Historic note

Group Title: Mimeo report - University of Florida Range Cattle Station ; 58-2
Title: Livestock management and feed production training conference
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00074322/00001
 Material Information
Title: Livestock management and feed production training conference
Series Title: Mimeo report
Physical Description: 5 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kirk, W. Gordon ( William Gordon ), 1898-1979
Range Cattle Station, Ona
Publisher: Range Cattle Station
Place of Publication: Ona FL
Publication Date: 1958
Subject: Beef cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Livestock -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: W.G. Kirk ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "April 29-30, 1958."
Funding: Mimeo report (Range Cattle Station, Ona) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00074322
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 99029948

Table of Contents
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        Page 2
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        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Historic note
        Historic note
Full Text

Arprile C l29-e 9 i...

April 29-30, 19^

W. G. Kirk, E. M. Hodges, F. M. Peacock and J. E. McCaleb
Range Cattle Experiment Station
Ona, Florida

Importance of an adequate
livestock production cannot be
which should be considered are

year-round feed program in relation to
stressed too much. Some of the factors
given below:

1. Balance between amount and quality of feed and number of cattle:

A. Effect on Forage

Total feed produced
Amount feed per head
Quality of forage
Stand of grass

B. Effect on Cattle

Condition of herd
Calf crop, weaned
Weaning weight
Rate of maturity
Parasites, internal
Death loss
Grade sale animals
Total production

invasion of weeds

50% or less
300 lbs.
light to heavy

Moderately Stocked
some apparent waste
moderate to good

med. to large
350 to 450 lbs.

C. Production of Herds

No. cows 1-1-57.
Av. weight cows
Total weight cows
No. cows 12-31-57
Total weight cows
Calves weaned
Av. weaning weight
Total weaning weight
Total wt. cows and
Gain in 1 year

2. Management of Herd:

A. Have fewest cattle when pasture forage is scarce.





~a"p 2-


B. In culling consider production, quality, age, disposition, defects,
size and rate of maturity.
C. Fatten or sell yearling steers and heifers not needed for herd
D. Castrate male calves, dehorn calves and wean calves at 71 months.
E. Spray to control external parasites.
F. Supplemental feed to conserve pasture forage.
G. Free access to complete mineral.

3. Management of Pastures

A. Productive varieties of grasses and legumes.
B. Regular fertilization of improved pastures.
C. Practice:rotational and deferred grazing.
D. Overgrazing reduces forage production.
E. Irrigation of winter clovers.

4. Daily Feed Requirements According to Morrison's Standards:

800# Cow Wintering Fattening
Dry Nursing 400# 600# 600#
Calf 1 Year 1 Year
Dry matter 12-16 18-20 8-10 11-13 15-18
Dig. protein .6-.7 1.1-1.2 .6-.7 .65-.7 1.2-1.3
TDN 6.2-9.0 10.0-13.0 4.8-5.7 6.3-7.2 11.0-12.0

5. Supplemental Feeding of Cattle on Pasture:

A. Protein Feed

a. Cottonseed, soybean, and peanut meal feeding:

Protein Meal Protein salt Complete
Daily, Animal Meal Mineral

1.0 pounds 75 15 10
1.5 pounds 80 10 10
2.0 pounds 85 10 5

b. Cottonseed pellets fed on ground, 1 pound daily per cow or
2 pounds every other day. Double amounts when necessary.
c. Grazing winter clover 1 hour daily.

B. Energy Nutrients Plus Protein

a. 20% pellets fed at double the rate of cottonseed pellets.
b. 41% protein meal plus citrus or cane molasses. Feed 1 pound
meal and 4 pounds molasses daily per cow.
c. Molasses containing 3% urea fed at 5 pound level daily.


d. Four to 5 pounds daily of mixture 1 part protein feed and
4 parts either pulp or ground snapped corn fed in bunks
to small groups of cattle.
e. Ten to 15 pounds grapefruit daily. Oranges are less palatable.

C. Roughages

a. Four or more pounds hay daily per cow fed on ground,
b. Twelve to 15 pounds silage daily, fed in bunks or on good sod.
c. Cottonseed hulls, corn cob meal and corn and shuck meal have
feeding value similar to fair quality hay. Feed 5 pounds
plus 1 pound high protein feed daily per cow. If energy nutrients
are required, add 2 to 5 pounds molasses. These roughage feeds
can be fed with an equal amount of molasses containing 3% urea.

6. Wintering Weanling Calves:

Calves need good treatment the first winter. Gains should be from 0.5
to 1.0 pounds daily from weaning until pasture becomes good the following
spring. Concentrate feed consisted of 1 part cottonseed meal and 2 parts
citrus pulp plus 1% mineral, fed at rate of 3 to 5 pounds daily, amount
depending upon thrift of calves. Initial date 10-25-57.

Lot No. 1 2 3 4
Days on feed 134 134 137 137
No. calves 55 55 55 25
Av. initial wt. 493 463 476 344
Av. daily gain 0.56 0.76 0.70 0.64
Av. daily ration:
Pangola pasture -- little1 free choice Free choice2
Pangola silage self-fed 17.0 15.0
C. S. hulls 0.41 --
C. S. meal, 41% 1.36 1.36 1.14 1.35
Citrus pulp 2.73 2.72 2.29 2.70
Mineral .08 .08 .07 .08

Av. daily feed cost, calf3 $ 0.18 $ 0.17 $ 0.15 $ 0.16

1. Calves on Pangola pasture several times during early part of trial.
2. Coastal, Common Bermuda and Pensacola Bahia pasture.
3. Feed prices: Silage $8.00; C. S. meal $70.00; pulp $45.00; C. S.
hulls $35.00; mineral $70.00; pasture 50 per day.

7. Winter Effect on Pastures:

A. White Clover
A 15-acre block of Louisiana White established in 1952 had a
good stand October 1, 1957. Cattle were removed and fertilizer added
on that date. This area was ready for grazing when the December 12-13
freeze set it back severely. Grazing was begun on February 10, 1958,

- 4-

and cattle have been on one hour a day ever since. Oth2r rid fields
of White Clover were very slow in making growth. Seedling White
Clover has been 30-60 days later than in favorable years.

B. Hubam & Floranna
Sweetclovers made almost no growth from a November 1 planting.
Damage to these varieties was primarily from saturated soil conditions.
Stem and root crown disease of undetermined origin appeared at Range
Cattle Station and South Florida Field Laboratory.

C. Grass

WINTER-KILLING: Loss of Pangola stands is a major issue this spring.
Pastures at the Range Cattle Station show degrees of damage varying
from negligible to almost complete destruction. No survey is available,
but the south central area of the state shows severe thinning of
stand to be the rule. It is reported that the northern areas had
less-than-average winter damage to this variety. Cause of the heavy
loss has been a combination of low temperatures and excess surface
moisture. Heavier rates of fertilization, at least 100 lbs. per
acre N, have predisposed Pangola to winter-kill, but this is not
unfailing. Heavy top growth that lodges during wet weather also
contributed to the condition but, again, is not a sure cause of winter
loss. The effect of grazing and trampling during the winter period
is uncertain. Common Bahia winter-killed at this location as did
small plots of Para and Caribgrass. Pensacola and Argentine Bahia
have not been damaged to any serious extent.

RENOVATION: How to treat a damaged pasture? Loss of grazing from
March to June cannot be remedied where loss exceeds 50 percent of
the area but re-establishmoet can be aided by: 1. Prompt refertili-
zation with 20-30 lbs. per acre of N as topdressing or in a complete
mixture, depending on previous treatment. 2. Keep grazing to a
minimum until the gaps are filled in. One living sprig of Pangola
every 2-4 feet will permit regrowth if fertilizer and moisture are
adequate. The greatest problem is found where the area has weedy
grasses that may come on ahead of the Pangola and only thorough
renovation will do much good. Burning and cultivation are being tried
for possible value but have not been recommended since these practices
may open the way for undesirable plants.

VARIETY BALANCE: No forage variety or management practice should be
hastily evaluated in terms of the record-breaking conditions of the
past winter. All of our important grasses are drowth-resistant.
None of them have much productivity unless supplied with plant food.
A balance of 2 or more grasses has been recommended for many years
and remains the best.practice to supply year round forage. Pensacola
and Argentine Bahia combine moderate productivity with resistance to
overgrazing and little trouble with aphids. Coastal Bermuda has not
done well at the Range Cattle Station but increases in value in more


northerly areas. Pangola under orderly management has distinctly
higher productive capacity and a wider range of use. This was
shown from 1952-54 when Pensacola and Argentine Bahia and Pangola
were grazed while receiving a total of 900 pounds per acre of 9-6-6
annually in 3 equal applications. Beef gain per acre averaged 215,
216, and 338 pounds, respectively. Some replacement should be
considered where Pangola makes up a high percentage of the improved
pasture but any drastic change in Pangola acreage will mean reduced
carrying capacity.

W. G. Kirk, E. M. Hodges, F. M. Peacock and J. E. McCaleb
Range Cattle Experiment Station
Ona, Florida

Herd1 1 2 3 4
Number cows 60 60 60 58-65
Capital outlay per cow unit:
Cow 150.00 150.00 150.00 150,00
Native pasture 400.00 157.50
Imp. grass pasture 116.67 90.00 170.00
Grass-clover past. irrig. -- 120.00
Fencing 30.00 30.00 20.00 23.00
Water 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00
Corral and scale 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00
Total 591.00 460.17 386.00 349.00

Yearly charges per cow:
Int. capital @ 3% 17.73 13.81 11.58 10.47
Taxes 2.00 1.38 1.00 .85
Care cow, bull & calf 10.00 12.00 15.00 11.00
Use of bull 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00
Mineral 1.75 1.05 .70 .70
Death loss, 2% 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00
Spray & medicine 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00
Fertilizer -- 19.00 25.00 38.00
Irrigation -- -- 9.00
Supplemental feed 4.00
Replacement 3.00 -3.00 -4.00
Total 47.48 56.24 68.28.02

Average weight cows:
December 1955 763 960 1182 1204
December 1956 853 1044 1087 1264
December 1957 855 920 1133 1202

Number calves weaned2 111 146 147 105
Percent calf crop 62 81 82 85
Av. weaning weight 374 429 486 468
Av. calf weight, per cow 230 348 397 400
Av. cost 100# calf weight 20.64 16.16 17.20 16.51
Av. calf slaughter grade 8 9 11 10
Av. calf gain per acre 17 52 317 234
(N. 17 Imp. 204)

1. Herd 1, 800 a. native range; Lot 2, 315 a. native and 70 a. imp.
pasture; Lot 3, 54 a. imp. and 20 a. irrig. grass-clover pasture;
105 a. imp. pasture.
2. Herds 1, 2 and 3 calves weaned in 1955, 1956, and 1957; Herd 4
calves weaned in 1956 and 1957.

Range Cattle Station
Mimeo Report 58-3


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