Agricultural Research Center, Ona -- *
o Mimeo Report 71-8 April 5, 1971
C 7/-e COMPARATIVE FEEDLOT PERFORMANCE OF VARIOUS
R \ BEEF BREEDS AND CROSSES!/
SF.M. Peacock, W.G. Kirk, J.W. Carpenter, M. Koger
2 9 and A.Z. Palmer-
.. UWeR ag-eer caves of different breeds and breed combinations
have been studied in drylot on full feed at the Range Cattle Experiment
Station since 1952. This study has been conducted since 1962 and is
*resented in two parts. The first being on Brahman-Shorthorn crosses
as an approach to test calves produced from a criss--cross breeding
program when the Brahman and Shorthorn breeds are used. The second
.s on Brahman, Angus, Charolais, and their crosses.
Breeding of Brahman-Shorthorn crosses ranged from 3/4 Brahman-
L/4 Shorthorn to 3/4 Shorthorn-1/4 Brahman with 1/8 blood variations
in between,giving rise to five lots of animals. One-hundred-five
calves were fed over a three-year period for 191-day average. The
ration fed consisted of 20 parts 41% cottonseed meal, 40 citrus pulp,
21 ground snapped corn, 13 corn meal, 5 alfalfa, and 1 mineral plus
21 pounds pangolagrass hay daily per steer. Calves were fed once
each day and at the end of each feeding trial were trucked to Lykes
Brothers packing plant, Tampa, Florida and slaughtered. Warm carcass
weights were obtained and animals were graded after 48 hours in the
cooler. Actual weight of calves was used as the initial weight. To
obtain realistic average daily gains for comparisons, final weights
1/ Presented at Beef Cattle Short Course, May 5-8, 1971, Gainesville.
2/ Associate Animal Husbandman, Animal Scientist, Range Cattle
Station, Ona; Associate Meat Scientist, Animal Geneticist, and
Meat Scientist, Animal Science Department, Gainesville.
of animals in both studies were adjusted based on a 60% cold carcass
dressing percentage. Cold carcass weights in this trial were obtained
by deducting 21% from the warm carcass weight. Results of this study
are given in Table 1.
The most significant aspect of this study was the decrease in
carcass grade when Brahman breeding exceeded one-half. This is in
agreement with other studies which showed carcass grade to be inversely
related o-pe-reentage of Brahman breeding in the animal.
The study on performance of Brahman, Angus, Charolais, and their
crosses has been conducted for four years. This study is not complete
ani will be carried on for a few more years to obtain comparative
data on the back crosses and three breed crosses.
The calves were out of Brahman, Angus, and 3/4 Charolais to 7/8
Charolais cows and sired by Brahman, Angus and Charolais bulls. The
calves were fed by sire groups due to lack of facilities rather than
in individual breed groups which would have been desirable.
Animals were fed a ration consisting of 19 parts 41% cottonseed
meal, 52 citrus pulp, 17 corn, 6 ground snapped corn, 5 alfalfa, and
1 mineral plus 2 1/3 pounds hay daily per steer. Calves sired by the
Brahman bull ate 790 pounds of feed per 100 pounds gain while those
sired by the Angus bull required 865 pounds, and by the Charolais
bull 834 pounds. Calves were slaughtered at the Meats Laboratory,
Gainesville, where slaughter and carcass data were obtained. Cold
carcass weights were obtained after 48 hours in the cooler. Estimated
percent yield equals estimated percent of boned and closely trimmed
major cuts of round, rump, loin, rib and chuck. Performance and
carcass data by individual breed groups are given in Table 2.
Table 1. FEEDLOT PERFORMANCE, DRESSING PERCENTAGE AND CARCASS GRADE OF
BRAHMAN--SHORTHORN CROSSBRSD CALVES.
3/4 B- 5/8 B- 1/2 B- 5/8 Sh- '3/4 Sh-
Breeding of animals 1/4 Sh. 3/8 Sh. 1/2 Sh. 3/8 B. 1/4 B.
No. of animals
Days on feed
Av. initial weight
Av. final weight adj.
to 60 D.P.
Av. daily gain
Weight shrunk carcass
Av. carcass grade
Feed/100 lb. gain
Table 2. FEEDLOT PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF ANGUS, BRAHMAN,
CHAROLAIS AND THEIR CROSSS.
Angus Brah. Char. A x Br. A x Ch. Ch x Br.
No. of animals 18 14 19 24 23 21
Days on feed 178 178 178 178 178 178
Beginning weight 392 431 591 464 499 554
Final Adj. weight
at 60 D.P. 732 772 990 872 897 967
Adj. daily gain
at 60 D.P. 1.91 1.92 2.24 2.29 2.24 2.32
Chilled 439 463 594 523 538 580
Dressing percent 61.03 61.45 61.90 62.49 61.97 62.58
Federal grade Choice Good Good Good + Good + Good
Fat over eye .36 .25 .22 .38 .29 .28
Ribeye area 9.10 8.98 11.83 10.06 10.40 10.51
Estimated yield 50.64 51.13 52.13 50.20 50.91 50.80
The relative beginning weights of the various breed groups
should be noted as this is preweaning performance. Average daily
gains in feedlot were lowest for the Angus and Brahman. The Charolais
and crossbreds gains were highest with only slight variations between
Carcass grades favored the Angus and Angus-crossbreds, with the
Brahman, Charolais and their crosses being lowest.
Fat over the ribeye was somewhat in relation to carcass grade
with the Angus and Angus crossbreds having the most and grading
Highest. The Charolais had the highest estimated percent yield
)f boned and closely trimmed major cuts with only slight variations
among the other breed groups.
4-5-71- 1000 copies