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Research Report RC 1978-6
Multicropping System for
Forage Production in South Florida
P. Mislevy, C.L. Dantzman, J. Otte, A.J. Overman, H.L. Chapman, Jr., and F.M. Peacock
Florida Agricultural Exp A R
Institute of Food and Ag tRe '
University of Florida
F. A. Wood, Dean for Re each jUL 1 U 'ii
.F.A.S.- Univ. of Florida
E Iva a
MULTICROPPING SYSTEM FOR FORAGE PRODUCTION IN SOUTH FLORIDA
P. Mislevy, C. L. Dantzman, J. Otte, A. J. Overman
H. L. Chapman,Jr. and F. M. Peacock
Florida enjoys relatively favorable year-around temperatures, adequate
moisture and high solar radiation. The "sunshine state" contains approxi-
mately 34 million acres of land, with about 12 million acres in some form
of native or improved pasture. This pasture land provides feed for about
2.8 million cattle for an average of 4.8 acres per animal unit.
Perennial grass forage systems generally provide excessive forage
throughout the summer growth period (June-September). From fall to spring
(October-May) forage production is quite low, thus limiting the stocking
capacity during this period.
In recent years some 600,000 weaned beef calves have been shipped out
of the state annually to winter pastures and feed lots in other areas of
the country. Retaining these calves in the state for an additional 300 lb
gain, would increase gross income to the beef cattle industry by 50 million
dollars. In order to retain these calves through the winter in Florida,
economical feed must be available. Dairy producers, ever to a greater extent,
need a continuous, uniform supply of high quality feed.
The purpose of this multicropping system study is to explore the
physical and economic feasibility of annually producing two or three crops
in succession, on the same land area. Effect of long term continuous
cropping on nematodes, insects and soil nutrients will be determined. Forage
produced through this multicropping system will be utilized in livestock
Materials and Methods
The study was conducted on 30 acres of an Ona and Myakka fine sand
located at the Agricultural Research Center (ARC) Ona, Florida. Prior to
initiating the study the flatwood site contained pine trees, saw palmettos
and approximately 4 acres of sand ponds. This discussion includes the clearing
tillage, irrigation, forage production practices, nematode and nutrient status
and economics involved in a multicropping system for south central Florida.
The study was initiated in February 1976. This paper will contain the first
2 years of cropping sequence data.
Land clearing and seed bed preparation.
Pine trees, stumps and palmettos were removed from the experimental
Associate Professor (Agronomy) and Assistant Professor (Soil Chemistry)
Agricultural Research Center, Ona; Area Economist, Food and Resource
Economics Department, University of Florida and Professor (Nematology),
Agricultural Research and Education Center, Bradenton; Professor (Animal
Nutrition) and Center Director and Professor (Animal Husbandry) Agricultural
Research Center, Ona, Florida.
area, 6 months prior to actual land preparation. Two weeks prior to
seeding, the area was roto-tilled with a Ground Hawg(R) rotovator to a
depth of 6 inches.
Irrigation was provided throughout the year as needed. Water was
pumped from a 6 inch, 300 ft. deep well with a 15 hp motor on a turbine
pump. The well supplied about 170 gpm of water which terminated at 6
risers. A traveling water gun connected to the 6 inch riser distributed
water over a 250 foot diameter. Irrigation water was applied mainly on the
corn crop at 1.0 inches per application as needed on a weekly basis. In
1976 and 1977 7.5 and 9.35 inches of irrigation water were applied respec-
tively. Total rainfall and irrigation applied to both corn crops was 15.0
inches each year. No irrigation was applied to the Aeschynomene or oats
A rim-ditch about 7' deep and 16' wide was constructed around the
entire 30 acre site requiring an additional 4 acres of land for this purpose.
Two small drainage ditches were also constructed from two sand pond areas
to the rim-ditch allowing good drainage of pond areas. The base of the
rim-ditch was sloped so that all surface water entering the ditch after
a heavy rainfall would accumulate in one area. An automatic low lift
(8 inch 450 angle axial flow propeller pump, 1500 GPM at 7 ft. Tdh., 12 ft.
discharge pipe and a 5 hp motor) pump was installed in that area to remove
The yearly cropping rotation practiced in this study in 1976 and 77
was corn, Aeschynomene and oats. The above three crops were seeded in
succession on the same land area. In 1976 the entire 30 acres were seeded
to one commercial corn hybrid (Dekalb XL 395) on February 28, in 36 inch
rows to a final population of 18,000 plants per acre. The 1977 corn crop
was seeded in 30 inch rows on February 16 to a final population of 22,000
plants per acre. Three hybrids were used: 'Dekalb XL 80' and 'Asgrow RX 114'
which are early maturing hybrids and 'Dekalb XL 395' which is a full season
hybrid. The low-sand pond areas of the field were seeded to early maturing
hybrids, facilitating the early June harvest before soil became too wet for
machinery. Immediately after the removal of the whole corn plant as forage,
hulled (naked) Aeschynomene was no-till seeded with a grain drill at a rate
of 12 and 6 Ib/A in 1976 and 1977, respectively. Following the removal of
Aeschynomene, 'Fla. 501' oats was no-till seeded with a grain drill in mid-
November 1976 at a rate of 3 bu per acre. In 1977 twenty five acres were
seeded with Fla. 501 oats and five acres with the experimental diploid oats,
Fla. 70 Q at 80 Ib/A. In late January 1976 when the oats were 12 inches
tall they were grazed for several days and then plowed under due to the
limited time remaining before corn was to be seeded. In 1977 when oats were
18 and 26 inches for Fla. 501 and Fla. 70 Q respectively, they were harvested
as haylage and ensiled.
Lime and fertilizer practices.
Three tons per acre of dolomitic limestone were rotovated into the
seed bed in 1976 about 2 weeks prior to seeding corn. An additional two
tons of hi cal limestone were applied in the summer of 1977. Fertilization
practices for corn in 1976 were/as follows: 50-100-200- lb/A N-P 0 -K 0 +
30 Ib/A FTE 503 micronutrients- at seeding; 100 lb/A N was applied w en
corn was 8 inches tall; 100 Ib/A N when corn was 24 inches tall. Corn
fertilization practices in 1977 were similar to 1976, with only 10 lb/A
micronutrients being applied. Fertility practices for Aeschynomene in 1976
were 0-30-60 Ib/A N-P205-K20 + 10 Ib/A CUO and 10 Ib/A ZNO when plants
were 4 to 6 inches tall. In 1977 only 300 Ib/A 0-10-20 was applied on the
Aeschynomene. Fertilization practices for oats in 1976 were 50-50-100 Ib/A
N-P200-K20 when oats were starting to tiller. In 1977 the oat fertilization
was 75-50-100 Ib/A + 10 lb/A FTE 503 micronutrients. Initially and following
each crop the experimental area was soil tested to monitor soil organic
matter, major and secondary nutrients.
Weed and insect control.
The insecticide-nematicide Furidan 10G(R) was applied in granular form
when corn was seeded at rates of 16 and 20 Ib/A formulation in 1976 and
1977, respectively. This product provided systemic insect (lesser corn
stalk bore, armyworm, wireworms, etc.) control until plant attained a
height of about 12 inches tall. The insecticide Mesurol was used as a
hopper mix in 1977 at the rate of 1 Ib (formulation) per 100 %.corn seed,
as a bird repellant. Th ~Rerbicides used in 1976 were AAtrex at 2 lb/A
(formulation) and Lasso at 2 qts/A (formulation) applied pre-emerge over
the entire 30 acre area RIn 1977 twenty acres of corn received AAtrex() at
2 Ib/A (active) + Lasso at 2 IA (active) and on the remaining 10 acres
AAtrex / 2 Ib/A (active) + Duhl' 2 Ib/A (active) pre-emerge. Corn was
not cultivated. No herbicides or insecticides were used on the Aeschynomene
or oat crops. Initially and following each crop the entire 30 acres was sampled
to monitor nematode populations. The field was divided into a drier portion
and into a low sand-pond portion. The drier portion contained four replications
and the sand-pond area contained two. Four subsamples were collected from
each replication and nematodes were extracted using the modified Baermann technique.
Harvesting and ensiling practices.
The corn plant was direct cut as forage when the ear was at the dent
stage of maturity with plants containing approximately 28% dry matter in
1976 and 35% dry matter in 1977. The entire corn plant was cut back to a
4-5 inch stubble by a two-row forage harvester and chopped into 1/8 to 1/4
inch sections and preserved in oxygen free upright silos as silage. Aeschy-
nomene was harvested at the full bloom-seed stage with a haybine back to a
3-inch stubble in 1976. Plants were harvested in 1977 at the early bloom
stage. Harvested plants were allowed to dry in windows until moisture
dropped from 72% in 1976 and 75% in 1977 to approximately 50%. Aeschynomene
was then finely chopped and preserved in oxygen free upright silos as haylage.
No preservatives were added to either the corn, Aeschynomene or oats forage
during the ensiling process. Corn, Aeschynomene and oats were sampled for
percentage dry matter (D.M.), yield, in vitro organic matter digestion (IVOMD)
and protein in 1976. Forage quality data for 1977 will be presented later.
FTE 503 have the following elemental content: Iron 18.0%; Zinc 7.0%;
Manganese 7.5%; Copper 3.0%; Boron 3.0%; and Molybdenum 0.2%.
Each wagon load of harvested corn, Aeschynomene and oats forage was weighed
when it entered the silo area to obtain total forage yield. Samples for
D.M. and chemical analysis were obtained by randomly selecting 10 to 15 sub-
samples from each wagon, placing them into a large tub, mixing the material
and selecting about 1 lb. Samples from every 10th load of corn forage and
every 5th load of Aeschynomene and oats forage was analyzed for IVOMD, protein
acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent lignin.
Corn grain yield for 1976 and 1977 and forage yield of oats for 1976 was
obtained by random sampling the 30 acre area. In 1977 oat yields were deter-
mined by weighing the harvested forage as it entered the silo area.
Results and Discussion
Forage production and quality.
Forage indices (% dry matter, yield, IVOMD, protein and etc.) of corn,
Aeschynomene and oats for 1976 and 1977 are presented in Table 1. The com-
mercial corn hybrid 'Dekalb XL 395', which was harvested in mid-June 1976
at 28.4% dry matter (DM) produced 5.6 tons/acre DM or 19.3 T/A of green forage.
One year later, in 1977 average dry matter yields from corn (average of 3
hybrids) were 6.7 T/A or an increase of 1.1 T/A from 1976. Green forage
yields in 1977 were about the same as 1976, however, percent dry matter at
harvest was higher in 1977 averaging 35.4% as compared with 28.4% the year
before. Grain production for these corn crops averaged 91.5 and 145.7 bu/A
@ 15.5% moisture in 1976 and 1977 respectively. The yield of 5.6 and 6.7 T/A
DM is an average crop. When all production variables such as fertility, water,
plant population, proper variety, weed and insect control are correct, dry
matter yields should range between 8 and 10 T/A.
One of the problems with the initial corn crop of 1976 was low pH (4.4).
Since dolomite was applied only 2 weeks prior to corn seeding, time was in-
adequate for the lime to go into solution, react with soil particles, and
elevate pH. Therefore, it is speculated that aluminum and manganese toxicity
were responsible for various deficiency symptoms. Several acres of corn in
the study showed phosphorus deficiency symptoms. These symptoms eventually
disappeared as the corn root system increased, however yields in these areas
were only one quarter of normal production. Since the soil pH averaged oply
5.0 the corn crop still showed a few deficiency symptoms in 1977 and following
that corn crop an additional 2 T/A hi cal limestone were applied.
Corn is a highly digestible crop indicated by the 73.0% in vitro organic
matter digestion (IVOMD) (Table 1). This corn crop produced 7829 lb/A of
digestible organic matter or estimated TDN. The crude protein content was
9.0% with an average of 1008 Ib/A crude protein produced. Grain to stalk
ratio's were determined from the three corn hybrids tested in 1977. Dekalb
XL 80 contained the highest ratio averaging 48-52% grain to stalk. Asgrow
RX-114 and Dekalb XL 395 were some what lower averaging 41-59 and 32-68%
grain to stalk, respectively.
Dry matter yield of the Aeschynomene averaged 2.6 T/A in 1976 with a
41.l7 IVOMD. Dry matter yields for 1977 were lower, because of earlier
harvesting, averaging 1.9 T/A. The very low digestible forage in 1976 was
due to plants being over mature at harvest. Less mature Aeschynomene plants
(i.e. 3 ft. tall) may average 58% IVOMD and 16% crude protein. Therefore,
regardless, whether a plant is a grass or legume, if harvested at the improper
stage of maturity percentage IVOMD and protein will be low as well as pounds
per acre IVOMD and protein (Table 1).
Serious bird damage was encountered in 1976 on the oats, with birds
consuming both seed and germinating seedlings. Following the seeding of
oats cool temperatures were experienced for the next 60 days resulting in
reduced plant growth. During the week of January 17 temperatures fell to
lows of 19 to 240 F. By late January the oats had only attained a height
of 12 inches. Forage at this stage of maturity contained 15.7% D.M. and
only yielded 0.8 T/A. Forage quality of the 1976 oat crop was exceedingly
high in digestibility and crude protein averaging 85.7 and 25.0%, respectively
(Table 1). Even though oats dry matter yields were only one third that of
Aeschynomene, pounds per acre estimated digestible organic matter (1160) and
crude protein (334) for oats were 56% and 74% respectively, of that produced
by Aeschynomene. In 1977 the oats were seeded about 10 days earlier, along
with more favorable weather conditions resulting in vegetative growth of
18-26 inches by late January 1978.
Soil organic matter and nutrient status.
Organic matter (OM) is a very important part of the soil. It provides
better moisture holding capacity, reduces leaching of fertilizer elements,
and improves soil structure. It also contains many of the plant nutrients
that become available when the OM decomposes.
The field in the native condition contained 3.70% OM (Figure 1). After
soil preparation and the first two crops (corn and Aeschynomene), it measured
2.68% or a loss of 1 percentage point. Many of the plant nutrients released
by the decomposition of the OM were then available to the first two crops.
After the first year's oat crop OM measured 4.26%, and after the second year's
rotation of corn, Aeschynomene, and oats it measured 4.92, 4.75 and 4.73,
respectively, indicating that a new level of percent OM was being attained
due to the cropping system. These preliminary data indicate the OM is
increasing under a minimum tillage cropping sequence system. Additional in-
formation is needed to further evaluate this effect.
The soil in the native (initial) state was very acid and low in fertility.
Before land preparation the MgO was 166 Ib/A and CaO 512 Ib/A, which was below
the minimum level recommended for the above crops (Figure 2). After liming
with 3 T/A dolomite and the first year's corn and Aeschynomene crops, MgO
increased to 528 lb/A and CaO to 1022 Ib/A. In February, after the 1977-78
oat crop and liming with 2 T/A of high calcic lime (July 1977) the CaO measured
4700 Ib/A well into the sufficient range.
Soil K20 and P20 for the native (initial) state was 31 and 13.7 Ib/A,
respectively (Figure 3). The status for these elements after following
recommended fertilization practices for the first year's corn and Aeschynomene
crops increased to 79 lb/A K20 and 42 lb/A P 05. Following the second year's
corn crop these values decreased to 60 and 2 51b/A, respectively, indicating
that the corn may have used some of the soil reserve from the previous crops.
However, after the 1977-78 oat crop the K20 remained at the 60 lb/A level and
the P.05 level increased to 94 Ib/A. This indicates that the phosphorus
fertilization could be reduced for succeeding crops, and potassium may have
to be increased especially for high corn forage production.
Multicropping systems may be conducive to buildups of economically
damaging populations of nematodes in sandy soils.
Monitoring of the plots in the drier portion of the field showed that
three of the five plant parasitic nematode genera recovered from samples
collected after the harvest of each crop and increased in numbers during the
second year of the rotation schedule (Figure 4). Regardless of the crop
planted in the field, the stubby root nematode, Trichodorus christiei gradually
increased. The spiral nematode, Helicotylenchus sp., and the lance nematode,
Hoplolaimus sp., began a meteoric rise in population during the second planting
of oats. The spiral nematode, Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, and the lesion nematode
Pratylenchus sp. were not responsive to the various crops, maintaining a
relatively low level throughout the year. In the low-sand pond areas
Pratylenchus and Hoplolaimus sp., have not yet been detected; however, Trichodort
and Helicotylenchus increased their activity during the second crop of Aeschynome
in the pond blocks (Figure 5).
Nematode infestations in a newly cleared flatwoods soil is usually related
to the plant mix and distribution in the native cover. Pine trees and palmettos
growing singly or in clumps in native cover support specific nematode communities
which use the plant root systems as a food source. During land preparation these
high concentrations of nematodes are diluted and somewhat redistributed by the
machinery used to manipulate the soil. However, during the first few crop
seasons, nematode densities are still spotty in the field. Cultivation, water
flow and root exploration of host plants eventually spread the communities
farther from the point of origin. The no-till management of the 30-acre block
involved in this test would probably delay this expected equalization process.
This concept was supported by the variation in nematode counts which was
obtained among the 16 stations sampled in the field. Numbers of Helicotylenchus,
for example, ranged from 0 to 1620/150 ml soil among replicates collected January
1978 following the second crop of oats. Helicotylenchus was not detected in
that block of the field until October 1977.
Estimating production costs and yields are important steps in determin-
ing the economic feasibility of a multicropping system. Tables 2, 3 and 4
show corn, Aeschynomene and oats budgets for the 1977 season Some practices
and costs were changed from 1976 to 1977. However, for yield and return
analysis the 1977 costs are assumed applicable for both seasons to show the
impact of yield changes on cost per ton of dry matter.
Cash costs are out-of-pocket expenses required to perform individual
cultural practices, Once the cultural practices are identified and quantities
of supplies used are determined, costs to perform each practice are calculated.
For example, in Table 2, the corn crop was fertilized with 1000 Ib/A of 5-10-20
at $89.20/ton ($4.46/cwt), and 20 Ib/A of FTE 503 at $0.23/lb. Both fertilizers
were custom applied in a mixed form at $2.00 per acre. Total cost for the
first fertilizer application was $51.20 per acre. Costs for other practices
and other crops are budgeted in a similar manner.
Fixed costs generally include equipment depreciation, insurance, repairs,
taxes and interest on capital investment. Commercial growers would generally
own equipment and incur equipment fixed costs. However, in this report we
assumed no equipment was owned and all practices were performed by custom
operators. Therefore equipment fixed costs are not included.
Land ownership costs are not included, but depreciation and interest
on the well, pump, land clearing, initial lime, irrigation and drainage
systems are budgeted. Cash costs per ton of dry matter in 1976 ranged from
$32.03 for Aeschynomene to $65.64 for oats (Table 5). Cash and fixed costs
ranged from $58.70 for Aeschynomene to $152.33 for oats.
Value of harvested corn and Aeschynomene produced covered total cash
and fixed costs in both 1976 and 1977. Corn forage had the highest return
above cash and fixed costs per acre averaging $140.96 and $188.96 per acre
for 1976 and 1977 respectively.
The return for Aeschynomene decreased in 1977 due to the decline in
yield. However, the quality and value per ton increased due to harvesting
at an earlier stage of maturity.
The oats forage was valued at $110./ton of dry matter, and in 1976 was
grazed, not mechanically harvested. The 1976 oat crop resulted in a $33.86
per acre loss. In 1977 oats produced higher yields, however the crop was
mechanically harvested which cost an additional $59.58 per acre, resulting
in a $71.44 loss per acre.
The budgets presented here were derived from production practices,
supplies costs and custom rates. Individual growers may follow different
practices, own their own equipment or obtain supplies at different prices.
These factors may result in costs differeing from those reported here.
Livestock feeding studies.
One hundred and thirty six weanling heifer calves of mixed breeding were
divided into 8 equal groups of 17 animals on the basis of weight and breed.
The calves were shrunk 15 hours before initial and final weights. The
average initial weight of the heifers was 467 pounds. The calves were fed
corn silage and Ona mineral #22/ad lib for 126 days in confinement. Cotton-
seed meal (41%) was fed at a rate of two Ibs/animal/day. Hay was fed two
days, when the silo was broken and silage could not be fed. Prior to going
on feed each calf was wormed with Tramisol.
Animal performance and feed data are presented in Table 6. The average
daily gain for the 136 head was 1.78 pounds. A total of 7.25 pounds of dry
matter was required per pound of gain. The winter of 1977-78 was very wet
and cold and animal performance was hindered by the muddy, wet condition of
the feeding pens. However the overall performance of the heifers was good
and the corn silage was a very palatable feed.
A successful multicropping system requires timeliness of crop seeding,
proper fertility, water control, proper variety, plant population, and weed
and insect control. High quality forages can be produced provided they are
harvested at the proper physiological stage.
2 Ona mineral #2 contains: 12% Calcium, 12% phosphorus, 25% common salt, 1% iron,
.13% copper, .o3% cobalt and 200,000 I.U. of vitamin A per pound.
Preliminary data indicated that soil organic matter, major and secondary
nutrients can accumulate under a multicropping system following minimum-
Some of the plant parasitic nematodes present in the test area have
increased greatly during the fall of 1977. The five nematodes found in this
30-acre block are considered to be obligate plant parasites. However, at
present the experiment is not designed to measure the potential crop loss
associated with the nematodes.
The costs and returns analysis indicate corn forage and Aeschynomene
can be profitably grown in a multicropping system. Growing oats may not
be profitable. Individual growers must evaluate forage production costs
for their own production practices and determine value of crops produced
in their own feeding programs.
Table 1. Forage indices of corn, Aeschynomene and oats grown in the 1976 and 1977 multicropping
system at ARC, Ona.
Grain to Forage
Harvest Dry matter stalk Dry Corn
Crop time Harvest Ensiling ratio Green matter grain IVOMD Protein NDF ADF ADL
------ %- - -%- -- -T/A- bu/A %---lb/A %---lb/A -%- -
Forage June 28.4 28.4 19.3 5.6 ---- 73.0 7829 9.0 1008 55.0 26.2 3.0
Grain June 51.2 --- --- --- 91.5 --- -- --- ---
Forage October 27.5 48.7 --- 2.6 ---- 41.7 2068 8.7 452 70.0 55.3 11 9
Forage January 15.7 --- ---- .8 --- 85.7 1160 25.0 334 37.4 20.8 1.5
Forage June 35.4 35.4 19.1 6.7 --- -- --- --- -- --- ---
Grain June 57.7 --- --- --- 145.7 -- -- --- ---
Dekalb XL 80 48-52
Asgrow RX 114 41-59
Dekalb XL 395 32-68
Forage October 25.8 50.7 7.4 1.9 --- --- --- --- ---
Forage January 11.0 54.2 9.0 1.0 --- --- ----
t Corn grain yields were determined at time corn was being harvested as forage. Grain yields based on
4 Values were determined by averaging IVOMD and crude protein collected from selected subsamples.
NDF=Neutral detergent fiber; ADF= acid detergent fiber and ADL=acid detergent lignin.
A Grain to Stalk ratio's were determined from subsamples taken in the field from each variety.
",In / June Oct.
Soil organic matter pattern following 25 months of
/976 / 977---/ 97
Soil calcium and magnesium patterns following 25 months of
7lX'ia June Oc. Feb. June Oct. Feb
/97-- --/977 -/978
Figure 3. Soil potassium and phosphorus patterns following 25 months of
7 7.. CHODReUS
7 HL/C- TYX-ECHUS
-. ---- HOPLOL A/M4fST
60 --"--*I PRTYiLW//C//oS
Figure 4. Effect of multicropping on densities of five nematode genera
which infested the drier portion of the test area.
TYL EA'C/102 NCH/VDS
Figure 5. Effect of multicropping on three nematode genera which
infested the low-sand pond areas of the test field.
Table 2. Estimated cost for growing corn forage under a multicropping
system, Ona, 1977.
Item Unit Quantity Price Cost/A
I. Cash expenses
Custom plow A 1 $ 7.50 $ 7.50
Custom disk A 2 3.25 6.50
5-10-20 cwt. 10 4.46 44.60
FTE 503 lb. 20 0.23 4.60
Custom application A 1 2.00 2.00
Ammonium nitrate cwt. 3 6.91 20.73
Custom application A 1 2.00 2.00
Ammonium nitrate cwt. 3 6.91 20.73
Custom application A 1 2.00 2.00
Lime+ T 1/6 12.00 2.00
Lasso(R) gal. 1/2 14.60 7.30
AAtrexR) gal. 1/2 14.30 7.15
Custom spray A 1 3.00 3.00
Furidan 10 G(R) lb. 20 0.64 12.80
Mesurol lb. 1/6 8.00 1.33
Seed unit 1/3 50.00 16.67
Custom Plant A 1 6.00 6.00
Irrigation labor A 1 3.25 3.25
Harvest labor A 1 18.00 18.00
Fuel, oil, electricity A 1 16.00 16.00
Custom harvest A 1 65.00 65.00
Interests $ 269.16 .0317 8.53
Total cash expenses $277.69
II. Fixed costs (land clearing, water control, etc.) $ 69.35
III. Total cash and fixed cost $347.04
+ 1.5 tons every 3 years, 3 crops/year, @ $12.00/T spread.
1 unit = 80,000 seeds.
S9.5% for 4 months.
Table 3. Estimated cost for growing
system. Ona. 1977.
Aeschynomene under a multicropping
I. Cash expenses
Total cash expense
II. Fixed costs (land clearing, water control, etc.)
III. Total cash and fixed cost
+ 1.5 tons every 3 years, 3 crops/year, @ $12.00,T spread
+ 9.5% for 4 months.
_ I I
Table 4. Estimated cost for growing oats under
at Ona. 1977.
a multicropping system
Item Unit Quantity Price Cost/A
I. Cash expenses
15-10-20 cwt. 5 $ 6.28 $ 31.40
Custom application A 1 2.00 2.00
LimeT T 1/6 12.00 2.00
Seed bu. 3 4.00 12.00
Custom seeding A 1 3.50 3.50
InterestT $ 50.90 .0317 1.61
Total cash expenses $ 52.51
II. Fixed costs (land clearing, water control, etc.) $ 69.35
III. Total cash and fixed cost $121.86
+ 1.5 tons every 3 years, 3 crops/year, @ 12.00/T spread.
+ 9.5% for 4 months
costs, crop value, and crop value above costs.
+ Crop value per acre minus total
( ) indicate loss.
SExpenses incurred in harvesting
Crop value above
cash and fixed cost
cash and fixed cost per acre.
the 1977 crop were $59.58 per acre including interest.
Table 5. Summary of
Table 6. Average animal performance of heifers fed corn silage.
Number of animals 136
Number of days on feed 126
Total weight in (Ib) 59,375
Total weight out (Ib) 89,815
Total gain (Ib) 30,440
Average daily gain (Ib) 1.78
Total feed intake (Ib)
Corn silage 527,203
41% cottonseed meal 33,863
Hay t 2,160
Mineral mixture: 1,695
Feed/lb gain (Ib)
Corn silage 17.31
41% cottonseed meal 1.11
Mineral mixture 0.06
Dry matter/lb gain (lb)*
Corn silage 6.13
41% cottonseed meal 1.01
Mineral mixture .05
t Mixed grass hay of poor quality, was only two days when silo was
broken and silage could not be fed.
SOna mineral mixture #2.
SDrymatter percent used in calculations: corn silage, 35.4; 41%
cottonseed meal, 91.1; hay, 88.0; and mineral mixture, 90.0.
Bb 1 21980JAN 2 3 190
This research project has been supported by a number of commercial
organizations. Grateful appreciation is expressed to the companies
and individuals listed below who have contributed gifts, grants, or
assistance, during the past two years.
Asgrow Florida, Plant City, Florida
Henry Boyd, Lakeland,Florida
Hollis Brannen, Dundee, Florida
Chain O'Lakes Groves, Inc., Winter Haven, Florida
Chemagro Agr. Div., Mobay Chemical Corp., Kansas City, Mo.
Tom Christian, Bradenton, Florida
Ciba-Geigy Corporation, Deland, Florida
Cloverdale Diary Farm, Myakka City, Florida
Dekalb Seed Company, Dekalb, Illinois
Dixie Lime and Stone, Ocala, Florida
E. I. Dupont de Nemours Company, Inc., Wilmington, Delaware
FMC Corporation, Tampa, Florida
Harold Fauver, Sanford, Florida
Florida Irrigation Service, Alturas, Florida
Harry Gause, Limestone, Florida
Gehl Company, West Bend, Wisconsin
Hardee County Agriculture Soil Conservation Service
Charles F. Hinton, Hillsborough County, Florida
International Minerals & Chemical Corporation, Libertyville, Ill.
J & J Hauling, Nocatee, Florida
Monsanto Company, St. Louis, Missouri
C. M. Payne & Son, Inc., Sebring, Florida
Shepard Spreader Service, Plant City, Florida
Smitty Groundhog, Inc., Sanford, Florida