Citation
Report on the census of Cuba, 1899

Material Information

Title:
Report on the census of Cuba, 1899
Creator:
United States -- War Dept. -- Cuban census office
Sanger, Joseph Prentiss, 1840-1926
Gannett, Henry, 1846-1914
Willcox, Walter Francis, 1861-1964
Place of Publication:
Washington
Publisher:
Govt. Print. Off.,
Govt. print. off.
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1900
Language:
English
Physical Description:
786 p. : front. (port.) plates, maps, diagrs. ; 24 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Census, 1899 -- Cuba ( lcsh )
Genre:
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Cuba

Notes

General Note:
Director: J.P. Sanger; statistical experts: Henry Gannett, Walter F. Willcox.
General Note:
Published also in Spanish.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
01526866 ( OCLC )
023353940 ( AlephBibNum )
01009595 ( LCCN )

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C. Dumas, Matanzas


SUPERVISORS OF THE CUBAN CENSUS.
A. H. Aguero, Puerto Principe. M Rasco, Habana.
J Jminez, Santa Clara.


S. Meneses, Santiago.
P. Pequelio, Pinar del Rin.







S5s, WAR DEPARTMENT, C l 5 C S 5 ()c;e.
OFFICE DIRECTOR CENSUS OF CUBA.





REPORT




ON THE





CENSUS OF CUBA,


1899.





LT. COL J. P. SANGER, Inspector-General,
DIRECTOR.
HENRY GANN ETT, WALTER F. WILLCOX,
STATISTICAL EXPERTS.





WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1900.

















3 1AM ,





It SB r


I -







ERRATA.
Page 41. For "Capt." read Rear-Admiral.
Page 51. For "Valasquez" read Velasquez.
Page 60. For disorderlyy" read disorderly.
Page 131. For "consentual" read consensual.
Page 204. For "Tinadad" read Trinidad.
Page 205. For "Jiquani" read Jiguani.
Page 294. Heading of table should read "City of Puerto Principe."
Page 734. For "1885" read 1855.

















CONTENTS.


Page.
Letter of transmittal of the Director of the Census to the Secretary of War ... 9
Proclamation of the President authorizing the census........---- ....-.. 10
-Organization of census....-----------.... .....-------------......----- 10
The field work .--....--.. ......----...-..-----.........---.-- ...----- 11
Geography.... .......--- .......-------..... ......--------- ..--------...... 17
Political divisions .--.........--.. ---.......------..-----------..--... 17
Coast regions---------.....-----------....---------------...................------------ 18
Orography........---------.....................--------------------------------------.. 19
Drainage systems...-----...---...-.---- ...-....---- ..........---...-- 20
Mineral resources ..---. ....----.....---------.----------------------- 20
Climate...........------.--...--------------------------------------- 21
Flora...........------.... ---------- --....... ......---------------- 22
.' Fauna....-........--..... ...--------.........-----........------.-- .. 23
NHistory.....-- ...- ......--------------------------------------------.... 24
Discovery of the island ..........-------.......-...----- ........----- 24
First settlement....----........----------...------------..........----------... 25
SColonization and early government..................---------..--.....---------........... 25
> Causes affecting progress..---..--....- -----..------------------------. 27
Trade restrictions and monopolies -----.. --.......--.-----..-..---- 28
Export and import duties.....------..--......-----... ........----- 28
Smuggling.--..... ..--- -.. .....----------- ..---------------------- 29
Excessive taxation -..--..------.....--------...----------------- 29
Lack of banking facilities ......-...............-.................. 31
Economic, rather than political, conditions the cause of the slow prog-
j ress of the island ........-------............. ...------............... 32
Governors, character and administration of ........----- .......---------. 32
Insurrections, causes and results of-..----.........------..--------------.... 33
SIntervention by the United States.--.........---... ....--.---------... 40
SPolitical organization ...........----.........--- .....................--------- 43
Municipal government......----.-- ...--- ....-..----- ....-------- 44
S) Provincial government --....---..--... ....-- .-- ----- .-----.--- 50
SInsular government ...... ---...............-- -------------------- 51
Former representation in the Spanish Cortes...------..----..------. 55
Cuban republics declared ..------------......--..-....................--------.----------......... 55
SUnited States military government .........-----..---..----------- 55
The judiciary .......--..........-----......-.....---------- ..-------- 55
S Population, aboriginal, history of ....---........-- --------------------- 65
Population, black, history of.--..-...--............--------------..--- 67
Population, coolie, history of --------------...............................---- ---------------------- 69
\ Discussion of the tables -......-- ......--------....---..---------.. --------- 72
The total population..--.....................-------------.....-.......----.....-------.--.....----------.. 72
Density of population ......--..........----..----..------.....------------- 73
Urban population ........---..-- .....---...... ---------------------.. 76
3



184855







4 CONTENTS.

Discussion of the tables-Continued. Page.
Center of population...-----..---..-..--.. ..........--....--........ 77
Distribution in altitude..----......----.....-..-...-... ............... 80
Sex ..........--------------...-..---------- ......................... 80
Age ..---..................------- .................................. 84
Age by provinces..-......-----.-----------------..... ................. 90
SAge by sex..--.......-.....................................- -....... 92
Nativity and race ..........-------...... ----..........--............. 96
Foreign-born population in cities ............-- ........................ 99
Citizenship ......--------------------.... ....---..----.. ...........-- 100
Of Habana province ----...--....--..---.......................... 103
Of Habana city ..--------......................--..... .......... 103
Of Matanzas.------... -...--...............-..................... 106
Of Pinar del Rio-....-..--......................... .......-...... 107
Of Puerto Principe..---------......-- --....... ............. ....... 108
Of Santa Clara----.----------...... ..............-............... 109
Of Santiago de Cuba-.......-...-................................. 110
Families.........--- ------------------..........--..--.......... -........ 112
Marital condition ----------...-....------...--........................... 117
The married ----- -------------...................................... 118
Persons living together as husband and wife by mutual consent ..--..-- 131
The widowed .------ -------.-...... -................................. 142
The single ---------------------------... .....---............. ...... 145
Literacy ....... ................-------..---..---.... .........-...--...... 147
School attendance--------................-- ...----------................. 150
Literacy among persons over 10 years of age-..--.........---........ ...... 152
Occupations..........................-----------------..................... 154
Sanitary condition of dwellings and unoccupied houses..-----..-....-----.. 167
Dwellings and families .........-----------.----..-.....-------.........................-...... 167
Source of water supply.........................-..........-.......... 170
Disposition of garbage .............................-................. 175
Disposition of excreta.........------...........--..--..................... 176

POPULATION TABLES.

I. Total population at different censuses .--..----...............-. 179
II. Total population, by provinces, in 1899, 1887, and 1861.-----.... 179
III. Total population by municipal districts in 1899 and 1887......... 179
IV. Total population by wards and by cities .......-----.--....... 181
V. Rural population by municipal districts, with area and density... 191
VI. Sex, general nativity and color, by provinces and municipal dis-
tricts -.....- .......-.......... ............... ........ ...... 194
VII. Percentages of population by sex, general nativity, and color, by
municipal districts-.......-..-- ........---..--.............. 200
VIII. Sex and age groups, by municipal districts...--- ......---------..... 202
IX. Race, nativity, sex, and 5-year age periods ....---......- ....... 206
X. Birthplace, by provinces and municipal districts........---...... 218
XI. Country of birth, by race, and by provinces and cities.-......... 220
XII. Citizenship, by provinces and municipal districts ..-----..-..... 225
XIII. Citizenship, literacy, and education, by provinces and municipal
districts ...----...-- .......................-----........---. 228
XIV. Citizenship, by age, sex, race, and nativity, by provinces and
cities.--.......-------.............. ....--------. -.....-...-- 251
XV. Conjugal condition, by provinces and municipal districts........ 299
XVI. Conjugal condition, by race, sex, and nativity ...............---- 302







CONTENTS.


Page.
XVII. Conjugal condition, by race, sex, nativity, and age, by provinces
and cities ----. -- --...............-----......-..--.......... 306
XVIII. Illegitimate children, by provinces and cities--.......---.....---- ... 354
XIX. School attendance, literacy, and superior education, by provinces
and municipal districts--....---...........-.......... ....... 358
SXX. Literacy, by age, sex, nativity, and race, by provinces and cities. 361
A XXI. School attendance, by months, by sex, race, nativity, and age, by
provinces and cities .-....-.......--- .---..--..-- .....-..... 385
XXII. Higher education, by age, sex, race, and nativity, by provinces
and cities.....------.. ....----....--....-- .............-- ... 401
-XXIII. Occupation groups, by sex, race, and nativity, by provinces and
cities .--.................-----....---....---.-----..... ----403
XXIV. Occupation groups, by sex, race, and nativity, by municipal districts 406
XXV. Occupation groups, by age, sex, race, and nativity, by provinces
and cities -.......-........................-...... .......... 438
-tXXVI. Occupations, by sex, race, and nativity, for the island...---....... 462
XXVII. Occupations, by age and sex, for the island......-............... 463
XXVIII. Occupations, by citizenship and sex, for the island.-.....-....... 465
XXIX. Occupations, by sex and education, for the island................ 467
XXX. Occupations, by sex and conjugal condition, for the island--..--... 469
XXXI. Occupations, by sex and country of birth, for the island .--..-. 472
XXXII. Occupations, by provinces ......--- ..-- .. .....------.... ...----- 476
(XXXIII. Selected occupations, by age, sex, and race, by provinces ..---..-- 477
XXXIV. Selected occupations, by age and sex, by provinces ..----.....-- 480
XXXV. Selected occupations, by sex and citizenship, by provinces ....... 485
XXXVI. Selected occupations, by sex and education, by provinces .--...-- 489
XXXVII. Selected occupations, by sex and conjugal condition, by provinces. 494
XXXVIII. Selected occupations, by sex and country of birth, by provinces..- 499
XXXIX. Number and size of families, by provinces and municipal districts. 507
XL. Dwellings and families, by provinces and municipal districts-.... 512
XLI. Source of water supply, by provinces and municipal districts..... 514
XLII. Disposition of garbage, by provinces and municipal districts...... 517
XLIII. Disposition of excreta, by provinces and municipal districts....- 520
Agriculture, history of, in Cuba.....--............-................--...... 523
Sugar .......-..- ........................-.....--.................... 524
Tobacco .........-................................................... 533
Coffee ..........-...............-...........-.......... .............. 537
Cocoa .........-------......------------------......-...-----------------... 539
Fruit ........-......-...--....---...--.....---...---- ..--.......-.... 539
Inferior agricultural implements--..-.................................. 539
Poor country roads --.........- .................-- ..--..-............ 539
Stock raising ...........-- ...........-- .............---- ...-- ..--- ..-- 539
Number of coffee, sugar, and tobacco plantations, cattle ranches, and cattle.. 540
Discussion of results -.............--- .......................---.....--- ... 541
Farm areas .....--- ....-- .........----. .........--- ..--..----.------ 542
Farm tenure -..-......---. ..-- ....---.-- ...-. ..-------... ------------ 544
Size of farms.......---------..........--------..-----------..----------.....------. 546
Products-......-....-- ......------ .......--- ...-- ....-..-....---..--. 547
Tables of agriculture.........---........-- ................--- ..-----..---. 553
XLIV. Farm areas...-------------.... ...------.........-----....----- 553
XLV. Tenure, by race and by size of farms, number-..-....----....... 555
XLVL Tenure, by race and by size of farms, cultivated area .........------. 556
XLVII. Products ...........---............-------.. ------------------ 558
XLVIII. Sugar plantations, classified by area--...... .--...-... ----....-- 560







6 CONTENTS.

Tables of agriculture-Continued. Page.
XLIX. Sugar plantations, number and average size......-- ............. 560
L. Tobacco plantations, classified by area .......-.....-.......--- 560
LI. Tobacco plantations, number and average size ......------......-- 560
LII. Live stock-............-.......... ....---------------...------ 561
Education in Cuba, history of.............-----..................---------------------- 565
Royal University of Habana...................----...............----------..---. 566
Public schools under the Spanish r4gime......-- ..-.......-------. ..---- 566
School laws and systems..----.....--.......---------------..-------- 577
Teachers' pensions and substitute teachers..-....------.....--- ..... -- 582
Salaries of teachers------..--....---....................----------------------- 583
School law of June 30, 1900......-..........-----.... .....------ .----. 585
Institute collegiate course, 1900...----.....------....--------------------.. 600
University of Habana, reorganization of-------.........---..---------.....--. 605
Discussion of tables .-..--.......-------. ........--- ---- ------------------ 615
Tables of schools...--..............................---...... --------- 618
LIII. Schools..--------........-----............---------------...---. 618
LIV. Pupils.....-............---- ------. .. .............--------- 619

APPENDICES.

I. War Department orders organizing the census...-.............. 621
II. War Department orders appointing disbursing officers of the cen-
sus in Cuba .............................--------..........----------........---------- 625
III. Report of the assistant director, V. H. Olmsted ..--.....-- ..--. 625
Reports of the supervisors .............---.....--.....-----.........------ 627
IV. Province of Habana, Sefor Manuel Rasco..--...---........----.. 627
V. Province of Matanzas, Prof. Claudio Dumas.......-..----. 631
VI. Province of Pinar del Rio, Sefior Pedro Pequefo ...-- .....-- 638
VII. Province of Puerto Principe, Sefior Augustin H. Aguera .... 640
VIII. Province of Santa Clara, Sefor Juan Bautista Jiminez ...... 647
IX. Province of Santiago de Cuba, Sefior Sabas Meneses.....----- 652
X. Report of enumerator of Zapata Swamp, Sixto Agramonte .--..... 658
XI. Report of enumeration of the north coast of Matanzas...---.. 665
XII. Report of enumerator Maria Nunez de Villavicencio...-.....--- 666
XIII. List of enumerators ...-...........-..-.........-....-----..-- 668
XIV. Contract with the Tabulating Machine Company .------...... ... 695
XV. List of the Governors of Cuba ...........----......-- .....-.. 696
XVI. List of municipal districts, with dates of organization and memo-
randum on territorial changes since 1861........-- .---....... 698
XVII. Memorandum on previous censuses -........... ........------- 702
XVIII. Memorandum on vital statistics ..--..--....-........----- ..---- 714
XIX. Article on population, translated from Pezuela's Dictionary ..... 727
XX. Bibliography---............................................ 737
XXI. Statement of estimates and disbursements on behalf of the census. 738

Index ........ ..........---...... ..--------------- --. ----- ------ 740
















LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



MAPS.
Page.
Map of Cuba..........................--------- -..............-......... 18
Increase and decrease of population.......-...-............................ 72
Density of rural population ............................................... 74
Size of cities.......-............-............................... .......... 76
Distribution of sex.-------........--.............................--...... .. 80
Proportion of native white inhabitants..------........... ..--------..--..---- 96
Proportion of foreign white inhabitants --..--...--......---- ......------- .. 98
Proportion of colored inhabitants----......---...-- ............----------.. .. 100
Average size of families----............... .................-----. ...----- 114
Proportion of married persons to population --...........--.....-.......... 118
Proportion of those living together by mutual consent to total population .... 132
Proportion of illiterates to total population.....-........---............... 152

DIAGRAMS.

Population classified by sex, race, and nativity, by provinces ................ 82
Population by age and sex ..---......- ...........------ ..-....-............ 84
Citizenship by birthplace and illiteracy..------......................------........ 102
The city of Habana --...--....-..........-...-............--.--....- ...--. 114
Size of families.. ...................-- ............----- ------------.....---. 116
Conjugal condition, by race, sex, and age ..-..........-----..-.......----- .. 120
Conjugal condition, by provinces ..........--....... .........--------- ...-- 124
Illiteracy by race and nativity-...--..................---......-.........-.. 148
Illiteracy by provinces..............----.......----------........----..------..---. 150
Occupations by race, sex, and nativity......------....................----------...--. 156
Occupations by provinces ...--..---..--.................--- ...........---- 160
Birth rates............-----.............. ....................-----------. 716
Marriage rates.-....-...-- ......-- ....--..-......-.......-........ ......---. 718
Death rates ..................--................................-......... 719

PHOTOGRAPHIC REPRODUCTIONS.

Supervisors of the Cuban census......-............................. Frontispiece.
Yumuri Valley..-.............-.................-...............-........ 20
General landscape of cultivated farms.........---- ......---...-- ......------ 20
Cave of Ballamar, near Matanzas .--...........-----------...........------ 22
Ruins of copper mines at El Cobre and Sierra Maestre ...................... 24
Surrender Tree, near San Juan...........................................-----. 40
Habana...-.....- ..................................--.......... .......... 42
Habana.--....-..-..........-.................-..-.....-..............-.. 44
Matanzas ...........-.................................................... 46
Bridge over Yumuri River at Matanzas .........-- .............--... ----- 48







8 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONSS.

Page.
Pinar del Rio ......................................................... 50
Puerto Principe -....-...-.........i....-...-- ............... ..---....... 52
Santa Clara ..a................................................ .......... 54
Santiago de Cuba--...... ....-. ........................................- 56
Entrance to harbor of Cienfuegos...--........- ....-. .....................- 58
Nuevitas......-..-............... ...............-....................... 60
Trinidad-...........-......................................-............. 62
Sancti Spiritus, from roof of orderly quarters ...-........................... 64
Baracoa and entrance to harbor ...................--- ..-......--...- ....-- 66
Dimas, village in province of Pinar del Rio ....--........-- .... ..------- ...--- 68
Native white family --.............----.....-------....------------...--.........--.... 70
Native colored family..-.....- ...-..--....--... ....-....-- ....-- ....-..... 70
Native plow......-.. ...- ......--- .... ...--- ..---- ...........---... ...-- .. 522
Plowing with oxen ......-- ........---- ........-- ..---.......... .....----. 522
Sugar mill, province of Santa Clara-..........---- ..-- ..... ........--........ 524
Cutting and stripping cane.--.....-- --- ....- .........----------------.. 526
Transporting cane to sugar mills..--......--.... ............... ....-..... --528
Central Conchita .....-..-......-...........-.... ......................... 530
Sugar machinery, "Central Caracas," province of Santa Clara .--..---- ..... 532
Tobacco plant..-.........-........-..-.......-........-.... .............. 534
Setting out young tobacco plants .--...-......--........--..... ....-..---.. 534
Tobacco plantation, province of Santa Clara .......------....--........-- ..... 536
Tobacco-drying house ..-...--....-........ ---------...---.....--- .... --- 536
Sorting tobacco and putting it in bundles..--.......--....----- ..-------- ...... 536
Baling tobacco -..-.....- -...-........--......--...---..--- .........---.. 538
Tobacco train .-.....--....-..-..-.......---....-..-...-....--- ..- .. --- 538
Fruit exhibit--.........-..........--.......----.--.....--- ..-----........ 540
Ready to cut pines and bananas ----..... .....-----..-...............-- ..-- 542
Cocoa grove.......-- ...-- .......-------------......-..-- ...-- .------... -- 544
Pinery .............-.....-........... ................................... 546
Avenue of Royal Palms, Matanzas .....------...---....---.....--.......... 548
Climbing the royal palm ........----- --.................---- ........-- .... 550
Roping cattle .---...-....-- ..-.....---- ..........------...........-...... 552
Typical municipal school building .......-...-- ..-- .....-..-............... 566
School for girls, Matanzas ..--...-..---.......-- .---.. ..-....- ....---....-- 570
Municipal school, Matanzas .--.......----.----.---------.-----. ... ..-. .. 572
Pupils of the college "Olavarrette," Habana ......-........--..-........... 576
Exterior "University of Habana," as seen from O'Reilly street.....-----..-- .584
Class in the corridor of the "Royal College," Habana..----..--.........--.. 588
College "Maria Louisa Dolorosa,".-.......-.........-..................... 592
Royal College of Belen, Habana ........................................... 600
Supervisor and enumerators, province of Habana ........................... 628
Supervisor and enumerators, province of Matanzas.........----...-- .......-- 632
Supervisor and enumerators, Pinar del Rio .............................--.. 638
Supervisor and enumerators, province of Puerto Principe--.............-..--. 640
Supervisor and enumerators, province of Santa Clara...---........---...--.. 648
Supervisor and enumerators, Santiago de Cuba--..........-...--........ .... 652
Female enumerators, Habana..-----..---.........--------.......--...........---------... 658
Enumerators of the city of Matanzas.-..-...- ...........---...-...--.....-- 662
Enumerators, city of Cardenas----..--.......--------.. ...................... 666













LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


WAR DEPARTMENT, CUBAN CENSUS,
Washington, August 25, 1900.
SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report of the census
of Cuba:
In the early part of July, 1899, I received instructions'from the
Hon. Russell A. Alger, Secretary of War, to prepare a "memoran-
dum" for a census of Cuba. In August, immediately after your
arrival in Washington, this "memorandum" was submitted to the
Director of the United States Census, Hon. W. R. Merriam, the
Assistant Director, Dr. F. H. Wines, and Mr. William C. Hunt, chief
statistician. After consultation with the War Department it was
decided that a census covering the field of inquiry usual in the United
States was not expedient for Cuba, in view of existing conditions;
that the schedules should be limited to population, agriculture, and
education, as the three subjects of most importance; that the general
plan of the United States census should be followed; and that, to save
time, the schedules and other blank forms necessary for the enumera-
tion of a population estimated at 1,600,000 be printed at once. The
estimated cost of taking the census on this basis, together with a
statement of the amount disbursed, will be found in Appendix XXI.
As the Senate Committee on Cuban Relations, of which Senator
O. H. Platt is chairman, will publish an itemized statement of the
expenditures, they are omitted, to avoid unnecessary repetition.
It was proposed in the "memorandum" that the census be taken
under the supervision of the Military Governor of the island by cer-
tain Cuban officials, assisted by officers and enlisted men of the United
States Army, but as the census was primarily for the benefit of the
Cubans, and as the work would demonstrate in some measure their
capacity to perform an important civil duty, it was decided by the
Secretary of War that the offices of supervisors and enumerators
should be filled by Cubans, and that the field work should be per-
formed by them, under the supervision of an experienced officer of
the United States census, so that when the enumeration should be
completed it would be a census of Cubans by Cubans.
No decision could have been more fortunate, and, coupled with the
proclamation of the President, in which the census was declared to
9






REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899


be a preliminary step in the establishment of an effective system of
self-government, was the first, as it was the highest, expression of con-
fidence on the part of the Government of the United States in the
capacity and patriotism of the Cubans, removing all feeling of sus-
picion as to the object of the enumeration, and placing the census at
once en rapport with the people. Hundreds of intelligent and trust-
worthy men and women volunteered to serve as enumerators without
pay, and the order of the President was received throughout the
island with great satisfaction.
* In no other way could such a manifestation of good feeling and of
faith in the intentions of this Government have been elicited, and
the result proved the wisdom of the measures. While some errors
may have crept into the work, and while possibly there are some
omissions, it should not be forgotten that this is the first attempt of
the Cubans to take a census, and that the difficulties attending it have
been numerous, serious, and not easily surmounted. But whatever
its defects, it is the opinion of the people of Cuba and of the expert
tabulators and statisticians who have been engaged in compiling and
analyzing the figures that they bear the impress of honest work, that
the census was taken rapidly and far more accurately than could have
been expected, and that in this respect it will compare favorably with
any census of the United States.
The different steps by which this was accomplished were as follows:
An estimate was prepared of the probable cost of the census, based on
the supposed population and the employment of Cubans as supervisors
and enumerators; a careful study was made of the necessary organiza-
tion in all its details, and the best way to carry on the work in harmony
with the general administration of the island. At the same time the
Military Governor of Cuba was directed to nominate suitable Cubans
as supervisors of the census for the six provinces of the island and to
order them to Washington. This was done, and on their arrival,
August 17, they were received by Dr. Wines and Mr. Hunt, of the
United States Census Office, and by Mr. Olmsted, of the Department
of Labor, and for two weeks were carefully instructed in their duties
as supervisors with a view to their becoming, in turn, instructors of
the enumerators.
On August 17 the following proclamation of the President was
issued:
EXECUTIVE MANSION, August 17, 1899.
To the people of Cuba:
The disorganized condition of your island resulting from the war and the absence
of any generally recognized authority aside from the temporary military control of
the United States have made it necessary that the United States should follow the
restoration of order and peaceful industry by giving its assistance and supervision to
the successive steps by which you will proceed to the establishment of an effective
system of self-government.






LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


As a preliminary step in the performance of this duty, I have directed that a census
of the people of Cuba be taken, and have appointed competent and disinterested
citizens of Cuba as enumerators and supervisors.
It is important for the proper arrangement of your new government that the
information sought shall be fully and accurately given, and I request that by every
means in your power you aid the officers appointed in the performance .of their
duties.
WILLIAM McKINLEY.
As there were no general census laws in Cuba it was necessary to
promulgate orders which would have the effect of laws, organizing the
census, defining the duties of the census officials, and the obligations of
the people in respect thereto. Accordingly, August 19, the necessary
Executive orders were issued (Appendix I), and on the 23d the order
appointing the disbursing officers (Appendix II). These orders were
sent to the Military Governor of Cuba for promulgation in English
and Spanish.
Having been thoroughly instructed in their duties, and in the mean-
ing of the regulations, schedules, and other blank forms for carrying
on the work, and being duly impressed by the Secretary of War with
the responsibilities of their office, the supervisors left for Cuba, August
23, and were followed, August 27, by the Assistant Director of the
census, with his office force.
Thus far the work of the census had been confined to Washington.
The field work, attended with many difficulties, was now to follow.

THE FIELD WORK.
This was carried on under the immediate supervision of the Assistant
Director, Mr. Victor H. Olmsted, an experienced official of the
United States Census, who exhibited from first to last the mental,
moral, and physical qualities necessary for the successful prosecution
of the work. By dint of great patience, perseverance, unusual activ-
ity, and tact he was able to win the confidence of the supervisors and
enumerators, to instruct them in their duties, and to carry the work
to a successful conclusion-no easy task for a foreigner and nonresi-
dent of the island, as for many years its inhabitants had always con-
nected the census with taxation and compulsory military service,
toward which they had a strong natural aversion.
Mr. Olmsted was directed to establish his office in the city of Santa
Clara, which was selected as a geographical center and as affording
sanitary and other conditions favorable to the work. His report is
submitted herewith. (Appendix III.)
The first step in organizing the field work was the formation of the
enumeration districts, and for this purpose accurate maps of the
provinces and municipalities were almost indispensable. Foreseeing
this, the Military Governor was directed, August 8, to have such maps
prepared, but it was not until the arrival of Mr. Olmsted in Habana,






REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


August 31, that much progress was made in this direction. On that
date, learning that the military authorities in Habana had no suitable
maps, he telegraphed to the military, civil, and judicial authorities
throughout the island to furnish him such maps as they had, and later
discovered in the insular state department a map, said to be the only
one of its kind in existence, showing the boundaries of the judicial
and municipal districts in each province, but several years old, and
requiring revision.
As soon as the available maps had been collected the number and
boundaries of the enumeration districts were determined, subject to
such changes as might be necessary after the supervisors had looked
over the ground. This was a work of great difficulty.
Paragraph VIII of the order organizing the census prescribed that
the boundaries of the enumeration districts should be described by civil
divisions-rivers, roads, public surveys, and other easily distinguished
lines. But it was soon ascertained that, owing to the imperfections
of the maps, little reliance could be placed on their topographical
representations, and that, except in the cities, the boundaries of the
minor civil divisions were not always given, and even when they were
the lines of suburban and rural wards could not be determined,
because, as was subsequently discovered, they had apparently over-
lapped in some locations or were situated in two different municipali-
ties, and the claims of the respective local authorities had not been
adjusted.
To avoid the double enumeration liable to result from this, it was
decided to indicate the areas of rural and suburban enumeration dis-
tricts which could not be defined as the orders prescribed by desig-
nating the ward or wards to be included in their limits and by directing
the enumerators to inquire whether the persons-and premises visited
by them had been visited and enumerated before, and if they had, to
pass them by. Each enumerator was also required to post a printed
notice on all buildings visited by him, giving the date of his visit,
which was designed as an additional safeguard against double
enumeration.
By September 13 Cuba had been divided into 1,315 enumeration
districts. Later on, owing to the scattered state of the population,
the great difficulties of communication in the rural districts, and
the importance of completing the enumeration within the time desig-
nated by the President, it was found necessary to increase this number
to 1,607,
The enumeration districts having been established, the appointment
of enumerators followed. As the value of the statistics to be col-
lected depended entirely on the fidelity and intelligence of the enu-
merators, the supervisors were cautioned to exercise great care in
their selection, and were informed that women were not necessarily






LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


disqualified on account of their sex. One hundred and forty-two
women were appointed enumerators and rendered excellent service,
and it is said that for the first time in the history of Cuba, women
were given public employment.
To prepare the enumerators for their work and, so far as practicable,
to guard against errors in the returns, one or more enumerators in
each municipality were directed to report to the supervisor for
instruction, becoming in turn the teachers of the other enumerators
in the district. This they did by assembling in classes and going care-
fully over the orders, schedules, etc., and testing their knowledge
by the actual preparation of the papers required in the regulations.
All enumerators were told that in doubtful cases of literacy the person
to be enumerated should be required to read and write in the pres-
ence of the enumerator, and, as far as could be ascertained by very
careful inquiries, this was done.
As soon as appointed each enumerator was given a commission and
full field kit, and was then ready for the work. Some of .those assigned
to rural and suburban districts performed their duties at the peril of
their lives, and all of the rural enumerators were subjected to much
personal risk and discomfort, owing to the condition of the roads and
streams, the prevalence of rain, and the depleted and sparsely settled
state of the country. (Appendix IV to XII.)
A full list of the enumerators will be found in Appendix XIII, and
among the illustrations groups of those with whom the Director came
in contact during his tour of inspection in November and December.
For the accuracy with which this census "has been taken the Cubans
connected with it are certainly entitled to the credit and distinction of
being faithful and intelligent pioneers in the discharge of civil duties
never before intrusted to them.
On the 10th of November the Director of the Census left Washing-
ton on a tour of inspection, to enable him to ascertain, as far as possi-
ble, in what estimation the work of the census was held by the peo-
ple; to inspect the offices of the assistant director and supervisors; to
see and question as many enumerators as could be collected together
in the large cities; to determine the best disposition to be made of the
census property, and on what date the clerical work incident to the
examination of the schedules could be closed, and the latter shipped to
Washington.
The result of this inspection was satisfactory. The offices of the
supervisors were found in good order, the secretaries, clerks, and the
enumerators intelligent and very much interested in their work, and,
as a rule, the schedules accurately and neatly prepared.
After consultation with Mr. Olmsted, it was decided to close the
work December 31, discharging all Cubans who might be connected
with it on that date, except the supervisors, and to bring the latter,






REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


with their schedules, and Mr. Olmsted and party from Cienfuegos to
Washington January 6. It was thought advisable to bring the super-
visors to Washington, that they might make the gross count of the
population and be on hand to explain any ambiguities or defects which
might be discovered in the schedules; to supervise the punching of
the cards from which the tables were to be made, and to learn the
entire method of handling the statistics. This programme was car-
ried out, and Mr. Olmsted and his companions, with the records,
arrived in Washington January 15.
The gross count of the population was completed and certified by
the supervisors by January 31, and on February 1 a contract was
made with the Tabulating Machine Company of Washington (Appen-
dix XIV), and the work of punching the cards was commenced. This
was continued under the supervisors until completed, March 24, and
between April 1 and 10 they returned to their homes, having labored
conscientiously, intelligently, and successfully in the discharge of their
important duties. Their reports are submitted. (Appendices IV
to IX.)
As much public interest had been shown in the results of the census,
it was decided not to await the preparation of the full report, but to
publish census bulletins containing condensed tables with a brief anal-
ysis of their contents. The first bulletin, in English and Spanish,
appeared May 10, and the others at intervals until all, three in num-
ber, had been published and distributed, the English edition in the
United States and Europe and the Spanish in Cuba. Other tables
essential in deciding questions connected with the municipal elections
were compiled and mailed to the military governor of Cuba April 14,
1900.
In the preparation of the bulletins and report I have had the assist-
ance of Mr. Henry Gannett, of the Geological Survey, and Mr.
Walter F. Willcox, of the United States Census, both well known to
the scientific world and thoroughly familiar with census work.
In addition to the account of previous Cuban censuses Appendix
XVII and the analysis of the tables to be found in this report, it
has been thought advisable to present a description of the island and
a brief sketch of so much of its history as bears on its population,
economic condition, and government. A list of the authors consulted
in this connection will be found in the Appendix (XX).
The maps, diagrams, and views which illustrate the report were
selected with sole reference to their practical or historic value. No
attempt at a general collection of photographs was made. The cities
represented are either the capitals of the provinces or, like Baracoa,
among the oldest settled by the Spaniards. The landscapes give some
idea of the most noticeable topographic features, viz, the great cen-






LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 15

tral uplands, or sugar zone, the mountains, the beautiful valleys, and
the caves. The agricultural industries of sugar, tobacco, fruit cultiva-
tion, and stock raising are presented in some of their more interesting
details, while the groups of supervisors, and enumerators, and the
family groups are fair types of native Cubans, whose tragic and heroic
struggle for liberty has excited the interest of the whole civilized world.
Very respectfully,
J. P. SANGER. I/n. Genl.,
Director of the Ceness.
Hon. ELIHU ROOT,
Secretary of War.













CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


GEOGRAPHY.
The government of Cuba has jurisdiction not only over the island
of that name, but also over the Isle of Pines, lying directly to the
south of it, and more than a thousand islets and reefs scattered along
its northern and southern coasts.
For administrative purposes Cuba is divided into six provinces
which, named from the west eastward, are Pinar del Rio, Habana,
Matanzas, Santa Clara, Puerto Principe, and Santiago de Cuba. These
provinces are divided into municipal districts, of which Pinar del Rio
contains 20, Habana 36, Matanzas 24, Santa Clara 28, Puerto Principe
5, and Santiago 19, making a total of 132 municipal districts.
The municipal districts are in turn divided into barrios or wards,
which correspond in extent and organization somewhat with our elec-
tion districts. The number of these in the entire island is between
1,100 and 1,200. Both municipal districts and wards differ widely in
area and population. The five districts of Puerto Principe are large
in area, while several in Habana and one or two in Santiago are in
area little more than cities. In population, on the other hand, the dis-
tricts range from Habana, with nearly a quarter of a million people,
down to districts containing little more than 1,000 inhabitants. In
popular language, the island is divided into the Vuelta Abajo, or the
portion from the meridian of Habana to Cape San Antonio; the Vuelta
Arriba, from the meridian of Habana to that of Cienfuegos; Las
Cinca Villas, from the meridian of Cienfuegos to that of Sancti
Spiritus, and Sierra Adentro, from the latter to Holguin and Cape
Maysi.
Cuba, the most populous of the West India islands, lies directly
south of Florida. Habana is a trifle west of south of Key West and
is distant from it, as the crow flies, about 100 miles, being separated
from it by the Strait of Florida. East of Cuba lies Haiti, the second
in size of the West India islands, and south of it lies Jamaica. The
first of these islands is only 54 miles distant from Cape Maysi the
easternmost point of Cuba. The latter is 85 miles distant from its
southern coast. On the west, Cuba is separated by Yucatan Channel,
130 miles wide, from the Peninsula of Yucatan, Mexico.
24662--2 17






REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


Thus from a military point of view Cuba occupies a strong strategic
position, controlling the entrance to the Gulf of Mexico by the Strait
of Florida, the Windward Passage to the Caribbean Sea between Cuba
and Haiti, and Yucatan Channel, connecting the Gulf of Mexico with
the Caribbean Sea. The first and last of these are the only entrances
to the Gulf of Mexico, which is thus controlled completely by the
island of Cuba.
Cuba is included between the meridians of 740 and 850 west of
Greenwich and between the parallels of 190 40' and 230 33'. Its length
from Cape Maysi on the east to Cape San Antonio on the west is 730
miles. Its breadth differs greatly in different parts, ranging from 100
miles in the east, in the province of Santiago, to 25 miles in the neigh-
borhood of Habana. Its area, which is more fully discussed elsewhere,
may be set down as 43,000 square miles, including the Isle of Pines
and the keys. It is, therefore, a little larger than the State of Virginia
and somewhat smaller than Pennsylvania.
The north coast is for the most part bluff and rocky, and in the prov-
inces of Matanzas, Santa Clara, and Puerto Principe bordered by lines
of islands and reefs of coral formation, the passages through which
are extremely intricate and difficult. These islands are low, are in the
Main covered with mangrove forests, and contain few inhabitants.
The coast is low in the western part of the island, the bluffs ranging
about 100 feet in height in Pinar del Rio and rising gradually east-
ward. About Matanzas they reach 500 feet in altitude. In Santa Clara
and Puerto Principe they are lower, but in Santiago the coast is abrupt
and rugged, almost mountainous, rising in a succession of terraces.
The south coast from Cape Maysi to Cape Cruz is mountainous.
Indeed, from Santiago westward to Cape Cruz the Sierra Maestra
rises abruptly from the water to altitudes of several thousands of feet.
The shores of the gulf of Buena Esperanza, into which flows the Rio
Cauto, are low, and from this place westward, excepting a short stretch
between Trinidad and Cienfuegos, the coast is low and marshy as far
as Cape San Antonio, the westernmost point of the island. This coast
strip of marsh is in the main narrow, but west of Cienfuegos it broadens
into a great expanse, forming the Zapata Swamp, an almost impene-
trable region, 75 miles in length with a maximum breadth of fully 30
miles, clothed with the densest vegetation and teeming with tropical
life. It was within the protecting limits of this marsh that the Cubans
during the recent revolution maintained a hospital for their sick and
wounded.
Off the south coast are hundreds of low, marshy, mangrove-covered
islands and islets.
Most of the harbors on both coasts are of peculiar shape, resembling
nothing so much as pouches with narrow, often sinuous, entrances,
opening within into broad expanses completely sheltered. This is the













780


S


MAP
OF


CUBA
COMPILED FROM
"CHART "E"U.S. COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY"

Boundaries of provinces-- .....---.- ---..
do municipal districts-- --------
Railroads

Scale
2+0.000.
P, @ to 0 o 30 40 S so to T o sp
STATUTE MILES.
o 0 20 30 40 0o so 70 sO go too0 10 I QO 140 I 10 10g 170 I1 I
KILOMETERS.


1-t


A-


84A-


83


iI0


1 1


i










___i-

~~L~S~C~


. % olzl 1-1


22Cj2


---- -----~---___ ~ ; ___






GEOGRAPHY.


character of the harbors of Habana, Santiago, Cienfuegos, Guantanamo,
and many others less known.
In its relief the island of Cuba is not a simple orographic unit, but
presents great variety and irregularity, which renders it incapable of
simple description and generalization. The middle portion of the
island, including the provinces of Habana, Matanzas, Santa Clara, and
Puerto Principe, presents little relief, but consists in the main of broad,
undulating plains and shallow valleys, the land rising only in a few
places to any considerable altitude. It is only at the two extremes of
the island, in the province of Pinar del Rio on the west and Santiago
on the east, that the island presents any considerable or well-defined
relief features. Throughout Pinar del Rio there runs a range of hills,
a little north of the middle line of the province and closely paralleling
in direction the northern coast. This range, which is fairly well defined,
is known as the Cordillera de los Organos, or Organ Mountains, and
rises in many places to altitudes exceeding 2,000 feet, culminating in
Pan de Guagaibon, having an altitude of 2,500 feet. From the crest
of this range the land descends northward and southward to the coast
in long, undulating slopes, the southward slopes forming the celebrated
tobacco lands known as Fuelta Abajo.
The central provinces of Cuba, Habana, Matanzas, Santa Clara, and
Puerto Principe consist mainly of broadly rolling plains, with shallow
stream valleys. In Habana, Matanzas, and Santa Clara these plains
are, or were prior to the late revolution, in a high state of cultivation,
while in Puerto Principe they are, in the main, used for the grazing
of cattle. The valley of the Yumuri, in Matanzas, is a type of the
beautiful, highly cultivated region of this part of the island.
The Sierra de los Organos ceases as a range a little west of Habana,
but traces of this uplift can be followed through the central part of
Habana, Matanzas, Santa Clara, and the western part of Puerto Prin-
cipe in the form of lines of hills of no great altitude dotting these
extended plains. They are seen south of the city of Habana in the
little timbered hills known as the Tetas de Managua, and farther east
in the Arcas de Canasi, the Escaleras de Jaruco, and the Pan de Mat-
anzas, just south of the city of Matanzas. This rises to an altitude of
1,300 feet and serves as a landmark to sailors far out in the Atlantic.
In the eastern part of Matanzas province these hills disappear, but
they reappear again in Santa Clara, taking the form of elongated crest
lines and flat top summits, and as such extend into the western part of
the province of Puerto Principe.
In the southern part of the province of Santa Clara is a group of
rounded hills, occupying an area between Cienfuegos, Trinidad, and
Sancti Spiritus. The highest of these, Potrerillo, has an altitude of
2,900 feet. Among these hills are many beautiful valleys.
Santiago, at the other end of the island, is a province presenting






REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


great relief. Its surface is extremely broken with high, sharp moun-
tain ranges, broad plateaus of considerable elevation, and deep valleys-
some of them broad, others narrow and resembling canyons. The
dominating orographic feature of the province-indeed, of the whole
island-is the Sierra Maestra, which, commencing at Cape Cruz, south
of Manzanillo, extends eastward, closely paralleling the coast, from
which it rises abruptly, as far east as the neighborhood of Santiago.
In this part it contains many points exceeding 5,000 feet in altitude,
and culminates in Pico Turquino, which is reputed to have an altitude
of 8,320 feet. From Santiago it extends to the east end of the island,
but is much more broken and has more of a plateau-like form, with a
great diminution in altitude. This portion of the range takes on a
different name, being known as the Cobre Range. It contains numer-
ous flat summits, approximating 3,000 feet in altitude, one of which,
known as La Gran Piedra, is said to have an altitude of 3,300 feet.
North of Sierra Maestra lies the broad and fertile valley of the
Cauto, beyond which the country rises gradually to a high plateau
occupying the interior of the province, with a summit elevation of
1,000 feet or more, on which stands the city of Holguin. The eastern
part of the province consists of a maze of broken hills, with altitudes
ranging from 1,000 to 2,000 feet, in which are many small and fertile
valleys.
The Isle of Pines, with an area of 840 square miles, is a municipal
district of the province of Habana. It is in effect two islands, con-
nected by a marsh, the northern being somewhat broken by hills, the
southern low, flat, and sandy.
The rivers of Cuba, though numerous, are short, and few of them
are of any importance for navigation. The largest stream is the Rio
Cauto, which heads in the interior of Santiago province and in the
north slopes of Sierra Maestra, and flows westward through a broad
valley to its mouth in the Gulf of Buena Esperanza, after a course of
about 150 miles. This stream is navigable for light-draft boats to
Cauto Embarcadero, about 50 miles above its mouth.
The next stream of importance for navigation is the Sagua la Grande,
on the north slope of the island, in Santa Clara province. This, which
enters the sea near the city of Sagua la Grande, is navigable for some
20 miles above its mouth.
Several other streams are navigable for a few miles above their
mouths, but in most cases only through what may be regarded as estu-
aries. Taking the island as a whole, its internal communications,
except along the coasts, are dependent almost entirely upon its very
few and poor wagon roads and its few railroads.
MINERAL RESOURCES.
The mineral resources of Cuba, so far as developed, are few in num-
ber and not of great importance. The principal product is iron ore,






























































YUMURI VALLEY.

























































GENERAL LANDSCAPE OF CULTIVATED FARMS.





CLIMATE.


which is found at various points near the south base of Sierra Maestra,
between Santiago and Guantanamo. The ore is mainly hematite, with
some limonite, and is found principally as float, in great masses of
bowlders. It is easy to work and of excellent quality, containing
about 62 per cent of iron. A few occurrences have been discovered
and mined of ore in place in the rock. There are three companies
owning this mining property, one of which, the Juragua Company,
has mined and shipped a considerable quantity of ore, nearly all of the
shipments having gone to the United States. Up to 1895 the product
of this company is stated at a trifle over 3,000,000 tons. Operations
by the other two companies have consisted mainly in development
work, only a small quantity of ore having been shipped by them. The
late war, of course, put a stop to mining operations and much of the
mining plant was destroyed.
A copper deposit, reputed to be of extraordinary richness, is known
in the vicinity of El Cobre, in the southern part of Santiago province,
but since 1868 mining upon it has been at a standstill. Deposits are
reported in other parts of the island, and much of this metal may yet
be produced.
Asphaltum is found in various places, notably in the vicinity of the
city of Santa Clara, where it has for many years been used in making
illuminating gas for the city.
A little gold and silver has been mined in the island in past times,
but for many years the island has not produced either of these metals.
CLIMATE.
The climate of Cuba is comparatively simple in its character and
can be briefly described. With the long, narrow shape of the island,
its great extent of coast line and small breadth, it has in the main an
insular climate with a high mean temperature, slight extremes of
temperature, great humidity of the atmosphere, and an ample rainfall.
At Habana, on the north coast, the mean annual temperature is 770.
The range of temperature between the mean of the hottest month and
that of the coldest month is from 820 to 710, or only 110. The high-
est temperature on record in Habana is 100.60, and the lowest 49.60.
This maximum recorded temperature is no higher than in northern
cities of the United States, but the duration of high temperatures is
much greater in Cuba and explains the high mean temperature. But,
notwithstanding the long-continued high temperature, the climate of
the northern portion of the island is tempered by the trade winds
which blow with but little variation throughout the year, and the
nights in both winter and summer are cool. The mean annual tem-
perature at Habana fairly represents that of the island, it being per-
haps a little hotter upon the south coast and inland than upon the
north coast. The range of temperature between summer and winter
does not differ probably materially anywhere on the coast from that






REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


at Habana, but inland is probably a little greater. The mean relative
humidity at Habana averages about 75 per cent and remains tolerably
uniform at all times of the year. Inland the humidity becomes some-
what less, but not decidedly so.
The mean annual rainfall at Habana, derived from observations of
many years, is 52 inches. The record shows, in different years, a
rainfall ranging from 40 to 71 inches. This represents quite closely
the rainfall upon the north coast of the island. Inland and upon the
south coast it is probably somewhat less, although observations are
lacking. This is decidedly less than upon the Gulf coast of the United
States and but little greater than that of the northern seaboard cities.
As regards the distribution of rainfall through the year, there is a
wet and dry season, the former being from May to October, during
which time about two-thirds of the precipitation of the year is received.
Rain falls during about one-third of the days during each year,
although this does not represent by any means the proportional amount
of rainy weather. The days are usually clear up to about 10 o'clock,
from which time till night, during the rainy season, it is frequently
showery. The nights are commonly clear. Thunderstorms are fre-
quent, but not violent.
The prevailing winds throughout the island are the northeast trades,
which blow with great persistency, but seldom with violence. The
island is occasionally, though not frequently, visited by hurricanes.
These break upon the coast, causing the maximum destruction in its
neighborhood, and rapidly lose their force and violence as they proceed
inland.
In winter, when the trade winds extend farthest to the southward,
the island not infrequently comes within the influence of northers,"
from the North Temperate Zone, greatly and suddenly reducing the
temperature on the north coast. These occur during the winter
months and follow the severe storms of the United States, when the
temperature sometimes falls as low as 500, causing much suffering, as
very little provision is made against cold in the construction of the
Cuban houses.
FLORA.
Owing to the richness of the soil, the equable, moist temperature and
abundant rainfall, the island is a veritable garden, abounding in flowers,
luscious fruits, and a great variety of vegetables. Uncultivated nature
has a wild luxuriance of jungle, grove, and forest to be traversed only
by the aid of machete or along well-worn pathways. To illustrate the
great variety of its native flora, it may be stated that over 3,350 native
plants have been found in the island besides those introduced. They
include many species of valuable wood, such as the mahogany, ebony,
granadilla, majagua, cedar, walnut, ceiba, lignum-vitce, oak, pine, and
the palm, of which there are over 30 species, among them the royal


















.1


INTERIOR OF THE CAVE OF BELLAMAR NEAR MATANZAS.






FAUNA.


palm, which, to the poor Cuban, is the most valuable of all, as the
leaves provide him with a roof and the trunk with walls for his primi-
tive dwelling. In the interior the forests are in large part made up
of Cuban pine, which forms excellent lumber. Although a large pro-
portion of the island has been cleared during the past three hundred
years for the purposes of cultivation, yet it is estimated that 13,000,000
acres, or nearly half its area, still remain clad in original forests.
These areas are found mainly in the eastern part of the island, in the
provinces of Santiago and Puerto Principe.
Over a large part of the cleared or cultivated areas are luxuriant
grasses, which, like the parana and guinea grasses, grow to a height
of several feet and are abundant and nutritious.
FAUNA.

Throughout Cuba game is abundant; deer, though not native, have
flourished and multiplied greatly. Rabbits are also plentiful. The
wild boar, so called, the wild dog, and the wild cat are simply
domestic animals run wild. They are quite numerous in all parts of
the island. Wild fowl, especially ducks and pigeons, abound, the
former crossing from the Southern States during the winter season,
while the latter remain on the island the year round. Pheasants, quail,
snipe, wild turkeys, and wild guinea fowl are also numerous, with
several varieties of game birds, such as the perdiz, tojosas, rabiches,
and the guanaros.
The only distinctively native animal is the jutia or kutia, ratlike
in appearance, and black, which grows to a length of 16 or 18 inches,
not including the tail. While eatable, it is not especially palatable.
Cuba has more than 200 species of native birds, including those
already mentioned as game birds, many possessing the most beautiful
plumage, but those with song are rare.
In swampy localities crocodiles and American alligators (caimans)
are found, and although these frequently grow to an enormous size,
but little attention is paid to them by the natives.
Chameleons, small lizards, tree toads, and similar harmless silurians
of diminutive size are very common, while occasionally the iguana
and other large varieties of the lizard species are seen.
Few varieties of snakes exist in Cuba. One of these, the maja,
from 10 to 14 feet in length, is a semidomesticated reptile, if such a
term may be used, for it is most frequently found about the huts,
farmhouses, and small villages, its favorite living place being in the
palm-leaf thatches of the older buildings, while its favorite food is
poultry. Another snake, named the juba, is more vicious in disposition
,han the maja, although never reaching more than one-third its size.
It is not poisonous. The other varieties are still smaller in size, are
seldom seen, and are not venomous.





24 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.

The land crabs are very abundant and annoying. They vary in size
from an inch to 8 inches or more in diameter. Scorpions, centipeds,
and tarantulas are plentiful, and, although they are poisonous, their
bites are rarely, if ever, fatal.
HISTORY.
Many books have been written about Cuba, but few detailed and
reliable histories. Such information as is available is in fragmentary
form, and many important events connected with the affairs of the
island are unrecorded, or so briefly touched on as to be unintelligible.
The time allowed for the preparation of this report will not admit of
an extended compilation of historic facts and no attempt has been
made, therefore, to do so. But it has been considered advisable, as
pertinent to this census, to refer to the discovery and first settlement
of Cuba, its government, and the causes which have apparently
affected its progress. An effort has also been made to collect all
reliable data in regard to the movement of population, agriculture,
and education, and these are presented by way of preface to the
analysis of the tables.
Cuba was discovered by Columbus Sunday, October 28, 1492.
According to the most reliable evidence, he landed in, or a little to
the west of, what is now called the bay of Nuevitas, on the north
coast of the province of Puerto Principe. He took possession of the
island in the name of Christ, Our Lady, and the reigning Sovereigns
of Spain, and named it Juana in honor of Prince John.
Continuing his voyage, Columbus sailed west as far as the Laguna
de Moron, where he arrived October 31. From here, on November
12, he commenced to retrace his steps. It is somewhat difficult to
decide from his journal where he sailed between November 12 and 26.
He appears to have returned to the vicinity of the Guija Islands and
then to have cruised about among the keys and islands off the prov-
ince of Puerto Principe, finally reaching the Bay of Nuevitas.
On November 26 he sailed southeast along the coast of Santiago de
Cuba to Baracoa, where he arrived on the evening of November 27.
From there he sailed, on December 4, to Point Maysi, the eastern end
of the island, and on the following day to the island of San Domingo.
On the 3d of May, 1493, Pope Alexander VI issued a bull conferring
on Ferdinand and Isabella all lands already discovered, or to be dis-
covered, in the Western Ocean, thus confirming by divine right, to
all Christendom, the claims of Columbus.
Columbus visited Cuba three times after this. In 1493, during his
second voyage, he followed the southern coast from Point Maysi as
far as Bataban6 and the Isle of Pines, which he reached June 13,
1493, discovering in the meantime the island of Jamaica, which he
visited while en route from Santiago de Cuba to Cape Cruz. During

























































RUINS OF COPPER MINES AT EL COBRE AND SIERRA MAESTRE.






mHITOR. 25
this voyage Columbus visited Guantanamo, Trinidad, and probably
Cienfuegos.
During his fourth and last voyage, he touched at Cayo Largo,
off the south coast of the province of Santiago de Cuba, in July, 1502,
while en route to, and again in May, 1503, when returning from, the
mainland.
From this time to its permanent occupation by the Spaniards, Cuba
does not appear to have been visited often by other explorers, although
in 1508 Sebastian Ocampo, acting under the orders of Nicolas de
Ovando, Governor of San Domingo, reported that Cuba was an island,
but this was known, probably, to other explorers several years before.
Nevertheless, it does not appear that Cuba received much attention
from the Spanish authorities prior to 1511.
In that year Diego Columbus, Admiral of the Indies and Governor
of San Domingo, sent Capt. Diego Velasquez, one of the companions
of Columbus in his second voyage, to subdue and colonize Cuba. With
a force of 300 men he sailed from San Domingo and landed near Point
Maysi, going thence to Baracoa, where the first settlement was made
in 1512. In 1514 Velasquez founded Trinidad and Santiago de Cuba,
on the southern side of the island, to facilitate communication with the
Spanish colonies of Jamaica and the mainland, Sancti Spiritus near its
middle point, and Remedios, Bayamo, Puerto Principe, and San Cris-
tobal de la Habana, the latter on what is now the site of Bataban6.
In 1519 this name was transferred to a settlement on the present site
of Habana. The same year, Baracoa, having been raised to the dig-
nity of a city and bishopric, was declared the capital, and so remained
until 1522, when both were removed to Santiago. Habana became
the capital in 1552.
On the death of Ferdinand, January 23, 1516, Velasquez renamed the
island Fernandina in his honor. It was subsequently named Santiago,
after the patron saint of Spain, but the name was again changed to
Ave Maria, in honor of the Virgin. Through all these official changes,
however, it retained its native original name.
Velasquez continued to govern Cuba as adelantado, or lieutenant-
governor, under the governor and audiencia of Santo Domingo, until
his death in 1524. He had five successors in the office of lieutenant-
governor. (See Appendix for list of Governors.) The first Governor,
Hernando de Soto, was appointed in 1536; he was also adelantado
of Florida. The first Captain-General was Don Gabriel de Lujan,
appointed in 1581. During this interval the Spanish population had
increased very slowly; but two additional towns, Guanabacoa and El
Cobre, were founded, 1555 and 1558, and not another town was built
for more than one hundred years.
In the seventeenth century but two towns of any importance, Matan-
zas and Santa Clara, were founded, and in the eighteenth but nine.






REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


At the end of this period the population of the island is said to have
numbered 275,000 souls, while the development of its wealth had
scarcely begun. In fact, for many years after its colonization, Cuba
was not a wealth-producing colony, and, therefore, not an object of
much solicitude or patronage. In the general scheme of colonizing
the West Indies, both Cuba and Jamaica were occupied to facilitate
trade with the rich colonies of the Spanish main, and while still a
young colony Cuba, as a depot of supply, was severely taxed by the
numerous expeditions which sailed from her shores between the years
1512 and 1538.
If the situation and many natural advantages of Cuba be considered,
it is evident at a glance that either the Cubans have been blind to
their opportunities or that causes generally beyond their control have
retarded the growth of the population and the development of the
island's resources. The latter would seem to be the case, although it
can not be said that the Cubans were not in some measure accountable.
The principal staples of Cuba, and those upon which its wealth mainly
depends, are sugar and tobacco. The largest sugar crop, 1894-95,
was 1,054,000 tons; the largest tobacco crop (same year), about 2,480,000
arrobas, or 62,000,000 pounds; and its population at the outbreak of
the recent war was probably between 1,800,000 and 2,000,000 souls.
It is the opinion of experienced and enlightened judges that the island
could easily have produced a crop of sugar and tobacco five times as
large and had a population of 5,000,000 people had its administration
been characterized by different theories of government.
That, in the administration of her colonies, Spain was a bad excep-
tion to a general rule of liberal and generous government on the part
of other countries toward their colonial dependencies is by no means
the case. In fact, much the same ideas appear to have influenced
all of them at the outset, although the results were different, as might
be expected of governments having different origins, forms, and
theories. The prevailing idea appears to have been that the political
and economic interests of colonies were always to be subordinated to
those of the home country, no matter how injurious the consequences,
and, while in some instances this course was modified with most
beneficial results, it was followed unremittingly by Spain to the end
of her supremacy over Cuba.
Aside from the fact that during the early history of Cuba Spain had
little surplus population to dispose of, and that through the expulsion
of the Jews and Moors she lost a large and valuable part of it, her
trade restrictions, established at the beginning of the colonial period
in her history and continued without essential modification for nearly
three hundred years, would account, in some measure, for the slow
increase in the population and industries of Cuba. These restric-
tions appear to have originated in the royal cedula of May 6, 1497,






HISTORY.


granting to the port of Seville the exclusive privilege of trade with
the colonies. At the same time the Casa de Contratacion, or Council
of Trade, was established, upon which was conferred the exclusive
regulation of trade and commerce, although later the Council exercised
its functions under the general control of the Council of the Indies.
San Domingo, and later Vera Cruz, were the only colonial ports author-
ized to trade with Seville. In 1717 the trade monopoly of Seville was
transferred, by royal order, to the port of Cadiz, in Spain.
While Santiago was the capital of Cuba, trade between the island
and the home ports mentioned was restricted to that place, and when,
in 1552, the capital was transferred to Habana, that city became the
sole port of entry until 1778, except during the English occupation of
the island, 1762-63, when Habana was opened to free trade. By the
royal decree of October 12, 1778, trade between Santiago, Trinidad,
Batabano, and other Spanish ports was authorized. This privilege
was extended to Nuevitas in 1784, to Matanzas 1793, Caibarien 1794,
and Manzanillo and Baracoa in 1803. Prior to this Cuban ports were
practically under an embargo of the strictest kind. Even between
the ports of Habana and Seville or Cadiz, there was no free communi-
cation, but all trading vessels were gathered into fleets, or "flotas,"
from time to time, and made the voyage accompanied by Spanish
war ships, partly for protection against freebooters and pirates, but
chiefly to prevent trade with other ports. In 1765 this restriction was
removed.
The maritime laws regulating trade and commerce forbade trade
even between the colonies, and as early as 1592 trade with foreigners
was only permitted by special authority, and in 1614 and 1680 trade
with foreigners was prohibited under pain of death and confiscation
of the property concerned.
The treaties of the period appear to have recognized these prohibi-
tions as entirely justifiable under the rules of international intercourse
as they existed at that time. Thus by the treaties of 1648 and 1714
between Spain and the Dutch provinces it was agreed by the con-
tracting parties to abstain from trading in the ports and along the
coast of the Indies belonging to each of the treaty nations. Again,
by the treaty of Madrid between England and Spain, similar engage-
ments were made, although article 10 provided that in case vessels
arrived at the prohibited ports under stress or shipwreck they should
be kindly received and permitted to purchase provisions and repair
damages. This privilege was subsequently withdrawn by royal orders
of January 20 and April 15, 1784, which prescribed that no vessel
belonging to a foreign nation should be permitted to enter, even under
the pretext of seeking shelter. The severity of these restrictions was
modified later on and, by a royal order of January 8, 1801, Cuban
ports were thrown open to the commerce of friendly and neutral
nations.





REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


Other commercial privileges were granted in 1805, 1809, 1810, and
1812, due, in great measure, if not entirely, to the French invasion of
the Peninsula and its effect on Spanish possessions in the West Indies
and America. But these concessions to trade with Spanish colonies
were but temporary, as by royal orders of January 10, November 17,
and July 10, 1809, foreign commerce with Spanish-American ports
was prohibited. Against these last restrictions of trade the various
Spanish colonial Governors, and especially the Captain-General of
Cuba, protested on the ground of the necessities of the colonies and
the inability of Spain to meet them. These objections having been
favorably considered by the Council for the Indies, foreign trade with
Habana was extended for six months.
Many other decrees and royal orders affecting trade with Cuba and
the other Spanish colonies were promulgated during the period between
1775 and 1812, but they throw no additional light on this subject. It
is plain that Spain was always averse to granting trade facilities with
her colonies, and only did so for a time when forced by her necessities;
but having once opened Cuban ports and to that extent established the
privilege of foreign trade, which it was difficult to recall, the next step
was to restrict it as far as possible by duties, tonnage, and port dues,
and arbitrary tariffs imposed from time to time in such a way as to
render foreign commerce unprofitable. Without going into details it
may be said that up to 1824 duties on foreign commerce were much
greater than on Spanish merchandise, and while from that year they
were generally less restrictive, still they were always high enough to
compel Cubans to purchase from Spanish merchants, who, as Spain
did not herself produce what was needed, bought from French,
German, American, or other sources, thereby raising prices far above
what they would have been under a system less hampering. In
fact, up to 1818 Cuba does not appear to have had a tariff system. In
that year a tariff was promulgated making the duties 26J per cent on
agricultural implements and 43 per cent ad valorem on other foreign
merchandise. This was modified in 1820 and 1822 and the duties reduced
to 20 per cent on agricultural implements and 37 per cent ad valorem
on foreign industrial products. On all Spanish importations under
this classification the duties were two-thirds less. The tariff of 1824
was less prohibitive.
Not satisfied, apparently, with this arrangement for excluding
foreign trade or with the amount of customs revenue, an export tariff
was established in 1828 on sugar and coffee, which had by that time
become important products. On sugar the duty was four-fifths of a
cent per pound, and on coffee two-fifths of a cent per pound. If
exported in foreign vessels, the duty on sugar was doubled and on
coffee was increased to 1 cent per pound. With slight modifications






HISTORY.


these duties continued to August 1, 1891, when, under the McKinley
tariff law, a reciprocal commercial agreement was proclaimed by Presi-
dent Harrison between Spain and the United States, which enabled
Cuba to seek its nearest and most natural market. In a short time
nearly the entire trade of Cuba was transferred to the United States,
and Cuba enjoyed a degree of prosperity never before attained.
But with the termination of this agreement by the tariff law of 1894,
the old practice of differential, special, and discriminating duties
against foreign trade was reestablished, thus forcing upon the Cubans
compulsory trade with Spain. There seems to be no question among
impartial and intelligent judges as to the injurious effect of this system
on the growth of Cuba's population and material progress, both largely
dependent on commercial advantages.
Another evil born of the system and given a certain amount of
immunity through the reverses and disasters of the Spanish navy, in
consequence of which Spain was unable to protect her commerce or
fully enforce trade regulations, is smuggling, which began with trade
restrictions and monopolies and has continued to this day, the amount
of merchandise smuggled being, for many years, nearly equal to
that regularly imported and exported. From smuggling on a large
scale and privateering to buccaneering and piracy is not a long step,
and under the name of privateers French, Dutch, English, and
American smugglers and buccaneers swarmed the Caribbean Sea and
Gulf of Mexico for more than two centuries, plundering Spanish
flotas and attacking colonial settlements. Among the latter, Cuba
was the chief sufferer. Sallying forth from Santo Domingo, Jamaica,
the Tortugas, and other islands and keys, these marauders raided the
island throughout the whole extent of its northern, eastern, and south-
ern coast line, levying tribute, kidnapping individuals, and carrying off
whatever was needed. In 1538 they attacked and burned Habana.
In 1544 they attacked Baracoa, Matanzas, and Habana, which they
again sacked and burned. In 1604 Giron, a French buccaneer, landed
twice in Santiago, capturing the Morro, and in 1679 French buc-
caneers again raided the province. Incursions on a smaller scale were
frequent, causing the Captain-General to issue an order requiring all
men to go armed and all persons to retire to their homes after night-
fall. By the terror they excited these raids retarded somewhat the
development of agriculture by compelling the people to concentrate
in the towns for protection. On the other hand, they stimulated the
construction of fortifications in the harbor of Habana and other ports,
which, a few years later, made them safe against such incursions.
Coupled with trade restrictions and extending throughout the entire
life of Cuba as a dependency of Spain, excessive taxation has always
prevailed. Apart from imports and exports, taxes were levied on real






REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


and personal property and on industries and commerce of all kinds.
Every profession, art, or manual occupation contributed its quota,
while, as far back as 1638, seal and stamp taxes were established on
all judicial business and on all kinds of petitions and claims made to
official corporations, and subsequently on all bills and accounts.
These taxes were in the form of stamps on official paper, and at the
date of American occupation the paper cost from 35 cents to $3 a
sheet. On deeds, wills, and other similar documents the paper cost
from 35 cents to $37.50 per sheet, according to the value of the prop-
erty concerned. Failure to use even the lowest-priced paper involved
a fine of $50.
There was also a municipal tax on the slaughter of cattle for the
market. This privilege was sold by the municipal council to the
highest bidder, with the result that taxes were assessed on all animals
slaughtered, whether for the market or for private consumption, with
a corresponding increase in the price of meat.
Another tax established in 1528, called the derecho de averia,
required the payment of 20 ducats ($16) by every person, bond or
free, arriving in the island. In 1665 this tax was increased to $22,
and continued in force to 1765, thus retarding immigration, and, to
that extent, the increase of population, especially of the laboring
class.
An examination of these taxes will show their excessive, arbitrary,
and unscientific character, and how they operated to discourage Cubans
from owning property or engaging in many industrial pursuits tending
to benefit them and to promote the material improvement of the island.
Taxes on real estate were estimated by the tax inspector on the
basis of its rental or productive capacity, and varied from 4 to 12
per cent. Similarly, a nominal municipal tax of 25 per cent was
levied on the estimated profits of all industries and commerce, and
on the income derived from all professions, manual occupations, or
agencies, the collector receiving 6 per cent of all taxes assessed.
Much unjust discrimination was made against Cubans in determining
assessable values and in collecting the taxes, and it is said that bribery
in some form was the only effective defense against the most flagrant
impositions.
Up to the year 1638 the taxes were collected by royal officers
appointed by the King, and their accounts were passed on by the
audiencia of Santo Domingo. In that year contadores (auditors) were
appointed who exercised fiscal supervision over the tax collectors,
until, by royal cedula of October 31, 1764, the intendancy of Habana
was created, the administration of taxes being conducted as in Spain.
Since 1892 the taxes have been collected by the Spanish Bank under a
ten years' contract, the bank receiving a commission of 5 per cent.
About 18 per cent of the assessed taxes remained uncollected between





HISTORY.


1886 and 1897, and the deficits thus caused were added to the Cuban
debt, ever a subject of universal discontent.'
If to high taxes, high tariffs, and utter indifference, apparently, to
the needs of the island be added a lack of banking facilities of all
kinds, and a system of currency dependent entirely on the Spanish
Government and affected by all its financial difficulties, we have some
of the reasons why the economic development of Cuba has been slow.
"All her industrial profits were absorbed by Spain, leaving no surplus
to provide for the accumulation of capital and the material-progress
of the island,"' which was apparently regarded as a government
monopoly, whose productive capacity was in no wise connected with
its economic interests. Accordingly, such interests were invariably
subordinated to those of Spain-with which they rarely accorded-no
matter how injurious the result. That this course should have been
followed in the early period of Spanish colonization is not strange. All
sorts of economic experiments, based on what are now considered
absurd economic theories, were tried about that time by European
countries in vain efforts to promote national prosperity by entirely
unnatural methods. Thus, for many years Cuba was prohibited, in
common with other colonies, from the cultivation of raw products
raised in Spain, thus reversing the theory and practice under which
England subsequently developed her manufacturing industries at home,
successfully colonized all parts of the habitable globe, and established
her enormous colonial trade, by the very natural process of paying for
the raw products of her colonies in manufactured articles. No nation
in Europe during the sixteenth century was in a better condition than
Spain to establish such a system, as she was essentially a manufactur-
ing country. But with the expulsion of the Moors her manufactures
were practically ruined; the wealth which for many years had poured
in from the colonies in exchange for the supplies shipped them now
passed through her to other countries in consequence of her extinguished
industries, and she became little more than a clearing house for foreign
products. Five-sixths of the manufactured articles used in Spain were
imported, and foreigners, in direct violation of Spanish laws, soon car-
ried on nine-tenths of the trade with her colonies.
It may be said that results equally unfortunate appear to have attended
all other branches of Spanish colonial government. Under a policy so
shortsighted that it was blind to the most ordinary precautions, and
'According to the data of the tribunal of accounts (tribunal de suentas) of Habana,
referred to by Sefior la Sagra, Cuba received as ordinary and extraordinary "situados"
from Mexico, from 1766 to 1788, 57,739,346 pesos fuertes, and from 1788 to 1806 the
sum of 50,411,158 pesos fuertes.
'The proof of this is the bad condition of the roads and harbors, the absence of
docking facilities, the lack of adequate water supply in cities, of sewers, paved streets,
schoolhouses and other public buildings essential to every community and provided
by private or public enterprise.






REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


long after repeated warnings should have suggested a greater measure
of economic and political independence for Cuba, the entire system of
Cuban government and administration was retained in the hands of
Spanish officials to the exclusion of native Cubans, thus substituting
for home rule a government which, however necessary in the earlier
history of the island, became, with the lapse of centuries, an object of
suspicion and hatred to a large majority of Cubans, as the medium
through which Spain exercised despotic power over them and appro-
priated to herself the wealth of the island. That these feelings would
have yielded to greater economic and political freedom, there can be
no question. Political independence was not generally advocated at
first. Autonomy under the protection of Spain was as far as the
industrial classes cared to go, and had this been granted ten years
earlier Cuba might and probably would have remained a Spanish col-
ony. It was the economic rather than the political aspect of the island
that concerned the greater part of its population. But in Cuba polit-
ical and economic conditions were inseparable under the theory of
colonial government which prevailed, and economic concessions were
not to be thought of if the practice of stripping Cuba by the various
means described without giving Cubans the least opportunity to pre-
vent it in a peaceful way was to continue.
That they would ever resort to force was not believed, or if believed,
not feared, in the face of a despotic Governor-General with a local army
and navy to enforce his authority and the whole power of Spain in
reserve. Besides, the Cubans had given ample proof of their loyalty.
But the rulers of Cuba, usually blind to its interests, were to test
the loyalty of her people beyond the limits of endurance, and, as a
result, to lose for Spain her "ever faithful island."
From the time of Velasquez, 1512, to General Don Adolpho Jim-
enez Castellanos, 1898, Cuba had 136 rulers. A list of them will be
found in Appendix XV, and it may be said that, with but a dozen excep-
tions, they did nothing toward the development of the island or the
welfare of the people, although clothed with despotic power since
1825. A large number of them were Spanish politicians, appointed
without special reference to their fitness, but as a reward for services,
personal or political, rendered to the Spanish Government. The
resources of Cuba were always available to the home party in control
for this purpose, which accounts in some measure for the unanimity
of Spanish opinion respecting political concessions to the island. It
was necessary that its control should remain absolutely in the hands
of the Captain-Generals representing the home government; but there
is very little question that had all of them exercised their authority
with moderation, lightened the burden of taxation, removed or modi-
fied many trade restrictions, promoted public works, and used their






HISTORY.


authority to extend the influence of the Cubans in the administration
of the island, the dominion of Spain might have been continued for
years to come, as much of the political agitation would have been
avoided, the gulf between Spaniards and Cubans would have been
bridged over, until, through these and other influences, an adjustment
of the economic situation would have brought peace and prosperity to
the people.
The first serious opposition to the insular government was brought
out by the attempt of Captain-General Vicente Roja to enforce the
government monopoly in tobacco, decreed in 1717. Several bloody
riots occurred and Roja was obliged to withdraw temporarily from the
island.
Apart from uprisings among the negroes, stimulated no doubt by
the success of their race over the French in the neighboring island
of San Domingo there were no other attempts at insurrection on
the part of Cubans until after the conspiracy of 1823, planned by a
secret society known as the "Soles de Bolivar." This conspiracy
resulted from the attempt of Captain-General Vives to carry out the
instructions of Ferdinand VII, after the abrogation of the Spanish
liberal constitution of 1812, and was intended as a protest against a
return to absolutism in Cuba; but, apparently, it failed of effect, and
there was no relaxation of efforts to reestablish the old order. The
conspiracy was of a serious character and extended over the entire
island, but centered in Matanzas, where among the revolutionists was
Jose Maria Heredia, the Cuban poet. The conspiracy failed and the
leader, Jose Francisco Lemus, and a large number of conspirators were
arrested and deported. A feeling of bitter resentment against the
Government was the result, and a period of agitation and public
demonstration followed. Frequent uprisings were attempted in 1824,
but failed.
It would have been well for Spain had Ferdinand VII been warned
by these events and endeavored, by conciliatory measures, to allay
such manifest feelings of discontent. But neither he nor his advisors
would see the "handwriting on the wall." With characteristic sever-
ity, the royal decree of May 28, 1825, was issued, conferring on the
Captain-General "all the powers of governors of cities in a state of
siege with full and unlimited authority to detach from the
island and to send to the Peninsula all officials and persons employed
in whatsoever capacity, and of whatsoever rank, class, or condition,
whose presence may appear prejudicial, or whose public or private
conduct may inspire you with suspicion and further to
suspend the execution of any order or general regulations issued in
whatever branch of the administration and to whatever extent you
may consider convenient to the royal service, etc., to see that faithful
24662- 3






REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


servants of His Majesty be remembered, at the same time punishing
without delay or hesitation the misdeeds of those, etc."1
An army from Spain, intended for the subjugation of former Span-
ish colonies in South America, which was to have been dispatched from
Cuba, was retained there, and a military commission was permanently
organized to try political offenses under the above decree and the arti-
cles of war.
Political agitation having taken the form of revolutionary demon-
strations, there was a gradual separation on political lines between
the Cubans and Spaniards, and numberless Cuban secret societies were
formed throughout the island for political propaganda. Allied with
the Cubans were all of the more radical, as well as the more moderate
liberal members of the community, while the Spanish party included
beneficiaries of former monopolies and the conservative and reac-
tionary elements, which, under the policy of the Captain-Generals, had
crystallized around the officials of the government and their coadjutors
in the church.
The political agitation continued, and in 1826 a small uprising took
place in Puerto Principe, directed by the Sociedad de la Cadena, and
aimed against the abuses of the regiment Leon quartered there. The
same year (June 22) the Congress of American Republics assembled
at Panama, to which the President of the United States appointed Mr.
John Sergeant, of Pennsylvania, and Mr. Richard Anderson, of Ken-
tucky, as envoys extraordinary and ministers plenipotentiary. Mr.
Anderson was United States minister to Colombia and died en route
to the congress, which had adjourned before Mr. Sergeant arrived, to
meet at Tacabaya. But it did not meet again, and consequently the
United States delegates took no part in its deliberations.
The objects of this congress, as set forth in the correspondence, were
to urge the establishment of liberal principles of commercial inter-
course, in peace and war, the advancement of religious liberty, and
the abolition of slavery, to discuss the relations of Hayti, the affairs
of Cuba and Porto Rico, the continuation of the war of Spain on her
Spanish colonies, and the Monroe doctrine, which announced as a
principle, "that the United States could not view any interposition
for the purpose of oppressing them (governments in this hemisphere
whose independence had been declared and acknowledged by the United
States), or controlling in any other manner their destiny, by any Euro-
pean power in any other light than as a manifestation of an unfriendly
disposition toward the United States."
While the United States no doubt sympathized with the objects of
the congress, the debates in the Senate and House of Representatives
indicated a desire to avoid interference with Spain, a friendly nation,
SPromulgated again in the royal decrees of March 21 and 26, 1834.





HISTORY.


or the slavery question, and that it was not prudent to discuss ques-
tions which might prove embarrassing to the United States if called on
to consider them at a future time. As a result, the American dele-
gates were given limited powers, and this, coupled with the conserva-
tive attitude of the United States, resulted in the failure of the congress
to achieve any result.
The year before Francisco Agaiero and Manuel Andres Sanches, a
second lieutenant in the Colombian army, had been sent from Cuba to
the United States and to Colombia to urge their interference and assist-
ance. An expedition was organized in Colombia to be led by the
famous Colombian patriot, Simon Bolivar, but the failure of the
Panama congress caused the abandonment of the expedition. On the
return of the emissaries to Cuba they were arrested, tried, and
executed.
Following this effort, in 1830, a revolution was planned by the
society of the "Black Eagle," a Masonic fraternity having its base of
operations in Mexico, with secondary bases in Habana and at various
points throughout the island. The conspiracy failed, and several of
the conspirators received sentence of death, afterwards commuted by
Captain-General Vives to life imprisonment. The object of the con-
spiracy was the independence of Cuba, the pretext a report that the
island was to be ceded to Great Britain.
In 1836 the constitution of 1812 was reestablished in Spain, but
proved of no benefit to Cuba. On the contrary, the deputies sent
from Cuba to the constitutional convention in Madrid were excluded,
and, by a royal decree of 1837, the representation in the Cortes which
had been given Cuba in 1834 was taken away, and it was announced
that Cuba would be governed by special laws. These, the Cubans
claim, were never published. From this time to 1847 several upris-
ings or insurrections occurred throughout Cuba, followed in that year
by a revolutionary conspiracy organized by Narciso Lopez, and hav-
ing in view the liberation of the island or its annexation to the United
States. It had been arranged to make the first demonstration on the
4th of July, in the city of Cienfuegos, but the plot was made known
to the Spanish Governor, and Lopez and his companions fled to the
United States, where, in 1849, they organized a fillibustering expe-
dition, which was prevented from leaving by the vigilance of the
Government. In 1850 Lopez organized a second expedition, which
sailed from New Orleans May 10 and landed with 600 men at Carde-
nas, attacking its small garrison. A portion surrendered with Gov-
ernor Ceniti and the remainder went over to the insurgents. As
the uprising upon which Lopez depended did not take place, he
reembarked the same day and made his escape to Key West.
Undeterred by these failures, he organized a third expedition of 480
men in 1851, which sailed from New Orleans and landed, August 12,






REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


at Playitas, near Bahia Honda, 55 miles west of Habana. Colonel
Crittenden, of Kentucky, with 150 men formed part of the force. On
landing Lopez advanced on Las Pozas, leaving Colonel Crittenden in
El Morrillo. Meeting a Spanish force under General Enna, Lopez
was defeated after a gallant fight, his force dispersed and he with some
50 of his men captured and taken to Habana, where he was garroted.
In attempting to escape by sea Crittenden and his party were captured
and on the 16th of September were shot at the castle of Atares.
In the same year an uprising took place in Puerto Principe, led by
Juaquin de Agriero, but the movement came to naught and he and
several of his companions were executed.
Following the attempt of Agfiero came the conspiracy of Vuelta
Abajo, organized in 1852 by Juan Gonzalez Alvara, a wealthy planter
of the province of Pinar del Rio. Associated with him were several
other prominent Cubans, and among them Francisco de Fras, Count of
Pozos Dulces. This attempt at revolution was discovered and the
leading conspirators arrested. They were tried and sentenced to death,
but were finally transported under sentence of life imprisonment.
Meantime the Liberal Club of Habana and the Cuban Junta in New
York were raising money and organizing expeditions destined for Cuba.
Some of them sailed, and in 1859 an attempt was made to landat Nue-
vas Grandes. But these expeditions accomplished little, except to
keep alive the spirit of revolution.
From this time to the outbreak of the revolution of 1868 the con-
dition of Cuban affairs does not appear to have improved. Taxes
continued excessive and duties exorbitant, reaching at times an
average of 40 per cent ad valorem on all imports, and so distributed
as practically to prohibit trade with any country except Spain. Small
uprisings and insurrections were frequent and there were many exe-
cutions. Meanwhile the results of the civil war in the United States,
and more particularly the abolition of slavery, encouraged the Cubans
to hope for liberal reforms, especially in the trade and industries of
the island, but no concessions appear to have been made until the year
1865, when, by a royal decree of November 25, a commission was
appointed by Isabella II to consider the question of reforms in the
administration of Cuba. Nothing came of it, however, although it
afforded an opportunity to the few Cuban delegates who were present
to formulate their views. They demanded greater political and eco-
nomic liberty, a constitutional insular government, freedom of the
press, the right of petition and assembly, the privilege of holding
office, and representation in the Cortes. It would have been well for
Spain had she listened to these complaints and made some effort to
satisfy them, but nothing was done and as a result the revolution of
1868 was commenced at Yara in the province of Puerto Principe.
It was ended by the capitulation of Zanjon, February 10, 1878, and






HISTORY. 37

in its more serious phases was confined to the provinces of Santiago
and Puerto Principe. No battles or serious engagements were fought,
although a guerrilla warfare of great cruelty and intensity was carried
on. While the casualties of the fighting were comparatively few for
a war of such duration, there were many deaths from disease, exe-
cutions, and massacres, and the Spanish troops suffered severely from
yellow fever, which prevailed at all times in the sea-coast cities.
The effect of the ten years' war on the material condition of Cuba
can not be stated with accuracy. The population had increased in the
ten years previous at the rate of 17 per cent during the war, and for
ten years after the increase was but 6 per cent. A large number of
lives and a large amount of property were destroyed, and an enormous
debt was incurred, while taxes of all kinds increased threefold. The
war is said to have cost the contestants $300,000,000, which was charged
to the debt of Cuba.
By the capitulation of Zanjon' Spain agreed to redress the griev-
ances of Cuba by giving greater civil, political, and administrative
privileges to the people, with forgetfulness of the past and amnesty
for all then under sentence for political offenses. It has been claimed
by Cubans that these promises were never fulfilled, and this and the
failure of the Cortes to pass the bill reforming the government of
Cuba, introduced in 1894 by Sefior Maura, minister for the colonies,
are generally given as the causes of the last rebellion. On the other
hand, Spain has always insisted that every promise was observed, and
that even more was granted than was asked for or stipulated in the
articles of capitulation. Thus, by the decree of March 1, 1878, Cuba
and Porto Rico were given representation in the Spanish Cortes, upon
the basis of their respective populations, and the provincial and munic-
ipal laws of 1877 promulgated in Spain were made applicable to Cuba.
By proclamation of March 24, 1878, full amnesty was given to all,
even to Spanish deserters who had served in the insurgent army; on
May 23,1879, the penal code of Spain and the rules for its application
were given effect in Cuba; on April 7, 1881, the Spanish constitution,
full and unrestricted, as in force in Spain, was extended to Cuba by
law; in 1885 the Spanish law of civil procedure was given to Cuba, and
on July 31, 1889, the Spanish civil code, promulgated in 1888, was put
in operation in Cuba and Porto Rico.
After examining all the evidence, however, the student of Cuban
history will probably conclude that while the Spanish Government was
technically correct in claiming to have enacted all laws necessary to
make good her promises, there was a failure usually to execute them,
and that, as a matter of fact, political conditions in Cuba remained
'Sometimes referred to as the "Treaty" or "Compromise" of Zanjon.
SSame as people of Porto Rico.






REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


practically as before the war, although very much improved on the
surface.'
A serious permanent fall in the price of sugar in 1884 and the final
abolition of slavery in 1887 added to the economic troubles of the
people, and in conjunction with continued political oppression, kept
alive the feelings which had brought on the war. The Cubans believed
that notwithstanding the capitulation of Zanjon they were still mere
hewers of wood and drawers of water, with but little voice in the
government of the island, and that Spain was the chief beneficiary
of its wealth. And such would appear to have been the fact if the
following figures, taken from official sources, can be relied upon:
From 1893 to 1898 the revenues of Cuba, under excessive taxation,
high duties, and the Habana lottery, averaged about $25,000,000 per
annum, although very much larger in previous years,2 depending on
the financial exigencies of the Spanish Government. Of this amount
$10,500,000 went to Spain to pay the interest on the Cuban debt,
$12,000,000 were allotted for the support of the Spanish-Cuban army
and navy and the maintenance of the Cuban government in all its
branches, including the church, and the remainder, less than $2,500,000,
was allowed for public works, education, and the general improvement
of Cuba, independent of municipal expenditures. As the amounts
appropriated annually in the Cuban budget were not sufficient to cover
the expenditures and there was a failure to collect the taxes, deficits
were inevitable. These were charged to the Cuban debt, until, by
1897, through this and other causes, it aggregated about $400,000,000,
or an amount per capital of $283.54-more than three times as large as
the per capital debt of Spain and much larger than the per capital debt
of any other European country.
Under such perverted economic management it is not surprising
that another rebellion was planned, and that the war of 1895-1898
followed.
The United States had always shown a friendly interest in the affairs
of Cuba, and the question of its annexation had been discussed as far
back as 1825, when Mr. John Quincy Adams was President, partly, it
is said, to prevent the island from passing under the control of any
other nation, in violation of the Monroe doctrine, and partly for the
purpose of extending the slave territory of the United States. To
this end a popular movement was started in the Southern States dur-
ing the Mexican war (1846). Two years later (1848) President Polk
made propositions to the Spanish Government, through the American
minister in Madrid, having in view the purchase of the island.
It was the interpretation and execution of the laws by Governors having but little
sympathy with the natives rather than the laws themselves that caused most of the
trouble in Cuba.
'In 1860, $29,610,779; 1880, $40,000,000; 1882, $35,860,246.77. Cuba was expected
to contribute whatever was demanded.






HISTORY.


Again, in 1854, the strained relations between Spain and the United
States, growing out of the detention of the American steamer Black
Warrior in the harbor of Habana, charged with violating the customs
regulations, and the search of several American vessels by Spanish
cruisers elicited the "Ostend Manifesto," drawn up by the American
ministers to England, France, and Spain, in which it was declared
"that the possession of Cuba by a foreign power was a menace to the
peace of the United States, and that Spain be offered the alternative of
taking $200,000,000 for her sovereignty over the island or having it
taken from her by force." Finally, during the ten years' war, Presi-
dent Grant, while expressing his belief to the Spanish Government
that only independence and emancipation could settle the Cuban ques-
tion and that intervention might be necessary to end the war, repeat-
edly proffered the good offices of the United States in reestablishing
peace. Meanwhile, in 1873, the capture of the Virginius and the
tragic execution of 53 of her passengers and crew in the city of San-
tiago de Cuba by order of the Spanish commander came near to involv-
ing the countries in war, happily avoided by diplomatic action.1
As the rebellion of 1895 proceeded, much sympathy was felt for the
Cubans by the people of the United States, which being reflected in
Congress resulted in a concurrent resolution of strict neutrality, but
coupled with a declaration that the United States should proffer its
good offices to Spain, through President Cleveland, with a view of
ending the war and securing the independence of the island; but
nothing came of it. As the war continued it excited much interest in
the United States, and, in 1896, both Republican and Democratic
national conventions passed resolutions of sympathy for the Cubans
and demanded that the Government take action.
Although the Committee on Foreign Relations in the Senate of the
Fifty-fourth Congress reported a resolution, December 21, 1896,
recognizing the republic of Cuba, it was never taken from the calen-
dar. Meanwhile reports of outrages and indignities to American
citizens in Cuba and of the dreadful effects of reconcentration were fre-
quently communicated to the Government or published in the press.
In May, 1897, Congress appropriated $50,000 for the purchase of
supplies for the reconcentrados,' as it was reported that many of them
were, or claimed to be, American citizens. The supplies were sent
under permission of Spain, and were distributed to the reconcentrados,
SThe records of the State Department show conclusively that, notwithstanding
serious provocations, the United States up to the time of the recent war had always
observed strict neutrality toward Spain in dealing with Cuba, and had always stood
ready to recognize her control over the island. Nor were the Cubans ever encour-
aged by the President to believe that either belligerency or independence would
receive acknowledgment.
2 Reconcentrados, or, as they were called, Paificos," were the country people (small
farmers), who sympathized with the insurgents and gave them such assistance as they
could. The proclamation of Captain-General Weyler, issued in 1896, required them to
abandon their homes and property of every kind and move into the nearest towns,
where many of them died of starvation and disease. Their homes were destroyed






REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


whether Americans or not, and soon after the revocation of the edict
of reconcentration and the recall of Captain-General Weyler were
requested by the United States. While these requests were favorably
received by Spain, it was very evident that little was being done, and as
the war continued apparently on the same lines, it was thought advisable
to send a man-of-war to Habana for the protection of American citizens.
The battle ship laine was selected for this duty, and sailed in January,
and soon after the Spanish cruiser Viscaya was ordered to visit New
York, as evidence of existing friendly relations. On the night of
February 15 the Maive was blown up and 2 officers and 264 sailors
lost their lives. Spanish officials at once insisted that the explosion
was due to an accident caused by carelessness and lack of discipline.
A board of naval officers was convened by the President to examine
into the circumstances, and after a careful investigation, extending
over a month, reported that the ship had been blown up from the out-
side. A contrary report was the result of a Spanish investigation.
The report of the naval board was laid before Congress by the Presi-
dent, who meanwhile had used every effort to avoid war by diplomatic
action.
Early in April it became known that Spain had proposed to the
insurgents a suspension of hostilities, to be followed by a capitulation,
and had appropriated $600,000 for the relief of the reconcentrados, but
that the proposal had been rejected by the insurgent leaders. As it
was evident from this that the war would continue, the President sent a
message to Congress on April 11, requesting authority to end the war
and to secure in Cuba the establishment of a stable government capa-
ble of maintaining order and observing its international obligations.
On April 19 Congress passed joint resolutions, which, after reciting
the conditions existing in Cuba, demanded the withdrawal of Spain
from the island, and empowered the President to use the military and
naval forces of the United States to carry the resolutions into effect.
This was practically a declaration of war, and, on April 23, the
President issued a proclamation calling for 125,000 volunteers, which
number was subsequently increased to 200,000, and the Regular Army
to 60,000 men. By a formal declaration of April 30, Congress
announced that war had existed since April 21.
On April 24 Commodore Dewey, commanding the Asiatic Squadron,
was notified by the Secretary of the Navy that war with Spain had
begun, and to proceed to the Philippine Islands and capture or
destroy the Spanish fleet. On Apri'27 he sailed from Hongkong in
the execution of this order, and on the afternoon of April 30 arrived
at the entrance of Manila Bay, where, on the following day, he cap-
tured or destroyed all the vessels of the Spanish fleet.
On June 14 an American army, numbering 15,000 men, under com-
mand of Gen. W. R. Shafter, sailed from Port Tampa, Fla., for
Santiago de Cuba, where it arrived on the morning of June 20, and





















4.ze


THE SURRENDER TREE NEAR SAN JUAN HILL






HISTORY.


on July 1 and 2 the battle of San Juan took place, resulting in the
defeat of the Spanish troops and the investment of Santiago.' On the
morning of July 3, the Spanish fleet, under Admiral Cervera, attempted
to escape from the harbor, but was intercepted by the American fleet
under Capt. William T. Sampson and totally destroyed. On July 16,
articles of capitulation were signed at Santiago de Cuba, followed by
the formal surrender of the Spanish forces in the eastern district of
Santiago on July 17.
On August 12 a protocol provided for a cessation of hostilities, and
on December 10 a treaty of peace between the United States and Spain
was signed at Paris. It was ratified by the President February 6,
1899, and by the Queen Regent of Spain March 19, and proclaimed in
Washington, D. C., April 11, thus ending the last act in the drama.
Cuba was to be free at last on the single condition that she estab-
lish a stable government capable of maintaining order and observing
international obligations." With this question she is to deal presently.
While the ten years' war was not without disastrous effects on the
economic development of Cuba, they were trifling as compared-with
the war of 1895-1898, which resulted in a large decrease of population
and of the wealth-producing power of the country. It may be said
in general, on a conservative estimate, that the population of the island
decreased 12 per cent and its wealth two-thirds.
As an indication of the financial stress prevailing in the island, the
ratio of mortgage indebtedness to the value of real property, as
assessed by the Spanish Government, is interesting. The mortgages
and censos are from the reports of the registers of property to the
treasurer of the island for January, 1900, and are shown in the fol-
lowing tables:
RURAL REAL ESTATE.

Province. Value of prop- oe ndbted Amount of quit
erty. gage indebted- rents censuss).
Habana ........................................ $44,140,610.00 $18,797,063.00 $7,037,047.42
Matanzas ................................. 45,94,977.40 35,754,485.38 9,178,964.43
Pinar del Rio............................... 28,982,950.50. 8,00, 998.31 4,833,793.36
Puerto Principe................................ 3,466,736.90 2,706,196.52 984,796.10
Santa Clara............................... 41,838,395.00 37,422,559.71 3,445,936.78
Santiago deCuba.............................. 20,701,166.20 4,135,946.40 188,915.72
Total..................................... 184,724,836.00 1106,897,249.32 225,679,452.81
158 per cent, approximate. 2 14 per cent, approximate.
CITY REAL ESTATE.
Habana.................... .............. $84,804,500.00 89,522,541.96 $11,900,842.61
Matanzas................................. 17,704,963.50 4,685,557.49 1,264,729.11
Pinardel Rio..... ......... .................. 3,278.733.80 640,609.89 286,744.55
Puerto Principe ............................. 2,428,446.00 461,078.83 388,335.40
Santa Clara................................. 19,761,472.30 3,965,725.35 497,992.04
Santiago de Cuba........................... 10,938,944.10 1,454,449.99 270,206.77
Total................................... 138,917,069.70 1100,729,943.51 214,608,850.48
179 per cent, approximate. 2 10 per cent, approximate.

'This included the operations of Lawton at El Caney, July 1.






REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


SIt should not be forgotten in discussing these ratios that there has
tbeen no valuation of real property since American occupation, and that
the values given are those made by Spanish officers some time prior
thereto.
The actual value of real estate, especially of city property, is much
greater than is given in the tables. It is probable that the amount of
encumbrances is also greater than has been stated. It is quite certain
that had the war continued under the same conditions for another year,
nearly the entire rural population of the central and western provinces
would have been destroyed, as also their agricultural wealth. There-
fore American interference did not come too soon, and the Cubans
have every reason to be thankful that the declaration of President
McKinley made to Congress April 11, 1898, "that the war in Cuba
must stop," was not made in vain.
Prominent among the causes tending to retard the material prosper-
ity of Cuba has been the lack of educational interest and facilities.
For nearly three hundred years there were practically no schools in
the island.
A history of education in Cuba is presented elsewhere in this report
as an introduction to the analysis of the tables of education. It is suf-
ficient in this connection to say that prior to 1842 there were no pub-
lic schools in Cuba. In that year, largely through the efforts of the
Sociedad Economica de Habana and of other patriotic residents of the
island, provision was made by the Spanish Government for public
schools. But if any reliance can be placed in the following figures, they
did very little toward educating the masses.
By the census of 1861 there were 793,484 white people in Cuba,
of whom 552,027, or 70 per cent, could not read, and of the 603,046
colored persons, 576,266, or 95 per cent, could not read.
By the census of 1887 there were 1,102,889 whites, of whom 715,575,
or 64 per cent, could not read, and of the 528,798 colored, 463,782, or
87 per cent, could not read. No statistics of the degree of literacy in
the island in 1842, when the publit-school system was commenced, are
available, but the state of education nearly fifty years after affords some
idea of the sufficiency of the schools and of their influence in eradicating
a potent cause of stagnation. An increase of 6 per cent in literacy of the
white population in twenty-six years indicates either that very little
importance was attached to public education as a means of general
improvement, or that no such improvement was expected.
From the contemplation of this picture of prolonged misrule, we
turn in closing to a few incidents in the history of Cuba from which
she derived substantial and lasting benefit. First in chronological
order was the invasion and occupation of the island by the British in
1762, assisted by troops from the Anglo-American colonies. Habana
was surrendered August 13, after a two months' siege. The English

























































CITY OF HABANA.






GOVERNMENT.


held the country as far east as Matanzas until the following spring,
when, by the treaty of Paris (February, 1763), which ended the war
between England, France, and Spain, Cuba was ceded back to Spain in
exchange for Florida. Up to this time Habana had been the only port
of entry since it became the capital in 1558, and even trade with
Habana was confined strictly to Seville and Cadiz. The English opened
this port at once to foreign and domestic commerce, thus removing at
a stroke all the restrictions which had fettered it, and, although the
English occupation lasted but six months, the benefit to Cuba was per-
manent, as after the recession of the island to Spain it was found
impracticable to reestablish former trade restrictions entirely. The
cession of Florida to England caused the migration of a large number
of Spaniards from Florida to Cuba.
The next event, in point of time, which, however unfortunate for
Spain, proved of great benefit to Cuba, was the revolution in the
neighboring island of Haiti, the cession of that island to France
in 1795, :and the race war between the whites and negroes which
followed, and which was continued at intervals for ten years.
Thousands of French and Spanish settlers fled or emigrated to Cuba,
where they located, chiefly in the provinces of Santiago and Puerto
Principe, introducing the cultivation of coffee and adding materially
.to the wealth and agricultural prosperity of the island.
Similarly, the cession of Louisiana to the United States in 1803 and
of Florida in 1819 and the revolution of the Spanish South American
colonies and of Mexico caused a notable increase in the population of
Cuba, to which many loyal Spaniards emigrated or fled for refuge.
In truth, the loyalty of Spaniards to their Government and its insti-
tutions, their patriotic devotion to their country, their steadfast cour-
age, and their patient endurance through many trials and provocations
are among the traits which contributed to the remarkable ascendency
of Spain and her former dominion over more than half the known earth.
Yet, combined with these characteristics, was the leaven of personal lib-
erty and a love of political freedom born of ancient privileges, and for
which they have ev er contended. These qualities, under the influences
of the nineteenth century, were destined to establish republics even
as in past centuries they had founded empires.
GOVERNMENT.
The government of all Spanish colonies was conducted on the the-
ory that newly discovered territory belonged to the Crown rather than
to the Government and that all political control was vested in the King,
who appointed all the Viceroys, Captain-Generals, and Governors.
When Cuba was colonized by Velasquez this control was mainly
exercised through the Council of the Indies. The Cortes of Castile
was seldom called except to vote funds or supplies for the King, and






REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


every branch of colonial administration, civil as well as military, was
under the jurisdiction of the Council, which appointed all officials not
appointed by the King. Thus all government control centered in the
Council and the King, and local self-government, which was developed
at an early stage in the English colonies, became practically impossi-
ble in the Spanish colonies, no matter to what extent it may have
existed in theory.
Coupled with secular control, as an important part of the plan of
colonization, was that of the church, and in every colonial expedition
there were abbots, bishops, priests, friars, or monks, who, while they
were largely interested in the material prosperity of their order by the
acquisition of land, the erection of churches, monasteries, and convents,
devoted themselves zealously to the conversion of the natives and pro-
tected them as far as possible against the cruelty and rapacity of the
invaders. On the other hand, it must be conceded that while in the
early history of the island its purposes were ostensibly benevolent, the
Spanish Church has persistently and rigorously opposed freedom of
conscience, the spread of public education, and every effort on the part
of the Cubans to establish self-government. By the year 1857 the
property of the church in the island amounted to about $7,152,685,
and the adjustment of church claims is now one of the most difficult
questions before the insular government.
The plan of Spanish colonization in America, as well as the laws
governing the colonies, was essentially Roman in origin. Up to the
year 1621 the laws of Spain applied equally to all her colonies, but
thereafter they did not unless declared to do so by the council of the
Indies.
Special regulations, decrees, etc., modifying the application of the
laws to the colonies or promulgating new laws were frequent, and
their compilation in 1680 was published as the "Law of the Indies."
This and the Siete Partidas," on which they were largely based,
comprised the code under which the Spanish American colonies were
governed.
All the colonies were founded practically on the same plan. This
included the presidio, or military headquarters, the pueblo, or town,
and the mission for the conversion and education of the Indians, usu-
ally located at some distance. apart from the other two. The land set
aside for the pueblo was laid out in the form of a square or rectangle.
The plaza, or public square, was then laid out near the central point,
and after that the streets of the town, dividing it into blocks. The
public buildings and church were erected around the plaza, facing it,
the remaining space being occupied with dwellings. This is the plan
of all the oldest cities and towns of Cuba. To the military garrison
was intrusted the protection of the pueblo and mission and the con-
duct of all expeditions for any purpose.









































































L.I L. r" i -'I'






GOVERNMENT.


After establishing the municipality the next step was the exploration
and pacification of the country, and after that the disposition of the
spoils captured, including the land and natives. These were usually
divided among the Spanish followers of the military commander, one-
fifth of all gold, silver, and Indians being turned over to the revenue
officers of the Crown.
As in the mother country, the colonial municipality was the local
political unit, and its government was vested in an ayuntamiento, or
municipal council, consisting of mayors alcaldess) and councilors (regi-
dores). There was also an alguacil, or sheriff, and in the large towns a
procurador syndico, or city attorney. The alcaldes acted as judges and
conducted trials.
In the early history of Spanish municipalities they were, to a limited
extent, self-governing, electing the mayors and councilors. With the
extension of the royal authority following the union of the Spanish
provinces the control of these offices was gradually assumed by the
Crown and they were filled by nomination or appointment, being sold
to the highest bidder, and often made-hereditary. With the return of
more liberal government this practice was discontinued, and finally they
again became elective. This was the experience of Cuban municipali-
ties. Not all the councilors were selected in this way, however, as
some were elected. For such elections a royal decree of 1558 con-
ferred the elective franchise on the forty largest taxpayers and on
those who had academic or university degrees. The alcaldes were
appointed by the Governor-General from the members of the council.
This plan of government continued with slight variations until 1812,
when it was modified, but was reestablished in 1814.
In 1859 each municipality was given a council consisting of 1 mayor,
1 syndic, and 6 aldermen, if the population was 5,000, and 2 deputy
mayors and 10 aldermen if the population was 10,000. Exception
was made of Habana, which was given 7 deputy mayors, 4 syndics,
and 16 aldermen. All councilors, except those appointed for life, were
elected in each municipality by the largest taxpayers, subject to the
approval of the Governor-General, the number of electors being twice
or thrice as many as the number of councilors to be elected, according
as the population was less than or exceeded 10,000. The elections
were held annually, and the Cubans claim that under this system the
offices were generally filled by Spaniards, although they did not com-
prise one-fifth of the white population.
By the electoral law of August 20, 1870, amended by that of Decem-
ber 16, 1875, the elective franchise was conferred on the heads of fam-
ilies actually engaged in some profession or trade, who had resided in
the district for two years at least, and who paid a tax of 5 pesos on
their own property one year before the formation of the electoral list,
or who were civil employees of the state, the province, or municipal-






REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


ity, in active service, or retired or pensioned from the army or navy,
and all adults who had resided in the district two years who could fur-
nish proof of their professional or academic education by means of
an official certificate. Other electoral laws, orders, and decrees regu-
lating the elective franchise have been promulgated since the law of
1875. Property education and tax tests were always qualifications of
both provincial and municipal electors until 1897, when universal suf-
frage in municipal elections only was granted.
Very little authority, especially in fiscal affairs, was conferred on
the municipal councils, the members of which performed a variety of
duties, and their existence as well as their acts were absolutely under
the control of the Governor-General.
By a royal decree of 1878, the organic municipal and provincial laws
of the peninsula, somewhat modified, were extended provisionally to
Cuba. By these laws a municipality is defined to be the legal asso-
ciation of all persons who reside in a municipal district, and is to be
represented by a municipal council as a financial administrative corpo-
ration. A municipal district is the territory under the administra-
tion of a municipal council. Municipal districts are established,
increased, diminished, annexed to other municipal districts, wholly or
in part, or abolished, by the Military Governor as the lawful suc-
cessor of the Governor-General. They correspond in a measure to
American counties or townships, and as prerequisites to their estab-
lishment must contain not less than 2,000 inhabitants, a territory pro-
portioned in extent to the population, and be able to meet the obligatory
municipal expenses.
Municipal districts differ in area, and each forms part of a judicial
district and of a province, but can not belong to different jurisdictions
of the same order. There are 6 provinces, 31 judicial districts, and
132 municipal districts in the island.
To facilitate the administrative service, each municipal district is
divided into subdistricts and the latter into wards (barrios), depending
on the number of residents in the subdistricts. For political purposes
the subdistricts are further divided into electoral districts and the
latter into electoral sections.
As far as practicable, ward limits are arranged so that the wards
shall have approximately the same population; but every part of the
municipal district must form, or be included in, a ward, no matter
what its population may be.
Thus the province of Matanzas has 24 municipal districts and 128
wards, so that the entire province is embraced within district and ward
lines. The seat of municipal government is the principal town or city
in the district where the enumeration of the subdistricts and wards
begins.
Each municipal district has a municipal council and a municipal






























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CITY OF MATANZAS.


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GOVERNMENT.


board. The council governs the district, subject to the supervision of
the governor of the province and Military Governor of the island, and
is composed of a mayor, a certain number of deputy mayors, and
aldermen taken from the members of the council.1
The census of the population determines the number of councilors
to which each municipal district is entitled, as follows: Up to 500
inhabitants, five; 500 to 800, six; 800 to 1,000, seven; between 1,000
and 10,000, one additional councilor for every additional 1,000 people;
and between 10,000 and 20,000, one for every additional 2,000 people.
For more than 20,000, one for every additional 2,000 inhabitants until
the municipal council has the maximum number of 30 councilors.
The number of deputy mayors is determined on the same principle.
Municipal districts of less than 800 inhabitants have no deputy may-
ors; between 800 and 1,000, one; 1,000 to 6,000, two; 6,000 to 10,000,
three; 10,000 to 18,000, four; 18,000 or more, five. Up to 800 inhab-
itants there is but one subdistrict, and between 800 and 1,000 two, but
thereafter the number of subdistricts corresponds to the number of
deputy mayors. Each deputy mayor is in charge of a subdistrict as
the representative of the mayor, discharging such administrative duties
as he may direct, but having no independent functions.
Up to 3,000 inhabitants there is but one electoral district; between
3,000 and 6,000, three; 6,000 to 10,000, four; 10,000 to 18,000, five;
18,000 or more, six.
The councilors are elected from the municipality at large by the
qualified voters of the district, one-half being renewed every two
years, the councilors longest in service going out at each renewal.
They are eligible for reelection. The regular elections are held in the
first two weeks in May, but partial elections are held when, at least
six months before the regular election, vacancies occur which amount
to a third of the total number of councilors. If they occur after this
period they are filled by the governor of the province from among
former members of the council.
All male citizens over 25 years of age who enjoy their full civil
rights, and have lived at least two years in the municipality, are enti-
tled to vote, provided they are not disqualified by sentence for certain
criminal offenses, bankruptcy or insolvency, or are not delinquent tax-
payers or paupers.
The mayors and deputy mayors are appointed by the Military Gov-
ernor from among the councilors on the recommendation of the coun-
cil. But while under the law the deputy mayors must be selected
from the council, the Military Governor may appoint any person as
mayor, whether he belongs to the municipality or not.
In each ward there is also an alcalde de barrio or ward mayor. He
'This law was in force when the census was taken.






BEPOBT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


is appointed by the mayor of the municipal district, who can also sus-
pend or remove him. He is required to keep a register of the horses,
mules, and cattle in his ward, and to discharge such administrative
duties as the deputy mayor of the subdistrict in which his ward is
located may direct.
Each council has a secretary, who is appointed by the Military Gov-
ernor of the island on the recommendation of the council. The coun-
cil also appoints from among its members one or more fiscal attorneys
(procuradores syndicos), whose duty it is to represent the council in all
legal suits which may be instituted, and to revise and audit all local
accounts and budgets. After the council is fully organized the coun-
cilors who are not appointed to other offices in the council are called
aldermen. The mayor and secretary are the only salaried municipal
officers, the office of deputy mayor, fiscal attorney, alderman, associate
member of the municipal board, and mayor of a ward being described
in the law as "gratuitous, obligatory, and honorary." The mayor,
deputy mayors, and fiscal attorneys have the same right to speak and
vote as the members of the council, and, in fact, the first two are
obliged to vote on every resolution.
The duties and responsibilities of the municipal council are those
which usually devolve on such bodies in European countries. The
mayor is president of the council and represents it on all occasions.
He presides at the meetings when the governor of the province is not
present. He votes by right of membership, and in case of a tie casts
the deciding vote, but has neither the veto nor the appointing power.
As a result, there is no division of responsibility between the mayor
and the council in administrative matters, the council, as a whole,
making every appointment and deciding every question of municipal
administration as far as the laws and the provincial and insular gov-
ernors will permit, distributing the work of departmental management
to permanent committees of their own number, which they organize
and constitute as may seem best. These committees have associated
with them such experts and specialists as may be necessary, and take
the place of the several independent departments and boards which are
features of municipal government in the United States.
The sessions of the municipal council are determined by that body,
but can not be less than one each week. Every member is required to
attend punctually or pay a fine. Neither the mayor, the deputies,
aldermen, nor ward mayors can absent themselves from the municipal
district unless they receive permission as follows: The mayor from the
governor of the province, and if the latter does not appoint a tempo-
rary mayor the senior deputy acts; deputy mayors and aldermen require
the permission of the council; ward mayors of the mayor. The gov-
ernor of the province can suspend the mayor or the deputies and
aldermen, as well as the resolutions and decisions of the council, while















Ir
*















BRIDGE OVER YUMURI RIVER MATANZAS
*^^^^^^ .-.-L"

BRIDE OVR YU URIRIVE MATNZA






GOVERNMENT.


the Military Governor can remove all municipal officers and appoint
others to their places, and modify or annul the proceedings of the
council.
The municipal board is composed of the municipal council and an
equal number of associate members elected from among the taxpayers
of the district, who hold office during the fiscal year. It is the duty of
the board to revise the annual budget of municipal expenses prepared
.by the council and to establish the taxes according to law.
By a royal decree of November 25, 1897, municipalities were granted
the power to frame their own laws regarding health, public education,
public highways by land, river or sea, and municipal finances, and
freely to appoint and remove their own employees. Municipal councils
were empowered to choose their own mayors from among the coun-
cilors, and provision was made for a minority representation in the
councils. Owing to the war this decree did not become operative.
General Wood, the Military Governor of Cuba, under date of March
24, 1900, intrusted to the municipal authorities, without any interven-
tion on the part of civil governors, the maintenance of public order,
the execution of municipal ordinances, the administration of the munic-
ipal police, the regulation of public amusements, and the granting of
permits for public parades, assemblies, and meetings within their
respective districts.
By a civil decree of April 18, 1900, the power to elect mayors,
councilors, treasurers, municipal judges, and correctional judges, to
hold office for one year, was conferred on municipalities. This decree
further provided for the registration of voters, the nomination of
candidates, tickets, boards of election, voting, methods of challenge,
and penalties for all kinds of election frauds.
The qualifications of voters at municipal elections were established
as follows:
1. The voter must be a native male Cuban, or the son of a native male Cuban,
born while his parents were temporarily residing abroad, or a Spaniard included
within the provisions of article 9 of the treaty of Paris, who has not made declara-
tion of his decision to preserve his allegiance to the Crown of Spain, as provided in
said article.
2. He must be of the age of 21 years or upward on the day preceding the day of
election.
3. He must have resided in the municipality in which he intends to vote at least
thirty days immediately preceding the first day of registration, and in addition to
the above he must possess any one of the following qualifications: (a) Ability to
read and write; (b) ownership of real or personal property to the value of $250,
American gold; (c) service in the Cuban army prior to July 18, 1898, and the
honorable discharge therefrom, whether a native Cuban or not.
Disqualifications.-No person shall be qualified to vote who is insane or an idiot, or
who is a resident in, or supported by, any public charitable institution, or who is
deprived of or suspended from the exercise of his political rights by sentence of a
court, except in cases where the conviction is for a crime of a political character.
24662--4-






REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT.

Under the laws of Spain, a province is composed of the municipal
districts within its limits. Up to the 8th of October, 1607, Cuba
formed a single province, but by royal decree of that date, it was
divided into two provinces, the Oriental and Occidental, the capitals
of which were the cities of Santiago de Cuba and Habana, respec-
tively. The Governor-General resided in Habana and a provincial
government was established in Santiago. Over the Occidental prov-
ince he had immediate supervision, and over the Oriental through its
governor.
This continued to be the provincial division of the island until July
17, 1827, when by royal decree it was divided into three departments,
to wit: The Occidental, Central, and Oriental, with capitals in Habana,
Trinidad, and Santiago, respectively.
The departments were further divided into districts, the Occidental
having 11, the Central 5, and the Oriental 4. To each department a
lieutenant-governor was appointed-a general officer of the Spanish
army-and to the districts military officers of subordinate rank. The
officers were appointed by the Governor-General, to whom they were
directly responsible for the administration of civil and military affairs
within the territorial divisions to which they were assigned.
In 1850, on the recommendation of the Captain-General, the Central
department was discontinued, and the municipalities of Puerto Prin-
cipe, Neuvitas, and Trinidad were all annexed to the Occidental depart-
ment; the far eastern part of its territory was incorporated with the
Oriental department, which now constitutes the province of Santiago.
By a royal decree of June 9, 1878, Cuba was divided into the
provinces of Pinar del Rio, Habana, Matanzas, Santa Clara, Puerto
Principe, and Santiago de Cuba, with capitals in the cities bearing the
names of the provinces. The provincial government was vested in a
civil governor, a provincial deputation, and a provincial committee.
The governor was appointed and removed by the Governor-General
and received a salary of from $4,000 to $8,000 in Spanish gold, accord-
ing as the province was first, second, or third class.
The provincial deputation was composed of deputies elected for four
years by the qualified voters of the municipalities. The number of
deputies depended on the number of electoral districts in the province
as determined by the provincial deputation, and approved by the Gov-
ernor-General. In the same way the judicial districts of the province
were allowed to elect twelve deputies, more or less, depending on
whether the number of deputies elected by the municipalities exceeded
or was less than twenty. The deputies served without pay.
The provincial committee and its vice-president were appointed by
the Governor-General from among the members of the deputation and
consisted of five deputies who received a salary of from $1,200 to


























































CITY OF PINAR DEL RIO.






GOVERNMENT.


$2,000 a year in Spanish gold, according to the classification of the
province. The deputation met in regular session in November and
April and held such extra sessions as were necessary. The permanent
committee represented the deputation when not in session, and acted as
an advisory body to the governor in respect to matters which the laws
did not impose on the deputation.
The governor of the province, as the representative of the Governor-
General, presided over the deputation and permanent committee and
acted as the chief executive of the province in all matters. It was his
duty to inspect the councils and the municipalities, informing the
Governor-General of all cases of negligence or disaffection. He had
supreme authority, subject, of course, to the Governor-General. He
was responsible for public order, and the military authorities of the
province were under his control.
The provincial deputation had charge generally of the public roads,
harbors, navigation and irrigation, and all kinds of public works of a
provincial character, the charitable institutions and those of instruc-
tion, fairs, expositions, etc., and the administration of the provincial
funds. The secretary, auditor, and treasurer of the deputation were
appointed by the governor of the province on the recommendation of
the deputation.
By a decree of 1892 Cuba was divided into three "Regions"
under the name of Habana, Matanzas, and Santiago de Cuba. The
first one comprised the provinces of Habana and Pinar del Rio, the
second Matanzas and Santa Clara, and the third one Santiago de Cuba
and Puerto Principe. The "Regions" were under regional governors,
who resided in Habana, Matanzas, and Santiago cities, respectively,
and were at the same time civil governors of the provinces. The
provinces of Pinar del Rio, Santa Clara, and Puerto Principe also had
civil governors who were under the authority of the governors of the
regions.
The regional governors had a consulting cabinet called "'Consejo
Regional," composed of five members appointed by the Governor-
General of the island, on the nomination of the regional governors.
The civil governors of the provinces of Pinar del Rio, Santa Clara,
and Puerto Principe had the same authority they had prior to the
establishment of the regions.
It is said that the regions were formed for the purpose of decen-
tralizing the administration of the island, which had always been car-
ried on in Habana, but this result did not follow, and the change only
served, apparently, to introduce further complications.
INSULAR GOVERNMENT.

Valasquez and his successors to the time of Dc Soto, 1538, were
lieutenant-governors, with limited power exercised under the super-
vision of the governor and audiencia of Santo Domingo. De Soto was






52 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.

the first Governor-General, and had nine successors with that title to
1581, when Gabriel de Lujan was appointed Captain-General. This
title was continued to the end of the Spanish control, a period of four
hundred and six years.
While the Governor-General, as the representative of the Crown,
was the civil, military, and political head of Cuba, and as a matter of
fact exercised the highest prerogatives of government, his authority
in reference to disbursements was limited by the direct appointment
of the Crown of the officers intrusted with the collection of the reve-
nues. He was also under the jurisdiction of the audiencia of Santo
Domingo, which had authority, on complaint, to examine into his acts,
to suspend him and other officials from office, and to make provisional
appointments subject to the decision of the supreme court of Spain on
appeal. In 1795 the audien cia of Santo Domingo was transferred to the
province of Puerto Principe, when that island was ceded to France.
Up to 1556 the Governors were frequently appointed from civil life,
but the military needs of the island, occasioned by the attacks of buc-
caneers and privateers, suggested a modification. This was made grad-
ually, the office of Governor-General being held by both soldiers and
civilians until the year 1716. From that date to 1898 the Governor-
General was a general officer of high rank in the Spanish army, in
whom were united all civil and military powers.
No change of importance appears to have taken place in the insular
government of Cuba until 1812, when Spain became a constitutional
monarchy and so remained until 1814, when it was abrogated by Ferdi-
nand. This brief period of constitutional government was not without
liberalizing influences in Cuba, and a division was made between the
civil and the military powers of the Governor-General. With the
abrogation of the constitution of 1812 the Governors of Cuba resumed
their former prerogatives and the system of centralization, character-
istic of the government, was fully reestablished.
By the revolution of 1820 the constitution of 1812 was again reestab-
lished in Spain, but was set aside in 1823.
By a royal decree of May 28, 1825, "all the powers conceded to the
governors of cities in a state of siege" were conferred on the Gov-
ernor-General. This decree was never revoked, and conferred des-
potic powers on the Governor-General.
In 1836 the constitution of 1812 was restored, but its provisions
were not extended to Cuba, which was to be governed under a special
system of decrees, orders, etc.
Associated with the Governor-General and forming part of the pub-
lic administration of the island were certain special corporations and
boards, as of public works, health, charity, and public instruction. By
a royal decree of August 17, 1854, the active administrative functions
of these boards, etc., were vested in the Governor-General, and they




























































CITY OF PUERTO PRINCIPLE.






GOVERNMENT.


were declared to be consultative councils of the Governor." In 1881
the constitution of 1876 was extended to Cuba, which regulated in some
measure the powers conferred on the Governor-General by the decree
of 1825.
By the law of March 15, 1895, the government and civil administra-
tion were reorganized and the Governor-General given a council of
administration consisting of 30 councilors, 15 of whom were appointed
by the Crown and 15 elected by voters having the right to vote for
members of the provincial assemblies, who were elected at the same
time.
The term of office of councilor was four years, one-half of the
councilors going out every two years, and the office was declared to be
honorary and gratuitous.
While the council of administration was given authority to take the
initiative by resolution in respect to any matter pertaining to the
proper management of the island, and the Governor-General was
directed to carry out such resolutions, he had full authority to stay
their execution and to take such measures as he thought advisable, sub-
mitting the matter to the minister of the colonies. He had authority
to suspend the council of administration after hearing the council of
authorities, and any members without such hearing, provided there
were councilors enough left to form a quorum.
The council of authorities consisted of the Bishop of Habana or
the Archbishop of Santiago, the commander of the naval station, the
Military Governor, the presiding judge of the supreme court of Hahana,
the attorney-general, the head of the department of finance, and the
director of local administration. This was a purely advisory council,
submitting its views in the form of resolutions, which were not bind-
ing on the Governor-General.
The law of 1895 made more liberal provisions for the government
of the provinces and municipalities and the election of mayors and
aldermen.
By a royal decree of November 25, 1897, Cuba was given an insular
parliament consisting of two chambers, which, with the Governor-
General, representing the mother country, constituted the government
of the island. The parliament was to consist of two bodies of equal
legislative powers, to be known as the chamber of representatives and
a council of administration, the latter of 35 members, 18 elected and
17 appointed by the Crown on nomination by the Governor-General.
The representatives were apportioned at the rate of one for every
25,000 inhabitants, and were chosen for five years. The Crown repre-
sentatives were appointed for life. The insular parliament was to
meet annually, and while given ample authority to legislate for the
island, the veto of the Governor-General enabled him to suspend the
publication and execution of the laws, etc., until Madrid could be
heard from.







REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


The decree provided for a cabinet of five secretaries of department,
to wit: grace, justice, and interior; finance; public education, and public
works; posts and telegraphs; agriculture, industry and commerce.
The cabinet was inaugurated January 1, 1898. A modification of the
provincial and municipal government and a number of other measures
were contained in the decree, to which the reader is referred for a
more detailed account of its provisions. One of the most important
of these conferred on the insular government the framing of the
tariff, always a cause of grave economic disturbance while it had been
under the home government.
As the country was involved in war, the execution of this decree
was not carried out except as to the organization of the parliament
and cabinet, and possibly in some of its minor prescriptions. The
chambers were inaugurated in May and dissolved by Captain-General
Blanco in October. The cabinet was abolished shortly before Ameri-
can occupation, and the autonomous government came to an end.
On the withdrawal of Spain the government of the island devolved
on the Army of the United States under the laws of war, and Maj.
Gen. John R. Brooke was appointed Military Governor. He entered
on his duties January 1, 1899, and in order- to acquaint the people of
the island with the intentions of the President as Commander in Chief
of the Army, issued the following proclamation:
To the People of Cuba:
Coming among you as the representative of the President, in furtherance and in
continuation of the humane purpose with which my country interfered to put an end
to the distressing condition in this island, I deem it proper to say that the object of
the present government is to give protection to the people, security to person and
property, to restore confidence, to encourage the people to resume the pursuits of
peace, to build up waste plantations, to resume commercial traffic, and to afford full
protection in the exercise of all civil and religious rights.
To this end the protection of the United States Government will be directed, and
every possible provision made to carry out these objects through the channels of
civil administration, although under military control, in the interest and for the
benefit of all the people of Cuba, and those possessed of rights and property in the
island.
The civil and criminal code which prevailed prior to the relinquishment of Span-
ish sovereignty will remain in force, with such modifications and changes as may
from time to time he found necessary in the interest of good government.
The people of Cuba, without regard to previous affiliations, are invited and urged
to cooperate in these objects by the exercise of moderation, conciliation, and good
will one toward another; and a hearty accord in our humanitarian purposes will
insure kind and beneficent government.
The military governor of the island will always he pleased to confer with those
who may desire to consult him on matters of public interest.
On January 11 he revised the cabinet, vesting the administration of
the civil government in a department of state and government, depart-
ment of finance, department of justice and public Instruction, and
department of agriculture, commerce, industries, and public works.













































!c.r"
37t-


CITY OF SANTA CLARA


II -






GOVERNMENT.


Many changes, having in view the better administration of the govern-
ment, were made by General Brooke and his successor, General
Wood, but the scope of this report will not permit a detailed account
of them. The object has been gradually to confer on the Cubans full
civil rights, together with all the powers of local self-government-
municipal, provincial, and insular-and to do this as rapidly as local
conditions and the serious international obligations to protect life and
property in the island, assumed by the United States under the treaty
of Paris, will permit.

REPRESENTATION OF CUBA IN THE SPANISH CORTES.

By a royal decree of 1810 Cuba was given representation in the
Cortes. Two deputies were sent, one each from Habana and Santiago,
who took part in framing the Spanish constitution of 1812. With
the abrogation of this constitution in 1814 the representation ceased,
but was reestablished in 1820. It ceased again in 1823 and there was
no representation in the Cortes until 1834, when, under a royal statute
of that year, representatives were again admitted.
By a royal decree of 1837, however, a resolution of the Cortes of
1836 was published, which provided that the provinces in America
and Asia be governed and administered under laws especially adapted
to them and that they cease to be represented in the Cortes.
The electoral laws of 1877-1879 again gave Cuba representation in
the Cortes, in the proportion of 1 deputy for every 50,000 people.
Under the electoral law of 1892 Cuba sent 13 senators and 30 repre-
sentatives to the Spanish Cortes, hut, as a majority of the deputies
were Spaniards, the native Cubans felt that they were never fairly
represented.
CUBAN REPUBLICS.

A republic has been twice proclaimed in Cuba by revolutionists,
viz, during the ten years' war and again in 1895, but these govern-
ments proved to be provisional and expired with the revolutions
which produced them.
THE JUDICIARY.

Intimately connected with the government of Cuba was the judi-
ciary, and as no account of administration under Spain would be
complete without some reference to the courts, a brief outline is pre-
sented.
At the date of American occupation the jurisdiction of the Spanish
Government over court officials was exercised through the department
of graoe and justice, which, by the military decree of January 11,
1899, became the department of justice and public instruction, and by
a decree of January 1, 1900, the department of justice. The duties






REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


which devolve on the department of justice are those which usually
pertain to such departments, but in Cuba it has also supervision
over the registers of property and notaries public, to which reference
will be made further on.
The courts of Cuba were essentially insular, the judges being
appointed either directly by the Government or indirectly through
its officials, and were of four classes or kinds, viz, municipal judges,
judges of first instance and instruction, criminal audiencias, and terri
trial audiencias. The last named were reduced to three by a decree
of June 15, 1899, giving all the audiencias the same civil and criminal
jurisdiction. The municipal judges were distributed to the municipal
districts, one or more in each, and were appointed by the presiding
judges or presidents of the audiencias from among three persons
nominated by the judges of first instance of the judicial districts;
they held office for two years. At the same time a substitute was
appointed, who performed the duties when from sickness or other
cause the regular judge could not officiate.
The municipal judges receive no salary or allowances and theii serv-
ices are requited by fees, paid according to regular schedule.
They had and still have civil jurisdiction over all suits not involving
more than $200, and of suits to effect settlements without trial; they
take cognizance in first instance of cases involving the challenge of
other municipal judges; they appoint the family council for the care
of minors or'incapacitated persons and commence the investigation of
all cases of emergency requiring an immediate decision by a judge of
first instance, when the latter is not available, to whom the record is
sent for a continuance. In criminal cases they have jurisdiction over
all misdemeanors where the penalty imposed does not exceed thirty
days' confinement or a fine of 325 pesetas. They make the prelimi-
nary investigation into all kinds of crimes, if urgent, and the judge of
instruction is not present. The municipal judges also keep the civil
registers of births, deaths, and marriages. Each municipal court has
a public prosecutor (fiscal), and a substitute prosecutor, who are
appointed by the fiscal of the territorial audiencias; a secretary
appointed by the judge of first instance and instruction; and a bailiff
or constable. All officials of the court were paid from court fees,
according to schedule.
The judges of first instance and instruction are located at the seat of
the judicial districts to which they are appointed, and there are as many
judges as districts (see "Government"). They are appointed by the
Governor-General and when unable to perform their duties are substi-
tuted by one of the municipal judges in the district. They are paid
according to their classification, those in Habana receiving $4,500 per
annum, those in the cities of Puerto Principe and Santiago de Cuba
$2,750, those of Matanzas, Cardenas, Pinar del Rio, Guanajay, Santa

























~r~l --hi

~- t'p-


SANTIAGO DE CUBA.






GOVERNMENT.


Clara, Cienfuegos, and Sagua la Grande, $2,250, and those of Bejucal,
Guanabacoa, Guines, Jaruco, Marianao, San Antonio de los Banos,
Marin, Alfonso XII, Colon, Guane, San Cristobal, San Juan de los
Remedios, Sancti Spiritus, Trinidad, Baracoa, Bayamo, Guantanamo,
Holguin, and Manzanillo, $1,875 per annum.
The judges of first instance have original civil jurisdiction in all
cases where the amount involved exceeds $200, and appellate jurisdic-
tion from the municipal courts; they decide questions of competency
arising between municipal judges of the same judicial district, take
cognizance, in first instance, when the competency of other judges of
first instance is in question, and of appeals in similar cases of munici-
pal judges; they hear cases in bankruptcy and for the discharge of
such commissions or other duties as may be devolved on them by
superior courts or of courts of the same category of other judicial
districts.
The other officials of a court of first instance are one secretary, four
court or record clerks (escribanos), one physician, and two bailiffs or
constables. The secretaries are appointed by the judges of first
instance, while the clerks are appointed by the government on the
recommendation in ternary of the audiencias. The secretaries and
clerks are paid 'from fees according to a schedule established by the
government and collected from litigants.
Prior to American occupation there were three criminal audiencias
and three territorial audiencias. The criminal audiencias were located
in Pinar del Rio, Santa Clara, and Puerto Principe, and each was com-
posed of a presiding judge and two associate justices. They were
appointed by the Governor-General and paid as follows: Presiding
judge $4,280 per annum; associates, $3,500. These courts had original
and exclusive jurisdiction over all crimes committed in the island from
chicken stealing to murder, until the establishment by General Wood
of the special criminal court (Juzgado de Guardia) of Habana, by a
decree of February 1, 1900, a brief account of which will be given
later. The criminal audiencias had no civil jurisdiction.
The other officials of the criminal audiencias were one public prose-
cutor (fiscal) one deputy prosecutor, one secretary, one assistant secre-
tary, and two clerks.
Territorial audiencias were established in the provinces of Habana,
Matanzas, and Santiago, and had criminal jurisdiction in the provinces
where located, and civil jurisdiction in the territory assigned them;
thus, the audiencia of Habana had criminal jurisdiction in that prov-
ince and civil jurisdiction over Pinar del Rio and Habana; the terri-
torial audiencia of Matanzas had criminal jurisdiction over that
province and civil jurisdiction over Matanzas and Santa Clara; the
territorial audiencia of Santiago had criminal jurisdiction over the
province of Santiago and civil jurisdiction over Santiago and Puerto






REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


Principe. Thus the territorial audiencias had a criminal chamber and
a civil chamber or sala. The judges were appointed by the Governor-
General in council with the secretaries. The presiding judges of the
audiencia of Habana received a salary of $5,750; the nine associate
judges $5,000; the other court officials were the same as for the crim-
inal audiencias with the addition of an assistant deputy fiscal or public
prosecutor.
By a decree of June 15, 1899, civil and criminal jurisdiction was
conferred on the six audiencias within the provinces where established.
Certain administrative functions and duties were also imposed on them,
and the fees which were formerly paid to the secretaries of audiencias
in stamped paper of the state were also suppressed.
Other court officials under the laws of Spain were the solicitors, who
represented contending parties in civil and criminal causes. Formerly
the office of solicitor was sold as a source of revenue to those who
paid the highest price, the insular government agreeing not to
increase the number of such officials. Their intervention in lawsuits
and practically in all legal proceedings was made obligatory, and the
monopoly of their duties was left to a certain number in each town in
consideration of the price paid for the office. Other officials, although
not judicial, were the notaries, who were authorized'to certify to con-
tracts and other extra-judicial instruments in accordance with the
notarial law of 1862. Solicitors are now appointed by the secretary
of justice and their employment is no longer compulsory.
While attorneys are not, properly speaking, court officials, they had
this character in Cuba because the laws made their intervention in a
large majority of cases indispensable as counsel for the parties to civil
and criminal suits. As a result, the qualification of the attorneys are
regulated by the state, the diplomas being issued by the Governor-
General after an examination by boards of the university in the fol-
lowing subjects: Philosophy and law, metaphysics, general and
Spanish literature, Spanish history, political economy, natural law,
Roman law, canonical law, political law, penal law, civil law, adminis-
trative law, public treasury, history of Spanish law, law of civil and
criminal procedure, and international law, public and private.
In all towns where there is a territorial audiencia there is a college
of lawyers for the equitable distribution of offices, and to preserve
order and discipline among the lawyers of the territory of the audi-
eneic.
Other officials connected with the administration of real property
are the registers of property, classified, according to the importance of
the locality in which they reside, as first, second, and third class.
They are appointed by the Government and are required to give bond
for the faithful performance of their duties; they charge the fees pre-
scribed by law. It is the duty of registers to make a record of all





























*I-U ~IU-_ __


-r :- - .--
-,. -..7 -- -.




"'"4'I SI .,, .;.


CITY AND HARBOR OF CIENFUEGOS.






GOVERNMENT.


acts and contracts, mortgages, etc., transferring, encumbering, or limit-
ing the ownership or administration of real estate or property rights
or contracts; constituting, altering, or dissolving commercial associ-
ations, and transfers of vessels. They can not be removed or trans-
ferred against their will except by judicial decision. They are
entitled to a pension when, on account of their age or physical incapac-
ity, they are prevented from performing the duties of their office, and
this pension passes to the widow and children.
Such, in brief, is an outline of the Spanish courts as they were con-
stituted on the 1st of January, 1899; and while the composition of the
courts and the codes of law were no doubt sufficient for the needs of
the island, the judiciary, as the creation of the government and exist-
ing at its pleasure, had but little independence, and the administration
of the courts was characterized by arbitrary arrests, the ncomnunni-
cado, exorbitant fees to court officials in both civil and criminal trials,
and not infrequently by corrupt and dishonest practices. As a rule,
the judiciary was monopolized by Spaniards, and no Cuban could hope
for appointment to the bench, and a speedy and impartial trial where
Cubans were concerned was quite unusual. Many of the prisoners
found in the jails of the island at the time of American occupation had
been in confinement without trial for years, and of those who had been
tried only a few were serving sentence, although in some instances
years had elapsed since their appearance in court.
If the impartial and speedy administration of justice is a reliable
indication of good government, then it must be confessed that the
government of Cuba lacked that attribute.
As a result of the withdrawal of Spain from Cuba a supreme court
was established by a decree of General Brooke, April 14, 1899, to hear
cases and appeals which under Spanish rule would have been sent to
Spain for decision.
The court has its seat in Habana, and is composed of a president or
chief justice, 6 associate justices, 1 fiscal or prosecuting attorney, 2
assistant fiscal 1 secretary, 2 deputy clerks, and other subordinate
officials.
Another court, established by General Ludlow, military governor
of Habana, January 6, 1899, was the police or correctional court of
Habana. In his report to the Military Governor of the island, June
10, explaining his action, General Ludlow writes:
Article 220 of the municipal police laws of Habana provides that the imposition of
fines for violation of city ordinances is within the "exclusive jurisdiction" of the
city government, the mayor, the assistant mayors, and the deputies and inspectors
of the municipal service.
During the period when the organization of the police and the regulation of the
other city business were in progress, and numerous arrests were made for misde-
meanors, usually of a minor character, drunkenness and the like, largely by Ameri-
cans, soldiers and civilians, I designated an officer of my staff as a supervisor of






60 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.

police, giving him certain discretionary authority with reference to the police force
and its methods and the due carrying out of its executive and disciplinary purposes.
Owing to the lack of proper accommodation for transient prisoners, and with the
view to expedite the administration of justice, the supervisor of police held at the
Vivac a trial court for sifting out the police cases and summarily disposing of such
as did not require the action of the municipal judges for criminal offenses.
For this purpose, after hearing the evidence in each case, fines were imposed or
alternatively continuance of detention, at the rate of a day's detention for an unpaid
dollar fine, this procedure being in conformity with the methods of the American
police courts, and practically also with the municipal laws of Habana, though by a
less roundabout and dilatory process.
The procedures have proved to answer their purpose admirably, and are recog-
nized as both advantageous and effective; so much so that it has been urged to make
the practice a general and permanent one in the disposition of police cases.
Certain criticisms have come from two sources, viz: Those who for personal
reasons objected to the enforcement of penalties for infractions of municipal laws,
and from certain professional sources which found their fees diminished by the
prompt and equitable disposition of police cases. These contentions, however, repre-
sent personal and pecuniary interests only, and are opposed to the public interests,
which call for prompt action in police cases.
I therefore commend to the consideration of the division commander the drafting
of a decree which shall provide formally for the establishment of police courts in
Habana or elsewhere, in such numbers and with such stipulations as shall be con-
sidered expedient for the summary and effective disposal of police arrests, substan-
tially as now practiced in the United States.
While the action taken by General Ludlow does not appear to have
received the formal approval of General Brooke, the court was con-
tinued as organized, and under the administration of Maj. W. L.
Pitcher, Eighth Infantry, who succeeded Major Evans as supervisor
of police, has proved of inestimable value in restraining and punishing
the disorderly element in Habana. Recognizing its value, General
Wood, on April 10, formally continued it in a decree of that date, and
gave it jurisdiction over all offenses known as faltas (light crimes),
and all minor breaches of the peace; the trial and punishment of
authors and publishers of all immoral or obscene literature, or false,
malicious, or scandalous statements, whether printed or oral, tending
to injure reputation or the professional, official, or private standing
in the community; the punishments to be imposed not to exceed $30
fine or thirty days in jail, or both, and the court to have authority to
issue warrants, search warrants, and subpoenas; the trials to be oral
and summary.
By a decree of April 14, the organization of the police court was
modified so that all trials except for libel and scandal are conducted by
a single presiding judge designated by the military governor, and all
other trials, when from the nature of the offense a greater penalty
than $10 fine and ten days' imprisonment should be imposed, are con-
ducted by the full court, consisting of the presiding judge and two
associate judges selected by lot from the municipal judges of Habana.
This system of police courts has been applied recently to the whole





^HEPBB^B^^86*"8*"^**""
^^^^^Bsi^llrsjiM ^
^^fl--^8
CIYO UVTS






POPULATION.


island, and is said to be a great improvement over the magistrate's
courts, which have been suppressed in all but the chief towns of muni-
cipal districts. The municipal and police judges are now elected.
In addition to the establishment of these courts, other changes have
been made and more are contemplated, having in view an administra-
tion of the courts more in accordance with American ideas of justice
than those prevailing in Cuba heretofore. The main difficulty in the
way is the Spanish law of procedure and the entire absence of remedial
writs, which, like the writs of habeas corpus, certiorari, etc., are relied
on in this country as a protection to personal liberty and against
various kinds of injustice. These beneficent changes will no doubt
follow if they do not precede the establishment of free government,
toward which steady progress is being made.

POPULATION.

FORM OF SCHEDULE AND METHOD OF TABULATION.

If the population schedule adopted for the Cuban census be com-
pared with the schedule of the Eleventh Census of the United States,
it will be found that, while in general design they are the same, they
differ in respect to the number of inquiries, and that the latter is the
more comprehensive of the two. This is quite natural, and results
from the complex and diverse condition of the population of the United
States, in which a more extensive investigation is necessary to deter-
mine the state of the population than in Cuba, where the industries
of the people are quite limited and a very large majority of the popu-
lation is native.









Census of the island of Cuba taken under the direction of the United States.-1899.
Supervisor's district, No. SCHEDULE NO. 1.-POPULATION.
District of enumeration, No. --
Inhabitants in [insert the name of the municipal district.]: Municipal district ; Ward-
Name of the city or town included in the civil division indicated Institution -
Enumerated by me on the day of 1899. Enumerator.

Situation. Relation Personaldescrip- Nativity. Citizenship. Occupation. Instruction.
itieip tion.
Incities.O jC 1i ri-
V -_2. 1 m n-


Province -- Sheet
Judicial district No- .





Sanitary conditions.




Source Disposition Latrine
Swater of Latrine
used. garbage. system.




16 17 18 o

1
20
3
4
15







16
17
10
11
12
14
16
17
18


















vo41
c .* 1


CITY OF TRINIDAD.


0- *'5






POPULATION. 63

To present the information contained in the schedules in a satisfactory
way, it was decided that complicated tables would be necessary; that
to save time, which was important, the tabulation should be done by
machine, and not by the old hand-tally system.
As the electric tabulating machines, invented by Mr. Herman Hol-
lerith, had been successfully used in tabulating the Eleventh Census
of the United States, and were to be used again in the Twelfth, and as
his system was known to be accurate and expeditious, it was adopted.
The operation is described by Mr. Hollerith as follows:
"The population of each enumeration district was first established
by a so-called 'rough count;' that is, the number of persons recorded
on each schedule were counted by two clerks independent of each other,
and where such counts disagreed, a third, or even a fourth, count was
made to determine the correct population of each enumeration district.
"The detailed tables were then prepared by means of the electric tab-
ulating system. For this purpose all the necessary data relating to
each person were expressed by means of holes punched in certain places
in a card by means of the key-board punch.

Iattern of the card.

1 2 3 4 X X 1 2 B V 0 1 2 3 S Cu (i It Af

5 6 7 8 w .1 : 1 N H 4 5 10 1 : IPR Esp I't Ast

1 2 3 4 B 1 6 M IS 20 21 25 30 I1 WI Ing Si (lC Esp

5 6 7 8 2 3 7 S Ch 35 40 45 50W vi V SA Ir Nr JTp ( C

1 2 3 4 1 .5 9 10 Jp GO i5 70 75 80 'll CA Sc Di OC Sus

5 6 7 8 6 7 11 16 In 15 9095100UI Mx Al OE Ex

1 2 3 4 21 g a EU Fr 1nt

5 6 7 S Po X > 50 15 10 NGC L F A

1 2 3 4 PIo 'iMI Ac Si SN SS S 6 1 ;16 11 6 1 M G H

5 6 78 In Pt Alj No 0 NN d 72 17 12 7 2 N H C

12 3 4 i Sq R 4 2 e 83 18 13 8 3 O I D

56 7 8 X X X 6 f 94 *14 9 4 P K E

"If the record related to a white person, B--standing for blanco
(white)-was punched, while N was punched for a negro, or M for
mixed, Ch for Chinese, etc. For males, V was punched, and H for
females. The age was recorded by punching 0 for less than 1 year, 1,
2, 3, or 4 for the respective years, 5 for the group 5-9, etc. Conjugal






REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


condition was recorded in the next field or division of the card. Birth-
place was recorded by punching in another division of the card, Cu
for Cuba, P. R. for Porto Rico, Esp. for Spain, It. for Italy, OC for
other countries, etc. Citizenship was similarly recorded. For each
occupation, two holes were punched according to the number assigned
to the given occupation in the corresponding classification of occupa-
tion, NG being punched for those without gainful occupation. Liter-
acy, school attendance, education, and the sanitary condition of the
dwellings, size of families, etc., were similarly recorded by punching
in the respective divisions of the card.
"At the extreme left a space of four rows of twelve holes was used
to record the province, municipal and enumeration district to which
the card related. This combination of holes would, of course, be the
same for all the cards of a given district, and was done by means of
the "gang punch."
"In addition, each card was provided with a double number, one
number indicating the sheet of the particular enumeration district on
which the record of the corresponding person could be found, and the
other indicating the particular line or person to which the card related.
By means of the gang-punched holes and these numbers any one of
the million and a half cards corresponding to the population of Cuba
could be identified and the correctness of the punching verified.
"The punched cards were then passed through the electric tabulating
machines. In this machine a series of electro-magnetically operated
counters are arranged, according to the tables it is desired to com-
pile, in electric connection with a circuit-closing device, the circuits
through which are controlled by the holes in the punched record card,
which is placed on the bedplate of such circuit-closing device.
"The cards relating to a given enumeration district were fed one by
one into the tabulating machine, which recorded the number of native
white males, foreign white males, colored males, native white females,
the number born in Cuba, in Spain, how many less than 5 years of
age, 5 to 9 years of age, etc. The sum of the details of each group
of facts should equal the total number of cards tabulated, and, of
course, should be equal to the population of the enumeration district
as established by the rough count, thus providing a third check on the
accuracy of the count.
"At the same time that a card operates the counters it opens one
compartment of the sorting box, into which it is placed when removed
from the circuit-closing device. The object of such sorting is to
arrange the cards to facilitate subsequent tabulation by means of
which the more detailed tables were obtained.
By thus tabulating first one group of data and then another with
intermediate sorting or arranging of the cards the various tables were
obtained."

























































CITY OF SANCTI SPIRITUb





ABORIGINAL POPULATION.


The tabulation of the population was commenced February 2 and
completed July 5, an unparalleled record of speedy work. Its celerity
is fully equaled by its accuracy, as the application of numerous tests
has shown.
ABORIGINAL POPULATION.

The population of Cuba at the date of its discovery has been vari-
ously estimated at between 200,000 and 1,000,000 Indians. The latter
is the estimate of Bishop Las Casas, who visited their villages and was
always their friend and protector.
The natives were found living contentedly under nine independent
chiefs, whose government was of the simplest character, their orders
being received as law. The natives are described by Columbus, Las
Casas, and Peter Martyr as of a gentle and friendly disposition, having
a simple religious belief, and, unlike the natives of some other West
India Islands, not addicted to cannibalism. In physique they were
rather slight, with pleasant faces; they had excellent nets, fishhooks,
and fishing tackle, and lived mainly on fish, Indian corn, and fruit.
Their huts were well built, and were made of the bark and leaves of
the palm, as those of poor Cubans now are; they were not arranged
in village streets, but scattered about irregularly, very much as shown
in the picture of the village of Dimas, Province of Pinar del Rio,
opposite page 68.
They cultivated cotton, Indian corn, the potato, tobacco, the pine-
apple, and manioc, all of which were indigenous, and had a rude pottery
and some stone weapons, but no domesticated animals except the dog.
Other domestic animals, as also the orange, the lemon, and the sugar
cane, were introduced afterwards by the Spaniards.
The disappearance of the Indians, whatever their number, has been
attributed to the combats and massacres which occurred during the
exploration and pacification of the island by Velasquez, and thereafter
to unaccustomed occupations, privations, disease, executions resulting
from religious fanaticism, and slavery, both foreign and domestic. In
the colonies the latter took the form of repartimimetos and encomicndis,1
which, commencing with grants of land and the temporary possession
of the Indians for work on the plantations and in the mines, ended
finally in the slavery of the entire native population.
For a full description of Indian slavery under this system, and its
effect on the population, the reader is referred to the history of
'A repartimento was a grant of land, which carried with it the right to the labor of
the Indians occupying it or living within a short distance of it, at first for cultivating
the soil. This privilege was subsequently extended so that the Indians could be used
in any kind of labor.
An encomienda was practically a grant of Indians, ifrespective of the land. At
first the grant expired with the grantee. It was subsequently extended through two
or three lives, and in effect, became perpetual. As a result the Indians were slaves.
24662- 5






REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


"Spanish Conquest in America," by Sir Arthur Helps, the "History
of the Indies," by Las Casas, and to the "Discovery of America," by
Prof. John Fiske. These authorities agree in ascribing the disappear-
ance of the Indians largely to the profligate waste of native life by the
colonists through.all forms of wanton cruelty, oppression, and neglect,
and the introduction of negro slavery as the direct consequence of it.
It is due the Spanish Government to record the fact that while at
first authorizing repartimientos, encomiendas, and the enslavement of
all Indians who were cannibals or taken in war, it later spared no
efforts to mitigate the horrors of Indian slavery, and finally to pre-
vent and abolish it. These measures were initiated and earnestly sup-
ported by the Dominican and Franciscan monks and by the church in
general. Through the efforts of Bishop Las Casas and other prelates
the laws of Burgos in 1512, and many orders and decrees were pro-
mulgated between the landing of Velasquez and the New Laws" of
Charles V, 1542, for the protection of the Indians. The latter pre-
scribed "that for no cause whatever, whether of war, rebellion, ran-
som, or in any other manner, should any Indian be made a slave."
But however well intended, these measures proved of little avail in
saving the Indians of Cuba, as at that time very few remained. It
was reported to the Queen in 1537 by the contadur of the island that
in 20 farms visited by him only 130 Indians were found, including
those which had been imported. In the neighboring island of San
Domingo at the date of its discovery there were, according to Las
Casas, about 3,000,000 Indians; according to the licentiate, Zuazo,
1,130,000. An average of these two estimates is probably more exact.
When the treasurer, Pasamonte, came to San Domingo in 1508 there
were 70,000, and when Don Diego Columbus was appointed governor
of San Domingo in 1509, 40,000. According to Sir Arthur Helps the
number of Indians in San Domingo in 1514, as determined by a repar-
tition of the Indians made by Rodrigo Albuquerque, who was sent
there by the King for that purpose, was between thirteen and four-
teen thousand. By this repartition the Indians were practically
enslaved for life, as they were given for the lffe of the person to
whom Albuquerque made the repartimiento, and for the life of his
next heir, whether son or daughter. After this there were numbers
of repartitions or divisions of Indians among the Spaniards, resulting
in their rapid diminution, owing to changes of climate, changes of
occupation, and of masters, and the indifference of the latter to the
welfare of the Indians.
The difficulty about the enforcement of the laws and royal instruc-
tions and orders for the freedom and protection of the Indians appears
to have been their vague or ambiguous meaning, which enabled
unprincipled and rapacious officials to construe them as they wished,
and the fact that the Crown and-nearly all the officials of the govern-




Full Text
























































SUPERVISORS OF THE CUBAN CENSUS.
A. H. Aguero, Puerto Principe. M Rasco, Habana.
J. B. Jrninez, Santa Clara.


S. Meneses, Santiago.
P. Pequefo, Pinar dW Rio.


C. Dumas, Matanzas






WAR DEPARTMENT, 5 C & it S 65c

01F'ICE DIRECTOR CENSUS OF CUBA.






REPORT





ON THE


CEN


sU


S


OF


CUB


1899.






LT. COL. J. P. BANGER, Inspector-General,
DIRECTOR.


hENRY G-ANNETT,


W ALTER


STATISTICAL EXPERTS.






WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.


1900.


A,


F. WILLCOX,























3 52r1\



SATIN
sAICWA





ERRATA.
Page 41. For "Capt." real Rear-Admiral.
Page 51. For Valasquez" read Velasquez.
Page 60. For "disordorly" read disorderly.
Page 131. For "consentual" read consensual.
Page 204. For "Tinadad" read Trinidad.
Page 205. For "Jiquani" read Jiguani.
Page 294. Heading of table should read "City of Puerto Principe."
Page 734. For "1885" read 1855.

















CONTENTS.


Page.
Letter of transmittal of the Director of the Census to the Secretary of War ... 9
Proclamation of the President authorizing the census ----------------- 10
-Organization of census. ..-------------------.----------------------- 10
The field work .. ....------------------------------------------------ 11
Geography........... -.-.... -..............-.............--.17
Political divisions .......--------------------------------------------- 17
Coast regions. .. ...------------------------------------------------- 18
Orography-----------------..-..---------------------------------- 19
Drainage systems. .. ....---------------------------------------------- 20
Mineral resources .... ..---------------------------------------------- 20
Climate. .. ..----------------------------------------------------- 21
Flora. .. ...------------------------------------------------------- 22
Fauna .. ..------------------------------------------------------ 23
-History..........------------------------------------------------------- 24
Discovery of the island ... ..----------------------------------------- 24
First settlement. ... ...----------------------------------------------- 25
Colonization and early government....-------------------------------- 25
Causes affecting progress. .. ...---------------------------------------- 27
Trade restrictions and monopolies------------------------------ 28
Export and import duties.....------------------------------------ 28
Smuggling ......------------------------------------------------ 29
Excessive taxation .....----------------------------------------- 29
Lack of banking facilities. .. ..------------------------------------ 31
Economic, rather than political, conditions the cause of the slow prog-
ress of the island .. ...----------------------------------------- 32
Governors, character and administration of---. ----------------------- 32
Insurrections, causes and results of....-------------------------------- 33
Intervention by the United States....--------------------------------- 40
Political organization ......------------------------------------------- 43
AN Municipal government. ..-------------------------------------- 44
Provincial government .....-------------------------------------- 50
Insular government .....----------------------------------------- 51
Former representation in the Spanish Cortes --------------------- 55
Cuban republics declared -------------------------------------- 55
United States military government ..----------------------------- 55
The judiciary -----------------... ... ------------------------------- 55
Population, aboriginal, history of ----------------------------65
Population, black, history of. .. ..------------------------------------- 67
(j Population, coolie, history of------------------ --- ------------ 69
\ Discussion of the tables-----------.... ---..---------------------------- 72
The total population----------.. ..- --------------------------------- 72
Density of population .... ..------------------------------------------ 73
Urban population ..--------------------------------------------- 76
3



184855





4 CONTENTS.

Discussion of the tables-Continued. -Page.
Center of population -------------------------------------------77
Distribution in altitude......----------------------------------------- 80
Sex -------------------------------------------------------- 80
Age ------------------------------------------------------- 84
Age by provinces. .. ...--------------------------------------------- 90
Age by sex---------------.----------------------------------- 92
Nativity and race --------------------------------------------- 96
Foreign-born population in cities....---------------------------------- 99
Citizenship-------- ----------------------------------------- 100
Of Habana province-----.------------------------------- 103
Of Habana city ------------------------------------------- 103
Of Matanzas.....------------------------ --------------------- 106
Of Pinar del Rio------------------------------------------- 107
Of Puerto Principe ---------------------------------------- 108
Of Santa Clara--------... --.-- ----------------------------- 109
Of Santiago de Cuba --------------------------------------- 110
Families.-----. --------------------------------------------- 112
Marital condition ...------------------------------------------------ 117
The married -----------------...... ..------------------------------- 118
Persons living together as husband and wife by mutual consent --------131
The widowed ........------------------------.-------------------. 142
The single--------------------------------------------------- 145
Literacy. ..------------------------------------------------------- 147
School attendance.------------ ----------------------------------- 150
Literacy among persons over 10 years of age-..--------------------------- 152
Occupations.. .. ..---------------------------------------------------- 154
Sanitary condition of dwellings and unoccupied houses------------------- 167
Dwellings and families. ..----------------------------------------- 167
Source of water supply. .. ..---------------------------------------- 170
Disposition of garbage.. ..----------------------------------------- 175
Disposition of excreta .. ..---------------------------------------- 176

POPULATION TABLES.

1. Total population at different censuses .------------------------ 179
. II. Total population, by provinces, in 1899, 1887, and 1861- ---------179
III. Total population by municipal districts in 1899 and 1887 ---------179
IV. Total population by wards and by cities.---------------------- 181
V. Rural population by municipal districts, with area and density - 191
VI. Sex, general nativity and color, by provinces and municipal dis-
tricts ..---------------------------------------------- 194
VII. Percentages of population by sex, general nativity, and color, by
municipal districts-------------------------------------- 200
VIII. Sex and age groups, by municipal districts-.. .. -------------------202
IX. Race, nativity, sex, and 5-year age periods .. -----------------206
X. Birthplace, by provinces and municipal districts-. --------------218
XI. Country of birth, by race, and by provinces and cities- ----------220
XII. Citizenship, by provinces and municipal districts --------------225
XIII. Citizenship, literacy, and education, by provinces and municipal
districts. ..-------------------------------------------- 228
XIV. Citizenship, by age, sex, race, and nativity, by provinces and
cities. ..---------------------------------------------- 251
XV. Conjugal condition, by provinces and municipal districts -------299
XVI. Conjugal condition, by race, sex, and nativity -.. ----------------302





CONTENTS. 5

Page.
XVII. Conjugal condition, by race, sex, nativity, and age, by provinces
and cities .......------------------------------------------- 306
XVIII. Illegitimate children, by provinces and cities ................... 354
XIX. School attendance, literacy, and superior education, by provinces
and municipal districts.....--------------------------------- 358
XX. Literacy, by age, sex, nativity, and race, by provinces and cities. 361
x XXI. School attendance, by months, by sex, race, nativity, and age, by
provinces and cities ........................................ 385
XXII. Higher education, by age, sex, race, and nativity, by provinces
and cities ...-........................................... 401
-XXIII. Occupation groups, by sex, race, and nativity, by provinces and
cities ........---------------------------------------------- 403
XXIV. Occupation groups, by sex, race, and nativity, by municipal districts 406
XXV. Occupation groups, by age, sex, race, and nativity, by provinces
and cities ----------------------------------- -------- 438
-XXVI. Occupations, by sex, race, and nativity, for the island-- --------462
XXV1I. Occupations, by age and sex, for the island--------------------463
XXVIII. Occupations, by citizenship and sex, for the island--------------465
XXIX. Occupations, by sex and education, for the island................ 467
XXX. Occupations, by sex and conjugal condition, for the island....... 469
XXXI. Occupations, by sex and country of birth, for the island...... --- 472
XXXII. Occupations, by provinces ..................................... 476
-XXXIII. Selected occupations, by age, sex, and race, by provinces ......... 477
XXXIV. Selected occupations, by age and sex, by provinces -------------- 480
XXXV. Selected occupations, by sex and citizenship, by provinces ........ 485
XXXVI. Selected occupations, by sex and education, by provinces ........ 489
XXXVII. Selected occupations, by sex and conjugal condition, by provinces. 494
XXXVIII. Selected occupations, by sex and country of birth, by provinces..-- 499
XXXIX. Number and size of families, by provinces and municipal districts. 507
XL. Dwellings and families, by provinces and municipal districts. ---- 512
XLI. Source of water supply, by provinces and municipal districts..... 514
XLII. Disposition of garbage, by provinces and municipal districts...... 517
XLIII. Disposition of excreta, by provinces and municipal districts..-. -- 520
Agriculture, history of, in Cuba............................................ 523
Sugar. .. ..------------------------------------------------------ 524
Tobacco ...---------------------------------------------------- 533
Coffee ..........----------------------------------------------------- 537
Cocoa ..----------------------------------------------------- 539
Fruit. ..---------------------.--------------------------------- 539
Inferior agricultural implements....................................... 539
Poor country roads ........------------------------------------------- 539
Stock raising.........------------------------------------------------ 539
Numberof coffee, sugar, and tobacco plantations, cattle ranches, and cattle.. 540
Discussion of results........---------------------------------------------- 541
Farm areas ...------------------------------------------------- 542
Farm tenure ...------------------------------------------------ 544
Size of farms.........------------------------------------------------ 546
Products. .. ..--------------------------------------------------- 547
Tables of agriculture........---------------------------------------------- 553
XLIV. Farm areas. ..------------------------------------------- 553
XLV. Tenure, by race and by size of farms, number ................... 555
XLVI. Tenure, by race and by size of farms, cultivated area ............ 556
XLVII. Products ...--------------------------------------------- 558
XLVII. Sugar plantations, classified by area............................ 560





6


CONTENTS.


Tables of agriculture-Continued. Page.
XLIX. Sugar plantations, number and average size..................... 560
L. Tobacco plantations, classified by area ......................... 560
LI. Tobacco plantations, number and average size ----------------- 560
LII. Live stock. ...-------------------------------------------- 561
Education in Cuba, history of............................................. 565
Royal University of Habana...... ................................... 566
Public schools under the Spanish r6gime............................... 566
School laws and systems. .. ..--------------------------------------- 577
Teachers' pensions and substitute teachers .-------------------------- 582
Salaries of teachers. ..------------------------------------------- 583
School law of June 30, 1900......................... -................ 585
Institute collegiate course, 1900........................................ 600
University of Habana, reorganization of............................... 605
Discussion of tables ........---------------------------------------------- 615
Tables of schools ........--------------------------------------------- 618
LIII. Schools -------------------------------------------- 618
LIV. Pupils.. .. ..--------------------------------------------- 619

APPENDICES.

I. War Department orders organizing the census.................. 621
II. War Department orders appointing disbursing officers of the cen-
sus in Cuba --------------.....-------------------------- 625
III. Report of the assistant director, V. H. Olmsted ................ 625
Reports of the supervisors .................................... 627
IV. Province of Habana. Senor Manuel Rasco. ..---------------- 627
V. Province of Matanzas, Prof. Claudio Dumas................ 631
VI Province of Pinar del Rio, Senor Pedro Pequeno ----------- 638
VII. Province of Puerto Principe, Senor Augustin H. Aguera --.. 640
VIII. Province of Santa Clara, Senor Juan Bautista Jiminez ...... 647
IX. Province of Santiago de Cuba, Senor Sabas Meneses -------- 652
X. Report of enumerator of Zapata Swamp, Sixto Agramonte ...... 658
XI. Report of enumeration of the north coast of Matanzas.-........ 665
XII. Report of enumerator Maria Nunez de Villavicencio------------ 666
XIII. List of enumerators .......................................... 668
XIV. Contract with the Tabulating Machine Company -------------- 695
XV. List of the Governors of Cuba ................................ 696
XVI. List of municipal districts, with dates of organization and memo-
randum on territorial changes since 1861 .------------------- 698
XVII. Memorandum on previous censuses............................ 702
XVIII. Memorandum on vital statistics ............................... 714
XIX. Article on population, translated from Pezuela's Dictionary ----- 727
XX. Bibliography..-............................................. 737
XXI. Statement of estimates and disbursements on behalf of the census. 738


Index ...................................................... 740


740















LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.




MAPS.
Page.
Map of Cuba. ..---------------------------------------------------- 18
Increase and decrease of population. .. ..----------------------------------- 72
Density of rural population .. ...----------------------------------------- 74
Size of cities-- ...--------------------------------------------------- 76
Distribution of sex. .. ..------------------------------------------------ 80
Proportion of native white inhabitants....--------------------------------- 96
Proportion of foreign white inhabitants ....-------------------------------- 98
Proportion of colored inhabitants.. ...------------------------------------ 100
Average size of families ........------------------------------------------- 114
Proportion of married persons to population -. .. ---------------------------118
Proportion of those living together by mutual consent to total population -.. 132
Proportion of illiterates to total population ..----------------------------- 152

DIAGRAMS.

Population classified by sex, race, and nativity, by provinces................. 82
Population by age and sex ......------------------------------------------ 84
Citizenship by birthplace and illiteracy .....------------------------------- 102
The city of Habana. .. ..----------------------------------------------- 114
Size of families .. ..-------------------------------------------------- 116
Conjugal condition, by race, sex, and age ................................... 120
Conjugal condition, by provinces .......................................... 124
Illiteracy by race and nativity............................................. 148
Illiteracy by provinces. ... ..-------------------------------------------- 150
Occupations by race, sex, and nativity.....--------------------------------- 156
Occupations by provinces-.......................................--....-... 160
Birth rates .. ...----------------------------------------------------- 716
Marriage rates ..........--------------------------------------------------- 718
Death rates ..----------------------------------------------------- 719

PHOTOGRAPHIC REPRODUCTIONs.

Supervisors of the Cuban census.................................... Frontispiece.
Yumuri Valley. ...-------------------------------------------------- 20
General landscape of cultivated farms....................................... 20
Cave of Ballamar, near Matanzas .. ...------------------------------------- 22
Ruins of copper mines at El Cobre and Sierra Maestre ...................... 24
Surrender Tree, near San Juan. ... ..------------------------------------ 40
Habana. ..-------------------------------------------------------- 42
Habana. ..-------------------------------------------------------- 44
Matanzas ..------------------------------------------------------- 46
Bridge over Yumuri River at Matanzas .................................... 48
7





8


Pinar del Rio ..................,...
Puerto Principe ..................
Santa Clara .......................
Santiago de Cuba..................
Entrance to harbor of Cienfuegos....
Nuevitas...........................
Trinidad......... ..-....-....-...


Sancti Spiritus, from roof of orderly quarters ....
Baracoa and entrance to harbor .................
Dimas, village in province of Pinar del Rio .....
Native white family ............................
Native colored family...........................
Native plow..........-...-....--...-...-.......
Plowing with oxen ............................
Sugar mill, province of Santa Clara...............
Cutting and stripping cane ......................


Transporting cane to sugar mills...
Central Conchita ...................
Sugar machinery, "Central Caracas,"
Tobacco plant.....................
Setting out young tobacco plants ....


Tobacco plant
Tobacco-drying
Sorting tobacco
Baling tobacco


tion, province of Santa
house .............-
and putting it in bund
....--..-...........-


province of Santa Clara ......... .....


Clara ................................

les ...... ...... ..-... .......-
...-..-....--......-.................--


Tobacco train ..-......-................................................
Fruit exhibit ..-.....................-....-...---...--..........-....-....
Ready to cut pines and bananas.........................................
Cocoa grove...---.-....................................................
Pinery........-........................................................
Avenue of Royal Palms, Matanzas ..--..-..-...--..........................
Climbing the royal palm ..-.............................................
Roping cattle ............................................................
Typical municipal school building............--..........................
School for girls, Matanzas .................................................
M unicipal school, M atanzas .....-........-.....-...-- ...........--........
Pupils of the college "Olavarrette," Habana ...............................
Exterior "University of Habana," as seen from O'Reilly street..............
Class in the corridor of the "Royal College," Habana.......................
College "Maria Louisa Dolorosa," .........................................
Royal College of Belen, Habana ...........................................
Supervisor and enumerators, province of Habana ...........................
Supervisor and enumerators, province of Matanzas..........................a
Supervisor and enumerators, Pinar del Rio ................................
Supervisor and enumerators, province of Puerto Principe ....................
Supervisor and enumerators, province of Santa Clara.......,................
Supervisor and enumerators, Santiago de Cuba..............................
Female enumerators, Habana..............................................
Enumerators of the city of Matanzas.......................................
Enumerators, city of Cardenas...............-.-...-......--...-...........


............
............
............
............
............
............
............


528
530
532
534
534
536
536
536
538
538
540
542
544
546
548
550
552
566
570
572
576
584
588
592
600
628
632
638
640
648
652
658
662
666


LIST OF -ILLUSTRATIONS.


Page.
...................... -... 50
...................... -... 52
.......................... 54
..... ...... ...... ......... 5 6
.... ...... ...... .......... 5 8
..--..................-. . 60
............-..-.......... 62
...... .. ..--.... .... ..-. . 6 4
..........-....-....-.-.. 66
.-.-......-.......-...-.. 68
..-.-.....-....-......-.. 70
....-..--.-...-. ..-.-.-.. 70
............-..-......-... 522
..........-.--..-... ----- 522
.-.-.........-.... ------ 524
....-...-...--.-....-..... 526












LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


WAR DEPARTMENT, CUBAN CENSUS,
JWashington, August 25, 1900.
SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report of the census
of Cuba:
In the early part of July, 1899, I received instructions -from the
Hon. Russell A. Alger, Secretary of War, to prepare a memoran-
dum" for a census of Cuba. In August, immediately after your
arrival in Washington, this "memorandum" was submitted to the
Director of the United States Census, Hon. W. R. Merriam, the
Assistant Director, Dr. F. H. Wines, and Mr. William C. Hunt, chief
statistician. After consultation with the War Department it was
decided that a census covering the field of inquiry usual in the United
States was not expedient for Cuba, in view of existing conditions;
that the schedules should be limited to population, agriculture, and
education, as the three subjects of most importance; that the general
plan of the United States census should be followed; and that, to save
time, the schedules and other blank forms necessary for the enumera-
tion of a population estimated at 1,600,000 be printed at once. The
estimated cost of taking the census on this basis, together with a
statement of the amount disbursed, will be found in Appendix XXI.
As the Senate Committee on Cuban Relations, of which Senator
0. H. Platt is chairman; will publish an itemized statement of the
expenditures, they are omitted, to avoid unnecessary repetition.
It was proposed in the "memorandum" that the census be taken
under the supervision of the Military Governor of the island by cer-
tain Cuban officials, assisted by officers and enlisted men of the United
States Army, but as the census was primarily for the benefit of the
Cubans, and as the work would demonstrate in some measure their
capacity to perform an important civil duty, it was decided by the
Secretary of War that the offices of supervisors and enumerators
should be filled by Cubans, and that the field work should he per-
formed by them, under the supervision of an experienced officer of
the United States census, so that when the enumeration should be
completed it would be a census of Cubans by Cubans.
No decision could have been more fortunate, and, coupled with the
proclamation of the President, in which the census was declared to
9




14


REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


with their schedules, and Mr. Olmsted and party from Cienfuegos to
Washington January 6. It was thought advisable to bring the super-
visors to Washington, that they might make the gross count of the
population and be on hand to explain any ambiguities or defects which
might be discovered in the schedules; to supervise the punching of
the cards from which the tables were to be made, and to learn the
entire method of handling the statistics. This programme was car-
ried out, and Mr. Olmsted and his companions, with the records,
arrived in Washington January 15.
The gross count of the population was completed and certified by
the supervisors by January 31, and on February 1 a contract was
made with the Tabulating Machine Company of Washington (Appen-
dix XIV), and the work of punching the cards was commenced. This
was continued under the supervisors until completed, March 24, and
between April 1 and 10 they returned to their homes, having labored
conscientiously, intelligently, and successfully in the discharge of their
important duties. Their reports are submitted. (Appendices IV
to IX.)
As much public interest had been shown in the results of the census,
it was decided not to await the preparation of the full report, but to
publish census bulletins containing condensed tables with a brief anal-
ysis of their contents. The first bulletin, in English and Spanish,
appeared May 10, and the others at intervals until all, three in num-
ber, had been published and distributed, the English edition in the
United States and Europe and the Spanish in Cuba. Other tables
essential in deciding questions connected with the municipal elections
were compiled and mailed to the military governor of Cuba April 14,
1900.
In the preparation of the bulletins and report I have had the assist-
ance of Mr. Henry Gannett, of the Geological Survey, and Mr.
Walter F. Willcox, of the United States Census, both well known to
the scientific world and thoroughly familiar with census work.
In addition to the account of previous Cuban censuses Appendix
XVII and the analysis of the tables to be found in this report, it
has been thought advisable to present a description of the island and
a brief sketch of so much of its history as bears on its population,
economic condition, and government. A list of the authors consulted
in this connection will be found in the Appendix (XX).
The maps, diagrams, and views which illustrate the report were
selected with sole reference to their practical or historic value. No
attempt at a general collection of photographs was made. The cities
represented are either the capitals of the provinces or, like Baracoa,
among the oldest settled by the Spaniards. The landscapes give some
idea of the most noticeable topographic features, viz, the great cen-




LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 15

tral uplands, or sugar zone, the mountains, the beautiful valleys, and
the caves. The agricultural industries of sugar, tobacco, fruit cultiva-
tion, and stock raising are presented in some of their more interesting
details, while the groups of supervisors, and enumerators, and the
family groups are fair types of native Cubans, whose tragic and heroic
struggle for liberty has excited the interest of the whole civilized world.
Very respectfully,
J. P. SANGER. Ih s. Ge.,
Director of the (enNus.
Hon. ELIHU ROOT,
Secretary of War.













CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.



GEOGRAPHY.

The government of Cuba has jurisdiction not only over the island
of that name, but also over the Isle of Pines, lying directly to the
south of it, and more than a thousand islets and reefs scattered along
its northern and southern coasts.
For administrative purposes Cuba is divided into six provinces
which, named from the west eastward, are Pinar del Rio, Habana,
Matanzas, Santa Clara, Puerto Principe, and Santiago de Cuba. These
provinces are divided into municipal districts, of which Pinar del Rio
contains 20, Habana 36, Matanzas 24, Santa Clara 28, Puerto Principe
5, and Santiago 19, making a total of 132 municipal districts.
The municipal districts are in turn divided into barrios or wards,
which correspond in extent and organization somewhat with our elec-
tion districts. The number of these in the entire island is between
1,100 and 1,200. Both municipal districts and wards differ widely in
area and population. The five districts of Puerto Principe are large
in area, while several in Habana and one or two in Santiago are in
area little more than cities. In population, on the other hand, the dis-
tricts range from Habana, with nearly a quarter of a million people,
down to districts containing little more than 1,000 inhabitants. In
popular language, the island is divided into the Vaelta Abajo, or the
portion from the meridian of Habana to Cape San Antonio; the VHelta
Arriba, from the meridian of Habana to that of Cienfuegos; Las
Cinca Villas, from the meridian of Cienfuegos to that of Sancti
Spiritus, and Sierra Adentro, from the latter to Holguin and Cape
Maysi.
Cuba, the most populous of the West India islands, lies directly
south of Florida. Habana is a trifle west of south of Key West and
is distant from it, as the crow flies, about 100 miles, being separated
from it by the Strait of Florida. East of Cuba lies Haiti, the second
in size of the West India islands, and south of it lies Jamaica. The
first of these islands is only 54 miles distant from Cape Maysi the
easternmost point of Cuba. The latter is 85 miles distant from its
southern coast. On the west, Cuba is separated by Yucatan Channel,
130 miles wide, from the Peninsula of Yucatan, Mexico.
24662-2 17




REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


Thus from a military point of view Cuba occupies a strong strategic
position, controlling the entrance to the Gulf of Mexico by the Strait
of Florida, the Windward Passage to the Caribbean Sea between Cuba
and Haiti, and Yucatan Channel, connecting the Gulf of Mexico with
the Caribbean Sea. The first and last of these are the only entrances
to the Gulf of Mexico, which is thus controlled completely by the
island of Cuba.
Cuba is included between the meridians of 740 and 850 west of
Greenwich and between the parallels of 190 40' and 230 33'. Its length
from Cape Maysi on the east to Cape San Antonio on the west is 730
miles. Its breadth differs greatly in different parts, ranging from 100
miles in the east, in the province of Santiago, to 25 miles in the neigh-
borhood of Habana. Its area, which is more fully discussed elsewhere,
may be set down as 43,000 square miles, including the Isle of Pines
and the keys. It is, therefore, a little larger than the State of Virginia
and somewhat smaller than Pennsylvania.
The north coast is for the most part bluff and rocky, and in the prov-
inces of Matanzas, Santa Clara, and Puerto Principe bordered by lines
of islands and reefs of coral formation, the passages through which
are extremely intricate and difficult. These islands are low, are in the
main covered with mangrove forests, and contain few inhabitants.
The coast is low in the western part of the island, the bluffs ranging
about 100 feet in height in Pinar del Rio and rising gradually east-
ward. About Matanzas they reach 500 feet in altitude. In Santa Clara
and Puerto Principe they are lower, but in Santiago the coast is abrupt
and rugged, almost mountainous, rising in a succession of terraces.
The south coast from Cape Maysi to Cape Cruz is mountainous.
Indeed, from Santiago westward to Cape Cruz the Sierra Maestra
rises abruptly from the water to altitudes of several thousands of feet.
The shores of the gulf of Buena Esperanza, into which flows the Rio
Canto, are low, and from this place westward, excepting a short stretch
between Trinidad and Cienfuegos, the coast is low and marshy as far
as Cape San Antonio, the westernmost point of the island. This coast
strip of marsh is in the main narrow, but west of Cienfuegos it broadens
into a great expanse, forming the Zapata Swamp, an almost impene-
trable region, 75 miles in length with a maximum breadth of fully 30
miles, clothed with the densest vegetation and teeming with tropical
life. It was within the protecting limits of this marsh that the Cubans
during the recent revolution maintained a hospital for their sick and
wounded.
Off the south coast are hundreds of low, marshy, mangrove-covered
islands and islets.
Most of the harbors on both coasts are of peculiar shape, resembling
nothing so much as pouches with narrow, often sinuous, entrances,
opening within into broad expanses completely sheltered. This is the


18






















84"


83 82^


& ~4 s \ 5 000 00000 Iob 0~ 6' 1 \ST





MARTA 4 < t
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COMPILED FROM


CHART E"U. S. COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY"



Boundaries of provinces---

do municipal districts- -

Railroads



Scale
240.o0 0.
1 0 0 0 20 30 40 0 60 70 0 0 00
STATUTE MILES.

0 0 10 20 30 10 00 60 0 80 900 100 100 120 130 N0 100 60 710 I60 1 0
r-- IILOMETERS.


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e
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760
--1


7 V.


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- ----*--


a


A Hor.n& r. L'.t. Rndrwwr, Dd.




GEOGRAPHY.


character of the harbors of Habana, Santiago, Cienfuegos, Guantanamo,
and many others less known.
In its relief the island of Cuba is not a simple orographic unit, but
presents great variety and irregularity, which renders it incapable of
simple description and generalization. The middle portion of the
island, including the provinces of Habana, Matanzas, Santa Clara, and
Puerto Principe, presents little relief, but consists in the main of broad,
undulating plains and shallow valleys, the land rising only in a few
places to any considerable altitude. It is only at the two extremes of
the island, in the province of Pinar del Rio on the west and Santiago
on the east, that the island presents any considerable or well-defined
relief features. Throughout Pinar del Rio there runs a range of hills,
a little north of the middle line of the province and closely paralleling
in direction the northern coast. This range, which is fairly well defined,
is known as the Cordillera de los Organos, or Organ Mountains, and
rises in many places to altitudes exceeding 2,000 feet, culminating in
Pan de Guagaibon, having an altitude of 2,500 feet. From the crest
of this range the land descends northward and southward to the coast
in long, undulating slopes, the southward slopes forming the celebrated
tobacco lands known as Fuelta Abajo.
The central provinces of Cuba, Habana, Matanzas, Santa Clara, and
Puerto Principe consist mainly of broadly rolling plains, with shallow
stream valleys. In Habana, Matanzas, and Santa Clara these plains
are, or were prior to the late revolution, in a high state of cultivation,
while in Puerto Principe they are, in the main, used for the grazing
of cattle. The valley of the Yumuri, in Matanzas, is a type of the
beautiful, highly cultivated region of this part of the island.
The Sierra de los Organos ceases as a range a little west of Habana,
but traces of this uplift can be followed through the central part of
Habana, Matanzas, Santa Clara, and the western part of Puerto Prin-
cipe in the form of lines of hills of no great altitude dotting these
extended plains. They are seen south of the city of Habana in the
little timbered hills known as the Tetas de Managua, and farther east
in the Arcas de Canasi, the Escaleras de Jaruco, and the Pan de Mat-
anzas, just south of the city of Matanzas. This rises to an altitude of
1,300 feet and serves as a landmark to sailors far out in the Atlantic.
In the eastern part of Matanzas province these hills disappear, but
they reappear again in Santa Clara, taking the form of elongated crest
lines and flat top summits, and as such extend into the western part of
the province of Puerto Principe.
In the southern part of the province of Santa Clara is a group of
rounded hills, occupying an area between Cienfuegos, Trinidad, and
Sancti Spiritus. The highest of these, Potrerillo, has an altitude of
2,900 feet. Among these hills are many beautiful valleys.
Santiago, at the other end of the island, is a province presenting


19




REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


great relief. Its surface is extremely broken with high, sharp moun-
tain ranges, broad plateaus of considerable elevation, and deep valleys-
some of them broad, others narrow and resembling canyons. The
dominating orographic feature of the province-indeed, of the whole
island-is the Sierra Maestra, which, commencing at Cape Cruz, south
of Manzanillo, extends eastward, closely paralleling the coast, from
which it rises abruptly, as far east as the neighborhood of Santiago.
In this part it contains many points exceeding 5,000 feet in altitude,
and culminates in Pico Turquino, which is reputed to have an altitude
of 8,320 feet. From Santiago it extends to the east end of the island,
but is much more broken and has more of a plateau-like form, with a
great diminution in altitude. This portion of the range takes on a
different name, being known as the Cobre Range. It contains numer-
ous flat summits, approximating 3,000 feet in altitude, one of which,
known as La Gran Piedra, is said to have an altitude of 3,300 feet.
North of Sierra Maestra lies the broad and fertile valley of the
Cauto, beyond which the country rises gradually to a high plateau
occupying the interior of the province, with a summit elevation of
1,000 feet or more, on which stands the city of Holguin. The eastern
part of the province consists of a maze of broken hills, with altitudes
ranging from 1,000 to 2,000 feet, in which are many small and fertile
valleys.
The Isle of Pines, with an area of 840 square miles, is a municipal
district of the province of Habana. It is in effect two islands, con-
nected by a marsh, the northern being somewhat broken by hills, the
southern low, flat, and sandy.
The rivers of Cuba, though numerous, are short, and few of them
are of any importance for navigation. The largest stream is the Rio
Cauto, which heads in the interior of Santiago province and in the
north slopes of Sierra Maestra, and flows westward through a broad
valley to its mouth in the Gulf of Buena Esperanza, after a course of
about 150 miles. This stream is navigable for light-draft boats to
Cauto Embarcadero, about 50 miles above its mouth.
The next stream of importance for navigation is the Sagua la Grande,
on the north slope of the island, in Santa Clara province. This, which
enters the sea near the city of Sagua la Grande, is navigable for some
20 miles above its mouth.
Several other streams are navigable for a few miles above their
mouths, but in most cases only through what may be regarded as estu-
aries. Taking the island as a whole, its internal communications,
except along the coasts, are dependent almost entirely upon its very
few and poor wagon roads and its few railroads.
MINERAL RESOURCES.
The mineral resources of Cuba, so far as developed, are few in num-
ber and not of great importance. The principal product is iron ore,


20



































































S 'MiUkI A l.LL


ij,


.. nrzf





























































GENERAL LANISCAPE OF CULT IVATED FARMS.



CLIMATE.


which is found at various points near the south base of Sierra Maestra,
between Santiago and G uantanamo. The ore is mainly hematite, with
some limonite, and is found principally as float, in great masses of
bowlders. It is easy to work and of excellent quality, containing
about 62 per cent of iron. A few occurrences have been discovered
and mined of ore in place in the rock. There are three companies
owning this mining property, one of which, the Juragua Company,
has iiined and shipped a considerable quantity of ore, nearly all of the
shipments having gone to the United States. Up to 1895 the product
of this com1p)uy is stated at a trifle over 3,000,000 tons. Operations
by the other two companies have consisted mainly in development
Nvork, only a small quantity of ore having been shipped by them. The
late war, of course, put a stop to mining operations and much of the
mining plant was destroyed.
A copper deposit, reputed to be of extraordinary richness, is known
in the vicinity of El Cobre, in the southern partof Santiago province,
but since 1868 mining upon it has been at a standstill. Deposits are
reported in other parts of the island, and much of this metal may yet
be produced.
Asphaltum is found in various places, notably in the vicinity of the
city of Santa Clara, where it has for many years been used in making
illuminating gas for the city.
A little gold and silver has been mined in the island in past times,
but for many years the island has not produced either of these metals.
CLIMATE.
The climate of Cuba is comparatively simple in its character and
can be briefly described. With the long, narrow shape of the island,
its great extent of coast line and small breadth, it has in the main an
insular climate with a high mean temperature, slight extremes of
temperature, great humidity of the atmosphere, and an ample rainfall.
At Habana, on the north coast, the mean annual temperature is 770.
The range of temperature between the mean of the hottest month and
that of the coldest month is from 820 to 710, or only 110. The high-
est temperature on record in Habana is 100.60, and the lowest 49.60.
This maximum recorded temperature is no higher than in northern
cities of the United States, but the duration of high temperatures is
much greater in Cuba and explains the high mean temperature. But,
notwithstanding the long-continued high temperature, the climate of
the northern portion of the island is tempered by the trade winds
which blow with but little variation throughout the year, and the
nights in both winter and summer are cool. The mean annual tem-
perature at Habana fairly represents that of the island, it being per-
haps a little hotter upon the south coast and inland than upon the
north coast. The range of temperature between summer and winter
does not differ probably materially anywhere on the coast from that


21




REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


at Habana, but inland is probably a little greater. The mean relative
humidity at Habana averages about 75 per cent and remains tolerably
uniform at all times of the year. Inland the humidity becomes some-
what less, but not decidedly so.
The mean annual rainfall at Habana, derived from observations of
many years, is 52 inches. The record shows, in different years, a
rainfall ranging from 40 to 71 inches. This represents quite closely
the rainfall upon the north coast of the island. Inland and upon the
south coast it is probably somewhat less, although observations are
lacking. This is decidedly less than upon the Gulf coast of the United
States and but little greater than that of the northern seaboard cities.
As regards the distribution of rainfall through the year, there is a
wet and dry season, the former being from May to October, during
which time about two-thirds of the precipitation of the year is received.
Rain falls during about one-third of the days during each year,
although this does not represent by any means the proportional amount
of rainy weather. The days are usually clear up to about 10 o'clock,
from which time till night, during the rainy season, it is frequently
showery. The nights are commonly clear. Thunderstorms are fre-
quent, but not violent.
The prevailing winds throughout the island are the northeast trades,
which blow with great persistency, but seldom with violence. The
island is occasionally, though not frequently, visited by hurricanes.
These break upon the coast, causing the maximum destruction in its
neighborhood, and rapidly lose their force and violence as they proceed
inland.
In winter, when the trade winds extend farthest to the southward,
the island not infrequently comes within the influence of "northers,"
from the North Temperate Zone, greatly and suddenly reducing the
temperature on the north coast. These occur during the winter
months and follow the severe storms of the United States, when the
temperature sometimes falls as low as 500, causing much suffering, as
very little provision is made against cold in the construction of the
Cuban houses.
FLORA.
Owing to the richness of the soil, the equable, moist temperature and
abundant rainfall, the island is a veritable garden, abounding in flowers,
luscious fruits, and a great variety of vegetables. Uncultivated nature
has a wild luxuriance of jungle, grove, and forest to be traversed only
by the aid of machete or along well-worn pathways. To illustrate the
great variety of its native flora, it may be stated that over 3,350 native
plants have been found in the island besides those introduced. They
include many species of valuable wood, such as the mahogany, ebony,
granadilla, majagua, cedar, walnut, ceiba, lignum-vitw, oak, pine, and
the palm, of which there are over 30 species, among them the royal


22


















LIi


6*c 1 t T


NLERIOR OF IHE LAVE > hELI AMAH NEAR MA41AN/AA


2J 6.
a




! tia
/ 3 r { Ufa..

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fa





Y:a
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FAUNA.


palm, which, to the poor Cuban, is the most valuable of all, as the
leaves provide him with a roof and the trunk with walls for his primi-
tive dwelling. In the interior the forests are in large part made up
of Cuban pine, which forms excellent lumber. Although a large pro-
portion of the island has been cleared during the past three hundred
years for the purposes of cultivation, yet it is estimated that 13,000,000
acres, or nearly half its area, still remain clad in original forests.
These areas are found mainly in the eastern part of the island, in the
provinces of Santiago and Puerto Principe.
Over a large part of the cleared or cultivated areas are luxuriant
grasses, which, like the parana and guinea grasses, grow to a height
of several feet and are abundant and nutritious.

FAUNA.

Throughout Cuba game is abundant; deer, though not native, have
flourished and multiplied greatly. Rabbits are also plentiful. The
wild boar, so called, the wild dog, and the wild cat are simply
domestic animals run wild. They are quite numerous in all parts of
the island. Wild fowl, especially ducks and pigeons, abound, the
former crossing from the Southern States during the winter season,
while the latter remain on the island the year round. Pheasants, quail,
snipe, wild turkeys, and wild guinea fowl are also numerous, with
several varieties of game birds, such as the perdiz, tojosas, rabiches,
and the guanaros.
The only distinctively native animal is the jutia or hutia, ratlike
in appearance, and black, which grows to a length of 16 or 18 inches,
not including the tail. While eatable, it is not especially palatable.
Cuba has more than 200 species of native birds, including those
already mentioned as game birds, many possessing the most beautiful
plumage, but those with song are rare.
In swampy localities crocodiles and American alligators (caimans)
are found, and although these frequently grow to an enormous size,
but little attention is paid to them by the natives.
Chameleons, small lizards, tree toads, and similar harmless silurians
of diminutive size are very common, while occasionally the iguana
and other large varieties of the lizard species are seen.
Few varieties of snakes exist in Cuba. One of these, the maja,
from 10 to 14 feet in length, is a semidomesticated reptile, if such a
term may be used, for it is most frequently found about the huts,
farmhouses, and small villages, its favorite living place being in the
palm-leaf thatches of the older buildings, while its favorite food is
poultry. Another snake, named the juba, is more vicious in disposition
,han the maja, although never reaching more than one-third its size.
It is not poisonous. The other varieties are still smaller in size, are
seldom seen, and are not venomous.


23



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


The land crabs are very abundant and annoying. They vary in siz6
from an inch to 8 inches or mere in diameter. Scorpions, centipedes,
and tarantulas are plentiful, and, although they are poisonous, their
bites are rarely, if ever, fatal.

HISTORY.
Many books have been written about Cuba, but few detailed and
reliable histories. Such information as is available is in fragmentary
form, and many important events connected with the affairs of the
island are unrecorded, or so briefly touched on as to be unintelligible.
The time allowed for the preparation of this report will not admit of
an extended compilation of historic facts and no attempt has been
made, therefore, to do so. But it has been considered advisable, as
pertinent to this census, to refer to the discovery and first settlement
of Cuba, its government, and the causes which have apparently
affected its progress. An effort has also been made to collect all
reliable data in regard to the movement of population, agriculture,
and education, and these are presented by way of preface to the
analysis of the tables.
Cuba was discovered by Columbus Sunday, October 28, 1492.
According to the most reliable evidence, he landed in, or a little to
the west of, what is now called the bay of Nuevitas, on the north
coast of the province of Puerto Principe. He took possession of the
island in the name of Christ, Our Lady, and the reigning Sovereigns
of Spain, and named it Juana in honor of Prince John.
Continuing his voyage, Columbus sailed west as far as the Laguna
de Moron, where he arrived October 31. From here, on November
12, he commenced to retrace his steps. It is somewhat difficult to
decide from his journal where he sailed between November 12 and 26.
He appears to have returned to the vicinity of the Guija Islands and
then to have cruised about among the keys and islands off the prov-
ince of Puerto Principe, finally reaching the Bay of Nuevitas.
On November 26 he sailed southeast along the coast of Santiago de
Cuba to Baracoa, where he arrived on the evening of November 27.
From there he sailed, on December 4, to Point Maysi, the eastern end
of the island, and on the following day to the island of San Domingo.
On the 3d of May, 1493, Pope Alexander VI issued a bull conferring
on Ferdinand and Isabella all lands already discovered, or to be dis-
covered, in the Western Ocean, thus confirming by divine right, to
all Christendom, the claims of Columbus.
Columbus visited Cuba three times after this. In 1493, during his
second voyage, he followed the southern coast from Point Maysi as
far as Bataban6 and the Isle of Pines, which he reached June 13,
1493, discovering in the meantime the island of Jamaica, which he
visited while en route from Santiago de Cuba to Cape Cruz. During


24






























































RLJ W U UAF'I k MINE'. Al Ll Ii: R AN) LIikA MAL, IkE


SI





STORY.


this voyage Columbus visited Guantanamo, Trinidad, and probably
Cienfuegos.
During his fourth and last voyage, he touched at Cayo Largo,
off the south coast of the province of Santiago de Cuba, in July, 1502,
while en route to, and again in May, 1503, when returning from, the
mainland.
From this time to its permanent occupation by the Spaniards, Cuba
does not appear to have been visited often by other explorers, although
in 1508 Sebastian Ocampo, acting under the orders of Nicolas de
Ovando, Governor of San Domingo, reported that Cuba was an island,
but this was known, probably, to other explorers several years before.
Nevertheless, it does not appear that Cuba received much attention
from the Spanish authorities prior to 1511.
In that year Diego Columbus, Admiral of the Indies and Governor
of San Domingo, sent Capt. Diego Velasquez, one of the companions
of Columbus in his second voyage, to subdue and colonize Cuba. With
a force of 300 men he sailed from San Domingo and landed near Point
Maysi, going thence to Baracoa, where the first settlement was made
in 1512. In 1514 Velasquez founded Trinidad and Santiago de Cuba,
on the southern side of the island, to facilitate communication with the
Spanish colonies of Jamaica and the mainland, Sancti Spiritus near its
middle point, and Remedios, Bayamo, Puerto Principe, and San Cris-
tobal de la Habana, the latter on what is now the site of Bataban6.
In 1519 this name was transferred to a settlement on the present site
of Habana. The same year, Baracoa, having been raised to the dig-
nity of a city and bishopric, was declared the capital, and so remained
until 1522, when both were removed to Santiago. Habana became
the capital in 1552.
On the death of Ferdinand, January 23, 1516, Velasquez renamed the
island Fernandina in his honor. It was subsequently named Santiago,
after the patron saint of Spain, but the name was again changed to
Ave Maria, in honor of the Virgin. Through all these official changes,
however, it retained its native original name.
Velasquez continued to govern Cuba as adelantado, or lieutenant-
governor, under the governor and aud encia of Santo Domingo, until
his death in 1524. He had five successors in the office of lieutenant-
governor. (See Appendix for list of Governors.) The first Governor,
Hernando de Soto, was appointed in 1536; he was also adelantado
of Florida. The first Captain-General was Don Gabriel de Lujan,
appointed in 1581. During this interval the Spanish population had
increased very slowly; but two additional towns, Guanabacoa and El
Cobre, were founded, 1555 and 1558, and not another town was built
for more than one hundred years.
In the seventeenth century but two towns of any importance, Matan-
zas and Santa Clara, were founded, and in the eighteenth but nine.


25




REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


At the end of this period the population of the island is said to have
numbered 275,000 souls, while the development of its wealth had
scarcely begun. In fact, for many years after its colonization, Cuba
was not a wealth-producing colony, and, therefore, not an object of
much solicitude or patronage. In the general scheme of colonizing
the West Indies, both Cuba and Jamaica were occupied to facilitate
trade with the rich colonies of the Spanish main, and while still a
young colony Cuba, as a depot of supply, was severely taxed by the
numerous expeditions which sailed from her shores between the years
1512 and 1538.
If the situation and many natural advantages of Cuba be considered,
it is evident at a glance that either the Cubans have been blind to
their opportunities or that causes generally beyond their control have
retarded the growth of the population and the development of the
island's resources. The latter would seem to be the case, although it
can not be said that the Cubans were not in some measure accountable.
The principal staples of Cuba, and those upon which its wealth mainly
depends, are sugar and tobacco. The largest sugar crop, 1894-95,
was1,054,000 tons; the largest tobacco crop (same year), about 2,480,000
arrobas, or 62,000,000 pounds; and its population at the outbreak of
the recent war was probably between 1,800,000 and 2,000,000 souls.
It is the opinion of experienced and enlightened judges that the island
could easily have produced a crop of sugar and tobacco five times as
large and had a population of 5,000,000 people had its administration
been characterized by different theories of government.
That, in the administration of her colonies, Spain was a bad excep-
tion to a general rule of liberal and generous government on the part
of other countries toward their colonial dependencies is by no means
the case. In fact, much the same ideas appear to have influenced
all of them at the outset, although the results were different, as might
be expected of governments having different origins, forms, and
theories. The prevailing idea appears to have been that the political
and economic interests of colonies were always to be subordinated to
those of the home country, no matter how injurious the consequences,
and, while in some instances this course was modified with most
beneficial results, it was followed unremittingly by Spain to the end
of her supremacy over Cuba.
Aside from the fact that during the early history of Cuba Spain had
little surplus population to dispose of, and that through the expulsion
of the Jews and Moors she lost a large and valuable part of it, her
trade restrictions, established at the beginning of the colonial period
in her history and continued without essential modification for nearly
three hundred years, would account, in some measure, for the slow
increase in the population and industries of Cuba. These restric-
tions appear to have originated in the royal cedula of May 6, 1497,


26




HISTORY.


granting to the port of Seville the exclusive privilege of trade with
the colonies. At the same time the Casa de Ctntratacion, or Council
of Trade, was established, upon which was conferred the exclusive
regulation of trade and commerce, although later the Council exercised
its functions under the general control of the Council of the Indies.
San Domingo, and later Vera Cruz, were the only colonial ports author-
ized to trade with Seville. In 1717 the trade monopoly of Seville was
transferred, by royal order, to the port of Cadiz, in Spain.
While Santiago was the capital of Cuba, trade between the island
and the home ports mentioned was restricted to that place, and when,
in 1552, the capital was transferred to Habana, that city became the
sole port of entry until 1778, except during the English occupation of
the island, 1762-63, when Habana was opened to free trade. By the
royal decree of October 12, 1778, trade between Santiago, Trinidad,
Batabano, and other Spanish ports was authorized. This privilege
was extended to Nuevitas in 1784, to Matanzas 1793, Caibarien 1794,
and Manzanillo and Baracoa in 1803. Prior to this Cuban ports were
practically under an embargo of the strictest kind. Even between
the ports of Habana and Seville or Cadiz, there was no free communi-
cation, but all trading vessels were gathered into fleets, or "otas,"
from time to time, and made the voyage accompanied by Spanish
war ships, partly for protection against freebooters and pirates, but
chiefly to prevent trade with other ports. In 1765 this restriction was
removed.
The maritime laws regulating trade and commerce forbade trade
even between the colonies, and as early as 1592 trade with foreigners
was only permitted by special authority, and in 1614 and 1680 trade
with foreigners was prohibited under pain of death and confiscation
of the property concerned.
The treaties of the period appear to have recognized these prohibi-
tions as entirely justifiable under the rules of international intercourse
as they existed at that time. Thus by the treaties of 1648 and 1714
between Spain and the Dutch provinces it was agreed by the con-
tracting parties to abstain from trading in the ports and along the
coast of the Indies belonging to each of the treaty nations. Again,
by the treaty of Madrid between England and Spain, similar engage-
ments were made, although article 10 provided that in case vessels
arrived at the prohibited ports under stress or shipwreck they should
be kindly received and permitted to purchase provisions and repair
damages. This privilege was subsequently withdrawn by royal orders
of January 20 and April 15, 1784, which prescribed that no vessel
belonging to a foreign nation should be permitted to enter, even under
the pretext of seeking shelter. The severity of these restrictions was
modified later on and, by a royal order of January 8, 1801, Cuban
ports were thrown open to the commerce of friendly and neutral
nations.


27



REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


Other commercial privileges were granted in 1805, 1809, 1810, and
1812, due, in great measure, if not entirely, to the French invasion of
the Peninsula and its effect on Spanish possessions in the West Indies
and America. But these concessions to trade with Spanish colonies
were but temporary, as by royal orders of January 10, November 17,
and July 10, 1809, foreign commerce with Spanish-American ports
was prohibited. Against these last restrictions of trade the various
Spanish colonial Governors, and especially the Captain-General of
Cuba, protested on the ground of the necessities of the colonies and
the inability of Spain to meet them. These objections having been
favorably considered by the Council for the Indies, foreign trade with
Habana was extended for six months.
Many other decrees and royal orders affecting trade with Cuba and
the other Spanish colonies were promulgated during the period between
1775 and 1812, but they throw no additional light on this subject. It
is plain that Spain was always averse to granting trade facilities with
her colonies, and only did so for a time when forced by her necessities;
but having once opened Cuban ports and to that extent established the
privilege of foreign trade, which it was difficult to recall, the next step
was to restrict it as far as possible by duties, tonnage, and port dues,
and arbitrary tariffs imposed from time to time in such a way as to
render foreign commerce unprofitable. Without going into details it
may be said that up to 1824 duties on foreign commerce were much
greater than on Spanish merchandise, and while from that year they
were generally less restrictive, still they were always high enough to
compel Cubans to purchase from Spanish merchants, who, as Spain
did not herself produce what was needed, bought from French,
German, American. or other sources, thereby raising prices far above
what they would have been under a system less hampering. In
fact, up to 1818 Cuba does not appear to have had a tariff system. In
that year a tariff was promulgated making the duties 26J per cent on
agricultural implements and 43 per cent ad valorem on other foreign
merchandise. This was modified in 1820 and 1822 and the duties reduced
to 20 per cent on agricultural implements and 37 per cent ad valwwm
on foreign industrial products. On all Spanish importations under
this classification the duties were two-thirds less. The tariff of 1824
was less prohibitive.
Not satisfied, apparently, with this arrangement for excluding
foreign trade or with the amount of customs revenue, an export tariff
was established in 1828 on sugar and coffee, which had by that time
become important products. On sugar the duty was four-fifths of a
cent per pound, and on coffee two-fifths of a cent per pound. If
exported in foreign vessels, the duty on sugar was doubled and on
coffee was increased to 1 cent per pound. With slight modifications


28




HISTORY.


these duties continued to August 1, 1891, when, under the McKinley
tariff law, a reciprocal commercial agreement was proclaimed by Presi-
dent Harrison between Spain and the United States, which enabled
Cuba to seek its nearest and most natural market. In a short time
nearly the entire trade of Cuba was transferred to the United States,
and Cuba enjoyed a degree of prosperity never before attained.
But with the termination of this agreement by the tariff law of 1_s94,
the old practice of differential, special, and discriminating duties
against foreign trade was reestablished, thus forcing upon the Cubans
compulsory trade with Spain. There seems to be no question among
impartial and intelligent judges as to the injurious effect of this system
on the growth of Cuba's population and material progress, both largely
dependent on commercial advantages.
Another evil born of the system and given a certain amountt of
immunity through the reverses and disasters of the Spanish navy, in
consequence of which Spain was unable to protect her connerce or
fully enforce trade regulations, is smuggling, which began with trade
restrictions and monopolies and has continued to this day, the amount
of merchandise smuggled being, for many years, nearly equal to
that regularly imported and exported. From smuggling on a large
scale and privateering to buccaneering and piracy is not a long step,
and under the name of privateers French, Dutch, English, and
American smugglers and buccaneers swarmed the Caribbean Sea and
Gulf of Mexico for more than two centuries, plundering Spanish
ylotas and attacking colonial settlements. Among the latter, Cuba
was the chief sufferer. Sallying forth from Santo Domingo. Jamaica,
the Tortugas, and other islands and keys, these marauders raided the
island throughout the whole extent of its northern, eastern, and south-
ern coast line, levying tribute, kidnaping individuals, and carrying off
whatever was needed. In 1538 they attacked and burned Habana.
In 1544 they attacked Baracoa, Matanzas, and Habana, which they
again sacked and burned. In 1604 Giron, a French buccaneer, landed
twice in Santiago, capturing the Morro, and in 1679 French buc-
caneers again raided the province. Incursions on a smaller scale were
frequent, causing the Captain-General to issue an order requiring all
men to go armed and all persons to retire to their homes after night-
fall. By the terror they excited these raids retarded somewhat the
development of agriculture by compelling the people to concentrate
in the towns for protection. On the other hand, they stimulated the
construction of fortifications in the harbor of Habana and other ports,
which, a few years later, made them safe against such incursions.
Coupled with trade restrictions and extending throughout the entire
life of Cuba as a dependency of Spain, excessive taxation has always
prevailed. Apart from imports and exports, taxes were levied on real


29




REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


and personal property and on industries and commerce of all kinds.
Every profession, art, or manual occupation contributed its quota,
while, as far back as 1638, seal and stamp taxes were established on
all judicial business and on all kinds of petitions and claims made to
official corporations, and subsequently on all bills and accounts.
These taxes were in the form of stamps on official paper, and at the
date of American occupation the paper cost from 35 cents to $3 a
sheet. On deeds, wills, and other similar documents the paper cost
from 35 cents to $37.50 per sheet, according to the value of the prop-
erty concerned. Failure to use even the lowest-priced paper involved
a fine of $50.
There was also a municipal tax on the slaughter of cattle for the
market. This privilege was sold by the municipal council to the
highest bidder, with the result that taxes were assessed on all animals
slaughtered, whether for the market or for private consumption, with
a corresponding increase in the price of meat.
Another tax established in 1528, called the detreeho de averia,
required the payment of 20 ducats ($16) by every person, bond or
free, arriving in the island. In 1665 this tax was increased to $22,
and continued in force to 1765, thus retarding immigration, and, to
that extent, the increase of population, especially of the laboring
class.
An examination of these taxes will show their excessive, arbitrary,
and unscientific character, and how they operated to discourage Cubans
from owning property or engaging in many industrial pursuits tending
to benefit them and to promote the material improvement of the island.
Taxes on real estate were estimated by the tax inspector on the
basis of its rental or productive capacity, and varied from 4 to 12
per cent. Similarly, a nominal municipal tax of 25 per cent was
levied on the estimated profits of all industries and commerce, and
on the income derived from all professions, manual occupations, or
agencies, the collector receiving 6 per cent of all taxes assessed.
Much unjust discrimination was made against Cubans in determining
assessable values and in collecting the taxes, and it is said that bribery
in some form was the only effective defense against the most flagrant
impositions.
Up to the year 1638 the taxes were collected by royal officers
appointed by the King, and their accounts were passed on by the
audiencia of Santo Domingo. In that year contadores (auditors) were
appointed who exercised fiscal supervision over the tax collectors,
until, by royal cedula of October 31, 1764, the intendancy of Habana
was created, the administration of taxes being conducted as in Spain.
Since 1892 the taxes have been collected by the Spanish Bank under a
ten years' contract, the bank receiving a commission of 5 per cent.
About 18 per cent of the assessed taxes remained uncollected between


30



HISTORY. 31

1886 and 1897, and the deficits thus caused were added to the Cuban
debt, ever a subject of universal discontent.'
If to high taxes, high tariffs, and utter indifference, apparently, to
the needs of the island be added a lack of banking facilities of all
kinds, and a system of currency dependent entirely on the Spanish
Government and affected by all its financial difficulties, we have some
of the reasons why the economic development of Cuba has been slow.
"All her industrial profits were absorbed by Spain, leaving no surplus
to provide for the accumulation of capital and the material progress
of the island,"2 which was apparently regarded as a government
monopoly, whose productive capacity was in no wise connected with
its economic interests. Accordingly, such interests were invariably
subordinated to those of Spain-with which they rarely accorded-no
matter how injurious the result. That this course should have been
followed in the early period of Spanish colonization is not strange. All
sorts of economic experiments, based on what are now considered
absurd economic theories, were tried about that time by European
countries in vain efforts to promote national prosperity by entirely
unnatural methods. Thus, for many years Cuba was prohibited, in
common with other colonies, from the cultivation of raw products
raised in Spain, thus reversing the theory and practice under which
England subsequently developed her manufacturing industries at home,
successfully colonized all parts of the habitable globe, and established
her enormous colonial trade, by the very natural process of paying for
the raw products of her colonies in manufactured articles. No nation
in Europe during the sixteenth century was in a better condition than
Spain to establish such a system, as she was essentially a manufactur-
ing country. But with the expulsion of the Moors her manufactures
were practically ruined; the wealth which for many years had poured
in from the colonies in exchange for the supplies shipped them now
passed through her to other countries in consequence of her extinguished
industries, and she became little more than a clearing house for foreign
products. Five-sixths of the manufactured articles used in Spain were
imported, and foreigners, in direct violation of Spanish laws, soon car-
ried on nine-tenths of the trade with her colonies.
It may be said that results equally unfortunate appear to have attended
all other branches of Spanish colonial government. Under a policy so
shortsighted that it was blind to the most ordinary precautions, and
1According to the data of the tribunal of accounts (tribunal de suentas) of Habana,
referred to by Senor la Sagra, Cuba received as ordinary and extraordinary "situados"
from Mexico, from 1766 to 1788, 57,739,346 pesos fuertes, and from 1788 to 1806 the
sum of 50,411,158 pesos fuertes.
2The proof of this is the bad condition of the roads and harbors, the absence of
docking facilities, the lack of adequate water supply in cities, of sewers, paved streets,
schoolhouses and other public buildings essential to every cumnunity and provided
by private or public enterprise.




REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


long after repeated warnings should have suggested a greater measure
of economic and political independence for Cuba, the entire system of
Cuban government and administration was retained in the hands of
Spanish officials to the exclusion of native Cubans, thus substituting
for home rule a government which, however necessary in the earlier
history of the island, became, with the lapse of centuries, an object of
suspicion and hatred to a large majority of Cubans, as the medium
through which Spain exercised despotic power over them and appro-
priated to herself the wealth of the island. That these feelings would
have yielded to greater economic and political freedom, there can be
no question. Political independence was not generally advocated at
first. Autonomy under the protection of Spain was as far as the
industrial classes cared to go, and had this been granted ten years
earlier Cuba might and probably would have remained a Spanish col-
ony. It was the economic rather than the political aspect of the island
that concerned the greater part of its population. But in Cuba polit-
ical and economic conditions were inseparable under the theory of
colonial government which prevailed, and economic concessions were
not to be thought of if the practice of stripping Cuba by the various
means described without giving Cubans the least opportunity to pre-
vent it in a peaceful way was to continue.
That they would ever resort to force was not believed, or if believed,
not feared, in the face of a despotic Governor-General with a local army
and navy to enforce his authority and the whole power of Spain in
reserve. Besides, the Cubans had given ample proof of their loyalty.
But the rulers of Cuba, usually blind to its interests, were to test
the loyalty of her people beyond the limits of endurance, and, as a
result, to lose for Spain her "ever faithful island."
From the time of Velasquez, 1512, to General Don Adolpho Jim-
enez Castellanos, 1898, Cuba had 136 rulers. A list of them will be
found in Appendix XV, and it may be said that, with but a dozen excep-
tions, they did nothing toward the development of the island or the
welfare of the people, although clothed with despotic power since
1825. A large number of them were Spanish politicians, appointed
without special reference to their fitness, but as a reward for services,
personal or political, rendered to the Spanish Government. The
resources of Cuba were always available to the home party in control
for this purpose, which accounts in some measure for the unanimity
of Spanish opinion respecting political concessions to the island. It
was necessary that its control should remain absolutely in the hands
of the Captain-Generals representing the home government; but there
is very little question that had all of them exercised their authority
with moderation, lightened the burden of taxation, removed or modi-
fied many trade restrictions, promoted public works, and used their


32




HISTORY.


83


authority to extend the influence of the Cubans in the administration
of the island, the dominion of Spain might have been continued for
years to come, as much of the political agitation would have been
avoided, the gulf between Spaniards and Cubans would have been
bridged over, until, through these and other influences, an adjustment
of the economic situation would have brought peace and prosperity to
the people.
The first serious opposition to the insular government was brought
out by the attempt of Captain-General Vicente Roja to enforce the
government monopoly in tobacco, decreed in 1717. Several bloody
riots occurred and Roja was obliged to withdraw temporarily from the
island.
Apart from uprisings among the negroes, stimulated no doubt by
the success of their race over the French in the neighboring island
of San Domingo there were no other attempts at insurrection on
the part of Cubans until after the conspiracy of 1823, planned by a
secret society known as the "Soles de Bolivar." This conspiracy
resulted from the attempt of Captain-General Vives to carry out the
instructions of Ferdinand VII, after the abrogation of the Spanish
liberal constitution of 1812, and was intended as a protest against a
return to absolutism in Cuba; but, apparently, it failed of effect, and
there was no relaxation of efforts to reestablish the old order. The
conspiracy was of a serious character and extended over the entire
island, but centered in Matanzas, where among the revolutionists was
Jose Maria Heredia, the Cuban poet. The conspiracy failed and the
leader, Jose Francisco Lemus, and a large number of conspirators were
arrested and deported. A feeling of bitter resentment against the
Government was the result, and a period of agitation and public
demonstration followed. Frequent uprisings were attempted in 1824,
but failed.
It would have been well for Spain had Ferdinand VII been warned
by these events and endeavored, by conciliatory measures, to allay
such manifest feelings of discontent. But neither he nor his advisors
would see the "handwriting on the wall." With characteristic sever-
ity, the royal decree of May 28, 1825, was issued, conferring on the
Captain-General "all the powers of governors of cities in a state of
siege with full and unlimited authority to detach from the
island and to send to the Peninsula all officials and persons employed
in whatsoever capacity, and of whatsoever rank, class, or condition,
whose presence may appear prejudicial, or whose public or private
conduct may inspire you with suspicion and further to
suspend the execution of any order or general regulations issued in
whatever branch of the administration and to whatever extent you
may consider convenient to the royal service, etc., to see that faithful
24662 3




REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


servants of His Majesty be remembered, at the same time punishing
without delay or hesitation the misdeeds of those, etc."'
An army from Spain, intended for the subjugation of former Span-
ish colonies in South America, which was to have been dispatched from
Cuba, was retained there, and a military commission was permanently
organized to try political offenses under the above decree and the arti-
cles of war.
Political agitation having taken the form of revolutionary demon-
strations, there was a gradual separation on political lines between
the Cubans and Spaniards, and numberless Cuban secret societies were
formed throughout the island for political propaganda. Allied with
the Cubans were all of the more radical, as well as the more moderate
liberal members of the community, while the Spanish party included
beneficiaries of former monopolies and the conservative and reac-
tionary elements, which, under the policy of the Captain-Generals, had
crystallized around the officials of the government and their coadjutors
in the church.
The political agitation continued, and in 1826 a small uprising took
place in Puerto Principe, directed by the Sociedad de la Cadena, and
aimed against the abuses of the regiment Leon quartered there. The
same year (June 22) the Congress of American Republics assembled
at Panama, to which the President of the United States appointed Mr.
John Sergeant, of Pennsylvania, and Mr. Richard Anderson, of Ken-
tucky, as envoys extraordinary and ministers plenipotentiary. Mr.
Anderson was United States minister to Colombia and died en route
to the congress, which had adjourned before Mr. Sergeant arrived, to
meet at Tacabaya. But it did not meet again, and consequently the
United States delegates took no part in its deliberations.
The objects of this congress, as set forth in the correspondence, were
to urge the establishment of liberal principles of commercial inter-
course, in peace and war, the advancement of religious liberty, and
the abolition of slavery, to discuss the relations of Hayti, the affairs
of Cuba and Porto Rico, the continuation of the war of Spain on her
Spanish colonies, and the Monroe doctrine, which announced as a
principle, "that the United States could not view any interposition
for the purpose of oppressing them (governments in this hemisphere
whose independence had been declared and acknowledged by the United
States), or controlling in any other manner their destiny, by any Euro-
pean power in any other light than as a manifestation of an unfriendly
disposition toward the United States."
While the United States no doubt sympathized with the objects of
the congress, the debates in the Senate and House of Representatives
indicated a desire to avoid interference with Spain, a friendly nation,


1 Promulgated again in the royal decrees of March 21 and 26, 1834.


34



HISTORY.


or the slavery question, and that it was not prudent to discuss ques-
tions which might prove embarrassing to the United States if called on
to consider them at a future time. As a result, the American dele-
gates were given limited powers, and this, coupled with the conserva-
tive attitude of the United States, resulted in the failure of the congress
to achieve any result.
The year before Francisco Agdero and Manuel Andres Sanches, a
second lieutenant in the Colombian army, had been sent from Cuba to
the United States and to Colombia to urge their interference and assist-
ance. An expedition was organized in Colombia to be led by the
famous Colombian patriot, Simon Bolivar, but the failure of the
Panama congress caused the abandonment of the expedition. On the
return of the emissaries to Cuba they were arrested, tried, and
executed.
Following this effort, in 1830, a revolution was planned by the
society of the "Black Eagle," a Masonic fraternity having its base of
operations in Mexico, with secondary bases in Hahana and at various
points throughout the island. The conspiracy failed, and several of
the conspirators received sentence of death, afterwards commuted by
Captain-General Vives to life imprisonment. The object of the con-
spiracy was the independence of Cuba, the pretext a report that the
island was to be ceded to Great Britain.
In 1836 the constitution of 1812 was reestablished in Spain, but
proved of no benefit to Cuba. On the contrary, the deputies sent
from Cuba to the constitutional convention in Madrid were excluded,
and, by a royal decree of 1837, the representation in the Cortes which
had been given Cuba in 1834 was taken away, and it was announced
that Cuba would be governed by special laws. These, the Cubans
claim, were never published. From this time to 1847 several upris-
ings or insurrections occurred throughout Cuba, followed in that year
by a revolutionary conspiracy organized by Narciso Lopez, and hav-
ing in view the liberation of the island or its annexation to the United
States. It had been arranged to make the first demonstration on the
4th of July, in the city of Cienfuegos, but the plot was made known
to the Spanish Governor, and Lopez and his companions fled to the
United States, where, in 1849, they organized a filibustering expe-
dition, which was prevented from leaving by the vigilance of the
Government. In 1850 Lopez organized a second expedition, which
sailed from New Orleans May 10 and landed with 600 men at Carde-
nas, attacking its small garrison. A portion surrendered with Gov-
ernor Ceniti and the remainder went over to the insurgents. As
the uprising upon which Lopez depended did not take place, he
reembarked the same day and made his escape to Key West.
Undeterred by these failures, he organized a third expedition of 480
men in 1851. which sailed from New Orleans and landed, August 12,


35




36 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.

at Playitas, near Bahia Honda, 55 miles west of Habana. Colonel
Crittenden, of Kentucky, with 150 men formed part of the force. On
landing Lopez advanced on Las Pozas, leaving Colonel Crittenden in
El Morrillo. Meeting a Spanish force under General Enna, Lopez
was defeated after a gallant fight, his force dispersed and he with some
50 of his men captured and taken to Habana, where he was garroted.
In attempting to escape by sea Crittenden and his party were captured
and on the 16th of September were shot at the castle of Atares.
In the same year an uprising took place in Puerto Principe, led by
Juaquin de Agfiero, but the movement came to naught and he and
several of his companions were executed.
Following the attempt of Agiiero came the conspiracy of Vuelta
Abajo, organized in 1852 by Juan Gonzalez Alvara, a wealthy planter
of the province of Pinar del Rio. Associated with him were several
other prominent Cubans, and among them Francisco de Fras, Count of
Pozos Dulces. This attempt at revolution was discovered and the
leading conspirators arrested. They were tried and sentenced to death,
but were finally transported under sentence of life imprisonment.
Meantime the Liberal Club of Habana and the Cuban Junta in New
York were raising money and organizing expeditions destined for Cuba.
Some of them sailed, and in 1859 an attempt was made to land at Nue-
vas Grandes. But these expeditions accomplished little, except to
keep alive the spirit of revolution.
From this time to the outbreak of the revolution of 1868 the con-
dition of Cuban affairs does not appear to have improved. Taxes
continued excessive and duties exorbitant, reaching at times an
average of 40 per cent ad valorem on all imports, and so distributed
as practically to prohibit trade with any country except Spain. Small
uprisings and insurrections were frequent and there were many exe-
cutions. Meanwhile the results of the civil war in the United States,
and more particularly the abolition of slavery, encouraged the Cubans
to hope for liberal reforms, especially in the trade and industries of
the island, but no concessions appear to have been made until the year
1865, when, by a royal decree of November 25, a commission was
appointed by Isabella II to consider the question of reforms in the
administration of Cuba. Nothing came of it, however, although it
afforded an opportunity to the few Cuban delegates who were present
to formulate their views. They demanded greater political and eco-
nomic liberty, a constitutional insular government, freedom of the
press, the right of petition and assembly, the privilege of holding
office, and representation in the Cortes. It would have been well for
Spain had she listened to these complaints and made some effort to
satisfy them, but nothing was done and as a result the revolution of
1868 was commenced at Yara in the province of Puerto Principe.
It was ended by the capitulation of Zanjon, February 10, 1878, and






in its more serious phases was confined to the provinces of Santiago
and Puerto Principe. No battles or serious engagements were fought,
although a guerrilla warfare of great cruelty and intensity was carried
on. While the casualties of the fighting were comparatively few for
a war of such duration, there were many deaths from disease, exe-
cutions, and massacres, and the Spanish troops suffered severely from
yellow fever, which prevailed at all times in the sea-coast cities.
The effect of the ten years' war on the material condition of Cuba
can not be stated with accuracy. The population had increased in the
ten years previous at the rate of 17 per cent during the war, and for
ten years after the increase was but 6 per cent. A large number of
lives and a large amount of property were destroyed, and an enormous
debt was incurred, while taxes of all kinds increased threefold. The
war is said to have cost the contestants $300,000,000, which was charged
to the debt of Cuba.
By the capitulation of Zanjon Spain agreed to redress the griev-
ances of Cuba by giving greater civil, political, and administrative
privileges to the people, 2 with forgetfulness of the past and amnesty
for all then under sentence for political offenses. It has been claimed
by Cubans that these promises were never fulfilled, and this and the
failure of the Cortes to pass the bill reforming the government of
Cuba, introduced in 1894 by Senlor Maura, minister for the colonies,
are generally given as the causes of the last rebellion. On the other
hand, Spain has always insisted that every promise was observed, and
that even more was granted than was asked for or stipulated in the
articles of capitulation. Thus, by the decree of March 1, 1878, Cuba
and Porto Rico were given representation in the Spanish Cortes, upon
the basis of their respective populations, and the provincial and munic-
ipal laws of 1877 promulgated in Spain were made applicable to Cuba.
By proclamation of March 24, 1878, full amnesty was given to all,
even to Spanish deserters who had served in the insurgent army; on
May 23,1879, the penal code of Spain and the rules for its application
were given effect in Cuba; on April 7, 1881, the Spanish constitution,
full and unrestricted, as in force in Spain, was extended to Cuba by
law; in 1885 the Spanish law of civil procedure was given to Cuba, and
on July 31, 1889, the Spanish civil code, promulgated in 1888, was put
in operation in Cuba and Porto Rico.
After examining all the evidence, however, the student of Cuban
history will probably conclude that while the Spanish Government was
technically correct in claiming to have enacted all laws necessary to
make good her promises, there was a failure usually to execute them,
and that, as a matter of fact, political conditions in Cuba remained
Sometimes referred to as the "Treaty" or "Compromise" of Zanjon.
2Same as people of Porto Rico.


37


HISTORY.




REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


practically as before the war, although very much improved on the
surface.'
A serious permanent fall in the price of sugar in 1884 and the final
abolition of slavery in 1887 added to the economic troubles of the
people, and in conjunction with continued political oppression, kept
alive the feelings which had brought on the war. The Cubans believed
that notwithstanding the capitulation of Zanjon they were still mere
hewers of wood and drawers of water, with but little voice in the
government of the island, and that Spain was the chief beneficiary
of its wealth. And such would appear to have been the fact if the
following figures, taken from official sources, can be relied upon:
From 1893 to 1898 the revenues of Cuba, under excessive taxation,
high duties, and the Habana lottery, averaged about $25,000,000 per
annum, although very much larger in previous years,2 depending on
the financial exigencies of the Spanish Government. Of this amount
$10,500,000 went to Spain to pay the interest on the Cuban debt,
$12,000,000 were allotted for the support of the Spanish-Cuban army
and navy and the maintenance of the Cuban government in all its
branches, including the church, and the remainder, less than $2,500,000,
was allowed for public works, education, and the general improvement
of Cuba, independent of municipal expenditures. As the amounts
appropriated annually in the Cuban budget were not sufficient to cover
the expenditures and there was a failure to collect the taxes, deficits
were inevitable. These were charged to the Cuban debt, until, by
1897, through this and other causes, it aggregated about $400,000,000,
or an amount per capita of $283.54-more than three times as large as
the per capita debt of Spain and much larger than the per capita debt
of any other European country.
Under such perverted economic management it is not surprising
that another rebellion was planned, and that the war of 1895-1898
followed.
The United States had always shown a friendly interest in the affairs
of Cuba, and the question of its annexation had been discussed as far
back as 1825, when Mr. John Quincy Adams was President, partly, it
is said, to prevent the island from passing under the control of any
other nation, in violation of the Monroe doctrine, and partly for the
purpose of extending the slave territory of the United States. To
this end a popular movement was started in the Southern States dur-
ing the Mexican war (1846). Two years later (1848) President Polk
made propositions to the Spanish Government, through the American
minister in Madrid, having in view the purchase of the island.
It was the interpretation and execution of the laws by Governors having but little
sympathy with the natives rather than the laws themselves that caused most of the
trouble in Cuba.
2 In 1860, $29,610,779; 1880, $40,000,000; 1882, $35,860,246.77. Cuba was expected
to contribute whatever was demanded.


38




HISTORY.


Again, in 1854, the strained relations between Spain and the United
States, growing out of the detention of the American steamer Black
Warrior in the harbor of Habana, charged with violating the customs
regulations, and the search of several American vessels by Spanish
cruisers elicited the Ostend Manifesto," drawn up by the American
ministers to England, France, and Spain, in which it was declared
"that the possession of Cuba by a foreign power was a menace to the
peace of the United States, and that Spain be offered the alternative of
taking $200,000,000 for her sovereignty over the island or having it
taken from her by force." Finally, during the ten years' war, Presi-
dent Grant, while expressing his belief to the Spanish Government
that only independence and emancipation could settle the Cuban ques-
tion and that intervention might be necessary to end the war, repeat-
edly proffered the good offices of the United States in reestablishing
peace. Meanwhile, in 1873, the capture of the rginhis and the
tragic execution of 53 of her passengers and crew in the city of San-
tiago de Cuba by order of the Spanish commander came near to involv-
ing the countries in war, happily avoided by diplomatic action. '
As the rebellion of 1895 proceeded, much sympathy was felt for the
Cubans by the people of the United States, which being reflected in
Congress resulted in a concurrent resolution of strict neutrality, but
coupled with a declaration that the United States should proffer its
good offices to Spain, through President Cleveland, with a view of
ending the war and securing the independence of the island; but
nothing came of it. As the war continued it excited much interest in
the United States, and, in 1896, both Republican and Democratic
national conventions passed resolutions of sympathy for the Cubans
and demanded that the Government take action.
Although the Committee on Foreign Relations in the Senate of the
Fifty-fourth Congress reported a resolution, December 21, 1896,
recognizing the republic of Cuba, it was never taken from the calen-
dar. Meanwhile reports of outrages and indignities to American
citizens in Cuba and of the dreadful effects of reconcentration were fre-
quently communicated to the Government or published in the press.
In May, 1897, Congress appropriated $50,000 for the purchase of
supplies for the reconcentrados,2 as it was reported that many of them
were, or claimed to be, American citizens. The supplies were sent
under permission of Spain, and were distributed to the reconcentrados,
1 The records of the State Department show conclusively that, notwithstanding
serious provocations, the United States up to the time of the recent war had always
observed strict neutrality toward Spain in dealing with Cuba, and had always stood
ready to recognize her control over the island. Nor were the Cubans ever encour-
aged by the President to believe that either belligerency or independence would
receive acknowledgment.
2 Reconcentrados, or, as they were called, "Paificos," were the country people (small
farmers), who sympathized with the insurgents and gave them such assistance as they
could. The proclamation of Captain-General Weyler, issued in 1896, required them to
abandon their homes and property of every kind and move into the nearest towns,
where many of them died of starvation and disease. Their homes were destroyed


39




40


REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


whether Americans or not, and soon after the revocation of the edict
of reconcentration and the recall of Captain-General Weyler were
requested by the United States. While these requests were favorably
received by Spain, it was very evident that little was being done, and as
the war continued apparently on the same lines, it was thought advisable
to send a man-of-war to Habana for the protection of American citizens.
The battle ship iaine was selected for this duty, and sailed in January,
and soon after the Spanish cruiser Viscaya was ordered to visit New
York, as evidence of existing friendly relations. On the night of
February 15 the .Maive was blown up and 2 officers and 264 sailors
lost their lives. Spanish officials at once insisted that the explosion
was due to an accident caused by carelessness and lack of discipline.
A board of naval officers was convened by the President to examine
into the circumstances, and after a careful investigation, extending
over a month, reported that the ship had been blown up from the out-
side. A contrary report was the result of a Spanish investigation.
The report of the naval board was laid before Congress by the Presi-
dent, who meanwhile had used every effort to avoid war by diplomatic
action.
Early in April it became known that Spain had proposed to the
insurgents a suspension of hostilities, to be followed by a capitulation,
and had appropriated $600,000 for the relief of the reconcentrados, but
that the proposal bad been rejected by the insurgent leaders. As it
was evident from this that the war would continue, the President sent a
message to Congress on April 11, requesting authority to end the war
and to secure in Cuba the establishment of a stable government capa-
ble of maintaining order and observing its international obligations.
On April 19 Congress passed joint resolutions, which, after reciting
the conditions existing in Cuba, demanded the withdrawal of Spain
from the island, and empowered the President to use the military and
naval forces of the United States to carry the resolutions into effect.
This was practically a declaration of war, and, on April 23, the
President issued a proclamation calling for 125,000 volunteers, which
number was subsequently increased to 200,000, and the Regular Army
to 60,000 men. By a formal declaration of April 30, Congress
announced that war had existed since April 21.
On April 24 Commodore Dewey, commanding the Asiatic Squadron,
was notified by the Secretary of the Navy that war with Spain had
begun, and to proceed to the Philippine Islands and capture or
destroy the Spanish fleet. On Apri 27 he sailed from Hongkong in
the execution of this order, and on the afternoon of April 30 arrived
at the entrance of Manila Bay, where, on the following day, he cap-
tured or destroyed all the vessels of the Spanish fleet.
On June 14 an American army, numbering 15,000 men, under com-
mand of Gen. W. R. Shafter, sailed from Port Tampa, Fla., for
Santiago de Cuba, where it arrived on the morning of June 20, and





















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HISTORY.


on July 1 and 2 the battle of San Juan took place, resulting in the
defeat of the Spanish troops and the investment of Santiago.' On the
morning of July 3, the Spanish fleet, under Admiral Cervera, attempted
to escape from the harbor, but was intercepted by the American fleet
under Capt. William T. Sampson and totally destroyed. On July 16,
articles of capitulation were signed at Santiago de Cuba, followed by
the formal surrender of the Spanish forces in the eastern district of
Santiago on July 17.
On August 12 a protocol provided for a cessation of hostilities, and
on December 10 a treaty of peace between the United States and Spain
was signed at Paris. It was ratified by the President February 6,
1899, and by the Queen Regent of Spain March 19, and proclaimed in
Washington, D. C., April 11, thus ending the last act in the drama.
Cuba was to be free at last on the single condition that she estab-
lish a stable government capable of maintaining order and observing
international obligations." With this question she is to deal presently.
While the ten years' war was not without disastrous effects on the
economic development of Cuba, they were trifling as compared-with
the war of 1895-1898, which resulted in a large decrease of population
and of the wealth-producing power of the country. It may be said
in general, on a conservative estimate, that the population of the island
decreased 12 per cent and its wealth two-thirds.
As an indication of the financial stress prevailing in the island, the
ratio of mortgage indebtedness to the value of real property, as
assessed by the Spanish Government, is interesting. The mortgages
and censos are from the reports of the registers of property to the
treasurer of the island for January, 1900, and are shown in the fol-
lowing tables:
RURAL REAL ESTATE.

I'rovince. Valueof prop- Amouge of indebted- Amount of quit
ert y. ness rents (census).
Habana ......................................... 944,140,610.00 $18,797,03.00 87,037,047.42
Matanzas........................................ 45,594,977.40 35,754,485.38 9,178,964.43
Pinar del Rio ................................. 28,982,950.50 8,080,998.31 4,833,793.36
Puerto Principe------------------------------... 3,466,736.90 2,706,196.52 984,795.10
Santa Clara...................................... 41,838,395.00 37,422,559.71 3,445,936.78
Santiago de Cuba................................ 20,701,166.20 4,135,946.40 188,915.72
Total ......................................I 184,724,836.00 1106,897,249.32 2 25,679,452.81
1 58 per cent, approximate. 214 per cent, approximate.
CITY REAL ESTATE.
Habana ..................................... $84,804,500.00 $89,522,541.96 $11,900,842.61
Matanzas....................................17,704,963.50 4,685,557.49 1,264,729.11
Pinar del Rio.................................... 3,278.733.80 640,609.89 286,744.55
Puerto Principe ................................. 2,428,446.00 461,078.83 388,335.40
Santa Clara...---................................ 19,761,472.30 3,965,725.35 497,992.04
Santiago de Cuba................................ 10,938,944.10 1,454,449.99 270,206.77
Total ................. ................ 138, 917,059.70 1 100,729,943.51 2 14,608,850.48
179 per cent, approximate. 210 per cent, approximate.
'This included the operations of Lawton at El Caney, July 1.


41




REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


It should not be forgotten in discussing these ratios that there has
been no valuation of real property since American occupation, and that
the values given are those made by Spanish officers some time prior
thereto.
The actual value of real estate, especially of city property, is much
greater than is given in the tables. It is probable that the amount of
encumbrances is also greater than has been stated. It is quite certain
that had the war continued under the same conditions for another year,
nearly the entire rural population of the central and western provinces
would have been destroyed, as also their agricultural wealth. There-
fore American interference did not come too soon, and the Cubans
have every reason to be thankful that the declaration of President
McKinley made to Congress April 11, 1898, "that the war in Cuba
must stop," was not made in vain.
Prominent among the causes tending to retard the material prosper-
ity of Cuba has been the lack of educational interest and facilities.
For nearly three hundred years there were practically no schools in
the island.
A history of education in Cuba is presented elsewhere in this report
as an introduction to the analysis of the tables of education. It is suf-
ficient in this connection to say that prior to 1842 there were no pub-
lic schools in Cuba. In that year, largely through the efforts of the
Sociedad Economica de Habana and of other patriotic residents of the
island, provision was made by the Spanish Government for public
schools. But if any reliance can be placed in the following figures, they
did very little toward educating the masses.
By the census of 1861 there were 793,484 white people in Cuba,
of whom 552,027, or 70 per cent, could not read, and of the 603,046
colored persons, 576,266, or 95 per cent, could not read.
By the census of 1887 there were 1,102,889 whites, of whom 715,575,
or 64 per cent, could not read, and of the 528,798 colored, 463,782, or
87 per cent, could not read. No statistics of the degree of literacy in
the island in 1842, when the publit-school system was commenced, are
available, but the state of education nearly fifty years after affords some
idea of the sufficiency of the schools and of their influence in eradicating
a potent cause of stagnation. An increase of 6 per cent in literacy of the
white population in twenty-six years indicates either that very little
importance was attached to public education as a means of general
improvement, or that no such improvement was expected.
From the contemplation of this picture of prolonged misrule, we
turn in closing to a few incidents in the history of Cuba from which
she derived substantial and lasting benefit. First in chronological
order was the invasion and occupation of the island by the British in
1762, assisted by troops from the Anglo-American colonies. Habana
was surrendered August 13, after a two months' siege. The English


42






VNVLiVH JO A LID


U J




GOVERNMENT.


held the country as far east as Matanzas until the following spring,
when, by the treaty of Paris (February, 1763), which ended the war
between England, France, and Spain, Cuba was ceded back to Spain in
exchange for Florida. Up to this time Habana had been the only port
of entry since it became the capital in 1558, and even trade with
Habana was confined strictly to Seville and Cadiz. The English opened
this port at once to foreign and domestic commerce, thus removing at
a stroke all the restrictions which had fettered it, and, although the
English occupation lasted but six months, the benefit to Cuba was per-
manent, as after the recession of the island to Spain it was found
impracticable to reestablish former trade restrictions entirely. The
cession of Florida to England caused the migration of a large number
of Spaniards from Florida to Cuba.
The next event, in point of time, which, however unfortunate for
Spain, proved of great benefit to Cuba, was the revolution in the
neighboring island of Haiti, the cession of that island to France
in 1795, 'and the race war between the whites and negroes which
followed, and which was continued at intervals for ten years.
Thousands of French and Spanish settlers fled or emigrated to Cuba,
where they located, chiefly in the provinces of Santiago and Puerto
Principe, introducing the cultivation of coffee and adding materially
to the wealth and agricultural prosperity of the island.
Similarly, the cession of Louisiana to the United States in 1803 and
of Florida in 1819 and the revolution of the Spanish South American
colonies and of Mexico caused a notable increase in the population of
Cuba, to which many loyal Spaniards emigrated or fled for refuge.
In truth, the loyalty of Spaniards to their Government and its insti-
tutions, their patriotic devotion to their country, their steadfast cour-
age, and their patient endurance through many trials and provocations
are among the traits which contributed to the remarkable ascendency
of Spain and her former dominion over more than half the known earth.
Yet, combined with these characteristics, was the leaven of personal lib-
erty and a love of political freedom born of ancient privileges, and for
which they have ev er contended. These qualities, under the influences
of the nineteenth century, were destined to establish republics even
as in past centuries they had founded empires.

GOVERNMENT.
The government of all Spanish colonies was conducted on the the-
ory that newly discovered territory belonged to the Crown rather than
to the Government and that all political control was vested in the King,
who appointed all the Viceroys, Captain-Generals, and Governors.
When Cuba was colonized by Velasquez this control was mainly
exercised through the Council of the Indies. The Cortes of Castile
was seldom called except to vote funds or supplies for the King, and


43




REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


every branch of colonial administration, civil as well as military, was
under the jurisdiction of the Council, which appointed all officials not
appointed by the King. Thus all government control centered in the
Council and the King, and local self-government, which was developed
at an early stage in the English colonies, became practically impossi-
ble in the Spanish colonies, no matter to what extent it may have
existed in theory.
Coupled with secular control, as an important part of the plan of
colonization, was that of the church, and in every colonial expedition
there were abbots, bishops, priests, friars, or monks, who, while they
were largely interested in the material prosperity of their order by the
acquisition of land, the erection of churches, monasteries, and convents,
devoted themselves zealously to the conversion of the natives and pro-
tected them as far as possible against the cruelty and rapacity of the
invaders. On the other hand, it must be conceded that while in the
early history of the island its purposes were ostensibly benevolent, the
Spanish Church has persistently and rigorously opposed freedom of
conscience, the spread of public education, and every effort on the part
of the Cubans to establish self-government. By the year 1857 the
property of the church in the island amounted to about $7,152,685,
and the adjustment of church claims is now one of the most difficult
questions before the insular government.
The plan of Spanish colonization in America, as well as the laws
governing the colonies, was essentially Roman in origin. Up to the
year 1621 the laws of Spain applied equally to all her colonies, but
thereafter they did not unless declared to do so by the council of the
Indies.
Special regulations, decrees, etc., modifying the application of the
laws to the colonies or promulgating new laws were frequent, and
their compilation in 1680 was published as the "Law of the Indies."
This and the "Siete Part Alas," on which they were largely based,
comprised the code under which the Spanish American colonies were
governed.
All the colonies were founded practically on the same plan. This
included the presidio, or military headquarters, the pueblo, or town,
and the mission for the conversion and education of the Indians, usu-
ally located at some distance apart from the other two. The land set
aside for the pueblo was laid out in the form of a square or rectangle.
The plaza, or public square, was then laid out near the central point,
and after that the streets of the town, dividing it into blocks. The
public buildings and church were erected around the plaza, facing it,
the remaining space being occupied with dwellings. This is the plan
of all the oldest cities and towns of Cuba. To the military garrison
was intrusted the protection of the pueblo and mission and the con-
duct of all expeditions for any purpose.


44




















ErT

j"Va
:4' 'I


M1












































































































































































6




GOVERNMENT.


After establishing the municipality the next step was the exploration
and pacification of the country, and after that the disposition of the
spoils captured, including the land and natives. These were usually
divided among the Spanish followers of the military commander, one-
fifth of all gold, silver, and Indians being turned over to the revenue
officers of the Crown.
As in the mother country, the colonial municipality was the local
political unit, and its government was vested in an ayuntamiento, or
municipal council, consisting of mayors (alcaldes) and councilors (regi-
dores). There was also an alguacil, or sheriff, and in the large towns a
procurador syndico, or city attorney. The alcaldes acted as judges and
conducted trials.
In the early history of Spanish municipalities they were, to a limited
extent, self-governing, electing the mayors and councilors. With the
extension of the royal authority following the union of the Spanish
provinces the control of these offices was gradually assumed by the
Crown and they were filled by nomination or appointment, being sold
to the highest bidder, and often made-hereditary. With the return of
more liberal government this practice was discontinued, and finally they
again became elective. This was the experience of Cuban municipali-
ties. Not all the councilors were selected in this way, however, as
some were elected. For such elections a royal decree of 1558 con-
ferred the elective franchise on the forty largest taxpayers and on
those who had academic or university degrees. The alcaldes were
appointed by the Governor-General from the members of the council.
This plan of government continued with slight variations until 1812,
when it was modified, but was reestablished in 1814.
In 1859 each municipality was given a council consisting of 1 mayor,
1 syndic, and 6 aldermen, if the population was 5,000, and 2 deputy
mayors and 10 aldermen if the population was 10,000. Exception
was made of Habana, which was given 7 deputy mayors, 4 syndics,
and 16 aldermen. All councilors, except those appointed for life, were
elected in each municipality by the largest taxpayers, subject to the
approval of the Governor-General, the number of electors being twice
or thrice as many as the number of councilors to be elected, according
as the population was less than or exceeded 10,000. The elections
were held annually, and the Cubans claim that under this system the
offices were generally filled by Spaniards, although they did not com-
prise one-fifth of the white population.
By the electoral law of August 20, 1870, amended by that of Decem-
ber 16, 1875, the elective franchise was conferred on the heads of fam-
ilies actually engaged in some profession or trade, who had resided in
the district for two years at least, and who paid a tax of 5 pesos on
their own property one year before the formation of the electoral list,
or who were civil employees of the state, the province, or municipal-


45




REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


ity, in active service, or retired or pensioned from the army or navy,
and all adults who had resided in the district two years who could fur-
nish proof of their professional or academic education by means of
an official certificate. Other electoral laws, orders, and decrees regu-
lating the elective franchise have been promulgated since the law of
1875. Property education and tax tests were always qualifications of
both provincial and municipal electors until 1897, when universal suf-
frage in municipal elections only was granted.
Very little authority, especially in fiscal affairs, was conferred on
the municipal councils, the members of which performed a variety of
duties, and their existence as well as their acts were absolutely under
the control of the Governor-General.
By a royal decree of 1878, the organic municipal and provincial laws
of the peninsula, somewhat modified, were extended provisionally to
Cuba. By these laws a municipality is defined to be the legal asso-
ciation of all persons who reside in a municipal district, and is to be
represented by a municipal council as a financial administrative corpo-
ration. A municipal district is the territory under the administra-
tion of a municipal council. Municipal districts are established,
increased, diminished, annexed to other municipal districts, wholly or
in part, or abolished, by the Military Governor as the lawful suc-
cessor of the Governor-General. They correspond in a measure to
American counties or townships, and as prerequisites to their estab-
lishment must contain not less than 2,000 inhabitants, a territory pro-
portioned in extent to the population, and be able to meet the obligatory
municipal expenses.
Municipal districts differ in area, and each forms part of a judicial
district and of a province, but can not belong to different jurisdictions
of the same order. There are 6 provinces, 31 judicial districts, and
132 municipal districts in the island.
To facilitate the administrative service, each municipal district is
divided into subdistricts and the latter into wards (barrios), depending
on the number of residents in the subdistricts. For political purposes
the subdistricts are further divided into electoral districts and the
latter into electoral sections.
As far as practicable, ward limits are arranged so that the wards
shall have approximately the same population; but every part of the
municipal district must form, or be included in, a ward, no matter
what its population may be.
Thus the province of Matanzas has 24 municipal districts and 128
wards, so that the entire province is embraced within district and ward
lines. The seat of municipal government is the principal town or city
in the district where the enumeration of the subdistricts and wards
begins.
Each municipal district has a municipal council and a municipal


46




































I V "k


1 1

di.' }-


CITY Alf 4 I ,I: ,,1





GOVERNMENT.


board. The council governs the district, subject to the supervision of
the governor of the province and Military Governor of the island, and
is composed of a mayor, a certain number of deputy mayors, and
aldermen taken from the members of the council.'
The census of the population determines the number of councilors
to which each municipal district is entitled, as follows: Up to 500
inhabitants, five; 500 to 800, six; 800 to 1,000, seven; between 1,000
and 10,000, one additional councilor for every additional 1,000 people;
and between 10,000 and 20,000, one for every additional 2,000 people.
For more than 20,000, one for every additional 2,000 inhabitants until
the municipal council has the maximum number of 30 councilors.
The number of deputy mayors is determined on the same principle.
Municipal districts of less than 800 inhabitants have no deputy may-
ors; between 800 and 1,000, one; 1,000 to 6,000, two; 6,000 to 10,000,
three; 10,000 to 18,000, four; 18,000 or more, five. Up to 800 inhab-
itants there is but one subdistrict, and between 800 and 1,000 two, but
thereafter the number of subdistricts corresponds to the number of
deputy mayors. Each deputy mayor is in charge of a subdistrict as
the representative of the mayor, discharging such administrative duties
as he may direct, but having no independent functions.
Up to 3,000 inhabitants there is but one electoral district; between
3,000 and 6,000, three; 6,000 to 10,000, four; 10,000 to 18,000, five;
18,000 or more, six.
The councilors are elected from the municipality at large by the
qualified voters of the district, one-half being renewed every two
years, the councilors longest in service going out at each renewal.
They are eligible for reelection. The regular elections are held in the
first two weeks in May, but partial elections are held when, at least
six months before the regular election, vacancies occur which amount
to a third of the total number of councilors. If they occur after this
period they are filled by the governor of the province from among
former members of the council.
All male citizens over 25 years of age who enjoy their full civil
rights, and have lived at least two years in the municipality, are enti-
tled to vote, provided they are not disqualified by sentence for certain
criminal offenses, bankruptcy or insolvency, or are not delinquent tax-
payers or paupers.
The mayors and deputy mayors are appointed by the Military Gov-
ernor from among the councilors on the recommendation of the coun-
cil. But while under the law the deputy mayors must be selected
from the council, the Military Governor may appoint any person as
mayor, whether he belongs to the municipality or not.
In each ward there is also an alcalde de barrio or ward mayor. He


1 This law was in force when the census was taken.


47




REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


is appointed by the mayor of the municipal district, who can also sus-
pend or remove him. He is required to keep a register of the horses,
mules, and cattle in his ward, and to discharge such administrative
duties as the deputy mayor of the subdistrict in which his ward is
located may direct.
Each council has a secretary, who is appointed by the Military Gov-
ernor of the island on the recommendation of the council. The coun-
cil also appoints from among its members one or more fiscal attorneys
(procuradores syndicos), whose duty it is to represent the council in all
legal suits which may be instituted, and to revise and audit all local
accounts and budgets. After the council is fully organized the coun-
cilors who are not appointed to other offices in the council are called
aldermen. The mayor and secretary are the only salaried municipal
officers, the office of deputy mayor, fiscal attorney, alderman, associate
member of the municipal board, and mayor of a ward being described
in the law as gratuitous, obligatory, and honorary." The mayor,
deputy mayors, and fiscal attorneys have the same right to speak and
vote as the members of the council, and, in fact, the first two are
obliged to vote on every resolution.
The duties and responsibilities of the municipal council are those
which usually devolve on such bodies in European countries. The
mayor is president of the council and represents it on all occasions.
He presides at the meetings when the governor of the province is not
present. He votes by right of membership, and in case of a tie casts
the deciding vote, but has neither the veto nor the appointing power.
As a result, there is no division of responsibility between the mayor
and the council in administrative matters, the council, as a whole,
making every appointment and deciding every question of municipal
administration as far as the laws and the provincial and insular gov-
ernors will permit, distributing the work of departmental management
to permanent committees of their own number, which they organize
and constitute as may seem best. These committees have associated
with them such experts and specialists as may be necessary, and take
the place of the several independent departments and boards which are
features of municipal government in the United States.
The sessions of the municipal council are determined by that body,
but can not be less than one each week. Every member is required to
attend punctually or pay a fine. Neither the mayor, the deputies,
aldermen, nor ward mayors can absent themselves from the municipal
district unless they receive permission as follows: The mayor from the
governor of the province, and if the latter does not appoint a tempo-
rary mayor the senior deputy acts; deputy mayors and aldermen require
the permission of the council; ward mayors of the mayor. The gov-
ernor of the province can suspend the mayor or the deputies and
aldermen, as well as the resolutions and decisions of the council, while


48
























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GOVERNMENT.


the Military Governor can remove all municipal officers and appoint
others to their places, and modify or annul the proceedings of the
council.
The municipal board is composed of the municipal council and an
equal number of associate members elected from among the taxpayers
of the district, who hold office during the fiscal year. It is the duty of
the board to revise the annual budget of municipal expenses prepared
by the council and to establish the taxes according to law.
By a royal decree of November 25, 1897, municipalities were granted
the power to frame their own laws regarding health, public education,
public highways by land, river or sea, and municipal finances, and
freely to appoint and remove their own employees. Municipal councils
were empowered to choose their own mayors from among the coun-
cilors, and provision was made for a minority representation in the
councils. Owing to the war this decree did not become operative.
General Wood, the Military Governor of Cuba, under date of March
24, 1900, intrusted to the municipal authorities, without any interven-
tion on the part of civil governors, the maintenance of public order,
the execution of municipal ordinances, the administration of the munic-
ipal police, the regulation of public amusements, and the granting of
permits for public parades, assemblies, and meetings within their
respective districts.
By a civil decree of April 1$, 1900, the power to elect mayors,
councilors, treasurers, municipal judges, and correctional judges, to
hold office for one year, was conferred on municipalities. This decree
further provided for the registration of voters, the nomination of
candidates, tickets, boards of election, voting, methods of challenge,
and penalties for all kinds of election frauds.
The qualifications of voters at municipal elections were established
as follows:
1. The voter must be a native male Cuban, or the son of a native male Cuban,
born while his parents were temporarily residing abroad, or a Spaniard included
within the provisions of article 9 of the treaty of Paris, who has not made declara-
tion of his decision to preserve his allegiance to the Crown of Spain, as provided in
said article.
2. He must be of the age of 21 years or upward on the day preceding the day of
election.
3. He must have resided in the municipality in which lie intends to vote at least
thirty days inunediately preceding the first day of registration, and in addition to
the above he must possess any one of the following qualifications: (a) Ability to
read and write; (6) ownership of real or personal property to the value of $250,
American gold; (c) service in the Cuban army prior to July 18, 1898, and the
honorable discharge therefrom, whether a native Cuban or not.
Disqualificaios.--No person shall be qualified to vote who is insane or an idiot, or
who is a resident in, or supported by, any public charitable institution, or who is
deprived of or suspended from the exercise of his political rights by sentence of a
court, except in cases where the conviction is for a crime of a political character,
24662 -


49




REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT.

Under the laws of Spain, a province is composed of the municipal
districts within its limits. Up to the 8th of October, 1607, Cuba
formed a single province, but by royal decree of that date, it was
divided into two provinces, the Oriental and Occidental, the capitals
of which were the cities of Santiago de Cuba and Habana, respec-
tively. The Governor-General resided in Habana and a provincial
government was established in Santiago. Over the Occidental prov-
ince he had immediate supervision, and over the Oriental through its
governor.
This continued to be the provincial division of the island until July
17, 1827, when by royal decree it was divided into three departments,
to wit: The Occidental, Central, and Oriental, with capitals in Habana,
Trinidad, and Santiago, respectively.
The departments were further diided into districts. the Occidental
having 11, the Central 5, and the Oriental 4. To each department a
lieutenant-governor was appointed--a general officer of the Spanish
army-and to the districts military officers of subordinate rank. The
officers were appointed liy the Governor-General, to whom they were
directly responsible for the administration of civil and military affairs
within the territorial divisions to which they were assigned.
In 1850, on the recommendation of the Captain-General, the Central
department was discontinued, and the municipalities of Puerto Prin-
cipe, Neuvitas, and Trinidad were all annexed totheOccidental depart-
ment; the far eastern part of its territory was incorporated with the
Oriental department, which now constitutes the province of Santiago.
By a royal decree of June 9, 1878, Cuba was divided into the
provinces of Pinar del Rio, Habana, Matanzas, Santa Clara, Puerto
Principe, and Santiago de Cuba, with capitals in the cities bearing the
names of the provinces. The provincial government was vested in a
civil governor, a provincial deputation, and a provincial connuittee.
The governor was appointed and removed by the Governor-General
and received a salary of from $4,000 to $8,000 in Spanish gold, accord-
ing as the province was first, second, or third class.
The provincial deputation was composed of deputies elected for four
years by the qualified voters of the municipalities. The number of
deputies depended on the number of electoral districts in the province
as determined by the provincial deputation, and approved by the Gov-
ernor-General. In the same way the judicial districts of the province
were allowed to elect twelve deputies, more or less, depending on
whether the number of deputies elected by the municipalities exceeded
or was less than twenty. The deputies served without pay.
The provincial committee and its vice-president were appointed by
the Governor-General from among the members of the deputation and
consisted of live deputies who received a salary of from $1,200 to


50

































































CI Y (,F VINAR I L i ()






GOVERNMENT.


$2,00 a year in Spanish gold, according to the classification of the
province. The deputation met in regular session in November and
April and held such extra sessions as were necessary. The permanent
committee represented the deputation when not in session, and acted as
an advisory body to the governor in respect to matters which the laws
did not impose on the deputation.
The governor of the province, as the representative of the Governor-
General, presided over the deputation and permanent coiimittee and
acted as the chief executive of the province in all matters. It was his
duty to inspect the councils and the municipalities, informing the
Governor-General of all cases of negligence or disaffection. He had
supreme authority, subject, of course, to the Governor-General. He
was responsible for public order, and the military authorities of the
province were under his control.
The provincial deputation had charge generally of the public roads,
harbors, navigation and irrigation, and all kinds of public works of a
provincial character, the charitable institutions and those of instruc-
tion, fairs, expositions, etc., and the administration of the provincial
funds. The secretary, auditor, and treasurer of the deputation were
appointed by the governor of the province on the recommendation of
the deputation.
By a decree of 1892 Cuba was divided into three Regions"
under the name of Habana, Matanzas, and Santiago de Cuba. The
first one comprised the provinces of Habana and Pinar del Rio, the
second Matanzas and Santa Clara, and the third one Santiago de Cuba
and Puerto Principe. The "Regions" were under regional governors,
who resided in Habana, Matanzas, and Santiago cities, respectively,
and were at the same time civil governors of the provinces. The
provinces of Pinar del Rio, Santa Clara, and Puerto Principe also had
civil governors who were under the authority of the governors of the
regions.
The regional governors had a consulting cabinet called &nve;o
IRe/fwdlul," composed of five members appointed by the Governor-
General of the island, on the nomination of the regional governors.
The civil governors of the provinces of Pinar del Rio, Santa Clara,
and Puerto Principe had the same authority they had prior to the
establishment of the regions.
It is said that the regions were formed for the purpose of decen-
tralizing the administration of the island, which had always been car-
ried on in Habana, but this result did not follow, and the change only
served, apparently, to introduce further complications.
INSULAR GOVERNMENT.

Valasquez and his successors to the time of De Soto, 1538, were
lieutenant-governors, with limited power exercised under the super-
vision of the governor and audiencia of Santo Domingo. De Soto was


51




REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


the first Governor-General, and had nine successors with that title to
1581, when Gabriel de Lujan was appointed Captain-General. This
title was continued to the end of the Spanish control, a period of four
hundred and six years.
While the Governor-General, as the representative of the Crown,
was the civil, military, and political head of Cuba, and as a matter of
fact exercised the highest prerogatives of government, his authority
in reference to disbursements was limited by the direct appointment
of the Crown of the officers intrusted with the collection of the reve-
nues. He was also under the jurisdiction of the audiiecia of Santo
Domingo, which had authority, on complaint, to examine into his acts,
to suspend him and other officials from office, and to make provisional
appointments subject to the decision of the supreme court of Spain on
appeal. In 1795 the ewdiuncia of Santo Domingo was transferred to the
province of Puerto Principe, when that island was ceded to France.
Up to 1556 the Governors were frequently appointed from civil life,
but the military needs of the island, occasioned by the attacks of buc-
caneers and privateers, suggested a modification. This was made grad-
ually, the office of Governor-General being held by both soldiers and
civilians until the year 1716. From that date to 1898 the Governor-
General was a general officer of high rank in the Spanish army, in
whom were united all civil and military powers.
No change of importance appears to have taken place in the insular
government of Cuba until 1812, when Spain became a constitutional
monarchy and so remained until 1514, when it was abrogated by Ferdi-
nand. This brief period of constitutional government was not without
liberalizing influences in Cuba. and a division was made between the
civil and the military powers of the Governor-General. With the
abrogation of the constitution of 1812 the Governors of Cuba resumed
their former prerogatives and the system of centralization, character-
istic of the government, was fully reestablished.
By the revolution of 1820 the constitution of 1812 was again reestab-
lished in Spain, but was set aside in 1823.
By a royal decree of May 28, 1825, "all the powers conceded to the
governors of cities in a state of siege" were conferred on the Gov-
ernor-General. This decree was never revoked, and conferred des-
potic powers on the Governor-General.
In 1836 the constitution of 1812 was restored, but its provisions
were not extended to Cuba, which was to be governed under a special
system of decrees, orders, etc.
Associated with the Governor-General and forming part of the pub-
lic administration of the island were certain special corporations and
boards, as of public works, health, charity, and public instruction. By
a royal decree of August 17, 1854, the active administrative functions
of these boards, etc.. were vested in the Governor-General, and they


52













































hi"'


CIT Y (1 1'U E1:1 O l ( I N C E.


LLi





GOVERNMENT.


were declared to he "consultative councils of the Governor." In 1881
the constitution of 1876 was extended to Cuba, which regulated in some
measure the powers conferred on the Governor-General by the decree
of 1825.
Bry the law of March 15, 1895, the government and civil administra-
tion were reorganized and the Governor-General given a council of
administration consisting of 30 councilors, 15 of whom were appointed
by the Crown and 15 elected by voters having the right to vote for
members of the provincial assemblies, who were elected at the same
time.
The term of office of councilor was four years, one-half of the
councilors going out every two rears, and the office was declared to be
honorary and gratuitous.
While the council of administration was given authority to take the
initiative by resolution in respect to any matter pertaining to the
proper management of the island, and the Governor-General was
directed to carry out such resolutions, he had full authority to stay
their execution and to take such measures as he thought advisable, sub-
mitting the matter to the minister of the colonies. He had authority
to suspend the council of administration after hearing the council of
authorities, and any members without such hearing, provided there
were councilors enough left to form a quorum.
The council of authorities consisted of the Bishop of Habana or
the Archbishop of Santiago, the commander of the naval station, the
Military Governor, the presiding judge of the supreme court of Habana,
the attorney-general, the head of the department of finance, and the
director of local administration. This was a purely advisory council,
submitting its views in the form of resolutions, which were not bind-
ing on the Governor-General.
The law of 1895 made more liberal provisions for the government
of the provinces and municipalities and the election of mayors and
aldermen.
By a royal decree of November 25, [897, Cuba was given an insular
parliament consisting of two chambers, which, with the Governor-
General, representing the mother country, constituted the government
of the island. The parliament was to consist of two bodies of equal
legislative powers, to be known as the chamber of representatives and
a council of administration, the latter of 35 members, 18 elected and
17 appointed by the Crown on nomination by the Governor-General.
The representatives were apportioned at the rate of one for every
25,000 inhabitants, and were chosen for five years. The Crown repre-
sentatives were appointed for life. The insular parliament was to
meet annually, and while given ample authority to legislate for the
island, the veto of the Governor-General enabled him to suspend the
publication and execution of the laws, etc., until Madrid could be
heard from.


53





REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


The decree provided for a cabinet of five secretaries of department,
to wit: grace, justice, and interior; finance; public education, and public
works; posts and telegraphs; agriculture, industry and commerce.
The cabinet was inaugurated January 1, 1898. A modification of the
provincial and municipal government and a number of other measures
were contained in the decree, to which the reader is referred for a
more detailed account of its provisions. One of the most important
of these conferred on the insular government the framing of the
tariff, always a cause of grave economic disturbance while it had been
under the home government.
As the country was involved in war, the execution of this decree
was not carried out except as to the organization of the parliament
and cabinet, and possibly in some of its minor prescriptions. The
chambers were inaugurated in May and dissolved by Captain-General
Blanco in October. The cabinet was abolished shortly before Ameri-
can occupation, and the autonomous government came to an end.
On the withdrawal of Spain the government of the island devolved
on the Army of the United States under the laws of war, and Maj.
Gen. John R. Brooke was appointed Military Governor. He entered
on his duties January 1, 1899, and in order to acquaint the people of
the island with the intentions of the President as Conmmander in Chief
of the Army. issued the following proclamation:
To the People of Cuba:
Coming among you as the representative of the President, in furtherance and in
continuation of the humane purpose with which my country interfered to put an end
to the distressing condition in this island, I deem it proper to say that the object of
the present government is to give protection to the people, security to person and
property, to restore confidence, to encourage the people to resume the pursuits of
peace, to build up waste plantations, to resume commercial traffic, and to afford full
protection in the exercise of all civil and religious rights.
To this end the protection of the United States Government will he directed, and
every possible provision made to carry out these objects through the channels of
civil administration, although under military control, in the interest and for the
benefit of all the people of Cuba, and those possessed of rights and property in the
island.
The civil and criminal code which prevailed prior to the relinquishment of Span-
ish sovereignty will remain in force, with such modifications and changes as may
from time to time he found necessary in the interest of good government.
The people of Cuba, without regard to previous affiliations, are invited and urged
to cooperate in these objects by the exercise of moderation, conciliation, and good
will one toward another; and a hearty accord in our humanitarian purposes will
insure kind and beneficent government.
The military governor of the island will always he pleased to confer with those
who may desire to consult him on matters of public interest.
On January 11 he revised the cabinet, vesting the administration of
the civil government in a department of state and government, depart-
ment of finance, department of justice and public Instruction, and
department of agriculture, commerce, industries, and public works.


54





























































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(IrY (IF 'Ar IA





55


(oVFRNM ENT.


Many changes, having in view the betteradministration of the govern-
ment, were made by General Brooke and his successor, General
Wood, but the scope of this report will not permit a detailed account
of them. The object has been gradually to confer on the Cubans full
civil rights, together with all the powers of local self-government-
municipal, provincial, and insular-and to do this as rapidly as local
conditions and the serious international obligations to protect life and
property in the island, assumed by the United States under the treaty
of Paris, will permit.

REPRESENTATION OF CUBA IN THE SPANISH CORTES.

By a royal decree of 1810 Cuba was given representation in the
Cortes. Two deputies were sent, one each from Habana and Santiago,
who took part in framing the Spanish constitution of 1812. With
the abrogoation of this constitution in 1814 the representation ceased,
but was reestablished in 1820. It ceased again in 1823 and there was
no representation in the Cortes until 1834, when, under a royal statute
of that year, representatives were again admitted.
By a royal decree of 1837, however, a resolution of the Cortes of
1836 was published, which provided that the provinces in America
and Asia be governed and administered under laws especially adapted
to them and that they cease to be represented in the Cortes.
The electoral laws of 1877-1879 again gave Cuba representation in
the Cortes, in the proportion of I deputy for every 50,000 people.
Under the electoral law of 1892 Cuba sent 13 senators and 30 repre-
sentatives to the Spanish Cortes, but, as a majority of the deputies
were Spaniards, the native Cubans felt that they were never fairly
represented.
CUBAN REPUBLICS.

A republic has been twice proclaimed in Cuba by revolutionists,
viz, during the ten years' war and again in 1895, but these govern-
ments proved to be provisional and expired with the revolutions
which produced them.
THE JUDICIARY.

Intimately connected with the government of Cuba was the judi-
eiary, and as no account of administration under Spain would be
complete without some reference to the courts, a brief outline is pre-
sented.
At the date of American occupation the jurisdiction of the Spanish
Government over court officials was exercised through the department
of grace and justice, which, by the military decree of January 11,
1899, heoame the department of justice and public instruction, and by
a decree of January 1, 1900, the department of justice. The duties




r)


REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


which devolve on the department of justice are those which usually
pertain to such departments, but in Cuba it has also supervision
over the registers of property and notaries public, to which reference
will be made further on.
The courts of Cuba were essentially insular, the judges being
appointed either directly by the Government or indirectly through
its officials, and were of four classes or kinds, viz, municipal judges,
judges of first instance and instruction, criminal a(lenciae, and terri
torial adienchis. The last named were reduced to three by a decree
of June 15, 1899, giving all the audiences the same civil and criminal
jurisdiction. The municipal judges were distributed to the municipal
districts, one or more in each, and were appointed by the presiding
judges or presidents of the audwiencias from among three persons
nominated by the judges of first instance of the judicial districts;
they held office for two years. At the same time a substitute was
appointed, who performed the duties when from sickness or other
cause the regular judge could not officiate.
The municipal judges receive no salary or allowances and theii' serv-
ices are requited by fees, paid according to regular schedule.
They had and still have civil jurisdiction over all suits not involving
more than $200, and of suits to effect settlements without trial; they
take cognizance in first instance of cases involving the challenge of
other municipal judges; they appoint the family council for the care
of minors orincapacitated persons and commence the investigation of
all cases of emergency requiring an immediate decision by a judge of
first instance, when the latter is not available, to whom the record is
sent for a continuance. In criminal cases they have jurisdiction over
all misdemeanors where the penalty imposed does not exceed thirty
days' confinement or a fine of 325 pesetas. They make the prelimi-
nary investigation into all kinds of crimes, if urgent, and the judge of
instruction is not present. The municipal judges also keep the civil
registers of births, deaths, and marriages. Each municipal court has
a public prosecutor (fiscal), and a substitute prosecutor, who are
appointed by the fiscals of the territorial audiencias; a secretary
appointed by the judge of first instance and instruction; and a bailiff
or constable. All officials of the court were paid from court fees,
according to schedule.
The judges of first instance and instruction are located at the seat of
the judical districts to which they are appointed, and there are as many
judges as districts (see "Government"). They are appointed by the
Governor-General and when unable to perform their duties are substi-
tuted by one of the municipal judges in the district. They are paid
according to their classification, those in Habana receiving $4,500 per
annum, those in the cities of Puerto Principe and Santiago de Cuba
$2,750, those of Matanzas, Cardenas, Pinar del Rio, Guanajay, Santa



























.-


5AN1 IA,O PE CUHA





GOVERNMENT.


Clara, Cienfuegos, and Sagua la Grande, $2,250, and those of Bejucal,
Guanabacoa, Guines, Jaruco, Marianao, San Antonio de los Banos,
Marin, Alfonso XII, Colon, Guane, San Cristobal, San Juan de los
Remedios, Sancti Spiritus, Trinidad, Baracoa, Bayamo, Guantanamo,
Holguin, and Manzanillo, $1,875 per annum.
The judges of first instance have original civil jurisdiction in all
cases where the amount involved exceeds $200, and appellate jurisdic-
tion from the municipal courts; they decide questions of competency
arising between municipal judges of the same judicial district, take
cognizance, in first instance, when the competency of other judges of
first instance is in question, and of appeals in similar cases of munici-
pal judges; they hear cases in bankruptcy and for the discharge of
such commissions or other duties as may be devolved on them by
superior courts or of courts of the same category of other judicial
districts.
The other officials of a court of first instance are one secretary, four
court or record clerks (esribano), one physician, and two bailiffs or
constables. The secretaries are appointed by the judges of first
instance, while the clerks are appointed by the government on the
recommendation in ternary of the audievcia The secretaries and
clerks are paid from fees according to a schedule established by the
government and collected from litigants.
Prior to American occupation there were three criminal atdfincias
and three territorial auiencias. The criminal audiene.ia. were located
in Pinar del Rio, Santa Clara, and Puerto Principe, and each was com-
posed of a presiding judge and two associate justices. They were
appointed by the Governor-General and paid as follows: Presiding
judge *I,280 per annum; associates, $3,500. These courts had original
and exclusive jurisdiction over all crimes committed in the island from
chicken stealing to murder, until the establishment by General Wood
of the special criminal court (Juzgado de Guardia) of Habana, by a
decree of February 1, 1900, a brief account of which will he given
later. The criminal audiencias had no civil jurisdiction.
The other officials of the criminal audiencias were one public prose-
cutor (fwcal) one deputy prosecutor, one secretary, one assistant secre-
tary, and two clerks.
Territorial audiencia8 were established in the provinces of Habana,
Matanzas, and Santiago, and had criminal jurisdiction in the provinces
where located, and civil jurisdiction in the territory assigned them;
thus, the audiencia of Habana had criminal jurisdiction in that prov-
ince and civil jurisdiction over Pinar del Rio and Habana; the terri-
torial audiencia of Matanzas had criminal jurisdiction over that
province and civil jurisdiction over Matanzas and Santa Clara; the
territorial audiencia of Santiago had criminal jurisdiction over the
province of Santiago and civil jurisdiction over Santiago and Puerto


57




58 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.

Principe. Thus the territorial audiencias had a criminal chamber and
a civil chamber or Sala. The judges were appointed by the Governor-
General in council with the secretaries. The presiding judges of the
audienria of Habana received a salary of $5,750; the nine associate
judges $5,000; the other court officials were the same as for the crim-
inal atdiencias with the addition of an assistant deputy fiscal or public
prosecutor.
By a decree of June 15, 1899, civil and criminal jurisdiction was
conferred on the six audiwncwias within the provinces where established.
Certain administrative functions and duties were also imposed on them,
and the fees which were formerly paid to the secretaries of audiencias
in stamped paper of the state were also suppressed.
Other court officials under the laws of Spain were the solicitors, who
represented contending parties in civil and criminal causes. Formerly
the office of solicitor was sold as a source of revenue to those who
paid the highest price, the insular government agreeing not to
increase the number of such officials. Their intervention in lawsuits
and practically in all legal proceedings was made obligatory, and the
monopoly of their duties was left to a certain number in each town in
consideration of the price paid for the office. Other officials, although
not judicial, were the notaries, who were authorized'to certify to con-
tracts and other extra-judicial instruments in accordance with the
notarial law of 1862. Solicitors are now appointed by the secretary
of justice and their employment is no longer compulsory.
While attorneys are not, properly speaking, court officials, they had
this character in Cuba because the laws made their intervention in a
large majority of cases indispensable as counsel for the parties to civil
and criminal suits. As a result, the qualitication of the attorneys are
regulated by the state, the diplomas being issued by the Governor-
General after an examination by boards of the university in the fol-
lowing subjects: Philosophy and lawr, metaphysics, general and
Spanish literature, Spanish history, political economy, natural law,
Roman law. canonical law, political law, penal law, civil law, adniuis-
trative law, public treasury, history of Spanish law, law of civil and
criminal procedure, and international law, public and private.
In all towns where there is a territorial cnuniencia there is a college
of lawyers for the equitable distribution of offices, and to preserve
order and discipline among the lawyers of the territory of the etwli-
ence a.
Other officials connected with the administration of real property
are the registers of property, classified, according to the importance of
the locality in which they reside, as first, second, and third class.
They are appointed by the Government and are required to give bond
for the faithful performance of their duties; they charge the fees pre-
scribed by law. It is the duty of registers to make a record of all


















a

ill


e--n











CITY AN HARI( R F CLEN U


t F I 4 y


I





I





GOVERNMENT.


acts and contracts, mortgages, etc., transferring, encumbering, or buit-
ing the ownership or administration of real estate or property rights
or contracts; constituting, altering, or dissolving commercial associ-
ations, and transfers of vessels. They can not he removed or trans-
ferred against their will except by judicial decision. They are
entitled to a pension when, on account of their age or physical incapae-
ity, they are prevented from performing the duties of their office, and
this pension passes to the widow and children.
Such, in brief, is an outline of the Spanish courts as they were con-
stituted on the 1st of January, 1899; and while the composition of the
courts and the codes of law were no doubt sufficient for the needs of
the island, the judiciary, as the creation of the government and exist-
ing at its pleasure, had but little independence, and the administration
of the courts was characterized by arbitrary arrests, the ihtomunrfwnl-
caro, exorbitant fees to court officials in both civil and criminal trials,
and not infrequently by corrupt and dishonest practices. As a rule,
the judiciary was monopolized by Spaniards, and no Cuban could hope
for appointment to the bench, and a speedy and impartial trial where
Cubans were concerned was quite unusual. Many of the prisoners
found in the jails of the island at the time of American occupation had
been in confinement without trial for years, and of those who had been
tried only a few were serving sentence, although in some instances
years had elapsed since their appearance in court.
If the impartial and speedy administration of justice is a reliable
indication of good government, then it must be confessed that the
government of Cuba lacked that attribute.
As a result of the withdrawal of Spain from Cuba a supreme court
was established by a decree of General Brooke, April 14, 1899, to hear
cases and appeals which under Spanish rule would have been sent to
Spain for decision.
The court has its seat in Habana, and is composed of a president or
chief justice, 6 associate justices, 1 ftnod or prosecuting attorney, 2
assistant fvals, 1 secretary, 2 deputy clerks, and other subordinate
officials.
Another court, established by General Ludlow, military governor
of Habana, January 6, 1899, was the police or correctional court of
Habana. In his report to the Military Governor of the island, June
10, explaining his action, General Ludlow writes:
Article 220 of the municipal police laws of Habana provides that the imposition of
fines for violation of city ordinances is within the "exclusive jurisdiction" of the
city government, the mayor, the assistant mayors, and the deputies and inspectors
of the municipal service.
During the period when the organization of the police and the regulation of the
other city business were in progress, and numerous arrests were made for misde-
meanors, usually of a minor character, drunkenness and the like, largely by Ameri-
cans, soldiers and civilians, I designated an officer of my staff as a supervisor of


59




REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


police, giving him certain discretionary authority with reference to the police force
and its methods and the due carrying out of its executive and disciplinary purposes.
Owing to the lack of proper accommodation for transient prisoners, and with the
view to expedite the administration of justice, the supervisor of police held at the
Vivac a trial court for sifting out the police cases and summarily disposing of such
as did not require the action of the municipal judges for criminal offenses.
For this purpose, after hearing the evidence in each case, fines were imposed or
alternatively continuance of detention, at the rate of a day's detention for an unpaid
dollar fine, this procedure being in conformity with the methods of the American
police courts, and practically also with the municipal laws of Habana, though by a
less roundabout and dilatory process.
The procedures have proved to answer their purpose admirably, and are recog-
nized as both advantageous and effective; so much so that it has been urged to make
the practice a general and permanent one in the disposition of police cases.
Certain criticisms have come from two sources, viz: Those who for personal
reasons objected to the enforcement of penalties for infractions of municipal laws,
and from certain professional sources which found their fees diminished by the
prompt and equitable disposition of police cases. These contentions, however, repre-
sent personal and pecuniary interests only, and are opposed to the public interests,
which call for prompt action in police cases.
I therefore commend to the consideration of the division commander the drafting
of a decree which shall provide formally for the establishment of police courts in
Habana or elsewhere, in such numbers and with such stipulations as shall be con-
sidered expedient for the summary and effective disposal of police arrests, substan-
tially as now practiced in the United States.
While the action taken by General Ludlow does not appear to have
received the formal approval of General Brooke, the court was con-
tinued as organized, and under the administration of Maj. W. L.
Pitcher, Eighth Infantry, who succeeded Major Evans as supervisor
of police, has proved of inestimable value in restraining and punishing
the disordorly element in Habana. Recognizing its value, General
Wood, on April 10, formally continued it in a decree of that date, and
gave it jurisdiction over all offenses known as faltas (light crimes),
and all minor breaches of the peace; the trial and punishment of
authors and publishers of all immoral or obscene literature, or false,
malicious, or scandalous statements, whether printed or oral, tending
to injure reputation or the professional, official, or private standing
in the community; the punishments to be imposed not to exceed $30
fine or thirty days in jail, or both, and the court to have authority to
issue warrants, search warrants, and subponas; the trials to be oral
and summary.
By a decree of April 14, the organization of the police court was
modified so that all trials except for libel and scandal are conducted by
a single presiding judge designated by the military governor, and all
other trials, when from the nature of the offense a greater penalty
than $10 fine and ten days' imprisonment should be imposed, are con-
ducted by the full court, consisting of the presiding judge and two
associate judges selected by lot from the municipal judges of Habana.
This system of police courts has been applied recently to the whole


60


















FPO
}y$r

il7r


E,.F0


i1 Y 'F NU v1TAS





POPULATION.


island, and is said to be a great improvement over the magistrate's
courts, which have been suppressed in all but the chief towns of muni-
cipal districts. The municipal and police judges are now elected.
In addition to the establishment of these courts, other changes have
been made and more are contemplated, having in view an administra-
tion of the courts more in accordance with American ideas of justice
than those prevailing in Cuba heretofore. The main difficulty in the
way is the Spanish law of procedure and the entire absence of remedial
writs, which, like the writs of habeas corpus, certiorari, etc., are relied
on in this country as a protection to personal liberty and against
various kinds of injustice. These beneficent changes will no doubt
follow if they do not precede the establishment of free government,
toward which steady progress is being made.

POPULATION.

FORM OF SCHEDULE AND METHOD OF TABULATION.

If the population schedule adopted for the Cuban census be com-
pared with the schedule of the Eleventh Census of the United States,
it will be found that, while in general design they are the same, they
differ in respect to the number of inquiries, and that the latter is the
more comprehensive of the two. This is quite natural, and results
from the complex and diverse condition of the population of the United
States, in which a more extensive investigation is necessary to deter-
mine the state of the population than in Cuba, where the industries
of the people are quite limited and a very large majority of the popu-
lation is native.


61








Census of the island of Cuba taken under the direction of the United .State.-1899.

Supervisor's district, No. S(Ht'iL NO. .-POLATION.
District of enumeration, No.

Inhabitants in [insert the name of the municipal district.): Municipal district ; Ward .
Name of the city or town included in the civil division indicated Institution .

Enumerated by me on the day of 1t99. Eiinerator.

Situation ship. tion nativity. Citizenship. occuption Iistructon .


In cities. -
Nameofevery ciuntion, -
o c person residing Relation trio ,r
c m withthis shipufeach Native Cutni profesionof .
Lufiimt or in shp if tuSpaniard, 1 xfss~ o-.
amy.. personn to countryy of Spm every parson
thiS houSt. the head of, this person. 10 years
a v o the family. _spesof age and a -;
over. -

mO -% % 7. -

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 K ) 10 11 12 13 14 15

1 2
2j
3 --
4 - --
5



9 _
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

19
20


{Province 1 Sheet
Judicial district f No. .


Sanitary conditions.





Source Disposition Latrine
of water of asstem.
used, garbage.


16


17 1K
171

2
3
4
5


8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
15
19
20


t:

0

Id

O~


02
02
M

t4


02


-





















- -4

y#. ,-


CITY OF TRINIUIAD.




POPULATION. 63

To present the information contained in the schedules in a satisfactory
way, it was decided that complicated tables would be necessary; that
to save time, which was important, the tabulation should be done by
machine, and not by the old hand-tally system.
As the electric tabulating machines, invented by Mr. Herman Hol-
lerith, had been successfully used in tabulating the Eleventh Census
of the United States, and were to be used again in the Twelfth, and as
his system was known to be accurate and expeditious, it was adopted.
The operation is described by Mr. Hollerith as follows:
"'The population of each enumeration district was first established
by a so-called rough count;' that is, the number of persons recorded
on each schedule were counted by two clerks independent of each other,
and where such counts disagreed, a third, or even a fourth, count was
made to determine the correct population of each enumeration district.
"The detailed tables were then prepared by means of the electric tab-
ulating system. For this purpose all the necessary data relating to
each person were expressed by means of holes punched in certain places
in a card by means of the key-board punch.
I'(ftte'' of the
1 23 X x x x VU1 2 S (it ('it I t :
5it7 S p dw .1 1 S H 1 pn Ie 1r Pg, Esp Pt As rr

1 2 : T 4 a g wa rM 1 2 21 2p,3n il WI f1 s11 yse ,

6 7 S r th respe 1ive ear 45 51 t5u g SA Ir Nr t Cj (ig

1 2 3 14 5 11 p 6 1 0 7.5 So) Vn ('A Sit Ii (IC 1Su1

5 t 7 8 7 11 IG In i 995100('11 Aix Al lF lEx

1 2L 3 1 I F1' Fr I'l

5 f 7 S 101 X 1, 5 0 15t 10 :1 Ndi L F A1

1 23 1 1 'M II AI. Si SS 15 ~ 61 1( 11 6 1 M I: i
a65 G 7S L Pt _iIj No' I NS 1i 7 217 12 \ 4 I Cl

12 34 Ni sqI It 1 2 t.n 531813 [o 1) I

X5 X 7 8 x xs 6 f 941 it 9I 1 K F.

"If the record related to a white person, B-standing for Blanco
(white)-was punched, while N was punched for a negro, or M for
mixed, Ch for Chinese, etc. For males, V was punched, and HI for
females. The age was recorded by punching UI for less than 1 year, 1,
2, 3, or 4 for the respective years, 5 for the group 5-9, etc. Conjugal




REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


condition was recorded in the next field or division of the card. Birth-
place was recorded by punching in another division of the card, Cu
for Cuba, P. R. for Porto Rico, Esp. for Spain, It. for Italy, OC for
other countries, etc. Citizenship was similarly recorded. For each
occupation, two holes were punched according to the number assigned
to the given occupation in the corresponding classification of occupa-
tion, NG being punched for those without gainful occupation. Liter-
acy, school attendance, education, and the sanitary condition of the
dwellings, size of families, etc., were similarly recorded by punching
in the respective divisions of the card.
"At the extreme left a space of four rows of twelve holes was used
to record the province, municipal and enumeration district to which
the card related. This combination of holes would, of course, be the
same for all the cards of a given district, and was done by means of
the "gang punch."
"In addition, each card was provided with a double number, one
number indicating the sheet of the particular enumeration district on
which the record of the corresponding person could be found, and the
other indicating the particular line or person to which the card related.
By means of the gang-punched holes and these numbers any one of
the million and a half cards corresponding to the population of Cuba
could be identified and the correctness of the punching verified.
"The punched cards were then passed through the electric tabulating
machines. In this machine a series of electro-magnetically operated
counters are arranged, according to the tables it is desired to com-
pile, in electric connection with a circuit-closing device, the circuits
through which are controlled by the holes in the punched record card,
which is placed on the bedplate of such circuit-closing device.
"The cards relating to a given enumeration district were fed one by
one into the tabulating machine, which recorded the number of native
white males, foreign white males, colored males, native white females,
the number born in Cuba, in Spain, how many less than 5 years of
age, 5 to 9 years of age, etc. The sum of the details of each group
of facts should equal the total number of cards tabulated, and, of
course, should be equal to the population of the enumeration district
as established by the rough count, thus providing a third check on the
accuracy of the count.
"At the same time that a card operates the counters it opens one
compartment of the sorting box, into which it is placed when removed
from the circuit-closing device. The object of such sorting is to
arrange the cards to facilitate subsequent tabulation by means of
which the more detailed tables were obtained.
By thus tabulating first one group of data and then another with
intermediate sorting or arranging of the cards the various tables were
obtained."


64



















































C ir 1. KIl, K'1 1


n


a




ABORIGINAL POPULA'LON.


The tabulation of the population was conmIenced February 2 and
completed July 5, an unparalleled record of speedy work. Its celerity
is fully equaled by its accuracy, as the application of numerous tests
has shown.
ABORIGINAL POPULATION.

The population of Cuba at the date of its discovery has been vari-
ously estimated at between 200,000 and 1,000,000 Indians. The latter
is the estimate of Bishop Las Casas, who visited their villages and was
always their friend and protector.
The natives were found living contentedly under nine independent
chiefs, whose government was of the simplest character, their orders
being received as law. The natives are described by Columbus, Las
Casas, and Peter Martyr as of a gentle and friendly disposition, having
a simple religious belief, and, unlike the natives of some other West
India Islands, not addicted to cannibalism. In physique they were
rather slight, with pleasant faces; they had excellent nets, fishhooks,
and fishing tackle, and lived mainly on fish, Indian corn, and fruit.
Their huts were well built, and were made of the bark and leaves of
the palm, as those of poor Cubans now are; they were not arranged
in village streets, but scattered about irregularly, very much as shown
in the picture of the village of Dimas, Province of Pinar del Rio,
opposite page 68.
They cultivated cotton, Indian corn, the potato, tobacco, the pine-
apple, and manioc, all of which were indigenous, and had a rude pottery
and sonic stone weapons, but no domesticated animals except the (log.
Other domestic animals, as also the orange, the lemon, and the sugar
cane, were introduced afterwards by the Spaniards.
The disappearance of the Indians, whatever their number, has been
attributed to the combats and massacres which occurred during the
exploration and pacification of the island by Velasquez, and thereafter
to unaccustomed occupations, privations, disease, executions resulting
from religious fanaticism, and slavery, both foreign and domestic. In
the colonies the latter took the form of rnpartim iento and en con Lndwa,'
which, commencing with grants of land and the temporary possession
of the Indians for work on the plantations and in the mines, ended
finally in the slavery of the entire native population.
For a full description of Indian slavery under this system, and its
effect on the population, the reader is referred to the history of
'A repartimento was a grant of land, which carried with it the right to the labor of
the Indians occupying it or living within a short distance of it, at first for cultivating
the soil. This privilege was subsequently extended so that the Indians could be used
in any kind of labor.
An encomiemla was practically a grant of Indians, respective of the land. At
first the grant expired with the grantee. It was subsequently extended through two
or three lives, and in effect, became perpetual. As a result the Indians were slaves.
24662 5


65




REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


"Spanish Conquest in America," by Sir Arthur Helps, the "History
of the Indies," by Las Casas, and to the "Discovery of America," by
Prof. John Fiske. These authorities agree in ascribing the disappear-
ance of the Indians largely to the profligate waste of native life by the
colonists through.all forms of wanton cruelty, oppression, and neglect,
and the introduction of negro slavery as the direct consequence of it.
It is due the Spanish Government to record the fact that while at
first authorizing repartimientos, encomiendas, and the enslavement of
all Indians who were cannibals or taken in war, it later spared no
efforts to mitigate the horrors of Indian slavery, and finally to pre-
vent and abolish it. These measures were initiated and earnestly sup-
ported by the Dominican and Franciscan monks and by the church in
general. Through the efforts of Bishop Las Casas and other prelates
the laws of Burgos in 1512, and many orders and decrees were pro-
mulgated between the landing of Velasquez and the "New Laws" of
Charles V, 1542, for the protection of the Indians. The latter pre-
scribed that for no cause whatever, whether of war, rebellion, ran-
som, or in any other manner, should any Indian be made a slave."
But however well intended, these measures proved of little avail in
saving the Indians of Cuba, as at that time very few remained. It
was reported to the Queen in 1537 by the contawr of the island that
in 20 farms visited by him only 130 Indians were found, including
those which had been imported. In the neighboring island of San
Domingo at the date of its discovery there were, according to Las
Casas, about 3,000,000 Indians; according to the licentiate, Zuazo,
1,130,000. An average of these two estimates is probably more exact.
When the treasurer, Pasamonte, came to San Domingo in 1508 there
were 70,000, and when Don Diego Columbus was appointed governor
of San Domingo in 1509, 40,000. According to Sir Arthur Helps the
number of Indians in San Domingo in 1514, as determined by a repar-
tition of the Indians made by Rodrigo Albuquerque, who was sent
there by the King for that purpose, was between thirteen and four-
teen thousand. By this repartition the Indians were practically
enslaved for life, as they were given for the life of the person to
whom Albuquerque made the reparthiiento, and for the life of his
next heir, whether son or daughter. After this there were numbers
of repartitions or divisions of Indians among the Spaniards, resulting
in their rapid diminution, owing to changes of climate, changes of
occupation, and of masters, and the indifference of the latter to the
welfare of the Indians.
The difficulty about the enforcement of the laws and royal instruc-
tions and orders for the freedom and protection of the Indians appears
to have been their vague or ambiguous- meaning, which enabled
unprincipled and rapacious officials to construe them as they wished,
and the fact that the Crown and nearly all the officials of the govern-


66






COLORED POPULATION.


meant, colonial and peninsular, held repartimientos or envmeiendas of
Indians or held them for personal services. The new laws had in
view the prevention of Indian slavery, but they were partially revoked
in 1545, and cncojuendas were continued in the islands until the
Indians had disappeared, and on the Spanish main until the reign of
Charles III, when the system was abolished, 1759-1788.
Under the royal decree of 1854 promulgating regulations for the
importation of colonists" into Cuba, a number of native Yucatan
Indians were brought to Cuba, and some of them no doubt married
Cuban women. At all events, one Indian woman is reported by the
enumerator of the Zapata Swamp as living with a colored Cuban.
There are doubtless remnants of these Indians still in Cuba, but of
the native Cuban Indians no traces have been found in the course of
this census, and it is not probable that any exist.

BLACK POPULATION.
The importation of negro slaves into the West Indies commenced
some years before the extinction of the Indians and was stimulated by it.
In a letter of instructions from the King to Ovando, Governor of Santo
Domingo, in 1501, Jews, Moors, and new converts were prohibited
from going to the Indies; but an exception was made in the case of
negro slaves, who were allowed to pass, the officers of the royal reve-
nue to receive the money paid for their permits.
Again, in 1505, in a letter to Ovando, King Ferdinand wrote: "I
will send more negro slaves, as you request. I think there may be
100 at each time." The Spaniards were familiar with negro slavery,
the slave trade having been carried on by Portugal since 1442. They
had discovered the capacity of the negro for work, his patience and
endurance, and his superiority to the West Indian as a laborer in the
mines and fields.
The first license to import negroes into the West Indies was given
by Charles V in 1517 to Governor de Bresa, grand master of the King's
household, for the importation of 8,000 slaves in eight years, 1,000 to
go to Cuba. A second monopoly on the same terms and for the same
number was given him in 1523, but this grant was revoked and a license
given to import 750 men and 750 women, 300 to go to Cuba. In 1527
1,000 negroes were imported into Cuba, and again in 1528 a license was
given to import 4,000 negroes into the Indies.
In 1536 a monopoly was granted to import into the Indies 4,000
males and 1,000 females, and again in 1542 one for 23,000, a portion
of each to go to Cuba, Jamaica, and Santo Domingo. The annual
importation into Santo Domingo under license was about 2,000, and the
same number were smuggled. It was estimated by one of the King's
chaplains,who traversed the island of Santo Domingo in 1542, that there
were 30,000 negro slaves in the island. As up to the year 1763 the


67





REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


people were engaged almost exclusively in cattle raising, very few
slaves were imported prior to that date, at which time it is said there
were not more than 32,000 slaves in the island.
The number of slaves imported between 1521 and 1763 is estimated
by Humboldt at 60,000, and by 1790 at 90,875. From 1790 to 1820
the importation of slaves into -Habana, as shown by the returns of the
custom-house, was 225,575, to which should be added one-fourth for
those smuggled, making the total importation from 1521 to 1820,
372,44). Between this date and 1853 it is estimated that there were
271,659 importations, lawful and contraband, a total of 644,108, about
one-third being females.
From 1853 to 1880, when the slave trade was finally suppressed, over
200,000 slaves were smuggled into the island, making a grand total of
between 950,000 and 1,000,000.
It is not proposed to give a detailed account of the Cuban slave trade
or of negro slavery in the island. While it was fraught with all the
horrors of this nefarious business elsewhere, the laws for the protec-
tion of slaves were unusually humane. Abbost from the beginning
slaves had a right to purchase their freedom or change their masters,
and long before slavery was abolished they could own property and
contract marriage. As a result the proportion of free colored to slaves
has always been large. Of the efforts to abolish the slave trade in
Cuba much might be written; it is sufficient for this report to state
the principal facts.
By the treaty of Vienna, 1815, to which Spain was a party, slavery
was abolished. By a treaty with England signed September 24, 1817,
Spain agreed to stop the slave trade May 30, 1820, in consideration of
the sum of X400,000. Again, on June 28, 1835, another treaty was
made with England abolishing the slave trade. In addition to these
treaties the Spanish Government promulgated several decrees and laws
after 1835 for the suppression of the slave trade and the abolition of
slavery. Despite these measures, however, and the active cooperation
of the native Cubans, who were zealously opposed to the slave trade,
and the repeated protests of the British Government, it continued to
1880 with but little interruption. The correspondence between Eng-
land and Spain fully explains the failure of Spain to enforce her laws
and treaty engagements.
Under what is now known as the Moret law, enacted by the Spanish
Cortes July 4, 1870, the gradual abolition of slavery was commenced.
The civil war in the United States and the Cuban insurrection of
1868-78 hastened it, as did the law of February 13, 1880, which abol-
ished slavery. Nevertheless, it continued in remote parts of the island
for several years thereafter, although generally abolished by the year
1887.
Further on in this report the number and literacy, age, sex, and


68



















4A 4





t -
.'iM A L E "N 0N L 1.















I V





CINESE.


occupation of the colored population and the provinces in which they
are most numerous are stated. Their condition for many years has
been far better than the colored population of our Southern States or
of any of the West India Islands under foreign control, and their per-
sonal privileges much greater. No hard and fast "color line" has
separated the colored and whit Cuban population, although outside
of the Cuban army there has not been much of what- may be called
social intercourse; but in respect to all public benefits, whether eccle-
siastical, civil, or military, they have had about the same consideration
from the Spanish Government as the white Cubans.)
No doubt the free association of colored and white Cubans resulted
largely from the common struggle in which they were engaged against
Spain, and the fact that the laws made no discrimination between
them. Colored men made up a large proportion of the Cuban army
of 1895-98. some of them, like Antonio Maceo, holding high rank.
While the statistics of cuba show a larger proportion of colored
than white criminals, the colored population are in some respects
superior to the colored population of our Southern States, being more
self-reliant, temperate, frugal, and intelligent, and since the abolition
of slavery showing a strong desire to own their homes, to educate their
children, and to improve their condition. In certain kinds of agricul-
ture they are preferred to any other race, and in every discussion of
the labor question in Cuba they must be seriously considered.

CHINESE.
While the number of Chinese in the island is now insignificant and
they have ceased to attract much attention as a separate race, a short
account of their appearance, increase, and disappearance may )e not
without interest.
When the law of 1845 suppressing the slave trade was promulgated,
the "Junta (i, ]oento," or ofbcial board of agriculture in Habana,
decided to send an agent to China to contract for Chinese 'colonists"
(coolies). The first shipload of male Chinese arrived in 1847, under
contract. This contract bound the Chinese to service for a term of
eight years. In consideration they were to receive from 20 to 30
cents per diem, 11 pounds of salted or jerked beef, and 1 pounds of
potatoes or other farinaceous food, and two cotton suits annually.
Each was to be furnished with a blanket and medical attendance.
For several years the trade in Chinese languished; 28 per cent of
the first cargo died from the effects of the voyage, change of climate,
food, and excessive labor, and some committed suicide in the belief
that after death they would be miraculously returned to their homes
in China. The experiment of Chinese immigration had apparently
failed, but in 1853 it was revived by the importation of 5,150 Chinese,
of whom 843, or 19 per cent, died en outt/e.


69





REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


On March 22, 1854, a royal decree was issued promulgating regula-
tions for the importation and management of "colonists" from Spain,
China, and Yucatan. But as pointed out by Lord Howden, English
minister to Spain, in a letter of October 6, 1854, to Sefior Pecheco,
Spanish minister of foreign affairs, contracts under this decree meant
slavery for the Chinese as the period of service was not mentioned.
On June 6, 1860, another royal decree regulating the importation of
Chinese was promulgated, and while it was evidently designed to pro-
tect the Chinese against personal abuse, privation, or cruelty, Para-
graph VII made them apprentices, or what was the same thing, slaves,
as long as they remained in the island unless they were able to ransom
themselves, and this, under the conditions imposed, was practically
impossible.
On October 10, 1864, a treaty between China and Spain regulating
emigration between the two countries, as well as the reciprocal employ-
ment of the subjects of one state by those of another was signed at
Tientsin. Articles IV and X of this treaty permitted Chinese with
their families to embark from any open port of China, whereas, prior
to this time embarkation was restricted to the port of Macao. All
Chinese were landed in Halana.
The contracts to be made under this treaty were to include the
following items:
1. The age, sex, and place of birth of the colonist.
2. The time for which the contract is to be in force.
3. The wages, kind, quantity and quality of food and clothing he is to receive.
4. The obligation to afford him medical attendance during illness.
5. Whether the wages were to be stopped during the illness of the colonist from
any cause not connected with his work, or independent of the will of the master.
6. The hours of work and whether the master can increase them if a proportionate
reduction were to be made on other days.
7. The obligation of the colonist to indemnify the master for hours of labor lost to
him by the fault of the colonist.
8. The obligation of the same colonist to subject himself to the discipline of the
estate, workshop, or establishment in which he might labor.
9. A clause in these terms, I, A. B., assent to the rate of wages above stipulated,
although I know that the free laborers and slaves of the island get much greater,
because I consider this difference to be compensated by the other advantages which
my master has to afford me as stated in this contract."
10. The signature of the colonist, if he can write, and that of the contractor.
The treaty contained many other provisions, and among them the
right of the colonist to purchase his discharge, or, in short, to ransom
himself. Of course it was not contemplated that under this treaty
Chinese contractors would import Cubans into China, and therefore
the terms of the contract were all in favor of the master as against
the apprentice. For example, the terms specifying the hours of labor,
etc., placed the latter absolutely in the power of the contractor, who, as
he kept the records, could easily bring the Chinaman so irretrievably


70













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NATIVE WHITE FAMILY









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NATIVE CLORE> FAMILY


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s





CHINESE.


into his debt for time lost that his freedom by purchase, or even after
the expiration of the original term, was improbable if not impossible.
As many of the Chinese had become fugitives, instructions for a
general enrollment of Chinese were issued December 31, 1868, and
again December 13, 1871. By a royal decree of 1870 Chinese. who
had been discharged after fulfilling the terms of their contract were
permitted to remain in the island, whereas prior to this they were
obliged to leave or be reindentured.
Between 1853 and 1873 there were shipped from China to Cuba
132,435 Chinese, of whom 3,973-13 per cent-died en route or shortly
after their arrival. These losses, the large number of fugitives, the
willingness of free negroes to work, the immigration of other coolies,
the continuation of the slave trade, which appeared to thrive notwith-
standing the attempts to stop it, seem to have put a stop to the impor-
tation of Chinese, which ceased in 1873.
By a convention between China and Spain, signed at Pekin Novem-
ber 17, 1877, the emigration of Chinese subjects under contract as
authorized in Article X of the treaty of 1864 was discontinued, and
the emigration of Chinese into Cuba or elsewhere was declared free,
Chinese subjects in Cuba to be treated as the subjects of the most
favored nation, thus permitting them to leave the island unless under
judicial supervision. It was also agreed on the part of Spain to expa-
triate at its own expense all Chinese who formerly had literary occu-
pation or an official position in China, and their families, also old men
unable to work, and Chinese orphan girls.
Owing to the large percentage of criminals among the Chinese, a
decree was issued October 15, 1878, by the captain-general requiring
all Chinese whose contracts had been terminated to either recontract
or leave the island within two months.
By the census of 1861 the number of Chinese is stated to be 34,834,
of whom 57 were women. On December 31,1877 there were 43,811.
Whether this is the maximum number of Chinese in the island at any
one period can not be determined.
Their gradual disappearance has been attributed to many causes,
among them the suppression of negro slavery, the large number of
free black and colored Cubans willing to work, and their superiority
as laborers over the Chinese, the low wages paid them, the excessive
labor imposed on them, and the frequent insurrections which disturbed
the island. Be this as it may, Chinese immigration had practically
ceased in 1873, and the few who now remain in the island are mainly
old men, employed as truck gardeners, laundrymen, or day laborers.
The small number of women as compared with the number of men
resulted probably from restrictions, which in the beginning not only
prevented women from leaving China, but from landing in Cuba.


71




REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


DISCUSSION OF THE POPULATION.

THE TOTAL POPULATION.

The total population of Cuba, including the Isle of Pines and the
neighboring keys, was, on October 16, 1899, 1,572,797.'
The latest prior census was taken under Spanish authority in 1887.
The total population as returned by that census was 1,631,687.
Whether that census was correct may be a matter of discussion, but if
incorrect, the number of inhabitants was certainly not overstated.
Comparing the total population of these two censuses, it is seen that
the loss in the twelve years intervening amounted to 58,895, or 3.6 per
cent of the population in 1887. This loss is attributable to the recent
civil war and the reconcentration policy accompanying it, but the fig-
ures express only a part of the loss from this cause. Judging from
the earlier history of the island and the excess of births over deaths,
as shown by the registration records, however imperfect they may be,
the population probably increased from 1887 up to the beginning of
the war, and at the latter epoch reached a total of little less than
1,800,000. It is probable, therefore, that the direct and indirect
losses by the war and the reconcentration policy, including a decrease
of births and of immigration and an increase of deaths and of emigra-
tion, reached a total not far from 200,000.
The earliest census of Cuba of which there is record was taken in
1774. Others were taken in 1792, 1817, 1827, 1841, 1861, 1877, and
1887. The following table shows the population at each of these suc-
cessive censuses, with the absolute increase in intervening periods and
the average rate of increase per decade:

Rate of Rate of
Year. 1Pp"a Inerease, increase Popula- Increase. increase
to per tion. per
decade. decade.
1775..... -....-... 71,620- .... ..- ..--. .. 1841............. 1,007,624 803,138 29
1792. ..-.--- .-- 272,300 100,680 31 1861..--......... 1,396,530 388,906 18
1817--.--..--.-... -572,86 300,068 84 1877............. 1,509,291 112,761 5
1827,..."......... 704,486 132,123 23 1887............. 1,631,687 122,396 8

It will be seen that the increase between 1774 and 1792 was at the
average rate of 31 per cent per decade; from 1792 to 1817, twenty-five
years, the rate of increase was 34 per cent per decade; in the ten years
1 A'l statements of population presented in this volume refer to the organization of
the island as it existed at the date of the census, October 16, 1899. Many changes
have been made since that date in the number and limits of municipal districts, but
it would be obviously impossible to modify the census figures to' accord with these
changes. Such modifications might be made in the total population, but it would be
impossible to carry them through the classifications of the population by sex, age,
race, conjugal condition, nativity, etc., since the changes have been made, as a
rule, by using the ward as a unit, while the classifications of the population have not
been made in terms of this small unit.


i2







CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899


0 r ELA j l

4 APP" /F ~ MATA~t'
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MAP OF CUBA
S H O WI N G
THE GAIN OR LOSS IN POPULATION BETWEEN 1887 AND 1899.

LOSS L._

GAIN


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I




DENSITY OF POPULATION.


between 1817 and 1827 it was 23 per cent, and in the fourteen years
between 1827 and 1841 it was 29 per cent. Then from 1841 to 1861
the rate of increase stood at 18 per cent per decade, and between 1861
and 1887 it dropped to 5 and 8 per cent. The small rate of increase
in the period last mentioned was doubtless due in great part to the
ten years' war which occurred within this period.
The rate of increase between 1774 and 1841 compares quite favor-
ably with the rates of increase in the United States, which prior to
1870 ranged from 32 to 35 per cent per decade. Such rates of increase
are very large and are commonly found only in regions which are
sparsely populated, where the population is under little or no pressure
for obtaining means of livelihood. The rapid and great diminution in
the rate of increase after 1861 is, however, by no means accounted for
by the increase in density of population, and the reasons therefor must
be sought for among the extraordinary causes, such as pestilence,
war, etc.
The distribution of these losses in population between 1887 and 1899
is also brought out by the following statements: In the province of
Habana there was a loss in 28 districts and a gain in but 8; in Matan-
zas a loss in 20 and a gain in 3; in Pinar del Rio 17 districts lost popu-
lation and but 3 gained; in Santa Clara the numbers which lost and
gained were equal, while in Puerto Principe and Santiago there was a
gain in every district.
Summing up the districts of the island, 79 lost population, while
only 47 gained, the remaining 6 districts being new ones, formed since
1887, and here included in those from which they were formed. These
facts are set forth in detail in Table III.
The map opposite page 72 shows the increase and decrease of the
population of Cuba by municipal districts, the areas colored red being
those in which the population has suffered a loss since the Spanish
census of 1887, and those colored blue where it has made a gain.
It is seen that the losses are confined to the four western provinces,
the districts of the two eastern provinces having without exception
gained in population. The districts in the four western provinces
which have gained are of two classes: First, those in which the recon-
centrados were collected; and, second, those remote districts from
which there was little or no reconcentration, and into which presum-
ably the people fled for refuge. This is the case with the districts in
the western part of Pinar del Rio and along the south shore, including
the great Zapata Swamp. The north shore of Santa Clara, too, is in
the main a region in which the population has increased.
DENSITY OF POPULATION..
The area of Cuba is and can be known only approximately because
its limits have never been mapped with any approach to accuracy.
Measurements based upon different maps show wide variations in the


73




74 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.

area of the island and its provinces. To illustrate the differences in
published areas of the island the following are given:
Square miles.
Johnson's Encyclopedia.........---------------------------------------- 43,220
Lippincott's Gazetteer.- ....-.......... -.-... --. --.. --.... ............... 43,319
Chambers's Encyclopedia ................................................ 40,000
Appleton's Encyclopedia...... ..-.. .- .... ................ ...... ..... 43, 319
Reclus---------------------------------------------------......... 45,883
Cuba, Past and Present---....-------------------------------------- 35,000
Cuba, by Wm. J. Clark.......--------------------------------- 43,500 to 47, 000
Stanford's Compendium of Geography and Travel .. ... -------------------43,000
Our Island Empire, M orris......--..... .- ........... ..........-........ 48,447
The Island of Cuba, Rowan & Raiusay------------------------------ 45,000
Industrial Cuba, Porter.....-..--...-----.-...--.....-...-.-........ 47,338
Measurements made in this office from different maps show similar
differences. Measurements made from Chart E, United States Coast
and Geodetic Survey, give for Cuba and the Isle of Pines 46,575
square miles; the chart published by the Hydrographic Office in 1896
gives 45,883 square miles; the map of the Information Division of the
War Department, scale, 1:500,000, gives 44,000 square miles. Assum-
ing this to be as good a map as we have, where all are poor, the areas
of the provinces, of the municipal districts, and of many of the barrios
or wards have been measured upon it, the lines of the districts and
wards having been laid down by the supervisors of census. The
areas of the provinces are as follows, with the total population and
the number of inhabitants per square mile:

Inhabitants
Province. Area. per square
mile.

Sq. miles.
Habana ........................................... 2,772 153
Matanzas.................. ..................... 3,700 55
PinardelRio................................... 5,000 A5
Puerto Principe ....................... ............10, 500 8
santa Clama...................................... 9,560 37
Santiago. ....................................... 12,468 26


Habana, with the densest population, is as thickly inhabited as the
State of Connecticut, and Puerto Principe, the most sparsely popu-
lated, is in this respect comparable with the State of Texas.
The great difference in density of population in the different prov-
inces is in part due to the presence of large cities, especially in the
case of Habana. Still, after excluding the cities of 8,000 inhabitants
or more, notable differences are seen to exist, as shown below:
Rural inhabitants to a square mile.
Habana..-...................... 55.3 Puerto Principe --................ 6.0
Matanzas ..................... 39.0 Santa Clara .................... 28.5
Pinar del Rio.--................. 32.8 j Santiago .................... 21.7
Puerto Principe, with but B rural inhabitants to a square mile, is a
pastoral province.















CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899


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MAP OF CUBA
S H O WI N C

THE DENSITY OF THE RURAL POPULATION, EXCLUDING ALL CITIES OF
8,000 OR MORE INHABITANTS.


LESS THAN 2 TO SQ. MILE.

2-6

6-11 "

15-46R

45-011 "

OVER 90 "" "


A Hopi, C, IbIJI.
























































































































































































































6




DENSITY OF POPULATION. 75

The map on page 74 shows the density of the rural population,
grouped in certain grades, which are expressed by color distinctions.
The method of preparation of this map was as follows: The area of the
municipal districts, and of the wards in cases where the districts are
large, were measured by planimeter on the map of the War Depart-
ment, as was stated above.
The population of all cities of 8,000 inhabitants and more was sub-
tracted from that of the districts or wards, the remainder being
regarded for this purpose as rural population. This rural population
was then divided by the area and the results platted on the map. In
sketching the lines separating bodies of population of different density
regard was had to geographic considerations affecting the distribution
of population within the districts, such as the existence of swamps,
mountain ranges, etc. Hence the lines separating bodies of popula-
tion of different degrees of density are not exactly those which would
be indicated by the figures.
The salient features of the map are as follows:
The presence of several small bodies of very dense population, 90 or
more to a square mile in Habana and Matanzas provinces, and one
small area of similar density in the western part of Pinar del Rio; a
dense population generally throughout Habana and Matanzas provinces,
becoming less dense to the east in Santa Clara, and to the west in
Pinar del Rio. Toward the western part of Pinar del Rio the density
increases and then diminishes again near the west end of the island.
The eastern part of Santa Clara is not heavily populated, while in
Puerto Principe the population is sparse. The density increases again
in Santiago but not uniformly. Indeed, the population in Santiago
province is distributed with the greatest irregularity. The keys bor-
dering the north coast and the marshes on the south coast, the Sierra
Maestra, and most of the Isle of Pines are very sparsely populated.
The density of population of municipal districts with their areas is
presented in Table V.
The following table presents (1) the distribution of the rural popula-
tion, in areas of differing density, corresponding with those repre-
sented on the map; (2) the percentage of the rural population in each
of these areas; (3) the number of square miles of each such area; and
(4) the percentage which each area bears to the area of Cuba:

Ruralpopu- Percentage Area Percentage
Persons to a square mile. i of total (square of total
sands). ulation. miles). area.

2....................................................... 4,259 9.9
6-18 ... ............... 2,123 20 14,016 32.7
18-45........................... 3,051 28.8 13,140 30.7
45-90........................... 3,340 31.5 4,184 9.8
90+.......... .............. 2,010 18.9 1,031 2.4




REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


URBAN POPULATION.
In connection with the population of cities, it must be understood
that the cities of Cuba have no corporate limits separating sharply
the urban element from the surrounding rural population. The cities,
like the rural districts, are divided into wards, and many of these
wards extend from the borders of the cities out into country districts,
much as do New England towns, and thus include both urban and rural
population. On this account it is impossible to state the population
of cities with exactness, although it is believed that the best separation
possible has been made.
The population of cities by the census of 1899 can not be compared
with that given by the census of 1887, because the figures of the latter
embrace the entire municipal district, including the city, which in
most cases adds to it a large population.
Table IV shows the population of all cities of 1,000 inhabitants or
more which can be given separately. The number altogether is 96,
of which 16 have a population in excess of 8,000, 5 in excess of 25,000,
and 1 (Habana) a population of 235,981.
The urban population of Cuba, including all cities down to 1,000
inhabitants, numbers 741,273, or 47.1 per cent of the entire popula-
tion. Including in the urban population only the inhabitants of cities
of 8,000 or more, as is done in the United States census, the number
of the urban element is 507,831, and the proportion to the total popula-
tion is 32.3 per cent. The corresponding figures in the United States
in 1890 were 29.2 per cent.
The number of urban inhabitants in each province, under each of
the two definitions of urban population used, with the percentages
of the total population, are given in the following table:

Urban Urban
Province population Percent- Population Percent-
1,000 or age. 8,000 or age.
more. more.

Habana ........................... 328,947 77.4 277, 636 65.4
Matanzas.......................... 103,578 51.2 58,314 28.8
Pinardel Rio...................... 22,337 12.9 8,880 5.1
Puerto Principe................... 35,543 40.1 25,102 28.4
SantaClara........................ 141,131 39.5 80,345 72.5
Santiago........................... 108,747 33.2 57,554 17.5

A striking feature in the distribution of Cuban cities is the fact that
the great majority of them are situated on the seacoast, comparatively
few and small cities being in the interior. Of the 16 cities of the
island which have a population of 8,000 or more no fewer than 10
are upon the seacoast. The above peculiarity of distribution is still
more marked when we consider the population, since the 10 cities upon
the seacoast contain no fewer than 431,063 inhabitants, while the 6
interior cities contain only 76,768 people.


76










CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899


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MAP OF CUBA
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THE RELATIVE SIZE OF C, I-IFS


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A Hoe & C, 8aId Liti






CENTER OF POPULATION.


The map opposite page 76 shows the distribution of the cities of
the island, the size of the colored circles surrounding each city repre-
senting, rudely, its population. In the case of Habana the circle is
necessarily so large as to include numerous other cities, and it is,
therefore, represented in shading instead of in solid color, in order to
let the others appear.
The great preponderance of Habana over all the other cities of the
island is forcibly illustrated; also the location of the larger cities at
or close to the seacoast, the only large cities in the interior being
Puerto Principe, Sancti Spiritus, and Santa Clara. In the interior are
numerous small cities, which are abundant in the provinces of Habana,
Matanzas, and the central part of Santa Clara. Pinar del Rio and
Puerto Principe are almost without cities of magnitude, and in Santi-
ago they are few in number and are widely scattered.

CENTER OF POPULATION.

The center of population is the center of gravity of the people,
assuming each individual to have the same weight and to press down-
ward with a force proportional to his distance from this center.
Suppose Cuba to be a plane surface, without weight, and to be
loaded with its population, distributed as at the time of the census,
then the island would be equally balanced about this center.
The method of computing the center of population is as follows:
The position of the center of population of each municipal district was
first estimated. Where the district was a small one and uniformly
populated it was at its center of area. In case the district was large,
or the population was distributed unequally over it, the location of
its population center was estimated after an examination of the distri-
bution of population over the district, as shown by the figures for the
wards. Thus, in the case of Habana and Matanzas, and of the large
municipal districts composing the province of Puerto Principe, the
center of population was not at its center of area, and such an examina-
tion was made, as also in most of the districts of Santiago and certain
of those of Santa Clara.
The positions of the centers of the districts having been thus esti-
mated, a point was assumed as a tentative center of population of each
province, lines were drawn through it east and west, north and south,
and the distances of each of these centers from this assumed point,
expressed in terms of latitude and departure, were measured, using
the large War Department map of the island. The population of each
district was then multiplied by its distance in latitude, whether north
or south, and in departure, whether east or west, from the assumed
center, and the sum of the products in each of the four' directions
obtained. The difference between the sum of the products north and
south of the assumed position divided by the population of the prov-


77




78 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.

ince gave a correction in latitude to the assumed position. Similarly,
the products of the population of the districts by the departures were
summed up east and west of the assumed center, and the difference
between them divided by the total population of the province gave a
correction in departure to the assumed center.
In this manner the centers of population in 1899 and in 1887 were
obtained for each of the 6 provinces.
The centers of area of each of the 6 provinces were obtained by
a similar process, using, however, square miles of area instead of
numbers of inhabitants.
The center of population of the island was determined by a similar
use of the centers of population of the provinces. For this purpose
the position of the city of Santa Clara was assumed as a tentative
center of population of the island, and the differences of latitude and
of departure of the computed center of population of each of the
provinces from this assumed point, Santa Clara, were measured, were
multiplied by the population of the provinces, the products added, and
the differences between the sum of the north and of the south products
obtained and divided by the total population of the island, giving a
correction in latitude to the assumed position. The correction in
departure was obtained in a similar manner.
Thus the center of population was obtained for the census of 1899
and of 1887, together with the center of area of the island.
The following are the results:
Pinar del Rio.

Latitude. Longitude.

Center of population: o o
1899 . ..----------------------------------------- 22 34 83 29
1887 ................- .........- ................--.. 22 35 83 23
Center of area ......................................... 22 29 83 36

The center of population in 1899 was 15 miles northeast of the city
of Pinar del Rio. It had moved from its position in 1887 1 mile
south and 6 miles west, owing to the partial depopulation of the east-
ern part of the province by the civil war. The center of area is
located about 7 miles northeast of the city of Pinar del Rio, and there-
fore about 8 miles southwest of the center of population in 1899.
labana.

Latitude. Longitud

Center of population: o o
1899 ......................................... 23 02 82 21
1887 .......................... -..................... 23 00 82 18
Center of area ........................................ 22 33 82 22




CENTER OF POPULATION. 79

The center of population in 1899 was 7 miles south of the city of
Habana, not far from the north coast and some distance north of the
center of area of the province. It is drawn into this eccentric posi-
tion by the weight of the great city of Habana, in which are more
than half of the inhabitants of the province. In 1887 the center of
population was 2 miles south and 3 miles east of its position in 1899.
The center of area of this province is in Caribbean Sea, being drawn
to this position by the Isle of Pines, which forms part of the province.

Iatuainzs.

Latitude. Longitude.

Center of population: 0
1899--------------------.-.......... ... .. ...... . 22 50 81 21
1887........................-.---...-... -........ 22 50 81 22
Center of area........................................ 22 44 81 12

The center of population in 1899 was 19 miles southeast of the city
of Matanzas and 14 miles northwest of the center of area, being to
this extent eccentric in position. The center of population in 1887
was in the same latitude as in 1899 and 1 mile farther west.

Sawa Clara.

Latitude. Longitude.

center of population: 0 '
1899........----.------"--------------------------...2$ 0 02L
18 7 ................................................ 22 19 t 02

The center of population in 1899 was 5 miles southwest of the city
of Santa Clara and identical with its position in 1887, indicating that
whatever had been the movements of population in the intervening
years they had balanced one another. The center of area was 5 miles
nearly southeast of the center of population.

'urlto PrinlCipl '.

Latitude. Longitude.

Center of population: 0 '
1899...-------' ----------............ ---------- 1 29 78 02
1887........................... ......... 21 31 78 04
Center of area......................................... 21 32 i 07

The center of population in 1899 was 10 miles northwest of the city
of Puerto Principe, and it had since 1887 moved 3 miles in a south-
easterly direction. The center of area was but 8 miles distant in a
northwesterly direction from this center of population.




80 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.

&irdingo.

Latitude. Longitude.

Center of population: o 0 '
1899................................................ 20 21 76 03
1887-----------------------------------------....20 20 7S54
Centerof area .. .................... .... .. 20 5-

The center of population was, in 1899, 29 miles northwest of the
city of Santiago, having moved in the preceding twelve years 9 miles in
a direction nearly west. The center of area was in nearly the same
latitude, but 9 miles nearly east of this center of population.

Cuba.

Latitude. Longitude.

Center of population: o 0
1899.................... .......-.... 22 15 80 23
1887.....-.-. -----------------............----.... 2224 s0 11
Center of area-----------------------------------21 51 79 18

The center of population in 1899 was in Santa Clara province, 30
miles southwest of the city of Santa Clara and 8 miles northeast of
Cienfuegos. In 1887 it was 24 miles northwest of its position in 1899,
showing a net movement of the population i the twelve intervening
years toward the southeast, represented by this 24 miles of movement.
The center of area is 10 miles east-southeast of the city of Sancti
Spiritus, at a distance of 76 miles east-southeast of the center of
population in 1899 and 100 miles from the center in 1887.

DISTRIBUTION IN ALTITUDE.

By the aid of a sketch map prepared by Mr. Robert T. Hill it has
been made possible to distribute the population in elevation above sea
level, with the following results:

Altitude. Population. Percentage.

Feet.
9 1 7,000 38.3
100-1,000 827,000 53.1
+1,000 134,000 8.6



SEX.

(See Table VI.)
Cuba had 57,613 more males than females, an excess equal to 3.6 per
cent of the population. In this respect it agrees with nearly all coun-
tries which are receiving many immigrants, for immigrants to new










CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899


"


oo ,






A





MAP OF CUBA
S HOWI N -
THE DISTRIBUTION BY SEX


MALES OVER 55 PER CENT.

50-55 C.

FEMALES OVER 50 PER CENT.


L~L~L


r,.


--~


-o


A Hoen 8 Co Ba Ir Li h






SEX.


81


countries or to countries of little industrial development are predomi-

nantly men. This excess of males in Cuba, therefore, which distin-

guishes it from neighboring West Indian islands like Jamaica, Porto

Rico, and the Bahamas, is evidence that, as with the United States,

immigration has been a large factor and emigration a small factor in

the growth of its population.

The following table shows the total population and total males,

together with the facts, by race, for the censuses selected as most

trustworthy. Where the information has not been found the space

has been left blank.


Table showing population and number of males at successive censuses.


)ate u


1775......
1792....".
1817......
1827..
1841..
1861...
1877......
1887......
1899......


Total. White.
f census. -
Population. Males. Population. Males.

... ...... 171,620 ............i 96,440 55,476
.............. 272,300 155,234 153,559 82,299
............... 572,363 ............ 257,380 ............
.............. 70,486 403,905 311,051 168,653
.............. 1,007,624 584,097 418,291 227,144
.............. 1,396,530 800,635 793,484 468,107
.............. 1,509,291 845,595 1,023,494 598,395
.............. 1,609,075 866,407 1,102,889 607,187
1,572,797 815,205 1,067,354 577,807


Colored.


P 1opalatiun.

75,180
118,741
314,983
393,435
589,1333
603.03
485,897
528,798
505,443


Males.


72,93.5

235,'252
356,953
332,5'2S
247,200
275,413
237,398


In the foregoing table the Chinese, in conformity with the practice

of Spanish censuses, have been grouped with the whites. Where pos-

sible the de jre population has been given. Hence in 1887 the details

by race being given only for the defacto population, do not sum to

the de jeure population given in the total column. From the preceding

table the following table of percentages has been derived:



Per cent of males in-


Year.



1775.......................................
1792....... ........................
1827........................................
1841........................................
1861. ...... ...............................
1877. .. ..................................
1887....,..................................
189.....................................


Total White Colored
population. population. population.

......,...... 53.5 ........
57.0 53.6 61.4
57.3 54.2 59.8
58.0 54.3 60.6
57.3 59.0 55.1
56.0 55.5 50.9
53.9 55.1 ;2.1
51.8 54.1 47.0


The proportion of males in Cuba apparently reached its maximum

about the middle of the century, when it was nearly the same as that

of the Pacific coast States in 1890 (Washington, 62.3 per cent; Ore-

gon, 58 per cent; California, 58 per cent). Since then it has gradu-

ally decreased until the proportional excess of males was in 1899 about

the same as in several States bordering on the Upper Mississippi

River (Wisconsin, 51.9 per cent; Iowa, 52 per cent; Illinois, 51.6 per

cent). Among the whites the proportion of males reached its maxi-

24662--6




82 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.

mum somewhat later, perhaps owing in part to the immigration of
many thousand Chinese males in the years preceding the census of
1861. Yet, even if these be excluded, the per cent of males among the
true whites or Caucasians of Cuba in 1861 was 57.1, or higher than it
had been since the first census of the island.
While the slave trade was thriving the excess of males was much
greater among the colored than among the whites. This suggests that
the supply of colored labor was maintained primarily by importation
rather than by rearing slave children. But since 1841 the excess of
colored males has steadily decreased, and before the last census was
taken it had disappeared. The increase between 1877 and 1887 sug-
gests the possibility that the Chinese, who were not separately returned
in the census of 1887, may have been included at that time with the
colored. But such an interpretation is doubtful. On comparing the
results of the present census with those of the Spanish census of 1887
the excess of males is seen to have decreased rapidly in twelve years.
In 1887 the excess of males in the de jure population was 123,739,
while in 1899 it was less than half that amount. During the twelve
years the number of males and of females apparently changed in oppo-
site directions, that of the females having increased by nearly 15,000
(14,924), and that of the males having decreased by over 50,000 (51,202).
Thus the females increased 2 per cent and the males decreased nearly
6 per cent in twelve years.
The excess of males in 1899 was distributed through the provinces'
as follows:

Per cent
Total p Absolute that excess
Province. ltioii excess of makes of
males. total popu-
lation.
Santa Clara.................................................... 356,536 21,578 6.1
Pinar del Rio ..........................-- .....- ................ 173.064 10,312 6.0
Habana (excluding city)...............,.....- ,............... 185,823 8,6141 4.6
Habana city................................................... 235, 981 10,535 4.5
Matanzas----- .--------------------------............. 202,444 5,008 2.5
Puerto Principe.--........................................... 88,234 1,564 1.g
Santiago...... ......................................... 327,715 -'S ...........
Cuba ................................................... 1,572,797 57, 613 3.6

From this table it appears that in the eastern provinces-Puerto
Principe and Santiago-the two sexes were almost equal in numbers,
and that the excess of males was in the western half of the island,
where immigration has been most influential.
The main point at which immigrants into Cuba disembark is
Habana. Hence one would expect to find a large preponderance of

1 As the statistics of a great city like Habana differ widely from those of a more
scattered population, the province of Habana will often be divided into two parts,
the city and the rest of the province.






CENSUS OF CUBA. 1899



TOTAL POPULATION

CLASSIFIED BY SEX. RACE. AND NATIVITY


HABANA


PINAR DEL RIO

















SANTA CLARA




-- - -








NATIVE WHITE, MALE

W FEMALE

FOREtGN WHITE, MALE

FEMALE


MATANZAS






-rj-I;


PUERTO PRINCIPE


















SANT AG




- - -


NEGRO. MALE

FEMALE

MIXED, MALE

W FEMALE


CHINESE, MALE







SEX. 83


males in that city. The foregoing table, however, shows that the

proportion of males in the province of Habana, outside the city, was

somewhat greater than the proportion in the city itself. It may be

worth while, therefore, to see whether other cities had a lower pro-

portion of males than the rural districts. The following table gives

ati answer to the question. The 14 cities referred to include all those

having a population exceeding 10,004), together with the city of Pinar

del Rio.


I listriot.


Fo uriteii cities separa tely r mieid ..............
R ura l d istricts ....................................

C u b a ...- .... -... .. ... ..... .. ... -. .. -


iinumber oi- 'er (ent ,f-

Males. Females. -Males. Females.

240, 52 250, 652 19.0 51.0
574,353 511;. 940 53. 1 16. 9

X15,205 757,592 51.8 48.2


The excess of males in Cuba is thus seen to hold only in the rural

districts. Ill the cities there were nearly 10,000 more females than

males, but in the coiiintry al)out 67,00t more males than females. In

an average group of 1,000 city folk there were 20 more females than

males, but in an average group of 1,000 country folk there were 62

more males than females.

In the following table the distinction between urban and rural popu-

lation has been extended to the provinces, and for purposes of sim-

plicity only the columns for males have been retained:


Ntmiber of miles
m----


Province.
(l'rban
districts.


Ifabalh ........................................ 135,552
M atan zas-. .................................... 127.12
Pinar del Iti.------------------------------.... 4,256
1'uert Principe ................................ 10.912
sat ta Clara..................................... 36,560
sa titago........................................ 1126, 40


Rural
districts.


s6. 13
76, 594
87.432
33. 987
152, 497
137,405


Per vent of males Difference in
m-- proportion of
males -
brin Itutral twcee urban
districts. districts. tdre
districts.

51.9 52.S 0.9
W.5 53.2 6.7
17.9 53.3 5.4
13.5 53.8 10.3
45.5 55.2 9.7
45.9 50.9 5.0


The difference between city and country in all other provinces is

several times as great as it is in Habana, and rises to a maximum in

Puerto Principe, where in every 1110 country residents there are 10

more lndes than there are in the capital city of that province. It is

in Haana province alone that males outnumber females in the cities.

Elsewhere they are in a decided minority. This difference may plaus-

ibly be connected with the large number of immigrants in the cities

of that province, notably in Habana. In every one of the 14 cities

separately returned, except Habana and its suburb Regla, the females

outnumber the males.




REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


AGE.
(Se Table IX.)
CUBA AS A WHOLE.

Probably the best single and simple expression for the age of a great
number of people like the inhabitants of Cuba or the United States is
what is called the median age; that is, the age such that half the mem-
bers of the population group under consideration are younger and
half are older. To compute it accurately the census tables should
present the ages by single years. That information being given, it is
easy to ascertain within what single year of life the median age must
lie. It is then assumed that within the year of age thus fixed the per-
sons were evenly distributed; in other words, that there were as many
persons living in the first tenth of the year or the first month as in
each other tenth or month. In this way the median age of the popu-
lation of the United States in 1890 has been fixed at 21.92 years. The
present census of Cuba reports ages not by single years, but, in most
cases, only by five-year periods.' Hence to get the median age it has
been necessary to distribute the population of Cuba in a single five-
year period to the several years. For this purpose it has been assumed
that the number at each year of age in the five-year group bears the
same proportion in Cuba, as in the United States, to the total for the
five years. Thus the median age in Cuba has been found to be 20.78
years. That in Porto Rico is 18.18 years. The people of Cuba, there-
fore, were more than a year younger than those of the United States,
but more than two and a half years older than the people of Porto
Rico.
The median age is a summary expression of the age constitution and
gives only a preliminary idea of the facts. The analysis is carried a
step farther by the following table, in which the three population
groups are compared in more detail. Here and elsewhere no com-
parison is made with Spain because of the meager statistical informa-
tion about that country. The table states the proportion that the
number of persons in each ten-year period from the beginning to the
end of life made of the total population of all ages.
1 The division of the group 15-19 at 17 enables one to know the population of school
age, 5-17, and that of age to serve in the militia, 18-44. The division of the group
20-24 at 20 enables one to know the potential voters. The division of the group 0-4
into single years allows a study of the balance between birth rate and death rate
during the early years before it is seriously affected by migration.


84









CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899



CUBA


DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION

BY AGE AND SEX


-i


PEP CENT. S 4 5 2 3 4 6
TOTAL VOPILATICON


p MALE


-il--


P 7 65 4 22 t 2 3 4
NATIVE WHITES


a PER CENT.


AG






.


AGE PERIODS






o P






















G 7


AGE PERIODS




a


4




r






S 4 2 z 2 4 7 PER CENT.
COLCiRED PO L'LA PE ODS


I4 3 2 I IC 3 7 & 4? 2 I 0 PER CENT.

FOREIGN BORN


.1


TOTAL FGPLLATION


i


I


-





AGE.


Age constitution of the population of Cuba compared with that of Porto Rico and the United
States, by ten-year age periods.

Per cent of total population
in age periods named.
Age period. --
Cuba Porto United
(1899) Rico States
(1899). (1890).
0-9............................................... 22.70 30.84 24.29
10-19........................... 25.31 22.82 21.70
20-29............................................. 18.46 18.12 18.24
30-39............................................. 13. S$ 11. 74 13.48
40-49............................................ 9.24 7.41 9.45
50-59............................................. 5.81 5.06 6.38
60-69. ..-------------------.-------------------- 3.08 2.63 3.94
70-79. ..--------------------------------------- 1.03 .90 1.75
80-89............................................ .35 .36 .45
90-99............................................ .11 .10 .05
100+.......... ....................... ..02 .01 .01
Of unknown age ................................ .01 .01 .26
Total .............................100.00 100.00 100.00

This table shows that the proportion of children under 10 in Cuba
was less than in the United States and much less than in Porto Rico.
On the other hand, the proportion of persons between 10 and 20 was
much higher and that of persons between 20 and 40 somewhat higher
than in either of the other countries. The proportion of persons in
Cuba between 40 and 90 was somewhat less than in the United States,
but, with a slight exception for the last ten years, greater than in
Porto Rico. The proportion beyond 90, which was larger than in Porto
Rico or the United States, points not to a greater proportional number
of very aged persons in Cuba, but to greater errors in the returns,
whereby the true age has been exaggerated. If the age composition
of the population in the United States be taken as a standard, there
were in Cuba few children, many youth, an average number of young
adults, and a small number of persons who had passed the meridian
of 40. An accessible summary' giving the proportion of children
under 10 and of adults over 60 in 18 European countries at the last
censuses shows that Cuba had proportionally fewer children under 10
than 14 of these countries, but a larger per cent than Belgium (22.4),
Switzerland (21.7), Ireland (20.8), or France (17.5). The per cent of
persons over 60 (4.6) was lower than in the United States (6.2), and
that was lower than in any of the 18 countries of Europe. The small
proportion of aged persons in the United States may be explained by
the rapid growth of its population; but in Cuba, where the population
has increased only 4 per cent in twenty-two years, the cause must be
sought rather in unsanitary conditions, ignorance regarding care of
the health, and poverty, all of which are widely prevalent among
certain classes on the island and result in a short life.
The analysis may be carried one step farther by finding the propor-


' Allgemeines Statistisches Archiv I1, 472 (1894).


85





86 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.

tion of the population belonging to each period of five years between
birth and death. The results, in comparison with those for the United
States and Porto Rico, and also with an artificial stationary population
from which the errors due to misstatement of age or to uneven growth
of population have been excluded, are contained in the following
table:

Age constitution of the population of Cuba compared nith that of Porto Rico (al tie
United States, by fire-year ge period.


Age period. States oh
Ag )ro.(1N59. (1390) (13'J9). lie I

0-4......--.- .............--. -8.32 12.19 15.78 9.80
5-9-.................................... 3i 12.10 15. t S.77
10-14.................................. 13.99 11.23 13.0. 8.s
15-19................................... 11.32 10.47 9.77 8.25
20-24.................................. 9.72 9.89 9.28 7.94
25_'9------------------"-'--...---I.3 s.sI 7.58
30-34................................... 7.55 7.31 6.7 7.20
35-39....................... ....... .33 6.17 4.99 6.s0
40-44...............- -... ...------. 5.43 5.09 4.64 6.38
45-49..--. ..-.-.. -... .--....... 3.81 1.36 2.,I j .:r
50-54..............-...................... 3. 6 3.71 3.45 5.42
55-59............... .................. 2.15 2.67 1.61 4.85
60-64.-..-......... ....---------- 2.19 2.33 1.93 4.16
65-69----------------------------------- .89 1.61 .70 3.36
70-74................................... 1.12 .65 2.44
75-79................................... .2s .63 .25 1.52
80-84................................... .23 .33 .28 .76
85-90................................... .07 .12 .08 .2,
90-94....................... ----.-------. .08 .04 .07 .07
95-99.-. --... -... -....-................ .03 .01 .03 .01
100+----------------------------------- .02 .01 .01 .01
Of unknown age ..................... .01 .26 .01 W
Total.------------------------ 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.0W


The deficiency in young children previously noted is here more
accurately defined. The children between 5 and 10 were more numer-
ous in Cuba than in the United States and not much fewer than in
Porto Rico, but the children under 5 were only about two-thirds as
numerous as in the United States and not much more than half as
numerous as in Porto Rico. No country for which figures are acces-
sible had so small a proportion of children under 5 as Cuba. This
small number of survivors of the children born between 1894 and
1899, when taken in connection with the large number of survivors of
those born between 1889 and 1894, must be attributed to the economic
and political misfortunes by which the island has been afflicted during
the past five years. Compare the memorandum on vital statistics,
1890 to 1899, in Appendix XVIII. Such misfortunes usually exercise
more influence on population by preventing births or increasing infant
mortality than by causing death of adults. In every country in which
the population is stationary or increasing one ordinarily finds that the
children under 5 outnumber those between 5 and 10, and if the popu-
lation is to be maintained this clearly must be so. Hence the number
of children in Cuba 5-9 years of age may be deemed a minimum limit to





AGE. 87

what the number 0-4 years of age would have been had it not been for
the recent sufferings of the island. This gives the following estimate:
Children 5-9. .. ..------------------------------------------------ 226, 109
Children 0-4-----....----------------------------------------------- 130,878

Difference ...---------------------------------------------- 95,229

This difference of nearly 100,000 may approximately represent a
minimum limit to the loss of infant life in Cuba both by death and
prevention of birth consequent upon her recent sufferings.
An examination of Table IX shows that during adult life, especially
the later years, the reported numbers of persons in Cuba belonging to
the successive quinquennial groups vary irregularly. One would
expect the number in each group through middle life to fall below that
in the next younger group by a somewhat constant proportion. That
it does not do so is clear front Table IX but the fact is more distinctly
brought out by the following derived table:

Number acd per cent by which the reported propuIation the number in the precediang age group.


Ditference Per cent that
between this makecie
Age groupand total in Pre
Age goup.preceding ce 1g(~ i
quinquen- edu
group.

10-14............................................... 6,0(0 ?.68
15-19............................................... -42,014 19.09
20-24............................................... -25,076 14.09
25-29............- .............- .................... 15,554 10.17
30-34--- ------.---.---------------. .............. -18,593 -13.53
35-39............ -............................ --- 19,248 16.20
40-14.............---- ........................... -14,072 -14.13
45-49.............................................. --25,553 -29.89
50-54 ...................................... ...... -. 2,350 3.92
55--59............................................... 23,830 -41.38
60-4............................- ................. + 664 + 1.97
65-69............................................,.. -20,402 -59.27
70-74..............-......................... ....... -- 2, t30 -15.90
7.i-79....................................... ..... .. -- 7.447 63.17
80-84............................................ .. 4 -- 93
85-89............................................,.. 3,161 -72.8M
90-94........................-...................... + 31 + 2.63
95-99................................................ 737 -60.90


Such irregularity in the decrease with advancing years is counter to
all the probabilities in the case. The most simple hypothesis that arises
to explain it is errors in the reporting of ages. Where such errors
occur they reveal themselves in the large number of persons whose
age is reported as a multiple of 5 or especially of 10. Hence quin-
quennial groups containing a multiple of 10 are erroneously swollen
and the intervening groups correspondingly diminished. An exami-
nation of the preceding table will show that this is true of the reported
ages in Cuba. Further evidence of the irregularity may be found in
the following table. The number of persons in each quinquennial group
has been compared with half the sum of the numbers in the groups







88 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


immediately preceding and following. If the curve representing the

population by age groups were a straight descending line (for a station-

ary population and through the years of adult life it closely approaches

a straight line), the number thus found would in each case be 100 per

cent. The departures from 100 per cent, therefore, in the following

table measure approximately, and the departure from the figures in

the first column measure more accurately, the irregularity and probable

error in the reported ages in Cuba. Columns for the United States

and Porto Rico are introduced for comparison.


Per eent that population in each qilnquennial group makes of the arithmeticd mean of
population in the next ?younger and ne.'t older groups.


Age group.


5-9................................
10-14.................................
15-19..................................
20-24...................................
25-29..............................
30-34........... ...................
35-39...................................
40-44................................
45-49..................................
50-54... ...........................
55-59..............................
60--4..............................
65-69..................................
70-74...................................
75-79 ...............................
80-84...................................
8.5- 9...................................
i90-94 ...................................


English Cuba.
life table,
No.3. (1899.)


84.2 128.8
96.8 109.0
100.4 95.4
100.4 97.0
100.2 101.2
100.2 100.4
100.2 97.4
100.2 107.2
100.4 83.8
100.6 123.0
101.0 73.4
101.4 144.0
101.6 60.6
100.4 128.4
95.8 53.8
85.8 157.2
69.6 42.4
50.4 146.4


Disregarding the first two age groups and finding the difference

between each following group and the figures in the first column gives

a measure of the real or alleged excess or deficiency of population in

certain age periods.


Measure of excess (--) or duicieney ( -) of population in age group named.


Age group.


15-19..""..........................
20-24.......................................I
25-29..................................
30-34...................................--
35-39............ .....................
40-44-...-.---.---- ............ .........
45-49--.....................................
50-54,..................................-
55-59.................................
60--64.-----------.. ---- .---- .....
65-69....................,.................
70-74.................................
75-79.......................................
80-84.................................... ."
85-89.................................
90-94.................... .............


United
States
(1890).


103.2
99.6
99.2
105.2
97.0
100.6
99.0
96.6
99.2
105.6
88.4
108.6
93.6
100.0
86.8
87.0
66.2
58.4


Porto
Rico.
(1899.)


104.5
105.2
87.6
99.8
105.4
97.7
87.7
119.6
68.6
157.5
59.9
167.9
54. 3
128.3
54.3
175.0
47.1
140.0


Cuba
(1899).


(1899).


-12.8
- .6
+ 5.2
- 2.5
-12.5
+19.4
-31.8
+56.9
-41.1
+66.5
-47.3
+37.9
-41.5
+89.2
-22.1
+89.6


- 5.0
- 3.4
+ 1.0
+ .2
- 2.8
+ 7.0
-16.6
+22.4
-27.6
+42.6
-41.0
+28.0
-42.0
+71.4
--27.2
+96.0


United
States
(1890).


- 1.2
+ 4.8
- 3.2
+ .4
- .6
-- 3.6
- 1.2
+ 5.0
-12.6
+ 7.2
- 8.0
.4
9.0
+ 1.2
3.4
+ 8.0


L




AGE. 89

In all three countries the population in age groups including a mil-
tiple of 10 was usually in excess and that in othei age groups in
deficiency. In Cuba the deviation from the standard after the age of
30 was greater and in most instances many times greater than in the
United States, and in Porto Rico with few exceptions it was mtch
greater than in Cuba. In the United States where ages are reported
by single years it can easily be shown that the irregoularity of the age
curve is due to the reporting of ages as 30, 40, etc., when the persons
are near but not at those ages. This tendency is most marked among
the uneducated. The preceding table shows that a similar tendency
worked in Cuba at the present census vith greater efect than in the
United States, and that in Porto Rico it was even more controlling
than in Cuba.
In a single case this explanation may be further tested. In Table
IX the number of persons 20 years of age is given as well as that 21-24.
In Farr's Life Table the persons 20 years of age are 2().3 per cent of
the total in the group 20-24. In the United States the proportion for
both sexes was 20.7, but as males in the United States are fond of saving
they are of voting age, and hence the year 21 is a favored one with
them, it may be better to compare the Cuban figures for this group with
those for females in the United States. Of all females in the United
States 20-24, 22.4 per cent reported themselves as 20 years of age.
In Cuba, on the contrary, of all persons 20-24, 26.4 per cent reported
themselves as 20. This confirms the explanation alread- offered. that
the Cubans stated their age in round numbers as some multiple of ten
far more commonly than the Americans did in lswi.
Aqtrv under i 1y .inf/ yirm.-The ages under 5 are reported for
each year. This allows a study of the balance between birth rate and
death rate before it is seriously affected by migration. The very
small number of children under 5 in Cuba has been shown. But
the distribution of these to the single years is also significant. The
following table gives the number of children belonging to each year
and the ratio of that number to the total under 5. Similar ratios are
included for the United States in 1880. when the form of the age
question was the same as in Cuba in 1899, and also for Porto Rico.

1t1I4 to tonal und r 5.
Age jriodl. 'Numberof --
children. Irn ited
Cuba. Porto RCiro.' Stattes
I -(1S 0).
0-1......................... 24,145 18.45 17.49 20.91
1-2 ....................... -.... 16, N73 12.)89 t. 9 I S. 18
2-3............ . . . ... 23,6;N) 18.10 21.91 20. f1
3-4........................... 30,340 23.18 21.99 19.9s
4-5............................. 35, 830 27.38 21.59 20.26
0-5..... ........ 130,Si8 100.00 100.00 100.01







90 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899


In Cuba over 50 per cent of the children under 5, at the date of the
census, were 3 or 4 years old; while in Porto Rico the corresponding
per cent was 43.6, in the United States (1880) it was 40.2 per cent,

and by the English Life Table No. 3, 37.5 per cent. This apparently

shows that the birth rate was higher or the infant mortality lower in

Cuba during 1895 and 1896 than it was in 1897, 1898, and 1899.

Apparently, also, in Porto Rico the conditions affecting the lives of

young children were better in 1895-1897 than they were in 1898 or

1899.
THE SEVERAL PROVINCES.

D/w mdidan ay.-The median age of the several provinces was as


follows:


Pr vic .


Santiago ..............................................................
Puerto Prini ip ................................ .. .. .. .. .. .. ......
Pinar del Rio.............................................
Santa Clara..........................................................
Habana (exclusive of city)....,.......................................
Matanzas..... . ................... .............. .. . . .
Habana (city)........................................................


Vledian
age.


18.0
18.1
19.3
21.0
21.4
22.0
24.8


There was a difference of nearly seven years between the median age

in Santiago and in the capital of the island. As the two provinces

which were closest in age, Santiago and Puerto Principe, were those

which have the largest proportions of colored and of white, respec-

tively, it is clear that the median age of the two races probably did not

differ widely except where immigration has entered to cause a difference.

L/e I) -be//rteriod'.--The wide difference in median age between
Habana city and the eastern provinces is in some measure explained

by the following table:

Per cent of tMtal population belonging to age period stated..


Age period.


0-4.............
5-9.............
10-14.............
15-19...........
20-24........,....
25-29............
30-34.............
35-39.............
40-44......,....
45-49....--.......
50-54...........
55-59...........
60-64.............
65-69...........
70-74.............
75-79.............
80-84.............
8--89.............
90-94.............
95-99............
100+..........I
Unknown .......


(excludig
city).

6.94
12.98
14.16
12.29
11.47
9.89
7.67
6.16
5.05
3.55
3.58
2.09
2.02
.84
.66
.25
.22
.06
.06
.03
.02
.01


Total 100.00


Habna Maanzas.
city. \uazs


7.54
10.32
10.17
10.73
11.70
11.17
9.31
7.67
6.03
4.32
3.91
2.48
2.21
1.05
.70
.32
.21
.07
.05
.02
.012
.00

100.00


7.93
13.38
13.48
10.94
9.63
8.79
7.12
5.98
5.37
4.10
4.28
2.77
2.86
1.26
1.09
.35
.39
.10


Pixar del i Puerto
Rio. IPrincipe.


9.14
15.57
1{. 71
1f. 98
11.21
9.81
7.11
5.01
4.67
2.90
2.98
1.45
1.73

.55
.17
.24
.05


11.15
16.55
15.10
10.94
7.08
5.78
6.74
5.99
5.28
3.96
3.74
2.29
2.47
.97
.93
.35
.39
.10
.12
.04
.03
.00


Santa
Clara.


7.31
14.34
14.40
11.42
9.59
8.85
7.67
6.47
5.63
3.87
3.78
2.15
2.23
.87
.71
.25
.27
.07
.07
.03
.02
.00


100.0J 100.00


Santiago.


9.81
17.56
15.84
11.07
7.43
6.40
6.82
6.32
5.50
3.79
3.36
1.88
1.98
.73
.73
.27
.27
.08
.09
.04
.02
.01

100.00


.12 .07
.03 .03
.02 .02
.01 .00

100.00 100.00







AGE. 91


In proportion of children under 15, Santiago and Puerto Principe
ranked first and second, and the city of Ilabana ranked last, or, in one

case, next to the last. The ratio of children under 15 to the total

population varies, in close agreement with the median age, as follows:


Province. Median 0-15 t
ttil pop-
ulation.


Santiago............................................. 1.0 1.n
Puerto Prin ipe-........---.--.. ....................... 1 .1 I. .
Pinar del Ri .. ................................... --- 19.1 S9. I
Santa lam t............................................ 21.0 3G.1
Habana I xclusive o city)...........................- -1- 1 :1.1 I
I HNiais-----.-------------------- ---2.1 ol.0


A powerful and usually a controlling influence in determining the

median or average aue is the proportion of children.

Puerto Principe had the largest proportion of children under 5,

suggesting that it may have suffered least from recent disorders.

From 5 to 15 rears of age the maximum was in Santiago, pointing to a

high birth rate under ordinary conditions in that province. From 20

to 50 rears of age the maximum was uniformly in the city of ilabana;

from 5o to Sn, in Matanzas.

The smallest proportion of very young children was found in Ilabana

province outside the capital. Of children 5-11 years old there were
fewest in Habana city; of young adults 2--4 years old, fewest in

Puerto Principe; of adults 35-79, fewest in Pinar del Rio. The small

ratio of adults 20-35 years old in Puerto Principe and Santiago may

possibly be an echo of a lowered birth rate during the ten years'

war, 1868-17S. which was confined for the most part to the eastern

provinces.
All the provinces showed a much smaller number of children under 5

than of those between 5 and 1). Perhaps the best measure of relative

loss of infant life during the past five years is found by computing

the per cent by which the number of children under 5 fell below that

between 5 and 10. This is given in the following table:



Per cent by
which ciLI-
Province. drew 0- fall
below that


Habana (ity ......................................................
Puerto Principe ..................................................
Jlatan zas .'.................................... .... ......- ...-.. -
Pinar del Rio...............................................
Cu ................................ . . .
Santiago...........................................................
ILabana (excluding city)................. ........................
Santa Clara........................................................


26i. 9
:2. 6
40.7
11.3
42.1
44.1
46.5
4S.9




REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


The number of children in the first five years of life was uniformly
below that in the next five-year period, and the deficiency ranged from
one-fourth in Habana city to nearly one-half in Santa Clara. The
three provinces which apparently suffered most were Santiago, Santa
Clara, and Habana outside the capital. It is likely that the apparent
losses in the capital were decreased and those in the vicinity increased
by the removal of families containing children from the rural districts
to the protection of the city. These losses probably are the result of
a much lower birth rate and a much higher infant death rate during
the past five years.
It may be possible to derive from the figures for children under 5
further light regarding the provinces which suffered most at various
periods. The following table has been prepared by finding the ratio
of children of each year of age under 5 to the total under 5.

Province. 0-1. 1-2. 2-3. 3-4. 4-5. 0-4.

Habana (excluding city)...... -........ 16.6 12.2 1.4 23.8 29.0 100.00
Habana city ............................. 16.s 15.4 19.8 23.4 24.6 100.181
Matanuzas ......... ................... 17.-1 11.8 18.4 24.2 28.2 11.00
Pinardcl io ......._.. .... .......... 22.1 11.5 16.6 22.6 27.2 100.W
Puerto Princip ..- -...-.... ........... 18.3 13.6 19.3 23.5 25.3 1(4).(N)
Santa Clara ................. .-......... 15.0 11.9 19.0 24.5 29.6 1(K.M
Santiago................................. 21.7 13.7 16.5 21.4 26.7 100.(1

Of the children born between October, 1898, and October, 1899,
there was the smallest proportion in Santa Clara and the largest in Pinar
del Rio. Of the children 1 and 2 years old Habana city had the most
relatively to the other provinces and Pinar del Rio the fewest. Of
those born in the last months of 1894, in 1895, and 1896 Santa Clara
had most. Of those 3 years old the fewest were in Santiago, and of
those 4 years old the fewest in Habana city.
The last Cuban revolution began early in 1895 and during that year
seems to have centered in Santiago province. In the fall of 1895 the
revolutionists advanced into the western provinces, and during 1896
military operations apparently centered in the western part of the
island, notably Pinar del Rio. After the death of Maceo in December,
1896, Santa Clara was perhaps the center of operations. The Spanish
policy of concentration began early in 1896. These facts may be con-
nected with those shown in the preceding table. It indicates that the
birth rate in Santiago was probably abnormally low in 1896 and 1897,
that in Pinar del Rio was relatively lowest in 1897 and 1898, while
that of Santa Clara was at its minimum in 1899.
.Agef and &.-The median age of the two sexes in Cuba compared
with that in Porto Rico and the United States was as follows:
Median age of- Excess of-
intry. I at c. -- --- -___
Males. Females. Males. Females.
Cuba ......................................... 1599 21.7 20.1 1.6 ............
Porto Ii ........................................ 1899 17.6 18.7 ............ 1.1
United States................................. 1890 22.3 21.5 .8 ............


92







AGE. 93


The males were four years older in Cuba than in Porto Rico, but

about seven and one-half months younger than in the United States.

The females were not quite seventeen months older than in Porto Rico,

but were seventeen months younger than in the United States. The

males were nineteen months older than the females, while in the United

States the difference was only half as great, and in Porto Rico the

females were thirteen months older. The greater age of males is made

clear by the following table, in which the ratio of the total number

of each sex in a given decennial age group to the total population of

that sex is stated.


Age tonptJ ositi) mii Mob, tni /lwtlr pop'i)tiw n. of Co hi iy dln4,' ,nl /p'rimnIs.


Age period.




0-q9. ......... .................
10-19...........................
20-29...........................
30-39.......................
40-19.......................
50-59...........................
60-69...........................
70-79...........................
80-89...........................
90-90........................
100+ ........................


Per cent of al in sex
named w ho below g
to age period stated.

Males. Females.


24.1 26.6
18.7 18.2
14.5 13.:i
9.9 8.5

3.1 3.0
1.0 1.1 .
.3 .4
.1 .1
.0 .0


Exevss of-


MAUjS. I Fem~ales.



1..1
.2.5


1.1
. .........
.1 -
. . . . _
.1
-4'


This table shows that the relative number of females was greatest at

the extremes of age 0-19 and 70+, while during the years 20-69 males

were more numerous. The absolute numbers for each sex in these

three age groups 0-19, 30-69, and 70+ are given below.


Sex.
0-19.

M 3ales..................................... 477, 435
Females.................................. 377, 636


A\ge ;iriudi.

20-69. 711. .

126,:300 11, 11
ft67, G6i3 1-, 26b


At the two extremes of life there were more female tihat Male

Cubans by over 1,000, but during the working years 20-09 there were

nearly (0,000 more males than females. To the great excess of itales

at those years must be attributed the higher median age of the males

in Cuba. The excess of females in the group 70+ may be actual or

simply reported; that is, it may be due either to a lower mortality

and longer lifetime or to greater errors in the reports from females.

Such errors manifest themselves not merely, as already explained, in

concentration on round numbers, but also among old persons in exag-

geration of the true age. It is of importance, therefore, to ascertain

whether concentration on round numbers is more common among

males or among females.







94 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


Following the method already explained, the table below gives the

proportion of each sex at each quinquennial period:


Ay" y q uilJunial periods.


Age period.


0-................................................
5-9.. ............................................
10-14......................................... ...
15-19...................................................
20-24...................................................
25-29...................................................
30-34.....................................--....
35-39.................. ..............................
40-44................................ ---........
45-49............................................
50-54............................................
55-459 ................................... --------
60-64............................................
75-69..............................................
70-74...-.............................................
75-79............................................
90-84.................................................
S5-S9...................................................
90-9.-......................-.........--------..--.
95-99... .... .........................................
100 "a . . .............. ........
unknown..........................................
'r'~ta


Per cent of-


Males. Fem

8.09
14.)S 1
13.79 1
W0.:5 1'
9.Y9
N.9%
7.35
6.1 Q
5.82
4.07

'_.:35
2.20
.93

.26
'.1





.06
.07
.3 0
.02
.01


100.00


1les.


8.58
4. 69
4.21
2.37
9.76
K.47
7.23
6.04
5.02
:4. 531
3.53
1.92
2.18
.85
.79
29
.31
.09
.09
.03
02
.00


100.00


An examination of this table shows no conspicuous difference

between the two sexes until about the age of 45, but from that age

on the decrease in the column for males is more regular than that in

the column for females. This is probably due to the greater frequency

with which the ages of elderly women were reported as multiples of

10. The difference between the two is made more visible by the fol-

lowing table. The method employed in its preparation has been

already explained.


Per cod tital population i/f cat/i <1 inlj InVinl period 1na kc. of th,' aritl/tliil M11i a of
pop ultion in the ne-t yolnitqr t i'i t tlr i t rimeIx.


Age period.


25-29...................................................

30-39............................... ...................
0-19...................................................
40-14....... ............................................
50-14 .................................................
5-59.............................................
60-64...................................................
60-A ..................................................
70-74.......................................... .....
75-79...............................................
80-s9..............................................'.


Malts. Females.



O0.3 100.2
96.7 1 98.6
109.0 104.9
81.7 82.15
118.1 129.5
7S.5 67.3
134.2 157.4
63.9 57.2
119.3 138. 1
5-.7 52.7
150.0 163.2


Prior to the age of 45 no uniform difference between the two sexes

clearly appears, but after that the excess in periods including a

multiple of 10 and the shortage in the intervening periods are much

more marked among women than among men.




AGE.


Corroborative evidence may be found in examining which sex was
more fond of reporting the age as exactly 20. In a stationary popu-
lation about 20.3 per cent of all persons between 20 and 25 are actually
20, but in Cuba 25 per cent of the males and 27.8 per cent of the
females 20-24 reported themselves as 20. This seems to show a
decidedly greater error among females, but there are many foreign-
ers in Cuba belonging to this age period and the large majority are
males. As they belong mainly to the later years of the period, it may
be fairer to exclude them from the comparison. Among the colored
and native white males 20-24, 27.1 per cent were reported as 2O but
among the females of these classes the per cent was 28. It appears
that women's tendency to answer in round numbers even at this agre is
a very little higher than men's.
One may safely conclude that erroneous statements of age, at least
after middle life, are more common among Cuban women. Where
errors of age occur during the later years, they are likely to exag-
gerate the real age. For example, in the United States in 1890
among every 100,000 colored 128 claimed to be 90 years old or more,
but among every 100,000 native whites of native parents only 45
claimed to be 90 or more, yet the whites certainly live longer. As
elderly Cuban women are more prone to report their ages in multiples
of 10, so they are probably more prone to exaggerate their age, and
part of the high proportion of women 70 years old or more may be
thus explained. At the same time, as general experience testifies to
a somewhat lower mortality of women in civilized countries, the greater
proportion of women in the later ages may probably be accepted as
correct, although the census figures exaggerate the difference.
Referring to the table in which the age composition of the sexes is
given by five-year periods (p. 94), one notices a striking difference in
the proportion of males and of females belonging to the age period
15-19. The proportion of females in that period was more than 2 per
cent higher than the proportion of males, while in all other cases the
proportions of the sexes differed by less than 1 per cent. This is true
not merely of the proportions, but also the absolute numbers. In this
age period there were nearly 10,000 (9,343) more females than males,
while in every other five-year period under 7u the males outnunbered
the females. It is obvious that such a massing of the females ili the
age period 15-19 is highly improbable. The most simple explanation
is that for some reason a considerable number of males belonging to
that age period reported themselves at other ages, or that a considerable
number of females belonging to other age periods reported themselves
as in this period. The same difference occurs in the United States,
where the age period 15-19 is the only five-year period under 840 in
which the females outnumbered the males. The phenomenon, how-
ever, is much more marked in Cuba than in the United States. In


95




REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


Cuba there were 1,111 females to every 1,000 males 15-19, while in the
United States there were only 1,019 females to 1,000 males in the same
age period. Probably the most effectual cause is the transfer of women
really belonging to other age periods into this. As the five-year
period in the tables is divided into two parts, one may probe the ques-
tion a little more closely. In the two years 18-19 there were 1,056
females to 1,000 males, while in the three years 15-17 there were
1,150 females to 1,000 males. Hence it is the earlier period in which
the difference is especially manifest, although it clearly appears in
both. The actual concentration is much greater than the apparent,
since there belong to this period about 5,000 more foreign white males
than foreign white females. It may be noticed that in the English
figures a similar concentration of women has been pointed out,
althlougi the ages there favored fall into the next quinquennial period,
20-24. The concentration of colored in these ages was far greater
than of the native white and the concentration in all Cuba far greater
than in the city of Habana.

NATIVITY AND RACE.

PThe native whites constituted 57.8 per cent, or considerably more
than one-half of the population of Cuba. The foreign whites consti-
tuted but 9 per cent; the colored, including the negro and mixed ele-
ments, amounted only to 32 per cent, or less than one-third, while
the proportion of Chinese was trifling, being less than 1 per cent.
In every province the native whites formed a majority of the popu-
lation, but in the city of Habana, owing to the large element of foreign
birth, they formed a trifle less than one-half, or 49 per cent. The pro-
portion of native whites was greatest in the province of Puerto Prin-
cipe, the sparsely settled, pastoral province, where it reached 75.2 per
cent, or more than three-fourths of all the inhabitants. It was next
largest in Pinar del Rio, which is mainly a farming province, where it
reached 66.5 per cent, or nearly two-thirds. Santa Clara had 60 per
cent, Habana, 57.3 per cent, and Matanzas had 50.7 per cent, or but a
trifle more than one-half.
The proportion of the foreign born ranged from 4 per cent in San-
tiago to 16.2 in Habana province, and even to 22.4 per cent in Habana
city. Between a fourth and a fifth of the population of Habana city
was of foreign birth. Puerto Principe had a very small foreign ele-
ment, and in Matanzas and Pinar del Rio it was by no means large.
The colored element, including the negro and mixed races, ranged
from 20 per cent in Puerto Principe up to 45 per cent in Santiago.
It was large in Matanzas, reaching 40 per cent, was 30 per cent in
Santa Clara, 27 per cent in Pinar del Rio, and 26 per cent in Habana
Province, while the proportion in Habana city was 27.3 per cent.
The Chinese did not form an element of importance in any of the


96











CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899


MAP OF CUBA
S HO WI N C
THE PROPORTION OF NATIVE WHITE TO THE TOTAL POPULATION.

LESS THAN 50 PER CENT.

50-76

OVER 75


A






L~.


A H n k C, 3,,i-$


s


A



RACE.


provinces, but were most numerous in Matanzas, where they formed
2.1 per cent of the population.
In all of the censuses of Cuba since and including that of 1774, the
distinction of white and colored has been made, and the latter have been
distinguished as free and slave up to the time of the abolition of
slavery.
The following table shows the numbers and proportions of white and
colored in Cuba, as shown by each census. As the Chinese have been
by the Spanish censuses classed with whites, they are so classed here
in the census of 1899, for purposes of comparison:

Whites. Colored.
Census. Number. cent- Number. Percent-
Nme, age. Nme, age.
1775................................ 96,440 56.2 75,180 43.8
1792............- .................. 153,559 56.4 118,741 43.6
1817............................... 257,380 45.0 314,983 55.0
1827............................... 311,051 44.2 393,435 55.8
1841----------------------------...418,291 41.5 589,333 58.5
1861----------------------------...793,484 56.8 603,046 43.2
1877--------------------------..1,023,394 67.8 485,897 32.2
1887--------------------------....1,102,889 67.6 528,798 32.4
1899................................ 1,067,354 67.9 505,443 32,1

The table shows that the number of whites has steadily increased up
to the last census, which shows a diminution of 35,535 from that of
1887. The colored increased up to 1861. In 1877 there was a decided
decrease of 117,149. In 1887 there was an increase of 42,901, followed
by a decrease of 23,355 in 1899.
In proportion of total population it will suffice to trace the history
of one element only-the colored-starting a century and a quarter
ago with 43.8 per cent of the population. The proportion diminished
slightly in the succeeding eighteen years. But between 1792 and 1817
it increased greatly, the colored becoming largely in the majority, with
the proportion of 55.0 colored to 45.0 white. A trifling diminution
followed in 1827, succeeded by an increase in 1841, when the propor-
tion of colored reached its maximum, with 58.5 per cent. Since then
it diminished rapidly and in 1861 was but 43.2 per cent, leaving the
whites largely in the majority again. In 1877 it again diminished,
this time to 32.2, or less than one-third of the population, since which
time it has not changed materially.
The reason for the great increase in number and proportion of the
colored up to 1841 is doubtless the continued importation of blacks
from Africa, which per isted, in the form of smuggling, long after
its official prohibition. (Their diminution relative to the whites, dur-
ing the last half centu is doubtless but another illustration of the
inability of an inferior race to hold its own in competition with a
superior one, a truth which is being demonstrated on a much larger
scale in the United States
24662 7


97




REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


From the earliest times of which we have statistical record there
have been large numbers of free negroes on the island, and they
existed there in varying numbers and proportions up to the time of
emancipation. The following table shows the numbers and propor-
tions of the free and slave population at each census from 1774 to
1877:
Free colored. Slaves.
Census. -___
Number. Percent- Number. Percent-
_________________age. age.
1775................................ 30,847 41.0 44,333 59.0
179 ............................ 51,151 45.6 64,590 54.4
1S17............................... 115,69] J 36.7 199,292 63.3 I
1827...........:.... 107, 494 27.1 286, 942 72.9
1841 ............................. 152,838 25.9 436,495 74.1
1861................................ 225,54:3 37.4 377,203 62.9
1877................................ 272,478 55.7 199,094 44.3

With the exception of the census of 1827, the free colored increased
numerically at each census, and in 1877 were nine times as numerous
as in 1774. The slaves showed a rapid numerical increase up to 1841,
and since that time an equally rapid reduction in numbers, a move-
ment doubtless dependent upon the importation of slaves.
The total foreign born numbered 172,535, of which 142,153, includ-
ing 55 unknown, or 82.5 per cent, were white, and 30,382, or 17.5 per
cent, were colored. This included 14,614 Chinese, leaving 15,768
foreign-born negroes and mixed bloods.
Of the total foreign born 129,240 were born in Spain. These formed
74.9 per cent, or very nearly three-fourths of all the foreign born.
The next largest contributor to the foreign-born population was China,
whose natives altogether numbered 14,863, or 8.6 per cent of the
foreign element. Next to them were natives of Africa, nearly all of
whom were negroes, numbering 12.953, or 7.5 per cent of the foreign
born. Following these in numbers were natives of the United
States, most of them whites, numbering 6,444, or 3.7 per cent of the
foreign born. No other country contributed to this element to the
extent of even 1 per cent. Even the neighboring island of Porto Rico
contributed only 1,108, and all of the other West Indies together only
1,712. South America contributed only 752 and Central America 108,
while Mexico, although a near neighbor, contributed only 1,108 per-
sons. Altogether these closely neighboring Spanish speaking coun-
tries contributed only 4,788 persons, or less than 3 per cent of the
foreign element, a fact which speaks volumes for the sedentary char-
acter of this people. All Europe contributed only 3,568, or about 2
per cent of the foreign element, and only a little more than half as
many as the United States contributed.
The fact has already been stated that of the foreign colored, num-
bering 30,382, 14,614 were Chinese, leaving 15,768 negro and mixed
bloods. Of this number no fewer than 12,897, or more than four-
fifths, came from Africa, the source of the remainder being widely


98











CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899


J
















MAP OF CUBA
S HO W IN C
THE PROPORTION OF THE FOREIGN BORN TO THE TOTAL POPULATION

LESS THAN 2 PER CENT.

2-5 "

-10 -

OVER 10 "


N







S2/4



LLy F UG 4










I
R,9


A Hoen 9 C. BifS Lith







































































































s




NATIVITY. 99

scattered. (These African negroes are nearly all of advanced age,
indicating that they constitute the last remnant of imported African '
slaves.
Ag<', while among the foreign born, taken generally, males far
outnumber females, in a relation of about four to one, it appears that
among the immigrants from the West Indies, South and Central
America, and Mexico the number of females is about equal to that of
males; indeed, among those from Mexico the number of females out-
numbers that of males greatly.
The distribution of the foreign 1orn between city and country is
much the same as in the United States. The foreign-born element,
consisting mainly of persons of Spanish birth, congregates in the cities
much more than in the country, and among the cities it affects the
larger in preference to the smaller. In the city of Habana, the largest
and most important of the island, is found the greatest disproportion-
ate number of foreign born. Out of the total foreign-born white
element of the island, numbering 172,535, 52,901, or nearly one-third,
were found in the city of Habana. These constituted 22.4 per cent of
the entire population of the city.
In the smaller cities, including all those down to a population of
10,000, taken as a whole, the proportion of the foreign element was
9.2 per cent, while in the remainder of the island, including the rural
districts and all cities having a population less than 10,000, the propor-
tion of the foreign born was but 6.1 per cent.
While the proportion of foreign born in the cities having a popula-
tion above 10,000, but excluding Habana, was 9.2 per cent, this pro-
portion ranged widely among the different cities, being generally, but
not invariably, greater where the population was greater, and less
-here it was smaller. Seacoast cities, as a rule, had a larger propor-
tion than inland cities, for obvious reasons. The following table gives,
for the cities of 10,000 inhabitants or more, the total population, the
foreign-born population, and the proportion which the latter bears to
the former.
Foreign-born population of cities.

Percent-
Cities. Total pop- Foreign age
ulation, born. foreign
born.

Habana ....................................... .35,981 52,901 '22.4
Santiago........................................ 43,090 3,440 8.5
Matanzas---------..-------------............. 36,374 3,644 10.0
Cienfuegos --.--............................... 30,038 3,485 11.6
Puerto Principe ..........- .--.-....... 25,102 1,283 5.1
Cardenas -------------... . .-. ...--- 21,940 2,081 9.5
Manzanillo --------------.-.--.... ---.--.-.-- -- 14,464 919 6.3
Guanabacoa................................... 13,965 1,091 7.8
Santa Clara.................................... 13,763 915 6.6
Sagua la Grande............................... 12,728 1,137 9.0
Sancti Spiritus ................................ 12,696 391 3.1
Regla.......................................... 11,363 1,666 14.7
Trinidad ...................................... 11,120 247 2.2
Pinar del Rio.................................. 8,880 1,024 11.5




10 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899

be a preliminary step in the establishment of an effective system of
self-government, was the first, as it was the highest, expression of con-
fidence on the part of the Government of the United States in the
capacity and patriotism of the Cubans, removing all feeling of sus-
picion as to the object of the enumeration, and placing the census at
once en rapyport with the people. Hundreds of intelligent and trust-
worthy men and women volunteered to serve as enumerators without
pay, and the order of the President was received throughout the
island with great satisfaction.
- In no other way could such a manifestation of good feeling and of
faith in the intentions of this Government have been elicited, and
the result proved the wisdom of the measures. While some errors
may have crept into the work, and while possibly there are some
omissions, it should not be forgotten that this is the first attempt of
the Cubans to take a census, and that the difficulties attending it have
been numerous, serious, and not easily surmounted. But whatever
its defects, it is the opinion of the people of Cuba and of the expert
tabulators and statisticians who have been engaged in compiling and
analyzing the figures that they bear the impress of honest work, that
the census was taken rapidly and far more accurately than could have
been expected, and that in this respect it will compare favorably with
any census of the United States.
The different steps by which this was accomplished were as follows:
An estimate was prepared of the probable cost of the census, based on
the supposed population and the employment of Cubans as supervisors
and enumerators; a careful study was made of the necessary organiza-
tion in all its details, and the best way to carry on the work in harmony
with the general administration of the island. At the same time the
Military Governor of Cuba was directed to nominate suitable Cubais
as supervisors of the census for the six provinces of the island and to
order them to Washington. This was done, and on their arrival,
August 17, they were received by Dr. Wines and Mr. Hunt, of the
United States Census Office, and by Mr. Olmsted, of the Department
of Labor, and for two weeks were carefully instructed in their duties
as supervisors with a view to their becoming, in turn, instructors of
the enumerators.
On August 17 the following proclamation of the President was
issued:
EXECUTIVE MANSION, iIlutt 17, 1899.
To the people of Cuba:
The disorganized condition of your island resulting from the war and the absence
of any generally recognized authority aside from the temporary military control of
the United States have made it necessary that the United States should follow the
restoration of order and peaceful industry by giving its assistance and supervision to
the successive steps by which you will proceed to the establishment of an effective
system of self-government.




REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


CITIZENSHIP.

Of the population of Cuba 89 per cent were born in the island, 8 per
cent in Spain, and only 3 per cent in other countries. Those born in
Cuba, of course, included not only native whites, but negroes and
mixed bloods. The proportion was greatest in the province of Santi-
ago, where it reached 95 per cent, and was least in the city of Habana,
where only a little over three-fourths of the inhabitants were native
born. Three-fourths of the foreign born were of Spanish birth. The
proportion of those born in Spain was naturally greatest in the city
of Habana, where it reached nearly 20 per cent of all the inhabitants,
and was least in the province of Santiago.
In the matter of citizenship, 83 per cent of the population claimed
Cuban citizenship, only 1 per cent the protection of Spain, while 11
per cent were, at the time of the census, in suspense, not having
declared their intentions. Five per cent of the population claimed
citizenship other than Cuban or Spanish. The purest Cuban citizen-
ship was found in the province of Santiago, where 91.7 per cent.of
the inhabitants claimed to be citizens of Cuba. On the other hand, in
the city of Habana only 64.2 per cent were Cuban citizens. It is
interesting to note that in the city of Habana only 5.3 per cent of the
inhabitants claimed citizenship other than Cuban or Spanish, while in
the province of Habana 11.6 per cent were found in this class.
Table XIII presents the male population of Cuba 21 years of age
and over, classified according to race, nationality, citizenship, literacy,
and superior education. The immediate object in preparing these
tables was to ascertain the effect of certain provisions of the election
laws proposed and recently promulgated by the military governor of
Cuba on the male population of voting age. These provisions limit
the suffrage to such of the citizens of Cuba as are able to read and
write.
The males over 21 years of age are classified primarily as whites
born in Cuba, in Spain, or in other countries, or as colored, the last
class including blacks, mixed, and Chinese. Each of these classes is
then grouped according to citizenship-as Cuban citizenship; Spanish
citizenship; citizenship in suspense, i. e., of Spanish subjects who at
the date of the census had not decided whether to remain Spanish
subjects or to become Cuban citizens; or as other foreign or unknown
citizenship.. Again, each -of these classes is further divided, as to
literacy, under the following heads:
Can neither read nor write.
Can read but can not write.
Can read and write.
Have superior education.


100








CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899


T' ..


MAP OF CUBA
SHOWING
THE PROPORTION OF COLORED ro THE TOTAL POPULATION.

LESS THAN 25 PER CENT.

26-60

OVER 60 "


NN


)jjjj;


A. lio S Co a1 111h

































































































































































I






CITIZENSHIP.


101


The population of the island, as a whole, is classified as above out-

lined in the first table, and in succeeding tables the population of each

province and of the city of Habana are similarly classified.


TOTAL OF THE ISLAND.

Citizenship, literacy, and education.


Total of voting age.......................

Cuban citizens..........................

Can neither read nor write...........
Can read but can not write ..........
Can read and write ..............
With superior education .............
Spanish citizens ..........................

Can neither read nor write...........
Can read but can not write ..........
Can read and write...................
With superior education .............

Citizens in suspense ......................

Can neither read nor write...........
Can read but can not write...........
Can read and write...................
With superior education .............

Foreign and unknown citizens...........

Can neither read nor write.........
Can read but can not write...........
Can read and write...................
With superior education .............


All Whites Whites
classes. born in


417,993 187,813 96,088

290, 905 184,471 142

172,627 94,301 34
4,132 2,089 ............
105,285 79,452 99
8,861 8,629 9


Whites
horn in
other
countries.

6,794

78


13
1
39
25


Colored.



127,298

196,214

78,279
2,042
25,695
198


9,6O j 1441 9,3411 61 9


1,149
108
7,929
314

76,669

16,945
858
56,704
2,162

40,919

26, 641
293
11,914
2,071


18
2
105
19

1,296

312
18
861
105

1, 902

191
8
1,152
551


1,126
106
7,816
293

75,249

16,590
837
55,771
2,051

11,356

7,434
153
3,682
87


1
............
3
2

37

7
1
24
5


4

5
..........

87

36
2
48
1


6,673 I 20,988

872 18,144
34 98
4,377 2,703
1,390 43


The total number of males of voting age in Cuba was 417,993, or

26 per cent of the total population. This is a little less than the pro-

portion, in 1890, in the United States, where it was 27 per cent. The

excess of males of all ages in Cuba is somewhat greater than in the

United States.

Classifying the potential voters of Cuba by birthplace and race, it
is seen that 44.9 per cent were whites, born in Cuba; that 30.5 per cent

were colored, and as nearly all the colored were born in the island it is

seen that fully seven-tenths of the potential voters of Cuba were native


born, 23 per cent were born in Spain, and 1.6 per cent in


other


countries.

Classifying the whole number of potential voters by citizenship, it

is seen from the following table that 70 per cent were Cuban citizens,

2 per cent were Spanish citizens, 18 per cent were holding their citi-

zenship in suspense, and 10 per cent were citizens of other countries,

or their citizenship was unknown.




102 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.

Citizenship of males 21 years of age and over in Cuba.

Per cent of
total males
Citizenship. Number. 21 years of
age and
over.

Cuban ................................................. 290,905 70
Spanish................................ --------------- 9,500 2
In suspense. ...-------------------------------------- 76,669 is
Foreign or unknown .................................. 40,919 10
Total. ..---------------------------------.-.--- 417,993 lOU

The degree of illiteracy of these classes was as follows:

Citizenship. Unable t Citizenship. Una e to

Per cnt. P< r ccnW.
Cuban .................................59 In suspense...........................-22
Spanish ............................... 12 Foreign or unknown.................. 65

The Cuban citizens, numbering 290,905. were composed almost
entirely of persons born in Cuba, there being among them but 220
white persons, and probably not more colored, of alien birth. The
white Cuban citizens, who were natives of the island numbered
184,471, and of these 94,301, or 51 per cent, were unable to read.
The colored Cuban citizens numbered 106,214, of which not less than
78,279, or 74 per cent, were unable to read.
The people of Cuba who claimed Spanish citizenship numbered
9,500, and of these nearly all were born in Spain, there being ]it 159
born elsewhere.
Those whose citizenship was in suspense numbered 76,669. These
also were nearly all of Spanish birth. the number born elsewhere
being but 1,420.
The number of persons of other or unknown citizenship was 40,919.
Of these, fully one-half were colored, most of them being Chinese,
and much the larger proportion of the remaining half were of Spanish
birth.
Summing up the situation, it appears that the total number of males
of voting age who could read was 200,631, a little less than half the
total number of males of voting- age. Of these 22,629 were of Spanish
or other foreign citizenship or unknown citizenship. The number
whose citizenship was in suspense was 59.724. and the number of
Cuban citizens able to read was 11S,27S, or 59 per cent of all Cuban
citizens of voting age.








CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899




CUBA


BIRTHPLACE, CITIZENSHIP AND ILLITERACY OF MALES

OF 21 YEARS AND OVER


-7I

T T ~1 }- -i--




I j


4j I~


1 1 I I 1 '

I r
I I I r T .


I 1 4. 1







I J I 4





-A t1zL4 v4


El




El


WHITES OF CUBAN BIRTH AND CUBAN CITIZENSHIP


WHITES OF CUBAN BIRTH AND OTHER CITIZENSHIP



WHITES OF SPANISH BIRTH, CITIZENSHIP IN SUSPENSE


WHITES OF SPANISH BIRTH AND SPANISH CITIZENSHIP



WHITES OF SPANISH BIRTH AND OTHER CITIZENSHIP


WHITES BORN ELSEWHERE



COLORED OF CUBAN CITIZENSHIP


COLORED OF OTHER CITIZENSHIP


ILLITERATE







103


CITIZENSHIP.


HABANA (PROVINCE).

Citizenship, literacy, nd education.


All Whites Whites orit s
classes, born in born ini other Colored.
Cuba. bpaifl. countries.


Total or voting age....................... 127,047 52,621 43,273 3,499 27,651

Cuban citizens...............-............. 73,939 51,153 36 45 22,705

Can neither read nor write.30,345 16,898 4 2 13,441
Can read but can not write.... ...... 1,528 688 1 839
Can read and write................... 37,669 29,255 30 28 8,:3.56
With superior education,4,397 4,312 2 14 69

Spanish citizens.......................... 4,718 49 4,661 5 3

Can neither read nor write........... -380 4 374 1 1
Can read, but can not write......... 52- .........52 ........... ..........
Can read and write................... 4,137 37 4,095 3 2
With superior education ............. 149 8 140 1 ...........

Citizens in suspense .........-........ 39,207 67S 3s,471 21 37

Can neither read nor write........... 6, 442 129 6,300 2 11
Can read, but can not write......... 491 9 479 1 2
Can read and write................. 31,174 469 30, 669 13 23
With superior education ............. 1,100 71 1,023 5 1

Foreign and unknown citizens........... 9, 183 741 105 i 3,428 4,909

Can neither read nor write-........... 4,188 11 8 248 3 921
Can read, but can not write.......... 57. 15 41
Can read and write.................. 4,120 507 88 2,588 937
With superior education ............. 818 222 9 577 10


ILABANA CITY

Citizenship, 1 Meracy, mud education.


Whites Whites Whites
All classes. lyrnr in brn in born u Colored.
Cuba. Spain. countries.


Total of voting age........................ 75, 305 2:3, 790 32, 779 2,787 15,949

Cuban citizens ......................... 35.160 22,729 23 37 12,671

Can neither read nor write........... 8,301 i 2,565 1 2 5,736
Can read, but can not write.......... 975 345 630
Can read and write................. 22, 790 16, 507 20 23 6,240
With superior education ,........... 3, 391 3, 312 2 12 65

Spanish citizens ........................4,136 39 4,089 5 3

Can neither read nor write........-.. -327- 324
Can read, but can noot write ......... 52 .... 52 ....
Can read and write.................... 3,623 30 3,588 3 2
With superior education ............. 134 8 125 1.... .....

Citizens in suspense...................... 29,079 450 28,589 15 25


Can neither read nor write........... 3,215
Can read, but can not write.......... 389
Can read and write2................... 4,581
With superior education ............. -894

Foreign and unknown citizens........... 6,630

Can neither read nor write........... 2,623
Can read, but can not write.......... 48
Can read and write.................... 3,253
With superior education ............. 706


37'
5
347
61


3, 170
381
24, 211
827


1
1
8
5


7
2
15
1


572 78 2,730 3;250


8
1
386
177


6
............
64
8


139
11
2,067
513


2,470
36
736
8




REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


Of the greater subdivisions of the island of Cuba, Habana city con-
tains the largest proportion of foreign born, both as to total of popu-
lation and of males over 21 years of age. The total number of
potential voters in the city was 75,305, or 32 per cent of its entire
population, a very large proportion, both as compared with the entire
island and with the United States.
This number of potential voters was composed, first, of whites born
in Cuba, numbering 23,790, or 32 per cent of all. Of this number,
22,729, or 96 per cent, were Cuban citizens. The remainder, 1,061,
were almost all in suspense as to citizenship, or were citizens of coun-
tries other than Cuba or Spain. Only 39 native white Cubans were
Spanish citizens.
Second, of white persons born in Spain, who numbered no fewer
than 32,779, or 44 per cent of all males of voting age, a much larger
number and proportion than the Cuban whites. These natives of
Spain comprised 4,089 citizens of Spain and 28,589 persons whose citi-
zenship was in suspense. Only 23 persons of Spanish birth were
Cuban citizens.
Third, of whites of other countries, numbering 2,787, or 4 per cent.
Nearly all of these were citizens of other countries.
Fourth, colored, who numbered 15,959, or 21 per cent of the males
of voting age. Of this number 12,671, or four-fifths, were Cuban
citizens, the remainder consisting mainly of Chinese. As elsewhere
in the island, Cuban citizens of Habana city were confined almost
entirely to white or colored natives of Cuba. Their total number was
35,460, or 47 per cent, less than one-half of all males of voting age.
The whites among them numbered 22,729, of whom only 2,565, or 11
per cent, were illiterate. The colored among them numbered 12,671,
of whom 5,736, or 45 per cent, were illiterate. The total number of
illiterates among the Cuban citizens of the city was 8,304, or 23 per
cent, leaving as the total number of literate Cuban citizens of voting
age 27,156.
The citizens of Spain in the city numbered 4,136, including 327
illiterates and 3,809 literates. The number of persons whose citizen-
ship was in suspense numbered 29,079, composed of 3,215 illiterates
and 25,864 literates. It is seen that in case all those who were in sus-
pense as to citizenship should declare in favor of Cuban citizenship,
they would still be outnumbered slightly by the native literate Cuban
citizens of voting age. Those of foreign or unknown citizenship num-
bered 6,630, including 2,623 illiterates and 4,007 literates.
The literate Cuban citizens of voting age formed 45 per cent of all
literates of voting age.


104





105


CITIZENSHIP.

IIABANA PROVINCE (EXCLUDING CITY).

Citizenship, literacy, and education.


Whites Whites Whites
All \Vie Xhts born ini (~;oe
born in or in Colored.
classes. Cuba. Spain. coutre
countries.

Total of voting age........................ 51,742 28,831 10,494 712 11,705
Cuban citizens............................. 38,479 28,424 13 8 10,034
Can neither read nor write........... 22,041 14,333 3 ........-- .. 7,705
Can read, but can not write .......... 553 343 ............ I 209
Can read and write................... 14,879 12, 748 I1) 5 2, 116
With superior education ............. 1,006 1,000 ............ 2 4
Spanish citizens .......................... b82 10 572
Can neither read nor write............ . .3 53
Can read, but can not write.......... ...........
Can read and write................... 514 7 507...................
With superior education ............. 15 ... ........ 15.................... .
Citizens in suspense ...................... 10,128 228 9,882 6 12
Can neither read nor write........... 3,227 92 3,130 1 4
Can read, but can not write...... ... 19 4 5
Can read and write .................. 6,593 122 6,58 5 S
With superior education ............. 206 10 196............
Foreign and unknown citizens .......... 2, 553 169 27 698 1,659
Can neither read nor write ........... 1, 565 3 2 109 1,451
Can read, but can not write.......... 9 ............ .4 5
Can read and write.................... 867 112 2 0
With superior education ............. 112 45 1 64 2


The total number of males of voting age was 51,742. forming 27 per
cent of the population.
This number was composed, first, of 28,831 whites of Cuban birth,
constituting 56 per cent of all males of voting age. All of these were
Cuban citizens, with the exception of 407, most of whom were in
suspense as to citizenship.
Second, of 10,494 persons born in Spain, forming 20 per cent of all
males of voting age. These included 572 citizens of Spain and 9,882
persons whose citizenship was in suspense. Only 13 out of this num-
ber of persons of Spanish birth were Cuban citizens.
Third, 712 persons born in other countries than Spain and Cuba, or
of unknown nativity.
Fourth, of 11,705 colored persons. These included 10,034 Cuban
citizens, the remainder being mainly Chinese.


The total number of Cuban citizens in the province,


outside of


Habana City, was 38,479, or 74 per cent of all persons of voting age.
With the exception of 13 persons of Spanish birth and 8 horn in other
countries this body of Cuban citizens was composed of whites and of
colored persons born in Cuba. The white citizens of Cuba numbered
28,424, 14,333 or about 50 per cent of whom were illiterates. The
total number of illiterate Cuban voters of the province, outside of the
city, was therefore 22,041, or 57 per cent, -leaving as the number of






106 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


literate voters 16,438. The total number of literate males of voting

age was 24,856, of which Cubans formed 66 per cent.

MATAN' AS.

Citizenship, literacy, and education.


Total of voting age.....................

Cuban citizens............................

Can neither read nor write..........
Can read, but can not write...---.--.
Can read and write...................
With superior education..............

Spanish citizens ........................

Can neither read nor write.........
Can read, but can not write.......
Can read and write...................
With superior education............. .

Citizens in suspense ....................
Can neither read nor write...........
Can read, but can not write.......
Can read and write...................
With superior education............. .

Foreign and unknown citizens..........

Can neither read nor write......- -.
Can read, but can not write..........
Can read and write.................
With superior education..............


Whites Whites Whites
All bor in bor i born in Colored.
classes. Cuba. Spa~in. cothe~ri
countries.

55,595 21,320 10,217 1 665 23,393

37,544 20,843 17 11 16,673

23,983 10,062 2 4 13,915
543 281 ............ ............ 262
11,933 9,432 10 4 2,487
1,085 1,068 5 3 9

1,033 16 1,016 ............ 1

112 ...112.......................
16 1 15..........
865 11 853-- -.-I 1
40 4 36.........

5,798 91 5,705 1 1

749 6 741 1 1
62 2 60
4,732 77 4,655.... ...............
255 6 249

11,220 370 3,479 653 6,718

8,677 88 2, 279 132 6,178
77 2 56 1 18
2,195 201 1,108 365 521
271 79 36 155 1


The total number of males over 21 years of age is 55,595, or 27.5

per cent of the total population of the province. This total number

of potential voters is composed, first, of 21,320 whites born in Cuba,

of whom all except 477 are Cuban citizens; second, 10,217 whites born

in Spain, of whom only a trifling number were Cuban citizens; 1,016,

or about 10 per cent, were Spanish citizens; 5,705, or more than one-

half, were in suspense as to citizenship, and 3,479, or about one-third,

were citizens of other countries, or their citizenship was unknown;

third, of 665 whites born in other countries, and fourth, of 23,393

colored, including blacks, mixed, and Chinese. Of these 16,673 were

Cuban citizens, and 6,718 were citizens of foreign countries, or their

citizenship was unknown. The last number, of course, includes

Chinese.

Of the above number of potential voters of the province, namely,

55,595, citizens of Cuba numbered altogether 37,544, or 68 per cent

of the total number; Spanish citizens numbered 1,033, or 2 per cent;

those whose citizenship was in suspense numbered 5,798, or 10 per

cent, while the citizens of other countries and those whose citizenship

was unknown numbered 11,220, or 20 per cent of the total number.

The number of Cuban citizens above given, namely, 37,544, was





CITIZENSHIP. 107


composed of 20,843 native white persons of Cuban birth, forming 56
per cent of the whole number; of 16,673 colored persons, forming 44
per cent, and the trifling remainder were born in Spain or other
countries.
Of the native white Cuban citizens above mentioned 10,062; or 48
per cent, were unable to read, and of the colored Cuban citizens
13,915, or 83 per cent, were similarly illiterate. Of the total number
of Cuban citizens in this province 64 per cent were unable to read.
The total number of Cuban citizens able to read was 13,561, out of a
total of all citizens able to read of 22,074, or 61 per cent.

PINAR DEL RIO.

Citizensip, literal "y, tHil education.


Whites Whites Whites
ll born in burnin Colored.
classes. Cuba. Spant. other brd
scotutries.

Total of voting age....................... 43,750 24,324 S,212 30s 10,876
Cuban citizens .........-................ 33,479 24,154 6 ........ 9,369
Can neither read nor write........... 25,424 17,118 1 -. --..... - ,305
Can read, hut tali not write.......... 234 163 ........... ........... 71
Can read and write-.. -...........- 7,415 4,4Q2_ .......... 988
With superior education ............. ... 406 401 .......................- 5
Spanish i-it izenu---------------------- ----- 662 IPG16 &16 .......... ............

Can neither read nor write... .... 54 3 51
Can read, but ann not write.......... --....------------- o ............
cn read and write................... 593 :13 58. ...........
With superior ed eation- ...... --...... 10 .-- 10 ....................
Citizens iln suusjese---------------------- 7,755 1 171 7.577 1 6

oa neither read t i t write.-.......- ..-- 3,140 91 3. 04S 1
(:l read. ut h abe not write. 5r 1 55
(';ni read and write...--............. I 4.439 7i 4,357 1 a
With superior education ............. 120 i 3 117......................
Foreign and unknown itizens .......... 1,s51 33 13 307 1501
Can neither read nor write........... 1, 53 4 1 105 1,443
Can read, hut can not write .......... 10 ... .... 9 1
Can read and write ..-.................. -260- 2 11 170 57
With superior education ............. 31 7 1 ".


The total number of males 21 years of age and over of this province
was 43,750, amounting to 25 per cent of the total population. This
number was composed, first, of 24,324 whites, born in Cuba, of whom all
excepting 220 were Cuban citizens; second, of 8,242 whites of Spanish
birth, of whom only a trifling number were Cuban citizens, 646 were
citizens of Spain, while the citizenship of 7,577 was in suspense;
third, of 308 whites born in other countries than in Cuba or Spain,
and, fourth, 10,876 colored, including black, mixed, and Chinese. Of
these 9,369 were Cuban citizens, while 1,507 were citizens of other
countries or of unknown citizenship.
Of the total number of males, 21 years and over, in this province, 77
per cent were Cuban citizens, leaving 23 per cent citizens of other






108 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


countries. This body of Cuban citizens is made up almost entirely of
whites and colored persons who were born in Cuba, the number of per-
sons of Spanish birth or other foreign birth being trifling. Of the
whites born in Cuba who were Cuban citizens not less than 71 per cent
were reported as unable to read, while of the colored citizens no less
than 89 per cent were unable to read, and of the total number of Cuban
citizens in the province 76 per cent, or more than three-fourths, were
illiterate. It is because of the high percentage of illiteracy in this prov-
ince that it has been called the "dark province" of Cuba.
The total number of males of 21 years of age and over who were able
to read was 13,579. Of this number, 8,055, or 59 per cent, were Cuban
citizens.

PUERTO PRINCIPE.

Citizenship, MItertiy, and education.


Whites Whites Whites
All Weborn ii i born i ho n Colored.
clases. Cuba Spin. other
countries.

Total of voting age..........-............. 20,]8I 12,518 2,982 261 4,420
Cuban citizens............................ 15,759 12,361 4 2 3,392
Can neither read nor write........... 7,810 6,037 1 ............ 1,772
Can read, but can not write.......... 318 214 ...............,........ 104
Can read and write------------------ 6,972 5,475 2 1 1,494
With superior education ............. 659 635 1 1 22
Spanish citizens -------------------------- 446j 25 420 ............ 1
Can neither read nor write........... 224 9 214 1........... 1
Can read, but can not write.......... 10 ............. 10 ........................
Can read and write................... 189 13 176 .......................
With superior education ............. 23 3 20 .....................
Citizens in suspense...................... 2,605 56 2,547 2
Can neither read nor write........... 783 10 773 ........................
Can read, but can not write.....43............. 43 .......................
Can read and write................... 1,607 40 1,565 ............ 2
With superior education.............. 172 6 166 ........................
Foreign and unknown citizens .......... 1,371 76 11 259 1,025
Can neither read nor write........... 904 5 8 14 877
Can read, but can not write .......... 12 1 ..... ... 1 10
Can read and write.,................. 281 24 1 119 137
With superior education ............. 374 46 2 125 1



This, the smallest province of the island in point of population,
contained. but 20,181 males 21 years of age and over, being 23 per
cent of the population of the province. It was composed, first, of
12,518 whites born in Cuba, of which. number all but 157 were Cuban
citizens; second, of 2,982 whites born in Spain, 420 of whom were
citizens of Spain, and the citizenship of 2,547 was in suspense; third,
of 261 whites born in other countries, and, fourth, of 4,420 colored,
including negro, mixed, and Chinese. Of these 1,025 were of foreign
or unknown citizenship, while 3,392 were citizens of Cuba.
Of the total number of males 21 years of age and over, 15,759, or




CITIZENSHIP.


109


78 per cent, were Cuban citizens. This number was made up almost
entirely of native white and colored Cubans, the number of persons
born in Spain or in other countries being trifling. Of the native white
Cuban citizens, 49 per cent, or nearly one-half, were illiterate, and
of the colored citizens, 52 per cent, or a little more than one-half.
About one-half, therefore, of the Cuban citizens, taken as a whole,
were unable to read.
Of the total number of males of voting age, 10,460, or 52 per cent,
* were able to read. The Cuban citizens able to read numbered 7,949,
or 76 per cent of all literate males of voting age.

SANTA CLARA.

Citizenship, literacy, and education.

Whites Whites Whites
elasss. Ibor in born tr Colored.
countries.

Total of voting age........................ 100,113 45,534 21,953 899 31,727
Cuban citizens---- ....................... 71,462 44,976 66 11 26,409
Can neither read nor write........... 46,084 25,118 22 6 20,938
Can read, but can not write.......... 915 520 ............ ........... 395
Can read and write................... 23,475 18,374 43 4 5,054
With superior education ............. 988 964 1 1 22
Spanish citizens......................... 1,481 32 1,447 1 1
Can neither read nor write........... 88 2 86
Can read, but can not write.......... 17 1 16 ......
Can read and write................... 1,330 25 1,304 ........... 1
With superior education ............. 46 4 41 1 ............
Citizens in suspense..................... 12,947 182 12,744 2 19
Can neither read nor write........... 3,043 411 2,992 -........... 10
Can read, but can not write.......... 117 4 113 ....................
Can read and write.................. 9,556 125 9,420 2 9
With superior education...............31 12 219 ................
Foreign and unknown citizens............ 14,223 344 7,696 b85 5,298
Can neither read nor write........... 10,304 73 5,113 262 4,856
Can read, but can not write.......... 123 3 95 6 19
Can read and write................... 3,557 210 2,455 472 420
With superior education ............. 239 58 33 145 3


The total number of males 21 years of age and over in this province
was 100,113, or 28 per cent of the total population. This total num-
ber was composed, first, of 45,534 whites of Cuban birth, all of whom,
excepting 558, were citizens of Cuba; second, of 21,953 whites born
in Spain, of whom 66 only were citizens of Cuba; 1,447 were citizens
of Spain, and 7,696 were citizens of other countries or their citizen-
ship was unknown, while 12,744, or considerably more than half of
the whites of Spanish birth, were "in suspense;" that is, they had not
yet decided upon their future citizenship; third, of the total number
899 were born in other countries, and, as a rule, their citizenship
followed the country of birth; and, fourth, of 31,727 colored persons,
including black, mixed, and Chinese. Of these 26,409 were Cuban




LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


As a preliminary step in the performance of this duty, I have directed that a census
of the people of Cuba be taken, and have appointed competent and disinterested
citizens of Cuba as enumerators and supervisors.
It is important for the proper arrangement of your new government that the
information sought shall be fully and accurately given, and I request that by every
means in your power you aid the officers appointed in the performance *of their
duties.
WILLIA McKINLEY.
As there were no general census laws in Cuba it was necessary to
promulgate orders which would have the effect of laws, organizing the
census, defining the duties of the census officials, and the obligations of
the people in respect thereto. Accordingly, August 19, the necessary
Executive orders were issued (Appendix I), and on the 23d the order
appointing the disbursing officers (Appendix II). These orders were
sent to the Military Governor of Cuba for promulgation in English
and Spanish.
Having been thoroughly instructed in their duties, and in the mean-
ing of the regulations, schedules, and other blank forms for carrying
on the work, and being duly impressed by the Secretary of War with
the responsibilities of their office, the supervisors left for Cuba, August
23, and were followed, August 27, by the Assistant Director of the
census, with his office force.
Thus far the work of the census had been confined to Washington.
The field work, attended with many difficulties, was now to follow.

THE FIELD WORK.
This was carried on under the immediate supervision of the Assistant
Director, Mr. Victor H. Olmsted, an experienced official of the
United States Census, who exhibited from first to last the mental,
moral, and physical qualities necessary for the successful prosecution
of the work. By dint of great patience, perseverance, unusual activ-
ity, and tact he was able to win the confidence of the supervisors and
enumerators, to instruct them in their duties, and to carry the work
to a successful conclusion-no easy task for a foreigner and nonresi-
dent of the island, as for many years its inhabitants had always con-
nected the census with taxation and compulsory military service,
toward which they had a strong natural aversion.
Mr. Olmsted was directed to establish his office in the city of Santa
Clara, which was selected as a geographical center and as affording
sanitary and other conditions favorable to the work. His report is
submitted herewith. (Appendix III.)
The first step in organizing the field work was the formation of the
enumeration districts, and for this purpose accurate maps of the
provinces and municipalities were almost indispensable. Foreseeing
this, the Military Governor was directed, August 8, to have such maps
prepared, but it was not until the arrival of Mr. Olmsted in Habana,


11






110


01


REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


citizens and 5,298 were citizens of other or unknown countries, most

of them being Chinese.

The total number of Cuban citizens in this province was 71,462, or

71 per cent of all persons 21 years of age and over; the citizens of

Spain formed but 2 per cent of the total; those in suspense formed 13

per cent, and the citizens of other or unknown countries formed 14 per

cent.

The above number of Cuban citizens was composed almost entirely

of the two classes of white and colored of Cuban birth. There was a

trifling number of persons of Spanish birth and of those born in other

countries who claimed Cuban citizenship, but their number is too

small to be worth consideration in this connection. The white Cuban

citizens numbered 44,976, or 63 per cent of the total number of Cuban

citizens. Of these 25,118, or 56 per cent, were unable to read. The

number of colored Cuban citizens was 26,409, or 37 per cent of all,

and of these not less than 20,938, or 79 per cent, were unable to read.

The total number of males of voting age who were able to read was

10,594, or 41 per cent of all males of voting age. The Cuban citizens

able to read numbered 25,378, or 63 per cent of all able to read.


SANTIAGO DE CUBA.

Cit zenShi, literacyl, ood ed ia tion.


Whites
All classes. born in
Cuba.


Whites
horn in
Spain.


Whites
born in
other
countries.


Colored.


Total votingage ........................ 71,307 31,496 9,421 1,162 29,228

Cuban citizens ..................--------- 58,722 31,034 131 9 27,666

Can neither read nor write.............8,981 19,068 4 1 19,908
Can read, but ( n not write 594 223 371
Can read and write....-.---.......... 17,821 10,494 2 7,316
With superior education--...-......... -1, 326 1,249 .......6 71

Spanish citizens.......................... 1,160 16 1,151 ........ 3

Can neither read nor write.......... 291 2............ 89 ............ 2
Can read, but can not write.......... 8 .......... 8
Can read and write-........,......... -815 6 808.. 1
With superior education ...,.......... 46 ..-. 46 ..............

Citizens in suspense...................... 8,357 118 8,205 12 22

Can neither read nor write........---- 2, 788 35 2,736 4 13
Can read, but can not write.......... 89 2 87.......
Can read and write .................. 5,196 74 5,105 8t 9
With superior education ...,.......... 24 7 277 ........ .......

Foreign and unknown citizens...--...... 3,068 338 52 1,141 1,537

Can neither read nor write-..--...... 1,015 10 25 111 869
Can read, but can not write.......... 14 1 2 2 9
Can read and write ........,......... 1,501 188 19 663 631
With superior education ............. 538 139 6 365 28



The total number of males 21 years of age and over in this province

was 71,307, or 22 per cent of the population of the province.





CITIZENSHIP. 111

This number was composed-
First, of white persons born in Cuba, to the number of 31,496, or
44 per cent of all, nearly all of these being Cuban citizens;
Second, of whites of Spanish birth, numbering 9,421, or 13 per cent
of all; of this number much the larger proportion were in suspense as
to their future citizenship;
Third, whites born in other countries, to the number of 1,162, or 2
per cent of all; and,
Fourth, colored, including black, mixed, and Chinese, to the number
of 29,228, which formed 41 per cent of the total number of voting age,
most of whom were of Cuban birth and Cuban citizenship.
The total number of Cuban citizens was 58,722, or 82 per cent of all
males over 21 years of age. This was composed of 31,056 whites and
27,666 colored. Of the total number of Cuban citizens 38,981, or 66
per cent, were unable to read; of the white Cuban citizens 61 per cent
and of the colored Cuban citizens 72 per cent were illiterate.
Spanish citizens numbered 1,160, or 2 per cent of all. The illiterates
among them numbered 291, forming 25 per cent. Those in suspense
were mainly of Spanish birth, numbering 8,357, or 12 per cent of all
males over 21 years of age. Among these the illiterates numbered
2,788, or 33 per cent. The number of persons who were citizens of
other countries than Cuba or Spain, or whose citizenship was unknown,
numbered 3,068, forming 4 per cent of all. Of these 1,015, or 33 per.
cent, were unable to read or write.
The total number of males of voting age who were able to read was
28,232, or 40 per cent of all males of voting age. Of these 19,741, or
70 per cent, were Cuban citizens.
The following table brings together the proportion which the males
of voting age bear to the population in the several provinces and the
city of Habana, the proportion being least in the province of Santiago
and greatest in the city of Habana:
Proportion of males of voting age to population.

Province. Per cent. Province. Per cent.

Santiago............................... 22 Matanzas ............................. 27.5
Puerto Principe ....................... 23 Santa Clara ...-.-...--...---..--..--. 28
Pinar del Rio ...........................25 Habana city............ ....32
Habana, excluding city................. 27

The following table brings together the proportion of the literate
males of voting age who were born in Cuba to all literate males of vot-
ing age in the several provinces and the city of Habana. It is seen
that this proportion is least in Habana city, where less than half the
literate voters are of Cuban birth, and is greatest in Puerto Principe,
where they constitute more than three-fourths.




112 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.
Proportion of literate males of voting age who were born in Cuba to all literate males of
voting age.

Province. Per cent. Province. Per cent.

Habana city..........................45 Habana, excluding city .............. 66
Pinar del Rio.......................... 59 Santiago ...............,.............. 70
Matanzas..........-................... 61 Puerto Principe........................ 76
Santa Clara ........................... 63

STATISTICS OF FAMILIES.

A family, in the ordinary or popular sense of the word, means a
group of persons bound together by ties of kindred. Usually they
live together, but this is not necessarily involved in the word, for a
married son or daughter occupying a separate house is regarded as still
a member of the family. On the other hand, not all persons who live
with the family are deemed members, for servants, laborers, or board-
ers are excluded.
The census finds such a definition of the family inapplicable to its
field of work. The test of kindred can not be applied by the enumer-
ator. In many cases families of relatives are dispersed through the
community, returns about them come through different enumerators,
and their names and the facts about them can not be assembled on the
schedules or tabulated together. Accordingly in this field, as in sev-
eral others, the census is forced to abandon the effort to bring together
data that belong together and confine itself to the simpler and more
practicable task of tabulating together data that are found by the enu-
merators conjoined. The census test of a family is not kinship by
blood, but association in home life. Persons living in the same home -
are for census purposes members of the same family.
In census usage, therefore, the word "family" means the group of
people, whether related by blood or not, who share a common dwelling
and table. If one person sleeps and eats alone, he constitutes for cen-
sus purposes a family. On the other band, if a large group of people
sleep and eat in a common dwelling, like a hotel or convent, they
make up a single census family. Census families, therefore, may be
divided into two classes: Natural families or families in the popular
sense of that word, and "other families." Members of a natural
family are bound together primarily by ties of kindred. Members of
other families are bound together primarily by other motives, usually
of an economic character. The latter may perhaps without great vio-
lence to the facts be called economic families. These two classes of
motives may and often do coexist, but the family should be classed
with natural families or with economic families according to the class
of motives which is primary. For example, a family having only one
boarder should doubtless be grouped with natural families, but a fam-


J




SIZE OF FAMILIES.


ily in which the boarders largely outnumber the blood relatives should
be grouped with economic families.

SIZE OF FAMILIES.
(See Table XXXIX.)
The limits of size are much wider in the economic family than in
the natural family. The economic family may consist of one person
living alone, of two partners living together at their place of business,
of three or more boarders living with a housekeeper, or of hundreds
of guests, nuns, or prisoners living together in a hotel, convent, or
prison. On the basis of number of members alone no sharp lines can
be drawn between natural families and economic families. Still,
the only classification of census families presented in the tables of this
volume is that by size, and on this basis, therefore, an attempt may
perhaps be ventured to divide census families into two classes, one of
which should consist mainly of natural families and the other mainly
of economic families.
As a natural family can not be composed of a single member, the
lower limit of size for a natural family may be drawn with confidence
between two members and one. The higher limit is more vague and
uncertain. Yet it seems that if all families of more than ten persons
are grouped as economic families, a large proportion, if not a majority,
of the persons in them might be assumed to be living apart from their
kindred-that is, as farm laborers in their employer's family, or as
boarders, lodgers, or residents of hotels, schools, prisons, or other
institutions treated by the census as a family, but not so regarded in
ordinary speech. On this basis, therefore, the families in Cuba may be
divided into the following three groups:
1. Families of one member.
2. Families of two to ten members.
3. Families of more than ten members.
Of these groups the second consists mainly of natural families, the
first entirely and the third largely, if not mainly, of economic families.
Families of one member.-This class in Cuba numbered 30,614, or
1.95 per cent of the population, while in the United States and Porto
Rico the corresponding per cents were only 0.74 and 0.82 respectively.
The first hypothesis that arises to explain the relatively large number
of Cubans living alone is that many families may have broken apart
by the events of the last few years. But when the provinces and
Habana City are examined separately, Pinar del Rio is found to have
had much the smallest ratio of persons living out of families and
Habana City the largest. While this result disproves the hypothesis
just mentioned, it suggests another, viz, that the proportion living
24662 8


113



114 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.

out of families may be connected with the proportion of urban popu-
lation. The following table tests the second theory:

Per cent
Per cent of popu-
of urban laton liv-
Province or city. popula- ing in
tion families
8,000 (+). of 1 mem-
her.
Habana City............................................... 100 3.96
Matanzas province ........................................ 28.8 2.41
Puerto Principe province.................................. 28.4 2.48
Santa Clara province................................... 22.5 1.48
Habana province (excluding Habana City)............... 1.1 1.64
Santiago province ................................... 1 .5 1.40
Pinar del Rio province.................................. 5.1 .70

This table shows that the proportion of persons in Cuba living
alone varies directly with the proportion of urban population, or, in
paradoxical form, as people crowd together into cities living alone
becomes more common. To test this inference still further, the fol-
lowing table has been prepared:

Popula- Per cent
Total pop- tion in of total
ulation. families u
of 1 mem- popr.-
h er. laon
14 cities separately reported.................. 491,504 15,806 3.2
Rest of Cuba ................................... 1,081,293 14,808 1.4

In less than half a million urban residents there were more persons
living alone than in the million of rural population, and in the cities
the per cent of persons living alone was more than double what it was
in the country. In each of the fourteen cities separately reported the
per cent of such persons is higher than the rural average. The range
of per cents for these cities is from Puerto Principe (4.1) and Habana
(4) to Pinar del Rio (1.8) and Trinidad (1.8).
Families of 11 or more nmeber.-Such families in Cuba included
202,175 persons, or 12.9 per cent of the entire population-that is,
between 6 and 7 times as many persons were living in these big families
as were living alone. In this respect Cuba differs widely from the
United States, where only 6.7 per cent of the population lived in such
families, and from the South Central States of this country, where
race conditions and agriculture are somewhat like those of Cuba, but
where the proportion of population in families of more than 10 mem-
bers was the same as the average for the entire United States.
As hotels, boarding houses, and institutions are more common in
cities than in the country, the hypothesis suggests itself that these
large census families, like the very small ones, are most common in
the cities.












CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899


MAP OF CUBA
S HO WI N G
THE AVERAGE SIZE OF FAMILIES.

.ESS THAN 4.5 PERSONS TO A FAMILY

4. 6-6

6-5.5

6.6-6 N V

6 AND OVER "


N


-~ I




-I'i






N


? j 0


a H.an & C., Bitd Lilh








































































































































































































































s






CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899


CITY OF HABANA

SEX, RACE, AND NATIVITY


CONJUGAL CONDITION










IVIN C TH R
WIDOWE


BIRTHPLACE



Y" 1


LITERARY AND EDUCATION
10 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER







LITERATE


CITIZENSHIP










IN ANSPENn


NATI WHITE A










AL FEMAL


N~EG Oi FEMALE

!XED
MALE FEMALE
y2L t {rt I7E j




SIZE OF FAMILIES. 115

The following table tests the conjecture.

Popula- Per cent
Total pop- n rof oatl
nlation. of 11 + poiula- I
members. tion.
14 cities separately reported.................. 491,5041 5',675 11.9
Rest of Cuba.........-........................ 1,081,293 113, 500 13.3

These very large families therefore were more common, or at least
embraced a larger proportion of the population, not in cities, but in
the rural districts. Still the difference is but slight. The per cent
of population in the rural districts living in these very large families
was least in Santiago (11 per cent) and greatest in Pinar del Rio (17 per
cent). In Matanzas and Habana it was 12 per cent, in Puerto Principe
and Santa Clara 14 per cent. Among the 14 cities the proportion of
population living in very large families was perceptibly less in those
lying in the eastern half of Cuba.
Families offrm 2 to 10 members.-As Cuba had a much larger pro-
portion of its population in economic families than had the United
States, it follows necessarily that the proportion of the population liv-
ing in natural families or families within the ordinary range of sizes was
less. While in the United States nearly 93 per cent (92.6) of the pop-
ulation were living in families of 2 to 10 members, in Cuba only 85 per
cent (85.2) were so living. The proportion of population living in fam-
ilies of this size varied in different provinces as follows:

Percent Per vent
of Popp- of popu-
lation in anion i
Provinces. families Provinces. families
of2tol0 of2to10
mem- mem-
bers. bers.
Habana City ........................... 82.1 Matanzas ............................ 85.9
Pinar del Rio............................ 83. 9 Habana, excluding city ............... 86.4
Santa Clara .......................... 9 Santiago............................. 87.7
Puerto Principe ........................ 85.6

The small proportion of persons in such families in Habana was con-
nected with the large representation of very small and very large fam-
ilies, while in Pinar del Rio it was connected with the proportion of
large families, so great as to more than offset the very small number
of persons living alone.
These families having from 2 to 10 members may conveniently be
subdivided into three classes: Small families-that is, those having 2,
3, or 4 members; families of medium size-that is, those having 5, 6,
or 7 members, and large families--that is, those having 8, 9, or 10
members. The members of natural families, or families having






REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


between 2 and 10

vided, with results


members, in each province have been thus subdi-

shown in the following table:


Province.


Habana, excluding city......
Habana city..................
Matanzas.....................
Pinar del Rio.................
Puerto Principe ..............
Santa Clara...................
Santiago de Cuba.............
Cuba ...............


Absolute number of persons in fami-
lies of-


2 to 10
members.



163,214
193,750
173,897
143,388
75,559
302,665
287,535

1,340, 008


2 to 4
mem-
bersi. e.,
small
families.


56,011
80,912
62,838
38,608
23,805
97,126
84,028

443, 328


5to7
mem-
bers, i. e.,
families
of medi-
ur size.

70,488
74,584
72,683
62,757
30,609
129,825
122,147

563,093


8 to 10
mem-
ben, i. e.,
lafamilies.


36,715
38,254
38,376
42,023
21,145
75,714
81,360

333,587


Percentage of persons in
families of 2 to 10 mem-
bers living in-


Small Families
families. of medi-
famiiesurn size.



C4.3 43.2
41.8 38.5
36.1 41.8
26.9 43.8
31.5 40.5
32.1 42.9
29.2 42.5

33.1 42.0


Large
families.



22.5
19.7
22.1
29.3
28.0
25.0
28.3

24.9


Apparently the size of families among white and colored in Cuba

was about the same. For in the preceding table the percentages for

Santiago, where there were most colored, differed little from those for

Puerto Principe, where there were most whites.

Families of 2 to 4 members included about one-third of all the per-

sons living in families of 2 to 10 persons-that is, the great number of

such families just compensated for their small size. Large families on

the contrary, i. e., those with 8 to 10 members, were so few relatively

that the number of persons living in them was only one-fourth of the

total. The deficiency in this group must be made up, as it is, in the

group of medium-sized families, 5 to 7 members, in which over two-

fifths of the population in the entire group lived.

The following table shows the proportion of the total population of

Cuba living in families of specified size, and for purposes of compari-

son columns have been added giving the same ratios for the United

States and Porto Rico:


Number of members in family.




1.....................
2 ..................................... ..
3.. ...... .......................................
4................. ...............................
51 ...... .......................................
S.......................................
79...........................................
10............................................
11.+.........................................

Total.............. ..........
Average size of family ........................


Per mille of total population
living in families with
specified number of mem-
bers.

Porto United
Cuba. States
Rico. (1890).


19 8
64 43 6
98 85 101
120 116 153
126 135 141
122 135 136
109 122 121
90 102 96
70 81 69
52 58 56
130 115 + 67

1,000 1,000 I1,000
4.8 5.3 j 4.9


116






CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899

















CUBA

NUMBER OF FAMILIES, AND OF PERSONS, CLASSIFIED

BY SIZE OF FAMILIES


SONS TO A FAMILY






LI
---- -






I7


T --


//


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/
/
K//I

r4~$4
>9> <1"
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/~4/' ///
/,'n; i"/
P1

fr; it
f/I IW/'
1/ ('2



/j 4sb'
1k 7' 4k.


NUMBER OF INHABITANTS


NUMBER OF FAMILIES


A I &ttacO Hli1Maan.


a m .


PER
10

9


8

7

6

5

4


3

2


/~
/

7/
/4/,
7 7/)
,'

























































































































































































































6



SIZE OF FAMILIES AND MARITAL CONDITION.


In comparing Cuba with the United States, as one may from the
figures of the preceding table, it appears that the average size of the
family in Cuba was somewhat less than in America. Small families
of 1 or 2 members and also very large families of 11 members or
above were more common in Cuba, while families of medium range,
from 3 to 10 (with a slight exception at 9), were more common in
the United States. The smaller average size of the family in Cuba
was apparently due to the great number of families of one or two
members.
The differences which appear from a comparison of Cuba with Porto
Rico are similar but somewhat more sharp. Small families-that is,
those of from 1 to 4 members-and also large families of over 11
members, were relatively more numerous in Cuba than in Porto Rico,
while, on the other hand, families of from 5 to 10 members were more
prevalent in Porto Rico. In both these islands the proportion of
persons living in very large families was about double what it was in
the United States.
MARITAL CONDITION.
(See Tables XV to XVIII.)

A natural family, in distinction from groups of persons called fam-
ilies only by the census, usually originates when a man and a woman
begin to live with each other and apart from their kindred. If the
man or the woman goes to live with the kindred of the other party,
the census does not regard this as a new family. Under American
law such a commencement of cohabitation is usually preceded by an
expression of social approval on the union in the form of a marriage
ceremony, civil or religious. American legislation tends to encourage
such public announcement of the intent of the parties by making the
ceremony easy and inexpensive. American courts also incline to
hold parties married, if they were legally able to marry and intended
to do so, even though they did not meet all the requirements of the
law. For example, emancipated slaves in the United States have
usually been held to be married to the persons with whom they were
cohabiting and the court has not insisted that a ceremony should be
proved. The Spanish law, on the contrary, like the law of most Catholic
countries, holds that a ceremony of marriage is necessary to institute
a lawful relation of husband and wife, and under its provisions the
intent of the parties is by no means so decisive a factor as it is under
American decisions.
As a result of the transitional condition of affairs in Cuba when the
present census was taken, a class of persons has been recognized who
would not be legal husband and wife, or legal parent and child, under
Spanish law, but in most cases would be under American law. These
are persons who were living together as husband and wife without


117




REPORT ON THE CENiSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


legal sanction of their union and also the children of such persons.
While this census thus recognizes a marital class in addition to such
as ordinarily appears in statistical returns, it omits one class commonly
reported-that of divorced persons. The reason for this is that divorce
is not allowed by Spanish or Cuban law. The classes which do appear
are (1) the single, within which is included everyone who has never been
lawfully married and who on the census day was not living without
legal sanction as the husband or wife of another; (2) those living
together by mutual consent but without sanction of law as husband
and wife; (3) those living together in lawful wedlock, and (4) those
who have been lawfully married, but whose marriage before the census
day had been ended by the death of the other party. These may be
roughly classed as the never married, the partly married, the fully mar-
ried, and the widowed.

The married.

From the point of view of the family, perhaps the primary group
among these four is the lawfully married. The number of such persons
reported by the present census is 246,351, or between one-sixth and one-
seventh (15.7 per cent) of the total population. The only two preceding
censuses, we believe, in which the same information was reported
are those of 1841 and 1861. In 1841 8 per cent and in 1861 16.5 per
cent of the population were married. The proportion of married
has thus decreased slightly in the last thirty-eight years-a decrease
the more surprising when one considers that during the same period,
as shown in the discussion of sex (p. 81), the relative number
of females has rapidly increased, and the sexes become much more
nearly equal in numbers. As the present proportion of children in
Cuba is below that in 1861, the proportion of married to the adult
population has decreased faster than these figures would indicate.
The present proportion is somewhat less than that in Porto Rico (16.6
per cent) and less than half that in the United States in 1890 (35.7 per
cent). As the attitude of American law toward marriage is widely
different from that of Spanish law, it may be fairer to compare Cuban
conditions in this regard with those of Catholic Europe. In every
one of the great countries in Europe except Ireland and Scotland the
proportion of married persons in the total population is at least twice
what it is in Cuba. The same is true of Mexico, where, by the census
of 1895, 31 per cent were reported as married. Among the other West
Indian islands too, for which information is obtainable, notwithstanding
the great proportion of negroes in many of them, and the readiness of
members of that recently emancipated race to establish a family with-
out an initial ceremony of marriage, the proportion of married is some-
what higher than in Cuba-Martinique (10.8 per cent married) and
Trinidad (14.4 per cent married) being the only exceptions. If, as is


118













CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899


~j~W L~

'I


MAP OF CUBA
S HO WI N G
THE PROPORTION OF MARRIED PERSONS TO THE TOTAL POPULATION.

LESS THAN 12 PER CENT.

12-15

15-1 B

OV ER 18


* _Y{


~7~Ii~;


N





A


A Hoe. R C. [a3l,} Lilt,






THE MARRIED. 119


commonly asserted, a low proportion of married usually witnesses to
poverty and distress, the proportion in Cuba, lower than almost any-

where else and lower than in 1861, may be partly due to her recent
economic disasters.

The proportion of married to population varied in the provinces of

Cuba as appears from the following table:


Per cent of
Province. population
married.

Puerto Principe................................................... 19.5
Habana (excluding city) ......................................... 18.8
Habana city .......----.----------......................--- ..... 17.8
Santa Clara -.................................................- .... 16.0
Pinar del Rio...................................................... 15.7
M atanzas.......................................................... 13.4
Santiago........................................................... 12.3

Cuba ........................................................ 15.7



The two adjoining eastern provinces had respectively the lowest

and highest proportions of married. Some reasons for this difference
will appear later.

Whether the married persons in Cuba were found more in cities or in

the country is shown by the following table:


Married.
District. Total popula- ar
tion. Number. Per
cent.

Fourteen cities ............................. 491, 504 2, 226 16.7
Rest of island................................ 1,081,293 164,125 15.3


This seems to show that marriage was more common in the urban

districts of Cuba. But such a difference might arise from a grouping

of the cities mainly in provinces where marriage was most common.

Hence in the following table the analysis is pushed one step farther:


Per cent married in-
Province. Urban dis- Rural dis-
tricts. tricks.

Habana.................................................. 17.7 19.1
Matanzas................................................ 15.8 12.4
Pinar del Rio............................................ 14.9 15.6
Puerto Principe ......................................... 19.7 19.4
Santa Clara.............................................. 15.1 16.2
Santiago................................................. 14.0 12.0

Cuba ..............................................j 16.5 15.0



This table brings to light differences between the provinces which

were hidden in the summary. In two provinces, Habana and Santa
Clara, marriage was more prevalent in the rural districts; in the other
four the reverse was true. Puerto Principe and Habana led in propor-

tion of married, both in the urban and in the rural districts, and in




REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


August 31, that much progress was made in this direction. On that
date, learning that the military authorities in Habana had no suitable
maps, he telegraphed to the military, civil, and judicial authorities
throughout the island to furnish him such maps as they had, and later
discovered in the insular state department a map, said to be the only
one of its kind in existence, showing the boundaries of the judicial
and municipal districts in each province, but several years old, and
requiring revision.
As soon as the available maps had been collected the number and
boundaries of the enumeration districts were determined, subject to
such changes as might be necessary after the supervisors had looked
over the ground. This was a work of great difficulty.
Paragraph VIII of the order organizing the census prescribed that
the boundaries of the enumeration districts should be described by civil
divisions-rivers, roads, public surveys, and other easily distinguished
lines. But it was soon ascertained that, owing to the imperfections
of the maps, little reliance could be placed on their topographical
representations, and that, except in the cities, the boundaries of the
minor civil divisions were not always given, and even when they were
the lines of surburban and rural wards could not be determined,
because, as was subsequently discovered, they had apparently over-
lapped in some locations or were situated in two different municipali-
ties, and the claims of the respective local authorities had not been
adjusted.
To avoid the double enumeration liable to result from this, it was
decided to indicate the areas of rural and suburban enumeration dis-
tricts which could not be defined as the orders prescribed by desig-
nating the ward or wards to be included in their limits and by directing
the enumerators to inquire whether the persons 'and premises visited
by them had been visited and enumerated before, and if they had, to
pass them by. Each enumerator was also required to post a printed
notice on all buildings visited by him, giving the date of his visit,
which was designed as an additional safeguard against double
enumeration.
By September 13 Cuba had been divided into 1,315 enumeration
districts. Later on, owing to the scattered state of the population,
the great difficulties of communication in the rural districts, and
the importance of completing the enumeration within the time desig-
nated by the President, it was found necessary to increase this number
to 1,607,
The enumeration districts having been established, the appointment
of enumerators followed. As the value of the statistics to be col-
lected depended entirely on the fidelity and intelligence of the enu-
merators, the supervisors were cautioned to exercise great care in
their selection, and were informed that women were not necessarily


12




120 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.

both classes Santiago was the last. But in the other three provinces the
position of the urban groups did not agree with that of the rural
population.
In the proportion of married to the total population, the cities stood
as follows:
Per cent Per cent
City. married. City. married.
Regla................................ 21.0 Sancti Spiritus......................... 15.4
Puerto Principe ........................ 19.7 Trinidad ............................... 15.2
Habana ................................ 17.8 Guanabacoa ........................... 14.7
Pinar del Rio........................... 17.2 Santa Clara ............................ 14.2
Cardenas ............................... 16.6 Sagua ]a Grande ....................... 13.5
Cienfuegos ............................ 16.0 Santiago .............................13.3
Matanzas..............................i 15.4 Manzanillo ............................ 11.7

The relatively high proportion of married in the capital and its
suburb, Regla, and the low position of the two cities in Santiago
province are noteworthy. But why Guanabacoa should rank so much
below the other two cities of Habana province or the cities of Matan-
zas and Santa Clara provinces should come next to those of Santiago
does not appear.
The married classified by sex.-Among the married 125,067 were
males and 121,284 were females. The proportion of each sex who
were married is shown in the following table:


Married.
Sex. Total. Per
Number. cent

Males...................................... 815,205 125,067 15.3
Females.................................... 757,593 121,284 16.0


The proportion of married women to the total of that sex was above
the proportion of married men, and, if one assumes that the number
of men having lawful wives on the island was no greater than the
reported number of married women, the ratio of such men to all
males (14.9 per cent) was over 1 per cent below that of the married
women to all females. The excess in the number of married males
was found mainly in Habana province, about seven-tenths of it being
concentrated there. This fact suggests that the excess of husbands
was probably due to the immigration of married men without their
wives. The only previous census giving comparable facts is that of
1861. At that time 14.8 per cent of the males and 18.7 per cent of the
females were married, and the difference between the two sexes was
over five times what it now is. The change is doubtless connected
with the growing numerical equality between the sexes.
The married classified by age.-Marriage never extends through the
entire life. All persons are born single and probably only a minority
attain adult years and marry. The age at which marriage occurs






CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899












CUBA

CONJUGAL CONDITION BY RACE, SEX, AND AGE






TOTAL POPULATION


Over 65
55-65
45-55
35-45
25-35
15-25

Under 15





Over 65
5.5-4i;5
45-55
35-45
25-35
15-25

Under 15





Over 65
55-65
45-55
35--45
25-35
15-25

Under 15


MALE


FEMALE


NATIVE WHITE
MALE FEMALE














COLORED
MALE FEMALE


Per Cent. 1-0 90 50 70 0W 40 30 2 10 0 30 20 30 45 0 A 20 90 00


SINGLE


LIVING TOGETHER BY MUTUAL CONSENT


MARRIED WIDOWED







































































































































































































































































































































































































































s





THE MARRIED CLASSIFIED BY AGE.


varies with sex, class, and social customs. Of the minority who
marry half become widows or widowers before their own death. The
likelihood of this separation increases with age. Hence, it is of
fundamental importance to study the age composition of the married.
It is usual to assume that marriage does not begin with either sex
until the age of 15. In fact the present census showed 07 persons under
15 to be married, but probably some of these are enumerators' errors.
When the children under 15 are excluded, the proportion between
those of marriageable age and those actually married becomes more
significant. It is as follows:


Married.
Population _
Country. 15 years and Per
over. Total. cent.

cuba ........................................ 995,761 246,351 24.7
Porto Rico................................. 534,941 158,570 29.6
United States (1890)....................... 40, 380, 050 22,39990 55.3i


In a former paragraph (p. 118) it was shown that the proportion of
married in Cuba was slightly below that in Porto Rico and lower than
anywhere else in the West Indies except Trinidad and Martinique.
From this table it appears that when adults alone are considered the
difference between Porto Rico and Cuba is increased, since Cuba had
few and Porto Rico very many young children. In Trinidad, if the
East Indians be excluded, the proportion of married in the adult
population (29 per cent) was decidedly greater than in Cuba, so that
among adults marriage is apparently less common in Cuba than else-
where in the West Indies except Martinique.
The following table shows the number of persons living in each age
group and the number and per cent reported as married:


Age period.



15-19.................................
20-24.................................
25-29.................................
3-4-...-.............................
35-44.................................
45-54.. ..........................
5 ..........................
65+... .......................
Unknown .......................
Total ......................


Married. Per cent
Number of married
persons. Number. Per States
cent. (1890).

178,035 5,753 3.2 5.0
152, 959 23,495 15.4 32. 8
137,405 39,538 28.8 61.7
118,812 44,060 37.1 75.3
185,056 72,637 39.3 80.0
117,528 38,788 33.0 79.3
68,182 16,381 24.0 71.8
37,699 5,624 14.9 53.3
85 8 9.4 33.1
995,761 246,2&1 24.7 55.3


From this table it appears that the relative number of married among

Cubans between 15 and 20 was rather more than half what it was in
the United States; that from 20 to 45 the number was very close to
half, but at later periods it diminished until it was between one-third
and one-fourth the American proportion.


121




122 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.

Early marriage was apparently somewhat more common in Cuba
relative to the total number of marriages than in the United States.
Of the total number married 2.4 per cent were below 20 years of age
while in the United States the corresponding per cent was only 1.5.
The maximum proportion of married was in the age period 35-44,
at which about two persons out of every five were married. The low
proportion of married in the later age periods may be a result of the
fact that when such persons were young the obstacles to marriage
were greater owing to the high ratio of males, since forty years ago
nearly three-fifths of all whites on the island were male.
As the number of married at each age period varies widely accord-
ing to sex, the analysis of provinces will be given in detail under the
topic of age and sex. In the following table the per cent of all adults
(15 ) who were married is given by provinces. As it has previously
been shown that the married were most numerous in Puerto Principe
and least numerous in Santiago, similar relations may be expected to
appear in the present table.

Per cent Percentof
of adults population
Province. (15+) who of all ages
were mar- who were
ried. married.
Puerto Principe------------------------------------... 34. 1 19.5
Habana (excluding city)----------------------------- 28.5 18.8
Pinar del Rio.......................................... 25.8 15.7
Santa Clara............................................ 25.0 16.0
Habana (city)...------------------------------------- 24.8 17.8
Santiago... ..------------------------------------------ 21.8 12.3
M atanzas.............................................. 20.5 13.4
Cuba ............................................ 24.7 15.7

One-fourth of all persons over 15 were married and the fraction varies
from one-fifth in Matanzas to one-third in Puerto Principe. In the
United States one-half the adults (55.3 per cent) were married. The
large proportion of married in Puerto Principe is obscured in the last
column above by the very large proportion of persons under 15 in
that province. Among its adults Matanzas had fewer married than
Santiago. Habana city, having relatively very few children, makes a
better showing, therefore, in the last column above than the facts
warrant when analyzed by age. The first column above shows the
proportion of adults in Habana city to be almost exactly the same as
the average for the whole island.
The married classifed by sex and age.-It is a familiar fact that men
usually marry several years later in life than women. Hence it is
important to supplement the foregoing analysis by one which exam-
ines the marital condition of the two sexes separately by age periods,
as is done in the following table. The figures for the United States
are introduced for purposes of comparison.






THE MARRIED CLASSIFIED BY SEX.


Age period


15-19 ..."-.... .......................................
20-24.- ....... .......................................
25-29..................................................I
30-34..............................................
35-44 .................. ... ......................
45-54.......................................
55-4 ..................................................
65+...................................................
Unknown.............................................
All ages.........................................


Per cent married in Per cent married in
Cuba among total United States (1890)
of age and sex speci- among total of age
tied. and sex specified.

Males. Females. Males. Females.

.2 6.0 5 9.5
5.5 25.9 18.9 46.7
20.0 38.8 52.7 71.4
34.3 +40.4 71.3 79.8
+42.1 35.8 80.9 +80.6
39.4 25.3 +K4.3 73.9
31.6 15.0 82.3 60.4
23.1 6.7 70.5 35.4
10.5 7.2 28.1 41.9
15.3 16.0 34.9 36.4


The highest ratio of married men was found between 35 and 45, while

the highest ratio of married women was found between 30 and 35. In
the United States the highest ratio for men was ten years and for women

five years later. The ratio of married men 20-24 years old was less
than one-third what it was in the United States, while the ratio of mar-
ried women 15-24 years old was more than one-half what it was in the

United States. This suggests that the early marriages just shown to
be somewhat more common in Cuba than in the United States may be

marriages in which only the bride is especially youthful and that early

marriages of men may be no more common than in the United States.
To test this the per cent that the married men under 25 years of age

made of all married men and the married women under 20 made of all

married women is shown in the following table:

Per cent that married persons of sex and age specified made of married persons of sex
specified but all ages.


The marriage of women under 20 in Cuba was more common, rela-

tive to the married of all ages, than in the United States, but the
marriage of men under 25 was decidedly less common. This difference

is doubtless a result of the recent economic disasters in Cuba, which

have greatly increased the difficulty of supporting a wife and family.

These disasters have apparently delayed the marriage of men, but

perhaps not of women. The early marriages of women may no doubt

be connected with a fact to appear from analysis of the occupation
tables (p. 157), that the proportion of women engaged in gainful occu-

pations was smaller in Cuba than in Porto Rico or the United States.
The married, classified by sex and age, byprovinces.-In the following

two tables the analysis of marriage by sex and age is extended to the

several provinces.


123


Females
under 20.

4.7
3.5


Counry.Males
Country. under 25.


Cuba............................................. 3.6
United States (1890) ................................... 5. 4






REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


Per Cen married, biy prorioS (id age periods.

MALES.


Age period. excldin Mautu. 1111lI11n1 r del P'uerto Stia Santiago.
(ily' eeuitig Mttl~ Rio. 1'rinicipe. I hint.
C~tY.

15-19............. 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.2 0,3 02 0.1
21-24............. 5.5 7.3 I 1.2 f.1 7.7 4.5 5.4
25-29............. 17.7 26.3 17.6 20.8 26.1 18.5 19.3
30-84............. :10.2 42.1 30.4i :7.8 44.4 3.1 31.1
3-4............. 11.9 49.5 :7.2 45.0 55.5 .42.5 35.4
45-14............. 43.6 45.5 30.2 44.7 53.7 36.9 35.8
55-4. 37.8 37.9 20.5 38.3 47.7 26.2 32.3
65+........... .32.0 26.1 14.1 24.7 32.1 17.7 27.0
UntkIInOWI .. 5.9 8.1 .. ...................... 27.3

15+........; 24.2 27.5 20.0 24.3 33.5 21.2 22.3


FEMALES.


15-19............. .....t0 7.1
20.24............. 24.3 29.4
.:5-29x............. .15 5.1
30-34............. 39.1 4.9
35-44............. :).5 41.0
45-54............. 25.2 29.
55-64............. 4..I 19.0
65+.............. 5.8 7.2
Unknown.. ... ........... ............

15+........ 25.4 29.6


3.4 ,.1 8.7 5.8 5.5
19.9 26.9 :7.0 27.7 23.4
33.6 39.3 50. 6 -42.5 33.7
35.4 40.8 54.1 43.8 33.1
30.7 39.9 49.3 38.6 28.8
21.4 31.1 :17.8 25.3 20.5
11.5 19.4 23.9 13.9 12.6
5.2 9.2 11.3 5.9 6.8
.... ..... ........ .. .. .. 20.0
21.1 27.7 34.7 27.1 21.2


The highest proportion of married in each sex and at each age

was in Puerto Principe, the single exception being among the males,

25-29. At that period a few more males were married in Habana

province outside the capital than in Puerto Principe. The smallest

proportion of married at the extremes of life, 15-29 and 55+ (or 45+

for males), was found for both sexes in Matanzas. For the intervening

age periods the smallest proportion was found, with one slight excep-

tion, in Santiago. The women 30-54 rears old in 1899 were all under

35 when the ten-vears' war, which was fought mainly in the eastern

part of the island. ended by the capitulation of El Zanjon. Hence

they lived through the years in which marriage usually occurs amidst

confusion and struggle that doubtless postponed or prevented many

marriages. This may explain in part the low proportion of married

women 30-54 years of age in Santiago.

Among men the highest proportion of married was usually in the

period 35-44, but in the city of Habana and in Santiago it was in the

later period. 45-54. Among women the highest proportion was in the

group 30-34, but in Santiago it fell five years earlier. This suggests

that there was probably a wider average difference in Santiago than

elsewhere between the ages of husband and wife.

7w married classicred byrace.-In a previous table (p.119) it appeared

that the ratio of married to population was higher in Puerto Principe

and lower in Santiago than in any other province. It had already

appeared (p. 96) that the proportion of white was higher in Puerto


124





CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899


CUBA

CONJUGAL CONDITION


HABANA


PINAR DE Rio


SANTA CLARA


SINGLE

O MARRIED


MATANZAS


PUERTO PRINCIPE


SANTIAGO


LIVING TOGETHER 8Y MUTUAL CONSENT


WIDOWED


-r







THE MARRIED CLASSIFIED BY RACE.


125


Principe and lower in Santiago than in any other province. This sug-

gests that white blood and lawful marriage may be related phenomena.
The following table shows that they vary togetherthrough the provinces:


Province.


Puerto Principe .....................................
Habana (excluding city) ...........................
Habana city....... .................................
Santa Clara.................................
Pinar del Rio .....................................
Matanzas ................... ...............
Santiago.......................................


Per cent of total
population.

Married. White.

19.5 79.8
18.8 76.4
.. .. 17.8 71.4
16.0 68.6
.. 15.7 72.6
.... 13.4 58.3
12.3 55.3


Hence it seems probable that legal- marriage in Cuba was more

mon among the whites than among the colored. The following

raises the probability to a certainty:


Kate. Total popu
lation.


White .... ........................ ..1,052,397
Colored.................................. 520,400


Lawfully married.

Number Per
cent.

214,543 20.4
31,808 6.1


Legal marriage was more than thrice as general among the whites as

among the colored. But even among the whites it was not much more

than half as general as it was in the United States. In two former cen-

suses, those of 1841 and 1861, comparable returns have been made.

From them the following table has been compiled:


Per cent married amon lotl population.


White ......................................
Colored..................... .. ... .. ... .. .. ..


18,1. ]861. 1899.


10.4 22.8 20.4
6.2 8.1 6.1


In both races marriage is less frequent than forty years ago.

In the following table the analysis of the subject by race is extended

to the provinces:


Province.


Habana (excluding city) ........................
Habana city...... -- -..............................
Matanzas..........---------...............................
Pinardel Rio..................... ..............
Puerto Principe.... --...............................
Santa Clara......................--..................
Santiago ................ .....................

Cuba ...................................


Per cent married.

Whites. Colored.

22.6 6.7
22.7 5.7
21.1 2.6
19.2 6.3
21.4 12.1
20.3 6.6
16.6 7.1

20.4 6.1 I


con)-

table


I




REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


When the proportion of married in each province is obtained for the
two races separately, it appears that white and black were affected by
different influences. The highest proportion of married for the whites
was not in Puerto Principe, but in and around the capital, and the pro-
portion in the other provinces, except Santiago, was not much below
that in Puerto Principe. In this last province the high relative num-
ber of married is due in great measure to the fact that the married
among the colored are almost twice as many as in any other province.
Matanzas and Puerto Principe furnish a striking contrast. In each the
married whites were about one-fifth the total whites, but among the
Puerto Principe colored one in eight were married, and in Matanzas
only one in thirty-eight.
In the following table the analysis of the prevalence of lawful
marriage by race has been extended to the fourteen cities separately
reported:

7- -- --Per cent of married
District. among-
Whites. Colored.
Fourteen cities separately reported- -...................... 21.4 7.0
Rest of Cuba ...................... -- ...................... 19.0 5.7

With both races marriage is slightly more common in cities than in
the rural districts, but the difference for the whites is greater than
for the colored.
The married classifed by race and sex.-The following table shows
the number of married by race and sex:

Married.
Race and sex. Total.
Number. Percent.
White males .......................... -........ 563, 113 109,760 19.
W hite females..................................- 489,284 104,783 21.4
Colored males......................... ... 252,092 15,307 6.1
Colored females ................................. 268, 308 16,501 6.2

This shows that the larger proportion of married among the females
already noted (p. 120) was confined almost entirely to the whites, and
supports the explanation offered that the excess was due mainly to the
immigration of husbands without their wives.
The married classjfed by race and age.-It has already appeared that
marriage was more than three times as common among whites as
among colored. The same was true of the people over 15 as appears
from the following:


126




127


THE MARRIED CLASSIFIED BY RACE.

Per cent married in total adult population (15+).


Race. Puer cent
-- married.
W hite ..................... ........................................32.
Colored--------------.-..---------........................... 9.6


In the following table the per cents are given by provinces for each
race:
Per cent married in total adult population (15+ ).


Province.


I Habana (city) ...................................
Habana (excluding city)..................................
Matanzas ..................................................
Pinar del Rio..............................................
Puerto Principe..................................
Santa Clara................................................
Santiago.............................................
Cuba............................................


Whites. Colored.

34.5 8.0
31.3 9.9
:33.1 3. 9
31.5 10.5
38.4 19.1
32.3 9.8
29.3 12.4
3'2.4 9.6 l


Among both races marriage was much more common in Puerto Prin-
cipe than in any other province. But the difference was more marked
among the colored than among the whites. The proportion of married
among the colored adults of Puerto Principe was one-half greater
than in any other province. But among the white adults of that prov-
ince the married, while twice as numerous as among the colored, were
only about one-seventh more numerous than among the whites in
Habana city. Marriage was far more evenly distributed among whites
than among colored. In the province where it was most general (Puerto
Principe) it was less than one-third more common than among the
whites of the adjoining province of Santiago, where the proportion of
married whites was lowest. But among the colored adults of Puerto
Principe marriage was almost five times as common as among the col-
ored adults of Matanzas. The table shows that the local influences
favorable to marriage differed widely for the two races. To show this
more clearly the provinces may be arranged in the order of the preva-
lence of marriage among white and among colored adults as follows:

Provinces arranged in the order of increasing prevalence of marriage among-


White adults:
Santiago.
Habana (excluding city).
Pinar del Rio.
Santa Clara.
Matanzas.
Habana (city).
Puerto Principe.


Colored adults:
Matanzas.
Habana (city).
Santa Clara.
Habana (excluding city).
Pinar del Rio.
Santiago.
Puerto Principe.


No relation whatever can be discerned between these two series.
Why should Santiago have few marriages among whites and many




128 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.

among colored, or Matanzas few among colored arid many among
whites?
The na'ried cla sified by race and .sex and age.- In the following
table the proportion of married in the adult population of each sex and
race is stated.

AM arried.
Adult ____
Race and sex. population Per
(15+). Number. ern.
(15 ).cent.
W hite males................................... 361, 261 109, 760 30.1
Colored males................................. 157,855 15,307 9.7
White females............................. ... 299,022 104,7W3 35.0
Colored females............................... 174,623 16,501 9.5

In preceding paragraphs it has appeared that the proportion of
married women in Cuba was slightly greater than the proportion of
married men (p. 120), and that this difference was confined to the whites
(p. 126); that the difference between the sexes for the total population
was less than 1 per cent, but for the whites alone was nearly 2 per cent.
The last table shows that for white adults the difference between the
two sexes was nearly 5 per cent.
In the following table the facts are given in the same way, by sex
and race for the several provinces.

Per cent of adoll popIbuioti (15+) of se Iend rCe specsfiede who were nirried.

Males. Females.
Province.
White. colored. White IColored.
Habana (city)......................... 28.4 9.0 35.4 7.3
Habana (excluding city)..............i 32.5 9.9 36.8 9.8
MatanzA .............................. 31.0 3 9 8.5.5 3 6
Pinar del1 Rio............ .... ...... 28.8 10.5 35.0 10.1
Puerto Principe.......................I 37.5 18.M 39.4 19.4
Santa Clara.......................... 29.4 9.2 36.0 10.4
Santiago............................... 28.9 13.1 29.8 11.9

From the preceding table it appears that among white adults the pro-
portion of married females was greater in each province than the pro-
portion of married males. Among colored adults in five of the seven
provinces the reverse was true. The difference is due to the excess of
males among white adults and of females among colored adults. In all
monogamous countries, if either sex is decidedly in the minority, it is
almost sure to have a larger proportion of married than the sex which
outnumbers it. Among the white adults of Cuba 54.9 per cent were
male, but among the colored adults only 47.5 per cent were male.
Hence the chance of marriage in the one race is greater among females,
and in the other greater among males. This excess of males among
white adults appeared in every province of Cuba, and accordingly the
higher proportion of married among females was equally general. The
excess of females among colored adults appeared in five of the seven




THE MARRIED CLASSIFIED BY RACE. 129

divisions, and in each of these five the proportion of married was higher
among colored males. Santa Clara had more colored men than women,
and accordingly, in that province, the proportion of married was higher
among colored women. In Puerto Principe, while the women were
slightly in excess (51.7 per cent) among colored adults, the slight dif-
ference was probably offset by the earlier age at which women marry.
In the following table the facts for all Cuba are given by sex and
race and eight age periods.

Per cent of married in population group of sex, race, and age specified.
Males. Females.
Age period.- ____ ____ _____
White. colored. White. Colored.
15-19................................... 0.2 0.1 7.6 2.6
20-24................. ................. 6.2 3.3 33.4 10.8
25-29................................... 23.1 10.3 51.1 15.7
30-34 ........................ 40.4 16.4 54.8 14.9
35-44.................................. 51.0 17.7 50.0 12.3
45-M ................................... 54.7 12.7 37.5 8.0
55-64............................... .52..5 8.8 23.1 5.1
65+.................... ...... .... 44.2 7.0 10.9 2.8
Unknown............................. 12.5 5.9 16.7 ..........
Total adults (15+) .............. 30.1 9.7 35.0 9.5

Marriage was about 3.1 times as general among white men as among
colored men, but 3.7 times as general among white women as among
colored women, the difference being due, as just explained, to the excess
of white men and of colored women in Cuba. Taking these ratios as
the standard, it appears from the preceding table that prior to the age
of 30, and for males prior to the age of 45, the proportion of married
among colored was uniformly higher than when all ages are included.
This suggests that relatively to the white the generation of colored
which has grown up since emancipation have entered upon legal mar-
riage rather more commonly than their parents did. The difference
may also be connected with the excess of males among the aged col-
ored. At each of the age periods above 45 the colored males outnum-
bered the females. There were 12,897 colored persons born in Africa
reported by this census (Table X12, the great majority in thehigher age
groups, and nearly three-fifths (59 per cent) were males. Then, too,
there were 14,614 colored persons born in China, most of whom also
belonged to the higher ages, and of these practically all (99.7 per
cent) were males. That, notwithstanding this difference, a larger pro-
portion of the colored men than of colored women at those ages were
married must be due to the marriage by old men of younger women.
The married classified by place of birth.-The tables make it possible
to analyze the conjugal condition of the population of Cuba with refer-
ence to one further element-nativity. This tabulation is confined to
the white race alone. The question may be asked: Was marriage
24662 9




LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 13

disqualified on account of their sex. One hundred and forty-two
women were appointed enumerators and rendered excellent service,
and it is said that for the first time in the history of Cuba, women
were given public employment.
To prepare the enumerators for their work and, so far as practicable,
to guard against errors in the returns, one or more enumerators in
each municipality were directed to report to the supervisor for
instruction, becoming in turn the teachers of the other enumerators
in the district. This they did by assembling in classes and going care-
fully over the orders, schedules, etc., and testing their knowledge
by the actual preparation of the papers required in the regulations.
All enumerators were told that in doubtful cases of literacy the person
to be enumerated should be required to read and write in the pres-
ence of the enumerator, and, as far as could be ascertained by very
careful inquiries, this was done.
As soon as appointed each enumerator was given a commission and
full field kit, and was then ready for the work. Some of those assigned
to rural and suburban districts performed their duties at the peril of
their lives, and all of the rural enumerators were subjected to much
personal risk and discomfort, owing to the condition of the roads and
streams, the prevalence of rain, and the depleted and sparsely settled
state of the country. (Appendix IV to XII.)
A full list of the enumerators will be found in Appendix XIII, and
among the illustrations groups of those with whom the Director came
in contact during his tour of inspection in November and December.
For the accuracy with which this census has been taken the Cubans
connected with it are certainly entitled to the credit and distinction of
being faithful and intelligent pioneers in the discharge of civil duties
never before intrusted to them.
On the 10th of November the Director of the Census left Washing-
ton on a tour of inspection, to enable him to ascertain, as far as possi-
ble, in what estimation the work of the census was held by the peo-
ple; to inspect the offices of the assistant director and supervisors; to
see and question as many enumerators as could be collected together
in the large cities; to determine the best disposition to be made of the
census property, and on what date the clerical work incident to the
examination of the schedules could be closed, and the latter shipped to
Washington.
The result of this inspection was satisfactory. The offices of the
supervisors were found in good order, the secretaries, clerks, and the
enumerators intelligent and very much interested in their work, and,
as a rule, the schedules accurately and neatly prepared.
After consultation with Mr. Olmsted, it was decided to close the
work December 31, discharging all Cubans who might be connected
with it on that date, except the supervisors, and to bring the latter,




130 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.

more common among native whites or foreign-born whites? The
following table appears to give an answer:

Married.
Nativity, number. Nmber. Per
Numbercent.
Native whites .................................. 910,299 169,354 18.6
Foreign-born whites.............. -...-.. -- 142,098 45,189 31.8

These figures seem to show that marriage was far more common
among the foreign-born than among the native. But no such infer-
ence is warranted, because the immigrant population of Cuba is com-
posed mainly of adults of marriageable age. Of the native white
population over two-fifths (42.1 per cent) were under 15 years of age,
while of the foreign-born whites only one twenty-fifth (4 per cent)
were in those age periods. When the children of both classes are
excluded the figures tell a different story, as follows:

Number of Married. I
adults 15
Nativity. years and Number. Per
over. e ent.
Native whites ............................... 526,867 169,35 32.1
Foreign-born whites ........................... 136,416 45,189 33.1

With this correction introduced it appears that the proportion of
married in the two classes was almost the same, but with the foreign-
ers slightly larger. As the difference is so slight, it may be affected
by the sex compositionof the two classes. Hence that further classi-
fication is introduced in the table below:

Number of Married.
Nativity, adults 15
years and Number. Per
over. cent.
Native white males............................. 251,655 75,454 30.0
Foreign-born white males...................... 112,606 34,306 30.5
Native white females................. ...... 275,212 93,900 34.1
Foreign-born white females.................... 23,810 10,883 45.7

The table seems to show that foreign-born white men were married
in slightly greater proportion than native white men, and foreign-born
white women in far greater proportion than native white women; but
although all persons under 15 have been excluded, yet the adult native
whites must have had a far larger proportion than the foreign-born
have in the ages 15-25, at which marriage is comparatively infrequent.
Hence the question can not be decisively answered until the proportion
of married for each age period is ascertained. This is done in the




CONSENTUAL MARRIAGES. 131

following table, and to economize attention only the per cents are
given:
Per cent married of population in sex, clans, and age specified.
White males. White females.
Age period.
Native. Foreign. Native. Foreign.
15-19........................... .3 .2 7.4 14.9
20-24 ........................... 7.2 4.0 32.7 415.3
25-29 .......................27.3 15.6 50.5 58.7
30-34........................... 45.5 31.0 54.2 61.1
35-44........................... 54.1 45.4 49.1 57.6
45-54.......................... 55.9 52.9 36.5 44.3
5564.......................... 52.8 5.9 22.3 27.7
65-............................. 52.8 44.6 10.4 13.2
Unknown ..................... 8.3 18.7 9.1 -- ----

With this table a final answer is reached to the question under
examination. At every age period the native white men were married
in greater proportions than the immigrant white men, but the immigrant
white women were married in greater proportions than the native white
women. This doubtless means that a large proportion of the women
who have gone to Cuba from elsewhere have gone with their husbands.

PERSONS LIVING TOGETHER AS HUSBAND AND WIFE BY MUTUAL
CONSENT.
On the schedules in the present census there are many cases in
which a man and woman of about the same age were reported as occu-
pying the same house but as bearing different names and standing in
no admitted relations to each other. In most cases the census family
included one or more children bearing the woman's name. All such
census families -were tabulated as cases of persons cohabiting as
husband and wife without formal legal sanction upon the union, and
the children were tabulated as technically illegitimate. Any one
familiar with Cuban life knows that in certain classes and regions such
unions are frequent and often as permanent and secure as good care
and nurture for the children as if the law had sanctioned the rela-
tion. It was impossible to detect from the schedules every such case,
and in some few instances persons may have been assigned to this
class by an error, but probably whatever mistakes occurred have
usually been of omission. This is the first time that such a return has
ever been tabulated, and therefore no comparisons can be made with
past Cuban censuses or with censuses of other countries except Porto
Rico. The returns for these two countries under this head were as
follows:

Total.-u- Living p er cent
Counry.lation. mutual lvn
consent. together.
Cuba................................... 1,572,797 131,732 8.4
Porto Rico.............................. 953,243 84,241 8.8J







132


REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


In each country about I person in 12 was living in such relations, but

- the proportion was slightly less in Cuba than in Porto Rico. A fairer

comparison my he made with the married couples. For every two

lawful unions-there is one union by mutual consent.

The several provinces of Cuba have the following proportions of

persons living together by mutual consent:


Living together by
Total popu- mutual consent.

Number. en


l'uirto 'rincipc ....------------,-----------8S, 234 3,505 3.9
Han'ina----------------------------------- 121,804 28,730 6.8
Pinar dcl Rio.-- ........ .................... 173,064 12,386 7.2
S ta Ci n.. ..------------------------.-.-.---.- 356,536 26,607 7.5
Mataunzas-- ---.----- ..--.........-.. 202,444 20,942 10.4
Sautiaguo de Cub............................ 327, 715 39,562 12.1
__ _ _ _ _ _I __ _


Reference to a preceding table shows that the provinces arranged

as above in the order of increasing proportion of persons living

together agsxree closely with the 'provinces arranged in the order of

decreasing proportion of married (p. 119). The two are brought

together in the following table:


Per cent
living to-
gether as Per cent eln
Prminie. husband legally t either
and wife by married. classe
mutual
consent.

Puerto Principe ............................. 3.9 19.5 23.5
Habana ..--.- .............................. 6.8 18.3 25.1
Pinar del io-.............-.............. 7.2 15.7 22.9
Santa Clara-..-...-..--..................... 7.5 16.0 23.5
M atanzas.................................... 10.4 13.4 23.8
Santiago.................................... 12.1 12.3 24.4

Cuba ................................... 8.4 15.7 214.0


In Santiago there were three times as many of these unions as in the

adjoining province of Puerto Principe, but as an offset there were in

Santiago less than two-thirds as many married persons as in the neigh-

horing province.

The Fithures for the 14 cities separately reported are as follows:


Per cent
eit y.living
together.

Cardents..... ..7.8
Cienfuegos..- ...- --..---.... ... .. 8.4
Guanabuco ---- ...--- .----..--.....- 8.0
H abana .... ... ... .. ... ... ... 7.7
Manzanillo -------------..-..-........ 10.0
M atanzis-............................. 7.7
Pintar d l .ii-... .. . .. .. .. 7.7
Puerto Principe.-.. .. ....... 3.1


ty.


Regla................... ........
Saga la Grande...................
Sancti Spiritus .......................,
San tit Clara............................
Santiago..........................
Trinidad .......................


Per cent
-i 1i4..


Totaltitles--------------------- 7.4


, mikg
together.

6.3
9.0
3.7
6.9
7.7
6.'2















CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899


N























MAP OF CUBA
S HO WIN G A

THE PROPORTION OF THOSE LIVING TOGETHER BY MUTUAL CONSENT,
TO THE TOTAL POPULATION.

LESS THAN 6 PER CENT.

6-9"

9-12

12-16

OVER 15
A. H.- R C. R020 Lure





CONSENTUAL MARRIAGES. 133

In 9 of the 14 cities the relative number of persons liviing. together
was less than in the entire province containing the city, while in 5
cities it was greater. The difference between urban and rural pop-
ulation in this regard is suimarized in the following two tables for
the island and its provinces:

Livinicttgether by '
antltl ai il1s .
I I po ultin.
Snmb "r. ot

14 citiesseparately reported.................. 491,-01 :6,59I 7. I I
Rest of Cuba ................................. 1, OM ,293 95.ZVZ K
Total ---...-----------------------------1.f.?279; 1"1.7;,, x

This is not a conclusive proof that the cities have a smaller propor-
tion of persons living together than the surroundinW rural districts,
for the cities are massed in the western central part of the island. -
Hence it seems best to treat the urban and rural districts of each prov-
ince separately, as is done in the following table:

--- -1ivrcont licin;;u "th,"r
by -u unl ronsrnt---
Province.-
In urban Inl rtara
listrihts. litr iuts
Puerto Principe...................................... .:. 1 4.:
Habana--------------------------------------7.7
Pinar del Rio -------------------------------------... .. .. .. ...
Santa Clara .. ......... -. .... ...... .... ..------
M atanzas . . . . . . 11.-
Santiago .---------------------------------------------- 5 2.

The relative number of persons living together without beinu hw-
fully married wasgreater in the four cities of Pinar del Rio and llablana
provinces than in the rural districts, but elsewhere the cities had a
smaller number than the country. The rural districts of MAatanzas
and Santiago are evidently the regions in which this mode of f:unily
life is most prevalent.
There were 25 municipal districts out of 132, or nearly 1 in 5, in
which the number of consentual unions exceeded the iunber of legal
marriages. But only 1 of the 14 cities separately reported. iianza-
nillo, is included in any of the 25 districts. Three provinces. Puerto
Principe, Santa Clara, and Habana, had no such district. Pinar del
Rio had 3 adjoining each other on the north coast and Santiago had 11
stretching along the south coast from Niqueio to Guantan:ino. The
other 11 were in Matanzas.
Ulasiftcation by sex.-Of the 131,732 persons reported as living
together, 65,793 were males and 65,939 were females. As there were
over 50,000 more males than females in Cuba (p. 80), the proportion of
females living in marriage relations unsanctioned 1by law (S.7 per
cent) was greater than the proportion of males (8.1 per cent).




REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


Classifcation by age.-Drawing the line at fifteen years between
those who were and those who were not old enough to marry one finds
the following result:

Total pop Living together.
Country. ulation Per
15+. Number, cent.
Cuba-------------------------------------.....995,761 131, 732 13.2
Porto Rico--------------------------------534, 941 84,241 15.7I

As the proportion of children under 15 was much less in Cuba than in
Porto Rico, the difference between the two islands already noted (p. 131)
was not clearly defined by the table there given, showing the propor-
tion of persons living together to the population of all ages. The
table just given is, therefore, a more exact measure of the difference
between the two islands. In the following table the figures for Cuba
are given by provinces:

Per (Tilt of minilts (15+ ) n/to were firing together li niulmd consent.
Puerto Principe ---------------------------------------- 7. 0
lIabana (excluding city)..-------------------------------- 8.4
Ilabana (city) ...---------------------------------------- 10.7
Santa Clara ....------------------------------------------ 11.7
Pinar del Rio ..----------------------------------------- 11.8
Matanzas ... ..-------------------------------------------- 15.9
Santiago. ..--------------------------------------------- 21. 3
Cuba ------------------.....------------------------ 13. 2

There is but one difference between the order of the provinces here
and that in the table already given (p. 132). Among adults, as shown
in this table, Santa Clara had a slightly larger proportion of persons
living together than Pinar del Rio, while in the total population the
relation is reversed. It is due to the fact, brought out in the discus-
sion of the age tables (p. 91), that Pinar del Rio had more children and
fewer adults than Santa Clara.
In the following table the relative number of persons living together
by mutual consent to the total population is given for the several age
periods. For purposes of comparison a second column reports the
proportion of persons married in Cuba at the same age periods. As
both these classes together include probably about all who were married
either by mutual consent alone or with the sanction of the law, a third
column gives the proportion that the sum of these two classes makes
to the total population of the age named, and for comparative pur-
poses the figures for the United States are added in a fourth column.


134




CONSENTUAL MARRIAGES. 135

Per cent Per cent
Age period, living to- maTied Total. in United
gether. States.

15-19........................... 2.6 3.2 5.8 5.0
2024-........................... 9.5 15.4 24.9 32.8
25-29........................... 14.6 28.8 43.4 61.7
30-34--------------------------.. 17.9 37.1 5.5.0 75.3
35-44--------------------------.. 19.1 39.3 59.4 80.8
45-54--------------------------.. 17.7 33.0 50.7 79.3
515. 4-------------------------.15.2 24.0 39.2 71.8
65+............................ 12.4 14.9 27.3 53.3
Unknown..................... 4.7 9.4 14.1 33.1
Total 15+---------------- 13.2 2$ 7 37.9 55.3

It will be noticed that between the ages of 25 and 55 the proportion
of persons married was uniformly about double the proportion of per-
sons living together without marriage, but in the younger and' older
age periods the proportion of persons living together to those married
was higher. The larger proportion between 15 and 25 suggests that
unions of this sort are entered upon at a somewhat younger age than
ceremonial marriage. This may best be tested by finding what pro-
portion of the total number of each class were under 25. Among the
married about one-ninth (11.9 per cent) were under 25, but of the
persons living together without a marriage ceremony about one-seventh
(14.6 per cent) were under 25.
The large proportion of persons over 65 who were living together by
mutual consent is probably connected with the presence in Cuba of
many aged negroes born in Africa and imported before slavery was
abolished or the slave trade effectually suppressed. It is probable
that such persons before living together seldom go through a formal
ceremony of marriage. There were also many Chinese males in Cuba
and their median age was over 53 years. The same remark would hold
true of them. The decreasing proportion of colored to the total pop-
ulation of Cuba during the last forty years is also a factor to be con-
sidered in explaining the difference.
Classification by age and sex.-As the age during which marriage,
lawful or unlawful, occurs varies widely with the sex, it is important
to supplement the age analysis already given by oie in which the sex
difference is also included. That is done in the following table, in
which the proportion of persons living together at each period and for
each sex is given. The proportions of persons married of the same
sex and the same age are added in parallel columns, and as these two
together make up the total of persons living in any sort of marriage
relationship in Cuba, a third column gives the total, while a fourth
column gives the proportion of persons of the same sex and age
married in the United States in 1890. In each column the maximum
ratio is marked by a + prefixed.



136 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.

Males. Females.
Married Married
Age period, males inifmae
Married. Living Total. United Married. Living Total. n
together. States together. Uie
(1890). States
(1890).
15-19................ 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.5 6.0 4.6 10.6 9.5
20-24................ 5.5 5.5 11.0 18.9 25.9 13.8 39.7 46.7
25-29................ 20.0 12.2 32.2 52.7 38.8 17.4 56.2 71.4
30-34................ 34.3 16.3 50.6 71.3 +40.4 +19.8 +60.2 79.8
35-44................ +42.1 18.9 +61.0 80.9 35.8 19.4 55.2 +80.6
45-54................ 39.4 +19.7 59.1 +84.3 25.3 15.2 40.5 73.9
55-64................ 31.6 18,5 50.1 82.3 15.0 11.2 26.2 60.4
65+.................. 23.1 d1O0 40.1 70.5 6.7 7.7 14.4 35.4
Total 15+..... 24.0 12.6 36.6 54.1 25.6 13.9 39.5 56.8

In the preceding table it will be noticed that the maximum propor-
tion of persons married was reached in Cuba for each sex ten years
earlier than in the United States. It may be that this is a remote
result of the ten years' war, 1868-1878. It is a familiar fact that
marriages decrease during periods of war or serious economic calam-
ities. This fact is conspicuously illustrated by the vital statistics of
Cuba during the last ten years, discussed elsewhere in the present vol-
ume (Appendix XVIII). It is probable, therefore, that the number of
marriages in Cuba during the ten years 1868-1878 was materially
reduced and that the number of marriages celebrated after the capitu-
lation of El Zanjon was above the normal. Many men over 45 years
of age may have been prevented from marrying by the disturbances
during the years of their early manhood, and, on the contrary, men
between 35 and 44 would have been at the threshold of the age at
which marriage is most common, when peace returned to Cuba in 1878.
This hypothesis may also explain the proportion of children in Cuba
between 10 and 20, which was shown in the discussion of age (p. 85)
to be larger than in the United States or Porto Rico. Such children,
aside from the few immigrants, must have been born in Cuba between
1879 and 1888.
The preceding table shows that for every 100 married men over
15 years of age there were 52 living together by mutual consent
(126+240=52.5 per cent), and for every 100 married women over
15 years of age there were 54 living together by mutual consent. The
difference is due to the fact that the married men in Cuba outnumbered
by 3,783 the married women. The ratio of those living together by
mutual consent to the married was below the average for males
25 to 54 years of age and for females 20 to 44 years of age. The
proportion of persons living together by mutual consent was therefore
excessive in both sexes during the earlier and later years of life.





CONSENTUAL MARRIAGES.


Cl assfcation by rac.-The following table gives the facts hy.

in the briefest way:


'ersoxns living to-
gether 1 1n1/t101l
Hace. l'iPlaion. n n4 .

Nijmi r. r "n 1.1

W hite .....- ............ ............... ---- -1, 352,97 50,r127 4.8
Colored.................................... 520,400 81.71)5 15.7

Total................................ 1,572,797 131,732 v.4


Legal marriage has already (p. 125) been shown to be more than three


times as common among whites as among colored.


The present tale


shows that unions by mutual consent were more than three times as


prevalent among colored as among whites.

made more clear by the following table:


The comparison may be


I'ersons living I,
Boller by 1--01-
\1mber cnsent.


Race.


N


hlw
ma


fit lly j - -
rried.
Number.


Toeai-l
110 mar-
l ria."d


W hite .--.......... ...................... 214.513 1, 027
Colored...................................... 31,80s 81,705 257

Total 16, 131, 7'



Of the total unions among whites 81 per cent were lawful marriages.

Of the total unions among colored 28 per cent were lawful iiarriages.


In the following table the facts are given by race

provinces:


for the several


Whites.


Province.


Habana city.....................
Habana (exclusive of ity)-......
Matanzas ..................
Pinar del Rio....................
Puerto Principe..................
Santa Clara......................
Santiago.........................

Total....... ..........


1arr


Living
, ,,together by


38,247
32,50
24,907
24,1831
15,057
49,604
30,097

214, -A3


mutual
consent.

7,807
3,819
3,762
6,263
2,220
9,507
16,649

11027


Colored.

Liv ln
Married. together i
m1tu1tul


Living together to
each 11) 1irried.


While.


conSent.

3,824 10, 4I 20
2,975 6,658 12
2,180 17,180 15
2,969 6, 123 2
2,153 1,285 15
7,321 17,100 19
10, :3; 22,913 =.

31,808 81,705 _.


Colored.



273
24
788
206
6)
234
221

257


This table brings out noteworthy differences between the several


provinces and shows that the differences do not run parallel


for the


two races. Among whites the smallest proportion of consentual

unions to lawful marriages was in Habana province outside the city,

where only about 1 union in 9 was merely consentual. At the opposite

extreme comes Santiago, where among whites more than 1 union in


137


rle,


1 .




138 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.

3 was merely consentual. Next to Santiago, but at a long remove,
comes the province at the other end of the island, Pinar del Rio, where
about 1 union in 5 was by consent only. Among colored, the province
having the fewest merely consentual unions, Puerto Principe, had about
1 in 3, or rather more of such unions than the province of Santiago
had among whites. Next to Puerto Principe at a long interval comes
Pinar del Rio, where there were 2 unions by consent among colored for
each lawful marriage. Matanzas stands out conspicuously in the column
for colored, with nearly 8 consentual unions for 1 legal marriage, a
proportion about thrice as great as in any other province. It is note-
worthy that the provinces in which this form of married life was least
common among colored, Puerto Principe and Pinar del Rio, are those
in which the colored formed the smallest proportion of the population,
and the province in which consentual unions were most common
among whites, Santiago, is the one in which the whites are but little
more than half the population.
In the following table the facts are given separately for urban and
rural Cuba, and as the conditions in Habana city are often widely dif-
ferent from the average conditions in other Cuban cities, urban Cuba
has been subdivided into Habana and the remaining 13 cities separately
reported:

White. Colored. Living together to
each 100 married.
Division. Living Living
Married. together by Married. together by White. Colored.
mutual rie. mutual Wht.Clrd
consent. consent.
Habana ciry..................... 38,247 7,807 3,824 10,446 20 273
Thirteen other cities-------------- 32, 142 7,167 8,013 11,080 22 138
Rest of Cuba .................... 144,154 35,053 19,971 60,179 24 301

This table shows that among both races consentual unions were most
common in the rural districts, but that for the white race the minimum
of such unions was found in Habana city, while for the colored race
the minimum was in the other 13 cities, and that the proportion of
consentual unions among colored, both in the rural districts and in
Habana, is double the average for the other cities. It will be of
interest to see whether the same relation holds when both consentual
unions and lawful marriages are compared with the population. This
comparison is made in the following table:

Population. Married. Living together.
Division.
White. Colored. White. Colored. White. Colored.
Habana city ................. 168,433 67,548 38,247 3,824 7,807 10,446
Thirteen other cities..........159,645 95,878 32,142 8,013 7,167 11,080
Rest of Cuba............... .724,319 356,974 144,154 19,971 35,053 60,179
Total .................. 1,052,397 520,400 214,543 31,808 50,027 81,705






CONSENTUAL MARRIAGES. 139


From the preceding table the following percentages are computed:


Per cent married. Per cent living
Division. together.


Habana city ...........................
Thirteen other cities...................
Rest of Cuba...........................

Total.................... ........


Whit

22.
20.
19.

20.


e. Colored. White. Colored.

7 5.7 4.6 15.5
1 8.4 4.5 11.6
9 5.6 4.8 16.9

4 6.1 4.8 15.7


This table confirms the preceding in showing that for both races

consentual unions were most common in the rural districts. An appar-

ent difference of result between the two methods is that the former

indicated that among whites consentual unions were least common in

Habana city while this table fixes the minium of such unions in

the 13 other cities. The two may be reconciled by noticing that the

proportion of married to population among whites in Habana was

decidedly greater than in the other cities. Hence when the consentual

unions are compared with the numerous legal marriages as in the first

table, they appear fewer than they do when compared with the popu-

lation. These secondary cities had the smallest proportion of con-

sentual unions for each race, but by an interesting anomaly they had

the largest proportion of married among the colored. It may he that

the social standards or economic situation of the colored in these

cities is somewhat higher than elsewhere, or it may be that the cities

lie mainly in the center of the island and reflect the average condi-

tions in their immediate vicinity. The last possibility may be tested

by the following table:
Urban population.


Division.


Guanabacoa, Regla, and Habana city....
Cardenas and Matanzas..................
Pinar del Rio............................
Puerto Principe..........................
Cienfuegos, Sagua la Grande, Sancti Spir-
itus,Santa Clara, and Trinidad.........
Manzanillo and Santiago................

Total ........................


Population.

White. Colored.


186,915
38,618
5,933
17,788
50,874
27,951

328,079


74,394
19,696
2,947
7,314

29,471
29,603

163,425


Married.

White. IColored.'


42,292
8,248
1,178
3,987

9,629
5, 055

70,389


41,216
W92
146
969

2, 485
3,029

11,837


Living together.

White. Colored.

8,610 11,469
1,430 2,992
318 368
418 367

2,510 3,274
1,688 3,056

14,974 21,526


The following table shows the same facts in the form of percentages:

Per cent urban population.

Married. Living together.
Division.
White. Colored. White. Colored.

Guanabaeoa, Regla, and Habana city-......................... 22.6 5.7 4.6 15.4
Cardenas and Matanzas ...................--................. 21.4 5.0 3.7 15.2
Pinar del Rio......................... 19.9 4.9 5.4 12.5
Puerto Principe .............................................. 22.4 13.2 2.3 5.0
Cienfuegos Sagua la Grande, Sancti Spiritus, Santa Clara,
andTrindad..................... 18.9 8.4 4.9 11.1
Manzanillo and Santiago ................................. 18.1 10.2 6.0 10.3







140 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


In the following table are shown the facts for the rural population:


Runral pJjJil(tiii.


Popuhition. Married. Living together.
Provinc. --- -- -
White. Colored. White ColoredI. white. Colored.


i a na-...................... 125, 675 17,820 28,.-5 2 N, : 3,016 5,15 6:
Matanzas .....-....... 7-- 9,299 64, 1t 16, h.y 1, 1st 2,332 14, 18
Piiir l l Ri ................ 119.692 -1,492 22,95: 3 5, 915 5,755
Puerto Principe-.............. 52.599 10,533 11,070 1,14 1,SO2 91s
Santa Clara.................. V19.9 82,297 39,975 4,8:36 6,997 13, 82t
Santiago ..................... 15:3, 159 117. W 2 25,012 7,357 11,911 19,857

Total.................. 724.::1N 356975 111,111 19.971 35,053 60,179


Below apbl ar the pereenta(wes derived fronm this table:


I.e cenW meal populiun.


Provitr-e.


Habana .......... .....................'
Iatalzas ..............................
Pinr dlel Ri................. ...........
Puerto Principe.....................
santa Clara............................
Salntiagi..........................


iMarried.

White. Colorel.


22.0
21.11
19.2
21.0
20. G
16.1


. S
1.8
(. 3
11.2
5.9
6.3


Living together.

White. Color.


2. 4
2.1
5.0

3.0
9. $


14.9
21.9
12.9
S.7
I7. s
17. 0


This table incidentally reveals the proportion of white and of colored


in the urban and rural districts of

follows:



uicisi.


Cuba


Ibabana ritl .........................._.......
'T'hirteen other cities.........................
Rural districts ...............................


. The results may be stated as




Per vent of-

White. Colored.


72.4 2s.
............. 62.6 37.0
............... 67.0 38.0


The whites were most numerous in Habana city, the colored in the

13 other cities of Cuba. In the following table the proportion of each

race is givenn for the urban and rural districts of each province:


Habana .....................
Matanzas......................
Pinar del r( io.................
I'uerpo l'rinip. ..............
Santa Clara.................
Santiago.................... .


i er cent of whites in- Percent of colored in-

Urban dis- Rund dis- Urban dis- Rural d is-
trics. tricts. tricks. tricts.

7LG 76.9 28.4 23.1
i. .: I 55.1 33.7 44.9


66. S
70.9
63.
4N. G


7:3. 0
53.2
70.2
5f 7


33.2
29.1
36.7
51.4


4
*1t

4:-


7.0
.S 8
J.
.3


In every province of Cuba except Matanzas the whites were most

largely represented in the rural districts and the colored in the urban

districts. The preeminence of Habana city in its proportion of whites,


U-


i




CONSENTUAL MARRIAGES. 141

when c sparedd with the other cities or the rural districts as a whole,
disappears when it is compared with the urban districts of I[ahana,
Pinar del Rio, or Puerto Principe provinces. It is probable that the
migration of colored from rural districts to cities in quest of eiploy-
ment has exercised greater influence even in Habana upon the distribu-
tion of population than the migration of whites froi abroad.
Returning to an examination of the tables (pp. 139, f) with reference
to the question they were immediately designed to answer, it appears
that among the colored in the four eastern provinces marriage was
more connon in the cities than in the country, and that in Matanzas
the difference was at its maximum. But in the two western provinces
marriage was more common among the rural population. Among the
white, the proportion of married was greater in cities except in I ltlaana
province, where it was the same for city and country. and in Santa
Clara.
Clbsspiicti'n by lirIthlacJbi. --The classification by birthplace. and
therefore the following analysis of the tables, is confined to the whites.
It may be conjectured that white inuigrantscoiingto ubaunmarried
and intending not to remain for life would form unions without the
sanction of the law. This is the general experience where a large
number of male immigrants enter a country in which the ma-rriage
law is rigid while at the Same time social opinion in certain quarters
tolerates a consentual marriage. Whether such a conjecture is in
accord with the facts in Cuba will appear froill the following analysis.
The table below gives the facts for the two classes of whites:

Livmir. together by -
Nativity.. } 15 .tnt an ua - sut
15 +.
Number. 'cr 4-tint.
Native white .-......................... 526,867 11,052
Foreign white-. -.................. 136,116 8. G.6

This seems to negative the conjecture under examination. liut such
an hypothesis could hardly apply to women, and therefore the sex dis-
tinction should be introduced as is done in the following table:

--Living togethl r In
Nutiity. Population I mutual consent.
S 15 + -
Number. I' er cont.
Native white n les...................... 251,655 20,095 5.0
Foreign white males ..............--- .. 112,606 7,518 6.7
Native white fenales------------------ 275,212 20,957 7.6
L Foreign white females ----------------- 23,810 1,459 6.1
With both sexes the proportion of persons living together by mutual
consent is (rveater among the native white than it is antttg' the foreign
white. But the iniuigrants are almost uniformly adults. and are
probably decidedly older than the native whites over 15. Iience






142 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


an examination by age periods is needed. As the foreign born white

women are so few the examination by age periods may be confined to

males.
Per cent of males living in consentual unions.


Age period.


15-19..........................
20-24..........................
2.5-29.......-......... ....
30-34..........................


Native.


0.3
3.8
9.1
12.2


Foreign.


0.2
2.3
5.3
7.8


Age period.


35-44.........................
45-54.........................
55-64.........................
6+ + -....................


At every age the proportion of white men of foreign birth living in

consentual unions was less than the proportion of native white men.

The following table shows whether this is true throughout the several

provinces.


Province.


Habana city.................................... ..........
Habana province ..........-..........................-
Matanzas.............................................
Pinar del Rio.............................................
Puerto Principe ..........................................
Santa Clara................................... ............
Santiago...................................................

('uba ........... .................. ..........


Native. Foreign


7.9 5.7
4.0 4.4
5.0 7.8
7.8 7.1
5.1 .8
5.9 6.5
17.9 11.6
8.0 6.7


This table shows that the figures heretofore reached are the net
result for the island of conditions widely different in the different

provinces. Habana city and the two provinces at the ends of Cuba
agree in having a proportion of consentual unions among the native

white men larger than among the foreign-born white men. In the
other four divisions the opposite was true. Among females, on the

contrary, consentual unions were less common with the foreign born

than with the native white not merely in Cuba as a whole but in every

province except Habana. The lower proportion of consentual unions

is closely connected with the higher proportion of married already

noted (p. 131) among foreign-born white women.

THE WIDOWED.

It might he anticipated that the very high death rate of Cuba during

the last few ears, to which attention is called in the discussion of the

vital statistics of the past ten years, would leave its traces in an exces-

sive number of widows and widowers. The facts for all Cuba in com-

parison with those for Porto Rico and the United States are given in

the following table:


Country.


Cuba ......................................
Porto Rico.................................
United States (1890).......................


Population
15 +.

995,761
534,941
40,380,050


Widows and
widowers

85,167
46,052
2,970,052


Native.


13.4
13.1
10,6
10.6


Foreign.


9.8
9.7
7.2
4.8


7e7
cent.

8.6
8.6
7.4






THE WIDOWED.


143


These figures indicate a proportion of widowed in Cuba not much

above that in the United States and not at all above that in Porto Rico.

But obviously only persons who had been lawfully married would be

reported to the census as widowed. Persons who bad been living in

consentual marriages, but whose unions had ended before the census

by death of the other party, would appear in the census not as widowed
but as single. Hence a fairer basis for the comparison may be found

in the persons reported as married. Such a comparison yields the

following result:

Percent
Country. Married. Widowed t ed
married.

Cuba----------------------------------- 246,351 J S 85167 .34.6
Porto Rico---------------------------.. 108,570 46i,052 "2(.0
United States (1890)................... 22,331,424 2,970,052 13.3


On this basis it appears that there was in Cuba one widow or widower
for every three married persons, while in the United States there was

one widow or widower for every eight married persons. In Cuba in

1861 there was one widow or widower for every five married persons.

This large proportion of widowed is emphasized by the following table
in which the proportion of widowed to married is given for the last

available census of a number of Spanish-American countries, or West

Indian Islands:


Country.


Date of
((115115.


tm 100
married.


Argentina ..................------.--.......... ------
Barbados..............................---------........
Bermuda ...............................................
British Honduras.....................................
Chile .............................................
Costa Rica..................... .........................
Guatemala ..............................................
Jam aica ................................... ......
Leeward Islands ......... ............... ......
Martinique ....................................
M exico-.. ...... ...... ......- .. .-- ... .- ....-- .
Trinidad ...........-----.----------------------------
Turk's Iseand............................................
Portugal................................................
Spain ........... .............................
Porto Rico.-----...................................
Cuba ................................


1895 17
1891 22
1891 23
1891 29
1885 19
1892 16
1893 20
1891 21
1891 25
1894 34
1895 25
1891 22
1891 20
1890 19
1887 17
1899 29
1891w 31


The evidence thus shows conclusively that the proportion of widows

and widowers in Cuba was far higher than in the other countries with

which comparison would naturally be made. Whether the excess is of

widows or widowers may be doubtful. In the following table the sex

classification is introduced:


Country.


Cuba.....................
Porto Rico...............
United States (1890)......


Husbands.


125,067
78,689
11,205,228


Widowers.


23,059
12,023
815,437


Widowers
to 100
husbands.

18.4
15.3
7.3


Wives. widows.


121,284 62,108
79,881 34,029
11,126,196 2,154,615


Widows
to 100
wives.

51.2
42.6
19.4






144 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


This table shows that both the West India Islands had more than

double the proportion of widowed to married that prevails in the

United States, but that the proportion in Cuba was noticeably higher

than in Porto Rico. For every six husbands there was a widower and
for every two wives a widow.

In the following table the classification is carried into the several

provinces:


Province.


Habana city .....................
Habana (excluding city).......--
Matanzas ........................
Pinar del Rio _.............
Puerto Principe..--..........--
Santa Clara.............-....
santiago.............------------
Cuba......................


Husbands.


22,003
18,080
13,602
13,783
8, 51
28, 681
20,376

125,067


Widowers
Widowers. to 100
husbands.

3,372 15
4,371 24
2,760 20
2,772 20
1,203 14
5,791 20
2,790 14

23,059 18


Wives. Widows.


20,068 11.427
17,395 9,442
13,485 7,329
13,317 6,192
8,668 3,926
28,244 14,319
20,107 9,473

121,284 62,108


Widows were most numerous in the capital of the island and least

numerous in Puerto Principe. Widowers were most numerous in

Habana outside the city, and least numerous in Puerto Principe.

Probably Puerto Principe suffered as little as any province during the

last five years, and the high proportion of widows in Habana city may

result from migration of widows to the capital or from the presence

in the city of many widows of Spaniards. The facts regarding the

classes of the population of Habana city are as follows:

Widows
Race. Wives. Widows. to 100
wives.

Native whi ............................... 13,528 7,212 53
Foreign-born whites ........................ 4, 191 2,546 57
Colored...................................... 2,046 1,639 80


While the figures show a larger

foreign born than the native white,

the colored was far greater. This

asks at once whether it was true

table gives the facts:


Race. Husbands. Widow


Native whites.................... 75,45 1
Foreign-born whites............. 31,306
Colored .......................... 15,307


proportion of widows among the

the proportion of widows among

is a result so unexpected that one

throughout Cuba. The following



Widowers Widows
wers. to 100 Wives. Widows. to 100
husbands. wives.

.5,207 20 93,900 46,652 50
5,199 15 10,883 5,847 54
2,653 17 16,501 9,609 58


Apparently widows were most numerous relatively among the colored

and least numerous among the native white, while widowers were most

numerous among the native white and least so among the foreign
horn.


Widows
to 100
wives.

57
54
54
46
45
50
47

51




THE WIDOWED-THE SINGLE. 145

Perhaps the best measure of the progressive increase of widow-
hood with advancing years is found by comparing the widowed with
the married of each age group. This is done in the following table:

Widowers Widows
Age period. Husbands. Widowers. to 100 NWives. Widows. to 100
husbands. wives.
15-19............................. 169 45 27 5,5&4 280 5
20-24............................. 4,353 252 6 19,142 2,224 12
25-29............................ 14,612 1,190 8 24,926 4,542 is
30-34-.---.-...-.......... -...... 21,948 2,284 10 22,112 5,804 26
35-14.........................- 42,629 5,986 14 30,008 13,835 46
45-M- ..- .....- ......-- ---- 25,247 5,600 22 13,541 15,055 111
55-4-........................-- .-- 11,708 4,455 38 4,673 12,156 260
65................................ 4,378 3,230 74 1,246 8, 201 67.e

The table shows the uniform and steady increase of widowhood for
each sex with advancing years, and also the far greater proportion of
widows than of widowers at any given age. This difference between
the two sexes increases with age. Between 20 and 35 the proportion
of widows to wives was about double that of widowers to husbands.
At the next age period it was treble, at the next five times, at the next
seven times, and at the latest age nine times. For this difference a num-
ber of cooperating causes may be assigned. As the husband is usually
older than the wife and the chance of death increases with age. more
marriages are broken by the death of the husband than by the death
of the wife. Then, too, at the same age the mortality of men is usually
rather greater than the mortality of women. And a widower is more
likely than a widow to reenter the group of married by a second union.

THE SINGLE.

The small proportion of married in Cuba has already been mentioned
(p. 118). Even if the consentual unions be included with the mar-
riages, the proportion of the total was much less than in the United
States (p. 135). The widowed, while very numerous with reference to
the married, were not much more numerous than elsewhere with ref-
erence to the total or the adult population. There are no divorced
persons in Cuba. The only other marital class, the single, must then
be unusually numerous. For purposes of comparison with other coun-
tries, however, the persons living in consentual unions in Cuba should
be classed with the single. In the following table the proportion of
single to total population over 15 is given for the countries with which
comparison would most naturally be made. The countries are arranged
in the order of increasing proportion of single.
24662 10





REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


Country.


Hungary1....................
Mexico .......................
France .......................
Italy..........................
United States.................
Denmark.....................
Germany..................... .
England and Wales ..........
Austria.......................
Sweden.......................
Netherlands..................
Switzerland ..................
Belgium......................
Turks Island .................
Guatemala2..................
Scotland......................


Date of
census.



1890
1895
1886
1881
1890
1890
1890
1891
1890
1890
1889
1888
1890
1891
1893
1891


Per cent
of single
to popu-
lation
15+.

23.2
34.9
35.3
36.5
36.9
36.7
38.3
39.6
40.4
40.7
40.8
42.8
43.9
43.9
44.7
45.2


Country.


Chile.........................
Porto Rico 3 ..................
New Zealand ................
Costa Rica ...................
Argentina....................
Queensland..................
Ireland ......................
British Honduras...........
Cuba........................
Leeward Islands.............
Barbados ....................
Porto Rico 4..................
Trinidad G....................
Cuba 4........................
Martinique ..................


Date of
census.


1885
1899
1891
1892
1895
1891
1891
1891
1899
1891
1891
1899
1891
1899
1894


Per cent
of single
to popu-
lation
15+.

45.3
45.9
46.4
47.5
47.9
48.3
50.8
51.4
- 53.4
57.7
61.5
61.7
63.5
66.6
78.5


1 Population 16+ is the basis.
2 Population 14+ is the basis.
3 Excluding persons living together by mutual consent.
4Including persons living together by mutual consent.
5 Excluding the East Indians.


This table shows that the proportion of single among the adults of

Cuba is higher than in any other considerable country known to statis-
tics. In the United States not much more than one-third of the adults

were single, while in Cuba over one-half and, including the persons

living together in consentual unions, two-thirds were single. In the

subsequent discussion the, word single will be limited by excluding

the persons living together by mutual consent as well as the married

and widowed.

In the following table the two sexes are compared:


Sex,


Males.....................................
Females..................................


aton Single 15+. single.


522,116 308,031 59.0
473,645 224,317 47.4


The excess of single males over single females, amounting to 83,729,

is due partly to the excess of 48,471 males in the adult population

and partly to the excess of 39,049 widows over widowers.
The proportion of single decreases with advancing years, as follows:


Age period.


0-14...... ....................
15-19...........................
20-24...........................
25-29...........................
30-34...........................
35-44...........................
45- 4...........................
55-64...........................
65+.........................


Per cern
amo

Males.


99.9
99.3
88.6
67.2
45.9
33.1
32.1
38.0
42.9


single Per cent single in
ge United States (1890)
among-

Females. Males. Females.

99.8 100.0 100.0
89.1 99.5 90.3
57.3 80.7 51.8
36.7 46.0 25.4
29.2 I 26.5 15.2
28.3 15.3 9.9
31.3 9.1 7.1
34.6 6.8 5.8
41.8 5.6 5.6


146



THE SINGLE-LITERACY. 147

In Cuba over two-fifths of the population apparently go through
life single, while in the United States only about one-eighteenth do so.
.Next to this noteworthy difference between the two countries the most
interesting inference from the table is that the proportion of single
does not decrease steadily from youth to old age, as might be expected
and as it does in the United States. On the contrary, a distinct min-
imum is reached for men at 45-54 years of age and for women ten
years earlier. After these ages the proportion of single increases.
Some light is thrown on this difference by the following table:
Per cent single among-
Age period. Males. Females.
White. Colored. White. Colored.
15-19.......................... 99.4 99.0 88.9 89.7
20-24........................... 90.0 84.6 54.0 63.9
25-29......................... _67.2 63.5 29.5 50.1
30-34--------------------------.. 44.6 49.7 19.8 -45.8
35-4........................... 29.6 59.6 -14.9 58.9
65+........................... -17.1 62.5 15.3 66.0

From this it appears that the increase in the proportion of single
with advancing years was almost confined to the colored race. It is
probably due in large part to the inclusion with the single of persons
who had earlier in life lived in consentual unions, but whose married
life had ended by separation of the parties through death or other-
wise or who having no children living with them were classified as
single although really belonging to the class of persons living together
by mutual consent.
LITERACY.
A census can take cognizance of the degree of education of a peo-
ple only as it is indicated by certain simple tests. These tests refer
usually to formal or book education, not because that is necessarily
the most important, but because it is the most easily tested. The tests
used by the present census were attendance at school, ability to read,
ability to write, and possession of higher education. It is obvious that
attendance at school certifies nothing regarding a person's educational
attainments, yet if the entire population is to be classed according to
degree of education some assumption must be made regarding children
attending school. It can not introduce serious error to assume that all
children attending school were able to read and write, and all under 10
years of age and not attending school were not able to read. On these
assumptions the population of Cuba may be classified as follows:

Number. oe
I-I
Having higher education..............19,158 1.2
Able to read and write ............................. 533,498 34.0
Able to read...................................... 566,501 36
Population answering educational inquiries.........1, 571, 385 100.0




148 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.

In the preceding table the classes are not mutually exclusive, but
each succeeding class includes all those in the preceding. From that
table the following may be derived by taking the differences in the
successive numbers of the preceding:

Per
Number.

Unable to read .................................... 1,004,884 6:3.91
Able to read but unable to write------------ 33,0 .
Able to write but without superior education-....... 514,340 32.7
With higher education........................ ....... 19,113 1.2
Unknown ........................................... 1,412 .1
Total population .............-.--.... 1,572,797 100.0


From this table it appears that the three classes of those able to
read but unable to write, those with higher education, and those not
answering the educational questions, including together little more
than one-thirtieth of the total population, were numerically insignifi-
cant. Attention may therefore be centered on the other two classes.
The several provinces of Cuba had the following proportion of per-
sons able to read:


Able to read.
Province. Population. Per
Number. cent.

Habana ................... 424,904 225,524 53g.1
Matazas 202,444 70, 393 34.8
Pinar del Rio............................... 173,064 32,684 18.9
Puerto Principe ........................... 88,234 33,384 37.8
Santa Clara.................................. 356,536 J 116,799 32.8
Santiago ................................... 327,715 87,717 26.8


Habana province had the largest and Pinar del Rio the smallest pro-
portion of persons able to read. Earlier in this analysis (p. 76) it was
shown that Habana province had the largest and Pinar del Rio the
smallest proportion of urban population. That the two vary together
will appear more clearly from the following:

Provinces in the order of-

Literacy: Urban population:
Habana. Habana.
Puerto Principe. Matanzas.
Matanzas. Puerto Principe.
Santa Clara. Santa Clara.
Santiago. Santiago.
Pinar del Rio. Pinar del Rio.

It seems probable, therefore, that tfie ability to read is more usual in
Cuban cities than it is in the rural districts. In the following table the
facts are given for the 14 cities separately reported in Table XIX.





CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899


CUBA

THE PROPORTION OF ILLITERATES TO POPULATION
10 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER.


" M irNE






um FOREIGN Wwlfc


PORTIONS SHADED ARE ILLITERATE







LITERACY.


Cities.


Cardenas....... .....................
Cienfuegos ..................................
Guanabacoa.................................
Habana .....................................
Manzanillo...............................
Matanzas..................................
Pinar del Rio................................
Puerto Principe........................... ..
Regla.....................................
Sagua ]a Grande ............................
Sancti Spiritus ........................... .
Santa Clara .. ........................
Santiago ....................................
Trinidad ....................................


Able to r
Population.


21,940
30,038
13,965
235,981
14,464
36,374
8,880
25,102
11,363
12,728
12,696
13,763
43,090
11,120


Number.


12,074
18,052
8,090
155,534
8,132
21,447
4,101
15,495
6,513
6,665
6,793
7,872
25,905
6,114


Twelve of the

to read than any


14 cities had a larger

of the 6 provinces, and


of literates than any province but Habana.

illiteracy is especially prevalent in the rural

facts for city and country are sumnnarized in


proportion of persons able

all had a larger proportion


This shows clearly

districts of Cuba.

the following table:


that

The


Able to read.
1)istrict. Population. Per
Number. cent


Habana ........................- ..... 235, 981 155, 534 65.9
Thirteen other cities ........................ 255,523 147,253 j 57.6
Rest of Cuba .............................. 1, 081, 293 263, 714 24. 4

Total.................................. 1,572,797 566,501 36.0



Rather more than one-third of the total population of Cuba were able

to read, but the proportion rose in Habana city to nearly two-thirds,

and in the 13 other cities it averaged nearly three-fifths, while in rural

Cuba it was not quite one-fourth. The per cents for the several cities
have already been given, but the figures for the provinces after the

cities have been subtracted are given below:


Able to read.
Province. 'Rural, popu-
lation. Number. Per
cent.

Habana ..................................... 163,495 56,387 34
Puerto Principe ............................. 63,132 17,889 28
Matanzas .................---....---......... 144,130 36,872 26
Santa Clara.................................. 276, 191 71, 303 26
Santiago ....- ............................... 270,161 53,680 20
Pinar del Rio................................ 164,184 28,583 17



The largest proportion of literates is found in rural Habana, where

one-third of the total population was able to read; the smallest propor-

tion in the provinces at the ends of the island, Santiago and Pinar del

Rio, where from one-sixth to one-fifth were able to read. The four

central provinces all had proportions above the average for rural

Cuba.


149


ead.

Per
cent.

55
60
58
66
56
59
46
62
57
52
53
57
60
55







150 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


There are two Spanish censuses, those of 1861 and 1887, in which the

number of Cubans able to read was reported. In the following table

the results of those censuses are brought into comparison with the

present:


Date of census.


1861 ....................................
1887 ... . . . . . . . . . .
1899 ....................................


Population.



1,396,530
1,631,687
1,572,797


Able to read.

Number. ce.


268,237 19.2
452,380 27.7
507,913 36.1


In thirty-eight years the per cent of the population able to read has

nearly doubled.
SCHOOL ATTENDANCE.


The total number of persons attending school in Cuba during the

year preceding October 16,1899, was 87,935 (Tables XIX and XXI),

or between 5 and 6 per cent of the total population. But in the dis-

cussion on age it was shown (p. 86) that the children in Cuba between

5 and 15, and so at the ages when school attendance is most common,

were unusually numerous. Hence it is better to compare the children
attending school with those of school age. From Table XXI it

appears that only 1,295 children under 5 or over 17 attended school,
that is, less than 11 per cent of the entire number. The school age

may therefore be assumed to be 5-17, and this slight proportion of

persons over or under these limits neglected.


5-17.

u.Pop elation
Cuba ........................................ 552,928


Attending school.

Population Per
5-17. cent

86,640 15.7


It has already been shown that the proportion of persons able to

read, and probably also the proportion of children attending school,

was much higher in the cities of Cuba than in the rural districts. In

the following table the facts for the five cities included in Table XXI

are given:


City.


Matanzas....................................
Cienfuegos ..................................
Habana .....................................
Puerto Principe.............................
Santiago................................

Total..............................


Population
6-17.


11,903
9, 786
62, 833
8,417
14,946

107,885


Attending school.

Population Per
5-17. cent.

4,845 40.7
3,794 38.8
20,ObO0 31.9
2,42 30.2
4,397 29.4

35,628 33.0


i-






CENSUS OF CUBA. 1899




EDUCATION

POPULATION OVER 10 YEARS OF AGE


HABANA


PINAR DEL RIO


SANTA CLARA


ILLITERATE

LITERATE


MATANZAS


PUERTO PRINCIPE















SANTIAGO


ATTENDED SCHOOL

SUPERIOR EDUCATION


V


A




-S


SCHOOL ATTENDANCE. 151


On the average in the five cities almost exactly one-third of the

children 5-17 attended school during the year preceding the census.
If the figures for these cities be subtracted from those for all Cuba,

the following results are reached:


Attending school.
Population
5-17. Population Per
5-17. cent.

Cuba outside five cities ..................... 445,043 51,012 11.5



The proportion attending school in the large cities was almost three

times that in the rest of the island.
In the following table the figures are given for the six provinces

after the five large cities have been excluded:


Attending school.
Province (excluding all cities of 25,000+). latin Population Per
5-17. cent.

Matanzas.................................... 55,566 9,742 17.5
Habana................................... 64,856 10,090 15.6
Santa Clara ............................... 117,303 16,271 13.9
Santiago............................118,942 9,694 8.3
Puerto Principe ............................ 25,720 1,828 7.1
Pinar del Rio................................ 64,656 3,387 5.2

Cuba .................................. 445,043 51,012 11.5


Both in its capital city and in the rest of the province Matanzas had

a larger proportion of children attending school than any other city

or province. It will be noticed that the rank of the provinces in

school attendance is often at variance with the rank in regard to the
proportion able to read. Thus Puerto Principe ranks next to Habana

in literacy, and yet the proportion of persons at school in Puerto

Principe was lower than in any other province except Pinar del Rio.
The anomaly may be explained by assuming that in the sparsely settled
districts children are often taught at the home rather than in a school.

In that case the figures regarding school attendance lose much of their

significance.

Se.-The following table gives the facts for Cuba by sex:


Attending school.
Population
5-17. Population Per
5-17. cent.

Males------------------------------------- 276,881 43,697 15.8
Femailes.................................--- 276,047 42,943 15.6

Total -............................... 552,928 86,040 15.7


The two sexes attended school in about equal proportions.






152 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899. j

Race.-The following table gives the facts regarding school attend-
ance for Cuba by race:


Attending school.
Population
Race. 5-17. Population Per
5-17. cent.

W hite....................................... 375,882 62,140 16.5
Colored--.-------------------.-------.. ----- 177,046 24,500 13.8
Total.......-......................... 552,928 86,640 15.7


The school attendance of the whites was somewhat higher than that
of the colored, but the difference was not very great.
Age.-In the following table the proportion of school attendants in
the several age classes is given:


0-4...
5-9..-
10-14.
15-17.
18 .-


School a- Per cent
Age. Population. tenants. attending
school.

.................................. 130, 978 683 0.5
.................................. 226,109 39,876 17.6
.................................. 220,049 43,326 19.7
..---.... ---........ ....... ...... 106,770 3,438 3.2
--..---------------------------- 888,991 612 0.1
Total............................ 1,572,797 87,935 5.6


The maximum proportion of school attendants was between 10 and 14,
but the preceding five-year period shows almost as high a proportion.


LIrERACY AMONG PERSONS OVER 10 YEARS OF AGE.

The majority of persons able to read probably learn to do so in
early childhood. Hence it is the usual practice for a census in gath-
ering information on this topic to disregard all children under a cer-
tain age. This has not been done in censuses of Spain or the
Spanish colonies, but in American census practice all children under
10 are omitted from the illiteracy tables. This classification is made
in the present census of Cuba and will be regarded in the following
discussion. For reasons already explained, only two classes will be
considered-those who are and those who are not able to read. The
following table gives the facts for all Cuba:


Class. Population Per
10+. cent.

Able to read ............................................. 525,245 43
Unable to read ...................................... 690,565 57
Total --. ........................................... 1,215,810 100


Rather more than two-fifths of the population of Cuba, excluding
young children, were able to read, a proportion rather greater than that
of New Mexico in 1880 (35 per cent) and less than that of South Car-
olina in the same year (44.6 per cent), but decidedly less than the pro-


\


ft











CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899


hi


,p0 -S


II







C$--


MAP OF CUBA
S H O WL N G
THE PROPORTION OF ILLITERATE TO THE TOTAL POPULATION


N









O










0!


LESS THAN 50 PER CENT. L-

50-60. '

60-70 '"' -

70-80 -

OVER 80 "

A. Hn R C B1310d LI,


**3


'7






ABILITY TO READ.


153


portion in any American state in 1890, owing to the rapid develop-
ment of the American school system in the last score of years.

Sex.-In the following table the facts are given for Cuba by sex.

Population 10 +. Per cent.
Class.
Males. Females. Males. Females.

Able to read.................. 282, 824 242,421 45 42
Unable to read............... 351,691 338,874 55 58

Total.................. 634,515 581,295 100 100


The corresponding per cents for the United States are males, 87.6;
females, 85.6; so that in both countries, and indeed in most countries

where the information is obtainable, the ability to read is somewhat

more general among men than among women.

Race.-In the following table the number of persons able to read is
given for Cuba with distinction of race and sex:


Race and sex.


White, males ..........................
White,females......... .....................
Colored, males ........................
Colored, females .............................
Total whites............................
Total colored...........................


Number.


Able to Unable to
read. read.

232,117 208,962
180,528 191,368
50,707 142,729
61,893 147,506
412,645 400,330
112,600 290,235


Total.


441,079
371,896
193,436
209,399
812,975
402,835


Per cent.

Able to Unable
read. to read.

52.6 47.4
48.5 51.5
26.2 73.8
29.6 70.4

50.8 49.2
28.0 72.0


From this table it appears that one-half of the whites and rather
more than one-fourth of the colored were able to read. But among the

colored the illiteracy was greater among the males, thus reversing the

usual rule. Two reasons for this anomaly may be suggested. Colored
men work more largely in the country and less largely in the cities of

Cuba than colored women do. In the five cities of over 25,000 were
found 27.6 per cent of all colored females over 10 years of age, but

only 22.2 per cent of all colored males over 10 years of age. It has

been shown that school attendance was larger and illiteracy smaller in

the cities than in the rural districts. Hence the sex which is most
numerous in cities has better facilities for learning to read and proba-

bly city life tends to strengthen the desire for this attainment. Then,
too, the colored females outnumber the colored males at every age

period from 15 to 50 and the males outnumber the females between 50
and 80. This is probably due in part to the survival in Cuba of some

thousands of negroes born in Africa, two-fifths of whom are males,
and to almost 15,000 Chinese,nearly all of whom are males. Its effect
is to make the median age of colored males over 10 fully two years

higher than the median age of colored females. And as illiteracy in

Cuba is greater among elderly people than it is among those in middle
life this higher median age of the colored males would tend to accen-

tuate the illiteracy of that sex.



I


154 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.

Age.-In the following table the proportion of persons able to read
in each age group is given for the total population and for the two
races:

Per cent literate.
Age period. Total popu- White. Colored.
lation. ht. Clrd

10-14..................................... 36.0 38.3 31.3
15-19..................................... 45.9 49.0 39.2
20-24..................................... +50.3 54.3 +40.6
25-29..................................... 49.6 +55.3 36.0
30-34..................................... 47.3 55.2 29.4
35-4..................................... 45.1 55.2 23.4
45-4..................................... 39.0 53.7 15.6
55-64..................................... 33.4 53.0 10.7
65+ .................................... 28.1 52.9 7.4
Total ............................ 43.2 50.8 28.0


It appears that the largest proportion was in the age period 20-24; that
is, the class whose school years were lived between 1878 and 1895. The
illiteracy among whites never rises to one-half except for the age
periods 10-19, and is quite uniform. The aged colored are very largely
illiterate, but the proportion is lower in the younger groups, reaching
its minimum at the period 20-24. These figures indicate an educational
system which, during the past generation, has been reaching about the
same proportion of whites but a constantly increasing proportion of
colored until the confusion and warfare of the last few years seriously
impaired its efficiency.

OCCUPATIONS.

The instructions issued to the Cuban enumerators in Spanish with
reference to filling this part of the schedule may be translated as
follows:
This inquiry (column 11) applies to every person 10 years of age and over having
a gainful occupation, and calls for the profession, trade, or branch of work upon
which each person depends chiefly for support, or in which he is engaged ordinarily
during the larger part of the time. In reporting occupations avoid general or
indefinite terms which do not indicate the kind of work done. You need not give
a person's occupation just as he expresses it. If he can not tell intelligibly what he
is, find out what he does, and describe his occupation accordingly. For wives and
daughters at home engaged in the duties of the household only, write "at home"
(en casa). For children not actually at work, write "at school" (estudiante) or
"at home" (en casa), as the case may be. Spell out the name of the occupation and
do not abbreviate in any case.1

'It is desirable that some brief terms should be introduced to describe persons
covered by the preceding instructions and accurately but clumsily described as
persons engaged in gainful occupations. In the following discussion the terms
breadwinners or persons at work will sometimes be used for one class and dependents
for the other. Any term must be understood in accordance with these instructions
rather than with its usual and popular meaning.





OCCUPATIONS.


155


The number of Cubans reported as having gainful occupations was
622,330, or 39.6 per cent of the total population.' The figures for
Cuba are compared with those for the United States and Porto Rico in
the following table:

In gainful occupa-
ionpopu-tions.
Country. Date. laTotn Per
Number. ce.

Cuba .............................. 1899 1,572,797 622,330 39.6
Porto Rico......................... 1899 953,243 316,365 33.2
United States...................... 1890 62,622,250 22,735,661 36.3


From these figures it appears that
population engaged in some gainful
the proportion is only one-third and
way between the two. Some reasons
the subject is probed farther.

1 Among these there were 2,053 children
occupation. These may all be regarded as


Cuba has about two-fifths of its
occupation, while in Porto Rico
in the United States about mid-
for the difference will appear as


under 10 reported as having a gainful
enumerators' errors, but the margin of


error they introduce, less than one-third of 1 per cent, is far less than that to which
all occupation returns are subject, and may, therefore, be neglected. It is probably
true that a certain number of children under 10 in Cuba do work which is a fair
equivalent for their living. The number of such children must vary in different
parts of the island. But, according to the instructions quoted above, none of these
should have been reported. Hence the reported number is dependent upon two
variables, first, the actual number in the districts, and secondly, the heedlessness of
the enumerators in reporting such answers contrary to the instructions. The pro-
portion of such returns to the total of persons reported as having gainful occupations
may afford, therefore, a very rough test of the exactness with which enumerators
followed their instructions in this particular. From this point of view the follow-
ing table is of interest:


Province.


Puerto Principe .................................
Habana city.....................................
Habana (excluding city)........................
Santiago.........................................
Santa Clara .............................
Mantanzas.......................................
Pinar del Rio...................................
Cuba.......................................


In gainful occupations.

Total. Children Per
T under 10. cent.

31,822 30 .094
108,000 224 .207
75,961 190 .250
108,777 317 .291
144,612 591 .409
85,296 353 .414
67,862 348 .513


622,330


2,053


.330


instruction was most carefully observed in Puerto Principe and most over-
in Pinar del Rio.


This
looked







REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


The absolute and relative number of persons engaged

occupations in the several provinces was as follows:


in gainful


Province.


Santiago.....................................
Puerto Principe .............................
Pinar del Rio................................
Habana (excluding city)....................
Santa Clara................
Matanzas....... ......... ...................
Habana (city)...............


Population.



327,715
88,234
173,064
188,823
356,536
202,444
235,981


In gainful occupa-
tions.

Number cet.


108,777 33.2
31,822 36.1
67,862 39.2
75,961 40.2
144,612 40.6
85,296 42.1
108,000 45.8


The relative number of breadwinners was as low in Santiago as in

Porto Rico and as low in Puerto Principe as in the United States. In

Pinar del Rio it was about the average for the island, while in the three

central provinces it was above the average, and highest of all in Habana

city. The range in Cuba between the highest and lowest divisions was

12.6 per cent, while in the United States the range between the high-

est (Montana) and lowest (West Virginia) states was 25.4 per cent.

The position of Habana city in the preceding table suggests that

gainful occupations may be more general in cities than in rural dis-

tricts. To determine whether this is true, the following table has

been prepared:


city.




Cardenas .........................................
Cienfuegos .................................
Guanabucoa .....................................
Habana.......................................
Manzanillo..............................
Matanzas.--.---... .......................
Pinar del Rio ............ .................
Puerto Principe .................................
Regla.......................................
Sagun la Grande.................................
Sancti Spiritus....................................
SantaClara.........,.............................
Santiago.....................................
Trinidad.......................... ...............

Total cities...........................
Rural ...................................

Cuba...............................


Population.




21,940
30,038
13, 9t5
235,981
14,464
36,374
8,880
25,102
11,363
12,728
12,691
13,763
43,090
11,120
491,504
1,081,293

1,572,797


In gainful occupations.


Number. Per cent.



8,741 39.8
11,485 38.2
5,281 37.8
108,000 45.8
4,595 31.8
14,320 39.4
3,986 44.9
8,438 33.6
4,305 37.9
5,229 41.1
3,868 30.5
5,2'd2 37.9
16,741 38.9
2,947 26.5

203,158 41.3
419,172 38.8

622,330 39.6


Gainful occupations are more common in cities than in the rural
districts; but the figures for the several cities show that this is due

to the dominant influence of Habana, which had nearly as many inhab-

itants and more than as many persons engaged in gainful occupations

as all the other thirteen cities combined. Of the other thirteen cities

ten had a smaller proportion of breadwinners than the province in


156


7


Per cent in
province
containing
city.

42.1
40.6
43.3
43.3
33.2
42.1
39.2
36.1
43.3
40.6
40.6
40.6
33.2
40.6





CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899









CUBA

OCCUPATIONS

BY RACE, SEX, AND NATIONALITY


L- L
Km


WHITE


FEMALE


FOREIGN- WHiTE
---MAL- FEMALE


COL RED
FEMALE


ATIV


AGRICULTURE


PROFESSIONS


TRADE AND TRANSPORTATION


PERSONAL SERVICE


NO GAINFUL OCCLPATION


w i

w


N


MANUFACTURING






OCCUPATIONS.


157


which they lie. In the 58 American cities containing each over
50,000 inhabitants the per cent in gainful occupations in 1890 was 42.8,

while for the rest of the country it was only 34.8. In this respect the

difference between city and country in Cuba is apparently less than

half what it is in the United States. This difference between the two

countries may be connected with the high proportion of females in

Cuban cities already mentioned in the paragraph on sex (p. 83) and

with the small proportion of female breadwinners on the island, which

will appear from the next paragraph.

Breadwinners claR. ifed by sea.-The following table gives the abso-

lute and relative number of males and of females reported as engaged

in gainful occupations in Cuba. For comparative purposes the figures

for Porto Rico and the United States have been included.


I


ountry. a aes.



Cuba.............................. 815,205
Porto Rico........................ 472,261
United States (1890)............... 32,067,8sf)


In gainful occupa- In gainful oeenpa-
tions. tions.
Females.
Number. Per Number Per
ct. Nme. cent.

555,974 68.2 757,592 66,356 8.8
268,664 56.9 480,982 47,701 9.9
18,821,090 58.7 30,554,370 3,914,571 12.8


From this table it appears that the larger proportion of breadwin-

ners in Cuba holds only of the males. Among Cuban women the pro-

portion in gainful occupations was smaller than it was in either Porto Rico

or the United States, but with males the case was very different. The

percentage of them remuneratively employed in Cuba was one-sixth

higher than in either of the other countries. Among 10 males of all

ages in Cuba 7 were at work, while in Porto Rico and the United States

fewer than 6 were so engaged. Further information regarding this

difference will be obtained in the course of the analysis.

In the following table the relative number of breadwinners is given

for each province, classified by sex:


Province. Males.



Habana.............................. 221,990
Matanzas............................ 103,726
Pinardel Rio....................... 91,685
Puerto Principe...................... 44,899
Santa Clara.......................... 189,057
Santiago............................. 163,845


In gainful ociipa-
tiolls.

Number. Per
cent.

159,614 71.9
71,721 69.2
63,974 69.8
27,352 60.9
132,788 70.2
100,525 61.4


In gainful ocepa-
tions.
Females.
Number. Per
cent.

202,814 24,347 12.0
98,718 13,575 13.7
81,376 3,888 4.8
43,335 4,470 10.3
167,479 11,824 7.1
163,870 8,252 5.0


The maximum proportion of breadwinners among males was in

Habana and the minimum in Puerto Principe. But with females the

maximum was in Matanzas and the minimum in Pinar de Rio. Hence

the two sexes are affected by different conditions.


C


I


158 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.

The high position of Pinar del Rio in the column for males suggests
that gainful occupations for males may be quite as common in the
country as in the cities. That Santiago had fewest breadwinners is due
to the fact that in the column for each sex it ranks next to last. That
Puerto Princip6 had more is because a large number of female bread-
winners somewhat neutralize the small number of males, which was less
than anywhere else. In Pinar del Rio the conditions were reversed, a
high proportion of male breadwinners was partly offset by few females..
In Santa Clara more males were at work than anywhere else except
Habana. Matanzas held fourth place among males, but was lifted to the
second place for the total by the fact that more females were at work
there than in any other province. Habana, holding first place among
males and second among females, was first in the total.
Closer examination shows that female breadwinners were apparently
more numerous in provinces with large urban population. To test this
the provinces may be arranged as follows:
Provinces in the order-
Of urban population: Of females in gainful occupations:
Habana. Matanzas.
Matanzas. Habana.
Puerto Principe. Puerto Principe.
Santa Clara. Santa Clara.
Santiago. Santiago.
Pinar del Rio. Pinar del Rio
That the two vary together supports the hypothesis. It will there-
fore be more closely tested by the following table:

Per cent of total females who were reported as in gainful occupations with distinction of city
and country.

Province. Urban. Rural.

Habana .................................................. 15.6 6.1
Matanzas................................. ....... .19.1 1.
Pinar die] Rio---------------------------- -------..........24.6 36I
Puerto Principe........................................... 14.1 8.5 |
Santa Clara ........................................... 13.0 5.0
Santiago................................................... 14.0 2.9
Cuba ............................................... 15.5 5.4

Female breadwinners were always more numerous and usually sev-
eral times more numerous in the cities than in the surrounding country.
The proportion of women in gainful occupations in the rural districts
was lowest in Santiago and highest in Matanzas; but in the cities it was
lowest in Santa Clara and highest in Pinar del Rio. The high pro-
portion of women at work in the city of Pinar del Rio is probably
connected with the character of the industries. The city above all
others is a tobacco town. In no other of the fourteen cities separately
reported was one-fifth of the female population engaged in gainful




OCCUPATIONS. 159

occupations, but in Pinar del Rio nearly one-fourth were so occupied.
The smallest proportion of women in gainful occupations was in Trin-
idad and Manzanillo. In the United States in 1890 20.1 per cent of
the females in cities of over 50,000 inhabitants and 11.1 per cent of the
females in the rest of the United States were breadwinners. With
regard to the proportion of women at work, therefore, urban Cuba
differs much more from rural Cuba than urban United States does
from rural United States. But in this comparison the line between
urban and rural is drawn at 50,000 inhabitants in the United States
and with a single exception at 10,000 in Cuba.
Breadwinners classified by age.-According to the instructions already
quoted, the question about occupation was put only to persons ten
years of age or more. Hence, in comparing the persons engaged in
gainful occupations with the population, it is better to disregard the
children under 10. This is done in the table below.

In gainful occupa-
tions.
Country. Persons 10+.
Number. Per
Numbercent.
Cuba ....................................... 1,215,810 622,330 51.2
Porto Rico................................ 659,294 316,365 48.0
United States (1890)...................... 47,413, 559 2, 735,661 47.9

With the elimination of the children under 10, who were nearly 31 per
cent of the total in Porto Rico, but less than 25 per cent in the United
States, the difference between those two countries, shown in a former
table (p. 155), almost disappears. But the difference between these two
countries on the one hand and Cuba on the other still persists.
In the following table the analysis is carried into the provinces:


Province.


In gainful occupa-
tions.
10+. Nme
Number I Per
Number.cent.


Santiago .................................... 238,017 108,77 45.7
Puerto Principe.............................. 63,786 31,822 49.9
Habana (excluding city) ...................... 151,206 75,961 50.2
Santa Clara ................................ 279,327 144,612 51.8
Pinar del Rio................................... 130,307 67,862 52.1
Matanzas ................................... 159,297 85,296 53.5
Habana (city)............................. 1380 1800 5.

The difference between Santiago and Habana city, which was 12.6
per cent when the total population was used as a basis (p. 156), was
only 10 per cent, owing to the fact already noted (p. 91), that Habana
city had few and Santiago many children. Pinar del Rio, having a
larger population under 10 than Santa Clara or Habana province out-
side the city (p. 90), stood above these two in the proportion of persons
engaged in gainful occupations as soon as the children were excluded.




160 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.

With this exception, the order of the provinces remains the same.
Gainful occupations among adults were more common in the western
half of the island, and reached their maximum in the city of Habana.
As it has already been shown that outside of Habana gainful occupa-
tions were less common in Cuban cities than in the provinces contain-
ing them (p. 156), no further analysis by cities seems needed.
In the following table the number and per cent of persons in gain-
ful occupations is given by details of age:

In gainful occupations.

Age period. Number of In u. Per cent in
persons. the United
Number. Per cent. States
(1890).

0-9......................... 356,987 2,053 0.6
10-14....................... 220,049 54,189 24.6 8.6
15-19....................... 178,035 86,948 48.8 42.9
20-24....................... 152,959 85,932 56.2 61.4
25-29 ................ -..... 137,405 79,895 57.7 591
30-34 ..................... 118,812 70,484 59.3 J
3544....................... 185,056 111,778 60.4 57.7
45-54....................... 117,528 70,815 60.3 56.4
55-64............-....,..... 68,182 40,587 59.5 54.1
65+ .....-------. --........... 37,699 19,606 5.0 41.6
Unknown................., 85 43 50.6 59.6
Total.-....,..... .. 1,572,797 622,330 39.6 36.3

Nearly one-fourth of all Cubans between 10 and 15 years of age and
nearly half of those between 15 and 20 were engaged in some form of
gainful occupation. Between 25 and 65 the proportion was uniformly
about three-fifths, and in the latest age period, including all persons
above 65, more than half the population were at work. When the
figures in the last two columns of the preceding table are compared
some noteworthy differences between Cuba and the United States
appear. Among children 10-14 gainful employment was nearly three
times as common in Cuba as in the United States-and almost as com-
mon as among the colored population alone of the United States (25.1
per cent). This fact is closely connected not merely with the poverty
of the masses in Cuba, but also with her backward industrial condi-
tion and the slight development of the school system, which has
appeared from the illiteracy and education tables. For the years
20-35 the proportion of breadwinners in the two countries was about
the same, but the percentage falls off more rapidly in the United
States than in Cuba. These proportions indicate that gainful work
begins earlier in life and continues to a later age in Cuba than it does
in the United States.





CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899


CUBA


OCCUPATIONS


BY PROVINCES


HABANA I



-- -IMATANZAS


- PINAR DEL RIO

PUERTO PRINCIPE


SANTA CLARA




SANTIAGO


AGRICULTURE

TRADE AND TRANSPORTATION

MANUFACTURING


w$


PROFESSIONS

PERSONAL SERVICE

NO GAINFUL OCCUPATION


w


























































































































t


























































n






OCCUPATIONS.


161


Breadwinners elas fred by age and sex.-In the following table the

number of persons of each sex and the specified age engaged in gainful

occupations is given:


Number of persons of sex and age specifed who were engaged in gainful orempations.


Total persons. Persons in gainfil
Age period. occupations.
Male. Female. Male. Femalhe.

0-9........................... 180,690 176,297 1,638 415
10-14.......................... 112,399 107,650 49,398 4,791
15-19.......................... 84,346 93,689 77,303 9,645
20-24......................... 79,008 73,951 77,515 8,417
25-29.......................... 73,206 64,199 72,133 7,762
30-34.......................... 64,023 54,789 63,196 7,358
35-44.... ................. 101,305 83,751 99,567 12,211
45-54.......................... 64,096 53,432 62,463 8,3-52
55-64.......................... 37,099 31,083 35,677 4,910
65+........................... 18,976 18,723 17,115 2,491
Unknown age................ 57 28 39 4

Total................... 815,205 757,592 555,974 66, 356


From the figures contained in the preceding table

contained in the following have been computed, and

the percentages for the United States are included:


the percentages

for comparison


Per rent of persons of sex and age specIfied who were engaged in gain fu orenpafions.


Age period.


0-9.....................................
10-14...................................
15-19.............................. .
20-24....................... ..........
25-29...................................
30-34...........................
35-44............... ............
45.M..............' ...........
55-64...................................
65+........ ....................
Unknown age...........

Total............... ...... .....


Males in- Females in-

Cuba. United Unite1
States. States.


0.9
44.0
91.6
98.1
98.5
98.6
98.3
97.5
96.2
90.2
68.4

68.2


..........
11.2
58.6
92.0
} 97.4
97.9
96.6
92.9
73.8
75.8


0.2
4.5
10.3
11.4
12.0
13.4
14.6
15.6
15.8
13.3
14.3


5. 9
27.4
30.6
i 17.3
13.2
12.9
12.0
8.3
30.8


58.7 8.8 12.


Perhaps the most noteworthy conclusion to be drawn from this table
is that the large proportion of males of all ages who were gainfully

employed in Cuba as compared with the United States (see p. 157) is

due not so much to a larger proportion during the years of maximum

efficiency, for the proportion of men between 25 and 55 years old who

were at work in the two countries was not very different, but is due,
rather, to the fact that men begin to work in Cuba as young boys and

continue to work into advanced years. This appears clearly in the table,
but perhaps the difference between the two countries can be made more

conspicuous by the following table, in which the proportion of males

of a given age in the United States who were at work is treated as 100

24662 11




162 URPOUT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.

per cent and the relative proportion of persons of the same age at work
in Cuba is computed on that basis:
Ratio between proportion of males at work in Cuba at age specified and those at work in the
United &otes (=100 per cent).

Age period:
10-14............------.--------------------- 392
15-19---- ---------......................... 156
20-24.......------.---------------.--.--.. 107
25-34------- ---....... ----------------- 101
35-44 ..........------------- .--.---------- 100
4554-- ------ ------------- ------------ 101
55-64-...........------------------------- 104
65+.-.......................................... 122

Of boys between 10 and 15 nearly four times as large a proportion
were at work in Cuba as in the United States. 'The proportion of young
men 15-19 at work is over 50 per cent greater, and of those 20-24 the
excess was 7 per cent; but between 25 and 55 the average difference
was only about 1 per cent. For men 55 to 64 it rose again to between
3 and 4 per cent, and of men over 65 the proportion at work in Cuba
was over one-fifth greater than in the United States. The difference
between the two countries may be due in part to the difference in the
character of the industries. An effort to ascertain whether this is so
will be made when the figures for classes of industries are analyzed.
But in very large part doubtless it is a result of the burdens, indus-
trial and political, under which the island has been struggling of recent
years. Boys and old men in Cuba have had to work in order to earn
a livelihood, while in the United States many of the former have been
securing for themselves, by school attendance and otherwise, a greater
earning power in later years, and many of the latter class have with-
drawn from gainful occupations and live on their own savings or on
the surplus from other members of the household.
In the two columns for women a remarkable difference appears
between the two countries. The proportion of Cuban women who were
engaged in gainful occupations, while always small, rises steadily,
though slowly, to a maximum at the age period 55-64. In the United
States it rises very rapidly to a maximum almost twice as great in the
age period 20-24. It then falls almost as abruptly, and for ages above
35 it is actually lower than in Cuba. This suggests that in Cuba the
duties of wife and mother may be combined not infrequently with
some gainful occupation, while in the United States the two classes of
duties are more often successive and less often simultaneous. From
the figures in Table XXX one may compute that among the female
breadwinners of Cuba, nearly three-fourths of whom were colored,
(p. 163) over one-fifth (21.2) were living in lawful or consensual mar-
riage. Among the female breadwinners of the United States in 1890




OCCUPATIONS. 163

about ong-eighth (13.2 per cent) were married, but among the colored
female breadwinners of that country over one-fourth (27.7 per cent)
were married.
Breadwinners classified by race.-In the following table the absolute
and relative number of persons engaged in gainful occupations is given
with distinction of race:

Per cent of breadwinners by race.

In gainful occupa-
tions,
Race. Population. -
Number. cent.

White-----------------------------------.... 1,052,397 403,059 38.3
Colored .................................... 520,400 219,271 42.1
Total................................... 1,572,797 622,330 39.E


This shows that the proportion of breadwinners was somewhat higher
among the colored than among the whites. In the following table the
corresponding per cents for the United States (1890) and Porto Rico
are introduced:
Per cent of breadwinners.

Country. Among Among Differ-
whites, colored. ence.

Cuba .............................................. 38.3 42.1 3.8
Porto Rico------------------------------------.... 32.2 34.8 2.
United States, 18W90 ............... 35.5 41.8 6.3


The difference between the two races appears in all three countries,
but in Cuba is greater than in Porto Rico and less than in the United
States. To understand these differences better the classification by
sex may be added to that by race.
Breadwinners classified by race and sex.-The following table gives
the absolute and relative numbers for all Cuba:

Breadwinners classified by race and sex.

Number.
Race and sea. Tot popu- In gainful Per
occu cent.
tions.

White males..................63,118 885,470 68.4
Colored males....................252, 092 170,504 67.6
White females............................... 489,284 17,589 3.6
Colored females ............................. 268,308 48,767 18.2
Total.................................. 1,572,797 622,330 39.6


The difference between white and colored among males is too small
to be weighty or significant. The difference between the two races is




164 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.

due entirely to the fact that gainful occupations are followed by col-
ored women to about five times the extent that they are by white
women. To determine whether this is true also of other countries
the percentage figures are given side by side in the following table:
Per cent of breadwinners.

Among males. Among females.
Country.
White. Colored. White. Colored.
Cuba ................................ 68.4 67.6 3.6 18.2
Porto Rico ..........................657.0 66.7 7.5 13.8
United States (1890)................. 58.9 57.4 11.0 25.8

In all three countries the proportion of breadwinners among white
males was slightly higher than the proportion among colored males;
but in all three this difference is outweighed by the fact that colored
women are at work much more generally than white women. The
difference between the women of the two races in this regard, how-
ever, was far more marked in Cuba than in either Porto Rico or the
United States. Cuba had a proportion of males of each race at work
much larger than in either other country. The proportion of white
women at work was about one-half that in Porto Rico and one-third
that in the United States. But the proportion of colored women
at work, while below that in the United States, was higher than that
in Porto Rico.
Breadwinners classtied as native and foreign born.-This distinction
is made in the occupation tables only for the whites. The colored for-
eign born, of whom Table X shows that there are about 30,000 (30,382)
in Cuba-mainly Chinese and Africans-must be disregarded. The
facts for the whites are given in the following table, by race and sex:

In gainful occu-
pations.
Race and sex. Population.
Number cet.
Native white males............................. 447,373 274,365 61.3
Foreign-born white males ...................... 115,740 111,105 96.0
Native white females .......................... 462,926 14,884 3.2
Foreign-born white females..................... 26,358 2,705 10.3
Total whites................................. 1,052,397 403,059 38.3

Hardly a moment's reflection is needed to detect the cause of the
wide difference indicated in the preceding table between the native and
the foreign-born of each sex and to reveal the insignificant character
of such a table taken alone. The immigrant whites of both sexes are
mainly adults, and the large proportion of workers among them is not
because they are of foreign birth but is because they are adult. Hence
if there is any real difference between these two classes of whites, to




OCCUPATIONS. 165

discover it groups of the same age must be compared. This is done
in the following table:
Per cent of breadwinners class iled by race, nativity, secs, and age.
Males. Females.
Age period. Native Foreign Colored. Native Foreign colore
white. white. white white.
10- -9................,.................... 0.7 9. 1.2 0.1 0.0 0.5
20-14..................................... 72.2 4.3 9.1
16-19 -- ------------------------------ I 90.0 97.3 93.5 5.1 9.6 20.6
20--24 ---------------------------------- 97.2 99.3 98.8 5.1 11.1 23.2
25-29 ---------------------------------- 98.0 99.1 98.9 4.6 13.2 24.9
30.34- ----------------------------------'I 98.0 99.2 99.1 4.9 13.2 27.2
35-44 ..-.............................J 97.6 98.5 99.2 5.1 12.5 29.2
45-54................................... 96.4 96.7 99.0 4.3 10.2 30.8
55-64.................................... 94.2 93.3 98.7 3.9 9.1 29.6
Unknown.............................-- 62.5 87.5 58.8 9.0 0.0 0.0

This table shows that among females the foreign-born whites uni-
formly were at work in larger proportions than the native white but in
much smaller proportions than the colored. This may be connected
with the concentration of the foreign-born of both sexes in the cities
and the larger opportunities which cities afford for women to find work.
Among males the proportion of foreign-born whites below 35 who
were at work is greater than the proportion in either other class, but
at later ages the proportion of colored breadwinners was higher, and
after 55 the proportion of native whites was also higher. It is note-
worthy, too, that the maximum proportion in gainful occupations for
each sex was reached later for the colored than for either class of whites.
Breadwinners classifed by kind of occupation.-The occupations in
which persons are engaged are grouped by the census into five main
classes. Arranged in the order of their prevalence, the groups are:
1. Agriculture, fisheries, and mining.
2. Domestic and personal service.
3. Manufacturing and mechanical industries.
4. Trade and transportation.
5. Professional service.
The first class includes all persons engaged in the so-called extractive
industries or those concerned with getting the wealth out ot the
earth or water, the third class includes those who transform the raw
material furnished by the extractive industries into new forms or
combinations, the fourth class includes all engaged in giving place or
time values to wealth by moving it from a place where it is less needed
to a place where it is more needed, or by saving it from a time when
it is less needed till a time when it is more needed, while the second
and fifth classes include all whose contribution to society is in the
form of personal services rather than of goods or of services upon
goods. The line of division between these groups or classes is often
obscure, and in many individual cases serious difficulties arise regard-







REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


ing the best group to which a person. or an occupation should be
assigned under the imperfect description found on the schedule.
The population of Cuba engaged in gainful occupations was divided

as follows among the five groups:

Per cent of
Occupation group. Number. gal oc
cupations.

Agriculture, fisheries, and mining...................... 299,197 48.1
Domestic and personal service ......................... 141,936 22.8
Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits .............. 93,034 14.9
Trade and transportation ....................,......... 79,427 12.8
Professional service...................... 8,736 1.4
Total............................................. 622,330 100.0


Nearly one-half of all workers were engaged in agriculture and over

one-fifth in domestic and personal service. About one in seven was in
manufacturing and mechanical industries, and one in eight in trade

and transportation. In the following table the per cents for Cuba and
the United States. are put side by side.

Per cent of breadwinners in each group of occupations.


United
Occupation group. Cuba. States
(1890).


Agriculture, fisheries, and mining ..........................
Domestic and personal service..............................
Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits...................
Trade and transportation ...................................
Professional service.........................................

Total..................................................


48.1 39.7
22.8 19.2
14.9 22.4
12.8 14.6
1.4 4.1
100.0 100.0


The main difference in occupations between the two countries is

that Cuba is more confined to agriculture and gives less attention to
manufacturing and mechanical pursuits than do the United States.

The small proportion of the professional class in Cuba is also note-

worthy.

Breadwinners by class of occupation and sex.-The sex of the work-

ers has great influence upon the character of the work chosen or

assigned. This appears in the following table:

Breadwinners by occupation, group, and sex.

Sex named in gainful occupations in class named.


Occupation group.


Agriculture, fisheries, and mining.'
Domestic and personal service .. .
Manufacturing and mechanical
pursuits..........................
Trade and transportation..........
Professional service................
Total.........................


Number.

Males. Females.

292,331 6,866
95,769 46,167

82,012 11,022
78,766 661
7,096 1,640

555,974 66,356


Per cent.

Males. Females.

52.6 10.3
17.2 69.6
14.7 16.6
14.2 1.0
1.3 2.5

100.0 100.0


Per cent in United
States (1890).

Males. Females.

44.3 17.4
14.3 42.6

21.6 26.2
16.4 5.8
3.4 8.0
100.0 100.0


166




OCCUPATIONS AND PERSONS TO A.. BUILDING. 167

One-half of the males at work in Cuba were engaged in agriculture,
etc., but only one-tenth of the females. In the United States the
proportion of males in agriculture was less, but of females was
greater. In both countries the females were mainly in the class of
domestic and personal service, but in Cuba this class includes about
seven-tenths of all women at work, while in the United States it
includes only a little over four-tenths. In both countries women who
go to work at all go into manufacturing and mechanical industries in
rather larger proportions than men do.

SANITARY CONDITION OF DWELLINGS AND UNOCCUPIED HOUSES.

In the present census all buildings, whether occupied October 16,
1899, or not, were reported by the enumerators, and the facts regard-
ing the provisions in them for supplying water and for disposing of
garbage and excreta were ascertained. Before proceeding to a dis-
cussion of these topics a brief analysis of this return of buildings may
be made.
The total number of buildings in Cuba, whether occupied or not,
was 297,905, or 5.3 persons to a building. The average number of
persons to a building, occupied or unoccupied, may be computed from
those tables. The provinces range as follows:
Persons -IPersons
Province. to a Province. bag.
building.'ldng
Santa Clara............................. 4.7 Puerto Principe........................ 5.2
Santiago................................. 4.8 Pinar del Rio .......................... 5.4
Matanzas ............................. 4.8 Habana city ........................... 8.8-


In Habana city there was one building of some sort to each 9 persons;
elsewhere in Cuba one to each 5. In Porto Rico there were 5.3 persons
to a building, or about the same as in Cuba outside Habana. The pre-
ceding table suggests that in the cities of Cuba the ratio of buildings
to population was probably less than in the rural districts. The facts
upon this point are brought out more clearly in the following table:

Po ua- -Persons
District. a- Buildings. to a
tion. building.
14 cities....................491,504 79,077 6.2
Rest of Cuba ...................1,081, 293 218, 828 4.9

The average number of persons to a building was much less in all cities
together than it is in Habana. Hence the other cities must have had a
relatively small number of persons to a building. All 14 cities except
Pinar del Rio and Habana had a smaller number of persons to a building
than the average for all cities, and 8 of the 14 had as small a number as




168 REPORT QN THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.

the average in the rural districts of the island. The smallest number
of persons to a building was found in the cities of Santa Clara province,
except Cienfuegos.
Of the 297,905 buildings in Cuba, 262,724, or about seven-eighths
(88.2 per cent), were occupied, and 35,181, or one-eighth (11.8 per cent),
were unoccupied. The number and ratio of unoccupied buildings to
the total was as follows:

Toa Unoccu- Per cent
Province. buildings. pied unoccu-
buildings. buildings, pied.
Habana .................................. 64,229 5,474 8.5
Puerto Principe........................... 16,997 1,67 9. 8
Santa Clara------------------------------... 74,995 9,599 12.8
Santiago--------------------------------.... 67,891 8,673 12.8
Pinar del Rio----------------------------.. 32,042 4,15.5 13
Matanzas.................................... 41,751 5,608 13.4

The positions of Habana and Pinar del Rio suggest that unoccupied
buildings may be more common in the country. The following table
gives the number and proportion of unoccupied buildings in the 14
cities separately reported:

Unoccu- Per cent
District. Buildings. pied unoccu-
buildings. pied.
14 cities...................................... 78,915 8,338 10.5
Rest of Cuba ................................ 218,990 26,843 12.3

To ascertain whether the number of unoccupied buildings was unusu-
ally large because of recent disturbances, the figures for Porto Rico
may be used for comparison. On that island 11.3 per cent of the build-
ings were reported as unoccupied. It seems, therefore, that the pro-
portion in Cuba was not exceptional.
Passing to the occupied buildings or dwellings, one may examine the
average number of persons to each. In this respect the provinces
rank as follows:

Persons Persons
Province. to a Province. to a
dwelling. dwelling.
Santa Clara.............................. 5.5 Pinar del Rio .......................... 6.2
Santiag o. ................... ........... 5.5 Habana city ........................... 9.4
Habana (exclusive of city)----------------5.6 ____
Matanzas ............................... 5.6 Cuba............................ 6.0
Puerto Principe ........................ 5.8

In the United States in 1890 there were 5.5 persons to a dwelling.
The table does not show that the average dwelling was more crowded in
Habana city than in Santa Clara, for in the one case the dwelling may
be more roomy. The dwelling is an unsatisfactory unit of measure,
just because it can not be- defined. Hence thorough and accurate




PERSONS TO A DWELLING. 169

knowledge of local conditions is requisite to interpret such a table as
the foregoing. Yet, if the dwellings of Cuba be divided into two
classes, city dwellings and country dwellings, some progress may be
made. This is done in the following table:

Pt ula-Persons
District. Poua Dwellings, to a
hon. dwelling.
14 cities--------------------------------....491,504 70, 739 6.9
Rest of Cuba--------------------------....1,081,293 191,985 5.6

There were rather more persons to a dwelling in the cities of Cuba,
but the difference is in no wise what the figures for Habana city in the
earlier table would lead one to expect. In many of the other cities of
Cuba, therefore, the number of persons to a dwelling must be low.
Indeed, when the figures as a whole for the 13 cities outside Habana
are compared with the rural districts, it appears that in those cities
there were on the average 5.6 persons to a dwelling, or just the same
number as in the country. In the following table the figures are given
for the urban and rural population of each province:

Persons to a dwell-
ing.
Province.
In urban In rural
districts, districts.
Habana ................................................... 8.9 5.6
Matanzas.............................................. 5.9. 5.5
Pinar del Rio----------------------------------------.... 7.6 6.2
Puerto Principe ........................................... 5.2 6.0
Santa Clara................................................ 5.4 5.5
Santiago................................................... 5.5 5.6
Cuba ................................................ 6.9 5.6

In the three western provinces there were more persons to a dwelling
in the cities, although outside of Habana province the difference was
slight; but in the three eastern provinces the position is reversed.
It may be inferred that the dwelling in Cuban cities outside Habana
is not much more roomy than it is in the rural districts, for space in a
city is usually more valuable than in the country, and if the average
city dwelling were larger it would probably contain more inhabitants.
In this respect there is a marked difference between the Cuban figures
and those for the large cities of the United States. The fifty-eight
American cities each having over 50,000 inhabitants had 7.3 persons
to a dwelling in 1890, and the rest of the country only 5.2. Still only
three American cities had more persons to a dwelling than Habana.
Dwellings and families.-By comparing the number of dwellings
with the number of families in Table XL, one may ascertain the ratio
between the census families and the dwellings. Every dwelling con-
tains at least one family, for, as already explained, one person living




170 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.

alone is for census purposes a family, and an unoccupied place of
habitation is not a dwelling. As certain dwellings contain two or
more families, the number of census families must exceed the number
of dwellings. The figures for Cuba, compared with those for the
United States and Porto Rico, are given below:

Families
country Number of Number of to 1
Counry.families, dwellings, dwell-
ings.
Cuba ................................ 827,965 262,724 125
Porto Rico------------------------------...181,594 158,306 115
United States.------------------........---12,690,152 11,483,818 111

From these figures it appears that there were more families to 100
dwellings in Cuba than in either Porto Rico or the United States. In
the following table the figures are given separately for each province
and for the city of Habana:

Families Families
Province. dwell- Province. dwell-
ings. ings.
Santa Clara............................. 110 Puerto Principe........................ 122
Santiago....------------------------110 iMatanzas------------- -----..--._--124
Pinar del Rio .............. ............. 112j Habana (city) ....-..... -...........27
Habana (excluding city).......,........ 118

The families to 100 dwellings in Cuba, outside the city of Habana,
were 114, or slightly less than in Porto Rico, but rather more than in
the United States. Habana city had more than 2 families to each
dwelling, a relation which held in the United States only for New
York, Brooklyn, and Fall River among the fifty largest cities of the
country.
SOURCE OF WATER SUPPLY IN CUBA.

The original source of water supply in Cuba, as elsewhere, is rain-
fall. This rain may fall on a building and be guided into and stored
in a cistern, or may fall on and percolate through the ground either
under or upon the surface. Flowing water may be obtained for
human use as it comes to the surface either in a natural spring or an
artificial well. Or it may be obtained as it flows over the surface
either in a natural water course or in an artificial water course or
aqueduct. Accordingly the census recognizes four sources of water
supply, as follows:
1. Cistern for rain water.
- 2. Spring or well for ground water.
3. Water from a natural stream.
4. Water front an artificial aqueduct.




SOURCE OF WATER SUPPLY. 171

As many homes in Cuban cities take water from street vendors, the
answers given to the enumerators at the houses regarding the source
from which the vendors obtain it may be open to some slight question,
but there seems little reason to deny the substantial correctness of the
returns.
These four sources are drawn upon for a water supply in the fol-
lowing proportions:


Nearly half the dwellings in Cuba got water from cisterns and more
than one-fourth from streams, or three-fourths from these two sources.
The proportion using each of these four sources in each province is
shown in the following table:

Per cent of dwellings obtaining water from
source named.
Province. Total.
Cistern. stream. Aue I iNo
Ci te n St ea duct I W l 1 specified.
Habana (city)............................. 4 1 82 1 12 100
Habna (excluding city) ................ 79 9 5 3 4 100
Matanzas ................................ 78 4 14 1 3 100
Pinar del Rio ............................ 34 61 1 2 2 100
Puerto Principe........................... 56 20 0 21 3 100
SantaClara.............................. 55 20 9 14 2 100
Santiago................................. 18 61 14 6 1 100
Cuba............................... 46 28 16 7 3 100

Cisterns were used least in the capital, but with that exception were
least common in the two provinces at the ends of the island, where
one-sixth (Santiago) or one-third (Pinar del Rio) of the houses derived
water from this source. The other four provinces fall into two groups,
an eastern, Puerto Principe and Santa Clara, in which one-half of the
houses used cisterns, and a western, Habana outside the city and
Matanzas, in which nearly four-fifths of the houses relied on cisterns.
Where cisterns were most used streams were least used for water. In
the provinces at the ends of Cuba about three-fifths of the houses relied
on streams; in the east central group one-fifth, and in the west central
group less than one-tenth. About five-sixths of the houses in Habana
city derived water from an aqueduct. In Matanzas and Santiago the
proportion was about one-seventh, elsewhere less than one-tenth.
In the following tables the per cent of dwellings using these several


of d g Per cent
Source of water supply. supplied of ttl
from source ings.
named.
Cisterns for rain water .................................. 120,621 46
Stream .................................................. 74,363 28
Aqueduct ............................................... 41,748 16
Spring l ............................................ 17,766 7
Not specified......................................... 8,226 3
Total.......................................... 262,724 100





172 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.

sources of water supply is given for each of the fourteen cities sepa-
rately reported and then for the districts outside those cities by
provinces.

Per cent of urban dwellings obtaining water
from sources named.
City. Total.
Aut. Cistern. Stream. Well, Notsec -

Cardenas................................. 25 68 0 3 4 100
Cienfuegos................................ 42 7 0 47 4 100
Guanabacoa ........-.-.-.-... -..........1 86 0 3 10 100
Habana.................................. 83 4 0 1 12 100
Manzanillo............................,.. 0 31 30 38 1 100
Matanzas ............................... 55 39 0 1 5 100
PinardelRio............................. 0 90 6 1 3 100
Puerto Principe--....................... 0 54 0 41 5 100
Reglsa-----------------------------------. 1 46 0 45 8 100
SagualaGrande......................... 53 1 8 36 2 100
Sancti Spiritus--------------73 8 17 0 2 100
SantaClara............................... 0 89 0 10 1 100
Santiago ................................. 94 0 3 1 2 100
Trinidad ................................. 0 0 11 87 2 100
Urban Cuba........................ 53 23 3 14 7 100


The most incomplete returns under this head were from the cities in
Habana province. The seven cities which apparently had a municipal
water supply stand out sharply in the first column, and in the order
of the proportion of houses supplied with water through an aqueduct
they rank as follows: Santiago, Habana, Sancti Spiritus, Matanzas,
Sagua la Grande, Cienfuegos, and Cardenas.
The following notes regarding the water supply of these cities have
been derived from various sources:

CARDENAS.
Since 1872, Cardenas has had an aqueduct which supplies water from a subterra-
nean river one mile distant from the town, which furnishes an abundant supply at
a cost of about $3 gold per month for each faucet. The well water and that from
underground cisterns is brackish and not potable, so that, as a rule, the poor purchase
water from the street carriers. (Military Notes on Cuba.)

CIENFUEGOS.
The commencement of a waterworks system has been made, and the water tower,
standing at an elevation of over 100 feet above the harbor level, is one of the striking
features of the landscape; but at last accounts the company had not begun to furnish
water, and the sole source of supply was from underground cisterns, the owners of
which derive a handsome revenue from selling water to their less fortunate neigh-
bors. (Clark.)
The supply of water is absolutely inadequate to the demands of the city. The
hotels and a few residences have cement cisterns built in the ground and use rain
water; but the chief supply comes from a small stream, the Jicotea. River, a small
branch of the Cannan. The water is pumped into two aqueducts. The principal
one, which is called after the Jicotea River, holds 400,000 liters; a smaller one, the
Bouffartique, holds 300,000 liters. Pipes from these two aqueducts run through a
few of the streets above ground alongside the curbing. The gates are open only two
hours daily. The hospitals use this water after boiling. As a remedy for this con-
dition, I am told there was a project to bring water from a point 20 miles distant from




SOURCE OF WATER SUPPLY. 173

the falls of the Havabanilla River, 1,200 feet above the sea. Absolute freedom from
pollution was claimed. It was abandoned on account of the war. The estimated
cost of this work was $1,000,000. The Jicotea aqueduct is simplya large open cistern
built of rocks and cement. There are about 200 wells in the city, but infected.
(United States Sanitary Inspector D. E. Dudley, quoted by R. P. Porter.)

HABANA.

The present water supply o.Habana is excellent, being derived from the pure and
extensive springs of Vento, about 9 miles distant from the city. The present aque-
duct, completed in 1893 or 1894, was begun in 1861, and is known as El Canal de
Albear. At the source of supply there is a large stone basin into which the springs
or, more properly, subterranean streams bubble. At one side is a magnificent gate-
house. From this runs the aqueduct, whieh is an egg-shaped brick tunnel, generally
under ground, but marked at frequent intervals along its route by turrets of brick
and stone. The present water supply enters the city through the suburb of Cerro,
which formerly had few, if any, connections with it, the population of this suburb
purchasing their water from the street carriers. There is an old aqueduct also run-
ning into the city, built as early as 1597, known as the Zanja. The source of this
water supply was, or is, the Almendares River, only about 2 miles away, the water
of which was unquestionably impure. There are but few wells and cisterns in the
city, and to-day nearly all of the water used is pure. It should perhaps be said that
the waterworks enterprise is a municipal affair. (Clark.)
The present water supply of Habana is excellent, although it is used by only a por-
tion of the population. It comes from the enormous springs on the banks of the
Almendares River, about 8 miles due south of the city. These springs are inclosed
in a masonry structure about 150 feet in diameter at its base and 250 feet at the top
and 60 feet deep. Masonry drains are laid around the upper surface to prevent any
surface water from washing into the spring. At the base of this spring the water is
constantly bubbling up and appears to be of remarkable purity. The supply is so
large that it more than fills all the present requirements, and a large portion of it
runs to waste. From the spring the water is conveyed under the Almendares River by
pipes situated in a tunnel, and from the north side of the river the water is conveyed
in a masonry tunnel or aqueduct for a distance of about 6 miles, where it discharges
into a receiving reservoir, the altitude of which is 35 meters, or about 108 feet, above
the sea level. From the distributing reservoir the water is carried into the city by
gravity in pipes, the highest point in the thickly populated portion of the city being
68 feet. The pipes in the streets are said to be small, and there is not sufficient pres-
sure to carry the water to the upper stories of the small number of buildings which
exceed one story in height. In these buildings pumping is necessary. There are
said to be about 18,000 houses in the city, and from a report made by the municipal-
ity in 1897 it appears that the number of houses directly connected with the water
pipes is 9,233. The poorer houses, which are not thus connected, obtain water either
by purchase from the street vendors or by getting it from public taps, of which there
are a certain number scattered throughout the city. (General Greene, quoted by
R. P. Porter.)
MATANZAS.
Since 1872 it has had a fine water supply, though only about half the houses are
connected with the water system, and many of the people still buy water of street ven-
dors without knowledge as to the source of supply or purity of the water. (Porter.)

SANTIAGO.
The city has a good water supply furnished through an aqueduct named El Paso
de la Virgen. (Clark.)




174 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF OUBA, 1899.

There is no city in which one-third of the houses obtain water
directly from a natural stream, and in more than half of the cities this
source of supply is not recognized. The only cities in which it is
important are Manzanillo, Sancti Spiritus, and Trinidad.
MANZANILLO.
Manzanillo lies on the coast of Santiago, about three-quarters of a
mile from the mouth of the Yara. "The water supply formerly came
from the river Yara, but proved to be so unhealthy that now the
inhabitants rely entirely upon cisterns." (Clark.) In the light of the
preceding figures this is evidently a statement of what should be
rather than what is.
SANCI SPIRITUS.
"Sancti Spiritus is situated on both banks of the Yayabo, which
flows 51 miles to empty into the Zaza at a point about 20 miles from
the sea." (Military Notes on Cuba.)
TRINIDAD.
"The course of the river Guauraho lies within half a mile of Trini-
dad." (Clark.)
Regarding the water supply of the other five cities, Guanabacoa,
Pinar del Rio, Puerto Principe, Regla, and Santa Clara, the following
notes are submitted:
GUANABACOA.
"Guanabacoa is noted for its numerous springs and wells and for
the excellence and abundance of its drinking water." (Military Notes
on Cuba.)
PINAR DEL RIO.
"The river on the outskirts has good water." (Military Notes.)
"The river which skirts the town could be utilized as a source for a
pure water supply." (Clark.)
PUERTO PRINCIPE.
"A small river runs through the town." (Military Notes.)
The following table shows by provinces the per cent of all dwellings
in the districts outside the fourteen cities supplied with water in the
manner specified:
Per cent of dwellings in rural districts obtaining
water from sources specified.
Province. Total.
Cistern. Stream. Well. Aque- Not
duct. specified.
Habana.................................. 80 10 1 6 3 100
Matanzas ................................ 88 6 1 3 2 100
PinardelRio............................ 31 64 2 1 2 100
Puerto Principe.......................... 56 29 12 0 3 100
santaClara.............................. 65 25 7 1 2 100
Santiago ................................. 20 72 4 3 1 100
RuralCuba........................ 54 38 4 2 2 100

A small number of dwellings in rural Cuba are reported to derive
water from an aqueduct. The municipal districts containing as many




WATER SUPPLY AND GARBAGE DISPOSAL. 175

as 100 such dwellings are as follows: In Habana province, Marianao
(196), San Antonio de los Bafos (369), Batabano (505), Guines (500);
in Matanzas province, Jovellanos (408) and Bolondron (188); in Pinar
del Rio province, Mariel (192); in Santa Clara, Abreus (139), Rodas
(188), and Sagua la Grande outside the urban part (127); in Santiago,
El Caney (427) and Baracoa (687).
The general reliance upon water from streams in the two provinces
at the ends of Cuba-Pinar del Rio and Santiago-and upon cisterns in
the four central provinces is clearly shown in the preceding tables.
There seems some reason for doubt whether the line of division
between cisterns for rain water (aljibe) and well or spring for ground
water (pozo) was clearly understood by the enumerators and those
who answered their questions.

DISPOSITION OF GARBAGE.
The enumerators were instructed to write in the column for answers
to this question "Xunicipal" (municipal), "Particular" (private), or
" Se quema" (by burning), according to the method of disposition used
at the dwelling where the question was put. In addition to these three
classes it was necessary to introduce a fourth for unspecified or insuffi-
ciently specified, but only 2 per cent of the houses fell into this last
class. The facts for Cuba as a whole are shown in the following table:

Number of Per cent
Method of disposing of garbage. dwellings of all
so re- dwell-
porting. ings.
Municipal ............................................... 88,229 34
Burning .............--.......-......-................84,355 3
Private--..------------.---------------------------- 83,287 32
Not specified ............................................ 6,853 2
Total ....................................... 262,724 100

In this respect, as in that of water supply, the main difference is
between the city and the country districts. In the following table,
therefore, the methods of disposing of garbage in the several cities are
given:
Per cent of urban dwellings using specified method of garbage disposal.
Ct.Munc-Nt Ttl
City. ci- Burning. Private, specified. Total.

Cardenas.................... 79 9 9 3 100
Cienfuegos................92 2 5 1 100
Guanabacoa.................. 81 75 7 100
Habana...................... 91 1 2 6 100
Manzanillo................... 95 2 2 1 100
Matanzas..................... 90 3 4 3 100
Pinar deliRio................ 93 0 4 3 100
Puerto Principe ............. 93 1 2 4 100
Regla ........................ 92 1 0 7 100
Sagua la Grande ..............74 9 16 1 100
*Sanceti Spiritus............... 81 9 8 100
SantaClara ................. 83 4 1 100
Santiago ..................... 91 5 2 2 100
Trinidad..................... 67 26 6 1 100
Urban tuba .............88 4 4 I 4 100




176 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.

From this table it is clear that, taking the dwellings as a whole, in
the 14 cities, 7 in every 8 of them had some municipal system of dis-
posing of garbage. The cities of Santa Clara, except Cienfuegos, were
apparently least well provided in this respect. In the cities of that
province, more commonly than elsewhere in Cuba, garbage was dis-
posed of. by burning.
In the following table the same facts are given by provinces for the
rural districts of Cuba:

Per cent of rural dwellings using specified method of garbage disposal.

Province. pal. Burning. Private, speed. Total.

Habana ..................... 20 22 54 4 100
Matanzas..................... 20 28 50 2 100
Pinardel Rio................ 10 2 86 2 100
Puerto Principe ...............5 64 28 3 100
Santa Clara ........ .......... 12 43 43 2 100
Santiago..................... 11 79 9 1 100
Rural Cuba............ 14 42 42 2 100

Outside of the 14 cities about 1 dwelling in 7 enjoyed some public
means of garbage disposal, and the prevalence of this varies in rough
agreement with the density of rural population as given on page 74.
The only private means specified is that of burning, and this is increas-
ingly prevalent from west to east. To show this, the provinces have
been arranged in the following list in their order from west to east
and the per cent of rural dwellings burning their garbage indicated.

Per cent Per cent
of rural of rural
Provine.dwell- Province. w
Provnce dwell
burning burning
garbage. garbage.
Pinar del Rio..,......................... 2 Santa Clara ............................. 43
Habana ................................ 22 Puerto Principe........................ 64
Matanzas............................... 28 Santiago............................... 79

The houses having other means of garbage disposal obviously vary
in the reverse way; that is, when burning is common, other private
means are uncommon, and vice versa.

DISPOSITION OF EXCRETA.

The entries which the enumerators were allowed to make in the
column containing the answers to this question were pozo, inodoro,
or ninguna (none). In addition to the three thus allowed there will
be found in the tables a fourth class of "not specified" to cover cases
where the question was not answered. The only recognized methods
of disposal, therefore, were pozo and inodoro. As it is difficult to find






LATRINE SYSTEM.


177


any exact English equivalent for these words, they will be retained in

the following discussion of the tables.'
The following table shows the frequency of these various modes of

disposal:


Mode of disposing of excreta.


Number of
dwellings
using it in
Cuba.


Per cent
of total
d1well-
ings.


No form ................................................. 129,245 49
Pozo...................................................... 110,695 42
Inodoro ....................... ......................... 13,644 5
Not specified ............................................ 9,140 4

Total2............................................. 62,724 100


About half the dwellings in Cuba had no provision of any kind


for


this purpose. It is said that in rural Spain the inhabitants conunonly

have no closets or outhouses, but resort to the fields, and the same is

apparently true of Cuba. Of the houses having conveniences of this

sort nine-tenths (8.9 per cent) reported apozo and one-tenth an inodro.

In this respect the provinces stand as follows:

Per cent of total dwellings supplied with specified mode of disposal of excreta.


Province.


Habana (city ........ ......................................
Habana (excluding city) .....................................
Matanzas .................................... .....
Pinar del Rio......................................
Puerto Principe.................................. ............
Santa Clara ..............................................
Santiago ......................................................

Total....................................................


Pozo. Inodoro. No form. Not
specified.

43 48 3 6
57 ..... 3.5 8
48 17 3
20 .......... 77 3
40 .........- 57 3
47 -...---- ...50 3
36 ......... 63 1

42 5 10 4


It is clear that outside of Habana City and Matanzas province the

inodoro is hardly known. In the following table the facts are given

for the thirteen other cities separately reported:

Per cent of urban dellings using specified method of disposing oif excretv.


Pozo. Inodoro.


- City. -

Cardenas...........................................
Cienfuegos .......................................
Guanabacoa........................................
Manzanillo..................
Matanzas...........................................
Pinar del Rio.......................................
Puerto Principe ....................................
Regla...... ................................ ...... .
Sagua la Grande....................................
Sancti Spiritus......................................
Santa Clara-........................................
Santiago-----......................................
Trinidad ...........................................

Urban Cuba (excluding Habana)............


87
93
83
94
78
94
69
91,
89
82
75
93
96

85


3
4
'..........-
.......-..
11
..........
1
4
..........
1


3


None. N Total.
specifie..'lt.

7 3 100
2 1 100
10 7 100
5 1 100
8 3 100
2 4 100
26 5 100
1 7 100
5 2 100
16 2 100
22 2 100
4 21 100
2 2 100


3 I 100


in


1 Note on meaning of pozo and inodoro. The "inodoro" includes every receptacle
for excreta in which an effort is made to destroy or decrease the foul odors arising
24662 12


.





178 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.

This table shows that Matanzas is the only city besides Habana in
which an inodoro was found in one-tenth of the dwellings and that in
half the other 12 cities it did not occur in an appreciable number of
cases. In 4 of these 13 cities at least 10 per cent of the houses were
without closet conveniences and in 2 more than 1 dwelling in 5 was
thus unprovided.
In the following table the facts are given for the rural districts of
Cuba:
Per cent of rural dwellings wsing specified method of disposing of excreta.

Province. Pozo. Inodoro. None. i TOtl.

Habana ............................................ 52 0 40 8 100
Matanzas......................................... 36 0 61 3 100
Pinar del Rio...................................... 17 0 81 2 100
Puerto Principe .................................... 25 0 72 3 100
Santa Clara......................................... 35 0 61 4 100
Santiago............................................ 23 0 76 1 100
Rural Cuba................................. 32 0 65 3 100


In rural Cuba there was a powz in connection with about one-third
of the dwellings, while two-thirds were without this or any other form
of receiving excreta.

therefrom, usually by the addition of such substances as lime, dry clay, or ashes.
The pozo includes all other forms of closet. The modern form of closet flushed by
water from a system of pipes, called escusado inwMs, is very unusual in Habana, and
unknown elsewhere in Cuba. Either the inodoro or the pozo is cleaned, when it
is cleaned at all, by scavengers hired by the property owner.















POPULATION TABLES.

TABLE I. -2i' /iHlIlttilt t dit f.I'rII11 ClIsIsEs.


Year. 'opula-
tion.

1774...................................... 172,620
1792.................... ..... 272,:301
1817 ---.................-.... 553,028
1827...................................... 704,187


Year.


1841 ..................................--
IS61 ...... . .. . . .. . .
177.............................. .. --
1899 .........................-


'opula-
tii n.

1,007,624
1,396,530
1,631,687
1,572,797


TABLE II.--PJolImtifOI of ('It i i its prorinrs (til rm-iNlms Crlsasres.


Province.


1861.1 1887. 1899.


Habana ..................................----------..........-.... 393,789 151,925
Matanzas . . ... . .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. 234,521 259,57n
Pinar del R io .... ........:................. -.. --------. -..- .... 116, 885 225, e91
Puerto Principe .............................---------.- 85, 702 67,789
Santa Clara.........--.................................. 271 .310 ;!5 ,122
Santiago de Cuba.................................................. 61,520 272, 379

Cuba- ........................... .. . . . . 1,396,;530 1,631, 687


1 Population of provinces estimated. See Appendix XVI.


TABLE 1II.--Ppul latter date, ieith gain or loss of population.

HABANA PROVINCE.


Municipal districts.


A guacate ....................................................
A l u iza r ................................. ---.-..... .........
Bamo ...................... ...............................
Batabano .................................................
Banta...........................
Bejucal......................................... ...........
Cano..........................................................
Casiguas .................................. ...........
Catalina ............... ........................... .......
Ceiba del Agua ............................................
Guanabacoa.......................................
Guarm........... .................................
Guines..................................................
Guirade Melena............................................
Habana................ ........ ...................
Isla de Pinos.................................................
Jaruco ...................................................
Madruga.....................................................
Managua.................................................
Marianao ................. ........................
M elena del Stir...............................................
Nueva Paz ........................................
Pipian ............................... .............
Quivican --........... ......................................
Regla .........................................................
Salud ................................. .................
San Antonio de las Vegas.....................................
San Antonio de los Banos ....................................
San Felipe.................................. .................
San Jose de las Lajas .........................................
San Nicolas...................................................
Santa Cruz del Norte (formerly San Antonio de Rio Blanco
and Jibacoa) ............................. ......... .......
Santa Maria del Rosario............................ ......
Santiago de las Vegas ........................................
Tapaste.......................................................
Vereda Nueva.......--.....................................


1887.


3,346
8,314
4,188
8,016
8,070
7,902
3,745
3,886
6,112
3,232
28,013
4,549
12,618
8,721
200,448
2,040
12,182
7,514
5,850
7,352
5,275
9,571
3, 414
4, 585
10, 316
4,896
4, 469
12,423
2,313
6, 218
6,724

9,210
4,885
12,081
6,143
3,277


1899.


3,163
8,746
1,725
6,523
5,142
5,756
4,210
1,004
2,718
2,197
20,080
1, 835
11,394
11,548
212,055
3,199
4,076
3,744
2,887
8,593
3,207
7,761
1,101
2, 423
11,363
3, 293
1, his
12,631
1,915
4, 154
4,568

2, 965
2,730
10,276
1,551
2. 416


Gain.



432 .



465 .


..........


2,827 .
11,607
1,15,.



1,241 .

..........

1,047 .


208 .

..........
..........I

..........


179


421,811
202,462
17:, 08.2
'-, :_7
356,537
327, 716

1,572,845


Loss.


183

2, 463
1,493
2,928
2,146

2,882
3,394
1, 035
7, 913
2,714
1, 224



8,106
3,770
2,963

2,068
1,810
2,313
2,162

1, 603
2,614
.. .....
398
2,064
2,156


6,245
2,155
1,80
4,592
861






180 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


TABLE LL.-POpution qf muniCija districts in 1887 and 1899, etc.-Continued.

MATANZAS PROVINCE.


Municipal districts, 1887. 1899. Gain. Loss.


Alacranes (formerly Alfonso XII)....................-..... 9,711 8,110 .......... 1,601
Bolondron-.............. -......-............-. 11,816 9,179 ......... 2,637
Cabezas....................................................... 8,802 5,184 .......... 3,618
Canasi............................................... ........ 4,524 1,993 .......... 2,531
Cardenas....................................................,. 23,354 24,861 1,507........
Carlos Rojas (formerly Cimarrones).......................... 6,879 3,174 ..........-3,705
Colon ...........--- ..---....----------....................... 16,679 12,195 1,369........
Cuevitas...................................................,. 6,323 5,807 516
Guamacaro........................................... .....,. 10,245 6,000 ......... 4,245
Jaguey Grande (formed from Colon)................,........-.......... 5,853.................
Jovellanos .......................................... ...... .. 8,518 7. 529 .......... 989
Macagua...................................................-. 5,410 5,042 .......... 368
Macunrges.....................................,................ 13,374 10,405 .......... 2,969
Marti (formerly Guamutas) .................................. 11,589 8,905 .......... 2,684
Matanzas ..................................................... 56,379 45,282 .......... 11,097
Maximo Gomez............................................... 8,132 4,046 ......... 4,086
MendezCapote................................,............... 5,349 2,158 ......... 3,191
Palm illas ..................................................... 8,818 7,647 .......... 1,171
Perico (formerly Cervantes) ...... ..................... 3,204 4,449 1,245 .......,..
Roque.................-........-- -............................ 8,216 4,464 .....--... 3,752
Sabanilla-------------------------------...................... 8,871 5,205 .......... 3,6,6t
San Jose de los Ramos .............-......................... 9,031 6,765 .......... 2,286
Santa Ana (formerly Cidra).................................. 6,219 2,965 -..-.... 3,254
Union de Reyes................---............................ 8,135 5,26 .......... 2,909


PINAR DEL RIO PROVINCE.


Artemisa (includingCayajabos)............................ 15,775 9,317 ...-.. 6,458
BahiaHonda.................................................. 8,506 2,117 .......... 6,389
Cabanas.........................,............................. 8,560 3,853 .......... 4,707
Candelaria (including Mangas) ,............................. 9,875 4,866 .......... 5,009
Consolation del Norte .................,.....-..--.. 7,934 7,399 .......... 53
Consolation del Sur (including Alonso Rojas)................ 20,328 16,665 .......... 3,663
Guanajay ..................................................... 9,512 8,796 .......... 716
Guane......................................................... 22,708 14,760 .......... 7,948
Guayabal ..............,.................................... 6,337 2,710 .......... 3,627
Mantua (including Baja)--...--....-................... 11,122 8,366 .......... 2,756
Mariel ........................................................ 7,902 3,631 .......... 4,271
Palacios.............................................--------. 6,501 2,456 ......... 4,045
Julian Diaz (formerly Paso Real de San Diego) .............. 4,920 1,871 -......... 3,049
Pinar del Rio................................................. 29,497 38,343 8,846 .........
San Cristobal (including Santa Cruz de los Pinos)............ 9,066 4,263 .......... 4,803
San Diego de los Banos ....................................... 6,317 2,419 ..........-3,898
San Diego de Nunez.......................................... 4,180 1,137 .......... 3,043
San Juan y Martinez.......................................... 17,974 14,787 .......... 3,187
San Luis ..........,........................................... 7,327 7,608 281 .........
Vinales ....................................................... 11,550 17,700 6,150 ........


PUERTO PRINCIPE PROVINCE.


Ciego de Avila................................................ 7,929 9,801 1,872 ..........
Moron ......--...............---..--....................... --8,919 9,630 711 ........
Nuevitas... .................................................. 6,618 10,355 3,737 ..........
Puerto Prncipe..--.......................................... 40,958 53,140 12,182 ........
Santa Cruz del Sur............................................ 3,365 5,308 1,943 ........


SANTA CLARA PROVINCE.


Abreus..........--- ........................................... 3,819 3,995 176 .........
Caibarien.--------------------------------------------- 5,106 8,650 3,544 .........
Calabazar...........................................,....--. 12,957 13,419 462 .........
Camajuani................................................... 10,537 14,495 3,958 ........
Cartagena.............--...................................... 7,029 6,244 .......... 785
Cea de Pablo................................................ 9,723 6,954 ........ 2,769
Cenfuegos.................................................... 40,964 59,128 18,164 ........
Cifuentes (formerly Amaro) ........-..-.--. 7,251 3,825 ......... 3,426
Cruces................................. ..-----------.. ......... 6,490 7,953 1,463 ........
Esperanza .........................--......................... 12,759 7,811 .......... 4,948
La as (Las) --------------- -.. .. 8,014 9,603 1,589 ........
Paimira...................................................... 4,709 6,527 1,818 ........
Placetas ...................................................... 9,337 11,961 2,524 ........







POPULATION BY WARDS AND CITIES.


181


TABLE III.-PoPjmbttion of municipal districts in. 1887 and 1899, etc.-Continued.

SANTA CLARA PROVINCE-Continued.


Municipal districts.


Quemado de Guines...........................................
Rancho Veloz ................................ ..........
Ranchuelo....................................................
Remedios.........................................
Rodas.........................-...............................
Sagua ]a Grande..............................................
San Antonio de las Vueltas...................................
Sancti Spiritus................................................
San Diego del Valle ..........................................
San Fernando (formerly Camarones).........................
San Juan de las Yeras ........................................
Santa Clara ...................................................
Santo Domingo ...............................................
Trinidad ............ ..........................................
Yaguajay .....................................................


1887.


11,467
6,391
4,571
15,474
8,153
18,330
15,656
29,278
9,831
6, 688
7,702
32, 491
13,667
29,448
6,280


1899. Gain. Lss.


8,890 .......... 2,577
7,532 1,141
5,059 488
14,833 ....--.... 641
9,562 1,409 ........
21,342 3,012........
12,832 .......... 2,824
25, 709 .......... 3,569
5,369 .......... 4,462
6,445 .......... 243
5,6 ........ 2,102
28, 437 .......... 4,054
10, 372 -- 3,295
24,271 ....-.....-5,177
9,718 3,438--------


SANTIAGO DE CUBA PROVINCE.


Alto Songo.................................................... 10,221 12,770 2,549.. .
Baracoa -.- ................................................. 18,057 21,944 3,887
Bayamo ............................................ 17,676 21,193 3,517........
Campechuela (formed from Manzanillo)----------------------------7,369.................
Caney ........................................................ 8,686 9,126 440........
Cobre ......................................................... 8,261 10,707 2, 446........
Cristo (formed from Manzanillo)-............................,.......... 1,194 ................
Gibara .............. .----------------------------- 26,342 31,594 5,252........
Guantanamo.................................................. 23,741 28,063 4,322........
Holguin ...............................--..................... 32,238 34,506 2,268........
Jiguani- .............................-------............ 7,808 10, 495 2,687........
Manzanillo .................................................. 34,220 32, 288 9,349........
Mayari ------------------------------------------........--.. 7,990 8,504 514........
Niquero (formed from Manzanillo).................................... 2,718 ..........
Palma Soriano (formed from Santiago) -----------------------------12, ...................
Puerto Padre (formerly Victoria de las Tunas)..........-.... 12,049 19,984 7,935........
Sagua de Tanamo............................................. 5,476 5,796 320.......-
San Lis (formed from Santiago)...............-.......... 11,681....... .........
Santiago de Cuba..... ............................... 59,614 45,478 ,


TABLE IV.-Populat ion by wards and by citie..

PROVINCE OF HABANA.


TOTAL POPULATION- ....................... 424,804

Aguacate District......................... 3,163

Aguacate and Zabaleta............... 2,196
Reloj and Compostizo ................ 967
Alquizar District ......................... 8,746

Alquizar, Primero.................... 1,837
Alquizar, Segundo.................... 1,877
Guamimar ............................ 485
La Paz.........,...................... 1,011
Palenque ................. ..... 1,933
San And res-------------------------.. 293
Tumbadero............................ 1,310

Bainoa District -....-..................... 1,725

Bainoa and Santa Cruz ............... 482
Caraballo-..-.---.. ................... 495
Mamey Duro and Reloj .............. 748

Batabano District ........................ 6,523

Batabano.--.......................... 1,025
Guanabo- ------.----.----.-----.... 436
Mayaguano.....--.................... 352
Quintinal and San Augustin ......... 976
Surgidero............................. 3,683
Islands ............................... 51


Banta District ............................ 5,142

Hoyo Colorado ....................... 1,046
Baracoa, Anafe, and Corralillo....... 1,025
Punta Brava and Cangrejeras........ 2,205
San Pedro and Guatao................ 866

Bejucal District ........................... 5,75

Primero .............................. 997
Segundo .......................... --- 1,068
Tercero................................ 1,093
Piedras ............................... 1,670
Remainder of district................. 928

Cano District ............................. 4,210

Arroyo Arenas........................ 1,003
Cano and Jaimanitas ................. 1,320
W ajay ................................ 1,887

Casiguas District (not given by wards)... 1,004
Catalina District (not given by wanls) ... 2,718

Ceiba del Agua District................... 2,197

Ceiba del Agua ....................... 909
Virtues and Chicharron............. 621
Remainder of district ................ 667


A






REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


TABLE IV.-Population Liy wards and by cities-Continued.

PROVINCE OF HABANA-Continued.


Guanabacoa District ..................... 20,080

Asuncion, Este ....................... 1,506
Asuncion, Oeste ...................... 2,795
'$acuranao............................ 1,457
Campo Florido ..............,........ 591
Cojimar ..-------------------------- 1,585
Corral Falso, Este .................... 1,838
Corral False, Oeste ................... 1,991
Cruz Verde ........................... 2,485.
San Francisco, Este .................. 2,043
San Francisco, Oeste ................. 1,307
San Miguel del Padroi and Pepe An-
tonic ............................... 2,482

Guara District (not given by wards) ..... 1,835

Guines District ........................... 11,394

First and Cruz........................ 1, 34S
Second and Rubio.................... 3,357
Third and Yamaraguas............... 2,350
Fourth -. ..-. .. ....... ...... 1, 094
Candela North and South and Gua-
najo ................................ 609
Candela Baja, Sat Pedro, and San
J lian .............................. 955
Nonmbre de Dios ...................... 1,1681

Guira do Melena ......................... 11,548

Cajio ................................. 963
Gabriel. ..---------------------------- 764
Jerez --------......................... 1,274
Juribacoa-............................ 311
Melena ..--------------------------- 1,452
Norte ..---------------------------- 2,620
Sur ..------------------------------ 2,396
Sibanacan............................ 1,136
Tumbadero........................... -632

Habana District .......................... 242,055

Habana City-


Arroyo Apolo.....................
Arsenal.........................
Atares...........................
Casa Blanca ......................
Ceiba ....................
Cerro ............................
Chavez .........................
Colon............................
Dragones............... ......
Guadalupe .......................
Jesus del Monte ..................
Jesus Maria.......................
Luyano..........................
Marte...................,.........
Monserrate ......................
Paula ............ .........
Penalver .........................
I'ilar.- . . . . . .
Pueblo Nuevo..... .. ........
Punta ............................
San Felipe........................
San Francisco ....................
San Juan de Dios.................
San Lazaro .......................
San Leopoldo.....................
San Nicolas.......................
Santa Clara.......................
Santa Teresa .....................
Santo Angel......... .......
Santo Cristo ......................
San Isidro ........................
Tacon ...........................
Templete .........................
Vedado y Principe...............
Villanueva.......................
Vives .............................
Institutions.......................


2,166
6,131
7,674
2, 440
6,783
10, 741
7,598
7,371
6,604
7,517
9,369
3,915
1,254
5, 002
7,829
3,791
8,557
6,111
8,376
10,537
3,560
4,215
4,420
20,616
7,494
6,534
4,667
6,725
4,766
4,637
5,805
6,505
2,838
9,980
6, 06
2,340


Habana District-Continued.
Remainder of district-
Arroyo Naranjo .................. 1,771
Calvario.......................... 1,011
Puentes Grandes................. 3,262

Isla de Pinos District..................... 3,199

Caleta Grande........................ 315
Santa Fe................ ......... 1,050
Remainder of district ................ 1,83t
Jaruco District ........................... 4,076

Guanabo ............................. 908
Maceo, Garzo, Guaicanamar, and
Tablas. ..--------------------------- 766
Plaza, Jaruco. Cuartel, and Comercio. 1,139
Remainder of district ................ 1,263

Madruga district ......................... 3,714

y Concordia, Majagua, and San Blas... 928
Madruga, Este........................ 676'
Madruga, Oeste....................... 1, 328
Remainder of district ................ 812

Managua District......................... 2,887

Managua ............................. 1,063
Remainder of district ................ 1,824

i Marianao District ........ .......... 8,593

Cocosto.............................. 2,602
Lisa .................................. 680
Playa ................................ 574
Pocito ................................ 1,5640
Quemados............................ 3,177

Melena del Sur District (not given by
wards)................................., 3,207

Nueva Paz District.......... .......... 7,761

Bagaez ............................... 1,229
Nueva Paz............................ 2,294
Palos ...........,...................... 2,630
Vegas................................. 1,608

Pipian District (not given by wards)..... 1,101
Quivican District (not given by wards) .. 2,423

Regla District ............................ 11,363

First ................................. 2,818
Second ............................... 3,034
Third................................. 3,001
Fourth ............................... 2,510

Salud District (not given by wards)...... 3,293
San Antonio de las Vegas District (not
given by wards)........................ 1,855

San Antonio de los Banos District.-.--..- 12,631

Armonia.............................. 672
Chicharo............................. 404
Este .................................. 2,065'
Govea ................................ 671
Monjas ............................... 925
Norte ................................. 2,966 ,
Quintana ............................. 705
Santa Rosa ........................... 457
Seborucal............................. 452
Sur ................................... 3,147
Valle................................. 167

San Felipe District (not given by wards). 1,915


182





183


POPULATION BY WARDS AND CI FIE .


TABLE IV.-Population by ivardR and by cities-Continued.

PROVINCE OF HABANA-Continued.


San Jose de las Lajas.....-................ 4,151

Primero .............................. 928
Segundo ............................. 2,096
Remainder of district ................ 1,130

San Nicolas District ...................... 4, 568

Babiney Prieto and Caimito.......... 577
Barbudo ............................. 736
Paradero and Gabriel ................ 1,923
San Nicolas and Jobo................. 1,332

Santa Cruz del Norte District............. 2,965

San Antonio de Rio Blanco del Norte. 965
Santa Cruz del Norte ................. 934
Remainder of district ................ 1,066

Santa Maria del Rosario District......... 2, 730

San Pedro ............................ 1,285
Santa Maria del Rosario.............. 544
Remainder of district ................ 901


Santiago de las Vegas District............ 10,276

Boyeros .............................. 1,553
Calabazar ............................ 1,152
Dona Maria .......................... 531
Norte.............. .................. 3,062
Rincon ..... ................. .. 920
Sur.............................. 3,0W

Tapaste District .......................... 1,551

Santa Barbara and Jana............. 272
Tapaste and San Andres.............. 1,279

Vereda Nueva District ................... 2,416

Norte ................................. 1,125
Sur .................................. 1,291


PROVINCE OF MATANZAS.


TOTAL POPULATION....................... 202,214

Alacranes District........................ 8,110

Estante............................... 2,823
Este ................................. 716
Galeoncito............................ 474
Norte ............................ 1,267
Oeste ................................. 1,777
Sur................................... 1,053

Bolondron District....................... 9,179

Bolondron1.......................... 933
Bolondron 2.......................... 824
Bolondron 3.......................... 847
Guira................................ 1,676
Lucia and Gonzalo................... 2,326
Piedras and Cienega ................. 577
Punta and Alverez................... 1,363
Zapata and Galeon................... 633

Cabezas District.......................... 5,184

Bermeja.............................. 1,871
Bija ................................ 751
Cabezas............................... 1,721
Lim a ................................. 612
Magdalena........................... 229

Canasi District ........................1,993

Norte...............................: 1,624
Sur.................................. 369

Cardenas District......................... 24,861

Cardenas City-A
District 1, Barrio 1 ...............1,659
District 1, Barrio 2 ............... 3, 564
District 2, Barrio 1................ 1,374
District 2, Barrio 2................ 3,720
District 3, Barrio 1............. ..3,987
District 3, Barrio 2................ 2,305
District 4, Barrio 1.............. 3,145%,
District 4, Barrio 2........ ...... 21S.
Cantel and Guasimas................. 1,581
Pueblo Nuevo, Fundicion, and Ver-
salles--. ............................ 311
Varadero............................. 1,029


Carlos Rojas District (not given by bar-
rios) ................................. 3,174

(olon District ............................ 12,195

Amarillas ............................ 1,746
Calimete ............................. 3,274
Colon, Barrio 1 ....................... 1,412
Colon, Barrio 2------------------ 1,65
Colon, Barrio 3...................... 919
Colon, Barrio 4....................... 787
Colon, Barrio 5 ...................... .1,299
Colon, Barrio 6...................... 1,125

Cuevitas District ......................... 5,807

Asiento...............................509
Cuevitas.............................. 2,634
Jabaco.............................-- 997
Venturilla ... ........................ 1,667
Guamacaro District ...................... 6,000

Canimar.............................. 161
Caobas ............................... 1,197
Coliseo............................--- 620
Guamacaro ........................... 552
Lim onar, ........................ 1 39
Limonar, Oeste ....................... 1,483
San Miguel........................ ,374
Sumidero............................. 220

Jaguey Grande District .................. 5, 853

Cienaga de Zapata.................... 16
Gallardo ........................... 750
Jaguey Grande....................... 1,999
Lopez ................................ 1,445
Ruvira............................. 827
Sinu ............................... 816

Jovellanos District....................... 7,529

Asuncion ............................. 427
Jovellanos, Barrio 1 .................. 1, 942 \
Jovellanos, Barrio 2 .................. 1,617
Jovellanos; Barrio 3.................. 1,162
Realengo............................. 363
San J se.............................. 2,018


i ,







REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


TABIE IV.--Poplation by nydR and by cite-Continued.

PROVINCE OF MATANZAS-Continued.


Macagua District......................... 5,012

Arabos.. ....................,........ 2,241
Mayabon............................. 1,092
Monte Alto ........................... 680
Oeste...........................,.... 1,029

Macuriges District ....................... 10,405

Batalla..... ......................... 795
Ciego....... ........................, 595
Claudio.............................. 1,390
Macuriges, Este....................... 965
Macuriges, Oeste ..................... 1,071
Macuriges, Sur ......................, 1,056
Navajas.......-- .................... -731
Platanal and Linch .................. 313
Punta Brava ........................ 1, 508
Rio Blanco........................... 1,577
Tram ojos...........,.....-.......... 404

Marti District ............................ 8,905

Guamutas ........................ ---- 2,505
Itabo----------------------------- 252
La Teja.............,---.......-..... 695
Los Cayos ..............,............. 374
Marti, Norte ............,............. 2,495
M arti, Sur .................. ......... 396
Motem bo -...............,............. 2,188

Matanzas District ............ 45,282


Matanzas City-
District 1,Barrio 1...............
District], Barrio 2............
District 2, Barrio 1................
District 2, Barrio 2............
District 3, Barrio .............
District 3, Barrio 2................
1)istrict 4, Barrio I .............
Pueblo Nuevo....................
Versalles .....................
Asylums, convents. and hospitals.
Arroyo and Campana...............
Canarioca ............................
Canimar and Paso Seco ..............
Ceiba Mocha ..,......................
Chirino........-......................
Corral Nuevo.........................
Cumbre and Bacunayagua...........
Guanabana...........................
San Francisco ........................


1,500
2,570
4,147
3,596
5,050
2,305
3,270
8,420
4, 812
:04
1,143
814
597
1, 828
702
754
1,831
1,005
234


Maximo Gomez District ................. 4,046

Altamisal............................. 776
Maximo Gomez ...................... 2,292
Rancho del Medio.................... 701
Sabanilla..........,.................. 277


Mendez Capote District ....-...-... 2,158

Contreras....................,........ 921
Mendez Capote, I.................... 812
Mendez Capote, 2...........-- ..... 425

I'almillas District ............-....... 7,647

Cumanayagua........................ 969
Guareiras............................ 793
Jacan------------------------------- 1,(42
Manguito............................. 3,289
Palmillas......,..................... 954

Perieo District................_. .... 4,449

Altamisal. ..------------------------- 1,689
Perico, Norte...,..................... 2,436
Perico, Sur ........................... 324

Roque District........... ............. 4,464

Caobillas............................. 1,434
Guamajales ........,................. 499
M ostacilla............................ 688
Quintana and Tomegui...... -...... 361
Roque......................,. .... .. 1,482

Sabanilla District ........................ 5,205

Mondejar and Auras ................. 401
Palma and Canimar........,...,..... 1,0'3
Sabanilla............................. 3,781

San Jos6 de los Ramos District......... 6, 765

Banagnises, Pueblo.................. 931
Banaguises, Rural.................... 2,046
Pueblo Nuevo--------------------- 1,487
San JosG de los Ramos..............,. 2, 301

Santa Ana District ,...................... 2,965

Barrio 1 .............................. 1,421
Barrio 2 ............................ 285
Barrio 3 ...........- .................. 722
Barrio4....----.................. 453
Barrio 5 ...........,.................. 81

Union de Reyes District...,.............. 5,226

Pueblo Nuevo..........-...-.-----. 545
Iglesia1.............................. 1,969
Iglesia2--------------1, 707
Iglesia 3 ............... .......... 1,005


PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RIO.


TOTAL POPULATIO-............,.......... 173,061

Artemisa District.......................... 9,317

Artemisa ............................. 4,179
Canas.........................."...... 984
Capellanias........................,.. 223
Cayajabos ............. 1,21
Dolores---------------------------... 1,692
Puerta d~e Ia Guiira------------------498
Virtues .--------------------... -719

Bahia Honda District .................... 2,117

Bahia Honda and Aguacate.......... 1,278
Corralillo and Mulata................ 214
San Miguel and Manimani........... 625


Cabanas District.......................... 3,853

Cabanas and San Miguel ............. 1,917
Ceiba .........................."...... 1,366
Conchita and Delicias.............,.. 228
Vigia and San Ramon................ 342

Candelaria District....................... 4,866

Bayate, Puerto Rico, and San Juan
del Norte........................... 630
Candelaria ........................... 1,697
Carambola, Lomas, and Rio Hondo 803
Las Mangas .......................... 1,280
San Juan de Barracones, Mira Ciclos,
and Frias.......,................... 456


184






185


POPULATION BY WARDS AND CITIES.


TABLE IV.-Population >yin nrds mid by rifie.s-Continued.

PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RIO-Continued.


Consolation del Norte District ........... 7,399

Berracos.............................. 1,056
Caiguanabo .......................... 439
La Jagua ..... ..... ..... ..... .... 1,567
La Palma and Rio de Puercos...... .. 1,240
Los Puentes .......................... 594
Rio Blanco and Arroyo Naranjo ..... 888
San Andres........................... 671
Vegas Nuevas ........................ 944

Consolacion del Sur District.............. 16,665


Alonso Rojas-------------------....
Colmenar and Hato Quemade......
Consolacion del Sur City, not given by
wards .......-----------------------
Horeones........----------------------
Lajas and Caperuza ..................
Lena ...............................
Naranjo and Caimitos................
Pilotos .--------------------------
Rio Hondo and s Jagua.............
San Pablo and Camarenes.......... .-
Santa Clara...........................


2,132
6763

3,062
1,608
702
914
1,073
1,918
2,346
1,589
645


Guanajay District ........................ 8,796

Cabriales ............................. 533
Guanajay, Norte...................... 2,675
Guanajay, Sur ...................... 3,808
San Francisco ........................ 626
San Jose.............................. 389
Santa Ana............................ 765

Guane District............................ 14,760

Cabo de San Antonio ................. 270
Cortes and Serranos.----------------- 1,355
Guane-------------------------------- 1,038
J uan Gomez .......................... 912
La Grifa .............................. 2,113
Martinas.............................. 1,746
Paso Real and Catalina............... 890
Portales and Teneria ................. 1,253
Punta de la Sierra and Los Acostas .. 1,502
Remates. ..-------------------------- 3,014
Sabalo, Trinidad, and Santa Teresa... 667

Guayabal District ........................ 2,710

Caimito............................... 1,269
Guayabal and Banes.................. 879
Quintana............................. 562

Julian Diaz District ...................... 1,871

Herradura and Ceja de la Herradura. 516
Julian Diaz and Palacios ............. 1,260
Santa Monica and Guajiro.......--.... 95

Los Palacios District...................... 2,456

Toro and Bacunaguas ................ 198
Los Palacios.......................... 1,549
Macuriges............................ 238
Sierra, Santo Domingo, and Limones. 471

Mantua District ..-...-........-.-.... 8,366

Arroyos and Santa Isabel............. 1,079
Baja ..........----.................... 3,741
Cabezas and La Ceja ................. 1,281
Guayabo and Lazaro................. 283
Mantua and Montezuelo...--......... 802
Santa Maria and San Jose.........--. 423
Sierra Derrumbado................... 757


Mariel District............................ 3,631

Jobaco and Rayo ..................... 253
Macagual and Quiebra Hacha........ 1,058
Mariel and Boca...................... 2,085
Molina, Mosquitos, and Guajaybon ... 161
San Juan Bautista and Playa......... 74

Pinar del Rio District .................... 38,343

Cabezas---------------------------- 1,521
Cangre---------------------------421k3
Guayabo---------------------.... 1,894
Isabel Maria-----------------------... 1,136
Marches Vazquez---------------------974
Ovas---------------............. 2,383
Paso Viejo............................ 2,351
Pinar del Rio, Norte.................. 3,949
Pinar del Rio, Sur .................... 4,931
Rio Fe.. ..-------------------------- 1,034
Rio Sequito........................... 4,278
San Jose .............................. 2,512
Sum ideroe........ .......... ......... 2,478
Taironas--------------------------... 4,694

San Cristobal District..................... 4,263

Mayari,1 and 2 ....................... 277
Minas and Rio Hondo................ 402
San Cristobal ......................... 1,996
Santa Cruz de los Pinos .............. 1,357
Sitio Herrero ......................... 231


San Diego de los Banos District (not given
by wards) ..............................

San Diego de Nunez District (not given


2,419


by wards) ..-------------------------- 1,137

San Juan y Martinez District............. 14,787

Arroyo Hondo........................ 1,918
Galafre and Guillen .................. 558
Lagunillas....------------------------ 1,238
Luis Lazo............................. 4,193
Primero de Martinez ................. 1,097
Rio Seco .............................. 1,920
San Juan y Martinez ................. 2,970
Segundo de Martinez................. 893

San Luis District.......................... 7,608

Barbacoa ............................. 1,085
Barrigonas ........................... 544
Tirado...............-................ 48
Llanada .............................. 415
Palizadas.--------------------------- 603
Rio Seco.................... ......... 760
San Luis.............................. 3,5.53

Vinales District .......................... 17,700

Albino.........................--...... 739
Ancon ................................ 926
Cayos de San Felipe.................. 417
Cuajani.....-------------------------- 2,021
Laguna de Piedra .................... 2, 328
Rosario....--------------------------- 2,061
San Cayetano...................... -.. 2, 920
San Vicente. ..----------------------- 1,937
Santa Fe------------...----------- 657
San Tomas.............- ---.- 1,570
Vinales--------------------------- 1,600
Yayal- ----------------................ 524






REPORT ON TIE CENSIR OF CUBA, 1899.


TA B' IV.--P>p4i.liotnhd Lirtrds iitnh- tl yi/itx-Continlued.

PIROVINCE OF IIERTO l'RINCIPE.


To'rA I. OlUIrATIIN ............

Ciego do :Avila District.-.....

Arroyo Blane.............
Ceiba. .............
Ciego de Avilta.............
Gumaales ..................
Iguara.....................
Jivotelt ....................
Ju aro..... ......... .
Lazaro 1ls'j..............
Nuevas...................
Nuevas de JIl .hsi........
Sall Nielats................

Moron District.............-..


Chiambas .............
Cupeyes ...............
Guadalupe ........
Marroqmun............ .
Moron Este ....._.....
Moron (iste-........
Pita Alegre.........
Sandoval ..........
Santa Gertriudis .......

Nuevitas District .........


Baga .....................
Lugarcno.................
Nuevitas 1...............
Nuevitas 2...............
Nuevitas :3................
Rtedencion..........._...
Sabinal...............
San M iguel....... .....--
Senado ........... ......


...... .... I8s,2:U1

........... !1, 01

-.. . 8612
203
.89 -'

........... 4119

.. ... ..... 1,12 1
...... -.. 957



... ... 1 4SM
._... ... 495





- -,
........... !125
........... 0:3:1




-.. . 10,55
......--.. 1, 7511




- - - 1,09:3
........... 1,439 i





..... ..... 1,673
- - - 1.7:;2
-...._ ...... 405 I
.. .. . ..-. 1,1128
-- -- - 5




.. . . 10 75
...... -... ] 2 7
........... 1,5111
........... 1,09:3
............ 1,117:3
...........- 1, 46!
........... 830
........... 107
........... 716
.. .. .. 5.687


'uerto PricIip District .................. 53,140

Altagracia............................ 1,240
(atibillas............................. 1,728
Caseorro.............................. 1,904
Contraniestr-........................ 2,368
Ecutdor .............................. 2,215
(uaimnaro ............................ 2,910
G( unn ija-.............................. 848
Limo es.............................. 830
Magarabomba-........................ 1,3U4
Maraguan ............................ 1,110
Minas .------------------------------ 2,318
'ueblo Nuevo ........................ 1,65)
Puerto 'rincipe 1 ..................... 2,876,
Puerto Principe 2..................-... 2,474
Puerto Principe 3..................... 5,115
Puerto 'rincipe 4..................... 5,184
Puerto Principe 5..................... 2,080
lPuerto Principe 6..................... 1,960
Puerto Principe 7..................... 2,407
Puerto Principe 8..................... 1,657
Puerto Principe9...................... 1,349
Quemnado............................. 805
San (leronimo......................... 986
Sibanieu....................- -....... 1, 763
Vista Hermosa ....................... 981
Yaba ................................. 2,295
Yeguas ............................... 748

Santa Cruz del Sur District............... 5,308

Buena Ventura....................... 352
Cal-ada and 'laya Bonita............ 2, W8
G(ujaicanar-......................... 598
Gu lyabal.............................. 937
dco ................................ 1,(-8
Sau Pedru ....,........................ 21U


PROVINCEE oF SANTA CLARA.


TOTAL POtLATION ....................... :K5a-,536

Abrus District mlot given by wards) .... 3,995

Caiharien District ........................ 8,650

Caibarien............................. 7,01:3
Con o-............................... 496
Guijabana ........................... 478
Tanco ................................ 63

Calbuzar District........... ............ 13,419

Centro................................ 3,756
Enerucijada .......................... 2,6M9
Mata V Barro......................... 1,267
Paso Retl............................. 433
Santo................................. 2,573
Sitio Grande.......................... 190
Viana ................................ 2,111

Camajuani District....................... 14,495

Camajuani ........................... 5,082
Egidos-------------------------------- 700
Guadalupe ........................... 2,569
Sabana.............................. 1,621
Salamanca ........................... 1,704
Santa Clarita ......................... 1,501
Zulueta............................... 1,318

Cartagena District........................ 6,244

Arriete and Banos.................... 556
Cartagena............................ 1,917
Caseajal ............... ............. 2.017
Ciego Monteru.,...................... 43


Cartagena Distriet-Continued.
Santiago......- .....................- 559
Soledad............................... 762

Ceja de Pablo District.................... 6,95-1

Ceja de Pablo ........................ 27:3
Corralillo............................. 2,5S
lalia Sola ........................... 201
Sabana irande....................... 1,190
Sierra Morena ........................ 2,702

Cienfuegos District ....................... 59,128

Agnada de P'asajeros................. 8,777
Ari a o-............................... :,015
Auras................................. 437
Cainlanera ........................... 717
Calicito................................ 499
Castillo-....-..--.-.....-.-.....-... 1, 383
Caunao-.............................. 3,597
ao-s.------------------113
Chatreas-------------------------------. 7:3
Cienfuegos City inot given bywaids). 30,038
Cumanayagua........................ 1,403
Gavian and Gavilaneito ............. 3tA
Jicotea ............................... 706
Manaeas.............................. 1,540
Hlandinga .......................... 488
Ojo de Agua.......................... 493
Rtam irez............................... 680
Sierra................................. 533
Vaguaraunas.......................... 3,609

Cifuentis District ..... .-.............. 3,825

Alacran .............................. 446
A naro .......................--- ...... 248


186


....
....
....
.. ..
....
....
....
....
....

....






187


POPULATION BY WARDS AND CITIES.


TAJILE I\.--Pop1lafm. /y irtirds (mid h( vilies-Cfntjinued.

PROVINCE OF SANTA CLARA--Contiued.


Cifuentes District-Continued.
Barro ............... 279
Cifuentes............................. 2,172
Sitio Grande.......................... 680
Cru-es District ........................... 7,953

Cruees................................ 4,173
Maltiempo ........................... 2,284
Montetirn- .......................... 678
Pueblo Nuevo ........................ 818

Esperanza District.-...................... 7,811

Asiento Viejo..................:...... 576
Esperaxiza Norte...................... 997
Fsperanzaur........................ 1,180
Jabonillar ............................ 720
Nuevas--- -----------------.-..... 1,309
Purial-................................ 915
San Jose .............................. 976
San Vicente .......................... 1,138

Palmira District.......................... 6,527

Arango........-....................... 2,0 1
Falm ira .............................. 4,519

Ilacetas District.......................... 11, 961

(maracabulla......................... 1,194
Hernando and Sitio Potrero.......... 1,215
Nazareno............................. 719
Placetas and Tibisial ................. 7,361;
San Andres 11d Vista Hermosa...... 1,467

Quemado de Gluines....................... 8,890
Caguagnas............................ 540
Carahats ............................ 1,615
Guines................................ 1,174
Paso Cabado.......................... 1,288
Quemado d G nines.................. 3,082
San Valentin ......................... 343
Zambumbia .......................... 848

Rancho Veloz District.................... 7, 532

Aguas Clams ......................... 1,218
Chavez.-- ....................... ----- 1,1: '6
Crimea .........------------------- 1,240
Guanillas............................. 936
Santa Fe.............................. 2,982

Ranchuelo District ....................... 5,059

Pozo de la China..................... 1,101
Ranchuelo 1.......................... 2, 170
Ranchuelo 2.......................... 849
Sitio Viejo............................ 939

Rutas District-.--.... -- -.. .............. 9,5V2

Congojas ............................. 2,171
Jabacna ----.......................... 139
Limones-..-..... -- -- ---...... 2,535
Medidas--.....--..................... 1,327
Rodas .........--......--............. 3,390

Saga ht Grande District ................. 21,342

Chinchila .-... ---- --................ 1,654
Isabela de Saguia---.------.---..-- 2,352
Jumagua ------------------------2,473
Sagua la Grande,Norte..--.......... 7,069
Sagua la Grande, Stir ........-.-. 5, 659
San Juan ------------------........... 769
Sitiecito.......................... ... 1,366


Sani Autouiu de lhs VuiItas District ...... 12,832

Aguada de Moya ...............-...... 1,065
Bosque ............................... 2,019
Ceja de Pablo ........................ 1,545
Charco Hondo........................ 1,013
Egidos............................... 61
Piedras........-.................. .. 1,204
( uinta................................ 1,-422
Sagua la Cli-a 1n1 Cay Us .......-..... 512
San Antonio de lIs Vucltas ......... 1,336
Taguayabon.......................... 912
Vega Alta .................. ......... 1, 110
Suauti Spiritus District ................... 25, Th

Banao............................4--- 36
Bellamota --------------------------. 931
Chorrera Brava....................... 83
Cabaiguan............................ 1,135
Guasinmal .------------------------- 1,W500
Guayos ............................... 1, 4130
J1ibaro ................................ 433
M ianacas.............................. 475
Paredes. ............................. 578
Paula ....................- ............. 2, t;k
San Andres and Pueblo Nuevo.------ 1, im
Santa Lucia- .......................... -
Tagunsceo and Pedro Barba........... 1,293
Tunas de Zaza........................ 1,014
Sancti Spiritus City, not given by
wards .............................. 12,696

San Diego del Valle District.............. 5,:;69

Centro................................ 1,298
Hatillo ............................... 461
Jicotea ............................... ti
Nl aguarayaAbajoyhhgtutrayatArrilbt 1,154
Mango................- ............... 2
Sitio Nuevo........................... 39
Yabu .............................--- 1,130
San Fernando District................... 6,445

Ciego Alonzo ......................... 1,23S
Escarza. ..--------------------------- 1,770
Lonmas Grandes....................... 786
Paradero ............................. 1,573
San Fernando........................ 1,078

SaL Juan de las Yeras District .......... 5,6W*

Aguas Bonitas..,..................... 415
Bernia ..............----............. 613
Guayo...................-----------.. 927
Potrerillo............................. 741
Qciumado ililario....-. ......-... ...... 503
San Juan ............................. 2,401

Sun Juan de is Remedios District ------- 14,833

Bartolome............................ 512
Buenavista ........................... 4,071
Cangrejo and Renate................ 1,718
Carolina.............................. 8
Guanijibes............................ 1,047
Remedios............................. 6,633
Tetuan .............................. 294

Santa Clara District ...................... 28, 437

Baez.............................. ... 1,456
Carmen ................... -........... 3,051
Condado.............................. 1,110
Egidos....................- ........... 1,987
La Cruz.............._......----. 2,111
Manicaraguta......................... 2,916
Parroquia ........................"--- 3,349





REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


TABLE IV.-Poplalion by 1Vrds and by citie-Conti nued.

PROVINCE OF SANTA CLARA-Continued.


Santa Clara District-Continued.
Pastora ............................... 3,171
Provincial.... -........... ... ...- 1,195
Puente ............................... 2,594
San Gil ........................ 3,411
Seibabo ............................... 1,598
Institutions ........................... 488

Santa Isabel de las Lajas District........ 9,603

Centro .............................- 6,915
Nuevas. 265
Salado and Santa Rosa............... 407
Saltoo........................- ...- .... 1,199
Terry.............................. -817

Santo Domingo District .................. 10,372

Alvarez and Mordazo................ 1,085
Baracaldo, Potrerillo, and Arenas.... 1,346
Jicotea and San Bartolome........... 1,246
Jiquiabo and Juqui .................. 431
Manacas and San Marcos............. 886
Puerto Escondido .................... 741
Rio and Cerrito....................... 734
Rodrigo -------------------------.... 583
Santo Domingo, Este................. 1,184
Santo Domingo, Oeste................ 895


Santo Domingo District--Continued.
San Juan ............................. 521
Yabucito ........... ---............ 720

Trinidad District-...................... ,71

Cabagan.............................. 762
Caracusey ............................ 676
Casilda. ..--------------------------- 2,234
Fomento.........-..........-........ 1,769
Guaniquical.......................... 985
Guinia de Miranda-................. 1,056
Jiquinmas ............................. 825
RiodeAy-........................... 2,417
Sun Francisco........................ 546
San Pedro------. ------ .--... 892
Tayaba----- .......................-.. 989
Trinidad City, notgiven by wards.... 11,120

Yaguajay District -..--.................. 9, 718

Bamburanao ......................... 931
Centeno ------------------------- 447
Mayajigua............... ----- 1,284
Meneses ..................-----...... -- 1,658
Seibabo............................... 1,371
Yaguajay............................. 2,692
Keys and Institutions................. 1,335


PROVINCE OF SANTIAGO.


TOTAL POLATION- ...................... 327,715

Alto Songo District....................... 12.770

Alto Songo, Norte .................... 1,692
Alto Songo, Sur ...................... 1,466
Florida Blanca...........-------- 1,081
Jara Hueca........................... 544
Loma del Gato ....................... 585
Mayari Arriba........................ 975
Moron- -- -....-------------------
Palentjn--------------..------------ 1,900
Socorro and Maya.................... 1,585
'1'i-Arriba........-.......----....-... 2,015

Baracoa District-......................... 21, 944


Baracoa City, not given by wards....
Cabacu.............................
Canete................................
Duaba......---------------------
Grantierra...........................
Guandao .....................-....
Guiniao.-----.........------------
Hoyos ................................
Imias.................................
Jamal .......-------------------------
Juaco.............................
M aisi.................................
Mandinga.........----------------
Mata.--------..-----------------
Monte Cristo .........................
Nibujon..............................
Quemado..................--......
Sabana ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
Sabanilla----..-.........-..---.-
Sitio ..........................
Toar..........................--------
Vegnita------------------.----
Vertientes............................


4,937
715
322
1,186
632
1, 536
1,686
729
547
1,024
1,425
108
910
738
739
514
363
654
780
473
735
541
650


Bayamo District............................ 21,193

Barrancas............................ 1,596
Bueycito ............................. 1,590
Canto del Embarcadero .............. 1,571
Cristo............................---. 1.7x8


Bayamo District-(ontinued.
Datil ...............--.--------------- 2,142
Guamo ............................... 769
Guia----.-..-.-...-............... 3,565
Hom o ......-..... .................. 1,298
Laguna Bla a.-...................... 1, 856
San Juan ..------------------------- 1,234
Veguita--- ............ ........... 3,784

Campechuela District .................... 7,369

CampeehuelaCity.notgiven bywards 3,254
Ceiba Hueca ................... ..... 2,149
San Ramon........................... 1,966

Caney District.........-.................. 9,126

Barajaguna. ............ .... ------- 174
Caney -------------------------..--- 844
Daiquiri ..............--.............. 1,380
Demajayabo.......................... 1, 752
D os Bocas .............. ............ 1,217
Guaninicun .......................... 1,247
Lagunas-------------------------- 1,205
Paz de los Naranjos .................. 284
Sevilla.-...............- ..- ..- ....... 561
Zacatecas............................. 462

Cobre District............................ 10,707

Aserradero ........................... 459
Botija--- ........ -- -----....... 324
Brazo Cauto .......................... 1,150
Caimanes...---... ................... 698
Cayo Smith........................... 265
Cobre..........................---.... 1,0-28
Dos Palmas................ .......... 1, 226
Ermitano..................-.......... 240
Hongolosongo........................ 1,987
M acio ................................ 92
Manacas.............................. 1,426
Nimanima............................ 421
Rio Frio... .................... ----605
Santa Rita............................ 514
Sevilla..................- -............ 272
Cristo Diistrict, not given by wards....... 1,194


188






189


POPULATION BY WARDS AND CITIES.


TAnL: IV.-PopI/tiot by 1erds tu ml >y citirs-Continued.

Pi VINCE OF SANTIAGO-Continued.


Gibara District .......................... 31,594


Arroyo Blanco........................
Banes ................................
Bariai .............. ...... ..........
Bocas.........................
Candelaria ................ ...........
Cantimplora..........................
Fray Benito ..........................
Gibara City,not given by wards .....
Johabo ............ .. ......... .. .
Potrerillo ........... .................
Pueblo Nuevo ........................
Sam a .... ...........................
San ta Lucia ..... ............... ....
Santa Rosalia ........................
Yabason........................


1,739
5,730
1,047
3, 023
436
515
2,663
6,841
1,266
920
826
1,606
3,436
873
673


GuantanamoDistric,..................... 28,063

Arroyo Hondo......--------.......... 1,040
Baitiquiri............................. 164
Bano--...-.-..-..-.-.---...-..-..-.-. 838
Caimanera ..........-............. 620
Camarones ......-..................... 757
Caridad .............................. 516
Casimba........... .........- .... 537
Casisey Abajo ............------.-... 508
Casisey Arriba........................ 443
Corralillo.............................. 552
Cuatro Caminos...................... 441
Glorieta...........------------------- 2,052
Gobierno ............................. 1,219
Guaso ................. .. ...... 1,514
Hospital .............................. 1,594
Isleta----........................... 80
Indios. ..----------------------------- 107
Jaibo Abajo .......................... 320
Jaibo Arriba.......................... 296
Jam aica .............................. 2,151
Lajas------- .. ...---.---------... 1,371
Macuriges .....................-..... 492
Mercado.............................. 915
Ocujal and vessels.................... 90
Palm ar ............................... 1,165
Palma de San Juan................... 231
Parroquia ....-.--------. 1,540
Rastro-.------------.--. --- 831
Rio Seco.....-......................... 1,334
Signal .---.---.-------------------- 402
Tignabos ............................. 1,538
Vinculo ------------ ................. 754
Yateras..................... ......... 1,651

Holguin Distrit ......................... 34,506


Aguas Claras .........................
A lcala ...............................
Alfonsos.............. ......
A uras--.... ........... ..............
Bijaru-----........- ..........
Camasan .............................
Corralito .............................
Cuabas ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
Holguin City, not given by wards. ---
La Caridad----......................
La Palm a... ... ... .. .. .. .. .. ..
Mala Noche .-......................
Purnio-. -. .......................
San Agustin ....................
San Andres ...........................
San Lorenzo --...................
San Pedro de Cacocum...............
SaoArriba----.-........
Tacajo--.. .................... .
Tacamara
Lnas --. .............
Velasco..............
Yareyal.......... .............


681
2,022
1,086
1,604
2,152
1,257
1,026
1,223
6,045
1,063
2,101
703
980
2,163
1,181
1,060
1,323
1,080
896
832
1,324
1,777
927


Jiguani District ..................------.-1, 195

Babiney ........... ................'.. 2,76i
Baire .. . . . . . . . . 2,972
Calabazar ................... ...... 1,026;
Jiguani............................. i
Rineonada ..------------------------ 1,012
Santa Rita............................. 839
Ventas............. ....------.- ------- 1,225

Manzanillo District ...................... 32, 288

Blanquizal ........................... 1,010
Calicitos ------------------.. ......... 738
Cano -.--.--....................... 1,112
Congo --.--.--- .-------------------- 796
Dos Cuartones........................ 643
Esperanza............................ 1,726
Jibacoa............................... 2,021
Manzanillo City, not given by %ards. 14,464
Media Luna ................. ..... 3,319
Portillo ........................... -- 440
Tranquilidad......................... 831
Vicana....-.........- .............. --- 1,642
Yara.................................. 1,231
Zarzal ................................ 2,276

Mtayari District........................... 8,504

Barajagna............................ 723
Biran................................. 529
Braguetudos.......................... 1,454
Cabonico.....-.---................... 683
Chavaleta ............................ 1,230
Chucho..........................---- 491
Guayabo .......................... ---- 1,393
Sabanilla............................. 177
San Gregorio ......................... 1,821

Niquero District.......................... 2,718

Niquero City ......................... 1, 560
Veliz ................................ 580
Cabo Cruz and Punta de Practicos ... 578

Palma Soriano District ................... 12,305

Canto Abajo.......................... 839
Cauto Baire .......................... 777
Concepcion........................... 1,526
Dorados .............................. 691
Las Cuchillas....-.................... 1,985
Palma Soriano ....................... 1,776
Remanganaguas...................... 1,688
San Leandro ......................... 1,003
Santa Filomena ...................... 682
Sitio ..............................- ... 1,335

Puerto Padre District ........-.......-.. 19,981

Arenas-............................... 1,119
Caisimu .------.---.-.--.............. 1,633
Cauto del Paso ....................... 1,500
Chaparra-------------.............. 1,038
Curana .....------.----------.---- 1,000
M anati.,............................. 1,064
Maniabon ...................... ..995
Ojo de Agua...-.-.................... 1,157
Oriente............................... 2,471
Palmarito ............................ 1,072
Playuelas ............................ 1,038
San Manuel .......................... 2,783
Tunas ......--.........-...----. 663
Vedado.------.-..--.---------- 1,200
Yarey ................................ 1,231

Sagua de Tanamo District................ 5,796

Bazan ...._....------................ 781


Calabazas .....-....---...............


952







REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


TABLE I .-'}yu}oiwii by1 1ard (Ind Hly cities-Continued.

PROVINCE OF SANTIAGO-Continued.


Sagua de Tanamo District-Continued.
Esteron. 545
Juan Diaz .........................- -- 714
M iguel ............................... 665
Sagua de Tanamo.................... 1,252
Zabala................... ------------ 887

San Luis District ......................... 11,681

Dos Caminos ......................... 3,991
La Luz .......... ........ -.-...,... 618
Monte dos Leguas ................:... 2,013
San Luis.............................. 5,059


POPULATION


Santiago di Cuba District ................ 45,478

Belen................................. 6,36)
Catedral.............................. 5,152
Cristo................................. 5,310
Dajao................................. 1,55i
Dolores............................... 9,011
Ramon de las Yaguas ................ 2, 38
Santo Tomas ......................... 8,035
Trinidad ............................. 6,887
Institutions........................... 775


OF CITIES.


City.


Abreus .............
Aguacate.........
Alquizar.........
Alto Songo ........
Artemisa --...------
Baracoa.......--...
Batabano...........
Bayamo ............
Bejucal.............
Bolondron........
Cabezas.............
Caibarien...........
Calabazar ..........
Camajuani .........
Campechuela.......
Cardenas...........
Ciego de Avila......
Cienfuegos..........
Cifuentes .... .
Cobre...............
Colon...........
Consolacion del Sur.
Corral Falso ........
Cristo
Cruces............
Cuevitas....--......
Daiquiri.........
Encrucijada......
Esperanza........
Gibara............
Guanabacoa.------
Guanajay-...........
Guantanamo .......
Guines..............
Guira ..........
Habana ............
Holguin ..........
Jaruco..............
Jovellanos..........
Limonar........
Macagua ...........
Madruga.........
Managua ...........
Manguito...........
Manzanillo.........
Marianao ...........
Matanzas.........
Maximo Gomez-....
Mayari .............
Melena .... ....... .
Moron ..............


Province. Popula-


Santa Clara....... 1,300
Habana.-....----- 1,555
.. do-.......... 3,714
Santiago....-....I. 3,158
Pinar del Rio..... 2,312
Santiago.......... 4,937
Habana ----...... 1,025
Santiago----...... 3,022
Habana .......... 4, 828
Matanzas......... 2,604
... do-......... 1,721
Santa Clara....... 7,013
..-do ......--.... 1,575,
.....do ............1 5,082
Santiago.......... 3,254
Matanzas......... 21,940
Puerto Principe .. 2,919
Santa Clara.---... 30,038
.....do ............ 1,485
Santiago....--.... 1,028
Matanzas......... 7,175
Pinar del Rio..... 3,062
Matanzas ........1 3,823
Santiago...... 1,194
Santa Clara....... 4,173
Matanzas......... 2,634
Santiago....---.-. 1,380
Santa Clara........ 1,725
..... do-.......... 2,177
Santiago.......... 6,841
Habana .......... 13, 965
Pinar del Rio..... 6,483
Santiago.......... 7,137
Habana .......... 8,149
Matanzas......... 1,676
Habana .......... 235,981
Santiago.......... 6,045
Habana .......... 1,139
Matanzas......... 4,721
.....do............ 2,876
. do............ 1,467
Habana .......... 2,004
.do ............ 1,0631
Matanzas ......... 1, 534
Santiago.......... 14, 464
Habana-.......... I 5,416
Matanzas......... 36,374
. do ..-.......... 1,743
Santiago-......... 1,821
Habana -........ 5,016
Puerto Principe 2,084


City.


Province.


Niquero ....-- ... Santiago..........
Nueva Paz ..-..... Habana .........
Nuevitas ........... Puerto Principe ..
Palma Soriano ..... Santiago .........
Palmira............ I Santa Clara ......
Perico..............| Matanzas.........
Pinar del Rio..... Pinar del Rio ... -
Placetas............' Santa Clara ......
Puentes Grandes ... Habana .......
Puerto Padre....... Santiago .......
Puerto Principe .... Puerto Principe ..
Quemado de Guines Santa Clara ......
Quivican-............ Habana..........
Rancho Veloz ...... Santa Clara ......
Ranchuelo .............. do............
Regla .............. Habana...........
Remedios .......... Santa Clara ......
Rodas ....................do............
Roque .............. Matanzas.........
Sabanilla-------------do.........
SaguadeTanamo.. Santiago........
Sagua la Grande .-. Santa Clara ......
San Antonio de los Habana ..........
Banos.
Sancti Spiritus ..... Santa Clara ......
San Felipe ......... Habana ..........
San Fernando...--- Santa Clara ......
San Jose de las La- Habana
jas.
San Jose de los Ra- Matanzas......
mos.
San Juan de las Ye- Santa Clara ......
ros.
San Luis............ Santiago .........
Santa Ana.......... Matanzas.........
Santa Clara ........ Santa Clara ......
Santa Cruz del Sur Puerto Principe ..
Santa Fe ........... Habana -.........
Santa Isabel do las Santa Clara ......
Lajas.
Santiago-----....... Santiago .........
Santiago de las Ve- Habana .......
gas.
Santo Domingo..... Santa Clara ......
Surgidero .......... Habana ..........
Trinidad ........... Santa Clara ......
Vereda Nueva...... Habana..........
Vinales............. Pinar del Rio ....
Vueltas............. Santa Clara ...
Yaguajay ........... ..do............
Yglesia............. Matanzas.........


190


Popula-
tion.

1,560
2,294
4,228
1,776
4,519
2,436
8,880
6,409
2,683
1,729
25,102
1,562
1,800
1,514
3,019
11,363
6, 633
3,390
1,482
2,200
1,252
12,728
8,178

12,696
1, 4,50
1,078
3,024

2,310

1,469

5,059
1,421
13, 763
1,2111
1,050
3,042

43,090
7,151

2,079
3,683
11,120
2,416
1,600
1, 336
1,206
3,441






DENSITY OF POPULATION.


TA l1.E V.--Rnrql popuvlft1i e.rluding ciities of 8,000 inhalhitmn/x or ioir, With nrea rnr
density, by inunicipul dislricls.

HABANA PROVINCE.


Districts.


Aguacate................................. .......................
Aluizar..................................................
Bam oa ............................................. ....................
Bataban6............................................... ...
Bauta......................................................... ..........
Bejucal..................................................................
Cano............................................... .. .. .. ... ---.
Casiguas................--.--.-----------.--.-- --
Catalinia................................................... ----- ------
Ceiba de Agua..................................... ....... ...... ..
Guanabacoa.......................................................
G1ara................ ...............................
G ilines................................................ ....... ..........
Guira de Melena .....................................................
Habana..........................................................
Isla de Pinos............................................. ..
Jaruco................... ................................
Madruga................ .........................--.............
M anagua ................................. ............. ...............
Marianao.....................................
Melena del Stir ........................ .....................
Nueva Paz.............................................................
Pipian.................................... ..................
Quivican ...........................................................
Salud....................................................................
San Antonio de los Vegas ...............................................
San Antonio de los Battos ........................... ...................
San Felipe................................................
San Jose de las Lajas .........................................
San Nicolas......................................... ............
Santa Cruz del Norte ................................................. .
Santa Maria del Rourio........................ ...................
Santiago de las Vegas ..."............................
Tapaste................................... .....---
Vereda Nueva......................................... ............


Rural
popula-
tivun.


3,163
8,746
1,725
6,523
5,142
5, 75
1,210
1,001
2, 718
2,197
6,115
1, 83:3
:3, 215
11,548
6, 74
:3, 199
4,U76
3,744

8, 59a
3,'207
7,761
1,101
2,43

1,s5
4, 453
1,915
1,154
1,156
2, 9&5
2.730
10,273
1,951

4, 116


Area ii
Fgiare
miles.


.78
11
10
76
317
liy
22

351

9'
38





II'
57
510

is
25
137
151
66



SI43
'13
4.2
30



is
-)6
S105
S81
27
"9

1 4 5


MATANZAS PROVINCE.


Alacranes ...--...................................................
Bolondron............................................... ....
Cabezas..................................................................!
Canasi...................................................
Cardenas................................................................
Carlos Rojas ...............................................
Colon................................................... ..
Cuevitas..................... ........ .....................
G uam acaro..... ....... ................................................
Jaguey Grande .............................................
Jovellanos........................... -. .. .....................
LosCayos............................................ ......
Macagua................. .................................
Macuriges............----..........................................
Marti..................... .................................
Matanzas ..................................................
MaximoGomez .............................................
Mendez Capote........... .........................
Palmillas. .................................................
Perico.................... ...................................
Roque........................................................
Sabanilla................ ..................................
San Jos6 de los Ramos............- -............................
Santa Ana.............................................
Union de Reyes .................... ..............................


191


8,110
:1,179
I,181
1,'9'
2,9'21
3,174
2,195
5,807
(,000
5,,53:
7,529
374
5,(W 2
10,405
8,531
8,908
4,016i
2,155
7,67
4449
4,461
5,205
6,765
2, 965
5,'226


322
267
96
62
56
71
114
79
159
326
61

105
243
.362_
320
152
117
122
41

77

60
36


25
SI
51
31
52
45
107
71
:38
18
12:3
l:)
43
21
28
27
28
is
101
(5
46
19
115


1)esity
pre
mie.

,7A1. 2
112.1
I5N. x
93.2
67.6i
159.1
161.9
-j.5
29. 5

71.9
0:3
XI 1
18:3.:3
I W.5
3.8
61. 5
19'.;


l :1. :
3.
3. S
51. 1
N9. 7
18.7


76.6

isI. I
111.9
71.2
13.5
:36
100
360
52
171






192 REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


TABLE V.-Rural population e.xcluling ri/iua of 8,000 inhabitants or more, etc.-Cont'd.

PINAR DEL RIO PROVINCE.


Districts.


Artem isa ............................................... .............. 1
Bahia Honda...........................................................
Cabafias............................................... .................
Candelaria ..............................................................
Consolaci6n del Norte...................................................
Consolaci6n del Sur.....................................................
Guanajay................................................................
Guane.............................................................
Guayabal........................................................
Julian Diaz..............................................................
LosPalacios.............................................................
Mantua............................................... ...
Mariel................................................. ..
Pinar del Rio............................................................
San Cristobal.......................................................
San Diego de los Banos................................ ..............
San Diego de Nunez.....................................................
San Juan y Martinez ....................................................
San Luis..................................................................
Viftales..................................................................


Rural
popula-
tion.


9,137
2,117
3,853
4,866
7,399
16,665
8,796
14,760
2,710
1,871
2,456
8,366
3, 631
29, 463
4,263
2,419
1,137
14,787
7,608
17,700


Area in Density
square per
miles. square
mile.

1811 51
286; 7
89 43
203 24
203 36
360 46
12 733
I, 155 13
37 73
103 18
199 12
M4 13
95 38
361 81
235 is
202 12
138 8
154 96
151 49
208 85


PUERTO PRINCIPE PROVINCE.


i
Ciego de Avila ..................................................
Moron ....................................................
Nuevitas.... -........ ..................................................
Puerto Principe .................................. .............
Santa Cruz del Sur .. ...................................................


SANTA CLARA PROVINCE.


Abreus ..................................................................
Caibarien .................................. .............................
Calabazar .............................................. -- ..
Cam ajuani.................... .... ...................................
Cartagena...............................................................
Ceja de Pablo ..........................................................
Cienfuegos............................................... ..............
Cifuentes................................................................
Cruces...........................................................
Esperanza........................................................
Palm ira ............ ...................................................
Placetas................................................ ................
Quemado de Guines.........................................
Rancho Veloz ..............................................
Ranchuelo ............................................. ................
Rodas....................................................
Sagua la Grande .......................................................
San Antonio de las Vueltas .............................................
Sancti Spiritus..........................................................
San Diego del Valle....................................................
San Fernando...........................................................
San Juan de las Yeras...................................................
San Juan de los Remedios ..............................................
Santa Clara ............................................................
Santa Isabel de las Lajas................................................
Santo Domingo .........................................................
Trinidad ................................................................
Yaguajay.................. ............................................


9,801
9,630
10,355
28,038
5,308


1,603
1,620
1,034
4, 630
1,162


6
6
10
t.
5


3,995
8,650
13,419
14,495
6,244
6,954
29,090
3,825
7,953
7,811
6,527
11,961
8,890
7,532
5,059
9,562
8,614
12,832
13,013
5,369
6,445
5,600
14,833
12,674
9,603
10,372
13,150
9,718


52
5.5
279
1001
180
337
2,119
72
50
159
132
226
167
161
40
153!
205
208
1,262
95
67
115
158
540
136
291
828
442


77
157
48
145
35
21
14
53
159
49
49
53
53
47
126
62
42
62
10
56
96
48
94
23
71
36
16
22






DENSITY OF POPULATION. 193


TABLE V.--- rrd population excluding cities of 8,000 inhebilants or more, ete.-Cont'd.

SANTIAGO PROVINCE.


Rural Area in Density
1)istricts. popula- square per
tion. miles. square
mile.

Alto Songo.................------...........----........--............. 12,770 450 28
Baraco........ ----............----------..............---........ 21,944 1,676 13
Bayamo.................................... ---------............ 21,193 1,034 20
Campechuela------------...--...--..........-............... 7,369 51 fit
Caney ...............- -----.....---..--.......-.................-----.. 9,126 201 46
Cobre.................................................................... 10,707 870 12
Gibara-- ...............-.-.--.--.------.------.....---------.-----..... 31,591 466 6
Guantiinamo..------.................................................... 28, 063 1,216 23
Holguin--....- ....--------------------------------................. 34,506 1,589 22
Jigiiani--..-........................-----------...............-.-..... 10,495 495 21
M anzanillo...............................................---.... -- 17,,24 491 36
M ayari ..........----.................... ---........--...........-- .-----. 8,501 1,09 8
Niquiero ................................. -----....... .................. 2,718 145 19
Palma Soriano.....----......................................-.......... 12,307> 242 50
Puerto Padre .............................. .......................... 1 9,984 1,215 16
Sagua de Tanamo ....................................................... 5, 796 628 9
San Luis..............................................".................. 11,6 1 68 172
Santiago de Cuba.--".................................-................... 2,:3 7 341


24662-13






REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


TABLE VI.-&x, general n(iri y, and color.

[Figures in italic are included in those for the province or district.]


All classes. Native white. Foreign white.
Provinces.
Total. Male. Female Total. Male. Female Total. Male. Female

1 Habana .............. 424,804 221,990 202,814 243 619 116,838 126,781 68,971 54,162 14,809
2 City of 11abana.... 235,981 123,258 112,723 115,532 52,940 62,592 52,901 41,190 11,711
3 Matanzas............. 202,444 103,726 98,718 102,682 50,324 52,358 15,235 11,850 3,385
4 Pinar del Rio......... 173,064 91,688 81,376 114,907 58,573 56,334 10,718 9,447 1,271
5 Puerto Principe ...... 88,234 44,899 43,335 66,349 32,575 33,774 4,038 3,499 539
6 Santa Clara...----.... 356,536 189,057 167,479 214,945 106,771 108,174 29,823 25,336 4,487
7 Santiago.............. 327,715 163,845 163,870 167,797 82,292 85,505 13,313 11,446 1,867

8 Cuba ...........1,572,797 815,205 757,592 910,299 447,373 462, 926 142, 0981 115, 7401 26,358


PROVINCE OF HABANA.


Districts.


Aquacate.............
Aiquizar..............
Banoa...............
Batabano.............
Bauta ................
Bejucal...............
Cano .................
Casiguas..............
Catalina..............
Ceiba del Aqua.....
Guanabacoa..........
Ciy of Guanabaroa
Guara ................
Giines...............
Guira de Melena.....
Habana ..............
Ciy of Iabana ....
Isla de Pinos.........
Jaruco..............
Madruga.............
Managua ............
Marianao.............
Melena del Sur.......
Nueva Paz ...........
Pipian................
Quivican..........
Regla...............
Salud.................I
San Antonio de las
Vegas ..............
San Antonio dQ los
Banos ..............
San Felipe..........
San Jose de las Lajas.
San Nicolas...........
Santa Cruz del Norte.
Santa Maria del Ros-
ario.............
Santiago de las Vegas.
Tapaste...............
Vereda Nueva........

The province....


All cases.


Total. I Male.


3,163
8,746
1,725
6,523
5,142
5,756
4,210
1,004
2,718
2,197
20,080
13,965
1,835
11,394
11,548
242,055
235,981
3,199
4,076
3,744
2,887
8,593
3,207
7,761
1,101
2,423
11,363
3,293

1,855

12,631
1,915
4,154
4,568
2,965

2,730
10, 276
1,551
2,416


1, 640
4,814
958
3,600
2,837
2,738
2,340
561
1,353
1,174
9,805
6,529
925
5,725
6,486
126,775
123,258
1,782
2,152
1,807
1,549
4,582
1,650
3,834
582
1,'236
5,765
1,787

951

6,631
939
2,040
2,543
1,603

1,410
5,270
849
1,297


424,804 221,990


Female Total.


1,523
3,932
767
2,923
2,305
3,018
1,870
443
1, 365
1, 023
10,275
7,436
910
5,669
5,062
115,280
112,723
1,417
1,924
1,937
1,338
4,011
1,557
3,927
519
1,187
5,598
1,506

904

6,000
976
2,114
2,025,
1,362

1,320
5,006
702
1,119


1,667
5,472
1,271
4,131
3,625
4,462
3,328
667
2,040
1,748
13,150
8, 232
1,395
7,092
7,372
119,816
115,532
2,480
3,044
2, 423
2,'268
4,758
1,847
4,390
962
1,772
7,493
2,874
1,465

9,377
1,209
2,965
2,797
1,705

2, 002
7,160
1,250
2,142


Native white.


Male.

826
2,837
690
2,093
1,932
2,049
1, 735
371
986
897
6,307
3,757
692
3,379
3,907
55,193
52,940
1,309
1,574
1,100
1,206
2,307
941
2,109
485
872
3,512
1,524

717

4,701
588
1,367
1,487
924

1,029
3, 406
667
1,119


Female

41
2,635 I
581 j
2,038
1,693
2,413
1, 593
296
1,054
851
6,843
4,475
703
3,713
3,465
64,623
62,592
1,171
1,470
1,323
1,062
2,451
906
2,281
477
900
3,981
1,350

748

4,676
621
1,598
1,310
781

973
3, 754
583
1,023


202,814 243,619 116,838 1126,781


Foreign white.

Total. Mule. Female

205 171 34
833 727 106
74 57 17
878 764 114
440 358 82
416 306 110
396 335 61
23 19 4
152 113 39
170 125 45
1,484 1,113 371
1,091 804 287
89 62 27
833 664 169
1,221 1,059 162
53,877 42,008 11,869
52,901 41,190 11,711
198 185 13
206 160 46
230 182 48
110 88 22
1,159 932 227
126 97 29
377 318 59
33 28 5
118 120 28
1,666 1,229 437
193 151 42

55 50 5

1,220 974 246
125 87 38
189 155 34
230 204 26
136 97 39

108 92 16
1,'202 997 205
&6i 58 10
101 77 24

68,971 .7,162 11, 80


194


i






SEX, NATIVITY, AND


COLOR..


TABLE VI.--&ex, general nativity, anad color.

[Figures in italic are included in those for the province or district.)


Mixed.

Female. Total. Male.

30,957. 53,479 23, 293
17,538 36,004 15,179
25,404 32,5281 14,964
14,316 18, 025 8, 598
3 385 10,400 4,773
23, S07 58,050 '27, 061
21,971 98, 3231 46,811

122, 840 270, 805 125,500


Female.


30, IS6 3, 186 3, 805 81 1
20,82.5 '79,1 ,737 57 2
17, 564 4, 206 4,199 7 3
9, 427 603 575 28 4
5, 627 472 462 10 5
30, 98'' 5, ]9! 5, 172 22 6
51:512 1961 181 15 7

145, 305 14,8571 14,691 163 8


PROVINCE OF I-ABANA.


Negro.

Total. Male.


900
1,404
204
916
673
415
276
239
319
151
2,666
2,173
225
2,186
1,678
29,175
28,750
267
425
717
281
1, 390
877
1,989
76
351
1,138
137

238

1,109
413
650
1,027
779

379
912
160
107


438
701
120
449
335
177
155
136
161
84
1,142
894
117
1,036
845
11,456
11,212
164
210
343
143
685
439
896
52
168
496
71

131

535
185
331
551
388

184
418
90
60


4, 849. 23, 892


FeMIilc.

462
703
84
467
3308
238
121
103
158
67
1, 521
1,279
108
1, 150
833
17, 719
17,538
103
215
374
138
705
438
1,093
24
183
642
66

107

574
228
319
476
391

195
494!
70
47

30,957


'otal.

348

172
418
390
454
201
73
206!
1'26
2,714
2,408
122
1,145
1,196
36,339
36,004
252
382
343
227
1,197
329
912
29
146
950
89

9-4

905
158
312
450
316

237
987
72
62

53, 479


Mixed.

Male.

162
508
87
244
198
197
106
33
92
6;
1,189
1,025
50
510
594
15, 327
15,179
122
191
151
III
571
145
418
16
70
112
41

50

402
70
149
237
165

10.2
437
33
37


23, 293


Female. TNtal


I Sti
-85
30-I
192
257
95
10
I
114
6i0
1,525

72

602
21, 01:1
20,8

1
192

62r

491
13
76
538
!S

41l

503
SS
163
213
151

135
550
39
25


I:;
-1l
-t
5a)
14
9
9
U
1

i I
64;
61
4
138
81
2, 8 :
=,794
11
19

1
89
2$
9:3
1
i)
116
........ .

'I
20
10
38
6
29

1'
15

4]


30, 1s6 :, 886


1 9)5


Total.

.,'849'
"8,750
47, 793
28, 811
6,975
48, 524
47,786

234, 738


Negro.

Male.


23, 892
11,212
22, 389
14, 495
3,590
24, 717
22, 815

111, 898


('hiluse.


Malt.

1'3
IT
4


12
12


'2
57
57
















1~
I












3



81


50.
14
9:
9!

21

54
49 )
4
136
81
2,791
2,737
2
17
:31
1
$7
28
93
1
6
116


3

19
9
38
64
29

3
12
1
4


.


Total. 1 Lile. Female.






REPORT ON THE


CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


TABLE V.-Sex, general nativity, and color--Continled.

[Figures in italic are included in those for the province or district.]

PROVINCE OF MATANZAS.


Districts.


Alacranes............
Bolondron............
Cabezas ...........
Canasi................
Cardenas.............
City of Cardenas...
Carlos Rojas..........
Colon.................
Cuevitas..........
Guamacaro...........
Jag0ey Grande.......
Jovellanos............
Macagua......-.......
Macuriges............
Marti.................
Matanzas.............
City of Matanzas..
Maximo Gomez.....
Mendez Copote.....
Palmillas.............
Perico................
Roque................
Sabanilla.............
San Joss de los Ramos
Santa Ana............
Union do Reyes.......
The province. .


Foreign white. I


Total.

8,110
9,179
5,184
1,993
24,861
21,940
3,174
12,195
5,807
6,000
5,853
7,529
5,042
10,405
8,905
45,282
36,374
4,046
2,158
7,647
4,449
4,461
5,205
6,765
2,965
5,226

202,444


Male. F

4,573
4,850
2,605
1,0& 5
11,744
10,206
1,615
6,215
3,138
3,090
3,092
3,573
2,665
5,452
4,931
21, 905
16, 926
2,102
1,314
4, 155
2,486
2,577
2,678
3, 652
1,577
2,6-22
103, 726


All classes.


Na

Female Total.

3,537 3,676
4,329 3,819
2,579 3,687
908 1,038
13,117 14,085
11,734 11,962
1,559 1,179
5,980 5,706
2,669 3,037
2,910 2,605
2,761 3,674
3,956 2,835
2,377 2,524
4,953 4,003
3,974 4,125
23, 377 27,571
19,448 20,931
1,944 1,788
814 1,142
3,492 3,337
1,963 1,662
1,887 2,056
2,527 2,630
3,113 2,673
1,388 1,593
2,601 2,237

98,718 102, 682


50,324


Female

1,704
1,872
1,864
459
7,704
6,654
587
2,941
1,454
1,306
1,839
1,562
1,266
1,960
1,962
14,734
11,712
877
466
1,609
812
909
1,276
1,277
774
1,144


52,358


Total.

496
789
287
81
2,314
2,081
174
824
398
359
430
411
191
699
427
4,512
3,644
138
126
427
257
227
401
612
251
404

15,235


Male. Female

425 71
628 161
198 89
64 17
1,792 522
1,624 457
143 31
692 132
331 67
269 90
359 71
352 59
180 11
551 148
370 57|
3,290 1,222
2,695 94'
116 22
112 11
361 66
213 4
196 3
271 136
446 166
174 7
317 s7

11,850 3,385


OF PINAR DEL RIO.


Artemisa.............
Bahia Honda.........
Cabanas..............
Candelaria...........
Consolation del Norte
Consolation del Sur..
Guanajay ............
Guane................
Guayabal ............
Julian Diaz...........
Los Palacios..........
Mantua ..............
Mariel................
Pinar del Rio.........
City of Pinar del
Rio.............
San Cristobal.........
San Diego de los
Bafos ..............
San Diego de Nunez..
San Juan y Martinez..
San Luis..............
Vinales...............

The province...


5,013
1,003
2,143
2,620
3,94.5
8,555
4,205
8,400
1,439
983
1,303
4,537
1,802
20,082

4,256
2,276

1,302
572
8,170
3,988
9,350

91,688


5, 757
803
1,313
2,939
5,233
9, 8429
5,646
11, 023
1, 882
1,060
1,473
6,471
2,151
26, 0!3

4,908
2, 8 242

1,760
4.58
10,202
5,164
12,885

114,907


402
559
1,390
2,513
4,S95
3,053
5,036
933
509
703
3,099
1,063
13,083

2,733
1, 354

843
210
4, 929
2,.63
6,418


PROVINCE OF PUERTO PRINCIPE.


1 I ClegodeAvila........ 9,801 4,979 4,822 8,034 i,999 4,035 313 283 30
2 Moron................ 9,630 4,922 4,708 8,436 4,269 4,167 197 175 22
3 Nuevitas ............. 10,355 5,888 4,467 7,121 3,615 3,506 970 859 111
4 Puerto Principe.----. 53,140 26,225 26,915 39,196 18,808 20,388 2,259 1,948 311
5 City of Puerto
Princi-e........ 25,102 10,912 14,190 16,505 6,764 9,741 1,283 1,084 199
6 Santa Cruz del Sur ... 5,308 2,885 2,423 3,562 1,884 1,678 299 234 65

7 Theprovince... 88,234 44,899 43,335 66,349 32,575 33,774 4,038 3,499 539


58,573 56,334


196


PROVINCE


Male.

1,972
1,947
1,823
579
6,381
5,308
592
2,765
1,583
1,299
1, x35
1,273
1,258
2,043
2,163
12,837
9,219
911
676
1,728
850
1,147
1,354
1, 396
819
1,093


native white.


9,317
21,117
3,853
4, 866
7,399
16, 665
8,796
14,760
2,710
1,871
2,456
8,366
3,631
38,343

5,880
4,263

2,419
1,137
14,787
7,608
17,700

173,064


4,304
1,114
1,710
2,'246
,4.54
8,110
4,591
6,36W
1,271
888
1,153
3,829
1,829
18,261

4,624
1,987

1,117
565
6,617
3,620
8,350

81,376


2,978
401
754
1,649
2, 720
4, 947
2,593
5,987
99
551
770
3,372
1,088
12,940

2,175
1,468
917
248
5,273
2,601
6,467


470
6.2
1.53
221
331
664
667
1,177
240
41;
87
478
142
2,759

1,0-'5
15'2

75
45
1,300
477
1,182

10,718


42]
52
1"_7
184
291
589 .
501 :
1,085
184
42
82
447
114
",435

,164
141

61
39
1,212
407
1,0-26

9,447


49
]0
96
33
40
75
166
92
56
4
5
21
28
324

161
$
14
6
8$
79
156

1,271






197


SEX, NATIVITY, AND COLOR.


TABLE VL.-Sex, general nativily, and color-Continued.

[Figures in italic are included in those for the province or district.]

PROVINCE OF MATANZAS.


Female. Total.

1,165 1 1,246
1,492 1,495
392 432
306 270,
2,462 4,082
2, 268 3,929
643 556
1,527 2,432
752 801
1,069 886
464 727
1, 562 1,432
639 877
1, 885 1,777
1,215 1,463
3,360 7,117
2,987 6,580
725 677
271 193
1, 093 1,351
711 842
662 593
815 596
909 1,471
384 332
901 880

25,404 32, 528


Negro.


PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RIO.


1,783 920 863
766 314 452
1,702 862 840
1,022 532 490
1,105 562 543
3,489 1,729 1,760
1,312 560 752
1,386 732 654
431 22.5 206
531 280 251
45, 232 223
928 474 454
797 359 438
6,014 3,036 2,978

1,665 657 1,011
838 451 387

355 205 150
416 176 240
2,118 1,124 994
1,217 628 589
2,146 1,094 1,1052

28, 811 14,495 14,316


1,262 649 613
477 227 250
588 303 285
674 341 333
721 363 358
2,652 1,272 1,380
1,100 488 612
1,146 568 578
152 76 76
227 103 124
419 197 22"
496 241 255
527 227 300
3, 385 1, 525 1, 860

1,172 453 719
443 205 238

226 116 110
198 89 109
1,151 545 606
735 341 394
1, 446 722 724

18, 025 8,598 9,427


PROVINCE OF PUERTO PRINCIPE.


1,167 542 625
774 359 415
948 460 488
6,404 2,845 3,559

041 1, 663 2,373
1,107 57 540

10, 40 4, 773 5,627


11
6
330
123

82
9


11
6
3'28
115


2
,8


76 6


462 10


Mixed. Chinese.

Male. Female. Total. Male.

649 597 222 2221
691 st 243 243
198 234 22 22
144 126 18 18
1, 653 2, 429 399 399
1,574 2,355 369 369
260 296 42 40
1,052 1,380 377 377
405 396 101 101
441 445 93 93
340 387 49 49
664 768 174 169
416 461 105 105
817 960 262 262
723 740 459 459
3,056 4,061 361 360
2, 780 3,800 343 143
357 320 87 87
130 63 69 69
627 724 317 317
446 396 267 267
308 285 183 183
290 306 66 66
710 761 179 179
179 153 28 28
408 472 84 84

14, 9W 17, 564 4, 206 4,199


Total.

2,470
2, 833

586
3,981
5,599
1, 223
2,856
1,470
2,057
973
2,677
1,345
3, 664
2, 431
5, 722
4,576
1, 356
628
2,215
1,421
1,405
1,512
1,830
761
1, 621

47, 793


Male.

1,305
1,341
3(4
280
1, 519
1,331
5111
1,329
718
988
509
1,115
706
1, 779
1, 216
2, 362
1,889
631
357
1, 122
710
743
697
921
377
720
"., 389


Female.









.










7


45
9
97
10
9
18
71
28
5
7
"2
3
14
162

107
8

3
20
16
15
41

603


45
9
97
10
9
18

28
5
7
22
3
14
146

107
8

3:
20
16
11
41

575


.

.. .
... .
. "


4


28


276
217
986
5,158

3,191
338

6,975


144
113
626
2,509

1,320
198

3,590


132
104
360
2,649

1,871
140

3,385


I

3
4

5
6

7






198


Districts.


Abreus...............
Caibarien ............
Calabazar ............
Camajuani.........
Cartagena..........
Ceja de Pablo........
Cienfuegos...........
City of Cient fqo.
Cifuentes...........
Cruces................
Esperanza............
Palmira..............
Placetas..............
Quenado de Guines. -
Raneho Veloz........
Ranchuelo...........
Rodas................
Saga Grande.....
Citi nf Suiua la
Grend ........
San Antonio de has
Vueltas.............
Saneti Spiritus......
Cityof SanuiSpir-
itus............
San Diego del Valle.. -
San Fernando......
San Juan de las Veras.
San Juan de los Re-
medios .............
Santa Clara.......-....
City of Santa Clara
Santa Isabel de las
Lajas...............
Santo Domingo...
Trinidad .............
C'it1 of Trinidad..
Yaguajay...........

The province..


All classes. Nat

Total. Male. Female Total.

3,995 2,112 1,883 2,227
8,650 4,506 4,144 5,620
13,419 7,552 5,867 7,600
14,495 8,407 6,088 7,933
6,244 3,553 2,691 3,852
6,954 3,486 3,468 4,190
59,128 32,173 26,955 32,209
30,03 14,589 15,449 15,735
3,825 1,938 1,887 2,450
7,953 4,170 3,783 4,084
7,811 4,145 3,666 5,602
6,527 3,569 958 3,238
11,961 6,481 5,480 7,214
8,890 4,762 4,128 5,737
7,532 4,024 3,508 3,823
,059 2,521 2,538 3,017
9,562 5,367 4,195 5,227
21,342 10,907 10,435 11,709


12,728

12, 832
25,709

12, 696
5, 369
6, 445
5,000

14,833
28,437
13,763

9,603
10,372
24,271
11,120
9,718

356,536


6, 163

7,121
12,046

5,030
2,896
3,742
2,038

7,605
14,582
6,262

5,06
5,496
11,688
4,516
5,664

189,057


6,565 7,045

5,711 9,363
13, 663 18,738


7,666
2,473
2,703
2,662

7,228
13,855
7,501

3,997
4,876
12 583 ?


8,170
4,098
4,176
4,105

9,094
18,300
8,276

4,872
7,000
i3 74A


6,604 5,473
4,054 5,471

167,479 214,945


ive white.


Male.

1,047
2, 599
3,938
4,000
2,035
2,109
16,028
7,045
1, 206
1,951
2, 892
1,559
3, 559
2, 893
1,917
1,449
2, 764
5, 582

3, isa

4,780
8,770
3,166
2,163
2,242
2,094

4,355
8,994
3,501

2,683
3,591
6,688
2,250
2,883

106,771


Female

1,180
3,0121
3,662
3,933
1,817
2,081
16,181
8,690
1,244
2,133
2,710
1,679
3,655
2,844
1,906
1,618
2, 663
6,127

.3, .59

4,583
9,968

5,004
1,935
1,934
2,011

4,739
9,306
4,775

2,189
3,409
7,068
3,223
2,588

108,174


Foreign white.

Total. I Male. Female


404
1,068
1,016
3,233
504
215
6,376
3,485
166
715
262
556
1,408
511
474
233
866
2,043

1,137

1, 864
666


367
903
888
2,496
486
185
5,537
2,900
133
616
237
533
1,141
443
400
221
767
1,768

967

1,463
589


391 343
212 184
594 513
189 165

1,436 1,199
1,972 1,658
915 807

565 509'
431 374
539 479,
247 207
1,305 1,082

29,823 25.336


37
165
128
737
18
30
839
585
33
99
25
23
267
68
74
12
99
275

170

401
77

4S
28
81
24

237
314
108

56
57
60
40
223

4,487


PROVINCE OF SANTIAGO.


Alto Songo...........2
Baraeoa............ 9 4
Bayamo..............19
Campeehuela ........
Caney.............. 2,6
Cobre.................
Cristo ................5
Gibara............... 2
Guantanamo.........
Holguin............. 2
Jiguani...............6
Manzanillo......... 1 15
City of Manzanillo.
Mayan...............
Niquero..............1
Palma Soriano .......
Puerto Padre.........4
Sagua de Tanamo....
San Luis............ 2
Santiago de Cuba 1 1 45
City of Sant"iago d
Caba.............,


24
76
12
12
M3
22
1'2
311
274
108
3
14.4
109
15
5
1.2
18
3
107
646

645

1,867


163,845 163,870 j167,797 82,292


12,770
21,944
21,193
7,369
9,126
10,707
1,194
31,594
28,063
34,501
10,495
32,288
14,464
8,504
2,718
12,305
19,984
5,796
11,681
45,478

43,090


The province... 327,715


6,525
11,141
10,311
4,107
5,478
5,443
563
16,126
14, 476
17,020
5,104
15,666
6,518
4,280
1,373
6,396
9,940
2,973
5, 805
21,118

19,922


6,245
10,803
10,882
3,262
3,648
5,264
631
15,468
13,587
17,486
5,391
16,622
7,946
4,224
1,345
5,909
10,044
2,823
5,876
24,360

23,168


1,427
4, 629
5,724
1,820
1,253
1,068
267
12,080
3,539
15,142
3,157
9,624
4,768
2,553
923
2,883
7,380
1,741
1, 527
8,768

9,556

85,505


208
542
207
306
1,629
22'2
65
1,194
1,569
573
60
1,080
810
119
57
116
249
80
358
2,812

2,795


13,313 11,446


REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


TAnE VI.-,Srex, general nativity, Linl color-Continued.

[Figures in italic are included in those for the province or district.]

PROVINCE OF SANTA CLARA.


2,971
9,394
11,110
3,971
2,616
2,259
510
94,244
7,0'28
29,610
6,179
18,115
8,333
5,143
1, 863
5,947
14,659
3,500
2,967
15,711

15,258


1,544
4, 765
5,386
2,151
1,363
1,191
243
12,164
3,489
14,468
3,0122
8,491
3,565
2,590
940
3,064
7,279
1,759
1,440
6,943

6,700,


232
618
219
318
1,692
244
77
1, 505
1,843
6831
63
1,2241
919
1'34
62
128
267
83
465
3,458

3,440


i


-






199


SEX, NATIVITY, AND COLOR.,


TAB.K VI. -&r, general wdiviy, and color-Continued.

[Figures in italic are included in thse for the province or district.]

PROVINCE OF SANTA CLARA.


Negro.

Total. Male.

748 330
819 386
2,897 1,571
1,642 868
890 519
1,291 574
7,468 3,856
.,063 1,209
673 336
1,603 787
579 331
1,588 828
1,335 687
1,509 759
2,142 1,076
892 132
1,399 802
3, 790 1. 650

1,899 738

747 426
1,949 904

987 372
275 145
892 556
237 138<

2,033 957
2,404 1,161
1,257 500

2,598 1,487
1,610 783
3, 223 1,619
1, 126 426
1, 291 749

48,524 21,717


Female.

418
433
1,326
774
371
717
3, 612
1,859
337
816
218
7(60
648
750
1,066
460
597
2, 140

1,161

321
1,045

615
130
336
99

1,076
1,243
757

1,111
827
1,604
700
542

23, 807


Mixe1.


Total.

470
1,029
1,577
1,298
928
1,125
11,888
7,401
498
1, 326
1, 332
990
1,755
932
916
834
1,692
3,244

2,284

784
4,315

3,114
742
770
1,048

2,042
5, 628
3, 217

1,433
1,197
6, 728
4,249
1, 529


58,050


Male.

223
504
826
054
443
485
5,570
3,090
225
591
649
491
845
4616
454
386
85;
1.362

916

378
1,742

1,115
362
418
520

870
2, 636
1, 356

792
615
2, 867
1,608
828


27,061


Chinese.

Female. Total. Male.

247 146 145
525 114 114
751 329 329
644 389 319
485 70 70
610 133 133
6,318 1,187 1,182
4,311 349 345
273 38 38
735 225 225
683 36 36
496 155 155
910 249 249
466 201 201
462 177 177
448 33 33
836 178 178
1,882 556 545

1,868 m63 356

406 74 74
2 573 41 41


1,999 34
380 42
352 13
528 21'

1,172 228
2,992 133
1,861 98

641 135
582 134
3,861 35
2,641 25
701 122

30, 989 5,194


34
42
13
21

224
133
98

135
133
35
25
122

5, 172


Female.


.





4






--



7


4




1




2)


PROVINCE OF SANTIAGO.


5, 456
2, 294
908
271
1,917
3, 647
226
2, 083
8,988
962
360
1,719
1,103
369
13
1,812
1,090
650
3, 621
11,397

10,319


2,721
1,146
428
157
1,014
1, 796
94
976
4,345
455
184
781
440
197
8
959
539
352
1,756
4,907

4,398


47,786 22,815


2,735
1,148
480
117
903
1,851
132
1,107
4, 643
507
176
938
663
172
5!
853
551'
298
1,865
6,490

5,921

24,971


4, 106
9,634
8,954
2,775
2,898
4,554
380
3,682
10,025
3,248
3,889
11, 197
4,083
2, 855
780
4,414
3,952
1,563
4,621
14,796

13,957


2,047
4, 684
4,288
1,462
1,469
2,231
160
1,719
4,891
1,519
1,834
5,283
1,679
1,371
368
2,253
1,857
782
2,244
6,346

5,917


98, 323 46,811


2, 059
4,950
4,666
1,313
1,429
2,323
220
1,963
5,131
1,729
2,055
5,914
2,404
1,484
412
2, 161
2,095
781
2,377
8,450

8,040

51,512


5
4
2
31
3
3
1
80
179
5
4
33
96


5
4
9
31
3
3
1
73
179
5
4
31
24,


3 -
........... ......
4 4.........
16 16.........
........... .......... . . .
7 7 .----
116 110 6

116 110 6

49 481 15


'


'





200


Districts.


Aguaeate ................................
Alquizar.................................
Bainoa...................................
BatabanO...............................
Bauta....................................
Bejucal.................................
Cano................. ...................
Casiguas...............................
Catalina .................................
Ceiba del Agua..........................
Guanabacoa .............................
City of Guanabacoa...................
Guara............................
Guines...................................
Guira de Melena.........................
Habana............................. ...
City ofHabana.......................I
Isla dePinos.............................
Janco...................................
Madruga.................................
Managua ...............................
Marianao. ..........................
Melena del Sur..........................
Nueva Paz..............................
Pipian ...........................
QuivicAn................................
Regla...................................
Salud ....-............................
San Antonio de las Vegas................
San Antonio de los Banos................
San Felipe..............................
San Jos6 de las Lajas....................
San NicolAs.............................
Santa Cruz del Norte ....................
Santa Maria del Rosario.................
Santiago de lasVegas....................
Tapaste......-..........................
Vereda Nueva...........................
The province ......................


Total Se
popula-
tion. 3rale.


3,163 51.8
8,746 55.1
1,725 55.5
6,523 55.2
5,142 55.2
5,756 47.6
4,210 55.6
1,004 55.9
2,718 49.8
2,197 53.4
20,080 48.8
13,965 46.8
1,835 50.4
11,394 50
11,548 56.2
242,055 52.4
285,981 52.2
3,199 55.7
4,076 52.8
3,744 48.3
2,887 53.7
8,593 53.4
3,207 51.4
7,761 49.4
1,101 52.9
2,423 51.1
11,363 50.7
3,293 54.3
1,855 51.3
12,631 52.5
1,915 49
4,154 49.1
4,568 55.7
2,965 54.1
2,730 51.6
10,276 51.3
1,551 54.7
2,416 53.7

424,804 52.3


x. Nati

Female. Native
whites.

48.2 52.7
44.9 62.6
44.5 73.7
44.8 63.3
44.8 70.5
52.4 77.5
44.4 79.1
44.1 66.4
50.2 75.1
46.6 79.6
51.2 65.5
53.2 59
49.6 76
50 62.2
43.8 63.8
47.6 49.5
47.8 49
44.3 77.5
47.2 74.7
51.7 64.7
46.3 78.6
46.6 55.4
48.6 57.6
50.6 56.6
47.1 87.4
48.9 73.1
49.3 65.9
45.7 87.3
48.7 79
47.5 74.2
51 63.2
50.9 71.4
44.3 61.3
45.9 57.8
48.4 73.3
48.7 69.7
45.3 80.6
46.3 88.6

47.7 57.4


PROVINCE OF MATANZAS.


Alacranes.................................
Bolondr~n..............................
Cabezas................................
Canasi...... .....................
Cardenas.................................
City of trirdenas..................
Carlos Rojas.............................
Colon...................................
Cuevitas.................................
Guamacaro ..............................
JagueyGrande...........................
Jovellanos..............................
Los Cayos..............................
Macagua................ ..............
Macuriges....................... .....
Marti............................
M atanzas ....................... .......
City of Matanzas......................
Mfximo-G6mez..........................
M6ndez Capote...........................
Palmillas .........................
Perico....................................
Roque ...................................
Sabanilla .........................
San Jose de los Ramos ...................
Santa Ana ...............................
Unihn de Reyes..........................


8,110
9,179
5,184
1,993
24,861
21,940
3,174
12,195
5,807
6,000
5,853
7,529
374
5,042
10,405
8,531
45,282
36,374
4,046
2,158
7,647
4,449
4,464
5,205
6, 7G5
2,965
5,226


56.4
52.8
50.2
N.4
47.2
46.5
50.9
51
54
51.5
52.8
47.5
79.1
52.9
52.4
54.3
48.4
46.5
52
62.3
54.3
55. 9
57.7
51.5
54
53.2
50.2


TIhe province ...................... 202,444 51.2


43.6
47.2
49.8
45.6
52.8
53..5
49.1
49
46
48.5
47.2
52.5
20.9
47.1
47.6
45.7
51.6
53.5
48
37.7
45.7
44.1
42.3
48.5
46
46.8
49.8

48.9


45.3
41.6
71.1
52.1
56.7
54.5
37.1
46.8
52.3
43.4
62.8
37.6
48.9
50.1
38.5
46.2
60.9
57.6
44.2
52.9
43.6
37.3
46
50.5
39.5
53.7
42.8


6.1
8.6
5.5
4.1
9.3
9.5
5.5
6.8
6.9
6
7.3
5.5
40.1
3.8
6.7
3.3
10
10
3.4
5.8
5.6
5.8
5.1
7.7
9.1
8.5
7.7


50.7 7.5


REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


TABLE VII.-Percentage of population by sex, general nativity, and color.

[Figures in italic are included in those for the province or district.]

PROVINCE OF HABANA.


48.6
49.8
23.4
43.8
34.0
86.0
57.4
46.4
40.8
50.6
29.9
56.9
11.0
46.1
54.8
50.5
29.1
32.4
52.4
41.3
50.8
56.9
48.9
41.8
51.4
37.8
49.5

41.8


vity and color.

Foreign Colored.
whites.

6.5 40.8
9.5 27.9
4.3 22.0
13.5 23.2
8.6 20.9
7.2 15.3
9.4 11.5
2.3 31.3
5.6 19.3
7.7 12.7
7.4 27.1
7.8 33.2
4.9 19.1
7.3 30.5
10.6 25.6
22.3 28.2
22.4 28.6
6.2 16.3
5 20.3
6.2 29.1
3.8 17.6
13.5 31.1
3.9 38.5
4.9 38.5
3 9.6
6.1 20.8
14.7 19.4
5.9 6.8
2.9 18.1
9.7 16.1
6.5 30.3
4.5 24.1
5 33.7
4.5 37.7
3.9 22.8
11.7 18.6
4.4 15.0
4.2 7.2

16.2 26.4





SEX, NATIVITY, AND COLOR.


201


TABLE VII.-Pereentage of population lby sex, general nativity, and color-Continued.
(Figures in italic are included in those for the province or district.]
PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RIO.


Districts.


Artem isa.................................
Bahia Honda............................
Cabanas..................................
Candelaria...............................
Cons6lacibn del Norte ...................
Cons6laci6n del Sur ... ............
Guanajay...............................
Guane ........... ..................
G uayabal ......... -.... ... ... ... ... ...
Julian Diaz..... ..................
Los Palacios ............. ..........
Mantua........ ..................
Mariel.............................
Pinar del Rio ............................
City of Pinor d(l Rio..................
San Cristobal .............................
San Diego de los Banos ..................
San Diego de Nunez ..................
San Juan y Martinez.....................
San Luis.. ........................
Vifiales .............................


Total
popula-
tion. 'Male.


9,317
2,117
3,853
4,866
7, 399
16,665
8,796
14,760
2,710
1,871
2,456
8, 366
3,631
38,343
8, 88
4,263
2,419
1,137
14,787
7,608
17,700


The province ...................... 173,064


Female.


53.8 46.2
47.4 52.6
55.7 44.3
53.9 46.1
53.3 46.7
51.3 48.7
47.8 52.2
56.9 43.1
53.1 46.9
52.5 47.5
53.1 46.9
45.8 54.2
49.6 50.4
52.3 47.7
47.9 5'2.1
53.4 46.6
53.8 46.2
50.3 49.7
55.3 44.7
52.4 47.6
52.8 47.2

53 47


Nativity and color.


Native IForeign


whites.


61.8
37.9
34.1
60.4
70.7
59
64.2
74.7
69. 4
56.6
410
77.3
59.2
67. 9
55.3
6C.2
72.8
40.3
69
67.9
72.8

66.4


whites.


5.1
3
3.9
4.6
4.5
4
7.6
8
8.9
2.5
3.5
5.6
3.9
7.2
11.5
3. 6
3.1
4
8.1
G.3
6.7

6.2


Colored.



33.1
59.1
62.0
35.0
24.8
37.0
28.2
17.3
21.7
40.9
36.5
17.1
36.9
24.9
33.2
30.2
24.1
55. 7
22 .2
25.8
20.5

27.4


PROVINCE

Ciego de Avila...........................
Mor6n ...................................
Nuevitas............................
Puerto Principe........................
City of Puerto Principe...............
Santa Cruz del Sur.......................

The province ...................


OF PUERTO PRINCIPE.

9,801 50.8 49.2
9,630 51.1 48.9
10,355 56.8 43.2
53,140 49.4 W.6
25,102 48.5 56..5
5,308 54.4 45.6

88,23M 50.9 49.1


82 3.2 14.8
87.6 2 10.4
68.8 9.4 21.8
73.8 4.2 22.0
65.8 5.1 29.1
67.1 5.6 27.3


75.2


4.6 20.2


PROVINCE OF SANTA CLARA


Abreus..................................
Caibarien ................................
Calabazar...............................
Camajuani..........................
Cartagena........................
Ceja de Pablo............................
Cienfuegos...............................
City of Cienfucyuos....................
Cifuentes .........................
Cruces..............................
Esperanza.............................. ..
Palmira.-..-......................
Placetas.................................
Quemado de uine ..................
RanchoVeloz............................
Ranchnelo.............................
Rodas............................
Sagua la Grand ........................
Clsi of Saqua ht Urande...........
San Antonio do has Vueltas..............
Saneti-Spiritus...........................
City of Sanei-AS'piritua................
San Diego del Valle......................
San Fernando............................
San Juan de las Yeras....................
San Juan de los Remedios...............
Santa Clara-----...................
City o Santa Clara...................
Santa Ibldelas Lajas................
Santo Domingo-..--...................
Trinidad-----.-..........................
City of Trinidad................
Yaguajay.......... ...................

The province ......................


4


3,995
8,650
13,419
14,495
6,244
6,951
59,128
30,038
3,825
7,953
7,811
6,527
11,961
8,890
7,532
5,059
9,562
21,342
12,728
.12,832
25,709
12,696
5,369
6,445
5,600
14,833
28,437
13,763
9,603
10,372
24,271
11,120
9,718

356,536


52.9
52.1
56.3
58
56.9
50.1
54.4
48.6
50.7
52.4
53.1
54.7
M.2
53.6
53.4
49.8
56.1
51.1
48.4
55.5
46.9
39.6
53.9
5S.1
52.5
51.3
51.3
46.5
58.4
53
48.2
40.6
58.3

53


47.1
47.9
43.7
42
43.1
49.9
45.6
51.4
49.3
47.16
46.9
45.3
45.8
46.-4
46.6
60.2
43.9
48.9
51.6
44.5
53.1
60.4
46.1
41.9
47.5
48.7
48.7
54.5
41.6
47
51.8
59.4
41.7

47


55.8
65
56.6
51.7
61.7
60.2
M. 5
52.4
64.1
51.3
71.7
49.6
60.3
64.6
50.8
60.6
56.7
54.9
155.4
73
72.9
64.3
76.3
64. 8
73.3
61.3
64.4
60.1
50.7
67.5
56.6
49.2
56.3

60.3


10.1
12.3
7.6
22.3
81
3.1
10.8
11.6
4.3
9
3.4
8.5
11.8
5.7
6.3
4.6
9.1
9.6
8.9
14.5
2.6
3.1
4
9.2
3.4
9.7
6.9
6.7
5.9
4.2
2.2
2.2
13.4

8:4


34.1
22.7
35.8
23.0
30.2
36.7
34.7
36.0
31.6
39.7
24.9
41.9
27.9
29.7
42.9
34.8
34.2
35.5
.45.7
12.5
24.5
32.6
19.7
26.0
23.9
29.0
28.7
33.2
43.4
28.3
41.2
48.6
30.3

31.3


4


i






REPORT ON THE CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


TABLE VII.-Percent ge of population ig Ne.r, general nativity, oal color-( mtinue I.

PROVINCE OF SANTIAGO.

[Figures in i alic are included in thse for the province or district.]


Districts.


Total
popul-
t in.-


Altodel Songo...........................
B aracoa ....................... .... ....
Bayauto..................................
Campechue.la ..............
Caney....... . . . .. . . .
C obre ........... ...... ................
C risto ............. ...... ...... ..- --
G ibara .... ........ .. -.. -. ... -. -....
Guantanam o........... ................
H olguin. ........... ...........
Jiguani.................. ..... ....
Manzanillo ...............--.-.-..--.
City of M an:'i, t/. ..................
M ayari............... ......... -. ..
Niqilero..........................
Palma Soriano........................
Puerto Padre .............
Sagua do Tfnamo.......... ... .... ...
San Luis ................... ... . ....
Santiago de Cuba.......... _-. .
City of Santiago ...................


The province


12,770
21,944
21,193
7,369
9,126
10,707
1,19
31,594
28, 063
34,506
10,495
32,288
14,464
8,5041
2,718
12,305
19,9841
5.796
11,681
45, 178
43,090

327,715


i


Nativity and color.

Native Foreign (olored.
whites. whites.


Sex.

Male. Female.



51.1 48.9
.W. 8 49.2
48.7 51.3
55.7 44.:3
60 40
50.8 49.2
47.2 52.8
51 4'9
51.6 48.4
49.3 50.7
48.6 51.4
48.5 51.5
15.1 54.9
50.3 49.7
50. 5 49.5
52 48
49.7 50.3
51.3 48.7
49.7 50.3
46.4 53. 6
46. 2 53. R

50 50


74.9
54.4
46.6
41.8
52.8
76.7
50.9
1i.5
68.0
12.2
40.5
40.1
So.0
37.9
29.1
50.7
25.3
38.2
70.6
57.9
56.6

44.71


T2\nx.E VIII.- hle on? ser.

[Figures in italic are include in those for the provine or district.]


1'rovinies.


Habana..............
(J/iptof Jibtan'......
Matanzas...............
Pinar del Rio........
Puerto Principe ---...
Santa Clara..........
Santiago................

Cuba ...........


Age and sex.

Total Under 5 5 tn 17 years. 18 to 20 21 to 4-1 45 years and
poplla- years. years. years. over.
tion.
Maic. Fe Mae.Fe- \lme.iFe~ VTh Fe- Mfxle. Fe-
Ma le. male. male. Male. Mall.

424,80415,312j155,5 63,562 G4,12716,06915,512 95,578 77,1503 31,469 30,087
235, 981 8, 7% 9,091 30, 615 32,218 8, 6.i3 8,052 57, 382 45,022 17,923 1S, 340
202,444 8,10731 7,995 33, 530 33, 939 6,528 7,527 35,690 33,969 19,905 15, 288
173,064 8,133 7,681 32,741 31,915 7,064 7,162 32,725 26,944 11,025 7,674
88,231 5,054 4.788 17,197 16,940 2,467 2,727 13,031 12,449 7,150 6,431
:V3, 53613, 05813,013 63,1637 63, 45212, 24912, 706 70,937 56,420 29,176 21, 85S
327, 71516 ,27415,882 66,214 65,67410,05011,514 49,804 48,872 21,503 21,928

1,572, 797 65, 90464, 974"276, 811276, 0475l, 427 57,1481297, 7651256, 1571120, 228103,266


PROVINCE OF HABANA.


Districts.


Aguacate .............
Alquizar..............
Bamnoa ...............
Batabano..............
Bauto ..................
Bejucal.................
Cano ..................
Casiguas ...............
Catalina....s.........
Ceiba del Agua.........
Guanabaeoa..........
City of Guanabcan.


Total
popula-
lion.




3,163
8,74(
1,725
6, 52'
5,14
5, 75
4,21
1,0(
2,71
2,19
20,08
13, 96/


Under 5 5
years. 5 to Ma

Male Male.


942 105 541
327 327 1,522
3 36 321
251 254 1,112
2 IN 152 951
6 199 2181 926
0 137 159 7601
33 19 186
S 63 8.5 552
7 82 85 411
a 723 690 3,360,
5 612 47 2.42 l j


yens.

F e-


541
1,422
307
1,07'
t5
1,017
191
171
520

3,:is
~'. AU


Age and sex.

18 to 20 21 to 44 45 years and
years. years. over.

Male. Fe-Die Fe- 1ade. e
alk Male. mule ma

145 132 629 587 208 158
420 327 1,947 1,383 598 -173
81 63 395 289 108, 72
2 '69 227 1,4771 1,048 488 3.20
230 179 1,104 814 394 275
193 254 1,088 1,091 332, 408
220 120 946 678 277 217
56 50 234 162 52 36
103 133 468 477 167 150
97 88 452 383 132 109
711 862 3,668 3,825 1,343 1,590
4731 52 2,429 2, 87 9201 1,278


202


23.3 1.8
42.8 2.8
52.4 1
55.9 4.3
28.7 18.5
21 2.3
42.7 6. 4
76.7 4.8
25.1 6.9
85.8 2
58.9 .6
56.1 3.8
57.6 6.4
60.5 1.6
68.6 2.3
48.3 1
73.4 1.3
60.4 1.4
25.4 4
34.5 7.6
35.4 R

51.20 4.09






AGE AND SEX. 203


TAn tIL VIII.-. o mid ( x ex-Continued.

PROVINCE OF HABANA-Continued.

[Figures in italic are included in those for the province ir district.]

Age anl sex.

Total iUnder + to 17 yer- 1K to 20 21 to 44 45 years and
1istriets. popula- years. years. Years. over.
tion.
F~a e Fe- Sacle ae e e
Male, male,Ma l e. F-m Iale. Fe-

Guara .................. 1,05 1 66. 391 3-18 76 83 317 330 80 83
Guines-----............ 11,394 309 298; 1,982 1,990 403 529 2,210 2,076 821 776
Guira do Melna. ------- 11,548] 454 403! 2,033 .1,886 588 4271 2,547 1,710' 8M4 636
Habana ................ 242, 055 8,909 9,292 31,630 33,123 8,911 8,254 58,880 45,931 18,442 18,680
Cifi yf IAln'...... 135,331 S,700 9,091 30,615 32, 218 8, 63 8,052 .57, 382 45, 022 17, 923 18,340
Isla dePinos-....---.... 3,199 195 158' a47 528 106 97, 671 473 263 161
Jaruco-................ 4,076 112 102 826 757 159. 154 790 711 265 200
Madruga-...- -........ 3,744 96 117 666 690 139 162 621 703 285 265
Managua............... 2,887 94! 103 574 5171 126 127 564 451 1911 140
Marianao .............. 8,593 3411 313 1,296 1,300 328 '296 1,881 1,4416 7361 656
Melena del Sur......... 3,207 106 116; 601 570 9 14' 591 553 256 174
Neuva Paz.............. 7,761 287 296; 1,317 1,349, 206 297 1,3851,4181 639 567
Pipian................... 1,101 17 26 210 215 43' 46' 4 182 711 50
Quivican .............. 2,423 82 7 449 468 90' 9 443 423 172 136
Regla ................. 11,33 444 445 1,787 1,842; 3741 394 2,304' 134 8>6' 783
Salud .......--. -- 3,293 106 108 656 604 151' 133 692 521 182 140
San Antonio de las Ve- 1
gnas-...-....... -,- 55 67 62 383 337 69 90 310 318 122 97
San Antonio de los[ 4' 57 '4
Baios ............... 12,631 496 470 2,167 2,147 57 514 2, 596. 2,136 x35 783
San Felipe............. 1,915 73 66 369 338 50 59 312 368 135' 145
San Jose de las Lajas... 4,154 136 116 7691 764 130 186 704 765 3011 283
San Nicolas............. 4,568 142 167 d7 719 161 182 91 680 103 277
Santa Cruz del Norte..-' 2,965 68 78 550 496 124 137 6031 493 25 158
SantaMariadelRosario. 2,730 Ml 59 495 502 117. 130 5311 465 183, 164
Santiago de las Vegas.. 10,276 392 407 1,579 1,635 381 39 2,170 1,837 749 733
Tapaste................ 1,551 361 31 285 272 71 68 362 271 95 60
Vereda Nueva.......... 2,416 t 83 488 395 16 x5 4551 421 166 132
The province-...--.-424,80415,31215,5i 63,562 64,127 16,06915,512 95,578 77,503 31,469 30,087


PROVINCE OF MATANZAS.


Alaeranes .............. 8,110 307 275 1,336 1,215 343 255i 1,710 1,238 877 551
Bolondron.............. 9,179 353 380 1,473 1,445 258 34 1,785, 1,555 981 645
Cabezas ................ 5,184 1851 188 965 972 205 251 898 864 352 304
Canasi.................. 1,993 39 48 369 343 78 67 394 314 205 136
Cardenas............... 24,861 1,024 1,002 3,923 4,471 708 1,019 4,101 4,600 1,988 2,025
Citly of Ctrdcnns ..... 21,940 913 890 3, 383 3,954 610 914 3,582 4,151 1,718 1,825
Carlos Rojas.---.......- 3,174 1341 153 561 496 98 99 444 484 378 327
Colon................... 12,195 477 573 1,996 2,122 367 440 2,121 2,006 1,254 839
Cuevitas ............... 5,807 2441 236 1,022 924 203 205 1,008 898 661 406
Guamacaro............. 6,000 2371 2671 993 988 189 225 981 914 690 516
JagieyGramde......... 5,853 266 2271 1,023 1,135' 202 214 1,155 905 446 280
Jovellanos...--....... 7,529 317 319 1,162 1,265 172 316 1,134 1,377 788 679
Macagua ............. 5,042 206 199 908 915 163 178 919 788 469 297
Maeuriges............. 10,405 428 413 1,642 1,585 367 374 1,854 1,732 1,161 849
Marti................... 8,905 413 390 1,490 1,423 281 292 1,489 1,232 1,258 637
Matanzas ............. 45.282 1, 632 1,670 7,486 7,721 1,429 1,839 8,014 8,557 3,344 3,590
City of Mlatana s ....| 36,374 1,390 1,409 5,694 6,209 1,051 1,493 6,124 7,209 2,667 3,128
MaximoGomez...--.... 4,046 166 144 633' (42 134 167 682 631 487 36
Mendez Capote......J-- 2,158 62 55 414 270 77 56 451 297 340 136
Palmillas..--.....--- ..... 7,647 356 295 1,320- 1,2941 216 274 1.279 1,138 984 491
Perico..---.--..-...... 4,449 1891 168 6551 621' 162 152 850 713 630 309
Roque-...........---.... 4,464 140 142 718 670 186 102 905 667 628 306
Sabanilla .............. 5,205 226 215 820 856 205 176 866 797 561 483
San Josc de los Ramos. 6,765 339 307 1,212 1, 1431 212 212 1,171 934 718 517
Santa Ana.............. 2,965 125 110 526 508 95 89 536 436 295 245
Union de Reyes........ 5,226 208 219 883 915 178 218 943 892 410 360

The province..... 202,444 8,073 7,995 33,530 33,9939 6,528 7,527 35,690 33,969 19,905 15,288


PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RIO.


Artemisa ........----... 9,317 298, 280 1,732 1,561 405 395 1,933 1,574 645 491
Bahia Honda........... 2,117 82 86 387 391 49 96 328 384 157 157
Cabanas................ 3,853 102 97 615 572 166 123 334 633 426 285
Candelaria----..---.--- 4,866 156 141 964 882 208 183 9921 823 300 215
Consolacion del Norte.. 7,399 362 338 1,549 1,496 321 3'23 1, 329 1,072 379 221
Consolaciondel Sur.. 16,65; 755 765 3,278 3,242 673 726 2,805 2.626 1,044 757





REPORT ON THE


CENSUS OF CUBA, 1899.


TABLE VIII.-Age and sex-Continued.


PROVINCE OF PINAR DEL RIO-Continued.
[Figures in italic are included in those for the province or district.]


Provinces.


Age and sex.


Total
popula-
tion.


Guanajay- -----.---.--. 8,796
Guane.................. 14,760
Guayabal.............. 2,710
.Julian Diaz-.......... 1,871
Los Palacios...---...... 2,451
Mantua................ 8,3k;
Mariel,................. 3,631
PinardelRio..........- 38,343
city ofPiardel Jim. 8, SS0
San Cristoba]..-.....-..-4,203
San Diego de los Bailos. 2, 419
San Diego de Nuiez.... 1,137
SanJuan y Martinez.... 14,787
San Luis............... 7,608
Vinales ................. 17,700
The province.... 173,064


Under 5
years.
F--
Male.
male.'


5 to 17 years.


S ale.


370 354 1, 520
M9 499 2,798
91 90 5211
60 64 4001
77 74 4981
380 344 1,631
130 145 6191
2,252 2,127 7,022,
406 4100 1,312
122 101 $34;
74 89 490
39 47 202
736 630 2,873
425 405 1,457
1,073 1,005 3,349

8,133 7,081 32,741


1, 552
2,585
493
380
466
1, 629
614
6,999
1,563
827
421
185
2,689
1,431
3,500
31,915


18 t
yea

Male.


2571
7131
75
101
375
122
1,428

200
105
33
699
285
706

7.064


0 20 21 to 44
xrs. rears.

Fe Male. Fe-
male, nile.

399 1,455 1,675
637 3,569 2,165
122 487 4211
82 345 284
131 503 401.
370 1,741 1,'07
138 635 662
1,539 6,774 5,936
427 1,651 1,764
205 885 714
93 508 399
3,5 169 174
575 2,942 2,141
295 1,331 1,179
695 3,160 2,474

7,162 32,.725 26,944


45 years and
over.

Male. m-