Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Professional liability
 Enviromental education
 Back Cover

Title: Florida architect
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00224
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Series Title: Florida architect
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: March-April 1976
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073793
Volume ID: VID00224
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Professional liability
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Enviromental education
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Back Cover
        Page 35
        Page 36
Full Text

W A A Flo

This- publication- is. copyrighted. by- the- Florida.
Association. of. the. American. Institute. of-
Architects- and- is- an- official- journal- of- the-

Limited permission to. digitize- and make this- electronic-
version available- has- been- granted- by the. Association-
to- the- University- of- Florida- on- behalf- of- the- State-
University- System* of F lorida.

Use- of- this- version- is- restricted- by. United- States-
Copyright- legislation- and- its- fair use- provisions.- Other-
uses- may- be- a vi olati on -of- copyright- protect ons.

Requests- for- permissions- should- be- directed to- the-
Florida- Association- of. the. American- Institute. of-
Architects.- Contact- information- is- available- at- the-
Association' sweb site.

March/April 1976
E nerVy
Eniivonmental Education
Practiie Profile: Clemenis/Rumpel/Associates
School of Architecture at FAMU



Journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects

Bring Out the Best in Wood ...

Cabot's STAINS


By the rude bridge that arched the flood,
Their flag the April breeze unfurled,
Here once the embattled farmers stood,
and fired the shot heard round the world.

The American cause had been launched and
every blow struck for liberty among men
since the 19th of April 1775 has echoed the
shots of that eventful day at this rude bridge,
Concord, Massachusetts.

Cabot's Stains, the Original Stains and Standard for the Nation since 1877.
For color cards and further information, contact the following Cabot distributors:

2503 Coral Way, Miami, Fla. 33134 715 25th St., West Palm Beach, Fla. 33401
100 Old North Dixie, Jupiter, Fla. 33458

.l -* ''"

Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects
Directors of Florida Region
Herbert R. Savage, AIA
P.O. Box 280
Miami, Florida 33145
(305) 854-1414
Frank R. Mudano, AIA
1189 N.E. Cleveland Street
Clearwater, Florida 33515
(813) 446-1041
Executive Director
Fotis N. Karousatos, Hon. AIA
7100 N. Kendall Drive, Suite 203
Miami, Florida 33156
(305) 661-8947
General Counsel
(Branch Office)
J. Michael Huey, Attorney at Law
1020 E. Lafayette, Suite 110
Tallahassee, Florida 32303
(904) 878-4191
FAAIA Officers for 1976
Nils M. Schweizer, FAIA, President
P.O. Box 1120
Winter Park, Florida 32789
(305) 647-4814
Ellis W. Bullock, Jr., AIA, Vice President/
President Designate
1823 North Ninth Avenue
Pensacola, Florida 32503
(904) 434-5445
Carl Gerken, AIA, Secretary
P.O. Box 1431
Daytona Beach, Florida 32015
(904) 255-5471
James A. Greene, AIA, Treasurer
P.O. Box 22889
Tampa, Florida 33622
(813) 872-8407
FAAIA Board of Directors for 1976
James H. Anstis
Bruce Balk
John McKim Barley, II
Howard B. Bochiardy
William W. Brainard
Glenn A. Buff
Ellis W. Bullock, Jr.
Ishmael A. Byus
John W. Dyal
Bill G. Eppes
Norman M. Giller
Robert G. Graf
Raymond W. Graham
Carl O. Gutmann, Jr.
John Hobart
Jerome A. James
Charles E. King, FAIA
Robert H. Levison, FAIA
Emily Obst
Mark H. Ramaeker
Richard T. Reep
Henry A. Riccio
Roy L. Ricks
Michael Ritter
Ed Saar
Newton L. Sayers
Ludwig Spiessl
Frank A. Vellake
Francis R. Walton, FAIA

The Florida Architect
Publications Committee
Lester C. Pancoast
Charles H. Pawley
Richard Schuster
Donald I. Singer
Fotis N. Karousatos/Publisher
John W. Totty/Editor
Kurt Waldmann/Photography







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A Resolution regarding the
preservation of the
State Capitol building, proposed
by the Historic Preservation
Committee and passed by the
FAAIA Board of Directors on
1 April 1976.

TO: The Governor and Members of the
Cabinet of the State of Florida

Whereas, a sense of history is essential
to a people and their government.
And whereas the capitol building of
the State of Florida does represent,
pragmatically as well as symbolically
the growth of this great state of Florida,
its continuing sense of justice and its
ordained seat of government.
And whereas, it has been determined
that the Capitol building is structurally
safe and sound.
And whereas, the new Capitol
structures have disregarded the spatial
and aesthetic issues involved in the
relationships of the buildings on Capitol
Therefore be it resolved that the
existing Capitol, first and foremost
should be preserved, while giving due
consideration to the impact of the new
Capitol buildings and their spatial
relationship to the original building.
Further, it is strongly recommended
that the original building be taken back
to its 1923 state except that a portion
of the central west wing should be
further removed, so that the great
staircase remains untouched.
Further, this west facade should
then be re-developed to approximate
the original west columnar entrance,
providing a visually acceptable spatial
separation between old and new.
Further, that the Capitol center
planning commission provide guidance
in the visual effects developed and the
adaptive functional uses of the
preserved Capitol.


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Energy the article is titled simply,
in appreciation of the complexity of the
subject and the broad range which it
covers. Energy awareness will take many
forms in architectural practice in the
coming years. This overview covers
several areas of energy and begins to
give examples of building projects from
offices, a series the magazine will cover
regularly as more firms get their projects
off the boards and into reality.
The Florida Solar Energy Center is a
developing resource upon which
architects may draw for expertise in
solar design and one which they will be
able to utilize for research. We give you
a brief introduction to the Center and
its chief personnel.
Architectural education in Florida is
perhaps as much in the throes of change
and uncertainty in these times as is the
profession, a consequence of the same
financial and economic pressures. In the
midst of this a new School of
Architecture at Florida A & M
University has come into being in times
far different from those which spawned
its conception. To acquaint the
profession with the school and to
solicite its interest and support we
feature both the school itself as it is
organized and operating as well as a
background view of its birth from one
who was involved in that early planning.
Practice Profile, a popular series
begun several years ago, returns again
after a too-long lapse. We feature this
time the award winning and design
conscious Jacksonville firm of Clements/
Rumpel/Associates. This office is right
at the central issues of practice today,
maintaining a sensitive approach to
design while striving to direct its office
procedures in ways which will provide
a high standard of service to clients and
assure a steady growth and profit.
The legislative season is here again
and in his Presidents Report Nils
Schweizer, FAIA, outlines work in
which the Association is taking the
Initiative rather than merely reacting to
proposed legislation, a stance which will
not only help individuals but one which
will put the profession in the public
spotlight in a positive manner.



7 Energy
A brief look at some programs and projects involving
energy design and an introduction to the Florida
Solar Energy Center at Cape Canaveral.

12 Legislation
Nils M. Schweizer, FAIA, outlines proposed legislation
developed by the FAAIA streamlining the process for
state building projects.

,I 15


14 Liability
Pointers on ways which will help avoid liability

An office profile on this award-winning Jacksonville
architectural firm.

An article by Dr. Lawrence Tanzi relating the early
planning for a new school of architecture at FAMU
and a look at the school in operation.

30 Environmental Education
John E. Stefany, FAIA, writes of the environmental
education program he has been involved with for
several years.

6 News
34 Letters

THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT, Official Journal of the Florida
Association of the American Institute of Architects, Inc., is owned
and published by the Association, a Florida Corporation not for
profit. It is published bi-monthly at the Executive Office of the
Association, 7100 N. Kendall Drive, Miami, Florida 33156. Telephone
(305) 661-8947. Opinions expressed by contributors are no necessarily
those of the Editor of the Florida Association of the AIA. Editorial
material may be reprinted provided full credit is given to the author
and to THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT and copy is sent to publisher's
office. Single Copies, 75 cents, subscription, $6.50 per year.
Controlled Circulation Postage Paid, Miami, Florida.

Cover: The evolution of Florida's Capitol building has been
extremely complex and marked by constant modifications
and repairs of a minor nature. Research has demonstrated
S that since its construction in 1845, the Capitol has undergone
major changes, each providing a significantly different
appearance, at four periods: 1892, 1902, 1923 and 1937-47.
The central portion of the present structure now standing
contains elements of the original building built in 1845.
The most important surviving interior details date from the
1923 remodeling. It is a return to the building of that date,
with slight modifications on the west wing, which is suggested
by the FAAIA Resolution, printed on page 3. This would
involve demolition of the north and south wings which
contain the House and Senate Chambers, leaving a building
of sufficient size to appear integrated with the new Capitol
complex while maintaining the oldest portions of historical
and cultural interest.




John E. Stefany has been elected to the
College of Fellows of the American
Institute of Architects.
Stefany, a graduate of Syracuse
University and a Principal in the Tampa
firm of McElvy, Jennewein, Stefany &
Howard, Architects/Planners, Inc., has
combined his architectural career with
community service and the advancement
of environmental education. He
received the Florida Central Chapter
Medal of Honor in 1973 and the State
Community Service Award from the
Florida Association of Architects in
In 1970, as President of the Florida
Central Chapter of the AIA, he initiated
efforts which led to the development of
the Franklin Street Mall, now a major
element in the City's new master plan
for downtown Tampa. Jack served as
Chairman of the Chamber's Committee
of 100 Downtown Development Task
Force in 1973. Last year, he was
instrumental in developing the concept
and design for the proposed Bicentennial
Riverwalk Park project. He has recently
been chosen as chairman of Tampa's
Advisory Committee for the
development of the city's "Horizon 2000
Plan", a comprehensive plan which will
guide Tampa's growth through the
year 2000.
Membership on Florida's State
Advisory Council on Environmental
Education and the AIA's National
Environmental Education Committee,
has given Stefany the opportunity to
contribute to the advancement of public
education about the environment,
especially the Built Environment. He
has participated in establishing state
environmental education legislation
which has provided over a half million
dollars in direct grants to Florida
teachers and school systems during the
past three years for the development
of environmental education programs
and curriculum units.


E. H. McDowell has been a practicing
architect and engineer for nineteen
years, sixteen of which have been spent
in private practice. Mr. McDowell was
the first black architect registered in
Kansas and accepted by the AIA in the
state of Kansas. He is a registered
architect in 11 states and 2 territories.

Two for FAIA


' . ',

Mr. McDowell was a vigorous force
behind the establishment of the Virgin
Islands Chapter of the American
Institute of Architects whose charter
was granted on December 5, 1967. He
has been a member of the Board of
Directors of the V. I. Chapter since its
inception and during his four
presidencies he has vigorously worked
for the improvement of the profession
and he has helped to formulate policies
for guiding activities for community
As Chairman of the Chapter's
Education and Research Committee,
in 1968, Mr. McDowell planned and
designed a program for architectural
and engineering technicians or
paraprofessionals. There is a demand
for more trained and qualified
technicians. To date, there is no area
of need in the Virgin Islands that has
received the analysis, background work,
developmental research and agency
contact more than the program outlined
for the Technical Career Research
Institute. This tremendous undertaking
covered recommended programs
proposed by the National Office of the
American Institute of Architects,
existing approved programs by
community colleges, the design of a
facility for housing the technical
program, finding the sources for the
initial costs of the program. It is one
of the primary concerns of Mr. McDowell
and plans are moving to get this program
off the ground.


The following is the listing of the new
officers of the Florida State Board
of Architecture.

Mr. Jeffe G. Hloxic
1417 Dixon Blvd.
Cocoa, Florida 32922
Telephone: AC 305/636-3093

Vice President
Mr. Harry E. Burns, Jr.
P.O. Box 2516
Tallahassee, Florida 32304
Telephone: AC 904/576-2181

Mr. Andrew J. Ferendino
800 Douglas Entrance
Coral Gables, Florida 33134
Telephone: AC 305/444-4691

Board Member
Mr. William Stewart Morrison
P.O. Box 46
Pensacola, Florida 32502
Telephone: AC 904/432-6198

Board Member
Mr. R. Carroll Peacock
400 Royal Palm Way
Palm Beach, Florida 33480
Telephone: AC 305/655-4063

Mr. Selig 1. Goldin, Attorney
Goldin, Turner and Cates
P.O. Box 1251
Gainesville, Florida 32601
Telephone: AC 904/378-1673

Mr. James C. Rinaman, Attorney
Marks, Gray, Conroy and Gibbs
P.O. Box 447
Jacksonville, Florida 32201
Telephone: AC 904/355-6681
Executive Secretary
Mr. Herbert Coons, Jr.
315 South Calhoun Street
Barnett Bank Building, Suite 302
Tallahassee, Florida 32301
Telephone: AC 904/488-6685 or 488-6734

Administrative Assistant
Mr. Roy L. Allen


Charles M. Toner, Jr., AIA has been
elected Vice President of Schwab &
Twitty Architects, Inc. of West


Is energy of concern to the practicing
architect? Is there so much information and
data flying around that it's hard to get a
handle on the problem? Or not enough?
What is the role of the architect in the energy
situation? The latter question is one which
receives frequent discussion and is in need
of an answer, or many answers.
The field is perhaps too broad to be
understood by any one individual and not
yet categorized into segments which one can
identify with and specialize in. Here is an
opportunity to become involved on a
regional energy committee; a life cycle
program required on state buildings, a chance
to learn about design criteria. Also work by
four firms ranging from the kind of small
projects most architects may get to a major
commitment by a large firm to energy design.

The State Energy Office
Seeks to Maintain Public
Awareness of Energy Problems

"Our energy crisis of 1974 has gone
through the stage of being a crunch and
now represents a problem, and one
which is here to stay. People have
become complacent about this problem,
but we've got to confront it someday.
We use more fuel than we produce, in
Florida as well as the entire U.S."
Such is the view of Dr. Carlos Warren,
Director of the State Energy Office in
Tallahassee. It is his job and the mission
of his department to make people in
Florida aware that this problem is very
real, very serious and is here to stay.
Now is the time to begin to do
something, he says. The problem is not
yet insurmountable.
Solutions to the problem lie in three
areas: 1) conservation of energy,
2) increase domestic production of fuels
and 3) develop new sources of energy.
The state of Florida is being divided
into five energy action regions, each
of which will have an Energy Action
Committee. There are many people
who are concerned but who don't know
what to do. The purpose of these
committees will be to mount a
coordinated effort of communication to
inform, involve and educate the public.
They will also aid in technical
implementation of energy solutions
within each region.
Dr. Warren's department is also
working to develop an energy curriculum
in schools from elementary through
university level. These efforts will
confront the energy problem on the

basis of teaching people to conserve
what we have, change their life style
and make more efficient use of energy.
The state energy office has produced
a report released in January, 1976, giving
data on residential energy consumption
as well as general background data on the
subject of energy. Copies of the report
entitled "A Planner's Handbook on
Energy (with emphasis on residential
uses)" may be obtained for $4.50 from
the State Energy Office, Department of
Administration, Tallahassee.

DGS Requires Life-
Cycle Analysis

All architects working on new state
buildings of 5,000 square feet or greater
or leased facilities of 20,000 square feet
or greater are by now familiar with the
Department of General Services' Life
Cycle Analysis Program called "FLEET".
Florida Life Cycle Energy Evaluation
Technique, the program was promulgated
by the "Florida Energy Conservation in
Buildings Act of 1974".
This program is the heart of DGS
energy and cost evaluation capability for
new building designs and for proposed
leased facilities. It provides as the
bottom line the annual energy
consumption for a particular building
alternative (energy index) and the life
cycle costs associated with the
alternatives. FLEET itself is a computer
program, utilized because the problem
of optimizing energy use in large
buildings is a very complex and
time-consuming task, especially when
first costs as well as long term
operational costs must be considered.
In addition to the FLEET computer
program, DGS has developed three
associated manuals as part of the total
program. The first is a users manual
(green cover) which explains the
attributes of the program and provides
the engineering logic. The second is
called "Florida Energy Conservation
Manual" (orange cover) and provides
criteria and guidelines for energy
efficient building designs. The manual
specifies energy budgets and energy
conservation guidelines for eleven
different building types for each of
eight geographical regions in Florida.
These energy budgets are maximum
allowable energy consumption values
for new buildings.
The third is the "Florida Life Cycle
Analysis Manual" (yellow cover)

developed to permit manual life cycle
calculations for smaller buildings.
Various information is drawn from
tables and plugged into appropriate
equations to obtain the analysis. This
life cycle cost analysis is generally run
at the schematic and preliminary stages
of design to assure conformance to
DGS standards and energy budgets. If
the design does not conform redesign is
DGS has tried to make the FLEET
input task easy. The data is produced
by the design engineers on forms
provided, and forwarded to Tallahassee.
DGS reformats it in an appropriate
form for key punching. The data is then
run on the computer program and if
the analysis meets the specified energy
budget, the design is approved from an
energy stand point. The energy budget
provides a performance approach which
permits innovation and freedom in
design. Experience thus far indicates
that in a well designed building energy
budgets are well below those specified
in the energy conservation manual.
These findings have been verified by
dozens of runs on an ideal building
model, which represents the energy
conservation criteria expressed in the
manual. As a result, DGS plans to
revise this manual to reflect lower
For more information on the FLEET
program, contact Thomas A. Scchler or
Dick Clem, Bureau of Construction,
Department of General Services,

Boca Raton Hospital Will
Utilize Solar Energy For
Domestic Hot Water

A unique energy conserving hot water
system has been designed for the
Boca Raton Community Hospital by
The Smith Korach Hayet Haynie
Partnership, Architects, Engineers,
Previous recipients of the
Owens-Corning Energy Conservation
Award for the design of an energy
recovery air conditioning system at
the hospital, the firm will now
incorporate solar energy to provide
15 percent of the needed domestic hot
water for this 380 bed facility.
The solar energy heat recovery
system will provide a total of 6,000


gallons of hot water per day. Emergency
back-up will be provided by a
fossil-fueled boiler and an incinerator
waste heat recovery system.
The decision to use solar energy was
determined through the firm's unique
computerized Life Cycle Cost Analysis
System. For the duration of the
facility's anticipated life span, solar
energy was found to be more
economically feasible.
The system is divided into four
segments: 1) The solar collectors
mounted at a 45 degree angle on the
roof; 2) The 10,000 gallon hot water
storage tank; 3) The circulating pump
to remove the energy from the
collectors to the tanks; 4) The controls.
The collector mounted on the roof
will be manufactured to resist the
350-400 degree F upper temperature
limits of heat retention in the box
"Despite the higher primary cost,
if solar energy is exploited, at least 80
per cent of the fossil fuel now used for
that purpose in similar buildings can be
saved," said Hayet.
"The cost of the installation is not
prohibitive and the system can be built
using materials and technology available
today. Costs will further decrease as
manufacturers develop production line
equipment to replace that which is now
First step in researching the feasibility
of solar energy at the Boca Raton
Hospital was to determine the
availability of sunlight in the city of
Boca Raton.
Local meteorological data indicated
that the city enjoys an average of
approximately 3,000 hours of sunshine
per year more than most of the rest
of the country except for the desert
regions of the southwest U.S.
As planned, the Hospital will have a
flat plate collector totaling 4,000 sq.ft.
to heat water to 140 degrees farenheit,
The flat plate collector to be utilized
will consist of a 20 gauge galvanized
sheet metal box, properly insulated,
containing copper plate in which water
will run through a pattern built into it,.
to collect the heat incident upon it.
This plate will be painted with a
selective emitter a black paint that
will absorb most of the radiation falling
upon it and will re-emit very little.
A double cover of glass will be fixed
over the impact resistant flat plate

collector. The glass is virtually opaque
to all radiation coming from the black
painted surface of the plate, limiting
convection and radiation losses to the
atmosphere above the glass.
To achieve the best efficiency from
the collector plate, the water will flow
through the middle of the plate. A small
pump will circulate water through the
flat plate collector and then through the
tube bundles immersed in the hot water
storage tank. A solenoid shut-off and
timer will be provided to cut off the
circulating pump and insure no
circulation at night so that heat will not
re-radiate to the outside.
The flat plate collector will face
south and will be tilted up from the
horizontal at an angle of 45 degrees.
While an angle of 30 degrees would be
most desirable in the summer months
when the sun is higher above the
horizon, the angle of 45 degrees is most
desirable during the winter months where
the sun is lower in the horizon and
domestic water supply temperature is at
its lowest.
A second hot water operated tube
bundle from the fossil-fueled boiler will
be immersed in the domestic hot water
storage tank to insure adequate hot
water during periods of prolonged
heavy overcast. Water used will be
heated only if the temperature of the
tank is below that desired for hot water.
In addition, a third hot water operated
tube bundle from the incinerated waste
heat recovery system provides another
energy source.
The 10,000 gallon size storage tank
was proposed since it would be desirable
to provide for two or three days of
extra storage capacity during average
conditions. It is anticipated that for
medical consumption, 6.5 gallons per
day, per person, will be needed.


-, Ok

The Sugarmill Woods Solar Home in
Homosassa Springs, Florida is one of
the first privately developed projects in
the nation to combine energy
conservation features with a solar system
which provides heating and cooling
S requirements. The home, which was
first reported in the March/April 1975
issue of The Florida Architect, has
recently been completed by the Owners,
the Punta Gorda Developers, Inc., and
is currently open for public inspection.
The Architects, Burt, Hill &
Associates designed the home with
shaded window areas, massive, insulated
exterior walls, and carefully considered
orientation and configuration to reduce
the peak cooling load to less than 1/3
of a conventionally built home. The
solar system, also designed by Burt, Hill
& Associates, is sized to provide the
entire heating requirements for the
interior spaces, the domestic water
supply, and the swimming pool. In
addition, the solar system will provide
about 70 percent of the energy
requirements for cooling of the 2,500
square foot home.
The solar system consists of 52 PPG
copper flat'plate solar collectors (933
sq.ft.) with a special "Black Chrome"
selective surface which improves the
efficiency at the high operating
temperatures required for solar cooling.
Storage of the collected heat is provided
by a 1200 gallon concrete water storage
tank which is expected to vary from
about 1500F. during the winter to near
boiling during the cooling season.
Cooling of the home with solar energy
is provided by a 3-ton hot-water fired
absorption chiller manufactured by
Arkla Industries, Inc. The unit,
originally designed to be gas-fired, was
specially modified by the manufacturer
to operate with a supply of 190-2100


Sugarmill Woods Solar Home

water provided by the solar collector
system. Auxiliary cooling requirements
are met by a conventional vapor
compression unit manufactured by
Trane Co. Space heating requirements
are met by circulation of water from
the storage tank through a standard
heating coil in the house ductwork.
Although the system has not
operated for a long enough period to
make substantive conclusions,
preliminary indications are very
encouraging. The system was started
up in late January when both the home
and the water in the storage tank were
at their lowest temperatures, and the
least amount of solar energy was
available. Within about a week, the
home was comfortably warm; by mid
March the water in the storage tank was
over 1900 F. and the solar cooling
system was functioning properly.
Public response to the home has
been overwhelmingly positive. Certainly,
even though it has been open such a
brief time, it has demonstrated beyond
question both public acceptance of solar
design and their practical value to both
the appearance and function of buildings.

Solar Installation In
A Small Project
Indicates Future

Future solar energy applications for
many practicing architects may just
take the form of this small building
by Whitman & Edlund, Architects, of
Lauderdale-By-the-Sea. The following
is the architects' explanation of the
The architects were commissioned
to design a commercial building
housing a do-it-yourself plumbing

center with an adjacent designers bath
boutique. The owner requested the
inclusion of an operating flat plate
collector system to demonstrate its
feasibility and method of installation.
Aesthetic problems were overcome
by incorporating these collector panels
into the design of the building fascia.
Beyond performing their basic function
of supplying hot water, the panels also
serve as a highly visual sales aid to the
owner. Whitman & Edlund then
followed this concept through by
designing a solar air conditioning system
and preparing a grant submission to the
U.S. Energy Research & Development
As well as being a basic requirement
for any E.R.D.A. proposal, other energy
conserving features were included again
with the owners eager consent. They
are a large roof canopy to shade the
southerly exposed showroom windows,
a highly insulated roof deck, and
electric circuiting allowing as much use
of natural lighting as possible.

A Large Firm Makes
A Major Commitment
To Energy Design

Jacksonville based Reynolds, Smith &
Hills, Architects, Engineers and Planners,
has recently committed major resources
of their firm to the creation of an
Advanced Energy Division. Headed by
Division Manager Dr. Edwin Coxe,
Associate Vice President of the firm,
the division will have overall
responsibilities for coordination,
implementation and marketing of all
energy related projects.
Present attention given to energy
related matters by all levels of
government and private industry
provides substantial growth potential
in this field. R, S & I-I is acutely aware
of problems of energy conservation
and the impact of these problems on
architectural-engineering design.
Energy Conservation Study of
Veterans Administration Hospitals
This study reviewed eighty energy
associated physical variables. Stage 1
detailed where the energy was being
used and in what proportions. Stage 2
determined why the energy was used in
these particular ratios and quantities.
Stage 3 presented a system for
self-evaluation of each hospital to
determine its specific energy

conservation condition, and presented
a computer-based Hospital Energy
Control System. Recommendations to
reduce energy consumption were
presented so each of 171 Veterans
Administration Hospital locations can
realize the greatest energy saving per
dollar spent.
The Hospital Energy Control
System is a reporting system for all 171
VA hospitals and is currently being
implemented as Stage 4. This system
was developed, designed, programmed
and checked out using data from the
Lake City, Florida, VA Hospital.
In addition to energy conservation in
building system design, a considerable
amount of work has been done in
evaluation and analysis of existing and
proposed facilities, for energy savings
as well as for feasibility of alternate
systems. The firm also has made several
studies in utilization of solar energy to
provide building environmental control
centered around actual system designs
and system feasibility studies for state
projects as well as for several National
Park Service buildings.
,.' ,.., sie- _--J,

Reynolds, Smith & Hills solution for the
First Federal Savings Building (above)
in Lake Worth, illustrates the kind of
approach which can be taken to many
building projects in designing for energy
conservation. Architecturally the design
provides overhang shading for glass
areas, utilizes solar glass on critical
orientations and provides heavy
insulation in precast wall panels. In plan,
the first floor is largely open to allow
for air passage and a full height court
rises through the center of the building,
ringed by open balcony circulation
corridors on each floor.
Mechanically the A/C design utilizes
a dual duct system on the exterior
perimeter with a variable volume system
for the interior zone. Variable volume
fans with extremely high efficiency
were used, maintaining 90 per cent
efficiency even at the low end. The air
cooled condenser units were oversized
to reduce the amount of energy required
to produce one ton of air conditioning.
Also, for heating the system utilizes
hot gas right off the compressor units,
which is normally waste heat. *


The Florida Solar Energy Centel

The Florida Solar Energy Center's
program structure has been divided into
three separate divisions with specific
work directions, under the overall
supervision of the Center director,
Dr. Howard P. Harrenstien.
Dr. Harrenstien, dean of the School
of Engineering and Environmental
Design and professor of civil engineering
at the University of Miami, assumed
the Center directorship in September,
1975. He holds the Ph.D. degree in
theoretical and applied mechanics and
master of science degree in civil
engineering, both from Iowa State
University, and bachelor or architecture
and bachelor of science in architectural
engineering degrees from Kansas State
The three divisions act as a
closely-knit group, each pursuing its
designated course, but maintaining a
high degree of inter-division
cooperation and communication.
Research, Development and
Demonstration Division. Directed by
Dr. Gerald W. Lowery, who came to the
Center from the University of Texas
at Arlington, where he was assistant
professor in the mechanical engineering
department. In the past, Dr. Lowery
also served as vice president of Optimal
Systems, Inc., an engineering consulting
firm in Atlanta, Ga., where his
responsibilities included the structuring
and direction of numerous company
projects, including energy areas. He
also has served as a private consultant
to a number of major industrial clients
and the City of Dallas (for solar energy
demonstration projects).
Dr. Lowery earned the Ph.D., M.S.
and B.S. degrees in mechanical
engineering at Auburn University
between 1963 and 1972. He was project
manager for Discovery '76, the first
single family residence in Texas to be
solar heated and cooled.
Education and Information Services
Division. Headed by Delbert B. Ward,
associate professor of architecture at the
University of Utah prior to joining the
FSEC staff. He also served as planning
consultant for the Institute of Urban
Studies at that institution.
Mr. Ward received the fine arts and

architecture degrees from the University
of Utah and the M.S. degree in
architecture at Colombia University.
A specialist in teaching of building
technology, he has authored numerous
publications, many dealing with schools
and municipal buildings for the Defense
Civil Preparedness Agency.
Energy Systems Analysis Division.
Directed by Marvin M. Yarosh, executive
director of the Florida Energy
Committee from 1973-75, whose
activities during the last 10 years have
covered a broad range of technical
problems related to energy production,
energy use and environmental effects.
A graduate of the University of
Minnesota, where he earned the B.S.
and M.S. degrees in mechanical
engineering, Mr. Yarosh also studied
reactor analysis, materials and systems
at the Oak Ridge School of Reactor
Prior to heading the Florida Energy
Committee, Mr. Yarosh was director,
from 1970-73, of the Atomic Energy
Commission-Oak Ridge National
Laboratory programs of environmental
quality and waste heat utilization and
led the task force on research and
development for thermal discharges
from power-generating facilities. He also
was a consultant to the Ford
Foundation energy policy project.
As of March, 1976, the Center's
personnel numbered 32. In addition to
the director and three divisional heads,
there are an associate director, three
research scientists, five research
engineers, one civil engineer, one
laboratory technician, one librarian,
one illustrator, one information
specialist, eleven secretaries/clerks, and
a three-man maintenance crew.
The Florida Solar Energy Center,
under the administration of the Florida
Board of Regents, is intended to serve
as the nucleus for solar energy
activities of the State, including ongoing
educational services, solar equipment
testing, solar project demonstrations,
solar project and technical information
dissemination, technical assistance and
coordination of solar energy research
activities of the State's universities.
Situated at the edge of Port Canaveral

and adjacent to Kennedy Space Center,
the Solar Energy Center lies about
midway on Florida's east coast. It is
housed in four buildings, which provide
an auditorium, laboratories, offices, a
library and classrooms.
The Florida Energy Committee,
composed of eight members from the
Florida Legislature and seven persons
appointed by Gov. Reubin Askew,
sponsored legislation passed by the 1974
Legislature which directed the Florida
Board of Regents to develop a plan for
the Solar Energy Center. That plan
was developed by a Technical Advisory
Committee appointed by the
chancellor of the Board of Regents and
was approved by that board in January,
A Policy Advisory Board, made up of
representatives of a broad spectrum of
groups in Florida having particular
interest in solar energy will make
recommendations to the Chancellor
on policies of operation for the Center.
This fifteen-member board will have
representatives from Florida's architects,
building industry, solar equipment
industry, electric power companies,
financial institutions, building code
authorities, building trades craftsmen,
the Legislature, the State's universities,
consumer affairs groups and the office
of the Governor.
A technical Advisory Committee will
make recommendations to the Center
director on the Center's ongoing
operations and activities. The director
appoints the members of this group and
serves as its chairman.
An important function of the Center
is to encourage application of already
existing solar technology within Florida
to the extent that this is feasible. This


function includes activities which will
contribute to the understanding of
markets for solar energy equipment, the
removal or lowering of barriers to
application of reliable and proven solar
technology, including problems of
relatively high initial cost. It is
recognized that premature introduction
of solar devices which might prove
unreliable could weaken public
confidence in later, more reliable
devices, and unwise overpromotion of
solar energy systems will be avoided.
Recognizing that there will be a
continually growing need and demand
for testing of solar energy devices, and
anticipating a directive from the
Florida Legislature calling for testing
facilities, Dr. Lowery's division has
taken the initial steps toward
establishing such a capability.
First, a study was made of existing
facilities and test procedure, including
those of the National Bureau of
Standards. From that data, an optimum
design has been created and reviewed.
The test facility will be composed of
three major components:
1. A test bed for measuring performance
of flat plate collectors.
2. Instrumentation for measuring direct
and diffuse components of solar
radiance and associated meteorology.
It is hoped to cooperate with the
National Weather Service whereby
that agency and the Center will have
an interchange of solar insolation
3. A data processing unit for storing,
retrieving, evaluating and presenting
data from Items 1 and 2 above. The
unit will include computer capability
for engineering development, energy
load determination and processing
of test data.
As of March, 1976, most of the
equipment required for the test facility
had been ordered. Some already has
arrived and acceptance testing completed
where feasible. The test facility should
be ready for operation by early summer,
While the Center's Education and
Information Services Division maintains
a list of Florida solar energy equipment
manufacturers and distributors to
meet the great number of requests for
such information, it also is recognized
that the list is far from complete.
Accordingly, Mr. Yarosh's division has
undertaken as one of its several projects
a comprehensive survey of the entire
industry in the State. It is expected to
obtain sufficient information to compile

a Florida solar energy industry directory,
which will be constantly updated. Such
a directory should be useful not only to
the industry, but also to architects,
builders, engineers and the general
public. It also should provide a better
understanding of the level of
sophistication of the industry.
Some of the Center's other activities
over the last few months are as follows:
* Assistance to the Jacksonville
architectural firm of Reynolds, Smith
& Hills in preparation of the Fletcher
Building solar energy system proposal
for that state structure in Tallahassee.
* Visiting Brevard County in November,
1975, was Dr. John M. Teem, then
assistant administrator for ERDA's
Solar, Geothermal and Advanced
Energy Systems. Dr. Teem's visit
offered an opportunity to assemble
at the Solar Energy Center a session
sharing interests and programs in
solar energy. In particular, the
Center felt, it could provide a
mechanism for briefing others in the
academic and technical community
on the nature of the Center, and for
showing ERDA the State's interest
and capabilities in solar energy
system development and area's
features for attraction of the
National Solar Energy Research
Institute (SERI).
Approximately sixty representatives
of twenty-six Florida manufacturers
and distributors of solar products
also attended, providing sixteen
displays, some of which were left at
the Center for viewing by visitors.

~~pLEM WARMMAI'?~l.~1 i~s~

Some of the 25 Florida solar equipment
exhibits at a meeting held at the Solar Energy
Center during a visit by Dr. John M. Teem,
then-assistant administrator for Solar,
Geothermal and Advanced Energy Systems,
* Also on display for visitors is an
active flat plate solar collector built
by Center engineers following
instructions in the How to Built a
Solar Water Heater booklet prepared
by the Environmental Information
Center in Winter Park for the Florida
Energy Committee. Purpose of

constructing the collector was
twofold: 1. to provide a working
solar collector to demonstrate to
visitors, and 2. to provide hot water
for the main building of the FSEC
complex. Constructive .criticisms
of the booklet were provided to the
Environmental Information Center,
which has announced plans to publish
an expanded, revised edition for
* The National Energy Conservation
Forum held in December, 1975, in
Fort Lauderdale, was co-chaired by
Dr. Harrenstien, a duty which he
assumed while at the University of
Miami and which he followed through
to its conclusion at the Solar Energy
Center. Del Ward chaired one of the
five major panels, concerned with
buildings technology, and also played
a role in organizing and conducting
the various presentations.
* Members of the Center's staff are
active on the Solar Energy Utilization
subcommittee of the American
Society for Testing and Materials
(ASTM), which is involved in the
identification, preparation and
adoption of voluntary consensus
standards for the use of solar energy
for heating and cooling applications.
* The scope of the group's efforts
includes development of standard
test methods for measurement of
solar energy and testing of materials,
components and systems for thermal
performance, durability, reliability
and safety.
* Plans are underway to form a
consortium of Southeastern states
to seek a portion of the $11.2
million which the federal government
has earmarked for research in ocean
thermal energy conversion.
* The concept of ocean thermal energy
conversion is based on the principle
of temperature differential between
surface water and water at greater
depths. A gas such as freon or
ammonia will boil in the warm surface
water and condense in the cooler
water below. In its steam state,
the gas can be used to activate a
turbine and produce electricity. The
steam then can be condensed when
pumped to colder water levels and
reheated at warmer levels to produce
steam again. There are few places in
the world where the cold water gets
fairly close to the warm water, and
the Gulfstream is one.







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(Y ar2 an g ivel y Ia
P le RI coi n d T ml Fan e S

FAAIA Capitol Funds Strategy

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For the most part, an association's
activities in the legislative sphere
consists of stamping out the fires
someone else has lit and often with
varying degrees of success. However,
this year we are attempting to more
positively deal with some of our
concerns. A summary of our work
' follows with the hope that all of you
in our profession can, in good
conscience and with enthusiasm,
endorse and promote our efforts with
the legislative delegations in your
chapter areas.
Approximately 7 months ago, with
the cooperation of the Department of
General Services, we, as an Executive
Committee, began to review the whole
area of programming and planning.
Particularly in relation to the processes
posed by S.B. 524. In order to provide
both knowledgeable and effective input
into the on-going process, we felt a
professional as well as a broad base of
political understanding was necessary.
This work grew out of several concerns
which we had previously voiced to the
Department of General Services.
Initially, from these concerns arose
the following goals which, we, as


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architects, saw as beneficial to not
only the taxpayers of the state, but to
the entire construction industry within
the State of Florida. These goals were
and still remain as follows:
A. To compress the time schedule
from the time of appropriations
to the time of construction
documents which included a
possibility of pre-planning.
B. To ameliorate the "crisis posture"
of projects that has occurred in the
past in terms of planning and
C. To attempt to formalize and to
clarify interagency coordination.
In all of these areas, the architect
becomes the "man in the middle" of
the process. If we were to do our job
competently and to meet time schedules
that would benefit the entire
construction industry, we felt we should
thoroughly review existing processes
in order to act knowledgeably.
We began our discussions with
several legislators, who generally
encouraged us in our effort. We, at that
point, evolved schedules for the
pre-planning process in order to interpret
one of our goals. We then held a series
of discussions with the Department of
Administration as well as the
Department of General Services to
further understand the budgeting
and programming processes.
It must be said that we went into
this process with an obvious naivete.
We quickly became convinced that life
in Tallahassee was not as simple as we
originally viewed it. Our final
recommendations for the legislation
deal basically with our original goals
and, I think, interpret them as well as
is politically advisable for the time.
A major stumbling block in the
existing process has been the area of
programming, particularly in terms of
standards. We felt that agency response,
in terms of initial programming, should
be concise, both in terms of intent and
clarity of space requirements. Budgets
should also be as realistic as possible.
S.B. 524 mandates a 21-month period
from appropriation to the construction
contract signing. Our first
recommendation, therefore, has dealt
with tightening up the current process
and then has addressed the pre-planning
of certain major projects that should be
prioritized by DOA, DGS and the User
Agency. The recommendations which
form the basis of the legislation are as

Recommendation No. 1
This recommendation suggests a dual
strategy to serve our goals. That is, the
creation of standards and the liaison
and control of the programming process
by the Agencies to become the
responsibility of the Department of
General Services, which in turn would
provide the program and cost estimates
as part of the budget request to the
Department of Administration. It was
felt that by the 15th of August or the
1 st of September, at the latest, the
agency would provide the Department
of General Services, for its review, with
the following information. This
information would have been created
in liaison with D.G.S. (old DOA
budget request form Schedule la) for
each project.
A. A detailed statement of program
needs and service load which would
accompany a statement of project
B. The space utilization standards
employed in the proposed facility,
including the efficiency factors.
C. A listing of all areas, including
square footage requirements as well
as a function description of each
D. A single line diagram describing
functional relationships.
E. Site requirements description
involving location, acreage, site
development and projected utility
F. Projected operating costs.
G. A full summary of project costs.
When this work has been completed for
each project, it will be included in the
budget request by the agencies. They
would fill out the remaining documents
as follows and forward all documents to
the Department of Administration by
the 15th of October:
A. Summary of proposed capital outlay
projects in order of priority.
B. Summary of costs of all projects.
C. Explanation of program
relationship to existing facilities.
D. Description of released facilities.
E. Financing plan.
F. Time schedule for bidding of
project and occupancy.
Upon these submittals by the User
Agencies, the Department of
Administration, the Department of
General Services and the User Agencies
will review submittals by 1 January and
recommend final project priorities for
both the current legislative year and
the priorities for pre-planning in year 2.

These pre-planned projects are to be
begun by 1 April in any given year.
The drawing has been included only
as a suggestion for various time frames
to take place in the process. However,
it is felt that this process needs to be
flexible for several reasons. Particularly
to allow pre-planning to occur at any
time within the time cycle, depending
upon the nature and extent of the
project involved. However, it is also
felt that all pre-planned projects be
given into the hands of the DOA
before November 1st of any given year.
We would also assume with this
schedule that the time from final
project appropriation to construction
could be cut to 10-months for projects
under 10 million.
The pre-planned package which we
have termed the Budget Control
Package (BCP) would consist of the
following elements:
A. Architect/Engineer selection.
B. Priority level of project.
C. Facilities program refinement,
including budget.
D. Schematic Drawings.
E. Life cycle analysis operating and
maintenance costs.
F. Code evaluation and environmental
G. Cost analysis, including all fees,
construction, landscaping and
The pre-planning package anticipates a
two stage contract for the professionals
involved. Our recommendation number
two establishes a fund for the
pre-planning process as follows:
It is further recommended that the
establishment of an initial fund of
$250,000 be appropriated by the
legislature to provide for the Budget
Control Packages in the initial year of
operation. This fund, after the initial
year, would consist of 1.5 per cent of
those capital outlay projects planned in
the previous year for its continuance.
The Board of Directors of the
Association has approved moving ahead
with this legislation and we, of the
Executive Committee trust it enjoys
your support. It has taken much energy
and time to produce and simply states
we think there is a more effective
process which would serve not only our
profession, but the engineering
profession, and the entire construction
industry as well.

President FAAIA




Precautions and safeguards which
can be taken to lessen your
exposure to liability claims.

Ranking right at the top of concerns to-the
architectural professional, as well as other
professionals, is the matter of liability and
what can be done to control mounting costs,
both of insurance and claims. The following
information from attorneys working in the
professional liability field, was presented at a
loss prevention seminar in Miami in February.
Consult your own attorney or insurance
agent regarding questions or more detailed
information you may desire.

Professional liability claims are an
increasingly frequent occurrence because
the general public believes everyone is
entitled to his "day in court" whether
for real or imagined reasons. In 1976
it is estimated that one out of four
architectural firms will experience a
claim. Even though half of all claims
are settled without an insurance
payment, many involve payment under
the first deductible amount of the
policy. Premiums are so high because
of increased claims and losses. As more
carriers increase their experience rate,
their premiums will also rise.
When considering insurance policies
there are a number of items which
should be looked at carefully. If

switching carriers, be sure to obtain
"prior acts coverage" so that previous
work done under another carrier is
covered. Also, check the durability of
the company to determine that it will
be in business and solvent when needed.
The deductible means the amount
you have to pay first on each claim in
any one year. The aggregate limit or
maximum of insurance means that is
the total amount the insurance company
will pay during that policy year on all
claims combined, not per claim. Once
this aggregate limit is reached, the
carrier will not defend any further claims
in that policy year. A per project
policy is more expensive but generally
provides the best coverage. Clients need
to be educated that the liability policy
is a form of protection for them and
that they should pay part or all of the
There are certain legal influences on
liability. The courts interpretation of
your duty to the client is the rendering
of ordinary reasonable care in service to
your client based on common
community practice and standards. Thus
it must be shown that you were
negligent by not following an acceptable
practice done by other architects in
your area. Strict liability is liability
without proof of negligence. This is
applicable when the architect owns a
part of the project, thus coming
within the area of manufacturing and
consumerism laws.
The statute of limitations is
determined by the site of the project-
the statute of the locale prevails. There
were recent changes in the Florida
statutes. For acts of negligence, it is
four years from the date of completion
or abandonment, except for latent (not
observable) defects. Then it is four
years from the date the defect is
discovered or should have been
discovered. For all other causes, it is
twelve years from the date of completion
or abandonment. This is a vast
simplification and any individual
problems should be referred to your
There are an increasing number of
governmental agencies and federal and
state legislation which have an effect
on liability insurance. Among them are
OSHA, the Consumer Product Safety
Act, Fire Prevention and Control
Administration and coming up, energy
One of the best protections against
liability claims is adequate records,

something the architect generally falls
down on. Any written record should be
made at the time an item is first
discovered, and it may be as simple as a
phone message slip. One of the best to
use is a speed letter with carbons so
that a copy may be left on the job.
Photographs should be taken
immediately after a problem occurs,
before anyone has a chance to make
corrective measures. Polaroids are
especially good for this purpose. Any
written records should state only facts,
not opinions, which may later be used
to imply responsibility or liability on
your part.
AIA documents and contracts should
be used because they have been fairly
thoroughly court tested. Be especially
careful in altering them that you do not
cause conflicts or broaden your
responsibility. Also, be careful that
later documents or communications do
not-conflict as they will take legal
precedence over the original contract.
Shop drawings are a potential source
of liability claims. They must have the
contractor's approval on them before
being submitted to you, or you are
considered to be assuming responsibility
which belongs with the contractor. The
date received and date returned should
be clearly noted, along with prompt
processing, to avoid claims arising
from delays in review. If the drawings
are resubmitted, be sure to check
thoroughly because items may have
been changed other that those marked
for correction.
Another item to be careful of these
days is picking up projects which have
been temporarily delayed. If you did
the original work, review drawings and
specifications to catch code changes
made in the intervening time and
product specifications which may
no longer be valid. If you are hired to
complete drawings started by someone
else, or to supervise the completion of
a project, be very careful as you will be
responsible and liable. Limit your
services to your own work by so stating
in the contract and indemnify yourself
by specifically excluding the work of
others. Then have the owner purchase
an insurance policy to cover this
indemnification situation.
This short article is just an
introduction to the potential areas of
liability claims. Other articles will
follow in the magazine pointing out
further precautions which can be-taken
in office practice. JWT


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1111:1 .1111

Our firm, Clements/Rumpel/Associates
is presently located in the Gulf Life
Tower in Jacksonville. Our staff
numbers ten persons, eight of whom are
registered architects along with one
technical person and one secretary.
Established in 1955 as Freedman/
Clements and incorporated in 1970 as
Freedman/Clements/Rumpel, the firm
changed its name last year to
During the past several years work of
the firm has consisted primarily of
educational, housing and institutional
projects. Over the last five years gross
billings have increased from $150,000
to $350,000 annually.
Through the current recession we feel
fortunate to not only have maintained
our 1974 staff level, but to have
increased our work force by two
persons. This was accomplished largely
by seeking in 1974 to diversify our
range of projects and in being successful
in obtaining several contracts large
enough to span these slow times. We
have been able to maintain this level
of work and foresee it continuing for
the remainder of 1976.
Architecture is generally an
underpaid profession. For this reason we
have made a major effort over the past
few years to organize our office and
projects in order to net a reasonable
professional fee (profit). We carefully
analyze the work and time required for
each job, budget it out and set up a
tight schedule. We then adhere strictly
to this schedule. We plan 15% of gross
billings for profit but generally fall short
of achieving this figure.
We feel the future for architects,


particularly in Florida, is bright.
However, we feel that to survive firms
will need to continually change and
adjust their practice to the needs of
society. We believe future clients will
demand greater expertise and
professionalism than in the past. The
firms that develop a unique service such
as expertise in energy conservation,
construction management, retrofitting
existing buildings, impact planning and
research will definitely have an edge in
the future.
We are presently involved in our first
development project. It is a renovation
of an early design by Prairie School
Architect Henry J. Klutho. Built in
1906, the building was scheduled for
demolition by condemnation, which was
averted by our purchase. Located in
downtown Jacksonville across the street
from Independent Life, the building will
house our offices on the top floor. A
restaurant is being planned for the
ground floor with additional rental
office space on the upper floors.
The objectives of our practice are:
to limit our office force to a maximum
of twenty in order to control the project
development process; to achieve nothing
less than excellence in the work that we
design; to increase our technical
expertise to meet the clients needs;
to produce projects on time and within
the building budget and to achieve a
reasonable professional fee.
In the following excerpts we let our
office speak for itself. Key members
of the firm will each speak on the part
of the design process which is their
primary responsibility.


A complex designed in 1968 as part of a
Master Plan which we now know will never be
fully realized. Even though flexibility and
design for change was a primary considera-
tion, we were not able to forecast the lack of
.-rn- lh -n1 cih .l- ,n f Ilt ir.a.

This is another project conceived within the
framework of an over-optimistic master plan.

1* i '~

ii' I i .'

A very small job that we consider one of our
most rewarding. Not gauged on amount of
profit made (none), but from personal satis-
faction derived by all involved.

Designing good housing with ever shrinking
budgets is one of an architect's most difficult
tasks. We have investigated various degrees of
prefabrication to whole mobile units without
much success, but Rough Creek was totally
conventional construction.

A 150 unit apartment project for the elderly.
We had 120 days to produce the project from
initial client-contact to start-of-construction
before funds reverted to F.H.A. We designed a
simple concrete structure (pre-stressed slabs
on cast-in-place frame) working with the
contractor throughout to insure meeting time
and cost limitations.

LI- ill

.ii i:.,



A religious, social and education center for
700 families. How to solve the unique prob-
lems of a synagogue became our primary
concern. A concept of a "building within a
building" with the sanctuary in the heart of
the complex, allows the seating to expand up
to six times into adjacent spaces. The project
was in the office five years until a strong
person took charge of the Building Commit-
tee and united the congregation into action.


* *T;t

.. r
r .i



It is difficult for an architect to design his
own house because he is his own client; in this ,
house he is the contractor as well.

This simple job schedule chart permits quick
adjustments to time frame changes and in-
sertion of new jobs. Each bar represents one
job with color coded lines for each phase of
the job. Manhour calculations for each phase
are marked on the bar so that it is possible to
read the chart vertically from the month and
week at the top to determine number of
people required to meet work commitments
Sat any given time.

Many of our present concerns are reflected in
this recent project. Our current work is
starting to be shaped by energy considera-
tions, community and user input. We expect
regional planning, social research and new
Construction techniques to increasingly in-
fluence our work in the future.



A rare opportunity to design a single building,
not having other buildings nearby to unduly
influence its design . the sort of project
architects love to design.

l A 90 bed addition to a nursing home on the
St. John's River. The main influences that
shaped the solution were the functional or-
ganization of the home and the beautiful view
of the river. We were fortunate to work with a
director who educated us to the unique needs
of the elderly.

Uml| P'

Lw alTIt|H _


For the most part, small-low budget shopping
centers are an eyesore. With a similar budget,
we hope we have designed a complex in which
it is fun to shop.

OFFICE STAFF: Left to right-Dave Sunby,
David Laffitte, Harley Parkes, Peter Rumpel,
Jim Clements, Kevin Daly, Tom Cayce and
Jeremiah Lahey. Not shown are Mason Al-
drich, Michael Moore and Kathleen Fitz-



* The Center has submitted a proposal
to bring the American headquarters
of the International Solar Energy
Society to its complex. That
organization, which has its worldwide
office in Australia and its present
American headquarters in Colorado,
has an estimated membership of
about 3,900. It enjoys a strong
reputation over the world, its
members representing the forefront
in solar research activities.
* Numerous inquiries regarding solar
energy-from simple requests for
information by secondary school
pupils and teachers to queries from
engineers, architects, builders,
manufacturers, etc.-are received
by the Education and Information
Services Division. To the best of its
ability, the division replies to each
inquiry, providing such information
as lists of solar equipment
manufacturers and distributors in the
State and various books and
periodicals dealing with solar energy.
Wherever possible, questions of more
technical nature are referred to the
Research, Development and
Demonstration Division.
The FSEC library, supervised by a
professional librarian with broad
technical background, presently
consists of a moderate collection of
books, documents, journals and
newsletters, manufacturers' literature
and bulletins in the field of solar
energy and related technologies. All
of these materials are collected,
analyzed, stored and retrieved in
order to carry out the Center's
dissemination of information function.
Library services are available not only
to the FSEC staff, but also to
industry, university personnel
professional persons and the public
in general. Bibliographies, indexes
and abstracting services are available
for reference use. Other materials
may be loaned out or photocopied
as needed.
It is planned to pursue a strong
materials acquisition program to
make the library collection one of
the most complete in the field of
solar energy, and the possibility of.
connecting with an energy data bank
is being explored. The latter would
provide access to a remote data base
on a real-time basis by using a
telephone communications hookup
and terminals equipped with key-
boards and television screens. *

Architects Registered by County

The following is a listing of all architects
residing in Florida counties. There are
presently 4228 total architects registered in
Florida and 2088 of these actually live in the


Indian River
Palm Beach
Santa rosa
St. John
St. Lucie


March 1975, the over seventy candidates
had been narrowed to a distinguished
field of three. Within six weeks, all
three contenders had visited FAMU and
expressed continued interest in the
position. In May, 1975, the Committee
was delighted to announce that
Mr. Richard Chalmers, the unanimous
first choice, had accepted the position
of Dean.
Although the momentum begun by
the committee yet continues, the arrival
of Dean Chalmers in August, 1975
marked the beginning of the second era
of the FAMU program. At that time,
the committee relinquished its
decision-making power to Mr. Chalmers
where it now properly rests.
The Architectural program did begin
at FAMU in Fall, 1975, as originally
scheduled with a charter class of 75
students enrolled .. a sterling
accomplishment in overcoming the most
unfavorable of circumstances and time
schedules. This successful endeavor
stands as a monument to what can be
accomplished when the professional
and academic world strive together to
better the working profession by bettering
the academic programs where its
members are trained. Hopefully, the
example of the successful FAMU
project will be remembered in the future.
The absence of co-operative interaction
between academia and profession can
only render both parties the losers; a
close working relationship can only
render mutual benefits. *

Dr. Lawrence Tanzi is presently Assistant
to the Dean of the College of Social Sciences
at Florida Technological University at
Orlando. He became involved with planning
for the FAMU School of Architecture while
on a leave of absence to the Board of Regents
serving as Director of Humanities and Fine


The New Kid

on the Block
Creating a Program in Architecture
at Florida A & M University

By Lawrence A. Tanzi
Florida Technological University

The nineteen-sixties saw Florida leap
to the forefront of states in terms of
growth. In 1970, it surpassed
Massachusetts as the ninth most
populous state. At that time, with a
growth rate in excess of 6,000 new
residents each week, the need for
supporting services had increased
proportionately. Among those services
required were the architectural, needed
by Florida's burgeoning population to
design homes, stores, schools, bridges,
etc. However, in spite of an
unprecedented population growth, the
60's witnessed only a modest increase in
Florida's ability to produce architects.
This occurred by enlarging the capacity
of the only two professional
architectural programs within Florida;
the state supported University of
Florida and the privately endowed
University of Miami. However, that
manner of augmenting output became
increasingly unsatisfactory as the limits
of this form of expansion were being
approached and the needs of
architectural firms for graduate
architects were still not being satisfied.
This situation had three unfortunate
consequences. First, Florida necessarily
depended upon the architectural services
of out-of-state firms and thereby
allowed substantial revenues to flow
from the economy of Florida to other
states. Secondly, Florida came to rely
increasingly on graduate architects from
training programs in other states and
the availability of these individuals was
inconsistent and unpredictable. Finally,
an increasing number of highly qualified,
aspiring architects were denied admission
into Florida architectural programs
because of the enrollment limitations
imposed by space restrictions in the two
existing programs. The consequence
was a growing demand to augment the
supply of Florida educated architects,
either by profoundly increasing the
capacity of the two existing programs
or by establishing a new professional
school of Architecture.

In 1973, to obtain a quantitative
assessment of Florida's needs for
architects, a comprehensive study was
conducted by Dr. Bruce Mitchell of the
Florida Board of Regents staff. The
study's results confirmed the contentions
that Florida was seriously
underproducing architects. Additionally,
the study projected that this deficiency
would increase linearly with time.
Clearly, remedial steps were necessary.
It was decided to provide for Florida's
architect needs by implementation of a
new school of Architecture rather than
expanding existing programs. The
advantages gained by creating a new
school were impressive. Expanding the
existing state program at the University
of Florida to accommodate projected
needs would require an increase to
unwieldy size. Furthermore, the
additional capital outlay required only
for the facilities necessary for such an
expansion would approach set-up costs
for a new program at a new location.
In addition, starting a new program
would implant an Architecture school
in a new location, thereby allowing
easy access to students in that area; a
new program would allow a different
community of professional architects
to become directly involved with an
Architecture school, thereby providing
a mutually invigorating climate as
professional interacted with students
and vice versa.
The logical subsequent question
following a decision to implement a new
School of Architecture within the
State University System was, "At
which University?" This concern
precipitated a great deal of competition
from the various universities, their
parochially motivated supporters, and
assorted other interest groups. However,
before a site location was selected, a
random factor entered the
considerations regarding placement of
the new school. Federal demands via
HEW for equalization of educational
opportunity in the State University

System of Florida were then reaching
a culmination. Among other demands,
HEW insisted that new professionally
oriented programs be placed at Florida
A & M University, the singular,
predominantly black university in the
Florida system. Since placement of the
new School of Architecture was pending,
Dr. Robert Mautz, then Chancellor of
the State University System, after token
consultation with the Architecture
Profession, unilaterally selected Florida
A & M University (FAMU) as the
location. This decision was confirmed
by the Board of Regents in June, 1974.
The decision to place the new School
of Architecture at FAMU created no
paucity of problems beyond those
attending the normal beginning of a
professional program. Foremost among
the difficulties was the time schedule
imposed by Dr. Mautz's assuring HEW
that the undergraduate program would
begin in September, 1975. In normal
circumstances, allowing only fourteen
months to begin a new architectural
program would be a formidable task.
This project was rendered more difficult
by the complete absence at FAMU of
professional architecture experience,
resources, personnel, courses or any
prior knowledge that the program
would be placed there. Naturally, the
latter prevented any form of
preparatory work. Therefore, to
compensate for both the suddenness
of the decision to locate the new
architecture school at unprepared
FAMU and to accommodate the highly
abbreviated time span allowed before
starting the program, it was decided
to offer a joint program with the
University of Florida during the
beginning years. This would allow a
drawing upon the expertise available at
the University of Florida (UF) during
the new program's development and
nascency as well as provide the early
graduates with a diploma offered in
conjunction with an accredited school.
Under NAAB criteria, no Architecture
school is eligible for accreditation until
the first graduates have emerged from
the Master of Architecture Program.
The operating arrangement was
uncomplicated. The program would
retain its joint nature until such time
as it could receive accreditation
independent of the UF accreditation.
Until that time, FAMU would wield the
primary role in all matters governing
the program with UF retaining the
right to veto any action or policy it


would deem not to be in the best
academic interest of the joint program.
Finally, students admitted into the
joint program would meet the admission
standards required of both the FAMU
and UF College of Architecture.
The decision to provide a joint
University of Florida-FAMU
program and degree largely
predetermined the cast of characters
who would construct and mold the new
program. Heading the task force
charged with having a viable
Architecture program in operation by
Fall, 1975, was Dr. Lawrence Tanzi,
then Director of Humanities and Fine
Arts for the State University System
of Florida. The academic complement
consisted of Dr. Gertrude Simmons,
Vice President for Academic Affairs
representing FAMU and Arnold Butt,
then chairman of the Department of
Architecture representing the University
of Florida. Representing the
Architecture profession was Herbert
Coons, Executive Director of the State
Board of Architecture, serving as an
ex officio committee member and
Howard Bochiardy heading an AIA
Advisory Task Force composed of
Robert G. Graf, Richard E. Pryor,
James Garland, H. Samuel Kruse and
Fotis N. Karousatos. In large part,
success in meeting the demanding time
schedule resulted from the unstinting,
unselfish effort freely given by all
Committee members who additionally
allowed no self or parochial interests to
interfere with the assigned task. This
rarely encountered attitude allowed the
swift and rational solving of problems
and reaching of task decisions.
Additionally, FAMU itself spared no
effort nor amenity in assisting the
implantation of a rather foreign body
in its working organism.
The specific problems facing the
Committee were: (1) selecting a Dean
(2) developing and establishing a
curricula (3) renovating and developing
adequate teaching, laboratory, support
and faculty space at FAMU (4) recruiting
teaching faculty (5) selecting and
purchasing necessary equipment and
supplies. Normally, a Dean, the head
administrative officer in a professional
program, would be selected first and all
other activities would proceed under his
guidelines and supervision. However, at
this early stage it was not known
whether a Dean search could be
successfully concluded by September,
1975. In any event, accomplishment of

other tasks could not wait upon the
coming of the Dean if the imposed time
schedule was to be met. Therefore, as
it proceeded the Committee endeavored
to keep as may options as possible open
for the future Dean while making the
hard decisions necessary to assure a
viable, operating program by Fall, 1975.
Toward this end, it was decided to
implement only the Freshman.and
Junior years of instruction for the
1975-76 terms. This would allow recent
high school graduates and junior college
transfers, the primary initial clientele of
the program, to enroll immediately,
while minimizing the amount of space,
faculty and support resources needed
for the first year. It was planned to
flesh out the program to the full four
year Bachelor of Design curriculum in
the following, 1976-77 academic year.
Then, in the third year of operation,
students could be accepted into the
Master of Architecture Program.
Certainly, a Dean would be in place at
that time to administer all programs.
From the outset, FAMU provided
highly satisfactory space for the
program in the existing College of
Technology buildings. This space
allowed all Architecture associated labs,
classrooms, library and offices to be
clustered in uncrowded areas providing
both adequate room and potential for
future expansion. Renovations
conducted through the summer of 1975
provided drawing laboratories, slide
storage space and a special library area.
The abbreviated time schedule
produced yet another unfortunate
effect. The need for haste as well as
the absence of a Dean during the
planning period produced the logical
and expedient decision to utilize the
current University of Florida
undergraduate curriculum as a model
rather than developing an independently
evolved sequence of courses.
Regrettably, this expedient nullified
one major reason to begin a new
program, namely, providing graduates
from a different mold with different
strengths. However, it was assumed
that differences in emphasis from UF
would come as the professional graduate
program was subsequently developed.
Thus, rather than constructing a
totally new curriculum, the
undergraduate offerings were fashioned
by adapting the current University of
Florida undergraduate program to the
particular circumstances at FAMU. All
courses and sequences specifically

architecture in content, were directly
incorporated from UF models into the
FAMLI curriculum. In critical support
areas'such as physics and mathematics,
special courses specifically tailored to
the needs of architectural students were
developed and added to the FAMU
offerings. In all cases, the benefit of
UF's experience considerably
accelerated progress and avoided
developmental errors. Edward Crane,
director of the undergraduate
architecture curriculum at UF principally
coordinated this assignment. At the
- conclusion, a full four year curriculum
had been developed and implemented at
FAMU. Since this new program is being
jointly offered by FAMU-UF, the
marked resemblance of the FAMU
curriculum to UF seems not
The presence of a similar
curriculum was quickly to yield
additional benefits toward meeting the
time deadline. It became possible to
laterally transfer skilled teaching
personnel from the UF staff to FAMU.
This allowed the procurement of
instructors with demonstrated
pedagogical talent possessing the added
attribute of experience, not only in the
classroom, but also with the particular
courses and sequences to be offered. As
a further benefit, this could be
accomplished without the lengthy,
expensive, and time consuming
procedures normally undertaken in the
recruitment of faculty. In late Spring
1975, three individuals then engaged
by the UF Department of Architecture
accepted the teaching contracts offered
by FAMU, thereby becoming the charter
faculty of the new program.
Early in 1975, it became necessary to
place a functionary at FAMU to serve as
a focus point on campus and give
substance to the coming program as
well as to execute Committee decisions.
Donald Bizzell served to answer the
increasing number of inquiries being
directed to FAMU by prospective
students as well as to process
applications, increase public awareness
of the program, develop rapprochement
with the local community of Architects,
as well as attend to the daily particulars.
Bizzell also served as implementor of
Committee decisions in the procurement
of equipment, supplies, etc.
All of the aforementioned activity
proceeded simultaneously with the
ongoing activity of the Dean search. By


Dean Richard K. Chalmers


A new School
S of Architecture
will train students
to face changing

"Pre-architecture education is a very
sound base not only for architects but
for general citizens as well. I'd like to
see 75% of undergraduate students go
into other fields." The quote is from
Richard K. Chalmers, Dean of the new
School of Architecture at Florida A & M
University and says much about his
approach to the profession. The more
the number of people who have an
understanding of both architecture and
our living environment, the better clients
they will become in future years. "Our
goal at FAMU is to put the student in a
position which allows him or her to
take an option and place an emphasis
in a concentrated area." And that area
may well be another profession.
The School of Architecture is now
in its first full year of operation and is
under the leadership of Dean Chalmers,
formerly Acting Dean of the School of
Architecture and Environmental Design
at State University of New York at
Buffalo. Chalmers holds a Master of
Architecture degree from M.I.T.
and as an Associate of RTKL
Architects in Baltimore won two
national AIA design awards.
While the choice of locating this
school at FAMU rather than a more
central campus in the state may be a
surprise, Dean Chalmers considers it an
ideal location for a number of reasons.
The state capital is an ideal place not
only for the amount of building and
building money generated by
government, but also for the fact that
legislation affecting the job of an
architect is voted on here. The
University itself is small enough with

TOP LEFT: Perry Sullivan, Tom Christ, In-
structor Mike Alfano, Paul Katen and Pete
BOTTOM LEFT: James Wolf, Richard Leon-
ard and Eve Williams.
RIGHT: Building a model to analyze lines of
force acknowledging equilibrium of the
volume in the background.

approximately 5,200 students that
lines of communication to the
administration are direct. Dean
Chalmers reports directly to the Dean
for Academic Affairs. Also, with FSU
located only a few minutes away, the
resources of that institution as well as
its Department of Urban and Regional
Planning are readily available.
A day spent with Dean Chalmers is
time enough to realize that this new
school will shortly have an impact on
the profession and state far beyond its
age and location. He believes that the
educational process is enriched by
having students from outside the state
and region. On the other hand, the
school has a definite role within this
region and he intends to take national
issues and orient them to local
conditions. Chalmers is a community
oriented person and sees the school
being involved within the community,
perhaps eventually through a
Community Design Center. Also,
strong ties will be developed with the
local AIA chapter as well as with
practicing professionals around the
The school seeks to encourage full
participation in the resources of the
University at large. Elective courses are

scheduled two days per week in other
schools and departments on campus.
Eventually students may become
involved with "in-house" design
problems within the University. But for
now Chalmers feels he must concentrate
on setting goals for the next few years
and on ironing out problems arising
during this inaugural year.
Tucked away on the northern edge of
the campus on the third floor of the
Banneker Complex, Building "B", the
school is housed comfortably for its
current enrollment. The space consists
of three studio classrooms, faculty and
School offices and a lab room being
outfitted with acoustical test and
evaluation electronics, wind tunnel,
water tank/flume, ripple tank, sun
table and other environmental studies
equipment. The technical library is
currently being established in Building
"A" of the Complex. The usual books,
periodicals and reference volumes will
be supplemented by several programed
learners. These will allow individuals or
small groups to pursue special programs
or courses at times other than regularly
scheduled classes.
Currently the faculty numbers three
full time and two part time in addition
to Dean Chalmers who teaches a first
year design course. The full time
instructors are Grant V. Genova, Melissa
A. Nash and Michael Alfano, Jr. All
are recent graduates of the University of
Florida and served there as Instructors in
the Department of Architecture. Part
time faculty are Walter O'Kon, also a


Florida graduate and a consultant in
architectural acoustics and Herbert
Coons, Jr., a graduate of Georgia Tech
who is presently Executive Secretary for
the State Board of Architecture.
Planning for increased enrollment this
fall, Chalmers is now interviewing for
four more faculty positions.
Enrollment in the school stood at 91
students in the Winter Quarter just
completed. Originally 73, including
61 men and 12 women, were enrolled
in the opening Fall Quarter but 12
withdrew. For the Winter quarter 31
more were admitted, 24 men and 7
women, with two withdrawing. These
students are all in the first, second or
third year of the curriculum. Ethnically
they include black, white, Spanish,
Iranian, Asian and Oriental. The
quality of the students, says Chalmers,
is "outstanding."
The school plans to add one class
each year, building up to a six year
program. There is a four year
undergraduate program leading to
a nonprofessional Bachelor Of Design
degree. A two year graduate curriculum
will culminate in a Master of Arts in
Architecture degree within a chosen
option. However, these plans for a
gradual build-up may well be set
awry by enrollment and financial
pressures at the University of Florida
which threatens to flood FAMU with
students in numbers larger than planned.
The FAMU School will be operated
in co-ordination with the University of
Florida's College of Architecture. The
four year undergraduate curriculum
will parallel that at Florida. It is
planned that Community College
transfers will be able to phase into the
program as is presently possible at U.F.
At the graduate level FAMU will offer
options different from those available
at the University of Florida in order to
broaden the fields of specialized study

available within the state. This program
will begin in fall of 1977 but it is still
too early to know just what these
options will be. Dean Chalmers feels
their selection will be based on the
faculty resources available at that time
and on the needs of the students and
In addition to the regular curriculum,
Dean Chalmers wants to train
architectural researchers. In his days as
a practicing architect he budgeted money
for research into every project he was
involved in. At SUNY/Buffalo his job
was half research and half teaching.
"Architecture has really been at a great
disadvantage for a long time, mainly
because research in the building areas
has not really been advanced."
The exact form, nature and set-up of
his research effort is another one of
those items which will take shape in
response to the facilities and needs at
that time.
The first two years of the
undergraduate curriculum consists of
general education courses along with
introductory courses to architecture
in building arts, drawing, graphics and
design. Several of the courses in math
and physics offered outside the school
have been developed especially for
architectural students. The third and
fourth years pick up courses in
architectural design, structures,
technology, architectural history,
construction and professional practice.
Enriching the curriculum is an
outstanding guest lecture series. On
campus this year have been Mark
Ramsdell (Ph. D. in Policy Sciences
Program), William Huff (Architect and
Professor, SUNY/Buffalo) Eason
Cross (Architect from Washington,
D.C.), Valeri Batorewicz (Research in
plastics, mass produced housing),
Eric Dluhosch (Ph.D. in architecture,
teacher, researcher in industrialized
building technology) and Martin Pawley
(English architect, editor and lecturer).
While on campus these visitors spend
time with the students in the classroom,
sharing their broad range of experience.
The lecture series is open to the public,
especially to local professionals, and
has been well attended.
One student project which is
especially noteworthy and exemplary
of the aims of the school is their
participation in the Energy Conscious
Design Competition sponsored by the
AIA Research Corporation. The
project, under the direction of Grant
Genova, involves the community of

Gretna located some 26 miles northwest
of Tallahassee.
The first phase included an exhaustive
analysis of the energy budget of the
town, how people use energy and patterns
of use. Brief research was done into the
present state of the art of solar and
other energy alternatives. The students
also recorded climatic data for the area.
Prior to moving to final designs, the
students have made volumetric models
of space taking into account light,
shading and wind. These were studied
on the sun table in the environmental
lab. The final phase of the project is
now beginning. For the final phase the
class is divided into teams of five
persons each whose first task is to
integrate the vast amount of data
collected. They will then produce
residential designs for communities of
25 to 30 dwellings based on criteria
developed in the previous phases.
The future of this school is just
beginning. Dean Chalmers expresses a
great deal of pleasure at the reception
he has received from the architectural
profession in Florida. Assurances of
support have come from many architects
as have several substantial financial gifts.
For a school which will not have the
support of contributing alumni for
some years this is especially important.
All such money received goes into the
School's account with the University
Foundation. It will be used to provide
for special needs of the students,
including field trips and travel to
student meetings as well as to state and
national conventions. A welcome is
always open to all who wish to visit the
school when in Tallahassee. JWT

Contributions may be sent to:
School of Architecture
Florida A & M University
Tallahassee, Florida 32307



Pittsburgh's Golden
Triangle now boasts a new
34-story jewel with 14 glim-
mering facets. (The two
octagons share a side, if
you're counting.)
It's the twin towers of
the Equibank Building, at
Oliver Plaza, sheathed
entirely in PPG Solarban
550 Twindow reflective
insulating glass.
The glass adds to a
fascinating, unconventional
design and makes it an
incredible visual drama that
teases the passer-by with
eye-boggling reflections.
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1h A SMM

E nviron m mental John E. Stefany is a Principal in the Tampa
firm of McElvy, Jennewein, Stefany &
E lHoward, Architects/Planners, Inc. He has
u 1 been involved with environmental education
Florida's Success Creates Opportunities for a number of years and serves on Florida's
State Advisory Council on Environmental
for Florida's Architects Education and the AIA's National
Environmental Education Committee, where
he chairs the Task Force on Legislation.
In recognition for these efforts as well as for
other contributions to the profession, he was
by John E. Stefany, FAIA this year made a Fellow of the AIA
by John E. Stefany, FAIA

"Americans are clear enough about the ugliness of the world
they live in, and they are quite vocal about the dirt, smoke,
the congestion, the chaos and monotony of it. But they are
hardly aware of the potential value of a beautiful city
environment, a world which only a few may have briefly
glimpsed as tourists or escaped vacationers. They have little
sense of what a harmonies setting can mean in terms of daily
delight or as a continuous anchor for the living of their
lives." This observation in "The Image of the City" by Kevin
Lynch sums up the challenge of Environmental Education
as it relates to the built environment. Sensitivity must be
developed not so much to the ugliness and disorder which
surrounds us, but to the unexperienced dividends which
a superbly designed urban environment can provide to its
As design professionals, we see a clear responsibility to
educate for this awareness and to lead in the improvement
of our built environment. Few would question our
responsibility to respond to this education and leadership
role. The question is how? How can we best use our talents,
resources, and influence to bring about a meaningful increase
in citizen understanding and sensitivity to the built
The answer, of course, is that there are many effective
ways, beginning with the very basic concept that we .. .
personally . must be environmentally conscious. If this is
true, our design value systems and concepts will also be
environmentally sensitive, and then we will have led by
example, the most effective and honest way. But beyond
this personal witness, we can help accomplish the job through
support of enabling legislation and personal involvement in
community environmental education programs.
Since 1972, the Florida Association has been active in the
State Department of Education's Environmental Education
Program through Florida's public school systems. During this
period, I have had the opportunity to represent the FAAIA
on the DOE Advisory Council on Environmental Education
and have seen the impact of its program grow and produce
meaningful success. Membership on the AIA National
Committee on Environmental Education has permitted me to
assess other states' efforts in this field and Florida's program
is recognized nationally. Jim Ellison, the Institute's
Administrator for Education and Research, has recently said
"Florida can serve as a model in Environmental Education.
AIA has pulled together information from other state
environmental education programs and hopes to draw
especially from the Florida experience in developing guidelines
for legislation and for action architects can take, acting
individually and through components, to promote
environmental education in state systems of education."

However, an objective evaluation of our programs reveals
that for the most part, architects have yet to assume a role of
significant leadership and community participation in Florida's
overall program... and we are missing a very real opportunity
to promote our message through the established network of
our public school systems.
The history of Florida's Environmental Education Program
dates back to the enabling legislature of 1973 which
recognized the Florida Department of Education's
responsibility to foster the development of educational
activities and materials which promote environmental
education in the State. The statute authorizes a cooperative
effort between state and local districts and schools, as well as
private organizations and governmental agencies, to increase
man's awareness of environmental relationships, principles,
problems and possible solutions.
The funds provided by the 1974 Legislature for the
operation of this program were allocated in two categories:
First, $206,000 was appropriated for staff and expenses to
support county level training programs, and to offer technical
assistance and state leadership essential to the program.
Second, $297,000 was appropriated to fund the Department
of Education's exemplary environmental education programs
required by the statute. This sum was distributed to local
districts and schools in the form of 'mini-grants' to provide
seed money for environmental education programs.
In approving grant proposals and awarding money, the
following priorities were set by the Florida Environmental
Education Advisory Council:
1. in-service teacher training
2. development of environmental study area laboratories
3. the integration of environmental materials into
traditional curriculum, especially as related to social
studies and the humanities.
Additionally, priority was given to proposals which
included community involvement and urban environments.
Interest in the mini-grant program has been very high; for
instance, each of the state's 67 School Districts and 165
individual school teachers filed grant proposals; 61 grants
to 41 districts (totalling $160,000) and 102 grants to
individual teachers (totalling $117,000) were awarded in
1974-75. Individual grants ranged from $500 to $5,000. An
increasing number of proposals have been received for this
year which emphasize interdisciplinary curriculum and urban
Florida is fortunate to have an established program which
has achieved solid success and influence. The challenge to
Florida's architects is to utilize the opportunities created by
this program through involvement in the following activities:
1. Personal collaboration with local teachers in developing


grant proposals for projects concerning the built
2. Leadership in developing community Environmental
Education advisory councils. Many of these have been
established through the local school systems and have
been valuable in gathering and disseminating data,
identifying community environmental education goal,
and rallying local support for legislative action.
3. Leadership in sponsoring and participating in
environmental education workshops, seminars, and
teacher training programs.
4. Development of curriculum units, workbooks, visuals
and teaching games dealing with issues of the built
5. Development of and participation in sensitivity,
awareness, experiential units, such as downtown tours,
6. Active political support for continuing environmental
education legislation.
Beyond the noble but somewhat nebulous goal of improving
the quality of the built environment, there are specific
pragmatic reasons for the architect's commitment:
1. A society, educated about the built environment, will
increase its demand for well-designed communities and
2. The respect and value of architect's services will
appreciate with increased demand.
3. An educated citizenry with a better understanding of
urban issues will provide a desirable balance to the
"preservation, no-growth" philosophies which restrain
our economy.
4. The architect's image as leader in environmental design
issues will be strengthened.
5. It will provide an opportunity to influence legislation
and regulations which have a direct effect on the
economic health of our profession.
6. A strong leadership role will be a key factor in
attracting the best young talent to our profession.
All of us have benefited from past efforts which have
shaped society's image of the architect as a defender and
improver of our environment. The strength of our public
involvement and commitment to educating about the built
environment in which we have established expertise will
determine our success in preserving that image and enhancing
its credability. As individual architects and a professional
association, we must recognize environmental education as a
valuable subject area to publicly communicate this
commitment, as well as an opportunity to strengthen the
market for professional services. *

Peter Piven, AIA is General Manager of Geddes Brecher Quails
Cunningham: Architects of Philadelphia, and Princeton,
New Jersey. His responsibilities include implementation of
the firm's computerized financial management system and
administration of the organizational and operational aspects
of the firm's practice.
Chairman of the Institute's Task Force on Financial
Management, Mr. Piven's article on that subject will appear
in the Institute's new book, Current Techniques in
Architectural Practice. He conducts the Management Seminar
at Drexel University and is a consultant with Coxe Associates,
Management and Marketing Consultants.

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It appears further comments are in
order regarding the above award.
There is no quarrel with the
architectural capabilities of the designing
My only concern is that if this be
considered award winning architecture
by the majority of our profession, then
we architects better take a long look to
see where we are going.
This is surely an example how we
have allowed the engineering,
mechanical fields to supplant architect
architecture. Any old fashioned steel
modular that has been on the market
for more than twenty-five years could
have sufficed. The supergraphics, a
stylish fad of today, is its only
temporary salvation.
Describe the structure any way you
wish it is not architecture.
We can now explain the sudden
revival and interest in Beaux Arts.
My main condemnation of this
project is the apparent disregard to the
environment and energy conservation
in which our new President has taken
a commendable lead in this State.
There is certainly one basic
philosophy which we must all recognize
in this life. The greatest architect is
GOD. To turn our back on what He has
provided in abundance, such as sunshine
and light, fresh air, trees and flowers is
a tragedy.
A school is probably the most
important building involved in the
development of our future children. To
start learning in a glorified warehouse
and then attempt to manufacture well
rounded individuals becomes an
almost impossible task. It is
incomprehensible that a student study
all day and not know how beautiful it
is outside. The indiscriminate use of air
conditioning, artificial illumination,
television and automobiles has been
eroding away at our society. We have
all been guilty of allowing machines to
dictate our life style.
As was pointed out at the 1975
FAAIA Convention, a new era of
architecture is developing based on
compatibility with our living
environment and taking into
consideration the energy crisis we have
Very truly yours,

F. Louis Wolff, AIA

Cheers for Beryl Price. So few
architects are willing to admit to the
real problems of the profession and fail
to see what lies ahead. We have set too
long in ivory towers (now poorly
reinforced concrete) always dreaming
that ours is a professional life protected
from the realities of life. Over half of
the practicing architects today have been
raised and trained in a world of cubes,
triangles, and "chicken coops". Too
many do not know what a curve looks
like if it isn't directly connected to the
feminine gender.
We have designed ourselves out of
work. Any nut wiih a T-square,
triangle, drawing board, and some blank
paper can produce designs equal to
what we see being erected everywhere.
To win a design competition, one
must seek a solution that would have
been laughed at by the profession 25
years ago and is evoking guffahs from
the buying public today. Is this really
Twenty years ago many of us saw
what construction labor unions could be
seeking. Our pleas for unity in the
Design Professions together with the
A.G.C. and N.A.H.B. in establishing a
united front to prevent a "take-over"
in the construction industry went
unheeded at all levels. We predicted
the demise of the small office in our
profession because of the mad rush to
convince the public that a successful
architect could do everything and be
everything to his client. Too many
couldn't produce an intelligent set of
plans and specs.
Beryl is right. Are we going to
roll-over and play dead? Is there any
reason to fight what most say is
inevitable? Look at the number of
architectural firms in bankruptcy or
just closed because of no income.
Maybe it's closer than we think.

John Stetson, FAIA

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In Sarasota:

SThe 62nd Annual Convention
r and Building Products Exhibit
October 7 10, 1976 at the
A I Sarasota Hyatt House

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