Table of Contents
 Back Cover

Title: Florida architect
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00294
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: May-June 1992
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073793
Volume ID: VID00294
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

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Full Text

National Air and Space Museum
Architecture by: Hellmuth, Obata & Kassabaum, Inc.


Architectural/Interior Design Photography

C 0 T T


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May/June 1992
Vol. 39, No. 3


Legal Notes
New Products
From the Publisher

Cover photos of the Women's Resource Center are by Peter Vanderwarker Architecture by Carl Abbott
Architect FAIA.



Architecture For The Fast Lane
KBJArchitects, Inc. designs a new Corporate
Headquarters, Service and Distribution Center
for Lamborghini USA in Jacksonville.

The Bus Stops Here
The Taltran Passenger Staging Center at
Florida A & M University in Tallahassee by
Briel Rhame Poynter & Houser Architects.

A Community With Character
Windsor in Vero Beach is a new community
by Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk.

An Emphasis on Form
The Women's Resource Center in Sarasota is by
Carl Abbott Architect FAIA.

The Gateway To Downtown Miami

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Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects
104 East Jefferson Street
Post Office Box 10388
Tallahassee, Florida 32302
Publisher/Executive Vice President
George A. Allen, CAE, Hon. AIA
Diane D. Greer
Assistant Publisher
Director of Advertising
Carolyn Maryland
Design and Production
Peter Mitchell Associates, Inc.
Boyd Brothers Printers
Publications Committee
Roy Knight, AA, Chairman
Keith Bailey, AIA
Gene Leedy, AIA
Will Morris, AIA
Don Sackman, AIA
Editorial Board
Ivan Johnson, AIA
Dave Fronczak, AIA
Roy Knight, AIA
Henry C. Alexander, Jr., AIA
4217 Ponce De Leon Blvd.
Coral Gables, FL 33146
Vice President/President-elect
Jerome Filer, AIA
250 Catalonia Avenue
Suite 805
Coral Gables, FL 33134
Secretary easurer
John Tice, AIA
909 East Cervantes
Pensacola, Florida 32202
Past President
Raymond L Scott, AIA
1900 Summit Tower Blvd., Ste. 260
Orlando, 32810
Regional Directors
James H. Anstis, FAIA
4425 Beacon Circle
West Palm Beach, Florida 33407
John Ehrig, AIA
7380 Murrell Rd., Suite 201
Melbourne, FL 32940
Vice President/Member
Services Commission
Rudy Arsenicos, AIA
2560 RCA Blvd., Suite 106
Palm Beach Grdens, FL 33410
Vice President/
Public Affairs Commission
Richard T. Reep, AIA
510 Julia Street
Jacksonville, Florida 32202
Vice President/Professional
Excelence Commission
William Blizzard, AIA
1544 Manor Way S.
St Petersburg, FL 33705


T he opportunity to hear Vincent Scully speak about his latest book,
Architecture, the Natural and the Manmade and see Seaside for the first
Time in five years took me to the Florida Panhandle community in early
March. As always, I enjoyed hearing the Scully lecture. He is the current dean
of architectural historians and he remains an animated speaker whose enthusi-
asm is contagious. However, what I would have liked to hear Scully discuss was
the community of Seaside and unfortunately, that was not the topic that evening.
Seaside has grown a lot since I saw it last. And it has been featured in count-
less numbers of newspapers and periodicals from professional architecture jour-
nals to travel magazines. According to an article which appeared in a recent
lifestyle publication targeted at physicians, Seaside is "that rarity, an upscale
Panhandle resort, this ten-year-old village of Nantucket-like cottages with
gracious porches and picket fences....."
Seaside is many things, but Nantucket, it isn't Nor should it want to be. The
analogy was probably drawn because to the layman Seaside looks like a large
dense collection of vintage buildings, and therein lies its charm. But, Seaside's
buildings are not vintage. They are new. They are the work of contemporary
architects. They simply employ a vernacular vocabulary. Therein lies their merit
and it is on those criteria that the community should be judged.
In the Winter, 1992, edition of The Seaside Times, developer Robert Davis
commented on his recent tour of Italy and made the distinction between holiday
towns and vacation resorts in Italy. His comments indicate that he would like to
see Seaside's reputation aligned with the former, those places that "combine
relaxed elegance with liveliness, exuberance and messy vitality."
Could that be to keep it separate from the likes of Disney World? Because,
perhaps regrettably, there is little, if any, messy vitality about Seaside. It is noth-
ing, if not pristine right down to the last pink weatherboard. And it speaks a lan-
guage with which the architectural historian cannot always identify. There are
some specific building components here that cannot be found anywhere else,
just as there is no antecedent for the American pavilion at Epcot. There is a cer-
tain lack of reality about the architecture of both places.
It is premature and unfair to judge Seaside so early in its brief history. The
paint hasn't even had time to fade and new buildings are going up all the time.
The future will tell us whether this "holiday town" is successful. As to whether
its spacious porches and picket fences are a rarity in the Panhandle, clearly the
person who wrote that isn't aware of Apalachicola and a handful of other non-
resorts that are both charming and a great place to spend a holiday. DG




Report Available
You can obtain a copy of a
study entitled "Code Enforce-
ment: Scope and Extent of Prob-
lem and Recommendations for
Solutions" by Professor Wilson
Barnes and Professor Jose
Mitrani of the Department of
Construction Management at
Florida International University.
This study addresses two is-
sues: local amendments to
adopted building codes and the
relationship of uncertified build-
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This research was conducted
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code enforcement and code reg-
ulation reform; through a state-
wide questionnaire survey of
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personal interviews of random
selected building officials and
design professionals; through
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cies; and through contact with,
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ing officials in other states. The
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research also indicated that for-
mal training and certification of
code enforcement personnel is
Copies of this report may be
obtained by contacting:
Brisbane H. Brown, Jr.
Exec. Secretary
Building Construction
Industry Advisory Comm.
M.E. Rinker School of Building
Construction-FAC 101
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611

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Reconsidering The Statute of Repose: A Reasonable Reduction
by Claramargaret H. Groover, Esq.

L Florida, an architect or engi-
eer may remain liable for
alleged design defects or defi-
ciencies up to 15 years after the
construction project is com-
pleted. Studies show that claims
for design defects and deficien-
cies typically arise within the first
six to ten years after an owner
has occupied the facility. Many
states have architect and builder
statutes that are more reason-
ably based on this empirical data.
Problems that arise after six
years result more often from the
effects of the passage of time and
are considered maintenance
issues that the owner, not the
design professional, has the bur-
den to bear along with the bene-
fit of ownership. Architects and
engineers question why they and
their insurers must remain avail-
able to fund the owner's mainte-
nance responsibility on a project
that the designer was paid a fee
only to design.

Distinguishing Between A
Statute Of Repose And A
Statute of Limitation
Under Florida Statute 95.11(3)
(c) (1980), the legislature estab-
lished the time limits on an
owner or injured third-party to
sue for damages arising from
the design, planning or con-
struction of an improvement to
real property. Florida Statute
95.11 (3) (c) sets forth both a 4-
year statute of limitation and a
15-year statute of repose. The
statute of repose, unlike a sta-
tute of limitation that limits the
time in which the owner or in-
jured party may bring an action
after the cause of action accrues,
operates to bar an injured par-
ty's right of action after comple-
tion of an improvement to real
property regardless of whether
the cause of action has accrued.
Because the statute of repose
may operate to bar a right of
action even before an injury
occurs, the statute may apply
prospectively only and not


The 4-year statute of limita-
tion contained in Florida Statute
95.11 (3) (c) for known, or pa-
tent, defects begins to run from
the latest of the following dates:
1. the date the building depart-
ment issues the Certificate of
2. the date the owner takes
actual possession;
3. the date the contract between
the design professional and
the owner is completed, or
4. the date the project is aban-
doned, if not completed.
On the other hand, if the
defect is concealed, or latent,
the owner or injured party must
file suit within four years after
the owner or injured party first
knew or should have reasonably
known of the defect.
The 15-year statute of repose
bars a cause of action brought
more than 15-years after the lat-
est of the same events consid-
ered under the 4-year limitation
period for patent defects, (i.e.,
the earliest of the date of the
Certificate of Occupancy; the
date of actual possession by the
owner, the date that the profes-
sional's contract with the owner
is completed; or the date the
project is abandoned, if not com-
pleted) even if the injury has not
occurred. In proving the limita-
tions or repose defense, the
designer must show competent
evidence that each of the events
occurred or is otherwise inappli-
Consider the application of
the repose period from the
design professional's perspec-
tive in the following scenario. A
mother whose child died in a
hotel fire in 1985 sued the archi-
tect who designed the hotel
claiming negligent design. The
architect had prepared the
drawings and specifications for
the hotel beginning in 1968 and
completed them in 1969. The
owner, acting as the general
contractor, built the hotel with-
out hiring the architect to pro-

vide on-site observation ser-
vices through the construction
period. The owner made final
payment to the architect in Sep-
tember, 1969, and the architect,
thereafter, issued one last ad-
dendum to the drawings in
October, 1969. After October,
1969, the architect had no fur-
ther control or involvement in
the project.
Beginning in late 1969, the
owner finished the hotel and
obtained the certificate of occu-
pancy January 14, 1970, and
began renting rooms. Over the
years from completion until the
fire in 1985, the hotel operator
maintained and serviced the
electrical and heating equip-
ment alleged to have caused the
fire. On January 4, 1985, a fire at
the hotel resulted in the child's
death. The personal representa-
tive filed suit February 15, 1985,
fifteen years and 31 days after
the hotel operator occupied the
hotel. Is the statute of repose
available as a defense to bar the
personal representative's action
against the architects?

Claims Studies
Claims against architects and
engineers rarely result in pay-
ment to the plaintiff and only
serve to increase defense costs.
Increased defense costs lead to
higher premium costs resulting
in many professionals consider-
ing the option to practice with-
out liability insurance, or "go
bare." The cases studied in 1985
considered 234 closed cases in
which the liability insurers had
made only 39 indemnity pay-
ments for settlement or judg-
ment. In other words, only 39
claimants, 16%, successful
negotiated or litigated the claim
against the designer. Only two of
the 39 indemnity payments were
made on claims arising more
than ten years after substantial
completion. No data was avail-
able on defense costs through
litigation and resolution of the
234 closed files studied.

The more telling data not yet
available would include totals
for the designers' defense costs.
The indemnity payments made
as a result of an architect or
engineer settling the case or
paying a judgment rendered
against him or her is only part
of the story.
The design professional pays
the initial costs of indemnity or
defense up to the limit of the
deductible under the policy. The
data regarding defense costs
were not collected for the 1967,
1983 or 1985 surveys, but in
1989, studies began to examine
more cost information.
In a 1989 study conducted
for New Hampshire design pro-
fessionals, Shinnerer reviewed
57 CNA Company files for the
years between and including
1984 to 1988 and focused on 24
claims brought in New Hamp-
shire. By the sixth year after
substantial completion, 84% of
all claims were made and by the
seventh year 96% were brought
No claims were made for years
8, 9, and 10 after substantial
completion so that the majority
of claims studied were raised
within ten years.
The 1989 New Hampshire
study noted the amounts paid in
indemnity and defense costs on
some claims. Of the two claims
made in 1985, less than one year
after the building was substan-
tially complete, the indemnity
payments for the three claims
totalled $54,000 and the costs to
defend were $85,600. The totals
included payments contributed
by the design professional
under the policy's deductible.
This is but a modest glimpse at
the defense costs designers are

Statutes Of Repose In Other
In 1980, when the legislature
reenacted the statute of repose,
45 of 50 states had statutory lim-
its on actions based on design
or construction of improve-
Cont. on pg. 28

Architecture For The Fast Lane

Corporate Headquarters,
Service and Distribution
Lamborghini USA
Jacksonville, Florida

KBJ Architects, Inc.
Jacksonville, Florida

Project Architect:
Thomas K Rensing, AIA
Consulting Engineer:
Smith Hardaker Huddleston
and Collins, Inc.
Elkins Industrial Contractors,
The Beekler Company

Mhe client requested that the
1 design of this 56,000-square-
foot corporate headquarters,
distribution and service center
have an elegant, timeless
appearance with a style that
related to its user.
With a budget in the range of
$35 per square foot, including
interiors, display area, site work
and extensive containerized
truck access, a scheme of sim-
plicity of structure and materials
was dictated.
The user, a manufacturer of
exotic, Italian handcrafted auto-
mobiles, required that the de-
sign be of an art form which
related to classic design, but,
like the automobile, had
modern features.
Referring to the style known
as Italian Neo-Realism, which
frees architecture from the
fixed schemes of the modern
movement and indirectly relates
to historical context, the archi-
tect utilized the idea of a race
track with hidden historical ref-
erences and classic beauty.
Specifically referenced is the
Hippodrome in Constantinople
which had a long, linear race
track with an enclosure at the
end of the processional for
heads of state. This structure
was designed in a similar fash-
ion with a long processional

colonnade leading to the execu-
tive area which is surrounded
by support areas.
The executive area was
designed as a totally separate
entity, as a perfect square with
the intersection of the race track
processional eroding the square
into its corner points and estab-
lishing the main joints of struc-
ture. The primary point at the
end of the axis is the display
area with its counterpart, the
obelisk, at the opposite end of
the axis. Stair shafts, of secon-
dary importance, frame the
White painted concrete with
deep rustication was chosen to
give the structure a stable, time-
less, classic look. The geometry
and abstract erosion of the dom-
inant features gives the building
its contemporary appearance.


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Photos, opposite page, top: Inte-
rior showroom and below, floor
plan level one. This page, top:
Main facade and entry and eleva-
tions. Photos by Cheuvront &




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The Bus Stops Here

Taltran Passenger
Staging Center
Florida A&M University
Tallahassee, Florida

Briel Rhame Poynter &
Houser Architects -
Engineers, Inc.
Tallahassee, Florida'

Design Architect:
Bruce D. Amalfitano, AIA
Consulting Engineer:
Hodges and Associates
Landscape Architecture:
Nobles, Varnun and Asso., Inc.,
Civil Contractor:
Gray Contracting, Inc.
City of Tallahassee

The creation of a pedestrian
A plaza which would create a
strong central core uniting the
area around Florida A&M Uni-
versity's Student Union was the
goal of this design. The project
closed a congested street to
all vehicular traffic except buses
and introduced planters, seat-
ing areas, paving, shelters and
landscaping to the area. The
plaza unites three other major
projects including the Student
Union Renovation, the Quadran-
gle Redesign and the renovation
of Lee Hall.
The plaza and shelter con-
struction utilizes materials which
already exist on campus, includ-
ing brick which was used exten-
sively in the paving system. The
shelters employ round concrete
columns to support a tubular
steel truss system and metal
substrate decking. A standing
seam metal system was used for
roofs and gable ends. Seating is
brick and precast concrete as are
signage elements.
Though small in scale, this
plaza project serves as the cen-
terpiece for the entire campus
upgrading. The Plaza extends a
widely-used outdoor student
gathering area adjacent to the
Union into other major centers

of activity along Martin Luther
King Boulevard.
Funding for the project was
unique in that a city-owned
transportation department used
a federal appropriation to imple-
ment a State University
transportation master plan. The
University has leased the prop-
erty to the City for use as a load-
ing area for the Taltran Bus Sys-
tem, but the University set the
standard for landscaping, light-
ing and signage as part of its
campus upgrade.

Drawing this page and site plans,
opposite, courtesy of the archi-
tect. Photo, opposite, by Randy


FrOFRDAAK1 ECr Mmr/Ju 1992

A Community With Character

Vero Beach, Florida

Andres Duany and
Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk,
Miami, Florida

Consulting Engineers:
Jose Sanchez structural; Luis
Perez structural; Victor
Reeves plumbing, electrical &
Landscape Designer:
Andres Duany and Elizabeth
Interior Designer:
Susan Schuyler Smith, ASID,
with Richard Plumer Designs
Kitchen and Bath Consultant:
Drue Hartwell
General Contractor:
Croom Construction
Developers of Windsor:
Mr.and Mrs. Galen Weston and
Mr.and Mrs. Geoffrey Kent

WTmdsor, a new village in
T Vero Beach on Florida's
Atlantic coast is inspiring inno-
vative designs by many archi-
tects. The community was
planned by the Miami-based
team of Andres Duany and Eliz-
abeth Plater-Zyberk, and Duany
expects the work by the archi-
tects to set new architectural
standards for the State.
Located on a 416-acre, ocean-
to-river site in Vero Beach, the
seaside pedestrian-oriented com-
munity was designed to function
as a real village. A market center
anchors the community, with an
eight-room inn, post office, and
business center, and serves as a
gateway to the central village. An
18-hole, championship seaside
golf course, designed by Robert
Trent Jones, Jr., surrounds the
property on three sides, and to
the east are two polo fields
reserved for championship
matches. All the sporting and
social amenities, like the tennis
center, croquet greensward, post
office, bistro and clubhouses,
will be within a short walk from
any home in the central village.

Unlike other Duany/Plater-
Zyberk plans, Windsor is a total-
ly private community with
homesites starting at $165,000
and running as high as $2 mil-
lion for an oceanfront lot. Duany
readily admits that because
Windsor caters to the sophisti-
Scated, monied class it does not
make inroads into providing
affordable housing, which he
and Plater-Zyberk advocate;
however, he expects Windsor to
set new standards of design
based on architectural restraint
and attention to detail.
The concise planning code
for Windsor encompasses urban
and architectural standards,
which address such items as
Photos, top: View from across the south polo field showing three of Wind- building articulation, materials,
sor'sfirst homes in the central village. Far left house designed by architect build-to-line requirements, win-
Scott Merrill, middle house by James E. Gibson, andfar right by architect dow proportions, and criteria
Clemens Bruns Schaub. Above: Aerial view of Windsor's 412-acre ocean- even on the smallest lots for out
to-river site in Vero Beach. The layout follows the land plan as designed by buildings. With this framework
Duany/Plater-Zyberk. All community amenities, including the market in place, it allows for up to 300
crescent, golf course, golfclubhouse, tennis center, polo fields, beach club architects the number of
and croquet will be within a short walk from any home in the central vil- homes when Windsor is com-
lage. One-half to two acre homesites are planned along the perimeter of the plete to design homes that fit
golf course and on the oceanfront. Photos by Thomas Delbeck. the spirit of the community and,



at the same time, satisfy the per-
sonal requirements of clients.
The codes are tightest in the
central village where 17 of the
300 homes will be built Houses
with 9 to 13-foot masonry walls
are built directly on the proper-
ty lines forming a continuous
wall that defines the streets and
intimate lanes of the village. In-
side, the walls serve as a physi-
cal boundary for the homes' pri-
vate courtyards and outdoor
"living rooms."
Architects are challenged to
address the entire lot and to
effectively integrate the exterior
with the interior spaces. Lots in
the central village range from
3000 to 18,000 square feet, with
the average being 8200 square
Prior to selling any lots, the
developers presented the codes
to thirteen architects, nine of
whom are Florida-based. Each
architect was commissioned to
design a home for a specific site.
Duany and Plater-Zyberk also
were engaged to design a home
within the framework of the
codes that they had developed
for the community.
The Duany/Plater-Zyberk
house, the fifth to be completed
at Windsor, is situated on a 9,246
square foot lot It has 5,855
square feet under roof, 3,919 of
which is air-conditioned. The
two-story main house, with draw-
ing room and master suite on the
first floor, opens to the interior
garden and faces the 100-foot-
wide main boulevard. A one-
story ell, housing the dining
room, family room and kitchen,
also overlooks the private
atrium garden to the east, and
faces a village green to the west
A separate out-building on
the lot serves as a two-car
garage on the ground floor with
a guest flat above. The guest flat
has a kitchen, walk-in closet, full
bath and a large central room to
be used either as a combination
sleeping/sitting room or a large
home office. The guest flat is
accessed either through the gar-
den or a separate gated
entrance on a side street


Duany and Plater-Zyberk are
especially sensitive to building
with durable materials which
age gracefully and work well in
this climate. They chose to con-
struct the home they designed
of masonry with a galvanized
metal roof. The masonry stucco
is finished with a steel trowel.
They asked that the finish be
neither an applied texture, nor
mirror-smooth; rather that it
should show the hand of the
workman and general irregulari-
ties in the wall. The stucco was
painted a soft yellow with a blue
color wash on the wood shut-
ters, gates and exposed rafter
tails. A balcony along the full
length of the facade, supported
by heavy structural wood mem-
bers, adds to the neighborly
character of the village.
Inside, simplicity prevails in
the profiles of the baseboard and
crown moldings, the doors, and

Photos, top: Duany Residence
and courtyard. Below- Ground
floor plan ofDuany Residence
courtesy of the architect. Photos
by Thomas Delbeck.

hardware. The floors are blond
oak, except where the internal
loggia and pool terrace are paved
with old Chicago brick set in a
herringbone pattern.
The developers selected inte-
rior designer Susan Schuyler
Smith, ASID, from Richard
Plumer Designs, who worked
closely with the architects dur-
ing the building process. She
specified interior surfaces, such
as the flooring, cabinets, tile and
special paint finishes on the
kitchen cabinets and walls. /
The result of this combined ,/
effort is a residence with strong
character in a community that is
on the leading edge of develop-
ment planning.

Virginia Nodine Moulton is a
freelance writer based in Vero
Beach, FL, who specializes in
Florida real estate. For the past
three years she has produced the
New York Times' Florida
Residential Property section, and
is a member of the National Asso-
ciation of Real Estate Editors

Central village home designed by Uni-

... Spain in collaboration with Rolando





The beauty and quality of
Vinyl Casement Windows

When your designs call for
distinctive casement. single
hung or double hung
windows, ask for vinyl the
perfect product for the
Florida environment

For information contact:
Tom Thompson, General Sales Manager
4504 30th St. West
Bradenton, FL 34207

Circle 15 nr. Reaade inau.ry Cara

The competition seeks to identify a reper-
toire of outstanding single family home and
site designs to be considered for use by the
sponsor in its infill housing program.

Registration Closes: May 22, 1992
Submissions Due: July 27, 1992
Entry Fee: $25

The Community Redevelopment Agency
207 East Atlantic Avenue
Delray Beach, FL 33483
407 276 8640


"Ideal for
architectural and Ul"I
engineering drawings
technical layout,
CAD revisions,
and more"

Introducing the MAX Letrex LM-700. The
newest, most versatile, most revolutionary
lettering system ever. At the touch of a
button...crsp, sharp, clean lettering on an
adhesive-backed tape. It is chip, crack, and
smear proof...and won't melt in the high heat
reproduction machines...GUARANTEED!
To find out about all the great features
call for a free sample and brochure

KROY Is a reglt.d bfadmark of Kroy tc. MERUN Isa regitered trademrk of Varkoiern Systm, Inc.
Circle 10 on Reader Inquiry Card

ALCan B g
Alcan Building Products

*'; C .
.I "

. Tx:,T-

An Emphasis on Form

Women's Resource Center
of Sarasota
Sarasota, Florida

Carl Abbott Architect FAIA
Sarasota, Florida

Job Captain:
Michael O'Donnell
Consulting Engineer:
Bill Rast
N. Craig McAllister
Women's Resource Center

This center is a special place
A in the community for
women. Although no medical
care is provided, it is a place to
seek guidance and assistance
and a place that provides a
forum for women's group meet-
ings and activities.
The site is on a main thor-
oughfare lined with relatively
low-scale buildings. From the
roadway, the Center presents a
strong presence to the commu-
The curved forms of the
entry walls define the internal
space and lead the visitor in-
ward. Acting as the hub of the
building is the double-volume
entry gallery with its compound
sloped ceiling plane. The entry

gallery opens wide to the clois-
tered courtyard and garden
beyond. Radiating from the
sides of the entry space are the
two distinct wings of the build-
ing which express the functions
of the center, one of which is
individual counseling and the
other, large group activities.
The design places a strong
emphasis on humanistic quali-
ties. The building has a lot of
strength that seems to offer pro-
tection, yet as one walks in it is
like a labyrinth that unfolds.
While the Women's Resource
Center is feminine in spirit, with
curved walls, sloped roofs and
elongated surfaces, it is a
distinctive, self-assured
presence in the community.
Several architects who've
seen the building have made the
comment to Carl Abbott that he
certainly knows Ronchamp. He
does know Ronchamp after
many visits to Corbu's chapel
and, he confides, he knows
Mykonos, as well.
As at Ronchamp, light is a
major element and, here, glass
walls, skylights and clerestories
create rays of light which give
warmth and clarity to the space.


All photos by Peter Vanderwarker.





m i





..... ...;


NEW S.P.A. (Swimming Pool Aggregate) FROM

Ordinary Aggregate \ New S.PA from Perma Crete

C; D O

When you're the architect or builder with plans
that include a swimming pool and deck, you want that
prestigious area to enhance the overall beauty of your
endeavor. There's nothing that makes a pool area as
attractive as a snow-white pool and deck. And now
with Perma Crete's new S.RA. it is easily attainable.
S.RA's super-white crystalline marble is screened
three times to ensure an even 100 percent marble mix-
ture each and every time. All your installer has to do is

simply mix S.RA. with white cement and water. The
result is a uniform and workable consistency for a
hard, smooth finish that resists algae and is easy to
keep clean.
Specify Perma Crete's
new whiter, brighter S.RA. and
get ready for some dazzling
reviews from happy, satisifed PERMA
pool customers. rDCTC='r

For further information write or call C.L. INDUSTRIES, INC.
RO. Box 593704, Orlando, Florida 32859-3704 (407) 851-2660; 1-800-333-2660; Fax: (407) 240-2743

A Florida Crushed Stone Co.

Circle 26 on Reader Inquiry Card


2155 Mills Road Jacksonville, Florida 32216
(904) 725-8009 Circle 21 on Reader Inquiry Card


The Gateway To Downtown Miami

The winning design in the Brickell Bridge Gateway Competition is the work ofMiami architects Jorge Hernandez, Ralph Portuondo and Mike

rhe Brickell Bridge Gateway
. Competition, sponsored by
the New World Center Founda-
tion of the Downtown Develop-
ment Authority of Miami, drew
68 entries from all over the
world. After two years of plan-
ning and funding spurred by
Miami architect Charles Harri-
son Pawley, the Brickell Bridge
Gateway Committee raised
$38,000 to fund the competition,
part of which was a grant from
the Florida Foundation for
The Florida Department of
Transportation expects the new
bridge across the Miami River
to cost $14 million, ten percent
of which was allocated for archi-


tectural embellishments. Jurors
for the competition were Miami
architect Elizabeth Plater-
Zyberk, architect Hugh Hardy
of New York, Rodolfo Machado
of Boston, Charles Harrison
Pawley of Miami, FDOT engi-
neers Jose Abreu and Tony Gar-
cia, William Lam, a lighting
expert from Boston and Miami
developer Philip Blumberg. The
jury narrowed the field to five
finalists, each of whom received
$5,000. The top ranking design
is to be implemented by the
Florida Department of
The winning entry is the
work ofJorge Hernandez, a
professor at the University of

Miami School of Architecture,
Ralph Portuondo of Portuondo
Perotti Architects and Mike
Sardinas, a graduate student in
urban design.
The winning team termed
their design "concrete classi-
cism," a reference to the Medi-
terranean Revival architectural
style prevalent in Miami in the
Set into large niches in the
bridge abutments would be
sculptures of four Miami
pioneers Henry Flagler, Julia
Tuttle, William Brickell and
Marjory Stoneman Douglas.
The bridge would have metal
railings painted pale green. At
the Brickell Avenue end would

be a statue of a Tequesta Indian
on top of four columns, each of
which is inscribed in a different
Architect Jorge Hernandez
says that his team thought of
the bridge as an opportunity to
commemorate Miami's history.
The winning architects will
now begin discussions with the
FDOT about the incorporation
of their ideas into the $1.2 mil-
lion allocation for architectural
embellishment to a bridge that
has already been designed by
the State's engineering consul-
tants. The bridge should be
complete by 1994.



SINCE 1974


LICENSE #U-10179
Circle 24 on Reader Inquiry Card


Design and Development Costs
Theme Park and Leisure Entertainment Costs
Construction Costs
Contractor Evaluation
Bid Evaluation
Change Order Analysis
Delay and Impact Claims
Expert Witness Service
M-CACES (Corps of Engineers) Estimates
CES (NAVFAC Navy) Estimates
International and Foreign Markets
Specialist in Prototype (one-of-a-kind) Projects
Environmental Restoration Costs
Contact: Michael Thornton
4201 Vineland Road, Suite 1-12
Orlando, Florida 32811-6626
(407) 425-0612 Fax (407) 425-0354
Circle 7 on Reader Inquiry Card


Express your imagination with


P.O. Box 8325
Pembroke Pines, FL 33024
(305) 584-8774
FL 800-940-4527 NATL 800-456-7093
Circle 37 on Reader Inquiry Card


Superior Stainless Steel
Clark Metals, Inc., a Southern
California based architectural
metal service center, announces
that they are the first in the Unit-
ed States to carry an inventory of
nondirectional, unbroken, mirror
polished stainless steel sheet for
the building products industry.
The superior quality sheet
shows no directional buff or
grinding lines and is the only
stock available in this country
which exhibits an absolute mir-
ror image. The current finish
specification used for bright
stainless steel sheet is #8 and
while no specification number
has been given to this new finish,
it has a significantly better mir-
ror-image than any finish cur-
rently being produced.
This product has received
high architectural acceptance
throughout the world and opens
up new exciting possibilities for
the architectural designer who
wants to make a distinctive qual-
ity statement. The product is
being specified for elevators,
column covers, ceiling panels
and a host of other architectural
Clark Metals carries in their
inventory for immediate ship-
ment gauges 11 through 22 in
widths of 36" to 48" by lengths of
96" to 144". Available on a spe-
cial order basis are bronze, blue,
gold, red, green and finally,
black, which are created by an
electro-chemical process that
develops beautiful permanent
For further information, sam-
ples and brochures write,
2257, Gardena, California 90248
or call our toll free number:
(800) 4566060.

Larsen's Manufacturing Com-
pany introduces its new fire-
rated cabinet option, Flame-
Shield. The new Flame-Shield
option is available on over 70
existing Larsen's models, to
include fire extinguisher cabi-


Clark Metals new mirror-polished stainless steel sheet is being specified in a variety of shapes for use in ele-
vators, column covers and other architectural applications.

nets, fire department valve cabi-
nets, and fire blanket cabinets.
It is designed specifically to
maintain the integrity of one and
two-hour fire walls with recessed
and semi-recessed cabinets.
Warnock-Hersey has certified
and listed Larsen's Flame-Shield
option for up to two-hour com-
bustible and non-combustible
wall systems to meet the require-
ments of UBC Standard 43-6
(ASTM E-814).
Larsen's Flame-Shield option
assures the specifier that life
safety codes will be maintained
by eliminating the need to con-
tinue the fire wall within the
rough opening, saving the con-
tractor considerable time and
Larsen's is the only company
to offer a fire-rated cabinet on all
of its existing door and trim
materials steel, aluminum,
stainless steel, brass and
For information call, 1-800-
LARSENS (527-7367), or fax
requests to 1-612-571-6900.

Guide to CAD
Management Systems
Bara Tek, Inc. has an-
nounced the release of its publi-
cation entitled A Guide to CAD
Management Systems. The guide
includes information on evaluat-
ing the differences between the
components of CAD and docu-
ment management systems as
well as key features to look for
depending on the end users'
The guide also includes a
section on performing the finan-
cial analysis required to deter-
mine if a CAD Management
System is justified. Once the
financial analysis has been com-
pleted, the reader has the tools
to derive productivity gains and
the benefits the system offers.
"With the proliferation of
CAD, drawing and file manage-
ment systems, we felt the mar-
ket could use a simple 'How To
Guide.' By analyzing their needs
with a base understanding of
the availability of CAD Manage-
ment Systems, the customer

will ultimately be the winner
because they can compare their
needs to the functionality of the
different products" stated Bara
Tek President, Philip Haag.
Although the Guide is being
published by Bara Tek, Inc., the
developers of CADMANDU,
company officials stated that it
is an objective guide, which
does not promote or recom-
mend any specific product.
Bara Tek is a manufacturer of
engineering management and
shop floor data distribution appli-
cations for the UNIX and DOS
platforms. The company has
strategic alliances with and pro-
vides applications for IBM, Auto-
CAD, SUN, DEC, Hewlett
Packard, Mitsubishi, SCI, Inter-
graph, and ADAM, which are all
CAD/CAM industry leaders.
For more information about
the company's products contact
Bara Tek, Inc. at (303) 730-2220,
(800) 223-6638 or fax (303) 730-
0792. The company's address is 4
West Dry Creek Circle, Littleton,
Colorado 80120.

TEXIMA Magnetic Latch
TEXIMA Magnetic Latch, an
innovative and patented product
won the 1991 Grand Prize
Award for the best Architectural
and Engineering Product at the
Pasadena Invention Convention
among hundreds of other new
products displayed there.
It replaces ordinary passage
latch sets used on many interior
doors and holds the door closed
by virtue of magnetic force, a
simple push or pull on the door
will open or close it, thereby
eliminating the need to turn a
knob. The magnetic pull force of
TEXIMA Magnetic Latch is easi-
ly adjustable to meet the specific
requirements of the user. These
features make the latch ideal for
use in office environment, resi-
dences, and any facility where
the turning of a knob is a bur-
Installation of TEXIMA Mag-
netic latch takes much less time
than installing existing passage
latches, since all the carpentry
needed is a simple cut out on
the door.
For additional information
about TEXIMA Magnetic Latch,
contact Texim International at

STC 49 Acoustical Door
Now Available from Stock
Industrial Acoustics Compa-
ny announces availability of its
STC 49 Noise-Lock* Acoustical
Door. The door-stocking pro-
gram includes a split-frame, fac-
tory-assembled, standard-design
door and offers left- or right-
hand swing plus universal lock
preparation per ANSI Standards
A115.1 and A115.2.
The 21/2 inch thick (64mm),
16-gauge-steel (1.5mm) door
filled with sound-absorbing and
damping materials makes use of
self-aligning magnetic seals for
long service life and the high in-
field STC Rating. The door
incorporates cam-lift hinges
which lower and seal the leaf to
the floor preventing sound
leaks. High-maintenance auto-
matic drop seals are eliminated

as is a traffic-impeding sill (this
design factor is especially bene-
ficial to movement by the physi-
cally handicapped.)
Assembly and adjustment of
each single-leaf door, the frame,
acoustic seals, and hinges takes
place at the IAC plant and the
structure is shipped to the job
site ready to install and operate.
Among facilities which can
be quickly serviced with this
sound-rated stock door are:
broadcasting and recording stu-
dios; concert halls, convention
centers, computer rooms, in-
plant offices; engine test cells;
SCIFs; school and college build-
ings; music rooms; police inter-
rogation rooms; hotels; mechan-
ical equipment rooms; firing
ranges; and noisy-machinery
Information on the IAC
Stock Door Program may be
obtained by contacting: Com-
munications Department, Indus-
trial Acoustics Company, 1160
Commerce Avenue, Bronx, NY
10462. Phone (212) 931-8000,
ext. 293 or fax: (212) 863-1138
In response to the new acces-
sibility requirements provided

by the Americans with Disabili-
ties Act of 1990, Universal Ramp
Systems, a division of Redd
Team, Inc., has designed the
Universal Ramp System, a mod-
ular aluminum access ramp sys-
tem with adjustable heights and
slopes able to accommodate
everyone, regardless of their
means of mobility. Components
are universal and can be assem-
bled into different configurations
used for temporary or permanent
application. The systems are
maneuverable by two people,
portable, and can be relocated as
Write to Universal Ramp Sys-
tems for more information at
7378 Sunrise Blvd., P.O. Box
658, Keystone Heights, FL
32656 or call (904) 473-7246. Toll
free 1-800648-3696.

Call for Entries
Architectural firms, interior
architects and designers, and
restaurateurs are invited to sub-
mit entries for a new book,
Restaurant Design 3, by Judi
Radice. The book will be a full
color, oversize 224-page presen-
tation of both conceptual ap-
proach and accomplished work

in restaurant design today,
demonstrated through a mixture
of design sketches with project
photography. Fifty projects will
be selected for inclusion in the
book. Entries must be submitted
by June 1, 1992.
Radice has been developing
reference books for designers
and architects since 1984, with a
total of nine published books
including Restaurant Design 3,
Shopping Bag Design 2 and
Menu Design 4.
For entry forms and further
information, call Judi Radice at
(415) 673-1930, or write to Res-
taurant Design 3, P.O. Box
26710, San Francisco, CA 94126.



k V A
---:~ :9




Architecture's New Market Niche Energy Efficient Design
by Larry Peterson

The Architect's Opportunity
Floridians spend $20 billion
a year on energy. In 1991 Gover-
nor Lawton Chiles signed an
executive order mandating all
state agencies to reduce their
energy use by 30% in three
years. This is a realistic and eas-
ily achievable goal and all agen-
cies are making progress. If the
whole state will match the
Governor's goal of a 30% reduc-
tion in energy use in state build-
ings, Florida taxpayers will save
$10 billion in utility and fuel
This may not be good news
to Florida's utilities industry;
but it is good news to architects.
These savings are a fund to be
utilized for retrofitting existing
buildings and facilities for ener-
gy efficiency; and for insuring
that all new buildings are de-
signed to be energy efficient.
Architects can take advan-
tage of this market opportunity
by developing in-house exper-
tise in energy efficient design.
This expertise must include
state-of-the-art knowledge in
exemplary building envelope
design, siting and landscape
design for gain avoidance, inte-
rior space planning for high
quality environment with mini-
mal energy use, furniture and
equipment selections that mini-
mize plug loads and consulta-
tion with the client/user groups
in energy efficient operations
and occupant behavior.
Sophisticated clients are
already demanding these ser-
vices from architects. They are
realizing that the life-cycle costs,
which include operating and
maintaining their buildings and
facilities, are related to the orig-
inal designs they approve. As
clients become aware and are ed-
ucated to the economic and envi-
ronmental benefits of energy effi-
cient design, architects must be
capable of delivering these ser-
vices, and be able to integrate
the activities of other professions
towards the client's goal.


The State Leads the Way
Governor Lawton Chiles re-
alizes that the best leadership is
by example. He has confidence
that the goals he has set for the
state agencies will be achieved;
and he believes the private sec-
tor will follow the state's lead in
saving energy and money for all
Floridians. His administration is
committed to establishing an en-
ergy efficient business sector to
keep dollars in Florida and not
send them overseas or out-of-
state to petroleum suppliers.
Developing an energy effi-
cient business sector and achiev-
ing the Governor's goals of re-
duced energy use in state
buildings is the first step toward
reducing energy use in all build-
ings in Florida. Accomplishing
this goal will require a profes-
sional workforce trained and fa-
miliar with the basic principles
and concepts of energy efficiency
and their economic ramifications.
The Florida Energy Office is
establishing a $30 million re-
volving loan fund to assist state
and local government in quickly
initiating energy efficiency pro-
jects. This small fund can point
the way to larger savings which
can be realized through energy
efficient design. In utilizing
these loans, governmental agen-
cies will also agree to initiate
other projects, at least equal to
the initial FEO loan, that are
independently financed through
shared savings and perfor-
mance contracting. Financing
design and construction costs
with saved utility expenses
opens a new market for archi-
tectural design services.

The Challenge
and the Opportunity
Architects were involved in
energy conservation efforts dur-
ing thel970's, following the
OPEC actions of 1972-73 as
petroleum prices rose dramati-
cally. Since that time, oil prices
have been held artificially low

and energy costs have receded
in importance as attention has
shifted to other more pressing
sectors of the economy. As a
result, professional interest and
capacity in energy efficient
design has declined. Within the
last fifteen years, architects
have had little opportunity to
gain experience working on
building projects that emphasize
energy efficiency.
After the 1970's oil shortage,
including energy efficiency in
the design of new buildings did
not become standard practice in
architecture and was not re-
quired by most clients. Paying
large utility bills as a conse-
quence of inefficient building
design was not considered as
part of the construction budget.
The concept of life-cycle cost
accounting did not factor in ris-
ing utilities expenses or increas-
ing electrical loads. Consequent-
ly, there are many buildings in
Florida that are very energy
Retrofitting these existing
buildings to achieve energy sav-
ings represents a tremendous
business opportunity with im-
mediate benefits to clients as
utilities cost savings; and it will
improve environmental quality
with benefits to all Floridians.
Many retrofit projects will
require design services, not just
re-engineering, for energy effi-
ciency. Renovations that employ
solid energy efficient design
concepts may be a very cost-
effective and maintenance-free
investment which will pay for
itself many times during the life
cycle of the building.
In addition to retrofitting
existing buildings, all new build-
ing and development should be
planned and designed to be
energy efficient. Through the
adoption of new energy codes
and growth management guide-
lines the state will try to insure
that past practices are not per-
petuated; and that new "best
practices" are encouraged. Ar-

chitects are not the only profes-
sionals affected by these new
rules; but they could be the

The Design Imperative
All architects and architec-
tural firms need to include ener-
gy efficient design and planning
in their package of client ser-
vices. The upside risks are mini-
mal, the downside risks are
great if architects are not in the
marketplace. The payback for a
firm's investment in developing
energy efficiency expertise may
be great, the potential of the
new market is enormous.
Architects do not have to per-
form these new design miracles
with existing fee structures.
Firms can develop fee struc-
tures that enable them to share
in the dollars saved from utility
expenses due to their innovative
energy efficient designs. Shar-
ing savings is the basis of per-
formance contracting that is
already being practiced by engi-
neering and energy service
companies. It is reasonable that
architects should share in this
business practice for their archi-
tectural design services that
save energy costs.
The current economic cli-
mate in Florida, especially in the
public sector, has brought the
costs of energy once again to
the forefront. Both the public
and private sectors are examin-
ing ways to cut expenses and
stretch revenues to meet operat-
ing goals. Managing the costs of
energy resources represents
immediate potential savings in
energy and dollars; and will
result in long-term savings for
our environment as well.
The basic design decision
of any building can limit the
potential for maximizing energy
savings. Most buildings can be
made more or less energy ef-
ficient by technical means -
higher quality insulation; solar
glazing, efficient lighting. These
are technical components that
Cont. on pg. 28

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In Fla. 1 800 940-4527 Outside Fla. 1 800 456-7093
Circle 2 on Reader Inquiry Card

Location Photography,
Corporate, Editorial,
Specializing in
Landscape & Architecture

Bob Braun N
P.O. Box 547755
Orlando, FL 32854-7755
(407) 425-7921


Warranty Requirement Repealed: Here's What Happened ...
by George A. Allen, Hon. AIA Executive Vice President

"All ... design professionals,
architects and engineers, shall
grant to the developer and to the
purchaser of each unit implied
warranties of fitness as to the
work performed or materials
supplied by them...."
It was at the end of the 1991
Legislative Session when we dis-
covered to our horror that this
language had been inserted into
a 54-page rewrite of the Florida
Condominium Act. Because the
bill was already on the Gover-
nor's desk it was too late for us to
do anything except to grab the
sponsor of the legislation and ex-
tract a promise that he would
help us remove it in the 1992
What followed that action was
an intense effort by the FA/AIA
to communicate to members that
we had a serious problem and to
begin to line up legislators to cor-
rect it And, on the last day of the
1992 Session, the language was
removed from the Condo Act,
and, sent to the Governor for his
It all sounds very simple,
doesn't it? Mistake made, mis-
take corrected ... let's forget it I
think that would be an even big-
ger mistake.
For years, I have heard com-
plaints from members that the
public simply doesn't understand
what architects do. The warranty
issue is a good example of how
dangerous that lack of under-
standing can be. It's also an ex-
ample of how some people can
take advantage of a public mis-
conception and turn it into a ben-
efit for themselves.
In this case, the whole issue
started with a Condominium
Study Commission involving the
leaders of the condominium
associations and people who
work this them, namely their
attorneys. Condominium owners
have complained long and hard
about the shoddy construction of
their units, and, I would specu-
late the study commission was
searching for a solution and

someone (probably an attorney)
suggested that the designers be
included in the loop of having to
warrant the work along with the
contractors and subcontractors.
"Well, why not?" I can hear
them say. "Architects and engi-
neers draw the plans and tell the
constructors what materials they
should use to build the condo,
and they come out to make sure
it's built correctly. They are part
of the process and cause the
whole thing to happen, so they
should guarantee their work.
If you didn't know any better
you would probably think the
warranty idea made sense. And,
so did a lot of legislators and
committee staff people with
whom we met to convince that
the legislature had made a mis-
take. It wasn't easy, and frankly
our effort would not have suc-
ceeded without strong support
from members writing to their
senators and representatives.
And, the letters alone would
not have been enough without
the strategic decisions and pin-
point accuracy of our Legislative
Consultant Mike Huey talking to
the right legislators at the right
time. Huey had one shot at con-
vincing a Senate Committee that
the warranty requirement was
wrong. They gave him about
three minutes. The condo attor-
ney spoke last and longer. We
lost the vote and had to deter-
mine what we could do to keep
the issue alive.
The House had already
agreed to repeal the requirement
in committee. Our problem was
that the Senate sponsor was not
on our side on this issue. Huey
recommended that we let the
Senate pass the Senate bill with
out our repealer. Then we would
convince the House to take up
the Senate bill to go back to the
Senate where it would have to be
voted on again, but as a total bill
and not just our issue.
It was a risky strategy. What if
the House decided not to add
our language and just passed the

Senate bill? That would be it. No
more shots for us if that hap-
pened. And, it almost did be-
cause one of the legislators who
carries the trial lawyers' banner
caught onto our plan and moved
to reconsider We won that vote
when the House voted 70 to 36
not to reconsider, left our lan-
guage in the bill and sent it back
to the Senate.
We felt a littler easier when
that happened. It was doubtful
that the Senate would send a bill
back to the House on the last day
of the session because of our
issue. The condo interests want-
ed the bill to pass and if it went
back to the House, it might well
die on the calendar. Nevertheless,
the Senate sponsor still attempted
to remove the repealer, much to
our surprise. But, here again, all
of our letters and all of the prepa-
ration work that Huey and his
staff did in informing key sena-
tors of the facts in the case were
brought to bear. A lengthy debate
took place and when the votes
were counted, the Senate voted
23 to 17 to have the repealer lan-
guage remain in the bill.
It was nice to win, but I don't
think we should be patting our-
selves on the back. The place to
stop these kinds of issues is at
the source. And, the source in
this case was the Condominium
Commission where a misconcep-
tion about the role of the archi-
tect resulted in a problem. Why
were there no architects in-
volved with the Condominium
Study Commission? Why weren't
we, the AIA, informed about the
study? So we dodged a bullet,
but if four Senators had voted
the other way we would have
had a more serious problem. We
must communicate better with
other groups and with each
other if we ever hope to over-
come misconceptions and misin-
terpretations. Dodging bullets is
too dangerous.


Cont. from pg. 9

ments to real property. Only one
state had a limitations period
extended as long as 12 years
while 20 had a 10-year and 10
had 6-year statutes.
Today, Florida's statute of
repose is one of the longest at
15 years. Two states have a 12-
year statute while 24 states have
a 10-year statute of repose, two
have an 8-year statute, one has a
7-year, 10 have 6-year statutes
and one maintains a 5-year statu-
tory limit.

Florida's statute of repose is
too long. The legislature is well-
advised to reduce the 15-year
statute to ten years. Design pro-
fessionals obligated by their pro-
fessionalism to remain account-
able to the public for professional
design services continue to find
themselves investigating and
defending claims that are not
likely to result in a positive bene-
fit for the claimant, are costly to
defend, serve only to boost in-
surance premiums and are
problematic for both the plaintiff
to prove and the designer to
Missing and memoriless wit-
nesses and documents long-
since destroyed hinder both a
plaintiff as well as the defending
designer. Forced to settle or
face high costs of defense, de-
signers are effectively made
liable for defects or deficiencies
they did not cause.
Designers remain potentially
liable for an unreasonably long
period after the building is occu-
pied. Reducing the statutory re-
pose period to ten years places
the real burden on owners who
benefit from the improvement
and rightfully have the obliga-
tion to insure and maintain the
property for the protection of
those who use it.

Claramargaret H. Groover is an
attorney practicing with the firm
of Fisher, Rushmer, Werrenrath,
Keiner, Wack & Dickson, PA. in

Cont. from pg. 25

enable the architect to accom-
plish maximum energy efficien-
cy within the basic design of
the building. They are not a
substitute for excellent designs
based on best practices of ener-
gy efficiency.
The design of a building is
the result of many forces and
factors in any design and devel-
opment process. The energy cri-
sis of the 1970's has come
around again. This is the 1990's
energy crisis with an economic
crisis as a companion. Architec-
tural firms have an opportunity
to expand their design services
for clients by emphasizing ener-
gy efficiency. Architects and
architectural firms market their
architectural design services,

not their buildings; and the new
opportunity niche market in
Florida is energy efficiency.

Professor Larry Peterson has
worked in the area of energy and
architecture since 1968. He is pre-
sently on leave from the School of
Architecture at FAMU working as
policy advisor in the Florida Ener-
gy Office. He is assisting the direc-
tor and senior staff in implement-
ing the Governor's Executive
Order to reduce energy use 30% in
all state agencies in three years,
and create an energy efficient
business sector for Florida. Com-
ments may be addressed to Peter-
son at (904) 488-6764.

Randall I. Atlas, Ph.D., AIA,CPP
2 Palm Bay Court
Miami, Florida 33138
(305) 756-5027
FAX: (305) 754-1658

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