Utilization of native range by cow-calf herds

Material Information

Utilization of native range by cow-calf herds burning and supplemental feeding
Series Title:
Mimeo report
Kirk, W. Gordon ( William Gordon ), 1898-1979
Agricultural Research Center, Ona
Place of Publication:
Ona FL
Agricultural Research Center
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
15 leaves : ; 28 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Beef cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida ( lcsh )
Pastures -- Florida ( lcsh )
Vegetation management -- Florida ( lcsh )
Pastures ( jstor )
Calves ( jstor )
Crops ( jstor )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (leaves 14-15).
General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
"August 8, 1972."
Mimeo report (Agricultural Research Center, Ona) ;
Statement of Responsibility:
W.G. Kirk ... et al..

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
85824002 ( OCLC )


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site maintained by the Florida
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Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida

p. Ar'August A, '.

3a*J Ir A7D -. ? :.. ',. t. ?rI'^ ,

A. ". T': M. h, I'. r F. U. c-':-T' rl ', R'l;.E:' "

'iWr f'r,- .v::. n iS tpartnat to Lhon besf cattle i ":t;ry7 o t Florid.

tai.,f Pabi:.e Ac Unr brm".h'it the Sirct cattle fNam Ca- 450 ycna .C.

' i. 2 the. 20 t ai-c .c? of A. -:-.* pVnturt arno over 2 "2llitcn :7T'Cr c0

nnisrv-" d wn'-r' v.*i mtt each other 'o prCvi'c to cvc-''c: c-ij;'.

::*... ... r fir Flrid.a' btf;. bherict 'Niv ,:.' cOaT. t;>:- tr

w wIS.' 1.-rnh forae z..' in my. coW-c. Qaperations,

T- cj s.tivA of tlhe t.o-'year-ound growing trilY at ths Cmn

-, .c.. 4. i r'alrer.c! -..) o to dIC..f'1ini V.'.'icduc' i9W ity cf ow

VOT Maro Utpt on n-.'e yange ay affected by cos;r"lles hurwing of one-

! W pasturem zenh yew ncd supplr;aEtntai WeA'in,: :r -.. j .n0. l.tZe fi1

;'. r *rwizt r u-f.nth r

PREVIEt W L; K.L.l'..."m E

ITh native pjatnwuY: w...ies mst afron nr; cuco-oter p.:: .t *f n.o *-ll*:

rC:3 tentral FE4R: i" p'it l a l tP2eN M. m 'Li O-.ln 1rt A.), Am 'V-

VA .a Z r'-t:io o one i -:a 0" W:vo-

MOMi'tw l) mourd ::It .. w'. v :r. vL. 'wnrr-.d r. Sr: :. o ';W

9kily -Xreple d tWh plant a e.. "sic',' pro:pcrsA by ..r a ; bli.\

i:".1-. 7' .* AC' f ri .) Carf' ^ IF-. '

3 muc.d oQ i:u-:.f; lw o wt reduce star.nd i' priwzetm:. (Seretinu c'rc:;. / 'i': ,' ,

5, ? ) wy b-ir lo"o by good g:wzing ** w-. :. t, i rvis a (t;

tM.t mi -.r -- i Won rmspnnivse to fortillnaicn M:hui: Ol:e the Mcbm *:

. Arim l Sca.nrist ."1 A1 .: .."r' *,it aend esoc'a;t Amin.' RutE r ,
PRC, ow?, amd cRaMe ie:ource Conservationsso:, 5iZ Conmsr"atitc; 00:.-.0:r,
G -rinAvAille. { .
4~flCl:"; 0 ~ c x@, ? $ iU, A.i44~4-7. 4 421t ..: A .
'A .

'ecker kcut (ea) tojnd vht a /r-aWt0 cftur burning: wit ;. '

frc r '. .. .'" '. :;V:.- (c." e W eatn catt. e.'- r.' t M im loM Ph-,PS.h?-U'

or Wont an- 0 M iccy diseases) can:inKc a3 ovh rto oW 0.16%

ecaleca'C' n CM va.iphou. 'laser Ita!..' (3) shvwd that the sCsc'n

:v;' ,:0':' tn of arburned native ;graes on a dryt' basic was

0. 2, c.r,.i.c .0 ,1 .4 phosphorus and 2.8Z cn cde protein. t.'cy found

tihe ns*to;n -* age of V -..: :- frem n burred range to contain, 0.18%

.al.'-. 1,0.0(. hphor's ind 3.9% prc'tin. This ins b r oue by unpub-

lish,"e dai t, yin: th. :'a. ARC were 40 samples of ifir' :. -.: collected o vc!

S5-.ea.r ?p i; .rnt unurl.ned rang'.'e ara:d 3,77. proe ,.nd 40 daples

from an ry'r:-:. turned d every year aiveragcd 4.7% protein. Phosphorus c.ontr.n

of the vir ;t':as, from both areas average 0.0O8. These dat a ,hou that

wir .-;. .. ;, .' ; au apparently healthy r.','-., did not contain the minimum

qu:rntity of cr:ide protein, 8.3% /r:.tional Reacarch Council (1'j-and

phospo L'rus 0.21 flu;ni t I a (4.)7lo ',.'et thL' Eutrition.ra ncE'o'd of pnro;duci:

GENERAL 7' .: f'

.l..h huni -re.-.d acres of Floridi n.tilv: fl: :r.,ood. ra-.,ge :.'-c: i -d in "h,

tuto :inte:: nLpCle.met ntal .' "". trials. The ar-ci-a octil Minly

-T TioK', :c and L:' it. nd so.i tyi- : w'.t:. tur'au s;al: pondsr

typical of l:Wre art ar.'; cut-ever pi; land of c n rnd ro th: Flrldn.

Wiiregrass pr:do'tina ted vith' scvaral va. ics of bS '-lafeed .' :: oC bot' en

the, higher ;nd lower areas. T'el '.:re many sa.. p2'l.ote.::: .- fev pj

trees (,Pinus 2alustrijo Hil1). The higher land provided the mtst forage

in wet wrvther end S: pond areas were most productive in dry '3seaons,

ThIM area was fenced into five pastures of 160 Acres each to actc::-

ra'.t five lots of cows in the fall and winter and to ale' rotti.cnra

,gra.-iz.g frc-: April to i vember. Ihe cows cbtair;tti all u:heltr rcugih .-. by

graIing concept lOe 4 in 1'rial I w.hos.-ei ration was sapplem:nted with li.-.: ed

2/ Number in parenthesis refer to Literature Ciced,

:.. -:: .nd bonen -; eflue't.e,~a rur-PhOCPhatt

2 cm' o,' 'C ; d O i'eW of .'r 3 .39; e .:.;- culf.t i .68;

cobat.t: chi.'r. i e ?; cas, tmolass .s 2; 'd meal 2.

'i- e t U d i .ed ach. 160-azre Field into four 40-:.ce areas.

Oi-hailf tch bI ':. : tzatent was b'urn.ied each year, 40 acr.n in

lat !even, a AG a 0 acrea In lat January,, s; dows e in late

Citerncon by back-i-iritng; against the nl.rd.

TRIAL 1 (1X4 ..'* )


rtcrv-;-ix rfavivte ;nd jra-cle Brahsan, Dev.--n and Hiertred: cows, 7 to

14 >.-r old, v 'r 'ivid2! into t- li't:s of 8 corv and three lots of 10

':. f-or 2che aupr 3 mental. period. The Zo'Nte cowv reMined on c. specific

winter treatneor .-c'v;]:ut the trfil but wrc ve a different 160-

acre pesture eacth W!. and nint-er. L Y r..1faemtal prz;' na'r;;f-d 134

iday, ?r:--:;l in' lU "vem r oif Cch y=. Traemipt &f pasr, *.;e-

mwetNi Hnds un. co: pcr tw.nart:t an-2ern :u; Sil s:

Lut 1. T. Y*me Wnlurncd, to oupplarvCt, 8 couvx

Lot A. Ono-half parasc ua-ncId, Ino ni.pple;M't, 6 coi.'

Lot 3. M-nWalf posture burned, Q6 cane molnnr.c f, 10 cown.

Lot 4, One.-hanlf pastiurc b.trnEd, fad fresh eug.aren, 10 cw,

Lot 5. Ono-half picture burned, fed cottonse'ed pellets, 10 cq.a.

Late 2, 4 cad 5 vera: given feed three tirmcsr a wee * canc 'i.lsst.

and suygarranc fed in bunks and cottonseed pellets batteredd on the tgai n.

The. Uniti:ed :t'r- Sugar Corporation, Cltwiston, furniched the ca-Ie

;:l'r;sse; cottonriced pectlets, 41% protein, wvre purchaAd o;n Lathe tarkt :
:'.L.'r....2 tM j::. '- 't the Ona ARC.

t'hh~'1 ~.Lwig& ~!rr:t: "';r -ba~rav nrc~: I : av. 1vE3rtt, tiru er-cof, czxt

r;I c' r

Ltauita erd Discusaona

it' ~v. (;X:1 calf production frov. buruing one-.dalf the native pasiturc

e fall &:!i. 'iner and bui.-.Ji' plur upp1emaZmt, i fec-i in Of! 134-day

peric~d for -:Jif fou. y ares sr o -warized in Table 1. The wcr: v igtlt

of the con-j nia the brinning of the preliminary yeFar iii November 1943

(ii. ; po;j!'-8 tSix:h a rarn from 774 to 820 pounrai por lot: in NovsIer 14.

The cowz on u-hniornied p'as':ure lost the mioot weight in the 4-year period, 105

JY'UIIV1 pe coWs, Ilti thGose fed 1.3 pountdh cottonnreed poalict daily 10st the

S.:':, n ~ou-*is per co,7.

J3~.irni rOnc-hlaU the, tativc parture oav,:h n3J1 nrd winter' ir)Tre fcd

the avcra-.le ycarjly calE crop frcn 55", Lot 1, ten 751, Lot: 2, 1heuiae two

horis ihv!) omn nvr-;Lnc of 20 nzro of r"r.C;'. n ofper ccr-. nd f1:'eL Ge C-RvCtionZ of

oash :, ahbtove tbrt tOere wac no sllw:tage of roughingoi for either lot.

Lot 2 hed bcttar quality foc7r:7 dUriing tbe winter :Arom t:h-:f nt-w! grasw

rci u', af t-cr burninc- and rc pondad by rn.r iLncrs.cnsf of I19Z -;;drne'z4 c1alf kzropp

3 nc"l '.; increase in calf -. : per *sc =a of paceure ind 43 pojunds, per cow.

ArC-'in-, ccne vlaotzcs or sugarcn'.rnv -at tht hlig1tr rtTcking rao C-

16 acrc-3 pnr cc- on rot :`onnlWy bxrnzd pwiture yic.Aide- w'fn:la ealf crop4:

of 8 xaxd 3 perc-;.itLFec points lown tio-in for thc nc -: pl'nlezet Cl tC:l-

stockcad nt one cow per 20 vcrc--, s 'hiile cows fcC cottonsec.3 pnlelet hr'd e

wcEncd calf crop tU70 r~tc.i.t* points higeir. Calf. gain per zcr of

pastar..; 7rr ..r, increased from 12 pmindo ror cows, no gppIt=c'nt, "ao

14, 15 and 16 pounds for cows fcd molasses, : and i-otonseed

pelkts, revpectiv~1v. tt'lwy'. (6) reported uiriailr r*orLt~t4: calf gLin

increased front 8 to 15 rnd 23 pounds per acre no area pvr covw uta reduccd

from 35 to 22.5 and 15 acre, respectivcly.

Table 1. Two -0 *r; f -o :-c;Of iWer69 7ra-ing native nPptsre, 1944 to 19!.0,

'; ,.Et "O b i ;a 5r
-..tur" tr t a.r... 4nvcd *i ... 10 eo' and L0 .n. "r

rily/cow. 1i )I
Mi'oral d:;.ly/cou, 1b."

Per pasture

TWiOal, pil 19.8
We ight loss

Weanod calves:
Birth ,. W' : ",, 1tf.
Calf crop, ;
WVirht, I:.
Ga in/cow, m),
Gain/' acre, sb.
Gai.n/;: 2 acro 3, lub




:, '5

3- 1. 134 134
-- Can; Fr ',a Cttoni:ead
rmol3.ssen CuzarCiano npllts
-6.6 7.3 1,3
.008l 0.16 0.,17 0.J









3 8
24 5




]/ Deily for entO:i :'e 'c:ar,

2/' bovemb.r 19?, afer 1943-44 pro1linmin.ry year.

Yearly -alf giin per cow w-,; lowest on unburned paLure, '' punds,
and highest, 253 pounds, on burned pasture and fed 17T poun. cottonce.l
pell t. Total yearly calf gains per pasture increased succaesaively
beginning with I~t 1 unburned, 1,488 pornds, through 'Iota 2, 3 ar.d 4
to 2,576 pounds for: Lot 5. Tne increase in production per pasture over
Lot 1 vas 26%, 51%, 65% and 737 for Lots 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively.
Supplemental feed plus burning over burning alone increased calf gr:-n
20% for those fed molasses, 31% for cows fed sugarcane and 38% for cows
fed cottonssed pellets, Cottonseed pellets at 1.3 pounds daily per cowtr
from Nlvcmibor to April each year was a less expensive t dter supplement
than 6.6 pounds cane molasses and 7.3 pounds fresh

"' "^'I?

C 1 tcu t tho r,, j -r.1 na 4, l c!t..Lan yearly

Sb a (n, 'I tC i11pp iIcd I h 9 noLiUnir- 1C,,,;U i, v .3 pou-du r~hn-4hlortis,

2 5.6 po ind r 2.6 pouldr: red oxide of iron Cs pounds copp r

vbf~jtl zi Of% cobsat chloride. i'i t aznounta plu,, the mincrr1s

,-)A thn a zt xl thc. need, of cor, for these etsentir1 eizeflnts.

!ir, and Doriv (Q) tcrxcld that burning o pasture and feeding aupplementV.

did rltl blc CS;t'n-_- ct.lcxtlm rnd :~bi~valuec.

7h~c.;zeae ~~ v~cr ; hof tho 46 cows for four years was 798

pounds, vhlichi h :p 176 pounds hravler thrn. the Il cr bc: weight of 200

naive cows on :.ti"Ve Pasture in Clacy County, Florida, from 1933 to 1937

10~). The hcrvt:ieir ;No~r we~ghtl of 1Lot 1 ccws probably resulted frcm the

I owteCi enviny( ta tkich placed ross ,ress on the coits,.

Trial 11 (tL1 to 1954)

Meo thod-

Stmczkirg; tate vias increased to 12 cowa per 160 acres of natve range

wth the rine treat-aont of rlL five pastures. 40 acres butvfcd in 1oYLoober

mad 40 rscrep, -iin Ja-wary earh eanuon. Frre-s oarages an~d gnlpefrltr : were

tu' oZ the feud- -eleztted beCaua(, they xierC lo.v priced, u f p13. cmV.ntaI

feedz,, provided. each fall and wi.ntce for sir. ycars as follows:

LO t 1. .No up~n
Lot 2. 0 rat-
Lot 3, Grapefruit
LoL 4. Grapefruit and one- p~alf 'ound ccttonsecd ppll~etzs 6ily Per cow.
Lot S. Citrus pelrts2-

CUtrur pellets consisted of 40 parts citrus ocal, 35 r rtn citrus

a:_ilasz;a and 25 parts cottonseed mnal. :he cow iln Lot 4 w faw1 one-

hd~f pound cottonise.d pelletca daily and Int 5, 2 pounds citrus pelicts:,

bothi beinp fed on the ground. Lots 4 and 5 iwere fed thet sai, xrount of cotton-

seed meal. Cor.s were fed on Monday, Wednersdayr and rr:idy.

A, near group of cixtty grade Brmsh-nn and Shorthorn coio fromn 2 tj 6

yczrs o age -Ttre divided into five uniform Lots of 12 cown each on iov.. 'r

8, 1,945 and rc-oved Diecember 27, 1954. liany of these cows were ofEL:pr~ rL

of the ccrrs useA in Trial 1. The feed given Vie 1943-49 fall. and wuintcr

Prepared by Jackoon Gri3n Company, i'.:-.

f, c. ,S ).l to iiovex-ha .;e iihrd i tic1 itz C"

nri or calf produc tieo vmoi t'he five Iot-i and cez

n-atino ezch ,car T~-'re rrind by iising x2 0 ft tnt, A n r i y si s

c va1r*.*fc c wa -v Utf'd ro tfEt 2kc1at C n di ference k ot:
a vi ,.n v7 ad l~X~fe calvCsa

Results Pe Dn [ Pcussioa

Cou; e'ni ca.,f o'sca& ':-re phenominrllY low, Thore '-Tcra -ion ct)?.c l'osses

bui;t: COWSo 1d :o be rce!1accd. Cali- iocsc. were 1;. 77- i. a

product i cn -r 9u its tt az; s tnr taz-i i-. i Tab (' 2. I-le rawirer of Wtlves wCcd

each year a;'rle- Tl'veflonte in h T 3 andd a cC mpa-ison of 7tcct otd hed.fer

c iv'., U j f.VCa; Thbk 6,

Co-' did no;s f-onp:"u- :%tc r4ere, daily ration of 1C poi.-nmJis nf oranGp

after t"c 0 .rt ill- t.' ~-tys E fcein in 948. For this re"oascr., orzlnges

vriare fed ill bti:tns wi>:.i pr'evfteed m-nure contamination amnd 1P;eaed hird

darmagnc of fruiul Esf. ntnl Yoil in pcr.1 lowered paliattabillty of .-:

:tfl 2ralueed conatr i y u:rption per cow to 7 po1(md W. ccw's were

ocrrvcai In teCzvporary di:rCss iron a fmroIL hard oringr- lodging in their

--lklet but they suallowed the Fnruit within n, few, rlinutor i

was caten 1 ess than two hours- after. feeding, even when fed as P threle-

days supply.

A'rerage daily tnineral consumption per cow ranged frcm 0.1.2 to 0.14 p-.onds,

considerably lass than the cows ate in Trial I. These cows were raised

at che ARC, Ona, and had access to a v'ineral mixture at all times.

In the six years the no supplement cows averaged a 61~.!'icl cs.f

crop and those fed fresh grapefruit 727%. It is seen in Table 3 that the

4/ Statistical analysis carried out by Dr. Frank G. Martin, A.Srocia.t
Statistician, 1FWA, University of Florida, Gainesville, -

Tabi 2... ? oduc ;...n ..;. c. w-calf b' : .....-'" r.-.,,,," n-tiv., pactlurW .1,/. -, aV. .

T '"""^od 1: 2 1 1 2 U2
F;ed Ora-in g,-;- G pe- Gr ':. p.-fyit + t;.i:

fruit S po.3 13. pel
ail./cow, Ib 7.0 3.0.5 10.3 .*-2 '. 2.0
0,5 p-ell ets

Mineral dclly/cow,? Ib. 0.13 0,14 0,13 0.12 0.13
Coi s:
per aturl-e 12 12 12 12 12
s.r3s/cc-; 13.3.3.i?.3 .3.3 13.3 13.3
i,:h .t, 1b.;
ICi.tlJ 1l-4-L 81.2 81. 2 83.2 312 812
Final .U-8- 982 1010 945 941 101.
.zIncrea6 170 133 29 1
In srerse/ear 28 33 22 21 33

VIoaned calves:
Calf crop % 61 62 722. 69"" 6
Age, days 209 200 5207 04- 209
Weiht, lb2/ 36 3903 3902 33-' 394
205-dr: ifht, lbo. 3 0 385 387 30O 387
CGain/c: ;ay, .. 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6
Gain/coW, lb. 236 244 283 269 268
Gain/acre, lb. 17.7 18.4 2 1, 2 .2 23,1
G:in/: 60 acres, 1.b, 2832 2928 3392 3232 3216
Sliaugter grade /E 8 8 8 8 9

1 / N igif:icit. difference in weai.nig anr 2J05-dy woijhts.

2/ Slaughter Zjjd 3: 8, H-gh Standard; 9, Low Good.

S Significant increase (P<.05) i.n calf c-rop over Lots 1 a n 2,

number of veancd calves ranged from 2 for Lot 2 in 1954 to 12 calves for
each of Lots 2, 3, and 5 in 1951. Fifty-seven of the 60 cows weaned calves
in 1951, an unusual record for cows on native range. IcCaleh and Hodges
(13) showed chat moisture conditions were favorable for growth of native
pasture species in the 1950 breeding season preceding the high calf crop.

... C Q' 5

xc^ .. .ru:. C rp. i.e1ts z-lluts CSi.ilyt %

:149 ;? 10 10 11i O

< ? 9 .0- 10 9 75

S951 122 12 10 12 95

195 4 6 7 5 07

1953 7 0 9 9 8

1.954 2 4 32
.... ..- - -- -

Total 4 45 55 50 49

Veaned % 61 62 72 69 67 67 fro tho no supplement herd made an average daily gain of 1.5

pounds from biMtth to weaning as compared to 1.6 pounds for all et.her
gr,-i:. Eirk et al (9) found that 549 calves from cos grazing well-

fertilized p:m' ieagrass pasture from .951 to 1965 gained an average of 1.9

pounds daily.
There wan no significant difference in weaning and 205-day weights in
the five lots. Yearly calf gain per cow vas positively correlated with
number of calves weaned. Supplemental feeding of Lots 2, 3, 4 and 5 for
six years increased calf gain per cow and acre of pasture 3%, 20%, 14.

and 147%, respectively, over Lot 1 on pasture alone; a (P/ .05) response

in Lots 3, 4, and 5.
Somewhat Mig ? e results were reported by Southwell and Hughsc (15)
from cows grazing a south Georgia wiregrass-forest range, one-half bor:nc)
each winter and fed 2.3 to 2.6 pounds bay daily from Late October to early


Tt s4 *- .- r.r.ini : it and ;d of star znd

I2arnc( 12.9 1.21

Perwont 49.6 50.4

Age, r 204 211
"-?.';, f,'. ^*

waning ., 390 389
205-d '9 391 380

,... .t... -,.. ,/ H. Sta dard LT, Good

S' ..!::'L.'-:*j::. difference in weaning and 205-day 1~:~it:. and
claughter [" r* -" be'tv.reen Ateer and heifer calves.

Kirk ct al (~) reported that 60 Shorthorn rnd ;:r-h.7-n cows were kept

on this oame n "A..ivc pasture one-half burned each ye.:a, from 1955 to 1958

and given -inter faed of pangoiagrass hay and cottonseed pellets. these

cows had a 62% weaned calf crop with the calvec averaging 333 pounds of
205-days of age, equivalent to 15.5 pounds yearly calf production per acre
rf native pasture and 2.; pounds per cow.
Calf gain of 17.7 pounds per acre, Lot 1, .i, equivalent to a trtal

of 2,832 p.->.d; per pasture and 21.2 pounds per acre, Lot 3, to 3,392

pounds per pasture, a yearly calf increase of 560 pounds. Grapefruit

supplemented fall and winter forage e or adequately than the combination
of fruit and cottonseed pellets, citrus pellets and oranges in this 6-year

Average yearly calf gain above that of Lot 1 was 96, 560, and 400

.nd 384 pounds by lot 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively, and yearly supplemental

fead t r these four lots was 11,256 pounds oranges, 16,864 pounds grapefruit,
16,560 pounds grapefruit and 840 pounds cottonseed pellets and 3055
pounds citrus pellets. The supplemental feed eaten per pound calf i...

increase over cows on pasture alone was:

Sfo:ut 1', ,;-r- d ::.n verae of 61 tir in the 142-d:y I supple ,'

pi... .r cost, : t V---r con cide.rale w ith a higher

r-e ffo.r 'an lin" resh citrus Gu-. c.h. i '.. citrus p .. s. A heavier

,-'cid.,,; ra:., 3; co-,c.s pc:: 160 ?crcs native range., miSght sho greater

re-urn Lfrem; corpplerp ntal fe.eding.

Jonr.e '1r (7) rCowed that a crom.ination of 305 acres of native range

an'O 30 Acrrs iar-:o,.'ed. pastu::e prc-r;d'! all thl- feed for a 65 ccw-calf herd

fromr 194.7-.]J 'l. This combination rcd,.icd arcrage ppr cowT con,,ared to

u:niive range, prcvidei higher quality forage and resulted in an 80% yearly

ena? crop.

'her wcr II? ,.eir .nd 121 heifer calves weaned from the 60 cows

in six years, Table 4, a 677. calf crcp. :teer calves at 205-days of 7.'

veragd 11. pouandv heavier but had a 1/3 lover ~,laughter grade than did

heifer claver.

Stceers grat..e unburned native range at the Ona ARC from lat. I'larch

t;til. July or August for eight years, being remcved when they -'rp'rd
,.nfnii'w.. Unpubljishz d r-esuli:s show that average yearly gain rwas 20 pounds

per acre, 2.3 pounds greater gain than yearly calf production with a cow-

calf herd kept on the adjoining pasture.

Cow U;lglhts

The average initial, final and weights in November, March, June and

September and gains for the six years are shown in Table 5. The m st

Tiportant factor in weight change was the number of cows which nursed and

,weaned calves in September and number of pregnant cows in November and

Decnc:.ber. Average gain per cow in the six years was 166 pounds, ranging

from 129 pounds for Lot 4 to 199 pounds for Lot 5. Only 19 of the 60
cows, nursed calves in 1954 and close observation showed that most of the

covs were pri: -'.:,-nt (no record of the 1955 calf crop) a reason for the

heavier final weight. The cows were from 2 to 6 years old initially and

lab, e ;. *.i:, ~w^ig c,,. co:.r; i"n bveLr, "e"-rch, Juno and
S I poundJ. an

4-3br ..' 12 12 6 812 512 812 812

6 Year, 835 859 836 830 65 '-'

763 823 815 56 33 822

6 775 836 784 646 818 '.:

6 -' .. 815 892 852 855 890 861

ve1a'oor 8, 1954 982 1010 945 91 1011 978

many of the r'i .,: i.and matured while on e .pieriment, another reason for
the greater final reisht. Each year it w-a *i.t: that the cowrs given
feei...ere to re, -thr5rifty tha_ those on native paeCtu.e alone.'

Neither Records
F.Jn:Ifll distribution and winter frosts aere factors which ir-fuie...
forage growth. Ccsz, showed less bloom in extremely ret periodl than heAn
r-:.inf:i- as belowv nornal.. Ponds and marshes as they dried provided
additional feed -;hich was apparent in the good appearance of the coast and
calves. That cows do better in dry periods, 41.7" rain in 1950 and 61.1"
in 1951 (see Table 3 re calves weaned in 1951 and 1952) i born out by the
experience of cattlemen operating on the flatwoods of central and south

The greater response of the cow herds in Trial II over:Trial I as
shown by percentage weaned calf crop and production per cow and acre of
pnsture was: 1, native and grade cows in Trial I were from less productive
stock; 2, stocking of pastures at a heavier rate; and 3, cows used in Trial
II were raised at the ARC, Ona, and many u7ere offspring of cows in Trial I.

I'r :1 I

-cut: '.'-.i. I-.i.; i, uf.l" ne-- alf tl's naI.ivr ~x' 3c.t 2:ch yc:r incruascd

a .: c '' ; f; i: r5 t 75.,,cal.f gair; ftrom n to 12 pound. per acre,

a; ,,n p.i a .;., fror:; 186 to 234 pounds ovr the urnbuir'nd trea2t',ent.

T.i:n.r: ,'.i: tocking rate from 8 to 10 cowp per 160 acres of pasture,

:.:lth cont~rc led burniu of one-healf the pasture and feeding of either cane!

molase .,, .' ugFrcane or cottonseed pellets raised calf gains per

acre from 32 to 14, 15 and 16 p,-.nd~, respectively.

Yeazri; calf gain for corus f:d nmcass; in winter was 224 pounds,

while t.ho e d 'sue:'c::.: e or cottonsecd pellets averaged 245 and 251 pounds,


Trial II

Cows without sunrplements on native pasture, 50% of h:.ich was burned

each wiinrer avi. .I a. 61% leaned calf crop, yearly calf gain of 17.7

pounds per acr: and 236 pounds gain per cov.

Feeding ora;ies, grapefruit, grapefruit plus cottonseed pellets and

c itrus pellets, resulted in a 62%, 72%, 69% and 68% weaned calf crop,

respectively; calf gains per acre of pasture of 18.4, 21.2, 20.2 and 20.1

pounds and 244, 233, 269, and 268 pounds yearly per cow. A significant

gain incre-ae (P/.05) by cows fed grapefruit, grapefruit plus cottonseed

pellets or citrus pellets over those fed oranges or on pasture alone.

Supplemental feeding of cows u.aer the system of pasture mannagemrent

practiced in the two trials, 1944 to 1954, did not offer a reasonable return

over burning one-half the native pasture each winter, when cost of feed

and labor involved in feeding are considered.


Controlled burning of wiregrass is applicable to beef cattle enter-

prise that has more than one native pasture. A partially burned pasture

may be used on a rotational basis or as an interim supply of feed before

improved pastures provide any large amount of forage in the early spring.

It: is : *';nt. thia. th; r-e than 8 m il ion ncrcs of native rane

SiintViv-i': Flo ? h .':-4 &he bii:t y-.ibl ray e& prv.w ideV nre c.wd igherm

quality fcrd P :!r t: th: bc herds. Controlled burnni; of native range

<...f.ra..ta or 'fvery third year will:

1. U fc;ro Td:.s and unpala.tble native fo'...
2. Stirultj nb r riretgrass gr-th.
3. Con-riol --.;Th of brish and veeds .
4. ri.' "n;e.:: brcv'nr places for ticks and other insects aaich attack
5. MAlnTtain a stand of native grass as wiregra.e.

Controlled ,r.:i.,, of part of the native range asr the coarmon practice

until the -. v:rr' of the 193' decde. Ind.iccriminate burni;,g, however,

wan nevcr considered a mge ':oo 1 of removing .ce-ess forage because

of the destruuction factor :.7 forests, improved pasture forage and

ranch buildings and air pollution from the smoke. Miturc forage on

native land can be subdued with a heavy chopper and careful pasture

management without emoke pollution of the atmosphere. Since October

1, 1971, it is necessary to obtain permission from tih Department

of Agriculture and Consumer Service, Tallahassee, before burning refuse

on a farm or ranch.


1. Beacker, R. E., P. T. Dix Arnold, W. G. Kirk, George K. Davis and R. W.
Kidder. 1958. Miner'.1a for dairy and beef cattle. Fla. Agr.
Exp. Sta. 'uii. 513.

2. Becker, R. B., W. M. Ne.i and A. L. Shealy. 1933. Stiffa or
Sheuny phosphoruss deficiency in cattle). Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Bull. 264.

3. Blaser, R. E., W. E. Stokes, J. D. Warner, G. E. Ritch.y and G. B.
Killinger. 1945. Pastures for Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Bull. 409.

4. Cunha, T. J., R. L. Shirley, H. L. Chapman, Jr., C. B. Am ~erman,
G. K. Davis, W. G. Kirk, and J. F. Hentges, Jr. 1964. Minerals
for beef cattle in Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Eull. 683.

5. Hilmon, J. B, and R.H. Hughes, 1965. Fire and forage in the vir2-
grase type. J. Range Manage. 18:251-254.

5* i..;. R 1.972. :..a of s:ecking1 south FlO... a cutover
y 2' '. : .*.\ asteY rn Forest. .Cut :. r... V 'ore.St. ..::vjice.

7, J :, D. ;,. Hodgec and U7. Kirk. U0. Year-rund
fracin .i'tion of native and ia proved pasture. Fla.
,:g. On Ma. Bull. 554.

U. K:;r, W. ,., a,-d G. K. Dsvis. 1970. Datemination of blood
co-;,':: w : .a of cowst on native -r:,.: T;r'n ctn... 1.o. ;'-..r us and
-al'"....; ", :obin nnd hematocrit. J. Range Hi"--', 23:2'.'. -253.

9. Ki.r, ., G., E. M, aHdgeC, F. M. Peacock and M, :..:.*,.:. 1963. But-
viti.:.. and .::i:.: a.:r (moltriance of Brahman-i,.Lrtbour crossbreds.
Cront. ', .-eding beef cattle. Univ. of Fla. 1'.-r':, Gainesville.
pp. 1.0-147,

10. Kirk, W. :., A. L. s.' and Bradford Knapp, Jr., 1945. li int.
'i A...: tt cattle un a Florida range. Fla. /-Ar. E-,xp. Sta. Bull.418.

11. K rk .. ., R. L. Shirley, E. Hodges, G. K. Davis, F. M.
Peaauo:;k, J. F. Eaoley and F. G. Martin. 1970. Production t" r:'--
mince a.un blood and bone composition of cowa r:'t.:ir. panpoivo: -.R
pastures receive* different phosphate fertilizers, Fla. Agr.
Sta. Tech. Bull. 735.

12. Leri, Clifford E 2. 1970. In> to chopping and phospbate on
routh FloridA range,. J. n ", .r re. 23:275-' '...

Mc:Ca!eb, 3. E. and E. M. N;l:. 1960. Climatological records
ct 2'.,r.C Cattile ;-.ariment Station. 1952-58. Fin. Agr. .':-. Sta.
Mir. S-124.

14. .' rie. requirementsr of beef cattle, 1963. :-.> t.'.el Research
Council ,'- 1127, Washington, D. C.

15. Mouthwcell, E. L. and R. H. Pilr.bc. 1965. Beef cattle :r...f '.:.-t
practices for iregrass pine ranges of:Aeorgin. Ga, Apr. L'>p.
AnC. uil. 1,29.

16. Yarlett, L. L. 1965. Control of saw VIalmetto and recovery of naotivc
grasses. J. Range 18:344-345.