Front Cover
 Table of Contents

Title: Florida architect
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00244
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: January 1984
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073793
Volume ID: VID00244
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Table of Contents
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Arid esg Cntrcraesth pporitesttn

Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects
104 East Jefferson Street
Post Office Box 10388
Tallahassee, Florida 32302
Publisher/Executive Vice
George A. Allen, CAE
Diane Greer
Assistant Publisher
Director of Advertising
Carolyn Maryland
Art Director
Mel Hutto
Editorial Board
Charles E. King, FAIA
William E. Graves, AIA
Ivan Johnson, AIA
Peter Rumpel, FAIA
John Totty, AIA
James H. Anstis, AIA
333 Southern Boulevard
West Palm Beach, Florida 33405
Vice President/President-elect
Mark Jaroszewicz, FAIA
University of Florida
College of Architecture
331 Architecture Building
Gainesville, Florida 32611
James J. Jennewein, AIA
102 West Whiting St.
Suite 500
Tampa, Florida 33602
John Barley, AIA
P.O. Box 4850
Jacksonville, Florida 32201
Past President
Robert G. Graf, AIA
251 East 7th Avenue
Tallahassee, Florida 32303
Regional Directors
Ted Pappas, FAIA
Post Office Box 41245
Jacksonville, Florida 32202
Howard B. Bochiardy, FAIA
Post Office box 8006
Orlando, Florida 32806
General Counsel
J. Michael Huey, Esquire
Suite 510, Lewis State Bank
Post Office Box 1794
Tallahassee, Florida 32302
of the Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects, is owned
and published by the Association, a
Florida Corporation not for profit. ISSN:
0015-3907. It is published six times a
year at the Executive Office of the
Association, 104 East Jefferson St.,
Tallahassee, Florida 32302. Telephone
(904) 222-7590. Opinions expressed by
contributors are not necessarily those of
the FA/AIA. Editorial material may be
reprinted provided full credit is given to
the author and to FLORIDA AR-
CHITECT, and a copy sent to the
publisher's office.
Single copies, $2.00; Annual subscrip-
tion, $12.00. Third class postage.




January, 1984
Volume 31, Number 1


9 Pigeons and Bats as
Health Hazards in Buildings
by Mays Leroy Gray, AIA

15 FA Interviews Jim Anstis

16 Architectural Photography:
A Primer
by Steven Brooke

19 Pensacola Beach: An
Architectural Desert on the
Western Gulf
by Ray Reynolds

23 A Marriage of Architecture
and Interior Design
by Michael Yaros, AIA

25 To Be An Architect
by Robert C. Broward, AIA
29 Concept-Inspired Architecture...
Drawing From Creative Pools
by Robert J. Bitterli, AIA

32 New Buildings: College of
Engineering Building, Florida
Atlantic University
by Bernard Horovitz, AIA

34 Doctor's Diagnosis: A
Classic Case of
Mini-Mall Madness
by Howard Means
26 Departments

5 Editorial
6 News/Letters
9 Office Practice Aids
37 Product News
40 Viewpoint
Cover photo by the Museum of Science and Industry in Tampa designed by Rowe
Holmes Barnett Architects, Tampa. Photo by Dwight Holmes, AIA.

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homes program! Introducing six new passive
home designs for comfortable Florida living
without mechanical cooling and heating.
They're designed by three of Florida's award-
winning architectural firms, two plans each for
North, Central and South Florida.
They feature large rooms, open-air decks,
roofed lanais, spacious living areas, and dozens
of energy-saving innovations. All with only
'/3 to /2 the energy costs of standard homes.

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sized lots for about $80,000 each, exclusive of
property costs.
Plans are available for only $50 per design.
For a detailed brochure and design order
form, call FPUs Watt-Wise Line" 8-5 weekdays,
at 1-800-432-6563.
While the supply lasts, architectural firms
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WAkre working hard at being the kind of power company you want.


"A magazine," I was recently told, "should make a loud thump when
it is dropped onto a desk." An architect told me this and I knew that what
he was describing was the difference between many "lighter-than-air trade
publications" and the AIA's ARCHITECTURE.
While I'm sure that no one would go so far as to measure the worth
of a publication by the amount of noise it makes when it hits one's desk,
it is true that the relative bulk of a magazine seems to be indicative of
its weight in the marketplace.
So, as FLORIDA ARCHITECT enters its fourth year of publication
since it was reborn, revised and revamped, we are trying to make
ourselves a "weightier" journal. By "weightier" I don't just mean a
magazine that is going to cost us more to mail. I mean a magazine that
addresses itself to new design on a statewide basis both good and
bad, that offers stimulating articles by architects, critiques, reviews and
opinions, along with excellent photography and graphics.
FLORIDA ARCHITECT has implemented some changes which will
begin with this issue. For the first time, FA will be published six times
a year bi-monthly beginning in January, 1984. The magazine will be
heftier. That has been greatly facilitated by an increased advertising
revenue which permits more articles, more color photography and bet-
ter quality overall.
I think, however, that what you might notice in this issue, is the large
number of articles that are written by architects about their work, their
design concepts, current trends and current problems. The articles now
being submitted to FLORIDA ARCHITECT are better than ever. They show
a great deal of insight into the needs and concerns of the architectural
community. As an editor, I find that very exciting and I encourage all our
readers, architects and others, to keep up the good work, and to keep
writing about it!
Diane D. Greer



AFSE Brochure Addresses
Architect's Liability
Architects and civil engineers who
develop workscopes that are issued to ob-
tain bids from geotechnical engineers may
be exposing themselves to unnecessary
liability problems, according to a new
brochure just issued by the Association of
Soil and Foundation Engineers (ASFE).
Titled Geotechnical Engineering: A
Message to Architects and Civil
Engineers, the brochure points out,
"Because professional liability claims
quickly expand to involve many project
participants, it is in the best interests of all
to minimize risk exposures." The brochure
goes on to note that subsurface problems
are still among the most prevalent of any
construction project despite the fact that
ASFE-member consulting geotechnical
engineering firms have the best liability
record of all design professionals.
It is ASFE's position that mutual
development of workscope is essential to
help limit liability exposures, and that
mutual workscope development can be ac-
commodated only through a negotiated
retention and selection process. In this way,
the geotechnical engineer can explain his
various suggestions, giving the client an
opportunity to ask questions whose
answers create understanding so the client
can make effective decisions.
The brochure says that architects and
civil engineers, for purposes of time or
economy, will sometimes establish a fixed,
usually limited, geotechnical workscope,
and invite several firms to bid. Those
architects and engineers who do this
assume responsibility, and liability, for the
adequacy of this all-important geotechnical
A copy of Geotechnical Engineering:
A Message to Architects and Civil
Engineers, is available without cost from
the Association of Soil and Foundation
Engineers, 8811 Colesville Road, Suite
225, Silver Spring, Maryland 20910.

Art Deco Weekend Coming Up

Art Deco Weekend is the annual winter
showcase of the architecture, arts and
culture of the Art Deco National Historic Ar-
chitectural District on Miami Beach. The Art
Deco District is the only historic district in
Dade County, and has drawn steadily in-
creasing national attention as a cultural,
tourist-oriented attraction.
Each year, Art Deco Weekend aims to
provide a complete immersive exposure to
the arts and culture of the 1930's, using the
Historic District's architecture as the

background for a wide array of perfor-
mances, lectures, exhibitions, tours, films,
theatre, music and dance, all oriented
towards the 1930's Art Deco theme.
This year's Art Deco Weekend will be
produced by the Miami Design Preserva-
tion League with cooperation from a wide
array of civic and cultural organizations
throughout Dade County. The 1984
Weekend will again be positioned in mid-
January from Friday thru Sunday, January
The Sixth Annual Art Deco Weekend
is planned to be an expanded variation of
the successful 1983 Festival. The antique
and food bazaar are targeted to double to
160 booths. There will be 18 Big Band and
Jazz concerts; additional street sculpture
will be added to the 1983 stock; a two-ring
circus under a big top; a night at the
Tropicana-Latin Festival; recreation of a
1930's speakeasy; bus and tram tours;
elephant rides; a series of fashion shows
at the newly opened Club Z; a 12-hour
dance marathon; children's shows; and a
series of three free major concerts on the
The Miami Design Preservation
League (MDPL) is a non-profit historic
preservation group with over 800 members
nationwide. Founded in 1976, MDPL is
part of a national Art Deco movement with
affiliate groups in 15 cities. MDPL was
responsible for the listing of Miami Beach's
Art Deco District on the National Register
of Historic Places. It sponsors technical and
design assistance for neighborhood
restoration projects, a gift shop, cultural
projects and offers tours of the Historic
District to local residents and tourists. Its
Board of Directors is comprised of over 30
members with a strong cultural leadership.

FA/AIA Honors Historic
American Buildings Survey
The FA/AIA Headquarters Building in
Tallahassee was the setting for a reception
honoring the fiftieth anniversary of the
Historic American Buildings Survey
(HABS). The Headquarters Building was
used to display a part of the HABS collec-
tion of photographs, drawings, and other
documentation relating to Florida's ar-
chitectural heritage.
Blair Reeves, FAIA, and a group of
preservation students from the University
of Florida, set up the HABS exhibit in the
headquarters building and in the restored
Florida Capitol. Both exhibits will be on
display for several months. The reception
in the FA/AIA building was attended by a
number of local architects, representatives
from the Florida Department of State and
the Florida Trust for Historic Preservation.
In its short life, the Historic American
Buildings Survey has produced an archive

of exceptional quality, produced a cadre
of qualified professionals and introduced
everyday Americans to the benefits of ar-
chitectural preservation.

F. Blair Reeves, FAIA, chats with Don Bizzell, AIA,
and George Allen, Executive Vice President of the
FA/AIA at the HABS reception in Tallahassee.
Photo by Diane Greer.

A number of local architects including Dave Fronc-
zak, Rick Barnett, Dave Ferro and Bob Graf
attended the HABS reception in the FA/AIA Head-
quarters Building. Photo by Diane Greer.

Preservation students from the University of Florida
journeyed to Tallahassee with Professor Blair
Reeves to install an exhibit of HABS photo and
drawings. Photo by Diane Greer.

To promote greater uniformity be-
tween federal and private construction
specifications, the U.S. General Services
Administration has signed a contract with
the American Institute of Architects Service
Corporation for use of the MASTERSPEC
2 building specifications.
The contract, which provides GSA with
a limited license to edit, reproduce and
distribute the copyrighted MASTERSPEC
system, will be the basis for GSA's Public
Building Service specifications that affect


the construction and maintenance of all
GSA-managed buildings.
MASTERSPEC 2, produced by the
professional systems division (formerly
PSAE) of the AIA Service Corp. in conjunc-
tion with many industry groups, is a com-
prehensive master specification which pro-
vides the technical data necessary for con-
struction contracts. It is national in scope
and serves the needs of the architectural,
structural, civil, mechanical and electrical
design disciplines.
For more information, contact: AIA
Professional Systems Division, AIA Service
Corporation, (202) 626-7550.

George Reed Wins Award
Miami architect George Reed, FAIA,
has won a First Award for his design of a
Dade County residence in the Red Cedar
Shingle and Handsplit Shake Bureau/
American Institute of Architects 1983 Ar-
chitectural Awards Program.
The winners were selected by a jury
consisting of Chairman Norman Jaffee,
FAIA, New York City, Bennie M. Gonzalez,
FAIA, Scottsdale, Arizona, and Curtis
Finch, FAIA, Portland, Oregon.
The program was conducted to honor
architects and their projects which
demonstrated design excellence and
significant functional or aesthetic uses of
red cedar shakes and shingles.
In making the award to Reed, the jury
commented, "Here man and nature meet,
with an almost Palladian geometry and
symmetry. Structure and site coexist, each
equally and powerfully verifying its
presence. The major spaces enjoy and
participate in the private paradise that's
enclosed by the roof forms, fences and
The FA/AIA also honored this project
when it was awarded a 1982 Award for
Excellence in Architecture.

Private residence in Dade County designed by
George F. Reed, FAIA, was a recent award win-
ner. Photo by Steven Brooke.

Spaces and Places
Exhibit in Tallahassee
Last summer an exhibit entitled
Spaces and Places was brought to
Tallahassee by the Florida A&M School of
Architecture. The exhibit consisted of a
hundred photographs which documented


the contributions, aspirations and aesthetic
values of Afro-Americans as reflected in
their architecture. The exhibit was orga-
nized by Richard Dozier, AIA, formerly
head of the Department of Architecture at
Tuskeegee Institute. The show is circulated
by the Southern Arts Foundation and was
funded in part by the National Endowment
for the Arts and the arts agencies of a
number of southern states including
The exhibit, which focused on places
and buildings developed, designed and
built by or for Afro-Americans in the
southern states, was intended to provide
insight into Afro-American architects and
architecture and assist local communities
in surveying and evaluating Afro-American
structures in their area.

FA/AIA Honors Many
At Fall Conference
The 1983 Honor Awards Program,
which the FA/AIA holds each year in con-
junction with its annual Design Conference,
honored a number of worthy recipients last
October. The awards were presented at a
banquet in the Hyatt Orlando which fo-
cused on a Keynote Address by AIA Vice-
President John Busby, FAIA. The awards
were presented by Honor Awards Chair-
man Jim Anstis, AIA, of Palm Beach and
FA/AIA President Bob Graf of Tallahaseee.
Those who were honored were Mayor Bob
Martinez of Tampa who received the
Award of Merit for his public contributions
to architectural excellence; to Renee
Garrison with the Tampa Tribune, the
Public Communications Award for ex-
cellence in journalism in her coverage of
architecture and to Steven Brooke, the
Photographer of the Year Award, for ex-
cellence in architectural photography. This
past year, for the first time, an Amateur
Photographer Award was presented and
it went to George Mazzarantani, an ar-
chitectural student at the University of
The Miami-based architectural firm of
Baldwin Sackman Architects nominated
Miller and Soloman, Inc. for the Company
Craftsman Award and Mason-Bilt, Inc. for
the Craftsman of the Year Award for a proj-
ect in Miami which the two companies
crafted together. The project was the total
veneering of a brick building which was ac-
complished, according to the architect,
without a flaw.
Several architects were also honored
at the presentation. The highest award
presented was the Anthony L. Pullara
Award which is given to both an individual
and a chapter in recognition of service to
the FA/AIA. The individual award was
presented to Don Sackman, AIA, of
Coconut Grove and the chapter award

went to the Florida Central Chapter AIA.
The Architect's Community Service Award
was presented to Joe E. Chillura, AIA, of
Tampa for his civic involvement and his un-
tiring devotion to his goal of establishing
a school of architecture at the University
of South Florida in Tampa. And, last but not
least, the Bronze Student Medal for 1983
was presented to Michael Alan Griffin, a
graduate of the University of Florida.

1984 FA/AIA President Jim Anstis presents the
President's Award to 1983 President Bob Graf.
All photos by Diane Greer.

Jonn tnng, President of the Florida Central
Chapter, AIA, accepts the Pullara Chapter Award
on behalf of the chapter's members.

At the 1983 Fall Design Conference, Don
Sackman, AIA, was awarded the Pullara Individual
Award by President Bob Graf, AIA.

Member News

Preservation architect Herschel
Shepard, FAIA, of Jacksonville, recently
gave Notice to Proceed to the contractor
for the restoration of the Union Bank in
Tallahassee. The Union Bank was built in
1842 and current work on the project in-

cludes selective demolition of later
modifications and removal of deteriora-
tions. The bank is owned by the State of
Florida and is expected to be used as a
tourist information center. Ralph Warbur-
ton, AIA, a University of Miami professor,
has received two statewide awards for his
work as a consultant to the City of Coral
Gables in preparing a redevelopment pro-
gram for the Biltmore Tower. The Florida
Trust for Historic Preservation presented
Warburton with an Honor Award for
Outstanding Preservation and the
American Planning Association presented
him with their Award of Excellence. Con-
struction will begin soon on renovations to
the roofs pf four Manatee County Schools.
The designers of the roof repairs are Gee
& Jenson Engineers-Architects-Planners
in West Palm Beach. The firm is designing
a new roofing system that will be uniform
for all four schools. Bernardo Fort-Brescia,
AIA, was a keynote speaker to the Florida
Central Chapter AIA. Fort-Brescia is with
Arquitectonica in Miami. The Evans
Group in Orlando, has appointed Kenton
J. Foreman, ASLA, director of En-
viroscape, its environmental planning and
landscape architecture subsidiary. The
Evans Group has also named Kenneth S.
Kovacs as designer/project manager for its
rapidly growing Coral Gables office.

J. Foreman Kenneth S. Kovacs

lerry tve

Three University of Miami architecture
students have received cash awards for
their entries in the Association of Collegiate
Schools of Architecture's Fourth Annual
Student Competition. Winners were
Lawrence P. Kearns, Elizabeth Jahn and
Noemi B. Riviera. Preston Haskell, Presi-
dent of The Haskell Company in Jackson-
ville was appointed to Governor Graham's
Public Facilities Financing Commission.
This seventeen member commission will
study the process for developing public
facilities and make recommendations for
improved planning, financing and manage-
ment of State Facilities. Terry Eve has been
appointed Controller for Schwab & Twitty
Architects, Inc. Twelve employees of Gee
& Jenson Engineers-Architects-Planners
have been made associates in the firm.
These people represent expertise in areas
ranging from ocean engineering to water
management, hydrogeology and transpor-
tation. Plantscape House, a partnership of
Richard Gaines, AIA, and Michael K.

Lewis, won highest honors during a recent
international trade show in Hollywood,
Florida. Plantscape installed and maintains
the plantings at Orlando International Air-
port and continues to supervise all atriums
in Maitland Center.
Jim Bales of Burke and Bales
Associates of Winter Park has announced
that Arthur L. Walter, Associate Member
of Mid-Florida AIA will be joining his staff
as a technical assistant. John Randal
McDonald Architects and Associates
have recently designed the Coral Springs
Office Tower as a futuristic piece of ar-
chitecture. Builders value the structure in
the high twenty millions. Briel Rhame
Poynter & Houser Architects-Engineers
of Melbourne and Tallahassee recently
opened a new office in Boca Raton. The
office will be managed by W. Joe Allen,
P.E. The Coral Gables-based firm of Spillis
Candela & Partners, Inc. has reorganized
its Business Development Department so
that it will have a bigger role in the growth
of the company. Maria Bordas Planas has
been named Marketing Coordinator. The
Brickell, a 21-story, mixed-use office,

residential and commercial building, was
designed by Bouterse, Perez & Fabregas
Architects in Miami. The building will be
located directly across from the Metrorail
Station that is due to open in early 84.
Deeter Ritchey Sippel, a Pittsburgh-based
architectural and planning firm with offices
in Florida, has been commissioned to pro-
vide space planning services to all tenants
of the new Paragon Center in Fort Lauder-
dale. Paragon Center is the 12-story glass
curtain wall office tower located at the in-
tersection of East Commercial Boulevard
and Federal Highway. Helman Hurley
Charvat Peacock Architects, Inc. have ap-
pointed John W. Anderson, AIA to the
staff. Anderson joined the Central Florida
architectural firm as Project Manager.
Tichenor and Lindner Architects, Inc. of
Sarasota are designing the luxurious new
Governor's Inn in Tallahassee. The plans
are for the inn to be open in time for the
1984 legislative session. Charlan Brock
Young & Associates of Orlando, multi-
family design specialists, have been com-
missioned to provide the planning and ar-
chitectural design for the Villas of San Pablo
in Jacksonville as well as the 350-unit
townhouse project to be called Sabal Club
Townhomes. CBY is also designing two
luxury communities for TRECO Com-
munities, Inc. of Jacksonville.


Dear Editor,
I read with enthusiasm your Fall
Florida Architect issue covering the 1983
Built Design Award Winners. The layouts
with color photographs of all the winning
projects are particularly handsome.
Also, the cover color rendering for
your '83 Summer issue was a most fitting
way to initiate the Unbuilt Design Awards
Competition in your magazine.
I look forward to receiving six issues
of Florida Architect in 1984.

John Howey, AIA
1983 Chairman
Design Awards Committee

Drawing for The Brickoll in Miami by Bouterse
Perez & Fabregas Architects






Mays Leroy Gray, AIA

As design and building professionals,
architects are frequently involved in
building remodeling, renovations and
restorations. In that regard, we should all
become aware of the health hazards which
may exist in those old buildings.
Pigeons, particularly domestic pi-
geons, are found on farmlands, city parks,
and around city buildings throughout the
U.S. They nest in colonies, and prefer
buildings, particularly building interiors,
such as old lofts, attics, exterior building
ledges or unoccupied spaces wherever
they can gain entry.
Pigeons are large, intelligent birds who
live in very large flocks. Some species are
easily tamed and show little fear of man.
They live from three to five years and many
scientists believe that a male and female
mate with each other for life. Pigeons pro-
duce large quantities of excrement in their
nesting and roosting areas. Even newly
hatched pigeon chicks are heavy pro-
ducers of excrement.
Bats are placental mammals with
forelimbs modified to form wings. They are
the only mammals capable of true flight.
They are also attracted to building lofts, at-
tics and hollow walls, wherever they can
gain entry.

There are more than 900 species of
bats and they live in all parts of the world.
Most bats are harmless to man, but some
may be infected with rabies. Most species
live in colonies and they can live as long
as 15 to 20 years.
The potential health hazard in
buildings is in pigeon and bat excrement.
The accumulations of excrement from
pigeons can serve as a medium for the
development of Cryptococcus Neofor-
mans, a pathogenic fungus which can
cause cryptococcosis, a disease of the
lungs and central nervous system. Cryp-
tococcosis can cause serious illness, and
death in humans.
Accumulation of bat excrement can
serve as a medium for another pathogenic
fungus called Histoplasma Capsulatum,
which can cause histopasmosis, another
respiratory disease which can cause
serious illness or death. In addition to the
excrement serving as a medium for the
organism, the bats themselves may also be
infected and possibly contaminate other
environmental sites.
I began my research on this particular
health hazard after the observation, and
subsequent discovery of pigeons who had
obviously set up residence in the attic areas

of an old building for which I had been
commissioned to plan major remodeling
and renovations.
Since a substantial amount of renova-
tion work was planned in the building's at-
tic areas (replacement of deteriorated roof
rafters, timbers, roof repair, HVAC ducts,
electrical work, etc.), I began to address
the varieties of pests which I observed in
the attic areas of the building.
The pests included large quantities of
cockroaches, and pigeons. The pigeons
were entering the attic areas through holes
in the old clay tile roofing system, at areas
where the old wood roof decking had
deteriorated. The pigeons had set up
housekeeping on interior ledges and on
the attic floor areas. A subsequent in-
vestigation of the attic by a State Industrial
Health Official discovered three areas in
which species of bats had been roosting.
From the large quantities of pigeon ex-
crement observed on the attic floor areas,
it was obvious that the pigeons had been
roosting there for some period of time.
I began my research by telephone
communication with a number of pest con-
trol firms and state and county health agen-
cies. Subsequently, I contacted Robert J.

Note deteriorated roof timbers which allowed Huge numbers of cockroaches were also
pigeons to gain entry to the attic area of the discovered during restoration. The insects are
building under restoration. Photo by Leroy Gray. found in areas where there are large amounts of
pigeon feces. Photo by Leroy Gray


Weeks, a microbiologist with the Centers
for Disease Control in Atlanta. Mr. Weeks
is an expert in the field of pathogenic fungal
Subsequently, at my request, pigeon
excrement samples were taken by the
Florida Bureau of Industrial Safety and
Health, and shipped to the Division of
Mycotic Diseases at the Centers for
Disease Control in Atlanta for analysis and
Of the ten pigeon excrement samples
taken from the building and tested by the
CDC, Cryptococcus Neoformans was
isolated in eight of the samples. Three of
the samples also contained what appeared
to be bat droppings and were further tested
by the CDC for histoplasma capsulatum.
The CDC results prompted authoriza-
tion of decontamination specifications by
the building owner as well as bid proposals
from pest control firms. Entry into the attic
was prevented except by authorized per-
sons and decontamination was given a
high priority. The decontamination pro-
gram was successfully carried out and the
apparent health hazard neutralized.
In the event that treatment of a building
becomes necessary, the decontamination
program used must be carried out under
highly controlled conditions. It must be pro-
grammed to meet the requirements,
physical parameters and functions of the
specific building. The recommended treat-
ment may also depend on the quantity and
location of the pigeon or bat excrement.
Usually, the decontamination program is
carried out by usage of a 5% formalin solu-
tion (formaldehyde), applied in three
separate applications, 12 to 24 hours apart,
which has been found to be effective in
penetrating the thick layers of pigeon ex-
crement. The decontamination process
used must be carried out in strict accor-
dance with Federal, State and local
Although pathogenic fungi are not
always present in buildings containing bird
excrement, minimum health safety precau-
tions should be taken when entering a
questionable building. Minimum protection
suggested by Mr. Weeks includes the use
of a disposable respirator mask capable of
filtering out particles down to one micron
in size, disposable head and shoe cover-
ings, disposable plastic gloves and
disposable overalls. Upon exiting the
building, the clothing should be removed,
sealed in a plastic bag and incinerated at
a safe location. The respirator mask should
be the last item removed after leaving the
Professional health officials should
conduct the necessary sampling and
testing to determine the presence or non-
presence of the fungi. The culturing pro-
cedure takes 4-8 weeks to carry out. For
advice and assistance, contact your Coun-

ty, or State Department of Health; and/or
your State Occupational Health and safe-
ty Department. If local health officials are
unable to perform the tests, advice may be
obtained by contacting:
Robert J. Weeks, Microbiologist
U.S. Department of Health & Human
Centers for Disease Control
Center for Infectious Diseases
Division of Mycotic Diseases
Fungus Reference and Investigative

i. A

Atlanta, Georgia 30333
If, at some time previous you entered
a building containing significant accumula-
tions of pigeon or other bird excrement, it
might be wise for you to have your doctor
test you for cryptococcosis and
histoplasmosis. These diseases can be
treated successfully if diagnosed at an early
Mays Leroy Gray, AIA, is President of the
Tallahassee architectural firm of Mays
Leroy Gray, AIA, PA, Architect-Planner-





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Jim Anstis, AIA is a principal in the West Palm Beach architectural firm of Anstis.Ornstein.Associates Architects & Planners.
Anstis is the 1984 President of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects. In that capacity, Florida Architect
asked Anstis about some of the concerns facing the architectural profession in the year ahead.

FA: What are your plans for the
FA/AIA for 1984? What, if any, are your
particular goals and personal priorities?
ANSTIS: I'd like to see architects
strengthen their relationships with allied
professions such as engineering, land-
scape architecture, surveying and interior
design. The Association is already doing
this in a number of ways, most recently we
held our Fall Design Conference in con-
junction with both the ASID and the IBD.
But, more than that, we need to make im-
provements in our relationships with the
contractors and subcontractors. I believe
that we have more common concerns with
these groups than we do differences and
we need to develop strong lines of com-
munication that can help us all to work
together on a statewide basis.
I'd also like to see us continue to
develop our Unbuilt Design Awards pro-
gram toward the day when it will become
a major program in our Association.
I hope to get an Association program
started which would enable the architects
to assess industry trends and to react to
events and developments in the market-
place before they become problems.
Understanding the various market
segments can help better assess the future
for our members and aid us in develop-
ing Association programs that will be most
responsive to our needs.
FA: What do you predict for 1984
in terms of new legislation that impacts the
profession? What are your special con-
cerns in that area?
ANSTIS: One of my special con-
cerns for the upcoming legislative session

"We (in Florida) are in a position to lead our pro-
fession nationally for the foreseeable future."


is that we posture ourselves in a way to
contribute our collective experience and
talent to any legislation that will address
growth management issues. We need to
realize that the entire spectrum of growth
management controls from state statute
through local codes and ordinances in
large part defines the parameters within
which we must design buildings. It is
therefore vital that we, as a profession, con-
tribute to their form and substance in-
cluding the whole scope of environmen-
tal concerns.
We will continue to be concerned
about the Consultants Competitive Nego-
tiations Act and maintaining its legal status
as the most cost-effective way for public
agencies to select professionals.
We've also got to work with the other
professions to solve the problems that we
all have with the Department of Profes-
sional Regulation.
FA: What do you think are, or
should be, the special concerns of the
FA/AIA and the National AIA for 1984?
ANSTIS: My personal priorities lie
in the area of improving our programs for
our members by providing tools to assist
them in their professional development.
We need to improve our levels of compen-
sation and enlarge our potential markets.
The ability of an architect to assure good
design is highly dependent upon the role
the professional plays throughout the en-
tire process. I believe that we have oppor-
tunities now to assert ourselves and
assume our proper role in the design of the
built environment.
FA: What are your particular con-

"I feel a strong need to uncomplicate things and
get back to spending more time dealing with
building design."

cerns as an architect in private practice
right now?
ANSTIS: My foremost concern is
the effect of government regulation on our
lives and our architectural practices. I find
myself spending an ever-increasing
amount of time dealing with regulations
and then in retrospect realizing that the
regulatory process contributed little or
nothing to the building design, the quality
of construction, building safety or anything
else. We need to find a way to streamline
the regulatory process to make it more
clearly defined and administered by well-
trained professionals.
I feel a strong need to uncomplicate
things and get back to spending more time
dealing with building design.
FA: What do you see happening
to architecture in Palm Beach, as well as
the whole state of Florida right now?
ANSTIS: There are a lot of oppor-
tunities in Palm Beach County and Florida
today. As a profession, and an association,
we need to recognize these opportunities
when they present themselves and make
the most of them. As I mentioned previous-
ly, we are finding ourselves faced with a
renewed concern over growth manage-
ment on both the state and local level.
I believe that these growth manage-
ment concerns present us with oppor-
tunities and we need to be prepared to act
in a manner that properly balances our
public obligations and responsibilities with
our personal needs and those of our

(continued on page 38)

"The regulatory process contributes little or nothing
to the building design, quality of construction,
building safety or anything else."

Private Residence, Captiva Island. Roy
Solifsburg/Holabird & Root, Architects.



Steven Brooke

Photography, for architects, is too
often like applying a tourniquet: you may
not need it often, but when you do it's in
an emergency and there is no time to learn
how to do it. Unfortunately, the field of
photography is replete with an astounding
mythology, particularly concerning the
equipment necessary to produce high
quality photographs. Because I strongly
believe that every architectural office
should have at least one person skilled in
architectural photography, I offer you a
brief, albeit dense, summary of principles
and techniques which I hope will assist you
with your photographic needs and simplify
your decisions about purchasing
The composition of a photograph is
extremely important and architectural
photography does have some rather set
principles. First and foremost, verticals
should be kept vertical. That means that
lines should not converge. Unless a
specific, special effect is desired, the ver-
tical elements of a structure should be
perfectly parallel to the film plane. There
are lenses, called Perspective Control
lenses, that help to accomplish this and I
will discuss them later in this article. Suf-
fice to say, it is much better to back up to
a position where the verticals are true and
to crop out excess foreground later, than
to simply tilt the camera and distort the lines
of the building.
In most cases, a one-point perspective
is the best approach to organize vertical
and horizontal elements in the picture
plane. That is, both vertical and horizontal
elements should be parallel to the film
plane. Angled views should be carefully

considered, particularly with wide angle
lenses. In compositions which necessitate
tilting the camera up (high rises, etc.), a
more pleasing result is obtained when the
horizontal elements are still kept parallel to
the film plane. I recommend studying the
work of Fitigawa (GA Series). He is a true
master of composition.
A properly exposed slide or negative
is ideally one which shows detail in the
shadows without burned out highlights.
Often this is not possible, particularly in
bright direct sunlight. It is therefore ab-
solutely necessary to bracket all exposures.
This means that the meter reading in the
camera should be used only as a center
point for a series of exposures both over
and under that reading. No professional
photographer I know would ever consider
shooting less than three different exposures
of the same view; many, myself included,
shoot more, bracketing exposures in half-
steps from as much as two stops under to
two stops over the indicated meter reading,
depending upon the subject matter. The
further I am from home, or the closer I am
to a deadline or the more difficult the
lighting the more I bracket. In addition
to insuring at least one correct exposure,
bracketing allows for choosing perhaps a
darker or lighter slide which conveys the
mood of the project better than the meter-
indicated exposure.
Generally, architectural photography,
including interiors, places a premium on
great depth of field, that is, as much in
focus as possible. This is accomplished by
closing down the lens opening at least two
to three f/stops from wide open. Interiors,
particularly, require that the photograph be

sharp from near to far. When, for dramatic
purposes, an area is placed out of focus
(e.g. a foreground object used only to
create a feeling of space) it must be done
with great care.
Given these few basic principles: a
level camera, precise focusing and ex-
posure control and thoughtful composition,
we can discuss what would constitute the
very basic equipment needed for architec-
tural photography.
Always start with the right film. For
daylight shooting virtually every working
professional will bet his or her reputation
on Kodachrome 64 or Kodachrome 25.
(The latter, in spite of its slight increase in
resolving power is not worth the loss in
speed.) The Kodachrome 64 is, simply, the
best film you can use. Forget the other
manufacturers' claims about "European
color"(?), better reds or blues, whatever -
stick to Kodachrome 64 and you won't be
disappointed. However, this film requires
Kodak laboratory processing which takes
three days. If you do insist upon waiting un-
til the last minute to do your photography,
Kodak's Ektachrome 64 (EPR or ER) is
your next choice. The higher speed films
(ASA 200, 400) are simply too grainy for
good architectural photography. For in-
teriors lit predominantly by incandescent
light, Kodak's Ektachrome 50 (EPY) is the
only choice. Kodachrome 64 and the
Ektachromes are all relatively "slow films"
which brings us to the next essential item,
and that's a tripod.
The photography of architecture and
design is not like that of fashion or bike
races. It should always be done with a
tripod. A tripod frees not only the hands but
the mind as well. It allows for more
thoughtful composition and exact leveling
and permits the use of the necessary small
f/stops with their slower shutter speeds
(don't think you can hand-hold slower than
a 1/15 of a second and get razor sharp
photographs). I have always used a Gitzo
brand tripod because I have found them
to have the best weight/stability ratio and
they last a long time.
Although they are a bit more expen-
sive, the great variety of bases and heads
available makes it possible to purchase just
the tripod you really need. Any tripod that
you purchase should have controls that
allow you to pan the head as well as tilt it
in both axes. The controls should be
positive and firm, allowing for small
changes. Attempting to level a camera with
a tripod which is difficult to use can be both
time consuming and dangerously madden-
ing. Along with the tripod, you should have
a level (the best is made by Kalt; it fits on
the camera's hot-shoe and works both in
vertical and horizontal position) and a cable
release which locks.
If I were forced to use one, and only


one, lens for architectural photography it
would have to be a 24mm. This lens can
be used for exteriors and is sufficiently wide
for most interiors. A wider lens, a 20mm for
example, is also good, but it's a difficult
lens for the occasional photographer to
handle. A good quality wide-angle lens
should not distort verticals unless they are
practically right next to the camera. An
ideal companion to the wide angle is a
70-210mm zoom which allows for a varie-
ty of compositional possibilities. The zoom
made by Vivitar, the Series I, can be found
to fit almost any major brand camera. It is
a great buy. The standard 50-55mm lens
supplied with most cameras I have found
to be the least useful of all.
As mentioned earlier, keeping the ver-
ticals true is necessary for proper render-
ing of architectural subjects. A view camera
can do this becuase the lens and film
planes are independent of each other.
Nikon makes two PC lenses for its 35mm
cameras, the 35mm PC and the 28mm PC
(Perspective Control), which function in this
manner. Instead of tilting the camera to
photograph an entire structure, the PC lens
can be raised without moving the camera
at all.
These lenses are beautifully designed,
but are not perfect. They do introduce a
degree of distortion when used at their
maximum limit. However, the purchase of
either would provide a valuable addition to
one's photographic arsenal. The 28mm is
more expensive, but is also more useful.
The only company which makes these
are Nikon and Canon. The Nikons seem
to be preferred by most professionals.
Remember, in general, it is a complete
waste of money to buy cheap lenses. Be
wary of the "15-2000mm" zoom lenses or
other such claims. Buy lenses one at a time
and buy the very best you can possibly
As far as the camera itself is con-
cerned, I have always used Nikons,
primarily because of the quality of Nikon
lenses and the availability of the PC lenses.
Any 35mm camera must have some basic
capabilities: (1) manual control of both the
lens aperture and the shutter speed and
(2) a through-the-lens metering system that
shows you specifically how many stops
over or under you are from the correct ex-
posure. Some cameras have LEDs which
indicate only that you are on, over or under
the right exposure. These are useless for
really serious work as are the totally
automatic cameras. True, some of the
automatics can provide accurate
photographs but they remind my of an old
Hungarian expression, "even a blind squir-
rel finds acorns."
Other major brands are certainly quite
good. But, were I to buy a new camera,
specifically to photograph architecture, I
would select the Nikon FE. It is light, very

Top: Coco's, Bal Harbour, Dennis Jenkins
Bottom: The Imperial, Miami, Arquitectonica.


Top: A Museum for the Lannan Foundation, Palm
Beach. Mark Hampton, Architect
Bottom: Private Residence, Biscayne Bay, Julio
Grabiel, AIA/Spillis Candela & Partners, Architects.

accurate and accepts the superior Nikon
lenses including the PCs. Also, a viewing
screen with a grid is available and is highly
recommended. A word of warning about
all the new electronics-ladened cameras:
because of their more delicate innards,
they do not take the abuse and pounding
that the older models (e.g. the indestructi-
ble Nikkormats) tolerated.
Color films, particular the Ekta-
chromes, have a somewhat bluish cast,
especially in open shade. The UV or
skylight filter do very little to correct this. It
is better to use an 81B Filter (an amber
series) to add warmth to a scene. Also,
judicious use of a polarizing filter is helpful
particularly when dramatic skies are ap-
propriate to the building style. Polarizers
reduce surface glare and can give a richer
coloration to foliage, tile, etc. Some exper-
imentation, coupled with good note-taking
will show you what these filters can do to
improve your photographs. John
Hedgecoe's The Art of Color Photography
is recommended reading.
A word here about black and white
photography. I have for years used nothing
but Kodak's Tri X for my black and white
work. I use it with either a yellow-orange
or red filter to increase the contrast and to
darken the sky, particularly when I want a
crisp separation of a roof line from the sky.
Panatomic X is much too contrasty and
Plus X is flat and mushy. A properly ex-
posed negative on Tri X yields a wide
range of greys, a crisp white and a fine rich
black. Remember that with black and white
film, an underexposed negative is practical-
ly useless. Always favor some over-
exposure when you bracket.
Color correction (CC) filters are
necessary for photography under fluores-
cent or metal halide (ugh!) illumination. I
have found the following combinations to
be useful under most conditions.
Warm white/Ektachrome 50: CC 50 RED
Cool white/Ektachrome 50: CC 50 RED
+ CC 10 RED
Metal Halide/Ektachrome 50: CC 50 RED
+ CC 20 RED
The CC filters are available in fragile 3" x
3" gels. They are placed in front of the
lends by means of a Gel Holder which
screws to the front of the lens.
For absolute accuracy (and peace of
mind), it is recommended that some testing
prior to record photography be made. The
differences between lighting products can
be quite surprising. The greenish cast of
fluorescent light on film is perhaps one of
the most unpleasant available to the human
eye. Pains taken to eliminate it are well

Steven Brooke is an architectural
photographer based in Miami. He is a
three-time winner of the FA/AIA
"Photographer of the Year" award.


Conjure, an image of the perfect
tropical beach: sugary white sand shim-
mering in the sunlight...waves from aqua
blue waters gently lapping at the
shoreline...dunes of sand punctuated by
wisps of sea oats and wildflowers...a cool
breeze mingling with brilliant sunshine
through the deepest blue sky....
Now imagine an amalgam of bad ar-
chitecture: Squat block boxes painted
vulgar shades of pink and green. Hulking
masses of condominiums surrounded by
acres of asphalt. Rows of wooden houses
perched on matchstick pilings. Concrete
motels and Zippy Marts.
Picture Pensacola Beach.
Like nearly all of the Gulf Coast
beaches along Florida's Panhandle, the
natural beauty of Pensacola Beach has
been scarred by poorly designed, cheap-
ly built structures that would be as ap-
propriate in the suburbs of Kansas City as
they are on the Florida coast. There has
been little concern for the grace and beau-
ty of houses and apartments constructed
along the Panhandle beaches, and few at-
tempts to make the structures work in har-
mony with their idyllic environment. There
may be only scant hope for a greater
architectural awareness as development
Most of the earliest buildings on Pen-
sacola Beach were weekend or vacation
homes. They were built for the lowest possi-
ble price by people who came for a few
occasional days to enjoy the sun and the
surf. Often they were rented the rest of the
summer. They were uninsurable and like-
ly to be blown away at any time by a
A major change came in the early
1970s when federally subsidized flood in-
surance became available. More people
were willing to invest more money on the
beach knowing they would not see their in-
vestments washed away by the forces of
nature. Flood insurance did not require any
greater concern for the architectural integri-
ty of beach construction, but it did require
greater structural integrity. That alone
brought about some improvements.
Pensacola Beach is an example of in-
surance and government strictures prov-
ing they can be beneficial in some ways.
In addition to standards imposed by the in-
surance industry and the federal govern-

This private residence recently built in the "sugar
bowl" area of Pensacola Beach provides hope that
an architectural awareness is growing on the
beach. It was designed by Miller Caldwell, AIA.
The sloping roofs evoke the shapes of the sur-
rounding sand dunes and open the interior spaces.
Windows on the north, south and east sides cap-
ture views of the gulf, the sound and the sand
dunes. The pilings are enclosed with wash-out
walls that provide a protected space for storage
and parking.





Ray Reynolds


ment through flood insurance, Pensacola
Beach is also subject to extensive regula-
tion by the Santa Rosa Island Authority.
Pensacola Beach is not private property.
It is government property leased through
99-year leases.
While the regulations of the Island
Authority and the aesthetic oversight
responsibilities of the Authority's Architec-
tural/Environmental Review Board have
not resulted in many architectural suc-
cesses, they may have tempered the ex-
tent of the failures. The development on
Pensacola Beach is undistinguished, but
it is still superior to what has been built on
many of the other Panhandle beaches.

No one would argue that designing on
the gulf beaches is easy. That is especial-
ly true on Pensacola Beach, where an ar-
chitect must contend with the government
and insurance industry, and with the
elements of nature.
All single-family residences must now
be built from 10 to 13 feet above sea level,
which means that almost all of them must
be built on pilings. The pilings can add as
much as 25 percent to the cost of building
on the beach, and they add an immediate
obstacle to good design.
Because the pilings settle and sway,
most houses are built of wood, which can
adjust to the movement of the pilings. Stuc-

co and other exteriors are impractical
because they crack. While the wood is oc-
casionally painted or stained, it is usually
bleached or left natural because of the con-
stant assaults of heat, saltwater and wind.
Wood is the most practical building
material, and it also has the advantage of
being the most natural since the only
natural elements on the beach are sand
and driftwood.
Stacked on wooden stilts and limited
by a 35-feet height restriction, most houses
are numbingly uniform. Most consist of a
grade level, which in most instances must
remain unenclosed; an entry level, usual-
ly the living and dining area and usually in

Top: The view's the thing on Pensacola Beach.
The more successful designs take advantage of
the natural beauty of the beach and bring the
environment inside.
Left and above: Concrete block houses and out-of-
place designs dominate most of Pensacola Beach.


most newer houses spilling out onto a
deck; and a second level for sleeping.
Often the form of the wooden box is over-
whelming, although some architects are
beginning to slope the roofs and open the
interior spaces in attractive and unique
The open interior spaces also enhance
the view, and the view's the thing on Pen-
sacola Beach. Many of the older houses
have few windows and a poor view. They
were built to fight the beach environment.
Newer, more successful designs take ad-
vantage of the view by incorporating walls
of glass that bring the beach environment
inside. To accommodate the intense sun
and heat, overhangs, porches and tinted
glass are most frequently being used.
Some more recent designs position the

house and its windows to take advantage
of the natural air flow.
Pensacola Beach remains primarily an
area of single-family residences, although
there are some multi-family developments.
Most of the land on the beach had already
been developed when the condo boom
reached the Panhandle in the 1970s, and
sewer limitations presented another difficul-
ty for large developments. Multi-family units
must be built on pilings, like individual
houses, although they are subject to no
height restrictions.
The Pensacola architectural communi-
ty bears some of the blame for the blight
on Pensacola Beach, but not all of it. Most
of the multi-family developments and some
of the houses were designed by architects

from elsewhere who were brought to the
beach by out-of-town developers and
owners. Many were planned by residen-
tial designers who run drafting services and
often never even bothered to look at the
lot the house was to occupy. More still were
built from plans bought out of a newspaper
or magazine.
More architects have begun practicing
in Pensacola during the last decade, many
of them younger and more creative and
embarrassed by what has been built on
Pensacola Beach. More adventurous
owners with aesthetic sensibilities are
building on Pensacola Beach now. There
is some hope that desert roses, rather than
more cactuses, are sprouting on Pensacola
It is unrealistic to hope for major im-

Pensacola Perpetuates
Its Past
Modern failures on Pensacola
Beach contrast markedly with historic
successes in Pensacola proper. Pen-
sacola is a leading city in preserving its
architectural heritage and adapting its
historic structures for modern-day use.
Like many other small southern
coastal towns, Pensacola in the 1960s
was filled with old run-down buildings.
New construction was in creating sub-
divisions and shopping centers, and it
was draining the life from downtown.
But some of the city leaders saw what
was happening in places like Charles-
ton and Savannah and thought they

might be able to save their downtown
and its distinctive, historic buildings.
In the late 60s, the Pensacola
Historic District was created and placed
on the National Register of Historic
Places. Since that time, the Pensacola
Historic Preservation Board has been
successful in preserving 75 percent of
tne structures in me district, and has
moved other compatible buildings into
the district.
The architecture in the 22-block
district is eclectic. There is a mix of struc-
tures from the territorial and second
Spanish period (1790-1860), and from
the days of reconstruction (1870-1890).
Many of the buildings were originally
private houses, and they range from

elaborate Victorian and Queen Anne
homes to shotgun houses and Creole
Pensacola has been successful in
preserving many older buildings
because they have been adapted to
modern use. Many now house small
shops, restaurants and offices for
lawyers and accountants and other ser-
vice professionals.
Ironically, its success may ultimate-
ly endanger the Historic District. The
restored offices and houses have
helped bring about a resurgence in
downtown Pensacola, and new con-
struction now threatens the character of
the area.

Above: One of the many restored buildings in the
Historic District now house small shops, restaurants
and offices.
Right: The Hannah House, a classic Queen Anne
style house built in the 1890's was restored by
Hugh Leitch, AIA, and moved into the Historic
District out of the path of the interstate highway
extension. It now houses a law firm.





provements on Pensacola Beach because
there is very little land left to be developed.
Most of the land still to be developed is set
aside for multi-family units, ensuring that
developers will take maximum advantage
of the opportunity to make as much money
as possible on the remaining land. A sud-
den appreciation for architecture (in these
projects) seems unlikely.
Some of the single-family houses built
or planned on the eastern end of the
beach, which are only recently opened for
development, show some promise. This is
one of the more attractive areas of the
beach because it contains large sugar-
white sand dunes, which is why it is known
locally as the "sugar bowl" area. A sewer
moratorium has brought a halt to most of
the building in this area for now, although
it surely will resume when the moratorium
is lifted.
Even with the shortage of available
land, Pensacola Beach will continue to
grow. Architects and builders expect an in-
creasing trend toward renovating or
rebuilding the older block houses on the
beach "$5,000 houses on $100,000
lots," they are sometimes called. As this
happens, there will be another opportuni-
ty for the owners and designers on Pen-
sacola Beach to design new structures that
recognize basic architectural principles and

work with the beauty of the natural
Pensacola Beach is actually the oldest
settlement in Florida six years older, in
fact, than St. Augustine. But the settlers
who landed on Pensacola Beach in 1559
were washed away two years later by a
hurricane, and St. Augustine was founded
before Pensacola and Pensacola Beach
were re-established. One Pensacola ar-
chitect suggests that history may have to
repeat itself if there are to be significant im-
provements in the architecture on the
beach if the people could be safely
evacuated and the canvas cleared for
serious students of architecture to try again.
That is not likely to happen. But the
owners and architects who live and work
on Pensacola Beach do have an oppor-
tunity to slowly and methodically improve
the architecture on the beach as they
develop the remaining land and as they
tear down and rebuild the older sections
of the beach. In small, incremental steps,
Pensacola Beach can achieve some ar-
chitectural distinction worthy of its natural
beauty. There may be little reason to
believe it will happen, but there is every
reason to hope.

Ray Reynolds is a Contributing Editor to
Florida Architect.

Perdido Key is a new area of coastal
development between Pensacola and
Mobile. Architects are being offered many
opportunities to design new buildings for
the Panhandle Gulf Coast, opportunities to
avoid the mistakes and failures that
characterize Pensacola Beach and the
other older developments. How are they
doing? We'll take a look in the next issue.

Downtown on the
Downtown Pensacola is an area of
booming architectural opportunity to-
day. Pensacolans have rediscovered
their downtown. They have realized the
convenience and the potential of living,
working and playing downtown along
the bayfront. An estimated $175 million
of new construction is planned, and
several projects are already under
A $20-million convention center is
being built to help the city lure visitors.
In conjunction with the convention
center, a Hilton Hotel is rising just across
the street. The Hilton will restore and in-
corporate the old L&N railroad depot as
its lobby. Behind the depot-lobby rises
a dark glass tower of hotel rooms.
Even more potential is visible in the
dawning development of Pensacola's
bayfront. The city is situated on the strik-
ing blue waters of Pensacola Bay, yet
the land along the bayfront has re-
mained mostly unused. Because the
bayfront has not previously been
developed, new construction can be
planned without accommodating
existing buildings or battling over
Two major residential complexes
have been planned on the bayfront.

Port Royale and Pitts Slip developments
will include offices, condominiums,
restaurants and shops, bringing life
back to the bayfront at all times of the
day and night. Construction is sched-
uled to begin soon on those two
Another mixed-use building with
four floors of commercial space, topped
with four residential floors, is being built
just down Bayshore Drive. And Gulf
Power Company has been conducting
a nationwide architectural talent search
to erect a new $25-million office building
The private development is being
undertaken in tandem with several am-

bitious civic projects. A new City Hall is
being built in the already architectural-
ly impressive Governmental Center.
Other new projects include a waterfront
plaza at the end of the municipal pier,
new landscaping in the downtown
historic square, a swimming pool, a new
parking garage and a nine-mile bay
walk along the bluffs of Pensacola Bay.
Pensacola will be a different city in
five years a city that has preserved
its past while building its future, a city
that has rejuvenated its downtown, a
city that has begun to take greater ad-
vantage of its beautiful natural setting.
Exciting things are happening in
The restored
Theatre is
the center
piece of
Street. Pen-
Street has
restored ar-
but not yet



Michael Yaros, AIA
After a nine year association with the
family-established company of Yaros
Associates, Architects and Engineers, I left
the firm in 1981 to join one of the major in-
terior design firms in South Florida. While
at Yaros, I was involved with a number of
interesting projects, both as project ar-
chitect and as concept designer. But, the
team approach to architecture and interior
design that I'd observed at Richard
Plumer, Inc. offered an appealing
challenge and I liked the idea of architects
and designers developing projects and
seeing them through to fruition as a team.
In the past, architects were the sole
source of all design elements for all con-
struction design. As the building industry
became more specialized and construction
schedules were compressed, architects
had to rely on consultants to fill certain
voids in expertise, mainly the interior
spaces of a structure.
Today, due to the elaborate scope of
many projects, teams of specialists are
being assembled to work together, pool-
ing their special knowledge for each design
project from concept to completion.
Interior design, as well, has expanded
into this team method, as the field is en-
compassing more and more new and com-
plex elements, requiring not only creativi-
ty of design, but the scientific knowledge
to carry out the ideas in an orderly, efficient
What an architect can bring to an in-
terior design firm is consistency of design
and construction. Drawing on the em-
phasis of his education in project manage-
ment, as well as architectural design, an
architect acts as a key team player in pro-
viding such specific information as project
scheduling, cost estimates, production of
detailed construction documents, organiza-
tion and presentation of material, technical
specificaitons and contract administration.
Very often, the interior construction
dollars may equal or exceed the cost of the
building shell. Therefore, a greater em-
phasis must be placed on the interior

Top: 7,000 square feet of office space was com-
pleted for Ernst & Whinney in Jacksonville in 1982.
The Project architect was Yaros and the Project in-
terior designer was Winston K. Lipper. Photo by
Patricia Fisher Photography.
Bottom: The 139 Building, Miami, remodeling of an
existing building. Building design by Michael
Yaros; Project Manager, Danny Valdes.Photo by
Patricia Fisher Photography, Miami.


design and implementation of the various
elements therein.
At Plumer, a commercial design proj-
ect is assigned to a team after the firm's
principals have determined from the client
the kind of project needed and desired, as
well as the client's preferences even his
hobbies and special interests such as
travel, art or collecting. These factors are
utilized to determine the team which will be
assembled from the staff of commercial
contract designers and the architectural
Included on each team are a project
architect, project interior designer, job cap-
tain, project manager, and various
assistants, as needed.
Since the scope of most interior proj-
ects is well beyond simple furnishings,
most projects require manipulation of
mechanical, electrical, structural and ar-
chitectural elements. The Plumer team
serves all of these needs by having a Proj-
ect Architect on the team from the initial
From the onset of the design process,
the Project Architect and the Project Interior
Designer work closely together with the
client to establish the program. Design con-
cepts may be generated from either the
Project Architect or the Project Designer.
With final approval of the design, the
Project Interior Designer prepares detailed
specifications for the finishes and fur-
nishings selected. For the purchasing and
installation of furnishing items, the Plumer
firm's warehouse facilities and service
department are utilized in most design proj-
ects. The experience gained from handling
the furnishing warehousing, delivery and
installation is immeasurable. Designers en-
joy the first-hand opportunity to judge the
quality of materials received and various
items as specified.
In addition to numerous interior/ar-
chitectural projects, Richard Plumer
Design, Inc. is involved in the design of
buildings ranging from a proposed 14-story
Medical Office Facility in the Brickell area
of Miami to the design of commercial
warehouses and residential remodeling
and design. Consistent with our design ap-
proach to interior projects, an office team
is cast for each of these projects.
I think it is important that good designs
are achieved whether the project is as
small as designing a specialized trade desk
for a bank or the design of several floors
of office space. As long as the method of
implementation is carefully evaluated at the
beginning and eventually carried out, good
design will result.

Michael Yaros, AIA, is vice-president in
charge of Richard Plumer Design, Inc. an
architectural division of Richard Plumer
Interior Design of Miami.

The Sarasota Quay Sales Office was designed by
Yaros. The original sales office structure had been
programmed to be remodeled. Considering a
rather limited budget, architect Yaros suggested
providing a screen wall and arch which suggested
a completed project. Photos by Patricia Fisher
Photography, Miami.



Robert C. Broward, AIA

Architecture must serve humanity first
and never be an end in itself, whether for
profit or self-esteem.
The author's studio credo.
Architecture is a complex and de-
manding art. No other creative endeavor
among the fine arts has to satisfy such
divergent forces as those realized by this
interplay of art, science, law, finance, social
and personal concern. The most elusive re-
quirement of all is that if a work is truly to
be architecture, it must bring all of these
elements into a harmonious and poetic
whole that will please and lift the human
spirit. This occurs but rarely, but when it
does, I find great pleasure and celebration
in it.
I watch the changing scenes in ar-
chitecture as published and as observed
in the real world, and much of the work
seems to be emerging as surface treatment
and form-giving, often in this year's colors.
I do not see enough evidence of the still
reasonable architectural verities of
Vitruvius, the belief that a building can be
sound of structure, well-planned for its use
and a delight to behold. Obviously, today's
buildings are far more complicated than in
the Roman architect's time, but this is all
the more reason for complete orchestra-
tion of the new complications into a whole
that is simpler than the sum of its parts.
The better work in the current man-
nerist phase of architecture is being done
by talents who would design excellent
buildings regardless of the applied or
misapplied "style." There are too many
buildings now confusing the urban scene
that appear to be very expensive fun and
games. The "bad modern" from which
they were intended to rescue humanity will
pale in comparison. The inane strip
development will have strong competitors
for the "lack of worth as architecture"
Glass-box modern architecture, ex-
emplified by the repetitive use of lookalike
cookie-stamp curtain walls, has been called
to task, and that is a definite plus toward
the resurgence of a more humane architec-
ture. Yet all modern architecture is lumped
together as one great and irredeemable
tragedy. The -ac thi Trl he most generic and
substantive chapters of the modern move-
ment were forged out of America's basic
heritage seems to have been adriotly

Above:The Southeast Toyota Building in Deerfield
Beach was designed by architect Broward in 1980.
Photo courtesy of the architect.
Left: Detail of rain spout on the Toyota Building.
Photo courtesy of the architect.


forgotten so that the polemics for Post-
Modern (Post-Mortem) could evolve new
heroes and heroines.
If we are to be aware of history again,
as P.M. advocates, and of the ambiguous
and the esoteric, we should try to under-
stand the dedication of life surging within
the works of Louis Sullivan and Frank Lloyd
Wright, as well as the overlooked contribu-
tions of Bruce Alonzo Goff and a few
others. All were doing work that would
compare well with work being done today,
and most of it occurred 70 or more years
ago. The advanced concepts of Frank
Lloyd Wright, which many of today's ar-
chitects think they discovered, still have not
been surpassed even with new
technologies and far better photography
for the magazine covers.
I left college and went to study with
Frank Lloyd Wright in 1949. At that time I
could see no relevance to American life,
as I understood it, in the borrowed
methodology of the Bauhaus via Harvard-
trained professors. My very personal work
in college simply did not fit easily into the
current academic mold. So I went to the
only source I could find to learn how natural
buildings were born and developed into
meaningful places for humanity instead of
egos. Perhaps my Florida childhood close

to unspoiled nature, and my youthful
distrust of any vested authority inherited
from my politically active family played a
part in this early decision. Though I was
only 23 at the time, I never regretted my
decision to learn technology at Georgia
Tech and to learn how to approach the
design of buildings from Frank Lloyd
To be an architect is to devote a
lifetime to the ideal of the art. The crass
businessman or businesswoman who
parades as architect, the lackey who
spends more time trying to land another
job than producing even competent work,
would be correctly termed "para-tects."
These are the ones who have welcomed
ad agencies into their design bedrooms in
order to fake great performances.
One of my deepest beliefs is that ar-
chitecture is a personal, not a congregate,
art. It is an art that must be properly con-
trolled by one mind. And it is a uniquely
revealing experience to the participant and
equally so to the more-than-casual
Architecture as a personal art requires
maturity. Mumford, in Art and Technics,
compares the maturation of art and the ar-
tist to the growth phases of an infant into
a mature person:

"There are three stages in the
development of the artist (ar-
chitect) .. the first is the infantile
stage of "look at me!" The second
stage goes beyond primitive exhibi-
tionism and the artist offers an invita-
tion: "I have something to show to
you!" The third stage, that of matura-
tion, is the transition from self-love to
that of giving a gift without any ex-
pectation of a reward when "the ar-
tist embraces life as a whole and em-
bodies it in symbols that reconcile its
tragic contradictions and releases its
fullest potentialities."
Even if the third stage of maturity is
reached, there remains for the architect the
constant hurdles of bureaucratic walls of
nonsense and the devastating inability of
builders and workers to execute quality
work in our society before a reasonable
fascimile of a conceptual idea can be
reached. I deeply admire any architect
whose devotion and perserverance can
achieve a well-designed building well built.
It has not always been that way. Once there

Jacksonville Unitarian Church. Broward designed
this building in 1966. Photo by Belton Wall.

were dedicated builders and craftsmen of
great integrity. Once there were not near-
ly so many government drones with such
power to erase design logic and beauty in
one myopic codified sweep!
How different the face of America would
be if there were no large architectural firms
holding stables of designers who, for
whatever the reason, cannot run offices of
their own. What different fruits of the im-
agination would be seen if works came
from the developed or developing inner
beings of these sometimes gifted in-
dividuals. Without responsibility to a group
psyche, their inner treasure of talent and
feeling could be developed on individual
Very early in my career as an indepen-
dent architect I had to make an important
decision. Believing as I did in the sanctity
of the individual, I decided that even if I had
to do the "leftovers" that the big boys
missed, I would rather be true to myself
than part of a group whose identity at best
was a conference decision. Though by do-
ing this I gave up the opportunity of becom-
ing involved in large buildings or of using
my design abilities to help make bigger
things more humane in concept, I have
known for many years that I made the right
Since 1956, my office in Jacksonville has
been run as a teaching studio for young
people, as well as a place for producing
my work. During this time, some seventy
assistants have received at least some of
their basic experience with me, sometimes
under joyful circumstances, sometimes
sharing the darker side of my excursions
into various aspects of the art.
None of it has been boring. Always it has
been a search into the realm of ideas and
the expression of architecture outside of the
mainstream. Assistants and apprentices
have been involved not merely in develop-
ing my designs, but have gained insight in-
to all phases of the manner in which I bring
an idea to fruition, including much field
Hard hats are as important in my office
as are soft pencils. Design never stops until
the construction is complete. How many of
the rising crop of painters masquerading
as architects have ever tried to climb a
shaky ladder in the wind or have tried to
actually construct in detail something they
would have the nerve to ask someone else
to build?
Of the young people who have worked
and often struggled with me over the years
to bring many of my designs to successful
completion, a number have distinguished

Interior of Wesley Manor Retirement Village, look-
ing out toward entrance pavilion. Photo by Wade

themselves in design and the furtherance
of integrity in architecture. Of the four
fellowships bestowed upon Jacksonville ar-
chitects in the past ten years, three have
been received by architects who received
at least part of their early training and ini-
tial frustration in my studio: Herschel
Shepard, FAIA, Peter Rumpel, FAIA and
Ted Pappas, FAIA. Though these honors
were for their own unique contributions to
architecture, I hope that in some way our
times together helped catalyze the direc-
tions that were already set.
The studio is still being run in much the
same manner. There are no computers, no
advertising, no big shots, but much faith
that good will prevail in the art of architec-
ture as we slowly struggle to give people
reasons to celebrate their lives. To be an
architect takes a long time. I hope my own
work is maturing as I finally have a few
larger commissions to work with after many
years of doing screened porches and, in
two instances, doll houses.
My dismay at some of today's "camp"

architecture is because of bad architectural
grammar the language of form and
space used to speak of our intent as
designers. Grammar in design can be
compared to the grammar of our written
and spoken language. Mastery is not re-
quired for limited, basic communication,
but if esoteric or poetic ideas are to be ex-
pressed, then a mastery of grammar is re-
quired. A person who must use vulgar
words will find it difficult to compose a
beautiful word-idea. The same is true of ar-
chitectural grammar.
As with multiple linguistic abilities eclec-
tically mixed, multiple use of architectural
grammar in design can be disastrous. The
worst of the eclectic buildings of America's
first Beaux-Arts lover affair were those that
made a mixed salad of grammar borrowed
from unrelated cultures, places and pur-
poses thereby often ruining good building
ideas. The continuity of an idea is impossi-
ble under such circumstances. Grammar
is as much a degree of feeling as it is a
tangible methodology, and includes, but is


Top right: Wesley Manor Retirement Village,
St. John's County Florida. This village was
designed by architect Broward in association with
Robert Warner, AIA. The entrance pavilion shown
here was designed in 1960. Photo by Wade
Below left: The Gelbman residence as designed
by architect Bruce Goff in 1960. Photo by Bob
Below right: The Keye residence in Rochester,
Minnesota was designed by Frank Lloyd Wright
in 1947. Photo by Bob Broward.

not restricted to, the following:
*the manner in which a site is ad-
dressed, be it urban or rural;
*respect for regional anribules such as
the sun, wind, water, rain;
*the method of putting together the parts
of the building...articulation;
*the lower termination of how a building
rises from the earth;
*the upper termination or the form and
shape of the roof, and
*the articulated landscape and planting.
Each of these criteria bears discussion,
but basically they are the key words in a
good architectural vocabulary. In my own
work, I have purposefully designed within
a limited vocabulary so that I might develop
better details to mold the concept into a
homogeneous statement. Within this well-
learned grammar I can arrange different
compositions of space without having to
"re-invent" the wheel each time. I have

been able to develop a method of expres-
sion that gives my buildings a sense of con-
tinuity over the years, yet each one is a dif-
ferent statement answering to a particular
set of circumstances, thereby setting them
in no fixed era of time.
My first building in Jacksonville was a
house for myself that was designed and
built in 1953. I did all the work myself using
"found" materials even down to rejected
tempered plate glass which could not be
cut, so the house was designed to accom-
modate strange lines. There is no heat, no
central air and few conveniences. This is
my choice. The entire construction cost less
than $3,000 and I still live in the house.
I still carry my dismay over the slow, but
calculated intrusion of a rigid academic
mannerism into architecture, but I feel a ris-
ing wave of rejection and the search for
more realistic American roots in design. It
is all there for the asking. Painter-architects

do not have the required grasp of space
and spatial composition that is paramount
to the creation of meaningful architecture.
If reason prevails and building commit-
tees and competition juries use basic
sense, the only pink and purple elephant
will be that which demeans the art of
architecture by its painterly approach such
as the one in Portland, Oregon.
Lest I be categorized as a myopic critic
who can see only one direction, let me
assure you that I see many directions. But,
like Robert Frost, I have had to make a
decision and I do not regret it.

Robert C. Broward, AIA practices architec-
ture in Jacksonville and is the author of
"The Architecture of Henry John Klutho -
the Prairie School in Jacksonville.


II-: ): ~;s



Robert J. Bitterli, AIA

As architects, we are continually
challenged to design buildings that are
dynamic and have a strong conceptual
basis. When we are successful in design-
ing to that challenge our buildings, dare I
say it, are more likely than not, good
Strong architectural concepts can help
to generate dynamic architecture; an ar-
chitecture where plan, volume and detail
is expressive of the forces shaping it. Con-
cepts can be likened to architectural glue,
if you will. They can hold the elements of
a building together into a cohesive
assembly if the right amount is used. Con-
versely, if not enough conceptual glue is
used, the architecture is disjointed and falls
apart when anlayzed.
We are often asked to design within
programmatic and budgetary limits,
generally supplied us by the client. Not
many clients however, attempt to define ar-
chitectural concepts pertaining to their pro-
jects; this is the architect's domain. We
must react to program, budget, site and all
other determinates to formulate the con-
cepts that will ultimately shape the building
"Concept getting" in our profession is
perhaps the single most important step
toward insuring that the project at which
the evolving design receives an "ordering
system" upon which all decision making
is based. Without the "ordering system"
that a strong concept provides, the design
risks the danger of becoming an arbitrary
collection of decisions. A finished project
may in fact result, but at the expense of a
cohesive order and unified identity.
The design process is a progression
of steps, starting with the general and work-
ing toward the specific. We begin by
analyzing the client's needs and the site's
potential. We must then synthesize these
forces into conceptual directions to be
used during our design sketches. Assum-
ing we have the creativity and the logical
thought pattern that our profession
demands, a form will result that responds
to all of the project needs, while express-
ing the concepts within it.
During design, concepts should both
be tested and modified while reacting to
the many forces and considerations the
designer investigates. This is the point
where a synthesis results, springing from


I_- Te

the designer's analysis of the problem. A
creative bridging occurs from abstract
forces in conceptual form, i.e. a form that
embodies the concept, but is not yet
Subsequent design studies yield
refinement of the conceptual form into the
schematic design solution. Still further
design development and contract
documents produces a finished solution,
which may then become built form. If the
designer has faithfully used strong design
concepts to their fullest to help shape the
building, the design will project those con-
cepts, embodying the overall form, mass-
ing and detailing of the building.
"Good" buildings, almost without ex-
ception, reach out to the observer and pre-
sent themselves and the ideas behind

College of Business Administration Building:
University of South Florida, Tampa
BIG IDEA: An earth berm building: CONCEPTS'
Diagonal pedestrian walkways enter the building,
encircling the perimeter and intersecting the
building, breaking it into quadrants. Light and air
enter a 6' opening at the top of the berm, filtering
down to a lush internal garden. From the exterior
the monolithic earthen mound is topped with a
piercing slot of reflective glass inset within brick
bands. All photos by Dwight Holmes

them. They are identifiable by their con-
cepts which "show through" the actual
materials, forms and spaces. In "showing
through", they graphically tell a story about
themselves, layering various levels of
meaning, one on top of the other. It is then
left to the sophistication of the observer to
interpret those levels of meaning.

Private Aviation Terminal-Tampa International
Airport, Tampa, Florida
BIG IDEA: A transition from land to air; CONCEPTS.:
An assembledge of overlapping elements. The
multiuse terminal/hangar building expresses its
longspan roof with an exposed brightly colored
steel truss. The main building is a "heavier" ele-
ment that passes under the light and airy protec-
tive canopy, which serves to shelter incoming and
outgoing passengers and aircraft, while spanning
over the building below.

I am certainly not saying that every
building is capable of transmitting that
much information about itself when viewed
in passing. The layman may in fact inter-
pret a building on a purely subliminal level,
coming away from it with little more than
a good or bad feeling about the ex-
perience. Then, after multiple usage or
viewings, the layman may begin to see
more of the concept behind the building.
We must not demand that the layman
make exhaustive analysis of the buildings
and spaces around him. But, as design
professionals, we must demand of each
other that a building's users have a good
feeling toward the environment that we
design around them. If we could allow our
S concepts to help us to create buildings and
spaces that successfully appeal to the
users, then we have accomplished
It seems to me that most architects
went through schools that attempted to
educate us with a means of evaluating a
project by analysis of all of the forces that
may potentially shape it. The beginning
years of design are almost exclusively
;-. "' focused on this design process. Architec-
S tural studies then branch out to carry proj-
ects to a more refined state. By graduation,
students are asked to program, analyze,
conceptualize and design simulated ar-
chitectural projects often in a compressed
time frame and a highly competitive
The fast pace of the education process
does not always allow a student ample op-
portunity to explore and evaluate concept
alternatives. This can ultimately create a
gap in our graduate's ability to sensitively
develop concepts to a point of refinement.
This, combined with the tremendous
technical gap that also exists, presents a
challenge to the architectural firm employ-
ing them. The point is, that strong concept
exploration and evaluation must occur
within our offices for young architects to
develop in their concept-getting abilities.
Perhaps the fast pace of school will have

Hillsborough County Musuem Of Science And
Industry, Hillsborough County, Tampa
BIG IDEA: A high tech pavillion for sheltering
exhibits; CONCEPTS: The building is comprised of
concrete exhibit structures separated by a linear
planted pedestrian street. The exhibit levels appear
to stand alone under the delicate space frame roof
thereby giving the roof the function and feeling of
an open air pavillion.


Jack Eckerd Corporate Headquarters Building,
SClearwater, Florida
BIG IDEA: A terraced garden; CONCEPTS:
A monolithic concrete form from the side facades,
with an articulated precast concrete panel skin ser-
ving as a base for the terraced gardens. Circula-
tion/mechanical cores carry through the building
identified as solids from the south and as stair
elements on the north.

helped to prepare them for the even
greater pressure in the office to concep-
tualize quickly and accurately, due to to-
day's stringent design/production budgets
and client deadlines.
In our search for appropriate architec-
tural concepts, we are most definitely in-
fluenced by what we see and hear within
the architectural circle. Perhaps we are in-
fluenced more strongly than we realize or
care to admit. Through the education pro-
cess and the architectural media, we are
exposed to various "creative pools." These
are groupings of related information that
are identifiable and influential in the design
process. When we conceptualize, we draw
from these "creative pools" on both con-
scious and subconscious levels. Below is
a listing of some of the "creative pools"
and their associated "buzz" words, that in-
fluence us in our concept getting and for
that matter affect us in all areas of our
Program, tastes, concerns, wants, don't
wants, budget, etc...
Relationships, interrelationships, group-
ings, adjacencies, etc...
Access, orientation, axis, slope,
topography, vegetation, soils, run off,
Convection, conduction, radiation, ventila-
Stion, shading, daylighting, solar gain,
storage, timelag, mass, payback, etc...
Vernacular, local, regional, national,
material availability, acceptable forms,
Classicism, revivalism, mannerism,
abstractionism, cubism, neo-rationalism,
modernism, post modernism, etc...
Industrialism, high tech, off-the-shelf com-
ponents, slick skins, exposed mechanical
systems, aluminum, metal panels, reflec-
tive glass, prefab., air structures, space
frames, etc. .
Metaphorism, fantastacism, surrealism,
allusionism, mysticism, etc...
The grid, alignment, planning modules,
coursing, the centerline, the axis, sym-

metry, geometric forms, 12' floor to floor,
the 9' ceiling, etc...
Sullivan, Richardson, Wright, Corbusier
Van der Rohe, Gropious, Kahn, Alto, etc...
Johnson, Moore, Venturi, Graves, Mier,
Pei, Weese, Stubbins, Birketts, H.O.K.,
C.R.S., S.O.M., Murphy/Jahn,
Gwalthmey/Seigle, Mitchell/Guirgola,
Kohn/Peterson/Fox, etc...
P.A., Arch. Record, A.I.A. Journal, Abitare,
Realize that these pools are constant-
ly changing and realigning with new forces
within the profession. We each respond to
our creative pools depending on our
background, experience and individual
philosophy. The creative pools are a
method of categorizing the many in-
fluences around us today. The list
presented here is by no means exhaustive
or appropriate to everyone, but is rather
responsive to a particular viewpoint.
Drawing influences from these creative
pools, we conceptualize our projects and
shape them throughout the design pro-
cess, often allowing one central concept or
"big idea" to emerge. The "big idea", if
carried out to the fullest, should present
itself within the building much the same as
the theme of a novel or short story. Within
each "big idea" are secondary concepts

that should help mold our decision-making
from beginning masterplan to the connec-
tion details.
As architects, a central goal should be
to design buildings where the "big idea"
is clearly evident, to the point where it
speaks for itself. This is not to say that every
building must necessarily make a landmark
statement. The "big idea" may be very
subtle and gentle or it may be bold and ex-
pressive. The point is, if a building emerges
and a "big idea" is not discernable, what
have we done? Blame the program, the
client, the budget, the circumstances; the
bottom line is that a compromised architec-
ture has resulted. When a project is
floundering for an explanation, we will have
failed in designing a concise and relatable
The project photos accompanying this
commentary are exemplary of strong
concept-inspired architecture, where the
initial design concepts gave inspiration to
the overall building form, as well as to their
detailing. Each building embodies one
"big idea" or major concept, as well as
many secondary concepts, which greatly
influenced the form of each building.

Robert J. Bitterli, A.I.A. is an Architect with
the firm of Rowe Holmes Barnett Architects,
Inc. The projects shown here were de-
signed by that firm.





Bernard N. Horovitz, AIA

How to package a functional building
aesthetically that was the design
challenge for the new College of Engineer-
ing Building at Florida Atlantic University
in Boca Raton.
The building was programmed with
complex interior space requirements. In
addition to the seminar rooms and offices
one might expect in an educational facili-
ty, the College of Engineering also requires
laboratories with massive operating ma-
chinery and sophisticated instrumentation.
A structure of substantial dimensions
was inevitable, but FAU's spacious and
modestly-scaled campus could not
assimilate a dominating edifice. The Col-
lege of Engineering Building, because of
its size, had to be integrated with care into
the physical fabric of the campus.
The resulting 57,000-square-foot
building was designed by The Smith
Korach, Hayet, Haynie Partnership a
Miami-based architectural, engineering
and planning firm. It was completed in
1982 at a cost of $4.5 million ($78.95 per
square foot). For compatibility with the
scale of the surrounding campus, the
building is long and horizontal in form but
only two stories high.
In color and texture, too, the College
of Engineering Building was designed to
harmonize with other campus structures.
It's a reinforced concrete frame structure
with most of the exterior sheathed in
precast concrete panels of a light beige ag-
gregate finish. Vigorous bare concrete
forms frame the main entrance while tropical
plants soften the building's contemporary
Continuous horizontal bands of bronze
solar glass, contrasting with the panels,
guide the eye down the length of the
facade. They serve visually to minimize its
height and focus attention at the main en-
trance. Ninety percent of the windows have
a northern exposure; those on the south
are clerestory windows to minimize solar
loading. Placement of the windows admits
natural light to all offices and laboratories.
The main entrance emerges as a
forceful and dominating design element. Its
strong geometric forms and exposed con-
Top: The most striking exterior element of Floridacrete surface don't just allude to the pur-
Atlantic University's College of Engineering rete surface don't just allude to the pur
Building is its main entrance. Beneath a huge rec- pose within they give passersby a sym-
tangular cantilevered canopy, the entrance doors bolic glimpse.
nestle behind the curved wall of a semi-circular
reading room. All photos by William Pearson. Beneath a huge rectangular can-
Bottom: An atrium-like two-story skylighted lobby tilevered canopy, the front entrance nestles
just inside the main entrance offers students and behind the curved wall of a two-story
faculty an informal gathering place,
semicircular reading room open for use
around the clock. Another wall of the
reading room is completely glazed,


flooding the space with light by day and
at night framing a portrait of academic
endeavor. Most of the 9,000 students at
FAU's Boca Raton campus are com-
muters, but the school has seven dormi-
tories housing 1,054 residents 11.7%
of the student body. Those who study
engineering tend to be nocturnal.
The reading room was dedicated as
a memorial to the late Dr. Denys O.
Akhurst, Dean of the College of Engineer-
ing while the building was being planned
and built. He died before it was completed.
Just inside the main entrance, a two-
story skylighted lobby offers students and
faculty an informal gathering place. Beige
quarry-tile flooring highlights its circulation
patterns; the seating area in the center is
carpeted. Surprisingly, this atrium-like
space is quiet. The carpeting, cloth seats
and the very proportions of the lobby serve
to absorb sound so that occupants may
speak in a normal tone and be heard even
when multiple conversations are taking
One enters the reading room through
the lobby. Administrative and department
offices cluster around its margins, and cor-
ridors departing from its perimeter lead to
a variety of functional spaces in the far
reaches of the building.
The College of Engineering Building
houses faculty offices, laboratories and
drafting areas for the departments of elec-
trical, mechanical and ocean engineering.
Conference, meeting and seminar rooms
are strategically located throughout the
building. Placement of the structure on its
Site contemplates the future addition of a
civil engineering department.
The laboratories are two-story areas
with ceilings 15 to 20 feet high to accom-
modate experimental mechanical equip-
ment and provide spatial flexibility for stu-
dent projects. For the same reasons, the
building has pre-stressed long-span joists
to provide unobstructed spaces of up to
65 x 24 feet or 1,560 square feet.
Several of the labs have heavy-duty
hoists built into the ceiling and "tie-down"
bolt sockets set in the floors. One lab is
designed to accommodate a wind tunnel.
Two rooms for underwater sound testing
are structurally isolated from the rest of the
building, with separate insulated founda-
tions to absorb extraneous vibrations.
Exterior laboratory yards are sited with
a southern exposure to facilitate ex-
perimentation with solar energy devices.
Equipment for underwater sound testing
also is situated in the outdoor yards.
Exposed ductwork, piping, electrical
conduits, light fixtures and colored con-
crete floors in the laboratories constitute
"high-tech" design elements expressing
the essence of the College's technological
mission. For user comfort, offices and

Top: Detail view of entrance canopy, entrance and
curved reading room wall.
Bottom: Exposed ductwork and lighting fixtures in
the laboratories constitute "high-tech" design
elements expressing the College's technological

classrooms have lowered acoustical ceil-
ings and carpeting.
High intensive discharge (HID) lighting
fixtures with metal halide or sodium lamps
were selected for their low-energy demand.
This building represents the first applica-
tion of HID lighting technology in Florida's
state university system.
Most fixtures in the laboratories and
corridors are pendant-mounted and reflect
light off the ceiling to give indirect illumina-
tion free of glare and shadows. In drafting

rooms, offices and classrooms, fixtures are
wall-mounted or built into cabinets and par-
titions as part of the interior furnishings.
Thus, the lighting system actually is a part
of the building's interior architectural

Bernard Horovitz, AIA, was the designer
of the College of Engineering Building for
the Smith, Korach, Hayet, Haynie




Howard Means, Orlando Seminole Critic At Large

"Doc, I've got nightmares."
"You think you've got nightmares."
"They're about the old Firestone
building at Concord Street and Orange
Avenue in downtown Orlando."
"The Firestone people restored it."
"I know. It's beautiful. It's
unbelievable. But I keep dreaming that it's
not a Firestone store anymore. In my
nightmare, someone else buys it and turns
it into one of those mini-malls."
"That's a nightmare?"
"You don't understand, Doc. You
know how, when someone buys one of
these old buildings and puts boutiques in
it, they always name them after whatever
the old building was used for. That's what
my nightmare is about."
"Mine are always about bats."
"I walk into the Firestone building on
a whim, and there they all are: Straight
ahead are Tireless Antiques and the Fired
Stone it's a ceramics shop. On the left
are Fire Stoned, a freebasing clinic, and
Fired and Stoned, which sells drug
paraphernalia for the recently job-
terminated. Down the hall to the right are
Hubb's Caps and Lugg's Nuts, Crow's Bar
and Lube's Jobs an employment search
firm for the recently job-terminated who
aren't spending all their time at Fired and

"You ought to lie down."
"It's only the beginning, Doc. Upstairs,
they've got Brake's Drums, Brake's Disks,
and Braking Out, a dermatology clinic. I
round the corner and there's Inner Tubes,
selling new wave feminine supports. We'll
Balance is a checkbook watchdog service.
Next door is We'll Bounce, where you can
hire temporary personnel to remove un-
wanted bar patrons. Eyre's Hose is hawk-
ing 19th-century stockings, and at Tyre's
Irons, you can buy bibical pressing
"Vulcan Eyes is selling designer
eyewear. There's Jacked Up for elevator
shoes, Treads & Threads for the latest in
foot apparel and Riding On The Rim -
Doc, it's a whole bar devoted to
"You really ought to lie down."
"I am! The signs keep flying out at me
as I walk back downstairs: Two Ply, Four
Ply, Six Ply A Dollar 'Unbelievable Dis-
counts on Odd and Remaindered Plywood
Sections.' Ray, Dee & Al's 'The Michelin
Burger: Unconditionally Guaranteed for
50,000 Smiles.' Ray Deals 'You Want
It, Ray's Got It.' Last night there was even
a Raid Eels 'Life-Threatening Eels: The

The Firestone Tire and HuDDer Store in downtown urando. Ine Duiiaing was restored oy Leslie UlVOll,
AIA, of the Orlando architectural firm of Divoll and Yielding. Photo by Bob Braun.

Truly Unique Home Protection System.'
Doc, you've got to help me. I'm sick."
"You're 50 minutes is up."
"Who do I make the check out to."
"The clinic."
"What's the name, Doc?"
"I thought you knew: Braking Down.
Come back next Tuesday. We're having
a special on shocks."

Thanks to The Orlando Sentinel for per-
mission to republish this article.
In reality ... no such fate as Howard
Means describes here has happened to
the 53-year old Firestone Tire and Rubber
Store in downtown Orlando. It's been
restored by architect Leslie Divoll, AIA, of
the Orlando firm of Divoll and Yielding.
Here is Leslie's description of the project.
"When does an architect's work on a
project begin? In this case, three years
before the demolition permit was obtained.
.The Firestone Tire & Rubber Company
slated its building for replacement with a
suburban strip model. In final review of the
file, the Architect's three-year-old letter
making a case for renovation came to
Firestone management's attention. Within
a few days they visited the site.
There was much discussion about
"too far gone" and "center cities are dy-
ing" and "impractical floor plan". But what
about the obvious "you can't miss it" quali-
ty of the old building? The fifty years of
association with this structure, this site,
selected by the Company's founder?
Harvey S. Firestone predicted in 1928 that
Orlando was destined to be Florida's most
important inland city. He was right. Was the
northern gateway to Orlando's downtown
the place for the standard suburban
Firestone store?
The creative work in this project was
answering these questions and leading
Firestone to the decision to renovate. After
that, reorganization, retrofit, repair and
reconstruction were matters of design
deferring to the powerful character of a
When does an architect's work on a
project end? In this case, not until the word
is out that Firestone's business at this store
has multiplied, that the manager gets fan
mail, that the City has a landmark garage
marking downtown's northern gateway."


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