was so frightful to me? and what notice
had I taken of it? Had I done my part? God had delivered me, but I had not
glorified Him; that is to say, I had not owned and been thankful for that as a
deliverance; and how could I expect greater deliverance?” This touched my heart
very much; and immediately I kneeled down, and gave God thanks aloud for my
recovery from my sickness.

July 4.—In the morning, I took the Bible; and beginning at the New Testament,
I began seriously to read it, and imposed upon myself to read awhile every morning
and every night; not ‘tying myself to the number of chapters, but as long as my
thoughts should engage me. It was not long after I set seriously to this work, till I
found my heart more deeply and sincerely affected with the wickedness of my past life.
The impression of my dream revived; and the words, “All these things have not
brought thee to repentance,” ran seriously in my thoughts. I was earnestly begging
of God to give me repentance, when it happened providentially the very day that,
reading the Scripture, I.came to these words: “ He is exalted a Prince and a Saviour,
to give repentance and to give remission.” I threw down the book; and with my heart
as well as my hands lifted up to heaven, in a kind of ecstasy of joy, I cried out aloud,
“Jesus, Thou Son of David! Jesus, Thou exalted Prince and Saviour! give me
repentance!” This was the first time I could say, in the true sense of the words,
that I prayed in all my life; for now I prayed with a sense of my condition, and with a
true Scripture view of hope, founded on the encouragement of the Word of God; and
from this time, I may say, I began to have hope that God would hear me.

Now I began to construe the words mentioned above, “ Call on Me, and I will
deliver thee,” in a different sense from what I had ever done before ; for then I had no
notion of anything being called deliverance but my being delivered from the captivity
I was in; for though I was indeed at large in the place, yet the island was certainly
a prison to me, and that in the worst sense in the world. But now I learned to take
it in another sense; now I looked back upon my past life with such horror, and my
sins appeared so dreadful, that my soul sought nothing of God but deliverance from
the load of guilt that bore down all my comfort. As for my solitary life, it was
nothing ; I did not so much as pray to be delivered from it, or think of it; it was all of
no consideration, in comparison of this. And I added this part here, to hint to
whoever shall read it, that whenever they come to a true sense of things, they will find
deliverance from sin a much greater blessing than deliverance from affliction.

But, leaving this part, I return to my Journal :—

My condition began now to be, though not less miserable as to-my way of living,
yet much easier to my mind: and my thoughts being directed, by a constant reading
the Scripture and praying to God, to things of a higher nature, I had a great deal of

comfort within, which, till now, I knew nothing of; also, my health and strength
returned, I bestirred myself to furnish myself with everything that I wanted) a and make
my way of living as regular as I could.

From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly employed in walking about with



THE FERTILE SIDE OF THE ISLAND. 71

my gun in my hand, a little and a little at a time, as a man that was gathering up his
strength after a fit of sickness: for it is hardly to be imagined how low I was, and to
what weakness I was reduced. ‘The application which I made use of was perfectly
new, and perhaps what had never cured an ague before; neither can I recommend it
to any one to practice, by this experiment; and though it did carry off the fit, yet
it rather contributed to weaken me; for I had frequent convulsions in my nerves and
limbs for some time; I learned from it also this, in particular, that being abroad in the
rainy season was the most pernicious thing to my health that could be, especially in
those rains which came attended with storms and hurricanes of wind; for as the rain
which came in a dry season was always most accompanied with such storms, so I
found this rain was much more dangerous than the rain which fell in September and
October.

I had now been in this unhappy island above ten months; all possibility of
deliverance from this condition seemed to be entirely taken from me; and I firmly
believed that no human shape had ever set foot upon that place. Having now secured
my habitation, as I thought, fully to my mind, I had a great desire to make a more
perfect discovery of the island, and to see what other productions I might find, which
yet I knew nothing of.

It was the 15th of July that I began to take a more particular survey of the
island itself. I went up the creek first; where, as I hinted, I brought my rafts on
shore. I found, after I came about two miles up, that the tide did not flow any
higher; and that it was no more than a little brook of running water, and very fresh
and good: but this being the dry season, there was hardly any water in some parts of
it; at least, not enough to run in any stream, so as it could be perceived. On the banks
of this brook, I found many pleasant savannahs or meadows, plain, smooth, and covered
with grass; and on the rising parts of them, next to the higher grounds, where the
water, as it might be supposed, never overflowed, I found a great deal of tobacco,
green, and growing to a great and very strong stalk; there were divers other plants,
which I had no notion of or understanding about, and might, perhaps, have virtues of
their own, which I could not find out. I searched for the cassava root, which the
Indians in all that climate make their bread of, but I could find none. I saw large
plants of aloes, but did not then understand them. I saw several sugar-canes, but
wild and, for want of cultivation, imperfect. I contented myself with these discoveries
for this time, and came back, musing with myself what course I might take to know
the virtue and goodness of any of the fruits of plants which I should discover; but
could bring it to no conclusion: for, in short, I had made so little observation while I
was in the Brazils, that I knew little of the plants of the field; at least, very little that
might serve me to any purpose now in my distress.

The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again; and after going something
further than I had gone the day before, I found the brook and savannahs cease, and
the country became more woody than before. _In this part I found different fruits, and
particularly I found melons upon the ground, in great abundance, and grapes upon
the trees: the vines had spread indeed over the trees, and the clusters of grapes were
just now in their prime, very ripe and rich. This was a surprising discovery, and I



72 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

was exceeding glad of them; but I was warned by my experience to eat sparingly of
them, remembering that, when I was ashore in Barbary, the eating of grapes killed
several of our Englishmen, who were slaves there, by throwing them into fluxes and
fevers. But I found an excellent use for these grapes: and that was, to cure or dry



‘“T SOWED MY GRAIN” (fp. 75).

them in the sun, and keep them as dried grapes or raisins are kept, which I thought
would be, as indeed they were, as wholesome and as agreeable to eat, when no grapes
night be had.

I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my habitation, which, by the
way, was the first night, as I might say, I had lain from home. In the night I took
my first contrivance, and got up into a tree, where I slept well; and the next morning
proceeded upon my discovery, traveling nearly four miles, as I might judge by the
length of the valley, keeping still due north, with a ridge of hills oa the south and





“T DESCENDED A LITTLE ON THE SIDE OF THAT DELICIOUS VALLEY.”

(See p. 73.)






FRESH DISCOVERIES. 73

north side of me. At the end of this march I came to an opening, where the
country seemed to descend to the west; and a little spring of fresh water, which
issued out of the side of the hill by me, ran the other way, that is, due east; and
the country appeared so fresh, so green, so flourishing, everything being in a constant
verdure, or flourish of spring, that it looked like a planted.garden. I descended a
little on the side of that delicious valley, surveying it with a secret kind of pleasure,
though mixed with other afflicting thoughts, to think that this was all my own; that
I was king and lord of all this country indefeasibly, and had a right of possession ;
“and, if I could convey it, I might have it in inheritance as completely as any lord of
a manor in England. I saw here abundance of cocoa-trees, orange and lemon, and
citron-trees ; but all wild, and few bearing any fruit, at least not then. However, the
green limes that I gathered were not only pleasant to eat, but very wholesome; and I
mixed their juice afterwards with water, which made it very wholesome, and very cool
and refreshing. I found now I had business enough to gather and carry home; and
I resolved to lay up a store, as well of grapes as limes and lemons, to furnish
myself for the wet season, which I knew was approaching. In order to do this, I
gathered a great heap of grapes in one place, a lesser heap in another place, and a
great parcel of limes and lemons in another place ;-and taking a few of each with me,
I traveled homeward, and resolved to come again, and bring a bag or sack, or what
I could make to carry the rest home. Accordingly, having spent three days in this
journey, I came home (so I must now call my tent and my cave); but before I got
thither, the grapes were spoiled; the richness of the fruit, and the weight of the juice,
having broken them and bruised them, they were good for little or nothing: as to the
limes, they were good, but I could bring but a few.

The next day, being the 19th, I went back, having made me two small bags to
bring home my harvest; but I was surprised when, coming to my heap of grapes,
which were so rich and fine when I gathered them, I found them all spread abroad,
trodden to pieces, and dragged about, some here, some there, and abundance eaten
and devoured. By this I concluded there were some wild creatures thereabouts, which
had done this; but what they were I knew not. However, as I found there was no
laying them up on heaps, and no carrying them away in a sack, but that one way they
would be destroyed, and the other way they would be crushed with their own weight,
I took another course; for I gathered a large quantity of the grapes, and hung them
upon the out branches of the trees, that they might cure and dry in the sun; and as
for the limes and lemons, I carried as many back as I could well stand under.

When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with great pleasure the
fruitfulness of that valley, and the pleasantness of the’ situation; the security from
storm on that side of the water, and the wood;- and concluded that I had pitched
upon a place to fix my abode which was by far the worst part of the country. Upon
the whole, I began to consider of removing my habitation, and to look out for a
place equally safe as where now I was situate, if possible, in that pleasant, fruitful
part of the island.

This thought ran long in my head, and I was exceeding fond of it for some time,
the pleasantness of the place tempting me; but when I came to a nearer view of it, I



74 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

considered that I was now by the sea-side, where it was at least possible that some-
thing might happen to my advantage; and that the same ill fate that brought me
hither, might bring some other unhappy wretches to the same place; and though it
was scarce probable that any such thing should ever happen, yet to inclose myself
among the hills and woods in the center of the island was to anticipate my bondage,
and to render such an affair not only improbable but impossible ; and that therefore I
ought not by any means to remove. However, I was so enamored with this place
that I spent much of my time there for the whole remaining part of the month of July;
and though, upon second thoughts, I resolved as above not to remove, yet I built me
a little kind of a bower, and surrounded it at a distance with a strong fence, being a
double hedge, as high as I could reach, well staked, and filled between with brush-
wood; and here I lay very secure, sometimes two or three nights together, always
going over it with a ladder as before; so that I fancied now I had my country house
and my sea-coast house; and this work took me up to the beginning of August.

I had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy my labor, but the rains
came on, and made me stick close to my first habitation; for though I had made me
a tent like the other, with a piece of a sail, and spread it very well, yet I had not the
shelter of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a cave behind me to retreat into when
the rains were extraordinary.

About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my bower, and began to
enjoy myself. The 3d of August, I found the grapes I had hung up were perfectly
dried, and indeed were excellent good raisins of the sun; so I began to take them
down from the trees, and it was very happy that I did so, for the rains which followed
would have spoiled them, and I had lost the best part of my winter food; for I had
above two hundred large bunches of them. No sooner had I taken them all down,
and carried most of them home to my cave, but it began to rain; and from hence,
which was the 14th of August, it rained more or less every day till the middle of
October, and sometimes so violently that I could not stir out of my cave for several
days.

In this season I was much surprised with the increase of my family; I had been
concerned for the loss of one of my cats, who ran away from me, or, as I thought, had
been dead, and I heard no more tidings of her till, to my astonishment, she came
home about the end of August, with three kittens. This was the more strange to me
because, though I had killed a wild cat, as I called it, with my gun, yet I thought it
was a quite different kind from our European cats; but the young cats were the same
kind of house-breed as the old one; and both my cats being females, I thought it very
strange. But from these three cats I afterwards came to be so pestered with cats, that
I was forced to kill them like vermin, or wild beasts, and to drive them from my house
as much as possible.

From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain, so that I could not stir, and
was now very careful not to be much wet. In this confinement, I began to be
straitened for food: but venturing out twice, I one day killed a goat; and the last
day, which was the 26th, found a very large tortoise, which was a treat to me, and my
food was regulated thus:—I ate a bunch of raisins for my breakfast; a piece of the



THE ANNIVERSARY OF MY SHIPWRECK. 7

ur

goat’s flesh, or of the turtle, for my dinner, broiled (for, to my great misfortune, I had
no vessel to boil or stew anything), and two or three of the turtle’s eggs for supper.

During this confinement in my cover by the rain, I worked daily two or three
hours at enlarging my cave, and by degrees worked it on towards one side, till I came
to the outside of the hill, and made a door or way out, which came beyond my fence
or wall; and so I came in and out this way. But I was not perfectly easy at lying so
open; for, as I had managed myself before, I was in a perfect inclosure; whereas now,
I thought, I lay exposed, and yet I could not perceive that there was any living thing
to fear; the biggest creature that I had yet seen upon the island being a goat.

Sept. 30.—I was now come to the unhappy anniversary of my landing. I cast up
the notches on my post, and found I had been on shore three hundred and sixty-five
days. I kept this day as a solemn fast, setting it apart for religious exercise, prostrating
myself on the ground with the most serious humiliation, confessing my sins to God,
acknowledging His righteous judgment upon me, and praying to Him to have mercy
on me through Jesus Christ; and having not tasted the least refreshment for twelve
hours, even till the going down of the sun, I then ate a biscuit-cake and a bunch of
grapes, and went to bed, finishing the day as I began it. I had all this time observed
no Sabbath-day, for as at first I had no sense of religion upon my mind, I had, after
some time, omitted to distinguish the weeks by making a longer notch than ordinary
for the Sabbath-day, and so did not really know what any of the days were; but now,
having cast up the days as above, I found I had been there a year; so I divided
it into weeks, and set apart every seventh day for a Sabbath; though I found at the
end of my account I had lost a day or two in my reckoning. A little after this, my
ink began to fail me, and so I contented myself to use it more sparingly, and to
write down only the most remarkable events of my life, without continuing a daily
memorandum of other things.

The rainy season and the dry season began to now appear regular to me, and I
learned to divide them so as to provide for them accordingly; but I bought all my
experience before I had it, and this I am going to relate was one of the most dis-
couraging experiments that I made at all.

I have mentioned that I had saved the few ears of barley and rice which I had so
surprisingly found spring up, as I thought, of themselves; and I believe there were
about thirty stalks of rice, and about twenty of barley; and now I thought it a proper
time to sow it, after the rains, the sun being in his southern position, going from me.
Accordingly, I dug up a piece of ground as well as I could with my wooden spade,
and dividing it into two parts, I sowed my grain; but as I was sowing, it casually
occurred to my thoughts that I would not sow it all at first, because I did not
know when was the proper time for it, so I sowed about two-thirds of the seed.
leaving about a handful of each. It was a great comfort to me afterwards that I did
so, for not one grain of that I sowed this time came to anything; for the dry months
following, the earth having had no rain after the seed was sown, it had no moisture to
assist its growth, and never came up at all till the wet season had come again, and
then it grew as if it had been newly sown. Finding my first seed did not grow, which
I easily imagined was by the drought, I sought for a moister piece of ground, to



76 ROBINSON CRUSOE. .

make another trial in, and I dug up a piece of ground near my new bower, and sowed
the rest of my seed in February, a little before the vernal equinox ; and this, having the
rainy months of March and April to water it, sprang up very pleasantly, and yielded a
very good crop; but having part of the seed left only, and not daring to sow all that I
had got, I had but a small quantity at last, my whole crop not amounting to above half
a peck of each kind. But by this experiment I was made master of my business, and
knew exactly when the proper season was to sow, and that I might expect two seed-
times and two harvests every year. While this corn was growing I made a little
discovery, which was of use to me afterwards. As soon as the rains were over, and the
weather began to settle, which was about the month of November, I made a visit up
the country to my bower, where, though I had not been some months, I found all
things just as I left them. The circle or double hedge that I had made was not only
firm and entire, but the stakes which I had cut off of some trees that grew thereabouts
were all shot out and grown with long branches, as much as a willow-tree usually
shoots the first year after lopping its head. I could not tell what tree to call it that
the stakes were cut from. I was surprised, and yet very well pleased, to see the young
trees grow; and I pruned them, and led them up to grow as much alike as I could;
and it is scarcely credible how beautiful a figure they grew into, in three years ; so that
though the hedge made a circle of about twenty-five yards in diameter, yet the trees,
for such I might now call them, soon covered it, and it was a complete shade, sufficient
to lodge under all the dry season. This made me resolve to cut some more stakes,
and make me a hedge like this in a semicircle round my wall (I mean that of my first
dwelling), which I did; and placing the trees or stakes in a double row, at about eight
yards distance from my first fence, they grew presently, and were at first a fine cover
to my habitation, and afterwards served for a defense also, as I shall observe in its
order.

I found now that the seasons, of the year might generally be divided, not into
summer and winter, as in Europe, but into the rainy seasons and the dry seasons,
which were generally thus:

The half of February, the whole of March, and the half of April—rainy, the sun
being then on or near the equinox.

The half of April, the whole of May, June, and July, and the half of August—dry,
the sun being then to the north of the line.

The half of August, the whole of September, and the half of October—rainy, the
sun being then come back.

The half of October, the whole of November, December; and January, and the half
of February—dry, the sun being then to the south of the line.

The rainy seasons sometimes held longer or shorter as the winds happened to
blow, but this was ‘he general observation I made. After I had found, by experience,
the ill consequence of being abroad in the rain, I took care to furnish myself with
provisions beforehand, that I might not be obliged to go out, and I sat within doors
as much as possible during the wet months. In this time I found much employment,
and very suitable also to the time, for I found great occasion of many things which I
had no way to furnish myself with but by hard labor and constant application;



BASKET-MAKING. 77

particularly, I tried many ways to make myself a basket, but all the twigs I could get
for the purpose proved so brittle that they would do nothing. It proved of excellent
advantage to me now that when I was a boy I used to take great delight in standing
at a basket-maker’s, in the town where my father lived, to see them make their



“1 KNOCKED If DOWN WITH A STICK” (f. 79).

wicker-ware ; and being, as boys usually are, very officious to help, and a great observer
of the manner how they worked those things, and sometimes lent a hand, I had by this
means so full knowledge of the methods of it, that I wanted nothing but the materials ;
when it came into my mind that the twigs of that tree from whence I cut my stakes
that grew might possibly be as tough as the sallows, willows, and osiers in England, and
I resolved to try. Accordingly, the next day I went to my country house, as I called
it, and cutting some of the smaller twigs, I found them to my purpose as much as I



78 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

could desire; whereupon I came the next time prepared with a hatchet to cut down
a quantity, which I soon found, for there was a great plenty of them. ‘These I set up
to dry within my circle of hedges, and when they were fit for use, I carried them to my
cave; and here, during the next season, I employed myself in making, as well as I
could, a great many baskets, both to carry earth or to carry or lay up anything, as I
had occasion; and though I did not finish them very handsomely, yet I made them
sufficiently serviceable for my purpose; and thus, afterwards, I took care never to be
without them; and as my wicker-ware decayed, I made more, especially strong, deep
baskets to place my corn in, instead of sacks, when I should come to have any
quantity of it.

Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of time about it, I bestirred
myself to see, if possible, how to supply two wants.. I had no vessel to hold anything
that was liquid, except two runlets, which were almost full of rum, and some glass
bottles—some of the common size, and others which were case-bottles, square, for the
holding of water, spirits, etc. I had not so much as a pot to boil anything in, except
a great kettle, which I saved out of the ship, and which was too big for such uses as
I desired it for—viz., to make broth and stew a bit of meat by itself. The second
thing I fain would have had was a tobacco-pipe, but it was impossible for me to make
one; however, I found a contrivance for that, too, at last. I employed myself in
planting my second row of stakes or pile’, and in this wicker-work, all the summer or
dry season, when another business took me up more time than it could be imagined I
could spare.

I mentioned before that I had a great mind to see the whole island, and that I had
traveled up the brook, and so on to where I built my bower, and where I had an
opening quite to the sea on the other side of the island. I now resolved to travel
quite across to the sea-shore on that side; so, taking my gun, a hatchet, and my dog,
and a larger quantity of powder and shot than usual, with two biscuit-cakes and a
great bunch of raisins in my pouch for my store, I began my journey. When I had
passed the vale where my bower stood, as above, I came within view of the sea to
the west, and it being a very clear day, I fairly descried land—whether an island ora
continent I could not tell; but it lay very high, extending from the W. to the W.S.W.,
at avery great distance; by my guess, it could not be less than fifteen or twenty
leagues off.

I could not tell what part of the world this might be, otherwise than that I knew
it must be part of America, and, as I concluded, by all my observations, must be near
the Spanish dominions, and perhaps was all inhabited by savages, where, if I should
have landed, I had been in a worse condition than I was now; and therefore I
acquiesced in the dispositions of Providence, which I began now to own and to believe
ordered everything for the best; I say I quieted my mind with this, and left afflicting
myself with fruitless wishes of being there.

Besides, after some pause-upon this affair, I considered that if this land was the
Spanish coast, I should certainly, one time or other, see some vessel pass or
repass one way or other; but if not, then it was the savage coast between the
Spanish country and the Brazils, which were’ indeed the worst of savages; for



“A TABLE IN THE WILDERNESS.” 79

they are cannibals, and fail not to murder and devour all the human bodies that
fall into their hands.
With these considerations I walked very leisurely forward. I found that side of



sweet, adorned with flowers and grass, and full of very fine woods. I saw abundance
of parrots, and fain would I have caught one, if possible, to have kept it to be tame,
and taught it to speak to me. I did, after some painstaking, catch a young parrot, for
I knocked it down with a stick, and having recovered it, I brought it home; but it
was some years before I could make him speak; however, at last, I taught him to call
me by my name very familiarly. But the accident that followed, though it be a trifle,
will be very diverting in its place.

I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found in the low grounds hares
(as I thought them to be) and foxes; but they differed greatly from all the other kinds
I had met with, nor could I satisfy myself to eat them, though I killed several. But
I had no need to be venturous, for I had no want of food, and of that which was very
good, too, especially these three sorts, viz., goats, pigeons, and turtle, or tortoise, which,
added to my grapes, Leadenhall Market could not have furnished a table better than I,
in proportion to the company; and though my case was deplorable enough, yet I had
great cause for thankfulness that I was not driven to any extremities for food, but had
rather plenty, even to dainties.

I never traveled in this journey above two miles outright in a day, or thereabouts ;
but I took so many turns and returns to see what discoveries I could make, that I
came weary enough to the place where I resolved to sit down for all night; and then
I either reposed myself in a tree, or surrounded myself with a row of stakes set upright
in the ground, either from one tree to another, or so as no wild creature could come
at me without waking me. As soon as I came to the sea-shore I was surprised to see
that I had taken up my lot on the worst side of the island, for here, indeed, the shore
was covered with innumerable turtles, whereas, on the other side I had found but three
in ayearandahalf. Here was also an infinite number of fowls of many kinds, some
of which I had not seen before, and many of them very good meat, but such as I knew
not the names of, except those called penguins.

I could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very sparing of my powder and
shot, and therefore had more mind to kill a she-goat, if I could, which I could better
feed on; and though there were many goats here, more than on the other side of the
island, yet it was with much more difficulty that I could come near them, the country
being flat and even, and they saw me much sooner than when I was on the hills.

I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than mine; but yet I had
not the least inclination to remove, for as I was fixed in my habitation it became
natural to me, and I seemed all the while I was here to be as it were upon a journey,
and from home. However, I traveled along the shore of the sea towards the east, I
suppose about twelve miles, and then setting up a great pole upon the shore for a
mark, I concluded I would go home again, and that the next journey I took should
be on the other side of the island east from my dwelling, and so round till I
came to my post again, of which in its place.



80 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I took another way to come back than that I went, thinking I could easily keep
all the island so much in my view, that I could not miss finding my first dwelling by
viewing the country; but I found myself mistaken, for, being come about two or three

7 ; miles, I found myself descended
ro into a very large valley, but so
as OF 1 surrounded with hills, and those

hills covered with wood, that I
could not see which was my
way by any direction but that
of the sun, nor even then unless
I knew very well the position
of the sun at that time of the
day. It happened, to my further
misfortune, that the weather
proved hazy for three or four
days while I was in this valley,
and not being able to see the
sun, I wandered about very un-
comfortably, and at last was
obliged to find out the sea-side,
look for my post, and come back the
same way I went; and then, by easy
journeys, I turned homeward, the weather
being exceeding hot, and my gun, ammu-
nition, hatchet, and other things, very



heavy.

In this journey my dog surprised a
young kid, and seized upon it, and I
running in to take hold .of it, caught it,
and saved it alive from the dog. I had
a great mind to bring it home if I could,
for I had often been musing whether it
- might not be possible to get a kid or two,
and so raise a breed of tame goats, which might supply me when my powder and shot
should be spent. I made a collar to this little creature, and with a string, which I
made of some rope-yarn, which I always carried about. me, I led him along, though with
some difficulty, till I came to my bower, and there I inclosed him and left him, for
I was very impatient to be at home, from whence I had been absent above a month.

I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come into my old hutch, and
lie down in my hammock-bed. This little wandering journey, without settled place of
abode, had been so unpleasant to me that my own house, as I called it to myself, was
a perfect settlement to me, compared to that; and it rendered everything about me so
comfortable, that I resolved I would never go a great way from it again, while it
should be my lot to stay on the island,

‘AN INFINITE NUMBER OF FOWLS” (J. 79).



THE SECOND ANNIVERSARY. “ 81

I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale myself after my long journey ;
during which, most of the time was taken up in the weighty affair of making a cage
for my Poll, who began now to be a mere domestic, and to be mighty well acquainted
with me. Then I began to think of the poor kid which I had pent in within my little
circle, and resolved to go and fetch it home, or give it some food; accordingly I went,
and found it where I left it, for indeed it could not get out, but was almost starved for
want of food. I went and cut boughs of trees, and branches of such shrubs as I
could find, and threw them over, and having fed it, I tied it as I did before, to lead it
away; but it was so tame with being hungry that I had no need to have tied it, for
it followed me like a dog; and as I continually fed it, the creature became so loving,
so gentle, and so fond, that it became from that time one of my domestics also, and
would never leave me afterwards.

The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come, and I kept the 3oth of
September in the same solemn manner as before, being the anniversary of my landing
on the island, having now been there for two years, and no more prospect of being
delivered than the first day I came there. I spent the whole day in humble and
thankful acknowledgments of the many wonderful mercies which my solitary condition
was attended with, and without which it might’ have been infinitely more miserable.
I gave humble and hearty thanks that God had been pleased to discover to me that
it was possible I might be more happy in this solitary condition than I should have
been in a liberty of society, and in all the pleasures of the world: that He could fully
make up to me the deficiencies of my solitary state, and the want of human society,
by His presence, and the communication of His grace to my soul; supporting,
comforting, and encouraging me to depend upon His providence here, and hope for
His eternal presence hereafter.

It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much more happy the life I now led
was, with all its miserable circumstances, than the wicked, cursed, abominable life I
led all the past part of my days; and now having changed both my sorrows and my
joys, my very desires altered, my affections changed their gusts, and my delights were
perfectly new from what they were at first coming, or, indeed, for the two years past.

Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting, or for viewing the country, the
anguish of my soul at my condition would break out upon me on a sudden, and my
very heart would die within me, to think of the woods, the mountains, the deserts I
was in, and how I was a prisoner, locked up with the eternal bars and bolts of the
ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness, without redemption. In the midst of the greatest
composures of my mind, this would break out upon me like a storm, and make me
wring my hands, and weep like a child: sometimes it would take me in the middle of
my work, and I would immediately sit down and sigh, and look upon the ground for
an hour or two together; and this was still worse to me, for if I could burst out into
tears, or vent myself by words, it would go off, and the grief having exhausted itself
would abate.

But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts. I daily read the Word of
God, and applied all the comforts of it to my present state. One morning, being very
sad, I opened the Bible upon these words: “I will never leave thee, nor forsake thee.”



82 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Immediately it occurred that these words were to me; why else should they be
directed in such a manner, just at the moment when I was mourning over my con-
dition, as one forsaken of God and man? “Well, then,” said I, “if God does not
forsake me, of what ill consequence can it be, or what matters it, though the world
should all forsake me, seeing, on the other hand, if I had all the world, and should
lose the favor and blessing of God, there would be no comparison in the loss? ”

From this moment I began to conclude in my mind that it was possible for me to
be more happy in this forsaken, solitary condition, than it was probable I should ever
have been in any other particular state in the world; and with this thought I was
going to give thanks to God for bringing me to this place. I know not what it was,
but something shocked my mind at that thought, and I durst not speak the words.
“ How canst thou become such a hypocrite,” said I, even audibly, “to pretend to be
thankful for a condition which, however thou mayest endeavor to be contented with,
thou wouldst rather pray heartily to be delivered from?” So I stopped there; but
though I could not say I thanked God for being there, yet I sincerely gave thanks to
God for opening my eyes, by whatever afflicting providences, to see the former
condition of my life, and to mourn for my wickedness, and repent. I never opened
the Bible, or shut it, but my very soul within me blessed God for directing my friend
in England, without any order of mine, to pack it up among my goods, and for
assisting me afterwards to save it out of the wreck of the ship.

Thus, and in this disposition of mind, I began my third year; and though I have
not given the reader the trouble of so particular an account of my works this year as
the first, yet in general it may be observed that I was very seldom idle, but having
regularly divided my time according to several daily employments that were before
me, such as, first, my duty to God, and the reading the Scriptures, which I constantly
set apart some time for, thrice every day; secondly, the going abroad with my gun for
food, which generally took up three hours in every morning, when it did not rain;
thirdly, the ordering, curing, preserving, and cooking what I had killed or caught for
my supply: these took up great part of the day; also, it is to be considered that in
the middle of the day, when the sun was in the zenith, the violence of the heat was too
great to stir out; so that about four hours in the evening was all the time I could be
supposed to work in, with this exception, that sometimes I changed my hours of
hunting and working, and went to work in the morning, and abroad with my gun in
the afternoon.

To this short time allowed for labor,,I desire may be added the exceeding
laboriousness of my work; the many hours which, for want of tools, want of help, and
want of skill, everything I did took up out of-my time: for example, I was full two-
and-forty days in making a board for a long shelf, which I wanted in my cave;
whereas two sawyers, with their tools and a saw-pit, would have cut six of them out
of the same tree in half a day.

My case was this: it was to be a large tree which was to be cut down, because my
board was to be a broad one. This tree I was three days a-cutting down, and two
more cutting off the boughs, and reducing it to a log, or piece of timber. With
inexpressible hacking and hewing, I reduced both the sides of it into chips till it



MARAUDERS. 83

began to be light enough to move; then I turned it, and made one side of it smooth
and flat as a board from end to end; then turning that side downward, cut the other
side till I brought the plank to be about three inches thick, and smooth on both sides.
Any one may judge the labor of my hands in such a piece of work; but labor and
patience carried me through that, and many other things; I only observe this in
particular, to show the reason why so much of my time went away with so little work,
viz., that what might be a little to be done with help and tools, was a vast labor and
required a prodigious time to do alone, and by hand. But notwithstanding this, with
patience and labor, I went through many things, and indeed everything that my
circumstances made necessary to me to do, as will appear by what follows.

I was now in the months of November and December, expecting my crop of barley
and rice. The ground I had manured or dug up for them was not great; for, as I
observed, my seed of each was not above the quantity of half a peck, for I had lost
one whole crop by sowing in the dry season: but now my crop promised very well,
when ona sudden I found I was in danger of losing it all again by enemies of several
sorts, which it was scarcely possible to keep from it; as, first, the goats, and wild
creatures which I called hares, which, tasting the sweetness of the blade, lay in it night
and day, as soon as it came up, and ate it so close that it could get no time to shoot
up into stalk.

This I saw no remedy for but by making an inclosure about it with a hedge, which
I did with a great deal of toil, and the more because it required a great deal of speed;
the creatures daily spoiling my corn. However, as my arable land was but small,
suited to my crop, I got it totally well fenced in about three weeks’ time; and shooting
some of the creatures in the day-time, I set my dog to guard it in the night, tying him
up to a stake at the gate, where he would stand and bark all night long; so in a little
time the enemies forsook the place, and the corn grew very strong and well, and
began to ripen apace.

But as the beasts ruined me before, while my corn was in the blade, so the birds
were as likely to ruin me now, when it was in the ear; for going along by the place
to see how it throve, I saw my little crop surrounded with fowls, of I know not how
many sorts, who stood, as it were, watching till I should be gone. I immediately let
fly among them, for I always had my gun with me. I had no sooner shot but there
rose up a little cloud of fowls, which I had not seen at all, from among the corn itself.

‘This touched me sensibly, for I foresaw that in a few days they would devour all
my hopes; that I should be starved, and never be able to raise a crop at all; and what
to do I could not tell; however, I resolved not to lose my corn, if possible, though I
should watch it night and day. In the first place, I went among it, to see what
damage was already done, and found they had spoiled a good deal of it; but that as it
was yet too green for them, the loss was not so great but the remainder was likely to
be a good crop, if it could be saved.

I stayed by it to load my gun, and then coming away, I could easily see the thieves
sitting upon all the trees about me, as if they only waited till I was gone away, and the
event proved it to be so; for as I walked off, as if I was gone, I was no sooner out of
their sight but they dropped down one by one into the corn again. I was so provoked



84 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

‘that I could not have patience to stay till more came on, knowing that every grain that

they ate now was, as it might be said, a peck-load to me in the consequence; but
coming up to the hedge, I fired again, and killed three of them. This was what I
wished for;
so I took
them up, and
served them
as we serve
notorious
thieves in
England,
viz., hanged
them in
chains, for a
terror to
others. It is
impossible
to imagine
almost that this should have had
such an effect as it had, for the
fowls would not only not come at
the corn, but, in short, they forsook
all that part of the island, and I could
never see a bird near the place as long as
my scarecrows hung there. This I was very
glad of, you may be sure, and about the
latter end of December, which was our second harvest
of the year, I reaped my corn. .

I was sadly put to it for a scythe or sickle to cut
it down, and all I could do was to make one, as well_
as I could, out of one of the broad-swords, or cutlasses,
which I saved among the arms out of the ship. How-
ever, as my crop was but small, I had no great diffi-
culty to cut it down; in short, I reaped it in my way,
for I cut nothing off but the ears, and carried it away
in a great basket which I had made, and so rubbed
it out with my hands; and at the end of all my
harvesting, I found that out of my half-peck of seed
I had near two bushels of rice, and above two bushels and a half of barley; that is
to say, by my guess, for I had no measure at that time.

However, this was a great encouragement to me, and I foresaw that in time it
would please God to supply me with bread: and yet here I was perplexed again, for I
neither knew how to grind or make meal of my corn, or indeed how to clean it and
part it; nor, if made into meal, how to make bread of it; and if how to make it, yet I





‘*] FIRED AGAIN.”



Full Text
COPY RIGHT 1897 BY

“os Joderuiy,
Rha

‘ NewYorrm



THE
‘LIFE AND ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE.




















“THIS WAS GAME INDEED.”

(See p. 2c.)
The Life and Strange
Ss Oe Adventures of
ROBINSON CRUSOE,

Oi Vork Mariner, as Related
by Himself. |

BY

DaNIEL DEFOE,



With One Hundred and Twenty Original Illustrations by
WALTER PAGET.



McLOUGHEIN BROTHERS,

New-York.
PUBLISHERS’ NOTE.
By arrangement with Messrs. Cassell and Company,
London, the illustrations to this edition of ‘‘ Robinson
Crusoe”? have been printed from electrotypes from the

original wood engravings.


PAGE

“THIS WAS GAME INDEED” . : ; . . : : . (Frontispiece)
HEADPIECE . . : : . . : : : ; : 7 wd
“*you’RE BUT A FRESH-WATER SAILOK’” . — . : : ts 2 25
“WE WALKED ON FOOT TO YARMOUTH” ; : es : . » 8
“SURPRISED IN THE GRAY OF THE MORNING” . : . ° : . 12
“T PROVED VERY DEXTEROUS” . . . : : oo. ° « I3
“*Tr yOU COME NEAR THE BOAT, ’LL SHOOT you’” . ; : é . 16
“WE FILLED OUR JARS” : 7 : ; ; : . : 7 - 17
“] BOUGHT ME A NEGRO SLAVE” . ; : . : . : i 2
“LOOKING OVER THE CHARTS”. : ~ a . , ; : . 28
“WE HASTENED OUR DESTRUCTION WITH OUR OWN HANDS” . . . 29
“T WAS NOW LANDED” . . : : : : . ; : . 32
“SHOES THAT WERE NOT FELLOWS” . ; : : ; : : . 33
“] ESPIED A SMALL PIECE OF ROPE” . : ‘ : : : to face 33
“TY PELL FAST ASLEEP” : ; ; oo. : . : . . 36
“A CONFUSED SCREAMING AND CRYING” : . . : . : . 40
“THE KID FOLLOWED ME” . : ; : : : ; . : » 45
“T WANTED NOTHING THAT HE COULD FETCH ME” : : Loe . 48
“THEY ALL FACED ABOUT UPON THE DOG”. |. : : . : - 52
“A KIND OF WILD PIGEONS” : : ‘ . : 2 : . 53
“T WAS SURPRISED AND. PERFECTLY ASTONISHED” . a . - 56
“GRINDING MY TOOLS” . . . . . . : ; : - 587
“T CAUGHT A YOUNG DOLPHIN” . : ‘ ; j : . . . 60
“A LARGE TORTOISE, OR TURTLE” . . : ; : ; : . 61

“BROILED IT ON THE COALS” A : ; 7 * : : : . 65
vi ROBINSON CRUSOE.

PAGE
“T WENT UP THE CREEK FIRST” . : . . . : ° : . 69
“T SOWED MY GRAIN” . . : : wad it 8 : 72

I DESCENDED A LITTLE ON. ‘THE SIDE OF THAT DELICIOUS VALLEY e to face 72

“I KNOCKED IT DOWN WITH A STICK” - . i . . : be 99
“AN INFINITE NUMBER OF FOWLS” ; . : : . : : . 80
“] FIRED AGAIN” : : : : : ‘ : : : : . 84
“] HANGED THEM IN CHAINS”. . . : : : : . . 85
“WHAT ODD, MISSHAPEN, UGLY THINGS I MADE” . : ; . . 89
“T RESOLVED TO DIG INTO THE SURFACE OF THE EARTH”. * : . - 93
“J MADE ME-A SUIT OF CLOTHES” . : . . : . : . 97
“T BROUGHT IT INTO THE CREEK” ; ‘ : : : . : . 100
“] FELL ON MY KNEES” fis ; . : : : : : . 105
“HOW LIKE A KING I DINED”. . . . : . . : . 109
“1 sTOOD LIKE ONE THUNDERSTRUCK” 3 : ‘ . ; to face 112
“JT HAD MY COUNTRY SEAT” ; : . : é . . . 093
‘““My EVENING DIVERSION” 117
“4 PLACE WHERE THERE HAD BEEN A FIRE MADE”. : : : . 120
“TO SEE IF I COULD OBSERVE ANY BOATS” : : ; : . . 124
“7 STIRRED HIM A LITTLE” . : . : : : ! : . 128
‘, LIGHT OF SOME FIRE UPON THE SHORE” . : : : : . 132
“THE CORPSE OF A DROWNED BOY”. ; : ; : : . . 137
“DBEGAN TO EXAMINE THE PARTICULARS”. } : : : : . 140
“DANCING ROUND THE FIRE” . . : : . . . oT
“T WAS THEN OBLIGED TO SHOOT” : . : : : : to face 145
“aT ONE BLOW CUT OFF HIS HEAD” . : : : : : ‘ . 148
“T PRESENTED MY PIECE” . : . . . . . . . . 153
“{ ENTERED INTO A LONG DISCOURSE” — . . . : . ; . 157
“UPON SEEING THIS ROAT, FRIDAY STOOD MUSING A GREAT WHILE”. . 161
“INCH BY INCH UPON GREAT ROLLERS” 164
“IN THIS POSTURE WE MARCHED OUT” eee : : = 7-4 , 168
“] FIRED AGAIN AMONG THE AMAZED WRETCHES ” . : : : . 169
“1 MADE DIRECTLY TOWARDS ‘THE POOR VICTIM” 5 : : lo face 169
“WRINGING MY SWORD OUT OF HIS HAND” —_. : . é 7 . 173
“My EYE PLAINLY DISCOVERED A SHIP LYING AT AN ANCHOR”. . 0. 177
“WHAT ARE YE, GENTLEMEN? ’” : . es : ‘ 2 2 e0 RSI
“THEY BEGGED FOR MERCY” : : ; : : : : é . 184
“HE MADE ROBINSON HAIL THEM” ; : ; . : ‘ : . 192

“sHoT THE NEW CAPTAIN THROUGH THE HEAD” . ; to face 192
LIST: OF I1,LUSTRATIONS.

“7 SHOWED THEM ‘THE NEW CAPTAIN HANGING AT THE YARD-ARM OF THE SHIP”

“UPON THIS HE PULLS OUT AN- OLD POUCH”
“mvO OF THE WOLVES FLEW UPON THE GUIDE”. .

“*wHatT, YOU NO COME FARTHER?’” . ; :

“THEY CAME ON US WITH A GROWLING KIND OF A NOISE”-

Part HK.

“T FARMED UPON MY OWN LAND” ; , : 3
“I~ WAS ALL TO NO PURPOSE” . : ; : i
“THE SHIP BLEW UP” , : . ; . : :
“THE MATE BROUGHT SIX MEN WITH HIM” . . ‘

ey FOUND THE POOR MEN ON BOARD ALMOST IN A TUMULT

”

“T CAME FAIR ON THE SOUTH SIDE OF MY ISLAND
“po you NOT KNOW ME ?’”

“BADE THEM STAND OFF”

“WITH ONE BLOW OF HIS FIST KNOCKED HIM DOWN”
“THEY CAME UP IN A VERY SUBMISSIVE, HUMBLE MANNER”
“THEY WERE SURPRISED WITH SEEING A LIGHT”

“INDIANS JUST COMING ON SHORE”. . : .
“PLACED HIMSELF BETWEEN HIM AND THE SAVAGE”
“THREE STRANGE MEN COMING TOWARDS HIM”. .
“DREW LOTS AMONG THEM”.

”

“THREE SAVAGES LEFT BEHIND, AND LYING FAST ASLEEP

“ALL THEIR HUTS AND HOUSEHOLD STUFF FLAMING UP TOGETHER

“CAME RANGING ALONG THE SHORE” . : : .
“DISPATCHED THESE POOR CREATURES” ‘ . :
“ATE THEIR PROVISIONS VERY THANKFULLY ”

“IN THIS GREAT BEE-HIVE LIVED THE THREE FAMILIES”
“WE MADE A SPLENDID FEAST”

“MADE EVERY ONE A LIGHT COAT”. . . :
“WE WALKED ON” : i ; ‘
“MADE ME A VERY LOW BOW”. . . : :
“THEY ALL CAME TO ME”, : : : . :
“ATKINS AND HIS TAWNY WIFE” . . . ; i
“WE CALLED HIM IN ALONE”

“MADE HER KNEEL BY HIM”

°

”

to fuce

to face

to face

vil
PAGE

197
201

205
209

212

257
261

2604
272
277

280

288

321
viii ROBINSON CRUSOE.

“WE MARRIED THEM THE-SAME DAY”

“| HAVE BROUGHT YOU AN ASSISTANT” : .
“GAVE THEM SUCH A BROADSIDE” . :
“GIVING THEM A SALUTE OF FIVE GUNS”, :
“KILLED POOR FRIDAY” : : . : 3
“WE GAVE THEM A VOLLEY” : : tees
“THE COW WENT ON BEFORE THEM” . : :
“HE SHOWED ME THE POOR FELLOW HANGING” .
“COMES TO ME ONE DAY AN ENGLISHMAN” . .
“COULD SEE THE BOATS AT A DISTANCE” . :
“THEY HAULED HER SAIL” . foe .
“WELL DONE, JACK! GIVE THEM SOME MORE OF IT
“A BOAT CAME OFF” . ;
“BROUGHT ABUNDANCE OF THINGS TO SELL”

“WE CAME TO ME WITH ONE OF THE MISSIONARY PRIESTS”

“aS SOON AS THEY SAW US, ONE OF THEM BLEW A KIND OF

“ KILLED THE SECOND WITH. HIS PISTOL”

“TWO OF THEM SEIZED THE FELLOW AND TOOK THE CAMEL”

“SENT THREE MESSENGERS TO US”
“BROUGHT US IN FINE VENISON”
TAILPIECE —. : cy ‘ ° ’ .



299

HORN

”

369
372

394
403
407
416


~ ROBINSON CRUSOE.

WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good family, though not
of that country, my father being a foreigner, of Bremen, who settled first at
Hull: he got a good estate by merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived

afterwards at York; from whence he had married my mother, whose relations were
named Robinson, a very good family in that country, and from whom I was called
Robinson Kreutznaer; but, by the usual corruption of words in England, we are now
called, nay, we call ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe; and so my companions
always called me. -

I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel to an English
regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded by the famous Colonel Lockhart,
and was killed at the battle near Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What became of
my second brother I never knew, any more than my father or mother did know what
was become of me.

Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade, my head began to be
filled very early with rambling thoughts: my father, who was very ancient, had given
me a competent share of learning, as far as house-education and a country free-school
generally goes, and designed me for the law; but I would be satisfied with nothing
but going to sea; and my inclination to this led me so strongly against the will, nay,
the commands, of my father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of my
mother and other friends, that there seemed to be something fatal in that propension
of nature, tending directly to the life of misery which was to befall me.

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent counsel against
what he foresaw was my design. He called me one morning into his chamber, where
he was confined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with me upon this subject :
he asked me what reasons, more than a mere wandering inclination, I had for leaving
2 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

my father’s house and my native country, where I might be well introduced, and had
a prospect of raising my fortune by application and industry, with a life of ease and
pleasure. He told me it was men of desperate fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring,
superior fortunes on the other, who went abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise
and make themselves famous in undertakings of a nature out of the common road;
that these things were all either too far above me or too far below me; that mine was
the middle state, or what might be called the upper station of low life, which he had
found by long experience was the best state in the world, the most suited. to human
happiness, not exposed to the miseries and hardships, the labor and sufferings of the
mechanic part of mankind, and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and
envy of the upper part of mankind. He told me, I might judge of the happiness of
this state by this one thing, viz., that this was the state of life which all other people
envied; that kings have frequently lamented the miserable consequence of being born
to great things, and wished they had been placed in the middle of the two extremes,
between the mean and the great; that the wise man gave his testimony to this, as the
just standard of true felicity, when he prayed to have neither poverty nor riches.

He bade me observe it, and I should always find, that the calamities of life were
shared among the upper and lower part of mankind; but that the middle station
had the fewest disasters, and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes as the higher
or lower part of mankind; nay, they were not subjected to so many distempers and
uneasiness, either of body or mind, as those were who, by vicious living, luxury, and
extravagances on one hand, or by hard labor, want of necessaries, and mean or
insufficient diet on the other hand, bring distempers upon themselves by the natural
consequences of their way of living; that the middle station of life was calculated for
all kind of virtues and all kind of enjoyments; that peace and plenty were the hand-
maids of a middle fortune; that temperance, moderation, quietness, health, society, all
agreeable diversions, and all desirable pleasures, were the blessings attending the
middle station of life; that this way men went silently and smoothly through the
world, and comfortably out of it, not embarrassed with the labors of the hands or of
the head, not sold to a life of slavery for daily bread, nor harassed with perplexed
circumstances, which rob the soul of peace, and the body of rest; nor enraged with
the passion of envy, or the secret burning lust of ambition for great things; but, in
easy circumstances, sliding gently through the world, and sensibly tasting the sweets
of living, without the bitter; feeling that they are happy, and learning by every day’s
experience to know it more sensibly.

After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate manner, not to
play the young man, nor to precipitate myself into miseries which nature, and the
station of life I was born in, seemed to have provided against; that I was under no
necessity of seeking my bread; that he would do well for me, and endeavor to
enter me fairly into the station of life which he had just been recommending to me;
and that if I was not very easy and happy in the world, it must be my mere fate or
fault that must hinder it; and that he should have nothing to answer for, having thus
discharged his duty in warning me against measures which he knew would be to my
hurt; in a word, that as he would do very kind things for me, if I would stay and
My FATHER’S ADVICE. 3

settle at home as he directed, so he would not have so much hand in my misfortunes
as to give me any encouragement to go away; and to close all, he told me I had my
elder brother for an example, to whom he had used the same earnest persuasions to
keep him from going into the Low Country wars, but could not prevail, his young
desires prompting him to run into the army, where he was killed; and though he said
he would not cease to pray for me, yet he would venture to say to me, that if I did
take this foolish step, God would not bless me, and I should have leisure hereafter to
reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there might be none to assist in my
recovery.

I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly prophetic, though I
suppose my father did not know it to be so himself—I say, I observed the tears run
down his face very plentifully, especially when he spoke of my brother who was
killed; and that when he spoke of my having leisure to repent, and none to assist me,
he was so moved that he broke off the discourse, and told me his heart was so full
he could say no more to me.

I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed who could be otherwise?
and I resolved not to think of going abroad any more, but to settle at home
according to my father’s desire. But, alas! a few days wore it all off; and, in short,
to prevent any of my father’s further importunities, in a few weeks after I resolved to
run quite away from him. However, I did not act quite so hastily neither as the first
heat of my resolution prompted, but I took my mother at a time when I thought her a
little more pleasant than ordinary, and told her that my thoughts were so entirely bent
upon seeing the world, that I should never settle to anything with resolution enough
to go through with it, and my father had better give me his consent than force me to
go without it; that I was now eighteen years old, which was too late to go apprentice
to a trade, or clerk to an attorney; that I was sure, if I did, I should never serve out
my time, but I should certainly run away from my master before my time was out, and
go to sea; and if she would speak to my father to let me go one voyage abroad, if I
came home again, and did not like it, I would go no more, and I would promise, by a
double diligence, to recover the time that I had lost.

This put my mother into a great passion; she told me she knew it would be to no
purpose to speak to my father upon any such subject; that he knew too well what
was my interest to give his consent to anything so much for my hurt; and that she
wondered how I could think of any such thing after the discourse I had had with my
father, and such kind and tender expressions as she knew my father had used to me;
and that, in short, if I would ruin myself, there was no help for me; but I might
depend I should never have their consent to it; that for her part, she would not have
so much hand in my destruction; and I should never have it to say that my mother
was willing when my father was not.

Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet I heard afterwards that she
reported all the discourse to him, and that my father, after showing a great concern
at it, said to her with a sigh: ‘That boy might be happy if he would stay at home;
but if he goes abroad, he will be the most miserable wretch that ever was born; I
can give no consent to it.”
4 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose, though, in the mean-
time, I continued obstinately deaf to all proposals of settling to business, and fre-
quently expostulated with my father and mother about their being so positively
determined against what they knew my inclinations prompted me to. But being one
day at Hull, whither I went casually, and without any purpose of making an elope-
ment at that time—but I say, being there, and one of my companions being going by
sea to London in his father’s ship, and prompting me to go with them, with the common
allurement of a sea-faring man, that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I con-
sulted neither father nor mother any more, nor so much as sent them word of it; but
leaving them to hear of it as they might, without asking God’s blessing, or my father’s,
without any consideration of circumstances or consequences, and in an ill hour, God
knows, on the rst of September, 1651, I went on board a ship bound for London.
Never any young adventurer’s misfortunes, I believe, began sooner or continued
longer than mine. The ship was no sooner got out of the Humber than the wind
began to blow, and the sea to rise, in a most frightful manner; and, as I had never
been at sea before, I was most inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified in mind. I
began now seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and how justly I was overtaken
by the judgment of Heaven for my wicked leaving my father’s house, and abandoning
my duty. All the good counsels of my parents, my father’s tears and my mother’s
entreaties, came now fresh into my mind; and my conscience, which was not yet
come-to the pitch of hardness-to which it has come since, reproached me with the
contempt of advice, and the breach of my duty to God and my father.

All this while the storm increased, and the sea went very high, though nothing
like what I have seen many times since; no, nor what I saw a few days after; but it
was enough to affect me then, who was but a young sailor, and had never known
anything of the matter. JI expected every wave would have swallowed us up, and that
every time the ship fell down, as I thought it did, in the trough or hollow of the sea,
we should never rise more: ‘in this agony of mind I made many vows and resolutions,
that if it would please God to spare my life in this one voyage, if ever I got once my
foot upon dry land again, I would go directly home to my father, and never set it
into a ship again while I lived; that I would take his advice, and never run myself
into such miseries as these any more. Now I saw plainly the goodness of his
observations about the middle station of life, how easy, how comfortable he had lived
all his days, and never had been exposed to tempests at sea, or troubles on shore;
and, in short, I resolved that I would, like a true repenting prodigal, go home
to my father.

These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm lasted, and
indeed some time after; but the next day the wind was abated, and the sea calmer,
and I began to be a little inured to it: however, I was very grave for all that day,
being also a little sea-sick still; but towards night the weather:cleared up, the wind
was quite over, and a charming fine evening followed; the sun went down perfectly
clear, and rose so the next morning; and having little or no wind, and a smooth sea,
the sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most delightful that ever I saw.

I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick, but very cheerful,
AFTER THE STORM. 5

looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough and terrible the day before, and
could be so calm and so pleasant in so little a time after. And now, lest my good
resolutions should continue, my companion who had enticed me away comes to me.



“oe

YOU’RE BUT A FRESH-WATER SAILOR’” (jf. 6).

“Well, Bob,” says he, clapping me upon the shoulder, “how do you do after it?

I warrant you were frighted, wer’n’t you, last night, when it blew but a capful of
wind? ”

“A capful d’you call it?” said I; “’twas a terrible storm.”

“A storm; you fool, you!” replies he; “do you call that a storm? why, it was
nothing at all; give us but a good ship and sea-room, and we think nothing of such a
6 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

squall of wind as that; but you're but a fresh-water sailor, Bob. Come, let us make a
bowl of punch, and we’ll forget all that; d’ye see what charming weather ’tis now?”

To make short this sad part of my story, we went the way of all sailors; the punch
was made, and I was made half drunk with it; and in that one night’s wickedness I
drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon my past conduct, all my resolutions
for the future. In a word, as the sea was returned to its smoothness of surface and
settled calmness by the abatement of that storm, so the hurry of my thoughts being
over, my fears and apprehensions of being swallowed up by the sea being forgotten,
and the current of my former desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises
that I made in my distress. J found, indeed, some intervals of reflection; and the
serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavor to return again sometimes; but I shook
them off, and roused myself from them as it were from a distemper, and applying
myself to drinking and company, soon mastered the return of those fits, for so I called
them; and I had, in five or six days, got as complete a victory over my conscience as
any young fellow that resolved not to be troubled with it could desire. But I was to
have another trial for it still; and Providence, as in such cases generally it does,
resolved to leave me entirely without excuse; for if I would not take this for a
deliverance, the next was to be such a one as the worst and most hardened wretch
among us would confess both the danger and the mercy.

The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads; the wind having
been contrary, and the weather calm, we had made but little way since the storm.
Here we were obliged to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing
contrary, viz., at south-west, for seven or eight days, during which time a great many
ships from Newcastle came into the same Roads, as the common harbor where the
ships might wait. for a wind for the river.

We had not, however, rid here so long but we should have tided it up the river,
but that the wind blew-too fresh, and, after we had lain four or five days, blew very
hard. However, the Roads being reckoned as good as an harbor, the anchorage
good, and our ground-tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned, and not in the
least apprehensive of danger, but spent the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of
the sea; but the eighth day, in the morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands
at work to strike our top-masts, and make everything snug and close, that the ship
might ride as easy as possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship
rode forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought once or twice our anchor had
come home; upon which our master ordered out the sheet-anchor, so that we rode
with two anchors ahead, and the cables veered out to the better end.

By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began to see terror and
amazement in the faces even of the seamen themselves. The master, though vigilant
in the business of preserving the ship, yet as he went in and out of his cabin by me,
I could hear him softly to himself say, several times, “ Lord, be merciful to us! we
shall be all lost! we shall be all undone!” and the like. During these first hurries I:
was stupid, lying still in my cabin, which was in the steerage, and cannot describe my
temper. I could ill resume the first penitence, which I had so apparently trampled
upon, and hardened myself against: I thought the bitterness of death had been past,
THE STORM IN VARMOUTIT ROADS. 7

and that this would be nothing too, like the first; but when the master himself came
by me, as I said just now, and said we should be all lost, I was dreadfully frighted. ~ I
got up out of my cabin, and looked out; but such a dismal sight I never saw; the
sea ran mountains high, and broke upon us every three or four minutes. When
I could look about, I could see nothing but distress round us; two ships that rode near
us, we found, had cut their’ masts by the board, being deep-laden; and our men cried
out that a ship which rode about a mile ahead of us was foundered. Two more ships,
being driven from their anchors, were run out of the Roads to sea, at all adventures,
and that not with a mast standing. ‘The light ships fared the best, as not so much
laboring in the sea; but two or three of them drove, and came close by us, running
away with only their spritsail out before the wind.

Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master of our ship to let them
cut away the foremast, which he was very unwilling to do; but the boatswain
protesting to him that if he did not the ship would founder, he consented; and when
they had cut away the foremast, the mainmast stood so loose, and shook the ship so
much, they were obliged to cut that away also, and make a clear deck.

And one must judge what a condition I must be in at all this, who was but a young
sailor, and who had been in such a fright before at but a little. But if I can express
at this distance the thoughts I had about me at that time, I was in tenfold more horror
of mind upon account of my former convictions, and the having returned from them to
the resolutions I had wickedly taken at first, than I was at death itself; and these,
added to the terror of the storm, put me into such a condition, that I can by no words
describe it. But the worst was not come yet; the storm continued with such fury,
that the seamen themselves acknowledged they had never seen a worse. We hada
good ship, but she was deep-laden, and wallowed in the sea, so that the seamen every
now and then cried out she would founder. It was my advantage, in one respect,
that I did not know what they meant by founder, till J inquired. However, the storm
was so violent that I saw, what is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some
others more sensible than the rest, at their prayers, and expecting every moment when
the ship would go to the bottom. In the middle of the night, and under all the rest of
our distresses, one of the men that had been down to see, cried out we had sprung a
leak ; another said there was four feet water in the hold. Then all hands were called
to the pump. At that word, my heart, as I thought, died within me; and I fell back-
wards upon the side of my bed, where I sat, into the cabin. However, the men
roused me, and told me that I, that was able to do nothing before, was as well able
to pump as another; at which I stirred up, and went to the pump, and worked very
heartily. While this was doing, the master seeing some light colliers who, not
able to ride out the storm, were obliged to slip and run away to the sea, and would
come near us, ordered to fire a gun as a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing what
they meant, thought the ship had broken, or some dreadful thing happened. Ina
word, I was so surprised that I fell down in a swoon. As this was a time when every-
body had his own life to think of, nobody minded me, or what was become of me;
but another man stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot, let me
lie, thinking I had been dead; and it was a great ‘while before I came to myself.
8. ROBINSON CRUSOE.

We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it was apparent that the ship
would founder; and though the storm began to abate a little, yet as 1t was not possible
she could swim till we might run into any port, so the master continued firing guns for
help; and a light ship, who had rid it out just ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help



‘‘'WE WALKED ON FOOT TO
YARMOUTH” (f. 9).

us. It was with the utmost hazard the boat came near us; but it was impossible for
us to get on board or for the boat to lie near the ship’s.side, till at last the men rowing
very heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope over the
stern with a buoy to it, and then veered it out a great length, which they, after much
labor and hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them close under our stern, and got all
into their boat. It was to no purpose for them or us, after we were in the boat, to
My OBSTINACY. 9

think of reaching to their own ship; so all agreed to let her drive, and only to pull her
in towards shore as much as we could; and our master promised them that if the
boat was staved upon shore, he would make it good to their master: so partly rowing,
and partly driving, our boat went away to the northward, sloping towards the shore
almost as far as Winterton Ness.

We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our ship till we saw her
sink, and then I understood for the first time what was meant by a ship foundering in
the sea. I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up when the seamen told me
she was sinking; for from the moment that they rather put me into the boat, than
that I might be said to go in, my heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly with
fright, partly with horror of mind, and the thoughts of what was yet before me.

While we were in this condition, the men yet laboring at the oar to bring the
boat near the shore, we could see (when, our boat mounting the waves, we were
able to see the shore) a great many people running along the strand, to assist us
when we should come near; but we made but slow way towards the shore; nor were
we able to reach the shore till, being past the lighthouse at Winterton, the shore
falls off to the westward, towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a little the violence
of the wind. Here we got in, and, though not without much difficulty, got all safe on
shore, and walked afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were
used with great humanity, as well by the magistrates of the town, who assigned us good
quarters, as by particular merchants and owners of ships, and had money given us
sufficient to carry us either to London or back to Hull, as we thought fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and have gone home, I had
been happy, and my father, an emblem of our blessed Saviour’s parable, had even
killed the fatted calf for me; for nearing the ship I went away in was cast away in
Yarmouth Roads, it was a great while before he had any assurances that I was not
drowned.

But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that nothing could resist ; and
though I had several times loud calls from my reason, and my more composed
judgment, to go home, yet I had no power to do it. I know not what to call this,
nor will I urge that it is a secret overruling decree that hurries us on to be the
instruments of our own destruction, even though it be before us, and that we rush
upon it with our eyes open. Certainly, nothing but some such decreed unavoidable
misery attending, and which it was impossible for me to escape, could have pushed me
forward against the calm reasonings and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and
against two such visible obstructions as I had met with in my first attempt.

My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who was the master’s
son, was now less forward than I. The first time he spoke to me after we were at
Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days, for we were separated in the town to
several quarters—I say, the first time he saw me, it appeared his tone was altered;
and looking very melancholy, and shaking his head, he asked me how I did, and
telling his father who I was, and how I had come this voyage only for a trial, in order
to go farther abroad: his father turning to me with a very grave and concerned tone,
“Young man,” says he, “ you ought never to go to sea any more; you ought to take
10 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

this for a plain and visible token that you are not to be a sea-faring man.” ‘ Why,
sir,” said I, “will you go to sea no more?” ‘That is another case,” said he; ‘‘it is
my calling, and therefore my duty; but as you made this voyage for a trial, you see
what a taste Heaven has given you of what you are to expect if you persist. Perhaps
this has all befallen us on your account, like Jonah in the ship of ‘Tarshish. Pray,”
continues he, “what are you; and on what account did you go to sea?” Upon that
I told him some of my story; at the end of which he burst out into a strange kind of
passion: ‘What had I done,” says he, ‘that such an unhappy wretch should come
into my ship? I would not set my foot in the same ship with- thee again for a
thousand pounds.” ‘This indeed was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits, which were
yet agitated by the sense of his loss, and was farther than he could have authority to
go. However, he afterwards talked very gravely to me, exhorting me to go back to
my father, and not tempt Providence to my ruin; telling me I might see a visible hand
of Heaven against me. “And, young man,” said he, “depend upon it, if you do not
go back, wherever you go, you will meet with aeline but disasters and disappoint:
ments, till your father’s words are fulfilled upon you.”

We parted soon after, for I made him little answer, and I saw him no more; which
way he went Iknownot. As for me, having some money in my pocket, I traveled to
London by land; and there, as well as on the road, had many struggles with myself
what course of life I should take, and whether I should go home or go to sea.

As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered to my thoughts ;
and it immediately occurred to me how I should be laughed at among the neighbors,
and should be ashamed to see, not my father and mother only, but even everybody
else; from whence I have often since observed how incongruous and irrational the
common temper of mankind is, especially of youth, to that, reason which ought to
guide them in such cases, viz., that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed
to repent; not ashamed of the action for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools,
but are ashamed of the returning which only can make them be esteemed wise men.

In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain what measures to
take, and what course of life to lead. An irresistible reluctance continued to going
home; and as I stayed“awhile, the remembrance of the distress I had been in wore
off; and as that abated, the little motion I had in my desires to a return wore off with
it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.

That evil influence which carried me first away from my father’s house, which
hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of raising my fortune; and that
impressed those conceits so forcibly upon me, as to make me deaf to all good advice,
and to the entreaties and even the commands of my father—I say, the same influence,
whatever it was, presented the most unfortunate of all enterprises to my view; and I
went on board a vessel bound to the coast of Africa; or, as our sailors vulgarly call
it, a voyage to Guinea.”

* Guinea.—A district of that part of the West Coast of Africa where the land runs nearly due
east and west. The six countries into which it is divided are known to sailors under the names
of Sierra Leone, Grain Coast, Ivory Coast, Gold Coast, S!ave Coast, and Benin.
A VOVAGE TO GUINEA. II

It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I did not ship myself as a
sailor; when, though I might indeed have worked a little harder than ordinary, yet at
the same time I should have learned the duty and office of a foremast man, and in time
might have qualified myself for a mate or lieutenant, if not for a master. But as it
was always my fate to choose for the worst, so I did here; for having money in my
pocket, and good clothes upon. my back, I would always go on board in the habit of a
gentleman; and so I neither had any business in the ship nor learned to do any.

It was my lot first of all to-fall into pretty. good company in London, which does
not always happen to such loose and misguided young fellows as I then was; the devil
generally not omitting to lay some snare for them very early; but it was not so with
me. I first got acquainted with the master of a ship who had been on the coast of
Guinea; and who, having had very good success there, was resolved to go again; this
captain taking a fancy to my conversation, which was not at all disagreeable at that
time, hearing me say I had a mind to see the world, told me if I would go the voyage
with him, I should be at no expense; I should be his messmate and his companion;
and if I could carry anything with me, I should have all the advantage of it that the
trade would admit; and perhaps I might meet with some encouragement.

I embraced the offer; and entering into a strict friendship with this captain, who
was an honest, plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with him, and carried a small
adventure with me, which, by the disinterested honesty of my friend the captain, I
increased very considerably ; for I carried about £40 in such toys and trifles as the
captain directed me to buy. This £40 I had mustered together by the assistance of
some of my relations whom I corresponded with, and who, I believe, got my father, or
at least my mother, to contribute so.much as that to my first adventure.

This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in all my adventures, and
which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my friend the captain ; under whom also I
got a competent knowledge of the mathematics and the rules of navigation, learned
how to keep an account of the ship’s course, take an observation, and, in short, to
understand some things that were needful to be understood by a sailor; for, as he
took delight to instruct me, I took delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage made
me both a sailor and a merchant; for I brought home five pounds nine ounces of
gold-dust for my adventure, which yielded me in London, at my return, almost
#300; and this filled me with'those aspiring thoughts which have since so completed
my ruin.

Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too; particularly, that I was con-
tinually sick, being thrown into a violent calenture by the excessive heat of the climate;
our principal trading being upon the coast, from the latitude of fifteen degrees north,
even to the line itself.

I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my great misfortune,
dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage again, and I embarked
in the same vessel with one who was his mate in the former voyage, and had now got
the command of the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage that ever man made; for
though I did not carry quite £100 of my new-gained wealth, so that I had £200 left
which I had lodged with my friend’s widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell into
ROBINSON CRUSOE.

fe
wo



““SURPRISED IN THE GRAY OF THE
MORNING.”



terrible misfortunes in this voyage; and the first was this, viz., our ship making her
course towards the Canary Islands, or rather between those islands and the African
shore, was surprised in the gray of the morning by a Moorish rover of Sallee, who gave
chase to us with all the sail she could make. We crowded also as much canvas as our
yards would spread, or our masts carry, to have got clear; but finding the pirate
gained upon us, and would certainly come up with us in a few hours, we prepared to
fight; our ship having twelve guns, and the rogue eighteen. About three in the
afternoon he came up with us, and bringing-to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter,
instead of athwart our stern as he intended, we brought eight of our guns to bear on
that side, and poured in a broadside upon him, which made him sheer off again, after
returning our fire, and pouring in also his small shot from near two hundred men
which he had on board. However, we had not a man touched, all our men keeping
close. He prepared to attack-us again, and we to defend ourselves; but laying us on
board the next time upon our other quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks,
who immediately fell to cutting and hacking the sails and rigging. We plied them
with small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and such like, and cleared our deck of them
twice. However, to cut short this melancholy part of our story, our ship being
disabled, and three of our men killed, and eight wounded, we were obliged to yield,
and were carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I apprehended; nor was
I carried up the country to the Emperor’s court, as the rest of our men were, but was
kept by the captain of the rover as his proper prize, and made his slave, being young
PRISONER AT SALLEE. 13

and nimble, and fit for his business. At this surprising change of my circumstances
from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed ; and now I looked
back upon my father’s prophetic discourse to me, that I should be miserable and have
none to relieve me; which J thought was now so effectually brought to pass, that I
could not be worse; for now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and-I was un-
done without redemption. But, alas! this was but a taste of the misery I was to go
through, as will appear in the sequel of this story.

As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house, so I was in hopes
that he would take me with him when he went to sea again, believing that it would some
time or. other be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portuguese man-of-war; and
that then I should be set. at liberty. But this hope of mine was soon taken away ;
for when he went to sea, he left me on shore to look after his little garden, and do
the common drudgery of slaves about his house; and when he came home again from
his cruise, he ordered me to lie in the cabin to look after the ship.

Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I might take to
effect it; but found no way that had the least probability in it; nothing presented
to make the supposition of it rational; for I had nobody to communicate it to that
would embark with me; no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or Scotsman there
but myself; so that for two years, though I often pleased myself with the imagination,
yet I never had the least encouraging prospect of putting it in practice.

After. about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself, which put the old
thought of making some attempt for my liberty again in my head. My patron lying .
at home longer than usual without |
fitting out his ship, which, as I
heard, was for want of money, he
used constantly, once or twice a
week, sometimes oftener, if the
weather was fair, to take. the
ship’s pinnace, and go out into
the road a-fishing; and as he
always took me and a young
Moresco with him to row the boat,
we made him very merry; and I
proved very dexterous in catching
fish; insomuch. that sometimes he
would send me with a Moor, one

of his kinsmen, and the youth, the
Moresco, as they called him, to 2
catch a dish of fish for him. Ae

It happened one time that,
going a-fishing with him in a calm.
morning, a fog rose so thick, that
though we were not half a league
trom the shore, we lost sight of “T PROVED VERY DEXTEROUS.”


14 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

it; and rowing we knew not whither or which way, we labored all day, and all the
next night; and when the morning came, we found we had pulled out to sea instead
of pulling in for the shore; and that we were at least two leagues from the land.
However, we got well in again, though with 4 great deal of labor, and some danger ;
for the wind began to blow picay {fresh in the morning; but particularly we were all
very hungry.

But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more care of himself
for the future; and having lying by him the long-boat of our English ship which he
had taken, he resolved he would not go a-fishing any more without a compass and
some provision; so he ordered the carpenter of his ship, who also was an English
slave, to build a little state-room, or cabin, in the middle of the long-boat, like that of
a barge, with a place to stand behind it to steer, and haul home the main-sheet; and
room before for a.hand or two to stand and work the sails. She sailed with what we
call a shoulder-of-mutton sail; and the boom jibbed over the top of the cabin, which
lay very snug and low, and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a
table to eat on, with some small lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor as he
thought fit to drink; and particularly his bread, rice, and coffee.

We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing; and as I was most dexterous to
catch fish for him, he never went without me. It happened that he had appointed
to go out in this boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors of
some distinction in that place, and for whom he had provided extraordinarily, and had
therefore sent on board the boat over-night a larger store of provisions than usual;
and had ordered me to get ready three fusils * with powder and shot, which were on
board his ship, for that they designed some sport of fowling as well as fishing.

I got all things ready as he had directed; and waited the next morning with
the boat washed clean, her ancient t and pendants out, and everything to accommo-
date his guests; when by and by my patron came on board alone, and told me his
guests had put off going, from some business that fell out, and ordered me, with
the man and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat and catch them some fish; for
that his friends were to sup at his house; he commanded me, too, that as soon as I had
got some fish, I should bring it home to his house: all which I prepared to do.

This moment, my former notions of deliverance darted into my thoughts, for now
I found I was likely to have a little ship at my command; and my master being gone,
I prepared to furnish myself, not for fishing business, but for a voyage; though I knew
not, neither did Iso much as consider, whither I would steer; for anywhere to get
out of that place was my desire. : .

My first contrivance was to make a pretense to speak to this Moor, to get something
for our subsistence on board; for I told him we must not presume to eat of our
patron’s bread. He said, that was true; so he brought a large basket of rusk or
biscuit of their kind, and three jars with fresh water, into the boat. I knew where my
patron’s case of bottles stood, which it was evident, by the make, were taken out of

* Fusil, a French word, meaning a light musket or firelock.
t Ancient, the old word, derived from the French exseiyne, for a flag, or the man who carries it.
My ESCAPE. 15

some English prize, and I conveyed them into the boat while the Moor was on
shore, as if they had been there before for our master. I conveyed also a great lump of
beeswax into the boat, which weighed about half an hundredweight, with a parcel of
‘twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all of which were of great use to
us afterwards, especially the wax to make candles. Another trick I tried upon him
which he innocently came into also: his name was Ismael, which they call Muley,
or Moely; so I called to him: “ Moely,” said I, “ our patron’s guns are all on board
the boat; can you not get a little powder and shot? It may be we may kill some
alcamies” (a fowl like our curlews) “for ourselves, for I know he keeps the gunner’s
stores in the ship.” “Yes,” says he, “I'll bring some: ” accordingly, he brought a
great leather pouch, which held about a pound and a half of powder, or rather more;
‘and another with shot, that had five or six pounds, with some builets, and put all into
the boat. At the same time, I had found some powder of my master’s in the great
cabin, with which I filled one of the large bottles in the case, which was almost empty,
‘pouring what was in it into another; and thus furnished with everything needful, we
sailed out of the port to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of the port, knew
who we were, and took no notice of us; and we were not above a mile out of the
port before we hauled in our sail, and sat us down to fish. The wind blew from the
N.N.E., which was contrary to my desire; for had it blown southerly, I had been sure
to have made the coast of Spain, and at least reached to the bay of Cadiz; but my
resolutions were, blow which way it would, I would be gone from that horrid place
where I was, and leave the rest to fate..

After we had fished. some time and caught nothing, for when I had fish on my
hook I would not pull them up, that he might not see them, I said to the Moor,
“This will not. do; our master will not be thus served; we must stand farther off.”
He, thinking no harm, agreed, and, being in the head of the boat, set the sails; and,
as I had the helm, I ran the boat out near a league farther, and then brought her to
as if I would fish; when, giving the boy the helm, I stepped forward to where the
Moor was, and making as if I stooped for something behind him, I took him by
surprise with my arm under his waist, and tossed him clear overboard into the sea.
: He rose immediately, for he swam like a cork, and called to me, begged to be taken
in, telling me he would go all over the world with me. He swam so strong after the
boat, that he would have-reached me very quickly, there being but little wind; upon
which I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented it
at him, and-told him ‘I had done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I would do
him none: “But,” said I, “ you swim well enough to reach the shore, and the sea is
‘calm; make the best of your way to shore, and I will do you no harm; but if you
‘come near the boat, I'll shoot you through the head, for I am resolved to have my
liberty.” So he turned himself about, and swam for the shore, and I make no doubt
-but he reached it with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.

I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me, and have drowned
the boy, but there was no venturing to trust him. When he was gone, I turned to the
boy, whom they called Xury, and said to him, “ Xury, if you will be faithful to me, I’ll
make youa great man; but if you will not stroke your face to be true to me” (that is,






















































































































































































































































« Wir XURY IN THE BOAT. 17

swear by Mahomet and his father’s beard), “I must throw you into the sea too.” The
boy smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently, that I could not mistrust him, and
swore to be faithful to me, and go all over the world with me.

While-I was in the view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood out directly to
sea, with the boat rather stretching to windward, that they might think me gone.



“WE FILLED OUR JARS” (jf. 19).

towards the Straits’ * mouth (as indeed any one that had been in their wits must have
been supposed to do): for who would have supposed we were sailing on to the
southward, to the truly barbarian coast, where whole nations of negroes were sure to
surround us with their canoes, and destroy us; where we could never once go on

shore but we should be devoured by savage beasts, or mere merciless savages of
human kind? a
* Straits, the Straits of Gibraltar.
18 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my course, and steered
directly south and by east, bending my course a little towards the east, that I might
keep in with the shore; and having a fair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth, quiet
sea, I made such sail that I believe by the next day at three o’clock in the afternoon,
when I first made the land, I could not be less than one hundred and fifty miles
south of Sallee: quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions, or indeed of
any other king thereabouts, for we saw no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the dreadful apprehensions
I had of falling into their hands, that I would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an
anchor, the wind continuing fair, till I had sailed in that manner five days; and then,
the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also that if any of our vessels were
in chase of me, they also would now give over; so I ventured to make to the coast,
and came to an anchor in the mouth ofa little river, I knew not what nor where;
neither what latitude, what country, what nation, or what river. I neither saw nor
desired to see any people; the principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came
into this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark,
and discover the country; but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful
noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures, of we knew not what
kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and begged of me not to go
on shore till day. “Well, Xury,” said I, “then I won’t; but it may be we may
see men by day, who will be as bad to us as those lions.” “ ‘Then we give them
the shoot-gun,” says Xury, laughing, “make them run wey.” Such English Xury
spoke by conversing among us slaves. However, I was glad to see the boy so
cheerful, and I gave him a dram (out of our patron’s case of bottles) to cheer him up.
After all, Xury’s advice was good, and I took it: we dropped our little anchor,
and lay still all night: I say still, for we slept none; for in two or three hours we
saw vast great creatures (we knew not what to call them), of many sorts, come
down to the sea-shore, and run into the water, wallowing and washing themselves
for the pleasure of cooling themselves; and they made such hideous howlings and
yellings that I never indeed heard the like.

Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but we were both more
frighted when we heard one mighty creature.come swimming towards our boat; we
could not see him, but we might hear him by his blowing to be a monstrous, huge,
and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion, and it might be so for aught I know;
but poor Xury cried to me to weigh the anchor and row away. “No,” says I, “ Xury,
we can slip our cable, with the buoy to it, and go to sea; they cannot follow us far.”
I had no sooner said- so but I perceived the creature, whatever it was, within two
oars’ length, which something surprised me; however, I immediately stepped to the
cabin-door, and taking up my gun, fired at him; upon which he immediately turned
about, and swam towards the shore again.

But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises and hideous cries and howlings
that were raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as higher within the country,
upon the noise or report of a gun, a thing I have some reason to believe those
creatures had never heard before. ‘This convinced me that there was no going on
We VENTURE ON S/IORE. 19

shore for us in the night upon that coast; and how to venture on shore in the day was
another question too; for to have fallen into the hands of any of the savages, had
been as bad as to have fallen into the paws of lions and tigers; at least we were
equally apprehensive of the danger of it.

Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere or other for water,
for we had not a pint left in the boat; when or where to get it was the point. Xury
said, if I would let him go on shore with one of the jars, he would find ir there was
any water, and bring some to me. I asked him why he would go? why I should not
go, and he stay in the boat? The boy answered with so much affection, that made
me love him ever after. Says he, “If wild mans come, they eat me, you go wey.”
“Well, Xury,” said I, “we will both go, and if the wild mans come, we will kill them,
they shall eat neither of us.” So I gave Xury a piece of rusk-bread to eat, and a dram
out of our patron’s case of bottles which I mentioned before; and we hauled the boat
in as near the shore as we thought was proper, and waded on shore, carrying nothing
Lut our arms, and two jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming of canoes with
savages down the river; but the boy, seeing a low place about a mile up the country,
rambled to it, and by and by I saw him come running towards me. I thought he was
pursued by some savage, or frighted with some wild beast, and I ran forward towards
him to help him; but when I came nearer to him, I saw something hanging over his
shoulders, which was a creature that he had shot, like a hare, but different in color,
and longer legs; however, we were very glad of it, and it was very good meat; but
the great joy that poor Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good water, and
seen no wild mans.

But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for water, for a little
higher up the creek where we were, we found the water fresh when the tide was out,
which flows but a little way up; so we filled our jars, and feasted on the hare we had
killed, and prepared to go on our way, having seen no footsteps of any human creature
in that part of the country.

As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very well that the Islands of
the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd Islands also, lay not far off from the coast. But
as I had no instruments to take an observation to know what latitude we were in, and
did not exactly know, or at least not remember, what latitude they were in, I knew not
where to look for them, or when to stand off to sea towards them; otherwise I might
now easily have found some of these islands. But my hope was that if I stood along
this coast till I came to that part where the English traded, I should find some of their
vessels upon their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take us in.

By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was must be that country
which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions and the negroes, lies waste
and uninhabited, except by wild beasts; the negroes having abandoned it, and gone
farther south, for fear of the Moors; and the Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting,
by reason of its barrenness; and indeed both forsaking it because of the prodigious
numbers of tigers, lions, leopards, and other furious creatures which harbor there; so
that the Moors use it for their hunting only, where they go like an army, two or three
20 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

thousand men at a time: and, indeed, for near a hundred miles together upon this
coast, we saw nothing but a waste uninhabited country by day, and heard nothing but
howlings and roarings of wild beasts by night.

Once or twice in the day-time, I thought I saw the Pico of Teneriffe, being the
high top of the mountain Teneriffe in the Canaries; and had a great mind to venture
out, in hopes of reaching thither; but having failed twice, I was forced in again by
contrary winds, the sea also going too high for my little vessel;'so I resolved to
pursue my first design, and keep along the shore.

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we had left this place;
and once in particular, being early in the morning, we came to an anchor under a little
point of land, which was pretty high; and the tide beginning to flow, we lay still to go
farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about him than it seems mine were, calls
softly to me, and tells me that we had best go farther off the shore; “for,” says he,
“look, yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fast asleep.” -I
looked where he pointed; and saw a dreadful monster indeed, for it was a terrible
great lion that lay on the side of the shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill that
hung as it were a little over him. “ Xury,” says I, “you shall go on sore and kill
him.” Xury looked frighted, and said, “Me kill! he eat me at one mouth;” one
mouthful he meant. However, I said no more to the boy, but bade him be still, and
took our biggest gun, which was almost musket-bore, and loaded it with a good charge
of powder, and with two slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded another gun with two
bullets; and the third (for we had three pieces) I loaded with five smaller bullets.
I took the best aim I could with the first piece to have shot him in the head, but he
lay so, with his leg raised a little above his nose, that the slugs hit his leg about the
knee, and broke the bone. He started up growling at first, but finding his leg broke,
fell down again; and then got up upon three legs, and gave the most hideous roar
that ever I heard. I was a little surprised that I had not hit him on the head;
however, I took up the second piece immediately, and though he began to move off,
fired again, and shot him in the head, and had the pleasure to see him drop; and
making but little noise, he lay struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and would
have me let him go onshore. “Well, go,” said I; so the boy jumped into the water,
and taking the little gun in one hand, swam to shore with the other hand, and coming
close to the creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him in the head
again, which dispatched him quite.

This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I sd very sorry to lose
three charges of powder and shot upon a creature that was good for nothing to us.
However, Xury said he would have some of him; so he comes on board, and asked
me to give him the hatchet. “For what, Xury?” said I. “Me cut off his head,”
said he. However, Xury could not cut off his head, but he cut off a foot, and brought
it with him, and it was a monstrous great one.

I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him might, one way or other,
be of some value to us; and I resolved to take off his skin if Icould. So Xury and I
went to work with him; but Xury was much the better workman at it, for I knew very
ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us up both the whole day, but at last we got off the
TRAFFIC WITH THE NEGROES. 21

hide of him, and spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in
two days’ time, and it afterwards served me to lie upon. ~-

After this stop, we made-on to the southward continually for ten or twelve: days,
living very sparingly on our provisions, which began to abate very much, and going no
oftener into the shore than we were obliged to for fresh water. My design in this was
to make the River Gambia or Senegal; that is to say, anywhere about the Cape de
‘Verd, where I was in hopes to meet with some European ship; and if I did not,
I knew not what course I had to take, but to seek for the islands, or perish there
among the negroes. I knew that all the ships from Europe, which sailed either to the
coast of Guinea or to Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this cape, or those islands ;
-and, in a word, I put the whole of my fortune upon this single point, either that I must
meet with some ship, or must perish. é

When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I have said, I began
to see that the land was inhabited; and in two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw
people stand upon the shore to look at's; we could also perceive they were quite
black, and stark naked. I was once inclined to have gone on shore to them; but
Xury was my better counselor, and said to me, ““No go, no go.” However, I hauled
in nearer the shore that I might talk to them, and I found they ran along the shore by
mea good way: I observed they had no weapons in their hands, except one, who had
a long slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they could throw them a
great way with good aim: so. I kept at a distance, but talked with them by signs as
well as I could; and particularly made signs for something to eat: they beckoned to
me. to stop my boat, and they would fetch me some meat. Upon this, I lowered the
top of my sail, and lay by, and two of them ran up into the country, and in less than
half an hour came back, and brought with them two pieces of dry flesh and some corn,
such as is: the produce of their country; but we neither knew what the one or the
other was: however, we were willing to accept it, but how to come at it was our next
dispute, for I would-not venture on shore to them, and they were as much afraid of us:
but they took a safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore and laid it down,
and went and Sigod: a great way off till we fetched it on board, and then came close
to us again. ze

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make them amends; but
an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige them wonderfully : for while we were
lying on the shore, came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took
it) with great fury from the mountains towards the sea; whether it was the male
pursuing the female, or whether they were in sport or in rage, we could not tell, any
more than-we could tell whether it was usual or strange: but I believe it was the
latter; because, in the first place, those ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the
night ; and, in the second place, we found the people terribly frighted, especially the
women. ‘The man that had the lance’or dart did not fly from them, but the rest did;
however, as the two creatures ran directly into the water, they did not offer to fall upon
any of the negroes, but plunged themselves into the sea, and swam about, as if they
had come for their diversion: at last one of them began to come nearer our boat than
at first I expected; but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with
22 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

all possible expedition, and bade Xury load both the others. ‘As soon as he came
fairly within my reach, I fired, and shot him directly in the head: immediately he
sank down into the water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and down, as‘if he was
struggling for life, and so indeed he was: he immediately made to the shore; but
between the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the water, he died
just before he reached the shore. ;

It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor creatures at the noise
and fire of my gun; some of them were ready even to die for fear, and fell down as
dead with the very terror. But when they saw the creature dead, and sunk into the
water, and that I made signs to them to come to the shore, they took heart and came
to the shore, and began to search for the creature. I found him by his blood staining
the water; and by the help of a rope, which I slung round him, and gave the negroes
to haul, they dragged him on shore, and found that it was a most curious leopard,
spotted, and fine to an admirable degree; and the negroes held up their hands with
admiration, to think what it was I killed him with.

‘The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the noise of the gun, swam to
the shore, and ran up directly to the mountains from whence they came; nor could I
at that distance know what it was. I found quickly the negroes were for eating the
flesh of this creature, so I was willing to have them take it as a favor from me;
which, when I made signs to them that they might take it, they were very thankful for.
Immediately they fell to work with him; and though they had no knife, yet, with a
sharpened piece of wood, they took off his skin as readily, and much more readily,
than we would have done with a knife. They offered me some of the flesh, which I
declined, making as if I would give it them; but made signs for the skin, which they
gave me very freely, and brought me a great deal more of their provision, which,
though I did not understand, yet I accepted. Then I made signs to them for some
water, and held out one of my jars to them, turning its bottom upward, to show that it
was empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They called immediately to some of
their friends, and there came two women, and brought a great vessel made of earth,
and burnt, as I suppose, in the sun; this they set down for me, as before, and I sent
Xury on shore with my jars and filled them all three. The women were as stark
naked as the men.

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and water; and leaving
my friendly negroes, I made forward for about eleven days more, without offering to
go near the shore, till I saw the land run out a great length into the sea, at about the
distance of four or five leagues before me; and the sea being very calm, I kept a large
offing to make this point. At length, doubling the point at about two leagues from the
land, I saw plainly land on the other side, to seaward: then I concluded, as it was
most certain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands called, from
thence, Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were ata great distance, and I could
not well tell what I had best do; for if I should be taken with a fresh gale of wind, I
might neither reach one nor other.

In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the cabin, and sat me down,
Xury having the helm; when, on a sudden, the boy cried out, “ Master, master, a ship
PICKED UP BY A PORTUGUESE SHIP. 23

with a sail!” and the foolish boy was frighted out of his wits, thinking it must needs
be some of his master’s ships sent to pursue us, when I knew we were gotten far
enough out of their reach. I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only
the ship, but that it was a Portuguese ship; and, as I thought, was bound to the coast
of Guinea, for negroes. But, when I observed the course she steered, I was soon
convinced they were bound some other way, and did not design to go any nearer the
shore: upon which I stretched out to the sea as much as I could, resolving to speak
with them if possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to come in their way,
but that they would be gone by before I could make any signal to them; but after I
had crowded to the utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems, saw me by the help
of their perspective glasses, and that it was some European boat, which they supposed
must belong to some ship that was lost; so they shortened sail to let me come up.
I was encouraged with this, and as I had my patron’s ancient on board, I made a waft
of it to them for a signal of distress, and fired a gun, both of which they saw; for they
told me they saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon these signals
they very kindly brought to, and lay by for me; and in about three hours’ time I came
up with them.

They asked me what i was, in. Portuguese, and in Spanish, and in French, but I
understood none of them; but at last a Scotch sailor, who was on board, called to me;
and I answered him, and told him I was an Englishman, that had made my escape out
of slavery from the Moors at Sallee; they then bade me come on board, and very
kindly took me in, and all my goods.

It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will believe, that I was thus
delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable and almost hopeless condition as I
was in; and I immediately offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a return for
my deliverance; but he generously told me, he would take nothing from me, but that
all I had should be delivered safe to me, when I came to the Brazils. ‘‘ For,” says he,
“T have saved your life on no other terms than as I would be glad to be saved myself ;
and it may; one time or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same condition.
Besides,” said he, “when I carry you to the Brazils, so great a way from your own
country, if I should take from you what you have, you will be starved there, and then
I only take away that life I have given. No, no,” says he; “Seignor Inglese” (Mr.
Englishman), “I will carry you thither in charity, and these things will help you to
buy your subsistence there, and your passage home again.”

As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the performance to a tittle ;
for he ordered the seamen that none should offer to touch anything I had: then he
took everything into his own possession, and gave me back an exact inventory of them,
that I might have them, even to my three earthen jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw, and told me, he would
buy it of me for the ship’s use; and asked me what I would have for it. I told him,
he had been so generous to me in everything, that I could not offer to make any price
of the boat, but left it entirely to him: upon which, he told me, he would give me a
note of his hand to pay me eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil; and when it came
24 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

there, if any one offered to give more, he would make it up. He offered me also sixty
pieces of eight more for my boy Xury, which I was loth to take; not that I was
unwilling to let the captain have him, but I was very loth to sell the poor boy’s liberty,
who had assisted me so faithfully in procuring my own. However, when I let him know
my reason, he owned it to be just, and offered me this medium, that he would give the
boy an obligation to set him free in ten years, if he turned Christian; upon this, and
Xury saying he. was willing to go to him, I let the captain have him.

We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived in the Bay de Todos los
Santos, or All Saints Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And now I was once more
delivered from the most miserable of all conditions of life; and what to do next with
myself I was to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never enough remember : the
would take nothing of me for my passage, gave me twenty ducats for the leopard’s
skin, and forty for the lion’s skin, which I .had in my boat, and caused everything I
had in the ship to be punctually delivered to me; and what I was willing to sell, he
bought of me: such as the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of
beeswax, for I had made candles of the rest: in a word, I made about two hundred
and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo; and with this stock, I went on shore.in the
Brazils. i
I had not been long here, but being pasoeamended to the house’ of a good, honest
man, like himself, who had an zmgenio, as they call it (that is, a plantation and.a sugar-
house), I lived with him some. time, and acquainted myself, by that means, with the
manner of their planting and making of sugar; and seeing how well the planters lived,
and how they got rich suddenly,-I resolved, if I.could get a license to settle there, I
would turn planter among them; resolving, in the-meantime, to find out some way to
get my money, which I had left in London, remitted tome. ‘To this purpose, getting
a kind of letter of naturalization, I purchased as much land that was uncured_as. my
money would reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and settlement; such a one
as might be suitable to the stock which I proposed to myself to receive from England.

I had a neighbor, a- Portuguese, of Lisbon, but. born of English parents, whose
name was Wells, and in much such. circumstances as I was. I call him neighbor,
because his plantation lay next to mine, and we went on very sociably. together. My.
stock was but.low, as well as his; and we rather planted for food than anything else,
for about two years. However, we began to increase,.and our land began to come
into order; so that the third year we planted some.tobacco, and made each of us a
large piece of ground ready for planting canes in the year.to come; but we both
wanted help; and now I found, more than before, I had done mE in parting with
my boy Xury. as

But, alas! for me to do wrong that never did right, was no baat ioledien 4 chad
no remedy but to go on: I had got into employment.quite remote to my genius and
directly contrary to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my father’s house,
and broke through all his good.advice; nay, I was coming into the very middle station,
or upper degree of low life, which my father advised me to before, and which, if I
resolved to go on with, I might as well have stayed at home, and never fatigued myself
IN. THE BRAZILS. 25
in the world, as I have done; -and I used often to say to myself, “ I could have done
this as-well in England, among my friends, as have gone five thousand miles off to do
it among strangers and savages, in-a wilderness, and. at such a distance as. never to
hear from any part of the world that had the least: knowledge of me.”

In this manner I used to look upon my condition with-the utmost regret.. I had-
nobody to converse with but now and then this neighbor; no work to be done
but by the labor of my
hands; and I used to say,
I lived just like a man
cast away upon some’ des-
olate island, that had no-
body there but himself.
But how just has it been;
and how should all men
reflect, that. when they
‘compare their presentcon |
ditions with others that.
are worse, Heaven may
oblige them to make the
exchange, and be con-
vinced of their former fe- -
licity by their-experience—
I say, how just has it been
that the truly solitary life
I reflected on, in an island,
or mere desolation, should
be my lot, who had so
often unjustly compared it-
with the life which I then
led, in which, had I con-
tinued, I had in all prob-
ability been exceedingly
prosperous and rich. .

I was, in some degree,
settled in my measures for
carrying on .the plantation
before my kind friend, the captain of the ship that took me up at sea, went back;
for the ship remained there, in providing her lading, and preparing for her voyage,
near three months; when, telling him what little stock I had left behind-me in
London, he gave me this friendly and sincere advice :—“ Seignor Inglese,” says he
(for so he always called me), “if you will give me letters, and a procuration here
in form to me, with orders to the person who has your money in London, to send
your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct, and in such goods as
are. proper for this country, I will bring you the produce of them, God willing, at



‘| BOUGHT ME A NEGRO SLAVE” (#. 26).
26 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

my return; but, since human affairs are all subject to changes and disasters, I would
have you give orders but for one hundred pounds sterling, which, you say, is half
your stock, and let the hazard be run fer the first; so that, if it come safe, you may
order the rest the same way; and if it miscarry, you may have the other half to have
recourse to for your supply.”

This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I could not but be
convinced it was the best course I could take; so I accordingly prepared letters to
the gentlewoman with whom I had left my money, and a procuration to the Portuguese
captain, as he desired.

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full account of all my adventures, my
slavery, escape, and how I had met with the Portuguese captain at sea, the humanity
of his behavior, and what condition I was now in, with all other necessary directions
for my supply; and when this honest captain came to Lisbon, he found means, by
some of the English merchants there, to send over not the order only, but a full
account of my story, to a merchant at London, who represented it effectually to her;
whereupon she not only delivered the money, but out of her own pocket sent the
Portugal captain a. very handsome present for his humanity and charity to me.

The merchant in London vested this hundred pounds in English goods, such as
the captain had written for, sent them directly to him at Lisbon, and- he brought
them all safe to me to the Brazils; among which, without my direction (for I was too
young in my business to think of them), he had taken care to have all sorts of
tools, iron work, and utensils necessary for my plantation, and which were of great use
to me.

When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made, for I was surprised with the
joy of it; and my good steward, the captain, had laid out the five pounds, which my
friend had sent him for a present for himself, to purchase and bring me over a servant,
under bond for six years’ service, and would not accept of any consideration, except a
little tobacco, which I would have him accept, being of my own produce.

Neither was this all; for my goods being all English manufacture, such as cloth,
stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable and desirable in the country, I found
means to sell them at a very great advantage; so that I may say I had more than
four times the value of my first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond my poor
neighbor—I mean in the advancement of my plantation; for the first thing I did,
I bought me a negro slave and an European servant also: I mean another besides that
which the captain brought me from Lisbon.

But as abused prosperity is oftentimes: made the very means of our Senne
adversity, so was it with me. I went on the next year with great success in my
plantation: I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on my own ground, more than I
had disposed of for necessaries among my neighbors; and these fifty rolls, being each
of above a hundredweight, were well cured, and laid by against the return of the fleet
from Lisbon. And now increasing in business and wealth, my head began to be full
of projects and undertakings beyond my reach; such as are indeed often the ruin of
the best heads in business. Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had room
for all the happy things to have yet befallen me, for which my father so earnestly
My PLANTATION IN THE BRAZILS. 27

recommended a quiet, retired life, and which he had so sensibly described the middle
station of life to be full of; but other things attended me, and I was still to be the
willful agent of all my own miseries; and particularly, to increase my fault, and double
the reflections upon myself, which in my future sorrows I should have leisure to make,
all these miscarriages were procured by my apparent obstinate adhering to my foolish
inclination of wandering abroad, and pursuing that inclination, in contradiction to the
clearest views of doing myself good in a fair and plain pursuit of those prospects and
those-measures of life which nature and Providence concurred to present me with, and
to make my duty.

As I had once done thus in breaking away from my parents, so I could not be
content now, but I must go and leave the happy view I had of being a rich and
thriving man in my new plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of
rising faster than the nature of the thing admitted; and thus I cast myself down again
into the deepest gulf of human misery that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be
consistent with life, and a state of health in the world.

To come then by just degrees to the particulars of this part of my story :—You

"may suppose that having now lived almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning to
thrive and prosper very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned the language,
but had contracted acquaintance and friendship among my fellow-planters, as well as
among the merchants of St. Salvadore, which was our port; and that, in my discourse
among them, I had frequently given them an account of my two voyages to the coast
of Guinea, the manner of trading with the negroes there, and how easy it was to
purchase upon the coast for trifles—such as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits
of glass, and the like—not only gold-dust, Guinea grains, elephants’ teeth, etc., but
negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great numbers.

They listened always very attentively to my discourses on these heads, but especially
to that part which related to the buying negroes; which was a trade, at that time, not
only not far entered into, but, as far as it was, had been carried on by the Assiento,
or permission, of the King of Spain.and Portugal, and engrossed in the public stock ;
so that few negroes were brought, and those excessively dear.

It happened, being in company one day with some merchants and planters of my
acquaintance, and talking of those things very earnestly, three of them came to me the
next morning, and told me they had been musing very much upon what I had dis-
coursed of with them the last night, and they came to make a secret proposal to me;
and, after enjoining me secrecy, they told me that they had a mind to fit out a ship to
go to Guinea; that they had all plantations as well as I, and were straitened for
nothing so much as servants; that as it was a trade that could not be carried on,
because they could not publicly sell the negroes when they came home, so they desired
to make but one voyage, to bring the negroes on shore privately, and divide them
among their own plantations; and, in a word, the question was, whether I would go
their supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast of Guinea;
and they offered me that I should have my equal share of the negroes, without pro-
viding any part of the stock.

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made to any one that
28 . ROBINSON CRUSOE.

had not had a settlement and plantation of his own to look after, which was in a
fair way of coming to be very considerable, and with a good stock upon it. But for
me, that was thus entered and established, and had nothing to do but go on as I had
begun, for three or four years more, and to have sent for the other hundred pounds
from England; and
who in that time,
and with that little
addition,.could
scarce have failed of
being worth three or
four thousand pounds
sterling, and that in-
- creasing too—for me
to think of such a
voyage was the most
preposterous thing
that ever man in such
circumstances could
be. guilty of.
But I,. that was
born to be my own.-
destroyer, . could - no
mrore resist the offer
than I could. restrain
my first rambling
designs, when my
father’s good coun-
sel was lost upon
me. In a word, I
told them. I. would
go with all. my heart,
if they would un-
. dertake to look after

my plantation in my
absence, and would dispose of it as I should dined, i€ I miscarried. This they all
engaged to do, and entered into writings and covenants to do so; I made a formal
will, disposing of my plantat’on and effects in case of my death, making the captain
of the ship that had saved my life, as before; my universal heir, but obliging him
to dispose of my effects as I had directed in my will; one-half of the a being
to himself, and the other to be shipped to England... :

In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects, and. to keep up my
plantation. Had I used half as much prudence to have looked into my own interest,
and have made a judgment of what I ought to have done, and not to have done, I had
certainly never gone away from so prosperous an undertaking, leaving all the probable















“LOOKING OVER THE CHARTS” (f. 30).
A VIOLENT TCRNADO. 29

views of a thriving circumstance, and gone upon a voyage to sea, attended with all its
common hazards, to say nothing of the reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes
to myself.

But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my fancy rather than my
reason; and, accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and the cargo finished, and all
things done as by agreement, by my partners in the voyage, I went on board in an
evil hour again, the 1st of September, 1659, being the same day eight years that I
went from my father and mother at Hull, in order to act the rebel to their authority
and the fool to my own interest.

Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden, carried six guns, and
fourteen men, besides the master, his boy, and myself; we had on board no large
cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit for our trade with the negroes, such as
beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles, especially little looking-glasses, knives,
scissors, hatchets, and the lke.

_ The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to the northward upon
our own coasts, with design to stretch over for the African coast, when they came
into about ten or twelve degrees of northern latitude; which, it seems, was the manner
of their course in those days. We had very good weather, only excessively hot, all the
way upon our own coast till we came to the height of Cape St. Augustino; from
whence, keeping farther off at sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if we were
bound for the isle Fernando de Noronha, holding our course N.E. by N., and leaving
those isles on the east. In this course we passed the line in about twelve days’ time,
and were, by our last observation, in seven degrees twenty-two minutes northern
latitude, when a violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge,



‘‘WE HASTENED OUR DESTRUCTION WITH OUR OWN HANDS” (/. 31).
30 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

It began from the south-east, came about to the north-west, and then settled into the
north-east; from whence it blew in such a terrible manner, that for twelve days
together we could do nothing but drive, and, scudding away before it, let it carry us
wherever fate and the fury of the winds directed ; and during these twelve days, I need
not say that I expected every day to be swallowed up; nor did any in the ship expect
to save their lives. ; :

In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of our men died of
the calenture, and a man and a boy washed overboard. About the twelfth day, the
weather abating a little, the master made an observation as well as he could, and found
that he was in about eleven degrees of north latitude, but that he was twenty-two
degrees of longitude difference west from Cape St. Augustino; so that he found he was
gotten upon the coast of Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river
Amazones, towards that of the river Oroonoque, commonly called the Great River;
and now he began to consult with me what course he should take; for the ship was
leaky, and very much disabled, and he was for going directly back to the coast of Brazil.

I was positively against that; and looking over the charts of the sea-coast of
America with him, we concluded there was no inhabited country for us to have
recourse to till we came within the circle of the Caribbee Islands, and therefore
resolved to stand away for Barbadoes; which, by keeping off at sea, to avoid the
in-draft cf the Bay or Gulf of Mexico, we might easily perform, as we hoped, in about
fifteen days’ sail; whereas we could not possibly make our voyage to the coast of
Africa without some assistance both to our ship and to ourselves.

With this design we changed our course, and steered away N.W. by W., in order
to reach some of our English islands, where I hoped for relief; but our voyage was
otherwise determined; for, being in the latitude of twelve degrees eighteen minutes,
a second storm came upon us, which carried us away with the same impetuosity
westward, and drove us so out of the way of all human commerce, that had all our
lives been saved as to the sea, we were rather in danger of being devoured by savages
than ever returning to our own country.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our men early one morning
cried out, “ Land!” and we had no sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes
of seeing whereabouts in the world we were, than the ship struck upon a sand, and in
a moment, her motion being so stopped, the sea broke over her in such a manner that
we expected we should all have perished immediately, and we were even driven into
our close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam and spray of the sea.

It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like condition to, describe or
conceive the consternation of men in such circumstances. We knew nothing where
we were, or upon what land it was we were driven; whether an island or the main,
whether inhabited or not inhabited. As the rage of the wind was still great, though
rather less than at first, we could not:so much as hope to have the ship hold many
minutes without breaking in pieces, unless the winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn
immediately about. Ina word, we sat looking one upon another, and expecting death
every moment, and every man acting accordingly, as preparing for another world; for
there was little or nothing more for us to do in this; that which was our present
SHIPWRECKED. 31

comfort, and all the comfort we had, was that, contrary to our expectation, the ship
did not break yet, and that the master said the wind began to abate.

Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet the ship having thus
struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us to expect her getting off, we were in
a dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing to do but to think of saving our lives as
well as we could. We had a boat at our stern just before the storm, but she was first
staved by dashing against the ship’s rudder, and in the next place, she broke away,
and either sunk or was driven off to sea; so there was no hope from her. We had
another boat on board, but how to get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing;
however, there was no room to debate, for we fancied the ship would break in pieces
every minute, and some told us she was actually broken already.

In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of the boat, and with the help of
the rest of the men, they got her flung over the ship’s side; and getting all into her,
let go, and committed ourselves, being eleven in number, to God’s mercy and the wild
sea: for though the storm was abated considerably, yet the sea went dreadfully high
upon the shore, and might be well called den wild sce, as the Dutch call the sea in a
storm. :

And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all saw plainly that the sea
went so high that the boat could not escape, and that we should be inevitably
drowned. As to making sail, we had none, nor, if we had, could we have done
anything with it; so we worked at the oar towards the land, though with heavy hearts,
like men going to execution; for we all knew that when the boat came near the shore,
she would be dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach of the sea. However, we
committed our souls to God in the most earnest manner; and the wind driving us
towards the shore, we hastened our destruction with our own eae pulling as well as
we could. towards land.

What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep or shoal, we knew not;
the only hope that could rationally give us the least shadow of expectation, was if we
might happen into some bay or gulf, or the mouth cf some river, where by great chance
we might have run our boat in, or got under the lee of the land, and perhaps made
smooth water. But there was nothing of this appeared; but as we made nearer and
nearer the shore, the land looked more frightful than the sea.

After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and a half, as we reckoned
it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling astern of us, and plainly bade us expect
the coup de grace. Ina word, it took us with such a fury that it overset the boat at
once; and separating us as well from the boat as from one another, gave us not time
hardly to say, “ O God!” for we were all swallowed up in a moment.

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt, when I sank into the
water; for though I swam very well, yet I could not deliver myself from the waves so
as to draw breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather carried me, a vast way on
towards the shore, and having spent itself, went back, and left me upon the land
almost dry, but half dead with the water I took in. I had so much presence of mind,
as well as breath left, that seeing myself nearer the mainland than I expected, I got
upon my feet, and endeavored to make on towards the land as fast as I could, before
32 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

another wave should return and take me up again; but I soon found it was impossible
to avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a great hill, and as furious as
an enemy, which I had no means or strength to contend with: my business was to
hold my breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I could; and so by swimming to
preserve my breathing, and pilot myself towards the shore if possible; my greatest
concern now being that the wave, as it would carry me a great way towards the shore
when it came on, might not carry me back again with it when it gave back towards

the sea.



““T WAS NOW LANDED” (. 33).

The wave that came upon me again buried me at once twenty or thirty feet
deep in its own body, and I could feel myself carried with a mighty force and
swiftness towards the shore a very great way; but I held my breath, and assisted
myself to swim still forward with all my might. I was ready to burst with holding
my breath, when as I felt myself rising up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my
head and hands shoot out above the surface of the water; and though it was not
two seconds of time that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave
me breath and new courage. I was covered again with water a good while, but
not so long but I held it out; and finding the water had spent itself, and began
to return, I struck forward against the return of the waves, and felt ground again with
my feet. I stood still a few moments to recover breath, and till the waters went
from me, and then took to my heels, and ran with what strength I had, farther
towards the shore. But neither would this deliver me from the fury of the sea,
which came pouring in after me again; and twice more I was lifted up by the
waves and carried forwards as before, the shore being very flat.




















































“7 ESPIED A SMALL PIECE OF.ROPE.”

(See A. 35.)
SAFE ON SHORE. 33

The last time of these two had -well-nigh been fatal to me; for the sea having
hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather dashed me, against.a piece of
a rock, and that with such force as it left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my
own deliverance; for the blow, taking my side and breast, beat the breath as it were
quite out of my body; and had it returned again immediately, I must have been
strangled in the water; but I recovered a little before the return of the waves, and
seeing I should be covered again with the water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece of
the rock, and so to hold my breath, if possible, till the wave went back. Now, as the
waves were not so high as at first, being nearer land, I held my hold till the wave
abated, and then fetched another run, which brought me so near the shore that the
next wave, though it went over me, yet did not so swallow me up as to carry me away ;
and the next run I took I got to the mainland; where, to my great comfort, I
clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and sat me down upon the grass, free from danger
and quite out of the reach of the water.

I was now landed, and safe on shore, and penan to look up and thank God that my
life was saved,.in a case wherein there was some minutes before scarce any room to
hope. I believe it is impossible to express, to the life, what the ecstasies and transports
of the soul are when it is so saved, as I may say, out of the very grave: and I do not
wonder now at that custom, when a malefactor, who has the halter about his neck, is
tied up, and just going to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought to him—I say, I
do not wonder that they bring a surgeon with it, to let him blood that very moment
they tell him of it, that the surprise may not drive the animal spirits from the heart,
and overwhelm him.

“For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.”

.° T walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my whole being, as I may
say, wrapt up in a contemplation of my deliverance; making a thousand gestures and
motions, which I cannot describe; reflecting upon all my comrades that were drowned,
and that there should not be one soul saved but myself; for, as for them, I never saw



‘“ SHOES THAT WERE NOT FELLOWS” (/. 34)-
34 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

them afterwards, or any sign of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes
that were not fellows.

I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and froth of the sea being
so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far off; and considered, Lord! how was it
possible I could get on shore?

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my condition, I began
to look round me, to see what kind of place I was in, and what was next to be done:
and I soon found my comforts abate, and that, in a word, I had a dreadful deliverance:
for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor anything either to eat or drink, to
comfort me; neither did I see any prospect before me but that of perishing with
hunger, or being devoured by wild beasts: and that which was particularly afflicting to
me was, that I had no weapon, either to hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance,
or to defend myself against any other creature that might desire to kill me for theirs.
In a word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco ina
box. This was all my provision; and this threw me into terrible agonies of mind, that
for awhile I ran about likea madman. Night coming upon me, I began, with a heavy
heart, to consider what would be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that
country, seeing at night they always come abroad for their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time, was to get up into a thick
bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny, which grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all
night, and consider the next day what death I should die, for as yet I saw no prospect
of life. I walked about a furlong from the shore, to see if I could find any fresh water
to drink, which I did to my great joy; and having drunk, and put a little tobacco in
my mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavored
to place myself so that if I should sleep I might not fall. And having cut me a short
stick, like a truncheon, for my defense, I took up my lodging; and being excessively
fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could have done
in my condition, and found myself more refreshed with it than I think I ever was on
such an occasion. .

When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the storm abated, so that
the sea did not rage and swell as before; but that which surprised me most was, that
the ship was lifted off in the night from the sand where she lay, by-the swelling of the
tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock which I at first mentioned, where I
had been so bruised by the wave dashing me against it. ‘This being within about a
mile from the shore where I was, and the-ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished
myself on board, that at least I might save some necessary things for my use.

When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked about me again, and
the first thing I found was the boat, which lay, as the wind and sea had tossed her up,
upon the land, about two miles on my right hand. I walked as far as I could upon
the shore to have got to her; but found a neck, or inlet, of water between me and the
boat, which was about half a mile broad; so I came back for the present, being more
intent upon getting at the ship, where I hoped to find something for my present
subsistence.

A little after ncon I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed so far out, that
A VISIT TO THE WRECK. 35

I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship. And here I found a fresh
renewing of my grief; for I saw evidently that if we had kept on board, we had been
all safe: that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had not been so miserable
as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort and company, as I now was. This forced
tears to my eyes again; but as there was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to
get to the ship; so I pulled off my clothes, for the weather was hot to extremity, and
took the water. But when I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know
how to get on board; for, as she lay aground, and high out of the water, there was
nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and the second
time I espied a small piece of rope, which I wondered I did not see at first, hanging
down by the fore-chains so low that, with great difficulty, I got hold of it, and by the
help of that rope got up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that the ship
was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her hold; but that she lay so on the side
of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and
her head low, almost to the water. By this means all her quarter was free, and all
that was in that part was dry; for you may be sure my first work was to search, and to
see what was spoiled and what was free. And, first, I found that all the ship’s
provisions were dry and untouched by the water, and being very well disposed to eat,
I went to the bread-room, and filled my pockets with biscuit, and ate it as I went
about other things, for I had no time to lose. I also found some rum in the great
cabin, of which I took a large dram, and which I had, indeed, need enough of to
spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat, to furnish myself
with many things which I foresaw would be very necessary to me.

It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had; and this extremity
roused my application. We had several spare yards, and two or three large spars of
wood, and a spare topmast or two in the ship: I resolved to fall to work with these,
and I flung as many of them overboard as I could manage for their weight, tying every
one with a rope, that they might not drive away. When this was done I went down
the ship’s side, and pulling them to me I tied four of them together at both ends, as
well as I could, in the form of a raft, and laying two or three short pieces of plank
upon them, crossways, I found I could walk upon it very well, but that it was not
able to bear any great weight, the pieces being too light. So I went to work, and with
the carpenter’s saw I cut a spare topmast into three lengths, and added them to my
raft, with a great deal of labor and pains. But the hope of furnishing myself with
necessaries encouraged me to go beyond what I should have been able to have done
upon another occasion.

My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight. My next care was
what to load it with, and how to preserve what I laid upon it from the surf of the sea:
but I was not long considering this. I first laid all the planks or boards upon it that
I could get, and having considered well what I most wanted, I first got three of
the seamen’s chests, which I had broken open and emptied, and lowered them down
upon my raft; the first of these I filled with provisions—viz., bread, rice, three Dutch
cheeses, five pieces of dried goat’s flesh (which we lived much upon); and a little
remainder of European corn, which had been.laid by for some fowls which we brought
36 ROBINSON CRUSOE.




to sea with us, but the fowls
were killed. There had been
some barley and wheat. to-
gether; but, to my great dis-
appointment, I found after-
wards that the rats had eaten
or spoiled it all. As for
liquors, I found several cases
of bottles belonging to our
skipper, in which were some cordial
waters; and, in all, about five or six
gallons of arrack. These I stowed by
themselves, there being no need to
put them into the chest, nor any room
for them. While I was doing this, I
found the tide began to flow, though
very calm; and I had the mortifica-
“] FELL FAST ASLEEP” (/. 34). tion to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat,
which I had left on shore upon the sand,
swim away. As for my breeches, which
were only linen, and open-kneed, I swam on board in them and my stockings.
However, this put me upon rummaging for clothes, of which I found enough, but took
no more than I wanted for present use, for I had other things which my eye was more
upon; as, first, tools to work with on shore: and it was after long searching that I
found out the carpenter’s chest, which was indeed a very useful prize to me, and much
more valuable than a ship-lading of gold would have been at that time. I got it down
to my raft, whole as it was, without losing time to look into it, for I knew in general
what it contained,
LOADING THE RAFT. 37

My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were two very good
fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols. These I secured first, with some
powder-horns, a small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there were three
barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where our gunner had stowed them; but
with much search I found them, two of them dry and good, the third had taken water.
Those two I got to my raft, with the arms. And now | thought myself pretty well
freighted, and began to think how I should get to shore with them, having neither sail,
oar, nor rudder; and the least capful of wind would have overset all my navigation.

I had three encouragements: first, a smooth, calm sea; secondly, the tide rising,
and setting in to the shore; thirdly, what little wind there was blew me towards the
land, And thus, having found two or three broken oars, belonging to the boat, and
besides the tools which were in the chest, two saws, an axe, and a hammer, with this
cargo I put to sea. Fora mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that I
found it drive a little distant from the place where I had landed before: by which I
perceived that there was some indraught of the water, and consequently, I hoped to
find some creck or river there, which I might make use of as a port to get to land with
my cargo.

As I imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a little opening of the land.
I found a strong current of the tide set into it; so I guided my raft as well as I could,
to keep in the middle of the stream.

But here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if I had, I think
verily would have broken my heart; for, knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran
aground at one.end of it upon a shoal, and not being aground at the other end, it
wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped off towards the end that was afloat,
and so fallen into the water. I did my utmost, by setting my back against the chests,
to keep them in their places, but could not thrust off the raft with all my strength ;
neither durst I stir from the posture I was in; but holding up the chests with all my
might, I stood in that manner near half an-hour, in which time the rising of the water
brought me a little more upon a level; and a little after, the water still rising, my raft
floated again, and IJ thrust her off with the oar I had into the channel, and then driving
up higher, I at length.found myself in the mouth of a little river, with land on both
sides, and a strong current or tide running up. I looked on both sides for a proper
place to get to shore, for I was not willing to be driven too high up the river; hoping
in time to see some ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place myself as near the
coast as I could. :

' At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek, to which, with great
pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last got so near, that reaching ground with
my oar, I could thrust her directly in. But here I had like to have dipped all my
cargo into the sea again; for that shore lying pretty steep—that is to say, sloping—
there was no place to land but where one end of my. float, if it ran on shore, would
lie so high, and the other sink lower, as before, that it would endanger my cargo again.
All that I could do was to wait till the tide was at the highest, keeping the raft with my
oar like an anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of ground,
which I expected the water-would flow over; andso it did. Assoonas I found water
38 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

enough, for my raft drew about a foot of water, I thrust her upon that flat piece of
ground, and there fastened or moored her, by sticking my two broken oars into the
ground—one on one side, near one end, and one on the other side, near the other
end; and thus I lay till the water ebbed away, and left my raft and all my cargo safe
on shore.

My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper place for my habitation,
and where to stow my goods, to secure them from whatever might happen. Where I
was, I yet knew not; whether on the continent or an island; whether inhabited or not
inhabited; whether in danger of wild beasts or not. There was a hill not above a
mile from me, which rose up very steep and high, and which seemed to overtop some
other hills, which lay as in a ridge from it, northward. I took out one of the fowling-
pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn of powder; and thus armed, I traveled for
discovery up to the top of that hill, where, after I had with great labor and difficulty
got to the top, I saw my fate, to my great affliction—viz., that I was in an island
environed every way with the sea: no land to be seen except some rocks, which lay a
great way off, and two small islands, less than this, which lay about three leagues to
the west.

I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw good reason to
believe, uninhabited, except by wild beasts, of which, however, Isawnone. Yet I saw
abundance of fowls, but knew not their kinds; neither, when I killed them, could I
tell what was fit for food, and what not. At my coming back, I shot at a great
bird, which I saw sitting upon a tree,.on the side of a great wood. . I believe it was
the first gun that had been fired there since the creation of the world. I had no
sooner fired but from all parts of the wood there arose an innumerable number of
fowls of many sorts, making a confused screaming and crying, every one according to
his usual note, but not one of them of any kind that I knew. As for the creature I
killed, I took it to bea kind of hawk, its color and beak resembling it, but it had
no talons or claws more than common. Its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and fell to work to bring
my cargo on shore, which took me up the rest of the day: what to do with myself at
night I knew not, nor indeed where to rest, for J was afraid to lie down on the ground,
not knowing but some wild beast might devour me; though, as I afterwards found,
there was really no need for those fears.

However, as well as I could, I barricaded sek round with the chests and boards
that I had brought on shore, and made a kind of hut for that night’s lodging. As for
food, I yet saw not which way to supply myself, except that I had seen two or three
creatures, like hares, run out of the wood where I shot the fowl.

I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many things out of the ship
which would be useful to me, and particularly some of the rigging and sails, and such
other things as might come to land; and I resolved to make another voyage on board
the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that the first storm that blew must necessarily
break her all in pieces, I resolved to set all other things apart, till I got everything out
of the ship that I could get. Then I called a council—that is to say, in my thoughts—
whether I should take back the raft, but this appeared impracticable: so I resolved to
A SECOND CARGO. 39

~ go as before, when the tide was down; and I did so, only that I stripped before I went
from my hut, having nothing on but a checkered shirt, a pair of linen drawers, and a
pair of pumps on my feet.

I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft; and, having had
experience of the first, I neither made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but yet
I brought away several things very useful to me; as, first, in the carpenter’s stores I
found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great screw-jack, a dozen or two of
hatchets, and, above all, that most useful thing called a grindstone. All these I
secured, together with several things belonging to the gunner, particularly two or three
iron crows, and two barreis of musket bullets, seven muskets, and another fowling-
piece, with some smail quantity of powder more; a large bag full of small shot, anda
great roll of sheet lead; but this last was so heavy I could not hoist it up to get it
over the ship’s side.

Besides these things, I took all the men’s clothes that I could find, and a spare fore-
topsail, a hammock, and some bedding; and with this I loaded my second raft, and
brought them all safe on shore, to my very great comfort.

I was under some apprehension during my absence from the land, that at least my
provisions might be devoured on shore; but when I-came back I found no sign of
any visitor; only there sat a creature like a wild cat upon one of the chests, which,
when I care towards it, ran away a little distance, and then stood still. She sat very
composed and unconcerned, and looked full in my face, as if she had a mind to be
acquainted with me. I presented my gun to her, but, as she did not understand it, she
was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer to stir away; upon which I tossed
her a bit of biscuit, though, by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store was not
great; however, I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled at it, and ate it,
and looked (as pleased) for more; but I thanked her, and could spare no more: so
she marched off. i

Having got my second cargo on shore—though I was obliged to open the barrels
of powder, and bring them by parcels, for they were too heavy, being large casks—I
went to work to make me a little tent, with the sail, and some poles which I cut for
that purpose; and into this tent I brought everything that I knew would spoil either
with rain or sun; and I piled all the empty chests and casks up in a circle round the
tent, to fortify it from any sudden attempt, either from man or beast.

When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with some boards within,
and an empty chest set up on end without; and spreading one of the beds upon the
ground, laying my two pistols just at my head, and my gun at length by me, I went to
bed for the first time, and slept very quietly all night. I was very weary and heavy ;
for the night before I had slept little, and had labored very hard all day, as well to
fetch those things from the ship, as to get them on shore.

I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid up, I believe, for one
man; but still I was not satisfied, for while the ship sat upright in that posture, I
thought I ought to get everything out of her that I could; so every day, at low water,
I went on board, and brought away something or other; but particularly the third
time I went, I brought away as much of the rigging as I could, as also all the
40 ROBINSON CRUSCE.



















small ropes and =~ . ce eee

rope twine I # tee és : ‘2
could get, with ‘of aR
a piece of spare
canvas, which was to mend the sails upon Lie
occasion, and the barrel of wet gunpowder.
In a word, I brought away all the sails, £
first and last; only that I was fain to cut
them in pieces, and bring as much at a
time ag I could, for they were no more
useful to me for sails, but as mere canvas
only. ;
But that which comforted me more
still was that at last of all, after I had
made five or six.such-voyages as these,
and thought I had nothing more to ex-
pect from the ship that was worth my
meddling with —TI say, after all this, I
found a great hogshead of bread, three
large runlets of rum, or spirits, a box of
fine sugar, and a barrel of fine flour: this
was surprising ‘
to me, because
Thad given over
expecting any
more provisions
except what was
spoiled by the
water. I soon
emptied the
hogshead of the
bread, and wrap-
ped it up, parcel
by parcel, in
pieces of the
sails, which I cut
out; and, in a
word, I got all
this safe on shore
also, though at
several times.

The next day
I made another -

« at 4 CONFUSED SCREAMING AND

voyage, and CRYING”? (J. 38).


THE LAST OF THE SHIP. Al

now, having plundered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I
began with the cable; cutting the great cable into pieces such as I could move, I
got two cables and a hawser on shore, with all the iron-work I could get; and
having cut down the spritsail yard, and the mizzen yard, and everything I could to
make a large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods and came away. But my
good luck began to leave me, for this raft was so unwieldy, and so overladen, that
after I was entered the little cove, where I had landed the rest of my goods, not being
able to guide it so handily as I did the other, it overset, and threw me and all my
cargo into the water. As for myself, it was no great harm, for I was near the
shore; but as to my cargo, it was great part of it lost, especially the iron, which I
expected would have been of great use to me; however, when the tide was ‘out, I
got most of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with infinite
labor; for I was fain to dip for it into the water, a work which fatigued me very much.
After this, I went every day on board, and brought away what I could get,

I had now been thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven times on board the
ship, in which time I had brought away all that one pair of hands could well be sup-
posed capable of bringing; though I verily believe, had the calm weather held, I
should have brought away the whole ship, piece by piece; but preparing the twelfth
time to go on board, I found the wind began to rise. However, at low water I went on
board, and though I thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectually that nothing
more could be found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers in it, in one of which I
found two or three razors, and one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of
good knives and forks; in another I found about thirty-six pounds value in money—
some European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold, and some silver.

I smiled to myself at the sight of thismoney. “Oh, drug!” said I aloud, “ what
art thou good for? ‘Thou art not worth to me—no, not the taking off the ground; one
of those knives is worth all this heap; I have no manner of use for thee; e’en remain
where thou art, and go to the bottom, as a creature whose life is not worth saving.”
However, upon second thoughts, I took it away; and-wrapping all in a piece of canvas,
I began to think of making another raft; but while I was preparing this, I found the
sky overcast, and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale
from the shore. It presently occurred to me that it was in vain to pretend to make a
raft with the wind off shore; and that it was my business to be gone before the tide of
flood began, otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore at all. Accordingly, I
let myself down into the water, and swam across the channel which lay between the
ship and the sands, and-even that with difficulty enough, partly with the weight of the
things I had about me, and partly from the roughness of the water; for the wind rose
very hastily, and before it was quite high water it blew a storm.

But Iwas gotten home to my little tent, where I-lay, with all my wealth about me
very secure. It blew very hard all that night, and in the morning, when I looked out,
behold, no more ship was to be seen. I was a little surprised, but recovered myself
with this satisfactory reflection, that I had lost no time, nor abated any diligence, to
get everything out of her that could be useful tome; and that, indeed, there was little
left in her that I was able to bring away, if I had had more time.
42 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of anything out of her, except
what might drive on shore from her wreck ; as, indeed, divers pieces of her afterwards
did; but those things were of small use to me.

My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself against either
savages, if any should appear, or wild beasts, if any were in the island; and I had
many thoughts of the method how to do this, and what kind of dwelling to make—
whether I should make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the earth; and, in short,
I resolved upon both; the manner and description of which it may not be improper to
give an account of.

I soon found the place I was in was not fit for my settlement, particularly because
it was upon a low moorish ground near the sea, and I believed would not be whole-
some, and more particularly because there was no fresh water near it; so I resolved to
find a more healthy and more convenient spot of ground.

I consultéd several things in my situation, which I found would be proper for me;
first, health and fresh water, I just now mentioned; secondly, shelter from the heat of
the sun; thirdly, security from ravenous creatures, whether man or beast; fourthly, a
view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight, I might not lose any advantage for
my deliverance, of which I was not willing to banish my expectation yet.

In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on the side of a rising hill,
whose front towards this little plain was steep as a house-side, so that nothing could
come down upon me from the top. On the side of the rock there was a hollow place,
worn a little way in, like the entrance or door of a cave; but there was not really any
cave, or way into the rock, at all.

On the flat of the green, just below this hollow place, I resolved to pitch my tent.
This plain was not above a hundred yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay like
a green before my door; and, at the end of it, descended irregularly every way down
into the low ground by the sea-side. It was on the N.N.W. side of the hill; so that
it was sheltered from the heat every day, till it came to the W. and by S. sun or
thereabouts, which, in those countries, is near the setting.

Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the hollow place, which took in
about ten yards in its semi-diameter from the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter
from its beginning and ending.

In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving them into the ground
till they stood very firm like piles, the biggest end being out of the ground above five
feet and a half, and sharpened on the top. The two rows did not stand above six
inches from one another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship, and laid them in rows,
upon one another, within the circle, between these two rows of stakes, up to the top,
placing other stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two feet and a half high,
like a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong that neither man nor beast could
get into it or over it. This cost me a great deal of time and labor, especially to cut
the piles in the woods, bring them to the place, and drive them into the earth.

The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but by a short ladder to
go over the top; which ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after me; and so I was
My FORTRESS. © 43

completely fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and consequently
slept secure in the night, which otherwise I could not have done; though, as it
appeared afterwards, there was no need of all this caution from the enemies that I
apprehended danger from.

Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labor, I carried all my riches, all my
provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you have the account above ; and I made
me a large tent also, to preserve me from the rains, that in one part of the year are
very violent there: I made it double—viz., one smaller tent within, and one larger
tent above it; and covered the Upper part of it with a large tarpaulin, which I had
saved among the sails. .

And now I lay no more for awhile in the bed which I had peoaeet on shore, but
in a hammock, which was indeed a very good one, and belonged to the mate of the
ship.

Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that would spoil by the
wet; and having thus inclosed all my goods, I made up the entrance, which till now
I had left open, and so passed and re-passed, as I said, by a short ladder.

When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock, and bringing all the
earth and stones that I dug down out through my tent, I laid them up within my
fence, in the nature of a terrace, so that it raised the ground within about a foot and a
half; and thus I made me a cave, just behind my tent, which served me like a cellar
to my house.

It cost me much labor and many days before all these things were brought to
perfection; and therefore I must go back to some other things which took up some of
my thoughts. At the same time it occurred, after I had laid my scheme for ‘the
setting up the tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain falling from a thick,
dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened, and after that, a great clap of
thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I was not so much surprised with the
lightning, as I was with the thought which darted into my mind as swift as the
uightning itself, “Oh, my powder!” My very heart sank within me when I thought
that, at one blast, all my powder might be destroyed; on which not my defense only,
but the providing me food, as I thought, entirely depended. I was nothing near so
anxious about my own danger; though, had the powder took fire, I had never known
who had hurt me.

Such impression did-this make upon me, that after the storm was over, I laid
aside all my work, my building and fortifying, and applied myself to make bags
and boxes to separate my powder, and to keep it a little and a little in a parcel, in
hopes that, whatever might come, it might not all take fire at once; and to keep it so
apart that it should not be possible to make one part’ fire another. I finished this
work in about a fortnight; and I think my powder, which in all was about one
hundred and forty pounds weight, was divided into no less than a hundred parcels.
As to the barrel that had been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from that; so I
placed it in my new cave, which, in my fancy, I called my kitchen; and the rest I hid
up and down in holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking very
carefully where I laid it.
44 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out at least once every day with
my gun, as well to divert myself as to see if I could kill anything fit for food; and, as
near as I could, to acquaint myself with what the island produced. ‘The first time I
went out, I presently discovered that there were goats in the island, which was a great
satisfaction to me; but then it was attended with this misfortune to me,-viz., that they
-were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the most difficult thing in the
world. to come at them; but I was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I
might now and then shoot one, as it soon happened; for after I had found their haunts
a little, I laid wait in this manner for them: I observed if they saw me in the valleys,
though they were upon the rocks, they would run away, as in a terrible fright; but if
they were feeding in the valleys, and I was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me;
from whence.I concluded that, by the position of their optics, their sight was so directed
downward -that they did not readily see objects that were above them; so afterwards
I took this method—I always climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and then had
frequently. a fair mark.

The first. shot I made among these creatures, I killed a she-goat, which had a little
kid by her, which she gave suck to, which grieved me heartily; for, when the old one
fell, the kid. stood stock-still by her, till I came and took her up; and not only so, but
when I carried the old one with me upon my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to
my inclosure ;. upon which I laid down the dam, and took the kid in my arms, and
carried it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame; but it would not eat; so I
was forced to kill it and eat it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great while,
for I ate sparingly and saved my provisions, my bread especially, as much as I possibly
could. : ;

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary to provide a place
to make a fire in, and fuel to burn; and what I did for that, as also how I enlarged
my cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a full account of in its place;
but I must now give some little account of myself, and of my thoughts about living,
which, it may well be supposed, were not a few.

I had a dismal prospect of my condition, for as I was not cast away upon that
island.without being driven, as is said, by a violent storm quite out of the course of
our. intended voyage, and a great way, viz., some hundreds of leagues, out of the
ordinary course of the trade of mankind, I had great reason to consider it as a deter-
mination of Heaven that in this desolate place, and in this desolate manner, I should
end my life. The tears would run plentifully down my face when I made these
reflections; and sometimes I would expostulate with myself why Providence should
thus completely ruin its creatures, and render them so absolutely miserable, so without
help abandoned, and so entirely depressed, that it could hardly be rational to be
thankful for such a life. ;

But something always returned swift upon me to check these thoughts, and to
reprove me; and particularly one day walking with my gun in my hand by the sea-side,
I was very pensive upon the subject of my present condition, when Reason, as it were,
put in expostulating with me the other way, thus: “Well, you are in a desolate
condition, it is true; but, pray remember, where are the rest of you? Did not you
COMFORTING REFLECTIONS. 45

come eleven of you into the boat? Where are the ten? Why were not they saved,
and you lost? Why are yousingled cut ? Is it better to be here or there?” And
then I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be considered with the good that is in them
and with what worse attended them.

Then it occurred to me again, how
well I was furnished for my subsist-
ence, and what would have been my
case if it had not happened (which
was a hundred thousand to one) that
the ship floated from the place where
first she struck, and was driven so near
to the shore that I had time to get all
these things out of her?’ What would
have been my case, if I had been
forced to have lived in the condition
in which I at first came on shore, with-
out necessaries of life, or any means
to supply and procure them? “ Par-
ticularly,” said I aloud (though to
myself), “what should I
have done without a gun,
without ammunition, with-
out any tools to make
-anything, or to work with ?
without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any
manner of coverings ?” and that now
I had all these to a sufficient quantity,
and was in a fair way to provide my-
self in such a manner as to live without
my gun, when my ammunition was
spent: so that I had a tolerable view
of subsisting without any want as long
as I lived; for I considered from the
beginning how I would provide for
the accidents that might happen, and
for the time that was to come, even

‘THE KID FOLLOWED ME” (f. 44). not only after my ammunition should
be spent, but even after my health
and strength should decay.

I confess I had not then entertained any notion of my ammunition being de-
stroyed at one blast—I mean my powder being blown up by lightning; and this
made the thoughts of it surprising to me, when it lightened and thundered, as I
observed just now.

And now, being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene of silent life, such,















46 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

perhaps, as was never heard of in the world before; I shall take it from its beginning,
and continue it in its order. It was, by my account, the 30th of September when, in
the manner as above said, I first set foot upon this horrid island; when the sun
being to us in its autumnal equinox, was almost just over my head: for I reckoned
myself, by observation, to be in the latitude of nine degrees twenty-two minutes north
of the line.

After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into my thoughts that I
should lose my reckoning of time for want of books, and pen, and ink, and should
even forget the Sabbath-day from the working days; but to prevent this, I cut it with
my knife upon a large post, in capital letters; and making it into a’great cross, I set
it up on the snere where I first landed, viz., ““I came on shore here on the goth of
September, 1659.” .

Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a notch wae my knife, and every
seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and every first day of the month as long
again as that long one; and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly; and yearly
reckoning of time.

In the next place, we are to observe that among the many things which I brought
from the ship in the several voyages which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got
several things of less value, but not at all less useful to me, which I omitted setting
down before; as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper; several parcels in the captain’s,
mate’s, gunner’s, and carpenter’s keeping; three or four compasses, some mathematical
instruments, dials, perspectives, charts, and books of navigation; all which I huddled
together, whether I might want them or no: also I found three very good Bibles,
which came to me in my cargo from England, and which I had packed up among my
things; some Portuguese books also; and, among them, two or. three Popish prayer-
books, andseveral other books; all which I carefully secured. And I must not forget.
that we had in the ship a dog and two cats, of whose eminent history I must have
occasion to say something in its place, for I carried both the cats with me; and as for
the dog, he jumped out of the ship of himself, and swam on shore to me the day after
I went on shore with my first cargo, and was a trusty servant to me many years; I
wanted nothing that he could fetch me, nor any company that he could.make up to
me; I only wanted to have him talk to me, but that he could not do. As I observed
before, I found pens, ink, and paper, and I husbanded them to the utmost; and I shall
show that while my ink lasted I kept things very exact; but after that was gone I could
not, for I could not make any ink by any means that I could devise.

And this put me in mind that I wanted many things,-notwithstanding all that I had
amassed together; and of these, ink was one: as also a spade, pickaxe, and shovel to
dig or remove the earth; needles, pins, and thread: as for linen, I soon learned to
want that without much difficulty.

This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily; and it was near a whole
year before I had entirely finished my little pale, or surrounded habitation. The piles
or stakes, which were as heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in cutting and
preparing in the woods, and more, by far, in bringing home; so that I spent sometimes
two days in cutting and bringing home one of those posts, and a third day in driving
THE EviL-—THE Goop. 47

it into the ground; for which purpose I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last
bethought myself of one of the iron crows; which, however, though I found it, yet
made. driving those posts or piles very laborious and tedious work. But what need I
have been concerned at the tediousness of anything I had to do, seeing I had time
enough to do it in? nor had I any other employment, if that had been over, at least
that I could foresee, except the ranging the island to seek for food, which I did, more
or less, every day.

I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the circumstances I was
reduced to; and I drew up the state of my affairs in writing, not so much to leave
them to any that were to come after me, for I was like to have but few heirs, as to
deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon them, and afflicting my mind; and as my
reason began now to. master my despondency, I began to comfort myself as well as I
could, and to set the good against the evil, that I might have something to distinguish
my case from worse, and I stated it very impartially, like debtor and creditor, the
comfort I enjoyed against the miseries I suffered, thus :—

EVIL. GOOD.
Iam cast upon a horrible, desvlate isl- But I am alive; and not drowned, as’all my ship’s
and; void of all hope of recovery. company was. Py
I am singled out and’ separated, as. it But I am singled out, too, from all the ship’s crew, to

were, from all the world, to be miserable. be spared from death; and He that miraculously saved
me from death can deliver me from this condition.

I am divided from mankind, a solitary ; But I am not starved, and perishing on a barren place,
one banished from human society. affording no sustenance.
I have no clothes to cover me. But I am in a hot climate, where if I had clothes, I
/ ‘could hardly wear them.
I'am without any defense, or means to But I am cast on an island where I see no wild beasts
resist any violence of man or beast. to hurt me, as I saw on the coast of Africa; and what if
= I had been shipwrecked there? :
I have no sot to speak to or relieve me. But God wonderfully sent the ship ir in near enough to

the shore, that I have got out so many necessary things
as will either supply my wants or enable me to supply
myself, even as long as I live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony that there was scarce any
condition in the world so miserable but there was something negative, or something
positive to be thankful for in it: and let this stand as a direction, from the experience
of the most miserable of all conditions in this world—that we may always find in it
something to comfort ourselves from, and to set, in the description of good and evil,
on the credit side of the account. -

Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition, and giving over
looking out to sea if I could spy a ship—I say, giving ‘over these things, I. began to
apply myself to accommodate my way of living, and to make things as easy to me as I
could.

I have already described my habitation, which was a tent under the side of a rock,
surrounded with a strong pale of posts and cables; but I might now rather call it a
wall, for I raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs, about two feet thick, on the
outside; and after some time (I think it was a year and a half) I raised rafters from it,
48 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

leaning to the rock, and thatched or covered it with boughs of trees, and such things as I
could get to keep out the rain, which I found at some times of the year very violent.

I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this pale, and into the
cave which I had made behind me. But I must observe, too, that at first this was a
confused heap of goods, which, as they lay in no order, so they took up all my place ;
I had no room to turn myself: so I set myself to enlarge my cave, and worked farther



“I WANTED NOTHING THAT HE COULD FETCH ME” (f. 46).

into the earth; for it was a loose, sandy rock, which yielded easily to the labor I
bestowed on it: and so when I found I was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked
sideways, to the right hand, into the rock, and then turning to the right again, worked
quite out, and made me a door to come out on the outside of my pale or fortification.

This gave me not only egress and regress, as it was a back way to my tent and to
my storehouse, but gave me room to stow my goods.

And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary things as I found I most
wanted, particularly a chair and a table; for without these I was not able to enjoy the
few comforts I had in the world; I could not write, or eat, or do several things with
so much pleasure without a table.

So I went to work; .and here I must needs observe that as reason is the substance
f BEGIN MY JOURNAL. 49

and original of the mathematics, so by stating and squaring everything by reason, ‘and
by making the most rational judgment of things, every man may be, in time, master
of every mechanic art. I had never handied a tool in my life; and yet, in time, by
labor, application, and contrivance, I found, at last, that I wanted nothing but I could
have made it, especially if I had had tools. However, I made abundance of things
even without tools; and some with no more tools than an adze and a hatchet, which,
perhaps, were never made that way before, and that with infinite labor. For example,
if I wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down-a tree, set it on an edge
before me, and hew it flat on either side with my axe, till I had brought it to be as thin
as a plank and then dub it smooth with my adze. It is true, by this method I could
make but one board out of a whole tree; but this I had no remedy for but patience,
any more than I had for the prodigious deal of time and labor which it took me up to
make a plank or board; but my time or labor was little worth, and so it was as well
employed one way as another.

However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above, in the first place;
and this I did out of the short pieces of boards that I brought on my raft from the
ship. But when I had wrought out some boards as above, I made large shelves,
of the breadth of a foot and a half, one over another, all along one side of my
cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work on; and, in a word, to separate
everything at large into their places that I might come easily at them; also I
knocked pieces into the wall of the rock to hang my guns and all things that
would hang up: so that had my cave been to be seen, it looked like a general
magazine of all necessary things; and I had everything so ready at my hand,
that it was a great pleasure to me to see all my goods in such order, and
especially to find my stock of all necessaries so great.

And now it was when I began to keep a Journal of every day’s employment; for,
indeed, at first I was in too much hurry, and not only a hurry as to labor, but in
too much discomposure of mind; and my Journal would have been full of many dull
things: for example, I must have said thus: “ Sept. the 30¢2.—After I had got to
shore, and had escaped drowning, instead of being thankful to God for my deliverance,
having first vomited, with the great quantity of salt water which was gotten into my
stomach, and recovering myself a little, I ran about the shore wringing my hands and
beating my head and face, exclaiming at my misery, and crying out I was undone,
undone! till, tired and faint, I was forced to lie down on the ground to repose, but
durst not sleep, for fear of being devoured.”

Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship, and had got all I
could out of her, yet I could not forbear getting up to the top of a little mountain, and
looking out to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship: then fancy at a vast distance I espied a
sail, please myself with the hopes of it, and then, after looking steadily till I was
almost blind, lose it quite, and sit down and weep like a child, and thus increase my
misery by my folly.

But having gotten over these things in some measure, and having settled my
household stuff and habitation, made me a table and a chair, and all as handsome
about me as I could, I began, I say, to keep my Journal; of which I shall here give you
50 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the copy (though in it will be told all these particulars over again), as long as it lasted;
for at last, having no more ink, I was forced to leave it off.

THE JOURNAL.

September 30, 1659.—I, poor miserable Robinson Crusoe, being shipwrecked,
during a dreadful storm, in the offing, came on shore on this dismal, unfortunate
island, which I called “The Island of Despair; ” all the rest of the ship’s company
being drowned, and myself almost dead. ee

All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at the dismal circumstances I was
brought to: viz., I had neither food, house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to; and,
in despair of any relief, saw nothing but death before me: either that I should be
devoured by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or starved to death for want of food.
At the approach of night I slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures; but slept soundly,
though it rained all night. :

October 1.—In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the ship had floated with
the high tide, and was driven on shore again, much nearer the island ; which, as it was
some comfort, on one hand (for seeing her sit upright, and not broken to pieces, I
hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board, and get some food and necessaries
out of her for my relief), so, on the other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my
comrades, who, I imagined, if we had all stayed on board, might have saved the ship,
or, at least, that they would not have been all drowned, as they were; and that, had
the men been saved, we might perhaps have built us a boat out of the ruins of the ship
to have carried us to some other part of the world. I spent great part of this day in
perplexing myself on these things; but at-length, seeing the ship almost dry, I went
upon the sand as near as I could, and then swam on board. — This day. also it continued
raining, though with no wind at all.

From the ist of October to the 24th.—All these days entirely spent in many several
voyages to get all I could out of the ship, which I brought on shore, every tide of
flood, upon rafts. Much rain also, in these days, though with some intervals of fair
weather; but it seems this was the rainy season.

Oct, 24.—I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got upon it; but being in
shoal-water, and the things being chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them when the
tide was out.

Oct. 25.—It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of wind ; during which
time the ship broke in pieces, the wind blowing a little harder than belor e, and was no
more to be seen, except the wreck of her, and that only at low water. I spent this day
in covering and securing the goods which I saved, that the rain might not spoil them.

Oct. 26.—I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out a place to fix my
habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself from any attack in the night, either from
wild beasts or men. ‘Towards night I fixed upon a proper place, under a rock, and
marked out a semi-circle for my encampment, which I resolved to strengthen with a
work, wall, or fortification, made of double piles, lined within with cables, and without
with turf.
My JOURNAL. 51

From the 26th to the 30th, I worked very hard in carrying all my goods to my new
habitation, though some -part of the time it rained exceeding hard.

The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with my gun, to seek for some
food, and discover the country; when I killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me
home, which I afterwards killed also, because it would not feed.

November 1.—I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there for the first night;
making it as large as I could, with stakes drivén in to swing my hammock upon.

Nov. 2.—I set up all my chests and boards and the pieces of timber which made
my rafts, and with them formed a fence round me, a little within the place I had
marked out for my fortification. -

LVov. 3.—I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like ducks, which were very
good food. In the afternoon went to work to make me a table.

Nov. 4.—This morning I began to order my times of work, of going out with my
gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion: viz., every morning I walked out with my
gun for two or three hours, if it did not rain; then employed myself to work till about
eleven o’clock; then ate what I had to live on; and from twelve to two I lay down
to sleep, the weather being excessive hot; and then, in the evening, to work again.
The working part of this day and the next were wholly employed in making this table,
for I was yet but a very sorry workman, though time and necessity made me a com-
plete natural mechanic soon after, as I believe they would do any one else.

Vou. 5.—This day I went abroad with my gun and my dog, and killed.a wild cat;
her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for nothing. Every creature I killed, I took off
the skins and preserved them. Coming back by the sea-shore, I saw many sorts of
sea-fowls, which I did not understand ;- but was surprised, and almost frighted, with two
or three seals, which, while-I was gazing at, not well knowing what ‘they were, got into
the sea, and escaped me for that time.

Vou. 6.—After my morning walk, I went to work with my table again, and finished
it, though not to my liking; nor was it long before I learned to mend it.

Nov. 7.—Now it began to be settled fair weather: ‘The 7th, 8th, gth, roth, and
part of the 12th (for the rrth was Sunday according to my reckoning), I took wholly
up to make mea chair, and with much ado brought it to a tolerable shape, but never
to please me; and even in the making I pulled it to pieces several times.

LVote.—I soon neglected keeping Sundays; for, omitting my mark for them on my
post, I forgot which was which.

Vou. 13.—This day it rained, which refreshed me exceedingly, and cooled the
earth; but it was accompanied with terrible thunder and lightning, which frighted me
dreadfully for fear of my powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved to separate
my stock of powder into’ as many little parcels as possible, that it might not be
in danger...

Nov. 14, 15, 16.—These three days I spent in making little square chests, or boxes,
which might hold about.a pound, or two pounds at most, of powder; and so, putting
the powder in, I stowed it in places as secure and remote from one another as possible.
On one of these three days I killed a large bird that was good to eat, but I knew not
what to call it.
52 ROBINSON CRUSCE,

NVov. 17.—This day I began to
dig behind my tent into the rock,
to make room for my further con-
veniency. .

NVote.—Three things I wanted
exceedingly for this work: viz., a

“THEY ALL FACED ABOUT UPON
THE DOG” (f. 54).

Brazils they call the iron-tree, for its
exceeding hardness; of this, with
great labor, and almost spoiling
my axe, I cut a piece, and brought
it home, with difficulty enough, for
it was exceeding heavy. The exces-
sive hardness of the wood, and hav-
ing no other way, made me a long
while upon this machine, for I
worked it effectually by little and































pickaxe, a
shovel, and a
wheelbarrow,
or basket; so
I desisted
from my _ work,
and began to con-
sider how to supply
that want, and
make me some
tools. As for the
pickaxe, I made use of the
iron crows, which were pro-
per enough, though heavy ;
but the next thing was a
shovel or spade; this was
so absolutely necessary that
indeed I could do nothing
effectually without it; but
what kind of one to make
I knew not.

Vou. 18.—The next day,
in searching the woods, I
found a tree of that wood,
or like it, which in the


My Diary CONTINUED. 53

little into the form of a shovel or spade; the handle exactly shaped like ours in
England, only that the board part having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it
would not last me so long; however, it served well enough for the uses which
I had occasion to put it to; but never was a shovel, I believe, made after that
fashion, or so long making.

I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket, or a wheelbarrow. A basket I could
not make by any means, having ,
no such things as twigs that would
bend to make wicker-ware—at
least, none yet found out; and
as to the wheelbarrow, I fancied
I could make all but the wheel;
but that I had no notion of;
neither did I know how to go
about it; besides, I had no pos-
sible way to make iron gudgeons
for the spindle or axis of the
wheel to run in; so I gave it
over, and so, for carrying away
the earth which I dug out of the
cave, I made me a thing like a
hod, which the laborers carry
mortar in when they serve the
bricklayers. ‘This was not so dif-
ficult to me as the making the
shovel; and yet this and the ‘4 KIND OF WILD PIGEONS” (f. 55).
shovel, and the attempt which I
made in vain to make a wheel-
barrow, took me up no less than four days, I mean always excepting my morning’s
walk with my gun, which I seldom failed, and very seldom failed also of bringing



home something fit to eat.

Nov, 23.—My other work having stood still, because of my making these tools,
when they were finished I went on, and working every day, as my strength and time
allowed, I spent eighteen days entirely in widening and deepening my cave, that it
might hold my goods commodiously.

Vote.—During all this time I worked to make this room, or cave, spacious enough
to accommodate me as a warehouse cr magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar.
As fora lodging, I kept to the tent; except that sometimes, in the wet season of
the year, it rained so hard that I could not keep myself dry, which caused me
afterwards to cover all my place within my pale with long poles, in the form of
rafters, leaning against the rock, and load them with flags and large leaves of trees,
like a thatch.

December 1o.—I began now to think my cave or vault finished, when on a sudden
(it seems I had made it too large) a great quantity of earth fell down from the top and
54 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

one side; so much that, in short, it frighted me, 1nd not without reason, too; for if I
had been under it, I had never wanted a grave-digger. Upon this disaster I had a
great deal of work to do over again, for 1 had the loose earth to carry out; and, which

was. of more importance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no more
would come down,

Dec. 11.—This day I went to work with it accordingly, and got two shores or posts
pitched upright to the top, with two pieces of board across over each post; this I
finished the next day, and setting more posts up with boards, in about a week more
I had the roof secured; and the posts, standing in rows, served me for partitions to
part off my house.

Dec. 17.—¥rom this day to the 2oth I placed shelves, and knocked up nails on the
posts to hang everything up that could be hung up; and now I began to be in some
order within doors.

Dec. 20.—Now I carried everything into the cave, and began to furnish my house,
and set-up some pieces of board like a dresser, to order my victuals upon; but board
began to be very scarce with me: also I made me another table.

Dec. 24.—Much rain all night and all day; no stirring out.

Dec. 25.—Rain all day.

Dec. 26.—No rain, and the earth much cooler than before, and pleasanter.

Dee. 27.—Killed a young goat, and lamed another so that I catched it, and led it
home in a string; when I had it at home, I bound and splintered up its leg, which was
broke.

LV.B.—I took such care of it that it lived, and the leg grew well and as strong as
ever; but by nursing it so long it grew tame, and fed upon the little green at my door,
and would not go away. ‘This was the first time that I entertained a thought of
breeding up some tame creatures, that I might have food when my powder and shot
were all spent.

Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31.—Great heats, and no breeze, so that there was no stirring
abroad, except in the evening, for food; this time I spent in putting all my things in
order within doors. :

January 1.—Very hot still: but I went abroad early and late with my gun, and
lay still in the middle of the day. This evening, going farther into the valleys
which lay towards the centre of the island, I found there was plenty of goats, though
exceedingly shy, and hard to come at; however, I resolved to try if I could not
bring my dog to hunt them down.

Jan, 2,—Accordingly, the next day I went out with my dog, and set him upon the
goats; but I was mistaken, for they all faced about upon the dog, and he knew his
danger too well,.for he would not come near them.

Jan. 3.—I began my fence, or wall; which, being still jealous of my being attacked
by somebody, I resolved to make very thick and strong.

4V.B.—This wall being described before, I purposely omit what was said in the
Journal; it is sufficient to observe that I was no less time than from the 3d of January
to the 14th of April working, finishing, and perfecting this wall, though it was no more
than about twenty-four yards in length, being a half-circle, from one place in the rock
. HOUSEHOLD AFFAIRS. - 55

to another place, about eight yards from it, the door of the cave being in the center
behind it. ,

All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me many days, nay, some-
times weeks together; but I thought I should never be perfectly secure till this wall
was finished; and it is scarce credible what inexpressible labor everything was done
with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods, and driving them into the ground,
for I made them much bigger than I needed to have done.

When this wall was finished, and the outside double-fenced, with a turf wall raised
up close to it, I persuaded myself that if any people were to come on shore there, they
would not perceive anything like a habitation; and it was very well I did so, as may
be observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable occasion.

During this time I made rounds in the woods for game every day, when the rain
permitted me, and made frequent discoveries in these walks of something or other to
my advantage; particularly I found a kind of wild pigeons, which build, not as wood-
pigeons in a tree, but rather as house-pigeons, in the holes of the rocks; and taking
some young ones, I endeavored to breed them up tame, and did so; but when they
grew older they flew all away, which perhaps was at first for want of feeding them, for
I had nothing to give them; however, I frequently found their nests and got, their
young ones, which were very good meat.

And now, in the managing my household affairs, I found myself wanting in many
things, which I thought at first jt was impossible for me to make; as, indeed, as to
some of them it was: for instance, I could never make a cask to be hooped. I hada
small runlet or two, as I observed before; but I could never arrive to the capacity of
making one by them, though I spent many weeks about it; I could neither put in
the heads, nor join the staves so true to one another as to make them hold water; so
I gave that also over.

In the next place, I was at a great loss for candles; so that as soon as it was dark,
which was generally by seven o’clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I remembered the
lump of beeswax with which I made candles in my African adventure ; but I had none
of that now; the only remedy I had was, that when I had killed a goat I saved the
tallow, and with a little dish made of clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I added
a wick of some oakum, I made mea lamp; and this gave me light, though not a clear
steady light like a candle. Inthe middle of all my labors it happened that, rummaging
my things, I found a little bag which, as I hinted before, had been filled with corn for
the feeding of poultry—not for this voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the ship
came from Lisbon. What little remainder of corn had been in the bag was all
devoured by the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but husks and dust; and being
willing- to have the bag for some other use (I think it was to put powder in, when I
divided it for fear of the lightning, or some such use), I shook the husks of corn out
of it on one side of my fortification, under the rock.

It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned that I threw this stuff
away, taking no notice of anything, and not so much as remembering that I had thrown
anything there, when, about a month after, or thereabouts, I saw some few stalks of
something green shooting upon the ground, which I fancied might be some plant I
56 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

had not seen; but J was surprised and perfectly astonished when, after a little longer
time, I saw about ten or twelve ears come out which were perfectly green barley, of the



same kind as our European

nay, as our English barley.

It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of my thoughts on this
occasion; I had hitherto acted upon no religious foundation at all; indeed, I had very
few notions of religion in my head, nor had entertained any sense of anything that had
befallen me, otherwise than as a chance, or, as we lightly say, what pleases God, without
so much as inquiring into the end of Providence in these things, or His order in

governing events in the world. But after I saw barley
grow there in a climate which I knew-was not proper











“I WAS SURPRISED AND PERFECTLY ASTONISHED.”

for corn, and especially that I knew~ not how it came
there, it startled me strangely, and I began to suggest
that God had miraculously caused this grain to grow
without any help of seed sown, and that it
was so directed purely for my sustenance in
that wild, miserable place.

This touched my heart a little, and brought
tears out of my eyes, and I began to bless: my-
self that such a prodigy of Nature should
happen upon my account; and this was the

more strange to me
because J saw near
it still, all along by
the side of the rock,
some other straggling
stalks, which proved
to be stalks of rice,
and which I knew,
because I had seen
it grow in Africa when
I was ashore there.

I not only thought
these the pure pro-
ductions of Provi-
dence for my support,
but not doubting but
that there was more
in the place, I went
all over that part of
the island where I
had been before, peer-
ing in every corner
and under every rock,
to see for more of it,
AN UNEXPECTED CROP. 57

but I could not find any. At last it occurred to my thoughts that I had shaken
the bag of chickens’ meat out in that place; and the wonder began to cease;
and I must confess, my religious thankfulness to God’s providence began to abate
too, upon the discovering that all this was nothing but what was common; though I
ought to have been as thankful
for so strange and unforeseen
providence as if it had been
miraculous; for it was really
the work of Providence as to
me, that should order or appoint
that ten or twelve grains of corn
should remain unspoiled, when
the rats had destroyed all the
rest, as if it had been dropped
from heaven; as also that I
should throw it out into that
particular place, where, it being
in the shade of a high rock, it
sprang up immediately ; whereas,
if I had thrown it anywhere else
at that time, it had been burnt
up and destroyed.

I carefully saved the ears of
this corn, you. may be sure, in
their season, which was about
the end of June; and laying up
every corn, I resolved to sow
them all again, hoping in time
to have some quantity, sufficient
to supply me with bread. But
it was not till the fourth year that
I would allow myself the least
grain of this corn to eat, and
even then but sparingly, as I
shall say afterwards, in its order ;
for I lost all that I sowed the
first season, by not observing the
proper time; for I sowed it just before the dry season, so that it never came up at
all, at least, not as it would have done: of which in its place.

Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks of rice, which I
preserved with the same care, and whose use was of the same kind, or to the same
purpose, viz., to make me bread, or rather food; for I found ways to cook it up
without baking, though I did that also after some time.

But to return to my Journal :—



‘“GRINDING MY TOOLS” (f. 60).
58 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I worked excessive hard these three or four months, to get my wall done; and the
14th of April I closed it up, contriving to go into it, not by a door, but over a wall,
by a ladder, that there might be no sign on the outside of my habitation,

April 16.—I finished the ladder; so I went up the ladder to the top, and then
pulled it up after me, and let it down on the inside: this was a complete inclosure to
me; for within I had room enough, and nothing could come at me from without,
unless it could first mount my ‘wall.

The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost had all my labor
overthrown at once, and myself killed. The case was thus :—As I was busy in the
inside of it, behind my tent, just in the entrance into my cave, I was terribly frightened
with a most dreadful surprising thing indeed: for, all on a sudden, I found the earth
came tumbling down from the roof of.my cave, and from the edge of the hill over my
head, and two of the posts I had set up in the cave cracked in a frightful manner. I
was heartily scared; but thought nothing of what really was the cause, only thinking
that the top of my cave was falling in, as some of it had done before: and for fear I
should be buried in it, I ran forwards to my ladder, and not thinking myself safe there
neither, I got over my wall for fear of the pieces of the hill, which F expected might
roll down upon me. I was no sooner stepped down upon the firm ground, than I
plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake; for the ground I stood on shook three times
at about eight minutes’ distance, with three such shocks as would have overturned the
strongest building that could be supposed to have stood upon the earth; anda great
piece of the top of the rock which stood about half a mile from me, next the sea, fell
down with such a terrible noise as I never heard in all my life. I perceived also the
very sea was put into a violent motion by it; and I believe the shocks were stronger
under the water than on the-island.

I was so amazed with the thing itself, having never felt the like, or discoursed with
any one that had, that I was like one dead or stupefied; and the motion of the earth
made my stomach sick like one that was tossed at sea; but the noise of the falling
of the rock awaked me as it were, and rousing me from the stupefied condition I was
in, filled me with horror, and I thought of nothing then but the hill falling upon my
tent and all my household goods, and burying all at once; and this sunk my very soul
within me a second time.

After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some time, I began to take
courage; and yet-I had not heart enough to get over my wall again, for fear of being
buried alive, but still sat upon the ground, greatly cast down and disconsolate, not
knowing what to do. All this while, I had not the least serious religious thought ;
nothing but the common “ Lord have mercy upon me!” and when it was over, that
went away too.

While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and it grew cloudy, as if it would rain;
soon after that, the wind arose by little and little, so that in less than half an hour it
blew a most dreadful hurricane of wind: the sea was, all on a sudden, covered with
foam and froth; the shore was covered with the. breach of the water; the trées were
torn up by the roots; and a terrible storm it was. ‘This held about three hours, and
then began to abate; and then in two hours more it was calm, and began to rain very
EARTHQUAKE AND STOR@. 59

hard. All this while I sat upon the ground very much terrified and dejected; when
ona sudden it came into my thoughts that these winds and rain being the consequences
of the earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent and over, and I might venture into
my cave again. With this thought, my spirits began to revive; and the rain also
helping to persuade me, I went in and sat down in my tent; but the rain was so
violent that my tent was ready to be beaten down with it; and I was forced to go into
my cave, though very much afraid and uneasy, for fear it should fall on my head.
This violent rain forced me to a new work, viz., to cut a hole through my new
fortifications, like a sink, to let the water go out, which would else have drowned my
cave. After I had been in my cave some time, and found still no more shocks of the
earthquake follow, I began to be more composed. And now to support my spirits,
which indeed wanted it very much, I went to my little store, and took a small sup of
rum; which, however, I did then and always very sparingly, knowing I could have no
more when that was gone. It continued raining all that night, and great part of the
next day, so that I could not stir abroad; but my mind being more composed, I began
to think of what I had best to do; concluding that if the island was subject to these
earthquakes, there would be no living for me ina cave, but I must consider of building
me some little hut in an open place which I might surround with a wall, as I had done
here, and so make myself secure from wild beasts or men; for I concluded if I stayed
where I was, I should certainly, one time or other, be buried alive.

With these thoughts, I resolved to move my tent from the place where it now
stood, which was just under the hanging precipice of the hill; and which, if it should
be shaken again, would certainly fall upon my tent: and I spent the two next days,
being the 19th and 2oth of April, in contriving where and how to remove my
habitation. The fear of being swallowed .up alive made me that I never slept in
quiet ; and yet the apprehensions of lying abroad without any fence were almost equal
to it; but still, when I looked about, and saw how everything was put in order, how
pleasantly concealed I was, and how safe from danger, it made me loth to remove.
In the meantime, it occurred to me that it would require a vast deal of time for me to
do this, and that I must be contented to run the venture where I was, till I had
formed a camp for myself, and had secured it so as to remove to it. So with this
resolution I composed myself for a time, and resolved that I would go to work with all
speed to build me a wall with piles and cables, etc., in a circle, as before, and set my
tent up init, when it was finished; but that I would venture to stay where I was till it
was finished, and fit to remove to. This was the 21st.

April 22.—The next morning I began to consider of means to put this resolve in
execution; but I was at a great loss about my tools. I had three large axes, and
abundance of hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for traffic with the Indians); but
with much chopping and cutting knotty hard wood, they were all full of notches, and
dull; and though I had a grindstone, I could not turn it and grind my tools too.
This cost me as much thought as a statesman would have bestowed upon a grand
point of politics, or a judge upon the life and death of a man. At length I contrived
a wheel with a string to tum it with my foot, that I might have both my hands at
liberty.
60 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Note —I had
not seen any such
thing in England,
or at Icast not to
take notice how it
was done, though
since I have ob-
served it was very
common there;
besides that, my
grindstone was
very large and
heavy. This
machine cost me
a full week’s work
to bring it to
perfection.

April 28, 29.—
These two whole
days I took up in grinding my
tools, my machine for turning my
grindstone performing very well.

April 30.—Having perceived
my bread had been low a great
while, I now took a survey of it,
and reduced myself to one biscuit-
cake a day, which made my heart




very heavy.

May 1.—In the morning, look-
ing towards the sea-side, the tide
being low, I saw something lie on
the shore bigger than ordinary,
and it looked like a cask; when
I came to it, I found a small

- barrel, and two or three pieces of
the wreck of the ship, which were
driven on shore by the late hurri-
cane; and looking towards the
wreck itself, I thought it seemed
to lie higher out of the water than
it used to do. I examined the
barrel which was driven on shore,

and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder; but it had taken water, and the powder

“I CAUGHT A YOUNG DOLPHIN” (fp. 62).

was caked as hard as a stone: however, I rolled it farther on shore for the























was more broken
open than formerly,
so many things
came daily on
shore, which the
sea had loosened,
and which the
winds and water
rolled by degrees
to the land.

This wholly di-
verted my thoughts

A Visrr 70 THE WRECK. . 61

present, and went on upon the sands, as
near as I could to the wreck of the ship,
to look for more.

When I came down to the ship I found
“it strangely removed. The forecastle, which
lay before buried in sand, was heaved up
at least six feet, and the stern, which was
broken to pieces and parted from the rest
by the force of the sea soon after I had
left rummaging of her, was tossed, as it
were, up, and cast on one side; and the
sand was thrown so high on that side next
the stern, that whereas there was a great
place of water before, so that I could not
come within a quarter of a mile of the
wreck without swimming, I could now
walk quite up to her when the tide was
out. I was surprised with this at first,
but soon concluded it must be
done by the earthquake; and
as by this violence the ship

























“A LARGE TORTOISE, OR TURTLE” (f. 63).

from the design of removing my habitation, and I busied myself mightily, that day
especially, in searching whether I could make any way into the ship; but I found
nothing was to be expected of that kind, for that all the inside of the ship was
62 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

choked up with sand. However, as I had learned not to despair of anything, I
resolved to pull everything to pieces that I could of the ship, concluding that every-
thing I could get from her would be of some use or other to me.

May 3.—I1 began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam through, which I thought
held some of the upper part or quarter-deck together, and when I had cut it through,
I cleared away the sand as well as I could from the side which lay highest; but the
tide coming in, I was obliged to give over for that time.

May 4.—I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst eat of, till I was
weary of my sport; when, just going to leave off, I caught a young dolphin. I had
made me a long line of some rope-yarn, but I had no hooks; yet I frequently caught
fish enough, as much as I cared to eat; all which I dried in the sun, and ate
them dry.

May 5.—Worked on the.wreck; cut another beam asunder, and brought three
great fir planks off from the decks, which I tied together, and made swim on shore
when the tide of flood came on,

May 6.—Worked on the wreck; got several iron bolts out of her, and other pieces
of iron-work; worked very hard, and came home very much tir eds and had thoughts
of giving it over.

May 7.—Went to the wreck again, witha an intent not to work, but found the weight
ofthe wreck had broken itself down, the beams being cut; that several pieces of the
ship seemed to lie loose, and the inside of the hold lay so open that I could see into
it; but it was almost full of water and sand.

May 8.—Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to wrench up the deck, which
lay now quite clear of the water or sand. I wrenched open two planks, and brought
them on shore also with the tide. I left the iron crow in the wreck for next day.

May 9.—Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way into the body of the
wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened them with the crow, but could not break
them up. I felt also a roll of English lead, and could stir it, but it was too heavy to
move.

May 10, 11, 12, 13, 14.—Went every day to the wreck; and got a great deal of
pieces of timber, and boards, or planks, and two or three hundredweight of iron.

May 15.—I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a piece off the roll of
lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet, and driving it with the other; but as it lay
about a foot and a half in the water, I could not make any blow to drive the hatchet.

May 16.—It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck appeared more broken by
the force of the water; but I stayed so long in the woods, to get pigeons for food, that
the tide prevented me going to the wreck that day.

May 17.—I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore, at a great distance, near
two miles off me, but resolved to see what they were, and found they were pieces of
the head, but too heavy for me to bring away.

May 24.—Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck; and with hard labor I
loosened some things so much with the crow, that the first flowing tide several casks
floated out, and two of the seamen’s chests; but the wind blowing from the shore,
nothing came to land that day but pieces of timber, and a hogshead, which had some.
VIOLENT AGUE. 63

Brazil pork in it; but the salt water and the sand had spoiled it. I continued this
work every day to the 15th of June, except the time necessary to get food, which I
always appointed, during this part of my employment, to be when the tide was up, that
I might be ready when it was ebbed out; -and by this time I had gotten timber, and
plank, and iron-work enough to have built a good boat, if I had known how; and
also I got, at several times, and in several pieces, near one hundredweight of the
sheet-lead. ; ; a

June 16.—Going down to the sea-side, I found a large tortoise, or turtle. This
was the first I had seen, which, it seems, was only my misfortune, not any defect of the
place or the scarcity; for had I happened to be on the other side of the island, I
might have had hundreds of them every day, as I found afterwards, but perhaps had
paid dear enough for them.

June 17 I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her threescore eggs; and her
flesh was to me, at that time, the most savory and pleasant that ever I tasted in my
life, having had no flesh, but of goats and fowls, since I landed in this horrible place.

June 18.—Rained all the day, and I stayed within. I thought, at this time, the
rain felt cold, and I was something chilly, which I knew was not usual in that latitude.

June 19.—Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been cold.

June 20.—No rest all night; violent pains in my head, and feverish.

June 21.—Very ill; frighted almost to death with the apprehensions of my sad
condition—to be sick, and no help: prayed to God, for the first time since the storm
off Hull, but scarce knew what I said or why; my thoughts being all confused.

June 22.—A little better; but under dreadful apprehensions of sickness.

June 23.—Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a violent headache.

June 24.—Much better.

June 25.—An ague, very violent: the fit held me seven hours; cold fit, and hot
with faint sweats after it. -

June 26.—Better; and having no victuals to eat, took my gun, but found myself
very weak; however, I killed a she-goat, and with much difficulty got it home, and
broiled some of it, and ate. I would fain have stewed it and made some broth, but
had no pot.

June 27.—The. ague again so violent that I lay abed all day and neither ate nor
drank. I was ready to perish for thirst; but so weak I had no strength to stand up,
or to get myself any water to drink. Prayed to God again, but was light-headed; and
when I was not, I was so ignorant that I knew not what to say; only I lay and cried,
“Lord, look upon me! Lord, pity me ! Lord, have mercy upon me!” I suppose I did
nothing else for two or three hours; tui the fit wearing off, I fell asleep, and did not
awake till far in the night. When I awoke, I found myself much refreshed, but weak,
and exceeding thirsty; however, as I had no water in my whole habitation, I was
forced to lie till morning, and went to. sleep again. In this second sleep, I had this
terrible dream: I thought that I was sitting on the ground, on the outside of my wall,
where I sat when the storm blew after the earthquake, and that I saw a man descend
from a great black cloud, in a bright flame of fire, and light upon the ground: he was
all over as bright as a flame, so that I could but just bear to look towards him: his
64 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

countenance was most inexpressibly dreadful, impossible for words to describe ; when
he stepped upon the ground with his feet, I thought the earth trembled, just as it had
done before in the earthquake, and all the air looked, to my apprehension, as if it had
been filled with flashes of fire. He was no sooner landed upon the earth but he
moved forwards towards me, with a long spear or weapon in his hand to kill me; and
when he came to a rising ground, at some distance, he spoke to me—or I heard a
voice so terrible that it is impossible to express the terror of it. All that I can say I
understood was this :—‘‘ Seeing all these things have not brought thee to repentance,
now thou shalt die; ” at which words, I thought he lifted up the spear that was in his
hand to kill me. ,

No one that shall ever read this account will expect that I should be able to
describe the horrors of my soul at this terrible vision. JI mean that even while it was
a dream, I even dreamed of those horrors. Nor is it any more possible to describe
the impression that remained upon my mind when I awaked, and found it was but
a dream. ;

I had, alas! no divine knowledge. What I had received by the good instruction
of my father was then worn out by an uninterrupted series, for eight years, of sea-faring
wickedness, and a constant conversation with none but such as were, like myself,
wicked and profane to the last degree. I do not remember that I had, in all that time,
one thought that so much as tended either to looking upwards towards God, or inwards
towards a reflection upon my own ways; but a certain stupidity of soul, without desire
of good, or conscience of evil, had entirely overwhelmed me; and I was all that the
most hardened, unthinking, wicked creature among our common sailors can be
supposed to be—not having the least sense, either of the fear of God in dangers, or
of thankfulness to God in deliverances.

In the relating what is already past of my story, this will be the more easily believed
when I shall add, that through all the variety of miseries that had to this day befallen
me, I never had so much as one thought of its being the hand of God, or that it was
a just punishment for my sins—my rebellious behavior against my father—or my
present sins, which were great—or so much as a punishment for the general course of
my wicked life. When I was on the desperate expedition on the desert shores of
Africa, I never had so much as one thought of what would become of me, or one
wish to God to direct me whither I should go, or to keep me from the danger which
apparently surrounded me, as well from voracious creatures as cruel savages; but I
was merely thoughtless of God or a Providence—I acted like a mere brute, from the
principles of nature, and by the dictates of common sense only, and indeed hardly
that. When I was delivered and taken up at sea by the Portugal captain, well used,
and dealt justly and honorably with, as well as charitably, I had not the least thank-
fulness in my thoughts. When, again, I was shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger of
drowning on this island, I was as far from remorse, or looking on it as a judgment.
I only said to myself often that I was an unfortunate dog, and born to be always
miserable.

It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found all my ship’s crew drowned,
and myself spared, I was surprised with a kind of ecstasy, and some transports of soul,
THOUGHTS IN SICKNESS. 65

which, had the grace of God assisted, might have come up to true thankfulness; but
it ended where it began, in a mere common flight of joy, or, as I may say, being glad
I was alive. without the least reflection upori the distinguishing goodness of the Hand
which had preserved me, and had
singled me out to be preserved
when all the rest were destroyed,
or an inquiry whv Providence had
been thus merciful to me.






Even

“BROILED IT ON THE COALS”? (/. 67).

just the same common sort of joy which seamen generally have after they have got safe
ashore from a shipwreck, all which they drown in the next bowl of punch, and forget
almost as soon as it is over, and all the rest of my life was like it. Even when I was
afterwards, on due consideration, made sensible of my condition, how I was cast on this
dreadful place, out of the reach of humankind, out of all hope of relief, or prospect of
redemption, as soon as I saw a probability of living, and that I should not starve and
perish for hunger, all the sense of my affliction wore off; and I began to be very easy,
applied myself to the works proper for my preservation and supply, and was far enough
from being afflicted at my condition, as a ‘judgment from Heaven, or as the hand of
God against me: these were thoughts which very seldom entered into my head.
66 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my Journal, had, at first, some little
influence upon me, and began to affect me with seriousness, as long as I thought it
had something miraculous in it; but as soon as ever that part of the thought was
removed, all the impression which was raised from it wore off also, as I have noted
already. Even the earthquake, though nothing could be more terrible in its nature,
or more immediately directing to the invisible Power which alone directs such things,
yet no sooner was the first fright over but the impression it had made went off also.
I had no more sense of God, or His judgments—much less of the present affliction
of my circumstances being from His hand—than if I had been in the most prosperous
condition of life. But now, when I began to be sick, and a leisurely view of the
miseries of death came to place itself before me ; when my spirits began to sink under
the burden of a strong distemper, and nature was exhausted with the violence of the
fever, conscience, that had slept so long, began to awake, and I began to reproach
myself with my past life, in which I had so evidently, by uncommon wickedness,
provoked the justice of God to lay me under uncommon strokes, and to deal with
me in so vindictive a manner. These reflections oppressed me from the second
or third day of my distemper; and in the violence, as well of the fever as of the
dreadful reproaches of my conscience, extorted some words from me like praying to
God, though I cannot say they were either a prayer attended with desires or with
hopes: it was rather the voice of mere fright and distress. My thoughts were confused,
the convictions great upon my mind, and the horror of dying in such a miserable
condition raised vapors into my head with the mere apprehensions; and in these
hurries of my soul, I knew not what my tongue might express. But it was rather
exclamation, such as, “ Lord, what a miserable creature am I! If I should be sick, I
shall certainly-die for want of help, and what will become of me?” Then, the tears
burst out of my eyes, and I could say no more for a good while. In this interval, the
good advice of my father came to my mind, and presently his prediction, which I
mentioned at the beginning of this story, viz., that if I did take this foolish step, God
would not bless me, and I would have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neglected
his counsel, when there might be none to assist me in my recovery. “ Now,” said I
aloud, “my dear father’s words are come to pass ; God’s justice has overtaken me, and
I have none to help or hear me. I rejected the voice of Providence, which had
mercifully put me in a posture or station of life wherein I might have been happy and
easy; but I would neither see it myself, nor learn to know the blessing of it from my
parents. I left them to mourn over my folly; and now I am left to mourn under the
consequences of it. I refused their help and assistance, who would have lifted me into
the world, and would have made everything easy to me; and now I have difficulties to
struggle with too great for even nature itself to support, and no assistance, no help,
no comfort, no advice.” Then I cried out, “ Lord, be my help, for I am in great
distress.” This was the first prayer, if I might call it so, that I had made for many
years. But I return to my Journal :—

June 28.—Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I had had, and the fit
being entirely off, J got up; and though the fright and terror of my dream was very
great, yet I considered that the fit of the ague would return again the next day, and
I REFLECT ON MY INGRATITUDE. 67

now was my time to get something to refresh and support myself when 1 should be ill:
and the first thing I did, I filled a large square case-bottle with water, and set it upon
my table, in reach of my bed; and to take off the chill or aguish disposition of the
water, I put about a quarter of a pint of rum into It, and mixed them together. Then
I got me a piece of the goat’s flesh, and broiled it on the coals, but could eat very
little. I walked about, but was very weak, and withal very sad and heavy-hearted in
the sense of my miserable condition, dreading the return of my distemper the next day.
At night, I made my supper of three of the turtle’s eggs, which I roasted in the ashes,
and ate, as we call it, in the shell, and this was the first bit of meat I had ever asked
God’s blessing to, even, as I could remember, in my whole life.

After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself so weak that I could hardly
carry the gun, for I never went out without that; so I went out but a little way, and
sat down upon the ground, looking out upon the sea, which was just before me, and
very calm and smooth. As I sat there, some thoughts such as these occurred to me :—
“What is the earth and sea, of which I have seen so much? Whence is it produced?
And what am I, and all the other creatures, wild and tame, human and brutal?
Whence are we? Sure we are all made by some secret Power, who formed the earth
and sea, the air and sky. And who is that?” ‘Then it followed most naturally—“ It is
God, that has made it all. Well, but then,” it came on strongly, “if God has made all
these things, He guides and governs them all, and all things that concern them; for
the Being that could make all things must certainly have power to guide and direct
them. Ifso, nothing can happen, in the great circuit of His works, either without His
knowledge or appointment.

“ Andif nothing happens without His knowledge, He knows that I am here, and am
in this dreadful condition; and if nothing happens without His appointment, He has
appointed all this to befall me.” Nothing occurred to my thoughts to contradict any
of these conclusions, and therefore it rested upon me with the greater force, that it
must needs be that God had appointed all this to befall me; that I was brought to
this miserable circumstance by His direction, He having the sole power, not of me only,
but of everything that happened in the world. Immediately it followed—“ Why has
God done this tome? What have I done to be thus used?” My conscience presently
checked me in that inquiry, as if I had blasphemed, and methought it spoke to me
like a voice, “ Wretch, dost ¢iow ask what thou hast done? Look back upon a
dreadful misspent life, and ask thyself, what thou hast zo¢ done? Ask, why is it that
thou wert not long ago destroyed? Why wert thou not drowned in Yarmouth
Roads? killed in the fight, when the ship was taken by the Salle man-of-war?
devoured by the wild beasts off the coast of Africa? or drowned /ere, when all the
crew perished but thyself? Dost ¢row ask, ‘What have I done?’” I was struck dumb
with these reflections, as one astonished, and had not a word to say—no, not to
answer to myself—but rose up pensive and sad, walked back to my retreat, and went
up over my wall, as if I had been going to bed; but my thoughts were sadly disturbed,
and I had no inclination to sleep; so I sat down in my chair, and lighted my lamp,
for it began to be dark. Now, as the apprehensions of the return of my distemper
terrified me very much, it occurred to my thought that the Brazilians take no physic
68 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

but their tobacco for almost all distempers, and I had a piece of a roll of tobacco in
one of the chests, which was quite cured, and some also that was green, and not quite
cured. :

I went, directed by Heaven, no doubt; for in this chest I found a cure both for
soul and body. I opened the chest, and found what I looked for, viz., the tobacco ;
and as the few books I had saved lay there too, I took out one of the Bibles which I
mentioned before, and which to this time I had not found leisure, or so much as
inclination, to look into.~ I say I took it out, and brought both that and the tobacco
with me to the table. What use to make of the tobacco I knew not, as to my
distemper, or whether it was good for it or no; but I tried several experiments with
it, as if I was resolved it should heal one way or other. I first took a piece of leaf,
and chewed it in my mouth, which indeed, at first, almost stupefied my brain, the
tobacco being green and strong, and that I had not been much used to it) Then I
took some and steeped it an hour or two in some rum, and resolved to take a dose of
it when I lay down; and, lastly, I burnt some upon a pan of coals, and held my nose
close over the smoke of it as long as I could bear it, as well for the heat as the virtue of
it, and I held it almost to suffocation. In the interval of this operation, I took up the
Bible, and began to read; -but my head was too much disturbed with the tobacco to
bear reading, at least at that time: only having opened the book casually, the words
first that occurred to me were these, “ Call upon Me in the day of trouble, and I will
deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify Me.” ‘These words were very apt to my case, and
made some impression upon my thoughts at the time of reading them, though not so
much as they did afterwards; for, as for being de/ivered, the word had no sound, as I
may say, to me: the thing was so remote, so impossible in my apprehension of things,
that I began to say, as the children of Israel did when they were promised flesh to
eat, “Can God spread a table in the wilderness?” so I began to say, “Can God
Himself deliver me from this place?” And as it was not for many years that any
hopes appeared, this prevailed very often upon my thoughts; but, however, the words
made a great impression upon me, and I mused upon them very often It grew now
late, and the tobacco had, as I said, dozed my head so much that I inclined to sleep:
so I left my lamp burning in the cave, lest I should want anything in the night, and
went to bed. But before I lay down, I did what I never had done in all my life: T
kneeled down, and prayed to God to fulfill the promise to me, that if I called upon
Him in the day of trouble, He would deliver me. After my broken and imperfect
prayer was over, I drank the rum in which I had steeped the tobacco, which was so
strong and rank of the tobacco, that indeed I could scarcely get it down; immediately
upon this I went to bed; and I found presently it flew up into my head violently ;
but I fell into a sound sleep, and waked no more till, by the sun, it must necessarily
be near three o’clock in the afternoon the next day; nay, to this hour I am partly of
opinion that I slept all the next day and night, and till almost three the day after; for
otherwise I know not how I should lose a day out of my reckoning in the days of the
week, as it appeared some years after I had done; for if I had lost it by crossing and
re-crossing the line, I should have lost more than one day; but in my account it was
lost, and I never knew which way. Be that, however, one way or other, when I
GRADUAL RECOVERY. 69

awaked I found myself exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively and cheerful; when
I got up I was stronger than I was the day before, and my stomach better, for I was
hungry; and, in short, I had no fit the next day, but continued much altered for the
better. This was the 2gth.

The 30th was my well fi
day, of course, and I went ie
abroad with my gun, but
did not care to travel too
far. I killed a sea-fowl or
two, something like a brand
goose, and brought them
home ; but was not very for-
ward to eat them; so I ate
some more of the turtle’s
eggs, which were very good.
This evening I renewed the
medicine, which I had sup-
posed did me good the day
before, viz., the tobacco
steeped in rum; only I did
not take so much as before,
nor did I chew any of the
leaf, or hold my head over
the smoke; however, I was
not so well the next day,
which was the 1st of July,
as I hoped I should have
been; for I had a little
spice of the cold fit, but
it was not much.

July 2,—I renewed the
medicine all the three ways ;
and dosed myself with it as
at first, and doubled the
quantity which I drank.

July 3.—I missed the fit
for good and all, though I
did not recover my full
strength for some weeks
after. While I was thus gathering strength, my thoughts ran exceedingly upon
this Scripture, “I will deliver thee; and the impossibility of my deliverance lay
much upon my mind, in bar of my ever expecting it; but as I was discouraging
myself with such thoughts, it occurred to my mind that I pored so much upon my
deliverance from the main affliction, that I disregarded the deliverance I had







tp NW

“| WENT UP THE CREEK FIRST” (f. 71).
70 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

received, and I was, as it were, made to ask myself such questions as these, viz. :
“Have I not been delivered, and wonderfully too, from sickness? from the most
distressed condition that could be, and that was so frightful to me? and what notice
had I taken of it? Had I done my part? God had delivered me, but I had not
glorified Him; that is to say, I had not owned and been thankful for that as a
deliverance; and how could I expect greater deliverance?” This touched my heart
very much; and immediately I kneeled down, and gave God thanks aloud for my
recovery from my sickness.

July 4.—In the morning, I took the Bible; and beginning at the New Testament,
I began seriously to read it, and imposed upon myself to read awhile every morning
and every night; not ‘tying myself to the number of chapters, but as long as my
thoughts should engage me. It was not long after I set seriously to this work, till I
found my heart more deeply and sincerely affected with the wickedness of my past life.
The impression of my dream revived; and the words, “All these things have not
brought thee to repentance,” ran seriously in my thoughts. I was earnestly begging
of God to give me repentance, when it happened providentially the very day that,
reading the Scripture, I.came to these words: “ He is exalted a Prince and a Saviour,
to give repentance and to give remission.” I threw down the book; and with my heart
as well as my hands lifted up to heaven, in a kind of ecstasy of joy, I cried out aloud,
“Jesus, Thou Son of David! Jesus, Thou exalted Prince and Saviour! give me
repentance!” This was the first time I could say, in the true sense of the words,
that I prayed in all my life; for now I prayed with a sense of my condition, and with a
true Scripture view of hope, founded on the encouragement of the Word of God; and
from this time, I may say, I began to have hope that God would hear me.

Now I began to construe the words mentioned above, “ Call on Me, and I will
deliver thee,” in a different sense from what I had ever done before ; for then I had no
notion of anything being called deliverance but my being delivered from the captivity
I was in; for though I was indeed at large in the place, yet the island was certainly
a prison to me, and that in the worst sense in the world. But now I learned to take
it in another sense; now I looked back upon my past life with such horror, and my
sins appeared so dreadful, that my soul sought nothing of God but deliverance from
the load of guilt that bore down all my comfort. As for my solitary life, it was
nothing ; I did not so much as pray to be delivered from it, or think of it; it was all of
no consideration, in comparison of this. And I added this part here, to hint to
whoever shall read it, that whenever they come to a true sense of things, they will find
deliverance from sin a much greater blessing than deliverance from affliction.

But, leaving this part, I return to my Journal :—

My condition began now to be, though not less miserable as to-my way of living,
yet much easier to my mind: and my thoughts being directed, by a constant reading
the Scripture and praying to God, to things of a higher nature, I had a great deal of

comfort within, which, till now, I knew nothing of; also, my health and strength
returned, I bestirred myself to furnish myself with everything that I wanted) a and make
my way of living as regular as I could.

From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly employed in walking about with
THE FERTILE SIDE OF THE ISLAND. 71

my gun in my hand, a little and a little at a time, as a man that was gathering up his
strength after a fit of sickness: for it is hardly to be imagined how low I was, and to
what weakness I was reduced. ‘The application which I made use of was perfectly
new, and perhaps what had never cured an ague before; neither can I recommend it
to any one to practice, by this experiment; and though it did carry off the fit, yet
it rather contributed to weaken me; for I had frequent convulsions in my nerves and
limbs for some time; I learned from it also this, in particular, that being abroad in the
rainy season was the most pernicious thing to my health that could be, especially in
those rains which came attended with storms and hurricanes of wind; for as the rain
which came in a dry season was always most accompanied with such storms, so I
found this rain was much more dangerous than the rain which fell in September and
October.

I had now been in this unhappy island above ten months; all possibility of
deliverance from this condition seemed to be entirely taken from me; and I firmly
believed that no human shape had ever set foot upon that place. Having now secured
my habitation, as I thought, fully to my mind, I had a great desire to make a more
perfect discovery of the island, and to see what other productions I might find, which
yet I knew nothing of.

It was the 15th of July that I began to take a more particular survey of the
island itself. I went up the creek first; where, as I hinted, I brought my rafts on
shore. I found, after I came about two miles up, that the tide did not flow any
higher; and that it was no more than a little brook of running water, and very fresh
and good: but this being the dry season, there was hardly any water in some parts of
it; at least, not enough to run in any stream, so as it could be perceived. On the banks
of this brook, I found many pleasant savannahs or meadows, plain, smooth, and covered
with grass; and on the rising parts of them, next to the higher grounds, where the
water, as it might be supposed, never overflowed, I found a great deal of tobacco,
green, and growing to a great and very strong stalk; there were divers other plants,
which I had no notion of or understanding about, and might, perhaps, have virtues of
their own, which I could not find out. I searched for the cassava root, which the
Indians in all that climate make their bread of, but I could find none. I saw large
plants of aloes, but did not then understand them. I saw several sugar-canes, but
wild and, for want of cultivation, imperfect. I contented myself with these discoveries
for this time, and came back, musing with myself what course I might take to know
the virtue and goodness of any of the fruits of plants which I should discover; but
could bring it to no conclusion: for, in short, I had made so little observation while I
was in the Brazils, that I knew little of the plants of the field; at least, very little that
might serve me to any purpose now in my distress.

The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again; and after going something
further than I had gone the day before, I found the brook and savannahs cease, and
the country became more woody than before. _In this part I found different fruits, and
particularly I found melons upon the ground, in great abundance, and grapes upon
the trees: the vines had spread indeed over the trees, and the clusters of grapes were
just now in their prime, very ripe and rich. This was a surprising discovery, and I
72 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

was exceeding glad of them; but I was warned by my experience to eat sparingly of
them, remembering that, when I was ashore in Barbary, the eating of grapes killed
several of our Englishmen, who were slaves there, by throwing them into fluxes and
fevers. But I found an excellent use for these grapes: and that was, to cure or dry



‘“T SOWED MY GRAIN” (fp. 75).

them in the sun, and keep them as dried grapes or raisins are kept, which I thought
would be, as indeed they were, as wholesome and as agreeable to eat, when no grapes
night be had.

I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my habitation, which, by the
way, was the first night, as I might say, I had lain from home. In the night I took
my first contrivance, and got up into a tree, where I slept well; and the next morning
proceeded upon my discovery, traveling nearly four miles, as I might judge by the
length of the valley, keeping still due north, with a ridge of hills oa the south and


“T DESCENDED A LITTLE ON THE SIDE OF THAT DELICIOUS VALLEY.”

(See p. 73.)
FRESH DISCOVERIES. 73

north side of me. At the end of this march I came to an opening, where the
country seemed to descend to the west; and a little spring of fresh water, which
issued out of the side of the hill by me, ran the other way, that is, due east; and
the country appeared so fresh, so green, so flourishing, everything being in a constant
verdure, or flourish of spring, that it looked like a planted.garden. I descended a
little on the side of that delicious valley, surveying it with a secret kind of pleasure,
though mixed with other afflicting thoughts, to think that this was all my own; that
I was king and lord of all this country indefeasibly, and had a right of possession ;
“and, if I could convey it, I might have it in inheritance as completely as any lord of
a manor in England. I saw here abundance of cocoa-trees, orange and lemon, and
citron-trees ; but all wild, and few bearing any fruit, at least not then. However, the
green limes that I gathered were not only pleasant to eat, but very wholesome; and I
mixed their juice afterwards with water, which made it very wholesome, and very cool
and refreshing. I found now I had business enough to gather and carry home; and
I resolved to lay up a store, as well of grapes as limes and lemons, to furnish
myself for the wet season, which I knew was approaching. In order to do this, I
gathered a great heap of grapes in one place, a lesser heap in another place, and a
great parcel of limes and lemons in another place ;-and taking a few of each with me,
I traveled homeward, and resolved to come again, and bring a bag or sack, or what
I could make to carry the rest home. Accordingly, having spent three days in this
journey, I came home (so I must now call my tent and my cave); but before I got
thither, the grapes were spoiled; the richness of the fruit, and the weight of the juice,
having broken them and bruised them, they were good for little or nothing: as to the
limes, they were good, but I could bring but a few.

The next day, being the 19th, I went back, having made me two small bags to
bring home my harvest; but I was surprised when, coming to my heap of grapes,
which were so rich and fine when I gathered them, I found them all spread abroad,
trodden to pieces, and dragged about, some here, some there, and abundance eaten
and devoured. By this I concluded there were some wild creatures thereabouts, which
had done this; but what they were I knew not. However, as I found there was no
laying them up on heaps, and no carrying them away in a sack, but that one way they
would be destroyed, and the other way they would be crushed with their own weight,
I took another course; for I gathered a large quantity of the grapes, and hung them
upon the out branches of the trees, that they might cure and dry in the sun; and as
for the limes and lemons, I carried as many back as I could well stand under.

When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with great pleasure the
fruitfulness of that valley, and the pleasantness of the’ situation; the security from
storm on that side of the water, and the wood;- and concluded that I had pitched
upon a place to fix my abode which was by far the worst part of the country. Upon
the whole, I began to consider of removing my habitation, and to look out for a
place equally safe as where now I was situate, if possible, in that pleasant, fruitful
part of the island.

This thought ran long in my head, and I was exceeding fond of it for some time,
the pleasantness of the place tempting me; but when I came to a nearer view of it, I
74 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

considered that I was now by the sea-side, where it was at least possible that some-
thing might happen to my advantage; and that the same ill fate that brought me
hither, might bring some other unhappy wretches to the same place; and though it
was scarce probable that any such thing should ever happen, yet to inclose myself
among the hills and woods in the center of the island was to anticipate my bondage,
and to render such an affair not only improbable but impossible ; and that therefore I
ought not by any means to remove. However, I was so enamored with this place
that I spent much of my time there for the whole remaining part of the month of July;
and though, upon second thoughts, I resolved as above not to remove, yet I built me
a little kind of a bower, and surrounded it at a distance with a strong fence, being a
double hedge, as high as I could reach, well staked, and filled between with brush-
wood; and here I lay very secure, sometimes two or three nights together, always
going over it with a ladder as before; so that I fancied now I had my country house
and my sea-coast house; and this work took me up to the beginning of August.

I had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy my labor, but the rains
came on, and made me stick close to my first habitation; for though I had made me
a tent like the other, with a piece of a sail, and spread it very well, yet I had not the
shelter of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a cave behind me to retreat into when
the rains were extraordinary.

About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my bower, and began to
enjoy myself. The 3d of August, I found the grapes I had hung up were perfectly
dried, and indeed were excellent good raisins of the sun; so I began to take them
down from the trees, and it was very happy that I did so, for the rains which followed
would have spoiled them, and I had lost the best part of my winter food; for I had
above two hundred large bunches of them. No sooner had I taken them all down,
and carried most of them home to my cave, but it began to rain; and from hence,
which was the 14th of August, it rained more or less every day till the middle of
October, and sometimes so violently that I could not stir out of my cave for several
days.

In this season I was much surprised with the increase of my family; I had been
concerned for the loss of one of my cats, who ran away from me, or, as I thought, had
been dead, and I heard no more tidings of her till, to my astonishment, she came
home about the end of August, with three kittens. This was the more strange to me
because, though I had killed a wild cat, as I called it, with my gun, yet I thought it
was a quite different kind from our European cats; but the young cats were the same
kind of house-breed as the old one; and both my cats being females, I thought it very
strange. But from these three cats I afterwards came to be so pestered with cats, that
I was forced to kill them like vermin, or wild beasts, and to drive them from my house
as much as possible.

From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain, so that I could not stir, and
was now very careful not to be much wet. In this confinement, I began to be
straitened for food: but venturing out twice, I one day killed a goat; and the last
day, which was the 26th, found a very large tortoise, which was a treat to me, and my
food was regulated thus:—I ate a bunch of raisins for my breakfast; a piece of the
THE ANNIVERSARY OF MY SHIPWRECK. 7

ur

goat’s flesh, or of the turtle, for my dinner, broiled (for, to my great misfortune, I had
no vessel to boil or stew anything), and two or three of the turtle’s eggs for supper.

During this confinement in my cover by the rain, I worked daily two or three
hours at enlarging my cave, and by degrees worked it on towards one side, till I came
to the outside of the hill, and made a door or way out, which came beyond my fence
or wall; and so I came in and out this way. But I was not perfectly easy at lying so
open; for, as I had managed myself before, I was in a perfect inclosure; whereas now,
I thought, I lay exposed, and yet I could not perceive that there was any living thing
to fear; the biggest creature that I had yet seen upon the island being a goat.

Sept. 30.—I was now come to the unhappy anniversary of my landing. I cast up
the notches on my post, and found I had been on shore three hundred and sixty-five
days. I kept this day as a solemn fast, setting it apart for religious exercise, prostrating
myself on the ground with the most serious humiliation, confessing my sins to God,
acknowledging His righteous judgment upon me, and praying to Him to have mercy
on me through Jesus Christ; and having not tasted the least refreshment for twelve
hours, even till the going down of the sun, I then ate a biscuit-cake and a bunch of
grapes, and went to bed, finishing the day as I began it. I had all this time observed
no Sabbath-day, for as at first I had no sense of religion upon my mind, I had, after
some time, omitted to distinguish the weeks by making a longer notch than ordinary
for the Sabbath-day, and so did not really know what any of the days were; but now,
having cast up the days as above, I found I had been there a year; so I divided
it into weeks, and set apart every seventh day for a Sabbath; though I found at the
end of my account I had lost a day or two in my reckoning. A little after this, my
ink began to fail me, and so I contented myself to use it more sparingly, and to
write down only the most remarkable events of my life, without continuing a daily
memorandum of other things.

The rainy season and the dry season began to now appear regular to me, and I
learned to divide them so as to provide for them accordingly; but I bought all my
experience before I had it, and this I am going to relate was one of the most dis-
couraging experiments that I made at all.

I have mentioned that I had saved the few ears of barley and rice which I had so
surprisingly found spring up, as I thought, of themselves; and I believe there were
about thirty stalks of rice, and about twenty of barley; and now I thought it a proper
time to sow it, after the rains, the sun being in his southern position, going from me.
Accordingly, I dug up a piece of ground as well as I could with my wooden spade,
and dividing it into two parts, I sowed my grain; but as I was sowing, it casually
occurred to my thoughts that I would not sow it all at first, because I did not
know when was the proper time for it, so I sowed about two-thirds of the seed.
leaving about a handful of each. It was a great comfort to me afterwards that I did
so, for not one grain of that I sowed this time came to anything; for the dry months
following, the earth having had no rain after the seed was sown, it had no moisture to
assist its growth, and never came up at all till the wet season had come again, and
then it grew as if it had been newly sown. Finding my first seed did not grow, which
I easily imagined was by the drought, I sought for a moister piece of ground, to
76 ROBINSON CRUSOE. .

make another trial in, and I dug up a piece of ground near my new bower, and sowed
the rest of my seed in February, a little before the vernal equinox ; and this, having the
rainy months of March and April to water it, sprang up very pleasantly, and yielded a
very good crop; but having part of the seed left only, and not daring to sow all that I
had got, I had but a small quantity at last, my whole crop not amounting to above half
a peck of each kind. But by this experiment I was made master of my business, and
knew exactly when the proper season was to sow, and that I might expect two seed-
times and two harvests every year. While this corn was growing I made a little
discovery, which was of use to me afterwards. As soon as the rains were over, and the
weather began to settle, which was about the month of November, I made a visit up
the country to my bower, where, though I had not been some months, I found all
things just as I left them. The circle or double hedge that I had made was not only
firm and entire, but the stakes which I had cut off of some trees that grew thereabouts
were all shot out and grown with long branches, as much as a willow-tree usually
shoots the first year after lopping its head. I could not tell what tree to call it that
the stakes were cut from. I was surprised, and yet very well pleased, to see the young
trees grow; and I pruned them, and led them up to grow as much alike as I could;
and it is scarcely credible how beautiful a figure they grew into, in three years ; so that
though the hedge made a circle of about twenty-five yards in diameter, yet the trees,
for such I might now call them, soon covered it, and it was a complete shade, sufficient
to lodge under all the dry season. This made me resolve to cut some more stakes,
and make me a hedge like this in a semicircle round my wall (I mean that of my first
dwelling), which I did; and placing the trees or stakes in a double row, at about eight
yards distance from my first fence, they grew presently, and were at first a fine cover
to my habitation, and afterwards served for a defense also, as I shall observe in its
order.

I found now that the seasons, of the year might generally be divided, not into
summer and winter, as in Europe, but into the rainy seasons and the dry seasons,
which were generally thus:

The half of February, the whole of March, and the half of April—rainy, the sun
being then on or near the equinox.

The half of April, the whole of May, June, and July, and the half of August—dry,
the sun being then to the north of the line.

The half of August, the whole of September, and the half of October—rainy, the
sun being then come back.

The half of October, the whole of November, December; and January, and the half
of February—dry, the sun being then to the south of the line.

The rainy seasons sometimes held longer or shorter as the winds happened to
blow, but this was ‘he general observation I made. After I had found, by experience,
the ill consequence of being abroad in the rain, I took care to furnish myself with
provisions beforehand, that I might not be obliged to go out, and I sat within doors
as much as possible during the wet months. In this time I found much employment,
and very suitable also to the time, for I found great occasion of many things which I
had no way to furnish myself with but by hard labor and constant application;
BASKET-MAKING. 77

particularly, I tried many ways to make myself a basket, but all the twigs I could get
for the purpose proved so brittle that they would do nothing. It proved of excellent
advantage to me now that when I was a boy I used to take great delight in standing
at a basket-maker’s, in the town where my father lived, to see them make their



“1 KNOCKED If DOWN WITH A STICK” (f. 79).

wicker-ware ; and being, as boys usually are, very officious to help, and a great observer
of the manner how they worked those things, and sometimes lent a hand, I had by this
means so full knowledge of the methods of it, that I wanted nothing but the materials ;
when it came into my mind that the twigs of that tree from whence I cut my stakes
that grew might possibly be as tough as the sallows, willows, and osiers in England, and
I resolved to try. Accordingly, the next day I went to my country house, as I called
it, and cutting some of the smaller twigs, I found them to my purpose as much as I
78 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

could desire; whereupon I came the next time prepared with a hatchet to cut down
a quantity, which I soon found, for there was a great plenty of them. ‘These I set up
to dry within my circle of hedges, and when they were fit for use, I carried them to my
cave; and here, during the next season, I employed myself in making, as well as I
could, a great many baskets, both to carry earth or to carry or lay up anything, as I
had occasion; and though I did not finish them very handsomely, yet I made them
sufficiently serviceable for my purpose; and thus, afterwards, I took care never to be
without them; and as my wicker-ware decayed, I made more, especially strong, deep
baskets to place my corn in, instead of sacks, when I should come to have any
quantity of it.

Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of time about it, I bestirred
myself to see, if possible, how to supply two wants.. I had no vessel to hold anything
that was liquid, except two runlets, which were almost full of rum, and some glass
bottles—some of the common size, and others which were case-bottles, square, for the
holding of water, spirits, etc. I had not so much as a pot to boil anything in, except
a great kettle, which I saved out of the ship, and which was too big for such uses as
I desired it for—viz., to make broth and stew a bit of meat by itself. The second
thing I fain would have had was a tobacco-pipe, but it was impossible for me to make
one; however, I found a contrivance for that, too, at last. I employed myself in
planting my second row of stakes or pile’, and in this wicker-work, all the summer or
dry season, when another business took me up more time than it could be imagined I
could spare.

I mentioned before that I had a great mind to see the whole island, and that I had
traveled up the brook, and so on to where I built my bower, and where I had an
opening quite to the sea on the other side of the island. I now resolved to travel
quite across to the sea-shore on that side; so, taking my gun, a hatchet, and my dog,
and a larger quantity of powder and shot than usual, with two biscuit-cakes and a
great bunch of raisins in my pouch for my store, I began my journey. When I had
passed the vale where my bower stood, as above, I came within view of the sea to
the west, and it being a very clear day, I fairly descried land—whether an island ora
continent I could not tell; but it lay very high, extending from the W. to the W.S.W.,
at avery great distance; by my guess, it could not be less than fifteen or twenty
leagues off.

I could not tell what part of the world this might be, otherwise than that I knew
it must be part of America, and, as I concluded, by all my observations, must be near
the Spanish dominions, and perhaps was all inhabited by savages, where, if I should
have landed, I had been in a worse condition than I was now; and therefore I
acquiesced in the dispositions of Providence, which I began now to own and to believe
ordered everything for the best; I say I quieted my mind with this, and left afflicting
myself with fruitless wishes of being there.

Besides, after some pause-upon this affair, I considered that if this land was the
Spanish coast, I should certainly, one time or other, see some vessel pass or
repass one way or other; but if not, then it was the savage coast between the
Spanish country and the Brazils, which were’ indeed the worst of savages; for
“A TABLE IN THE WILDERNESS.” 79

they are cannibals, and fail not to murder and devour all the human bodies that
fall into their hands.
With these considerations I walked very leisurely forward. I found that side of



sweet, adorned with flowers and grass, and full of very fine woods. I saw abundance
of parrots, and fain would I have caught one, if possible, to have kept it to be tame,
and taught it to speak to me. I did, after some painstaking, catch a young parrot, for
I knocked it down with a stick, and having recovered it, I brought it home; but it
was some years before I could make him speak; however, at last, I taught him to call
me by my name very familiarly. But the accident that followed, though it be a trifle,
will be very diverting in its place.

I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found in the low grounds hares
(as I thought them to be) and foxes; but they differed greatly from all the other kinds
I had met with, nor could I satisfy myself to eat them, though I killed several. But
I had no need to be venturous, for I had no want of food, and of that which was very
good, too, especially these three sorts, viz., goats, pigeons, and turtle, or tortoise, which,
added to my grapes, Leadenhall Market could not have furnished a table better than I,
in proportion to the company; and though my case was deplorable enough, yet I had
great cause for thankfulness that I was not driven to any extremities for food, but had
rather plenty, even to dainties.

I never traveled in this journey above two miles outright in a day, or thereabouts ;
but I took so many turns and returns to see what discoveries I could make, that I
came weary enough to the place where I resolved to sit down for all night; and then
I either reposed myself in a tree, or surrounded myself with a row of stakes set upright
in the ground, either from one tree to another, or so as no wild creature could come
at me without waking me. As soon as I came to the sea-shore I was surprised to see
that I had taken up my lot on the worst side of the island, for here, indeed, the shore
was covered with innumerable turtles, whereas, on the other side I had found but three
in ayearandahalf. Here was also an infinite number of fowls of many kinds, some
of which I had not seen before, and many of them very good meat, but such as I knew
not the names of, except those called penguins.

I could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very sparing of my powder and
shot, and therefore had more mind to kill a she-goat, if I could, which I could better
feed on; and though there were many goats here, more than on the other side of the
island, yet it was with much more difficulty that I could come near them, the country
being flat and even, and they saw me much sooner than when I was on the hills.

I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than mine; but yet I had
not the least inclination to remove, for as I was fixed in my habitation it became
natural to me, and I seemed all the while I was here to be as it were upon a journey,
and from home. However, I traveled along the shore of the sea towards the east, I
suppose about twelve miles, and then setting up a great pole upon the shore for a
mark, I concluded I would go home again, and that the next journey I took should
be on the other side of the island east from my dwelling, and so round till I
came to my post again, of which in its place.
80 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I took another way to come back than that I went, thinking I could easily keep
all the island so much in my view, that I could not miss finding my first dwelling by
viewing the country; but I found myself mistaken, for, being come about two or three

7 ; miles, I found myself descended
ro into a very large valley, but so
as OF 1 surrounded with hills, and those

hills covered with wood, that I
could not see which was my
way by any direction but that
of the sun, nor even then unless
I knew very well the position
of the sun at that time of the
day. It happened, to my further
misfortune, that the weather
proved hazy for three or four
days while I was in this valley,
and not being able to see the
sun, I wandered about very un-
comfortably, and at last was
obliged to find out the sea-side,
look for my post, and come back the
same way I went; and then, by easy
journeys, I turned homeward, the weather
being exceeding hot, and my gun, ammu-
nition, hatchet, and other things, very



heavy.

In this journey my dog surprised a
young kid, and seized upon it, and I
running in to take hold .of it, caught it,
and saved it alive from the dog. I had
a great mind to bring it home if I could,
for I had often been musing whether it
- might not be possible to get a kid or two,
and so raise a breed of tame goats, which might supply me when my powder and shot
should be spent. I made a collar to this little creature, and with a string, which I
made of some rope-yarn, which I always carried about. me, I led him along, though with
some difficulty, till I came to my bower, and there I inclosed him and left him, for
I was very impatient to be at home, from whence I had been absent above a month.

I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come into my old hutch, and
lie down in my hammock-bed. This little wandering journey, without settled place of
abode, had been so unpleasant to me that my own house, as I called it to myself, was
a perfect settlement to me, compared to that; and it rendered everything about me so
comfortable, that I resolved I would never go a great way from it again, while it
should be my lot to stay on the island,

‘AN INFINITE NUMBER OF FOWLS” (J. 79).
THE SECOND ANNIVERSARY. “ 81

I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale myself after my long journey ;
during which, most of the time was taken up in the weighty affair of making a cage
for my Poll, who began now to be a mere domestic, and to be mighty well acquainted
with me. Then I began to think of the poor kid which I had pent in within my little
circle, and resolved to go and fetch it home, or give it some food; accordingly I went,
and found it where I left it, for indeed it could not get out, but was almost starved for
want of food. I went and cut boughs of trees, and branches of such shrubs as I
could find, and threw them over, and having fed it, I tied it as I did before, to lead it
away; but it was so tame with being hungry that I had no need to have tied it, for
it followed me like a dog; and as I continually fed it, the creature became so loving,
so gentle, and so fond, that it became from that time one of my domestics also, and
would never leave me afterwards.

The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come, and I kept the 3oth of
September in the same solemn manner as before, being the anniversary of my landing
on the island, having now been there for two years, and no more prospect of being
delivered than the first day I came there. I spent the whole day in humble and
thankful acknowledgments of the many wonderful mercies which my solitary condition
was attended with, and without which it might’ have been infinitely more miserable.
I gave humble and hearty thanks that God had been pleased to discover to me that
it was possible I might be more happy in this solitary condition than I should have
been in a liberty of society, and in all the pleasures of the world: that He could fully
make up to me the deficiencies of my solitary state, and the want of human society,
by His presence, and the communication of His grace to my soul; supporting,
comforting, and encouraging me to depend upon His providence here, and hope for
His eternal presence hereafter.

It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much more happy the life I now led
was, with all its miserable circumstances, than the wicked, cursed, abominable life I
led all the past part of my days; and now having changed both my sorrows and my
joys, my very desires altered, my affections changed their gusts, and my delights were
perfectly new from what they were at first coming, or, indeed, for the two years past.

Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting, or for viewing the country, the
anguish of my soul at my condition would break out upon me on a sudden, and my
very heart would die within me, to think of the woods, the mountains, the deserts I
was in, and how I was a prisoner, locked up with the eternal bars and bolts of the
ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness, without redemption. In the midst of the greatest
composures of my mind, this would break out upon me like a storm, and make me
wring my hands, and weep like a child: sometimes it would take me in the middle of
my work, and I would immediately sit down and sigh, and look upon the ground for
an hour or two together; and this was still worse to me, for if I could burst out into
tears, or vent myself by words, it would go off, and the grief having exhausted itself
would abate.

But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts. I daily read the Word of
God, and applied all the comforts of it to my present state. One morning, being very
sad, I opened the Bible upon these words: “I will never leave thee, nor forsake thee.”
82 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Immediately it occurred that these words were to me; why else should they be
directed in such a manner, just at the moment when I was mourning over my con-
dition, as one forsaken of God and man? “Well, then,” said I, “if God does not
forsake me, of what ill consequence can it be, or what matters it, though the world
should all forsake me, seeing, on the other hand, if I had all the world, and should
lose the favor and blessing of God, there would be no comparison in the loss? ”

From this moment I began to conclude in my mind that it was possible for me to
be more happy in this forsaken, solitary condition, than it was probable I should ever
have been in any other particular state in the world; and with this thought I was
going to give thanks to God for bringing me to this place. I know not what it was,
but something shocked my mind at that thought, and I durst not speak the words.
“ How canst thou become such a hypocrite,” said I, even audibly, “to pretend to be
thankful for a condition which, however thou mayest endeavor to be contented with,
thou wouldst rather pray heartily to be delivered from?” So I stopped there; but
though I could not say I thanked God for being there, yet I sincerely gave thanks to
God for opening my eyes, by whatever afflicting providences, to see the former
condition of my life, and to mourn for my wickedness, and repent. I never opened
the Bible, or shut it, but my very soul within me blessed God for directing my friend
in England, without any order of mine, to pack it up among my goods, and for
assisting me afterwards to save it out of the wreck of the ship.

Thus, and in this disposition of mind, I began my third year; and though I have
not given the reader the trouble of so particular an account of my works this year as
the first, yet in general it may be observed that I was very seldom idle, but having
regularly divided my time according to several daily employments that were before
me, such as, first, my duty to God, and the reading the Scriptures, which I constantly
set apart some time for, thrice every day; secondly, the going abroad with my gun for
food, which generally took up three hours in every morning, when it did not rain;
thirdly, the ordering, curing, preserving, and cooking what I had killed or caught for
my supply: these took up great part of the day; also, it is to be considered that in
the middle of the day, when the sun was in the zenith, the violence of the heat was too
great to stir out; so that about four hours in the evening was all the time I could be
supposed to work in, with this exception, that sometimes I changed my hours of
hunting and working, and went to work in the morning, and abroad with my gun in
the afternoon.

To this short time allowed for labor,,I desire may be added the exceeding
laboriousness of my work; the many hours which, for want of tools, want of help, and
want of skill, everything I did took up out of-my time: for example, I was full two-
and-forty days in making a board for a long shelf, which I wanted in my cave;
whereas two sawyers, with their tools and a saw-pit, would have cut six of them out
of the same tree in half a day.

My case was this: it was to be a large tree which was to be cut down, because my
board was to be a broad one. This tree I was three days a-cutting down, and two
more cutting off the boughs, and reducing it to a log, or piece of timber. With
inexpressible hacking and hewing, I reduced both the sides of it into chips till it
MARAUDERS. 83

began to be light enough to move; then I turned it, and made one side of it smooth
and flat as a board from end to end; then turning that side downward, cut the other
side till I brought the plank to be about three inches thick, and smooth on both sides.
Any one may judge the labor of my hands in such a piece of work; but labor and
patience carried me through that, and many other things; I only observe this in
particular, to show the reason why so much of my time went away with so little work,
viz., that what might be a little to be done with help and tools, was a vast labor and
required a prodigious time to do alone, and by hand. But notwithstanding this, with
patience and labor, I went through many things, and indeed everything that my
circumstances made necessary to me to do, as will appear by what follows.

I was now in the months of November and December, expecting my crop of barley
and rice. The ground I had manured or dug up for them was not great; for, as I
observed, my seed of each was not above the quantity of half a peck, for I had lost
one whole crop by sowing in the dry season: but now my crop promised very well,
when ona sudden I found I was in danger of losing it all again by enemies of several
sorts, which it was scarcely possible to keep from it; as, first, the goats, and wild
creatures which I called hares, which, tasting the sweetness of the blade, lay in it night
and day, as soon as it came up, and ate it so close that it could get no time to shoot
up into stalk.

This I saw no remedy for but by making an inclosure about it with a hedge, which
I did with a great deal of toil, and the more because it required a great deal of speed;
the creatures daily spoiling my corn. However, as my arable land was but small,
suited to my crop, I got it totally well fenced in about three weeks’ time; and shooting
some of the creatures in the day-time, I set my dog to guard it in the night, tying him
up to a stake at the gate, where he would stand and bark all night long; so in a little
time the enemies forsook the place, and the corn grew very strong and well, and
began to ripen apace.

But as the beasts ruined me before, while my corn was in the blade, so the birds
were as likely to ruin me now, when it was in the ear; for going along by the place
to see how it throve, I saw my little crop surrounded with fowls, of I know not how
many sorts, who stood, as it were, watching till I should be gone. I immediately let
fly among them, for I always had my gun with me. I had no sooner shot but there
rose up a little cloud of fowls, which I had not seen at all, from among the corn itself.

‘This touched me sensibly, for I foresaw that in a few days they would devour all
my hopes; that I should be starved, and never be able to raise a crop at all; and what
to do I could not tell; however, I resolved not to lose my corn, if possible, though I
should watch it night and day. In the first place, I went among it, to see what
damage was already done, and found they had spoiled a good deal of it; but that as it
was yet too green for them, the loss was not so great but the remainder was likely to
be a good crop, if it could be saved.

I stayed by it to load my gun, and then coming away, I could easily see the thieves
sitting upon all the trees about me, as if they only waited till I was gone away, and the
event proved it to be so; for as I walked off, as if I was gone, I was no sooner out of
their sight but they dropped down one by one into the corn again. I was so provoked
84 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

‘that I could not have patience to stay till more came on, knowing that every grain that

they ate now was, as it might be said, a peck-load to me in the consequence; but
coming up to the hedge, I fired again, and killed three of them. This was what I
wished for;
so I took
them up, and
served them
as we serve
notorious
thieves in
England,
viz., hanged
them in
chains, for a
terror to
others. It is
impossible
to imagine
almost that this should have had
such an effect as it had, for the
fowls would not only not come at
the corn, but, in short, they forsook
all that part of the island, and I could
never see a bird near the place as long as
my scarecrows hung there. This I was very
glad of, you may be sure, and about the
latter end of December, which was our second harvest
of the year, I reaped my corn. .

I was sadly put to it for a scythe or sickle to cut
it down, and all I could do was to make one, as well_
as I could, out of one of the broad-swords, or cutlasses,
which I saved among the arms out of the ship. How-
ever, as my crop was but small, I had no great diffi-
culty to cut it down; in short, I reaped it in my way,
for I cut nothing off but the ears, and carried it away
in a great basket which I had made, and so rubbed
it out with my hands; and at the end of all my
harvesting, I found that out of my half-peck of seed
I had near two bushels of rice, and above two bushels and a half of barley; that is
to say, by my guess, for I had no measure at that time.

However, this was a great encouragement to me, and I foresaw that in time it
would please God to supply me with bread: and yet here I was perplexed again, for I
neither knew how to grind or make meal of my corn, or indeed how to clean it and
part it; nor, if made into meal, how to make bread of it; and if how to make it, yet I





‘*] FIRED AGAIN.”
FARMING OPERATIONS. 85

knew not how to bake it. These things being added to my desire of having a good
quantity for store, and to secure a constant supply, I resolved not to taste any of this
crop, but to preserve it all for seed against the next season; and, in the meantime, to
employ all my study and hours of working to accomplish this great work of providing
myself with corn and bread.

It might be truly said that now I worked for my bread. © It is a little wonderful,
and what I believe few people have thought much upon, viz., the strange multitude of
little things necessary in the providing, producing, curing, dressing, making, and
finishing this one article of bread.

I, that was reduced to a mere state of nature, found this to my daily discourage-
ment, and was made more and more sensible of it
every hour, even after I had got the first handful
of seed-corn, which, as I have said, came up un-
expectedly, and indeed to a surprise.

First, I had no plough to turn up the earth; no
spade or shovel to dig it. Well, this I conquered
by making me a wooden spade, as I observed be-
fore, but this did my work but in a wooden manner ;
and though it cost me a great many days to make
it, yet for want of iron it not only wore out the
sooner, but made my work the harder, and made
it be performed much worse. However, this I
bore with too, and was content to work it out with
patience, and bear with the badness ‘of the per-
formance. When the corn was sown, I had no
harrow, but was forced to go over it myself, and drag
a great heavy bough of a tree over it, to scratch
it, as it may be called, rather than rake or harrow
it. When it was growing, or grown, I have observed
already how many things I wanted to fence it,
secure it, mow or reap it, cure and carry it home,



: J. ‘“] HANGED THEM IN CHAINS”
thrash, part it from the chaff, and save it. Then I (p. 84).

wanted a mill to grind it, sieves to dress it, yeast

and salt to make it into bread, and an oven to bake it in; and all these things
I did without, as shall be observed; and yet the corn was an inestimable comfort
and advantage to me too. But this, as I said, made everything laborious and
tedious to me; but that there was no help for; neither was my time so much loss to

me, because, as I had divided it, a certain part of it was every day appointed to these
works; and as I had resolved to use none of the corn for bread till I had a greater
quantity by me, I had the next six months to apply myself wholly, by labor and
invention, to furnish myself with utensils proper for the performing all the operations
necessary for making the corn, when I had it, fit for my use.

But first I was to prepare more land, for I had now seed enough to sow above an
acre of ground. Before I did this, I had a week’s work at least to make me a spade,
86 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

which, when it was done, was but a sorry one indeed, and very heavy, and required
double labor to work with it. However, I went through that, and sowed my seed in
two large flat pieces of ground, as near my house as I could find them to my mind, and
fenced them in with a good hedge, the stakes of which were all cut of that wood
which I had set before, which I knew would grow; so that in one year’s time I knew I
should have a quick or living hedge that would want but little repair. This work was
not so little as to take me up less than three months, because great part of that time
was of the wet season, when I could not go abroad. Within-door—that is, when it
rained and I could not go out—I found employment in the following occupations,
always observing that all the while I was at work I diverted myself with talking to my
parrot, and teaching him to speak; and I quickly learnt him to know his own name,
and at last to speak it out pretty loud—“ Poll,” which was the first word I ever heard
spoken in the island by any mouth but my own. This, therefore, was not my work,
but an assistant to my work; for now, as I said, I had a great employment upon my
hands, as follows—viz., I had long studied, by some means or other, to make myself
some earthen vessels, which, indeed, I wanted sorely, but knew not where to come at
them. However, considering the heat of the climate, I did not doubt but if I could
find out any clay, I might botch up some such pot as might, being dried by the sun,
be hard enough and strong enough to bear handling, and to hold anything that was
dry and required to be kept so; and as this was necessary in preparing corn, meal,
etc., which was the thing I was upon, I resolved to make some as large as I could,
and fit only to stand like jars to hold what should be put into them.

It would make the reader pity me, or rather laugh at me, to tell how many
awkward ways I took to raise this paste; what odd, misshapen, ugly things I made;
how many of them fell in, and how many fell out—the clay not being stiff enough to
bear its own weight; how many cracked by the over-violent heat of the sun, being
set out too hastily; and how many fell to pieces with only removing, as well before
as after they were dried; and, in a word, how, after having labored hard to find
the clay—to dig it, to temper it, to bring it home, and work it—I could not make
above two large earthen ugly things (I cannot call them jars) in about two months’
labor.

However, as the sun baked these two very dry and hard, I lifted them very gently
up and set them down again in two great wicker baskets, which I had made on
purpose for them, that they might not break; and as between the pot and the
basket there was a little room to spare, I stuffed it full of the rice and barley
straw; and these two pots being to stand always dry, I thought would hold my
dry corn, and perhaps the meal, when the corn was bruised.

Though I miscarried so much in my design for large pots, yet I made several
smaller things with better success, such as little round pots, flat dishes, pitchers,
and pipkins, and anything my hand turned to, and the heat of the sun baked
them strangely hard.

But all this would not answer my end, which was to get an earthen pot to
hold what was liquid and bear the fire, which none of these could do. It
happened after some time, making a pretty large fire for cooking my meat, when
L MAKE SOME EARTHENWARE. 87

I went to put it out after I had done with it, I found a broken piece of one
of my earthenware vessels in the fire, burnt as hard as a stone, and red as a
tile. I was agreeably surprised to see it, and said to myself that certainly they
might be made to burn whole if they would burn broken.

This set me to study how to order my fire so as to make it burn me some
pots. I had no notion of a kiln such as the potters burn in, or of glazing them
with lead, though I had some lead to do it with; but I placed three large pip-
kins and two or three pots in a pile, one upon another, and placed my firewood
all round it, with a great heap of embers under them. I plied the fire with
fresh fuel round the outside and upon the top till I saw the pots in the inside
red-hot quite through, and observed that they did not crack at all. When I saw
them clear red, I let them stand in that heat about five or six hours, till I
found one of them, though it did not crack, did melt or run; for the sand
which was mixed with the clay melted by the violence of the heat, and would
have run into glass if I had gone on; so I slacked my fire gradually till the
pots began to abate of the red color, and watching them all night, that I might
not let the fire abate too fast, in the morning I had three very good (I will not
say handsome) pipkins and two other earthen pots as hard burnt as could be
desired, and one of them perfectly glazed with the running of the sand.

After this experiment, I need not say that I wanted no sort of earthenware
for my use; but I must needs say, as to the shapes of them, they were very
indifferent, as any one may suppose, when I had no way of making them but
as the children make dirt pies, or as a woman would make pies that never
learned to raise paste. :

No joy at a thing of so mean a nature was ever equal to mine when I
found I’ had made an earthen pot that would bear the fire, and I had hardly
patience to stay till they were cold before I set one on the fire again, with some
water in it, to boil me some meat, which it did admirably well; and with a
piece of a kid I made some very good broth, though I wanted oatmeal and
several other ingredients requisite to make it as good as I would have had it.

My next concern was to get me a stone mortar to stamp or beat some corn
in; for as to the mill, there was no thought of arriving to that perfection of art
with one pair of hands. To supply this want I was at a great loss, for, of all
the trades in the world, I was as perfectly unqualified for a stone-cutter as for
any whatever, neither had I any tools to go about it with. I spent many a day
to find out a great stone big enough to cut hollow and make fit for a mortar,
and could find none at all, except what was in the solid rock, and which I had
no way to dig or cut out; nor, indeed, were the rocks in the island of hardness
sufficient, but were all of a sandy, crumbling stone, which would neither bear
the weight of a heavy pestle, nor would break the corn without filling it with
sand. So, after a great deal of time lost in searching for a stone, I gave it
over, and resolved to look out a great block of hard wood, which I found,
indeed, much easier; and getting one as big as I had strength to stir, I rounded
it and formed it on the outside with my axe and hatchet, and then, with the
88 ROBINSON CRUSUE.

help of fire and infinite labor, made a hollow place in it, as the Indians in
Brazil make their canoes. After this I made a great heavy pestle, or beater, of
the wood called the ironwood; and this I prepared and laid by against I had
my next crop of corn, which I proposed to myself to grind, or rather pound
my corn or meal to make my bread.

My next difficulty was to make a sieve, or sierce, to dress my meal, and to part it
from the bran and husk; without which I did not-see it possible I could have any
bread. ‘This was a most difficult thing, so much as but to think on; for to be sure I
had nothing like the necessary things to make it with—I mean fine thin canvas, or
stuff to sierce the meal through. And here-I was at a full stop for many months, nor
did I really know what todo. Linen I had none left but what was mere rags. I had
goats’-hair, but neither knew I how to weave or spin it; and had I known how, here
were no tools to work it with. All the remedy that I found for this was, that at last
I did remember I had, among the seamen’s clothes which were saved out of the ship,
some neckcloths of calico or muslin; and with some pieces of these I made three
small sieves, but proper enough for the work; and thus I made shift for some years.
How I did afterwards I shall show in its place.

The baking part was the next thing to be considered, and how I should make
bread when I-came to have corn; ‘for, first, I had no yeast. As to that part, as there
was no supplying the want, so I did not concern myself much about it. But for an
oven I was indeed in great pain. At length I found out an experiment fcr that also,
which was this: I made some earthen vessels very broad, but not deep—that is to say,
about two feet diameter, and not above nine inches deep; these I burned in the fire
as I had done the other, and laid them by; and when I wanted to bake, I made a
great fire upon the hearth, which I had paved with some square tiles, of my own
making and burning also. But I should not call them square.

When the firewood was burned pretty much into embers, or live coals, I drew
them forward upon this hearth, so as to cover it all over, and there I let them lie till
the hearth was very hot; then, sweeping away all the embers, I set down my loaf or
loaves, and whelming down the earthen pot upon them, drew the embers all round
the outside of the pot to keep in and add to the heat; and thus, as well as in the best
oven in the world, I baked my barley-loaves, and became, in little time, a good pastry-
cook into the bargain; for I made myself several cakes and puddings of the rice.
Indeed, I made no pies, neither had I anything to put into them, supposing I had,
except the flesh either of fowls or goats. |

It need not be wondered at if ‘all these things took me up most part of the third
year of my abode here; for it is to be observed that, in the intervals of these things, I
had my new harvest and husbandry to manage; for I reaped my corn in its season,
and carried it home as well as I could, and laid it up in the ear in my large baskets
till I had time to rub it out, for I had no floor to thrash it on, or instrument to
thrash it with.

And now, indeed, my stock of corn increasing, I really wanted to build my barns
bigger. I wanted a place to lay it up in, for the increase of the corn now yielded me
so much that I had of the barley about twenty bushels, and of the rice as much, or
HIOPES OF ESCAPE. 89

more; insomuch that I now resolved to begin to use it freely, for my bread had been
quite gone a great while; also I resolved to see what quantity would be sufficient for
me a whole year, and to sow but once a year.

Upon the whole, I found that the forty bushels of barley and rice were much more
than I could consume in a year; so I resolved to sow just the same quantity every
year that I sowed the last, in hopes that such a quantity would fully provide me with
bread, etc.



““WHAT ODD, MISSHAPEN, UGLY THINGS I MADE” (f. 86).

All the while these things were doing, you may be sure my thoughts ran many
times upon the prospect of land which I had seen from the other side of the island;
and I was not without secret wishes that I was on shore there, fancying that, seeing
the mainland and an inhabited country, I might find some way or other to seneey.
myself farther, and perhaps at last find some means of escape.

But all this while I made no allowance for the dangers of such a condition, and
how I might fall into the hands of savages, and perhaps such as I might have reason to
think far worse than the lions and tigers of Africa ; that if I once came into their power,
I should run a hazard more than a thousand to one of being killed, and perhaps of
being eaten; for I had heard that the people of the Caribbean coasts were cannibals,
or men-eaters, and I knew by the latitude that I could not be far off from that shore ;
that suppose they were not cannibals, yet they might kill me, as many Europeans who
had falien into their hands had been served, even when they had been ten or twenty
together—much more I, that was but one, and could make little or no defense. All
these things, I say, which I ought to have considered well of, and I did cast up in my
thoughts afterwards, yet took up none of my apprehensions at first, and my head ran
mightily upon the thought of getting over to that shore.

Now, I wished for my boy Xury, and the long boat with the shoulder-of-mutton
sail, with which I sailed above a thousand miles on the coast of Africa; but this was in
go ROBINSON CRUSOE.

vain. Then I thought I would go and look at our ship’s boat, which, as I have said,
was blown up upon the shore a great way in the storm when we were first_cast away.
She lay almost where she did at first, but not quite, and was turned, by the force of
the waves and the winds, almost bottom upward against the high ridge of beachy,
rough sand, but no water about her as before. If I had had hands to have refitted
her, and to have launched her into the water, the boat would have done well enough,
and I might have gone back into the Brazils with her easily enough; but I might have
easily foreseen that I could no more turn her and set her upright upon her bottom
than I could remove the island. However, I went to the wood and cut levers and
rollers, and brought them to the boat; resolved to try what I could do, suggesting to
myself that if I could but turn her down, I might easily repair the damage she had
received, and she would be a very good boat, and I might go to sea in her very easily.

I spared no pains, indeed, in this piece of fruitless toil, and spent, I think, three or
four weeks about it. At last, finding it impossible to heave it up with my little
strength, I fell to digging away the sand, to undermine it, and so to make it fall down,
setting pieces of wood to thrust and guide it right in the fall.

But when I had done this, I was unable to stir it up again, or to get under it, much
less to move it forward towards the water; so I was forced to give it over; and yet,
though I gave over the hopes of the boat, my desire to venture over for the main in-
creased, rather than decreased, as the means for it seemed impossible.

This at length set me upon thinking whether it was not possible to make myself a
canoe, or periagua, such as the natives of those climates make, even without tools, or,
as I might say, without hands—viz., of the trunk of a great tree. This I not only
thought possible, but easy, and pleased myself extremely with my thoughts of making
it, and with my having much more convenience for it than any of the Negroes or
Indians; but not at all considering the particular inconveniences which I lay under
more than the Indians did—viz., want of hands to move it into the water when it was
made, a difficulty much harder for me to surmount than all the consequences of want
of tools could be to them. For what was it to me that when I had chosen a vast-tree
in the wood, I might with great trouble cut it down, if after I might be able with my
tools to hew and dub the outside into the proper shape of a boat, and burn or cut out
the inside to make it hollow, so as to make a boat of it—if, after all this, I must leave
it just there where I found it, and was not able to launch it into the water?

One would have thought I could not have had the least reflection upon my
mind of my circumstances while I was making this boat, but I-should have im-
mediately thought how I should get it into the sea; but my thoughts were so intent
upon my voyage over the sea in it, that I never once considered how I should get it
off the land; and it was really, in its own nature, more easy for me to guide it over
forty-five miles of sea, than about forty-five fathoms of land, where it lay, to set it afloat
in the water.

I went to work upon this boat the most like a fool that ever man did, who had any
of his senses awake. I pleased myself with the design, without determining whether I
was ever able to undertake it; not but that the difficulty of launching my boat came
often into my head; but I put a stop to my inquiries into it, by this foolish answer
I MAKE A CANOE. gI

which I gave myself: “ Let me first make it; I warrant I shall find some way or other
to get it along when it is done.”

This was a most preposterous method; but the eagerness of my fancy prevailed,
and to work I went and felled a cedar-tree. I question much whether Solomon ever
had such a one for the building the Temple at Jerusalem; it was five feet ten inches
diameter at the lower part next the stump, and four feet eleven inches diameter at
the end of twenty-two feet; after which it lessened for awhile, and then parted into
branches. It was not without infinite labor that I felled this tree. I was twenty
days hacking and hewing at it at the bottom; I was fourteen more getting the branches
and limbs and the vast spreading head of it cut off, which I hacked and hewed through
with my axe and hatchet, and inexpressible labor; after this it cost me a month to
shape it and dub it to a proportion, and to something like the bottom of a boat, that it
might swim upright as it ought to do. It cost me near three months more to clear the
inside, and, work it out so as to make an exact boat of it; this I did, indeed, without
fire, by mere mallet and chisel, and by the dint of hard labor, till I had brought it to
be a very handsome periagua, and big enough to have carried six-and-twenty men, and
consequently big enough to have carried me and all my ‘cargo.

When I had gone through this work, I was extremely delighted with it. The
boat was really much bigger than ever I saw a canoe or periagua, that was made
of one tree, in my life. Many a weary stroke it had cost, you may be sure—for
there remained nothing but to get it into the water; and had I gotten it into the
water, I make no question but I should have begun the maddest voyage, and the
most unlikely to be performed that ever was undertaken.

But all my devices to get it into the water failed me; though they cost infinite
labor too. It lay about one hundred yards from the water, and not more; but
the first inconvenience was, it was up-hill towards the creek. Well, to take away
this discouragement, I resolved to dig into the surface of the earth, and so make
a declivity. This I began, and it cost me a prodigious deal of pains (but who
grudge pains that have their deliverance in view?); but when this was worked
through, and this difficulty managed, it was still much at one, for I could no more
stir the canoe than I could the other boat. Then I measured the distance of
ground, and resolved to cut a dock or canal, to bring the water up to the canoe,
seeing I could not bring the canoe down to the water. Well, I began this work ;
and when I began to enter into it and calculate how deep it was to be dug,
how broad, how the stuff was to be thrown out, I found that, by the number of
hands I had, being none but my own, it must have been ten or twelve years
before I could have gone through with it; for the shore lay so high that at the
upper end it must have been at least twenty feet deep; so at length, though with
great reluctancy, I gave this attempt over also.

This grieved me heartily; and now I saw, though too late, the folly of begin-
ning a work. before we count the costy and before we judge rightly of our own
strength to go through with it.

In the middle of this work I finished my fourth year in this place, and kept
my anniversary with the same devotion, and with as much comfort as ever before ;
92 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

for, by a constant study and serious application of the Word of God, and by the
assistance of His grace, I gained a different knowledge from what I had before.
I entertained different notions of things. I looked now upon the world as a thing
remote, which I had nothing to do with, no expectation from, and, indeed, no
desires about; in a word, I had nothing indeed to do with it, nor was ever likely
to have. So I ‘thought it looked, as we may perhaps look upon it hereafter, viz.,
as a place I had lived in, but was come out of it; and well might I say, as
Father Abraham to Dives, ‘ Between me and thee is a great gulf fixed.”

In the first place, I was removed from all the wickedness of the world here; I
had neither the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eye, nor the pride of life. I had
nothing to covet, for I had all I was now capable of enjoying; I was lord of the
whole manor; or, if I pleased, I might call myself king or emperor over the whole
country which I had possession of. There were no rivals; I had no competitor,
none to dispute sovereignty or command with me. I might have raised ship-
loadings of corn, but I had no use for it; so I let as litle grow as I thought
enough for my occasion. I had tortoises or turtles enough, but now and then one
was as much as I could put to any use. I had timber enough to have built a
fleet of ships; and I had grapes enough to have made wine, or to have cured into
raisins, to have loaded that fleet when it had been built.

But all I could make use cf was all that was valuable; I had enough to eat
and to supply my wants, and what was all the rest to me? If I killed more flesh
than I could eat, the dog must eat it, or the vermin; if I sowed more corn than
I could eat, it must be spoiled; the trees that I cut down were lying to rot on
the ground; I could make no more use of them than for fuel, and that I had no
occasion for but to dress my food.

In a word, the nature and experience of things dictated to me, upon just re-
flection, that all the good things of this world are no further good to us than they
are for our use; and that, whatever we may heap up indeed to give others, we
enjoy as much as we can use, and no more. ‘The most covetous, griping miser
in the world would have been cured of the vice of covetousness, if he had been in
my case; for I possessed infinitely more than I knew what to do with. I had no
room for desire, except it was of things which I had not, and they were but trifles,
though, indeed, of great use to me. I had, as I hinted before, a parcel of money,
as well gold as silver, about thirty-six pounds sterling. Alas! there the nasty,
sorry, useless stuff lay! I had no manner of business for it; and I often thought
with myself that I would have given a handful of it for a gross of tobacco-pipes ;
or for a hand-mill to grind my corn; nay, I would have given it all for sixpenny-
worth of turnip and carrot seed out of England, or for a handful of peas and
beans, and a bottle of ink. As it was, I had not the least advantage by it, or
benefit from it; but there it lay in a drawer, and grew moldy with the damp of
the cave in the wet seasons; and if I had had the drawer full of diamonds,
it had been the same case, they had been of no manner of value to me, because
of no use. ‘

I had now brought my state of life to be much easier in itself than it was at
THANKFULNESS. 93

first, and much easier
to my mind, as well as
to my body. ‘I fre-
quently sat down to
meat with thankful-
ness, and admired the
hand of God’s provi-
dence, which had thus
spread my table in the
wilderness. I learned
to look more upon the
bright side of my con-
dition, and less upon
the dark side, and to
consider what I en-
joyed rather than
what I wanted; and this gave
me sometimes such secret
comforts, that I cannot ex-
press them; and which I
take notice of here, to put
those discontented people in
mind of it, who cannot en-
joy comfortably what God has
given them, because they see
and covet something that He has
not given them. Adl our discon-
tents about what we want appeared
to me to spring from the want of
thankfulness for what we have.
Another reflection was of great
use to me, and doubtless would
be so to any one that should fall
into such distress as mine was;
and this was to compare my
present condition with what I at
first expected it would be; nay,
with what it would. certainly have
been, if the good providence of
God had not wonderfully ordered
the ship to be cast up nearer to
the shore, where I not only could




‘*T RESOLVED TO DIG INTO THE SURFACE OF
THE EARTH” (f. QI).

come at her, but could bring what I got out of

her to the shore, for my relief and comfort; without which, I had wanted for tools
to work, weapons for defense, and gunpowder and shot for getting my food.
94. ~« ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I spent whole hours, I.may say whole days, in representing to myself, in the
most lively colors, how I must have acted if I had got nothing out of the ship.
How I could not have so much as got any food, except fish and turtles; and
that, as it was long before I found any of them, I must have perished first; that
I should have lived; if I had not perished, like a mere savage; that if I had
killed a goat ora fowl, by any contrivance, I had ‘no way to flay .or open it, or
part the flesh from the skin and the bowels, or to cut it up; but must gnaw it
with my teeth, and pull it with my claws, like a beast.

These reflections made me very sensible of the goodness of Providence to me,
and very thankful for my present condition, with all its hardships and misfortunes ;
and this part also I cannot but recommend to the reflection of those. who are apt,
in their misery, to say, “Is any affliction like mine?” Let them consider how
much worse the cases of some people are, and their case might have been, if
Providence had thought fit.

I had another reflection, which assisted me also to comfort my mind with
hopes; and this was comparing my present situation with what I had deserved,
and had therefore reason to expect from the hand of Providence. I had lived a
dreadful life, perfectly destitute of the knowledge and fear of God. I had been
well instructed by father and mother; neither had they been wanting to me in
their early endeavors to infuse a religious awe of God into my mind, a sense of
my duty, and what the nature and end of my being required of me. But, alas!
falling early into the sea-faring life, which, of all lives, is the most destitute of the
fear of God, though His terrors are always before them—I say, falling early into
the sea-faring life, and into sea-faring company, all that little sense of religion which
I had entertained was laughed out of me by my messmates; by a hardened
despising of dangers, and the views of death, which grew habitual to me; by my
long absence from all manner of opportunities to converse with anything but what
was like myself, or to hear anything of what was good or tended towards it.

So void was I of everything that was good, or of the least sense of what I
was, or was to be, that, in the greatest deliverances J enjoyed—such as my escape
from Sallee; my being taken up by the Portuguese master of the ship; my being
planted so well in the Brazils; my receiving the cargo from England, and the like
—I never once had the words, “Thank God!” so much as on my mind, or in
my mouth; nor in the greatest distress had I so much thoughts as to pray to
Him, or so much as to say, “Lord, have mercy upon me!” no, not to mention
the name of God, unless it was to swear by, and blaspheme it.

I had terrible reflections upon my mind for many months, as I have already
observed, on the account of my wicked and hardened life past; and when I
looked about me, and considered what particular providences had attended me
since my coming into this place, and how God had dealt bountifully with me—
had not only punished me less than my iniquity had deserved, but had so
plentifully provided for me—this gave me great hopes that my repentance was
accepted, and that God had yet mercies in store for me.

With these reflections, I worked my mind up, not only to resignation to the
RESIGNED TO MY FATE. 95

will of God in the present disposition of my circumstances, but even to a sincere
thankfulness for my condition; and that I, who was yet a living man, ought not
to complain, seeing I had not the due punishment of my sins. That I enjoyed
so many mercies which I had no reason to have expected in that place.. That
I ought nevermore to repine at. my condition, but to rejoice, and to give daily
thanks for that daily bread,which nothing but a crowd of wonders could have
brought. That I ought to consider I had been fed even by a miracle, even as
great as that of feeding Elijah by ravens—nay, by a long series of miracles. And
that I could hardly have named a place in the uninhabited part of the world
where I could have been cast more to my advantage; a place where, as I had
no society, which was my affliction on one hand, so I found no ravenous beasts, no
furious wolves or tigers, to threaten my life; no venomous creatures or poisonous,
which I might have fed on to my hurt; no savages to murder and devour me.
In a word, as my life was a life of sorrow one way, so it was a life of mercy
another; and I wanted nothing to make it a life of comfort but to be able to
make my sense of God’s goodness to me, and care over me in this condition,
be my daily consolation; and after I made a just improvement of these things,
I went away, and was no more sad. I had now been here so long, that many
things which I brought on shore for my help were either quite gone, or very
much wasted and near spent.

My ink, as I observed, had been gone some time, all but a very little, which
I eked out with water, a little and a little, till it was so pale, it scarce left any
appearance of black upon the paper. As long as it lasted, I made use of it to
minute down the days of the month on which any remarkable thing happened to
me; and first, by casting up times past, I remembered that there was a strange
concurrence of days in the various providences which befell me, and which, if I
had been superstitiously inclined to: observe days as fatal or fortunate, I might
have had reason to have looked upon with a great deal of curiosity.

First, I had observed that the same day that I broke away from my father
and my friends, -and ran away to Hull, in order to go to sea, the same day after-
wards I was taken by the Sallee man-of-war, and made a slave; the same day
of the year that I escaped out of the wreck of that ship in Yarmouth Roads,
that same day of the year afterwards I made my escape from Sallee in a boat;
the same day of the year I was born on—viz., the 20th of September—the same
day I had my life so miraculously saved twenty-six years after, when I was cast
on shore in this island; so that my wicked life and solitary life began both on a day.

The next thing to my ink being wasted, was that of my bread—I mean the
biscuit which I brought out of the ship. This I had husbanded to the last
degree, allowing myself but one cake of bread a day for above a year; and yet
I was quite without bread for a year before I got any corn of my own; and
great reason I had to be thankful that I had any at all, the getting it being, as
has been already observed, next to miraculous.

My clothes, too, began to decay mightily; as to linen, ‘I had had none a
good while, except some checkered shirts which I found in the chests of the
96 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

other seamen, and which I carefully preserved; because many times I could bear
no other clothes on but a shirt; and it was a very great help to me that I had,
among all the men’s clothes of the ship, almost three dozen of shirts. There
were also several thick watch-coats of the seamen’s which were left behind, but
they were too hot to wear; and though it is true that the weather was so vio-
lently hot that there was no need of clothes, yet I could not go quite naked—
no, though I had been inclined to it, which I was not; nor could I abide the
thoughts of it, though I was all alone. One reason why I could not go naked
was, I could not bear the heat of the sun so well when quite naked as with
some clothes on; nay, the very heat frequently blistered my skin; whereas, with
a shirt on, the air itself made some motion, and, whistling under the shirt, was
twofold cooler than without it. No more could I ever bring myself to go out
in the heat of the sun without a cap or a hat; the heat of the sun, beating with
such violence as it does in that place, would give me the headache presently, by
darting so directly on my head, without a hat or cap on, so-that I could not
bear it; whereas, if I put on my hat, it would presently go away.

Upon these views, I began to consider about putting the few rags I had,
which I called clothes, into some order. JI had worn out all the waistcoats I
had, and my business was now to try if I could not make jackets out of the
great watch-coats which I had by me, and with such other materials as I had;
so I set to work tailoring, or rather indeed, botching, for I made most piteous
work of it. However, I made shift to make two or three waistcoats, which I
hoped would serve me a great while; as for breeches or drawers, I made but a
very sorry shift indeed till afterwards.

I have mentioned that I saved the skins of all the creatures that I killed —I mean
four-footed ones—and I had them hung up, stretched out with sticks in the sun, by
which means some of them were so dry and hard that they were fit for little; but
others, it seems, were very useful. The first thing I made of these was a great cap for
my head, with the hair on the outside, to shoot off the rain; and this I performed so
well that, after, I made me a suit of clothes wholly of those skins—that is to say, a
waistcoat, and breeches open at the knees, and both loose; for they were rather
wanting to keep me cool than to keep me warm. I must not omit to acknowledge
that they were wretchedly made; for if I was a bad carpenter, I was a worse
tailor. However, they were such as I made a very good shift with, and when I
was abroad, if it happened to rain, the hair of the waistcoat and cap being
outermost, I was kept very dry.

After this, I spent a great deal of time and pains to faake an umbrella. I
was indeed in great want of one, and had a great mind to make one. I had
seen them made in the Brazils, where they are very useful in the great heats
which are there, and I felt the heats every jot as great here, and greater too,
being nearer the equinox; besides, as I was obliged to be much abroad, it was
a most useful thing to me, as well for the rains as the heats. I took a world
of pains at it, and was a great while before I could make anything likely to
hold; nay, after I thought I had hit the way, I spoiled two or three before I
My Suir or CLOTHES. 97

made one tomy mind. But at last I made one that answered indifferently well;
the main difficulty I found was to make it to let down. I could make it spread,
but if it did not let down too, and draw in, it would not be portable for me any
way but just over my head, which would not do. However, at last, as I said, I
made one to answer. I ‘covered it with skins, the hair upwards, so that it cast
off the rain like a pent-house, and kept off the sun so effectually that I could walk
out in the hottest of the
weather with greater advan-
tage than I could before in
the coolest, and when I had
no need of it, I could close
it, and carry it under my
arm.

Thus I lived mighty com-
fortably, my mind being en-
tirely composed by resigning
to the will of God, and throw-
ing myself wholly upon the
disposal of His providence.
This made my life better than
sociable, for when I began
to regret the want of con-—
versation, I would ask my-
self, whether thus conversing
mutually with my own
thoughts, and (as I hope I
may say) with even my Maker,
by ejaculations and petitions,
was not better than the ut- a
most enjoyment of human
society in the world? |

I cannot say that, after this, for five years, any extraordinary thing happened
to me, but I lived on in the same course, in the same posture and place, just
as before. The chief thing I was employed in, besides-my yearly labor of plant-
ing my barley and rice and curing my raisins—of both which I always kept up
just enough to have sufficient stock of the year’s provisions beforehand—I say,
besides this yearly labor and my daily labor of going out with my gun, I had
ong labor, to make me a canoe, which at last I finished; so that, by digging a
canal to it of six feet wide and four feet deep, I brought it into the creek, almost
half a mile. As for the first, which was so vastly big, as I made-it without con-
sidering beforehand, as I ought to do, how I should be able to launch it, so, never
being able to bring it into the water, or bring the water to it, I was obliged to
let it lie where it was, as a memorandum to teach me to be wiser the next ‘time.
Indeed, the next time, though I could not get a tree proper for it, and was in



I MADE ME A SUIT OF CLOTHES” (7. 96).
98 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

a place where I could not get the water to it at any less distance than, as I have
said, of near half a mile, yet, as I saw it was practicable at last, I never gave it
over; and though I was near two years about it, yet I never grudged my labor,
in hopes of having a boat to go off to sea at last.

However, though my little periagua was finished, yet the size of it was not at
all answerable to the design which I had in view when I made the first—I mean
of venturing over to the “evra firma, where it was above forty miles broad. cordingly, the smallness of my boat assisted to put an end to that design, and
now I thought no more of it. As I had a boat, my next design was to make a
tour round the island; for as I had been on the other side in one place, cross-
ing, as I have already described it, over the land, so the discoveries I made in
that journey made me very eager to see other parts of the coast; and now I had
a boat, I thought of nothing but sailing round the island.

For this purpose, and that I might do everything with discretion and considera-
tion, I fitted up a little mast in my boat, and made a sail to it out of some of
the pieces of the ship’s sails which lay in store, and of which I had a great store
by me. Having fitted my mast and sail, and tried the boat, I found she would
sail very well; then I. made little lockers, or boxes, at each end of my boat, to
put provisions, necessaries, ammunition, etc., into, to be kept dry, either from rain
or the spray of the sea; and a little, long, hollow place I cut in the inside of the
boat, where I could lay my gun, making a flap to hang down over it, to keep
it dry.

I fixed my umbrella also in a step at the stern, like a mast, to stand over my
head, and keep the heat of the sun off of me, like an awning. And thus I every
now and then took a little voyage upon the sea; but never went far out, nor far
from the little creek. At last, being eager to view the circumference of my little
kingdom, I resolved upon my tour; and accordingly I victualed my ship for the
voyage, putting in two dozen of loaves (cakes I should rather call them) of barley-
bread, an earthen pot full of parched rice (a food I ate a great deal of), a little
bottle of rum, half a goat, and powder with shot for killing more, and two large
watch-coats (of those which, as I mentioned before, I had saved out of the seamen’s
chests). These I took, one to lie upon and the other to cover me in the night.

It was the 6th of November, in the sixth year of my reign, or my captivity,
which you please, that I set out on this voyage, and I found it much longer than
I expected; for though the island itself was not very large, yet when I came to
the east side of it, I found a great ledge of rocks lie out about two leagues into
the sea—some above water, some under it; and beyond that a shoal of sand, lying
dry half a league more, so that I was obliged to go a great way out to sea to
double that point.

When: I first discovered them, I was going to give over my enterprise, and
come back again, not knowing how far it might oblige me to go out to sea, and,
above all, doubting how I should get back again; so I came to an anchor; for I
had made a kind of an anchor with a piece of a broken grappling which I got out
of the ship.
L VENTURE OUT IN my BOAT. 99

Having secured my boat, I took my gun and went on shore, climbing up a
hill which seemed to overlook that point, where I saw the full extent of it, and
resolved-to venture.

In my viewing the sea from that hill where I stood, I perceived a strong and,
indeed, a most furious current, which ran to the east, and even came close to the
point; and I took the more notice of it because I saw there might be some danger,
that when I came into it, I might be carried out to sea by the strength of it, and
not be able to make the island again. And, indeed, had I not got first upon this
hill, I believe it would have been so, for there was the same current on the other
side of the island, only that it set off at a farther distance, and I saw there was
a strong eddy under the shore; so I had nothing to do but to get out of the first
current, and I should presently be in an eddy.

I lay here, however, two days, because the wind, blowing pretty fresh at E.S.E.,
and that being just contrary to the current, made a great breach of the sea upon
the point; so that it was not safe for me to. keep too close to the shore for the
breach, nor to go too far off, because of the stream.

The third day, in the morning, the wind having abated overnight, the sea was
calm, and I ventured. But I am a warning-piece to all rash and ignorant pilots,
for no sooner was I come to the point, when I was not even my boat’s length
from the shore, but I found myself in a great depth of water, and a current like
the sluice of a mill. It carried my boat along with it with such violence that all
I could do could not keep her so much as on the edge of it; but I found it
hurried me farther and farther out from the eddy, which was on my left hand.
There was no wind stirring to help me, and all that I could do with my paddles
signified nothing. And now I began to give myself over for lost, for as the
current was on both sides of the island, I knew in a few leagues’ distance they
must join again, and then I was irrecoverably gone; nor did I see any possibility
of avoiding it; so that I had no prospect before me but of perishing, not by
the sea, for that was calm enough, but of starving from hunger. I had, indeed,
found a tortoise on the shore, as big almost as I could lift, and had tossed it
into the boat; and I had a great jar of fresh water—that is to say, one of my
earthen pots; but what was all this to being driven into the vast ocean, where,
to be sure, there was no shore, no mainland or island, for a thousand leagues
at least? ,

And now I saw how easy it was for the providence of God to make the
most: miserable condition that mankind could be in worse. Now I looked back
upon my desolate, solitary island as the most pleasant place in the world, and
all the happiness my heart could wish for was to be there again. I stretched
out my hands to it with eager wishes. ‘O happy desert !” said I, “I shall never
see thee more. O miserable creature! whither am I going?” Then I reproached
myself with my unthankful temper, and how I had repined at my solitary con-
dition; and now what would I give to be on shore there again! ‘Thus, we never
see the true state of our condition till it is illustrated to us by its contraries, nor
know how to value what we enjoy, but by the want of it. It is scarcely possible
100 . ROBINSON CRUSOE.

to imagine the consternation I was now in, being driven from my beloved island
(for so it appeared to me now to be) into the wide ocean, almost two leagues,
and in the utmost despair of ever recovering it again. However, I worked hard,
till, indeed, my strength was almost exhausted, and kept my boat as much to
the northward—that is, towards the side of the current which the eddy lay on—as















































































““{ BROUGHT IT INTO THE CREEK” (f. 97).

possibly I could; when about noon, as the sun passed the meridian, I thought
I felt a little breeze of wind in my face, springing up from the S.S.E. This
cheered my heart a little, and especially when, in about half an hour more, it blew
a pretty small, gentle gale. By this time I had got at a frightful distance from the
island; and had the least cloudy or hazy weather intervened, I had been undone
another way, too; for I had no compass on board, and should never have known
how to have steered towards the island, if I had but once lost sight of it. But the
weather continuing clear, I applied myself to get up my mast again, and spread my
sail, standing away to the north as much as possible, to get out of the current.
My Harpy DELIVERANCE. IOI

Just as I had set up my mast and sail, and the boat began to stretch away,
I saw even by the clearness of the water some alteration of the current was near;
for where the current was so strong, the water was foul; but perceiving the water
clear, I found the current abate; and presently I found to the east, at about
half a mile, a breach of the sea upon some rocks. These rocks, I found, caused
the current to part again, and as the main stress of it ran away more southerly,
leaving the rocks to the north-east, so the other returned by the repulse of the
rock, and made a strong eddy, which ran back again to the north-west, with a
very sharp stream.

They who know what it is to have a reprieve brought to them upon the ladder,
or to be rescued from thieves just going to murder them, or who have been in
such extremities, may guess what my present surprise of joy was, and how gladly
I put my boat into the stream of this eddy; and the wind also freshening, how
gladly I spread my sail to it, running cheerfully before the wind, and with a
strong tide or eddy under foot.

This eddy carried me about a league in my way back again, directly towards
the island, but about two leagues more towards the northward than the current lay
which carried me away at first; so that when I came near the island, I found my-
self open to the northern shore of it—that is to say, the other end of the island,
opposite to that which I went out from.

When I had made something more than a league of way by help of this current
or eddy, I found it was spent, and saved me no farther. However, I found that
being between two great currents—viz., that on the south side, which had hurried
me away, and that on the north, which lay about two leagues on the other side—
i say, between these two, in the wake of the island, I found the water at least
still, and running no way; and having still a breeze of wind fair for me, I kept
on steering directly for the island, though not making such fresh way as I did
before. .

About four o’clock in the evening, being then within about a league of the
island, I found the point of the rocks which occasioned this disaster stretching out,
as is described before, to the southward, and casting off the current more southerly,
had, of course, made another eddy to the north; and this I found very strong, but
not directly setting the way my course lay, which was due west, but almost full north.
However, having a fresh gale, I stretched across this eddy, slanting north-west ;
and in about an hour came within about a mile of the shore, where, it being
smooth water, I soon got to land.

When I was on shore, I fell on my knees, and gave God thanks for my de-
liverance, resolving to lay aside all thoughts of my deliverance by my boat; and
refreshing myself with such things as I had, I brought my boat close to the shore,
in a little cove that I had spied under some trees, and laid me down to sleep,
being quite spent with the labor and fatigue of the voyage.

I was now at a great loss which way to get home with my boat! I had run
so much hazard, and knew too much of the case, to think of attempting it by
the way I went out; and what might be at the other side (I mean the west side)


102 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I knew not, nor had I any mind to run any more ventures. So I resolved on
the next morning to make my way westward along the shore, and to see if there
was no creek where I might lay up my frigate in safety, so as to have her again,
if I wanted her. In about three miles or thereabouts, coasting the shore, I came
to a very good inlet, or bay, about a mile over, which narrowed till it came to
a very little rivulet or brook, where I found a very convenient harbor for my
boat, and where she lay as if she had been in a little dock made on purpose for
her. Here I put in, and having stowed my boat very safe, I went on shore to look
about me, and see where I was.

I soon found I had but little passed the place where I had been before, when
I had traveled on foot to that shore; so, taking nothing out of my boat but my
gun and umbrella, for it was exceedingly hot, I began my march. The way was
comfortable enough after such a voyage as I had been upon, and I reached my
old bower in the evening, where I found everything standing as I left it; for I
always kept it in good order, being, as I said before, my country-house.

I got over the fence, and laid me down in the shade to rest my limbs, for
I was very weary, and fell asleep. But judge you, if you can, that read my story,
what u surprise I must have been in when I was awaked out of my sleep by a
voice, calling me by my name several times: “ Robin, Robin, Robin Crusoe! poor
Robin Crusoe! Where are you, Robin Crusoe? - Where are you? Where have
you been?” . :

I was so dead asleep at first, being fatigued with rowing, or paddling, as it is
called, the first part of the day, and walking the latter part, that I did not awake
thoroughly; and dozing between_ sleeping and waking, thought I dreamed that
somebody spoke to me; but as the voice continued to repeat, “ Robin Crusoe!
Robin Crusoe!” at last I began to awake more perfectly, and was at first dread-
fully frightened, and started up in the utmost consternation. But no sooner were
my eyes open but I saw my Poll sitting on the top of the hedge, and immediately
knew that it was he that spoke to me; for just in such bemoaning language I had
used to talk to him, and teach him; and he had learned it so perfectly that he
would sit upon my finger, and lay his bill close to my face, and cry, “Poor Robin
Crusoe! Where are you? Where have-.you been? How came you here?”
and such things as I had taught him.

However, even though I knew it was the parrot, and that indeed it could be
nobody else, it was a good while before I could compose myself. First, I was
amazed how the creature got thither; and then, how he should just keep about
the place, and nowhere else; but as I was well satisfied it could be nobody but
honest Poll, I got over it; and holding out my hand, and calling him by his
name, “ Poli,” the sociable creature came to me, and sat upon my thumb, as he
used to do, and continued talking to me, ‘Poor Robin Crusoe! and how did I
come here? and where had I been?” just as if he had been overjoyed to see me
again; and so I carried him home along with me.

I had now had enough of rambling to sea for some time, and had enough to
do for many days to sit still and reflect upon the danger I had been in. I would
Ady POTS AND WICKERWARE. 103
have been very glad to have had my boat again on my side of the island; but
I knew not how it was practicable to get it about. As to the east side of the
island, which I had gone round, I knew well enough there was no venturing that
way; my very heart would shrink, and my very blood run chill, but to think of
it; and as to the other side of the island, I did not know how it might be there.
But supposing the current ran with the same force against the shore at the east
as it passed by it on the other, I might run the same risk of being driven down
the stream, and carried by the island, as I had been before of being carried
away from it. So with these thoughts I contented myself to be without any boat,
though it had been the product of so many months’ labor to make it, and of so
many more to get it into the sea.

In this government of my temper I remained near a year; lived a very sedate,
retired life, as you may well suppose; and my thoughts being very much composed
as to my condition, and fully comforted in resigning myself to the dispositions of
Providence, I thought I lived really very happily in all things, except that of society.

I improved myself in this time in all the mechanic exercises which my neces-
sities put me upon applying myself to; and I believe I should, upon occasion,
have made a very good carpenter, especially considering how few tools I had.

Besides this, I arrived at an unexpected perfection in my earthenware, and con-
trived well enough to make them with a wheel, which I found infinitely easier
and better, because I made things round and shaped, which before were filthy
things indeed to look on. But I think I was never more vain of my own per-
formance, or more joyful for anything I found out, than for my being able to
make a tobacco-pipe; and though it was a very ugly, clumsy thing when it was
done, and only burnt red, like other earthenware, yet as it was hard and firm, and
would draw the smoke, I was exceedingly comforted with it, for I had been
always used to smoke; and there were pipes in the ship, but I forgot them at
first, not thinking that there was tobacco in the island; and afterwards, when I
searched the ship again, I could not come at any pipes.

In my wickerware also I improved much, and made abundance of necessary
baskets, as well as my invention showed me; though not very handsome, yet they
were such as were very handy, and convenient for laying things up in, or fetching
things home. For example, if I killed a goat abroad, I could hang it up ina
tree, flay it, and dress it, and cut it in pieces, and bring it home in a basket:
and the like by a turtle;-I could cut it up, take out the eggs, and a piece or
two of the flesh, which was enough for me, and bring them home in a basket,
and leave the rest behind me. Also, large deep baskets were my receivers for my
corn, which I always rubbed out as soon as it was dry, and cured; and kept it in
great baskets, instead of a granary.

I_began now to perceive my powder abated considerably; and this was a want
which it was impossible for me to supply, and I began seriously to consider what
I must do when I should have no more powder; that is to say, how I should do
to kill any goats. I had, as I observed in the third year of my being here, kept
a young kid, and bred her up tame; I was in hopes of getting a he-kid; but I
104 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

could not. by any means bring it to pass, till my kid grew an old goat; and as I
could never find in my heart to kill her, she died at last of mere age.

But being now in the eleventh year of my residence, and, as I have said, my
ammunition growing low, I set myself to study some art to trap and snare the
goats, to see whether I could not catch some of them alive; and particularly I
wanted a she-goat great with young. To this purpose, I made snares to hamper
them; and I believe they were more than once taken in them; but my tackle was
not good, for I had no wire, and always found them broken, and my _ bait
devoured. At length,-I resolved to try a pitfall: so I dug several large pits in
the earth, in places where I had observed the goats used to feed, and over these
pits I placed hurdles, of my own making too, with a great weight upon them;
and several times I put ears of barley and dry rice, without setting the trap; and
I could easily perceive that the goats had gone in and eaten up the corn, for I
could see the marks of their feet. At length, I set three traps in one night, and
going the next morning, I found them all standing, and yet the bait eaten and
gone: this was very discouraging. However, I altered my traps; and, not to
trouble you with particulars, going one morning to see my traps, I found in one
of them a large old he-goat; and in one of the others, three kids, a male and
two females.

As to the old one, I knew not what to do with him; he was so fierce, I durst
not go into the pit to him; that is to say, to go about to bring him away alive,
which. was what I wanted. I could have killed him, but that was not my business,
nor would it answer my end; so I even let him out,.and he ran away, as if he
had been frighted out of his wits; but I had forgot then what I learned afterwards,
that hunger will tame a lion. If I had let him stay there three or four days
without food, and then have carried him some water to drink, and then a little
corn, he would have been as tame as one of the kids; for they are mighty
sagacious, tractable creatures, where they are well used.

However, for the present I let him go, knowing no better at that time: then I
went to the three kids, and, taking them one by one, I tied them with strings
together, and with some difficulty brought them all home.

It was a good while before they would feed; but throwing them some sweet
corn, it tempted them, and they began to be tame. And now I found that if I
expected to supply myself with goats’ flesh, when I had no- powder or shot left,
breeding some up tame was my only way; when, perhaps, I might have them
about: my house like a flock of sheep. But, then, it occurred to me that I must
keep the tame from the wild, or else they would always run wild when they grew
up; and the only way for this was to have some inclosed piece of ground, well
fenced either with hedge or pale, to keep them up so effectually, that those within
might not break out, or those without break in.

This was a great undertaking for one pair of hands; yet, as I saw there was
an absolute necessity for doing it, my first piece of work was to find out a proper
piece of ground —viz., where there was likely to be herbage for them to eat,
water for them to drink, and cover to keep them from the sun.
My PADDOCK FOR THE GOATS. 105

Those who understand such inclosures will think I had very little contrivance,
when I pitched upon a place very proper for all these, being a. plain, open piece
of meadow land, or savannah (as our people call it'in the Western colonies), which
had two or three little drills of fresh water in it, and at one end was very woody ;
I say, they will smile at my forecast, when I shall tell them I began by inclosing





































































































































































































































































































































































































































































‘“T FELL ON MY KNEES” (/. IOI).

of this piece of ground in such a manner that my hedge or pale must have been
at least two miles about. Nor was the madness of it so great as to the compass,
for if it was ten miles about, I was like to have time enough to do it in; but
I did not consider that my goats would be as wild in so much compass as if
they had had the whole island, and I should have so much room to chase them
in that I should never catch them.

My hedge was. begun and carried on, I believe, about fifty yards, when this
thought occurred to me; so I presently stopped short, and, for the first beginning,
I resolved to inclose a piece of about one hundred and fifty yards in length, and
one hundred yards in breadth, which, as it would maintain as many as I should
106 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

have in any reasonable time, so, as my Hock increased, I could add more ground
to my inclosure.

This was acting with some prudence, and I went to work with courage. I
was about three months hedging in the first piece; and, till I had done it, I
tethered the three kids in the best part of it, and used them to feed as near me
as possible, to make them familiar; and very often I would go and carry them
some ears of barley, or a handful of rice, and feed them out of my hand; so
that, after my inclosure was finished, and I let them loose, they would follow me
up and down, bleating after me for a handful of corn.

This answered .my end, and in about a year and a half I had a flock of
about twelve goats, kids and all; and in two years more I had three-and-forty,
besides several that I took and killed for my food; and after that, I inclosed five
several pieces of ground to feed them in, with little pens to drive them into, to
take them as I wanted them, and gates out of one piece of ground into another.

But this was not all; for now I not only had goats’ flesh to feed on when I
pleased, but milk too—a thing which, indeed, in my beginning I did not so
much as think of, and which, when it came into my thoughts, was really an
agreeable surprise; for now I set up my dairy, and had sometimes a gallon or
two of milk in a day. And as Nature, who gives supplies of food to every
creature, dictates even naturally how to make use of it, so I, that never milked
a cow, much. less a goat, or saw butter or cheese made, very readily and handily,
though after a great many essays and miscarriages, made me both butter and
cheese at last, and never wanted it afterwards. How mercifully can our Creator
treat His creatures even in those conditions in which they seemed to be over-
whelmed in destruction! How can He sweeten the bitterest providences, and
give us cause to praise Him for dungeons and prisons! What a table was here
spread for me in a wilderness where I saw nothing at first but to perish for hunger!

It would have made a Stoic smile to have seen me and my little family sit
down to dinner. There was my majesty, the prince and lord of the whole island.
I had the lives of all my subjects at absolute command; I could hang, draw,
give life and liberty and take it away, and no rebels among all my subjects. Then
to see how like a king I dined too, all alone, attended by my servants! Poll, |
as if he had been my favorite, was the only person permitted to talk to me;
my dog, who was now grown very old and crazy, and had found no species to
multiply his kind upon, sat always at my right hand; and two cats, one on one
side the table, and one on the other, expecting now and then a bit from my hand,
as a mark of special favor.

But these were not the two cats which I brought on shore at first, for they
were both of them dead, and had been interred near my habitation by my own
hand; but one of them having multiplied by I know not what kind of creature,.
these were two which I preserved tame; whereas the rest ran wild in the woods,
and became, indeed, troublesome to me at last, for they would often come into
my house, and plunder me too, till at last I was obliged to shoot them, and did
kill a great many; at length they left me. With this attendance and in this
My NEw CLOTHES. 107

plentiful manner I lived; neither could I be said to want anything but society ;
and of that, in some time after this, I was likely to have too much.

I was something impatient, as I have observed, to have the use of my boat,
though very loth to run any more hazard; and, therefore, sometimes I sat con-
triving ways to get her about the island, and at other times I sat myself down,
contented enough without her. But I had a strange uneasiness in my mind to
go down to the point of the island where, as I have said, in my last ramble, [
went up the hill to see how the shore lay, and how the current set, that I might
see what I had to do. ‘This inclination increased upon me every day, and at
length I resolved to travel thither by land; and, following the edge of the shore,
I did so; but had any one in England met such a man as I was, it must either
have frighted them or raised a great deal of laughter: and as I frequently stood
still to look at myself, I could not but smile at the notion of my traveling
through Yorkshire with such an equipage, and in such a dress. Be pleased to take
a sketch of my figure, as follows :—

I had a great, high, shapeless cap made of goat’s skin, with a flap hanging
down behind, as well to keep the sun from me as to shoot the rain off from
running into my neck; nothing being so hurtful in these climates as the rain upon
the flesh under the clothes.

I had a short jacket of goat’s skin, the skirts coming down to about the
middle of the thighs, and a pair of open-kneed breeches of the same; the breeches
were made of the skin of an old he-goat, whose hair hung down such a length
on either side, that, like pantaloons, it reached to the middle of my legs. Stock-
ings and shoes I had none, but had made me a pair of somethings—I scarce
knew what to call them—like buskins, to flap over my legs and lace on either
side like spatterdashes, but of a.most barbarous shape, as, indeed, were all the
rest of my clothes. .

I had on a broad belt of goat’s skin dried, which I drew together with two
thongs of the same, instead of buckles; and in a kind of a frog on either side
of this, instead of a sword and dagger, hung a little saw and a hatchet, one on
one side, one on the other. I had another belt not so broad, and fastened in
the same manner, which hung over my shoulder; and at the end of it, under
my left arm, hung two pouches, both made of goat’s skin too, in one of which
hung my powder, in the other my shot. At my back I carried my basket, on
my shoulder my gun, and over my head a great clumsy, ugly, goat-skin umbrella,
but which, after ally was the most necessary thing I had about me next to my
gun. As for my face, the color of it was really not so mulatto-like as one
might expect from a man not at all careful of it, and living within nine or ten
degrees of the equinox. My beard I had once suffered to grow till it was about
a quarter of a yard long; but as I had both scissors and razors sufficient, I had
cut it pretty short, except what grew on my upper lip, which I had trimmed into
a large pair of Mahometan whiskers, such as I had seen worn by some Turks at
Sallee; for the Moors did not wear such, though the Turks did. Of these
moustachios, or whiskers, I will not say they were long enough to hang my hat
108 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

upon them, but they were of a length and shape monstrous enough, and such as
in England would have passed for frightful.

But all this is by the bye; for, as to my figure, I had so few to observe me
that it was of no manner of consequence, so I say no more to that part. In
this kind of dress I went my new journey, and was out five or six days. I
traveled first along the sea-shore, directly to the place where I first brought my
boat to an anchor, to get up upon the rocks; and having no boat now to take
care of, I went over the land a nearer way to the same height that I was upon
before, when, looking forward to the point of the rock which lay out, and which
I was obliged to double with my boat, as I said above, I.was surprised ‘to see
the sea all smooth and quiet—no rippling, no motion, no current any more there
than in other places. I was at a strange loss to understand this, and resolved to
spend some time in the observing it, to see if nothing from the sets of the tide
had occasioned it; but I was presently convinced how it was—viz., that the tide
of ebb setting from the west, and joining with the current of waters from some
great river on the shore, must be the occasion of this current; and that accord-
ing as the wind blew more forcible from the west or from the north, this current
came near, or went farther from the shore; for, waiting thereabouts till evening,
I went up to the rock again, and then the tide of ebb being made, I plainly
saw the current again as before, only that it ran farther off, being near half a league
from the shore, whereas in my case it set close upon the shore, and hurried me
in my canoe along with it, which at another time it would not have done.

This observation convinced me that I had nothing to do but to observe the
ebbing and the flowing of the tide, and I might very easily bring my boat about
the island again; but when I began to think about putting it in practice, I had
such terror upon my spirits at the remembrance of the danger I had been in,
that I could not think of it again with any patience; but, on the contrary, I took
up another resolution, which was more safe, though more laborious
that I would build, or rather make me another periagua, or canoe; and so have
one for one side of the island, and one for the other.

You are to understand that now I had, as I may call it, two plantations in
the island; one my little fortification or tent, with the wall about it, under the
rock, with the cave behind me, which by this time I had enlarged into several
apartments, or caves, one within another. One of these, which was the dricst and
largest, and had a door out beyond my wall or fortification—that is to say, be-
yond where my wall joined to the rock—was all filled up with the large earthen
pots, of which I have given an account, and with fourteen or fifteen great baskets,
which would hold five or six bushels each, where I laid up my stores of pro-
visions, especially my corn, some in the ear, cut off short from the straw, and
the other rubbed out with my hand. :

As for my wall, made, as before, with long stakes or piles, those piles grew
all like trees, and were by this time grown so big, and spread so very much, that
there was not the least appearance, to any one’s view, of any habitation behind
them.



and this was,
My COUNTRY SEAT. 109

Near this dwelling of mine, but a little farther within the land, and upon
lower ground, lay my two pieces of corn-land, which I kept duly cultivated and
sowed, and which duly yielded me their harvest in its season; and whenever I
had occasion for more corn, I had more land adjoining, as fit as that.

Besides this, I had my country seat, and I had now a tolerable plantation there
also; for. first, 1 had my little bower, as I called it, which I kept in repair—that
is to say, I kept the hedge which circled it in, constantly fitted up to its usual
height, the ladder standing always in the inside. I kept the trees, which at first









“HOW LIKE A KING I DINED” (f. 106).

were no more than my stakes, but were now grown very firm and tall, always so
cut that they might spread and grow thick and wild, and make the more agree-
able shade, which they did effectually to my mind. In the middle of this I had
my tent always standing, being a piece of a sail spread over poles set up for that
purpose, and which never wanted any repair or renewing; and under this I had
made me a squab, or couch, with the skins of the creatures I had killed, and
with other soft things, and a blanket laid on them, such as belonged to our sea-
bedding, which I had sayed; and a great watch-coat to cover me; and here,
whenever I had occasion to be absent from my chief seat, I took up my country
habitation. ‘

- Adjoining to this I had my inclosures for my cattle—that is to say, my goats;
110 | ROBINSON CRUSOE.

and as I had taken an inconceivable deal of pains to fence and inclose this ground,
I was so anxious to see it kept entire, lest the goats should break through, that
I never left off till, with infinite labor, I had stuck the outside of the hedge
so full of small stakes, and so near to one another, that it was rather a pale
than a hedge, and there was scarce room to put a hand through between them;
which afterwards, when those stakes grew, as they all did in the next rainy season,
made the inclosure strong like a wall—indeed, stronger than any wall.

This will testify for me that I was not idle, and that I spared no pains to
bring to pass whatever appeared necessary for my comfortable support; for I con-
sidered the keeping up a breed of tame creatures thus at my hand would be a
living magazine of flesh, milk, butter, and cheese for me as long as I lived in
the place, if it were to be forty years; and that keeping them in my reach de-
pended entirely upon. my perfecting my inclosures to such a degree that I might
be sure of keeping them together, which, by this method, indeed, I so effectually
secured, that when these little stakes began to grow, I had planted them so very
thick, I was forced to pull some of them up again. 7

In this place also I_had my grapes growing, which I principally depended on
for my winter store of raisins, and which I never failed to preserve very care-
fully, as the best and most agreeable dainty of my whole diet; and, indeed, they
were not agreeable only, but physical, wholesome, nourishing, and refreshing to the
last degree. 3

As this was also about half-way between my other habitation and the place
where I had laid up my boat, I generally stayed and lay here in my way thither,
for I used frequently to visit my boat; and I kept all things about, or belonging
to her, in very good order. Sometimes I went out in her to divert myself, but no
more hazardous voyages would I go, scarcely ever above a stone’s cast or two
from the shore, I was so apprehensive of being hurried out of my knowledge again
by the currents or winds, or any other accident. But now I came to a new scene
of my life.

It happened one day, about noon, going towards my boat, I was exceedingly
surprised with the print of a man’s naked foot on the shore, which was very plain
to be seen on the sand. I stood like one thunderstruck, or as if I had seen an
apparition. I listened, I looked round me, but I could hear nothing nor see
anything; I went up to a rising ground, to look farther; I went up the shore, and
down the shore, but it was all one: I could see no other impression but that one.
I went to it again to see if there were any more, and to observe if it might not
be my fancy; but there was no room for that, for there was exactly the print of
a foot—toes, heel, and every part of a foot. How it came thither I knew not,
nor could in the least imagine. But after innumerable fluttering thoughts, like a
man perfectly confused and out of myself, I came home to my fortification, not
feeling, as we say, the ground I went on, but terrified to the last degree, looking
behind me at every two or three steps, mistaking every bush and tree, and fancying
every stump at a distance to bea man. Nor is it possible to describe how many
various shapes my affrighted imagination represented things to me in; how many
TERROR. . III

‘wild ideas were formed every moment in my fancy, and what strange unaccount-
able whimseys came into my thoughts by the way.

When I came to my castle (for so I think I called it ever after this), I fled
into it like one pursued. Whether I went over by the ladder, as first contrived,
or went in at the hole in the rock, which I called a door, I cannot remember; for
never frighted hare fled to cover, or fox to earth, with more terror of mind than
I to this retreat.

I had no sleep that night; the farther I was from the occasion of my fright,
the greater my apprehensions were, which is something contrary to the nature of
such things, and especially to the usual practice of all creatures in fear; but I was
so embarrassed with my own frightful ideas of the thing, that I formed nothing but
dismal imaginations to myself, even though I was now a great way off it. Some-
times I fancied it must be the devil; and reason joined in with me upon this
supposition: for how should any other thing in human shape come into the place?
Where was the vessel that brought them? What marks were there of any other
footsteps? And how was it possible a man should come there? But then to
think that Satan should take human shape upon him in such a place, where there
could be no manner of occasion for it, but to leave the print of his foot behind
him, and that even for no purpose too, for he could not be sure I should see it—
this was an_amazement the other way. I considered that the devil might have
found out abundance of other ways to have terrified me than this of the single
print of a foot; that as I lived quite on the other side of the island, he would
never have been so simple as to leave a mark in a place where it was ten thousand
to one whether I should ever see it or not, and in the sand too, which the first
surge of the sea, upon a high wind, would have defaced entirely. All this seemed
inconsistent with the thing itself, and with all the notions we usually entertain of
the subtlety of the devil.

Abundance of such things as these assisted to argue me out of all apprehen-
sions of its being the devil; and I presently concluded then that it must be some
more dangerous creature; viz., that it must be some of the savages of the mainland
over against me, who had wandered out to sea in their canoes, and either driven
by the currents or by contrary winds, had made the island, and had been on
shore, but were gone away again to sea; being as loth, perhaps, to have stayed in
this desolate island as I would have been to have had them.

While these reflections were rolling upon my mind, I was very thankful in my
thought that I was so happy as not to be thereabouts at that time, or that they
did not see my boat, by which they would have concluded that some inhabitants
iad been in the place, and perhaps have searched farther for me. ‘Then terrible
thoughts racked my imagination about their having found my boat, and that there
were people here; and that, if so, I should certainly have them come again in
greater numbers, and devour me; that if it should happen that they should not
find me, yet they would find my inclosure, destroy all my corn, and carry away
all my flock of tame goats, and I should perish at last for mere want.

Thus my fear banished all my religious hope; all that former confidence in
112 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

God, which was founded upon such wonderful experience as I had had of His
goodness, now vanished; as if He that had fed me by miracle hitherto, could not
preserve by His power the provision which He had made for me by His goodness.
I reproached myself with my laziness, that would not sow any more corn one year
than would just serve me till the next season, as if no accident could intervene to
prevent my enjoying the crop that was upon the ground; and this I thought so
just a reproof, that I resolved for the future to have two or three years’ corn before-
hand, so that, whatever might come, I might not perish for want of bread.

How strange a checker-work of Providence is the life of man! and by. what
secret differing springs are the affections hurried about, as differing circumstances
present! To-day we love what to-morrow we hate; to-day we seek what to-morrow
we shun; to-day we desire what to-morrow we fear, nay, even tremble at the
apprehensions of. ‘This was exemplified in me at this time in the most lively
manner imaginable; for I, whose only affliction was, that I seemed banished from
human society, that I was alone, circumscribed by the boundless ocean, cut off
from mankind, and condemned to what I call silent life; that I was as one whom
Heaven thought not worthy to be numbered among the living, or to appear
amongst the rest of His creatures; that to have seen one of my own species would
have seemed to me a raising me from death to life, and the greatest blessing that
Heaven itself, next to the supreme blessing of salvation, could bestow; I say, that
I should now tremble at the very apprehensions of seeing a man, and was ready
to sink into the ground at but the shadow or silent appearance of a man having
set his foot on the island.

Such is the uneven state of human life; and it afforded me a great many
curious speculations afterwards, when I had a little recovered my first surprise. I
considered that this was the station of life the infinitely wise and good providence
of God had determined for me; that as I could not foresee what the end of
Divine wisdom might be in all this, so I was not to dispute His sovereignty, who,
as I was His creature, had an undoubted right by creation to govern and dispose
of me absolutely as He thought fit; and who, as I was a creature who had
offended Him, had likewise a judicial right to condemn me to what punishment
He thought fit; and that it was my part to submit to bear His indignation, because
I had sinned against Him. I then reflected that God, who was not only righteous,
but omnipotent, as He had thought fit thus to punish and afflict me, so He was
able to deliver me; that if He did ‘not think fit to do it, it was my unquestioned
duty to resign myself absolutely and entirely to His will; and, on the other hand,
it was my duty also to hope in Him, pray to Him, and quietly to attend the
dictates and directions of His daily providence.

These thoughts took me up many hours, days, nay, i may say weeks and
months; and one particular effect of my cogitations on this occasion I cannot
omit; viz., one morning early, lying in my bed, and filled with thoughts about my
danger from the appearance of savages, I found it discomposed me very much;
upon which those words of the Scripture came into my thoughts: ‘Call upon Me
in the day of trouble: I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify Me.” Upon this,
SURE SN TT I
rc SEE EEE SEE AE



“Sy











“I STOOD LIKE ONE THUNDERSTRUCK.”

(See p. 110.5



L FEEL ENCOURAGED. 113

rising cheerfully out of bed, my heart was not only comforted, but I was guided
and encouraged to pray earnestly to God for deliverance: when I had done praying,
I took up my Bible, and opening it to read, the
first words that presented to me were, ‘‘ Wait on
the Lord: be of good courage, and He shall
strengthen thy heart: wait, I say, on the Lord.”
It is impossible to express the comfort this gave
me, and in return I thankfully laid down the
book, and was no more sad, at least, not on that
occasion.

In the middle of these cogi-
tations, apprehensions, and_ re-
flections, it came into my
thoughts one day that all
this might be
a mere chi-
mera of my
own, and
that this foot
might be the
print of my
own foot,
when I came
on shore from
my boat: this
cheered me
up a__ little,
too, and I
began to per-
suade myself








it was all a
delusion; that
it was nothing
else but my cil
own foot; and A
why might I “IT HAD MY COUNTRY SEAT”? (f. 109).
not come that
way from the
boat, as well as I was going that way to the boat? Again I considered also
that I could by no means tell for certain where I had trod, and where I
had not; and that if, at last, this was only the print of my own foot, I had
played the part of those fools who try to make stories of specters and apparitions,
and then are themselves frighted at them more than anybody else.

Now I began to take courage, and to peep abroad again, for I had not stirred
114 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

out of my castle for three days and nights, so that I began to starve for provision ;
for I had little or nothing within doors but some barley-cakes and water. Then
I knew that my goats wanted to be milked too, which usually was my evening
diversion; and the poor creatures were in great pain and inconvenience for want
of it; and, indeed, it almost spoiled some of them, and almost dried up their
milk. : ‘

Heartening myself, therefore, with the belief that this was nothing but the print
of one of my own feet, and so I might be truly said to start at my own shadow,
I began to go abroad again, and went to my country-house to. milk my flock; but
to see with what fear I went forward, how often I looked behind me, how I was
ready, every now and then, to lay down my basket, and run for my life, it would
have made any one have thought I was haunted with an evil conscience, or that
I had been lately most terribly frighted; and so, indeed, I had. However, as I
went down thus two or three days, and having seen nothing, I began to be a
little bolder, and to think there was really nothing in it but my own imagination ;
but I could not persuade myself fully of this till I should go down to the shore
again, and see this print of a foot, and measure it by my own, and see if there
was any similitude or fitness, that I might be assured it was my own foot. But
when I came to the place—first, it appeared evidently to me that when I laid up
my boat, I could not possibly be on shore anywhere thereabouts: secondly, when
Icame to measure the mark with my own foot, I found my foot not so large by
a great deal. Both these things filled my head with new imaginations, and gave
me the vapors again to the highest degree, so that I shook with cold like one in
an ague; and I went home again, filled with the belief that some man or men
had been on shore there; or, in short, that the island was inhabited, and I might
be surprised before I was aware; and what course to take for my security I
knew not.

Oh, what ridiculous resolutions men take when possessed with fear! It deprives
them of the use of those means which reason offers for their relief. The first thing
I proposed to myself was, to throw down my inclosures, and turn all my tame
cattle wild into the woods, that the enemy might not find them, and then frequent
the island in prospect of the same or the like booty: then the simple thing of
digging up my two corn-fields that they might not find such a grain there, and still
be prompted to frequent the island; then to demolish my bower and tent, that
they might not see any vestiges of habitation, and be prompted to look farther,
in order to find out the persons inhabiting. ;

These were the subjects of the first night’s cogitations, after I was come home
again, while the apprehensions which had so overrun my mind were fresh upon
me, and my head was full of vapors as above. ‘Thus, fear of danger is ten
thousand times more terrifying than danger itself, when apparent to the eyes; and
we find the burden of anxiety greater, by much, than the evil which we are
anxious about: but, which was worse than all this, I had not that relief in this
trouble, from the resignation I used to practice, that I hoped to have. I looked,
I thought, like Saul, who ‘complained not only that the Philistines were upon him,
L CONTRIVE NEW DEFENSES. 115

but that God had forsaken him; for I did not now take due ways to compose my
mind, by crying to God in my distress, and resting upon His-providence, as I had
done before, for my defense and deliverance; which if I had done, I had at least
been more cheerfully supported under this new surprise, and perhaps carried
through it with more resolution.

This confusion of my thoughts kept me waking all night; but in the morning
I fell asleep; and having by the amusement of my mind been, as it were, tired,
and my spirits exhausted, I slept very soundly, and awaked much better composed
than I had ever been before. And now I began to think sedately; and, upon the
utmost debate with myself, I concluded that this island (which was so exceeding
pleasant, fruitful, and no farther from the mainland than as I had seen) was not
so entirely abandoned as I might imagine; that although there were no stated
inhabitants who lived on the spot, yet that there might sometimes come boats off
from the shore, who, either with design, or perhaps never but when they were
driven by cross winds, might come to this place; that I had lived here fifteen
years now, and had not met with the least shadow or figure of any people yet;
and that, if at any time they should be driven here, it was probable they went
away again as soon as ever they could, seeing they had never thought fit to fix
here upon any occasion to this time; that the most I could suggest any danger
from was, from any casual accidental landing of straggling people from the main,
who, as it was likely, if they were driven hither, were here against their wills; so
they made no stay here, but went off again with all possible speed, seldom staying
one night on shore, lest they should not have the help of the tides and daylight
back again; and that, therefore, I had nothing to do but to consider of some safe
retreat, in case I should see any savages land upon the spot.

Now I began sorely to repent that I had dug my cave so large as to bring a
door through again, which door, as I said, came out» beyond where my fortification
joined to the rock. Upon maturely considering this, therefore, I resolved to draw
me a second fortification, in the same manner of a semicircle, at a distance from
my wall, just where I had planted a double row of trees about twelve years before,
of which I made mention: these trees having been planted so thick before, there
wanted but few piles to be driven between them, that they should be thicker and
stronger, and my wall would be soon finished. So that I had now a double wall;
and my outer wall was thickened with pieces of timber, old cables, and everything
I could think of to make it strong, having in it seven little holes, about as big as
I might put my arm out at. In the inside of this, I thickened my wall to about
ten feet thick, continually bringing earth out of my cave, and laying it at the foot
of the wall, and walking upon it; and through the seven holes I contrived to
plant the muskets, of which I took notice that I got seven on shore out of the
ship; these, I say, I planted like my cannon, and fitted them into frames, that
held them like a carriage, that so I could fire all the seven guns in two minutes’
time. This wall I was many a weary month in finishing, and yet never thought
myself safe till it was done.

When this was done, I stuck all the ground without my wall, for a great way
116 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

every way, as full with stakes or sticks of the osier-like wood, which I found so
apt to grow, as they could well stand; insomuch that I believe I might set in
near twenty thousand of them, leaving a pretty large space between them and my
wall, that I might have room to see an enemy, and they might have no shelter
from the young trees, if they attempted to approach my outer wall.

Thus, in two years’ time, I had a thick grove; and in five or six years’ time
I had a wood before my dwelling grown so monstrous thick and strong that it
was indeed perfectly impassable: and no man, of what kind soever, would ever
imagine that there was anything beyond it, much less a habitation. As for the
way which I proposed to myself to go in and out (for I left no avenue), it was
by setting two ladders, one to a part of the rock which -was low, and then broke
in, and left room to place another ladder upon that; so when the two ladders
were taken down, no man living could come down to me without mischiefing
himself; and if they had come down, they were still on the outside of my
outer wall.

Thus I took all the measures human prudence could suggest for my own
preservation; and it will be seen, at length, that they were not altogether without
just reason; though I foresaw nothing at that time more than my mere fear
suggested to me.

While this was doing, I was not altogether careless of my other affairs; for I
had a great concern upon me for my little herd of goats: they were not only a
present supply to me upon every occasion, and began to be sufficient for me
without the expense of powder and shot, but also abated the fatigue of my hunt-
ing after the wild ones; and I was loth to lose the advantage of them, and to
have them all to nurse up over again.

For this purpose, after long consideration, I could think of but two ways to
preserve them: one was to find another convenient place to dig a cave under
ground, and to drive them into it every night; and the other was to inclose two
or three little bits of land, remote from one another, and as much concealed as
I could, where I might keep about half a dozen young goats in each place; so
that if any disaster happened to the flock in general, I might be able to raise
them again with little trouble and time: and this, though it would require a good
deal of time and labor, I thought was the most rational design.

Accordingly, I spent some time to find out the most retired parts of the
island; and I pitched upon one which was as private indeed as my heart could
wish: it was a little damp piece of ground, in the middle of the hollow and
thick woods, where, as is observed, I almost lost myself once before, endeavoring
to come back that way from the eastern part of the island. Here I found a
clear piece of land, near three acres, so surrounded with woods that it was almost
an inclosure by Nature; at least, it did not want near $0 much labor to make
it so, as the other pieces of ground I had worked so hard at.

I immediately went to work with this piece of ground; and, in less than a
month’s time, I had so fenced it round that my flock, or herd, call it which you
please, which were not so wild now as at first they might be supposed to be,
FURTHER PRECAUTIONS. 117

were well enough secured in it. So, without any further delay, I removed ten
she-goats, and two he-goats, to this piece; and, when they were there, I continued
to perfect the fence, till I had made it as secure as the other; which, however,
I did at more leisure, and it took me up more time by a great deal.

All this labor I was at the expense of, purely from my apprehensions on the
account of the print of a man’s foot which I had seen; for, as yet, I had never
seen any human creature come near the island; and I had now lived two years
under this uneasiness, which, indeed, made my life much less comfortable than
it was before, as may well be imagined by any who know what it is to live in



‘MY EVENING DIVERSION” (/. 114).

the constant snare of the fear of man. And this I must observe, with grief, too,
that the discomposure of my mind had too great impressions also upon the religious
part of my thoughts; for the dread. and terror of falling into the hands of savages
and cannibals lay so upon my spirits, that I seldom found myself in a due temper
for application to my Maker; at least, not with the sedate calmness and resigna-
tion of soul which I was wont to do: I rather prayed to God as under great
affliction and pressure of mind, surrounded with danger, and in expectation every
night of being murdered and devoured before morning; and I. must testify, from
my experience, that a temper of peace, thankfulness, love, and affection, is much
the more proper frame for prayer than that of terror and discomposure; and that
under the dread of mischief impending, a man is no more fit for a comforting
performance of the duty of praying to God, than he is for repentance on a sick-
bed; for these discomposures affect the mind, as the others do the body: and
the discomposure of the mind must necessarily be as great a disability as that of
118 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the body, and much greater; praying to God being properly an act of the mind,
not of the body.

But to go on: after I had thus secured one part of my little living stock, I
went about the whole island, searching for another private place to make such
another deposit; when, wandering more to the west point of the island than I
had ever done yet, and looking out to sea, I thought I saw a boat upon the
sea, at a great distance. I had found a perspective glass or two in one of the
seamen’s chests, which I saved out of our ship, but I had it not about me; and
this was so remote that I could not tell what to make of it, though I looked at
it till my eyes were not able to hold to look any longer: whether it was a boat
or not, I do not know; but as I descended from the hill I could see no more
of it, so I gave it over; only I resolved to go no more out without a perspective
glass in my pocket. ,

When I was come down the hill to the end of. the island, where, indeed, I
had never been before, I was presently convinced that the seeing the print of a
man’s foot was not such a strange thing in the island as I imagined; and but
that it was a special providence that I was cast upon the side of the island where
the savages never came, I should easily have known that nothing was more fre-
quent than for the canoes from the main, when they happened to be a little too
far out at sea, to shoot over to that side of the island for harbor: likewise, as
they often met and fought in their canoes, the victors, having taken any prisoners,
would bring them over to this shore, were, according to their dreadful customs,
being all cannibals, they would kill and eat them; of which hereafter.

When I was come down the hill to the shore, as I said above, being the
S.W. point of the island, I was perfectly confounded and amazed; nor is it possible
for me to express the horror of my mind, at seeing the shore spread with skulls,
hands, feet, and other bones of human bodies; and particularly, I observed a
place where there had been a fire made, and a circle dug in the earth, like a
cockpit, where I supposed the savage wretches had sat down to their inhuman
feastings upon the bodies of their fellow-creatures.

I was so astonished with the sight of these things, that I entertained no notions
of any danger to myself from it for a long while; all my apprehensions were
buried in’ the thoughts of such a pitch of inhuman, hellish brutality, and the horror
of the degeneracy of human nature, which, though I had heard of often, yet I
never had so near a view of before; in short, I turned away my face from the
horrid spectacle; my stomach grew sick, and I was just at the point of fainting,
when Nature discharged the disorder from my stomach; and having vomited with
uncommon violence, I was a little relieved, but could not bear to stay in the
place a moment; so I got up the hill again with all the speed I could, and
walked on towards my own habitation.

When I came a little out of that part of the island, I stood still awhile, as
amazed, and then, recovering myself, I looked up with the utmost affection of
my soul, and, with a flood of tears in- my eyes, gave God thanks, that had cast
my first lot ina part of the world where I was distinguished from such dreadful
A CANNIBAL ORGIE. 119

creatures as these; and that though I had esteemed my present condition very
miserable, had yet given me so many comforts in it that I had still more to give
thanks for than to complain of: and this, above all, that I had, even in this
miserable condition, been comforted with the knowledge of Himself, and the hope
of His blessing: which was a felicity more than sufficiently equivalent to all the
misery which I had suffered, or could suffer.

In this frame of thankfulness, I went home to my castle, and began to be
much easier now, as to the safety of my circumstances, than ever I was before:
for I observed that these wretches never came to this island in search of what
they could get; perhaps not seeking, not wanting, or not expecting, anything here;
and having often, no doubt, been up in the covered, woody part of it, without
finding anything to their purpose. I knew I had been here now almost eighteen
years, and never saw the least footsteps of human creature there before; and I
might be eighteen years more as entirely concealed as I was now, if I did not
discover myself to them, which I had no manner of occasion to do; it being my
only business to keep myself entirely concealed where I was, unless I found a
better sort of creatures than cannibals to make myself known to. Yet I enter-
tained such an abhorrence of the savage wretches that I have been speaking of,
and of the wretched inhuman custom of their devouring and eating one another
up, that I continued pensive and sad, and kept. close within my own circle for
almost two years after this: when I say my own circle, I mean by it my three
plantations, viz., my castle, my country-seat (which I called my bower), and my
inclosure in the woods: nor did I look after this for any other use than as an
inclosure for my goats; for the aversion which Nature gave me to these hellish
wretches was such, that I was as fearful of seeing them as of seeing the devil
himself, nor did I so much as go-to look after my boat in all this time, but
began rather to think of making me another; for I could not think of ever
making any more attempts to bring the other boat round the island to me, lest
I should meet with some of those creatures at sea; in which case, if I had
happened to have fallen into their hands, I knew what would have been my lot.

_ Time, however, and the satisfaction I had that I was in no danger of being
discovered by these people, began to wear off my uneasiness about them; and I
began to live just in the same composed manner as before, only with this differ-
ence, that I used more caution, and kept my eyes more about me than I did
before, lest I should happen to be seen by any of them; and particularly I was
more cautious in firing my gun, lest any of them, being on the island, should
happen to hear it; and it was, therefore, a very good providence to me that I
had furnished myself with a tame breed of goats, and that I had no need to
hunt any more about the woods, or shoot at them; and if I did catch any of
them after this, it was by traps and snares, as I had done before: so that for
two years after this, I believe I never fired my gun once off, though I never
went out without it; and, which was more, as I had saved three pistols out of
the ship, I always carried them out with me, or at least two of them, sticking
them in my goat-skin belt. I likewise furbished up one of the great cutlasses
120 ROBINSON CRUSOE.



‘OA PLACE WHERE THERE HAD BEEN A FIRE MADE” (f. 118).

that I had out of the ship, and made me a belt to put it on also; so that I
was now a most formidable fellow to look at when I went abroad, if you add
‘to the former description of myself, the particular of two pistols, and a great
broadsword hanging at my side in a belt, but without a scabbard.

Things going on thus, as I have said, for some time, I seemed, excepting
these cautions, to be reduced to my former calm, sedate way of living. All these
things tended to show me, more and more, how far my condition was from being
miserable, compared to some others; nay, to many other particulars of life, which
it might have pleased God to have made my lot. ‘It put me upon reflecting how
little repining there would be among mankind at any condition of life, if people
would rather compare their condition with those that are worse, in order to be
thankful, than be always comparing them with those which are better, to assist
their murmurings and complainings.

As in my present condition there were not really many things which I wanted,
so, indeed, I thought that the frights I had been in about these savage wretches,
and the concern I had been in for my own preservation, had taken off the edge
of my invention for my own conveniences; and I had dropped a good design,
which I had once bent my thoughts upon, and that was to try if I could not
make some of my barley into malt, and then try to brew myself some beer. This
was really a whimsical thought, and I reproved myself often for the simplicity of
PLANS AGAINST THE SAVAGES. 121

it: for I presently saw there would be the want of several things necessary to
the making my beer, that it would be impossible for me to supply; as, first,
casks to preserve it in, which was a thing that, as I have observed already, I
could never compass; no, though I spent not many days, but weeks, nay, months,
in attempting it, but to no purpose. In the next place, I had no hops to make
it keep, no yeast to make it work, no copper or kettle to make it boil; and yet
had not all these things intervened—I mean the frights and terrors I was in
about the savages—I had undertaken it, and perhaps brought it to pass, too; for
I seldom gave anything over without accomplishing it, when I once had it in
my head enough to begin it. But my invention now ran quite another way ; for,
night and day, I could think of nothing but how I might destroy some of these
monsters, in their cruel, bloody entertainment; and, if possible, save the victim
they should bring hither to destroy. It would take up a larger volume than this*
whole work is intended to be, to set down all the contrivances I hatched, or
rather brooded upon, in my thoughts, for the destroying these creatures, or at
least frightening them so as to prevent their coming hither any. more: but all
was abortive; nothing could be possible to take effect, unless I was to be there
to do it myself: and what could one man do among them, when perhaps there
might be twenty or thirty of them together with their darts, cr their bows and
arrows, with which they could shoot as true to a mark as I could with my gun?
Sometimes I thought of digging a hole under the place where they made their
fire, and putting in five or six pounds of gunpowder, which, when they kindled
their fire, would consequently take fire, and blow up all that was near it: but
as, in the first place, I should be unwilling to waste so much powder upon them,
my store being now within the quantity of one barrel, so neither could I be sure
of its going off at any certain time, when it might surprise them; and, at best,
that it would do little more than just blow the fire about their ears and fright
them, but not sufficient to make them forsake the place: so I laid it aside; and
then proposed that I would place myself in ambush in some convenient place,
with my three guns all double loaded, and in the middle of their bloody ceremony
let fly at them, when I should be sure to kill or wound perhaps two or three at
every shot; and then falling, in upon them with my three pistols and my sword,
I made no doubt but that, if there were twenty, I-should kill them all. This
fancy pleased my thoughts for some weeks, and I was so full of it, that I often
dreamed of it, and sometimes, that I was just going to let fly at them in-my
sleep. I went so far with it in my imagination, that I employed myself several
days to find out proper places to put myself in ambuscade, as I said, to watch
for them, and I went frequently to the place itself, which was now grown more
familiar to me; but while my mind was thus filled with thoughts of revenge and
of a bloody putting twenty or thirty of them to the sword, as I may call it, the
horror I had at the place, and at the signals of the barbarous wretches devouring
one another, abetted my malice. Well, at length I found a place in the side of
the hill, where I was satisfied I might securely wait till I saw any of their boats
coming; and might then, even before they would be ready to come on shore,
122 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

convey myself unseen, into some thickets of trees, in one of which there was a
hollow large enough to conceal me entirely; and there I might sit and observe
all their bloody doings, and take my full aim at their heads, when they. were so
close together as that it would be next to impossible that I should miss my shot,
or that I could fail wounding three or four of them at the first shot. In this
place, then, I resolved to fix my design; and accordingly I prepared two muskets
and my ordinary fowling-piece. ‘The two muskets I loaded with a brace of slugs
each, and four or five smaller bullets, about the size of pistol bullets; and the
fowling-piece I loaded with near a handful of swan-shot of the largest size; I also
loaded my pistols with about four bullets each; and in this posture, well pro-
vided with ammunition for a second and third charge, I prepared myself for .my
expedition. ‘

After I had thus laid the scheme of my design, and in my imagination put
it in practice, I continually made my tour every morning to the top of the hill,
which was from my castle, as I called it, about three miles, or more, to see if
I could observe any boats upon the sea, coming near the island, or standing over
towards it; but I began to tire of this hard duty, after I had for two or three
months constantly kept my watch, but came always back without any discovery;
there having not, in all that time, been the least appearance, not only on or
near the shore, but on the whole ocean, as far as my eyes or glass could reach
every way. ~

As long as I kept my daily tour to the hill to look out, so long also I kept
up the vigor of my design, and my spirits seemed to be all the while in a
suitable frame for so outrageous an execution as the killing twenty or thirty naked
savages, for an offense which I had not at all entered into a discussion of in my
thoughts, any farther than my passions were at first fired by the horror I conceived
at the unnatural custom of the people of that country; who, it seems, had been
suffered by Providence, in His wise disposition of the world, to have no other
guide than that of their own abominable and vitiated passions; and, consequently,
were left, and perhaps had been so for some ages, to act such horrid things, and
receive such dreadful customs, as nothing but nature, entirely abandoned by
Heaven, and actuated by some hellish degeneracy, could have run them into.
But now, when, as I have said, I began to be weary of the fruitless excursion
which I had made so long. and so far every morning in vain, so my opinion of
the action itself began to alter; and I began, with cooler and calmer thoughts, to
consider what I was going to engage in; what authority or call I had to pretend
to be judge and executioner upon these men as criminals, whom Heaven had
thought fit, for so many ages, to ‘suffer, unpunished, to go on, and to be, as it
were, the executioners of His judgments, one upon another; how far these people
were offenders against me, and what right I had to engage in the quarrel of that
blood which they shed promiscuously upon one another. . I debated this very often
with myself thus:—‘ How do I know what God Himself judges in this particular
case? It is certain these people do not commit this as a crime; it is not against
their own consciences reproving, or their light reproaching them; they do not know
OvuGHT I To Kitz THE SAVAGES? 123

it to be an offense, and then commit it in defiance of Divine justice, as we do
in almost all the sins we commit. They think it no more a crime to kill a
captive taken in war, than we do'to kill an ox; or to eat human flesh, than we
do to eat mutton.”

When I considered this a little, it followed necessarily that I was certainly in
the wrong in it; that these people were not murderers in the sense that I had
before condemned them in my thoughts, any more than those Christians were
murderers who often put to death the prisoners taken in battle; or more fre-
quently, upon many occasions, put whole troops of men to the sword, without
giving quarter, though they threw down their arms and submitted. In the next
place, it occurred to me, that albeit the usage they gave one another was thus
brutish and inhuman, yet it was really nothing to me. These people had done
me no injury; that if they attempted me, or I saw it necessary, for my immediate
preservation, to fall upon them, something might be said for it: but that I was
yet out of their power, and they really had no knowledge of me, and consequently
no design upon me; and, therefore, it could not be just for me to fall upon them.
That this would justify the conduct of the Spaniards in all their barbarities
practiced in America, where they destroyed millions of these people; who, however
they were idolaters and barbarians, and had several bloody and barbarous rites in
their customs, such as sacrificing human bodies to their idols, were yet, as to the
Spaniards, very innocent people; and that the rooting them out of the country is
spoken of with the utmost abhorrence and detestation by even the Spaniards them-
selves, at this time, and by all other Christian nations in Europe, as a mere
butchery, a bloody and unnatural piece of cruelty, unjustifiable either to God or
man; and such as for which the very name of a Spaniard is reckoned to be
frightful and terrible to all people of humanity or-of Christian compassion; as if
the kingdom of Spain were particularly eminent for the product of a race of men
who were without principles of tenderness, or the common bowels of pity to the
miserable, which is reckoned to be a mark of a generous temper in the mind.

These considerations really put me to a pause, and to a kind of a full stop;
and I began, by little and little, to’ be off my design, and to conclude I had
taken wrong measures in my resolution to attack the savages; and that it was
not my business to meddle with them, unless they first attacked me; and this it
was my business, if possible, to prevent: but that if I were discovered and
attacked by them, then I knew my duty. On the other hand, I argued with
myself that this really was the way not to deliver myself, but entirely to ruin and
destroy myself; for, unless I was sure to kill every one that not only should be
on shore at that time, but that should ever come on shore afterwards, if but one
of them escaped to tell their country-people what had happened, they would come
over again by thousands to revenge the death of their fellows, and I should only
bring upon myself a certain destruction, which, at present, I had no manner of
occasion for. Upon the whole, I concluded tiat I ought neither in principle
nor in policy, one way or other, to concern myself in this affair; that my business
was, by all possible means, to conceal myself from them, and not to leave the
124 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

least sign for them to guess by that there were any living creatures~ upon the
island—I mean of human shape. Religion joined in with this prudential resolu-
tion; and I was convinced now, many ways, that I was perfectly out of my duty
when I was laying all my bloody schemes for the destruction of innocent creatures
—I mean innocent as to me. As to the crimes they were guilty of towards one
another, I had nothing to do with them; these were national punishments, to make



‘TO SEE IF I COULD OBSERVE ANY BOATS” (f. 122).

a just retribution for national offenses, and to bring public judgment upon those
who offend in a public manner, by such ways as best please God. This appeared
so clear to me now, that nothing was a greater satisfaction to me than that I had
not been suffered to do a thing which I now saw so much reason to believe
would have been no less a sin than that of willful murder, if I had committed it;
and I gave most humble thanks, on my knees, to God, that He had thus delivered
me from blood-guiltiness; beseeching Him to grant me the protection of His
providence, that I might not fall into the hands of the barbarians, or that I might
not lay my hands upon them, unless I had a more clear call from Heaven to do
it, in defense of my own life.

In this disposition I continued for near a year after this; and so far was I
IL REMOVE MY BOAT. 125

from desiring an occasion for falling upon these wretches, that in all that time I
never once went up the hill to see whether there were any of them in sight, or
to know whether any of them had been on shore there or not; that I might
not be tempted to renew any of my contrivances against them, or be provoked
by any advantage that might present itself, to fall upon them; only this I did:
I went and removed my boat, which I had on the other side of the island, and
carried it down to the east end of the whole island, where I ran it into a little
cove, which I found under some high rocks, and where I knew, by reason of the
currents, the savages durst not, at least would not, come with their boats upon
any account whatever. With my boat I carried away everything that I had left
there belonging to her, though not necessary for the bare going thither—viz., a
mast and sail which I had made for her, and a thing like an anchor, but which
indeed could not be called either anchor or grapnel; however, it was the best I
could make of its kind: all these I removed, that there might not be the least
shadow for discovery, or any appearance cf any boat, or of any habitation upon the
island. Besides this, I kept myself, as I said, more retired than ever, and seldom
went from my cell, except upon my constant employment, viz., to milk my she-
goats, and manage my little flock in the wood, which, as it was quite on the
other part of the island, was out of danger; for certain it is that these savage
people who sometimes haunted this island, never came with any thoughts of find-
ing anything here, and consequently never wandered off from the coast, and I doubt
not but they might have been several times on shore after my apprehensions of
them had made me cautious, as well as before. Indeed, I looked back with some
horror upon the thoughts of what my condition would have been, if. I had dropped
upon them and been discovered before that; when, naked, and unarmed except
with one gun, and that loaded often only with small shot, I walked everywhere,
peeping and peering about. the island to see what I could get; what a surprise
should I have been in if, when I discovered the print of a man’s foot, I had
instead of that seen fifteen or twenty savages, and found them pursuing me, and
by the swiftness of their running, no possibility of my escaping them!. The
thoughts of this sometimes sank my very soul within me, and distressed my mind
so much that I could not soon recover it, to think what I should have done, and
how I should not only have been unable to resist them, but even should not
have had presence of mind enough to do what I might have done; much less
what now, after so much consideration and preparation, I might be able to do.
Indeed, -after serious thinking of these things, I would be very melancholy, and
sometimes it would last a great while: but I resolved it all, at last, into thankful-
ness to that Providence which had delivered me from so many unseen dangers,
and had kept me from those mischiefs which I could have no way been the
agent in delivering myself from, because I had not the least notion of any such
thing depending, or the least supposition of its being possible.

This renewed a contemplation which often had come into my thoughts in
former times, when first I began to see the merciful dispositions of Heaven, in the
dangers we run through in this life; how wonderfully we are delivered when we
126 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

know nothing of it; how, when we are in a quandary (as we call it), a doubt or
hesitation whether to go this way or that way, a secret hint shall direct us this
way, when we intended to go that way: nay, when sense, our own inclination, and
perhaps business, has called us to go the other way, yet a strange impression
upon the mind, from we know not what springs, and by we know not what power,
shall overrule us to go this way; and it shall afterwards appear that had we gone
that way which we should have gone; and even to our imagination ought to have
gone, we should have been ruined and lost. Upon these, and many like reflec-
tions, I afterwards made it a certain rule with me, that whenever I found those
secret hints or pressings of mind, to doing or not doing anything that presented,
or going this way or that way, I never failed to obey the secret dictate; though
I knew no other reason for it than that such a pressure, or such a hint, hung
upon my mind. I could give many examples of the success of this conduct in
the course of my life, but more especially in the latter part of my inhabiting this
unhappy island; besides many occasions which it is very likely I might have taken
notice of, if J had seen with the same eyes then that I see with now. But it is
never too late to be wise; and I cannot but advise all considering men, whose
lives are attended with such extraordinary incidents as mine, or even though not so
extraordinary, not to slight such secret intimations of Providence, let them come
from what invisible intelligence they will. That I shall not discuss, and perhaps
cannot account for; but certainly they are a proof of the converse of spirits, and
a secret communication between those embodied and those unembodied, and’ such
a proof as can never be withstood; of which I shall have occasion to give some
very remarkable instances in the remainder of my solitary residence in this dismal
place.

I believe the reader of this will not think it strange if I confess that these
anxieties, these constant dangers I lived in, and the concern that was now upon
me, put an end to all invention, and to all the contrivances that I had laid for
my future accommodations and conveniences. I had the care of my safety more
now upon my hands than that of my food. I cared not to drive a nail, or chop a
stick of wood now, for fear the noise I should make should be heard; much less
would I fire a gun for the same reason: and, above all, I was intolerably uneasy
at making any fire, lest the smoke, which is visible at a great distance in the day,
should betray me. For this reason, I removed that part of my business which
required fire, such as burning of pots and pipes, etc., into my new apartment in
the woods; where, after I had been some time, I found, to my unspeakable con-
solation, a mere natural cave in the earth, which went in a vast way, and where,
I dare say, no savage, had he been at the mouth of it, would be so hardy as to
venture in; nor, indeed, would any man else, but one who, like me, wanted nothing
so much as a safe retreat.

The mouth of this hollow was at the bottom of a great rock, where, by mere
accident (I would say, if I did not see abundant reason to ascribe all such things now
to Providence), I was cutting down some thick branches of trees to make char-
coal; and before-I go on I must. observe the reason for my making this charcoal,
My ADVENTURE IN THE CAVE. 127

which was thus:—TI was afraid of making a smoke about my habitation, as I said
before, and yet I could not live there without baking my bread, cooking my meat,
etc.; so I contrived to burn some wood here, as I had seen done in England,
under turf, till it became chark or dry coal; and then putting the fire out, I pre-
served the coal to carry home, and perform the other services for which fire was
wanting, without danger of smoke. But this is by the bye. While I was cutting
down some wood here, I perceived that, behind a very thick branch of low brush-
wood, or underwood, there was a kind of hollow place: I was curious to look in
it; and getting with difficulty into the mouth of it, I found it was pretty large,
that is to say, sufficient for me to stand upright in it, and perhaps another with
me; but I must confess to you that I made more haste out than I did: in when,
looking farther into the place, and which was perfectly dark, I saw two broad
shining eyes of some creature—whether devil or man I knew not—which twinkled
like two stars; the dim light from the cave’s mouth shining directly in, and
making the reflection. However, after some pause, I recovered myself, and began
to call myself a thousand fools, and to think that he that was afraid to see the
devil was not fit to live twenty years in an island all alone; and that I might
well think there was nothing in this cave that was more frightful than myself.
Upon this, plucking up my courage, I took up a firebrand, and in I rushed again,
with the stick flaming in my hand. I had not gone three steps in before I was
almost as much frightened as before; for I heard a very loud sigh, like that of a
man in some pain, and it was followed by a broken noise, as of words half ex-
pressed, and then a deep sigh again. I stepped back, and was indeed struck with
such a surprise that it put me into a cold sweat, and if I had had a hat on my
head, I will not answer for it that my hair might not have lifted it off. But still
plucking up my spirits as well as I could, and encouraging myself a little with
considering ‘that the power and presence of God was everywhere, and was able to
protect me, I stepped forward again, and by the light of the firebrand, holding it
up a little over my head, I saw lying on the ground a monstrous, frightful old
he-goat, just making his will, as we say, and gasping for life, and dying indeed,
of mere old age. I stirred him a little to see if I could get him out, and he
essayed to get up, but was not able to raise himself; and I thought with myself
he might even lie there; for if he had frightened me, so he would certainly
fright any of the savages, if any one of them should be so hardy as to come in
there while he had any life in him.

I was now recovered from my surprise, and began to look round me, when
I found the cave was but very small, that is to say, it might be about twelve
feet over, but in no manner of shape, neither round nor square, no hands having
ever been employed in making it but those of mere nature. I observed also
that there was a place at the farther side of it that went in farther, but was so
low that it required me to creep upon my hands and knees to go into it, and
whither it went I knew not; so, having no candle, I gave it over for that time,
but resolved to come again the next day provided with candles and a tinder-box,
which I had made of the lock of one of the muskets, with some wildfire in the pan.
128 _ ROBINSON CRUSOE.

6

Accordingly, the next day I came provided with
six large candles of my own making (for I made
very good candles now of goats’ tallow, but was
hard set for candle-wick, using sometimes rags

or rope-yarn, and sometimes the dried rind
of a weed like nettles); and going into
this low place I was obliged to creep
upon all-fours, as I have said, almost
ten yards—which, by the way, I
thought was adventure bold
enough, considering that I knew

not how far it might go, nor
what was beyondit. When
I had got through the
‘strait, I found the roof
rose higher up—I believe
near twenty feet; but
never was such a glorious
sight seen in the island,
I dare say, as it was to
look round the sides and
roof of this vault or
cave; the wall reflected a
hundred thousand lights
to me from my _ two
candles. What it was in
the rock— whether dia-
monds, or any other pre-
cious stones, or gold—
which I rather supposed
it to be—I knew not.
- The place I was in was
a most delightful cavity,
or grotto, though per-
fectly dark; the floor
was dry and level, and
had a sort of a small
loose gravel upon it,
so that there was no
nauseous or venomous














“] STIRRED HIM A LITTLE” (fp. 127).

creature to be seen, neither was there any damp or wet on the sides cr roof;
the only difficulty in it was the entrance— which, however, as it was a place
of security, and such a retreat as I wanted, I thought was a convenience —
so that I was really rejoiced at the discovery, and resolved, without any
A STATE OF SIEGE. 129

delay, to bring some of those things which I was most anxious about to this
place; particularly, I resolved to bring hither my magazine of powder, and all my
spare arms—viz., two fowling-pieces, for I had three in all; and three muskets,
for of them I had eight in all; soI kept in my castle only five, which stood
ready mounted like pieces of cannon on my outmost defense, and were ready also
to take out upon any expedition. Upon this occasion of removing my ammuni-
tion, I happened to open the barrel of powder which I took up out of the sea,
and which had been wet, and I found that the water had penetrated about three or
four inches into the powder on every side, which, caking and growing hard, had
preserved the inside like a kernel in a shell, so that I had near sixty pounds of very
good powder in the center of the cask; and this was a very agreeable discovery to me
at that time; so I carried all away thither, never keeping above two or three pounds
of powder with me in my castle, for fear of a surprise of any kind. I also carried
thither all the lead I had left for bullets.

I fancied myself now like one of the ancient giants who were said to live in
caves and holes in the rocks, where none could come at them; for I persuaded
myself, while I was here, that if five hundred savages were to hunt me, they could
never find me out,—or if they did, they would not venture to attack me here. The
old goat whom I found expiring died in the mouth of the cave the next day after I
made this discovery; and I found it much easier to dig a great hole there, and
throw him in and cover him with earth, than to drag him out: so I interred him
there, to prevent.offense to my nose.

I was now in the twenty-third year of residence in this island, and was so
naturalized to the place and the manner of living that, could I but have enjoyed
the certainty that no savages would come to the place to disturb me, I could
have been content to have capitulated for spending the rest of my time there,
even to the last moment, till I had laid me down and died, like the old goat
in the cave. I had also arrived to some little diversions and amusements, which
made the time pass more pleasantly with me a great deal than it did before:
first, I had taught my Poll, as I noted before, to speak; and he did it ‘so
familiarly, and talked so articulately and plain, that it was very pleasant to me,
and he lived with me no less than six-and-twenty years. How long he might
have lived afterwards I know not, though I know they have a notion in the
Brazils that they live a hundred years. Perhaps some of my Polls may be alive
there still, calling after poor Robinson Crusoe to this day: I wish no Englishman
the ill-luck to come there and hear them; but if he did he would certainly
believe it was the devil. My dog was a pleasant and loving companion to me
for no less than sixteen years of my time, and then died of mere old age.
As for my cats, they multiplied, as I have observed, to that degree, that I was
obliged to shoot several of them at first, to keep them from devouring me and all I
had; but at length, when the old ones I brought with me were gone, and after some
time continually driving them from me, and letting them have no provision with
me, they all ran wild into the woods, except two or three favorites, which I kept
tame, and whose young, when they had any, I always drowned; and these were
130 ROBINSON” CRUSOE.

part of my family. Besides these I always kept two or three household kids
about me, whom I taught io feed out of my hand; and I had two more parrots,
which talked pretty well, and would all call.“ Robin Crusoe,” but none like my
first; nor, indeed, did I take the pains with any of them that I had done with
him. I had also several tame ‘sea-fowls, whose name I knew not, that I caught
upon the shore, and cut their wings; and the little stakes which I had planted
before my castle-wall being now grown up to a good thick grove, these fowls all
lived among these low trees, and bred there, which was very agreeable to me;
so that, as I said above, I began to be very well contented with the life I led,
if I could have been secured from the dread of the savages. But it was other-
wise directed; and it may not be amiss for all people who shall meet with my
story to make this just observation from it: viz., how frequently, in the course of our
lives, the evil which in itself we seek most to shun, and which, when we are fallen
into, is the most dreadful to us, is oftentimes the very means or door of our deliver-
ance, by which alone we can be raised again from the affliction we are fallen into.
I could give many examples of this in the course of my unaccountable life, but in
nothing was it more particularly remarkable than in the circumstances of my last
years of solitary residence in this island.

It was now the month of December, as I said above, in my twenty-third year;
and this, being the southern solstice (for winter I-cannot call it), was the particular
time of my harvest, and required me to be pretty much abroad in the fields, when,
going out pretty early in the morning, even before it was thorough daylight, I was
surprised with seeing a light of some fire upon the shore at a distance from me of
about two miles towards the end of the island where I had observed some savages
had been, as before, and not on the other side, but, to my great affliction, it was on
my side of the island. 2

I was indeed terribly surprised at the sight, and stopped short within my grove,
not daring to go out, lest I might be surprised; and yet J had no more peace within,
from the apprehensions I had that if these savages, in rambling over the island, should
find my corn standing or cut, or any of my works and improvements, they would
immediately conclude that there were people in the place, and would then never rest
till they had found me out. In this extremity I went back directly to my castlé, and
pulled up the ladder after me, having made all things without look as wild and natural
as I could. :

Then I prepared myself within, putting myself in a posture of defense; I loaded
all my cannon, as I called them—that is to say, my muskets, which were mounted
upon my new fortification, and all my pistols, and resolved to defend myself to the
last gasp—not forgetting seriously to commend myself to the Divine protection, and
earnestly to pray to God to deliver me out of the hands of the barbarians. And
in this posture I continued about two hours, and began to be impatient for intelli-
gence abroad, for I had no spies to send out. After sitting awhile longer, and
musing what I should do in this case, I was not able to bear sitting in ignorance
any longer; so setting up my ladder to the side of the hill, where there was a
flat place, as I observed before, and then pulling the ladder after me, I set it up
A VISIT FROM THE SAVAGES. 131

again, and mounted to the top of the hill, and pulling out my perspective glass,
which I had taken on purpose, I laid me down flat on my belly on the ground,
and began to look for the place. I presently found there were no less than nine
naked savages sitting round a small fire they had made, not to warm them, for they
had no need of that, the weather being extremely hot, but, as I supposed, to dress
some of their barbarous diet of human flesh which they had brought with them,
whether alive or dead I could not know. :

They had two canoes with them, which they had hauled up on the shore;
and as it was then ebb of tide, they seemed to mé to wait the return of the flood
to go away again. It is not easy to imagine what confusion this sight put me
into, especially seeing them come on my side of the island, and so near me, too;
but when I considered their coming must be always with the current of the ebb, I
began afterwards to be more sedate in my mind, being satisfied that I might go
abroad with safety all the time of the flood of tide, if they were not on shore
before; and having made this observation, I went abroad about my harvest work
with the more composure.

As I-expected, so it proved; for, as soon as the tide made to the westward, I
saw them all take boat and row (or paddle, as we call it) away. I should have
observed, that for an hour or more before they went off they were dancing, and I
could easily discern their postures and gestures by my glass. I could not perceive,
by my nicest observation, but that they were stark naked, and had not the least
covering upon them; but whether they were men or women, I could not distinguish.

As soon as I saw them shipped and gone, I took two guns upon my shoulders,
and two pistols in my girdle, and my great sword by my side, without a scabbard,
and with all the speed I was able to make went away to the hill where I had
discovered the first appearance of all; and as soon as I got thither, which was
not in less than two hours (for I could not go apace, being so loaded with arms
as I was), I perceived there had been three canoes more of savages at that place;
and, looking out farther, I saw they were all at sea together, making over for the
main. This was a dreadful sight to me, especially when, going down to the
shore, I could see the marks of horror which the dismal work they had been
about had left behind it, viz., the blood, the bones, and part of the flesh of
human bodies eaten and devoured by those wretches with merriment and sport.
I was so filled with indignation at the sight, that I now began to premeditate
the destruction of the next that I saw there, let them be whom or how many
soever. It seemed evident to me that the visits which they made thus to this
island were not very frequent, for it was above fifteen months before any more
of them came on shore there again—that is to say, I neither saw them nor any
footsteps or signals of them in all that time; for as to the rainy seasons, then
they are sure not to come abroad, at least not so far: yet all this while I lived
uncomfortably, by reason of the constant apprehensions of their coming upon me
by surprise—from whence I observe that the expectation of evil is more bitter
than the suffering, especially if there is no room to shake off that expectation or
those apprehensions.
132 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

During all this time I was in the murdering humor, and spent most of my
hours, which should have been better employed, in contriving how to circumvent
and fall upon them the very next time I should see them—especially if they should .
be divided, as they were the last time, into two parties; nor did I consider at all
that if I killed one party—suppose ten or a dozen—I was still the next day, or
week, or month, to kill another, and so another, even ad infinitum, till I should
be, at length, no less a murderer than they were in being man-eaters—and perhaps
much more so. I spent my days now in great perplexity and anxiety of mind,
expecting that I should one day or other fall into the hands of these merciless





A LIGHT OF SOME FIRE UPON THE SHORE” (. 130).

creatures; and if I did at any time venture abroad, it was not without looking
around me with the greatest care and caution imaginable. And now I found, to
my great comfort, how happy it was that I had provided a tame flock or herd
of goats; for I durst not upon any account fire my gun, especially near that side
of the island where they usually came, lest I should alarm the savages; and if
they had fled from me now, I was sure to have them come again with perhaps
two or three hundred canoes with them in a few days, and then I knew what to
expect. However, I wore out a year and three months more before I ever saw
any more of these savages, and then I found them again, as I shall soon observe.
It is true they might have been there once or twice, but either they made no stay,
or at least I did not hear them; but in the month of May, as near as I could
calculate, and in my four-and-twentieth year, I had a very strange encounter with
them: of which in its place.
4
3

oo

SOUNDS OF A SHIP IN DISTRESS. I:

The perturbation of my mind during this fifteen or sixteen months’ interval
was very great; I slept. unquietly, dreamed always frightful dreams, and often
started out of my sleep in the night. In the day, great troubles overwhelmed
my mind; and in the night, I dreamed often of killing the savages and of the
reasons why I might justify the doing of it. But to waive all this for awhile.
It was in the middle of May, on the sixteenth day, I think, as well as my poor
wooden calendar would reckon, for I marked all upon the post still—I say, it
was on the sixteenth of May that it blew a very great storm of wind all day,
with a great deal of lightning and thunder, and a very foul night it was after it.
I knew not what was the particular occasion of it; but as I was reading in the
Bible, and taken up with very serious thoughts about my present condition, I
was surprised with the noise of a gun, as I thought, fired at sea. ‘This was, to
be sure, a surprise of a quite different nature from any I had met with before;
for the notions this put into my thoughts were quite of another kind. I started
up in the greatest haste imaginable; and, in a trice, clapped my ladder to the
middle place of the rock, and pulled it after me; and, mounting it the second
time, got to the top of the hill the very moment that a flash of fire bade me
listen for a second gun, which, accordingly, in about half a minute, I heard;
and by the sound, knew that it was from that part of the sea where I was
driven out with the current in my boat. I immediately considered that this
must be some ship in distress, and that they had some comrade, or some other
ship in company, and fired these for signals of distress, and to obtain help. I
had the presence of mind, at that-minute, to think that though I could not help
them, it might be they might help me; so I brought together all the dry wood
I could get at hand, and, making a good handsome. pile, I set it on fire upon
the hill. The wood was dry, and blazed freely; and though the wind blew very
hard, yet it burned fairly out, so that I was certain, if there was any such thing
as a ship, they must. needs see it, and no doubt they did; for as soon as ever
my fire blazed up, I heard another gun, and after that several others, all from
the same quarter. I plied my fire all night long, till daybreak; and when it
was broad day, and the air cleared up, I saw something at a great distance at
sea, full east of the island, whether a sail or a hull I could not distinguish—no,
not with my glass; the distance was so great, and the weather still something
hazy also—at least, it was so out-at sea.

' I locked frequently at it all that day, and soon perceived that it did not
move; so I presently concluded that it was a ship at anchor; and being eager,
you may be sure, to be satisfied, I took my gun in my hand, and ran towards
the south side of the island, to the rocks where I had formerly been carried away
with the current; and getting up there, the weather by this time being perfectly
clear, I could plainly see, to my great sorrow, the wreck of a ship, cast away in
the night upon those concealed rocks which I found when I was out in my boat;
and which rocks, as they checked the violence of the stream, and made a kind of
counter-stream or eddy, were the occasion of my recovering from the most
desperate, hopeless condition that ever I had been in in all my life. Thus, what
134 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

is one man’s safety is another man’s destruction; for it seems these men, whoever
they were, being out of their knowledge, and the rocks being wholly under water,
had been driven upon them in the night, the wind blowing hard at I. and E.N.E.
Had they seen the island, as I must necessarily suppose they did not, they must,
as I thought, have endeavored to have saved themselves on shore by the help of
their boat; but their firmg off their guns for help, especially when they saw, as I
imagined, my fire, filled me with many thoughts. First, I imagined that upon
seeing my light they might have put themselves into their boat, and endeavored
to make the shore; but that the sea running very high, they might have been cast
away. Other times, I imagined that they might have lost their boat before, as
might be the case many ways; as particularly by the breaking of the sea upon
their ship, which many times obliged men to stave, or take in pieces, their boat,
and sometimes to throw it overboard with their own hands. Other times, I
imagined they had some other ship or ships in company, who, upon the signals
of distress they made, had taken them up, and carried them off. Other times, I
fancied they were all gone off to sea in their boat, and being hurried away by the
current that I had been formerly in, were carried out into the great ocean, where
there was nothing but misery and perishing; and that, perhaps, they might by this
time think of starving, and of being in a condition to eat one another.

As all these were but conjectures at best, so, in the condition I was in, I
could do no more than look on, upon the misery of the poor men, and pity them;
which had still this good effect upon my side, that it gave me more and more
cause to give thanks to God, who had so happily and comfortably provided for
me in my desolate condition; and that of two ship’s companies, who were now
cast away upon this part of the world, not one life should be spared but mine.
I learned here again to observe that it is very rare that the providence of God
casts us into any condition of life so low, or any misery so great, but we may
see something or other to be thankful for, and may see others in worse circum-
stances than our own. Such certainly was the case of these men, of. whom I
could not so much as see room to suppose any of them were saved; nothing
could make it rational so much as to wish or expect that they did not all perish
there, except the possibility only of their being taken up by another ship in com-
pany; and this was but mere possibility indeed, for I saw not the least signal,
or appearance of any such thing. I cannot explain, by any possible energy of
words, what a strange longing I felt in my soul upon this sight, breaking out
sometimes thus:—“ Oh, that there had been but one or two, nay, or but one
soul, saved out of this ship, to have escaped to me, that I might but have had
one companion, one fellow-creature, to have spoken:to me and to have conversed
with!” In all the time of my solitary life, I never felt so earnest, so strong a
desire after the society of my fellow-creatures, or so deep a regret at the want
of it.

There are some secret moving springs in the affections, which, when they are
set agoing by some object in view, or, though not in view, yet rendered present
to the mind by the power of imagination, that motion carries out the soul, by its
I Visirv THE SPANISH WRECK. 135

impetuosity, to such violent, eager embracings of the object that the absence of
it is insupportable. Such were these earnest wishings that but one man had been
saved. I believe I repeated the words, “Oh, that it had been but one!” a
thousand times; and my desires were so moved by it, that when I spoke the
words my hands would clench together, and my fingers would press the palms of
my hands, so that if I had had any soft thing in my hand, I would have crushed
it involuntarily; and my teeth in my head would strike together, and set against
one another so strong, that for some time I could not part them again. Let the
naturalists explain these things, and the reason and manner of them. All I can
say of them is, to describe the fact, which was even surprising to me, when I
found it, though I knew not from what it should proceed; it was, doubtless, the
effect of ardent wishes, and of strong ideas formed in my mind, realizing the com-
fort which the conversation of one of my fellow-Christians would have been to me.
But it was not to be; either their fate, or mine, or both, forbade it, for till the
last year of my being on this island, I never knew whether any were saved out of
that ship or no; and had only the affliction, some days after, to see the corpse of
a drowned boy come on shore at the end of the island which was next the ship-
wreck. He had no clothes on but a seaman’s waistcoat, a pair of open-kneed
linen drawers, and a blue linen shirt; but nothing to direct me so much as to
guess what nation he was of. He had nothing in his pockets but two pieces of
eight and a tobacco-pipe—the last was to me of ten times more value than the
first. :

It was now calm, and J hada great mind to venture out in my boat to this
wreck, not doubting but I might find something on board that might be useful to
me. But that did not altogether press me so much as the possibility that there
might be yet some living creature. on board, whose life I might not only save,
but might, by saving that life, comfort my own to-the last degree; and _ this
thought clung so to my heart that I could not be quiet night or day, but I must
venture out in my boat on board this wreck; and committing the rest to God’s
providence, I thought the impression was so strong upon my mind that it could
not be resisted, that it must come from some invisible direction, and that I should
be wanting to myself if I did not go.

Under the power of this impression, I hastened back to my castle, prepared
everything for my voyage, took a quantity of bread, a great pot for fresh water, a
compass to steer by, a bottle of rum (for I had still-a great deal of that left),
and a basket of raisins; and thus loading myself with everything necessary, I went
down to my boat, got the water out of her, got her afloat, loaded all my cargo in
her, and then went home again for more. My second cargo was a great bag full
of rice, the umbrella to set up over my head for a shade, another large pot full
of fresh water, and about two dozen of small loaves, or barley-cakes, more than
before, with a bottle of goat’s-milk, and a cheese: all which with great labor and
sweat I brought to my boat; and praying to God to direct my voyage, I put out,
and rowing or paddling the canoe along the shore, came at last to the utmost
point of the island on the north-east side. And now I was to launch out into
136 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the ocean, and either to venture or not to venture. I looked on the rapid
currents which ran constantly on both sides of the island at a distance, and which
were very terrible to me, from the remembrance of the hazard I had been in
before, and my heart began to fail me; for I foresaw that if I was driven into either
of those currents, I should be carried a great way out to sea, and perhaps out of
my reach or sight of the island again; and that then, as my boat was but small, if
any little gale of wind should rise, I should be inevitably lost.

These thoughts so oppressed my mind that I began to give over my enterprise ;
and having hauled my boat into a little creek on the shore, I stepped out, and
sat down upon a rising bit of ground, very pensive and anxious, between fear and
desire, about my voyage; when, as I was musing, I could perceive that the tide
was turned, and the flood came on; upon which, my going was impracticable. for
so many hours. Upon this, presently it occurred to me that I should go up to
the highest piece of ground I could find, and observe, if I could, how the sets of the
tide or currents lay, when the flood came in, that I might judge whether, if I was
driven one way out, I might not expect to be driven another way home, with the
same rapidity of the currents. This thought was no sooner in my head than I
cast my eye upon a little hill, which sufficiently overlooked the sea both ways, and
from whence I had a clear view of the currents, or sets of the tide, and which
way I was to guide myself in my return. Here I found that as the current
of ebb set out close by the south point of the island, so the current of the flood
set in close by the shore of the north side; and that I had nothing to do but to
keep to the north of the island in my return, and I should do well enough.

Encouraged with this observation, I resolved, the next morning, to set out with
the first of the tide; and reposing myself for the night in my canoe, under the
great watch-coat I mentioned, I launched out. I first made a little out to sea,
full north, till I began to feel the benefit of the current, which set eastward, and which
carried me at a great rate, and yet did not so hurry me as the current on the south
side had done before, so as to take from me all government of the boat; but having a
strong steerage with my paddle, I went, at a great rate, directly for the wreck, and in
less than two hours I. came up to it.. It was a dismal sight to look at: the ship,
which by its building was Spanish, stuck fast, jammed in between two rocks: all
the stern and quarter of her were beaten to pieces by the sea; and as her fore-
castle, which stuck in the rocks, had run on with great violence, her mainmast
and foremast were brought by the board, that is to say, broken short off; but her
bowsprit was sound, and the head and bow appeared firm. When I came close
to her, a dog appeared upon her, who, seeing me coming, yelped and cried; and,
as soon as I called him, jumped into the-sea to come to me: I took him into
the boat, but found him almost dead with hunger and thirst. I gave him a cake
of my bread, and he devoured it like a ravenous wolf that had been starving a
fortnight in the snow; I then gaye the poor creature some fresh water, with
which, if I would have let him, he would have burst himself. After this I went
on board; but the first. sight I met with was two men drowned in the cook-room,
or forecastle .of the ship, with their arms fast about one another. I concluded,
SALVAGE FROM -THE WRECK: L37

as is indeed probable, that when the ship struck, it being in a storm, the sea broke
so high, and so continually over her, that the men were not able to bear it, and
were strangled with the constant rushing in of the water, as much as if they had
been under water. Besides the dog, there was nothing left in the ship that had
life; nor any goods that I could see, but what were spoiled by the water. ‘There
were: some casks of liquor, whether wine or brandy I knew not, which lay lower
in the hold, and which, the water being ebbed out, I could see; but they were
too big to meddle with. I saw several chests, which I believed belonged to some



. “THE CORPSE OF A DROWNED BOY” (/. 135).

of the seamen; and I got two of them into the boat, without examining what
was in them. Had the stern of the ship been fixed, and the fore-part broken
off, Iam persuaded I might have made a good voyage; for, by what I
found in these two chests, I had room to suppose the ship had. a
great deal of wealth on board; and, if I may guess from the course she steered,
she must have been bound from Buenos Ayres, or the Rio de la Plata,
in the south part of America, beyond the Brazils, to the Havanna, in_ the
Gulf of Mexico, and so perhaps to Spain. She had, no doubt, a great treasure
in her, but of no use, at that time, to anybody; but what became of the crew I
then knew not.

I found, besides these -chests, a little cask full of liquor, of about twenty
gallons, which I got into my boat with much difficulty. There were several muskets
in the cabin, and a great powder-horn, with about four pounds of powder in
it. As for the muskets, I had no occasion for them, so I left them, but took
138 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the powder-horn. I took a fire-shovel and tongs, which I wanted extremely, as
also two little brass kettles, a copper pot to make chocolate, and a gridiron; and
with this cargo, and the dog, I came away, the tide beginning to make home
again; and the same evening, about an hour within night, I reached the island
again, weary and fatigued to the last degree. I reposed that night in the boat;
and in the morning I resolved to harbor what I had got in my new cave, and
not carry it home to my castle. After refreshing myself, I got all my cargo on
shore, and began to examine the particulars. The cask of liquor I found to be
a kind of rum, but not such as we had at the Brazils; and, in a word, not at all
good; but when I came to open the chests, I found several things of great use
to me: for example, I found in one a fine case of bottles, of an extraordinary
kind, and filled with cordial waters, fine and very good._ The bottles held about
three pints each, and were tipped with silver. I found two pots of very good
succades, or sweetmeats, so fastened also on the top that the salt water had not
hurt them; and two more of the same, which the water had spoiled. I found
some very good shirts, which were very welcome to me; and about a dozen and
a half of white linen handkerchiefs and colored neckcloths; the former were
also very welcome, being exceedingly refreshing. to wipe my face in a
hot day. Besides this, when I came to the till in the chest, I found there
three great bags of pieces of eight, which held about eleven hundred pieces in all;
and in one of them, wrapped up in a paper, six doubloons of gold, and some
small bars or wedges of gold; I suppose they might all weigh near a pound. In
the other chest were some clothes, but of little value; but, by the circumstances,
it must have belonged to the gunner’s mate; though there was no powder in it,
except two pounds of. fine glazed powder, in three small flasks, kept, I suppose,
for charging their fowling-pieces on occasion. Upon the whole, I got very little by
this voyage that was of any use to me; for as to the money, I had no manner of
occasion for it; it was to me as the dirt under my feet, and I would have given
it all for three or four pair of English shoes and stockings, which were things I
greatly wanted, but had none on my feet for many years. I had, indeed, got
two pair of shoes now, which I took off the feet of the two drowned men whom
I saw in the wreck, and I found two pair more in one of the chests, which were
very welcome to me; but they were not like our English shoes, either for ease or
service, being rather what we call pumps than shoes. I found in this seaman’s
chest about fifty pieces of eight, in rials, but no gold: I suppose this belonged
to a poorer man than the other, which seemed to belong to some officer. Well,
however, I lugged this money home to my cave, and laid it up, as I had done
that before which I had brought from our own ship; but it was a great pity, as
I said, that the other part of this ship had not come to my share; for I am satisfied
I might have loaded my canoe several times over. with money; which, if { had
ever escaped to England, would have lain here safe enough till I might have come
again and fetched it. ws

Having now brought all my things on shore, and secured them, I went back
to my boat, and rowed or paddled her along the shore to her old harbor, where
L Form NEw PROJECTS. : 139

I laid her up, and made the best of my way to my old habitation, where I
found everything safe and quiet. I began now to repose myself, live after my old
fashion, and take care of my family affairs; and for awhile I lived easy enough,
only that I was more vigilant than I used to be, looked out oftener, and did not
go abroad so much; and if, at any time, I did stir with any freedom, it was
always to the east part of the island, where I was pretty well satisfied the savages
never came, and where I could go without so many precautions, and such a load
of arms and ammunition as I always carried with me if I went the other way.
I lived in this condition near two years more; but-my unlucky head, that was
always to let me know it was born to make my body miserable, was all these two
years filled with projects and designs, how, if it were possible, I might get away
from this island: for sometimes I was for making another voyage to the wreck,
though my reason told me that there was nothing left there worth the hazard of
my voyage; sometimes for a ramble one way, sometimes another: and I believe
verily, if I had had the boat that I went from Sallee in, I should have ventured
to sea, bound anywhere, I knew not whither. I have been, in all my circumstances,
a memento to those who are touched with the general plague of mankind, whence,
for aught I know, one-half of their miseries flow; I mean, that of not being
satisfied with the station wherein God and Nature hath placed them: for, not to
look back upon my primitive condition, and the excellent advice of my father,
the opposition to which was, as I may call it, my oviginal sin, my subsequent
mistakes of the same kind had been the means of my coming into this miserable
condition; for had that Providence, which so happily seated me at the Brazils as
a planter, blessed me with confined desires, and I could have been contented to
have gone on gradually, I might have been by this time, J mean in the time of
my being in this island, one of the most considerable planters in the Brazils:
nay, I am persuaded that by the improvements I had made in that little time I
lived there, and the increase I should probably have made if I had remained, I
might have been worth a hundred thousand moidores: and what business had I
to leave a settled fortune, a well-stocked plantation, improving and increasing, to
turn supercargo to Guinea to fetch negroes, when patience and time would have
so increased our stock at home, that we could have bought them at our own door
from those whose business it was to fetch them? and though it had cost us some-
thing more, yet the difference of that price was by no means worth saving at so
great a hazard. But as this is ordinarily the fate of young heads, so reflection
upon the folly of it is as commonly the exercise of more years, or of the dear-
bought experience of time: so it was with me now; and yet so deep had the
mistake taken root in my temper, that I could not satisfy myself in my station,
but was continually poring upon the means and possibility of my escape from this
place: and that I may, with the greater pleasure to the reader, bring on the
remaining part of my story, it may not be improper to give some account of my
first conceptions on the subject of this foolish scheme for my escape, and how,
and upon what foundation, I acted.

I am now to be supposed retired into my castle, after my late voyage to the
140 , ROBINSON CRUSOE.

wreck, my frigate laid up and secured under water, as usual, and my condition
restored to what it was before: I had more wealth, indeed, than I had before,
but was not at all the richer; for I had no more use for it than the Indians of
Peru had before the Spaniards came there. é

It was one of the nights in the rainy season in March, the four- aria? twentieth
year of my first setting foot in this island of solitude. I was lying in my bed or
hammock, awake, very well in health, had no pain, no distemper, no uneasiness of



‘BEGAN TO EXAMINE THE PARTICULARS” (f. 138).

body, nor any uneasiness of mind more than ordinary, but could by no means
close my eyes, that is, so as to sleep; no, not a wink all night long, otherwise
than as follows:—lIt is impossible and needless to set down the innumerable crowd
of thoughts that whirled through that great thoroughfare of the brain—the
memory—in this night’s time: I ran over the whole history of my life in miniature,
or by abridgment, as I may call it, to my coming to this island, and also of that
part of my life since I came to this island. In my reflections upon the state of
my case since I came on shore on this island, I was comparing the happy
posture of my affairs in the first years of my habitation here, with the life of
anxiety, fear, and care, which I ‘had lived in ever since I had seen the print of
a foot in the sand; not that I did not believe the savages had frequented the
island even all the while, and might have been several hundreds of them at times on
shore there; but I had never known it, and was incapable of any apprehensions
TERROR OF THE SAVAGES. 14.

about it; my satisfaction was perfect, though my danger was the same, and I
was as happy in not knowing my danger as if I had never really been exposed
to it. This furnished my thoughts with many very profitable reflections, and
particularly this one:. How infinitely good that Providence is, which has provided,
in its government of mankind, such narrow bounds to his sight and knowledge
of things; and though he walks in the midst of so many thousand dangers, the
sight of which, if discovered to him, would distract his mind and sink his spirits,
he is kept serene and calm, by having the events of things hid from his eyes,
and knowing nothing of the dangers which surround him.

After these thoughts had for some time entertained me, I came to reflect
seriously upon the real danger I had been in for so many years in this’ very
island, and how I had walked about in the greatest security, and with all possible
tranquillity, even when perhaps nothing but the brow of a hill, a great tree, or
the casual approach of night, had been between me and the worst kind of
destruction, viz., that of falling into the hands of cannibals and savages, who would
have seized on me with the same view as I would on a goat or a turtle; and
have thought it no more crime to kill and devour me than I did of a pigeon or
a curlew. I would unjustly slander myself, if I should say I was not sincerely
thankful to my great Preserver, to whose singular protection I acknowledged, with
great humility, all these unknown deliverances were due, and without which I
must inevitably have fallen into their merciless hands.

When these thoughts were over, my head was for some time taken up in con-
sidering the nature of these wretched creatures, I mean the savages, and how it
came to pass in the world that the wise Governor. of all things should give up
any of His creatures to such inhumanity, nay, to something so much belew even
brutality itself, as to devour its own kind: but as this ended in some (at that
time) fruitless speculations, it occurred to me to inquire what part of the world
these wretches lived in? how far off the coast was from whence they came? what
they ventured over so far from home for? what kind of boats they had? and why
I might not order myself and my business so that I might be as able to go
over thither as they were to come to me?

I never so much as troubled myself to consider what I should do with myself
when I went thither; what would become of me if I fell into the hands of these
savages; or how I should escape them if they attacked me; no, nor so much as
how it was possible for me to reach the coast, and not be attacked by some or
other of them, without any possibility of delivering myself: and if I should not
fall into their hands, what I should do for provision, or whither I should bend
my course: none of these thoughts, 1 say, so much as came in my way; but my
mind was wholly bent upon the notion cf my passing over in my boat to the
mainland. I looked upon my present condition as the most miserable that could
possibly be; that I was not able to throw myself into anything, but death, that
could be called worse; and if I reached the shore of the main, I- might perhaps
meet with relief; or I might coast along, as I did on the African shore, till I came
to some inhabited country, and where I might find some relief; and, after all,
142 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

perhaps I might fall in with some Christian ship that might take me in; and if
the worst came to the worst, I could but die, which would put an end to all
these miseries at once. Pray note, all this was the fruit of a disturbed mind, an
impatient temper, made, as it were, desperate by the long continuance of my
troubles, and the disappointments I had met with in the wreck I had been on
board of, and where I had been so near the obtaining what I so earnestly longed
for, namely, somebody to speak to, and to learn some knowledge of the place
where I was, and of the probable means of my deliverance. I say I was agitated
wholly by these thoughts; all my calm of mind, in my resignation to Providence,
and waiting the issue of the dispositions of Heaven, seemed to be suspended; and
I had, as it were, no power to turn my thoughts to anything but the project of
a voyage to the main, which came upon me with such force and such an im-
petuosity of desire that it was not to be resisted.

When this had agitated my thoughts for two hours or more, with such violence
that it set my very blood into a ferment, and- my pulse beat as if I had been
in a fever merely with the extraordinary fervor of my mind about it, Nature,
as if I had sbeen fatigued and exhausted with the very thoughts of it, threw me
into a sound sleep. One would have thought I should have dreamed of it, but
I did not, nor of anything relating to it: but I dreamed that as I was going out
in the morning as usual, from my castle, I saw upon the shore two canoes and
eleven savages, coming to land, and that they brought with them another savage,
whom they were going to kill, in order to eat him; when, on a sudden, the
savage that they were going to kill jumped away, and ran for his life; then I
thought, in my sleep, that he came running into my little thick grove before my
fortification, to hide himself; and that I, seeing him alone, and not perceiving
that the others sought him that way, showed myself to him, and smiling upon
him encouraged him: that he kneeled down to me, seeming to pray me to
assist him; upon which I showed him my ladder, made him go up it, and carried
him into my cave, and he became my servant; and that as soon as I had got
this man, I said to myself, “Now I may certainly venture to the mainland, for
this fellow will serve me as a pilot, and will tell me what to do, and whither to
go for provisions, and whither not to go for fear of being devoured; what places
to venture into, and what to escape.” I waked with this thought; and was under
such inexpressible impressions of joy at the prospect of my escape in my dream,
that the disappointments which I felt upon coming to myself, and finding that
it was no more than a dream, were equally extravagant the other way, and threw
me into a good dejection of spirits. —

Upon this, however, I made this conclusion: that my only way to go
about an attempt for an escape was, if possible, to get a savage into my pos-
session; and, if possible, it should be one of their prisoners, whom they had
condemned to be eaten, and should bring hither to kill. But these thoughts
still were attended with this difficulty, that it was impossible to effect this without
attacking a whole caravan of them, and killing them all; and this was not only
a very desperate attempt, and might miscarry, but, on the other hand, I had
ON 7HE WATCH. 143

greatly scrupled the lawfulness of it to me; and my heart trembled at the thoughts
of shedding so much blood, though it was for my deliverance. I need not repeat
the arguments which occurred to me against this, they being the same mentioned
before; but though I had other reasons to offer now— viz., that those men were
enemies to- my life, and would devour me if they could; that it was self-
preservation, in the highest degree, to deliver myself from this death of a life,
and was acting in ny own defense as much as if they were actually assaulting
me, and the like; I say, though these things argued for it, yet the thoughts of
shedding human blood’ for my deliverance were very terrible to me, and such as
I could by no means reconcile myself to for a great while. However, at last,
after many secret disputes with myself, and after great perplexities about it (for
all these arguments, one way and another, struggled in my head a long time),
the eager prevailing desire of deliverance at length mastered all the rest; and I
resolved, if possible, to get one of these savages into my hands, cost what it
would. My next thing was to contrive how to do it, and this indeed was very
difficult to resolve on; but as I could pitch upon no probable means for it, so
I resolved to put myself upon the watch, to see them when they came on shore,
and leave the rest to the event; taking such measures as the opportunity should
present, let be what would be.

With these resolutions in my thoughts, I set myself upon the scout as often
as possible, and indeed so often that I was heartily tired of it; for it was above
a year and a half that I waited; and for great part of that time’ went out to
the west end and to the south-west corner of the island almost every day, to
look for canoes, but none appeared. This was very discouraging, and ‘began
to trouble me much, though I cannot say that it did in this case (as it had done
some time before) wear off the edge of my desire to the thing; but the longer
it seemed to be delayed, the more eager I was for it: ina word, I was not at
first so careful to shun the sight of these savages, and avoid being seen by
them, as I was now eager to be upon them. Besides, I fancied myself able to
manage one, nay, two or three savages, if I had them, so as to make them
entirely slaves to me, to do whatever I should direct them, and to prevent their
being able at any time to do me any hurt. It was a great while that I pleased
myself with this affair; but nothing still presented; all my fancies and schemes
came to nothing, for no savages came near me for a great while.

About a year and a half after I entertained these notions (and by long musing
had, as it were, resolved them all into nothing, for want of an occasion to put
them in execution), I was surprised one morning early by seeing no less than
five canoes all on shore together on my side the island, and the people who
belonged to them all landed and out of my sight. The number of them broke
all my measures; for seeing so many, and knowing that they always came four
or six, or sometimes more, in a boat, I could not tell what to think of it, or
how to take my measures, to attack twenty or thirty men single-handed; so lay
still in my castle, perplexed and discomforted. However, I put myself into all
the same postures for an attack that I had formerly provided, and was just ready
144 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

for action, if anything had presented. Having waited a good while, listening to
hear if they made any noise, at length, being very impatient, I set my guns at
the foot of my ladder, and clambered up to the top of the hill, by my two
stages, as usual; standing so, however, that my head did not appear above the
hill, so that they could not perceive me by any means. Here I observed, by
the help of my perspective glass, that they were no less than thirty in number;
that they had a fire kindled, and that they had meat dressed. How they had
cooked it, I knew not, or what it was; but they were all dancing, in I know
not how many barbarous gestures and figures, their own way, round the fire.

While I was thus looking on them, I perceived, by my ‘perspective, two
miserable wretches dragged from the boats, where, it seems, they were laid by,
and were now brought out for the slaughter. I perceived one of them imme-
diately fall; being knocked down, I suppose, with a club, or wooden sword, for
that was their way; and two or three others were at work immediately, cutting
him open for their cookery, while the other victim was left standing by himself,
till they should be ready for him. In that very moment, this poor wretch, seeing
himself a little at liberty, and unbound, Nature inspired him with hopes of life,
‘and he started away from them, and ran with incredible swiftness along the sands,
directly towards me; I mean, towards that part of the coast where my habitation
was. I was dreadfully frightened, that I must- acknowledge, when I perceived
him run my way; and especially when, as I thought, I saw him pursued by the
whole body; and now I expected that part of my dream was coming to pass,
and that he would certainly take shelter in my grove: but I could not depend,
by any means, upon my dream, that the other savages would not pursue him
thither, and find him there. However, I kept my station, and my spirits began
to recover when I found that there was-not above three men that followed him;
and still more was I encouraged when I found that he outstripped them exceed-
ingly in running, and gained ground on them; so that, if he could but hold it
for half an hour, I saw easily he would fairly get away from them all.

There was between them and my castle, the creek, which I mentioned often in
the first part of my story, where I landed my cargoes out of the ship; and this I
saw plainly he must necessarily swim over, or the poor wretch would be taken
there; but when the savage escaping -came thither, he made nothing of it, though
the tide was then up; but, plunging in, swam through in about thirty strokes, or
thereabouts, landed, and ran with exceeding strength and swiftness. When the
three persons came to the creek, I found that two of them could swim, but the
third could not, and that, standing on the other side, he looked at the others,
but went no farther, and soon after went softly back again ;_ which, as it happened,
was very well for him in the end. I observed that the two who swam were yet
more than twice as long swimming over the creek than the fellow was that fled
from them. It came very warmly upon my thoughts, and indeed irresistibly, that
now was the time to get me a servant, and perhaps a companion or assistant; and
that I was plainly called by Providence to save this poor creature’s life. I imme-
diately ran down the ladder with all possible expedition, fetched my two guns, for














































































































































































































































“IT WAS THEN OBLIGED TO SHOOT.”

(See p. 145.)
ENCOUNTER WITH THE SAVAGES. 145

they were both at the foot of the ladder, as J observed before, and getting up
again with the same haste to the top of the hill, I crossed towards the sea; and
having a very short cut, and all down hill, clapped myself in the way between the
pursuers and the pursued, hallooing aloud to him that fled, who, looking back, was at
first perhaps as much frightened at me as at them; but I beckoned with my hand to
him to come back; and, in the meantime, I slowly advanced towards the two that



‘“DANCING ROUND THE FIRE” (f. 144).

followed; then rushing at once upon the foremost, I knocked him down with the
stock of my piece. I was loth to fire, because I would not have the rest hear; though,
at that distance, it would not have been easily heard, and being out of sight of the
smoke, too, they would not have known what to make of it. Having knocked this
fellow down, the other who pursued him stopped, as if he had been frightened,
and I advanced towards him; but as I came nearer, I perceived presently he had
a bow and arrow, and was fitting it to shoot at me; so I was then obliged to
shoot .at him first, which I did, and killed him at the first shot. The poor savage
who fled, but had stopped, though he saw both his enemies fallen and killed, as
he thought, yet was so frightened with the fire and noise of my piece that he
146 . ROBINSON CRUSOE.

stood stock-still, and neither came forward nor went backward, though he seemed
rather inclined still to fly than to come on. I hallooed again to him, and made
signs to come forward, which he easily understood, and came a little way;
then stopped again, and then a little farther, and stopped again; and I could
then perceive that he stood trembling, as if he had been taken prisoner, and had
just been to be killed, as his two enemies were. I beckoned to him again to
come to me, and gave him all the signs of encouragement that I could think of;
and he came nearer and nearer, kneeling down every ten or twelve steps, in token
of acknowledgment for saving his life. I smiled at him, and looked pleasantly,
and beckoned to him to come still nearer; at length, he came close to me; and
then he kneeled down again, kissed the ground, and laid his head upon the ground,
and, taking me by the foot, set my foot upon his head; this, it seems, was in
token of swearing to be my slave forever. I took him up, and made much of
him, and encouraged him all I could. But there was more work to do yet; for
I perceived the savage whom I had knocked down was not killed, but stunned
with the blow, and began to come to himself: so I pointed to him, and showed
him the savage, that he was not dead; upon this he spoke some words to me, and
though I could not understand them, yet I thought they were pleasant to hear; for
they were the first sound of a man’s voice that I had heard, my own excepted, for
above twenty-five years. But there was no time for such reflections now; the savage
who was knocked down recovered himself so far as to sit up on the ground, and I
perceived that my savage began to be afraid; but when I saw that, I presented my
other piece at the man, as if I would shoot him; upon this. my savage, for so I
called him now, made a motion to me to lend him my sword, which hung naked in
a belt by my side, which I did. He no sooner had it but he runs to his enemy, and
at one blow cut off his head as cleverly, no executioner in Germany could have done
it sooner or better; which I thought very strange for one who, I had reason to be-
lieve, never saw a sword in his life before, except their own wooden swords: how-
ever, it seems, as I learned afterwards, they make their wooden swords so sharp, so
heavy, and the wood is so hard, that they will even cut off heads with them, ay, and
arms, and that at one blow too. When he had done this, he comes laughing to me
in sign of triumph, and brought me the sword again, and with abundance of gestures
which I did not understand, laid it down, with the head of the savage that he had killed,
just before me. But that which astonished him most was to know how I killed the
other Indian so far off; so pointing to him, he made signs to me to let him go to him;
and I bade him go, as well as I could. When he came to him, he stood like one
amazed, looking at him, turning him first on one side, then on the other; looked at
the wound the bullet had made, which it seems was just in his breast, where it had
made a hole, and no great quantity of blood had followed; but he had bled inwardly,
for he was quite dead. He took up his bow and arrows, and came back; so I turned
to go away, and beckoned him to follow me, making signs to him that more might
come after them.

Upon this he made signs to me that he should bury them with sand, that they
might not be seen by the rest, if they followed; and so I made signs to him again
My MAN, FRIDAY. 147

todo so. He fell to work; and in an instant he had scraped a hole in the sand
with his hands, big enough to bury the first in, and then dragged him into it, and
covered him; and did so by the other also; I believe he had buried them both
in a quarter of an hour. ‘Then calling him away, I carried him, not to my castle, but
quite away to my cave, on the farther part of the island; so I did not let my dream
come to pass in that part, that he came into my grove for shelter. Here I gave him
bread and a bunch of raisins to eat, and a draught of water, which I found he was
indeed in great distress for from his running; and having refreshed him, I made
signs for him to go and lie down to sleep, showing him a place where I had laid
some rice-straw, and a blanket upon it, which I used to sleep upon myself sometimes ;
so the poor creature lay down, and went to sleep.

He was a comely, handsome fellow, perfectly well made, with straight, strong
limbs, not too large, tall and well shaped; and, as I reckon, about twenty-six years
of age. He had a very good countenance, not a fierce and surly aspect, but
seemed to have something very manly in his face; and yet he had all the sweet-
ness and softness of a European in his countenance, too, especially when he smiled.
His hair was long and black; not curled like wool; his forehead very high and
large; and a great vivacity and sparkling sharpness in his eyes. The color of his
skin was not. quite black, but very tawny; and yet not an ugly, yellow, nauseous
tawny, as the Brazilians and Virginians, and other natives of America are, but of
a bright kind of a dun olive-color, that had in it something very agreeable, though
not very easy to describe. His face was round and plump; his nose small, not
flat like the Negroes’; a very good mouth, thin lips, and his fine teeth well set,
and as white as ivory. ‘

After he had slumbered, rather than slept, about half an hour, he awoke again,
and came out of the cave tome; for I had been milking my goats, which I had
in the inclosure just by: when he espied me, he came running to me, laying him-
self down again upon the ground, with all the possible signs of an humble, thankful
disposition, making a great many antic gestures to show it. At last he lays his head
flat upon the ground, close to my foot, and sets my other foot upon his head, as
he had done before; and after this, made all the signs to me of subjection, servitude,
and submission imaginable, to let me know how he would serve me so long as he
lived. _I understood him in many things, and let him know I was very well
pleased with him. In a little time I began to speak to him, and teach him to
speak to me; and, first, I let him know his name should be Fripay, which was
the day I saved his life: I called him-so for the memory of the time. I likewise
taught him to say Master, and then let him know that was to be my name; I
likewise taught him to say Yes and No, and to know the meaning of them. I
gave him some milk in an earthen pot, and let him see me drink it before him,
and sop my bread in it; and gave him a cake of bread to do the like, which
he quickly complied with, and made signs that it was very good for him. I kept
there with him all that night; but, as soon as it was day, I beckoned to him to
come with me, and let him know I would give him some clothes; at which he
seemed very glad, for he was stark naked. As we went by the place where he
148 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

had buried the two men, he pointed exactly to the place, and showed me the
marks that he had made to find them again, making signs to me that we-should
dig them up again and eat them, At this I appeared very angry, expressed my
abhorrence of it, made as if I would vomit at the thoughts of it, and beckoned
with my hand to him to come away, which he did immediately, with great sub-
mission. I then led him up to the top of the hill, to see if his enemies were
gone, and, pulling out my glass, I looked, and saw plainly the place where they

=
MRR FAGEER-



““ar ONE BLOW CUT OFF HIS HEAD” (/. 146),

had been, but no appearance of them or their canoes; so that it was plain they were
gone, and had left their two comrades behind them, without any search after them.
But I was not content with this discovery; but having now more courage, and
consequently more curiosity, I took my man Friday with me, giving him the sword
in his hand, with the bow and arrows at his back, which I found he could use
very dexterously, making him carry one gun for me, and I two for myself; and
away we marched to the place where these creatures had been—for I had a
mind now to get some fuller intelligence of them. When I came to the place, my
very blood ran chill in my veins and my heart sank within me, at the horror of
I CLOTHE FRIDAY. 14g

the spectacle; indeed, it was a dreadful sight—at least, it was so to me, though
Friday made nothing of it. The place was covered with human bones, the ground
dyed with the blood, and great pieces of flesh left here and there, half-eaten,
mangled, and scorched; and, in short, all the tokens of the triumphant feast they
had been making there, after a victory over their enemies. I saw three skulls,
five hands, and the bones of three or four legs and feet, and abundance of other
parts of the bodies; and Friday, by his signs, made me understand that they
brought over four prisoners to feast upon; that three of them were eaten. up, and
that he, pointing to himself, was the fourth; that there had been a great battle
between them and their next king, of whose subjects, it seems, he had been one,
and that they had taken a great number of prisoners; all which were carried to
several places by. those who had taken them in the fight, in order to feast upon
them, as was done here by these wretches upon those they brought hither.

I caused Friday to gather all the skulls, bones, flesh, and whatever remained,
and lay them together on a heap, and make a great fire upon it, and burn them
all to ashes. I found Friday had still a hankering stomach after some of the
flesh, and was still a cannibal in his nature; but I discovered so much abhorrence at
the very thoughts of it, and at the least appearance of it, that he durst not discover it
—for I had, by some means, Jet him know that I would kill him if he offered it.

When he had done this, we came back to our castle, and there I fell to work
for my man Friday; and, first of all, I gave him a pair of linen drawers, which I
had out of the poor gunner’s chest I mentioned, which I found in the wreck, and
which, with a little alteration, fitted him very well; and then I made him a jerkin
of goat’s skin, as well as my skill would allow (for I was now grown a tolerably
good tailor); and I gave him a cap which I made of hare’s skin, very convenient,
and fashionable enough; and thus he was clothed, for the present, tolerably well,
and was mighty well pleased to see himself almost as well clothed as his master.
It is true, he went awkwardly in these clothes at first; wearing the drawers was
very awkward to him, and the sleeves of the waistcoat galled his shoulders and
the inside of his arms—but a little easing them where he complained they hurt
him, and using himself to them, at length he took to them very well.

The next day, after I came home to my hutch with him, I began to consider
where I should lodge him; and, that I might do well for him, and yet be per-
fectly casy myself, I made a little tent for him in the vacant place between my
two fortifications, in the inside of the last, and in the outside of the first. As
there was a door or entrance there into my cave, I made a formal framed door-
case, and a door to it of boards, and set it up in the passage, a little within the
entrance; and, causing the door to open in the inside, I barred it up in the
night, taking in my ladders, too; so that Friday could no way come at me in the
inside of my innermost wall, without making so much noise in getting over that
it must needs awaken me; for my first wall had now a complete roof over it of
long poles, covering all my tent, and leaning up to the side of the hill; which
was again laid across with smaller sticks, instead of laths, and then thatched over
a great thickness with the rice-straw, which was strong, like reeds; and at the
150 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

hole or place which was left to go in or out by the ladder, I had placed a kind
of trap-door, which, if it had been attempted on the outside, would not have opened
at all, but would have fallen down and made a great noise: as to weapons, I took
them all into my side every night. But I needed none of all this precaution; for
never man had a more faithful, loving, sincere servant than Friday was to me; without
passions, sullenness, or designs, perfectly obliged and engaged; his very affections
were tied to me, like those of a child to a father; and I dare say he would have sac-
rificed his life for the saving mine, upon any occasion whatsoever: the many testi-
monies he gave me of this put it out of doubt, and soon convinced me that I needed
no precautions for my safety on his account. ;

This frequently gave me occasion to observe, and that with wonder, that how-
ever it had pleased God in His providence, and in the government of the works of
His hands, to take from so great a part of the world of His creatures the best uses
to which their faculties and the powers of their souls are adapted, yet that He has
bestowed upon them the same powers, the same reason, the same affections; the
same sentiments of kindness and obligation; the same passions and resentments of
wrongs; the same sense of gratitude, sincerity, fidelity, and all the capacities of doing
good and receiving good, that He has given to us; and that when He pleases to
offer them occasions of exerting these, they are as ready, nay, more ready, to apply
them to the right uses for which they were bestowed than we are. This made me
very melancholy sometimes, in reflecting, as the several occasions presented, how
mean a use we make of all these, even though we have these powers enlightened by
the great lamp of instruction, the Spirit of God, and by the knowledge of His word
added to our understanding; and why it has pleased God to hide the like saving
knowledge from so many millions of souls, who, if I might judge by this poor savage,
would make a much better use of it than we did. From hence, I sometimes was led
too far, to invade the sovereignty of Providence, and, as it were, arraign the justice
of so arbitrary a disposition of things, that should hide that sight from some, and reveal
it to others, and yet expect a like duty from both; but I shut it up, and checked my
thoughts with this conclusion: first, That we did not know by what light and law
these should be condemned; but that as God was necessarily, and, by the nature of
His being, infinitely holy and just, so it could not be but if these creatures were all
sentenced to absence from Himself, it was on account of sinning against that light,
which, as the Scripture says, was a law to themselves, and by such rules as their
consciences would acknowledge to be just, though the foundation was not discovered
to us; and, secondly, That still, as we are all the clay in the hand of the Potter, no
vessel could say to Him, “ Why hast Thou formed me thus? ”

But to return to my new companion: I was greatly delighted with him, and
made it my business to teach him everything that was proper to make him useful,
handy, and helpful; but especially to make him speak, and understand me when
I spoke; and he was the aptest scholar that ever was; and particularly was so
merry, so constantly diligent, and so pleased when he could but understand me,
or make me understand him, that it was very pleasant to me to talk to him. And
now my life began to be so easy that I began to say to myself, that could I but
FRIDAY TAUGHT AND TRAINED. 151

have been safe from more savages, I cared not if I was never to remove from
the place while I lived.

After I had been two or three days returned to my castle, I thought that, in
order to bring Friday off from his horrid way of feeding, and from the relish of
a cannibal’s stomach, J ought to let him taste other flesh; so I took him out with
me one morning to the woods. I went, indeed, intending to killa kid out of my
own flock, and bring it home and dress it; but as I was going, I saw a she-goat
lying down in the shade, and two young kids sitting by her. I catched hold of
Friday: “ Hold,” said I, -“‘stand still; and made signs to him not to stir: imme-
diately I presented my piece, shot, and killed one of the kids. The poor creature,
who had, at a distance, indeed, seen me kill the savage, his enemy, but did not
know nor could imagine how it was done, was sensibly surprised; trembled, and
shook, and looked so amazed that I thought he would have sunk down. He did
not see the kid I shot at, or perceive I had killed it, but ripped up his waistcoat, to
feel whether he was not wounded; and, as I found presently, thought I was resolved
to kill him: for he came and kneeled down to me, and embracing my knees, said a
great many things J did not understand; but I could easily see the meaning was to
pray me not to kill him.

I soon found a way to convince him that I would do him no harm; and taking
him up by the hand, laughed at him, and pointing to the kid which I had killed,
beckoned to him to run and fetch it, which he did; and while he was wondering,
and looking to see how the creature was killed, I loaded my gun again. By and by
I saw a great fowl, like a hawk, sitting upon a tree within shot; so, to let Friday
understand a little what I would do, I called him to me again, pointed at
the fowl, which was indeed a parrot, though I thought it had been a hawk; I
say, pointing to the parrot, and to my gun, and to the ground under the parrot,
to let him see I would make it fall, I made him understand that I would shoot
and kill that bird; accordingly, I fired, and bade him look, and immediately he
saw the parrot fall. He stood like one frightened again, notwithstanding all I had
said to him; and I found he was the more amazed because he did not see me
put anything into the gun, but thought that there must be some wonderful fund
of death and destruction in that thing, able to kill man, beast, bird, or anything
near or far off; and the astonishment this created in him was such as could not
wear off for a long time; and, I believe, if I would have let him, he would have
worshiped me and my gun. As for the gun itself, he would not so much as
touch it for several days after; but he would speak to it and talk to it, as if it
had answered him, when he was by himself; which, as I afterwards learned of
him, was to desire it not to kill him. Well, after his astonishment was a little over
at this, I pointed to him to run and fetch the bird I had shot, which he did, but
stayed some time; for the parrot, not being quite dead, had fluttered away a
good distance from the place where she fell: however, he found her, took her up,
and brought her to me; and as I had perceived his ignorance about the gun
before, I took this advantage to charge the gun again, and not to let him see me do
it, that I might be ready for any other mark that might present; but nothing more
152 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

offered at that time: so I brought home the kid, and the same evening I took
the skin off, and cut it out as well as I could; and having a pot fit for that pur-
pose, I boiled or stewed some of the flesh, and made some very good broth.
After I had begun to eat some, I gave some to my man, who seemed very glad
of it, and liked it very well; but that which was strangest to him was to see me
eat salt with it. He made a sign to me that the salt was not good to eat; and,
putting a little into his own mouth, he seemed to nauseate it, and would spit and
sputter at it, washing his mouth with fresh water after it: on the other hand, I
took some meat into my mouth without salt; and I pretended to spit and sputter
for want of salt, as fast as he had done at the salt; but it would not do; he
would never care for salt with his meat, or in his broth; at least, not for a great
while, and then but a very little.

Having thus fed him with boiled meat and broth, I was resolved to feast him
the next day with roasting a piece of the kid: this I did by hanging it before
the fire on a string, as I had seen many people do in England, setting two poles
up, one on each side of the fire, and one across on the top, and tying the string
to the cross-stick, letting the meat turn continually. This Friday admired very
much; but when he came to taste the flesh, he took so many ways to tell me
how well he liked it, that I could not but understand him: and at last he told
me, as well as he could, he would never eat man’s flesh any more, which I was
very glad to hear.

The next day I set him to work to beating some corn out, and sifting it in
the manner I used to do, as I observed before; and he soon understood how to
do it as well as I, especially after he had seen what the meaning of it was, and
that it was to make bread of; for after that I let him see me make my bread,
and bake it, too; and in a little time Friday was able to do all the work for
me, as well as I could do it myself.

J began now to consider that, having two mouths to feed instead of one, I
must provide more ground for my harvest, and plant a larger quantity of corn
than I used to do; so I marked outa larger piece of land, and began the fence
in the same manner as before, in which Friday worked not only very willingly and
very hard, but did it very cheerfully: and I told him what it was for; that it was
for corn to make more bread, because he was now with me, and that I might
have enough for him and myself too. He appeared very sensible of that part, and
let me know that he thought I had much more labor upon me on his account
than I had for myself; and that he would work the harder for me, if I would tell
him what to do.

This was the pleasantest year of all the life I led in this place. Friday began
to talk pretty well, and understand the names of almost everything I had occasion
to call for, and of every place I had to send him to, and talk a great deal to
me; so that, in short, I began now to have some use for my tongue again, which,
indeed, I had very little occasion for before; that is to say, about speech. Be-
sides the pleasure of talking to him, I had a singular satisfaction in the fellow
himself: his simple, unfeigned honesty appeared to me more and more every day,
CONVERSATION WITH FRIDAY. {53

and I began really to love the creature; and on his side I believe he loved me
more than it was possible for him ever to love anything before.

I had a mind once to try if he had any '
hankering inclination to his own country \
again; and having taught him English so well
that he could answer me almost any question,
I asked him whether the nation that he be-
longed to never conquered in battle. At
which he smiled, and said, “Yes, yes, we
always fight the better;” that is, he meant,
always get the better in fight; and so we be-
gan the following discourse :—

Master.—You always fight the better; how
came you to be taken prisoner then, Friday?
friday —My nation beat much, for all that.












Master —How beat? If
your nation beat them,
how came you to be
taken?

friday. — They more
many than my nation, in
the place where me was;
they take one, two, three,
and me: my nation over-
beat them in the yonder
place, where me no was;
here my nation take one,
two, great thousand.

Master —But why did
not your side recover you from the hands of your enemies then?

Friday.—They run, one, two, three, and me, and make me go in the canoe; my
nation have no canoe that time.

Master.—Well, Friday, and what does your nation do with the men they take?
Do they carry them away and eat them, as these did?

‘*1 PRESENTED MY PIECE” (f. 151).
154 ROBINSON CRUSOE

friday.—VYes, my nation eat mans too: eat all up.

Master.—Where do they carry them?

Friday.—Go to other place, where they think.

‘Master—Do they come hither?

Friday.—YVes, yes, they come hither; come other else place.

Master —Have you been here with them?

Friday —Ves, I been here (points to the N.W. side of the island, which, it
seems, was their side).

By this I understood that my man Friday had formerly been among the savages
who used to come on shore on the farther part of the island, on the said man-
eating occasions that he was now brought for: and, some time after, when I took
the courage to carry him to that side, being the same I formerly mentioned, he
presently knew the place, and told me he was there once, when they ate up twenty
men, two women, and one child: he could not tell twenty in English, but he
numbered them, by laying so many stones in a row, and pointing to me to tell
them over.

I have told this passage because it introduces what follows; that after this
discourse I had with him, I asked him how far it was from our island to the
shore, and whether the canoes were not often lost. He told me there was no
danger; no. canoes ever Jost; but that after a little way out to sea, there was a
current and wind, always one way in the morning, the other in the afternoon.
‘This I understood to be no more than the sets of the tide, as going out or coming
in; but I afterwards understood it was occasioned by the great draft and reflux
of the mighty river Oroonoko, in the mouth of which niver, as I thought after-
wards, our island lay; and that this land which I perceived to the W. and N.W.
was the great island Trinidad, on the north point of the mouth of the river. I
asked Friday a thousand questions about the country, the inhabitants, the sea,
the coast, and what nations were near: he told me all he knew, with the greatest
openness imaginable. I asked him the names of the several nations of his sort of
people, but could get no other name than Caribs: from whence I easily under-
stood that these were the Caribbees, which our maps place on the part of America
which reaches from the mouth of the river Oroonoko to Guiana, and onwards to
St. Martha. He told me that up a great way beyond the moon (that was, be-
yond the setting of the moon, which must be west from their country) there
dwelt white bearded men, like me, and pointed to my great whiskers, which I
mentioned before; and that they had killed much mans—that was his word: by all
which I understood he meant the Spaniards, whose cruelties in America had been
spread over the whole country, and were remembered by all the nations, from
father to son.

I inquired if he could tell me how I might come from this island, and get
among those white men: he told me, “Yes, yes, I might go in two canoe.” I
could not understand what he meant by “two canoe,” till at last, with great diffi-
culty, I found he meant it must be in a large, great boat, as big as two canoes.
This part of Friday’s discourse began to relish with me very well; and from this
RUDIMENTS OF RELIGION. 155

time I entertained some hopes that, one time or other, I might find an opportunity
to make my escape from this place, and that this poor savage might be a means
to help me to do it.

During the long time that Friday had now been with me, and that he began
to speak to me, and understand me, I was not wanting to lay a foundation of
religious knowledge in his mind; particularly I asked him one time who made
him. The poor creature did not understand me at all, but thought I had asked
him who was his father: but I took it by another handle, and asked him who
made the sea, the ground we walked on, and the hills and woods. He told me,
“Tt was one Benamuckee, that lived beyond all; he could describe nothing of this
great person, but that he was very old, “much older,” he said, “than the sea or the
land, than the moon or the stars.” J asked him, then, if this old person had made all
things, why did not all things worship him? MHe looked very grave, and, with a
perfect look of innocence, said, “All things said ‘O!’ to him.” I asked him if the
people who die in his country went away anywhere. He said, “Yes; they all went
to Benamuckee.” Then I asked him whether those they ate up went thither too.
He said, “ Yes.”

From these things I began to instruct him in the knowledge of the true God:
I told him that the great Maker of all things lived there, pointing up towards
heaven; that He governed the world by the same power and providence by which
He made it; that He was omnipotent, and could do everything for us, give every-
thing to us, take everything from us; and thus, by degrees, I opened his eyes. He
listened with great attention, and received with pleasure the notion of Jesus Christ
being sent to redeem us, and of the manner of making our prayers to God, and
His being able to hear us, even into heaven. He told me one day, that if our
God could hear us, up beyond the sun, He must needs be a greater God than
their Benamuckee, who lived but a little way off, and yet could not hear till they
went up to the great mountain where he dwelt to speak to him. I asked him if
ever he went thither to speak to him. He said, ““No; they never went that were
young men; none went thither but the old men,” whom he called their Oowokakee ;
that is, as I made him explain it to me, their religious, or clergy; and that they went
to say ““O!” (so he called saying prayers) and then came back and told them what
Benamuckee said. By this I observed, that there is priestcraft even among the most
blinded, ignorant pagans in the world; and the policy of making a secret of religion,
in order to preserve the veneration of the people to the clergy, is not only to be
found in the Roman, but perhaps among all religions in the world, even among
the most brutish and barbarous savages.

I endeavored to clear up this fraud to my man Friday, and told him that the
pretense of their old men going up to the mountains to say “O!” to their god
Benamuckee was a cheat; and their bringing word from thence what he said was
much more so; that if they met with any answer, or spoke with any one there,
it must be with an evil spirit; and then I entered into a long discourse with
him about the devil, the original of him, his rebellion against God, his enmity to
man, the reason of it, his setting himself up in the dark parts of the world to be
156 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

worshiped instead of God, and as God, and the many stratagems he made use
of to delude mankind to their ruin; how he had a secret access to our passions
and to our affections, and to adapt his snares to our inclinations, so as to cause
us even to be our own tempters, and run upon our own destruction by our own
choice.

I found it was not so easy to imprint right notions in his mind about the
devil as it was about the being of a God; Nature assisted all my arguments to
evidence to him even the necessity of a great First Cause—an overruling, gov-
erning Power—a secret directing Providence; and of the equity and justice of
paying homage to Him that made us, and the like: but there appeared nothing
of this kind in the notion of an evil spirit; of his original, his being, his nature;
and, above all, of his inclination to do evil, and to draw us in to do so too: and
the poor creature puzzled me once in such a manner, by a question merely natural
and innocent, that I scarce knew what to say to him. I had been talking a great
deal to him of the power of God, His omnipotence, His aversion to sin, His being
a consuming fire to the workers of iniquity; how, as He had made us all, He
could destroy us and all the world in a moment; and he listened with great
seriousness to me all the while. After this, I had been telling him how the devil
was God’s enemy in the hearts of men, and used all his malice and skill to defeat
the good designs of Providence, and to ruin the kingdom of Christ in the world,
and the like. “Well,” says Friday, “but you say God is so strong, so great; is
He not much strong, much might as the devil?” ‘Yes, yes,” says I, “ Friday,
God is stronger than the devil: God is above the devil, and therefore we pray to
God to tread him down under our feet, and_to enable us to resist his temptations
and quench his fiery darts.” “But,” says he again, “if God much strong, much
might as the devil, why God no kill the devil, so make him no more do wicked?”
I was strangely surprised at this question; and after all, though I was now an old
man, yet I was but a young doctor, and ill qualified for a casuist, or a solver of
difficulties; and at first I could not tell what to say; so I pretended not to hear
him, and asked him what he said; but he was too earnest for an answer to forget
his question, so that he repeated it in the very same broken words as above. By
this time I had recovered myself a little, and I said, “ God will at last punish
him severely; he is reserved for the judgment, and he is to be cast into the
bottomless pit, to dwell with everlasting fire.” This did not satisfy Friday; but he
returns upon me, repeating my own words, “ ‘Reserve at /ast/’ me no understand:
but why not kill the devil now; not kill great ago?” ‘You may as well ask me,”
says I, “why God does not kill you or me, when we do wicked things here that
offend Him: we are preserved to repent and be pardoned.” He muses a while on
this: “Well, well,” says he, mightily affectionately, “that well: so you, I, devil,
all wicked, all preserve, repent, God pardon all.” Here I was run down by him
to the last degree: and it was a testimony to me, how the mere notions of
Nature, though they will guide reasonable creatures to the knowledge of a God,
and of a worship or homage due to the supreme being of God, as the consequence
of our nature, yet nothing but Divine revelation can form the knowledge of Jesus
AN INQUIRING PUPIL. 157

Christ, and of redemption purchased for us; of a Mediator of the new covenant,
and of an Intercessor at the footstool of God’s throne; I say, nothing but a
revelation from heaven can form these in the soul; and that, therefore, the gospel
of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, I mean the Word of God, and the Spirit
of God, promised for the guide and sanctifier of, His people, are the absolutely
necessary instructors of the souls of men in the saving knowledge of God, and the
means of salvation.

I therefore diverted the present discourse between me and my man, rising up



“] ENTERED INTO A LONG DISCOURSE” (/. 155).

hastily as upon some sudden occasion of going out; then sending him for some-
thing a good way off, I seriously prayed to God that He would enable me to
instruct savingly this poor savage; assisting by His Spirit the heart of the poor
ignorant creature to receive the light of the knowledge of God in Christ, reconciling
him to Himself, and would guide me to speak so to him from the Word of God,
that his conscience might be convinced, his eyes opened, and his scul saved.
When he came again to me, I entered into a long discourse with him upon the
subject of the redemption of man by the Saviour of the world, and of the
doctrine of the gospel preached from heaven—viz., of repentance towards God,
and faith in our blessed Lord Jesus.. I then explained to him as well as I could
why our blessed Redeemer took not on Him the nature of angels, but the seed of
Abraham; and how, for that reason, the fallen angels had no share in the redemp-
tion; that He came only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel, and the like.
158 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I had, God knows, more sincerity than knowledge in all the methods I took
for this poor creature’s instruction, and must acknowledge, what I believe all that
act upon the same principle will find, that, in laymg things open to him,I really
informed and instructed myself in many things that I either did not know, or had
not fully considered before, but which occurred naturally to my mind upon search-
ing into them, for the information of this poor savage; and I had more affection
in my inquiry after things upon this occasion than ever I felt before: so that,
whether this poor wild wretch was the better for me or no, I had reason to be
thankful that ever he came to me; my grief sat lighter upon me; my habitation
grew comfortable to me beyond measure: and when I reflected that in this
solitary life which I had been confined to, I had not only been moved to look
up to heaven myself, and to seek the Hand that had brought me here, but was
now to be made an instrument, under Providence, to save the life, and, for aught
I know, the soul of a poor savage, and bring him to the true knowledge of
religion, and of the Christian doctrine, that he might know Christ Jesus, to know
Whom is life eternal; I say, when I reflected upon all these things, a secret joy
ran through every part of my soul, and I frequently rejoiced that ever I was
brought to this place, which I had so often thought the most dreadful of all
afflictions that could possibly have befallen me.

In this thankful frame I continued all the remainder of my time; and the
conversation which employed the hours between Friday and me was such as made
the three years which we lived there together perfectly and completely happy, if
any such thing as complete happiness can -be found in a sublunary state. This
savage was now a good Christian, a much better than I; though I have reason
to hope, and bless God for it, that we were equally penitent, and comforted,
restored penitents. We had here the Word of God to read, and no farther off
from His Spirit to instruct than if we had been in England. I always applied
myself, in reading the Scriptures, to let him know, as well as I could, the
meaning of what I read; and he again, by his serious inquiries and questionings,
made me, as I said before, a much better scholar in the Scripture knowledge than
I should ever have been by my own mere private reading. Another thing I cannot
refrain from observing here also, from experience in this retired part of my life—
viz., how infinite and inexpressible a blessing it is that the knowledge of God,
and of the doctrine of salvation by Christ Jesus, is so plainly laid down in the
Word of God, so easy to be received and understood, that, as the bare reading
the Scripture made me capable of understanding enough of my duty to carry me
directiy on to the great work of sincere repentance for my sins, and of laying
hold of a Saviour for life and salvation, to a stated reformation in practice, and obe-
dience to all God’s commands, and this without any teacher or instructor, I mean
human; so the same plain instruction sufficiently served to the enlightening this savage
creature, and bringing him to be such a Christian as-I have known few equal to him
in my life.

As to the disputes, wrangling, strife, and contention which have happened in
the world about religion, whether niceties in doctrines or schemes of church
FRIDAY?S NATION. 159

government, they were all perfectly useless to us, and, for aught I can yet see, they
have been to the rest of the world. We had the sure guide to heaven, viz., the
Word of God; and we had, blessed be God, comfortable views of the Spirit of
God teaching and instructing us by His Word, leading us into all truth, and
making us both willing and obedient to the instruction of His Word. And I
cannot see the least use that the greatest knowledge of the disputed points of
religion, which have made such confusions in the world, would have been to us,
if we could have obtained it; but I must go on with the historical part of things,
and take every part in its order.

‘After Friday and I became more intimately acquainted, and that he could
understand almost all I said to him, and speak fluently, though in broken English,
to me, I acquainted him with my own story, or at least so much of it as related
to my coming into this place; how I had lived there, and how long: I let him
into the mystery, for such it was to him, of gunpowder and bullet, and taught him
how to shoot. I gave him a knife, with which he was wonderfully delighted ;
and I made him a belt, with a frog hanging to it, such as in England we wear
hangers in; and in the frog, instead of a hanger, I gave him a hatchet, which
was not only as good a weapon in some cases, but much more useful upon many
occasions.

I described to him the countries of Europe, particularly England, which I came
from; how we lived, how we worshiped God, how we behaved to one another,
and how we traded in ships to all parts of the world. I gave him an account
of the wreck which I had been on board of, and showed him, as near as I could,
the place where she lay: but she was all beaten in pieces long before, and quite
gone. I showed him the ruins. of our boat, which we lost when we escaped, and
which I could not stir with my whole strength then, but was now fallen almost
all to pieces. Upon seeing this boat, Friday stood musing a great while, and said
nothing. I asked him what it was he studied upon. At last, says, he, “Me
see such boat like come. to place at my nation.” I did not understand him
a good while; but at last, when I had examined further into it, I understood
by him that a boat, such as that had been, came on shore upon the country
where he lived; that is, as he explained it, was driven thither by stress of
weather. I presently imagined that some European ship must have been cast away
upon their coast, and the boat might get loose and drive ashore; but was so
dull that I never once thought of men making their escape from a wreck thither,
much less whence they might come: so I only inquired after the description of
the boat.

Friday described the boat to me well enough; but brought me better to under-
stand him when he added with some warmth, “We save the white mans from
drown.” Then I presently asked if there were any white mans, as he called them,
in the boat. “Yes,” he said; “the boat full of white mans.” I asked him how
many. He told upon his fingers seventeen. I asked him then what became of
them. He told me, “ They live, they dwell at my nation.”

This put new thoughts into my head; for I presently imagined that these might
160 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

be the men belonging to the ship that was cast away in the sight of my island,
as I now called it; and who, after the ship was struck on the rock and they saw
her inevitably lost, had saved themselves in their boat, and were landed upon that
wild shore among the savages. Upon this I inquired of him more critically what
had become of them. He assured me they lived still there; that they had been
there about four years; that the savages left them alone, and gave them victuals
to live. I asked him how it came to pass that they did not kill them and eat
them. He said, ‘No, they make brother with them;” that is, as I understood
him, a truce; and then he added, “They no eat mans but when make the war-
fight; ” that is to say, they never eat any men but such as come to fight with them,
and are taken in battle.

It was after this some considerable time, that being upon the top of the hill, at
the east side of the island, from whence, as I have said, I had, in a clear day,
discovered the main or continent of America, Friday, the weather being very
serene, looks very earnestly towards the mainland, and, in a kind of surprise, falls
a-jumping and dancing, and calls out to me, for’ I was at some distance from him.
I asked him what was the matter. ‘Oh, joy!” says he; “oh, glad! there see my
country, there my nation!” I observed an extraordinary sense of pleasure appeared
in his face, and his eyes sparkled, and his countenance discovered a strange eagerness,
as if he had a mind to be in his own country again. This observation of mine
put a great many thoughts into me, which made me, at first, not so easy about
my new man Friday as I was before; and I made no doubt but that, if Friday
could get back to his own nation again, he would not only forget all his religion,
but all his obligation to me, and would be forward enough to give his countrymen
an account of me, and come back, perhaps, with a hundred or two of them, and
make a feast upon. me, at which he might be as merry as he used to be with those
of his enemies when they were taken in war. But I wronged the poor, honest
creature very much, for which I was very sorry afterwards. However, as my jealousy
increased, and held me some weeks, I was a little more circumspect, and not so
familiar and kind to him as before; in which I was certainly in the wrong too; the
honest, grateful creature having no thought about it but what consisted with the best
principles both as a religious Christian and asa grateful friend; as appeared after-
wards to my full satisfaction.

While my jealousy of him lasted, you may be sure I was every day pumping him,
to see if he would discover any of the new thoughts which I suspected were in him;
but I found everything he said was so honest and so innocent, that I could find noth-
ing to nourish my suspicion; and, in spite of all my uneasiness, he made me at last
entirely his own again; nor did he in the least perceive that I was uneasy, and
therefore I could not suspect him of deceit.

One day, walking up the same hill, but the weather being hazy at sea, so that
we could not see the continent, I called to him, and said, “ Friday, do not you wish
yourself in your own country, your own nation?” “Yes,” he said, “I be much
O glad to be at my own nation.” ‘‘ What would you do there?” said I: “would
you turn wild again, eat men’s flesh again, and be a savage, as you were before?”
PLANS FOR LEAVING THE ISLAND. 161

He looked full of concern, and shaking his head, said, ‘‘ No, no; Friday tell them
to live good; tell them to pray God; tell them to eat corn-bread, cattle-flesh, milk ;
no eat man again.” ‘‘ Why, then,” said I to him, “they will kill you.” He looked
grave at that, and then said, “No, no; they no kill me, they willing love learn.”
He meant by this, they would be willing to learn. He added, they learned much
of the “bearded mans” that came in the boat. Then I asked him if he would go
back to them. He smiled at that, and told me he could not swim so far. I
told him I would make a canoe for him. He told
me he would go, if I would go with him. “I go!”
says I; “why, they will eat me if I come there.”
“No, no,” says he, “me make them no eat you;
me make them much love you.”




He meant, he





would tell them how [I
had killed his enemies,
and saved his life, and
so he would make them
love me. Then he told me, as
well as he could, how kind they
were to seventeen white men, or
bearded men, as he called them,
who came on shore in distress.
From this time, I confess, I
had a mind to venture over, and
see if I could possibly jom with those bearded men, who, I made no doubt, were
Spaniards or Portuguese; not doubting but, if I could, we might find some method
to escape from thence, being upon the continent, and a good company together,
better than I could from an island forty miles off the shore, alone, and without
help. So, after some days, I took Friday to work again, by way of discourse, and
told him I would give him a boat to go back to his own nation; and I, accordingly,
carried him to my frigate, which lay on the other side of the island, and having
cleared it of water (for I always kept it sunk in the water), I brought it out,
showed it him, and we both went into it. I found he was a most dexterous
fellow at managing it, and would make it go almost as swift and fast again as I
could. So when he was in, I said to him, “Well, now, Friday, shall we go to



snes y

‘“UPON SEEING THIS BOAT, FRIDAY STOOD MUSING
A GREAT WHILE” (. 159).
162 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

your nation?” He looked very dull at my saying so; which it seems was because
he thought the boat too small to go so far. I then told him I had a bigger; so
the next day I went to the place where the first boat lay which I had made, but
which I could not get into the water. He said that was big enough; but then,
as I had taken no care of it, and it had lain two or three and twenty years there,
the sun had split and dried it, that it was rotten. Friday told me that such a
boat would do very well, and would carry “much enough vittle, drink, bread ;”—
that was his way of talking. ,

Upon the whole, I was by this time so fixed upon my design of going over
with him to the continent, that I told him we would go and make one as big as
that, and he should go home in it. He answered not one word, but looked very
grave and sad. I asked him what was the matter with him. He asked me
again, “Why you angry mad with Friday?—what me done?” I asked him ‘what
he meant. I told him I was not angry with him at all. “No angry!” says he,
repeating the words several times; “why send Friday home away to my nation?”
“Why,” says I, “Friday, did not you say you wished you were there?” “Yes,
yes,” says he, “wish we both there; no wish Friday there, no master there.” In
a word,.he would not think of going there without me. “I go there, Friday?”
says I; “what shall I do there?” He turned very quick upon me at this.
“You do great deal much good,” says he; “you teach wild mans be good, sober,
.tame mans; you tell them know God, pray God, and live new life.” “Alas,
Friday!” says I, “thou knowest not what thou sayest; Iam but an ignorant man
myself.” “Yes, yes,” says he, “you teachee me good, you teachee them good.”
“No, no, Friday,” says I, “you shall go without me; leave me here to live by
myself, as I did before.” He looked confused again at that word; and running
to one of the hatchets which he used to wear, he takes it up hastily, and gives it
to me. “What must I do with this?” says I to him. “You take kill Friday,”
says he. “What must I kill you for?” said I again. He returns very quick—
“What you send Friday away for? Take kill Friday, no send Friday away.”
This he spoke so earnestly that I saw tears stand in his eyes. In a word, I so
plainly discovered the utmost affection in him to me, and a firm resolution in him,
that I told him then, and often after, that I would never send him away from me,
if he was willing to stay with me.

Upon the whole, as I found by all his discourse a settled affection to me, and
that nothing could part him from me, so I found all the foundation of his desire
to go to his own country was laid in his ardent affection to the people, and his
hopes of my doing them good: a thing which, as I had no notion of myself, so
I had not the least thought, or intention, or desire of undertaking it. But still
I found a strong inclination to my attempting an escape, founded on the supposi-
tion gathered from the former discourse, that there were seventeen bearded men
there; and therefore, without any more delay, I went to work with Friday to find
out a great tree proper to fell, and make a largg, periagua, or canoe, to undertake
the voyage. There were trees enough in the island to have built a little fleet,
not of periaguas or canoes, but even of good large vessels; but the main thing I
A NeW CAanokzé MADE. 163

looked at was, to get one so near the water that we might launch it when it was
made, to avoid the mistake I committed at first. At last, Friday pitched upon a
tree; for I found he knew much better than I what kind of wood was fittest for
it; nor can I tell, to this day, what wood to call the tree we cut down, except
that it was very like the tree we call fustic, or between that and the Nicaragua
wood, for it was much of the same color and smell. Friday was for burning
the hollow or cavity of this tree out, to make it into a boat, but I showed him
how rather to cut it with tools; which, after I had showed him how to use, he
did very handily; and in about:a month’s hard labor, we finished it and made it
very handsome; especially when, with our axes, which I showed him how to
handle, we cut and hewed the outside into the true shape of a boat. After this,
however, it cost us near a fortnight’s time to get her along, as it were, inch by
inch, upon great rollers into the water; but when she was in, she would have
carried twenty men with great ease.

When she was in the water, though she was so big, it amazed me to see with
what dexterity and how swift my man Friday could manage her, turn her, and
paddle her along. So I asked him if he would, and if we might venture over in
her. ‘‘ Yes,” he said; “we venture over in her very well, though great blow wind.”
However, I had a farther design that he knew nothing of, and that was to make
a mast and a sail, and to fit her with an anchor and cable. As to a mast, that
was easy enough to get; so I pitched upon a straight young cedar-tree, which I
found near the place, and which there was great plenty of in the island, and I set
Friday to work to cut it down, and gave him directions how to shape and order
it. But as to the sail, that was my particular care. I knew I had old sails, or
rather pieces of old sails, enough; but as I had had them now six-and-twenty
years by me, and had not been very careful to preserve them, not imagining that
I should ever have this kind of use for them, I did not doubt but they were all
rotten; and, indeed, most of them were so. However, I found two pieces
which appeared pretty good, and with these I went to work; and with a
great deal of pains, and awkward, tedious stitching, you may be sure, for want of
needles, I at length made a three-cornered, ugly thing, like what we call in England
a shoulder-of-mutton sail, to go with a boom at bottom, and a little short sprit
at the top, such as usually our ships’ long-boats sail with, and such as I best knew
how to- manage, because it was such a one as I used in the boat in which I
made my escape from Barbary, as related in the first part of my story.

I was near two months performing this last work—viz., rigging and fitting my
mast and sails; for I finished them very complete, making a small stay, and a
sail or foresail to it, to assist if we should turn to windward; and, which was more
than all, I fixed a rudder to the stern of her to steer with. And though I
was but a bungling shipwright, yet as I knew the usefulness, and even the neces-
sity of such a thing, I applied myself with so much pains to do it, that at last I
brought it to pass; though, considering the many dull contrivances I had for it that
failed, I think it cost me almost as much labor as making the boat.

After all this was done, I had my man Friday to teach as to what belonged
164 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

to the navigation of my beat; for, though he knew very well hey to paddle the
canoe, he knew nothing of what belonged to a sail
and a rudder; and was the most amazed when he
h t saw me work the boat to and again in the sea by
the rudder, and how the sail jibbed, and filled this
way or that way, as the course we sailed changed; I
say, when he saw his, he stood like one astonished
and amazed. However, with a little use, I made all.
these things familiar to him, and he became an expert
sailor, except that as to the ccmpass I
could make him understand very little of
that. On the other hand, as there was
very little cloudy weather, and seldom or
never any fogs in those parts, there was
the less occasion for the compass, seeing
the stars were always to be seen by night,
and the shore by day, except in the rainy














seasons, and then
nobody cared to
stir abroad either
by land or sea.

I was now entered cn
the seven-and-twentieth year
of my captivity in this place ;
though the three last years
that I had this creature with me ought
rather to be left out of the account,
my habitation being quite of another
kind than in all the rest of my. time.
I kept the anniversary of my landing
here with the same thankfulness to
God for His mercies as at first; and
if I had such cause of acknowledgment at first, I had much more so now, having
such additional testimonies of the care of Providence over me, and the great hopes

‘INCH BY INCH UPON GREAT ROLLERS” (. 163).
SAVAGES AGAIN. 165

I had of being effectually and speedily delivered; for I had an invincible im-
pression upon my thoughts that my deliverance was at hand, and that I should not
be another year in this place. However, I went on with my husbandry; digging,
planting, and fencing, as usual. I gathered and cured my grapes, and did every
necessary thing as before.

The rainy season was in the meantime upon me, when I kept more within
doors than at other times. I had stowed our new vessel as secure as we could,
bringing her up into the creek, where, as I said in the beginning, I landed my
rafts from the ship; and hauling her up to the shore at high-water mark, I made
my man Friday dig a little dock, just big enough to hold her, and just deep
enough to give her water enough to float in; and then, when the tide was out, we
made a strong dam across the end of it, to keep the water out; and so she lay
dry as to the tide from the sea; and to keep the rain off, we laid a great many
boughs of trees, so thick that she was as well thatched as a house; and thus we
waited for the months of November and December, in which I designed to make
my adventure.

When the settled season began to come in, as the thought of my design
returned with the fair weather, I was preparing daily for the voyage. And the
first thing I did was to lay by a certain quantity of provisions, being the stores
for our voyage; and intended, in a week or a fortnight’s time, to open the dock,
and launch out our boat. J was busy one morning upon something of this kind,
when I called to Friday, and bid him go to the sea-shore, and see if he could
find a turtle or tortoise, a thing which we generally got once a week, for the sake
of the eggs, as well as the flesh. Friday had not been gone long when he came
running back, and flew over my outer wall, or fence, like one that felt not the
ground, or the steps he set his feet on; and before I had time to speak to him,

he cries out to me, “O master! O master! O sorrow! O bad!” ‘ What’s the
matter, Friday?” said I. “Oh! yonder, there,” says he; ‘one, two, three
canoes; one, two, three!” By this way of speaking, I concluded there were six;

but on inquiry I found there were but three. “Well, Friday,” says I, “do not
be frightened.” So I heartened him up as well as I could. However, I saw the
poor fellow was most terribly scared, for nothing ran in his head but that they
were come back to look for him, and would cut him in pieces, and eat him; and
the poor fellow trembled so that I scarcely knew what to do with him. I com-
forted him as well as I could, and told him I was in as much danger as he, and
that they would eat me as well as him. “But,” said I, “ Friday, we must resolve to
fight them. Can you fight, Friday?” “Me shoot,” says he; “but there come
many great number.” ‘No matter for that,” said I, again; “our guns will fright
them that we do not kill.” So I asked him whether, if I resolved to defend him,
he would defend me, and stand by me, and do just as I bid him. He said,
“Me die, when you bid die, master.” So I went and fetched a good dram of
rum and gave him; for I had been so good a husband of my rum, that I had a
great deal left. When he had drunk it, I made him take the two fowling-pieces,
which we always carried, and load them with large swan-shot as big as small
166 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

pistol-bullets. Then I took four muskets, and loaded them with two slugs and
five small bullets each; and my two pistols I loaded with a brace of bullets each.
{ hung my great sword, as usual, naked by my side, and gave Friday his hatchet.
When I had thus prepared myself; I took my perspective glass, and went up to
the side of the hill, to see what I could discover; and I found quickly by my
glass that there were one-and-twenty savages, three prisoners, and three canoes;
and that their whole business seemed to be the triumphant banquet upon these
three human bodies: a barbarous feast indeed, but nothing more than, as I had
observed, was usual with them. I observed also that they landed not where they
had done when Friday made his escape, but nearer to my creek, where the shore
was low, and where a thick wood came close almost down to the sea. This, with
the abhorrence of the inhuman errand these wretches came about, filled me with
such indignation that I came down again to Friday, and told him I was resolved
to go down to them, and kill them-all; and asked him if he would stand by me.
He had now got over his fright, and his spirits being a little raised with the dram
I had given him, he was very. cheerful, and told me, as before, he would die
when I bid die. ,

In this bit of fury I took first and divided the arms which I had charged, as
before, between us; I gave Friday one pistol to stick in his girdle, and three
guns upon his shoulder, and I took one pistol and the other three myself; and
in this posture we marched out. I took a small bottle of rum in my pocket,
and gave Friday a large bag with more powder and bullets; and as to orders, I
charged him to keep close behind me, and not to stir, or shoot, or do anything till I
bid him, and in the meantime not to speak a word. In this posture I fetched a com-
pass to my nght hand of near a mile, as well to get over the creek as to get into
the wood, so that I might come within shot of them before I should be discovered,
which I had seen by my glass it was easy to do.

While I was making this march, my former thoughts returning, I began to
abate my resolution—I do not mean that I entertained any fear of their number,
for, as they were naked, unarmed wretches, it is certain I was superior to them—
nay, though I had been alone. But it occurred to my thoughts, what call, what
occasion, much less what necessity, I was in to go and dip my hands in blood,
to attack people who had neither done nor intended me any wrong?—who, as to
me, were innocent, and whose barbarous customs were their own disaster, being in
them a token, indeed, of God’s having left them, with the other nations of that
part of the world, to such stupidity, and to such inhuman courses, but did not
call me to take upon me to be a judge of their actions, much less an executioner
of His justice—that whenever He thought fit He would take the cause. into His
own hands, and by national vengeance punish them for national crimes; but that,
in the meantime, it was none of my business—that it was true Friday might justify
it, because he was a declared enemy, and in a state of war with those very
particular people, and it was lawful for him to attack them; but I could not say
the same with regard to myself. These things were so warmly pressed upon my
thoughts all the way as I went, that I resolved I would only go and place myself
ATTACK ON THE SAVAGES. 167

near them that J might observe their barbarous feast, and that I would act then
as God should direct; and that unless something offered that was more a call to
me than yet I knew of, I would not meddle with them.

With this resolution I entered the wood, and with all possible wariness and
silence, Friday following close at my heels, I marched till I came to the skirt of
the wood on the side which was next to them, only that one corner of the wood
lay between me and them. Here I called softly to Friday, and showing him a
great tree which was just at the corner of the wood, I bade him go to the tree,
and bring me word if he could see there plainly what they were doing. He did
so, and came immediately back to me, and told me they might be plainly viewed
there—that they were all about their fire eating the flesh of one of their prisoners,
and that another lay bound upon the sand a little from them, whom he said they
would kill next; and this fired the very soul within me. He told me it was not
one of their nation, but one of the bearded men whom he had told me of, that
came to their country in the boat. I was filled with horror at the very naming of
the white bearded man; and going to the tree, I saw plainly by my glass a white
man, who lay upon the beach of the sea with his hands and his feet tied with flags,
or things like rushes, and that he was a European, and had clothes on.

There was another tree, and a little thicket beyond it, about fifty yards nearer
to the place where I was, which, by going a little way about, I saw I might come
at undiscovered, and that then I should be within half a shot of them; so I with-
held my passion, though I was indeed enraged to the highest degree; and going
back about twenty paces, I got behind some bushes, which held all the way till I
came to the other tree, and then came to a little rising ground, which gave mea
full view of them at the distance of about eighty yards.

I had now not a moment to lose, for nineteen of the dreadful wretches sat
on the ground, all close huddled together, and had just sent the other two to
butcher the poor Christian, and bring him, perhaps limb by limb, to their fire, and
they were stooping down to untie the bands at his feet. I turned to Friday;
“Now, Friday,” said I, “do as I bid thee.” Friday said he would. “Then,
Friday,” said I, “do exactly as you see me do; fail in nothing.” So I set down
one of the muskets and the fowling-piece upon the ground, and Friday did the
like by his, and with the other musket I took my aim at the savages, bidding him
do the like; then asking him if he was ready, he said, “Yes.” ‘‘'I’hen fire at them,”
said I; and at the same moment I fired also.

Friday took his aim so much better than I, that on the side he shot he killed
two of them, and wounded three more; and on my side I killed one, and wounded
two. They were, you may be sure, in a dreadful consternation; and all of them
that were not hurt jumped upon their feet, but did not immediately know which
way to run, or which way to look, for they knew not from whence their destruc-
tion came. Friday kept his eyes close upon me, that, as I had bid him, he might
observe what I did; so, as soon as the first shot was made, I threw down the
piece, and took up the fowling-piece, and Friday did the like; he saw me cock
and present; he did the same again. “Are you ready, Friday?” said I. “ Yes,”
168 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

says he. ‘Let fly, then,” said I, “in the name of God!” and with that I fired
again among the amazed wretches, and so did Friday; and as our pieces were now
loaded with what I call swan-shot, or small pistol-bullets, we found only two drop;
but so many were wounded, that they ran about yelling and screaming like mad
creatures, all bloody, and most of them miserably wounded; whereof three more
fell quickly after, though not quite
dead.

“ Now, Friday,” said I, laying down
the discharged pieces, and taking up
the musket that was yet loaded, “ follow
me,” which he did with a great deal
of courage; upon which I rushed out
of the wood and showed myself, and
Friday close at my foot. As soon as
I perceived they saw me, I shouted
as loud as I could, and bade Friday
do so too, and running as fast as I
could, which by the way was not very
fast, being loaded with arms as I was,
I made directly towards the poor vic-
tim, who was, as I said, lying upon
the beach or shore, between the place
where they sat and the sea. The two
butchers who were just going to work
with him had left him at the surprise
of our first fire, and fled in a terrible
fright to the sea-side, and had jumped
into a canoe, and three more of the
rest made the same way. I turned to
Friday, and bade him step forwards
and fire at them; he understood
me immediately, and running about
forty yards nearer them, he shot at
them; and I thought he killed them all, for I saw them all fall of a heap into
the boat, though I saw two of them up again quickly; however, he killed two
of them, and wounded the third so that he lay down in the bottom of the boat
as if he had been dead.

While my man Friday fired at them, I pulled out my knife and cut the flags
that bound the poor victim; and loosing his hands and feet, I lifted him up, and
asked him, inthe Portuguese tongue, what he was. He answered, in Latin,
Christianus; but was so weak and faint that he could scarce stand or speak. I
took my bottle out of my pocket, and gave it him, making signs that he should
drink, which he did; and I gave him a piece of bread, which he ate. Then I
asked him what countryman he was, and he said Espagnole;. and being a little



‘CIN THIS POSTURE WE MARCHED OUT” (jp. 166).























“JT MADE DIRECTLY TOWARDS THE POOR VICTIM.”

(See p. 168.)
A SPANIARD RESCUED. 169

\
recovered, let me know, by all the signs he could possibly make, how much he

was in my debt for his deliverance. ‘‘Seignior,” said I, with as much Spanish as
I could make up, “we will talk afterwards, but we must fight now; if you have
any strength left, take this pistol and sword, and lay about you.” He took them
very thankfully; and no sooner had he the arms in his hands, but, as if they had
put new vigor into him, he flew upon his murderers like a fury, and had cut two



‘*] FIRED AGAIN AMONG THE AMAZED WRETCHES” (/. 168).

of them in pieces in an instant; for the truth is, as the whole was a surprise to
them, so the poor creatures were so much frightened with the noise of our pieces
that they fell down for mere amazement and fear, and had no more power to
attempt their own escape, than their flesh had to resist our shot: and that was the
case of those five that Friday shot at in the boat; for as three of them fell with the
hurt they received, so the other two fell with the fright.

I kept my piece in my hand still without firing, being willing to keep my
charge ready, because I had given the Spaniard my pistol and sword; so I called
to Friday, and bade him run up to the tree from whence we first: fired, and fetch
the arms which lay there that had been discharged, which he did with great swift-
ness; and then giving him my musket, I sat down myself to load all the rest
again, and bade them come to me when they wanted. While I was loading these
170 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

pieces, there happened a fierce engagement between the Spaniard and one of the
savages, who made at him with one of their great wooden swords, the same weapon
that was to have killed him before, if I had not prevented it. The Spaniard, who
was as bold and brave as could be imagined, though weak, had fought this
Indian a good while, and had cut two great wounds on his head; but the
savage being a stout, lusty fellow, closing in with him, had thrown him down, being
faint, and was wringing my sword out of his hand; when the Spaniard, though
undermost, wisely quitted the sword, drew the pistol from his girdle, shot the
savage through the body, and killed him upon the spot, before I, who was running
to help him, could come near him.

Friday, being now left to his liberty, pursued the flying wretches, with no
weapon in his hand but his hatchet; and with that he dispatched those three
who, as I said before, were wounded at first, and- fallen, and all the rest
he could come up with; and the Spaniard coming to me for a gun, I gave
him one of the fowling-pieces, with which he pursued two of the savages,
and wounded them both; but, as he was not able to run, they both got
from him into the wood, where Friday pursued them, and killed one of
them, but the other was too nimble for him; and though he was wounded, yet
had plunged himself into the sea, and swam with all his might off to those two
who were left in the canoe; which three in the canoe, with one wounded, that we
knew not whether he died or no, were all that escaped our hands, of one-and-
twenty. The account of the whole-is as follows:—Three killed at our first shot
from the tree; two killed at the next shot; two killed by Friday in the boat; two
killed by Friday, of those at first wounded; one killed by Friday in the wood;
three killed by the Spaniard; four killed, being found dropped here and there, ‘of
the wounds, or killed by Friday in his chase of them; four escaped in the boat,
whereof one wounded, if not dead—twenty-one in all.

Those that were in the canoe worked hard to get out of gunshot, and though
Friday made two or three shots at them, I did not find that he hit any of them.
Friday would fain have had me take one of their canoes, and pursue them; and,
indeed, I was very anxious about their escape, lest, carrying the news home to
their people, they should come back perhaps with two or three hundred of the
canoes, and devour us by mere multitude; so I consented to pursue them by
sea, and running to one of their canoes, I jumped in, and bade Friday follow me;
but when I was in the canoe, I was surprised to find another poor creature lie
there, bound hand and foot, as the Spaniard was, for the slaughter, and almost
dead with fear, not knowing what was the matter; for he had not been able to
look up over the side of the boat, he was tied so hard neck and heels, and had
been tied so long, that he had really little life in him.

I immediately cut the twisted flags or rushes, which they had bound him with,
and would have helped him up; but he could not stand or speak, but groaned
most piteously, believing, it seems, still, that he was only unbound in order to be
killed. When Friday came to him, I bade him speak to him, and tell him of his
deliverance; and pulling out my bottle, made him give the poor wretch a dram;
FRIDAY AND HIS FATHER. 171

which, with the news of his being delivered, revived him, and he sat up in the
voat. But when Friday came to hear him speak, and look in his face, it would
have moved any one to tears to have seen how Friday kissed him, embraced him,
hugged him, cried, laughed, hallooed, jumped about, danced, sung; then cried
again, wrung his hands, beat his own face and head; and then sung and jumped
about again like a distracted creature. It was a good while before I could make
him speak to me, or tell me what was the matter; but when he came a little to him-
self, he told me that it was his father.

It is not easy for me to express how it moved me to see what ecstasy and

filial affection had worked in this poor savage at the sight of his father, and of his
being delivered from death; nor, indeed, can I describe half the extravagances of
his affection after this; for he went into the boat, and out of the boat, a great
many times: when he went in to him, he would sit down by him, open his breast,
and hold his father’s head close to his bosom half an hour together, to nourish it;
then he took his arms. and ankles, which were numbed and stiff with the binding,
and chafed and rubbed them with his hands; and I, perceiving what the case
was, gave him some rum out of my bottle to rub them with, which did them a
great deal of good.
' This action put an end to our pursuit of the canoe with the other savages,
who were now gotten almost out of sight; and it was happy for us that we did
not, for it blew so hard within two hours after, and before they could be got a
quarter of their way, and continued blowing so hard all night, and that from the
north-west, which was against them, that I could not suppose their boat could
live, or that they ever reached their own coast.

But to return to Friday: he was so busy about his father, that I could not
find in my heart to take him off for some time; but after I thought he could
leave him a little, I called him to me, and he came jumping and laughing, and
pleased to the highest extreme; then I asked him if he had given his father any
bread. He shook his head, and said, “ None; ugly dog eat all up self.” I then gave
him a cake of bread, out of a little pouch I carried on purpose; I also gave him
a dram for himself; but he would not taste it, but carried it to his father. I had
in my pocket also two or three bunches of raisins, so I gave him a handful of
them for his father. He had no sooner given his father these raisins, but I saw
him come out of the boat, and run away as if he had been bewitched, for he was
the swiftest fellow on his feet that ever I saw; I say, he ran at such a rate that he
was out of sight, as it were, in an instant; and though I called, and hallooed out,
too, after him, it was all one—away he went; and in a quarter of an hour I saw
him come back again, though not so fast as he went; and, as he came. nearer, I
found his pace slacker, because he had something in his hand. When he came
up to me I found he had been quite home for an earthen jug, or pot, to bring his
father some fresh water, and that he had got two more cakes or loaves of
bread: the bread he gave me, but the water he carried to his father; however, as I
was very thirsty too, I took a little sup of it. This water revived his father more than ,
all the rum or spirits I had given him, for he was just fainting with thirst.
172 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

When his father had drunk, I called to him to know if there was any water
left; he said ““Yes;” and I bade him give it to the poor Spaniard, who was in as
much want of it as his father; and I sent one of the cakes, that Friday brought,
to the Spaniard too, who was indeed very weak, and was reposing himself upon
a green place under the shade of a tree; and whose limbs were also very stiff,
and very much swelled with the rude bandage he had been tied with. When I
saw that upon Friday’s coming to him with the water, he sat up and drank, and
took the bread and began to eat, I went to him and gave him a handful of
‘raisins: he looked up in my face with all the tokens of gratitude and thankfulness
that could appear in any countenance; but was so weak, notwithstanding he had
so exerted himself in the fight, that he could not stand up on his feet: he tried to do
it two or three times, but was really not able, his ankles were so swelled and so painful
to him; so I bade him sit still, and caused Friday to rub his ankles, and bathe them
with rum, as he had done his father’s.

I observed the poor affectionate creature, every two minutes, or perhaps less,
all the while he was here, turned his head about, to see if his father was in the
same place and posture as he left him sitting; and at last he found he was not
to be seen; at which he started up, and, without speaking a word, flew with that
swiftness to him, that one could scarce perceive his feet to touch the ground as
he went; but when he came, he only found he laid himself down to ease his
limbs, so Friday came back to me presently; and I then spoke to the Spaniard
to let Friday help him up, if he could, and lead him to the boat, and then he
should carry him to our dwelling, where I would take care of him. But Friday, a
lusty young fellow, took the Spaniard quite up on his back, and carried him away. to
the boat, and set him down softly upon the side or gunwale of the canoe, with his
feet in the inside of it; and then lifted him .quite in, and set him close to his
father; and presently stepping out again, launched the boat off, and paddled it along
the shore faster than I could walk, though the wind blew pretty hard too; so he
brought them both safe into our creek, and leaving them in the boat, runs away
to fetch the other canoe. As he passed me I spoke to him, and asked him
whither he went. He told me, “Go fetch more boat;” so away he went like the
wind, for sure never man or horse ran like him; and he had the other canoe in the
creek almost as soon as I got to it by land; so he wafted me over, and then went
to help our new guests out of the boat, which he did; but they were neither of them
able to walk; so that poor Friday knew not what to do.

To remedy this I went to work in my thought, and calling to Friday to bid
them sit down on the bank while he came to me, I soon made a kind of hand-
barrow to lay them on, and Friday and I carried them up both together upon it
between us.

But when we got them to the outside of our wall, or fortification, we were at a
worse loss than before, for it was impossible to get them over, and I was resolved
not to break it down; so I set to work again, and Friday and I, in about two
hours’ time, made a very handsome tent, covered with old sails, and above that
with boughs of trees, being in the space without our outward fence, and between
AFTER THE FIGHT. 173

that and the grove of young wood which I had planted; and here we made them
two beds of such things as I had, viz., of good rice-straw, with blankets laid upon
it, to le on, and another to cover them, on each bed.

- My island was now peopled, and I thought myself very
rich in subjects; and it was a merry reflection, which I
frequently made, how like a king I looked. First of all,
the whole country was my own mere property, so
that I had an undoubted mght of dominion.
Secondly, my people were perfectly subjected: I
was absolutely lord and lawgiver: they all owed
their lives to me, and were — -
ready to lay down their lives,
if there had been occasion
for it, for me. It was re-
markable, too,
I had but
three subjects,
and they were
of three differ-
ent religions:
my man Fri-
day was a-
Protestant, his
father was a
Pagan and a
cannibal, and
the Spaniard
was a Papist.
However, I al-
lowed liberty
of conscience
throughout
my dominions
—but this is
by the way.










As soon as “WRINGING MY SWORD OUT OF HIS HAND” (/. 170).

I had secured

my two weak

rescued prisoners, and given them shelter, and a place to rest them upon, I
began to think of making some provision for them; and the first thing I did, I
ordered Friday to take a yearling goat, betwixt a kid and a goat, out of my
particular flock, to be killed; when I cut off the hinder quarter, and chopping it
into small pieces, I set Friday to work to boiling and stewing, and made them
a very good dish, I assure you, of flesh and broth, having put some barley and
174 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

rice also into the broth; and as I cocked it without doors, for I made no fire
within my inner wall, so I carried it all into the new tent, and having set a
table there for them, I sat down, and ate my own dinner also with them, and,
as well as I could, cheered them and encouraged them. Friday was my inter-
preter, especially to his father, and, indeed, to the Spaniard too; for the Spaniard
spoke the language of the savages pretty well.

After we had dined, or rather supped, I ordered Friday to take one of the
canoes and go and fetch our muskets and other fire-arms, which, for want of time,
we had left upon the place of battle; and, the next day, I ordered him to go
and bury the dead bedies of the savages, which lay open to the sun, and would
presently be offensive. I also ordered him to bury the horrid remains of their
barbarous feast, which I could not think of doing myself; nay, I could not bear
to see them, if I went that way; all which he punctually performed, and defaced
the very appearance of the savages being there; so that when I went again, I could
scarce know where it was, otherwise than by the corner of the wood pointing to
the place.

I then began to enter into a little conversation with my two new subjects;
and, first, I set Friday to inquire of his father what he thought of the escape of
the savages in that canoe, and whether we might expect a return of them, with a
power too great for us to resist. His first opinion was, that the savages in the
boat never could live out the storm which blew that night they went off, but must,
of necessity, be drowned, or driven south to those other shores, where they were
as sure to be devoured as they were to be drowned if they were cast away; but,
as to what they would do if they cathe safe on shore, he said he knew not; but
it was his opinion that they were so dreadfully frightened with the manner of their
being attacked, the noise, and the fire, that he believed they would tell the people
they were all killed by thunder and lightning, not by the hand of man; and that
the two which appeared, viz., Friday and I, were two heavenly spirits, or furies,
come down to destroy them, and not men with weapons. This he said he knew,
because he heard them all cry out so, in their language, one to another; for it
was impossible for them to conceive that a man could dart fire, and speak thunder,
and kill at a distance, without lifting up the hand, as was done now. And this
old savage was in the right; for, as I understood since, by other hands, the savages
never attempted to go over to the island afterwards; they were so terrified with
the accounts given by those four men (for it seems they did escape the sea), that
they believed whoever went to that enchanted island would be destroyed with fire
from the gods. ‘This, however, I knew not; and therefore was under continual
apprehensions for a good while, and kept always upon my guard, I and all my
army: for, as we were now four of us, I would have ventured upon a hundred of
them, fairly in the open field, at any time.

In a little time, however, no more canoes appearing, the fear of their coming
wore off; and I began to take my former thoughts of a voyage to the main into
consideration; being likewise assured, by Friday’s father, that I might depend upon
good usage from their nation, on his account, if I would go. But my thoughts
A DISCOURSE WITH THE SPANIARD. 175

were a. little suspended when I had a serious discourse with the Spaniard, and
when I understood that there were sixteen more of his countrymen and Portuguese,
who, having been cast away and made their escape to that side, lived there at
peace, indeed, with the savages, but were very sore put to it for necessaries, and,
indeed, for life. I asked him all the particulars of their voyage, and found they
were a Spanish ship, bound from the Rio de la Plata to the Havanna, being
directed to leave their loading there, which was chiefly hides and silver, and to
bring back what European goods they could meet with there; that they had five
Portuguese seamen on board, whom they took out of another wreck; that five of
their own men were drowned, when first the .ship was lost, and that these escaped
through infinite danger and hazards, and arrived, almost starved, on the cannibal
coast, where they expected to have been devoured every moment. He told me
they had some arms with them, but they were perfectly useless, for that they had
neither powder nor ball, the washing of the sea having spoiled all their powder,
but a little, which they used at their first landing, to provide themselves some food.

I asked him what he thought would become of them there, and if they had
formed no design of making any escape. He said they had many consultations
about it; but having neither vessel, nor tools to build one, nor provisions of any
kind, their councils always ended in tears and despair. I asked him how he
thought they would receive a proposal from me, which might tend towards an
escape; and whether, if they were all here, it might not be done. I told him with
freedom, I feared mostly their treachery and ill-usage of me, if I put my life in
their hands; for that gratitude was no inherent virtue in the nature of man, nor
did men always square their dealings by the obligations they had received, so much
as they did by the advantages they expected. I told him it would be very hard
that I should be the instrument of their deliverance, and that they should after-
wards make me their prisoner in New Spain, where an Englishman was certain to
be made a sacrifice, what necessity or what accident soever brought him thither;
and that I had rather be delivered up to the savages, and be devoured alive, than
fall into the merciless claws of the priests, and be carried into the Inquisition. I
added that, otherwise, I was persuaded, if they were all here, we might, with so
many hands, build a bark, large enough to carry us all away, either to the
Brazils southward, or to the islands or Spanish coast northward; but that if, in
requital, they should, when I had put weapons into their hands, carry me by force
among their own people, I might be ill-used for my kindness to them, and make
my case worse than it was before.

He answered with a great deal of candor and ingenuousness, that their con-
dition was so miserable, and that they were so sensible of it, that he believed they
would abhor the thought of using any man unkindly that should contribute to their
deliverance; and that, if I pleased, he would go to them, with the old man, and
discourse with them about it and return again, and bring me their answer; that he
would make conditions with them upon their solemn oath, that they should be ab-
solutely under my direction, as their commander and captain; and they should
swear upon the Holy Sacrament and Gospel to be true to me, and go io such
176 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Christian country as I should agree to, and no other; and to be directed wholly and
absolutely by my orders, till they were landed safely in such country as I intended;
and that he would bring a contract from them, under their hands, for that purpose.
Then he told me he would first swear to me himself, that he would never stir
from me as long as he lived, till I gave him orders; and that he would take my
side to the last drop of his blood, if there should happen the least breach of
faith among his countrymen. He told me they were all of them very civil, honest
men, and they were under the greatest distress imaginable, having neither weapons
nor clothes, nor any food, but at the mercy and discretion of the savages; out of
all hopes of ever returning to their own country; and that he was sure, if I would
undertake their relief, they would live and die by me.

Upon these assurances, I resolved to venture to relieve them, if possible, and
to send the old savage and this Spaniard over to them to treat. But when we
had got all things in readiness to go, the Spaniard himself started an objection
which had so much prudence in it on one hand, and so much sincerity on the
other hand, that I could not but be very well satisfied in it; and, by his advice,
put off the deliverance of his comrades for at least half a year. The case was
thus: he had been with us now about a month, during which time I had let him
see In what manner I had provided, with the assistance of Providence, for my
support; and he saw evidently what stock of corn and rice I had laid up; which,
though it was more than sufficient for myself, yet it was not sufficient, without
good husbandry, for my family, now it was increased to four; but much less would
it be sufficient if his countrymen, who were, as he said, fourteen, still alive, should
come over; and least of all would it be sufficient to victual our vessel, if we
should build one, for a voyage to any of the Christian colonies of America; so
he told me he thought it would be more advisable to let him and the other two
dig and cultivate some more land, as much as I could spare seed to sow, and
that we should wait another harvest, that we might have a supply of corn for his
countrymen, when they should come; for want might be a temptation to them to
disagree, or not to think themselves delivered, otherwise than out of one difficulty
into another. “You know,” says he, “the children of Israel, though they rejoiced
at first for their being delivered out of Egypt, yet rebelled even against God Him-
self, that delivered them, when they came to want bread in the wilderness.”

‘His caution was so seasonable, and his advice so good, that I could not but
be very well pleased with his proposal, as well as I was satisfied with his fidelity;
so we fell to digging, all four of us, as well as the wooden tools we were furnished
with permitted; and in about a month’s time, by the end of which it was seed-
time, we had got as much land cured and trimmed up.as we sowed two-and-
twenty bushels of barley on, and sixteen jars of rice, which was, in short, all the
seed we had to spare; indeed, we left ourselves barely sufficient for our own food for
the six months that we had to expect our crop; that is to say, reckoning from the
time we set our seed aside for sowing; for it is not to be supposed it is six months
in the ground in that country.

Having now society enough, and our number being sufficient to put us out: of
We PREPARE FOR ESCAPE. 177

fear of the savages, if they had come, unless their number had been very great,
we went freely all over the island, whenever we found occasion; and as we had
our escape or deliverance upon our thoughts, it was impossible, at least for me,
to have the means of it out of mine. For this purpose, I marked out several
trees which I thought fit for our work, and I set Friday and his father to cut them
down; and then I caused the Spaniard, to whom I imparted my thoughts on that
affair, to oversee and direct their work. I showed them with what indefatigable



‘MY EYE PLAINLY DISCOVERED A SHIP LYING AT AN ANCHOR” ( p. 179).

pains I had hewed a large tree into single planks, and I caused them to do the
like, till they had made about a dozen large planks of good oak, near two feet
broad, thirty-five feet long, and from two inches to four inches thick: what pro-
digious labor it took up, any one may imagine.

At the same time, I contrived to increase my little stock of tame goats as much
as I could; and for this purpose I made Friday and the Spaniard go out one day,
and myself with Friday the next day (for we took our turns), and by this means
we got about twenty young kids to breed up with the rest; for whenever we shot
the dam, we saved the kids, and added them to our flock. But above all, the
season for curing the grapes coming on, I caused such a prodigious quantity to
178 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

be hung up in the sun, that I believe, had we been at» Alicant, where the raisins
of the sun are cured, we could have filled sixty or eighty barrels; and these, with
our bread, formed a great part of our food—very good living too, I assure you,
for they are exceeding nourishing.

It was now harvest, and our crop in good order; it was not the most plentiful
increase I had seen in the island, but, however, it was enough to answer our end;
for, from twenty-two bushels of barley, we brought in and thrashed out above two
hundred and twenty bushels; and the like in proportion of the rice; which was
store enough for our food to the next harvest, though all the sixteen Spaniards
had been on shore with me; or, if we had been ready for a voyage, it would very
plentifully have victualed our ship to have carried us to any part of the world,
that is to say, of America. When we had thus housed and secured our magazine
of corn, we fell to work to make more wicker-work, viz., great baskets, m which
we kept it; and the Spaniard was very handy and dexterous at this part, and
often blamed me that I did not make some things for defense of this kind of
work; but I saw no need of it.

And now, having a full supply of food for all the guests expected, I gave
the Spaniard leave to go over the main, to see what he could do with those he had
left behind him there. I gave him a strict charge not to bring any man with him
who would not first swear, in the presence of himself and the old savage, that he
would no way injure, fight with, or attack the person he should find in the island
who was so kind as to send for them in order to their deliverance; but that they
would stand by him and defend him against all such attempts, and wherever they
went, would be entirely under and subjected to his command; and that this should
be put in writing, and signed with their hands. How they were to have done
this, when I knew they had neither pen nor ink—that, indeed, was a question
which we never asked. Under these instructions, the Spaniard and the old savage,
the father of Friday, went away in one of the canoes which they might be said
to have come in, or rather were brought in, when they came as prisoners to be
devoured by the savages. I gave each of them a musket, with a firelock on it,
and about eight charges of powder and ball, charging them to be very good
husbands of both, and not to use either of them but upon urgent occasion.

This was a cheerful work, being the first measures used by me, in view of my
deliverance, for now twenty-seven years and some days. I gave them provisions
of bread, and of dried grapes, sufficient for themselves for many days, and suffi-
cient for all the Spaniards for about eight days’ time; and wishing them a good
voyage, I saw them go, agreeing with them about a signal they should hang out
at their return, by which I should know them again, when they came back, at a
distance, before they came on shore. They went away, with a fair gale, on the
day the moon was at full, by my account in the month of October; but as for an
exact reckoning of days, after I had once lost it, I could never recover it again;
nor had I kept even the number of years so punctually as to be sure I was right;
though, as it proved, when I afterwards examined my account, I found I had kept
a true reckoning of years.
A SHIP IN SIGHT. : 179

It was no less than eight days I had waited for them, when a strange and
unforeseen accident intervened, of which the like has not, perhaps, been heard of in
history. I was fast asleep in my hutch one morning, when my man Friday came
running in to me, and called aloud, ‘Master, master, they are come, they are
come!” I jumped up, and, regardless of danger, I went out as soon as I could
get my clothes on, through my little grove, which, by the Way, was by this time
grown to be a very thick wood; I say, regardless of danger, I went without my
arms, which was not my cusiom to do: but I was surprised when, turning my
eyes to the sea, I presently saw a boat at about a league and a half distance,
standing in for the shore, with a shoulder-of-mutton sail, as they call it, and the
wind blowing pretty fair to bring them in: also I observed, presently, that they
did not come from that side which the shore lay on, but from the southernmost
end of the island. Upon this I called Friday in, and bade him lie close, for these
were not the people we looked for, and that we might not know yet whether they
were friends or enemies. In the next place, I went in to fetch my perspective
glass, to see what I could make of them; and, having taken the ladder out, I
climbed up to the top of the hill, as I used to do when I was apprehensive of
anything, and to take my view plainer, without being discovered. I had scarce
set my foot upon the hill, when my eye plainly discovered a ship lying at an
anchor, at about two leagues and a half distance from me, S.S.E., but not above
a league and a half from the shore. By my observation, it appeared plainly to
be an English ship, and the boat appeared to be an English long-boat.

I cannot express the confusion I was in, though the joy of seeing a ship, and
one that I had reason to believe was manned by my own countrymen, and con-
sequently friends, was such as I cannot describe; but yet I had some secret
doubts hung about me—I cannot tell from whence they came—bidding me keep
upon my guard. In the first place, it occurred to me to consider what business
an English ship could have in that part of the world, since it was not the way
to or from any part of the world where the English had any traffic; and I knew
there had been no storms to drive them in there, in distress; and that if they
were really English, it was most probable that they were here upon no good
design; and that I had better continue as I was than fall into the hands of
thieves and murderers.

Let no man despise the secret hints and notices of danger which sometimes
are given him when he may think there is no possibility of its being real. That
such hints and notices are given us, I believe few that have made any observations
of things can deny; that they are certain discoveries of an invisible world, and a
converse of spirits, we cannot doubt; and if the tendency of them seems to be
to warn us of danger, why should we not suppose they are from some friendly
agent (whether supreme, or inferior and subordinate, is not the question), and that
they are given for our good?

The present question abundantly confirms me in the justice of this reasoning;
for had I not been made cautious by this secret admonition, come it from whence
it will, I had been undone inevitably, and in a far worse condition than before,
180 ROBINSON. CRUSOE.

as you will see presently. I had not kept myself long in this posture till I saw
the boat draw near the ‘shore, as if they looked for a creek to thrust in at, for
the convenience of landing; however, as they did not come quite far enough, they
did not see the little inlet where I formerly landed my rafts, but ran their boat
on shore upon the beach, at about half a mile from me; which was very happy
for me; for otherwise they would have landed just at my door, as I may say, and
would soon have beaten me out of my castle, and perhaps have plundered me of
all I had. When they were on shore, I was fully satisfied they were Englishmen,
at least most of them; one or two I thought were Dutch, but it did not prove so;
there were in all eleven men, whereof three of them I found were unarmed, and, as
I thought, bound; and when the first four or five of them were jumped on shore,
they took those three out of the boat, as prisoners: one of the three I could
perceive using the most passionate gestures of entreaty, affliction, and despair
even to a kind of extravagance; the other two, I could perceive, lifted up their
hand sometimes, and appeared concerned, indeed, but not to such a degree as
the first. I was perfectly confounded at the sight, and knew not what the meaning
of it should be. Friday called out to me in English, as well as he could, “O
master! you see English mans eat prisoner as well as savage mans.” “ Why,
Friday,” says I, “do you think they are going to eat them, then?” ‘ Yes,” says
Friday, “they will eat them’ “No, no,” says I, ‘Friday; I am afraid they will
murder them, indeed; but you may be sure they will not eat them.”

All this while I had no thought of what the matter really was, but stood
trembling with the horror of the sight, expecting every moment when the three
prisoners. should be killed; nay, once I saw one of the villains lift up his arm
with a great cutlass, as the seamen call it, or sword, to strike one of the poor
men; and I expected to see him fall every moment; at which all the blood in
my body seemed to run chill in my veins. I wished heartily now for my Spaniard,
and the savage that was gone with him, or that I had any way to have come
undiscovered within shot of them, that I might have secured the three men, for I
saw no fire-arms they had among them; but it fell out to my mind another way.
After I had observed the outrageous usage of the three men by the insolent sea-
men, I observed the fellows run scattering about the land, as if they wanted to
see the country. I observed also that the three other men had liberty to go where
they pleased; but they sat down all three upon the ground, very pensive, and
looked like men in despair. This put me in mind of the first time when I came
on shore, and began to look about me; how I gave myself over for lost; how
wildly I looked round me; what dreadful apprehensions I had; and how I lodged
in the tree all night, for fear of being devoured by wild beasts. As I knew
nothing, that night, of the supply I was to receive by the providential driving of
the ship nearer the land by the storms and tide, by which I have since been so
long nourished and supported; so these three poor desolate men knew nothing how
certain of deliverance and supply they were, how near it was to them, and how
effectually and really they were in a condition of safety, at the same time they
thought themselves lost, and their case desperate. So little do we see before us in
ARRIVALS FROM TIlE SHIP. 181

the world, and so much reason have we to depend cheerfully upon the great Maker
of the world, that He does not leave His creatures so absolutely destitute, but
that, in the worst circumstances, they have always something to be thankful for,
and sometimes are nearer their deliverance than they imagine; nay, are even
brought to their deliverance by the means by which they seem to be. brought to
their destruction. :
It was just at the top of high water when these people came on shore; and
while they rambled about to see what kind of a place they were in, they had



cee

WHAT ARE YE, GENTLEMEN’” (f, 182).

carelessly stayed till the tide was spent, and the water was ebbed considerably away,
leaving their boat aground. They had left two men in the boat, who, as I found
afterwards, having drunk a little too much brandy, fell asleep; however, one of
them waking a little sooner than the other, and finding the boat too fast aground
for him to stir it, hallooed out for the rest, who were straggling about; upon
which they all soon came to the boat; but it was past all their strength to
launch her, the boat being very heavy, and the shore on that side being a soft
oozy sand, almost like a quicksand. In this condition, like true seamen, who are,
perhaps, the least of all mankind given to forethought, they gave it over, and
182 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

away they strolled about the country again; and I heard one of them say aloud
to another, calling them off from the boat, ‘Why, let her alone, Jack, can’t you?
she’ll float next tide; ” by which I was fully confirmed in the main inquiry of
what countrymen they were. All this while I-kept myself close, not once daring
to stir out of my castle, any farther than to my place of observation, near the top
of the hill; and very glad I was to think how well it was fortified. I knew it
was no less than ten hours before the boat could float again, and by that time
it would be dark, and I might be at more liberty to see their motions, and to
hear their discourse, if they had any. In the meantime, I fitted myself up for
a battle, as before, though with more caution, knowing that I had to do with
another kind of enemy than.I had at first. I ordered Friday also, whom I had
made an excellent’ marksman with his gun, to load himself with arms. I took
myself two fowlitfg-pieces, and I gave him three muskets. My figure, indeed, was
very fierce; I had my formidable goat-skin coat on, with the great cap I have
mentioned, a naked sword, two pistols in my belt, and a gun upon each shoulder.

It was my design, as I said above, not to have made any attempt till it was
dark; but about two o’clock, being the heat-of the day, I found, in short, they
were all gone straggling into the woods, and, as I thought, were all laid down to
sleep. The three poor distressed men, too anxious for their condition to get any
sleep, had, however, sat down under the shelter of a great tree, at about a quarter
of a mile from me, and, as I thought, out of sight of any of the rest. Upon this
I resolved to discover myself to them, and learn something of their condition;
immediately I marched as above, my man Friday at a good distance behind me,
as formidable for his arms as I, but not making quite so staring a specter-like
figure as I did. I came as near them undiscovered as I could, and then, before
any of them saw me, I called aloud to them in Spanish, “ What are ye, gentle-
men?” They started up at the noise, but were ten times more confounded when
they saw me, and the uncouth figure that I made. They made no answer at all,
but I thought I perceived them just going to fly from me, when I spoke to them
in English: “Gentlemen,” said I, ‘do not be surprised at me: perhaps you may
have a friend near, when you did not expect it.” “He must be sent directly from
heaven, then,” said one of them very gravely to me, and pulling off his hat at
the same time; “for our condition is past the help of man.” ‘All help is from
heaven, sir,” said I: “but can you put a stranger in the way to help you? for you
seem to be in some great distress. I saw ‘you when you landed; ‘and when you
seemed to make epplicaton to the brutes that came with you, I saw one of them
lift up his sword to kill you.”

The poor man, with tears running down his face, and trembling, looked like
one astonished, and returned, “Am I talking to God, or man? Is it a real man, or
an angel?” “Be in no fear about that, sir,” said I; “if God had sent an ange]
to relieve you, he would have come better clothed, and armed after another
manner than you see me in; pray lay aside your fears; I am a man, an English-
man, and disposed to assist you; you see I have one servant only; we have arms
and ammunition; tell us freely, can we serve you? What is your case?” “Our
THE CAPTAIN’S PROPOSAL. zZ 183

case, sir,” said he, “is too long to tell you, while our murderers are so near us;
but, in short, sir, I was commander of that ship; my men have mutinied against
me; they have been hardly prevailed on not to murder me, and, at last, have set
me on shore in this desolate place, with these two men with me—one my mate,
the other a passenger—where we expected to perish, believing the place to be un-
inhabited, and know not yet what to think of it.” ‘‘ Where are these brutes, your
enemies?” said I; ‘(do you know where they are gone?” “There they lie, sir,”
said he, pointing to a thicket of trees; “my heart trembles for fear they have seen
us, and heard you speak; if they have, they will certainly murder us all.” “ Have
they any fire-arms?” said I. He answered, “They had only two pieces, one of
which they left in the boat.” “Well then,” said I, “leave the rest to me; I see
they are all asleep; it is an easy thing to kill them all; but shall we rather take
them prisoners?” He told me there were two desperate villains among them that
it was scarce safe to show any mercy to; but if they were secured, he believed
all the rest would return to their duty. I asked him which they were. He told
me he could not at that distance distinguish them, but he would obey my orders
in anything I would direct. “Well,” says I, “let us retreat out of their view or
hearing, lest they awake, and we will resolve further.” So they willingly went
back with me, till the woods coveréd us from them. -

“Look you, sir,” said I; “if I venture upon your deliverance, are you willing
to make two conditions with me?” He anticipated my proposals by telling me
that both he and the ship, if recovered, should be wholly directed and commanded
by me in everything; and if the ship was not recovered, he would live and die
with me in what part of the world soever I would send-him; and the two other
men said the same. “ Well,” said I, “my conditions are but two: first,—that
while you stay on this island with me, you will not pretend ‘to any authority here;
and if I put arms in your hands, you will, upon all occasions, give them up to
me, and do no prejudice to me or mine upon. this island, and in the meantime
be governed by my orders; secondly,—that if the ship is or may be recovered,
you will carry me and my man to England passage free.”

He gave me all the assurance that the invention and faith of a man could
devise that he would comply with these most reasonable demands, and_ besides
would owe his life to me, and acknowledge it upon all occasions as long as he
lived. ‘Well, then,” said I, “here are three muskets for you, with powder and
ball; tell me next what you think is proper to be done.” He showed all’ the
testimony of his gratitude that he was able, but offered to be wholly guided by
me. I told him I thought it was hard venturing anything; but the best method
I could think of was to fire on them at once as they lay, and if any were not
killed at the first volley, and offered to submit, we might save them, and so put
it: wholly upon God’s providence to direct the shot. He said, very modestly, that
he was loth to kill them, if he could help it; but that those two were incorrigible
villains, and had been the authors of all the mutiny in the ship, and if they
escaped, we should be undone still, for they would go on board and bring the whole
ship’s company, and destroy us all. ‘Well, then,” says I, “necessity legitimates
184 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

my advice, for it is the only way to save our lives.” However, seeing him still
cautious of shedding blood, I told him they should go themselves, and manage
as they found convenient.

In the middle of this discourse we heard some of them awake, and soon after
we saw two of them on their feet. I asked him if either of them were the men
who he had said were the heads of the mutiny. He said, “No.” “Well, then,”
said I, “you may let them escape; and Providence seems to have awakened
them on purpose to save themselves. Now,” says I, “if the rest escape you, it is
your fault.” Animated with this, he took the musket I had given him in his



hand, and a pistol in
his belt, and his two
comrades with him, with
each man a piece in
his hand; the two men who were
with him going first made some
noise, at which one of the seamen,
who was awake, turned about, and

seeing them coming, cried out to the rest; but it was too late then, for the moment
he cried out they fired—I mean the two men, the captain wisely reserving his own
piece. They had so well aimed their shot at the men they knew, that one of them
was killed on the spot, and the other very much wounded; but not being dead, he
started up on his feet, and called eagerly for help to the other; but the captain,
stepping to him, told him it was too late to cry for help, he should call upon
God to forgive his villainy, and with that word knocked him down with the stock
of his musket, so that he never spoke more: there were three more in the com-
pany, and one .of them was slightly wounded. By this time I was come; and
when they saw their danger, and that it was in vain to resist, they begged for
mercy. The captain told them he would spare their lives if they would give him an
assurance of their abhorrence of the treachery they had been guilty of, and would
swear to be faithful to him in recovering the ship, and afterwards in carrying her

““ THEY BEGGED FOR MERCY.”
IL SHOW THE CAPTAIN MY. CASTLE. 185

back to Jamaica, from whence they came. They gave him all the protestations of
their sincerity that could be desired; and he was willing to believe them, and
spare their lives, which I was not against, only I obliged him to keep them bound
hand and foot while they were upon the island.

While this was doing, I sent Friday with the captain’s mate to the boat, with
orders to secure her, and bring away the oars and sails, which they did; and by
and by three straggling men, that were (happily for them) parted from the rest,
came back upon hearing the guns fired; and seeing the captain, who before was
their prisoner, now their conqueror, they submitted to be bound also; and so our
victory was complete.

It now remained that the captain and I should inquire into one another's
circumstances. I began first, and told him my whole history, which he heard
with an attention even to amazement—and particularly at the wonderful manner
of my being furnished with ‘provisions and ammunition; and, indeed, as my story
is a whole collection of wonders, it affected him deeply. -But when he reflected
from thence upon himself, and how I seemed to have been preserved there on pur-
pose to save his life, the tears ran down his face, and he could not speak a word
more. After this communication was at an end, I carried him and his two men
into my apartments, leading them in just where I came out, viz., at the top of
the house, where I refreshed him with such provision as I had, and showed them
all the contrivances I had made during my long, long inhabiting that place.

All I showed them, all I said to them, was perfectly amazing; but above all,
the captain admired my fortification, and how perfectly I had concealed my retreat
with a grove of trees, which, having been now planted near twenty years, and the
trees growing much faster than in England, was become a little wood, so thick
that it was impassable in any part of it but at that one side where I had reserved
my little winding passage into it. I told him this was my castle and my residence,
but that I had a seat in the country, as most princes have, whither I could retreat
upon occasion, and I would show him that too another time; but at present our
business was to consider how to recover the ship. He agreed with me as to that,
but told me he was perfectly at a loss what measures to take, for that there were
still six-and-twenty hands on board, who, having entered into a cursed conspiracy,
by which they had all forfeited their lives to the law, would be hardened in it
now by desperation, and would carry it on, knowing that if they were subdued
they should be brought to the gallows as soon as they came to England, or to
any of the English colonies, and that, therefore, there would be no attacking them
with so small a number as we were.

I mused for some time upon what he had said, and found it was a very
rational conclusion, and that therefore something was to be resolved on very
speedily, as well to draw the men on board into some snare for their surprise, as
to prevent their landing upon us, and destroying us. Upon this, it presently
occurred to me that in a little while the ship’s crew, wondering what was become
of their comrades and of the boat, would certainly come on shore in their other
boat to look for them, and that then, perhaps, they might come armed, and be
186 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

too strong for us: this he allowed to be rational. Upon this, I told him the first
thing we had to do was to stave the boat, which lay upon the beach, so that they
might not carry her off, and taking everything out of her, leave her so far useless
as not to be fit to swim. Accordingly we went on board, took the arms which.
were left on board out of her, and whatever else we found there—which was a ’
bottle of brandy, and another of rum, a few biscuit-cakes, a horn of powder, and
a great lump of sugar in a piece of canvas (the sugar was five or six pounds); all
which was very welcome to me, especially the brandy and sugar, of which I had
had none left for many years.

When we had carried all these things on-shore (the oars, mast, sail, and rudder
of the boat were carried away before), we knocked a great hole in her bottom,
that if they had come strong enough to master us, yet they could not carry off
the boat. Indeed, it was not much in my thoughts that we could be able to
recover the ship; but my view was, that if they went away without the boat, I
did not much question to make her again fit to carry us to the Leeward Islands,
and call upon our friends the Spaniards in my way, for I had them still in my
thoughts. .

While we were.thus preparing our designs, and had first, by main strength,
heaved the boat upon the beach, so high that the tide would not float her off at
high-water mark, and besides, had broken a hole in her bottom too big to be
quickly stopped, and were sat down musing what we should do, we heard the ship
fire a gun, and make a waft with her ensign asa signal for the boat to come on
board: but no boat stirred; and they fired several times, making other signals for
the boat. At last, when all their signals and firing proved fruitless, and they
found the boat did not stir, we saw them, by the help of my glasses, hoist another
boat out, and row towards the shore; and we found, as they approached, that
there were no less than ten men in her, and that they had fire-arms with them.

As the'ship lay almost two leagues from the shore, we had a full view of them
as. they came, and a plain sight even of their faces; because the tide having set
them a little to the east of the other boat, they rowed up under shore, to come
to the same place where the other had landed, and where the boat lay; by this
means, I say, we had a full view of them, and the captain knew the persons and
characters of all the men in the boat, of whom, he said, there were three very
honest fellows, who, he was sure, were led into this conspiracy by the rest, being
overpowered and frightened; but that as for the boatswain, who it seems was the
chief officer among them, and all the rest, they were as outrageous as any of the
ship’s crew, and were no doubt made desperate in their new enterprise; and
terribly apprehensive he was that they would be too powerful for us. I smiled at
him, and told him that men in our circumstances were past the operation of fear;
that seeing almost every condition that could be was better than that which we
were supposed to be in, we ought to expect that the consequence, whether death
or life, would be sure to be a deliverance. I asked him what he thought of the
circumstances of my life, and whether a deliverance were not worth venturing for.
“And where, sir,” said I, “is your belief in my being preserved here on purpose
ANOTHER BOAT LANDS. 187

to save your life, which elevated you a little while ago? For my part,” said I,
“there seems to be but one thing amiss in all the prospect of it.” ‘ What is
that?” says he. “Why,” said I, “it is, that as you say there are three or four
honest fellows among them, which should be spared, had they been all of the
wicked part of the crew, I should have thought God’s providence had singled them
out to deliver them into your hands; for depend upon it, every man that comes
ashore is our own, and shall die or live as they behave to us.” As I spoke this
with a raised voice and cheerful countenance, I found it greatly encouraged him;
so we set vigorously to our business.

We had, upon the first appearance of the boats coming from the ship, con-
sidered of separating our prisoners; and had, indeed, secured them effectually.
Two of them, of whom the captain was less assured than ordinary, I sent with
Friday and one of the three delivered men to my cave, where they were remote
enough, and out of danger of being heard or discovered, or of finding their way
out of the woods, if they could have delivered themselves; here they left them
bound, but gave them provisions; and promised them, if they continued there
quietly, to give them their liberty in a day or two; but that if they attempted
their escape, they should be put to death without mercy. They promised faithfully
to bear their confinement with patience, and were very thankful that they had such
good usage as to have provisions and a light left them: for Friday gave them
candles (such as we made ourselves) for their comfort; and they did not know
but that he stood sentinel over them at the entrance.

The other prisoners had better usage; two of them were kept pinioned, indeed,
because the captain was not free to trust them; but the other two were taken
into my service, upon the captain’s recommendation, and upon. their solemnly
engaging to live and die with us; so with them and the three honest men we
were seven men, well armed; and I made no doubt we should be able to deal
well enough with the ten that were coming, considering that the captain had said
there were three or four honest men among them also. As soon as they got to
the place where their other boat lay, they ran their boat into the beach and came
all on shore, hauling the boat up after them, which I was glad to see, for I was
afraid they would rather have left the boat at an anchor some distance from the
shore, with some hands in her, to guard her, and so we should not be able to
seize the boat. Being on shore, the first thing they did, they ran all to their
other boat; and it was easy to see they were under a great surprise to find her
stripped, as above, of all that was in her, and a great hole in her bottom. After
they had mused awhile upon this, they set up two or three great shouts, hallooing
with all their might, to try if they could make their companions hear; but all was
to no purpose: then they came all close in a ring, and fired a volley of their
small-arms, which, indeed, we heard, and the echoes made the woods ring; but
it was all one; those in the cave, we were sure, could not hear; and those in
our keeping, though they heard it well enough, yet durst give no answer to them.
They were so astonished at the surprise of this, that, as they told us afterwards,
they resolved to go all on board again to their ship, and let them know that the
188 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

men were all murdered, and the long-boat staved; accordingly, they immediately
launched their boat again, and got all of them on board.

‘The captain was terribly amazed, and even confounded, at this, believing they
would go on board the ship again, and set sail, giving their comrades over for
lost, and so he should still lose the ship, which he was in hopes we should have
recovered; but he was quickly as much frightened the other way.

They had not been long put off with the boat, when we perceived them all
coming on shore again; but with this new measure in their conduct, which it seems
they consulted together upon, viz., to leave three men in the boat, and the rest to
go on shore, and go up into the country to look for their fellows. This was a
great disappointment to us, for now we were at a loss what to do, as our seizing
those seven men on shore would be no advantage to us if we let the boat escape;
because they would rew away to the ship, and then the rest of them would be
sure to weigh and set sail, and so our recovering the ship would be lost. How-
ever, we had no remedy but to wait and see what the issue of things might pre-
sent. ‘he seven men came on shore, and the three who remained in the boat
put her off to a good distance from the shore, and came to an anchor to wait for
them; so that it was impossible for us to come at them in the boat. Those that
came on shore kept close together, marching towards the top of ‘the little hill
under which my habitation’lay; and we could see them plainly, though they could
not perceive us. We should have been very glad if they would have come nearer
to us, so that we might have fired at them, or that they would have gone farther
off, that we might come abroad. But when they were come to the brow of the hill
where they could see a great way into the valleys and woods, which lay towards
the north-east part, and where the island lay lowest, they shouted and hallooed
till they were weary: and not caring, it seems, to venture far from the shore,
nor far from one another, they sat down together, under a tree, to consider of it.
Had they thought fit to have gone to sleep there, as the other party of them had
done, they had done the job for us; but they were too full of apprehensions of
danger to venture to go to sleep, though they could not tell what the danger was
they had to fear.

The captain made a very just proposal to me upon this consultation of theirs,
viz., that perhaps they would all fire a volley again, to endeavor to make their
fellows hear, and that we should all sally upon them just at the juncture when
their pieces were all discharged, and they would certainly yield, and we should
have them without bloodshed. I liked this proposal, provided it was done while
we were near enough to come up to them before they could load their pieces
again. But this event did not happen; and we lay still a long time, very irreso-
lute what course to take. At length, I told them there would be nothing done,
in my opinion, till night; and then if they did not return to the boat, perhaps we
might find a way to get between them and the shore, and so might use some
stratagem with them in the boat to get them on shore. We waited a great while,
though very impatient for their removing; and were very uneasy, when, after long
consultation, we saw them all start up, and march down towards the sea: it seems
THE MUTINEERS SURPRISED. 189

they had such dreadful apprehensions of the danger of the place, that they resolved
to go on board the ship again, give their companions over for lost, and so go on
with their intended voyage with the ship.

As soon as I perceived them go towards the shore, I imagined it to be as it
really was, that they had given over their search, and were for going back again;
and the captain, as soon as I told him my thoughts, was ready to sink at the
apprehensions of it: but I presently thought of a stratagem to fetch them back
again, and which answered my end to a tittle. I ordered Friday and the captain’s
mate to go over the little creek westward, towards the place where the savages
came on shore when Friday was rescued, and so soon as they came to a little
rising ground, at about half a mile distance, I bade them halloo out, as loud as
they could, and wait till they found the seamen heard them; that as soon
as ever they heard the seamen answer them, they should return it again; and,
then keeping out of sight, take a round, always answering when the others
hallooed, to draw them as far into the island, and among the woods, as possible,
and then wheel about again to me by such ways as I directed.

They were just going into the boat when Friday and the mate hallooed; and
they presently heard them, and, answering, ran along the shore westward, towards
the voice they heard, when they were presently stopped by the creek, where, the
water being up, they could not get over, and called for the boat to come up and
set them over; as, indeed, I expected. When they had set themselves over, I
observed that the boat being gone up a good way into the creek, and, as it were,
in a harbor within the land, they took one of the three men out of her, to go
along with them, and left only two in the boat, having fastened her to the stump
of a little tree on the shore. This was what I wished for; and immediately leaving
Friday and the captain’s mate to their business, I took the rest with me, and
crossing the creek out of their sight, we surprised the two men before they were
aware; one of them lying on the shore, and the other being in the boat. ‘The
fellow on shore was between sleeping and waking, and going to start up; the
captain, who was foremost, ran in upon him, and knocked him down; and
then called out to him in the boat to yield, or he was a dead man. There
needed very few arguments to persuade a single man to yield, when he saw
five men upon him, and his comrade knocked down: besides, this was, it seems,
one of the three who were not so hearty in the mutiny as the rest of the
crew; and, therefore, was easily persuaded not only to yield, but afterwards to
join very sincerely with us. In the meantime, Friday and the captain’s mate
so well managed their business with the rest that they drew them, by hallooing
and answering, from one hill to another, and from one wood to another, till they
not only heartily tired them, but left them where they could not reach back to
the boat before it was dark; and, indeed, they were heartily tired themselves also,
by the time they came back to us.

We had nothing now to do but to watch for them in the dark, and to fall upon
them, so as to make sure work with them. It was several hours after Friday came
back to me before they came back to their boat; and we could hear the fore-
190 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

most of them, long before they came quite up, calling to those behind to come
along; and. could also hear them answer, and complain how lame and tired they
were, and not able to come any faster: which was very welcome news to us. At
length they came up to the boat; but it was impossible to express their confusion
when they found their boat fast aground in the creek, the tide ebbed out, and
their two men gone. We could hear them call to one another in the most lament-
able manner, telling one another they were got into an enchanted island; that
either there were inhabitants in it, and they should all be murdered, or else there
were devils and spirits in it, and they should be all carried away and devoured.
They hallooed again, and called their two comrades by their names a great many
times; but no answer. After some time, we could see them, by the little light
there was, running. about, wringing their hands like men in despair, and sometimes
they would go and sit down in the boat to rest themselves: then come ashore
again, and walk about again, and so the same thing over again. My men would
fain have had me give them leave to fall upon them at once in the dark; but I
was willing to take them at some advantage, so to spare them, and kill as few
of them as I could; and especially I was unwilling to hazard the killing of any
of our men, knowing the others were very well armed. I resolved to wait, to see
if they did not separate; and therefore, to make sure of them, I drew my am-
buscade nearer, and ordered Friday and the captain to creep upon their hands
and feet, as close to the ground as they could, that they might not be discovered,
and get as near them as they could possibly, before they offered to fire.

They had not been long in that posture, when the boatswain, who was the
principal ringleader of the mutiny, and had now shown himself the most dejected
and dispirited of all the rest, came walking towards them, with two more of the
crew; the captain was so eager at having the principal rogue so much in his
power, that he could hardly have patience to let him come so near as to be sure
of him, for they only heard his tongue before; but when they came nearer, the
captain and Friday, starting up on their feet, let fly at them. The boatswain was
killed upon the spot; the next man was shot in the body, and fell just by him,
though he did not die till an hour or two after; and the third ran for it. At the
noise of the fire, I immediately advanced with my whole army, which was now
eight men: viz., myself, generalissimo; Friday, my lieutenant-general; the captain
and his two men, and the three prisoners of war whom we had trusted with arms.
We came upon them, indeed, in the dark, so that they could not see our number;
and I made the man they had left in the boat, and who was now one of us, call
them by name, to try if I could bring them to a parley, and so perhaps reduce
them to terms; which -fell out just as we desired; for, indeed, it was easy to think,
as their condition then was, they would be very willing to capitulate. So he calls
out as loud as he could to one of them, ‘Tom Smith! Tom Smith!” Tom
Smith answered immediately, “Who's that? Robinson?” for it seems he knew the
voice. The other answered, “Ay, ay; for God’s sake, Tom Smith, throw down
your, arms and yield, or you are all dead men this moment.” “Who must we
yield to? Where are they?” says Smith again. “Here they are,” says he;
SURRENDER AT DISCRETION. IgI

“here’s our captain and fifty men with him, have been hunting you these two
hours; the boatswain is killed, Will Frye is wounded, and I am a prisoner; and
if you do not yield, you are all lost.” ‘Will they give us quarter then?” says
Tom Smith, “and we will yield.” “T’ll go and ask, if you promise to yield,” said
Robinson: so he asked the captain; and the captain himself then calls out, ‘ You,
Smith, you know my voice; if you lay down: your arms immediately, and submit,
you shall have your lives, all but Will Atkins.”

Upon this, Will Atkins cried out, “For God’s sake, captain, give me quarter;
what have I done? They have been all as bad as I:” which, by the way, was
not true; for, it seems, this Will Atkins was the first man that laid hold of the
captain, when they first mutinied, and used him barbarously, in tying his hands
and giving him injurious language. However, the captain told him he must lay
down his arms at discretion, and trust to the governor’s mercy: by which he
meant me, for they all called me governor. In a word, they all laid down their
arms, and begged their lives; and I sent the man that had parleyed with them,
and two more, who bound them all; and then my great army of fifty men, which,
with those three, were in all but: eight, came up and seized upon them, and upon
their boat; only that I kept myself and one more out of sight, for reasons of state.

Our next work was to repair the boat, and think of seizing the ship; and as
for the captain, now he had leisure to parley with them, he expostulated with them
upon the villainy of their practices with him, and upon the further wickedness of
their design, and how certainly it must bring them to misery and distress in the
end, and perhaps to the gallows. They all appeared very penitent, and begged
hard for their lives. As for that, he told them they were none of his prisoners,
but the commander’s of the island; that they thought they had set him on shore
in a barren, uninhabited island; but it had pleased God so to direct them, that
it was inhabited, and that the governor was an Englishman; that he might hang
them all there, if he pleased; but as he had given them all quarter, he supposed
he would send them to England, to be dealt with there as justice required, except
Atkins, whom he was commanded by the governor to advise to prepare for death,
for that he would be hanged in the morning. P
' Though this was all a fiction of his own, yet it had its desired effect; Atkins
fell upon his knees, to beg the captain to intercede with the governor for his
life; and all the rest begged of him, for God’s sake, that they might not be sent
to England.

It now occurred to me that the time of our deliverance was come, and that
it would be a most easy thing to bring these fellows in to be hearty in getting
possession of the ship; so I retired in the dark from them, that they might not
see what kind of a governor they had, and called the captain to me; when I
called, as at a good distance, one of the men was ordered to speak again, and
say to the captain, “Captain, the commander calls for you;” and presently the
captain replied, “Tell his Excellency, I am just coming.” This more perfectly
amazed them, and they all believed that the commander was just by, with his
fifty men. Upon the captain coming to me, I told him my project for seizing
192 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the ship, which he liked wonderfully well, and resolved to put it in execution
next morning. But, in order to execute it with more art, and to be secure of
' success, I told him we must
divide the prisoners, and that
he should go and take Atkins,
and two more of the worst of
them, and send them pinioned
to the cave where the others
lay. ‘This was committed to
Friday and the two men who
came on shore with the cap-
tain. ‘They conveyed them
to the cave as to a prison:
and it was, indeed, a dismal
place, especially to men in
their condition. The others
I ordered to my bower, as I
called it, of which I have
given a full description: and
as it was fenced in, and they
pinioned, the place was secure
enough considering they were
upon their behavior.

To these in the morning
I sent the captain, who was
to enter into a parley with
them; ina word, to try them,
and tell me whether he
thought they might be trusted
or not to go on board and
surprise the ship. He talked
to them of the injury done
him, of the condition they
were brought to, and that
though the governor had given
them quarter for their lives
as to the present action, yet
that if they were sent to
England, they would be all
hanged in chains; but that if





















































‘(HE MADE ROBINSON HAIL THEM” (. 193).

they would join in such an attempt as to recover the ship, he would have the
governor’s engagement for their pardon.

Any one may guess how readily such a proposal would be accepted by men in
their position; they fell down on their knees to the captain, and promised, with


“SHOT THE NEW CAPTAIN THROUGH THE HEAD.”

(See p. 194.)
THE ATTACK ON THE SHIP. . 193

the deepest imprecations, that they would be faithful to him to the last drop, and
that they should owe their lives to him, and would go with him all over the
world; that they would own him~-for a father to them as long as they lived.
“Well,” says the captain, “I must go and tell the governor what you say, and see
what I can do to bring him to consent to it.” So he brought me an account of
the temper he found them in, and that he verily believed they would be faithful.
However, that we might be very secure, I told him he should go back again and
choose out five of them, and tell them that they might see that he did not want
men, that he would take out those five to be his assistants, and that the governor
would keep the other two and the three that were sent prisoners to the castle (my
cave), as hostages for the fidelity of those five; and that if they proved unfaithful
in the execution, the five hostages should be hanged in chains alive on the
shore. This looked severe, and convinced them that the governor was in earnest ;
however, they had no way left them but to accept it; and it was now the business
of the prisoners, as much as of the captain, to persuade the other five to do their
duty. ,

Our strength was now thus ordered for the expedition: first, the captain, his
mate, and passenger; second, then the two prisoners of the first gang, to whom,
having their character from the captain, I had given their liberty and trusted them
with arms; third, the other two whom I had kept till now in my bower pinioned,
but, upon the captain’s motion, had now released; fourth, these five released at
last: so that they were twelve in all, besides five we kept prisoners in the cave
for hostages. :

I asked the captain if he was willing to venture with these hands on board the
ship; for as for me and my man Friday, I did not think it was proper for us to stir,
having seven men left behind; and it was employment enough for us to keep them
asunder, and supply them with victuals. As to the five in the cave, I resolved to
keep them fast, but Friday went in twice a day to them, to supply them with
necessaries; and I made the other two carry provisions to a certain distance,
where Friday was to take it.

When I showed myself to the two hostages, it was with the captain, who told
them I was the person the governor had ordered to look after them; and that it
was the governor’s pleasure that they should not stir anywhere but by my direc-
tion; that if they did, they would be fetched into the castle, and be laid in irons:
so that as we never suffered them to see me as governor, I now appeared as
another person, and spoke of the governor, the garrison, the castle, and the like,
upon all occasions.

The captain now had no difficulty before him, but to furnish his two boats,
stop the breach of one, and man them. He made his passenger captain of one,
with four other men; and himself, his mate, and five more, went in the other;
and they contrived their business very well, for they came up to the ship about
midnight. As soon as they came within call of the ship, he made Robinson hail
them, and tell them they had brought off the men and the boat, but that it was
a long time before they had found them, and the like; holding them in a chat
194 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

till they came to the ship’s side; when the captain and the mate entering first
with their arms, immediately knocked down the second mate and carpenter with
the butt-end of their muskets, being very faithfully seconded by their men; they
secured all the rest that were upon the main and quarter-decks, and began to
fasten the hatches, to keep them down that were below; when the other boat and
their men, entering at the fore-chains, secured the forecastle of, the ship, and
the scuttle which went down into the cook-room, making three men they found
there prisoners. When this was done, and all safe upon deck, the captain ordered
the mate, with three men, to break into the round-house, where the- new rebel
captain lay, who, having taken the alarm, had got up, and with two men and a
boy had got fire-arms in their hands; and when the mate, with a crow, split open
the door, the new. captain and his men fired boldly among them, and wounded
the mate with a musket-ball, which broke his arm, and wounded two more of the
men, but killed nobody. The mate, calling for help, ‘rushed, however, into the
round-house, wounded as he was, and, with his pistol, shot the new captain
through the head, the bullet entering at his mouth, coming out again behind one of
his ears, so that he never spoke a word more: upon which the rest yielded, and
the ship was taken effectually, without any more lives lost.

As soon as the ship was thus secured, the captain ordered seven guns to be
fired, which was the signal agreed upon with me to give me notice of his success,
which, you may be sure, I was very glad to hear, having sat watching upon the
shore for it till near two o’clock in the morning. Having thus heard the signal
plainly, I laid me down; and it having been a day of great fatigue to me, I slept
very sound, till I was something surprised with the noise of a gun; and presently
starting up, I heard a man calling me by the name of ‘“ Governor! Governor! ”
and presently I knew the captain’s’ voice; when climbing up to the top of the
hill, there he stood, and, pointing to the ship, he embraced me in his arms.
“My dear friend and deliverer,” says he, “‘there’s your ship; for she is all yours,
and so are we, and all that belongs to her.” I cast my eyes to the ship, and there
she rode, within little more than half a mile of the shore; for they had weighed
her anchor as soon as they were masters of her, and, the weather being fair, had
brought her to an anchor just against the mouth of the little creek; and, the tide
being up, the captain had brought the pinnace in near the place where I first
landed my rafts, so landed just at my door. I was at first ready to sink down
with the surprise; for I saw my deliverance, indeed, visibly put into my hands, all
things easy, and a large ship just ready to carry me away whither I pleased to go.
At first, for some time, I was not able to answer one word; but as he had taken
me in his arms, I held fast by him, or I should have fallen to the ground. He
perceived the surprise, and immediately pulled a bottle out of his pocket, and gave
me a dram of cordial, which he had brought on purpose for me. After I had
drunk it, I sat down upon the ground; and though it brought me to myself, yet
it was a good while before I could speak a word to him. All this while the poor
man was in as great an ecstasy as I, only not under any surprise as I was; and
he said a thousand kind and tender things to me, to compose and bring me to
THE CAPTAIN’S GRATITUDE. 195

myself; but such was the flood of joy in my breast, that it put all my spirits into
confusion: at last it broke into tears; and, in a little while after, I recovered my
speech; then I took my turn, and embraced him as my deliverer, and we rejoiced
together. I told him I looked upon him as a man sent from heaven to deliver
me, and that the whole transaction seemed to be a chain of wonders; that such
things as these were the testimonies we had of a secret hand of Providence govern-
ing the world, and an evidence that the eye of an Infinite Power could search
into the remotest corner of the world, and send help to the miserable whenever
He pleased. I forgot not to lift up my heart in thankfulness to Heaven; and
what heart could forbear to bless Him, Who had not only in a miraculous manner
provided for one in such a wilderness, and in such a desolate condition, but from
Whom every deliverance must always be acknowledged to proceed.

When we had talked awhile, the captain told me he had brought me some
little refreshments, such asthe ship afforded, and such as the wretches that had
been so long his masters had not plundered him of. Upon this, he called aloud
to the boat, and bade his men bring the things ashore that were for the governor;
and, indeed, it was a present as if I had been one that was not to be carried
away along with them, but as if I had been to dwell upon the island still, and
they were to go without me. Jirst, he had brought me a case of bottles full of
excellent cordial waters, six large bottles of Madeira wine (the bottles held two
quarts each), two pounds of excellent good tobacco, twelve good pieces of the
ship’s beef, and six pieces of pork, with a bag of peas, and about a hundred-
weight of biscuit; he also brought me a box of sugar, a box of flour, a bag full
of lemons, and two bottles of lime-juice, and abundance of other things. But be-
sides these, and what was a thousand times more useful, he brought me six new
clean shirts, six very good neckcloths, two pair of gloves, one pair of shoes, a hat,
and one pair of stockings, and a very good suit of clothes of his own, which had
been worn but very little: in a word, he clothed me from head to foot. It was
a very kind and agreeable present, as any one may imagine, to one in my circum-
stances; but never was anything in the world of that kind so unpleasant, awkward,
and uneasy as it was to me to wear such clothes at their first putting on.

After these ceremonies were past, and after all his good things were brought
into my little apartment, we began to consult what was to be done with the
prisoners we had; for it was worth considering whether we might venture to take
them away with us or no, especially two of them, whom he knew to be incor-
rigible and refractory to the last degree; and the captain said he knew they were
such rogues that there was no obliging them, and if he did carry them away, it
must be in irons, as malefactors, to be delivered over to justice at the first English
colony he could ‘come at; and I found that the captain himself was very anxious
about it. Upon this, I told him that, if he desired it, I would undertake to
bring the two men he spoke of to make it their own request that he should leave
them upon the island. “I should be very glad of that,” says the captain, “with
all my heart.” ‘‘ Well,” says I, “I will send for them up, and talk with them for
you.” So I caused Friday and the two hostages, for they were now discharged,
196 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

their comrades having performed their promise; I say, 1 caused them to go to
the cave, and bring up the five men, pinioned as they were, to the bower, and
keep them there till I came.. After some time, I came thither dressed in my
new habit; and now I was called governor again. Being all met, and the captain
with me, I caused the men to be brought before me, and I told them I had got
a full account of their villainous behavior to the captain, and how they had run
away with the ship, and were preparing to commit further robberies, but that
Providence had ensnared them in their own ways, and that they were fallen into
the pit which they had dug for others. I let them know that by my direction
the ship had been seized; that she lay now in the road; and they might see
by and by that their new captain had received the reward of his villainy, for that
they might see him hanging at the yard-arm; that, as to them, I wanted to know
what they had to say why I should not execute them as pirates, taken in the
fact, as by my commission they could not doubt but.I had authority to do.

One of them answered in the name of the rest, that they had nothing to say
but this, that when they were taken, the captain promised them their lives, and
they humbly implored my mercy. -But I told them I knew not what mercy to
show them; for as for myself I had resolved to quit the island with all my men,
and had taken passage with the captain to go to England; and as for the captain,
he could not carry them to England other than as prisoners in irons, to be tried
for mutiny, and running away with the ship; the consequence of which, they must
needs know, would be the gallows; so that I could not tell what was the best for
them, unless they had a mind to take their fate in the island. If they desired
that, I did not care; as I had liberty to leave it, I had some inclination to give
them their lives, if they thought they could shift on shore. They seemed very
thankful for it, and said they would much rather venture .to stay there than be
carried to England to be hanged. So I left it on that issue.

However, the captain seemed to make some difficulty of it, as if he durst not
leave them there. Upon this I seemed a little angry with the captain, and told
him that they were my prisoners, not his; and, that seeing I had offered them
so much favor, I would be as good as my word; and that if he did not think
fit to consent to it, I would set them at liberty, as I found them; and if he did
not like it, he might take them again if he could catch them. Upon this they
appeared very thankful, and I accordingly set them at liberty, and bade them
retire into the woods, to the place whence they came, and I would leave them
some fire-arms, some ammunition, and some directions how they should live very
well, if they thought fit. Upon this I prepared to go on board the ship; but
told the captain I would stay that night to prepare my things, and desired him
to go on board in the meantime, and keep all right in the ship, and send the
boat on shore next day for me; ordering him, in the meantime, to cause the
new captain, who was killed, to be hanged at the yard-arm, that these men might
see him.

When the captain was gone, I sent for the men up to me in my apartment
and entered seriously into discourse with them of their circumstances. I told them
THE FATE OF THE N&W CAPTAIN. 197

I thought they had made a right choice;

but if the captain had carried them away,

they would certainly be hanged. I showed

them the new captain hanging at the yard-

arm of the ship, and told them they had noth- ,

ing less to expect.
When they had all declared their willing- Aa Ci

ness to stay, I told them I would let them Ta

into the story of my living there, and put

them into the way of making it easy to

them. Accordingly, I gave them the whole.

history of the place, and of my coming to uf

it; showed them my fortifications, the way I s

made my bread, planted my corn, cured my







y~

“T SHOWED THEM THE NEW CAPTAIN HANGING AT THE YARD-ARM OF THE SHIP.’

grapes; and, in a word, all that was necessary to make them easy. I told them
the story also of the sixteen Spaniards, that were to be expected, for whom I left a
letter, and made them promise to treat them in common with themselves.
798 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I left them my fire-arms, viz., five muskets, three fowling-pieces, and three
swords. JI had above a barrel and a half of powder left; for after the first year
or two I used but little, and wasted none. I gave them a description of the way
I managed the goats, and. directions to milk and fatten them, and to make both
butter and cheese. In a word, I gave them every part of my story; and told
them I should prevail with the captain to leave them two barrels of gunpowder
more, and some garden-seeds, which I told them I would have been very glad of.
Also, I gave them the bag of peas which the captain had Prong me to eat, and

bade them be sure to sow and increase them.

Having done all this, I left the next day, and went on board the ship. We
prepared immediately to sail, but did not weigh that night. The next morning
early, two of the five men came swimming to the ship’s side, and made the most
lamentable complaint of the other three, begged to be taken into the ship for
God’s sake, for they should be murdered, and begged the captain to take them on
board, though he hanged them immediately. Upon this, the captain pretended to
have no power without me; but after some difficulty, and after their solemn
promises of amendment, they were taken on board, and were, some time after,
soundly whipped and pickled; after which they proved very honest and
quiet fellows.

Some time after this, I went with the boat on shore, the tide being up, with
the things promised to the men; to which the captain, at my intercession, caused
their chests and clothes to be added, which they took, and were very thankful for.
I also encouraged them, by telling them, that if it lay in my way to send any
vessel to take them in, I would not forget them.

When I took leave of this island, I carried on board, for relics, the great
goat-skin cap I had made, my umbrella, and one of my parrots; also I forgot not
to take the money I formerly mentioned, which had lain by me so long useless
that it was grown rusty or tarnished, and could hardly pass for silver till it had
‘been a little rubbed and handled, and also the money I found in the wreck of
the Spanish ship. And thus I Jeft the island, the 19th of December, as I found
by the ship’s account, in the year 1686, after I had been upon it eight-and-twenty
years, two months, and nineteen days; being delivered from the second captivity
the same day of the month that I first made my escape in the Barco longo from
among the Moors of Sallee. In this vessel, after a long voyage, I arrived in
England the 11th of June, in the year 1687, having been thirty-five years absent.

When I came to England, I was a perfect stranger to all the world, as if I
had never been known there. My benefactor and faithful steward, whom I had
left my money in trust with, was alive, but had had great misfortunes in the
world; was become a widow the second time, and very low in the world. I made
her easy as to what she owed me, assuring her I would give her no trouble; but,
on the contrary,