Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Office practice aids
 The reality of fantasy archite...
 Building the Mexico pavilion
 St. Augustine's Byzantine...
 Chapter awards dazzle in Mid-Florida...
 Restoring the Snell Arcade: A prologue...
 Student news
 Back Cover


Florida architect
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00240
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Series Title: Florida architect
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Creation Date: 1983
Frequency: quarterly
Subjects / Keywords: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
System ID: UF00073793:00240
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Office practice aids
        Page 9
    The reality of fantasy architecture
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Building the Mexico pavilion
        Page 14
    St. Augustine's Byzantine shrine
        Page 15
    Chapter awards dazzle in Mid-Florida and Florida South
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Restoring the Snell Arcade: A prologue to downtown redevelopment
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 24a
        Page 24b
    Student news
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text

W A A Flo

This- publication- is. copyrighted. by- the- Florida.
Association. of. the. American. Institute. of-
Architects- and- is- an- official- journal- of- the-

Limited permission to. digitize- and make this- electronic-
version available- has- been- granted- by the. Association-
to- the- University- of- Florida- on- behalf- of- the- State-
University- System* of F lorida.

Use- of- this- version- is- restricted- by. United- States-
Copyright- legislation- and- its- fair use- provisions.- Other-
uses- may- be- a vi olati on -of- copyright- protect ons.

Requests- for- permissions- should- be- directed to- the-
Florida- Association- of. the. American- Institute. of-
Architects.- Contact- information- is- available- at- the-
Association' sweb site.

t 1-2,31

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South Miami
5838 S.W. 73rd Street


155 Northeast 40th Street

Vero Beach
2945 Cardinal Drive
(305) 231-4166




Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects
104 East Jefferson Street
Post Office Box 10388
Tallahassee, Florida 32302
Publisher/Executive Vice
George A. Allen, CAE
Diane D. Greer

Assistant Publisher
Ray Reynolds
Editorial Board
Charles E. King, FAIA
William E. Graves, AIA
Ivan Johnson, AIA
John Totty, AIA
Robert G. Graf, AIA
Post Office Box 3741
Tallahassee, Florida 32303
Vice President
James H. Anstis, AIA
333 Southern Boulevard
West Palm Beach, Florida 33405
James J Jennewein, AIA
102 West Whiting Street
Suite 500
Tampa, Florida 33602
Mark T. Jaroszewicz, FAIA
University of Florida
College of Architecture
331 Architecture Building
Gainesville, Florida 32611
Regional Directors
Ted Pappas, FAIA
Post Office Box 41245
Jacksonville, Florida 32202
Howard B Bochiardy, FAIA
Post Office Box 8006
Orlando, Florida 32806
General Counsel
J. Michael Huey, Esquire
Suite 510, Lewis State Bank
Post Office Box 1794
Tallahassee, Florida 32302

Journal of the Florida Association
of the American Institute of
Architects, is owned and pub-
lished by the Association, a Flor-
S ida Corporation not for profit.
ISSN: 0015-3907. It is published
four times a year at the Executive
Office of the Association, 104
S E. Jefferson Ave., Tallahassee,
Florida 32302. Telephone (904)
222-7590. Opinions expressed by
contributors are not necessarily
those of the FA/AIA. Editorial
material may be reprinted pro-
S vided full credit is given to
the author and to FLORIDA
ARCHITECT, and a copy sent to
the publisher's office.
Single copies, $2.50, subscrip-
tion, $10.00 per year. Third class



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Spring, 1983
Volume 30, Number 2


10 The Reality of Fantasy Architecture
Chris Miles

11 'It Was Understood from the
Beginning that Disney Had
Total Control .'
Alan C. Helman, AIA

14 Building the Mexico Pavilion
Kathleen Richards

15 St. Augustine's Byzantine Shrine

16 Chapter Awards Dazzle in
Mid-Florida and Florida South

21 Restoring The Snell Arcade: A
Prologue to Downtown
Diane D. Greer


2 News

5 Editorial

9 Office Practice Aids

22 Letters

25 Student News

** i

27 Viewpoint

Cover Photo of St. Photios Shrine
in St. Augustine by Bob Braun.

, i


Dade County Publishes
Architectural Survey
Many of Florida's 67 countries have
been methodically surveyed by the His-
toric Preservation Division of the Florida
Department of State or by private
groups, usually historical societies, who
take it upon themselves to perform this
very valuable function.
More recently, however, local gov-
ernment has become involved with this
process of surveying and defining histor-
ically and architecturally significant sites
and the results of just such a survey
have been recently published in a
volume entitled "From Wilderness to
With a $24,000 grant from the
National Endowment for the Arts, the
Dade County Historic Preservation Divi-
sion has just published a book entitled
"From Wilderness to Metropolis." Its writ-
ers are country preservationists and
historians Ivan Rodriguez, Margot
Ammindown and Bogue Wallin, and
together they have produced a hand-
some and informative paperback
volume which is full of photographs. The
book details the architectural history of
the county, bringing to the forefront out-
standing examples of every style of
architecture that occurs in Dade County
along with biographies of a number of
architects who worked in the county.
"From Wilderness to Metropolis" is
for sale for $10.95 and can be ordered
from the South Florida Historical
Museum, 3280 S. Miami Avenue, Miami,

Architects of the Grand
Hotels to be Featured
The State Services staff of the Ring-
ling Museum of Art is planning a new
exhibition, "Architects of the Grand
Hotels of the Florida Boom Era." The ex-
hibition will emphasize architectural de-
sign as fine art and the role of architect
as artist.
The museum will be selecting about
a dozen architects and their designs to
include in the show which will travel to
Ringling affiliate museums during 1984-
85. Ten museums affiliated with the state
art museum circulate such exhibitions
To aid in its application for funds to
support the project, Ringling is seeking
the endorsement of the state association
of The American Institute of Architects
and the cooperation of individual
Anyone who has or knows the

whereabouts of drawings and docu-
ments concerning grand hotels built
from 1890 to 1929 is requested to con-
tact Ms. Louise Hobbs at Ringling
Museum of Art, P.O. Box 1838, Sarasota,
Florida, 33578, telephone (813) 355-
5101, extension 205.

Publication Lists All
Architectural Competitions
Dick Gruenwald Associates, Public
Relations and Advertising in Palm Beach
Gardens, recently informed FLORIDA
ARCHITECT that for any architects who's
interested, there is a publication avail-
able that lists the name of every
architectural competition held annually
in this country. The book is entitled
AWARDS DIRECTORY and it can be
ordered by writing to A.E. Marketing
Journal, Box 11316, Newington, Con-
necticut 06011. The cost of the publica-
tion is $46.00.

Secretaries Association
Organizing New Chapters
The need for a professional associa-
tion was recognized by architects more
than one hundred years ago, and The
American Institute of Architects was
formed. Administrative personnel in
architectural offices recognized the im-
portance of continued education in all
facets of the profession, and the Archi-
tectural Secretaries Association (ASA)
was formed.
The ASA is self-governing, non-
profit, non-partisan, non-sectarian, non-
discriminatory, and non-union. Mem-
bership in a local chapter of ASA is open
to individuals who fulfill the requirements
and qualifications set forth in that chap-
ter's bylaws.
Effective January 1, 1980, the
Architectural Secretaries Association
and The American Institute of Architects
formally established an affiliation. Rec-
ognizing that both AIA and ASA have
objectives which are consistent with
goals of improving the architectural pro-
fession, the affiliation is designed to
strengthen both organizations.
There are six ASA chapters in Flor-
ida and the FAAIA has committed itself
to making ASA more visible in the "Sun-
shine State" by encouraging all AIA
chapters to support this professional
organization. Piccola G. Randolph,
School of Architecture, Florida A & M
University, Tallahassee, and National
Recording ASA Secretary will be con-
tacting AIA presidents to organize a
chapter in their area.



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Boca Raton Presented
Boca Raton was recently the site of
a Mini/RUDAT (Mini Regional/Urban
Design Assistance Team). Twenty-one
students from the University of Florida,
eighteen architectural students and
three graduate students in urban and
regional planning, studied the downtown
redevelopment area and presented
possible design ideas to the Redevelop-
ment Agency, city staff and the public.
The students studied five separate
sites in Boca Raton. They studied the
inherent problems at each site and pro-
posed some innovative and practical
design ideas.
One of the parameters given to the
students was that the architectural style
had to be based on Architect Addison
Mizner's design as outlined in the city's
redevelopment plan design guidelines.
RUDAT is a free service of the AIA
which evaluates cities across the coun-
try as to their individual needs and
problems relating to future growth and
development. The results of a RUDAT
evaluation and recommendation are of
tremendous benefit to communities
which are rapidly developing. The team
focuses its attention on future busi-
nesses, building types, road construc-
tion and land use planning.
In Boca Raton, the Mini/RUDAT re-
sulted in suggestions for the five sites
which ranged from the construction of
additional sales and retail facilities to
landscaping of pedestrian walkways
and a bridge with commercial shops in
All of the suggestions made by the
students will be considered when the
Redevelopment Agency plans designs
for redevelopment of the City. The Mini/
RUDAT format has been used success-
fully by cities nationwide with good re-
sults in addition to the working experi-
ence it provides the students.

BOB BRAUN photographer
orlando, fl

P.O. Box 7755, Orlando, FL 32854


(305) 425-7921

-- ,' .

I had the EPCOT experience in January, 1983, and it was in-
teresting. Like everything Disney does, EPCOT is large, efficiently
operated, technologically advanced, well-marketed and de-
signed to appeal to the masses. The Disney philosophy seems to
be "give the people what they want", and I guess the people
want to see the world without going any farther than Orange
County, Florida. And, that's what Disney professes to be giving to
EPCOT visitors under the banner of a "permanent world's fair."
And that's where I take issue.
It is the seriousness with which Disney is out to convince the
public that a trip to EPCOT is at least on a par with a little
globe-hopping. And, believe me, Disney is very serious.
In a telephone call with the Public Relations Director for
WED (the Disney design firm in California) I was asked very
emphatically not to refer to EPCOT as a "theme park", but as a
"permanent world's fair." Clearly, EPCOT does have a theme and
the word continued to come up throughout the conversation, but I
think that the ban on its use has more to do with a perceived
image problem on WED's part than with any real concern on the
part of the public. "Permanent world's fair" simply sounds
more... serious.
Now that EPCOT has a label, let's take a look at what goes
with the territory. World's fairs have traditionally been education-
al, they frequently have a theme, i.e. "Energy" in Knoxville in
1982, and most important they are made up of exhibits from
participating countries.
EPCOT is none of these things.
How can one take the architecture of EPCOT seriously, for
example? All the buildings are the same size. Pagodas, towers,
castles and pyramids. Scale went out with real brick, real stone,
real wood and real trees. And even more interesting is that a
complete lack of visual barriers between countries enables the
visitor to stand in the American Pavilion and see an Italian cam-
panile, or even the Eiffel Tower.
In addition to the absence of scale is the absence of any
recognizable architectural style. That is, unless you're into "com-
posite", the Disney style for everything at EPCOT. The American
Adventure Pavilion is Georgian and Federal, neither of which are
American at all, the Mexico Pavilion is Aztec, Toltec and Mayan,
and so on. It's all very ... Disney and awfully hard to take very
On the other side of the coin, Disney means dollars for
Florida and for Florida architects. In this issue, you'll read about
what it's like for a Florida architect to work for WED.
In summary, I worry about a technology that uses artificial
materials when the real thing is cheaper and better. And most of
all, I resent the assumption that a styrene castle will make anyone
feel he's in Germany. So, maybe my problem is with the way
EPCOT is being marketed and with the fact that so many people
will accept the World Showcase at EPCOT as the "real world."
If EPCOT is truly the "Experimental Prototype Community of
Tomorrow," then perhaps we should experiment a little further.

Diane D. Greer




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Antitrust Implications of Proprietary Specs

by J. Michael Huey
General Counsel

Every design professional quickly
becomes aware of the important role
which technical specifications play in the
success of a project. Indeed, one of the
greatest tragedies is when a sure-fire
award winning project becomes an exer-
cise in frustration and disappointment
because of poor workmanship or, worse,
inferior materials. Design professionals
often become concerned with whether a
broad product description specification
should be written, whether the term "or
equal" should be included, or whether a
particular product should be specified to
the exclusion of all others, i.e., a "propri-
etary spec."
A proprietary or "closed" specifica-
tion is often selected as the best alterna-
tive. It may be that only one product will
satisfy an innovative design or that in
weighing the cost versus quality of a par-
ticular facet in the design, the architect
has decided that specification of a sin-
gle product is desirable. Or it may be
that an architect simply wishes to use a
tried and true product which produces a
known result, an increasingly important
consideration in this age of escalating
liability for design professionals. Indeed,
the reasons for writing a proprietary
specification are limited only by the num-
ber of specifying professionals.
Over the last ten years, the speci-
fication of a single product to the exclu-
sion of all others has given rise to a new
problem antitrust suits for the use of
proprietary specifications. Such suits are
generally brought against a manufactur-
er or supplier whose product is chosen
over another or against the design pro-
fessional who is persuaded to specify a

single product. Generally, there are two
theories which a plaintiff might pursue to
show an antitrust violation. The first is
that the defendants engaged in a re-
straint of trade in the antitrust sense, and
the second is that the defendants mo-
nopolized or attempted to monopolize
the relevant market.
The Sherman Anti-Trust Act pro-
hibits agreements in restraint of trade. It
Every contract, combination in the
form of trust or otherwise, or con-
spiracy, in restraint of trade or com-
merce among the several States, or
with foreign nations, is hereby de-
clared to be illegal . Every per-
son who shall make any contract or
engage in any combination or con-
spiracy hereby declared to be
illegal shall be deemed guilty of a
The Sherman Act also prohibits
monopolization or attempts to monopo-
Every person who shall monopo-
lize, or attempt to monopolize, or
combine or conspire with any other
person or persons, to monopolize
any part of the trade or commerce
among the several States or with
foreign nations, shall be deemed
guilty of a felony.
The Sherman Act also gives a party in-
jured in his business by reason of any
antitrust violation the right to sue the re-
sponsible persons and, if successful, to
receive treble damages plus attorneys'
It is generally the restraint of trade
antitrust case which is instituted against
architects for the specification of a par-
ticular product. In such a case there
must always be an agreement, a con-
spiracy or other concerted action which
leads to the restraint of trade. The agree-
ment need not be written, but can be
verbal or even implied from the actions
of the parties.
What is "restraint of trade"? Al-
though most contracts or business deal-
ings involve some restriction to free deal-
ing, if a restraint is "unreasonable" in the

antitrust sense an elusive term even
for the courts it will be a violation of
the law. The charge most often leveled
against an architect in this area is that he
has agreed or conspired with a compet-
ing supplier or other design profession-
als to refuse to deal with the plaintiff. It is
quite possible that a court would find
that an unreasonable restraint existed if,
for instance, the plaintiff could show that
an underlying motive of the agreement
was to injure his business.
In addition to the Sherman Act, Flor-
ida laws prohibiting state antitrust viola-
tions were enacted in 1980. Patterned
after the Sherman Act, the state laws
also prohibit restraint of trade and mo-
nopolization or attempts to monopolize
trade or commerce.
Fortunately, architects employing
proprietary specifications have been
absolved of charges of antitrust law
violations. Rather, the courts have found
that the use of a closed spec boils down
to the discretion of the specifier in the
representation of his client. One case in
which the plaintiff claimed that the
architect's proprietary specification
amounted to a prohibited refusal to deal
is Kendall Elevator Co. v. LBC&W
Associates. In Kendall, the South Caroli-
na federal court summarized the respon-
sibilities of the architect quite well:
An architect is hired to design and
plan the erection of a building and
in so doing he advises the owner as
to what materials and equipment
should be used. The architect has
an obligation to his client to recom-
mend products of proven quality
and performance. The owner is not
required to accept all of the advice
of the architect and may change
specifications as he desires... An
architect must use his education,
judgment and experience in advis-
ing his client and preparing speci-
fications for the client's building.
The court went on to hold that "a unilater-
al refusal to do business does not violate
the antitrust laws so long as there is no
purpose to create or maintain a monopo-
ly." Thus, the practice of including a
single manufacturer's specification as

Legal Notes
part of the architect's bid package was
Many architects, in an attempt to
open bidding to nonspecified suppliers,
will often include an "or equal" clause in
a proprietary specification. Although the
use of the "or equal" clause has re-
ceived mixed reviews in the design pro-
fession, a Massachusetts federal court in
George R. Written, Jr., Inc. v. Paddock
Pool Builders, Inc., put to rest the notion
that an architect can be held liable for an
antitrust violation through his decision
that a product is not equal to the product
The burden is on the supplier who
has not been specified to convince
the architect that his product is
equal for the purposes of the par-
ticular project. This reduces itself to
a matter of salesmanship.
The architect, as the owner's agent,
has a free hand to specify those prod-
ucts which he or she believes best meet
the client's needs. Further, because an
architect's choices of products are ever
subject to the approval of the owner, the
ultimate buyer of the product, the court
in Kendall held that the specifier's dis-
cretion in that case was sufficiently li-
mited to eliminate the possibility that any
conspiratorial agreement existed be-
tween the architect and the supplier
whose product was selected. The ulti-
mate holding of many of the cases con-
struing whether an architect, an owner or
another supplier have violated antitrust
laws is that these persons are free to
choose the product they desire. The
antitrust laws exist only to assure that the
choice of the product has been made
freely under the circumstances and the
play of competition has been available.
Architects can rest easy for the mo-
ment in specifying a particular product
for a particular building or even specifi-
cally eliminating certain products
through the use of specifications.
However, associations which develop in-
dustry standards must exercise a bit
more caution. The United States Sup-
reme Court, in American Society of
Mechanical Engineers, Inc. v. Hyd-
rolevel Corp., recently held that the en-
gineers' association engaged in anti-
competitive practices by allowing itself
to be used to develop industry codes
and standards which had the effect of
excluding a certain manufacturer's fuel
cutoff device for heating boilers.
Although the Mechanical Engineers
case involved a conflict of interest of one
of the association's officers, the decision
should alert design professionals to the
possibility of antitust liability.


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1983 Spring Educational Conference

"Think Architecture"

April 29 & 30, 1983, Sandpiper Bay Club, Port St. Lucie, FL


Making South Florida Homes and Offices Energy-Efficient

by Jeffrey Smith

The most efficient home in South
Florida is one that takes advantage of,
rather than fights, the climate for our
area. In order to take advantage of the
South Florida climate, homes should be
designed for maximum ventilation or an
"umbrella" instead of a "refrigerator."
Keeping this in mind, roof type and in-
sulation develop more importance than
wall type or insulation. However, in to-
day's technology, requiring an R value
greater than R-19 is not feasible. Also,
higher ceilings should be employed to
allow body heat to rise. Allowances

should be made to allow for a home de-
signed to work with the climate. Current-
ly this is not the case.
The South Florida Energy Code cur-
rently sets its requirements for the "re-
frigerator" design, with no exceptions.
Some factor should be employed to
consider wall and roof color. Although it
is not the intention to tell an owner what
color to paint his house, the public
should be made aware of what color can
do to wall and roof U values. A dark,
earth-toned home in South Florida
makes as much sense as an all-white
home in the northern regions of Maine.
A factor should also be considered


Concrete block

Under attic

Single assembly
(exposed beam)









R-11 insulation

Attic fan on thermostat
set to 90
11/2 wood + R-10 insul.
white finish surface

Higher ceilings


Max. % with 100%
opening & increased
overhang or louvers
or landscaping


Gas base units

Ceiling fans

Insulated tank


*R-6 insulation
*R-19 insulation

Solid wood or insul.
metal w/storm door

R-19 insulation

*R-19 insulation

R-3 min.

*R-3 perimeter

*25% openings max.
with thermal break &
double glazing

1" fiberglass

Reverse cycle, Seer 8

Reverse cycle, Seer 8

Solar/gas wheat
recovery from A/C

for landscaping. In a climate where
foliage grows so readily, it is quite easy
to achieve building shading through
landscaping and still allow for ventila-
If a refrigerator is the client's desire,
then glass type becomes important. In
this case, thermal pane glass with tinted
exterior and clear interior should be em-
ployed. In a climate-designed home,
windows with 100% ventilation charac-
teristics should be used in conjunction
with either louver shading, increased
overhangs or landscape shading.
If air conditioning is to be used, a
reverse cycle unit with a seer of 8.0
should be employed with a heat recov-
ery unit to boost incoming water temper-
ature to the water heater.
As far as water heating is con-
cerned, with 73% sunshine per year, sol-
ar water heating is obvious.
In conclusion, if a residence has
been designed to take advantage of the
climate, with proper ventilation, over-
hang and properly insulated roof
canopy, this type of home should not be
penalized by having to meet the "re-
frigerator" design.
Therefore for its short periods of
heating or air conditioning, this design
will consume far less energy than the
home that will require air conditioning
the major portions of the year due to the
fact it cannot take advantage of thor-
ough ventilation to keep the interior con-
ditions within the comfort zone.
The present energy code requires
that if any air conditioning or heat is
used, the house must meet the design
criteria of the refrigerated design. In es-
sence, we are increasing the energy use
rather than conserving it.
Because this is an overall approach
and not one on which you can impose a
strict set of design criteria, it can be
handled by having the design architect
certify that the building was designed to
take advantage of the climate. This kind
of approach can be utilized for Zones 8
and 9 of the South Florida Energy Effi-
ciency Code. Zone 8 includes Martin,
Palm Beach, Broward and Dade Coun-
ties. Zone 9 includes the Keys.

Jeffrey Smith is Development Energy
Research Project Coordinator, The Bi-
goney Associates, Inc.



The Reality of Fantasy Architecture

Florida's theme parks are merely the latest twist
on centuries of leisure and recreation architecture

by Chris Miles

More than 2000 years before the
Shamu Stadium at Sea World was con-
ceived, the Romans flooded the Col-
iseum and galley crews fought to the
death for the amusement of the emperor.
Americans have accommodated their
desire to be entertained with the zeal, if
not always with the style, of the Caesars
before them. And Florida has always
been the focus of the desire to relax and
be entertained, a destination for many
years of those seeking the pleasures of
the sun, and in more recent years the
home of a booming industry in theme
Florida's entertainment kingdoms
may seem' to be recent inventions, but
they are not. For more than 6000 years,
kings and pharoahs, monied moguls
and the occasional mere mortal have in-
dulged their leisure and recreational pur-
suits in stadiums and arenas, in theaters
and museums. And the architects who
conceived those structures have histor-
ically embellished their creations with far
more elaborate designs than structural
necessity dictated.
Leisure architecture has always
been, to some extent, embellishment
architecture. The desired effect was
achieved as much by theatrical tech-
nique as by solid construction. As the
principles of architecture developed in
the cradles of civilization, buildings be-
came Symbolic and emotional state-
ments. Decoration and scale dominated
all great structures throughout history.
Buildings were painted and gilded to
add a mystic element or a sense of fan-
tasy. Buildings like the Colussus at
Rhodes, the Great Halls of Darius at
Persepolis and the Parthenon in Athens
were awesome and inspiring and
attained god-like status.
By the time of the Romans, leisure
activities and the unique buildings they
required had spread to a new and lower
order. Senators, consuls, even a landed
aristocracy were commissioning opulent
architecture. These new leisure build-
ings mimicked the winter palaces of
Herod and the summer home of the
emperor Diocletian, much as some

theme park buildings today mimic the
homes of the great and powerful of more
recent history.
Leisure architecture built by the Ro-
mans is the backbone of today's mas-
sive recreational building industry. Con-
temporary water parks with their whale
and dolphin shows are direct descen-
dants of the flooded Coliseum in Rome.
Roman architects when designing
amphitheatres considered the same
problems presented today; circulation
crowd control, sight lines, shade struc-
tures, materials, acoustics and seating.
The barbaric slaughter of 307 prisoners
of war in the Forum of Tarquini 358 B.C.
heralded centuries of cruel spectator
sport and is the forerunner of modern
combat between padded gladiators in
the many bowls that dot the country.
New types of recreation and enter-
tainment have spurred novel architectu-
ral solutions. And new technology has
ushered in an age of almost limitless
ways of entertaining the masses. With
new materials like fiberglas, plastics,
glass-reinforced concrete and new
alloys, designers in the leisure industry
can reproduce architectural forms from
any period in history. And nowhere has
this been done on the scale of Disney
The Disney formula, much copied,
has moved the world from Punch and
Judy hand puppets to an environment in
which the audience is not merely watch-
ing, but participating. The physical in-
carnations of Mickey and Donald and
their compressed air cousins are lifesize
are believable. So successful has this
formula been that Disney parks have
been defined as the largest human traps
ever invented by a mouse.
The amusement park, which began
its rapid expansion at the turn of the
century and spread rapidly across
America, reached a zenith in the early
60s. When Disneyland opened in Califor-
nia in 1955, it was a new concept in
family entertainment that embodied all
that had been learned from millenia of
developing leisure forms. But Disney
had taken the form beyond amusement




lla ^S


i ~Y97

-= "-

'It Was Understood From The
Beginning That Disney Had
Total Design Control . .'

by Alan C. Helman, AIA

How does a firm get the commis-
sion to design one of the international
pavilions at Disney's EPCOT Center?
Like most significant commissions,
Helman Hurley Charvat Peacock's
(HHCP) retainer for the American
Adventure F iii:In at EPCOT was a
combination of a lot of hard work and
a little luck.
Even before the firm was estab-
'h:id in 1973, ties were established
through civic and cultural activities to
people in the Disney organization. It

seemed likely that Disney would need
architectural services on their pro-
posed EPCOT project. Through the
Disney staff in Florida, contact was
made with the appropriate people at
Disney's in-house design firm, WED
Enterprises (for Walter Elias Disney),
in Anaheim, California.
E _rnullrii; representatives from
HHCP were invited to California to
see a presentation on the EPCOT
project. Architects and engineers



Clockwise from right. Fountain at Spaceship
Earth entrance to EPCOT, the Japan Pavil-
ion pagoda, the interior and exterior of the
American Adventure Pavilion (photos by
Bob Braun).



0 .


J .t .-t.h-:


parks and created the idea of a theme
park. Theme park architects inherited
old techniques but were faced with new
and challenging problems. Not the least
of these problems was that the theme
park had to make money. It had to oper-
S ate efficiently, it had to be entertaining,
and above all, it had to demonstrate a
Three projects in the Orlando area
illustrate the approach companies now
take in developing a contemporary
theme park. The first two projects, the
S American Adventure Pavilion at Disney's
EPCOT Center and the English Village
for Little England, are both examples of
embellished leisure architecture. They
are not what they appear to be. Each
structure is designed with the minimum
S amount of architectural detail necessary
to achieve the required illusion and use.
The American Adventure Pavilion at
S EPCOT, for example, is not a colonial
hall but a luxury cinema theater filled
with animated figures. The pavilion looks
like a colonial hall, but it is made not of
bricks, but of fiberglass. Disney has a
team of in-house fabricators that use
fiberglas moulding in most of their crea-
tions. It is the effect that counts. And to
enhance the effect, the scale of the
buildings is often altered dramatically.
Buildings often break all laws of propor-
tion (Is a Georgian building really the
same height as an Italian campanile?)
and the designer is faced constantly with
"real" versus "artificial."
The English Village at Little England,
a major new development outside Orlan-
do, was built on an artificial mound 15
feet above grade beside an artificial
lake. A few old English oak buildings
were dismantled and reconstructed on
the site while others, including a three-
story 17th century jettied building, are as
recent as 1982. But all of the buildings
must look as if they have been there
forever. The effect of wattle and daub is
achieved with the use of clay bricks or
stucco. In the absence of time, timber is
aged with acid and shotblasting, walls
S are constructed without plumb lines and
doors are deliberately hung off center.
This type of construction produces fan-
tasy architecture that could convincingly
disguise a pre-engineered metal
By comparison, there were many
environmental conditions to be accom-
modated in presenting up to 15 killer

- aw 4, ow #c-Vpl.i~r*i- c


i, X &

Model for the 6,000 seat Shamu '84 Stadium at Sea World near Orlando. Photos courtesy of
Helman, Hurley, Charvat and Peacock, Architects.

-& ~,

i 3 ~34,

Several buildings in Little England near Orlando under construction.

whales to a large audience at a third new
project, this one at Sea World. The
architects at Helman Hurley Charvat and
Peacock developed an architectural
solution in which the needs of human
spectators are almost secondary to the
needs of the animals. Moving in the
opposite direction of the embellishment
architecture of theme parks, the 6000
seat ergonomically designed Shamu '84
Stadium at Sea World is pure in both
form and function. It poses interesting
structural challenges for the architect
and it does not profess to be something
it is not.
The acoustical roof, its main leading
girder supported by 7-foot diameter col-
umns, shelters the audience and permits
uninterrupted viewing. The performance
pools, designed to provide 40,000
square feet of water surface, include
breeding and research pools, holding
and medical pools and the main per-
formance pool, which is 35 feet deep.
Collectively, these pools hold 4V2 million
gallons of man-made sea water. Tensile
canopies test the imagination, the audio-
visual and staging requirements and the

potential conflict of mechanics with
salinity. The end result is a unique de-
sign in the theme park industry that is not
a replica of anything.
Theme parks have a phenomenal
future as one part of the increasingly
sophisticated leisure and recreation
market. Helman Hurley Charvat Peacock
is investing in a long-term expansion in
this growing national and international
market. The firm is currently designing
much of MCA's Universal City theme
park, another project near Orlando that
is still under wraps.
Novel forms of recreation and enter-
tainment have always inspired new
approaches in architecture and design.
Embellishment architecture is one of
these forms. The future promises even
greater sophistication in thematic design
in resort hotels, restaurants and other
areas of the leisure market. But the
theme park got there first.

Chris Miles is Director of Leisure/
Recreation/ Entertainment/Planning and
Design for Helman Hurley Charvat
Peacock/Architects, Inc. in Orlando.



Building the Mexico Pavilion

by Kathleen Richards
Mexico is represented in EPCOT
Center by an imposing pyramid inspired
by the ancient Mayan and Aztec pyra-
mids. The five-tiered sloping wall of the
pyramid is 50 steps high, making it visi-
ble from any point around the World
Showcase lagoon.
As the architect for the Mexico Pavi-
lion, Schweizer Associates of Orlando
was responsible for preparing the details
and the construction documents for the
pyramid. They worked from a concept
design created by WED Enterprises, the
design arm of the Disney empire. Before
beginning the detailed design, repre-
sentatives of Schweizer Associates
traveled to several Mexican cities and
took extensive photographs of buildings
and outdoor plazas.
The Mexico Pavilion is divided into
two primary sections the pyramid,
which serves as the entryway, and a
large rectilinear -'uIiciing behind the
pyramid which contains an interior plaza
and water ride. The basic structure of the
building is steel columns and long span
steel joists with interior columns on.30-
feet centers.
One of the most challenging prob-
lems the project designers faced was
creating a water-tight exterior on the
pyramid that would achieve the look of
ornate Indian stone sculpture. The first
step in this process was the eir.:-.rio of
the steel structure riiill-,J with steel
studs. Gypsum sheathing was then
attached to extruded styerene foam. A
layer of hard-coat synthetic plaster was
applied over nylon mesh to the extruded
styrofoam insulation with the synthetic

plaster used as a scratch coat for the
final cement finish. The 1-inch to 3-inch
finish gave the Disney artisans the free-
dom to create the finish texture that
gives the building its ancient
The pyramid contains a medium-
security museum that houses a rare dis-
play of 140 works of pre-Columbian-
Mexican art. The collection is valued in
the millions of dollars and includes some
items 2000 years old. Because of the
value of the museum display, water-
proofing was extremely important. The
hard-coat synthetic plaster solved the
An arch at the exit of the museum
opens onto a small Mexican town at twi-
light, which is housed in the .'ij:iing be-
hind the pyramid. The ceiling or "sky" of
the town is covered with soundproof
material and has the appearance of the
early evening sky. Underneath the twink-
ling sky is a restaurant called the San
Angel Inn and a lagoon.
Across the lagoon, inside the build-
ing, is a second pyramid wrapped in
jungle vines where visitors can take an
eight-and-a-half minute boat trip that
cruises through depictions of Mexico's
cultural periods. The boat ride, known as
El Rio de Tiempo or The River of Time,
accommodates 1920 visitors per hour.
SThe 27,207 square foot project took
two and a half years to complete and
had a construction staff of 400 at peak

Kathleen Richards is Marketing Coor-
dinator for Schweizer Associates, Inc. in
Orlando, Florida.

Disney Had Control
from all over the United States were
present. The audience of profession-
als was so big, in fact, that the pre-
sentation was made several times
over a three-week period. A key Dis-
ney employee later called to ask if
HHCP was interested in a :..- iil.-ie
project at EPCOT and no time was
wasted in setting up an informal inter-
view at the firm's offices in Winter
Park. Disney sent an architect and an
engineer; Alan Helman and Tom
Peacock represented HHCP.
It was understood from the be-
ginning that Disney had total design
control of all the pavilions at EPCOT.
Before any work was done by any of
the consultants, Disney's designers
and engineers would develop con-
cept studies, show studies and pre-
ir,,iir r, engineering evaluations. The
consulting architects and eniir-:ii r.
would be responsible for refining the

drawings and ensuring that they met
code requirements. Ultimately the
architect would be --e .: n. i:.i- for all
construction documents and for pro-
viding management and production
Several weeks after the meeting
in Winter Park, representatives from
the firm were asked to return to Cali-
fornia, again at their own expense, to
talk further about working on one of
the pavilions. At that meeting, Disney
revealed that they had selected
HHCP as architects for the American
Adventure Pavilion, subject to final
ci, .: ,., -,,:.ns and fee r i.i i i :,.
There was one more trip to Cali-
fornia for a detailed review of the fee
proposal and further redefinition of
the services to be provided, and it
was then that the HHCP was retained
to assist Disney on the ;,:' 111.,_,.
Design development and con-
struction documents took a year and
a half to complete, with as many as 12
members of the firm working on the
project. Construction began in June
1981, and was completed just before
EPCOT's opening in October, 1982.
The American Adventure Pavilion
is the premier i:-1 i,...oI of the World
Showcase at EPCOT. The ..i..ii iii is
the largest in the World Showcase,
and many I_ ii- .- the spectacular
presentation, complete with walking,
talking, computer-operated animated
figures, is the most outstanding of the
World Showcase shows.

Alan C. Helman, AIA, is President of
Helman Hurley Charvat Peacock
Architects, Inc.

St. Augustine's Byzantine Shrine

Detail of the Holy Gate and altar inside St. Photios Shrine

Not often does a restoration project call for the crea-
tion of a shrine in the rear of the building. But that was the
request when the Avero House in St. Augustine's Historic
District was restored.
The Avero House was the first known place of
worship in North America for Greeks, who came to St.
Augustine after first settling in a Mediterranean colony in
New Smyrna. When the Avero House was being restored,
the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of North and South
America commissioned the St Photios National Greek
Orthodox Shrine. The shrine honors St. Photios, the mis-
sionary saint who expanded the Greek Orthodox Church
into northern Europe. St. Photios Shrine is the only Greek
Orthodox Shrine in North or South America.
Pappas Associates Architects, Inc. of Jacksonville
was project architect for the Avero House restoration and

the construction of St. Photios Shrine. The challenge to
architect Ted Pappas was to create an interior structure
with a Byzantine feeling in a room with a c.-, iiij less than
eleven feet high. Using the basic Byzantine floor plan of a
square with a dome on pendentives resting on arches.
the shrine achieves its historical effect without relying on
ti .hiI,-i I1 building methods.
Iconographer George FIi .i-, who was born in
Crete but now lives in New York, created the frescoes
inside the shrine in accordance with religious and historic
precedent. Traditional iconography dictates the subject
and placement of all imagery on the icon screens to give
the shrine a sense of serenity and holiness.
Dr. Kathleen Deagan was archeological consultant
for the project. Fred Cox Construction Company in Jack-
sonville was the builder.

Left, exterior, Avero House, which houses St. Photios Shrine.
Above, interior, Avero House, leading into St. Photios Shrine
(photos by Bob Braun).


v '-` ~n7

Awards Programs Dazzle

in Mid-Florida and Florida South

Architects ottices swept the Merit Awards in the Mid-Florida com-
petition. Pictured here, left, Catalyst Inc.'s renovation of the Mather

Building for use as its offices; and right, the Evans Group's renova-
tion and design of its offices.

During the last months of 1982,
prestigious jurors met in Central and
South Florida to select the best from an
architectural palette consisting of every-
thing from new design to restoration.
In November, the Mid-Florida Chap-
ter of the AIA, put on a $17,000 awards
presentation in the Bob Carr Auditorium
in downtown Orlando. The two-hour Flor-
ida Symphony performance and awards
presentation concluded with a cham-
pagne reception and a chance to view
the award winning projects up close.
"Architecture and Symphony A
Performance in Art" was the theme of the
program and its success marked the
Mid-Florida chapter's commitment to
uniqueness and an aggressive ap-
proach to the AIA's continued emphasis
on community awareness of excellence
in art in the form of architecture.

The jury for the Mid-Florida Design
Awards Program for 1982 consisted of
Mack Scogin, FAIA, Heery and Heery,
Atlanta, Georgia; Mark Jarosczewicz,
FAIA, Dean of the C .:,l e of
Architecture, University of Florida; Ron
Robinson, AIA, Robinson and Associ-
ates, Coral Gables; and Dan Donelin,
Professor of Landscape Architecture,
University of Florida. Chairman of the
Honors and Awards Program was Ray
Scott, AIA, a principal in the firm of
Catalyst Incorporated Architecture.
Seventy-one submissions were made for
the competition.
The winners of Honor Awards were:
KBJ Architects, Inc. and Schweizer
Associates, Inc. and the Greiner Team
for the Orlando International Airport;
Post, Buckley, Schuh, and Jernigan, Inc.
for the landscaping of the Sun Bay Club;
Rosemary Gillett, for the interiors of the

Jim Strasberg Residence; Robert J.
L. ugh~l ii for the lighting of the Orlando
International Airport and the City of
Orlando, Hart Krivatsy Stubee and Oru
Bose for the special .i 11h,: il,:,n "Orlan-
do Central City."
In the Merit Award Category, the
winners were: Helman, Hurley, Charvat
and Peacock for the residence of Dr.
and Mrs. Ronald K. Donis; Guy Butler,
RIBA, AIA, for the renovation of the
Mather Building into the offices of
Catalyst, Inc.; Divoll and ii.:riin, Archi-
tects, Inc. for the design and renovation
of their own office; the Evans Group for
the design and renovation of Offices for
the Evans Group; Wallis Baker and
Associates, Inc. for the landscaping of
Combank/Seminole County and Raleigh
and Associates for the interiors of the
Villa Nova Restaurant.


, 8" e l-l 8 ,ww, B1 n1it Ril B .I. ,ilm E 0 Farther south, the Florida South
Un E1K ES M E UK M1 M W Chapter of the AIA made their 1982
11111 1A4 il8 IiN OM 'W' -Awards of Honor in Architecture at a
banquet held in December. The event
9 B i, ,SB| BS S SLm I( )J^ S _8 ,u _E took place at the new downtown Cultural
I ~ II M Center in Miami.
m Jurors for the Florida South Design
i W i ""- program were Malcolm Holzman, FAIA,
I" of Hardy, Holzman and Pfeiffer, James
'-' -( ._, Stewart Polshek, FAIA, Dean of the Col-
P g ... S lege of Architecture at Columbia Uni-
S9 j n A n versity and David A. Morton, executive
u1S1. Ail M editor of Progressive Architecture and a
.. native of Miami.
IIl m 'M petition were required to be designs of
m the last three years. Winners were:
III_ S a w ^ 'llNoj limi I NAndres Duany and Elizabeth Plater-
S"" S :" Zyberk for Charleston Place in Boca
Sll -.I Raton and Hibiscus House, Coconut
a i~- Grove; Aragon Associated Architects,
Inc. for the Gingras Dental office;
Architects Baldwin and Sackman for the
IM IIfM _, Lakeside Memorial Park Mausoleum in
Miami; Arquitectonica International Cor-
m I ,_ Sl Mm mR o portion for The Palace in Miami, the
... .. $ Overseas Tower in Miami and The
0IeIR A LS Square at Key Biscayne; Bouterse,
Sg .... I Perez and Fabregas Architects for the
Opa-Locka Neighborhood Service Cen-
Ster in Dade County and the Bouterse
ll M M I House in Coconut Grove; Spillis, Cande-
la and Partners for the residence of Dr.
Phillip T. George in Miami and the
Houses for Dixon Wallace Christian in
Coconut Grove; Wolfberg/Alvarez/
Taracido & Associates for the Mainte-
nance Facility for County Streets and
HIghwiay Division.

The Palace on Brickeli Avenue, above, is a
41-story condominium apartment building
designed by Arquitectonica International
Corporation. Photo by Timothy Hursley
Charleston Place in Boca Raton, right, was
designed by Andres Duany and Elizabeth
Plater-Zyberg following traditional urban pat-
terns with some typical small town elements
such as a street corridor and private garden
in each unit. Photo courtesy of Jean Whip-
ple Associates.


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Restoring The Snell Arcade:

A Prologue to Downtown Redevelopment

by Diane D. Greer
In 1927, Perry Snell, the wealthy de-
veloper of St. Petersburg's waterfront,
hired Edward Kiehnel and Leo Elliot to
design an ornate office building in down-
town St. Petersburg that many felt was a
monument to himself and his achieve-
The Snell Arcade, as it was built in
1928, was highly ornate and combined
many styles in its richly (icr iiri-.I exterior.
Unfortunately, time took its toll on the
I:.ii,:iin.j and in 1950, it underwent a
major "modernization" which all but ob-
scured the grandeur of the original
Today, however, the Snell Arcade
looks just as it did the day it opened in
1928. But it took two-and-a-half million
dollars and two years to accomplish that
The restoration of the Snell Arcade,
which received an Aurora Award from
the Southeast Builders Conference in
1982, was accomplished by project
architect Charles S. Canerday of the St.
Pete firm of LaDelfa Canerday. The res-
toration was financed by building owner
John Galbraith and L M. Duncan and
Sons was the contractor.
Because of the insensitive modern-
ization of the building in the 50's, the
restoration was both time-consuming
and complicated. Architect Canerday
recalls feeling more like an archeologist
than an architect on the project. The
original arcade had been destroyed.
Two floors bridged the buildings upper
spaces obscuring the loggia and the lof-
ty sky-lighted c-i,,rg Wall panels en-
tombed tiled walls, columns, brackets, a
magnificent arch and a mosaic which
was brought from Italy. The marble
facade was stuccoed and painted.
In 1980, John Galbraith moved his
securities firm to St. Petersburg where
he bought and restored the Snell
Arcade. A fondness for Mediterranean
Revival architecture and a need for
enough space to accommodate his rapid-


Third floor terrace of Snell Building after restoration. This space is
now used for outdoor dining by the Arcade Terrace Restaurant.

The shopping arcade after restoration. Photos by B J. Canerday

ly growing firm induced him to undertake
the restoration. Today, his company
occupies sixty percent of the 40,000
square feet of usable space in the
It was with great sensitivity that the
architect was able to uncover and inte-
grate vestiges of the old arcade into the
rehabilitated arcade. Today, most of the
original architectural details have been
uncovered to reveal a building that per-
sonifies the architectural style associ-

ated with the great Florida real estate
boom of the twenties.
In terms of the Snell Arcade's value
to downtown St. Petersburg, it seems to
have been something of an impetus to
other developers. St. Pete's central busi-
ness district steadily declined in popula-
tion and tax base for many years. Re-
cently, however, a resurgence of interest
in rebuilding the downtown coupled with
the Snell Restoration seem to have acted
as a catalyst for other development.



Dear Editor:
I finally got some time to sit down
with the "Florida Architect" and was
delighted-once again-at the signs of
growth and development of the maga-
My pleasure was topped off with
your notice of the Firestone project, now
nearing completion. Thank you!
Leslie Divoll, AIA

Dear Editor:
Irreverent, irrelevant irritation is the
kindest appellation I can conceive for
the Fort Lauderdale Riverfront Plaza de-
sign depicted in the Winter 1983 issue of
Florida Architect. It is an abomination
and an insult to the people of this City
and to those who gave so freely of their
expertise and time during the 1974 Cen-
trum Charrette (a three-day intensive
planning session for the redevelopment
of downtown, comprising over 100 peo-
ple representing every aspect of the
community and sponsored by the Brow-
ard Chapter, A.I.A.).
This travesty, passing itself off as
architecture, blatantly violates every pre-
cept of Charrette and design sensitivity.




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Shrugging indifference, this sleazy pros-
titute ignores any sense of propriety in its
contiguity with Himmarshee (our historic
district) or our more modern revitaliza-
tions. A few sprigs of grass and
nauseatingly repetitious palm trees,
cookie-cut from slabs of concrete,
apparently comprise the conscious-
salve to the admonition that downtown,
especially near the river, must be gener-
ously greened (insidious inclusion on the
drawing of the existing Bubier Park is

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with the winning design", this "gateway
to the river", then I suggest they remove
their rose-colored glasses and look
again in the cold light of day. I defy any-
one to state from which school of design
this hodgepodge emanated since it
appears to be a compendium of Sir Ban-
nister Fletcher ranging from the pyra-
mids right through Mr Johnson's latest
comedic episodes.
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al profession don't deserve to have our
City raped!

Constance L. Bigoney

I am so glad to see that the FLOR-
IDA ARCHITECT has so appropriately
documented the program and events
that took place during the 1982 Fall Con-
ference. In years to come, I'm sure that

I'll enjoy browsing back through the arti-
cles on the Sarasota School, Puerto
Rico, the student competition, the
Rudolph interview and even the article
on page 7 and recall the fun, excitement,
enrichment and enlightenment that
those few days afforded me.
Thanks for continuing to provide
"good journalism" to FA/AIA.

Dwight E. Holmes, A.I.A.

fabrication, installation
member I.F.A.I.

(305) 844-4444


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The Financial Institute of the Future

by Mike Alfano, AIA

The first-year Graduate Design
class at the School of Architecture at
Florida A&M University in Tallahassee
was recently engaged in a local com-
petition sponsored by PESCO (Public
Employees Service Company).
The intent of the competition was
two-fold: Michael Sheridan, President of
PESCO, wanted to explore what the
financial institute of the future might be,
and second, what sort of headquarters
building might best project that image.
The challenge, developed by Pro-
fessor Michael Alfano Jr., AIA, and
Michael Sheridan, required the winning
design to address imagery, economy,
energy, the work environment, expan-
sion for PESCO's future needs, and the
provision of meeting space for local
community groups.
The Graduate Design Studio of six
students provided the sponsor with a
wide range of design options. In addi-
tion, Mr. Sheridan feels that he will be a
much better client when his company
proceeds with their building plans.
Kenneth Walker of Walker Group, a
visiting lecturer at the Florida A&M
School of Architecture, held a mid-term
review with the students. Two local
architects, Ivan Johnson, AIA, and David
Fronzak, AIA, acted as jurors along with
Mr. Sheridan.
The winner of a plaque and a
$200.00 cash award was Christopher
Wenzel. Mr. Wenzel's design integrated
building activities to a sloped site with a
pond, and graphically expressed PES-
CO's civic concern by using the com-
munity meeting facilities as a major de-
sign element.
The jury felt that the winning design
integrated function, economy and en-
vironmental harmony with a bold state-
ment of the company's desire to have
their headquarters transcend the aver-
age office building.
The value to the students of this
competition as an educational experi-
ence was intensified by their interaction
with the administration and employees of
PESCO. Also important was the under-
standing which the sponsor gained into
the architectural possibilities for his new
Mike Alfano is Associate professor of
Architecture at Florida A&M University.

The model of Christopher Wenzel's winning design.

Jurors Ivan Johnson, left, and Dave Fronczak.



Axiometric drawing of the winning design.

Site plan of Wenzel's Financial Institute (photos courtesy of Florida
A&M University).

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The Architect's Role In The Construction Industry

by H. Samuel Kruse, FAIA, AICP

Practicing architects must be knowl-
edgeable about the society in which we
play significant roles. We must especial-
ly be knowledgeable about how our
society functions, why it functions that
way and how long it will continue to func-
tion as it does now.
Architects will feel the impact of a
changing society. Different kinds of
buildings will be called for by dynamic
change. The quantity and quality of
buildings will be affected by the need to
conserve energy and integrate natural
and man-made environments. Still,
buildings must be aesthetically and eco-
nomically satisfying and speedily con-
Many architects are so involved with
client needs, with building one building
at a time, that they are unaware of rapid
changes in government, culture and the
way the architectural profession is af-
fected. Many architects do not under-
stand how the construction process and
the construction industry are developed
and controlled, or how the architect's
role in the process and the industry is
In 1969, The American Institute of
Architects, responding to the education-
al needs of architecture students, de-
Scided to include in the Architects Hand-
book of Professional Practice a chapter
on the construction industry. They also
decided to put the Handbook in a three-
ring notebook rather than in a bound
volume as it had been before. Things
were happening too rapidly to permit
anything as permanent as a bound
The 1969 Handbook defined the
construction industry as a voluntary
cooperation of many independent par-
ties. These independent parties shared
the common objective of '-riinr,'1 the
building built, or getting the job done.
Stated more simply, each party's com-
mon objective was "Let's get our part of
the project finished as fast as we can
and without errors. Our contract includes
little profit and allows no margin for tardi-
ness or redoing unacceptable work."
This is the profit motive as the foundation
for united action.
The 1969 Architects Handbook de-
scribed four elements of the construction

industry: the owner, the design profes-
sionals, the constructors and other
groups such as finance agencies and
real estate services.
"Through the normal procedures of
the various elements of the building
field," the Handbook stated, "unity and a
high degree of efficiency are attained as
a result of customary and habitual rela-
tionships. In this atmosphere, without
domination, the design professionals are
free to create." This was the first indica-
tion that building was not solely the effort
of architects and general contractors.
In describing the various elements
of the construction industry, the Hand-
book listed only 46 organizations, even
though there were hundreds of profes-
sional, technical, trade and business
organizations involved in the construc-
tion industry. Such was the thinking in
1969 in spite of the complexity of the
construction industry. It is remarkable
that the industry in the decades prior to
1969 achieved even a semblance of uni-
ty and efficiency in the willing pursuit of a
common objective.
The reasons for the semblance of
unity and efficiency in addition to
cheaper money and little concern for
energy conservation were the simplic-
ity of the building procedure and the
established responsibilities of the var-
ious parties involved in the construction
process. Before 1969 the common build-
ing procedure was for the owner to de-
velop a building program, then to select
an architect to lead him through the
.,iii:iI.j procedure that was only rarely
understood by lay persons.
In serving the owner, the architect
was usually the prime professional on
the project. The architect prepared the
schematic documents. He guided the
owner in selecting a contractor and in
determining the time and budget allotted
to the project. The architect prepared
the details of the project for bidding and
assisted the owner in receiving and
a ..-rJiri. the bids. As the owner's repre-
sentative. the architect was responsible
for the general administration of the con-
tract and for reviewing the work of the
contractor as the project progressed. As
the author of the construction docu-
ments, the architect acted as interpreter
of the intent of the documents and re-
solved disputes between the owner and

the contractor.
There were few deviations in the
roles of the architect and the contractor.
Both knew their :.1:,iij h..,' :. and respon-
sibilities. The American Institute of
Architects and The Associated General
Contractors worked to ensure that both
groups fulfilled their responsibilities.
It is time for the AIA to revise its
1969 definition of the construction indus-
try. But it is difficult to know what revi-
sions are valid. We do know these
things: Federal, state and local govern-
ments continue to force onto the indus-
try a responsibility to conserve energy.
The cost of money and inflation will
aggravate the design-and-construct-
simultaneously syndrone. Construction
managers, working with automated as-
sistance, are assuming some of the work
of contractors and architects and upset-
ting the traditional division of respon-
sibilities. Increasing use of the computer
introduces a new concept of design and
raises the question of who is responsible
for designing the computer programs.
As in energy conservation, the govern-
ment is dictating changes to the con-
struction industry and the public is react-
ing emotionally to design decisions.
Never before has the construction
industry been so thoroughly challenged
in its reliance on a few volunteers. The
American Institute of Architects has de-
veloped a well-organized program for
professional development to give its
membership an opportunity to learn
more about energy conservation, more
about the creative use of computers and
more about better management. To intel-
ligently approach the dynamic change
required in the architect's role, the mem-
bership of the AIA must be broadened
and more of its members must partici-
pate in shaping the evolving construc-
tion industry. Architects must work to
achieve a better understanding of how
the pieces of the construction industry fit
together to produce the quantity and
quality that is in demand, while assuring
the economic, sociological and aesthe-
tic standards that are required for the
advancement of civilization.

H. Samuel Kruse, FAIA, AICP, is a Princi-
pal in the Miami firm of Watson, Deutsch-
man, Kruse, Lyon Architects, Engineers,
Planners, Inc.






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