Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 High hopes for high density
 The human dimension
 Energy conservation by design
 A-E selection report
 Back Cover


Florida architect
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00214
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Creation Date: July 1974
Frequency: quarterly
Subjects / Keywords: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
System ID: UF00073793:00214
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    High hopes for high density
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    The human dimension
        Page 9
    Energy conservation by design
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    A-E selection report
        Page 14
    Back Cover
        Page 15
        Page 16
Full Text

W A A Flo

This- publication- is. copyrighted. by- the- Florida.
Association. of. the. American. Institute. of-
Architects- and- is- an- official- journal- of- the-

Limited permission to. digitize- and make this- electronic-
version available- has- been- granted- by the. Association-
to- the- University- of- Florida- on- behalf- of- the- State-
University- System* of F lorida.

Use- of- this- version- is- restricted- by. United- States-
Copyright- legislation- and- its- fair use- provisions.- Other-
uses- may- be- a vi olati on -of- copyright- protect ons.

Requests- for- permissions- should- be- directed to- the-
Florida- Association- of. the. American- Institute. of-
Architects.- Contact- information- is- available- at- the-
Association' sweb site.

6The Florida Architect


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The Florida Architect
Volume 24 Number 4 July/August 1974


High Hopes For High Density
Lowell Lotspeich, AIA



Frank R. Mudano, AIA, President
1189 N. E. Cleveland Street
Clearwater, Florida 33515
(813) 446-1041

James E. Ferguson, Jr., AIA, Vice President
President Designate
2901 Ponce de Leon Boulevard
Coral Gables, Florida 33134
(305) 443-7758

Nils M. Schweizer, FAIA, Secretary
P.O. Box 1120
Winter Park, Florida 32789
(305) 647-0545

Arthur A. Frimet, AIA, Treasurer
208 South 28th Avenue
Hollywood, Florida 33020
(305) 981-0545

Thor Amlie
James Anstis
John M. Barley, II
Howard Bochiardy
William Brainard
Ellis Bullock
Bill G. Eppes
Robert G. Graf
Mays Leroy Gray
Robert B. Greenbaum
James A. Greene
F. Jack Harden
Thurston Hatcher
Al G. Kemmerer
Robert H. Levison, FAIA
Steven C. Little
Bryon G. Mclntyre
Robert A. Morris, Jr.
Roger Pierce
Henry A. Riccio
Roy L. Ricks
William L. Rivers
George L. Rumpel
Craig H. Salley
Nils M. Schweizer, FAIA
Donald I. Singer
Frank F. Smith
Francis R. Walton. FAIA

The Human Yardstick
William R. Brockway, AIA

Energy Conservation By Design

A-E Selection Report

American Institute of Architects
H. Leslie Walker
1000 N. Ashley Street, Suite 806
Tampa, Florida 33602
(813) 229-0381
Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects
Fotis N. Karousatos
7100 N. Kendall Drive
Miami, Florida 33156
(305) 661-8947
(Branch Office)
Mike Huey
1020 E. Lafayette St.
Tallahassee, Florida 32301
(904) 878-3158
Frank Sheehy, Chairman
Lyle Fugelberg
Isaac Keith Reeves
Fotis N. Karousatos/Editor
John W. Totty/Assistant Editor
Kurt Waldman/Photography

THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT, Official Journal of the Florida Associa-
tion of the American Institute of Architects, Inc., is owned and pub-
lished by the Association, a Florida Corporation not for profit. It is
published bi-monthly at the Executive Office of theAssociation, 7100
N. Kendall Drive, Miami, Florida 33156. Telephone 1305) 661-8947.
Opinions expressed by contributors are not necessafly those of the
Editor of the Florida Association of the AIA. Editorial material may
be reprinted provided full credit is given to the author and to
THE FLORIDA ARCHITECT and copy is sent to publisher's office.
Single Copies, 75 cents, subscription, $6.50 per year.

F/A 3




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F/A 4

In Memorium

Dr. Robert S. Bolles, dean of the college
of Architecture and Fine Arts at the
University of Florida since 1966 died at
his home in Gainesville Sunday, June 23.
Dr. Bolles announced his retirement,
effective June 30, and planned to live
permanently in Flagler Beach. He and his
wife Georgia Coy Bolles have been long
time residents of Flagler Beach.
A graduate of the Juillard School of
Music in New York City, Dr. Bolles also
held bachelor's and master's degrees and
the doctor of education from Columbia
University. As a member of the Florida
Music Educator's Assn., he was a member
of the state certification committee from
A World War II veteran, Dr. Bolles was a
commander in the Naval Reserves.
Listed in Who's Who in America, Dr.
Bolles was a member of several
professional organizations, Tau Kappa
Epsilon social fraternity, the Gainesville
Kiwanis Club and the First Presbyterian
Church. Born in McCook, Neb., he
received the "Notable Nebraskan" award
in 1964.
Dr. Bolles is survived by his wife, Georgia
Coy Bolles and two sons Robert Coy, 28,
and John Lewis, 24.

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High Hopes for High Density
Lowell Lotspeich, AIA
EDG Planning, Incorporated of the
Environmental Design Group Incorporated

It would not be an exaggeration to say
that the greatest majority of our
"planned communities" have been either
conceived or actually built during the
past ten years. This is, in a way, an
acknowledgement that the "art of
community design", as a large scale
involvement, is a relatively new one, and
one that is receiving pitifully low priority
at every level of our society. To criticize
priorities is, of necessity, to critize the
persons or institutions responsible for
establishing the priorities. At this point, it
is neither meaningful nor necessary to
enumerate the "culprits" but only to
shed a little light on the magnitude of the
problem and its dangerous social

It is my contention that the majority of
our new communities, although
aesthetically improved, are disastrous
failures from the human, or social,
standpoint. The problem is one of the
most complex issues of our times and our
failure in this area is inexcusable. I believe
part of the problem lies in our failure to
understand the basic relationship between
our built, physical environment and
"community". As a society, we cannot
continue to build or tolerate the
irresponsible kinds of developemnts
whose only objectives are to exploit the
land and the people. We seem to do
everything we can to assist the
profit-motivated developer to reap his
harvest, ironically, at the expense of the
whole society.

A community must be more than a place
to sleep if it expects to grow organically
into a healthy, viable place for people to
live. As our concepts of single-family.
subdivisions have mushroomed into plans

for whole new towns, we have carried the
old thinking into the new area where it
simply is not adequate. As land costs and
demands for housing increased, we began
building more medium density
developments (6 to 15 units per acre) and
as a contribution to "community", the
developer would include a golf course
and/or other recreational amenities.
These recreational amenities were
probably largely responsible for the
increasing acceptance of higher density
living by many people. On the surface,
they may have seemed to compensate for
the "short-comings" of a more urban
life-style. In fact, they have been much
over-rated in their effects on
"community" and realistically best served
the difficult marketing efforts of the
developer. The point is that a golf course,
or tennis club, is a nice accessory to a
community, but to think that it will, in
any way, "round-out" a project into the
integrated, lively, viable place a
community must be is totally false. Even
these newer recreation-oriented
communities have proven, in time, to be
socially sterile, and have generally
become more costly to market.

The failure of these communities, from a
social standpoint, has been a setback to
the rational urbanization of man.

Unfortunately, "high density" was
blamed for the failure and the real
problem has yet to be fully understood,
much less solved. The problem is
increasingly dangerous in high density
development (15 units per acre and up),
and ironically it is here that we have the
best chance of coming to grips with the
real problem. It will be in large scale,
higher density developemnts that we will

have the magnitude of resources at our
disposal to invest more responsibility
toward the real human needs.

The following graph illustrates,
hypothetically, the relationship between
density and the development cost per
unit required to "structure" community
into a project.

As densities go up, the corresponding
responsibility and need to build more
"community structure" goes up. The
proper amount of community structure is
also a function of the size of the project
but it has a very direct relationship to
density. It is important to understand
that the line on the graph representing
the "responsible approach" continues to
go up as densities increase. The "existing
approach" line would generally level off,
incorrectly assuming that the same
expenditure for "amenities" at 15 units
per acrewould also be enough for 30.
The shaded area represents the "area of
failure" in our responsibility to build
sufficient "community structure" into
any planned development to satisfy the
basic human needs (physical,
psychological, social, spiritual, etc.).

We must stop thinking of the
"amenities", (which are generally only
recreational in nature) as the only
ingredient necessary to add to the basic
living units in order to create a

Exactly what "community structure" is
wjW vary according to the size of the
community, its location, its enviornment,
and many other factors. Basically we are
referring to the part of the man-made
environment which is to ensure the most

F/A 6

Iw-, 64&

efficient exercising of routine, daily
activities (including recreation) within a
framework that is conductive to natural
social interaction. Depending on the
unique nature of each community, the
"community structure" should include
such things as retail shopping,
neighborhood schools, churches,
appropriate recreational facilities, places
for "community" or civic functions,
medical clinics, office space, etc. All of
these elements of "community structure"
must be realized with less dependence on
the automobile. As the density goes up,
the degree of compactness, or
miniaturization, needs to increase
proportionately. Low density
development has been traditionally
automobile-oriented The move to higher
density living will carry the blessing of
increase freedom from the car which can
only come as a by-product of rational
urbanization, which implies greater
compactness. "Greater compactness"
necessarily means more "structure", more
construction, and more costs. These
additional costs must be seen as
inescapable, and an inherent consequence
of high density development. They are
responsibilities not luxuries.

On the positive side, there will obviously
be great savings also inherent in the
compact, efficient community structure.
Economies realized by efficient
transportation systems, more efficient
structural and utility systems will help
balance the higher costs. Also, the
profit-oriented parts of the community
must be directed back into the
community to help offset higher costs
instead of lining the pockets of some
outside entrepreneur. If the financial
arrangements are properly established, a


1o 'o 3o 4o
D IfT ( lTS P l ACO)

community should be able to afford its
"community structure". If it cannot,
there is a great inequity somewhere.
Either the residents are not paying
enough (to support their given density) or
someone else is quietly "ripping-off" the
gravy and so depriving them of a "total

Another manifest by-product of the
compact is a proportional saving of the
natural environment and its endangered
systems. The resultant savings to society
in this area are inestimable The positive
aspects of compactness, as a philosophy
of community development, affect every
facet of life and can no longer be ignored
as a viable solution to many of our social

In summary, and in a very generalized
way, we see that high density
development is likely to increase in the
future and that, contrary to the popular
misconception of high-density living as
anti-life, leading to crime and other social
disorders, it will in fact provide us with
untold benefits as a movement toward
our rational urbanization. We are finally
becoming aware that a community can
afford, or can finance, whatever
"structure" it will support if the
disproportionate profits currently
existent in the real estate, developing, and
financing businesses are re-directed back
to the community, where they belong
and are so desperately needed. Our ability
to absorb, or tolerate, low density
development will decrease in the future
making it more imperative than ever to
solve the dilemma of how to build more
socially responsible, environmentally
conscious communities, particularly at
higher densities. w

F/A 7

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The Human Dimension

By William R. Brockway
AIA Architect

Ever wonder why most chair seats are 16
to 18 inches off the floor, hallways are a
minimum of 3 feet wide, and bars and
ticketcounters 3 feet 6 inches high? These
dimensions, and many thousands of
others, are the size they are because of
the size people are. Almost everything we
come into contact with of an
architectural or utilitarian nature is sized
to accommodate the human frame. If it
isn't, it won't work very well.

Now, not all people are the same size, as a
quick glance up or down any city street
will assure you. However, with the
possible exception of children and people
with physical handicaps, most of us can
accommodate our bodies to standardized
furniture and house dimemsions without
too much trouble.

Doorways were originally made 6 feet 8
inches hight to permit an average man to
go through without removing his hat.
Today, people are growing taller and very
likely we will have to increase the heights
of our standard doors in the very near
A person carrying a suitcase is just about
3 feet wide. Thus the standard minimum
size residential hallway. Two people
passing each other require 3 feet 2 inches,
if one of the passers turns sideways,
almost 4 feet if neither is willing to give
ground. Thus, a better minimum for
residential halls might be 3 feet 6 inches.
It requires 3-1/2 feet of arm waving room
besides the bath tub to towel yourself
with a full size towel, less with the kind
of towels many motels provide. Since all
tubs are 2-1/2 feet wide, this means that
any bathroom less than 6 feet wide across
the tub will cramp your drying off style.

Stand-up work surfaces, shop benches,
kitchen counters, drawing boards all seem

to work best when the top of the counter
is at the same level as the top corner of
the worker's hip bone. Since, on most
women, this point occurs about 3 feet off
the floor, that is the standard height for
kitchen counters. It is so standard, in
fact, that if you choose to make the
counter an inch or two higher or lower
than 36 inches, you will have trouble
fitting appliances under the counter top.
Nearly all dishwashers, under counter
refrigerators, ice makers and hot water
heaters are made to fit under 3 foot high
counters and won't fit anything else.

Similarly, the most comfortable height
for sit-down work surfaces is 2 feet 6 or 7
inches. So nearly all our desks and
sewing machines and dining tables are this
height. Make it 2 feet 10 inches and your
shoulders will tire from lifting your arms
onto the work surface. Two feet 4 inches
and you may not be able to get your
knees under the top without cutting the
legs off your chair.

Lavatories are normally 2 feet 7 inches
high, presumably on the theory that you
need to bend over that far when washing
your face to keepthe water from running
down your shirt front. I tend to disagree
with this particular standard, preferring a
2 foot 10 inch height, with its attendant
drip hazard, to an early morning crick in
the back. Lack of attention to these
seemingly minor details has caused an
untold amount of misery over the
centuries to designers of houses and to
owners alike. Frank Lloyd Wright, who
did so many things so well, was a
persistently unsuccessful furniture
designer. In his attempt to bend his house
and their furnishings into an organic
whole, he used to come up with things
like 3 cornered chair seats. Which would
have worked very well except for the fact

that very few of his clients had 3
cornered bottoms.
Other people have made similar, if less
spectacular errors. A common one is the
malproportioning of stairs steps, in the
mistaken belief that the lower the vertical
step, the easier the stair is to climb. The
truth is that stairs can be made with risers
of almost any height from very low to
extremely high without being difficult to
climb. But only if the width of the tread
is altered proportionately. A high riser
demands a short trend and vice versa. The
optimum height for risers, according to
most authorities, will fall some where
between 6-1/2 and 7-1/2 inches. If you
stick to that height and ask your architect
to design the width accordingly, you
can't go wrong.

Some other common problems:The office
door that is too small to get a desk
through should have been at least 3
feet wide. The casement window or
projected window which opens out
between the heights of 3 feet and 6 feet
above the ground a black eye maker.
The double hung window with meeting
rail 4 feet above the floor you can't see
out side without getting up out of your
chair. The 8 x 10 breakfast room too
small to put breakfast room furniture in.
The pool room with less than five feet
clear all around the table no rail shots
unless you saw the end off your cue.

And so it goes, we can alter and stretch
and play historical novels with our houses
as much as we like, but the one set of
criteria we dare not tamper with is the
human ~ body; its size and shape,
extensiAos and limitations. These
determine, more than any other thing,
what we can do and cannot do, in

F/A 9


Obligation of

Design Professionals

in Conserving


Davis-Yohalem & Assoc., Inc.
Ft. Lauderdale

The overall magnitude of savings in
energy can be significant. We, as
architects and engineers, have the duty
and obligation to seek out and find these
savings in new buildings and old. The
design professionals also have the
obligation to work with the code
governing bodies to establish effective
regulations in energy conservation.

The question arises how can all this be
done? One answer lies specifically in the
continued growth in the technology of
the architect and engineer, but the real
solution requires a far greater response by
the entire professional design team. The
architect must select construction
materials and the engineer must design
environmental systems which will help
solve the problem. Each need to
cooperate in a team effort to design
buildings in which the problem is
effectively solved.

Another far-reaching problem is selling.
The concept developed by the joint effort
of the architect and the engineer must be
sold through joint effort to the owner or
the man who is putting out the first cost

The design or selling team must be
prepared to convince the owner that the
First Cost is not the proper criteria. He
must be convinced that the Long Range
Cost is the one to eye with concern. The
owner must not only be sold on the
concept, but must be so convinced that
he remains sold even to and beyond that
fateful day when the bids come in. *

The two-day, FES/FAAIA sponsored seminar, "Energy Conservation By
Design, was held on March 20-21 and made waves throughout the news media in
the state. Eighteen speakers, most of them recognized experts in various fields of
design, shared their knowledge of practical and available techniques which could
reduce energy consumption as much as 50% in future construction and 20% or more
in existing structures. The following articles are excerpts of some of the professional
philosophy and energy-conserving measures presented during the conference.

Responsibility of Professionals
NILS SCHWEIZER, FAIA, Chairman of the Board
Environmental Design Group, Inc. Winter Park

In the search for a more rational way of
life, I would like to examine our existing
professional attitudes as I perceive them.

The attitude of specialization. Our
profession has become increasingly
compartmentalized, fractured and
fragmented with increasing technological
burdens. This requires new thrust in
learning the interdisciplinary interface.

The attitude of irresponsibility. Fostered
by intellectual stagnation and unconcern,
this is an ever-growing problem caused by
growing numbers of people and a
migrating population. We need innovative
research projects. Some two billion
dollars in federal funds will be spent on
research in terms of energy conservation.
Some should come to the architects and
engineers of this state. We must begin to
require more of each other. The friction,
if nothing else, may produce a better

The attitude of convenient myopia. The
short-sighted reliance on old ways is
passe. It may be true that new attitudes
may only be formed in the near future
with creative economic problem solving,
i. e., economic incentives.

And what about ourselves? Architects
never have had any research capability.
They are woefully uninformed as to the
integrity of systems, as well as the
mechanisms of the engineering world. As
far as engineers are concerned, it seems
that structural engineers rely upon the
code safety factor, the handbook safety
factor and then a personal safety factor -
that is conversation? Illuminating levels in
lighted areas to simply cover design
inadequacies. Mechanical engineers do
not fully understand the human
physiognomy. They seem to be ignorant
of our true comfort requirements, and
they always forget that our thermostat is
in our feet.

What should we do? We need to search
for an integrity we have been giving lip
service to for years. A good building is a
work of art; a supreme fashioning of
technologies and social constraints and

functions. Basically, a building should be
open to the sun and breezes, planted on
three sides with deciduous trees to do
both the shading and encourage
convection currents and also the cleansing
and replenishing of our air. All of these
factors are the beginning of an
understanding of a process of
comprehensive diversity in terms of
energy conservation. This leads us to a

A commitment to an interdisciplinary
posture never once before tried
successfully, unless it has been in the area
of space teams. The entire professional
group needs a single character of mind, a
single response to a major problem.

A commitment to more research,
particularly in the areas of replenishable
energy sources, solar and biological. We
need an understanding of diversity in
terms of systems to be used and as a
concept. Hybird systems which
supplement and complement each other
are generally more successful than

A commitment to the process of
developing performance standards or
criteria for all projects prior to design.
These criteria should be honed by the life
cycle analysis treatment.

A commitment to the new aesthetics or
forms which may emerge from these
design processes.

A commitment of the re-valuation of our
educational systems to provide for the
enlightened professionals of the future.

A commitment to view the total
man-made environment as a whole; for
we are on this spaceship Earth a closed
system with limited resources. We need to
understand this fully with every fiber of
our beings. It is with this understanding
that we became responsible and our
attitudes began to change. Let us remind
ourselves of where we are, what we have
left and what we are able to do with the
capabilities that we have in our training
and in our grasp.

F/A 10

KENNETH L. LAY, Director of Corporate Development
Florida Gas Company, Orlando

The current and forseen energy shortages
do not result from inadequate domestic
resources, but rather they result in large
measure from government policies which
have slowed the development of these
resources. We must now change these
policies to enable us to more fully
develop and utilize our indigenous energy

The policy which cries loudest for
changing is the regulation of wellhead
natural gas prices. Presently, the average
price received by producers for our most
premium fuel is less than one-fourth the
price received for domestic oil at the
wellhead and less that one-sixth the price
paid for foreign oil or natural gas
imported into this country. This is hardly
a policy which encourages the
investments necessary to develop our
domestic natural gas resources. The sharp
decline in natural gas drilling and supplies
in the 1960's surely indicates that Federal
regulation of producer prices has simply
not worked.

Other prices which contributed to the
current crisis and which are being and
must be changed are an import quota
system which was used to fill the growing
gap between domestic supply and
demand with foreign oil, rather than to
encourage domestic drilling; by
environmental laws which made our most
abundant fuel, coal, unusable, which
slowed the development of new supplies
of clean energy (e.g., Alaskan pipeline,
nuclear power plants, off-shore drilling),
but which did not provide effective
measures to reduce our energy needs; and
finally by price controls which are
holding domestic fuel prices substantially
below world prices at the same time that
we are committed as a nation to achieving
domestic self-sufficiency.

Above all else, the energy crisis results
from a national energy policy over the
past decade and longer based on cheap
energy and rapid growth, with little
thought given to what happens when we
run out. We have demanded more energy,
cleaner energy, more secure energy, but
have accepted policies which guaranteed
this energy would not be available.

The Energy Crisis:

Can We Turn the Corner?

There is sufficient blame for everyone,
and it is high time that the
Administration, Congress and the
American people get on with solving the
energy problem instead of trying to find
someone to blame it on.

Where Do We Go From Here?

The United States must begin working
aggressively toward achieving the "Project
Independence" which the President first
announced in his speech last November 7.
This will require bold initiatives some
of which will not be politically popular.

Although we must continue to push
ahead with our R & D efforts to clean
coal up, over the next several years we
must mine coal in pretty much the
conventional manner, including surface
mining, and burn coal in pretty much the
conventional manner. We must insist that
the lowest sulfur coal available be used..

We must also expedite development of
this nation's oil and natural gas reserves
on the Outer Continental Shelf. The
other two resource areas which must be
developed aggressively are the Artic
Slope, including the Naval Reserve, and
onshore in the lower 48 states.

The current energy situation is an
unparalleled challenge and opportunity.
If we do the things we must do, we can
get through the short-term crisis without
suffering a deep recession and over the
somewhat longer term, we can develop an
alternative to Arab oil by 1980. If we do
not do what we must do, the economic
dislocations will be severe and chronic,
and our independence as a great nation
will be threatened. *

F/A 11

Energy Conservation, continued

Shading and Orientation
Mundano Associates, Architects, Inc. Clearwater

The tremendous increase in the use of air
conditioning throughout the U.S. and
especially in Florida has greatly changed
the demand curves of electric utility
companies. They experience their peak
loads on the hottest summer afternoons
and in some areas have encountered
brownouts, voltage reductions and even
complete blackouts.

One of the most effective means of
reducing air conditioning loads
particularly on glass, is through the
utilization of proper shading techniques
and orientation.

In buildings which feature large expanses
of glass solar heat gains through the
fenestration and heat from electric lights
used in rooms which have their blinds or
drapes tightly drawn, account for
one-third to more than one-half of the
total cooling load.

The object then, is to admit natural light
while keeping out or minimizing the

amount of solar heat gain. Solar heat gain
is the amount of the sun's heat that
makes its way into a building, and
windows provide the primary route for
the admission of solar heat.

For every 100 square feet of unshaded,
unfavorably oriented glass in air
conditioned buildings, an additional ton
of cooling capacity must be provided. In
a year's time this accounts for many
dollars in operating costs and is very
wasteful of energy.

Glass facing north receives the least solar
radiation, and glass facing south receives
the next least. Therefore, if a building can
be oriented so that most of the glass faces
north and south, it will have a much
lower solar load than if the glass areas
face east and west.
In placing a building on a site, check to
see if you can effectively take advantage
of adjacent buildings to provide solar
protection. Take advantage of trees to
also provide proper shading. If these two

factors are not available, utilize one of
the many exterior shading devices.

Overhangs can be somewhat effective but
are costly and become strong design
elements. Heat absorbing glass, insulated
glass and reflective glass can all be
effective in varying degrees. Exterior
louvres, vertical, horizontal or a
combination of both can be utilized.
Spacing and depth of louvres has a
significant effect on solar heat gain
amount of natural light admitted, and can
become a strong architectural element.

Our energy economy can no longer
tolerate either the excessive power
demand or the needless consumption of
fuel required to remove solar heat which
should have never been permitted in
buildings in the first place. Minimizing of
air conditioning loads and energy
consumption through effective sun
control and orientation is an inescapable
responsibility of all who design, own or
operate buildings. *

Bright, Dim or Dark:

Some Light Ideas on Saving Energy
Watson and Company, Tampa

Substantial amounts of energy can be
conserved by reducing unnecessary
lighting. The rules set forth in February
1972 by the Illuminating Engineering
Society are aimed at making better use of
energy without reducing the quality of

Design lighting for expected activity. You
should light "seeing" tasks, while
providing less light in the surrounding
non-working areas. Always take into
consideration the location of work
stations, the task to be done at the work
station (some tasks require more
illumination than others), and the
flexibility of providing relocatable
luminaires (if these can be moved as
easily as desks, fewer units are required
since the light can follow the desk to
wherever it is moved.) If a seeing problem
occurs at a given point, a fixture can be
added at that location, rather than
providing for the problem uniformly over
thousands of square feet of floor space.

Design with more effective luminaries and
fenestration. Use systems analysis based
on life cycle costs.

Use thermal controlled luminaries. In
practice this has yielded substantial
savings and should be investigated on all
design. The full potential of thermal
controlled luminaries is only realized by
the mechanical and electrical design
engineers making decisions jointly.

Use lighter-colored finishes on ceilings,
walls, floors, and furnishings.

Use efficient incandescent lamps. Select
lamps based on their lumen maintenance
quality and consider their output over the
entire life of the lamp. Check the lumens
per watt ratings they do vary.

Turn off lights when not needed. The
design engineer must visualize the several
different light levels and make it
convenient to the owner to accomplish
this by switching.

Control window brightness. Large dark or
very bright areas surrounding a seeing
task reduces the visibility of details to be
seen. If the bright area is the problem, the
usual answer is to raise task illumination
- as per elementary lighting design
textbook data, but is wasteful.

Utilize daylight as practicable. Daylight,
with the sun, sky and ground as sources,
can be utilized to advantage.

Keep lighting equipment clean and in
good working condition. With a good
maintenance program you can get up to
50 percent additional illumination at no
increase to cost of energy consumption.
Follow simple rules: replace burned
lamps immediately; use rated-voltage
lamps that are rated at the voltage which
is in use; be sure that fluorescent lamps
operate at a cool ambient temperature;
keep lamps and luminaires clean; keep
ceilings, sidewalls and floors clean
(repaint them when their reflectances fall
below their recommended reflectance
values); when removing fluorescent lamps
from fixtures to reduce light level,
disconnect the power to the ballast, or
you have done only 80% of what you
thought you did.

'ost instructions covering operation and
maintenance. You may be the greatest
designer in the world, but unless you
communicate the features you designed
to,the owner, your reputation will suffer.
4 a

F/A 12

Answer to the Energy Crisis: Individual Responsibility
Florida Energy Committee, Miami

Engineers and architects, as the key
members of building design teams, have a
special responsibility in helping to
overcome the energy crisis. It's going to
take the technicrafts, the professionals, to
give the guidance on this. Your special
knowledge and professional expertise are
needed if society is to achieve a realistic
and workable balance between energy
demand, production and consumption.

As design professionals you're dedicated
beyond just advancing your profession
and providing dollars for your own
benefits; you have a responsibility for the
health, safety and welfare of the public
through proper utilization of your
technical competence. You have to start
providing leadership you can no longer
be order takers.

Anyone can make a xerox copy of
something that has already been done.
That doesn't take a professional
background; that doesn't take the
education you've gone through; that
doesn't take the experience you've
developed over the years. It's time to stop
talking about running off photocopies of
what has been done before and start
talking about some innovation and some
imagination certainly also taking part

in research and development of new
improved energy sources making sure
that other alternatives are available to us.

Some of these things aren't new
technology; some are concepts that were
used in the building of the pyramids.
We've gotten away from them because it
was easier and cheaper to do it another
way until recently.

Today more than ever before, your
individual responsibility as design
professionals needs to take on new
dimensions of involvement and service:

1. Educational assistance and guidance
to government officials, at all levels, to
see that proper and adequate
consideration is given to technology
utilization in the solution to conservation
of energy.

2. Active pursuit of increased funds for
research in developing new and improved
energy sources.

3. Vigorous efforts to demonstrate to
clients, users and project financers, that
increased consideration be given to a life
cycle energy and cost analysis on all
building design projects.

4. Active participation in the
development, adoption and utilization of
building design standards that will result
in greater energy conservation in the
construction, operation, utilization and
maintenance of buildings.

5. Greater creativity and innovation by
design professionals in the conception,
design and construction of buildings and
energy consuming systems.

6. Development and utilization of new
and improved building materials,
insulation material, illuminating
equipment, air conditioning systems and
control systems and to promote the
inclusion of such developemnts in project

7. Improve and expand the general
public's understanding and appreciation
of technology utilization in the energy
conservation decision and policy making
processes. Communicate in less
sophisticated, technical jargon.

8. Increase emphasis on energy
conservation in the teaching of
engineering design and technology
courses in the engineering education
programs of our colleges and universities.

MAY, 1974.

F/A 13

A-E Selection Report


Officers of The American Institute of
Architects have commended the General
Services Administration for adopting new
procedures for selecting architects and
engineers to design federal government

Archibald C. Rogers, FAIA, AIA
President, praised the decision of Arthur
F. Sampson, GSA administrator, to
accept the recommendations of the
special study committee he appointed in
late 1973, to review the agency's A-E
selection procedures and recommend
improvements. Previously Sampson had
announced that he had studied all of the
major and most of the minor
recommendations by the study
committee, and that he accepts the
recommendations and is implementing
them immediately.

Key recommendations of the committee :

Modification of the makeup of GSA
advisory panels for selection of design
professionals. Members of advisory
panels, who will now serve for only one
year, will be ineligible for consideration
for GSA work during their terms. The
numbers will also be reduced.
Establishment of in-house professional
evaluation boards who will rankorder the
three top firms recommended by the
advisory panels. This ranking was
previously done by the administrator,
who is responsible for the final selection.
Under the new procedure, if the
administrator departs from the
recommendation of the evaluation board
in selecting the top-ranked firm, he must
document his reasons.

According to William Marshall Jr., FAIA,
President-elect, the Institute is
particularly pleased with Sampson's
acceptance of the study committee
position opposing competitive bidding, a
position the GSA administrator
personally endorsed in a statement at the
press conference. The committee report
stated: "The committee does not believe
that 'competitive bidding,' 'competitive
negotiations,' or any other form of price
competition in the selection process
would reduce the potential for
impropriety, provide a practical or

effective tool for selecting the most
qualified A-Es, or give young firms a
better chance at federal work. No
evidence was presented that competitive
pricing would improve the GSA process
or services to the public and, in the
opinion of the study committee, it would
be impractical and unwise for the
government to select design professionals
on this basis."

GSA administrator, Sampson has also
announced several porposed changes in
GSA's A-E selection methods in addition
to those recommended by the special
study committee. Starting in January,
1975, he said, design firms interested in
GSA work would be asked to submit, in
additional information on the firm's
qualifications, a proposal which would
address specific project requirements.
Noting that this process would be
developed over a three-to-five year
period, Sampson envisions that it may
include information on technical and
professional distinction; estimates of
construction and life-cycle costs; planning
and design concepts; and estimated fees.
He stressed that he was deferring
implementation of the proposal
requirement until January in order to
explain it fully and explore its
implications with design professionals and
their organizations.

Responding to the idea of technical
proposals, Marshall said, "We accept the
GSA's invitation to explore the
implementation of these modifications to
its current selection procedures. We look
forward to the opportunity to clarify the
matter of the timing and procedure for
determining the cost of professional
services, among other matters.

"The Institute has always been gratified,"
Marshall continued, "by the fact the GSA
has included people from outside the
agency in its A-E selection process. We
were pleased when Mr. Sampson
convened the special study committee,
anQthat he has accepted the committee's
recommendations. Mr. Sampson's stated
desire to secure the best architectural
design talent for government buildings
should be a continuing benefit to the
nation for years to come." *

F/A 14

This Is Zyrian Stone...

This is an angle photograph of an actual panel 17' wide.

It began over 500 million years ago... in a quarry outside Min-
eral Bluff, Georgia. Through the ages, it adapted to a multitude of
earth changes. Today, it is a fine-grained mica schist that has
remained remarkably adaptable. It breaks into slabs of any
desired thickness (stocked only in /2" thickness)... or cut and
saw it to any shape. Variety is infinite. No two slabs show the
same color shades... they range from greens and bluish-greens
through yellows, browns and chocolate tones. Blend them to
produce striking, artistic effects. This unusual stone is ideal for
veneering... future uses are unlimited. It took over 500 million
years for Zyrian Stone to reach such perfection of beauty and
facility. It was worth the wait.


1818 North 7th Avenue
Lake Worth, Florida
(305) 582-5760


P.O.-Box 5
Miami, Florida
(305) 887-1525

7100 N. Kendall Drive
Miami, Florida 33156
Accepted As Controlled Circulation
Publication at Miami, Florida


I..0 -
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0.4 0

Quest For Exellance

A search with inward and autteerd
directions... a pisft that Il
the pur po Of iat TW1t
quest caa lie aalloevd. Then who
reach "&Wlks are t* ig honored

FAAIA 60th Annual
Convention and
Building Products

Marco Beach Hotel
Marco Island

October 17-20, 1974
October 17-20, 1974