Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Member news
 Legal notes
 Students tag new school "Calvin...
 Prairie school, Florida-style
 A campus that hugs the land
 Shape as a program solution
 New river residence
 Ron Garl, golf course architec...
 Back Cover


Florida architect
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00257
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Creation Date: March 1986
Frequency: quarterly
Subjects / Keywords: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
System ID: UF00073793:00257
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Member news
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Legal notes
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 12a
        Page 12b
        Page 13
    Students tag new school "Calvin Klein High"
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Prairie school, Florida-style
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    A campus that hugs the land
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Shape as a program solution
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    New river residence
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Ron Garl, golf course architect
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

W A A Flo

This- publication- is. copyrighted. by- the- Florida.
Association. of. the. American. Institute. of-
Architects- and- is- an- official- journal- of- the-

Limited permission to. digitize- and make this- electronic-
version available- has- been- granted- by the. Association-
to- the- University- of- Florida- on- behalf- of- the- State-
University- System* of F lorida.

Use- of- this- version- is- restricted- by. United- States-
Copyright- legislation- and- its- fair use- provisions.- Other-
uses- may- be- a vi olati on -of- copyright- protect ons.

Requests- for- permissions- should- be- directed to- the-
Florida- Association- of. the. American- Institute. of-
Architects.- Contact- information- is- available- at- the-
Association' sweb site.




: Winter
/ Sun

America's best window is
now better at helping keep your
clients warm in January and cool
in July.
The reason is Andersen"
High-Performance insulating glass.
A special transparent coating
on the inner glass pane works 24

86916 C 1986 Andrenn Corp.
hours a day, 365 days a year-in
all climates and in all seasons, on
all sides of a home-to restrict
the flow of radiant heat.
That means heat can't
readily escape homes in winter.
Yet this coating doesn't inhibit
direct sunlight from the low

winter sun, which is converted
into free radiant heat as it strikes
objects such as furniture in a room.
In summer, High-Performance
insulating glass resists the radiant
heat generated outdoors as the
higher sun strikes driveways,
sidewalks and so on.
When you specify this
revolutionary window, you not
only select the latest in glazing
technology. You also share in a
reputation that Andersen has
been carefully building for more
than 80 years.
For more information on
the time-honored Andersen
window, now with High-Perfor-
mance insulating glass, contact
ERe Florida Huttig
Sash & Door Company.
Orlando Fort Meyers* Clearwater

Come home to quality



i7 Z"' b



March/April, 1986
Volume 33, Number 2

Students Tag New School "Calvin Klein High"
The Design Arts Group created an exciting new high
school in Tampa Vivian Gaither High School.
Peter Gottschalk, AIA

Prairie School, Florida-Style
South Fork High School in Martin County is
Ranon, Bentler & Partners' energy-efficient
response to the "village concept" in school design.
Diane D. Greer

A Campus That Hugs The Land
At Manatee Community College, Richard G. Allen
designs breezy passageways to connect low-slung,
ground-hugging buildings.
Francine C. DiFilippo

Shape As A Program Solution
In rural Dade County, Maspons/Goicouria/Estevez
creates a "showplace"for clients and the Arabian
horses they raise.
Diane D. Greer

New River Residence
On the New River in Fort Lauderdale, architect
Don Singer designs a house with "a continuous
series of visual surprises."
Diane D. Greer

Ron Garl, Golf Course Architect
A close look at a well-known designer of some
famous "links" and how he works with architects.
Lillian Morse


Florida Architect, Official Journal of the
Florida Association of the American In-
stitute of Architects, is owned and pub-
lished by the Association, a Florida Cor-
poration not for profit. ISSN-0015-3907.
It is published six times a year at the
Executive Office of the Association, 104
East Jefferson St., Tallahassee, Florida
32302. Telephone (904) 222-7590.
Opinions expressed by contributors are
not necessarily those of the FA/AIA.
Editorial material may be reprinted only
with the express permission of Florida
Single copies, $2.00; Annual subscription,
$12.00. Third class postage.

Member News
Legal Notes

Cover photo of a private Fort Lauderdale residence by Donald Singer
Architect P.A. is by Steven Brooke.


_1_1_- q _

I" ^

;y ;' ;'

:. ::`

"' ** i



Mildoor's line of "Nob-Look" tub
and shower enclosures.
You can choose from six tub enclo-
sures and seven shower enclosures.
Order polished brite-dipped and
anodized silver or antique brass, or
Magnacolor acrylic white or black.
Or any custom color as an option.
Get the full facts about our con-
temporary handle, the self-cleaning
track, concealed caulking receptor,
dual hanger hooks, drip guard, contin-
uous hinge, exclusive leveling system
and rigid corner construction.
We have a four-color specification
brochure waiting for you. Send for
your copy.

A Dvision of Miller Industries, Inc
16295 N.W. 13th Ave., Miami, FL 33169-0910
305-621-0501 Florida 1-800-432-3116
National 1-800-446-7628

i' &



Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects
104 East Jefferson Street
Post Office Box 10388
Tallahassee, Florida 32302
Publisher/Executive Vice President
George A. Alien, CAE
Diane D. Greer
Assistant Publisher
Director of Advertising
Carolyn Maryland
National Sales Representative
Lee T. Griffis, Inc.
Design and Production
Peter Mitchell Associates, Inc.
Editorial Board
Ivan Johnson, AIA, Chairman
Carl Abbott, AIA
Stuart L. Bentler, AIA
Bill Hegert, AIA
John Totty, AIA
James J. Jennewein, AIA
780 Ashley Tower
100 S. Ashley Drive
Tampa, Florida 33602
Vice President/President-elect
John Barley, AIA
P. O. Box 4850
Jacksonville, Florida 32201
John Ehrig, AIA
2333 E. Bay Drive
Suite 221
Clearwater, Florida 33546
Past President
Mark Jaroszewicz, FAIA
University of Florida
College of Architecture
331 Architecture Building
Gainesville, Floride 32611
Regional Directors
Glenn A. Buff, FAIA
1821 SW 98th Avenue
Miami, Florida 33157
Mark Jaroszewicz, FAIA
University of Florida
College of Architecture
331 Architecture Building
Gainesville, Floride 32611

" he Influences of Style on Florida Architecture" is the theme of the Florida
I Design Conference '86 to be held this May in Howey-in-the-Hills. The intent of
the conference is to assess the impact of classic revival, vernacular, modern and
post-modern architecture on the Florida architecture that is being produced today.
I assume that the aforementioned styles are familiar to most people, certainly to
most architects, although the term "vernacular" seems to cause a few to pause and
grope for a definition and there is the ever-present confusion about modernism,
post-modernism and its apparent offspring, neo-modernism. The conference should
be interesting, and I suspect there'll be a lot of conflicting opinions.
All architects are influenced by work that's been done historically or by current
work they admire. Why so many architects tense when a label of style is assigned to
their work is an interesting question. Perhaps those who refuse to categorize their
work view their designs as statements of pure form that have a certain moral force
which overrides any known style. Perhaps they just don't like being categorized.
Perhaps they don't know.
Paul Goldberger, architecture critic of the New York Times, says we'll never
again see the rejection of history that was central to modernism's ideology. We will
continue to see, instead, more buildings that rely heavily on historical form.
As surely as an historical thread wove its way from the Acropolis to Andrea
Palladio to Sir Christopher Wren and to Thomas Jefferson, every time we see
a building with classical proportions, we are looking at a "style." In terms of
ornament and detail, isn't it a current group of post-modernists who borrow
heavily from the classicists? Modernism is probably dead, but its grandchild, neo-
modernism, is alive and well. This confident new phase in the history of architec-
ture is already very visible on the Florida landscape. You can recognize it by its
sense of bravado, and as Goldberger says, "its concern more with aesthetics than
"If there is anything that denotes the architecture of our time, modern or post-
modern alike," Goldberger says, "it is the concentration on what we might call
formal issues, the preoccupation with what things look like as opposed to what
they mean."

^^XJ^ ^ <^%^/r

Vice President for
Professional Society
Larry Schneider, AIA
115 Woodland Road
Palm Springs, Florida 33461
Vice President for
Governmental Relations
Lee Ramos, AIA
7000 S.W. 62nd Avenue, Suite 510
Miami, Florida 33143
Vice President for
Professional Development
Dean Rowe, AIA
777 S. Harbor Island Blvd.
Suite 300
Tampa, Florida 33602
Vice President for
Public Relations/Communications
Don Sackman, AIA
2869 S.W. 27th Avenue
Coconut Grove, Florida 33133
General Counsel
J. Michael Huey, Esquire
Suite 510, Lewis State Bank
Post Office Box 1794
Tallahassee, Florida 32302


Member News
Construction has been com-
pleted on the Magnetic Reso-
nance Unit M.R.I. at St.
Mary's Hospital. The 8,000 s.f.
unit, which is the largest and
most advanced in the Southeast,
was designed by Peacock & Lewis
Architects & Planners, Inc. of
West Palm Beach. "The architec-
tural firm of Miller & Meier &
Associates has changed its name
to Miller, Meier, Kenyon and
Cooper, Architects and Engineers.
Craig W. Kenyon, AIA and Rob-
ert D. Cooper, AIA, are the new
principals in the firm a Barnett
+ Fronczak Architects with con-
sultants The Design Arts Group,
Tilden, Lobnitz & Cooper, Inc.
and Post, Buckley, Schuh and
Jernigan, Consulting Engineers
have been awarded the design of
the FAMU/FSU Engineering
Facility. The 118,000 s.f. facility
has a $13 million budget and will
contain classrooms, student serv-
ices, teaching and research lab-
oratories to support the civil,
mechanical, electrical, industrial
and chemical engineering pro-
grams at the two schools. The
project is scheduled for comple-
tion in September, 1987. .
Ronald D. Schwab, principal
of Schwab & Twitty Architects,
Inc. has been selected a member
of the panel of ULI, the Urban
Land Institute, one of America's
most highly respected and widely
quoted sources of information on

urban planning, growth and de-
velopment. Schwab was selected
for his expertise in the design of
mixed-use projects for down-
town redevelopment. m Ian A.
Nestler, AIA, has joined the Coral
Gables office of Sasaki Associates,
Inc., a planning and design firm,
as senior architect. m Sasaki As-
sociates, Inc. of Coral Gables will
conduct a feasibility study and
do a schematic design for the
restoration of a venerable Miami
Beach Art Deco hotel. The St.
Moritz Hotel was built in 1939
and its new owners, Mount Rush-
more Associates of Miami, want
the building restored for com-
mercial use. m Currie Stubbins
Schneider Architects AIA, PA,
will design Rainberry Bay Club-
house II for Rainberry Bay De-
velopment Corp. St. Andrews
Country Club will be designed by
Kenneth Hirsch Associates Archi-
tects at Fairway Terrace, a joint
venture of Par Four Group, Inc.
and Saxoney Builders. a
Palm Beach Park of Commerce,
the first development approved
under the county's new Planned
Industrial Park District zoning or-
dinance, has received an Award
of Excellence from the South Flor-
ida Chapter of the National Asso-
ciation of Industrial and Office
Parks (NAIOP). Urban Design
Studio, of West Palm Beach and
Stuart, was responsible for cre-
ating the land use and long range

plans, overall design and obtain-
ing the necessary permits for the
multiple use project. The City
of New Smyrna Beach has se-
lected Keith C. Hock, AIA, of
Daytona Beach, to design the
City Hall addition for adminis-
trative offices. Wolfberg/Alva-
rez & Associates has opened a
branch office in the metropolitan
Tampa area. Through its new of-
fice in Largo, the firm is extend-
ing its services into the highly
competitive western and north
Florida market. Leandro J.
Ona, P.E., is now an associate of
Wolfberg/Alvarez & Associates. .
GBS Architects, Landscape Ar-
chitects, Planners, Inc. has been
selected to design and prepare
full architectural and landscape
plans for the expansion and reno-
vation of the golf clubhouse at
Turtle Creek Country Club in
Tequesta. The 5,000 s.f. expan-
sion will include a large dining
room and lounge. m Site work re-
cently began for the new Delray
Beach mixed use project of Wa-
terford Place. When completed,
the complex, designed by Currie
Stubbins Schneider Architects,
will have 236 apartments, a 250-
room hotel and eight office build-
ings. .
Rogers, Lovelock & Fritz, Inc.
of Winter Park, was recently
awarded the contract to design
the Social Sciences Building at
Rollins College. The project will

include classroom and laboratory
facilities. The Acura Automo-
bile Dealership is under con-
struction in West Palm Beach.
The 30,000 s.f. facility was de-
signed by Anstis Ornstein Asso-
ciates Architects & Planners, Inc.
and will be complete April 1,
1986. Justus Hellmuth, interna-
tionally recognized aviation con-
sultant, architect and engineer,
has joined Greiner Engineering,
Inc. Hellmuth recently directed
the master plan study for Brus-
sel's National Airport in Belgium.
a Anderson Parrish Associates,
Inc., an architectural/engineer-
ing firm in St. Petersburg, will
merge with Havens & Emerson,
Inc., an environmental/engineer-
ing firm, pending approval by
shareholders of both companies.
The present principals of Ander-
son Parrish will remain in key
management roles and the firms'
names will continue to be used. .
Fugleberg Koch Architects pro-
vided design services for three
newly completed prison indus-
tries facilities in Polk, Volusia
and Sumter Counties. The three
facilities will be operated by the
state-sponsored non-profit cor-
poration, PRIDE: Prison Reha-
bilitative Industries and Diver-
sified Enterprises, Inc., founded
by Jack Eckerd. The plants con-
sisted of a custom furniture de-
sign facility, a vehicle repair and
remodeling facility and an electri-

..... .... ~ ~ ... .i


'V -


J'llj ll,>'.-iII1--

FSU/FAMU Engineering Facility by Barnett + Fronczak Architects.


cal work plant. PRIDE is the first
private non-profit corporation in
the country that is authorized by
a state government to sell items
or services manufactured or per-
formed by prison inmates. 0
Baldwin Sackman + Associates
Architects, Planners and Interior
Designers has promoted three
people in their firm. David H.
Carrington, AIA, is a partner and
Pedro Diez, RA, and Alex M. Stur-
man, RA, are associates. Studio
One, Architecture, Planning and
Landscape Architecture in Winter
Park won the Sterling MIRM
Award for Best Model Complex
Landscaping. Cindy E. Cleary,
ASLA, Director of Planning and
Landscape Architecture, and
August C. Schwartz, ASLA, were
responsible for the design and
production of the Spring Hill
Model Center for Catalina Homes
of Orlando. Susan Schuyler
Smith, ASID, IBD, was awarded
first place in the statewide ASID
competition for the restoration
of a 25-year-old paint store in
West Palm Beach for the corpo-
rate headquarters of Spectrum,
her interior design firm. Work-
ing with Ms. Smith on the proj-
ect was Gordon Mock, AIA. m
Albert J. Cooper, III and David
B. Porterwood are new partners
in the Maitland firm of Charlan
Brock & Associates. n Schwab &
Twitty Architects, Inc. has moved
its offices to Northbridge Centre
where it will occupy the entire
14th floor of the complex they
designed. Slattery & Root, AIA,
of Boca Raton designed a new
200-home development for West-
bury Homes Corporation. Known
as Rainbow Lakes, the commu-
nity for single family homes will
be in Boynton Beach.
Harper Buzinec Carreno Archi-
tects/Engineers in Miami designed
the expansion and rehabilitation
of the existing 11.3-acre island
base of the U.S. Coast Guard on
Miami Beach. The project, which
includes the demolition of many
obsolete buildings, is the largest
construction project being un-
dertaken by the Coast Guard this
year. It includes a new 4-story

St "



The 1939 St. Moritz Hotel on Miami Beach will undergo a restorat
on Sasaki Associates' schematic design.

housing/health care/food service
building and an operational sup-
port building for boat and equip-
ment maintenance. a
Epping Forest, the former
home of Alfred I. duPont which
was built in 1927, is being devel-
oped by Gate Petroleum Co. of
Jacksonville. The property em-
braces 58 acres and sits on the
St. John's River. The duPont
mansion will be restored by Jack-
sonville architect Ted Pappas,
FAIA, for use as a club. The Palm
Beach firm of Schwab & Twitty is
creating the designs for 140 resi-
dences on the site. w
a Studio One has received the
Renaissance '85 Award from
Remodeling magazine and the
National Remodelers' Council.
The award was presented to the
firm for the remodeling of 18
Wall Street in Orlando. Char-
lan Brock & Associates will de-
sign a medium-density residen-
tial project near Wilmington,
North Carolina for Structures,
Inc. The Fairways at the Cape
will be located within The Cape
Golf and Racquet Club. m Robert
Koch, AIA, was the featured
speaker at a seminar on the Flor-
ida Mechanics' Lien Law. The
seminar was part of an ongoing
program conducted by Orlando
attorney Donald F. Wright, an
ionbased expert on lien law. Richard
Allen, AIA, PA, announced the


Schwab & Twitty's designfor one of the 140 private residences at Epping Forest in Jacksonville.


organization of an area of spe-
cialized services under the name
of Architectural Roofing Consul-
tants. ARC is the result of Allen's
25 years of experience providing
consultation, design and super-
vision services about roofing.
Norman V. Sharrit will serve as
project coordinator. The Holi-
day Inn Riverfront in Bradenton,
designed by Currie Stubbins
Schneider AIA, PA, won the
Torchbearer Award given by
Holiday Inn International. The
five-story hotel was completed
in 1985 and was designed in a
contemporary Caribbean style.
m The Russell Partnership, Inc.
has been commissioned to design
a new radio therapy facility for
the Radiology Department of the
V.A. Medical Center in Miami.
Construction for the $1.5 million
facility is scheduled to begin in
the summer of 1986. N
Urban Design Studio of West
Palm Beach won the State Award
of Excellence in the Florida Nur-
serymen and Growers Associa-
tion 1985 Landscape Awards
Program. The firm received the
award for their design of Royal
Palm Savings in West Palm
Beach. Dean Ellis, RA, has
been named Architectural De-
partment Head and Bill Ramirez
has been named Chief Draftsman
at Watson and Company in Tam-
pa. William Trotter of Spillis
Candela & Partners received a
"Special Award" and an Educa-
tion Commendation from the Mi-
ami chapter of the Construction
Specifications Institute (CSI). u
KBJ Architects, Inc. has been se-
lected to design the State Re-
gional Service Center in Daytona
Beach. Gresham, Smith and
Partners has added four new part-
ners Gary F. Hunt, professional
engineer, George C. Grigg, archi-
tect, Paul J. Plummber, architect,
and Brackney J. Reed, certified
public accountant. The firm has
been awarded the contract to pro-
duce the documents for construc-
tion of two prototypical Albert-
son's stores in Port St. Lucie and
Pembroke Pines, Florida. Spil-
lis Candela & Partners will design

Picture color and
Sexture in concrete.
Then talk to Scofield.

The Barbar Center, a new mix-
use complex in downtown Boca
Raton. Kenneth Hirsch has ap-
pointed Lee Kvarnberg to a staff
position at Kenneth Hirsch Asso-
ciates Architects, Inc. Schwei-
zer Incorporated honored co-
founder Nils Schweizer, FAIA, at
a luncheon attended by friends
and long-time business associ-
ates. In commemoration of Nils'
25 years of service to the firm, he
was presented with a commis-
sioned original bronze sculpture



by Florida artist Charles Fager,
Professor of Art at the Univer-
sity of South Florida. Nils will
no longer be associated with the
firm on a daily basis, but will ac-
tively pursue professional and
community activities. m
The School of Architecture at
Florida A&M presented three
prominent developers for its
Spring '86 Lecture Series. The
speakers are Jack Wilson, Presi-
dent of The Wilson Company in
Tampa, Preston Haskell, Presi-

dent of The Haskell Company in
Jacksonville and Robert Davis,
President of the Seaside Com-
munity Development Corpora-
tion in Seaside, Florida. The
speakers emphasized the behind-
the-scenes workings of the devel-
opment process and the keys to
achieving a successful project.


-, . ..


Professional liability is there legislative relief?
by J. Michael Huey

Monetary ceiling on noneco-
nomic damages, modification
of the doctrine of joint and sev-
eral liability, increased rate au-
thority for the Commissioner of
Insurance these are just a few
of the "legislative solutions" to
the current insurance dilemma
which are under discussion in the
business, professional, and gov-
ernmental communities. Once
again, as in the mid-1970's, we
are in the midst of an insurance
crisis. Only this time, it's worse.
While architects and others suf-
fered increased insurance pre-
miums in the 1970's, doctors bore
the brunt of the crisis. This time,
the suffering insureds include
architects, accountants, doctors,
municipalities, big business and,
yes, even lawyers. The "suffer-
ing" ranges from premium in-
creases of 100 percent to 900 per-
cent for some to lack of insur-
ance coverage for others.
Some specialty medicine
groups are experiencing 100
percent or greater premium in-
creases this year in spite of dra-
matic yearly increases since the
last crisis. Lawyers, accoun-
tants, and architects are experi-
encing 300 percent to 900 percent
premium increases. Municipali-
ties are experiencing 300 percent
to 1,000 percent increases. Cor-
porations, such as Florida Power
and Light, are reportedly pay-
ing double or triple the premium
for less than one-half the insur-
ance coverage of a year ago.
And the list goes on, and on. No
wonder we are seeing the estab-
lishment of professional associa-
tion and industry task forces on
liability nationwide, including
FA/AIA's Professional Liabil-
ity Task Force, PES's Liability
Task Force, Project Civil Re-
form, Inc., and others.

Many of these task forces and
coalitions are actively seeking
changes in our federal and state
laws to combat the insurance
crisis. The focus of Florida's
medical doctors, headed by the
Florida Medical Association, is
to place a ceiling of $250,000 on
damages which may be awarded
an injured party for pain and suf-
fering (noneconomic damages).
This measure, they contend, will
substantially reduce jury awards
and out-of-court settlements,
thereby reducing insurance pre-
miums. They point to California,
which has such a law, where mal-
practice premiums are signifi-
cantly lower than Florida. The
California law has just recently
been upheld by the California Su-
preme Court and the Federal Cir-
cuit Court of Appeals. The doc-
tors face an uphill battle on this
issue, but they seem to have re-
gained momentum after Florida's
Supreme Court struck down the
FMA's tort reform constitutional
amendment attempt.
The remainder of the profes-
sional and business community
has concentrated primarily on
modification of the doctrine of
joint and several liability. This
doctrine presently allows an in-
jured party to recover his entire
damages from any of the defen-
dants in a suit regardless of the
percentage fault of a particular
defendant. Florida's House of
Representatives passed a bill lim-
iting this doctrine last year, but
no action was taken in the Senate.
The Legislature appears to be in
a mood to make some modifica-
tions to this doctrine in 1986. Any
change should benefit architects
as they are often included in suits
because of the possibility of a
slight degree of negligence on
their part.

One of the more interesting
proposals which should be con-
sidered by the Florida Legisla-
ture in 1986 pertains directly to
design professionals. This pro-
posal, adopted in Kansas and
Oklahoma, would limit the liabil-
ity of design professionals for job
site injuries compensable under
the Worker's Compensation Law.
In Florida, such a law would ben-
efit architects, engineers, land-
scape architects, and land sur-
veyors by limiting the nuisance
suits filed by injured construc-
tion workers after they have col-
lected their worker's compensa-
tion benefits.
As the 1986 Legislative Ses-
sion approaches (it commences
in April), these and other pro-
posals will be reviewed. The suc-
cess or failure of these legislative
attempts will be in direct propor-
tion to the effort of the profes-
sions and business to persuade
legislators that the crisis is real
and relief is absolutely neces-
sary. While legislative relief is
not a total answer, it is a begin-
ning a sign that our system
must be rebalanced and realigned
to achieve justice.

J. Michael Huey is General
Counsel to the FA/AIA. He is a
partner in the firm ofAkerman
Senterfitt & Eidson, Tallahassee.


Over 50 000 Items in Stock
Rush Delivery Via UPS

Call Florida Toll Free Number

998 W. Flagler Street/Miami, FL 33130/(305) 379-4501
415 N.E. Third StJFt. Lauderdale, FL 33301/(305) 763-4211


I Coquina Shell

SArchitectural Precast Concrete
Coquina Stucco
Shell Epoxy Decks
Scallop and Oyster Shell
Also Available

s .Smmoont
P.O. Box 4173
St. Augustine, FL 32085
S (904) 824-5886

No other roof matches Gor\ for enduring
beauty. or adds as much value per dollar.
Color-Through: Our tile isn't just top-coated.
It's solid color from top to bottom.
Color-Blend: \\ e gi% you up l to 4 'co lrs blended
on a roof. nol just I color of tile flash coaled.
Color Choice: \\e otter .75 colors plus It1 litres.
In a choice of 1al or cur' d tiles.

Uorjs Roof Tile
901 N\..51 '8th( I. I. Lauderdale. H'.
33309* (Call 'oll-Free: 800 223- I11 .E
In Florida. Toll-F ree: 800 43-12021


~ ~--- -

' <^

E~.~5 ~
-, -r&'Y
~rYI. .




represented by
Cirt I l 44 on Rednpr Inqulr Crd



For more information about
Kohler Plumbing Products
see these Kohler distributors:
Lawrence Plumbing
Supply Company
31 S.W. 57th Avenue
Miami, Florida 33144
(305) 266-1571
405 N. Flagler Avenue
Homestead, Florida 33030
(305) 248-7020
8940 S.W. 129th Terrace
Miami, FL 33176
(305) 251-7022
5700 W. Flagler St.
Miami, FL 33144
(305) 266-3338

Circle 6 on Reader Inquiry Card

il ifllI A A I'll ITIi 'T March/Anril IQMO 7

- --7 ----- r 3-- --3- _

*otntl Wo-oo' fodn fir doora s no prvd a w-.
D co pl wit crti al auldn coades an stl alo yo to
-g you buldn to alook. an aucto th wa yo

I .17




1987 Legislative Issues
by J. Michael Huey

T he 1987 Florida Legislature is
already gearing up for the
onset of the Regular Session
on April 7, 1987. To date, there
have been approximately 200
House and Senate Bills pre-filed
and the new legislative commit-
tees have been meeting on a reg-
ular basis since the beginning of
December. Although 1986 was
known as the year for tort and
insurance reform, we anticipate
that 1987 will be considered more
appropriately as the "year of the
tax." In addition to legislative
efforts to generate revenue, we
will also face several other fa-
miliar issues which will impact
the architectural profession. At
present the FA/AIA is paying
close attention to four major is-
sues as outlined below:

Sales Tax on Professional Services
During the 1986 Session of the
Legislature, House Bill 1307 was
passed which repealed the sales
tax exemption for professional
services, effective July 1, 1987.
It is estimated that the repeal of
exemptions on architectural,
engineering and surveying ser-
vices alone will produce $118.3
million in new taxes.
Legislative leaders are now
scrutinizing this year's repealer
bill to determine whether or not
some of the exemptions should
be retained. An estimated total
of $1.3 billion in revenue will be
generated if no action is taken
during the 1987 session. If the
exemptions are kept in place,
however, where will Florida look
for badly needed revenue?
According to the Statewide
Comprehensive Plan Commit-
tee, Florida's current tax struc-
ture will not generate sufficient
state revenues in the future to
finance the needs of our growing
state. As a matter of fact, the
committee recently reported
that Florida is facing $58 billion
worth of needs throughout the
next decade. According to the
committee, if legislators fail to
repeal the sales tax exemptions
they will eventually have to con-
sider a gross receipts tax on bus-

iness or personal income tax. The
committee's recommendations
are based on conservative con-
clusions that the state will need
$39.9 billion through 1995 and lo-
cal governments will need $17.9
billion through the next century
to implement the Statewide Com-
prehensive Plan.
The question remains, how-
ever, whether or not architec-
tural services should be taxed.
Furthermore, if the exemption
is repealed, how should this tax
be administered and "passed-

The House and Senate Finance
and Taxation Committees are
currently reviewing criteria for
each sales tax exemption includ-
ing impact of the exemption as
well as the impact of the tax on
service entities.
Accordingly, FA/AIA is try-
ing to answer questions such as:

1. What is the basic rationale
for exemption of architectural
services from sales tax?
2. Does the exemption pro-
mote the retention of jobs in the
state or the expansion of archi-
tectural firms in the state?
3. Does the exemption serve
the purpose of treating architec-
tural firms and other businesses
within the state fairly?
4. Does the exemption allow
Florida architectural firms to
compete favorably with out-of-
state businesses?
5. Does the exemption provide
incentive for Florida architec-
tural graduates to practice in
6. Does the exemption pro-
mote the practice of architecture
and other businesses which are
vital to the local economy?
7. Are the reasons for grant-
ing the exemptions still valid?

Licensure of Interior Designers
The FA/AIA will be busy this
Legislative Session in efforts to
defeat legislation providing for
licensure of interior designers.
The Department of Professional
Regulation has indicated that

the interior designers are plan-
ning to file a bill that would es-
tablish a licensure program and
regulatory board for the interior
design profession. The FA/AIA
continues to question the intent
of licensure of interior designers
and will continue to closely moni-
tor pre-filed legislation that may
impact this issue.

Statute of Limitations
Architects, engineers and con-
tractors currently have a fifteen-
year cap on suits for design and
construction negligence. The
Florida Supreme Court recently
upheld the products liability sta-
tutory cap which was attacked as
unconstitutional. That decision
gave design professionals and
contractors hope that our high-
est state court recognizes the
validity of a maximum time per-
iod of exposure.
The FA/AIA must now con-
sider if legislation is necessary
to lower this cap and, if so, the
necessary course of action to be

Uniform Building Codes
Following the 1986 Legislative
Session, Governor Graham, with
the support of Tom Lewis, AIA,
Secretary of the Department of
Community Affairs, appointed a
special task force to study the
problem of the multiplicity of
codes and standards which affect
the building industry in Florida.
Legislative action on this issue
may depend greatly on the re-
sults of the task force report,
due in March, 1987.
Keeping in mind the historical
battle waged against the Florida
League of Cities on this issue,
the FA/AIA may not wish to take
a lead in pushing revisions in this
controversial area during 1987
(Governor Bob Martinez is a for-
mer President of the Florida
League of Cities). Another is-
sue, however, has recently sur-
faced which may help set a pre-
cedent for future attempts to
standardize building codes.

Following the 1986 Legisla-
tive Session, the Department of
Community Affairs established
an ad hoc committee under the
Bureau of Housing and Com-
munity Development to make
recommendations for revisions
to Chapter 553, Part V, Florida
Statutes (Accessibility by Hand-
icapped Persons). Current state
law regarding handicapped codes
is primarily based on 1961 Amer-
ican National Standards Insti-
tute, ("ANSI"), guidelines.
During 1986, the ANSI Acces-
sibility Standards were revised
and the objective of the ad hoc
committee was to review these
changes and determine the ex-
tent to which Florida should
adopt the ANSI revisions.
Following over two months of
biweekly meetings, the commit-
tee has now prepared draft leg-
islation which, although tailored
after the ANSI standards, pro-
poses several modifications. Of
major importance to the FA/
AIA, however, is the intent of
this legislation to limit the cities'
authority to impose more strin-
gent codes and an additional pro-
vision which grants the Florida
Board of Building Codes and
Standards "final administrative
interpreting authority." The
FA/AIA remains supportive of
provisions which limit local gov-
ernmental authority over the im-
plementation of building codes.

J. Michae Huey is Generml Coun-
sel to the FA/AIA. He is a part-
ner in the Tallahassee lawufirin
of Huey, Guilday, Knersteiner
& Tucker, P.A.



Manufacturing Co.

Serving the building industry since 1955.

For specifications and color chart
refer to SWEET'S CATALOG 9.10/Pr
3009 N.W. 75th Ave. e Miami, FL 33122
Oviedo & Sanford Rd. Orlando, FL 32707
Miami Orlando
(305) 592-5000 (305) 327-0830
(800) 432-5097 -Fla. Watts- (800) 432-5539


(All Marble) Stucco
Trowel Stucco
Swimming Pool Stucco
Ceiling Spray
Cement Paint
Wall Spray

Acoustical Plaster
Veneer Plaster
* P.V.L
Vinyl Ceiling Spray
Ceiling Spray
For Rock Dash
Ceiling Spray

An Imperial Industries Company

For ASSURED QUALITY concrete projects

Assure the concrete advantages you are paying for.


Use an approved concrete testing laboratory.
The firms listed below are approved for 1986 by the
Engineering Laboratories Forum and the Florida O APPROVED
Concrete & Products Association Joint Technical \ CONCRETE
Committee Inc. as meeting the requirements of \ TESTING
ASTM-E329 standards. LABORATORY

A & E tesitng irnc St PeWWourg
Arnrefion Tsti.ng LOa InC -riando
Art30r.lan k ArccCTret Ine Banow
Ardaman & ASsocaot% i!nc Cocoa
A"rdomon & A iicaetr Inc Fr MVver
araaman & tsoc-aes, Inc 'rianao
Ardonan & Associmes inC Wera Beach
adman& A cssares mnc Sarasota
Araamanr B kstocicre,, Inc 7otiohahsee
41&8 Ccnsultant-, inc Lakelonl
AI&E C.or.t..rtants Inc fampa
blomwei & Corner Inc Lokgeiari
C ir.Irre TH LIt) Cuioimar
E01 'i 1r.dutClas Lobc-ratory Tompa

lorida Tesing & Enlnee ng FP oauaerdale
Joclsonville Engineering &V Tesng Co JacKsonrliU
Jormal & Asscioces. Inc Ormond Beacn
Jammal & Associate Inc Tampa
Jommal & Assoctales~ I Wn Msi Rail Beacn
jamrnml & Assodates, he Win"lr Prk
Keith & Schos. PA Ft Itudex die
Law Englneerng Testing Co lake Buena vsrlo
tow Engineering Tessng Co. Miamrn
Pitisburgh Isting Lah JocklOtalie
Pittsburgh Testing toa Miami
Pittsurgh Tesing Lob 5Mrasoa
Ptisburgh leasing tb Tampa
Pittsburgh Tesaln lab West Plm Beocn

Proessonr. Service -
nduslrie. Inc Sorosoro
lQuailv Assurance Tes1,na Lob Saraora
Sil & IMatieni Engineers inc Altarnonie '.p.r.gs
Soil & Maerial Engineers Deerrieid Beacn
Scil 8& .4lerial Engineers Tarrmc
test o3 inc Tamrn
universal Ergineering Testing Co irc Goir.e.nlle
lnri.ersal Engrneer.ng g esting Co inc Crlinac.
W.iamrnS & Associates inc Clearwaoie
wingerre lesting Labciatonr FI Mve'~
Wngerter Laboratories Inc FcnIrth MiamiPl

For information on quality concrete or concrete testing write or call
649 VASSAR STREET ORLANDO, FLORIDA 32804 305/423-8279


In the world of Kohler, form and function emerge triumphant. Here, the Flair IIM Faucet in cast brass, a tribute to
Kohler imagination. Available in polished brass and chrome to suit any decorating scheme. For more d_-tails see
the Yellow Pages, or send $2 for a color catalog to Kohler Co., Dept. AE4, Kohler, Wisconsin 53044.
C 528 Capv~qh i 1085 A o4er Cs

For more information about
Kohler Plumbing Products
see these Kohler distributors:

Lawrence Plumbing Supply
31 S.W. 57th Avenue
Miami, Florida 33144
(305) 266-1571

405 N. Flagler Avenue
Homestead, Florida 33030
(305) 248-7020

8940 S.W. 129th Terrace
Miami, FL 33176
(305) 251-7022

Right Place. Right Time.

Right "Bottom Line."
Measure nothing but cost. and Northbridge Centre is competitive
Measure image, environment and futures and Northbridge
Centre is clearly in a class of its own

* Profitable lease equity plan
,II .l ri ma or space users to
share in the cash flow
appreciation and tax bncefits
* Charter Tenant adv l i ,i.
available tor tenants of as
little a, I ()()n ( square ek et
Free undercover parking

* Views ~t the Atlanitl Ocean
andj Intracoastal Wattcrway
* Elegant and informal
restaurants banking andi
* -.' II :I .' a access,
* )n-isitc k)wnter/mr mltgtemenl]t

The question is-NOT can you .ilI- r, I to, but can you afford NOT to?

515 North Flagler Drive. West Palm Beach. Florida
For information call Hamilton & Associates-(3051 832-6043

The Southern Gas Association, an organization of gas companies through-
out the southern states, will hold its 1986 convention at the Loews Anatole
Hotel in Dallas, TX, April 20-22.
The changes and progress in the natural gas industry will be the theme of
this year's convention. Speakers include: Dr. John McLaughlin, McLaughlin
Group, James E. Tyree, Chairman of the Board of the SGA, Roger Taylor,
Vice President of Salomon Brothers, and Dr. John McKetta, University of


Students tag new school "Calvin Klein High"

Vivian Gaither Senior
High School, Tampa

Architect: The Design Arts
Group, Inc.
Design Studio Director: Peter
Gottschalk, AIA
Project Manager: Dennis Wm.
Hughes, AIA
Project Team: Doug Mann, Ron
Harden, Boozer Payne, CSI
Contractor: Metric Construc-
tors, Inc.
Owner: Hillsborough County
School Board


Georere Cott.



As anyone who has worked
with it knows, Florida Edu-
cational Facilities Regulation
6A-2 represents a significant de-
sign restraint. One aspect of
6A-2, the requirement for natu-
ral light and ventilation in each
classroom, typically generates
some variation in the familiar,
sprawling, finger plan. That re-
quirement was lifted for an in-
terim period including the design
phase of Vivian Gaither Senior
High School in Tampa. And that,
together with the School Board's
decision to accept a two-story
structure, afforded The Design
Arts Group a unique opportu-
nity to design an efficient school
There are two blocks of class-
rooms on a pair of double-loaded
corridors backing up to one an-
other. Between them, literally
as the focus of the classroom fa-
cilities is the media center. This
compact block constitutes the
academic "wing," so to speak,
and occupies only a fraction of
the site required for a conven-
tional plan.
A second design theme, en-
ergy efficiency, directed the ori-
entation of the academic wing on
the site. Those classrooms af-
forded natural light are oriented
north and south, with south fac-
ing sunscreens. Major exterior
east-west walls are masonry cav-
ity walls punctuated by windows
primarily in common spaces.
The nature of circulation and
other common spaces represents
a third major design objective,
also related to 6A-2, which se-
verely limits the percentage of
space which may be devoted to
non-net assignable use. The de-
signers believed that in a high
school, where students move
from class to class, the quality of
common space represents a ma-
jor component of the quality of life
in the building. Their response
was to maximize views along cir-
culation paths to the outdoors and
into other important spaces such
as the media center and cafeteria.
In fact, the cafeteria, lobby and
entrance are combined into a mall

4 8
e l

Above: Cafeteria and l
Photo by George Cott.

6 .re
^ ^ ^ <, ^.-^ ---51' (;r ^^

i ? *la j~i. E, i -T

eft, site plan.



'.**-" I I -nr-'l :, ,..4

,, .

A. ..' ]. l4: ,

linking the academic wing with
the other major block of space
consisting of the gymnasium and
On the exterior, the two class-
room blocks and the gymnasium/
auditorium block present three
windowless masses to the prin-
cipal street front, Dale Mabry
Highway. To give those rela-
tively huge masses a comprehen-
sible scale and pattern, they
were broken down into a rhyth-
mic series of curved and recti- i ;
linear forms interrupted by glass i :'iil
surfaces. The curved forms are
accentuated by ribbed block in
contrast to the split-face surface
on the rectilinear forms.
The structure appears to be
well received by both the public
and the users alike. That, and the
fact that it was delivered on time
and under budget, no doubt con-
tributed to the School Board's
decision to ask Design Arts to do
an adaptation of the design for a
site in South Brandon.
Peter Gottschalk

The author was Design Studio
Director for this project.
Auditorium. Photo by George Cott.


Prairie school, Florida-style

South Fork High School
Martin County, Florida

Architect: Ranon, Bentler &
Partners, Inc., Architects
Civil Engineer: Montgomery
Structural Engineer: Brink
Mechanical/Electrical Engineers:
Tanase & Associates
Landscape Architects: Thomas
Shepard Associates
Interior Designs: Ranon,
Bentler & Partners, Inc.,

On a rural and re-l,ti% vl. rmi-. t-
site in Martin County, Ranon,
Bentler's problem was to design
a high school for approximately
2,000 students, with Phase I pro-
viding for approximately half
that number. The client wanted
a "-h, 'l'l' ig center" 1,rgatnrI.,-
tional concept with energy-effi-
cient buildings.


The design which finally
evolved allows the school build-
ings to participate with the prai-
rie site. The building nestles
against the more densely popu-
lated wooded areas and opens
the exterior mall concourse to
views of the natural environ-
ment. Conversely, hard edges,
including parking bus loops and
service drives are located in the
sparsely vegetated areas to the
west and north.
The school building is organ-
ized to imply the scale of a vil-
lage square with the natural
vegetation forming a portion of
the enclosure. The design intent
is to allow the pine and palmetto
to infill this open space over
The design response to energy
conservation is utilization of an
open, shaded student concourse
instead of the enclosed, condi-
tioned mall first envisioned by
the client. The concourse addi-
tionally provides a shaded micro-
climate adjacent to conditioned
spaces. Classrooms and ancil-
lary functions are grouped to
present less surface area to out-
side air temperatures. Corridors
are conditioned with secondary
air released from instructional
spaces during class changes.
The corridors are provided
with high operating windows.
The windows serve to pass day-
light into the circulation areas
and offer some visual release to
the users. Additionally, the win-
dows are a major component of a
supplementary mechanical ven-
tilation system. The school is de-
signed to allow energy conserva-
tion during periods of favorable
climate and can remain opera-
tional in the event that mechani-
cal cooling cannot be supplied
due to energy shortages. The
windows are typically oriented
to the north and east to minimize
additional heat gain. Windows

Photos by George Cott.


are provided within the media
center, administrative offices,
dining area and kitchen. All
"store front" activities are pro-
vided with sliding windows to
serve the supplementary venti-
lation system. Solar water heat-
ing serves the physical education
and kitchen spaces.
The mechanical cooling/heat-
ing/ventilation system provides
a range of flexibility which allows
the optimum balance of energy
efficiency and human comfort to
occur during seasonal variations.
The system is monitored and op-
erated by computer and can be
manually controlled at the discre-
tion of the operator. The build-
ing is divided into several envir-
onmental zones enabling portions
to receive mechanical heating or
cooling while others receive only

DianeD. Greer


A campus that hugs the landscape

Manatee Community

South Campus

Architect: Richard G. Allen, AIA
Civil Engineer: Bennett & Bishop
Structural Engineer:
Olsen-White, Inc.
Mechanical Engineer:
Electrical Engineer: Cadwallader
Construction Management:
Barton-Malow Southern, Inc.

Right: Lakeside view of admin-
istration building. Below: Adminis-
tration and Computer Science Build-
ing. Library will be constructed in
foreground. Photos by C. R.

The Board of Trustees of the
Manatee Community College
asked Richard G. Allen, AIA, to
devise a plan for their new cam-
pus in Venice. Allen was princi-
pal architect for the school's
Bradenton campus.
As with most publicly funded
buildings, there were inherent
concerns regarding costs and
materials. Six years elapsed be-
tween the time the initial budget
proposal was submitted and the
first allocation was approved by
the State. During that time,
many factors, including infla-
tion, came into play and the
project required a great deal of
careful planning and close moni-
toring to stay within the budget.
Working with an outdated
budget was the biggest challenge
to Allen's creativity. The proj-
ect was funded for $6,125,000,
an amount that was to cover the
cost of land acquisition, site work
and the design and construction
of the buildings.

The decision to build the cam-
pus in phases so as to take advan-
tage of partial funding has en-
abled the new campus to make
the best use of its resources.
Phase I consists of the Adminis-
tration Building, a computer sci-
ence facility, the science building
and the Student Center. Class-
room space is a component of each
of these buildings.
Allen had already designed
over a dozen educationally-
related projects and after survey-
ing other community colleges
around the state, he decided that
something different was needed
at the Venice campus some-
thing that took the site and the
climate into consideration and
expressed a relationship with
the area.
A lake existed on the property
and it was around this lake that
he established a concept for the
campus. With an intimate spac-
ing between buildings that were
designed for the Florida environ-



ment, costs were also reduced.
Dramatic sloping roofs of varying
pitch with overhangs averaging
eight feet or more produced the
net result of shaded walks and
breezy sheltered passageways
between buildings.
This "village" concept has met
with great approval from stu-
dents, faculty and staff. Phase I
was completed on time and was
ready for class meetings in June,
1985. That same month funding
approval by the legislature al-
lowed groundbreaking for the
new library to take place in
November, 1985. There are nine-
teen buildings planned for the

Francine C. D, 'V/.pI..

The author is a writer living in

Opposite page shows a detail of the
Science Building. This page, plan
of Learning Resources Center and
photos of Administration Building.
Photos by C. R. Erickson.


Shape as a program solution

The Knapp Residence
Dade County, Florida

Architect: Maspons/Goicouria/
Estevez, P.A.
Principal-in-Charge: Eric
Maspons, AIA
Project Designer: Rolando
Conesa, AIA
Engineer: Gomez-Pina
Engineering, P.A.
Owner: Barry and Maria Knapp
Contractor: RPA Construction

On a five-acre site in southern
Dade County, the Knapp
House is an architectural re-
sponse to a number of specific
requirements. First and fore-
most, aside from wanting a
home, the clients wanted the
residence to symbolically reflect
their business interest, the
breeding and selling of Arabian
The large rectangular lot is in
an area of generally small home-
steads with single family resi-
dences. The Knapp property is
bordered by rows of tropical
mamey trees on its perimeter
and it is basically flat and grassy
in the middle. The location of the
house on the lot evolved from
programmatic needs. The house
is positioned on the center front
of the property with the horse
training area to the north, graz-
ing pasture to the south and sta-
bles to the east. The property is
entered from the west.
The unique massing and shape
of the house gives it great "force."
The client's fascination with
round structures also helped in
the development of the house

AnJ4; .jf74L

Architect's rendering of plan and na in! elevations. Opp ,itE ipage I,. top: View ofthe port cohere where horses (tre
shown and below, proxrimity ofgrazing area to the house. Photos courtesy of the architect.


plan and later became a solution
to one of the main requirements.
The program for the house
consisted of basic residential re-
quirements along with a series
of more complicated functional
relationships derived from the
intended use of the house. The
ability to show the horses, for
business or pleasure, was a
prime criteria. The ability to
see the horses from different
areas at different times of the
day, while maintaining privacy,
was another challenge.
The architectural response to
these and other climatic criteria
evolved a semi-circular house,
based on a superimposed twenty
S1 foot radius module. This circle is
depicted in the living area and
;. -carried through the foyer and
dining area by the use of low cur-
S L vilinear walls and ceiling soffits.
The quarter circle module is
where the bedroom wings are
derived from and break beyond
the circle. The introduction of a
ten-foot wide sweeping arcade,
stemming from the porte cochere
Around the living room, through
the main intersecting body of the
house and finally free standing


on the east side facing the sta-
bles, served as the means of solv-
mg many program requirements.
First, the arcade provides shade
to the living room which faces
south and it also serves as an ex-
tension of the living room when
the French doors are opened.
During social functions, a sweep-
ing view of the horses at pasture
is provided. At the same time,
the arcade serves as a covered
promenade from the main en-
trance of the house to the free
standing extension, where re-
freshments are served at the
time of showing the horses. This
can be done without interrupting
the family routine inside the
At the center of the site, the
Knapp House was designed to be
viewed from different angles,
changing in configuration as it
responds to function and climatic
criteria. The exterior of the house
incorporates the use of local tech-
nology and materials and at-
tempts visually to recall a west-
ern vernacular transformed
into modern imagery.

Top photo, West elevation and
lower photo, porte cochere interior.
Photos by Patti Fisher.



You'll Never Match Natural Gas!

A smart builder is always
looking for ways to improve
the bottom line. It's time you
took a close look at building
with natural gas appliances.
Profits Sear!
Builders who already use-gas
appliances know natural gas
helps homes sell faster, and when
your homes sell faster, your prof-
its get hot.
Bit Ye. Pay No More.
Because of attractive allowances
and incentive programs* offered
by some gas companies, natural
gas appliance installations cost
little more than electric.
Get the facts from your local
Natural Gas Company You'll find
natural gas is available to a greater
number of developments than ever
before, with supplies that will last
long into the future.
Today's technologies make natu-
ral gas appliances convenient to
use and highly efficient. Natural
gas appliances can cut the cost of
home heating, water hearing and
cooking by as much as 50%! Is it
any wonder homeowners prefer
natural gas?
For more delaItl information
about how you can make the switch
to natural gas, call your local Gas
Company or write: FNGA, P.O. Box
2562, Tampa, Florida, 33601.
There is no match for natural
gas when it comes to making
the homes you build stand out
against all the competition.

F ornda Natural Gas Associatio

'A1 wanc s adl iiire rrs L,, 3ei,
ccn,~~a iileI U,,!ril rd l h ~i

SNew River residence

Private Residence
Fort Lauderdale

Architect: Donald Singer.
Architect* P. A.
Structural Engineer: DeZarraga
Donnell & Duquesne
Contractor: John R. Elwell
Construction Co. :..
Landscape Architect: Ted Baker

In 1932, the brilliant photogra-
pher Edward Weston said that ..
"form that is beautiful is so be-
cause its function is the ultimate.
expression of potentiality." ..
This private residence by
Donald Singer grew from a con-
cept based on the paradoxical
aspects of private living on a
public waterway. The design
resolution is based on strong
hierarchical arrangements of
space and its beauty is in its form
and its function.
This house was planned at the
edge of a 4.5 acre site along New
River in Fort Lauderdale. It is
a protective enclosure isolating
the garden for the private use
of the client while affording
controlled views of the public
Beginning with the idea of
waterside functions (entertain-
ing room, study, dining room
and master sleeping room) and
landside functions (entry, kit-
chen-breakfast, children's sleep-
ing rooms and help's quarters),
the plan was created along two
major axes intended to provide
framed views of the waterway
and a third to provide vertical
movement between levels. The
placement of openings allows
the sense of privacy to be

Exterior views and details show the building's form both inside and out. Photos by Steven Brooke.



The master study on the
ground floor and the bedroom on
the upper floor are organized at
the core of the plan, which im-
mediately established order.
The circular shape at the center
of the house represents the still-
point around which all of the
other functions of the house re-
volve. The circle is "prlttcted"
by the rectangle and the indi-
vidual is a part of the greater
The stair at the core allows ac-
cess to the roof and to the circle.
The house thus becomes an ob-
ject to be seen from below, above
and around. It is a participatory
space and a viewing place. Earth
colored block was used for all
The residence was designed
for Mr. and Mrs. Howard Brody,
a young enthusiastic couple with
whom the architect established
a good working relationship.
Unfortunately, Howard Brody
never spent one day in the house.
In June, 1985, the Drug Enforce-
ment Administration confiscated
the property and it was sold at
auction to a developer.
The house is a continuing se-
ries of visual surprises and is, in
the architect's words, "erotic."
"I would love to live in it myself,"
Singr ay-.

Previous pages, left: Vieu into din-
ing room, right, ,iei from master
bedroom looking toward stair. Inset
is of bath room detail showing glass
block shower stall. Photos by
Steven Brooke.


Ron Garl, golf course architect

Florida ... home of the leisure
lifestyle and country club
communities. What better place
in which to build the reputation
of a golf course architect than
here in a place where golf is one
of the leading leisure activities of
people of all ages and both sexes?
Ron Garl is just such an archi-
tect. He is ranked among the top
five golf course architects in the
world and unlike other course
designers, he holds a degree in
horticulture and turf grass. He
was the first student to receive a
full scholarship from the Florida
State Golf Association to study
golf course architecture at the
University of Florida. After
graduation, he apprenticed
with Robert Trent Jones and
Joe Lee and to date, the 40-year-
old Garl has designed over 100
golf courses nationwide, includ-
ing the prestigious Fiddlesticks
Country Club course in Ft.
Myers, the golf course at Heath-
row in Lake Mary and the new
18-hole course at the Palm Beach
Polo and Country Club.
Garl spends a lot of time up
front searching for a concept
which will fit the property, the
needs of the development and
the people who will play the
course. In the design process,
the game of golf has to be de-
fended and, according to Garl, "it
takes guts to tell a developer
when he's wrong."

I t

Traffic patterns associated
with golf courses are studied
such as where to place the bag
drops, the flow of people to and
from the clubhouse, staging
areas for tournaments and par-
ticularly, where to put the pro
shop. Pro shops should offer a
view of the first and tenth tees
to keep control on the number
and pace of golfers.
The clubhouse is the main
focus of Garl's golf course de-
signs and it is here that he works
closely with the building archi-
tect on the orientation of the
building allowing for vistas from
the dining room, lounges and
pro shop, while meeting the
functional needs of the golfers.
Garl considers every project a
different kind of challenge.
The clubhouse design should
be based on the priorities of the
owners and/or developers of the
club. For example, if the number
one priority is attracting golfing
members, then the men's locker
room design would be of para-
mount importance to the archi-
tect. Its layout, size and comfort
is a major concern to prospective
golf course users.
However, if the clubhouse is
used as a sales tool for real estate
development, then the lobby has
a high priority. Its decor and im-
mediate access to the sales cen-
ter, as well as its potential as a
social center, should be the main
focus of the design.

//-'^ .

Garl also has a keen mind for
incorporating innovative golf
course designs with revenue-
producing ideas. His concept of
"cloverleafing" has been extreme-
ly successful at places like Golf
Hammock in Sebring and Fair-
way Oaks, home of the $400,000
PGA Classic in Abilene, Texas.
Cloverleafing creates four or five
holes in a loop that starts and
ends at the clubhouse. It allows
for two tees on each nine holes
near the clubhouse, a measure
that can generate additional in-
come because it enables more
players to start faster. Clover-
leafing also brings golfers repeat-
edly back to the clubhouse where
they can buy a drink and use the
When it comes to the length of
holes, Garl believes that less is
often more. A finessed iron shot
to an undulating green can be as
much of a test as a 230-yard shot.
He believes that the longest dis-
tance on a golf course is the six
inches between a player's ears.
More often than not, develop-
ers consult with Garl prior to se-
lecting a building architect. Many
times it is Garl who recommends
a particular architect for a project
in which he will be designing the
golf course. For developers, a
golf course can mean money in
the bank because of the real es-
tate value it creates, and in many
cases they rely on Garl as a con-
sultant on potential architects to
help create the first class golf
course community they seek.
Garl's singular ambition is to
become the Frank Lloyd Wright
of golf course architecture. His
exclusive designs are increasingly
obvious in a variety of country
clubs and residential communi-
ties throughout Florida. With his
high design and ecological stan-
dards, as well as his capabilities
of satisfying architects and de-
velopers, Garl is well on his way.
Lillian Morse

The author is afreelance writer
who specializes in writing about
the outdoors and interesting

Top: Garl's Scottish links-style de-
sign at the Palm Beach Polo and
Country Club's new golf course
combines the strategic characteris-
tics of the historic courses with
American terrain. Above: Fiddle-
sticks Country Club (architects:
Reynolds, Smith & Hills, Jackson-
ville) is one of the most challenging
courses designed by Ron Garl. The
clubhouse is strategically located to
face the waterways and the famous
9th tee.

The rendering at left shows Pre-
stancia in Sarasota (architects:
Corbin, Y-i r..t.r i; a1"' Partners,
Ft. Lauderdale) which is currently
under construction. Both building
and golf course architecture work
together in the design of this new
TPC course.


Architectural Masonry Units


*. 1111



Forthe fine homes

of the world


II vim
-u I.~
-I p..' -

The ultimate in kitchen and bath cabinetry
Please contact your nearest dealership for complimentary brochures and information on
design services available.

The Ultimate Kitchen. Inc.
914 South Orlando Avenue
Winter Park, Florida 32789
(305) 628-4985

Kitchen Cener. Inc.
3968 Curtiss Parkway
Miami Springs, Florida 33166
(305) 871-4147


OA j

fpmwD 0 719GB 1

A A 1A


A ag g g ga g gg4 gaggg
S0auactu 0ed 0n *Log a ag
glor*d a ay One a Sa n** a -F

*4. ie 0 0 N e a B e S A u
e 0* *
Os. S 0*;; 0 0*
0* 0* 5 *0
: .* *0. S*
.-f -. :-i m o *c s

.... ..s :*5
S)r*e .* -h 0e O f 0 *

S- 0*. *36
Robets I dusrjM ^ ies Port St. Luc ie i i ni n305-3 5-2 02 ^o^
Slabs of South Florida, Inc. Miami 305-653-3820^ B~wl^ ^^^^^
Structura~lffSyesNals81-7-26 leven T^^ ^B B^ B^^ ^ a lbot Avenu, RankinPA 15 1
^^^^^miB^BfiffB^T^BfffirB^^^B^^^^fittg~sI^PHONE 412/351-3913^^^^^
Sun Coast ~fSB'BtrutreIn^ Bc. ufot 813-345-2985 TWX 710-664-4424^^^^^^^
^^^^*'Bfffffff~fflFU~~ilB^^^^^^^EPICBMETAL BRDK1| Hi^

Solid Oak

Hartco Acrylic Impregnated
Solid Oak Parquet costs a little
more than carpeting in the
beginning. But long after all
those footsteps have worn a
path and your client has paid
to have that carpeting re-
placed and replaced, Hartco is
still beautiful. This means it
is less expensive in the long
run perhaps the least ex-
pensive floor you can specify.
Tough acrylic and stain are
forced inside the wood for a
beautiful finish that resists
scratches and wear. Color
never wears off. Never needs
For further information call
or write
Jim Westman, V.P.
Walton Wholesale
7110 N.E. 4th Court
Miami, FL 33138

In business for over 29 years.
Refer to Sweets No. 9.22/HAT.

More people have survived cancer than
now live in the City of Los Angeles.
We are winning.

Please support the
This space contributed as a public service



represented by


Randy Atlas

& Associates
600 NE 36 St.
Suite 711
Miami. Florida 33137
Office (305) 325-0076

Architectural Secunty
Design Consultant
Cnminal Justice,
Facility Design,
Building Secunty

Permacrr te tuco Veneerrr Plaster
Pooltilt Bddlngcoat Rip Rap *
Parmebond sea Kooldok Peirmacont
Some still think they can't afford quality-untrue' Permacrete costs
no more than other cementitious coatings' Architects are offered a
creative freedom with the wide range of colors and textures
Builders have the assurance of quality and performance

T i .l g l a- n g";. l T I I'T T I; ,


PO. BOX 13704



On March 19, 1986, the second annual C. S. I. Prod-
ucts Fair in Central Florida will take place at the Orlando
Cosponsored by the Greater Orlando Chapter of the
Construction Specifications Institute and the Mid Florida
Chapter of the American Institute of Architects, this
display of over 200 construction products and related
services will provide a unique opportunity for Architects,
Developers, and Contractors to have hands-on the
materials they specify and to view new products.
Join your friends for an evening of exhibits, stunning
list of door prizes, beverages, and free buffet.
Don't miss out, see you on March 19.
WHERE: Central Florida Fairgrounds, 4603 W. Colo-
nial Drive, Orlando, Florida
Highway 50, 4 miles west of 1-4
TIME: 4:00 p.m. 10:00 p.m.
For information contact Jim Hargan, Lambert Corpo-
ration, (305) 841-2940.

of distinction

custon design, fabrication, installation
residential commercial industrial

Twin City Mail, North Palm Bech. Flortda
convoa / vinyl awnings
canopil. cabanaos curtains
Cushions boat canvas custom welding




Thoroughly experienced in hotel,
commercial office and corporate
headquarters design required for
leadership position in South Flor-
ida-based architectural firm.
Marketing and public relations
skills essential. Salary commen-
surate with experience. Send re-
sumes to Barretta & Associates,
400 S. Dixie Highway, Building
2, Boca Raton, FL 33432.

Well established architectural
firm in Tampa, has opening for
Specifications Writer with mini-
mum 3 years experience. Salary
commensurate with experience.
Excellent benefits. Send resume
to Ray Bernardo at Ranon, Bent-
ler & Partners, Inc.; 515 Bay
Street, Tampa, Florida 33606.
(813) 253-3465.

National medical building devel-
oper seeks self-starting architec-
tural professional who wishes a
career in this rapidly growing,
specialized real estate field. Ex-
perience in health care projects
helpful. College education with
a proven record of accomplish-
ment necessary. Good verbal
and writing skills a requirement.
Send resume and salary require-
ments to Turner Medical Build-
ing Services, Inc., 1215 Louisiana
Avenue, Winter Park, FL 32789.

Director/Commerial Busines Development
National Architectural / Engi-
neering firm seeks experienced
architect to lead commercial mar-
keting effort for its 100-plus per-
son office in Orlando. Challeng-
ing opportunity to direct project
teams and lead the commercial
business development effort. Re-
quires architectural registration,
a minimum of 8 years experience,
and a proven track record in the
design and marketing of large
scale commercial development
projects. If you are a dynamic,
results oriented individual who
wants to play a key role in the
growth and continued success of
a nationally recognized firm, we
invite you to submit your resume,
including project listing, to:
Hansen Lind Meyer
455 S. Orange Avenue
Suite 400
Orlando, FL 32801
An equal opportunity affirmative
action employer.

Licensed Architect with proven
abilities in at least two of the fol-
lowing disciplines: Design, Pro-
duction and Project Manage-
ment. Send resume to William
Graves Architects, 207 E. Main
Street, Pensacola, FL 32501.

Do you have an opening in your
firm? Do you have office equip-
ment for sale? A service to sell to
architects? Use Florida Archi-
tect classified.
Send material to be typeset
to: Florida Architect, P.O. Box
10388, Tallahassee, FL 32302,
Attn: Carolyn Maryland.
Material must be received 45
days prior to publication dates.
Publication dates are the first
day of January March, May, July,
September, and November.
Classified listings are charged
at the rate of $3.00 per typeset

The#tof ivfonment u3
Learned skills. Human
creativity. Nature's beauty. The interplay that produces WALUISBAKER
functional environments that arouse the senses. & ASSOCIATES. RA.
Wallis, Baker & Associates, masters since 1961. Landscape Architects
Their collection includes metropolitan civic centers, Site eaing Drive
international airports, major hotels, office buildings, Winter Park, Florida 32789
malls and resorts. Discover the art in your environment. (305) 647-5726


"Gas Sales, It's Time For a Change" will be the theme
of the Florida Natural Gas Association Sales Section
Meeting scheduled for April 16-18 at the Harley Hotel
in Orlando.
Members of the association, comprised of gas com-
panies throughout the state will gather to discuss topics
such as the growth and trend in the natural gas industry
and the Florida Energy Code which is now in effect.
Media Services and Production Group, the associa-
tion's advertising agency, will introduce Energy Update,
a full color magazine which is being published by the as-
sociation for Florida builders to inform them of changes
and growth of the industry.
People interested in learning more about the Florida
Natural Gas Association can contact Mr. Albert L. Weldy
at (904) 589-4753.

Selecting the right lighting
is more than just
flipping a few switches.
Lighting is the "tool" for creating architecturally-
integrated luminous environments.
In planning your lighting layout, the space
must be analyzed in terms of desired

Which objects or areas are to be
focal points? And finishes of the floor, walls, and ceiling
must be considered.
Our lighting consultants will team-up with you to review
the desiredeffect, and then make recommendations that
will provide your client with illumination that was
designed to fill a specific need.
Like Lightolier's Manor series. Crafted in solid brass and
rich in the tradition and flavor of an English manor.
We stock Lightolier and most other
major brands. You select from the
largest inventory in South Florida.
FarreyA Lighting Collection
1850 N.E. 146 St., Miami, FL 33181
S1947-5451, Broward 524-8675




Complete Line of Glass Block
and Accessories
0 L

P.O. BOX 8325, PEMBROKE PINES, FLORIDA 33024 (305) 432-3806


44 FLORIDA ARCHITECT March/April 1986



.the superior waterproofing sealer for
stucco, masonry, cement and other porous building materials.

A high binding, acrylic base, penetrating sealer. Formulated
for use on Cement, Masonry and Stucco surfaces. May also
be used on Wood, Stone, Brick, etc. It waterproofs, protects
and highlights the natural beauty in the colors of the
material used on. May be used under or over paint, above or
below grade, is milky white but DRIES CLEAR assuring
complete coverage. Fast-drying, non-staining, mildew resis-
tant, water cleanup before
y drying. Easy to apply. Hand
"1 pump garden sprayer recom- .
A amendedd for application. TESP

P.O. BOX 1527 r.
-TiCtO M**ON W c t ACI
^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^_ ^"*i rstt.- KMiju.'i v to=,Ei- su .-



Mickey Hergenreder. FA/AIA Senior Benefit Analyst


AA&C's claims service features "real people" who care- a
lot. Files are kept by family name, not a number, and claims
are processed within 48 hours of receipt by AA&C. All of our
analysts have been trained in-house because those who had
outside experience couldn't give the personalized, caring
service that our clients demand. Each analyst tries to find
ways to "pay" claims, not to deny them, which is why
99.5% of the FA/AIA claims are paid vs. the normal 90%.
For further information, please contact the FA/AIA Group
Insurance Service Organization:

Association Administrators & Consultants, Inc.
19000 MacArthur Boulevard, Suite 500
Irvine, California 92715
1-800-854-0491 Toll Free



Teamwork experience for architecture students
Muhamed M. Aburawi

The idea of using small groups
to avoid the impersonality of
large undergraduate courses
is hardly new. Unfortunately,
however, there have been few
large-scale attempts to alter the
traditionally individualistic ex-
perience of college students by
encouraging and strongly re-
warding participation in coop-
erative endeavors. Most of that
type of experimentation has been
carried on in elementary and
high school classrooms and the
traditional instruction method
of lecturing has dominated in col-
lege classrooms. The Architec-
tural Structures courses at the
University of Florida were no
The most obvious drawbacks
to the lecture method of teach-
ing an architecture course are
that the approach mainly pro-
motes cognitive learning and em-
phasizes individual competition.
Lectures do not fully prepare the
architecture student to grasp the
life-size scale of the elements he
or she designs. In addition, the
student is not prepared to work
in a cooperative climate which he
or she will probably face in the
professional world. Further-
more, the present method lets
the student design and analyze
architectural structures working
in an ideal situation, without tak-
ing into account any additional
difficulties which may occur in
reality such as site restrictions,
or problems encountered during
the construction process.
Research done in college class-
rooms document the fact that in
experimentally created groups
the introduction of cooperative
climates tends to improve cer-
tain types of performance while
lowering students' tension and
anxiety. Since one of the goals of
group experience is to provide
students with the opportunities
to share ideas with their fellows,
work toward common goals, and
receive joint rewards, one of the
concerns was with the viability
of the groups which would be
functioning unsupervised out-
side the classroom. Pilot results

indicated that there is a relation-
ship between group viability and
the nature of the rewards. It was
found that groups created on the
basis of interpersonal attraction
among their members would be
more likely to operate effectively
under conditions of individual re-
ward than would groups formed
on the basis of random assign-
ment of members. Conversely,
under conditions that involved
working for shared rewards,
both types of groups would stay
together and function. Further-
more, prior research and pilot
studies suggested that most stu-
dents would tend to have positive
attitudes toward group work. Re-
ports indicate that they preferred
working in groups to working in-
dividually, regardless of whether
they had actually participated in
groups during the class.
To validate these findings for
undergraduate architecture stu-
dents, an experiment was con-
ducted in the third year architec-
tural structures class, at the Uni-
versity of Florida, in the Spring
1985 semester. The students
were assigned a teamwork proj-
ect: to design and build a life-size
scale structure. The objectives
of the project were to:
1. provide a teamwork experi-
2. improve learning skills and
put theory into application;
3. allow students to take greater
responsibility in their learning
4. promote peer tutoring and
cross-age help with the partici-
pation of the graduate teaching
assistants in the Architecture
Department; and
5. create a cooperative environ-
ment within groups and compe-
tition between groups that would
resemble professional design
The Architectural Structures
class (ARC 3551), consisting of
two sections, participated in the
project. It was directed by two
professors, George Scheffer and
Ronald Haase, with the assist-
ance of two graduate students,
Beth McDougal and the author.

Four groups of 23-30 students
each were created from two sec-
tions, following the composition
of their design studios.
Each group was assigned to
design a structure consisting of
two crossing large-scale 3-hinged
arches. The group was to build
the structure and erect it, using
any materials and any erection
technique which would be appro-
priate for the design. Each arch,
covering an area of 30 x 40 feet
and 25 feet high, was assembled
into a four-legged configuration
crossing at its center connection.
Each project was to be tested by
adding live loads using platforms
hanging from the structure until
a point of failure was reached.
Criteria for evaluation of the
project were set by the two pro-
fessors of the course stressing
structural innovation/clarity,
aesthetic qualities/craftsman-
ship, and load carrying capacity.
The four group projects were
judged by the Architecture De-
partment Chairman. In addition
to the grade rewards, there was
special recognition for the win-
ning group.
The project schedule required
six meetings between each group
and the two professors who dis-
cussed the project status and
gave feedback to the students.
The graduate teaching assistants
were assigned to visit the four
groups in their studios every day
to provide help and clarification.
In the first meeting with the
groups, the professors intro-
duced the project, described and
discussed the main objectives and
assigned students to their respec-
tive groups.
In the second meeting, a de-
sign proposal was due from each
group for discussion and approval
of staff. After the students in
each group received approval
of their design, they submitted
their final design proposal in the
form of a model. They discussed
and tested this model with the
staff before building the full-scale
structure. The second week of
the project was dedicated to the
building of arches.

During the two weeks, the
graduate assistants provided
the groups with the help they
needed; in addition, they acted
as observers and reported the
interaction of the group mem-
bers. Following the completion
of the project, a diagnostic sur-
vey instrument for team effec-
tiveness was administered. In
addition, the participants in the
project were asked to write
down their overall evaluation
and suggestions.
The evaluation of this experi-
mental project was based on the
students' responses to the sur-
vey (quantitative data), and the
observations and comments pro-
vided by the professors and the
graduate teaching assistants
(qualitative data).
The survey instrument was
divided into eight scales dealing
with the following points:
1) Goal Clarity and Conflict;
2) Role Ambiguity;
3) Role Conflict;
4) Participation/Influence;
5) Commitment/Understanding;
6) Conflict Management;
7) Recognition/Involvement;
8) Support/Cohesiveness.
Each scale was divided into
ratings, i.e. from 1 to 5, with 5
representing the most positive
attitude and 1 representing the
most negative attitude.
The data from the survey were
coded for each student in each
group along with his/her aver-
age final score achievement for
the whole structures course. Us-
ing SAS, a computer program
was developed to analyze the
data using Analysis of Covari-
ance Model.
Testing the hypothesis that
the attitude of each group to-
wards the effectiveness of team-
work is the same, it was found
that there was a significant dif-
ference between groups. Team-
work was more effective in the
group which gained first place in
the competition as compared to
the fourth place group. At the
same time, in testing the rela-
tionship between the students'
achievement and their attitude,


it was found that there is no sig-
nificant relationship.
From the observations, it
was found that the selection of
a leader, which was left to group
decision, contributed signifi-
cantly to teamwork success. In
addition, it was found that in the
architecture students' teamwork
projects, the chosen leader was
the person who came up with the
design. Observations of the first
group, the one with the most pos-
itive attitudes, revealed that the
designer (leader) was chosen the
first day. The leader was respon-
sible for dividing up and super-
vising the group members' work
assignments. On the other hand,
in the fourth group leadership
wasn't established resulting in
sub-groups that did not get along
too well.
The qualitative results were
derived from the students' re-
sponses to the question in the
survey and from the observa-
tions recorded by the graduate
teaching assistants. It is impor-
tant to note that, in response to
the questions, all students ex-
cept one noted that after com-
pleting the projects, they had a
better understanding of the dif-
ferent issues involved in the de-
sign, building and assembly of


In general, dividing the stu-
dents' reactions into two con-
trasting attitudes, i.e. into those
with positive and those with
negative points, reveals the
Positive points:
* The project gave them the op-
portunity to work within groups,
allowing them to learn more about
teamwork environment. They
learned how to adjust to their
peers and to work in a coopera-
tive climate toward a common
* They learned about the impor-
tance of small details, which are
usually not sufficiently covered
in lectures, even though they are
crucial parts of the structure as
a whole.
* They learned more about the
actual behavior of structures
during the assembly and erec-
tion process.
* The project gave them the op-
portunity to use power tools in
the shop and to learn special skills,
such as arc welding and brazing,
which may be beneficial to them
in the future.
* The students grasped the real-
ity of the large-scale structures
which they had designed on paper.
* They learned the skills of cost-
effective decision making when
they had to choose appropriate

material for the structure.
In general, nearly all the re-
spondents agreed that they had
the chance to learn a great deal
about such aspects of structures
as: behavior, assembly, connec-
tions and kinds of failure that
may occur.
Negative points:
The students' negative com-
ments about the project stressed
two basic problems in its de-
sign, namely, that there was not
enough time to complete the
work satisfactorily, and that
there were too many students in
each group.
The review of the quantitative
and qualitative results indicates
that the project was a successful
learning experience for the ar-
chitectural structure students in
spite of the negative issues that
were reported. Strong, effective
leadership within groups made
the difference in both success of
the project and in students' posi-
tive attitudes toward their work.
The students were faced with a
challenging task. They had to
make critical decisions concern-

ing issues such as material selec-
tion, connection details, assembly
techniques, etc. Lectures sel-
dom provide such opportunities.
The project provided good ex-
perience for the students in al-
lowing them to witness different
modes of failure in structures
and to evaluate strength or weak-
ness of their design. They came
up with conclusions based on ac-
tual rather than theoretical per-
formance. In general, they had
the chance to apply the lecture
theory to a full-size structure.
It is important to note that the
project has generated great in-
terest within the college, along
with the desire on the part of
other students, to participate in
similar projects in the future.

The author is a graduate teach-
ing assistant in the Architecture
Department, University ofFlor-
ida, and cii'a rrtl iis ,rrking tio.
ward a Ph.D. d(-grev' in Archi-
tecture Education.

A structure consisting of two large-scale arches was erected by students in
the University of Florida Architectural Structures course. Photo courtesy
of the author.

L~' '




::T; ~ ~ ~ ~ '' '::"':"''f.;

O nrnag rak

Ellminatoo Creaks and
*m.. ooth..e Ail

.Fini4#e.d F loor Prod

F L 0 0 R U N D U P L A Y W E N I I

:: ,..,;: *;%: :
:i I' i~-';
.s~~.v~l ;

94A W A p



\t\o c,1111il ilII I I I n15 ~ 1 'lllIlc )t It'II
tq'llo Il' lo t ,t]t1 t ICI1ttII'1 0
III m'i i l P ,) t kI t k 11 l c \ I IIt1 0 ) 111 i tc II II[ 1 IIIIIII h ,l ,
II_- 1 [ IIC A 1 ( 1I k 1 1 1 C 111 1 1 ( tItII ] tI t ttI 1ItC I( I IIII 1 1