Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Member news
 The post-occupancy evaluation of...
 An appropriate image for archi...
 A challenging site yields to downtown...
 New Housing in an old line...
 Monumental space and a grand...
 A new dimension to design
 The best little warehouse...
 Glass beveling: Revival of a 19th...
 Office practice aids
 Back Cover


Florida architect
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00252
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Creation Date: May 1985
Frequency: quarterly
Subjects / Keywords: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
System ID: UF00073793:00252
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Member news
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    The post-occupancy evaluation of the Florida A & M University School of Architecture
        Page 13
    An appropriate image for architecture
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    A challenging site yields to downtown elegance
        Page 18
        Page 19
    New Housing in an old line neighborhood
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Monumental space and a grand illusion
        Page 24
        Page 25
    A new dimension to design
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    The best little warehouse in Miami
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Glass beveling: Revival of a 19th century craft
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Office practice aids
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

W A A Flo

This- publication- is. copyrighted. by- the- Florida.
Association. of. the. American. Institute. of-
Architects- and- is- an- official- journal- of- the-

Limited permission to. digitize- and make this- electronic-
version available- has- been- granted- by the. Association-
to- the- University- of- Florida- on- behalf- of- the- State-
University- System* of F lorida.

Use- of- this- version- is- restricted- by. United- States-
Copyright- legislation- and- its- fair use- provisions.- Other-
uses- may- be- a vi olati on -of- copyright- protect ons.

Requests- for- permissions- should- be- directed to- the-
Florida- Association- of. the. American- Institute. of-
Architects.- Contact- information- is- available- at- the-
Association' sweb site.

- I I r

Design Mass andTxtuire
IntoAny Roof
The Gory. "looka is so versatile, the lU"aity so
rmis~~taitutin .tur, Oat tMe has 6ecom~e a classic
for enhancing any style of architecture. At the same
timne the Gory Mission Barrel tle you see here-
elegantly routinded, symmetrical and handsomely
marked by deep shadow ines-lets you recapture
centuries of architectural tradition.
We can give you the dark tones of slate or the rich
..re and soft rowns of day tle. You .can ekn bed
Z.3 or 4 colors in a singleroof. usAg smooth or
: .:..:.- ... \ : .. : :- .:. ...- ** :.. ":, -
Cl; w riohaimo IsOr tandr-d -tow AG:.oryj con-,
,*ctete" tilevoi tw xt t mews you
;neve B to repaint as youi:0awith ordinary tile
t ha't fuset Vor-ebata on top &r y ctippi
tlutercposes ul i.'ngmnented arS..
Smwtm Cot~gape flineuswwan Gcrtile gives
yoamasiwadstIart o aendtiningecon
omyribrlm testspirz o ry *kiszO(fO g Ucoorer
Sthaa aphi t shinglesa on a 940 a'ty. i:d because
conc ete wont bumn, our Glass A rating may save
you moT y on fire imsaran.e.
tLt us show you the Gory pei-fomance and sV:cs
that lead the industry in Mision Barre and apan-
Ssh S canu d tile; Perma-Slhake and Bermuda flat
tile; new Vanguard nail-on. Write Gory Roof Tile,
Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33309. Or call (305) 491-8150.

rev u. .

For the fine homes

of the world

The ultimate in kitchen and bath cabinetry
Please contact your nearest dealership for complimentary brochures and information on
design services available

The Ultimate Kitchen. Inc.
914 South Orlando Avenue
Winter Park, Florida 32789
(305) 628-4985

Kitchen Center. Inc.
3968 Curtiss Parkway
Miami Springs, Florida 33166
(305) 871-4147

These exclusive Mildoor features prove...

Malldoor is specially engineered

for shopping mall installations.
Mortise cylinder (Adams Rite@ #4036.)
1-5/32" diameter with a 5-pin tumbler Fin-
ished in hardcolor 313 medium-bronze color.
One key is provided per cylinder. Available
keyed differently, keyed alike or master keyed
on special order.

Adams Rite MS1850A-505 deadbolt assem-
bly, with heavy-duty laminated steel bolt,
provides heavy-duty operation with security
Thumbturn inside and a mortise cylinder out-
side are standard.

This device, attached to the inside of the stile,
has been tested to withstand forced entry of
400 pounds. Yet, the foot-operated, spring-
loaded device is easily released from the in-
side. When the cold-rolled, plated steel bolt is
engaged into the track grommet (in conjunc-
tion with top lift restraint), the door is prevent-
ed from being forced off the track runner.

Roller assembly has two steel ball-bearing roll-
ers in a 16-gauge steel cold-rolled, stamped
case. It is capable of supporting up to 400
pounds per roller assembly.

i T Maximum height of track is 9/16' Basic double
track is supplied with single or double add-on
pieces to make an infinite number of runners.
-.: Low-sloping thresholds are available for the
Interior and exterior side of the door for on-
floor installation. Track can be installed into
floor recess for flush floor installation.
Tandem roller assemblies are easily adjusted
from the interior side of the unit with panels in
either the "locked" or "unlocked" position.
Adjustments hole is concealed with a remov-
able black nylon plug.

These features, combined with the monumental extrusions, give you a shopping
mall door system that's big, tough and beautiful (available in our exclusive Mag-
nacolor white, bronze or silver).
Malldoor is available in any number of panels, in 9 ft. heights (or higher on
special order) for pocket or stack applications.
There are many more features.They're all detailed in our new Malldoor specifi-
cations folder which includes a complete set of full-size extrusion profiles...
send for it. Stimulate your imagination.

A Division of Miller Industnes, Inc
16295 N.W. 13th Ave., Miami, FL 33169-0910 305-621-0501 Florida 1-800-432-3116 National 1-800-446-7628

May/June, 1985
Volume 32, Number 3



The Post-Occupancy Evaluation of the
Florida A & M University School of
Architecture 13
Tim White, AIA

An Appropriate Image For Architecture
The New School of Architecture at
Florida A & M University 14
Diane D. Greer

A Challenging Site Yields to
Downtown Elegance 18
Laird Boles

New Housing In An Old Line
Neighborhood 20
Diane D. Greer

Monumental Space and A Grand Illusion 24
Doug Baird

Glass Beveling: Revival of a
19th Century Craft 35
Charles Arnold

The Best Little Warehouse in Miami 32
Diane D. Greer

A New Dimension To Design 26
Kelly Collins


Editorial 5
News/Letter 8
Member News 10
Viewpoint 42
Anderson Todd, FAIA
Office Practice Aids 47
D. B. Young, Jr., AIA

Cover, photo of the elevation of a thermal chimney at Wing 1, the Administration Wing, of the
new School ofArchitecture at Florida A & M University, Tallahassee. Architect: Clements
Rumpel Associates, Jacksonville. Photo by Steven Brooke.

Free Your Imagination with
Vestar" Architectural Fabrics

W Pr

*u~ ~'p

Sculptural, free-form shapes possible with Vestar Architectural Fabrics
provide a new dimension in design freedom. Vestar Architectural
Fabrics combine the excellent weathering properties of silicone with
the strength and durability of fiberglass. And offer longlasting. light
weight, highly translucent construction material.
Explore the dramatic potential of Vestar Architectural Fabrics.

4291 Communications Drive Norcross. Georgia 30093, 4041923-3818 Telex; 757031



Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects
104 East Jefferson Street
Post Office Box 10388
Tallahassee, Florida 32302
Publisher/Executive Vice President
George A. Allen, CAE
Diane Greer
Assistant Publisher
Director of Advertising
Carolyn Maryland
Design and Production
Creative Services
Editorial Board
Bruce Balk, AIA
Commission on Public Relations
& Communications
Ivan Johnson, AIA, Chairman
Charles King, FAIA
William Graves, AIA
John Totty, AIA
Peter Rumpel, FAIA
Mike Bier, AIA
Mark Jaroszewicz, FAIA
University of Florida
College of Architecture
331 Architecture Building
Gainesville, Florida 32611
Vice President/President-elect
James J. Jennewein, AIA
101 S. Franklin St.
Suite 202
Tampa, Florida 33602
John Ehrig, AIA
2333 E. Bay Drive
Suite 221
Clearwater, Florida 33546
John Barley, AIA
P. O. Box 4850
Jacksonville, Florida 32201
Past President
James H. Anstis, AIA
233 Southern Boulevard
West Palm Beach, Florida 33405
Regional Directors
Glenn A. Buff, FAIA
4105A Laguna Drive
Miami, Florida 33134
Howard B. Bochiardy, FAIA
Post Office Box 8006
Orlando, Florida 32806
General Counsel
J. Michael Huey, Esquire
Suite 510, Lewis State Bank
Post Office Box 1794
Tallahassee, Florida 32202
Florida Architect, Official Journal of the
Florida Association of the American In-
stitute of Architects, is owned and pub-
lished by the Association, a Florida Cor-
poration not for profit. ISSN-0015-3907.
It is published six times a year at the
Executive Office of the Association, 104
East Jefferson St., Tallahassee, Florida
32302. Telephone (904) 222-7590.
Opinions expressed by contributors are
not necessarily those of the FAIA. Edi-
torial material may be reprinted provided
full credit is given to the author and to
Florida Architect, and a copy sent to the
publisher's office.
Single copies, $2.00; Annual subscription,
$12.00. Third class postage.

a conference sponsored by Florida Defenders of the Environment which I
attended in February. The conference attracted many conservationists, pres-
ervationists, politicians and interested citizens, all expressing a common con-
cern over Florida's vanished Eden.
There was talk of how highways ruin the landscape, of how our malls will be
the ghost towns of tomorrow and of how people will probably need to be surgi-
cally removed from their cars at a time when mass transit seems the only
answer to the question of "what do we do with our cars?"
Actually, it seemed to me that there was a lot of discussion about the prob-
lems and not too many solutions offered. I don't suppose I have any, either. I
think people are increasingly aware of the fact that our natural resources, be
they animal, vegetable or mineral, are not unending. Creating that awareness
was a giant step forward.
But to the question of overdeveloping the beaches, for example, I don't see a
simple solution. The beaches are the reason that most people come to Florida
to live. Obviously everyone can't live on the beach, no matter how many or
how tall the condos get. What we must be sure of is that the beaches are avail-
able to everyone and that development neither spoils them nor makes them
I don't think the beaches are Florida's last frontier as so many people seem
to feel. I think the swamps, keys and offshore islands are, however, and they
may be spared development because they are wild, inacessible or both. The
beaches are what Florida is all about. For that reason, we must plan, build and
use them wisely so we can continue to enjoy them.

Diane D. Greer

What's the difference between

a roof window and a skylight?

Model TPS top-hung roof window

he difference is very
straightforward. A roof
window opens and pivots
so both glass surfaces can be
cleaned from inside. A skylight
does not pivot for cleaning. Of
course, there is a difference in quality and value
among manufacturers. But, a simple comparison of
features, quality and price will show you why
VELUX, with 44 years of experience and craftsman-
ship, is the world leader.
In addition to our four distinctive models,
VELUX provides precision-engineered prefabricated

Model VS ventilating skylight

flashings to make installation easy and weathertight.
We also offer quick delivery and a full range of op-
tional accessories and glazing.
To learn more about the difference and the
possibilities, write for our free 24-page full-color
brochure, "The Complete Guide to Roof Windows
and Skylights:

The world leader in
roof windows and skylights.

Mail this coupon. We'll send you a free copy of FREE 24-page full-color brochure. 'a _r
I "The Complete Guide to Roof Windows and Sky- ,i
lights" and a price list within 24 hours. / ,h'
Name tl,
6180-A Atlantic Blvd.
Norcross, GA 30071 City/State/Zip


For more information about
Kohler Plumbing Products
see these Kohler distributors:
Lawrence Plumbing Supply
31 S.W. 57th Avenue
Miami, Florida 33144
(305) 266-1571
405 N. Flagler Avenue
Homestead, Florida 33030
(305) 248-7020
8940 S.W. 129th Terrace
Miami, FL 33176
(305) 251-7022


Commercial Art &
Drafting Supplies

Koh-I-Noor, K & E,
Chartpak, Berol, Pickett
& X-acto are just a few
of the brands we stock
Rush delivery via UPS.

(305) 842-3635

Florida Natural Gas
Association Sales Seminar
MAY 8-10
DATELINE Orlando, Florida The Florida Natural Gas Associ-
ation's Annual sales seminar will be held May 8-10 at the Sheraton
Sand Key in Clearwater Beach, announced Newton H. Bollinger,
The seminar brings together members of the association to in-
form them of changes and trends in the natural gas industry. Due to
the rapid growth being experienced in Florida and the legislative
emphasis on growth management, the conferees will be discussing
Florida's energy code and its affects on the industry; the heat pump
and its impact on the market; and the 1985 FNGA advertising pro-
gram. The highlight speaker will be Art Roberts of the Alabama
Public Service Commission who will address the association with
a presentation entitled, "The Challenge, Are You Prepared?"
The Florida Natural Gas Association is a statewide organization
whose purpose is to promote the sale, awareness and safety of
natural gas and gas appliances. Its members include operating
companies, sale companies and equipment suppliers to the



Florida Northwest
Presents Design
The Florida Northwest Chap-
ter of the AIA presented its
bi-annual design awards to seven
panhandle architects. Every two
years the chapter recognizes out-
standing work by local architects
based on the judgement of their
peers. This time, the jury con-
sisted of eight practicing ar-
chitects from the New Orleans
Chapter of the AIA who evalu-
ated twenty-three submittals
and awarded certificates to Wil-
liam Graves, AIA, for the Law
Offices of Ray & Kievit, Barrett,
Daffin & Carlan for the Univer-
sity of West Florida Swimming
Pool Enclosure, Clemens Schaub
for Baytree Villas, John Senka-
rik, AIA, for the Pensacola Mu-
nicipal Swimming Pool, William
F. Parks, AIA, for the Cordova
Square Village Mall and the Bul-
lock Associates for the Long
Residence Addition, the Service
Station at Eglin AFB and the
Recreation Facilities at the
Blackwater State Park.

I 1'

Top left, pool addition to the Long Residence by the Bullock Associates.
Right, Bayfree Villas by Clemens Bruns Schaub. Above, Cordova Square
by William Parks, AIA.




Competition Open to


classical America, a national
organization devoted to en-
couraging the classical tradition
in the arts, is sponsoring a com-
petition. It is for the design of a
classical building and it is open
to students of architecture only.
Five thousand dollars in prizes
will be awarded. All submissions
must be in by September 1, 1985
and for information and entry
forms, write to: Classical Amer-
ica, P.O. Box 821, Times Square
Station, New York, N.Y. 10108.
Classical America, which was
founded in 1968, is the only or-
ganization in the United States
dedicated to the study, appreci-
ation and application of Classical
expression in the arts. The soci-
ety seeks to encourage a renais-
sance of understanding of the
Classical tradition, its sense of
continuity with the past and its
unique approach to cooperation
among all artists in the design

Architect Designs


Laurinda Spear is co-founder
and principal of Arquitecton-
ica, an architecture and design
firm in Coral Gables. "Her pro-
posals to enliven suburban set-
tings with an urban sensibility
have created controversy and
excitement," says a catalogue
for Swid Powell who commis-
sioned Spear and seven other
nationally prominent architects
to design a fine china for their
company. Spear's porcelain buf-
fet plate, called Miami Beach, is
"typically playful and colorful.
The pale aqua and pink, which
so define Florida's art deco, are
offset with a striking red bar.
Forms range from hard rectan-
gles to soft amorphous shapes.
The result is at once lively and

"The Virgin Islands
in the Year 2000"

The newly elected officers of
the Virgin Islands Chapter of
the AIA plan to conduct a series
of round table discussions and
luncheon meetings with key
governmental and private sector
personnel involved in the long
range planning and development
of the Virgin Islands. The goal
of these meetings will be to as-
sess the impact of growth on the
islands over the next fifteen
The Virgin Islands in the year
2000 will focus on development
trends which are happening now
and their effect on the environ-
ment of the future. The pro-
grams will provide a forum for
concerned professionals and
members of the general public
to discuss important issues and
the decisions that must be made
in order to insure an orderly
growth pattern for the VI into
the 21st century.
The program themes for the
coming year include Develop-
ment and the Environment,
Future Demands on the Infra-
structure, Long Range Plan-
ning, Historic Preservation,
Future Economic Growth Pat-
terns and Their Effect on Archi-
tecture and the Quality of Life in
the Year 2000. The last is a sum-
mary seminar that will synthe-
size ideas and trends which have
been generated in the earlier ses-
sions in an attempt to create an
overall picture of life in the Vir-
gin Islands.

Member News

Aramis "Mitch" Alvarez, AIA,
a partner and Senior Vice-
President of Spillis Candela &
Partners, has been appointed to
the Coral Gables Historic Pres-
ervation Board. Julio Grabiel,
AIA, a partner and Executive
Vice-President of the same firm,
was appointed to the Coral Gables
Architectural Review Board.
Victor Alonso, AIA, is the de-
sign architect for Arvida's new
Weston community in Broward
County. Alonso describes the
architecture at Weston as con-
temporary "Florida cracker"
style. Oliver & Glidden has
completed designs for a 27,000-
square-foot professional facility
incorporating two mirror image
buildings. The Gardens office
complex will be located in Palm
Beach Gardens and tenants of
phase one will consist mainly of
health-care service businesses.
Construction is nearing comple-
tion on Martinique II, a $25 mil-
lion condominium designed by
Peacock & Lewis Architects and
Planners of West Palm Beach.
Glen P. Harris, AIA, is project
Villages East is The Evans
Group's newest housing devel-
opment. It was designed for Sun-
south Homes, Inc. and is to be
built in Raleigh, N.C. The Or-
ange County School Board se-
lected Spillis Candela & Part-
ners to design a new elementary
school patterned after the re-
cently completed Deerwood Ele-
mentary School which Spillis
Candela also designed for Or-
ange County. The Haskell Com-
pany's building services division
has begun a design/construct ad-
dition for the Gulfstream Aero-
space Corporation in Savannah,
Downtown Orlando, Inc. has
elected Guy Butler, AIA, as Pres-
ident for 1985. Butler is an asso-
ciate partner at Spillis Candela.
Julio Grabiel, AIA, also at Spillis
Candela was a presenter on "Sta-
tion Design Concepts and Appli-
cations" at the International
Conference on Automated Peo-
ple Movers which was held in

Miami in March. The paper ad-
dressed the "Architectural Ap-
proach to the Miami Metromover
The Design Advocates Inc. has
announced the acceptance of
their stock offer to and subse-
quent partnership with Joseph
M. L. Toph, AIA. Yeckes-Luch-
ner Architects, P.A., will design
the 24-story Falconara 2 ocean-
front condo tower on Singer
Island developed by Starbuck
Financial Corporation. Yeckes-
Luchner has also been selected
to design new facilities for the
North Palm Beach Children's
Clinic. Samuel J. Ferreri has
been named associate at Peacock
& Lewis and Steve Stevens has
been named supervisor of The
Haskell Company's new com-
puter-aided drafting and design
Schwab & Twitty Architectural
Interiors and Environmental
Graphics has been authorized to
proceed with the designs for the
third floor regional operating
center for NCNB Bank. The cen-
ter encompasses 4,000 square
feet. Harvard, Jolly, Marcet and
Associates, Architects, P.A. has
been chosen to design a 32-bed
psychiatric inpatient hospital,
outpatient clinic and two group
homes for the Tampa-based
Northside Community Mental
Health Center. Fugleberg Koch


Cutler Ridge II by Baldwin + Sackman Architects.

Associates, Architects and Plan-
ners, announced that Mark
Schwerthoffer is now Project
Manager in charge of multi-
family housing for the firm.
Siteworks, Inc. Architects &
Planners has broken ground
for the Forum Shoppes, a retail/
theatre complex that has been
designed as a people-oriented
activity street in West Boynton

Beach. The shops' 20,000 s.f. will
connect a nine-theatre United
Artists complex wtih a 68,000
s.f. four-story office building.
Baldwin Sackman + Associates
has just completed plans for a
six-story office building, Cutler
Ridge Two, to be constructed in
Cutler Ridge. The new tower
will contain 83,000 s.f. in six

Villages East in Raleigh, North Carolina by The Evans Group

T w ,. '

stories. Friedman McKenna Ar-
chitecture has appointed Tammy
Cancela as Marketing Director.
Mark S. Hartley, AIA, has moved
his office to the Interstate Busi-
ness Park in Tampa. The Delray
Beach firm of Currie/Stubbins
& Associates, AIA, PA has com-
pleted the design for a new, one
million square foot complex to
be located in Delray Beach. The
complex, Delint Center, will
have more than 840,000 s.f. of
leasable office space in eight
four-story buildings.
Design was recently complet-
ed by Tom Hurley of Helman
Hurley Charvat Peacock/Archi-
tects, for Harbor Club Vacation
Villas at Palm Coast. The project
is part of a resort complex devel-
oped by ITT Community Devel-
opment Corporation. Palm Coast
will be located twenty miles
south of St. Augustine. Schwab
& Twitty won two "Best in Amer-
ican Living Awards" for the
National Association of Home
Builders. A Grand Award was
presented for Opus X, a single
family home at St. Andrews
Country Club in Boca Raton.
The Townhomes of Aquarina in
Melbourne won an Honorable
Larry D. Brown, AIA, a part-
ner at Studio One in Winter Park
designed The Hamlet of Bentley
Park in Tampa. These patio
homes were developed by Cata-
lina Homes of Orlando. Slattery
and Root Architects have been
selected by Hidden Hammocks
Associates, to design eight
homes for the new model home
row at Hidden Hammocks, a
single family home community
in Coral Springs. I.S.K. Reeves
V, AIA, President of Architects
Design Group of Florida, Inc. has
been named to the American In-
stitute of Architects National
Committee on Architecture for
Justice. Stottler Stagg and Associ-
ates, Architects, Engineers, Plan-
ners, Inc. recently served as
technical consultants in the pro-
duction of an environmental per-
mitting videotape for the Florida
Chamber of Commerce. SSA

The Colony at Wiggins Bay by Studio One.

provided all the technical data
in the fifteen minute tape which
was first shown in Tallahassee
in January. The Colony at Wig-
gins Bay, designed by Larry D.
Brown, AIA, of Studio One is a
"Florida style" villa project
which has the flavor of Cracker
houses. Scarborough Construc-
tors, Inc. has promoted Perry
Reader, AIA, to Vice President.
The Atelier Group, Inc., headed
by Roger Grunke, AIA, and
Mona Robertson, designer, has
opened its office in Tampa's
Hyde Park restoration district.
The group specializes in total
design services. Hunton, Shi-
vers, Brady, Associates, Archi-
tects, PA has added three regis-
tered architects to the firm.
They are Lee Curry Rogers, Don-
ald L. Lurtz and Roger M. Tim-
lin. Hunton, Shivers, Brady has
increased its staff by 150% in the
last 24 months.
Harper & Buzinec Architects/
Engineers in Miami has begun
preliminary design to convert
existing buildings at the Veter-
an's Administration Medical
Center in Miami, into research
laboratories. The architectural
firm of Maspons.Goicouria-Este-
ves has doubled its space and
moved to expanded quarters in
Coral Gables. Thomas Develop-
ment Corporation has also moved
to new offices in Tampa. Bertram
R. Thoams, AIA, has a new Am-
bulatory Surgicenter for Surgi-
cal Corporation of America in
the planning stages at Thomas
Development. The design of
Crocker Plaza, a $24 million of-
fice complex, has been completed
by Oliver & Glidden Architects,
Inc. The eleven-story, 145,000
s.f. building will be in Boca

Mark T. Reeves, AIA, has been
appointed to the 1985 AIA Prac-
tice Management Committee.
Reeves is currently with the law
firm of Sparber, Shevin, Shapo
& Heilbronner, in Miami and he
hopes to participate in Commit-
tee activities by addressing var-
ious issues of architectural prac-
tice from a legal perspective.
Richard R. Barnett, AIA, David
Fronczak, AIA, and Robert J.
Bitterli, AIA, Principals of Rowe
Holmes Barnett Architects, Inc.
have recently formed a new firm,

Barnett + Fronczak Architects.
Harper & Buzinec Architects/
Engineers, Inc. have moved to
expanded offices in America's
Gateway Plaza west of Miami
International Airport. Changes
at Catalyst Incorporated Archi-
tecture in Orlando include the
departure of Ray Scott, AIA, the
elevation of Skip Lotwick to Prin-
cipal and Ernest Straughn, III, to

Crocker Plaza by Oliver and Glidden of West Palm Beach.



Dear Editor:

It has been one year since the
Florida A&M University Post
Occupancy Evaluation Task
Force has met. Our initial meet-
ing helped establish cost, time
and quality oriented goals for the
building evaluation of the new
School of Architecture at Florida
A&M. The meeting also helped
identify major obstacles to goal
achievement as well as strategies
we might employ which stress a
close match between evaluation
results and immediate utility.
At this writing all the pre-
move data are compiled, the new
building is occupied and a work
plan which responds to both the
contract scope of services and to
the general direction of the initial
task force meeting is completed.
It is time for our second of
three scheduled meetings of this
advisory group. The purposes
for the second meeting are: 1. to
present the results of the pre-
move research, 2. to review the
detailed plan of work for the post
occupancy phase of the research,
and perhaps most importantly,
3. to develop precise descriptions
of the final products of the re-
search to further insure that
they will be useful.
Thank you in advance for your
continued assistance and inter-
est in the evaluation of our new

Sincerely yours,
Tim White
Professor or Architecture

Dear Editor:

What a great surprise to find
Catalyst's project on the cover
of your January/February issue!
The new format is gorgeous,
and it's a real "bonus" that the
article was published in the in-
troductory issue of the maga-
zine's new look.

I do have, however, one criti-
cism. Your edited version of the
byline I provided is incorrect, as
I did not write the Orlando Re-
port for Piedmont Airline's pub-
lication as an independent proj-
ect. The special pull-out issue
was done by D'Lor Communica-
tions as a team effort of my part-
ner, Lorraine Lax, and myself.
Had the report been a regular-
length feature, I could live with
the error and would not request
a correction. However, as you
can see from the enclosed copy
of the work and a local press clip-
ping about it, it is crucial to our
firm's professional reputation
(especially since most of our cli-
ents are in the design fields) that
the project be recognized as the
team effort it truly was. I ask,
then, that a brief correction be
printed in your next issue.

Best Regards,
Denise A. Schofield

Dear Editor:

I want to express my appre-
ciation for the article that you
published regarding the Ocean
Front Residence that I designed.
Your editorial in the Jan/Feb
issue was most interesting and I
certainly agree with your new
format. I, for one, share your
enthusiasm regarding the mag-
azine's "new look". Keep up the
good work!

Robert McDonald, A.I.A.
Robert McDonald & Associates,

Dear Editor:

Since I last talked with you I
have gotten more reactions to
the TWA article. I know both
the Dean and Richard Schneider
of FABRIC have told me that
they thought the article well
written and illustrated.

I sent a copy of the article to
Mrs. Doris Paul, who with her
sister Mary Fuller, wrote the
special chorale "Wings Over the
World' for the TWA Flight Cen-
ter Dedication. She has since be-
come a writer of national recog-
nition. Since I located her last
year Mrs. Paul (now nearing 80
years) has been an invaluable
source of information on early
history of the Flight Center
mainly because she keeps such
excellent records of her past.
I enclose a copy of her last let-
ter and her response to the Flor-
ida Architect article. Because of
her literary experience I found
her comments rewarding.
Thanks again for the oppor-
tunity to express my thoughts
about the Flight Center. It is just
possible that the "story" may
have opened up new avenues to
obtain support for the making of
the documentary movie that has
been in limbo for three years.

Wiley J. Tillman, Jr.
Associate Professor

Dear Editor:

We read the "Downtown Tal-
lahassee" article that appeared
in the January/February issue
of Florida Architect with a great
deal of pride and emotion.
It was gratifying to read the
chronicle of events that have un-
folded in Tallahassee over the
past five years and realize that
the decision that we made back
in 1979 to open an office there
was somehow worthwhile, not
only in terms of the growth and
development of our firm but,
more significantly, in making
possible the ability for us to tru-
ly influence and help to shape a
portion of the built environment
around us. I guess that we hadn't
fully appreciated the fact that the
Gallie Hall project had served as
such an important catalyst in the

resurgence of private develop-
ment in downtown Tallahassee.
Anyway, its always nice to be
told that we've been involved in
something that might have been
trend setting.
It was even more personally
gratifying to read about the pro-
fessional growth and develop-
ment of Rick Barnett and Dave
Fronczak over the same five
years, both of whom came to
work with our firm "fresh out of
school" and have now matured
into top notch architects in their
own right. It may seem some-
what melodramatic to say this,
but somehow it is even more sat-
isfying to have had the opportu-
nity to participate in molding
the careers and professional at-
titudes of these two young col-
leagues than to have designed an
award winning building. Hope-
fully, we'll continue to have the
opportunities and the satisfac-
tion of doing both again.


H. Dean Rowe, A.I.A.
D. E. Holmes, F.A.I.A.


POE of the Florida A & M School of Architecture
by Tim White, AIA

When the Florida Legislature
funded the construction of
the new School of Architecture
building at Florida A & M,
money was also allocated for a
unique study of the facility. This
special funding was provided to
trace, record and evaluate the
planning, design, construction
and eventual use of the new
The purpose of the study is
to carefully follow the project
from its inception so that lessons
learned might benefit future
state building projects of all
kinds. Although the direct bene-
ficiary of the findings will be the
Board of Regents, the results
are intended to be of value for all
agencies which procure state
buildings. To help ensure that
the study is usable for the state
departments of Corrections,
General Services, Health and
Rehabilitative Services, Trans-
portation and Education, repre-
sentatives from each of these
agencies have been invited to
serve on an Advisory Task Force
which is helping to shape the
study approach.
The study is divided into two
phases. Phase One extends be-
yond the School of Architecture
building and involves a descrip-
tion of the building procurement
process which is currently em-

played by the State. The State
system is described and com-
pared with building procure-
ment systems used by other
governmental entities and cor-
porate institutions. The report
which documents this phase is
nearing completion and will pre-
sent observations about the ad-
vantages and disadvantages of
various ways that different
types of clients obtain new
Phase two of the study is cur-
rently underway and focuses
specifically on the new School of
Architecture building at FAMU.
This phase involves a multi-
faceted effort including:
1. Documenting the design ar-
chitect's intentions and de-
cisions which formed the
2. Tracing the construction of
the project for deviations
(change orders) from the orig-
inal design intent (contract
documents) that may affect
the long term performance of
the facility in areas such as
lighting, acoustics, space size,
safety and maintenance.
3. Evaluating the performance
of the former FAMU School
of Architecture building so
that it may be compared with
the performance of the new

4. Evaluating the performance
of the new School of Archi-
tecture building after the ini-
tial occupancy and settling-in
The students and faculty
moved into the new building in
December of 1984. Items 1, 2
and 3 listed above have been
completed. Item 4 is scheduled
for implementation next fall.
The study is planned as a posi-
tive, constructive and balanced
analysis of the facility that will
produce useful lessons for fu-
ture state buildings. Special
care has been taken to avoid
a "verdict" about the build-
ing's success or a performance
"score." Emphasis is upon
transferability of the findings to
as many other types of state faci-
lities as possible.
Some of the components of
the building that will be studied
include instructional spaces, of-
fices, circulation, stairs and ele-
vators, staff work spaces, and
exterior use areas. The devel-
opment and evolution of these
building areas will be traced
through the entire procurement
process including state design
standards, funding, program
requirements, design decisions,
changes during construction,
building use and management
policies and finally, building

performance and occupant satis-
faction after move-in.
Particular performance indi-
cators for each of the building
areas will be of special interest.
These indicators may involve
image, function, space size,
space shape and proportion, ad-
jacencies, furniture, materials
and finishes, durability and
maintenance. Occupant-related
issues to be studied include ac-
cess, safety, security, efficien-
cy, comfort, productivity, pri-
vacy and overall satisfaction.
The thrust of the study is not
only to assess the performance
of the building but to search for
relationships between its per-
formance and earlier decisions
and events that occurred dur-
ing planning, design and
The FAMU School of Archi-
tecture is working closely with
a team of researchers from
Georgia Tech and Min Kantro-
witz Associates who were cho-
sen as consultants to implement
phase two of the study. The
Georgia Tech team was selected
from nineteen competitors that
included the leading post-occu-
pancy evaluation experts in the
country. The studyhas attracted
favorable national attention to
the State of Florida and the
FAMU School of Architecture.

\ I

till I-I- 111 1 11 1 I t l 1 kn I I I I71 I I I t 1.1I .EI.1 .4- l
I LJ ni A 1J11J11I11 iiijili i ii rirri ini in u 111 0 1 i II li- r'ni-'i

-. __u yj .-<_2 ILtt--a-^- tL. M.-A -L k K li

sl TrnLxrtm tUTnrflTI rt-rrrritru rrrnxinT

An Appropriate Image for Architecture

by Diane D. Greer

Florida A & M University
School of Architecture,
Owner: State of Florida, Board
of Regents
Architect: Clements/Rumpel
Bob Lamison, AIA, Facilities,
Florida A & M University
Jim Galbraith, State University
System Planning Consultant
Contractor: WCM (Joint venture
between Winchester Construc-
tion Co., Tallahassee, and CM,
Engineers: Tilden Lobnitz
Cooper, Orlando Electrical,
mechanical, structural, sanitary;
Richard Clarson, Jacksonville -
Civil; Dubin-Bloom Associates,
New York Passive Design
Landscape: Nancy Jenkins,

The symbolic appearance ofthe
new school of Architecture at
Florida A & M University was
ranked second in importance by
those whose job it was to set cri-
teria before deciding on the se-
lection of an architect for the
project. First in importance was
the goal of increasing space for
each student thereby making it
appropriate to the activities that
go on in a School of Architecture.
Once again, it appeared that
form would follow function. The
new School of Architecture was
not to be "different for differ-
ence sake" but "different in what
it promised future generations
of architects." Achieving that
goal could have been a difficult
task if traditional avenues of ar-
chitect procurement had been
In Florida, architect selection
is controlled by the State's in-
terest in equitably distributing
work among those judged quali-
fied. Concern existed that some
of the factors in the normal se-
lection process might mitigate
against the selection of the "best
architect for the job." A compe-
tition, it seemed, might have a
better chance of ultimately in-
suring a better building.
With the primary concerns of
space, building image and build-
ing conceptualization firmly set
and a determination that the
new building must project an
image with "a commitment to
the future of both architecture
and an architectural education"
the decision was made to hold a
The idea of a two-stage compe-
tition, as opposed to a wide array
of other types, was believed by
those in charge to cut costs for
the entrants while maximizing
contact between the architects
submitting proposals and the cli-
ent. Client-architect dialogue
was sufficiently important to the
sponsors that they planned for
the winning architect to contract
with the state for both design

Far right,. *.I.' ,.,,. ,,r i. ,1I..I ,
patternsfor a typical wing, right,
view of the west elevation of all four
wings, and bottom, main entrance
from the entry bridge on Martin
Luther King Blvd. Photos by
Steven Brooke.



and development. Further, the
sponsors were committed to a
process whereby the winning
architect would set aside the
winning solution and begin anew
to work through design and de-
velopment with the client. The
goal was to evolve a final solution
grounded in expanded architect-
client transactions.
The State of Florida provided
$25,000 for the competition and
Florida A & M supplemented
these funds from its operating
budget to handle direct costs.
First stage judging reduced the
field of thirty four entrants to
ten semi-finalists. Through vote
of the jury, this list was further
reduced and each of the finalists
was notified that his project "was
chosen as having qualities that
justify invitation to participate,
with reimbursement, in the sec-
ond phase." Three of the finalists
were out-of-state firms. The
other three included Clements/
Rumpel Associates, Rowe
Holmes Associates and Otero/
Mateu Architects in joint ven-
ture with Enoch Associates.
After a difficult, and some-
times confusing, second-stage
judging, the jury stressed that
they, as well as the entrants, had
been faced with the dilemma of
juggling new and creative ener-
gy ideas and an extremely tight
budget and time frame. Some of
the competitors responded more
to the challenge of the new ideas
and others responded more to
the concern about construction
costs. The closing statement to
the entrants reinforced the em-
phasis on selecting a sensitive,
cooperative architect with whom
the client could work closely
during the re-design phase. In
fact, a particularly unique fea-
ture of the School of Architec-
ture competition was that it
resulted in the selection of an ar-
chitect, not a design.
The selection of Clements/
Rumpel Associates marked the
end of a unique competition. A
summary of the jury comments
indicated that they felt the
Rumpel entry was by far the
most ambitious in what it at-

tempted. More than any other
submission, the jury felt that
their design expressed the abil-
ity to satisfy all aspects of the
problem in a reasonably balanced
way. In spite of this, they added,
the entry did not win easily or
automatically. The very com-
prehensiveness of its effort ex-
posed the submission to criti-
cism. The passive energy system
was the most innovative of those
submitted, and, to its detri-
ment, seemed overly experi-
mental to some jury members.
Overall, however, Rumpel had
demonstrated an ability to deal
with all sides of the problem in a
balanced way, a willingness to
work with the client and a sensi-
tivity to details that must work
for a building to be successful.
In their statement of design
intentions, Clements/Rumpel
noted that certain environmen-
tal considerations influenced the
development of the design to a
considerable extent by deter-



mining scale. They further noted
that the question of appropri-
ateness of image for a building
designed for architects is indeed
difficult. "We have consciously
attempted to minimize affected
design directions and keep the
building straightforward, yet
certainly not mundane. It is
hoped that the students might
learn by osmosis, particularly
through a required physical
response to the building as
mandated by the passive design
Groundbreaking in April,
1983, began the construction
schedule for the new 64,000
GSF, $5.3 million School of Ar-
chitecture facility. The building
is designed to accommodate 400
students and 35 faculty or staff.
With the engineering firm of
Dubin & Bloome, a unique pas-
sive energy system was designed
into the building. The system
makes maximum use of natural
ventilation and a greenhouse-

like heat collection system which
induces ventilation in the sum-
mer or returns heat into the duct
system to supplement winter
heating requirements.
Part of the legislative fund-
ing for the building supports a
"Project Management Study"
which followed the building
from the determination of need
through funding, design, con-
struction, and post-occupancy
evaluation. It is an attempt to
study the total delivery process
of a building and to identify any
applicable benefits that other
systems may gain.

Note: The author appreciates the
assistance provided by Richard
Hoag and Diane Favro's publi-
cation, "Portrait of a Competi-
tion. "Hoag is Associate Profes-
sor in the School ofArchitecture
at Florida A & M and Favro is
Assistant Professor in the De-
partment of Architecture at

-, 1


.1' -7


I '::- :

V ~

TV ,~

Work Yard




Opposite page, isometric of the
complex from the southwest and
this page, site and floor plan.
Drawings courtesy of the architect.
Photos: left, the third level of
Wing 3, left bottom, Wing 3 and
below, the main circulation area of
W11'1 .' Photos by Steven Brooke.





A Challenging Site Yields to Downtown Elegance

by Laird Boles

Pennsylvania Place,
Winter Park
Owner: Betsy Godfrey
Architect: Charlan Brock Young

The new townhouses on Penn-
sylvania Avenue in Winter
Park are different enough to
slow traffic and yet they blend
into the neighborhood well
enough to be mistaken for a
rehab project. These contem-
porary "Georgian-style" town-
houses were designed by Char-
lan Brock Young and Associates
for local designer Betsy Godfrey.
Godfrey, who lives in one of the
homes, built them speculatively
(although they sold for $160
thousand plus shortly after con-
struction began) with the idea of
developing luxury duplexes in
downtown Winter Park.
Although the townhouses are
constructed of brick, stucco and
tile which are common in the
area, the design of the structures
presents these materials in new

and unusual forms. The location
and contours of the site dictated
that major living spaces would
have to be designed for the
second floor if a view was to be
achieved. A later market analy-
sis confirmed that major living
spaces on the second floor made
even more sense as the site was
heavily forested by large oaks
which tended to shelter and
shade all second floor windows
for greater privacy.
In addition to the challenge
to the architects provided by
the site itself, the site zoning re-
stricted residential structure
coverage to no more than 35% of
the available land. This meant
that there would have to be ex-
treme crowding of the struc-
tures, given the developer's
imperative that there be four

The appear ne ofthe townhhomes is
so unusual that they have become
If .i i, stoppers ow Pennsylvania
Avenue. The curved brick pillars
a ad circular brick planters combine
with bright awaings, arched win-
dows and wrap-around balconies t(
give the building a auique look.
Photos by Peter Burg of Burg

townhouses, with an average of
2,000 square feet and double ga-
rages. The design proved to be
a two-story solution. In order to
meet the double garage require-
ment, CBY lined the street with
garage doors and then recessed
them under second floor balco-
nies to minimize the boxiness of
the feature. The problem of over-
all building boxiness was sup-
pressed by introducing vertical
masses in the form of circular
brick columns. These columns
were closely integrated with
curved serpentine brick plant-
ers and unit dividers which pro-
duce a sculptured look on the
building exteriors. A variety of
arched and circular windows fur-
ther act to preserve the conti-
nuity of the exterior appearance.

Laird Boles is Marketing Direc-
torfor Charlan Brock Young

Interior features include high ceil-
ings with crown mouldings, fire-
places with marble or ceramic tile
facing, dramatic bath with whirl-
pool and oak handrails on the stair.

New Housing in an Old Line Neighborhood

by Diane D. Greer

Audubon Park, Tampa
Architect: The Jan Abell "
Kenneth Garcia Partnership
Developer: Five Apples Limited,
St. Petersburg
Builder: R. Hamilton & Son,
Inc., St. Petersburg
Landscape: BHR Planning
Group, Jacksonville
Structural: Courtney Wright,
; Tampa
Mechanical/Electrical: Jones &
Associates, Tampa
Interiors: Richard Fidalgo
Design, Tampa

J an Abell has a reputation in
Tampa that is often associated
with historic restoration, a num-
ber of which she worked on in the
early years of her practice. Since
forming the Jan Abell Kenneth
le Garcia Partnership, however,
the firm's reputation has grown
in the area of design and new
construction. Audubon Park,
in Tampa, is a recent, notable


In Audubon Park, the archi-
tects skillfully utilized a two-
acre site to accommodate seven
houses of moderate size. The
small site is in a well-established
neighborhood which is close to a
major business district. With an
emphasis on contemporary hous-
ing, it was also necessary to rec-
oncile the new homes with the
more traditional values of the
"old line" neighborhood which
surrounds it. Located on a busy
north-south artery, Audubon
Park sits behind a barrier wall of
teal stucco with trellis above. It
is the trellis which takes its cue
from the residential architec-
ture inside. The wall is stepped
down and curves away from the
street providing transition into
an alley which terminates at
a cul-de-sac. There is a land-
scaped center island in the alley
and a plaza with fountain at the
Two of the seven houses have
been constructed. The first of
these houses was built on the
most restrictive site which, to
a great extent, dictated its size
and configuration. Because set-
backs left little space on the lot
on which to build and because
parking for two cars was re-


quired, the solution became a
system of levels arranged hier-
archally. Service areas were put
on grade, reception rooms at
flood plane level (the develop-
ment is located on a designated
flood plane which further neces-
sitated building in levels), the
master suite a half level higher
and family spaces at the highest
In keeping with "old line" val-
ues, the house facade uses a clas-
sical tripartite division of base,
frame and head, but the familiar
ingredients of classical architec-
tural language are used with a
The house bears on a masonry
base of block and stucco which
roots the frame house to the
ground. This is the same rela-
tionship that is reflected in the
barrier wall at the street. The
painted lapped siding varies in
thickness and underscores the
rhetorical application of the cli-
ent's choice of material. The
head, in this case three separate
gable roofs which do not inter-
sect, responds to the three-part
plan inside the public, private
and family spaces.
The system of window and
door placement respects classi-

The first of seven houses to be con-
structed, this residence is located on
a very restricted site which dictated
its size and configuration. Ele-
ments of classical architecture exist
throughout the building which
make it an appropriate addition to
an "old line" neighborhood.
Photos by Walter Smalling, Jr.,
Washington, D. C.


rp~ L --~t-~


-=L -. I


Ejw F-1 -

ED HH'08

- DW

__ 'low


Top, elevation, first floor plan and
site plan. All drawings courtesy of
the architect.

cal relationships of solid to void
while establishing a datum grid
from which facades are gener-
ated. The house operates at two
scales. It is a moderately sized
home (2,500 square feet), but of-
fers a grander presence on the
exterior, a presence that will al-
low it to relate to larger houses
in the neighborhood. Key classi-
cal elements are deliberately
overstated, i.e. flatness and
verticality of facade and size
of roof vents and chimneys. A
thematic color code further dis-
tinguishes the building compo-
nents, such as door from win-
dow, window from frame and
siding from base.
These pluralities, of which the
design agenda was composed,
give Audubon Park its spirit and



iT al



is made of first quality wood. From
the warm, gracious interior you
would never guess that the exterior
is a strong, tight, high-tech product.
The ARIEL sash and frame are slim-
mer, more elegant.
There are no finger joints in any
exposed wood. It can be finished
beautifully, flawlessly.
The hinges are concealed, inside
and out.

is made of tubular aluminum
1. injected with a polymer and
2. electrostatically finished. No
other window is so strong, so long-
lasting, so trouble-free. It will
always operate as designed. This
kind of construction is available
only from Peachtree.
3. Insulating glass is standard in all
ARIEL windows.
The ARIEL exterior will never warp,
crack or split.

The ARIEL window
gives you 10 times
more weather-
tightness than
industry standards.


Distributed in Florida by:
305-851-4270 FL WATS 800-432-9200

Monumental Space and a Grand Illusion

by Doug Baird

Galaxy Center,
Kennedy Space Center

Owner: TW Services, Inc. and
NASA Tours
Architect: Stottler Stagg and
Associates, Architects, Engi-
neers, Planners, Inc.
Project Managers: Jack Rood,
R.A., and Roy Cowell, AICP
General Contractor: David
Boland, Inc.
Electrical, Mechanical and
Structural Engineers: Stottler
Stagg and Associates, Archi-
tects, Engineers, Planners, Inc.

Visitors entering the Galaxy
Center immediately sense
the theme of the structure. It's
evident in the airy lobby and
throughout the exhibit areas.
It's apparent even before view-
ing "Flight of the Aurora" or
"Hail Columbia" in one of its
two theaters.
The theme is SPACE and
the 35,000 square-foot Galaxy
Center theater complex, the
newest visitor's attraction at the
Kennedy Space Center, Space-
port U.S.A., has plenty of it.
The concept for the project
was formulated in 1981 when
the client decided to build an
IMAX Theater, a demonstra-
tion theater, and at least 10,000
square feet of exhibit space.
George C. Izenour, Ph.D.,
one of the world's foremost the-
ater designers, acted as consul-
tant to the project, recommend-
ing that the IMAX Theater and
the demonstration theater, later
called the Galaxy Theater, be
designed with a back-to-back
configuration. TW Services,
SSA's client and NASA's con-
tractor of the Spaceport, could
then operate both theaters at
the same time from a central
Original plans for the IMAX
called for a 750-seat facility, but
the project was scaled down to
440 seats to meet the $3 million
budget for the entire complex.

Even though IMAX's seating
was reduced from the original
concept, it's still far from small.
A five and one-half story, 70
foot-wide screen dominates the
theater which is continental in
seating layout.
There is the ambiance of deep
space inside the IMAX. The
spotlights which light the huge
screen create an ambient light
needed for seating. No light fix-
tures hang from the ceiling,
which is black to simulate the

vastness of space.
The IMAX Theater boasts
the largest film frame available
(70mm horizontal 15 perfora-
tion) for "Hail Columbia," which
depicts the handling, launch,
and landing of the Space Shuttle
Columbia on its maiden voyage
accompanied by six-track stereo
The 500-seat Galaxy Theatre
required a different architec-
tural approach.
Clients requested a theatri-

cally-capable stage, fully-rigged
with automatic draperies, a
computer-operated lighting and
dimming system, and a sound
cluster system to be established
in the center of the theater.
Before the theater was fully-
designed, some sophisticated
planning was necessary to ac-
commodate its first attraction
"Flight of the Aurora," a multi-
media presentation which takes
the audience on a spaceflight to
Mars and back. Walls and ceil-


Opposite page, top, interior ofthe Galaxy Theatre which is back-to-back with the larger IMAX Theatre, also a part of the Center. Bottom, South lobby of
the Galaxy Center has enormous ,.; .'. a..r .. and space. Above, exterior of the Galaxy Centerfrom waterside. Photos by Bob Walko.

ings of the theater were given a
special treatment so that it
would appear to the audience
that they were sitting in a space-
craft. The proscenium arch was
modified to appear to be a large
roll-up door, similar to the space
shuttle's payload bay door from
which satellites are deployed
into space.
After the roll-up door is
opened, the audience feels as if
they're on a journey to Mars
with a production which utilizes
two TV projectors, a 35-70mm
projector, 30-plus carousel pro-
jectors and a laser projection

The Galaxy Center complex
was designed so that visitors
automatically walk through
three exhibit areas. One area is
located beneath the complex
and the other two at each end of
the theaters. The floor and walls
are dark to highlight the exhi-
bits, while spotlights create the
illusion that the exhibits are
hovering endlessly in space.
This exhibit space also pro-
vided NASA with a forum for
displaying the historical, futur-
istic, and impressionistic art
which the space agency has col-
lected over the years.
For acoustical reasons it was

necessary that the two theaters
of the Galaxy Center be structur-
ally independent of one another,
connected only by expansion
joints. Structural separation
was important to isolate low-
frequency sound in one theater,
such as the rumbling of a space
shuttle launch, from being
heard in the other theater. Steel
frame construction with pre-
cast panels were instrumental in
providing the mass required to
absorb low-frequency sound.
From the exterior, it was im-
portant that the Center blend in
with the existing tourist-related
buildings at the Spaceport. The

complex was designed with a 15-
foot peripheral wall to match the
other structures, then the roof
ascends dramatically to a six-
story height.
The Galaxy Center not only
had to comply with the NFPA
Life Safety Code and the Stan-
dard Building Code, but also
with NASA's special design cri-
teria that it be both contem-
porary and monumental. The
building has proven to be both.

Doug Baird is a writer for
Communications Concepts,
Inc. in Cape Canaveral.


A New Dimension to Design
by Kelly Collins

This article is reprinted "by permission from Architecture California."

The meeting room was freezing
cold because the ventilation
system was on the blink. The
trade show setting up next door
raised a maddening racket. Nox-
ious carbon monoxide odors
wafted through from the exhaust
of an idling diesel truck being
unloaded outside. Thermal dis-
comfort, noise pollution and gas-
eous contamination all struck
the participants at the Indoor
Pollution Symposium. "I think
that it is ironic that even we who
are concerned cannot protect
ourselves in every instance," re-
marked Hal Levin, president of
the California Board of Archi-
tectural Examiners.
The program, cosponsored by
The American Institute of Ar-
chitects and CCAIA, hosted sci-
entific researchers, building in-
vestigators, government officials
and architects from around the
nation who each presented
pieces to the complex puzzle of
what causes indoor pollution,
and outlined design considera-
tions relevant to a healthy indoor
environment (The Indoor Pol-
lution Symposium Syllabus is
available for $15. plus postage
and handling, from the AIA
Bookstore, 1735 New York
Avenue, N.W., Washington,
D.C. 20006, Attn: Kathleen
Knepp. Phone (202) 626-7474.)

Ventilation The Main Culprit
Poor air quality due to inade-
quate ventilation proved to be
the main theme in case studies
explored at the two day Sympo-
sium. While contaminants var-
ied carbon monoxide from a
nearby freeway, formaldehyde
in office partitions and carpet
glue, ozone from copy machines,
or pentachlorophenol, a wood
preservative the concentra-
tion levels of air pollutants were
directly related to air exchange
rates. Ken Sexton, Sc. D., Di-
rector of California's Indoor
Air Quality Program, concluded,
"If fresh air makeup decreases
the problem, then ventilation
is the largest cause of indoor

The tightly-sealed, energy
efficient designs that charac-
terized some of the state office
buildings built during the 1970s
emphasized problems associated
with indoor pollutants. At the
Bateson Building in Sacramento,
workers complained of experi-
encing headaches, nausea, respi-

For further information
call (813) 676-4329.

ratory problems and hair loss
immediately after occupancy.
"Our initial reaction was to hope
that the complaints would go
away," said Barry Wasserman,
FAIA, former State Architect.
The problem occurred because
the intended supply of air was
not being delivered. Changes in

the interior design replaced
originally specified open-space
partitions with full-high parti-
tions which obstructed the flow
of supply air through the office.
Also the Variable Air Volume
(VAV) boxes had stuck in the
partially opened position.
Remedial action was taken and





employees now find the building
an enjoyable work space.
The tradeoffs between pro-
viding enough outdoor air for
good indoor air quality while
continuing to conserve energy
were discussed by research sci-
entist James Woods, Ph.D. By
using IP-ASHRAE Standard
62:1981, which Woods helped to
write, a ventilation performance
ratio can be determined and de-
sign theories validated. (IP-
ASHRAE Standard 62:1981,
"Ventilation for Acceptable In-
door Air Quality," is available for
$12 from the American Society
of Heating, Refrigerating and
Air Conditioning Engineers,
1791 Tullie circle, N.E., Atlanta,
Georgia 30329.)
Historically, HVAC systems
have been designed to provide
for an air exchange rate neces-
sary for respiration but not for
air quality, which would require
17 times more fresh air. "The
energy penalty for this could be
substantial," Woods said. "But
if we can increase the efficiency
of our ventilation systems, then
the energy costs of providing
adequate indoor air will not be
as great." Today, common prac-
tice is to disregard the location
of air diffusers and return air
grills, which results in a large
percentage of the supply air be-
ing stratified and never reach-
ing the user.

Microbial Breeding Ground
Health problems can be cre-
ated by poor location of a build-
ing's air intake, according to
Philip Morey, Ph.D., a research
industrial hygienist with the Na-
tional Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health (NIOSH).
Morey has investigated many
cases of sick building syndrome
in which air intakes were located
next to microbial breeding
grounds, such as cooling towers
and restroom and cafeteria ex-
hausts. These airborne micro-
organisms circulate through the
ventilation system, exposing
building occupants to hyper-
sensitivity pneumonitis (HP), a
pneumonia which has, in some
instances, proven fatal. Regular
maintenance and removal of
standing water can reduce build-
ing-associated HP illnesses.
A classic case study of this syn-
drome is a building in Dallas,


Texas that had a 20 percent
absentee rate due to the micro-
bial contamination of its air
washers. Seven million dollars
was spent to renovate the me-
chanical systems, but after the
building was re-occupied, health
problems continued to occur.
When NIOSH was called in to
investigate the problem, it dis-
covered that the redesign had
placed the building's air intakes
next to the restroom exhaust,
and that the 31 new air handling
units had a crawl space too small
to allow maintenance personnel
to clean the units, where a brack-
ish slime was forming in the
drain pans. "Essentially, they
put in 31 microbial incubators
into the $7 million redesign of
the building," remarked Morey.

Sources of Pollution Are All
Around Us
One of the most obvious meth-
ods for reducing the hazards of
indoor pollution is source re-
moval. The building envelope
can provide a source for contam-
inants such as asbestos or urea-
formaldehyde foam insulation
Continued on page 37

A g I


E RI i

CORR. 0* -


Aceerto witou corso Wha yo-v 00e looking -
fo in a se acclerto bu 0ae t o nd U ti o
No ther s Dar t 0he no -choie non-corosiv
ac lrtr that re u e col we te -ocrt etn

Wrt t. W R. Grae C *. 120 15t Avenue,



Working with architects and developers
on commercial projects is our specialty!

We feature engineered welded aluminum frames.

*. M M **

Take A Closer Look At Why

Smart Businesses Use Natural Gas.

Smart businesses in Florida and
around the nation know that natural
gas will remain our number one fuel
long into the future. Current
underground supplies, with new
technologies leading the way,
promise ample supplies of our most
efficient energy system.

Smart businesses have adapted
natural gas to their unique needs.
Health care, high-tech, agriculture
and food service are but a few in
Florida. The reason: No other en-
ergy equals the design flexibility of
gas. It's economical, efficient, and
clean. And provides precise heat
control and rapid response.

Gas: America's Best Energy Value

Compared to electricity, natural gas
can cut energy costs by more than
half. And studies show that it will
maintain its cost advantage for years
to come. Even more, natural gas
offers the benefit of cogeneration,
by using excess heat to generate
Florida Natural Gas Association

For more information on natural gas in your area, contact your local natural gas company


~ .~

f k';~Y


J I -

~aBOB Mr-I

Sowes wIfh otfle
Introducing CLASSICO" ... from
Paver Systems' collection of exclusive
paving stones
Decorative, durable, maintenance free and
virtually indestructable, versatile Paver
Systems paving stones come in a multitude
of shapes and colors. Add the beauty and
luxury of paving stones to your patio, pool
deck garden or driveway. Its easy, just write
for our color brochure.

ekwer SstIems INC
P.O. Box 10027, Riviera Beach, FL 33404
(305) 844-5202
O Please send me a free Paver Systems color brochure.
O Please have a representative call me.

r^Zl4 ^""

The Standard
in Floor Underlayment
for Residential,
Office and Light


Distributor for the State
of Florida:
Irwin Enterprises, Inc.
P.O. Box 5092
Clearwater, FL 33518

- m

* Sound
* High

Local Applicators: Lightweight
Gypsum Floors, Inc. of Economy
Central Florida
P.O. Box 490 TIDL Sets in 90 Minutes
Ocoee, FL 32761 IDL
Gypsum Floors of No Shrinkage Cracks
Florida, Inc. for:
P.O. Box 2213
Tallahassee, FL 32316 New Construction or Renovation
Barnwell, Inc.
4026 University Blvd. Court m wavering
Jacksonville, FL 32217 G create GypAu I llboard
Gypsum Floors, Inc. of Re.,
S.E. Florida d
3750 Consumer Street. wol -
Suite E -, "o
Riviera Beach, FL 33404
Future Floors, Inc. ( -.,.- I t- o T.j
P.O. Box 5092 '.. o-.
Clearwater, FL 33518 1/2"or 5/8"Gypsum Board eslient Channel r s eal
P.O. Box 253, 900 Hamel Road, Hamel, MN 55340 (612) 478-6072


T(7 MD n~n

The Best Little Warehouse in Miami
by Diane Greer

The Architectural Office of
HCDA, Miami

Principal Designer: H. Carlton
Decker, AIA
Interior Designer: Barbara
MaGruder, IBD
Project Manager: James Koepp,
Workstation Designer: Denise

As a growing architectural
firm, HCDA, Inc. was faced
with the need for expanded facil-
ities. The prime criteria was to
find a space that would allow the
staff to create their own unique
environment. The "ideal" space
was found in a 30's building that

had previously served as a man-
ufacturing facility and ware-
house for an electronics com-
pany. The space had 1000 square
feet and was enclosed with ce-
ment block walls. The average
ceiling height was fourteen-and-
a-half feet and one side of the
building was "blessed" with a
large industrial door, the largest
opening in the building.
With its high ceilings, the
dark, windowless space hardly
qualified as a prime office loca-
tion. However, features nor-
mally considered problems were
viewed as advantages and dealt
with positively to create exciting
new design elements. Realizing
the possibilities of the space, the
firm principal quickly negoti-

ated a long-term lease and sub-
stantial tenant improvement
Before completing the final ne-
gotiations, considerable thought
was given to the firm's space re-
quirements-a minimum of 1500
square feet with possibilities for
expanison was needed. The ac-
tual floor space in the warehouse
was under 1000 square feet, but
because of the ceiling height of
fourteen feet a loft was consid-
ered a possibility. Determined
to meet the challenge of creating
sufficient space for the firm, the
staff designed a special floor
system using a three inch lami-
nated wood deck supported by a
custom designed and fabricated
steel joist.

Opposite page, the flexible and compact modular work stations in the loft
were easily assembled using only wooden screws and dowels. They support
a drafting surface on one side and a reference desk on the other. Below right,
the twelve foot industrial door opening provided the space for a ,......,j,.. "
- a circular archway with a stair leading to the second level and expansion
areas. Photos by Dan Forer.





Design of the floor system
made possible the installation
of a veranda-like loft aproned
around a central core with a full
height ceiling. The taller ceiling
at the front of the loft provided
ample space for two associate's
offices. Where the roof slopes to
a level below minimum ceiling
height at the back of the loft,
cabinets, shelves and a storage
room were installed. The spaces
in between provided the ideal
location for the drafting work
Although the high ceilings and
custom floor system made pos-
sible the installation of a loft, the
narrow width of the loft limited
the amount of available space
for the drafting stations. This
limitation was overcome by join-
ing the individual work stations
with a connective panel designed
to serve both as a protective rail-
ing and a supply stand conven-
iently cantilevered into the cen-
tral core space.
The work stations were fabri-
cated from 3/4 inch plywood and
they support a drafting surface
on one side and a reference desk
on the other. Either side may be
tilted and/or extended to suit
the user. Illumination for the
work surfaces by a task-ambient
light unit forms the upper part
of the work station and doubles
as a space divider. These visual
barriers furnish each staff mem-
ber with a semi-private space
yet are open enough to allow for
ease of communication during
team projects.
To overcome the effect of a
windowless space, a skylight
was installed over the central
core to create an atrium. Visible
from all areas, the skylight opens
the space to natural light and
proves a pleasant atmosphere.
Artificial cove lighting for the
first level is recessed at the pe-
rimeter of the space and seems
to come from the loft above. The
perimeter also provides an open-
ing for the custom-designed air
conditioning vents. The duct-
work is housed in the built-in
work counter and shelf unit ad-
jacent to the work stations which
also serves to closet the space
over the cove lighting on the first
level. The total effect of the va-
ried lighting sources and open
plan creates a pleasing indoor-
outdoor atmosphere.


Architectural Masonry Units


- i .-- 15- 1-

rr r:.i ;. I-.''~


"~;1~ ~

Glass Beveling: Revival of a 19th Century Craft
by Charles Arnold

Victorian builders understood
what elegantly-crafted de-
tails could do to a large structure
and they expressed their orna-
mental "urges" in gingerbread
details and in the elaborate bev-
eled glass used in windows and
doors. Today, many people ad-
mire the prismatic beauty of
beveled glass, but few realize
the craft and skill needed to pro-
duce it.
Dave Campbell is a graduate
of the University of Florida
School of Architecture and Fine
Arts. He began working with
stained glass about five years
ago and today he owns Hi-Stan-
dard Beveling in Gainesville.
Although Campbell has always
been attracted to stained glass,
he prefers beveled windows that
are predominantly clear and al-
low a measure of visibility and a
measure of privacy. They are
both functional and decorative.
It is Campbell's feeling that a
lot of the stained glass used in
architectural retrofits is over-
bearing. He feels that beveled
glass has an understated beauty
A aMP 1 which heightens the impact of
both the window and the build-
ing housing it.
Historically, glaziers have
been grinding bevels on glass
for about 300 years, originally in
England and France. Before
machinery brought precision to
the craft, the edges were crude
and were ground and polished by
hand. The exact processes used
by the 17h century glaziers is un-
Top, a solid iron wheel coated with certain probably because early
silicon carbide slurry cuts the ini- manufacturers were very secre-
tial bevel in the plate glass. Above, tive about their processes before
right, the Newcastle sandstone patent laws offered them pro-
wheel has a notorandframe weigh- tection. Generally, they trained
ing about half a ton. Water runs
contain uously on the stone while it is their workers in only one area of
in operation to cool the glass. the operation so that no one
Above, left, in thefirst step of the would learn the complete pro-
polishing operation, rotating cess. What is known about the
brushes at the onttom o a cork wheel early beveling process is that
eed pmice onto the wheel, the work was laborious and the
product expensive.
In the 18th century, beveled
glass was particularly popular
with the affluent segment of so-
ciety and thousands of craftsmen
in Europe deafened themselves
in the noisy workshops where


bevels were ground on plate
glass. Mercury-backed mirrors
received most of the bevels, but
many found their way onto or-
nate windows, door panes and
The second renaissance of bev-
eled glass coincided with the
widespread use of steam and
water power. As steam engines
became a source of power and
beveling machinery became
more available, the cost dropped
and Victorian builders began to
consider beveled glass almost
essential to good design.
Today, automated bevelers
have been developed to produce
a straight edge, but it still takes
an experienced craftsman to
shape the intricate curves and
details which make a piece of
glass a thing of beauty. With the
exception of improved abrasive
and polishing material, very lit-
tle has changed in the craft in
the past ninety years.
When Dave Campbell decided
to create contemporary designs
using 19th century techniques
he learned that the few proprie-
tors of beveling shops today are
still reluctant to discuss tech-
nique. Campbell scoured the li-
braries in search of information
and found that only two books
and a handful of articles have
been published on the subject.
As he studied old drawings he
became familiar with the com-
plexities of the craft.
Campbell now estimates that
it takes a year of practice to be
able to produce an edge of con-
sistent quality. Curves, in-
curves and incuts require even
greater skill than the straight
bevels. As both artist and arti-
san, Campbell can reproduce old
designs for restoration or pro-
duce new patterns at a client's
request. Campbell feels that the
variety and complexity of pat
terns that can be produced in
beveled glass are limited only by
the imagination of the craftman.

Charles Arnold is afreelance
writer living in Gainesville.

cerium oxide on a solid felt wheel
gives glass the finished brilliance
seen here. Left, a finely hand-
( (tl,1 piece of glass can be incor-
porated into the design of an origi-
nal art deco design. All photos cour
tesy of the author.


-, irc~-S-


Continued from page 27
(UFFI). The government al-
ready has banned the use of
UFFI and is currently embark-
ing on a multi-million dollar pro-
gram to remove asbestos found
in schools.
A chemical process called "hy-
drolysis," where offgassed con-
taminants become attached to
water molecules and seep into
another surface, creates a sec-
ondary source for organic com-
pounds like formaldehyde.
"Strong offgassing can enter
a weak emitter where it is
stored," explained John
Girman, a researcher with
Lawrence Berkeley Labora-
tory. "UFFI has been known to
load up gypsum wall board with
formaldehyde. Even though
the foam is removed, the con-
taminant remains."
Girman further explored the
effects of offgassing from syn-
thetic building materials, using
formaldehyde as a representa-
tive pollutant. Low emitters of
this organic gas include textiles,
carpets, and ceiling tiles; among
high emitters are particle board,
fiber board, UFFI and press
wood products. "The industry is
making progress and has stan-
dardized tests for comparisons,"
said Girman. An architect can
specify those products with the
lowest emissions by comparing
the Manufacturer's Standard
Data Sheet (MSDS) for various
Special indoor pollution prob-
lems found in the home were dis-
cussed by Lance Wallace, former
EPA research scientist and now
a visiting scholar at the Harvard
School of Public Health. Sources
found in the home include ni-
trous oxide from gas stoves, car-
bon dioxide from kerosene space
heaters, cleaning fluids, ciga-
rette smoke and pesticides, to
name a few. While these pollu-
tants occur at a lower concentra-
tion than those found in office
environments, the health risks
are greater because some peo-
ple, including the more suscep-
tible populations like the elderly
and infants, spend as much as 24
hours in the home.
Pollutants You Can See and Hear
Indoor pollution is popularly
thought of in terms of air quality,
but two other sources light
and noise can also contami-

nate an indoor environment.
Presently, scientists are explor-
ing the psycho-physiological ef-
fects of noise and light on human
A living organism requires a
certain amount of stress in or-
der to survive, but when stress
levels become overburdened,
the body reacts. Noise that fre-
quently interferes with sleep,
conversation, or attention can
result in physical illness, accord-
ing to Karl Kryter, Ph.D., a
research scientist at SRI Inter-

national in the field of psycho-
Yet little is being done in this
area. "The quality of workman-
ship in noise abatement hasn't
increased," claims acoustical ex-
pert Charles Salter. "When you
are on a fast track building proj-
ect, it is difficult to control the
acoustics inside, but increas-
ingly, owners and clients want
quieter environments."
Sam Berman, a research sci-
entist at Lawrence Berkeley
Laboratory, discussed six fac-

tors associated with indoor light-
ing which may have harmful ef-
fects: 1) spectrum variations
that are different from the na-
tural spectrum; 2) ultraviolet
emissions from lamps; 3) low
frequency electro-magnetic ra-
diation; 4) infrared emissions;
5) flicker; and 6) glare. While
research on flicker and human
stress is still exploratory, Ber-
man noted that good informa-
tion on glare can be obtained
from the Illuminating Engineers
Continued on page 39

: I


) &



For further information
call (813) 676-4329.



Prindle Associates, Inc.
Alfred T. Drake, A.I.A.
Charles S. Partin, A. I.A.
Katherine L. Durham, A.I.A.
Divoll & Yielding Architects, Inc.
Stephen A. Brock, Architects, Inc.
Who Did They Select
Their Roof Consultant?

Associates, Incorporated
Roof Consulting
Construction Technology
649 North Mills Avenue
Orlando, Florida 32803
(305) 896-7875

of distinction
cu/ton design, fabrication, installation
residential commercial industrial

Twin City Mall, North Palm Beach, Florida
convas/ vinyl owning,
canopies. cabanas curtains
cushions boat canvas custom welding


Society; 345 E. 47th Street,
New York, NY 10017.
The documented instances of
eyestrain experienced by VDT
operators underlines the need
for task lights and break periods.
"Looking into problems of stress
and VDT research, there is a lot
of data in the lab as to the best
way to set up a VDT workspace,
but this information is not being
transmitted to the practice," said
Hal Levin.

The Architect's Liability
As knowledge increases, ar-
chitects will have to become
more aware of what measures
can be taken to reduce the po-
tential hazards from indoor pol-
lutants. Ralph Rowland, FAIA
warned that in the future regu-
lators might require architects
to do pre-occupancy tests and to
meet new building codes tailored
to the age and physical condi-
tions of the occupants.
"Architects are used to deal-
ing with building codes and fire
marshall regulations, but with a
change in societal expectations,
architects will have a respon-
sibility to protect the public's
health," warned attorney Gerald
Weisbach, FAIA in discussing
liability issues. "The best advice
I can give you is to hire adequate
consultants to provide technical
expertise and use proven tech-
nology and materials."
The Symposium made it clear
that another dimension has been
added to design the users'
health. James Woods chal-
lenged architects "to think
about taking on a professional
responsibility for the perform-
ance of the building for 10 years
after you design it and about
the implications this has for the
practice of architecture."

Kelly Collins is asso-
ciate editor of Architecture
California and editor of the
Indoor Pollution Symposium

Over 50,000 Items in Stock
Rush Delivery Via UPS

Call Florida Toll Free Number

635 S.W. First Avenue/Miami, FL 33130/(305) 379-4501
415 N.E. Third Street/Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33301/(305) 763-4211
998 W. Flagler St./Miami 33130






The Architectural Book and Document Center for Florida is now in Tallahassee. We're as
close as your telephone and can bring documents and books to you quickly through UPS. A
full inventory of AIA Documents in maintained. Members receive a more than 30 percent
discount on most documents; many books also include a discount.

For more information, call 904/222-7590.
For a price list on AIA Documents and
Books, write:
FA/AIA Books & Documents
P.O. Box 10388
Tallahassee, Fl. 32302


-I'' g
*4 4~r~4 W

This may be the most
important card you hold!

. :.. .. '- .. .-. ," ... -. ,*:. -' .
. v..,' ..-, "- ?j** ', 451 ^aia-. l-,4 b t"
.^ .I '^ ^ ^ -'^
;. : ; .` ,. ,~ ".-- ,- .. ... : ." : -.; ., -, ~.- ... .
.. '.'.. -' ,. .-'; ,. : '- k .. ';; ,



Association Administrators & Consultants, Inc.
19000 MacArthur Blvd., Irvine, California 92715



The Education of an Architect
Anderson Todd, FAIA
This article is reprinted with permission from the Newsletter ]85 of the Houston Chapter of the AIA.

Architecture is a pedagogical
art-at least, that is what
Plato called it. Unlike a painter
or a sculptor, an architect does
not create his art with his own
hands. His work is a constant
process of instructing others.
His vision is realized by others
through drawings and words.
It is this realization that has
prompted me to tell students
that they must teach, or certain-
ly think of themselves as teach-
ers. Every architect must be a
teacher. It is why words and
books are central to an archi-
tect's education.
Education is a process of self-
determination, especially archi-
tectural education. It is the dis-
ciplined linking of knowledge,
order and organization of space
with your emotions and the need
for expression that comes out of
the hot-beds of inner feelings,
instinct, and visual sensitivity.
Talking and writing about these
subjects are reflected in the
flood of words, words, and more
words that are uttered and print-
ed about architecture every day.
And we should scrutinize these
words constantly, re-examining
and testing them lest they be-
come stale, empty, meaningless
buzz words.
Of course, words don't seem
to be as clear as they once were.
For instance, in regard to the
meaning of words, Mark Twain
said that Eve called the Dodo
Bird the Dodo Bird because the
Dodo Bird looked like a Dodo
So, let me try a few of the more
common words used in today's
History is being thrown about
as the justification of a lot of bad
design and much worse thinking.
However, it is the record of the
human condition and the devel-
opment of cultural values, and it
should be looked upon as exper-
ience. This experience should
encourage the development of
visual sensibility and the capa-
city for objective critical judg-

ment. What intrigues and con-
cerns me is the relationships
between the experience of his-
tory and creative power. Mem-
ory of past events is the only
reality that we can know. The
present is too confusing, too
close for a perspective view,
and, as an idea, quite question-
able because of its fleeting na-
ture. The future is unknowable
except by anticipation on the ba-
sis of history. History gives us
illustrated messages about past
experience which we can exam-
ine carefully, hoping to break
the code to its inner secrets.
When he barred the study of his-
tory at Harvard, it was because
Gropius feared that it would dis-
courage self-expression and
stunt creative growth. He also
told me that he had a fear that
architecture would again fall
prey to eclecticism; quite possi-
bly, he realized that human prog-
ress was surging relentlessly
ahead at such an accelerated
pace that history was rendered
as useless as buggy whips. Or,

was it, that our human record of
benevolent and useful models
was too limited to help us? Any-
way, the patient search for what
was good and permanent in his-
tory was out of date!
For what reasons does histor-
ical research become meaning-
ful? Where does reality come in?
Does it have utility? Instruct us?
1. if it is brought into a clear
and precise relationship
with the present.
2. if it teaches that history is
not finite, static, or absolute
but is a transient reflection
of the present, and has to
be constantly reinterpreted
and rewritten.
3. if it contributes to the ad-
vance of the art of architec-
ture as an expanding, ever
more satisfying contribut-
ing force to human possi-
bilities and needs.
4. if it is progressive in out-
look rather than regres-
sive, and if it seeks cause,
motivation, process, and
character, rather than ef-


fect, reaction, result, pro-
duct or style.
The alternative to a creative
and imaginative use of history
has been increasingly, to fall
back into stylism and the use of
the disembodied elements taken
out of a rubbish-heap of the past
to make a pastiche, a paste-up,
achieving some sort of meaning-
less novelty. With this state-
ment, we can move easily into
considering the meaning of the
word: eclecticism.
Eclecticism is a word that sig-
nifies an admission of defeat be-
fore an artist even begins to ex-
plore. I cannot do better than
quote Jean Labatut:
"The past is a stimulant, not a
refuge. It is wise to step back, in
order to take a better look into
the future only if one does not
forget to jump forward after
stepping back. The past is an ex-
ample of what not to do in an an-
other epoch, on another site, in
another climate, for another cli-
ent. When profound analysis
takes the place of mere ecstatic
enthusiasm, the respect for the
past is greater, more sincere,
and less superficial. Basically,
eclecticism is not an expression
of respect for the past, but the
testimony of a superficial knowl-
edge of all the values and great-
ness of that past. Eclecticism is
evidence of the lack of refine-
ment and the visual sensibility
for the value of space, form, co-
lor, and above all, the lack of
sensibility for mental and spiri-
tual values."
Scale is the next most critical
word I want to talk about be-
cause it leads into my conclu-
sions. It is also interesting, be-
cause scale, if left alone, and not
used and manipulated for ulter-
ior purposes by egomaniacal ar-
chitects, will take care of itself.
Every organism and artifact
has a maximum and minimum
size. There is an optimum range
on the physical size of every-
thing. So, we can say a thing is
"in scale"; it is in scale because
it fits the model we hold in our
minds along with our other his-
torical references whether it
be a pack of Camels or a Wren

The scale problem of the
Washington monument has al-
ways been one of the most in-
triguing that I know. In its ab-
stract form, with the expression
of the large blocks of stone min-
imized, the sheer mass of the
building is almost indiscernible
until one starts to walk across
the greensward toward it. The
first intimation of the size comes
when you realize that it is taking
you a long time to reach it. Then,
at the foot of it you must accept
the enormous, Cyclopian size.
Despite the name of the monu-
ment that we have all known
since childhood, I question how
many people are truly aware that
this is a monument to a man. To
me, it is a monument to the city.
Where is the Man?
Context is the last word I am
going to throw at you. It is a
word used generously and, gen-
erally, it is used correctly. How-
ever, one does not often see it
reflected in the pretty designs
of houses for the very rich that
fill our magazines. Context
makes me think of the world as
a great fabric that has existed
before there was time or place in
human terms. And since man
has left Eden, this fabric has
been rent asunder and remended
many times. Quite correctly,
the word, 'context', refers to
weaving, or more correctly,
what has been woven, a passive
often delicate material that we
can destroy, protect, reweave,
but rarely replace. We, as archi-
tects, do not seem to be very
good at invisible mending!
I am big on contextualism, al-
though, when one of our design-
ers of our largest architecture
firm in Houston used the word
on our third largest developer,
the beefy entrepreneur asked:
"What is contextualism, some
kind of skin disease?" He was
right, the architect's under-
standing of contextualism was
only skin deep! But to me, re-
sponse to context is what it's all
about, architecturally speaking.
Context is what gives meaning
to symbol, meaning to meta-
phor, and even meaning to struc-


ture, form, space, mystery, ex-
pression, character, richness
and scale. History is context
and it faults eclecticism; con-
text promotes regionalism and
makes a mockery of formalism.
It would seem, therefore, if no
sense of context, then no sense
of architecture!
But, scale and context bring it
all together for me because they
require reconsideration of the
logical and the emotional, the
systematic and the meaningful,
appropriate space for human
activity, the happy marriage of
structure and form. To speak of
scale and context is to speak of
relationships in certain surround-

ings. It is to speak of relatedness
on a conditional, relative basis of
all aspectsof architecture. Ar-
chitecture is not something on
different levels of importance.
In a sense, a cottage in the Cots-
wolds is as much architecture
as is a cathedral of the Ile de
France. The proper degree of
measure is the relatedness, the
perfect balance and resolution of
all the constituent parts, a con-
sonance that sings a lyric, heart-
lifting song.

Anderson Todd, FAIA, is the Gus
Sessions Wortham Professor in
Architecture at Rice University.


More people have survived cancer than
now live in the City of Los Angeles.
We are winning.
Please support the
This space contributed as a public service.

t:-.- .': -~: ...

,-Tv...- .* ;fi;

V *r

*. -.-'.;- ~Y c6

-'~* ti* ? -
-- *,*---**$

r' ::' '''

~ -:
ru:. .'. ..;: '~:' ~

~r.:' ~"";~"~i~

~~*~ ..



Buying or Building a Home in Florida

You need to know how to compare

Apples with Oranges

Florida is special. Long
summers, short winters, and
prevailing sunshine all make
the Sunshine State one of the
most desirable places to
live. Natives understand'
what this lifestyle means.
Newcomers often want a
home like the one they left,
only built in Florida.
Concrete masonry block
homes are designed for the
Florida lifestyle energy
efficient, due to the
advantage of thermal mass, comfortable, cost-effective, long- comes
lasting and nearly maintenance free.

For more information, call

BB c 1-800-342-0080

No unnecessary refinishing,
repainting, or refurbishing
to worry about. More
Impervious to rodents and
insects. Less worries about
family safety or property
damage due to fire or
storms. Concrete cannot
bum and does not blow
down easily. Also lowers
Insurance rates.
Concrete masonry
Block is the choice
for Florida it
with the territory. For your next project, consider
that nothing compares to concrete.

649 Vassar Street Orlando, Florida 32804
Local Phone 305-423-8279


Manufacturing Co.
Serving the building industry since 1955.

For specifications and color chart
refer to SWEET'S CATALOG 9.1 0/Pr
3009 N.W. 75th Ave. Miami, FL 33122
Oviedo & Sanford Rd. Orlando, FL 32707
Miami Orlando
(305) 592-5000 (305) 327-0830
(800) 432-5097 -Fla. Watts- (800) 432-5539

(All Marble) Stucco
Trowel Stucco
Swimming Pool Stucco
Ceiling Spray
Cement Paint
Wall Spray

Acoustical Plaster
Veneer Plaster
* P.V.L
Vinyl Ceiling Spray
Ceiling Spray
For Rock Dash
Ceiling Spray

An Imperial Industries Company

Office Practice Aids

Pitch Pan!

Improved Design and Specification
D. B. Young, Jr., AIA

Pitch pans (also commonly re-
ferred to as pitch pockets or
pitch boxes) are flanged, metal
containers placed around con-
duits or other roof penetrations.
They are filled with plastic ce-
ment and are top-poured with
bitumen to seal around the
I do not recommend the use of
pitch pans because there are
more effective methods of roof
penetration detailing and flash-
ing. However, in reroofing and
repair projects of existing roofs
or through cost compromise,
pitch pans are often utilized.
Two major problems with the
typical pitch pan are that they
are not continuously waterproof
and also require frequent inspec-
tion and maintenance. For those
reasons, A/R/C Associates, In-
corporated has developed an im-
proved pitch pan detail.
In lieu of the traditional mate-
rials, different sheetmetal ma-
terials have been selected to
minimize maintenance. As for
the metal, I recommend the use
of 26 gage stainless steel because
of the metal's durability, as op-
posed to galvanized metal which
rusts and deteriorates. Also,
the fabrication of the pan has
been improved with corner stif-
feners at the flanges and field
soldering on the pan's locking
seam. Prior to filling the pan,
we suggest the cleaning of the
pan with an aromatic solvent de-
greaser (i.e. Tolvol). This will
ensure clean metal surfaces to
which the filler material will
In lieu of filling the pan bottom
with plastic cement, we utilize a
premixed, non-shrink grout,
(i.e. Masterflow 713 or Set Non-
Shrink Grout). It is our opinion
that this forms a better base for
the top-pour and locks the pan
into place.
Further, in lieu of a top pour of
hot bitumen which often shrinks
and/or settles to allow water to
enter, we suggest the use of a
one part pourable polyurethane

sealant, (i.e. Vulken 45) or a
pourable sealer (i.e. W. R. Grace
LM-3000). These products re-
main flexible and thus will not
shrink or crack to allow water

5L:>CK/I/IG /9
aM3 rITtcH FP%1-1
12. "c3R LA^<~PS&/^
/A/ AW4Y

In summary, the pitch pan de-
sign has been improved and bet-
ter filler materials have been uti-
lized to increase the durability,
thus, minimizing maintenance.

D. B. Young, Jr., AIA, IRWC, is
a certified Consultant of the In-
stitute of Roofing and Water-
proofing Consultants, and a
partner in the firm of A/R/C
Associates, Incorporated.

?C P~LAAJ434

5TI7F-AR 5
57-1P eAJPrR 1

/=/1a- P SOLDRED

graphics : steve ga




A roofing system that's new,

yet proven for hundreds of years.

It's a metal roof from ECI. And it's designed
to last a lifetime.
ECI's metal roofing panels are patterned
after those that were created in Renaissance
architecture. Panels that still protect the cas-
tles and cathedrals of Europe.
But today's version incorporates modern
installation techniques that make it incredibly
simple to install a metal roof in hours. There

M A subsidiary of CECO Corporation

are no through-the-roof fasteners.
The cost of a metal roof is a true
value. It's the value that comes with qual-
ity and increased longevity that convinces
many homebuilders to decide on a metal
roof for their finer homes and remodeling
For information on the variety of styles,
colors and metals available, write ECI.

Please sena me more information on your metal roofing system
I am a Builder/Contractor _Architect Developer
Name ___Title
Company Phone


P.O Drawer C. Stafford (Houston) Texas 77477. 713/499-5611. Offices and Plants Houston, Tx.. Amarillo, Tx.. Jemsion, Al., Lockeford. Ca.. Tualatin. Or.

~'~ ~I~IF

A lot of A

are riding on

our eels.

A the

Randy Atlas

& Associates
600 N.E. 36St.
Suite 711
Miami, Florida 33137
Office (305) 325-0076

Architectural Security
Design Consultant
Criminal Justice,
Facility Design,
Building Security

Our patented "tricycle" hangers
with turned, balanced wheels
and 3-point suspension for even
weight distribution. Box tracks
eliminate derailments; provide
uniquely silent and floating
door action.

We've also developed a folding
door system to give 1000/ clear
closet access. With Series #1601
hardware, doors always lay flat
against the wall.
See us in Sweets 8.33
Also send for our new Sweets Supplement.

P.O. Box 1126
WAPhone 1-800-348-7616
the quality people

Who Gets
15,000 Calls
A Day And

Than KepThe Books

id on our tracks.
id on all the rest of the
irdware you need to
ep sliding, folding and
ticket doors running
quietly, smoothly and
By specifying Johnson
hardware, you're
riding with the name
Represents the single,
3t advanced source of
Iponent hardware in

Ellis Photographics
(813) 253-2997

ARCHITECT-Fla. Bureau of His-
toric Preservation seeks Staff Ar-
chitect. Fla. registration or eligibil-
ity plus 2 yrs. experience. $22,216-
$32,802/yr. Resumes to: Bureau of
Historic Preservation, Department
of State, The Capitol, Tallahassee,
FL 32301-8020. AA/EEO Employer.




Take one Kohler Perma-WalFM bath
surround and brace yourself for the
side effects:
Colors like you've never seen
before. Because they've never been
on surrounds before. Bright, bold
colors that will match Kohler baths
already installed or on your mind.
Forms and textures ones that

excite your selling senses. Perma-Wall
is a five-piece surround made of
durable ABS. It has two molded-in
soap dishes and acrylic grab bar.
Visions of ease the kind every
installer seeks. Perma-Wall fits most
5" tubs. There are only two end
pieces, two corner pieces and a
backwall to put up and the adhesive


and sealant are furnished.
Perma-Wall is a product of Kohl,
research and is now available for
national consumption.
But beware. Its beauty, durabilit.
and simplicity can be habit formin,
See us for more information abc
this and other fine Kohler product

;r: I



~FtsRY~I*L)~*i**#W4a~Y~~.~n*IArYLLI(*i ...I