Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Student news
 City park: Creating beauty out...
 Jaime Schapiro and the gallery...
 William Graves: Designing for function,...
 Perdido Key is lost no longer
 Educating architects: Improve what...
 North county senior citizen's center...
 Product news
 Back Cover

Title: Florida architect
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00245
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Series Title: Florida architect
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: March-April 1984
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073793
Volume ID: VID00245
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 10b
    Student news
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    City park: Creating beauty out of necessity
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Jaime Schapiro and the gallery at Bay Harbor
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    William Graves: Designing for function, delight and economy
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Perdido Key is lost no longer
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Educating architects: Improve what we have or add more?
        Page 30
        Page 31
    North county senior citizen's center Palm Beach County
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Product news
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

W A A Flo

This- publication- is. copyrighted. by- the- Florida.
Association. of. the. American. Institute. of-
Architects- and- is- an- official- journal- of- the-

Limited permission to. digitize- and make this- electronic-
version available- has- been- granted- by the. Association-
to- the- University- of- Florida- on- behalf- of- the- State-
University- System* of F lorida.

Use- of- this- version- is- restricted- by. United- States-
Copyright- legislation- and- its- fair use- provisions.- Other-
uses- may- be- a vi olati on -of- copyri ght. protect ons.

Requests- for- permissions- should- be- directed to- the-
Florida- Association- of. the. American- Institute. of-
Architects.- Contact- information- is- available- at- the-
Association' sweb site.





Miami 33137 155 NE 40th Street 305/573-5533
South Miami 33143 5838 SW 73 Street 305/665-5733
Vero Beach 32963 2945 Cardinal Drive 305/231-4166

Formerly: Concrete Promotion Council of Florida, Inc.
For Product Information Concerning
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For Concrete Answers Call Toll Free in Florida
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Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects
104 East Jefferson Street
Post Office Box 10388
Tallahassee, Florida 32302
Publisher/Executive Vice
George A. Allen, CAE
Diane Greer
Assistant Publisher
Director of Advertising
Carolyn Maryland
Art Director
Mel Hutto
Editorial Board
Charles E. King, FAIA
William E. Graves, AIA
Ivan Johnson, AIA
Peter Rumpel, FAIA
John Totty, AIA
James H. Anstis, AIA
333 Southern Boulevard
West Palm Beach, Florida 33405
Vice President/President-elect
Mark Jaroszewicz, FAIA
University of Florida
College of Architecture
331 Architecture Building
Gainesville, Florida 32611
James J. Jenneweln, AIA
102 West Whiting St.
Suite 500
Tampa, Florida 33602
John Barley, AIA
P.O. Box 4850
Jacksonville, Florida 32201
Past President
Robert G Graf, AIA
251 East 7th Avenue
Tallahassee, Florida 32303
Regional Directors
Ted Pappas, FAIA
Post Office Box 41245
Jacksonville, Florida 32202
Howard B. Bochiardy, FAIA
Post Office box 8006
Orlando, Florida 32806
General Counsel
J. Michael Huey, Esquire
Suite 510, Lewis State Bank
Post Office Box 1794
Tallahassee, Florida 32302
of the Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects, is owned
and published by the Association, a
Florida Corporation not for profit. ISSN:
0015-3907. It is published six times a
year at the Executive Office of the
Association, 104 East Jefferson St.,
Tallahassee, Florida 32302. Telephone
(904) 222-7590. Opinions expressed by
contributors are not necessarily those of
the FA/AIA. Editorial material may be
reprinted provided full credit is given to
the author and to FLORIDA AR-
CHITECT, and a copy sent to the
publisher's office.
Single copies, $2.00; Annual subscrip-
tion, $12.00. Third class postage.


March/April, 1984
Volume 31, Number 2


11 Thoughts on Existentialism
and Architecture
Scott Akins

16 City Park: Creating Beauty Out
of Necessity
16 Donald Singer, AIA

19 Jaime Schapiro and The Gallery
at Bay Harbor
Diane D. Greer

S 22 William Graves: Designing for
Function, Delight and Economy
Diane D. Greer

25 Perdido Key Is Lost No Longer
Ray Reynolds

25 30 Educating Architects: Improve
What We Have or Add More?
Diane D. Greer/Gborge A. Allen

32 The North County Senior
Citizens Center
Patty Doyle

39 Will Algae Fuel Florida
In The Future?
Jack McClintock


5 Editorial
6 News/Letters
11 Student News
35 Product News
39 Viewpoint

Cover photo of the main facade of the Gallery at Bay Harbor from the Kane Concourse.
Architect- Jaime Schapiro. Photo by Mark Surloff Photography @ 1983.


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The year got off to a good start with a new publishing schedule
and some exciting designs which were featured in the first issue of
1984. The quality of the articles and photographs which were submit-
ted for the January issue got us excited and geared up to go on. I think
this issue is equally interesting for it focuses on a number of projects
from Miami to Pensacola which incorporate exciting design concepts
in their massing, fabric, plan ... even color. This issue sums up a lot
of what I feel about what's happening to Florida architecture right now.
It's innovative and it's humanistic and it's good for the people. If you
question that statement, consider City Park in Fort Lauderdale. It's a
parking garage that's every bit as much for the people as it is for the
In the next four issues of 1984, we'll take a look at a thousand bed
stockade that looks like anything but a jail. You'll read about the new
School of Architecture at Florida A & M in Tallahassee, multi-family
housing with a twist, theatre restorations around the state that are
saving the best of what's old and that's just "the tip of the iceberg."
With the guidance of a Publications Committee composed of
FA/AIA members who have guided the progress of the magazine for
the last three years, we are directing our attention to redesigning
the graphics of FLORIDA ARCHITECT. With a new, and hopefully more
exciting format, in which to present your projects to our readers, we
hope this publication will be better than ever.

Diane D. Greer



Main Street Program Coming
To Florida

Civic leaders in hundreds of cities
and towns are hard at work, breathing life
back into Main Street. Whether it's the
major downtown corridor in a small town
or a neighborhood commercial area in a
big city, Main Street has been redis-
covered. As they strive to reinforce and
rekindle the economic vigor and the val-
ues Main Street symbolizes, states and
towns often turn to the National Main
Street Center for assistance.
The National Main Street Center is a hu-
man resource and technical reference
program set up by the National Trust for
Historic Preservation to stimulate eco-
nomic development within the context of
historic preservation. The Center helps
develop comprehensive strategies for
economic revitalization which emphasize
Main Street's present and historic assets
yet recognize the need to adapt in order
to serve today's markets. Tallahassee is
an excellent example of the unlimited
possibilities that are available in terms of
downtown redevelopment. There is a
massive undertaking going on at present
in Tallahassee to preserve much of
Main Street (Monroe) and Adams Street
which parallels it one block to the West.
Old buildings are being restored and
adapted for contemporary uses and life is
being breathed back into alleys and side-
walks and city commons.
In February, the National Main Street
Center sponsored "Revitalizing Down-
town: Understanding Real Estate De-
velopment." This training program
examined roles that public entities and
private sector groups must play if they
are to successfully direct real estate de-
velopment in downtown areas.
For more information about the Main
Street Program contact the Florida Trust
for Historic Preservation, P.O. Box 11206,
Tallahassee, Florida 32302.

Architect Miller Deceased
Kenneth W. Miller, AIA, died Octo-
ber 11, 1983, in Orlando at the age of 74.

Miller was a 1932 graduate of the Univer-
sity of Florida School of Architecture. He
is a former councilman for the City of Or-
lando. Miller was a retired Lt. Col. in the
U.S. Army and a practicing architect until
his health failed after World War II.

Lacancellera Earns Ph.D. in
George Lacancellera, CCS, a profes-
sional member of the Ft. Lauderdale CSI
Chapter, has earned a Ph.D. in architec-
ture, an extremely rare achievement for an
architectural specifications writer.
Lacancellera became a CSI profes-
sional member in 1961, in the Metro New
York CSI chapter. Since then he has
been a delegate to several CSI conven-
tions, and an officer of the Ft. Lauderdale
For a decade, Mr. Lacancellera was
associate in charge of specifications for
Edward Durell Stone and Associates,
NYC. For the past fifteen years, he has
been an architectural specifications con-
sultant, serving many prominent architec-
tural firms in the country. He has been in
his profession for 35 years and enjoys the
expertise gained by his involvement in
several billion dollars worth of very large
sophisticated projects throughout the
Lacancellera practices in Boca
Raton where he works with a number of
Florida architects.


Emeritus Architect Monberg
Lawrence H. Monberg, Sr., Architect

Emeritus, died on November 3, 1983. His
career spanned six decades and he was
listed in Who's Who in America for his ar-
chitectural achievements.
Born in Copenhagen, Denmark, into
a family of architects, he studied at the
Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris and the
School of Atlier Rebori and he designed
many significant buildings in the grand
In Chicago, he designed Ricketts In-
ternational Restaurant and the famous
Kungsholm Theatre Restaurant remem-
bered for its puppet operas. His work
throughout the Midwest in educational
design ranged from award-winning ele-
mentary and secondary schools to col-
lege and major university campuses.
Monberg was a longtime Emeritus
member of the Florida Association of the
AIA and he left a legacy of fine architec-
ture to remember him by.


New Publications Available
A comprehensive professional liabil-
ity loss prevention teaching guide has
been published by the Association of Soil
and Foundation Engineers (ASFE). Titled
The Guide to In-House Loss Prevention
Programs, the new publication has been
designed for a variety of applications. The
guide will be used principally, however,
for conduct of in-house seminars by con-
sulting engineering firms, to better ac-
quaint project managers with important
professional liability loss prevention prin-
cipals and techniques. It can also be used
to assess prospective employees' know-
ledge of loss prevention practices, and
to determine what additional education


those recently hired may acquire.
The guide is available at $50.00 per
copy from ASFE, 8811 Colesville Road,
Suite 225, Silver Springs, Maryland 20910.
The National Lighting Bureau pub-
lishes a variety of guideline booklets which
are all listed in a publications directory
available without charge from the National
Lighting Bureau, 2101 L Street Northwest,
Suite 300, Washington, D.C. 20037. New
booklets include such titles as The Energy-
Saver's Guide to Good Outdoor Lighting
and Lighting Energy Management for Col-
leges and Universities.
Millions, if not billions, of dollars could
be saved each year through application of
numerous simple techniques that can im-
prove construction industry productivity.
These techniques are discussed in More
Efficient Electrical Construction, a new
16-page monograph published by the
National Electrical Contractors Associa-
tion (NECA) as part of its Electrical De-
sign Library (EDL) series of periodical
monographs. A copy of the new publica-
tion is available without charge by writing
to NECA, 7315 Wisconsin Avenue, Be-
thesda, Maryland 20814-3299.

Anti-Nuclear Architects Group
Architects for Social Responsibility
is a national non-profit organization of
architects, related professionals and stu-
dents. It was organized to help the public
to understand the catastrophic conse-
quences of nuclear war and the negative
effects that massive and disproportionate
expenditures for nuclear weapons have
on the quality of life in America.
Two of the group's objectives are to
mobilize the profession as part of a na-
tional grass roots movement whose ob-
jective is to prevent the destruction of
our civilization by nuclear war and to con-
solidate and expand research in order to
understand and clarify the impact of nu-
clear war, or the accidental detonation
of a nuclear device, on the man-made
environment and its population.
The Board of Advisors to Architects
for Social Responsibility is a list of the
most prestigious architects in the country
including Gwathmey, Graves, Tigerman,
Venturi, Giurgola, Pelli and Roche, just to
mention a few.
According to literature being distrib-
uted to potential members, the most val-
uable asset of ASR is its access to fellow
professionals who collectively are among
the most creative people in the world.
If you are interested in helping the
ASR with financial support, you may write
to Penny Blum, Coordinator ASR, 225
Lafayette Street, New York, New York


Evans Appointed to AIA Housing
Donald F. Evans, AIA, president of
The Evans Group, has been appointed
to the 1984 Housing Committee of the
American Institute of Architects.
His appointment was made by the
AIA Board of Directors and announced
by AIA President George M. Notter, Jr.,
An integral part of the AIA Design
Commission, the Housing Committee
focuses on national and regional issues
involving design quality, costs, neighbor-
hood quality, zoning and density. It is also
charged with exploring the public com-
mitment to housing and public-private
Evans has been a regular contributor
and consultant to the housing industry
since forming The Evans Group eiaht
years ago. He specializes in architectural
design and environmental planning as
well as market analysis, economic feasi-
bility and project coordination.

Member News

The University of Florida's College
of Architecture has chosen two new as-
sistant deans to oversee its instructional
and research activities. Professor Edward
E. Crain, AIA, will administer the college's
instructional activities and the research
activities will be directed by Professor
Richard H. Schneider. Thomas D. Mon-
tero, AIA, has just joined the Central
Florida firm of HHCP/Architects. Montero
was formerly with Greenleaf-Telesca in
Miami. Gee & Jenson Engineers-Archi-
tects-Planners Inc. has begun design of
Greeneway Plaza, a 23,000-square-foot
visitor center and truck plaza at the inter-
section of S.R. 46 and 1-95 in Brevard
County. Spillis Candela & Partners in
Coral Gables has received an award for
the city of Miami/University of Miami/
James L. Knight International Center/
Hyatt Regency Complex in Downtown
Miami. The building was chosen for the
Outstanding Concrete Award by the Flor-
ida Concrete and Products Association.
Spillis Candela & Partners together
with Diaz Seckinger & Associates of
Tampa has been selected for the design
of new facilities at Tampa's Veteran's Hos-
pital. G. Phillip Dolan is the new Vice Pres-
ident of Marketing at Spillis Candela.
Schwab & Twitty, Inc. of Palm Beach have
received two National Builder's Choice
Awards for two of their projects. The proj-
ects were Esplanade, a residential tower
on the Gulf in Naples and the North Palm
Beach County Senior Citizen's Center.
The Builder's Choice Awards are spon-
sored annually by Builder Magazine
and the National Association of Home

A graduate of the University of
Miami, Florida, and former associate with
Berkus Associates of California and
Schweizer Associates of Orlando, Evans
has established a team of over 50 plan-
ners and designers,,working from Florida
offices in Orlando and Coral Gables.
In the past twelve months, The Evans
Group has earned 38 major design and
planning awards for its residential and
non-residential project work in twelve


Builders. "Who Beat the Evans Group?"
was the headline in The Miami Herald after
the Florida-based architects and plan-
ners literally ran away from the competi-
tion in the first annual Fame awards, taking
a total of 16 architectural design awards.
Fame (Florida Achievement in Marketing
Excellence) recognized achievements in
a number of areas including architecture
and the Evans Group won six first place
William Morgan, FAIA, presented a
program entitled "Shaping Space" to the
Palm Beach Chapter AIA at their Decem-
ber meeting at the Henry Morrison Flagler
Museum. In recognition of fifty years of
support, the University oi Florida Depart-
ment of Architecture has dedicated its
1983 Yearbook to Andrew Ferendino,
FAIA. Ferendino is a 1933 graduate who
began his professional career in associa-
tion with Russell T. Pancoast. In 1978,
Ferendino resigned from his position as
Chairman of the Board at Ferendino Graf-
ton Spillis Candela.
Hunton Shivers Brady Associates in
Orlando has named three new associates
to the firm. Craig Rader, AIA, has been
with the firm since 1979 and is currently
assigned Project Management, Con-
struction Supervision and Plans Review.

Rader Pryor

Von Gunten


Fred H. Pryor, Jr., AIA is a Project Archi-
tect who has been with the firm since 1982
and John H. Von Gunten, AIA, is Project
Manager of the Medical Facilities Consul-
tants, a Joint Venture of Hunton Shivers
Brady and Tilden, Lobnitz and Cooper,
Inc. Charlan Brock Young & Associates
of Orlando has been awarded the design
of a 140 townhome project called River-
wood Landing which is sited on the banks
of the Econolockhatchee River north of
Orlando. The site plan includes an eight-
acre, park-like environment that will fea-
ture tennis courts, nature bridge, canoe
marina and a unique elevated clubhouse.
The Haskell Company in Jacksonville
recently completed construction on
The Grande Boulevard in the Deerwood
residential community in Jacksonville.
The project consists of a two-level,
289,000-square-foot enclosed specialty
mall. It was designed, engineered and
constructed by Haskell, as was The
Dunes Club at Amelia Island, a450-unit
condominium on the Atlantic Ocean
which will have its first phase of apart-
ments ready for occupancy in May. The
,U.S. Navy's first double-deck pier, de-
signed by Gee & Jenson of West Palm
Beach, may become a prototype for future
pier construction. This new pier will elimi-
nate much of the congestion which occurs
on existing single deck piers as well as
offering improved service to fleet surface
combatants. Gee & Jenson, Engineers-
Architects-Planners have also completed
designs and construction documents and
construction has begun on new buildings
for the Manatee County Port Authority.
New construction includes an operations
and maintenance building. Jay N. Edwards
has joined Briel Rhame Pointer & Houser,
Architects of Titusville as Manager of
Construction Services. Jack F. Wills has
been appointed Manager of the Architec-
tural Division for that firm and Ray Pate-
naude, P.E. has been appointed Manager
of Briel's Computer Aided Design Branch.
HHCP/Architects is moving from
Winter Park to Maitland to occupy their
new corporate hedequarters building.
Alan Helman, President and Managing
Partner, says that the firm has designed
the ideal office for itself. The building is
16,000-square-feet with offices arranged
by departments around the perimeter of


De Quevedo

the building. Blueprint and copying areas
are strategically located within the build-
ing and there are seven word processing
stations specifically designed for HHCP's
computers. There are twelve foot ceilings
in the drafting room with exposed me-
chanical systems to create a high tech
look. The new building houses the com-
pany's 50-plus staff with space to extend
in the future.

HHCP Office Building
Walter Martinez, AIA, Vice President
of Russell, Martinez, Holt, Architects, Inc.
in Miami spoke to "Forum," the National
Convention of architectural students
associated with the AIA during their an-
nual meeting in Atlanta last November.
Martinez addressed the group on the
subject of Equal Opportunities to Minority
Students. Richard C. Skurow, I.D.S.A.,
has been named Executive Director of
Schwab & Twitty Architectural Interiors
and Environmental Graphics, an organi-
zation which has evolved from Schwab
& Twitty Interiors. Skurow is the newly
elected chairman of the Southeast Chap-
ter of Industrial Design Society of Amer-
ica. Jorge L. Bouza and Julio Ripoll have
been named architectural designers for
the Coral Gables office of The Evans
Group. The appointments are in keeping
with planned office expansion.
Nancy Cameron-Egan joined Inter-
space Inc. as Vice President and Direc-
tor of Marketing. Ms. Cameron spent two
years with CRS in Houston. She is a grad-
uate of the University of California with
graduate work completed at the Univer-
sity of Paris. Doug Gooch is the new Di-
rector of Marketing for Architects Design
Group of Florida, Inc. in Winter Park.
Gooch is a graduate of the University of
Kansas and a nationally recognized
speaker on "Marketing Communications
for the Design Professional." The Faculty
of Architecture, University of Maryland is
featuring an exhibition of the work of John

Ames Steffian, FAIA, of Aragon Associ-
ated Architects. Spillis, Candela and Part-
ners, Inc. of Coral Gables has been se-
lected as a finalist in the New Orleans
Museum of Art Expansion Design Com-
petition. Six finalists were chosen from
among 192 entries from all over the coun-
try. The selections were made by an eight
member jury chaired by Henry C. Cobb,
FAIA, of I.M. Pei and Partners. The Spillis
Candela design team is composed of
Julio Grabiel, Rolando Llanes, Rafael
Portuondo, Jorge Louis Trelles and Luis
Trelles. Carlos Ruiz De Quevedo, AIA,
has joined Architects International Inc.
as a principal. Ruiz De Quevedo will serve
as Vice President and will oversee the ac-
tivities of business development.


Dear Editor:

The 1983 Fall issue of The Florida
Architect contained an article entitled
"Prarie School in Puerto Rico: Antonin
Nechodoma" written by Thomas S. Mar-
vel, FAIA. A photograph of the "Wilson
House" in Tampa and several statements
referencing the home, state that Necho-
doma is the reputed designer.
It seems there is quite a bit of confu-
sion concerning the Architect; apparently
starting with an article in The Florida
Architect, January 1970 titled, "Florida's
Heritage Trail" written by Blair Reeves.
To hopefully clear up any further
questions concerning the designer, I
have enclosed a copy of the front page
from the original Specifications. The
house was originally designed for Henry
Leiman during 1914. The architectural
firm is Bonfoey and Elliott, which my
grandfather, M. Leo Elliott, founded upon
arrival in Tampa. M. Leo Elliott, was also a
charter member of the Florida Associa-
tion of the American Institute of Architects
and his registration number was five (5).
I would appreciate your printing a
correction to this article in your next issue
of The Florida Architect.

Yours very truly,
Lynn Elliott, IBD



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Scott Akins

If Aldo Rossi is a rationalist, which
could be debated, then he is inherently at
odds with existentialism.
As a theory, rationalism deals with
truths based on reason and the mind, not
on experience. Most rationalists utilize
logic and pure geometry as self-evident
truths that do not depend on the external
world. In contrast, existentialism and
phenomenology are dependent on real-
life situations, which Martin Heidegger
consistently refers to as "things" that are
part of the world environment.
In Aldo Rossi's architecture, which
he terms "autonomous architecture," he
is moving from the known reality of the
world into one where the "image" is left to
be read on its appearance only. Accord-
ing to Francisco DalCo in his essay on
"Criticism and Design," an understand-
ing of Aldo Rossi's work can be achieved
with reference to one of Nietzsche's writ-
ings titled, "The Will to Power as Know-
ledge." In this writing, Nietzsche says
"Appearance" belongs also to reality: it is
a form of its being.
This statement views the world as
"fundamentally divided; in such a world
all acts-of production, of formation, of
appearance-can only express their own
reality, never those of others." DalCo then
reveals the intentions of his polemic, that
the autonomy of Rossi's architecture is an
alternative to reality, where the interpreta-
tion of its appearance can become an
infinity of realities. This suggests that the
observer is now given a freedom to inter-
pret the images in any fashion, but, in my
opinion, all images are tied to some form
of historical and cultural association.


Rossi prefers to clear the slate and start
all over.
DalCo feels that the relationship of
criticism to design has always been im-
plemented by analysis of a form of repre-
sentation and "simply seen as a process
that mechanically represents ideology...
it becomes unreadable for itself, and
thereby unreadable as its own form of re-
ality." Where this leads in regard to Aldo
Rossi is the obvious inability to criticize
his work within traditional methods of anal-
ysis. Instead of integrating different areas
of interest, this method demands total sep-
aration. Norbert-Schultz has criticized this
concept of "autonomous architecture" on
another basis; that its relationship with
human life is not explained. "What is most
disturbing in Rossi's book (The Architec-
ture of the City) is in fact the total absence
of man."
Many are critical of Rossi's architec-
ture for its disregard for local context.
According to the philosophical basis for
his work, the existing reality is not some-
thing he cares to generate his work from.
Rossi alludes to the genesis of his work in
the following statement, "In my architec-
ture progress does not and cannot exist;
there is only a process of descriptive clas-
sification of my idea of architecture." Nor-
berg-Schultz's theoretical stance again is
in total opposition to an architecture cre-
ated merely by a process of ideas.
One element that both Rossi and
Norbert-Schultz have emphasized in their
writing is typology. Schultz's concept of
typology relates to architectural structure
and composition that invokes "gather-
ing." Rossi takes a somewhat mysterious

viewpoint where he does not develop the
origins of the concept but states, "The
type is the very idea of architecture, that
is, what is closer to its essence." Formally,
Rossi's architecture is composed of sepa-
rate types that do not inflect upon one
another but maintain their most simple
form. Schultz further comments on this
reluctance, stating ". .. he does not in-
vestigate the structure and character of
places. Therefore, he cannot approach
the problem of adapting type to local cir-
cumstances. The types are instead used
as fixed 'models' which participate in a
mechanistic ars combinatoria."
According to Anthony Vidler in an ar-
ticle on the production of types, he has
distinguished two separate ideas relating
typology to the production of architecture.
The first is the "neoplatonic theory of orig-
inal ideal types that stressed the exis-
tence, a priori, of suitable forms in nature
and in architecture either in geometrical
or constructional perfection." This type
theory has been demonstrated by Quatr-
mere de Quincy who felt the eternal type
of architecture was the primitive hut, and
its perfect achievement was the Greek
Temple. In other words, this viewpoint
of typology was in already existing forms
without the need for adaptation to new
conditions. Rossi tends to follow this ap-
proach as exemplified by his mainte-
nance of perfect forms. It also relates to
Rossi's discontent with consumption and
production society that has created pro-
grammatic requirements in architecture
that cannot function without altering these
early types.
The second type theory according to

Vidler, was developed by Durand, who
was primarily interested in the ability to
modify existing types in order to be eco-
nomically efficient in satisfying new pro-
grammatic requirements. By the middle
of the 19th century both theories had
merged, represented by a rational con-
ception of structure and program utilized
by Viollet le Duc and Labrouste. As the
technological age arrived, the theory
of type merged into the process of mass
production, culminating in such building
forms as the Unite d' Habitation by Le
Corbusier. What this leads to in relation to
Aldo Rossi is a rejection of mass produc-
tion and a return to pre-industrial society
where architectural topology can retain
its platonic essence. It could be argued
that it is appropriate for his architecture to
be "autonomous" because society, as it
exists, is less than ideal.
Rossi's architecture tends to empha-
size life's bare conditions as a prerequi-
site for "being." There is an architectural
implication of minimal shelter in many of
his projects. Rossi has stated that many
of his forms and images have been in-
spired from rural farmhouses and silos
along with factories and arcades. These
building types generally offer minimal
shelter primarily for economic reasons.
The transformation in one's visual in-
terpretation from farmhouse to one of
Rossi's works is difficult. To many, his
buildings look like prisons or mental hos-
pitals. According to Rossi, when society
has removed these engrained images, it
will be a better place. This may be true,
but it is difficult to disregard historical as-
sociations that cultures have instituted.
Humanity does not exist in a vacuum,
but in a continuously evolving structure
where the meaning of built form or ar-
chitecture has sources in history and tra-
dition. Rossi prefers an "autonomous
architecture" because he feels that most
recent historical relationships are poi-
soned by identification with a consumer
society. But, is architecture the appropri-
ate medium to express the "nihilism of
consumer society?" Does visualization
of this idea in built form change society's
values or does it merely inhibit life for the
individuals abiding in this architecture?
Architecture should not promote con-
formity to a certain status quo, but should
allow individuals to be expressive and
unique. This is what makes life rich and
liveable. In Rossi's worker housing
scheme in Gallartese, I see an infringe-
ment on people's will to be unique. A
monument would be a more appropriate
place to express Rossi's ideas about so-
ciety than a place where people have to
live. This is possibly one reason why
Rossi finds such significance in monu-
ments in the urban context. They do not
have to deal with any of the functional and

sensitive, emotional requirements of a liv-
ing environment.
An architecture that is sympathetic
with existential philosophy will attempt to
be expressive of man's creative will and
invite spontaneity in both its utilization
and interpretation. Everyday life condi-
tions and situations are emphasized to
ensure permanent human relationships,
not just permanent architectural struc-
tures. The richness of life cannot be ex-
tinguished only to be replaced by a
monotonous repetition of window open-
ings and a stripping of all texture and
ornament. Mankind does not have to live

with a loss of texture and enrichment in
his material world. "Meaning" in life, a
fundamental human need, must be ad-
dressed in architecture as a communi-
cative device. This communication is not
found in architecture-iormulated under an
"autonomous" schema. Architecture
should create an expressive language
that will reinforce tradition and continuity
in an interactive, culturally based society
composed of unique, free individuals.

Scott Akins is a student of Architecture at
the University of Florida.


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Don Singer




City Park-Urban Plaza
& Municipal Parking
Office of Donald Singer
Donald Singer, AIA
Wayne Jessup, AIA
Craig Barry,AIA
Lynn Aubel, AIA
Ken Williams, AIA
Steve Gray,AIA
Dugan & Meyers
Construction Co., Inc.
Wilbur Smith &
deZarraga, Donnel &
Douglas Baker

SIGNAGE & Bugdal Graphics
TRAFFIC & Wilbur Smith &
PARKING: Associates

Bradshaw & Associates

City of Fort Lauderdale

Exterior of City Park shows siting and
position with regard to the streetscape.
1983 Wolfgang Hoyt Esto.

In 1978, the Commissioners of the
City of Fort Lauderdale made a com-
mitment to the City's downtown, a
commitment to assist in its rebirth by con-
structing a parking facility which would
provide interested developers and gov-
ernment agencies with parking neces-
sary for viable downtown development.
The site, selected in conjunction with
the Master Plan of the Downtown Devel-
opment Authority, encompasses one en-
tire city block and half of another. It is
bisected by a street which is a major
traffic feed into and out of downtown.
Surrounding the site are locations for fu-
ture commercial office buildings on the
north, south, east and west as well as
sites for a major regional library at the
northwest corner, an art museum at the
southwest corner, an existing church at
the northeast corner and an existing com-
munity college downtown campus at the
southeast corner.
The structure needed to become a
connector-street to parking, automobile
to pedestrian, pedestrian to destination,
one portion of downtown to another.
Parking structures have been, by



Iheir ver, nature, buildings which people
loce o1 hale The building type has been
s[rongilv associated with the very worst of
urban blighi, with de-humanization of the
en~vronment and with the aura of danger
to personal safety. The prospect of de-
signing .uch a building brought more
than rte normal feelings of concern to this
archileci The urban dangers could cer-
lainl, be brought into focus if their reality
.,as nol dealt with in the design process.
The important factor which seems to
be oa-rred irom traditional parking struc-
lures a3s that of the "Human Being." In
order o c re ate a formula for the most effi-
cieni parking building, garage builders
had [.oo ouen forgotten people.
The entire idea of City Park was cen-
lered on bringing people back into the
duoirnloA n,. albeit with their cars. Those
people AIrr had regarded the downtown
as a dayirme obligation which had to
be endured, but certainly not enjoyed,
needed ;,rne consideration. If that was
to be ire motivation, those "forgotten
people had to be given some atten-
tion in the program for the design of the
The plan of the structure was fitted
into the site using a nine-foot module
compatible with a standard parking
space, a 27-foot driving lane, and a 63-
foot parking bay. In order to minimize
ith impact of the mass of the structure
I[he client was aiming for a 2000-car
capac:i/ I, the first major design decision
raised Ie second level to 20 feet above
slree gr de, nearly three times the typi-
cal 'ellicient" response. The result was
the c realion of a sense of openness and,
in enreci a feeling of welcome rather than
one oi being shut out or shut off. Man was
gi'.en precedence over the automobile.
Thr- building virtually filled the site, a
rne,:esar,' result of the need to ramp cars
Irom le.el to level. To preventthe pedes-
trian ar grade level from feeling pressed to
[he sire-el by the massiveness of the struc-
lure. ine second level was set back an
additional 18 feet. This same approach
has laken with the seventh level with the
resui being that the visual bulk of the
buildlii is3 dramatically reduced.
Ho.vever streamlined, we were still
dealing .ith a building 300 feet wide and
500 leer long, dimensions of such magni-
lude rh a[ natural light would never find its
ra, i, me core. Two light wells, each 27
leer b 180 feet, designed to bring natural
ligrh in and keep out the demons, real or
Irrialined, were carved into the plan at the

Top: Public spaces within City Park make
the building a "people space" as well as a
parking space; Middle: Elevation of City
Park; Right: Exit ramp shows sculptural
quality of the building from the driver's
vantage point. Photos Wolfgang Hoyt




:~- iZ--~l

Alt'-: A~

1f L

I P f ~
jt.4,4 Ii I II

Top: One of the amenities which makes the City Park
an exicitng public space is Park Charcuterie, an
eatery situated on ground level, Above: Bright
graphics liven the inside of City Park and give it an
appealing humanistic quality. Photos Wolfgang
Hoyt Esto.

third points. With this same idea in mind,
the only side of the building which abutted
another property line was held away with
one of the two express ramps which carry
cars from grade to level two. This made it
impossible to build up close to the parking
bays and shut ouethe critical light.
The glass-faced elevators, which
carry people to grade and back to their
cars, are located in the light wells, provid-
ing activity for the pedestrian below as
well as giving the rider the visual exper-
ience of moving vertically through the
Another major effort was put into the
creation of grade level amenities within
and around the structure which establish
the space as an active, contributing entity
in the downtown fabric. At the north end of
the grade level, an area was designed
as a functioning commercial plaza, with
shops to be leased by individual tenants
for shops which would serve the parkers.
The plaza, placed on axis with the en-
try to the church and aligned with circula-
tion patterns to the library and one of the
office towers, offers the availability of an
urban gathering place. The second level
parking is omitted over the plaza, creating
a 30-foot high public space accentuated
by the verticality of the light well which
opens to the sky. The detailing in and
around the plaza-concrete tables and
stools with built-in lights and a grouping
of glass block fountains intended to mask
the auto noise-is designed to break
down the scale, for people.
The same thinking went toward simi-
lar amenities in other areas of the site... a
landscaped walkway through the building
along the trafficway, complete with table
and stool settings, sidewalks paved with
concrete paver blocks as a textured scale
element, signage designed to direct the
pedestrian as well as the driver, stair-
wells which are fully open to view from the
The special quality of City Park is the
feeling it is able to give back to the people
who use it. It is a building for people that is
also a place to park automobiles.
What makes this building significant
is the fact that the prospect for "another
parking garage"-a critical element in
any growing urban environment-was
metamorphised from its typical anti-
human nature into an activity-supporting
center, a city-pedestrian hub. It is design
giving back to a community as much,
or more, in terms of public interest and
amenity, than it takes away in terms of
open space. Architecture can be an an-
ticipation of Life.

Don Singer, AIA, is President of Donald
Singer, Architect, P.A., in Ft. Lauderdale.
City Park received an FA/AIA Award of
Excellence for Architecture in 1983.




Diane D. Greer

PROJECT: The Gallery at Bay Harbor-
Bay Harbor Islands
ARCHITECTS: Jaime Schapiro AIA &
Architects Planners
CONSULTING Weitz & Tseng
ENGINEERS: Structural, Mechanical,
Electrical &
Air Conditioning
CONTRACTORS: Group Ill, General
Contractors, Inc.
OWNER: The Gallery at Bay Harbor

Jaime Schapiro, AIA, was born and
educated in Chile, but in 1964 he was
awarded a government scholarship at
Kyoto University where he studied under
Tomoya Masuda, with whom he worked
on the entrance design for Expo 70 in
Today, in his Miami office, architect
and planner Schapiro says he learned a
kind of honesty from the Japanese style of
building and that the balance of form,
function and economy are an insepar-
able part of the design process,
"Someone asks me," Schapiro says,
"what are our strengths within the firm?" I
answer that our greatest strengths are in
programming which is always the pre-
lude to good design. The firm develops
a program of space affinities and require-
ments. This is more than just making a list
of what the client wants. It is determining
the client's needs through research...
and probing.
Schapiro describes his firm as a
team of specialists trying to cover a broad
range of design. "People involvement" is
an important factor in the office and the
client is a part of the team. Schapiro be-
lieves that if you involve all the users ...
in planning, programming and concep-
tual design you move at a better
Taking cues from the maturing con-
cepts of organized space and honesty in
design, Schapiro is known for working
tightly defined spaces behind hospitable Entrance foyer and waiting area outside Architect Schapiro s office


facades. The result, some say, is typical
of the "Florida architectural style" . a
progression of spaces that go from public
to most private. It seems to be a kind of
stylistic demarcation necessary to give
the not-quite-urban, not-quite-suburban
neighborhoods their bearings.
One such building which makes the
transition from putl.ic to private in a par-
ticularly exiting way is The Gallery at Bay
Harbor, an 8,000 square foot condomin-
ium/office building designed to serve four
construction-related clients, a developer,
a builder, a real estate office and Scha-
piro's office.
The architect's design criteria were
to create an energy-efficient, functional
and character-strong office building on a
relatively l.mall urban site. Aesthetically,
clients requested a .uiiJJldrlg style both
akin to the provocative Florida land-
scape, while projecting a stable corpor-
ate image for occupants.
Considering the small size of each
floor, another design consideration was
the creation of open floor space that was
free of columns. This encouraged flexibil-
ity in interior design since clients had a
"free floor" to work with.
The building also had to be private,
including access by private elevator.
On the outside of the building, the
architect created an entry plaza since an
existing zoning ordinance provided a
special bonus of increased construction
area for all space devoted to public use.
The 6,700 square foot site is located
on the main street of an affluent commun-
ity with high fashion stores, restaurants
and art galleries. Its facade faces the
main street and its terraces overlook a
residential neighborhood.
To solve the problem of the small
space within which the architect had to
work and at the same time make the build-
ing impressive, a funnel effect was cre-
ated by stepping back the floors of the
building from top to bottom, simultan-
eously creating the dramatic public space
at street level to be used as a lobby and
sculpture garden for passers-by. As a re-
Sult of stepping back the floors, terraces
were created to visually enlarge office
space, while providing workers with an
opportunity to enjoy nature.
Great attention was given to the en-
ergy efficiency of the building. Besides
the use of cooling terraces, tinted glass
and solar reflective glass, the terraces
are protected from Southern exposure
with moveable canvas shades as energy
control devices.
The Gallery at Bay Harbor is con-
structed of exposed reinforced concrete
and precast concrete joists with stuccoed
concrete block walls, exposed fluted con-
crete block, solar reflective gray glass

Above: East elevation of the building showing the steps which produce
the backterraces. Metal tubing serves the dual purpose of handrail and
canopy support. All photos by Mark Surloff Photography 1983.
Below: Group III General Contractors conference room.


block on the main facade and tinted gray
sliding doors on the rear. Steel pipe rails
on the back terraces support the canvas
To further enhance the corporate im-
ages of those firms residing in the building
a formal entrance was created. This en-
trance is both symbolic and reminiscent of
the human scale in a monumental, multi-
level space. A portico accentuates the
quality of the space in an inviting way.
Even the elevator shaft was incor-
porated as a focus of the building's solid-
ity. It is treated as sculpture and empha-
sizes the verticality of the building.
The Florida vernacular was achieved
Inrough a careful selection of materials
and colors. The building employs con-
crete stain on stucco and it should hold
iis color well.
The sculpture garden has no vege-
tation. Its sleek appearance is expected
to contrast with the plush street landscap-
ing currently being incorporated into the
Kane Concourse development.
"First and foremost," Schapiro feels,
"people, especially in Florida, desire
pure, clean form, almost as a receptacle
for their dreams something simple, yet
grand wicr, shows how people choose to





Top: Detail of open lobby showing handicapped ramp, fluted concrete
I E Z. block interior wall and porcelain tile flooring.
Above, left: Ground floor plan and cross section of the Gallery.
Courtesy of the architect.





Diane Greer

Above: The architect's house, built on
Santa Rosa Sound in 1974. It is the archi-
tect's clear presentation of a sample of
contemporary architecture in the region.
The house is constructed of 1x4 cedar
boards and there is 1,600 feet of living
space on the top two floors. Photo courtesy
of the Graves office.
Right: Second floor plan of the Graves
house. Photo courtesy of the architect.

As an architect, Bill Graves, AIA,
says that his principal reason for being is
to provide design solutions containing
the essential qualities of function, delight
and economy. In Pensacola, the firm of
William Graves, AIA, Architects & Plan-
ners, is working hard toward that goal
under the constraints of a non-compete
contract. Now, the firm is growing and
commissions are coming in. But, during
1982 and 1983, approximately 70% of the
commissions awarded to the Graves of-
fice were not directed toward a building
as their end result.
Bill Graves is a native of Tennessee.
With a degree in Philosophy and English
literature under his belt, he attended the
University of Arkansas where he earned a
degree in Architecture and Urban Plan-
ning. He joined Kevin Roche John Din-
keloo and Associates as an architect-in-
training before joining Gassner, Nathan
and Partners in Memphis as a Project Ar-
chitect and finally becoming a Principal in
the Pensacola firm of Bullock/Graves. In
1981, Graves became the sole proprietor
of his Pensacola office.
Today the Graves office is busy with
feasibility studies, programming, site
selections, promotional brochures and
feasibility budgeting and scheduling.
Each of these things has enabled the
firm's members to expand their role as
architects and to grow professionally.
Each and every type of commission,
whether it resulted in a building being
constructed or not, followed the same
process through the Graves office ...
identification of the program, the site
and the budget. The firm's success with
research-oriented projects is credited to
its philosophy that the design of any ma-
terial object or documentary report is
basically the same. In each case, before
a solution can be reached, the problems
and issues must be identified and the
entire project must be handled under
time constraints and budgetary controls.
Each project begins with a thorough
"mock-up" of the desired end result
with each stage carefully planned and
detailed so that the project architect
understands his destination before his
The Graves' office is organized on
the traditional Project Architect system.
Each project is assigned to a Project Ar-
chitect who is responsible for all phases
of work. Frequent design reviews are held
and it is the responsibility of each Project
Architect to call these meetings and ob-
tain necessary design approvals. The
Project Architect system allows for pro-
fessional development of the individual in
all phases of the design and business as-
pects of the practice of architecture. The
intent of the system is to allow for a broad


base of knowledge that will lead to spe-
cialization as a mrrall office grows. It is
designed to retain employees whose
knowledge covers all phases of architec-
ture and who will then be prepared to spe-
cialize as their own interests dictate.
Graves firmly believes that the competi-
tive nature of the decade in which we live
suggests the preference for Specialist
over Generalist.
The statistics for the Graves' office
are comparable to the majority of prac-
tices in the U.S. Their goals, in priority,
are to create good architecture, enjoy the
work and make a reasonable profit. Their
secret, according to Bill Graves, is the
same one which guided him through his
,ears al Ke. in Roc he-Johrn Dinkeloo

"I found myself surrounded," Graves
said, "by graduates from what I consid-
ered the most prestigious schools, like
Harvard, Yale and MIT. Admittedly I was
intimidated by the apparent quality and
sophistication of their education com-
pared with mine. It only took a short while,
however, for the one essential ingredient
of persistence to put me in a unique posi-
tion within the firm. I was one of two people
who was transferred from the production
department to the design department de-
pending on the types of projects that were
in progress. My persistence paid off."
Persistence and perseverance and
the willingness to take on a wide variety of
projects has paid off for the new firm As
tor ihre luture Grases sees ihe Ciiy ol Pen-

sacola as one of the strongest natural
resource bases in the nation and it's a
City that is enjoying a new and refreshing
awareness that good design is good busi-
ness. This awareness exists in local
government and extends to most of the
successful business people in the area.
Regionally, Graves considers Pensa-
cola the "last frontier" in Florida and he
finds that local investors are realizing
the potential they have, even though out-
siders have apparently realized it for
years. Says Bill Graves, "It is extremely
exciting to watch the growth in a city that
has strong historic overtones and incred-
ible natural resources."

Above: The new sanctuary for the Gulf Breeze
Methodist Church is sited next to an existing
structure. Construction was $700,000 and the build-
ing seats 800 people.To decrease the mass of the
structure, the narthex and the choir alcove were
defined by separate forms each tucked into a gable
end and separated from the main gable by a band of
glass. The chancel platform was conceived as a
single piece of furniture. Photo by Alex Irizarry.
Left: The architect encountered a series of restraints
in designing the Gulf Breeze Methodist Church. The
irregular shape of the property, an adjacent building
and a difficult traffic pattern all had a bearing on the
final design. The enclosure of the main sanctuary
space was finally accomplished with the use of a fairly
predictable glued and laminated wood arch. Photo
by Alex Irizarry.


------------- I







Right: With respect for an existing 1903 brick
structure, the architect designed a glass addition of
1400sq feet. The glass structure allowed the original
1903 structure maximum exposure. Problems of heat
build-up were solved by a motorized awning. The
cost of the conventional framing system as built was
$60,000 less than the original glass design. Photo by
Alex Inizarry.

Below: The interior of the Ray-Kievit Law Office. This
addition is enclosed by a roof structure selected for
its low profile and with respect to an intimidating
southwest sun. Insulated mullionless glass panels
were installed uninterrupted along the 58 foot west
facade. Interior furnishings in the addition are all low
moveable partitions designed by the architect. Photo
by Alex Irizarry.

Below right; bottom left: The Riley Office Building
provides headquarters for a lumber distributing
company of approximately 2,000 square feet. The
building is in the heart of the Pensacola Historic
District overlooking Pensacola Bay on a site 35 feet
wide by 60 feet deep. The construction budget was
$100,000. The final design was a row house with solid
east and west walls punctuated by openings typical
of the Historic District and capped by a roof form
recalling adjacent historic structure. Photos by
Alex Irizarry.

.. .
o ._ -1 ,

, ,. .'' '" r .



Ray Reynolds

History books first mention the Per-
dido Key area in 1693 when the French
and the Spanish were Irying to establish
a boundary between Mobile and Pensa-
cola Navigators spotted a large Day be-
tween the two settlements and suggested
it could be the boundary between French
and Spanish terntory But, when they set
out for [he bay again, they could t find it
They dubbed it Perdido Bay. or lost bay,
and left it for pirates and smugglers
The land around Perdido Bay re-
mained relatively lost tor nearly 300 more
years But when the condominium boom
finally reached the northwest Florida
coast in the 1970s, the sugary white sands

PeraaoKey ilreicr,es lor 14 narrow m'ies eri.seen
Ihe Gulf of lexco ana Ine c01i R..er nrere Florda
meels Albama Tre c ondom.num Doom r.as reached
Peraido Ke Dul nine oI Ire 14 miles of ine Key 's
puDiblC -owned ana *wii never oe developed

ol Perdido Key were lost no longer
During the past ten years many new
homes and condominiums have been
built on Perdido Key Many of the build-
ings are without architectural distinc-
tion. but some were designed to be aes-
thetically and environmentally pleasing
Perhaps the most distinctive feature or
Perdido Key is that II has not been com-
pletely overbuilt with projects of dubious
architectural and structural integrity
Most of the land on the key remains un-
developed and in its natural state
II will always De so Perdido Key is a
few hundred feet wide and 14 miles long
Of that 14 miles, seven miles has been
preserved by the federal government as
a pan ol the Gulf Islands National Sea-
shore Two more miles has been bought
by the State and declared a state pre-
serve, so nine of the 14 miles ol sand on
Perdido Key will always remain undevel-
oped it is for that reason that the property

owners and developers on Perdido Key
believe they have something special
II look a special act of the Legislature
to allow spot zoning of this barrier island.
but by mid-1983 the county had adopted
a zoning ordinance for Perdido Key that
drew near-unanimous praise from home-
owners and developers alike
The zoning ordinance limits the den-
sity of multi-family projects on Perdido
Key to 14 units per acre and requires
sideyard setbacks ol ten percent ol the
width of the lot It sets no minimum lot size.
but a structure one to four stories high can
cover a maximum of 25 percent of ihe lot.
and the maximum lot coverage gets less
as mte buildings get higher
The slate had already created a set-
back line on the gulf side of the key. the
zoning ordinance adds an estaunne set-
back line on the other side. which runs
along the Old River and the intracoastal
waterway Docks and piers can be built

but they must be at least two-and-a-half
feet above the water.
The zoning ordinance has had little
effect on Perdido Key thus far because
most of the projects under construction
got their building permits before the ordi-
nance became effective. Even without the
strictures of zoning, however, most of the
new buildings rising on Perdido Key -
and there are a number of them show
some sensitivity for the fragile spit of land
on which they are located.
The construction boom that began
on Perdido Key in the early 1970s was
snuffed out by the difficult economic
times of the later 70s. But the boom is
back in full force. Numerous complexes
have been built on the key since 1979,
and more than half a dozen new projects
are under construction now.
While there are some single-family
residences and some small complexes

on the key, most of the recent construc-
tion has been high-rise condominium tow-
ers. The astronomical prices of land on
Perdido Key have dictated that only
major projects selling for high prices
have a chance of being economically
Whether there are enough people will-
ing to pay $150,000 to $500,000 for a two-
or three-bedroom beach condo may be
debatable. But the developers are aggres-
ively seeking the top end of the market,
and they are teaming with architects who
design units that will appeal to wealthy
buyers. There is no shortage of terraces
and health clubs and other amenities in
these complexes.
After the current blaze of construction
is completed, there may not be much more
development on Perdido Key. There are
only two or three pieces of gulf front prop-
erty left that are big enough to accom-

modate major projects. There is a large
undeveloped wooded area on the intra-
coastal waterway, but most of that prop-
erty is owned individually, and some of
the deeds restrict its use to single-family
There will be at least one more major
development on the gulf front when Per-
dido Bay Resort, the developer of a huge
residential and golfing community nearby
on the mainland, begins developing its
35-acre site on the key. Dick Lacour, the
owner of Perdido Bay Resort, says he plans
to build a condominium complex, a 350-
room hotel and a number of commercial
Lacour's company owns the beach-
front land that contains the ruins of the
old Escambia Hotel, which was started in
1925 but abandoned after the boom mar-
ket went bust. The foundation of the build-
ing has stood for more than 50 years, but
it will be cleared later this year as Lacour's
new venture takes shape.
Lacour maintains that Perdido Key is
"potentially one of the greatest destina-
tions." He will be interviewing and com-
missioning a number of architects to work
with him on what he says will be better-
designed and better-built structures than
those on any other part of the Panhandle
Perdido Key is not a panacea. But it
is one of the most unscarred beaches in
northwest Florida, and some of its build-
ings are unique and well designed. Some
of the projects under construction and on
the drawing boards show great promise.
And it seems unlikely that the key will ever
be grossly overbuilt, because the land is
simply not available.
Perdido Key, the lost key, has been
found. If all goes well, it may be discov-
ered again and again in the future as a
pleasant and open island that stands in
contrast to most of what has been built on
the beaches around it.

Ray Reynolds is a Contributing Editor to
Florida Architect.
Top: Old River Landing Townhomes is a recent
ten-unit project on Perdido Key sited in two buildings
to ensure privacy and to provide the best views of the
river. Flood plain requirements of nine feet above
mean sea level dictated that all living areas be
elevated, leaving parking, storage and a breezeway
,k i, iir, I1-, uri r n Tr ,- ,.: i.-,:i,,: rN E,-,,j ,', .
They house large attic fans that help cool the units.
Old River Landing was designed by Barrett Daffin
and Carlin in Penscola and won an AIA chapter award
for excellence.
Right: Greg Uzdevenes, a Pensacola architect,
wanted to do something different when he began
designing Perdido Dunes. He had begun to recon-
sider his modernist philosophy, convinced that the
human dimension that helps people identify with
buildings was missing from many modern projects.
The six units are stepped back to create private
balconies on both sides of the building The Victoria
detailing transforms what could be an ordinary beach
condominium into a playful and attractive architec-
tural statement. All photos by Ray Reynolds


Clem Schaub:
The Key Architect

Clemens B Schaub. AIA mav be
only 32 years old, bul he has more de-
sign experience on Perdido Key than
any otner architect SchauD has already
seen two of his multi-family projects
completed A third project the Diggesr
yet. is now under construction
Schaub s completed projects on
the Key. Needle Rush Point and Sun
downer, are ow-rise wooden structures
that are distinctly different Irom The
usually box, white nign-rises on Ihe
Gulf There are 100 units in Needle
Rush Point and 64 units in the Sun-
downer. Although both projects are
contained in a relatively compact area,
they have a sprawling quality about
them that insures the privacy of each
Needle Rush Point straddles Gulf
Beach Highway, the main (and nearly
the only) road on Perdido Key. Four
buildings and a pool are on the Gulf
side, with three more buildings, another
pool, tennis courts and boat slips on
the Old River side of the road. Owners
on either side have full access to the
facilities on the other side, a feature
that is "like having two vacation spots
instead of one," the developers boast.
The developers are the reason
Clem Schaub has so much experience
5n Perdido Key. Schaub's father and
brother developed all three of the prop-
erties he designed., They have also
worked together on the other develop-
ments in Pensacola and in Vero Beach.
Schaub seems most pleased that
nearly all of the natural landscaping of
the Needle Rush site was maintained.
On the gulf side, the units were built
behind the sand dunes so that the
beauty and the protectiveness of the
dunes could be preserved. On the Old
River side, the needle rush along the
river from which the development took
its name has been left undisturbed,
with elevated wooden walkways pro-
viding access to the docks. Most of the
other natural features were maintained;
the builders even managed to save a
pine tree that is less than a foot away
from one of the units.
Schaub decided when he began
designing Needle Rush that he would
impose several restrictions on himself
to try to avoid disrupting the natural
topography. He conceived a low-rise

development built or wood so that the
buildings would be in harmony with
their surroundings and not dominate
the dunescape He placed all build-
ings on piles to avoid interfering with
the natural drainage and foliage Then
$150.000 of landscaping was added
to enhance the site
Schaub calls the approach at
Needle Rush a sane solution to both
IIving with and protecting the environ-
mentl' and says i1 will ensure tnal the
project remains attractive as more of
the key is developed
Schaub's newest project will con-
tribute significantly to the development
of the Key. Working again with his fa-
ther and brother and with his partner,
Dennis Diego, Schaub has designed
and built a model of the Parasol Beach
and Racquet Club, a 200-unit condo-
minium on the Gulf front. A group of in-
vestors from Texas bought the project
and construction of the first phase
should be completed later this year.
The Parasol is more traditional than
Schaub's other projects on the Key. It

is bigger and taller and whiter Bul
Schaub points out that at only 12 units
per acre, II will still be the least-dense
high-rise on the Key The four buildings
in the project range from six to 12 sto-
ries as they stretch along 912 leel ol
beachfront In the center is an outdoor
piano-shaped pool and a covered pool
and recreation complex with striking
classical lines
The exterior of the buildings will be
ol light-colored stucco, but with a twisi
The buyers will be able to choose the
seashell color ol their patio walls
Schaub developed the idea of tinting
the stucco a pastel shade of blue or
purple by studying the colors of shells
that wash up on the beach. The colors
should mingle and change as the sun-
light changes during the day.
Schaub says he hopes the project
will reflect "a little flair" that will make it
"a fun place."
"We wanted to bring a high-rise
down a step, make it more private and
not so towering and massive," he says.

Above: They managed to save every
tree but one at Needle Rush Point -
including a tree just inches from one
of the units. The shape of the tree is
echoed in the slant of the roof.
Left: The Parasol Beach and Racquet
Club is a 200-unit complex that will
range in height from six to twelve
stories. In the center are an outdoor
piano-shaped pool and a covered pool,
health club and courtyard surrounded
by classical columns Architects
ie.mers S r. ,jc, .~ n. r re -.-i. 1.e'.l-
sdy The Par.aisl a.i D.i Ire -le..; i eri .e
high i.,e rn Per.j,.j.:., K



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A debate has been raging within the
architectural profession and the educa-
tional community in Florida about whether
there is justification for another school of
architecture in the State. There is no mid-
dle ground. There is great enthusiasm
among educators and architects in the
Tampa area for the establishment of an
architectural school at the University of
South Florida. But, there are others who
feel strongly that existing schools should
receive more financial support and the
need for another school of architecture in
Florida has not been demonstrated.
One of those is Richard Chalmers,
AIA, Dean of the School of Architecture at
Florida A & M University in Tallahassee.
Says Chalmers, "I've gone on record that
I'll support another school of architecture
in Florida ... If a need is proven. But, to
date, no needs assessment has been
done." Chalmers is not convinced there's
a need, and neither apparently are Deans
Mark Jaroszewicz of the University of
Florida and Nicholas Patricios of the Uni-
versity of Miami.
Jaroszewicz says, "As Florida's pop-
ulation exists today, there is simply no
justification for an additional school of
architecture. However, projections show
a growth pattern which clearly indicates
that Florida will need a school in ten or

twelve years. The problem as I see it is
whether the State is willing to come up
with additional funding for a school to-
day that may not be needed for ten more
years. Added to that problem is that it
takes eight or ten years for a new school
to get established and become produc-
tive. So, the Board of Regents and the
State Legislature have a tough decision
to make over and above determining the
possible location for a new school."
In a ten-page memorandum on "The
Need For and Supply of Architects" pre-
pared by the University of Miami's Patri-
cios, he supports Jaroszewicz's com-
ment by stating "The existing schools of
architecture in Florida have the capacity
to supply enough graduates to meet the
State's needs for the next decade."
The catalyst for the debate over the
new school of architecture is not new.
Architects and community leaders in the
Tampa Bay area have been seeking a
school of architecture at the University of
South Florida for more than ten years.
The issue became dormant when the
Board of Regents decided to place a new
school of architecture at Florida A & M in
Then, about a year-and-a-half ago,
the fire was stoked again when Regent
Terrell Sessums of Tampa began to raise

Students in the School of Architecture at
the Universty of Miami discuss work on a
model for student presentation. Photo
courtesy of the University of Miami.

questions as to whether Florida's growth
pattern indicated a need for an additional
school and whether an urban area like
Tampa would be the best location.
To the end of determining whether
the need for a new school existed, the
Board of Regents appointed a team of
consultants headed by Lawrence Ander-
son, former Dean of the School of archi-
tecture at MIT. The group prepared a re-
port entitled "Review of Architecture and
Related Programs Consultant's Report." In
Anderson's own words the results were
inconclusive. In a letter from Anderson to
James Anker, Associate Vice-president
of the University of South Florida, he
writes, "Our report admits that we were
not shown convincing evidence of the
existence of an unfulfilled demand on the
part of young persons wishing easier ac-
cess to architecture/related programs
sponsored by the State."
However, the ink on Anderson's
report was hardly dry when it was an-
nounced that architects in the Tampa Bay
area had pledged $153,000 to support a
chair of excellence for a school of archi-
tecture, should one be established at
USF. The Board of Regents approved a
feasibility study for USF to establish a joint
program in architecture with FAMU and
State Representative John Grant of
Tampa introduced a bill into the pre-
legislative hopper to have a school of ar-
chitecture at USF approved by the Florida
In political cirlces there is a saying
which is invoked at a certain point on any
given issue . "the no kidding rule is in
Once the Regents approved the
feasibility study and architects ponied up
an unheard of amount of money to sup-
port the school, leaders in the profession
and educators around the state realized
that something was going to happen and
it was time to invoke the "no kidding rule."
In Patrcios' memorandum he stated
further, "The need for architects is highly
dependent upon the level of new con-
struction. The cyclical nature of construc-
tion activity leads some architects to move
in and out of the field from time to time."
Patricios maintains that even though
statistics indicate an excess in jobs to


architecture graduates, the three exist-
ing schools at UF, UM and FAMU have
the capacity to accommodate far more
"The employment data on trends and
projections, the best measure of need, do
not show a justification for an additional
school of architecture in the State during
the 1980's," Patricios insisted. "Alloca-
tions of additional funds to the existing
architectural programs, including con-
tracting with the University of Miami,
would be, by far, the most cost-effective."
Ted Pappas, FAIA, a Regional Direc-
tor of the American Institute of Architects
and Chairman of the FA/AIA Long Range
Planning Committee, seems to agree with
Patricios, but for different reasons.
"There are too many architects chas-
ing too few jobs in Florida which is bring-
ing about a devaluation of services and
making it difficult for existing offices to be
economically healthy," he says.
"Entry level salaries for graduates of
architectural schools are embarrassing.
How frustrating it must be for parents who
have invested tens of thousands of dol-
lars over a period of six years for an archi-
tectural degree only to realize their son or
daughter will make a starting salary of no
more than $13,000," Pappas noted.
"If fewer graduates enter the profes-
sion, there will be more demand and an
increase in starting salaries. The quality
of mass produced architecture gradu-
ates is under constant criticism," Pappas
warned, pointing to the need for increas-
ing funding for current schools.
Nevertheless, the Anderson pro-
gram did call upon the Board of Regents
to look beyond the short term needs and
it was somewhat critical of the student
output of the current Florida programs.
"The extraordinary rate of new devel-
opment in Florida generates an abnormal
need for persons trained in the design
and construction professions," stated
Anderson. "The Florida programs includ-
ed in this study are not fully meeting thoce
needs, but it is not entirely clear that they
must be met."
"It has been shown that the very
great and rapidly expanding market for
professional service in Florida is being
supplied in large part by designers, plan-
ners and builders educated outside the
state. For example, although Florida has
4.5 percent of the nation's population, its
universities are granting only three per-
cent of professional architectural de-
grees and of those, only one percent are
from publicly supported universities.
"Florida can, if it wishes, continue
this reliance on outsiders. As long as Flor-
ida opportunities remain attractive com-
pared to those elsewhere, professionals
will come here to practice and live, or sim-


Below: The School of Architecture at the
University of Florida is the oldest architec-
tural school in Florida. Photo courtesy of the
University of Florida.

ply practice and go home. But, Florida
cannot escape the consequences of its
own growth as a generator of student
enrollment. Merely to maintain the exist-
ing ratios will require forty percent more
enrollment by the year 2000. The present
total of 2,824 students will then have be-
come 4,000," Anderson noted.
In contrast, however, is the fact
that Dean Chalmers of FAMU noted a
decline in enrollment in 1983. The same
thing happened at the University of
Florida. Given these statistics, how are
existing ratios going to be maintained
in the future, particularly if another
school is added. This raises some seri-
ous questions.
The consulting team pointed out in
their "longer view" that as Florida ap-
proaches its status as the fourth largest
state in the nation, there will be a desire
to "catch up and compete evenly with
other populations in the education of pro-
fessionals." Also, the public's awareness
of the value of and need for professional

Bottom: The new School of Architecture
building at Florida A & M in Tallahassee was
designed by Clements/Rumpel and is well

under construction. Photo by Diane D.
K C3WPW'"'?

services will grow; they maintained, and
enrollment in the design professions
should increase by 7 percent in the next
seventeen years.
Maybe that's true, but that remains to
be seen.
In Lawrence Anderson's letter to
James Anker, he closes by stating: "Life
today is increasingly complex; there is
hardly any justification today for 'going
back to basics' as applied in the profes-
sions. We cannot afford to cling blindly
to jursidictional conventions laid out so
confidently in the 19th and early 20th cen-
turies. There is need for new structural
arrangements in education to prepare
young professionals for their encoun-
ters with the action situations in today's
But, in Florida the debate continues
as to where we need to educate all these
new young professionals of the next cen-
tury. Should we strive to improve what we
have or add more? The question remains



Patty Doyle

ARCHITECTS: Schwab & Twitty
Architects, Inc.
STRUCTURAL Ritchie & Crocker
GENERAL Lassiter Construction
CONTRACTOR: Company, Inc.
LANDSCAPE Team Plan, Inc.
DEVELOPER/ Capital Improvement
OWNER: Division of
Department of
Housing and
Palm Beach County

The North County Senior Citizen's
Center, designed by Schwab & Twitty
Architects, Inc. of Palm Beach and Hous-
ton, Texas, is a one-story 8,000 square
foot building situated on a 5-acre wooded
site in northern Palm Beach County. The
Center serves as a recreation facility for
all senior citizens in the area, regardless
of means.
The building was commissioned by
The Housing & Community Development
Department of Palm Beach County. A
strict budget was developed and ad-
hered to by all.
This multi-purpose facility provides
for dining, lectures and demonstra-
tions. There are activity spaces for
games, cards, ceramics and other crafts
plus space for classroom sessions,
meetings, conferences and dancing,
as well as areas for passive recreation
and meditation.
The "U" shaped building, comprised
of three major building elements, is ori-
ented toward a heavily landscaped out-
door courtyard. The building turns its
back on the parking lot and opens to this
courtyard at the rear of the site. The court-
yard is treated as an outdoor room and
a strong indoor-outdoor relationship is
The rectangular arch at the rear of
the courtyard defines and finishes the
space. It also provides a picture frame
for the existing landscaping and will ulti-
mately be the implied gateway to a recre-
ation area. The courtyard contains a cir-
cular fountain, surrounded by curved

Left: Rear view of the North County Senior
Citizen's Center shows gateway to a court-
yard which is used as an outdoor room.
Photo by Jim Duncan.
Top: View of interiorof courtyard shows the
sculptural quality of the building as it sur-
rounds an exterior space which is treated
as another room. Photo by Jim Duncan.
Above: Interior of Center showing outside
view of courtyard from gameroom. Photo
by Jim Duncan.


seating areas and curved walkways and
planters which maximizes its use as an
outdoor "room."
There is a curved privacy wall in front
of the Center with planters on either side.
A circular front drive allows for bus and
van pick-up and delivery of the building
users and the building does enjoy heavy
The architect's design theory was to
make a strong sculptural statement in the
midst of the surrounding vegetation. And,
because of the sculptural character of the
building, exotic finishing systems were
not required.
Because the building is relatively
small, Schwab & Twitty introduced vault-
ed ceilings and used clerestory windows
to achieve the feeling of space and vol-
ume. The vaulted sections have shed
roofs and the roof is finished in dove grey
cement shingles for economy. A large
part of the roof is flat.
The entire construction system was
economical. Concrete block and stucco
was used for exterior walls. Conventional
residential roof framing and wood trusses
were also used, and all other building
systems are standard.
Passive solar design considerations
included careful siting of the building to
reduce solar loads on glass areas. Addi-
tional sun control is provided by the steep
roof pitches which create large areas of
shadow and protect exterior spaces. The
building has a completely solar hot water
system. Further energy conservation is af-
fected by the use of solar bronze glazing
throughout. Limited use of glass helps
avoid solar impact.
On the inside of the building, how-
ever. glass partitions separate space phy-
sically, but not visually. This open quality
introduced circulation as an activity, and
rhe ala:. .valls afford a view of activities in
olher areas.
A large, multi-purpose room has an
operable wall to allow for its use as com-
mon space or for individual functions. A
caterer's kitchen facilitates the daily prep-
aration of meals.
All floor surfaces are on one level.
Brick pavers were used in circulation

Patty Doyle is the owner of Patty Doyle
Public Relations in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida.

Plan and sections of North County Senior
Citizen s Center Photos courtesy of
the architect


areas, while the rest of the building is car-
peted. Corridor widths and door widths
were designed to accommodate wheel-
chair traffic. Telephones and drinking foun-
tains are accessible to the handicapped.
The lighting levels in certain task-oriented
spaces, such as those for crafts and ce-
ramics, were intensified. The building
also has a medical examination room, and
there is a full time staff on duty during op-
erating hours.
Because the building was signifi-
cantly under budget from both a design
and construction standpoint, provision
was made for a 7,000 square foot expan-
sion. An addition of 1,700 square feet is

already being designed for use as an
adult day care center. It will serve seniors
who are not self-sufficient and, to a de-
gree, are non-ambulatory.
The North County Senior Citizen's
Center has captured design awards from
the Palm Beach Chapter of the American
Institute of Architects (AIA) and this year
received a National Builders Choice
Award in a competition sponsored by
Builder Magazine and the National Asso-
ciation of Home Builders (NAHB). The
Center also received the Certificate of
Honor for a Commercial Building, pre-
sented by the Florida Association of Hous-
ing and Redevelopment.

,' ** *
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The a We'd like to give
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For more information call well. We can help
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and Books, write: So look into our part of Florida. Simply write (in confi-
FA/AIA Books and Documents dence, of course) E. L. Schons, Economic
P.O. Box 10388 Development, Department L3R,
Tallahassee, FL 32302 Florida Power Corporation,
3201 34th Street South, P.O.
Box 14042, St. Petersburg, FL
33733; or call (813) 866-5211.


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Alan Shoaf

Of all the techniques being used to-
day to conserve energy in older commer-
cial buildings, one of the most promising
lies with using the existing walls of ma-
sonry buildings as an effective thermal
mass by insulating sidewalls from the
outside. The benefits of this commercial
retrofit concept are as logical as they are
From a thermal efficiency perspec-
tive, exterior insulation helps reduce air
infiltration, insulates potential thermal
bridges and minimizes the harmful ef-
fects of thermal shock created by fluc-
tuations in outdoor temperatures.
From a practical application view-
point, exterior insulation can be added to
virtually any existing building without dis-
rupting normal activity in the building and
without diminishing available floor space.
Thermal Efficiency
Thermal mass is a concept that has
come to the forefront of energy man-
agement through solar energy research
which utilized Trombe walls and heat
sinks to store thermal energy. A logical
outgrowth of this research is to utilize the
infrastructure of existing buildings, par-
ticularly older masonry structures, as a
place to store heating energy.
The energy being stored is that
which is generated within the building
environment. It thus becomes necessary
to isolate the sidewall area from outside
climate conditions and extreme tempera-
ture swings.
Maintaining a relatively constant tem-
perature within the walls also has struc-
tural advantages. Repetitious freeze/
thaw cycles and the thermal shock
caused by rapid changes in outside tem-
peratures can set up differential move-
ment in uninsulated walls that shortens
the useful life of a building. Exterior in-
sulation protects the wall system from
freeze/thaw cycles and thermal shock.
A building in Wisconsin provides an
example as to how serious this problem
can become. A masonry block commer-
cial building in Madison was so ravaged
by differential movement that virtually
every mortar line in the building was
cracked. The building owner's primary
concern was literally saving the structure.
SThe solution was to insulate on the exteri-
or; neither cavity fill nor interior retrofit in-


sulation systems would have been viable
options since they did not address the
underlying problems.
In addition to minimizing the poten-
tial for problems caused by differential
movement, exterior insulation systems
greatly reduce air infiltration through the
sidewall area and insulate structural/
framing components that act as thermal
bridges or short circuits through which
energy is transmitted and wasted.
Furthermore, exterior insulation sys-
tems are cost effective and easy to install;
the final coating or covering system pro-
vides a deteriorating building with an en-
tirely new look.
Exterior insulation systems consist of
two basic components-the insulation
product itself and coating system that
protects the insulation product and pro-
vides the desired exterior facade for the

An effective insulation product for this
application should have superior com-
pressive strength and moisture resistance
properties as well as low water vapor per-
meability and, of course, high thermal re-
sistance. Extruded polystyrene foams
such as Styrofoam brand insulation exhi-
bit these properties and can be relied
upon for long term performance in this
In many applications, the most criti-
cal factor affecting long-term performance
of an insulating material is its ability to
resist the intrusion of moisture. In labora-
tory tests for water absorption following
submersion, water vapor diffusion, and
freeze-thaw cycling, extruded polysty-
rene foam insulation consistently outper-
forms molded bead polystyrene, polyure-
thane and polyisocyanurate insulations.
In addition to moisture resistance
and R-value retention advantages, ex-
truded polystyrene foam insulation has
the high compressive strength neces-
sary to provide a firm base for the appli-
cation of coating systems-the second
basic component of an exterior insulation
system for commercial applications.
The types of coating available in-
clude conventional stucco, which is pre-
dominantly cementitious; polymeric or

"soft coat" systems, which are primarily
synthetic; and polymer modified cementi-
tious coatings commonly called "hard
coat" systems.
These systems vary in thickness, dur-
ability, basic materials, and means of at-
tachment to the building. Conventional
stucco and "hard coat" systems are
mechanically fastened through the rein-
forcing material and insulation into the
building's substrate. The polymeric or
"soft coat" systems rely on adhesion to
bind the entire system. Mechanical fas-
teners are generally not used with poly-
meric systems as the coating is quite thin,
usually on the order of 1/8" thick, and
fastener heads "telegraph" through the
Polymer modified cementitious coat-
ing systems, feature a polymer based
additive incorporated into the matrix to
achieve resistance to cracking and long
term durability. These finishes are at least
1/4"" thick and relatively lightweight. The
extra thickness of those "hard coat" coat-
ings eliminates the problem of fastener
"telegraphing," so these systems are
typically mechanically fastened into the
Laboratory and field testing under-
taken by the manufacturers of hard coat
systems show that this approach to exte-
rior insulation coating is generally supe-
rior to conventional stucco and polymeric
finish systems in terms of durability, re-
sistance to cracking and delamination
due to the method with which they are
It would be possible to reach the
durability standards of "hard coat" sys-
tems with conventional stucco; however,
stucco is more prone to cracking over a
period of time.
It would also be possible to achieve
"hard coat" resistance to cracking with
the polymeric "soft systems," but these
are more prone to physical damage; and
since they are not mechanically attached,
the possibility of delamination exists.
Dow recommends the use of either
hard coat or conventional stucco fin-
ishing systems over Styrofoam brand in-
sulation mechanically attached to the
building substrate through the insulation.
When the conventional stucco sys-
tem is used, the insulation product is

attached between furring which is at-
tached to the original wall. Metal lath is
then installed over the foam boards and
mechanically fastened to the furring
and the three-coat stucco finish is ap-
plied, usually about an inch thick. A dis-
advantage of this system is potential
energy loss through the furring which re-
mains uninsulated.
The "hard coat" or polymer modified
cementitious coating systems overcome
this disadvantage by eliminating the
need for extensive furring work prior to
application, yet they are mechanically
fastened to the existing wall.

Hard Coat Application
Application of these systems begins
with the installation of the insulation
boards over the substrate. A fiberglass
reinforcing mesh is installed over the in-
sulation and mechanical fasteners are
used to secure both in place.
The system can be installed over
concrete, wood, masonry, metal or var-
ious types of sheathing, even if the sur-
faces are painted or have minor defects.
Mechanical fastening allows the system
to be used without extensive surface
A polymer modified portland cement
base coat with fiberglass strands is ap-
plied over the mesh, anchors and insula-
tion, totally unifying the components. This
coat provides a great measure of the total
system's strength and impact resistance.
Covering the base coat is a polymer
modified cementitous finishing coat that
seals the entire system, adds strength
and can be textured for the final coat,
and a sealer coat can also be applied.
Hard coat systems can be used for
total wall coverage as well as for facia,
soffit or spandrel applications. The sys-
tem can even be used to cover and in-
sulate unwanted windows and doors in
existing buildings. All work is completed
from the outside of the building so older
structurally sound building walls can
be totally insulated and aesthetically
improved without interrupting activities
Improvements in finishing systems
and the application of exterior insulation
are paving the way for greater energy effi-
ciency in older, structurally sound com-
mercial buildings. These buildings can
be retrofitted with insulation and get
a cosmetic facelift at the same time -
it's non-disruptive, quicker and less ex-
pensive than abandoning buildings that
could provide several more decades of
useful and efficient service.

Alan Shoaf is a Research Engineer for
Dow Chemical, U.S.A.


, VAra& -s.. ,

Above: A two-color exposed aggregate finish was selected to complete the exterior wall insulation system in
the manufacturing facility renovation project. Photos courtesy of Dow Chemical Company.

Manufacturing Co.

For specifications and color chart
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Jack McClintock

The "greenhouse effect" is no longer
a myth. A steadily advancing reality, it will
put half of Florida under the Atlantic
Ocean in less than 70 years if use of fossil
fuels petroleum, coal and gas con-
tinues unabated.
Due to the greenhouse effect, higher
atmospheric temperatures will melt the
polar ice caps at an increasing rate,
causing the world's oceans to rise and
flood almost half of Florida by 2050, ac-
cording to Dr. T. Nejat Veziroglu, Director
of the Clean Energy Research Institute
(CERI) at the University of Miami.
To counteract this effect, more than
400 scientists, engineers and architects
from 50 countries met in Miami Beach in
December, 1983, to exchange informa-
tion about their latest research results on
the alternatives to fossil fuel energy.
The purpose of the Sixth Annual In-
ternational Conference on Alternative
Energy Sources was to facilitate the dis-
covery of a clean, economic and unde-
pletable energy source.
At the University of Miami, some in-
teresting work is taking place in this
Dr. Akira Mitsui held a test tube up
near a window and light flowed through
the liquid inside. Mitsui shook the tube
and bubbles danced. He held power in
his fingers.
In the part of the world where Akira
Mitsui lives Miami, Florida-the aver-
age house uses 1,000 kilowatt-hours of
electricity per month, for which the con-
sumer pays $66.58. Like everyone else,
Mitsui must buy his kilowatts from the
power company, which like many power
companies, uses a combination of oil,
coal, natural gas and nuclear fission to
generate electricity. They are the best
fuels we have just now, but between them
they are expensive, dirty, potentially dan-
gerous, or running out.
At the same time, enough sunlight
falls to earth in a single hour to energize
the world for a year if only it were
And that's what Mitsui, a biochemist
at the University of Miami's Rosentiel


School of Marine and Atmospheric Sci-
ence, had in the test tube: harnessed
energy. The mixture of ordinary seawater
and blue-green marine algae held a tiny
fraction of the sun's power.
Algae use the sun's energy to carry
out life processes. Growing in Mitsui's
test tube, the algae uses nothing but the
sunlight falling onto it and the hydrogen
and nutrients found in the seawater. And
it gives off pure hydrogen gas. Hydrogen
is an unlimited source of pollution-free
The blue-green algae, a strain dis-
covered by Mitsui and known as Miami
BG7, was converting the sun's energy
into fuel. Mitsui had to do little more than
combine it in the tube with seawater, set
it in the sunshine and watch. Sun shining
on one millilitre of seawater and blue-
green algae for one day produced one
millilitre of pure hydrogen gas.
Mitsui calculates that a tankful of cul-
tured blue-green algae roughly a foot-
and-a-half deep and 25 feet by 25 could
provide 1000 kilowatt-hours of pollution-
free energy a month all the power the
average house needs. And from floating
algae farms near the coast or in inland
saltwater ponds, blue-green algae could
produce enough hydrogen gas someday
to power cars, industries, cities.
He says, "the results of our research
using special strains indicate that there
is a vast, largely untapped, potential for
the use of photosynthetic marine micro-
organisms in development of hydrogen-
production technology."
He cautions that his work is in the re-
search stage, and that such calculations
are from the study of small systems. "A
large system may be less efficient," he
It has been known since 1942 that
"certain microorganisms were capable of
using solar energy to drive a hydrogen-
producing reaction," a colleague of Mit-
sui's, Dr. Edward Philips, says. It wasn't
until 30 years later that the notion of using
hydrogen gas as a major fuel got scien-
tists interested in biological hydrogen re-
search. Mitsui was among the first, and

he is convinced that Miami BG7 has com-
mercial potential someday.
The commercial cultivation of algae
is not new. It arose first in Japan in the
1940s. Many algae are extremely high in
protein, and two of them, Chlorella and
Spirulina, are raised there and sold at
very high prices-as health foods. In this
country, algae and bacteria are often
used to break down raw sewage while
they give off clean oxygen in the process.
More recently, the bulk of their cellular re-
mains have been made into animal feed
and fermented into methane gas. After re-
search by the California Institute of Tech-
nology, the General Electric Corp. and
the Gas Research Institute in Chicago, it
was estimated that harvesting the giant
kelp beds and converting these aquatic
plants into methane gas could, by the year
2000, satisfy 20 percent of the country's
energy needs.
Those figures, like Mitsui's calculations
of the size of blue-green algae culture
needed to power the average house, are
theoretical estimates. More research is
needed before any of them can be ap-
plied in the real worlds.
Backed by a grant from the National
Science Foundation, Mitsui and his re-
search team of 12-20 members have
spent 10 years collecting, isolating, and
identifying 6,000 strains of algae from the
tropical Atlantic. He was looking for those
which could produce hydrogen at com-
mercially usable rates. "Not many strains
produce hydrogen," Mitsui says.
But he found a few that do, and one of
them Miami BG7 exhibits, as Mitsui
carefully puts it, "especially high light-
dependent rates of hydrogen production."
Mitsui and his research assistants
found that in the laboratory, Miami-BG7
produces hydrogen at atwo percent rate
of efficiency. When he moved his experi-
ments outdoors, the rate remained the
same. An efficiency rate of about ten
percent is needed for commercial feas-
ibility, he says. And as efficiency tends
to fall with larger size in all biological
systems, he is trying to increase it as
much as possible while still working on a


small scale.
No one knows how far away the ten
percent efficiency goal may be. Mitsui is
trying to increase the amount of hydrogen
produced. He and his team are regulat-
ing the nitrogen and mineral composition
of the saltwater, and trying various levels
of light, temperature, acid balance and
saltiness to see which the blue-green
algae prefer.
The difficulty is that blue-green algae
produces only as much hydrogen as it
needs to, without regard for the wishes of
Akira Mitsui. In nature, as a former grad-
uate student of Mitsui's says, "life in the
fast lane is not encouraged." Various
metabolic inhibitors, population controls,
and other genetic restraints prevent
growth from turning rampant.
But another technique, developed by
Mitsui and his colleagues in the early 1960s
and called "cell-free" production, could
theoretically deliver efficiency of 30 per-
cent. In cell-free production, all parts of
the cell but those which actively produce
hydrogen are stripped away, leaving only
a kind of tiny, free-running refinery crank-
ing out hydrogen in a non-living environ-
ment. The method only works for a short
time, however, because the incomplete
cells are unstable.
Plexiglas cylinders as tall as a man
stand ranked outside Mitsui's lab on Bis-
cayne Bay. They're filled with seawater
and growing blue-green algae. The sun-
shine pours down onto them and reflects
onto them from the blue water. Tubes
emerge from the tops of each cylinder,
snaking down to instruments measuring
the amount of hydrogen produced. At
the feet of some are smaller tanks filled
with healthy fish which have been fed
nothing since birth but algae.
As it happens, Mitsui finds some al-
gae to be perfect food for the cultivation of
fish and shrimp. Others are perfect for fer-
tilizer. Still others contain valuable chemi-
cals and medicines. And once the algae
has exhausted itself, the remaining cells
cah be converted into usable fuel: meth-
ane gas. All of these processes are cool,
clean, self-renewing and non-polluting.
In the energy field, they may amount to
the closest thing to a free lunch that we're
likely to be served.
It is no snort-order snack, however.
Mitsui says practical application of
biological hydrogen production may be
20-30 years away. But that suits him. "We
need not rush to a commercial basis," he
says. "We have thinking time before there
is shortage of other resources. And there
will be lots of problems as we go to larger
scale; there always are. So, we like to start
small, find the problems, solve them, and
go slightly larger. Time is available for us
to study. But in one decade, or 20 or 30

years, we may require pollution-free sys-
tems. And we will be ready then."

Jack McClintock is a News feature Writer
of the University of Miami, Florida.




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