Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 4 libraries
 Advertisers' index
 Bill introduced to prohibit product...
 Design for the people
 Architectural technician gets...
 Circut court rules against bidding...
 Back Cover

Title: Florida architect
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00177
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Series Title: Florida architect
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: March 1969
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073793
Volume ID: VID00177
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    4 libraries
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Advertisers' index
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Bill introduced to prohibit product boycotts
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Design for the people
        Page 19
    Architectural technician gets boost
        Page 20
    Circut court rules against bidding for professional services
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Back Cover
        Page 23
        Page 24
Full Text

W A A Flo

This- publication- is. copyrighted. by- the- Florida.
Association. of. the. American. Institute. of-
Architects- and- is- an- official- journal- of- the-

Limited permission to. digitize- and make this- electronic-
version available- has- been- granted- by the. Association-
to- the- University- of- Florida- on- behalf- of- the- State-
University- System* of F lorida.

Use- of- this- version- is- restricted- by. United- States-
Copyright- legislation- and- its- fair use- provisions.- Other-
uses- may- be- a vi olati on -of- copyri ght. protect ons.

Requests- for- permissions- should- be- directed to- the-
Florida- Association- of. the. American- Institute. of-
Architects.- Contact- information- is- available- at- the-
Association' sweb site.

The Florida Architect

9InpiTrG '~py

March 1969 / Volume 19 / Number 3

4 Libraries

Advertisers' Index

Bill Introduced to Prohibit

Product Boycotts

Design for the People

Architectural Technician

Gets Boost

Circuit Court Rules Against

Bidding for Professional Services






With the explosion of knowledge
the library is receiving renewed
attention. No longer is it a quiet
cloistered place set apart from
the world it now becomes a
place of action for both city and
campus alike. In this issue are
presented but four of many new
library structures springing up
around the state. The cover photo
by Wade Swicord pictures the
Roux Library at Florida Southern
College, Lakeland.





Broward County Chapter
Donald I. Singer-Joseph T. Romano
Daytona Beach Chapter
David A. Leete-Carl Gerken
Florida Central Chapter
Jack McCandless- James R. Dry
I. Blount Wagner
Florida Gulf Coast Chapter
Edward J. Seibert- Frank Folsom Smith
Florida North Chapter
Charles F. Harrington-James D. McGinley, Jr.
Florida North Central Chapter
Mays Leroy Gray-Forrest R. Coxen
Florida Northwest Chapter
Thomas H. Daniels- Richard L. MacNeil
Florida South Chapter
Robert J. Boerema George F. Reed
Walter S. Klements
Jacksonville Chapter
Albert L. Smith- Herschel E. Shepard
Charles E. Patillo, III
Mid-Florida Chapter
Wythe David Sims, II- Donald R. Hampton
Palm Beach Chapter
Howarth L. Lewis Rudolph M. Arsenicos
John B. Marion
Director, Florida Region, American
Institute of Architects
H. Samuel Kruse, FAIA,
1600 N.W. LeJeune Rd., Miami

Executive Director, Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects
Fotis N. Karousatos,
1000 Ponce de Leon Blvd., Coral Gables
H. Leslie Walker, President
706 Franklin St., Suite 1218
Tampa, Florida 33602
Harry E. Bums, Jr., Vice President/President
1113 Prudential Bldg.
Jacksonville, Florida 32207
James J. Jennewein, Secretary
Exchange National Bank Bldg., Suite 1020
Tampa, Florida 33602
Myrl J. Hanes, Treasurer
P. 0. Box 609
Gainesville, Florida 32601

Charles E. Patillo, III
Russell J. Minardi
Wythe D. Sims, II
Fotis N. Karousatos / Editor
John W. Totty / Assistant Editor
Helen Bronson / Circulation
Howard Doehla / Advertising

Journal of the Florida Association of the
American Institute of Architects, Inc., is
owned and published by the Association, a
Florida Corporation not for profit. It is
published monthly at the Executive Office of
the Association, 1000 Ponce de Leon Blvd.,
Coral Gables, Florida 33134. Telephone: 444-
5761 (area code 305). Circulation: distrib-
uted without charge of 4,669 registered archi-
tects, builders, contractors, designers, engineers
and members of allied fields throughout the
state of Florida-and to leading financial in-
stitutions, national architectural firms and

Editorial contributions, including plans and
photographs of architects' work, are wel-
comed but publication cannot be guaranteed.
Opinions expressed by contributors are not
necessarily those of the Editor or the Florida
Association of the AIA. Editorial material
may be freely reprinted by other official AIA
publications, provided full credit is given to
the author and to The FLORIDA ARCHI-
TECT for prior use . Controlled circula-
tion postage paid at Miami, Florida. Single
copies, 75 cents, subscription, members $2.00
per year, industry and non-members $6.50 per
year. February Roster Issue, $10.00 . Mc-
Murray Printers.


Tampa Public
Tampa, Florida
McLane, Ranon and
McElvy and Jennewein,



:oral Gables Public ..
:oral Gables, Florida
Idward T. Rempe
Vray G. Succop :

Roux Library
Florida Southern
Lakeland, Florida
Schweizer Associates

q i*-L

I ~r

Monsignor William Barry
Memorial Library
Barry College
Miami, Florida
Barry & Kay, Inc. Chicago
Murray Blair Wright



Photo: Wade Swicord


* or




Coral Gables

A BUILDING FACADE is the three dimensional
expression of a floor plan. Through the medium of
brick, stone, concrete, glass and other materials
the architect encloses and creates space for human
use. The facade creates the public image of a
building, passing on an understanding of what func-
tion is housed within its walls. It determines how
well the total environment is enhanced by the
buildings presence. In the final analysis, the facade
is an important element in judging the total suc-
cess of a building.


Photo: Kurt Waldmann

Coral Gables





The design of a BUILDING IN-
TERIOR is as much a specialized
field as other elements involved
in a complete building project. It
is an important element because
through design interiors breathe
life and humanism into the build-
ing environment and involves
more than purchase and place-
ment of furniture. It is important
that architecture and interior
design mesh to produce a whole
building and not a fragmented
one. In three of these library
projects, Barry College, Tampa
and Coral Gables, interior design
was by Richard Plumer Business
Interiors with Vern Currie, A.I.D.
as project designer. Interiors at
Florida Southern College were
done by Schweizer Associates.


A Library is not an archive or
museum but an active, dynamic
area of college life, being inti-
mately aware, at all times, of the
educational objectives of the fac-
ulty and serving the student body
in its best capacity.
In the design and planning of a
new library facility, there are
many considerations which must
be given to the future. New
teaching media, new means of
individual communication, and
many other technical advances
are all problems which a Library
facility must be able to cope with
in the future. In solving these
related technical problems and at
the same time causing the Library
to become a main stream activity
of campus life, one factor was
considered paramount. That fac-
tor was and is interaction between
student and faculty and the tools
of learning which the facility
makes available. Inasmuch as this
Library is to serve a liberal arts
program, a non-divisional system
of Library services was estab-
lished. The only control required
in this instance, was that at the
main entrance thereby allowing
students of all study levels to be
placed in and among the Library
stack areas. It was generally in-
tended that reading areas be sep-
arated from one another only by
books and that the space itself
remain as open as practical.
Another important aspect in the
design of this building was that
it should be complimentary to
the buildings (namely those de-
signed by Frank Lloyd Wright) it
was being placed in and among.
Much of Mr. Wright's original
concept of the campus has, in
time, given way to the demands
of a growing and active college
program and although his build-
ings participate, physically, as but
a small portion of the campus
they remain as the spiritual cen-
ter of the campus.
The degree of success with which
this new Library facility compli-
ments the existing Wright cam-
pus, remains a mystery which ex-
perience has shown only time can
answer. There seems to be no

Statements by the Architects Reveal
their Philosophy of Design

question about the fact that this
building has found an active role
in campus life, however, and in
this respect it is a success.
It was a basic consideration in
the design process that this build-
ing should evolve from the heart
of its function. As the function
of this building was defined, the
Library is an instrument of learn-
ing which turns the mind inward,
and so it is with the building.
There are areas to stop and re-
flect, to look outside and to con-
template distant things but when
it comes time to turn inward and
learn, one can retreat to one of
the many small intimate areas
provided within. With 470 stu-
dent seats available, 70% of
which are at individual reading
carrels, one has little worry about
finding a suitable place to study
except during peak study time.
There are areas outside the build-
ing where small and large groups
alike can gather to discuss cam-
pus issue and the like. These
are now being furnished with
suitable seating and shelter from
the sun along with a refreshment
area. E




The Tampa Public Library occu-
pies a site near downtown and the
Hillsborough River. Spaces of
public use are on the lower floors
where stacks and reading areas
surround an open well with mez-
zanine. Upper floors house lib-
rary work and administrative
functions. A curved roof audito-
rium for public meetings is set
apart from the main structure as
a contrasting feature.


The site of the Coral Gables
Public Library is located between
University Drive and Segovia
Street. Both of these streets are
heavily traveled and are a short
distance from the downtown
Coral Gables shopping area.

The City Commissioners of Coral
Gables and the Library Board in-
structed the Architects to design
a building with a Spanish motif.
The Architects wanted to satisfy
these two groups, but also felt
strongly that the building had to
make a strong architectural state-
ment for the City of Coral Gables
in 1969. We feel that we have
accomplished our purpose to cre-
ate beautiful forms and spaces,
not only to express and attrac-
tively house the library functions,
but to achieve the environment
which is most conducive to life
and its enjoyment.

The exterior materials are 2"
thick quarry keystone, laid in a
vertical pattern of 3", 7", 10" in
width and 30" lengths. At the
top of the building there are 3"
wide split face keystone battens
30" in length and 12" on center
projecting 2" from the face of

the building.These battens cast
an interesting shadow upon the
surfaces of the quarry keystone.
The glass areas are of bronze
tinted plate glass set in bronze
sash sections. Red clay tile in
various shades have been used at
the top and bottom of these glass
areas. Leading up to the main
entrance doors on both the Uni-
versity Drive and Segovia Street
sides are decorative clay tile pav-
ers used to form large entrance
terraces which are defined by
planters and a pool with foun-

The massive Honduran mahogany
raised panel doors open into a
spacious lobby with circulation
desk. The ceilings in this area are
fifteen feet high and have wood
beams with acoustical tile be-
tween them. The walls are in
quarry keystone, glass, and wall
fabric, with wood mullions five
feet on center which line up with
the overhead exposed wood
beams. The floor material is a
continuation of the clay tile from
the outside entrance terraces.
Large Spanish chandeliers hang
from the ceiling.

From the lobby one may enter
into the main reading room which
is 90 feet wide and 142 feet long.
This room has fifteen-foot high
ceilings with exposed wood beams
and luminous ceilings between
these beams which run horizon-
tally and vertically along the cen-
ter lines of the columns. The
walls are covered with mahogany
built in bookcases which are
seven feet high with heavy tex-
tured plaster on the walls above.
The floors are carpeted. The room
is richly furnished.

The children's reading room is on
the opposite side of the lobby and
is similar to the main reading
room except that it is furnished
with a more contemporary feel-

The meeting room is also fifteen
feet high. The focal point of this
room will be a tile mural, nine
feet wide and fifteen feet high.
On each side of the mural are
fifteen-foot high mahogany pan-
els splayed towards the mural.
The other walls are done in wall
fabric. The floor is carpeted. The
remainder of the building is used
for staff lounge, work rooms and
book storage. N



The modern University Library
needs to be a happy union of the
Architect-who might be tempt-
ed to create a monument, and the
Librarian-who might be tempted
to build only an efficient ma-
chine for the dissemination of
the learning resources of the
school. At Barry College, the at-
tempt has been to provide the
efficiency of operation so neces-
sary to the library function and
also a cheerful, quiet atmosphere
housed in a graceful manner.

Since the grand, high-ceilinged
Main Reading Room of the past
has long since been recognized
as a waste of space, ceilings in

the new biulding are kept to a
modest 9 and 10 feet, except at
the Main Entrance where a small
central well provides visual relief,
a feeling of spaciousness and a
display center where various trav-
eling exhibits may be featured
from time to time.

The book stacks at Barry College
Library as "open," as contrasted
with the theory that the books
should be kept under lock-and-
key. The feeling is that with
"open" stacks, where "brousing"
is permitted, contributes to
greater reader interest and cir-
culation as well as a reduced cost
in Library personnel required to
operate closed stacks.

Reading areas are broken into
small groups by the book stacks
which makes it more difficult for
local noises to upset the atmos-
phere of the whole floor as
might be the case where there is
one large reading room. The
smaller reading areas in general,
tend to reduce the institutional
feeling often part and parcel of
a large building.

The quality of the light in read-
ing areas has been improved by
polarization. Polarized light is, by
its very nature, relatively glare-
free and subjectively speaking, a
"soft" light.

Since the amount of printed
material grows each day, every
Library must be planned for fu-
ture expansion. Here, a 4th floor
not presently used for Library
purposes, will provide a future
20,000 square feet of space. The
present 125,000 volumes and the
600 seats could be increased to
250,000 volumes and 800 seats.

The exterior of the building is
characterized by small windows
and balconies on both the East
and West sides. The small win-
dows provide ample visual con-
tinuity with the outside and re-
duce the opportunity for distrac-
tions in the library processes.

Although the building is air-con-
ditioned, the balconies provide
outdoor reading areas in a region
that is famous for its benign
climate. U

Coral Gables Library
Electrical work by
1089 S.E. 9th Court
Hialeah, Florida 33010
887-1661 888-0705

Electric, Inc.

Coral Gables Library
8105 W. 20th Ave.
Hialeah, Florida

Jones Shutter

Coral Gables Library
Masonry by
35 East 57th Street
Hialeah, Florida 33012

Masonry. Inc.






Coral Gables Library
Plumbing by
3800 Shipping Ave.
Miami, Florida 33146

Plumbing Co.




Permadeck is made by forming long,
chemically treated mineralized wood fibers
with Portland Cement into planks, tile or
formboard possessing unique properties-
strength, water resistance, fire resistance,
insulation, high reflectivity and attractive
And now Permadeck roof decks are
Certified Permadeck roof decks are ap-
plied only by Approved Permadeck Appli-
cators who have the proper experience and
equipment to asssure that architectural spec-
ifications are faithfully followed.
At the plants, a rigid testing program is
followed to assure that the Permadeck
equals or surpasses published standards.
Accurate job records concerning applica-
tions are kept by the Approved Permadeck
When the job is completed, we and
the applicator jointly certify that the
Permadeck was properly manufactured
and installed according to architectural
All of which assures you of satisfactory
long term performance.
For complete information, call your
Permadeck or Zonolite representative or
write us.


Concrete Products Division
W. R. Grace & Co.
P.O. Box 130, Brunswick, Georgia MS120.
Phone (912) 265-6900
P.O. Box 338, Terry, Mississippi 39170.
Phone (601) 878-5565

...and now a couple of important words from
successful apartment developers:


Read what these men say about the total-electric concept. They
speak from experience. They know what they're talking about:
costs .. convenience ... maintenance . public preference.
Like many smart, aggressive Florida developers, they've learned
that total electric is the best way to build ... the best way to sell!
The total Electric building program is backed by a multi-
million dollar promotional effort ... an effort planned to work
for you. When you build for total electric living, your customers
year-round electric comfort conditioning, for cooling and
heating the clean, quiet, flameless way
an electric water heater-the safe, flameless and fumeless
unit that needs no flue, can be installed anywhere
an electric range, for cool, clean, flameless cooking
two or more other electric conveniences, such as a refriger-
ator-freezer, dishwasher or food waste disposer
Full Housepower wiring, with plenty of convenient outlets
and switches
ample Light for Living, for proper illumination and decorative
For full details on what total electric building can mean to you-in terms of
prestige and profit-call your electric utility company.

Florida's Electric Companies ... Taxpaying, Investor-Owned


units, Gulfstream: "In an area such as Gulfstream, home and apartment owners demand nothing but the best.
erefore, in the development of the Somerset, we insisted on total-electric Gold Medallion apartments."
James J. Ritterbusch, President, Somerset Developers, Inc.

*arwater: "As a custom home builder,
i found my clients prefer all-electric
ng. That's why I decided my new Bay
;t Apartments condominium should be
electric. In addition to the most modern
weniences and comforts, an all-electric
irtment has a prestige appeal which
-acts new homeowners and helps make
Lee Dorian
Bay East Apartments, Inc.

ROYCE VILLAGE-20 units, Pensacola:
"After careful consideration of comparative
costs and other factors, I decided that the
comforts and conveniences of total-electric
living would be most desirable for Royce
Village residents. So these buildings, like
many businesses and homes in this area,
were planned in accordance with Medallion
standards. The enthusiastic response we
have had proves that this is what people
want today in apartment living."
Handsel B. Butts
Handsel B. Butts Builders, Inc.

units, Winter Haven: "All-electric apart-
ments offer tenants unparalleled con-
venience, and owners minimal mainten-
ance. I am convinced that the market is
right, and I plan to pursue aggressively the
construction of total-electric apartments in
Central Florida."
John G. Wood, Builder
John G. Wood and Associates

Illustrating the versatility

of precast concrete panels...

These buildings all feature
precast concrete units made
from Trinity White.

:::::: ::n ll i IIIIIII lill i l l .In n ie m ,.
illllnillIInI l!lfln rlllllt .nnnrn r InT ,, S
= =.e.iiim Nill 1111111 l lllt I01lmm inMm,

Want to see more?
We have a new booklet that shows
dozens of examples of the use of
precast white concrete panels.
Write-or check our number-
for your free copy.


* A product of GENERAL PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY, P.O. Box 324, Dallas, Texas 75221
Offices: Houston Tampa Miami Chattanooga Chicago Fort Wayne Kansas City. Kan.



It's Really for the


All that old bull the peddlers use trying to get people to put in the "more expensive"
fuel instead of safe, economical fuel oil is really for the birds.
"The air pollution man will get you if you don't watch out," they warn. Supposedly,
he will rule that your fuel oil operation is polluting the air, and you'll face the
expense of converting to the other fuel . new equipment, installation, etc.
In case you haven't already heard, this contention that our hotels, motels, apartments,
hospitals and other businesses using fuel oil are causing air pollution has been
completely dispelled.
Exhaustive tests by the Metro Pollution Board found no measurable pollution from
fuel oil and, in fact, our part of the country checked out among the top three areas
in the entire United States for air purity!
So... pay no attention to the story tellers. Give 'em the bird.

Clean, Dependable, Safe .. Fuel Oil Saves M-O-N-E-Y!

Oil-powered equipment and fuel oil for all uses



Yesterday's ideas
Solar Gas Machine
(small scale oil-gas plant)


__________________________L ii1 i



Use natural gas to pro-
duce your own electric-
ity? It may have been a
thought a century ago.
Today, it's a proven
operation. And it's called
Total Energy...a rugged
and dependable system
using natural gas burn-
ing engine/generators
to produce electrical
needs. It even goes an-
other step further. Heat
given off by the engines



is captured to produce
Inq heating, water heating
. . and even air condi-
S" tioning, thru absorption
Cooling. Sound exciting?
It is.

Find out how your
next major project can
be self-sustaining with
Total Energy. Check the
facts with your local
Gas Utility. He's in the
Yellow Pages.


Winter Park, Florida

For a free 11" x 14" print of the Solar Gas Machine, send your name and address
to Patent, Advertising Department, Florida Gas Company, P. O. Box 44, Winter Park, Florida.

I _ _

Senators Edward J. Gurney and Spessard
Holland recently co-sponsored a bill to
prohibit product boycotts, Senate Bill
1532. The following introductory re-
marks by Senator Gurney are reprinted
from the "Congressional Record," dated
March 12, 1969. Architects, engineers,
contractors and material suppliers are
asked to write to their Senators and
Representatives in Washington voicing
support of this legislation.

Bill Introduced to Prohibit

Product Boycotts

Mr. GURNEY. Mr. President, today
I am introducing legislation to amend
the National Labor Relations Act to
prohibit the use of product boycotts.
I am joined in cosponsoring this bill
by the following Senators: Mr. BELL-
Mr. FANNIN, Mr. JORDAN of Idaho,
Mr. JORDAN of North Carolina, Mr.
PHY, Mr. THURMOND, and Mr.

One of the great pressing needs in the
United States is adequate housing.
The figures used in Congress last year
were 26 million new homes or apart-
ments over the next 10 years, 6 mil-
lion needed right now for 20 million
Americans who live in substandard

Our great cities are rotting. Whole
inner city sections need either leveling
and rebuilding or massive repairing
on a scale never before undertaken.
Also needed is the building of entire
new communities to relieve the teem-
ing anthill pressures in the big cities.

For a nation which has split the atom,
circumnavigated the moon, manufac-
tured 8,848,321 automobiles in one
year, this should be an easy task.
And so it would be if American tech-
nology could be applied to building
homes as it has been applied in cre-
ating rockets and spaceships.

But, unfortunately, the hands of our
architects, engineers, and buildings
and workmen have been effectively
shackled by recent decisions of the
Supreme Court.

We have the ability to rocket past
time zones, but in the homebuilding
business, our courts have turned back
the hands of the clock. They have
decided that we shall meet 21st-cen-
tury housing needs with 18th-century
building methods.

I say this in all candor. For a Rip
Van Winkle type carpenter could ac-
tually arise from his 18th-century
sleep and feel quite at home pound-
ing nails and sawing wood in the
homebuilding industry of 1969.

Time has virtually stood still in the
building business. If transportation

had followed a similar course, this
Nation would still be moving about
in horses and buggies, open-air trolley
cars, and big front-wheel bicycles.

This is because the Supreme Court
has effectively chained the people of
our building industry to old ideas
and techniques and prevented their
forging ahead with new concepts and

Today, I am introducing legislation to
strike these Supreme- Court -forged
chains which shackle our building in-

Specifically, my bill amends the Na-
tional Labor Relations Act in order
to prohibit products boycotts.

Let us go into the history of the
urgent need for this legislation.

In a landmark 5-to-4 decision in 1967,
the Supreme Court held that labor
unions may lawfully boycott and pre-
vent innovations, improvements and
economics in construction and other
industries for the purpose of preserv-
ing work traditionally done at the
site. The principal opinion was writ-
ten in National Woodwork Manufac-
turers Association against NLRB, uni-
versally known in the building trades
as the Philadelphia Door decision.

In this case, a contractor on a large
housing project in Philadelphia re-
quired 3,600 doors. He bought pre-
fitted doors with holes cut for the
knob and spaces cut out for the hinges
since this work can be done better
and more economically at the factory.
The carpenters union refused to in-
stall the doors under its contract pro-
vision. By stopping the job, they
forced the contractor to buy "blank"
doors which the carpenters cut and
fitted at the site. Quite clearly, here
was a product boycott of the precut

The Landrum-Griffin Amendments
of 1959 made it unlawful for any
union and employer to enter into a
contract whereby the employer agrees
"to cease and refrain from handling,
using, selling, transporting, or other-
wise dealing in any of the products
of any other employer, or to cease
doing business with any person." The
Labor Act also makes it unlawful for

a union to coerce an employer not to
use any product or deal with another
person whether or not there is such
an agreement.

Until the Philadelphia Door case,
most people familiar with the Labor
Act would have called the unions' ac-
tion a product boycott and clearly un-
lawful under the Landrum-Griffin

But the National Labor Relations
Board dismissed the complaint of the
National Woodwork Manufacturers
Association on the theory that the
union's purpose was preservation of
work of its members and that con-
tracts and boycotts having that pur-
pose should be exempted from the
statute even though Congress did not
so provide and even though they re-
sult in secondary boycotts and prod-
uct boycotts affecting other em-
ployees. The Court of Appeals for the
Seventh Circuit reversed the Board in
part. But the Supreme Court predict-
ably came up with one of its 5-to-4
decisions and reinstated the Board's
decision in full.

The Court majority concluded that
even though the union's contract and
its boycott "may be within the letter
of the statute" they are not "within
its spirit." The "letter," of course,
was the clear language of Congress:
the "spirit" was the fanciful flight of
the Supreme Court's boundless ima-
gination. To use the words of the
four dissenting Justices:

The Court has substituted its own no-
tions of sound labor policy for the
word of Congress.

The four dissenting Justices further
commented that the majority used "a
curious inversion of logic" to reach its

The dissenting Justices found it clear
that the Congress intended to outlaw
hot cargo contracts of this type and
all products boycotts. In their view
"it is entirely understandable that
Congress should have sought to pro-
hibit product boycotts having a work
preservation purpose. Unlike most
strikes and boycotts, which are tem-
porary tactical maneuvers in a partic-
ular labor dispute, work preservation
product boycotts are likely to be per-
manent, and the restraint on the free
flow of goods in commerce is direct
and pervasive." Even though the
union s purpose was the preservation
of work through primary activity, a
result of this activity was a boycott of
a certain manufacturer. It cannot be
said that work preservation boycotts
do not interfere with the free flow of
goods, for they do. These boycotts
may be permanent in character and
are certainly disruptive of the free flow
of goods in commerce, as so aptly
pointed out by the dissenting Court
(Continued on Page 18)

Prohibit Product Boycotts
The consequences of this decision are
far-reaching and disturbing. The de-
cision embodies and upholds union
featherbedding, it denies management
its right to manage in its exercise of
choice of methods and products, it
kills innovation, improvement, and
lowering of costs, it thwarts increases
in productivity, and it even strikes at
other union members whose labor
produces prefabricated products. Pan-
dora's box was indeed opened by this
Philadelphia Door case. A brief look
at recent events eminating from this
decision can only begin to show the
ramifications that it will have on our

In Cleveland, the Building Trades
Union struck home builders in that
city for an agreement not to use pre-
fabricated roof trusses, cabinets, and
similar prefabricated materials.

The San Diego Building Trades
Council opposed use of concrete
forms which were prefabricated off
the job site. The council insisted such
forms should be constructed by the
union at the site.

The AFL-CIO plumbers refused to
install prefabricated heating equip-
ment on a Ford Motor construction
project in St. Thomas, Ontario, unless
all piping in the units were disman-
tled and reassembled by the plumbers
on the job.

In Houston, the local Heat and Frost
Insulators and Asbestos Workers Un-
ion declined to install precut insula-
tion and struck in protest. Charges
that the strike constituted a secondary
boycott were dismissed by the Na-
tional Labor Relations Board. Its de-
cision was later upheld by the Su-
preme Court.

On a New York department store
job, a sheet metal workers local re-
fused to handle sheet metal parts, in-
cluding air-conditioning dampers, pur-
chased from a Milwaukee firm. The
basis of this protest was union insis-
tence that the parts used on the job
had to be manufactured by members
of the New York local. This boycott
of products from other than union-
approved manufacturers was upheld
by the Federal court of appeals.

Late last year, a Federal court of ap-
peals in a case involving the American
Boiler Manufacturers Association,
broadened the holding of the Na-
tional Woodwork case to permit con-
struction unions to boycott prefabri-
cated products to re-acquire work pre-
viously lost, and further held, that if
the selection of the prefabricated prod-
uct is not within the contractor's right
to control, the fact would not make
much, if any, difference.

In another recent case involving the
Tonka Toy Co., a union was held to

be within its rights in refusing to
install prefabricated boilers specified
by the design architect. The union
contended that it was entitled to re-
fuse to handle such equipment on the
basis that the prefabrication of the
boiler took away work historically
done by the union. The National
Woodwork case was the precedent.
Such decisions, if allowed to stand,
can lead to no other conclusion than
refusal by unions to install other cost
and time saving materials which mav
be specified by architects and engi-
neers. This limits the design profes-
sional's freedom in selecting the best
materials or methods to accomplish
a project.

The unions often cite historical work
practices in construction to justify a
veto of even the most elementary ad-
vances. The plumbers, for example,
have long insisted that piping under
2 inches in diameter be assembled
on the site. The most ludicrous ex-
ample of this make-work mentality
occurred at the Vandenberg Air Force
Base when pipefitters refused to han-
dle a prefabricated manifold, an as-
sembly of pipes and valves used in the
hydraulic system of an ICBM launch-
ing pad. The unions insisted that the
unit be knocked down and reassem-
bled. Since disassembly might have
damaged the unit, the union agreed
that it would merely charge for the
time that would be expended on the
job, and insisted that an appropriate
number of men squat around the ob-
ject. At the end of this period, a weld-
ing bead or mark was ceremoniously
added and the unit was then trundled
off to the assembly site. This ritual
act became known as "blessing the
The wording of the Supreme Court
decision is particularly disturbing
since it appears to apply even if the
use of such materials is not covered
by a protective union agreement. Un-
ions are authorized to use boycotts
or strikes to prevent installation or use
of any kind of prefabricated product
or material so long as their ultimate
objective is to insure or secure work
for members.
It is important to note that the minor-
ity opinion of the four dissenters in
the National Woodwork case dis-
agrees with the majority on every
point, and finds instead, that:
Relevant legislative history confirms
and reinforces the plain meaning of
the statute and establishes that the
union's product boycott in this case
and the agreement authorizing it were
both unfair labor practices. In decid-
ing to the contrary, the Court has
substituted its own notions of sound
labor policy for the word of Congress.
There may be social and economic
arguments for changing the law of
product boycotts . but those
changes are not for this Court to

In other words, Mr. President, four
out of nine of the Supreme Court
said plainly and bluntly that the in-
tent of Congress had been either ig-
nored or wildly distorted to make law
out of the biased sentiments of the
individual Court members.

The important thing now will be for
Congress to correct this Court deci-
sion and make clear that it intends to
have a free and progressive economy
rather than one hamstrung by union
boycotts of all new products and in-

These restrictions imposed by the
building trades on the use of prefab-
ricated products are seriously holding
down productivity. Technological
progress in the construction industry
is impeded and costs are being in-
creased beyond today's all-time high.
Carried to their ultimate conclusion,
these recent Court decisions mean
that unions could ban all technical
progress in the construction industry.

Unless Congress sees fit to do away
with this practice by legislation, the
National Woodwork doctrine will al-
low continued union activity in this
area with results not only in the realm
of work preservation but also with the
additional effect of depriving second-
ary employers of business and the
consumer of substantial economic ad-

Now, let us return to the great na-
tional need for housing. This is a
priority problem which demands solu-
tion like Vietnam, crime, education,
pollution. On these latter problems,
all of us see daylight at the end of the
tunnel, even though it may be long,
uphill and we have to crawl instead of

But if we try to solve housing with
century-old tools and techniques, we
are indeed doomed to stay in the
darkness of the tunnel permanently.

There is universal agreement by the
housing experts and planners, by ar-
chitects and engineers, by the con-
tractors, that there is no way for this
Nation to meet this urgent need and
put our people under adequate roofs,
unless we go to new ways of building.
These must include prefabrication,
systems analysis and programming,
new resources, new policies, new con-
cepts, and new techniques.

The irony of the Supreme Court de-
cisions and the attitudes of a few
labor leaders is that all this is self-

Their reason is to preserve jobs, to
make work.

But with new building methods, bil-
lions of dollars can be funneled into
the building industry, creating count-
less new jobs all over the Nation, a


delicious dessert to top off the main
course of solving the housing problem.
Further irony is that the European
builders have already paved the way.
They are solving their acute housing
needs with just this sort of innova-
tion. They are applying mass produc-
tion techniques.
Happily, they are not hamstrung by
a Supreme Court of nine men, al-
ready comfortably housed in a marble
Fifty years ago, only the wealthy
could afford an automobile. Now, all
of our citizens can. In fact, it has be-
come a necessity of life. And the auto
today which even the poor can own is
a far better vehicle than that previous-
ly owned by the rich. All this has
come about because of constantly
changing and improving techniques.
The auto worker is one of the best
paid in America. This is as it should
be, 1Lecause his constantly increasing
productivity earns him the right to a
bigger share of the dollar take of this
On the other hand, it has been point-
ed out that a $7.50-an-hour plumber
is producing little more work than his
grandfather at 75 cents a day.
lie, then, is getting a free ride on the
increased productivity of other work-
ers. That is bad enough, but now
backed up by the Supreme Court, his
labor leaders want to prevent other
workers in the product part of the
building business from further en-
hancing his excellent economic posi-
tion and at the same time strike a
previous blow at the chances of other
less fortunate Americans to finally
obtain decent housing, so long over-
due to them.
All of us in the Congress want to help
out in solving this housing need.
Here is legislation which is a must if
we are to break the housing logjam.
The bill will also be an economic
boom to those who oppose it.
Way back in the slow moving, quiet
times of 1923, the famous architect
Le Corbusier said:
Building is at the root of social unrest
today . entire cities have to be con-
structed, or reconstructed, in order to
provide a minimum of comfort, for if
it is delayed too long, there may be a
disturbance of the balance of society.
He was so right. His predicted revolu-
tion is now with us.
One way of paving the way for the
new construction needed is this legis-
lation outlawing product boycotts, for
the second time, I might say.
Hopefully, this time, the Supreme
Court will get the message. N

Design For The People,

Architects Are Urged

Reprinted from the Miami
Herald Real Estate Section
"Architects need to find out how
people want to live," Wolf Von
Eckardt, architectural critic of The
Washington Post, recently told the
Florida South Chapter of the Ameri-
can Institute of Architects.

"Technology has changed, but man
has not," Von Eckardt declared. "He
still has the basic needs and we ought
to stop worrying about urban dis-
persal and just talk about commun-
ities where man can have personal
contact, where he can be alone when
he wants, where he can have culture
-the arts-brought into his midst."

Von Eckardt said "we are in the
throes of an architectural revolution.
The man of today is conscious of the
new form his world is taking. He sees
the old, outmoded and decaying en-
vironment of the inner city and he is
fleeing to the suburbs where the roads
leading to them are cluttered with
traffic, noise and confusion.

"What man is seeing is visual pollu-
tion. There is no plan for his way of

"Even his educational plans are not
up to the needs of his children, bring-
ing a loss in identity. You see what
happens with this loss of identity in
the student unrest of today.

"Environment has a tremendous in-
fluence on us."

Eckardt said man has a framework of
life which makes it possible for all of
us to live together-the town, the
street, the house.

"All people want a sense of identity.
They want to give something to a
place to gain a sense of belonging-

an expression of themselves. This
sense is what is lacking in our cities

An important facet in community
life, Eckardt said, is the meeting
place where leaders and leadership
can be developed. He suggested that
we put our meeting places where
everyone can reach them and take
part in the activities. The trend to-
day, he noted, is to concentrate
meeting places where only a relatively
few can make use of them.

The architecture critic scolded the
architects, stating that the "marriage
of art and architecture" has never
come about. "The concept is lost in
your profession. We have self-gratifi-
cation, but little else.

"We are not applying the technology
at hand and we do not have the will
to do it. We are not thinking con-
structively, we are not getting down
to practical things. We are not at-
tacking the basic urban crisis because
we do not have the will to do it."

Von Eckardt feels the architecture
revolution has been betrayed. "Archi-
tects are designing buildings for the
princes of the corporate structure.
The cult of originality which feels
you need something new every Mon-
day morning shows we have no dis-
cipline. We are doing ridiculous
things with no respect for the past
or the people."

lie urged architects to "recapture the
positive qualities of the past."

Von Eckardt said architects need a
humanistic approach to human prob-
lems, a point of view, an idealogy of
what the field is all about and to
think in terms of communties-new
towns, existing neighborhoods and
strengthening them. E

Architectural Technician Gets Boost

Reprinted from the Miami
Herald Real Estate Section
Recognition of the architectural tech-
nician as a vital part of the architec-
tural profession recently received
another boost.

Recruitment, counseling, education
and acceptance of the technician re-
ceived an airing by educators and
architects who met on the first anni-
versary of a pilot program to provide
technician training.

Leaders from Miami Dade Junior
College, School Craft Community
College in Detroit, Seattle Commun-
ity College in Seattle, Washington,
Onondagua Junior College in New
York state, and the American Associ-
ation of Junior Colleges in Washing-
ton talked with a committee of ar-
chitects who are providing the im-
petus for technician training.

Pilot programs have been set up in
Miami Detroit, Seattle and Buffalo.

Meeting with the educators were
Howard Sims, a practicing architect

and teacher in the Detroit school who
is chairman of the American Institute
of Architects' committee for technical
training; James Haecker of the AIA
staff in Washington; H. Samuel
Kruse of Miami, national chairman of
the committee on education and re-
search of the AIA, and Walter Klem-
ents, past president of the Florida
South Chapter of the AIA who took
part in the inauguration of the tech-
nician training program and who rep-
resented local architects at the ses-

The Group- both educators and ar-
chitects aims to set up a uniform
program of technician training which
would be approved by all junior col-
leges. These leaders feel that a uni-
form training course would give a
graduate a solid background which in
turn would give the architect confi-
dence in the graduate when he hires
him into his firm.

The training course would be two
years in length during which time the
student will have completed the pre-
scribed courses. He then would be
graduated with some sort of recogni-
tion which would be accepted by ar-
chitectural practitioners throughout
the country.

The technician would be recognized
as a para-professional.

The courses the architectural techni-
cian would generally include in his
curriculum are: drafting (working
drawings and renderings), architec-
tural materials and methods, history
of architectural construction, a survey
course in utilities and equipment,
building codes, computing and esti-
mating, construction management.

In addition there would be social sci-
ence courses, English, technical math-
ematics, including algebra and trig-
nometry with applications and physics
courses, also with applications.

Prof. Ed Crain, head of the Depart-
ment of Architecture of Miami-Dade
Junior College South Campus, said
he has received cooperation from local
architects and the administration of
the college in setting up such a pro-
gram. He says the biggest problem is
attracting enough students. At pres-
ent, he noted, the college has 600 in
the pre-architectural program but only
100 in the architectural technician

Prof. Crain said he wants to make
the technician program an attractive
one for the student, and "education
from within the profession is needed
to stress the need for technicians."

"We want the guy to be darned
proud to be an architectural techni-
cian," Crain declared.

He pointed out that the training pro-
gram is different from the pre-archi-
tectural course and that the techni-
cian's skills are as much a part of the
profession as are those of the archi-

He further stated that the architects
must improve the image of the tech-
nician and can do this by offering a
better salary and elevating the tech-
nician into the "white collar" cate-

"We must show that this man is
something special," Kruse declared.
"The architects will have to recognize
this to make the program work."

Counseling was also pointed out as
being vital to the technician training

High school seniors were cited as one
group which would benefit from prop-
er counseling. Some persons do not
have the aptitude to become an archi-
tect in the full sense of the word, yet
have the ability to be an architectural
technician, the educators said.

Counseling among the professional
architects also is important, both the
educators and architects said. Getting
the word out that the technician can
be of valuable service to the architect
is one of this study group's big goals.

Recommendations brought forth by
the group, along with the views of
school administrators, will be pre-
sented to the American Institute of
Architects for its approval.

Then, the program can move ahead
in earnest.

The recommendations agreed on in-
cludes a policy for approval of schools
which have this training program and
that at least one member of the
school's faculty either be a registered
architect or have three to four years
experience under a registered archi-
tect and have a first professional
degree in architecture. N


Circuit Court Rules Against Bidding for Professional Services

Editor's Note: The Declaratory Judgment, which follows, was
issued by the Circuit Court in response to the lawsuit filed by
FAAIA against the Clay County Commissioners (see January,
1969 issue of "The Florida Architect," page 24). The suit was
an outgrowth of the issuance of an advertisement, by Clay
County, for architectural services on a competitive bidding pro-
cedure. The FAAIA was represented by the law firm of Peeples,
Smith and Moore.

In the Circuit Court of the Fourth Judicial Circuit,
in and for Clay County, Florida.
Case No. 69-12
Florida corporation, not for
profit, and H. LESLIE WALKER,
the Circuit Court, et al.,
After due notice to all parties affected, the matter was
submitted to the Court by joint motion and stipulation
of the parties. By said joint motion and stipulation of the
parties, this cause came on for a determination by the
Court as to whether the word "services" as set forth in
Chapter 57-990, Laws of Florida, Acts of 1957 as amend-
ed by Chapter 61-884, Laws of Florida, Acts of 1961
would include services requiring skill or technical knowl-
edge or could be classified as professional services. By said
stipulation it was agreed that the above said Act as
amended allows the County Commissioners of Clay
County to purchase certain items including "services"
without bid providing the value of such purchases is less
than $1,000.00. The County Commissioners, pursuant to
said Act, by and through their Clerk, did call for bids
for the following services:

Architectural drawings and schematics for the pur-
pose of building the new courthouse and jail for
Clay County, total building not to exceed One
and One-Half Million Dollars.

The Court holds that the word "services" as contained in
said Act as amended does not include nor require said
County Commissioners to advertise for bid where the
services sought are of such that require certain skill and
technical knowledge or would be classified as "professional

As is so ably stated in Stephens County v. McCammon,
Inc., the Supreme Court of Texas, June 20, 1932, 52
SW2nd 53, when substantially the same question was
before that Court:

"To hold that contracts for this kind of work must
be let to the lowest bidder would inevitably result
in the county being placed in a position which
would require it to accept the services of incom-
petent persons. Naturally one who has no skill,
experience, or technical konwledge, could underbid
one who possesses the skill, technical knowledge,
and experience, to perform this kind of service. In
other words, to construe the statute contended for
would place a premium upon incompetency and
produce an unfortunate situation. To illustrate,

could it be seriously contended that, if a county
desired the services of a skilled and competent
attorney to represent the county in some important
piece of litigation, involving a large sum of money,
that the county should, before letting the contract,
submit it to competitive bids, and then be re-
quired to hire the person making the lowest bid
therefore? We think not."

The First District Court of Appeals, State of Florida, in
William Parker v. Panama City, et al, March 26, 1968,
151 So. 2d 469, 15 ALR3d 725 settled the law on this
matter in the State of Florida when it held inter alia that
as a general rule, contracts for services requiring special
skills or training were not required to be let on bids
under a constitutional or statutory provision as to con-
tracts with the State or municipalities. This rule seems
to be by far the general rule and weight of authority.
Annotation set forth in 43 Am.Jur. 770 precisely covers
this point.

"As a general rule, statutory and constitutional
provisions prohibiting letting of contracts by a state
or by municipal subdivisions, without first adver-
tising for bids, do not apply to contracts for pro-
fessional services, such as the services of physicians
or attorneys, or to contracts requiring special
training and skill, such as contracts calling for the
services of architects, engineers, accountants, or
the like, and such contracts may be let without

The Court being fully advised in the premises, it is

ORDERED that the Defendants are not required by
Chapter 57-990, Laws of Florida, Acts of 1957 as amend-
ed by Chapter 61-884, Laws of Florida, Acts of 1961 to
advertise for bids for architectural services.

DONE AND ORDERED in Chambers at Green Cove
Springs, Clay County, Florida, this 20th day of March,
A. D., 1969.

Circuit Judge.

We and the manufacturers we represent wish to thank the
interior designers and librarians for the opportunity to co-
operate in the planning and furnishing of the BARRY
proud to have been a part of the combined efforts of the
many professionals involved.


Metal Bookstacks

Wood Furnishings

Library Division Manufacturing Division


High Point, North Carolina

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22 I THE 751 9776



Public Relations Seminar
We wish to express our apprecia-
tion for the past seminar on Public
Relations held at Orlando, Florida.
The quality of a seminar can never
be determined in advance, regardless
of how well the program schedule is
written, subsequently, it is always a
gamble on whether the program will
be worth the trip or not.
Please convey our thanks to the
people responsible for this excellent
Yours very truly,
Richard M. Jones, AIA

International Airport
I have just received a copy of the
January issue of THE FLORIDA
ARCHITECT, and was delighted to
see the attention given to the new
Jacksonville International Airport.
The photographs were some of the
most beautiful I have seen of this
facility, and we greatly appreciated
the coverage.
James E. Mooney, Jr.
Executive Vice President
Jacksonville Chamber of Commerce

For Florida Living
Thank you so much for furnishing me
with the copy of your new publica-
tion, "Architecture for Florida Liv-
This is an outstanding publication
and I am confident it will be of tre-
mendous interest not only to those
presently residing and working in
Florida but also to those who are
interested in our great State.
I know Jack Peeples and, assure you
that I will be glad to work with him
and your association in every way
possible during the forthcoming ses-
sion of the Legislature.
Please feel free to let me know when
I may be of assistance.
With best wishes, I am
Jerry Melvin,
Representative, 7th District

* ->~' -L

i0B0t 'i

41: 7"lsl

This is a full-color portrayal of our Rainbow Range Slumped
Brick. First presented more than fifteen years ago, we are
re-running it here to remind you that our Slumped Brick is
still being widely used from Key West to Cleveland. We make
it also in other color ranges- red, tan, chalk-white, oyster
and gray. Your inquiries are welcomed . .




1818 North 7th Avenue
Lake Worth, Florida
(305) 582-5760

P. O. Box 5
Miami, Florida
(305) 887-1525



tr8~ssP sdsn~

University of F!Drila Libraries

1000 Ponce de Leon Blvd.
Coral Gables, Fla. 33134
Accepted As Controlled Circulatio
Publication at Miami, Fla.

Architect Robert C. Wielage, AIA








The Beverly Apartments con-
structed in Tampa in 1964 fur-
nish an excellent example of why
it pays an owner to demand good
Shortly before the end of 1968
the owner was advised by his tax
consultant to sell the 60-unit
apartment building. With only a
30-day notice given, the build-
ing was sold.
The realtor handling the sale
knows the principal reason for
moving this large a property on
such short notice was the fact
that the architecture at the time
the apartments were constructed
in 1964 was of such design as to
remain fresh and attractive. Five
years later, the exterior appear-
ance was such that it appeared to
be fresh and newly constructed.
This is a primary example of
what an income property owner
can achieve by spending a few
extra dollars for creative and
imaginative architecture in his


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