Title: Florida architect
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00058
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Series Title: Florida architect
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Publication Date: April 1959
Frequency: quarterly
Subject: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073793
Volume ID: VID00058
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Full Text




Smith and Korach, A.I.A., have
contributed many outstanding
institutional buildings in the
greater Miami area since 1938
when the firm was formed by
Donald G. Smith, A.I.A. and
Irvin Korach, A.I.A. In the de-
sign of Mt. Sinai, which will
have 417 beds in its 215 rooms,
accent was placed on ease of
maintenance and patient com-
fort. Plumbing installation in the
entire hospital is being handled
by Markowitz Bros., Inc.

i* I .





McGuire Hall Annex, Medical College of Virginia, Richmond. Now under construction, the flowing,
horizontal lines of the building terminate in marble verticals. Use of aggregate transfer panels gave
the architects complete freedom of color choice. ARCHITECTS: Carl M. Lindner & Son, A. I. A., Rich-
mond. ENGINEERS: Torrence Dreelin & Associates, Richmond, Structural; Carlton J. Robert, Richmond,
Mechanical. CONTRACTORS: Graham Brothers, Richmond.

The first aggregate transfer job in the East is now
in progress at the new McGuire Hall Annex of the
Medical College of Virginia.
Using this process, architects Carl Lindner & Son
were able to combine luxurious appearance with eco-
nomical building. Panels of reinforced Solite light-
weight structural concrete are faced with chips of pink
Georgia marble and sandblasted to accentuate them.

Aquadale, N. C.
Bremo Bluff, Va.

The panels are then applied to a rigid steel frame.
The result: A building embodying the beauty, dura-
bility and economy of Solite lightweight concrete
Inside, Solite also was used in floors and walls, and
all partitions are exposed Solite masonry units. This
is another outstanding example of Solite's compata-
bility with the latest in building techniques and


Leaksville Junction, Va.
Green Cove Springs, Fla.

Box 9138, Richmond, Va. Box 1843, Charlotte, N. C.
Box 147, Columbia, S. C. Box 6336, Raleigh, N. C.
Box 5735, Bethesda, Md. Box 904, Jacksonville, Fla.

APRIL, 1959 1


Florida Architect

0n 74his Isu ---

Letters . . . . . . . . . . 4
Hotel Commission Rules Now Undergoing Revision . . . . 6
What's Happened to This Policy Code? . . . . . . 9
School Plant Economy . . . . . . . . .. 11
What Does It Really Mean?
It CAN Happen Here ....... ............ 13
By Philip H. Hiss
Eight New Schools in Sarasota County . . . . . . 15-24
1...Brookside Junior High School . . . . . .. 15
2...Alta Vista Elementary School Addition . . . . . 17
3...Riverview High School . . . . .. . . 18
4...Fruitville Elementary School Addition . . . . . 20
5...Englewood Elementary School . . . . . . . 21
6...Booker Elementary School . . . . . . . 22
7...Brentwood Elementary School . . . . . . . 23
8...Venice Junior High School . . . . . . . 24
The President's Message . . . . . . . . . 26
By John Stetson
Match Flogring Materials to Service Conditions . . . . . 29
By P. W. Cloyes
News and Notes ........ ............. .32
Advertisers' Index ....... ............. ..35
Can Substitution Be Controlled? . . . . . . . . 36
An Editorial

John Stetson, President, P.O. Box 2174, Palm Beach
Francis R. Walton, Secretary, 142 Bay Street, Daytona Beach
Joseph M. Shifalo, Treasurer, Suite 8, Professional Center, Winter Park
Robert H. Levison, First Vice-President, 425 So. Garden Ave., Clearwater
Verner Johnson, Second Vice-President, 250 N. E. 18th St., Miami
Arthur Lee Campbell, Third Vice-President, 115 So. Main Street, Gainesville
Roger W. Sherman, Executive Director, 302 Dupont Plaza Center, Miami 32.

Robert E. Hall, Robert E. Hansen; DAYTONA BEACH: David A. Leete;
FLORIDA CENTRAL: Eugene H. Beach, Anthony L. Pullara, Robert C.
Wielage; FLORIDA NORTH: Turpin C. Bannister, FAIA, M. H. Johnson;
Hugh J. Leitch; FLORIDA SOUTH: James L. Deen, Herbert R. Savage, Wahl,
J. Snyder, Jr.; JACKSONVILLE: Robert C. Broward, A. Eugene Cellar;
MID-FLORIDA: Robert B. Murphy, Rhoderic F. Taylor; PALM BEACH:
Donald R. Edge, Frederick W. Kessler.

Paul Rudolph, now helping to shape the professional careers of Yale architec-
tural students, was the architect for this striking new Riverview High School.
It's one of eight new Sarasota schools which have commanded nationwide
attention as "the most exciting and varied group of new schools in the U.S."
and have exposed a policy of independent thinking and decisive action which
school boards in Florida's other 66 counties would do well to match.

The FLORIDA ARCHITECT, Official Journal of
the Florida Association of Architects of the
American Institute of Architects, is owned by
the Florida Association of Architects, Inc., a
Florida Corporation not for profit, and is pub-
lished monthly at Rm. 302 Dupont Plaza Cen-
ter, Miami 32, Florida; telephone FR 1-8331.
Editorial contributions, including plans and
photographs of architects' work, are welcomed
but publication cannot be guaranteed. Opinions
expressed by contributors are not necessarily
those of the Editor or the Florida Association
of Architects. Editorial material may be freely
reprinted by other official AIA publications,
provided full credit is given to the author
and to The FLORIDA ARCHITECT for prior use.
* . Advertisements of products, materials and
services adaptable for use in Florida are wel-
comed, but mention of names or use of Illus-
trations, of such materials and products in
either editorial or advertising columns does not
constitute endorsement by the Florida Associ-
ation of Architects. Advertising material must
conform to standards of this publication; and
the right is reserved to reject such material be-
cause of arrangement, copy or illustrations.
. Accepted as controlled circulation publi-
cation at Miami, Florida.
Printed by McMurray Printers

FAA Administrative Secretary


NUMBER 41959

hiiii fiiniiit'4i~

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Interchangeable Color Inserts for new
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APRIL, 1959

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"Steelwlet fado wa ii"
TAMPA 8-0451
ORLANDO GArden 2-4539
MIAMI NEwton 4-6576


We have just closed the doors on
the Tenth Annual Greater Miami
Industrial Exposition.
It is my pleasure to congratulate
the Florida Association of Architects
on their presentation in the show-
also the Florida South and Broward
County AIA Chapters are to be com-
mended for their part in setting up
and manning the exhibit.
The Exposition Steering Commit-
tee has asked me, as Chairman, to
express our thanks to the architectural
profession for a very valuable con-
tribution to the interest of the exposi-
tion. We feel that the presentation
told a good story; and it added to the
prestige of the entire show.
You will be interested in knowing
that your immediate past president,
H. Samuel Kruse, has agreed to serve
as a member of the Steering Com-
mittee. We feel that his advice will

add a great deal to the worthiness
of the exposition in coming years.
We will continue working locally
toward the expanding development
of our State; and we value the co-
operation of the architectural profes-
sion toward this end.
Greater Miami Industrial Exposition

No doubt the question of manu-
facturers' exhibits at the Convention
will be much discussed this year. I
sincerely hope that it will be possible
to continue the exhibits as in the
We have to keep posted on avail-
able materials and services. Being able
to look over the exhibits at the Con-
(Continued on Page 6)

It Drew 200,000 ...
Architects were a part of the 10th
Annual Greater Miami Industrial Ex-
position which, March 6-15, drew
over 200,000. Their exhibit, lower
right above, was the display devel-
oped two years ago by Broward
County, and a montage of The Flor-
ida Architect. Florida South members
set up and manned the booth . .
Left, Otis E. Dunan, right, exposition
chairman, with City Commissioner Otis
Shiver acting for Miami Mayor High
at the show's official opening. With
them is Major General Alvord V. P.
Anderson, Robins Air Force Base,
Macon, Ga., who gave the keynote
address at the Exposition's kick-off
luncheon March 6.



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APRIL, 1959 5



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(Continued from Page 4)


vention saves much individual time
in the office. Some manufacturer's
representatives who used to call on us
periodically now seem to depend on
the Convention contact and this is
the only time that we see them.
As long as the manufacturers are
happy, and the program is beneficial
to the FAA, and at the same time
providing a service to the members
who attend, it would seem most un-
wise to give it up.
There is certainly no compulsion
to use or to specify anything because
it is exhibited, nor to avoid the use
of any product because it is not. Part-
icipation on the part of the exhibitors
is purely voluntary. In fact at Clear-
water we were besieged with applica-
tions after available space was gone.
I believe that the presence of the
exhibitor personnel adds to the gen-
eral enjoyment of the Convention.
I have discussed this matter with
several other members in this area
and they all agree with the viewpoint
outlined above.
Treasurer, Fla. Central Chapter.
On the matter of including a prod-
uct exhibit as a central part of FAA
Convention activities, opinion is di-
vided in some quarters; and the divi-
sion carries through the ranks of
manufacturers as well as architects.
Other opinions will be welcomed for
publication here, for the subject has
become a matter of real importance.

Hotel Commission Rules Now Undergoing Revisions

Hotel and Restaurant Commisioner
RICHARD EDGERTON has requested
that an FAA Committee review work
now being done to reorganize Flor-
ida's hotel code and the Commission's
rules and regulations. Work of revis-
ing the now obsolete document has
been going forward for the past three
months. M. TONY SHERMAN, of Mi-
ami, and CURT SCHEEL, the Com-
mission's supervising architect for the
Jacksonville area, have been working
together and are nearly ready to sub-
mit their recommendations to Com-
missioner Edgerton.
As it is now shaping up, the new
hotel code will be made available in
a plastic binder designed to hold loose-

leaf sheets the idea being to make
it possible for the Commission to issue
revisions as may be needed in the
future without the necessity of re-
printing a completely new document.
As soon as preliminary approval has
been given, the new document will be
reviewed by an FAA committee re-
cently appointed by FAA President
Named as chairman of the hotel
code review group was FAA Vice
president VERNER JOHNSON. Serving
with him will be ELLIOTT B. HADLEY,
St. Petersburg, JACK MOORE, Gaines-
ville, and FRANK J. SINDELAR, Fort
Walton, formerly a supervising archi-
tect for the Commission.

I have received my February issue
of The Florida Architect and have
read with much interest the articles
contained therein.
Please accept my thanks for send-
ing this publication as I shall look
forward to it each month.
City Commissioner, Tallahassee

Thank you very much for including
my name on the mailing list to re-
ceive The Florida Architect each
month. I shall look forward to re-
ceiving this publication as I am
extremely interested in the progress
of architecture, especially in Florida.
It is my sincere belief that through
collaboration architects, city plan-
ners, engineers and landscape archi-
tects will achieve the most satisfying
solutions to their respective develop-
ment problems. Whenever I might
be able to render assistance to your
organization, please call on me.
City Planner, Pensacola
The Florida Architect will be sent
to any civic official interested in ac-
tivities of the architectural profession
if his name and address will be for-
warded by any AIA Chapter member.

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APRIL, 1959




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city, state




What's Happened To This Policy Code?

This is an important question raised by the growing interpro-

fessional conflict between architects and engineers. If the

FAA-FES Code is workable, why isn't it working now?

Early last month members of the
Florida South Chapter heard a semi-
nar panel of architects and engineers
discuss what the Chapter's seminar
director had called "The Care and
Feeding of Engineers". Earlier this
year, just prior to the February 21st
meeting of the FAA Board's Execu-
tive Committee in Orlando, offi-
cers of the Florida Engineering Soci-
ety met with officers of the Florida
Association of Architects in a more
general discusison of mutual interests
and problems.
Though differing widely in char-
acter, both meetings serve to under-
line the growing need for clarifying
the respective roles of architect and
engineer in the production of build-
ings. Thoughtful members of both
professions are now viewing the cur-
rent situation with growing alarm.
And the purpose of the February 21st
meeting at Orlando was to expose
the problem and lay the groundwork
for some plan to solve it.
The "problem" is simply this: the
encroachment, by one professional
group into the professional practice
of the other group. More bluntly and
specifically, the real core of the prob-
lem is the fact that engineers, licensed
and registered to practice "engineer-
ing" in Florida, are producing plans
and specifications for complete build-
ings and are thus undertaking the
practice of architecture. Moreover,
this activity is expanding in both
rate and scope; and it has recently
assumed proportions which, if not
checked, could provoke an interpro-
fessional crisis to the detriment of
all concerned.
Unfortunately the problem is not
a new one nationally or in our
own State. An attempt was made to
solve it here three years ago when
the FES and the FAA ratified a joint
policy agreement, reproduced here
from the March, 1956, isue of The
Florida Architect. That document, if
lived up to by members of both pro-
(Continued on Page 10)

APRIL, 1959

Joint Architect-Engineer Policy Code

The Architect-Engineer Policy Proposal, first drafted by a Joint FAA-FEC
Committee, has been subject to further study and revisions. Here is its final form as
approved and accepted as a code of good practice by both professional organizations.

By its very nature the rendering of professional
services by the design professions must be on a
high ethical and professional basis. It is pre-
supposed that the collaborators will perform their
services in a cooperative manner with competence
and efficiency and in full compliance with the "Code
of Ethics" of the various professions.
Professional service, performed singly or in
collaboration, entails exhaustive study and research
in preparation for the solution of the problem, and
careful application of talent to sound planning and
design and the highest integrity in guarding the
client's interest.
The functions and the responsibilities properly
inherent to the practice of architecture and en-
gineering frequently overlap For that reason it is
difficult to establish an arbitrary and precise
measure by which to determine whether a particular
project should be regarded by the professions as
an architectural or as an engineering project.
Increasingly, present day projects require the serv-
ices of both professions. However, the interests of
the public and of both of the professions will be
advanced if certain policies can be established and
adhered to in the relations between the twd pro-
fessions. Suggestions for such policies follow.
Architects should be engaged as the prime pro-
fessionals for projects such as residences, apart-
ments, hotels, stores, office buildings, churches,
schools, hospitals, courthouses, and all other simi-
lar private, commercial and public buildings. The
engineer should not seek the position of prime
professional on such projects.
Engineers should be engaged as the prime pro-
fessional for projects such as roads, bridges, docks,
power plants, electrical generation, transmission
and distribution, water control, water supply and
distribution, sewage collection and disposal, heating
and air conditioning when not a part of a major
building project, factories with mechanical or elec-
trical equipment an important feature and all

other similar projects. The architect should not
seek the position of prime professional on such
There exists a third classification of projects
for which the prime professional may properly be
either an architect or an engineer. On such
projects the construction cost of the portion of
the work designed by either the architect or the
engineer may represent from 40% to 60% of
the construction cost of the entire project. Stadia,
industrial buildings, warehouses, cold storage, and
refrigerated buildings commonly fall within this
classification Either of the two professions may
properly be designated prime professional on such
The prime professional for any project shall
call in members of the other profession to furnish
the services in the field of that profession required
by the project. Only registered members of either
profession shall be called in, and their work shall
bear their signature and their professional seal,
subordinated to that of the prime professional.
Each profession shall prepare a special schedule
of fees that should be for the sole use of, and
that should be used by, the prime professional in
paying for services furnished by the member of
the other profession called in.
Adherence by the two professions to these con-
siderations will assure the public the service to
which it is entitled; it will promote good will
between the professions; it will enhance the stand-
ing of both professions in public opinion, and it
will promote the selection of professionals on the
basis of ability to give proper service rather than
on the basis of lowest price.
Nothing in the above would mitigate against
an architect or an engineer from joining forces
for the purpose of designing a building of any typt
in a manner and under conditions satisfactory to
each of them.

The Joint FAA-FES Policy Code, reproduced above from the March, 1956,
issue of The Florida Architect is the final result of much thoughtful discus-
sion and hard work over a three-year period by a Joint Committee of the
Florida Association of Architects and the Florida Engineering Society, of
which the FAA's president, John Stetson, was chairman. Its various clauses
were further discussed by the membership of both organizations and finally
ratified in its present form at conventions of both.

What's Happened
to This Policy Code?
(Continued from Page 9)
fessions, could easily be the instru-
ment to solve most, if not all, of
the present difficulties. But unfor-
tunately it does not adequately set
forth one basic fact which, to many
observers, is largely responsible for
most current interprofessional woes.
That fact is the fundamental dif-
ference between architects and engi-
,neers. The architect is a planner, a
designer, a coordinator. His training
includes a familiarity with various
types of engineering; and he works
closely with engineering specialists
to produce the various technical docu-
ments from which a building is con-
structed. But his function is to accept
an overall responsibility and his chief
preoccupation is to plan for and to
organize all the many and various
elements of space, materials, equip-
ment, skills and methods into an ap-
propriate and harmonious entity. His

specific concern with any of the
various phases of engineering is, as
rightfully designated in Florida's ar-
chitectural registration law, "inci-
On the other hand, the profession-
al engineer is a specialist. He is train-
ed as such; and in Florida, at least,
his specialization in some particular
phase of engineering is officially rec-
ognized by the Board of Engineering
Examiners. Each applicant for regis-
tration is examined in one of several
designated "branches" of engineering.
And it is presumably upon his demon-
strating competence in a certain one
of these branches The Board of
Engineering Examiners lists them as
mechanical, industrial, chemical, civil,
electrical and mining that he is
eventually designated as a "registered
professional engineer".
But his registration does not specify
in what branch of the engineering
profession he has demonstrated com-
petence. And under a certain inter-
pretation of the engineer's law in

Florida, a "registered professional
engineer" can undertake, at will, to
engage in any type of engineering
activity applying to any of the long
list of categories set forth in the
Thus, under this interpretation, a
mechanical engineer might undertake
to design a church; a chemical engi-
neer a complicated shopping center;
or an electrical engineer a house or
apartment. The record shows that
just such attempts have been made;
and it is this open and permissive
tolerance of incompetence which is
the heart of current interprofessional
conflicts and which constitutes a seri-
ous concern with thoughful leaders
in both professions.
They believe that the conflicts can
be resolved. Certainly this can be
accomplished, they say, if mutual
understanding, tolerance and coop-
eration can be established and if
present legal ambiguities can be elimi-
nated. The Orlando meeting was
at least a start toward this goal.


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School Plant Economy...



It ..



Philip H. Hiss

The chief difficulty in understand-
ing the real meaning of school plant
economy lies in the variety of possible
interpretations of the phrase. Like the
little blind boys who first "saw" an
elephant through the media of grop-
ing hands, a picture of the whole
creature is quite likely to be visioned
in terms of the particular part touch-
ed. To the educational researcher the
term means, perhaps, adaptability as
a teaching tool. To a builder it may
mean simply low first cost. To the
average taxpayer it probably means
as small a bond issue as possible and
no fancy frills.
All are right so far as their outlook
goes. But true economy in anything
is not as simply gained as the unin-
formed imagine. Relative to our pub-
lic schools it is a complex subject
which can only be suggested here.
There is no way to measure it against
a complete, constant standard; for
what may be true economy in one
town, for one educational situation,
in one space-time segment may be
extravagant under different condi-
tions elsewhere. True, there are some
genera rule-of-thumb yardsticks
against which certain factors of econ-
omy can be gauged. But they will
necessarily vary in application to each
school plant.
First cost is one. On the basis of
that, Florida communities are faring
APRIL, 1959

extremely well as compared with the
nation as a whole. A study recently
completed by the State Department
of Education showed that the average
square-foot cost of 30 elementary
schools built in Florida during the
past three years was over 40 percent
less than schools of comparable type
throughout the nation. For Florida
the figure was just under $9 per
square foot while the nationwide
average was somewhat above $15.
Even new and complete high schools
in Florida are costing less per square
foot than that figure. Another recent
study of 21 new Florida high schools
showed a unit cost range from $8.62
to a top of $14.75 with an average
of only $10.43.
It is a superficial measurement, of
course. Average square foot costs do
not reflect the character of the edu-
cational values of the plant. But they
do indicate that Florida communities
are getting their construction money's
worth -particularly so in view of
the fact that during the last 20
years building costs generally have
increased 210 percent, while costs of
educational plants have been held
to only a 150 percent increase.
As a full measure of economy,
however, square foot costs can prove
to be dangerous fallacies. There is
a growing recognition by educators
and progressive school boards that the

true costs of any educational plant
must realistically be measured over
the useful life of the building or over
the term of its financing. Regarded
from this viewpoint, first, or con-
struction cost- and the initial costs
of furnishings and equipment as well
--could be regarded as relatively un-
The point is that maintenance, re-
pair and replacement bulk very large
indeed in the yearly operating budgets
of most school boards. Plenty of re-
search has been done to prove that
taxpayers have paid heavily for the
scrimping policies of many a board
- which complacently basked in
kudos when the now-dilapidated high
school was newly dedicated. Our own
State Department of Education
deems this matter of maintenance
cost so vital that the School Plant
Administrator's office has recently in-
stituted a department staffed by an
experienced maintenance engineer
whose job it is to advise on factors
leading to quick deterioration and
obsolesence and to suggest methods
for eliminating them from both new
and modernization construction.
It should not be difficult to see
that this more accurate measure of
plant economy may well change the
picture of unit building costs. Add-
ing ten cents per square foot to a
(Continued on Page 12)

School Plant Economy...
(Continued from Page 11)
school plant construction cost would
not materially affect the initial fi-
nancing of the plant nor unduly
pinch taxpayers over the term of the
bonds. But that added first cost could
well mean a saving in operating ex-
penses accountable to maintenance,
replacement and repair amounting to
many times its total over the 20-year
period of a plant's financial life.
The same general analysis is now
being applied to school planning and
construction techniques relative to in-
surance. Florida's School Plant Ad-
ministrator's office has already under-
taken to provide this analysis for new
school plants. It complements, of
course, the study now being given to
maintenance factors, for often the
things which dictate high insurance
rates are also those which have a high
incidence of maintenance cost.
Further to complicate the total
picture of school plant economy is
the fact that construction costs vary
in different localities in the state.
In one area material and labor costs
Smay be pegged by inactivity in build-
ing which has resulted in pencil-
sharpening competition among build-
ers. In another, an active construction
market may have sent unit prices
free-wheeling to the higher brackets.
Thus, a comparison of costs in one
area with those in another does not
constitute realistic analysis or provide
much of a guide to construction econ-
omy in either case.
The central point is that the dollar
sign on any type of school plant is
not exactly an imponderable. But it
may not wholly mean what it seems
to say unless it is carefully checked
against the various other factors
which can have a profound influence
on it as a reliable measure of overall
school plant economy.
Design is, of course, still another
factor that must be considered. Re-
cently there has been much published
in deprecation of "costly educational
palaces". Generally speaking that is
proper; and the "no frills" body of
opinion stands on firm ground so
far as that particular point is con-
cerned. But sweeping generalities are
dangerous. The community, not the
impersonal critic, is the best judge
as to what good design and top-notch
facilities can contribute to stability
of a neighborhood and the improve-

ment of a civic area. On following
pages is proof positive that the county
of Sarasota recognizes outstanding
architectural design as just as valid
a factor of total school plant economy
as high education value and sound
Finally, true economy in school
plant construction involves hiring the
best technical brains available to pro-
duce the results desired. On this
point, the success of the Sarasota pro-
gram is merely additional proof that
the cost of vigorous and imaginative
talent is absurdly low particularly
in view of the corollary community
values it inevitably generates. Profes-
sional fees for the new Sarasota
schools totaled $238,181 -or about
six and one-half percent of the
$3,634,358 cost of the four-year ex-
penditure for construction.
These Sarasota schools have proved
an attraction to stable new citizens.
The city has grown and grown
stronger as a result of them. And
the point is not lightly to be disre-
garded by any Florida community
which is seeking to improve its eco-
nomic position and to enhance its
facilities for sound and prosperous
growth. In Sarasota, good architecture
-with the full professional service
that the term implies- has proved
anything but costly. It has already
provided the city with an educational
plant which has provoked envy at
the national level. Were it possible
to measure the expenditures for archi-
tectural service on the Sarasota
schools against the community values
which that service has stabalized and
enhanced, it would undoubtedly be
demonstrated that through architec-
ture, Sarasota citizens have purchased
community improvement, increased
population and a broadened tax base
at a ridiculously small price.
Among these Sarasota schools is
a high school plant that is among
the most expensive, on a square foot
cost basis, in the state. There is, also
an elementary school which rates in
the lowest cost brackets. But each
is delivering its determined value to
economic and cultural development
of the city. This, too, is a measure
of school plant economy. In other
communities the product-result may
be different. But the tangible and
intangible yardsticks used in Sarasota
can be applied with equal success in,
by, and for any community in the


It CAN Happen Here...

Chairman, Sarasota County
Board of Public Instruction

The primary objective of the Sara-
sota County Board of Public Instruc-
tion has been to provide the best
possible learning environment within
reasonable limits imposed by the
ability of this community to pay.
These limits will not be the same in
any two counties, and, in fact, the
best possible curriculum also will
differ greatly from community to com-
munity. Many factors enter into this:
average wealth, the general level of
education among the adults, whether
the community be agricultural, in-
dustrial, or of another type. Many
factors also enter into building costs
in different areas such as wages, avail-
ability of materials, freight charges,
level of skill of local workmen, the
experience of architects and engineers,
and many others.
What is indisputable is that the
most economical school building is
one which combines moderate first
cost with low maintenance costs. In
other words, "lowest first cost" or
"cheap" schools are a hoax on the
taxpayers. There is nothing so expen-
sive in the long run as a "cheap"
school. In most cases, it is the "gut-
less" approach to school building: one
where the present Board shifts the
day of reckoning to another Board at
another time.
The taxpayer should be interested
first of all in what the school plant
does to further education. But even
if self-interest directs his attention
only to his pocketbook, this same
self-interest should cause him to fight
to the end for schools which will cost
the least over the useful life of the
A footnote here is in order: In a
day when both technological progress
and educational progress are so rapid,
schools no longer should be built to
APRIL, 1959

In Sarasota County an uninhibited, but shrewdly practical school
board mapped a new building program, then commissioned the
unfettered talents of imaginative architects for its development.
The result, since 1955, is eight new educational plants which have
been called by a national authority "the most exciting and varied
group of new schools in the U. S." Most costs were near
average, some well below. In all cases educational and civic values
soared. . The program of Sarasota County is a case study of
progress worth emulation by every school board in the state.

Governor and Mrs. Leroy Collins attended dedication ceremonies for Sarasota
County's eight new schools and are shown here with School Board Chairman
Philip H. Hiss at the Riverview High School. In addition to the Governor and
Mr. Hiss, dedication program speakers included Thomas D. Bailey, Superintend-
ent, State Department of Education, and Douglas Haskell, Architectural Forum.

last a hundred years. But it is equally
unrealistic to meet the problems of
1959 with the techniques of 1909,
since this results in buildings which
often are obsolete before they are
finished. One does not have to look
far to find new schools of such shoddy
workmanship and materials that they
would fare badly indeed if they had to
be financed in the ordinary way; yet
they are found acceptable when the
taxpayer foots the bill.
Why should each school be of ori-
ginal design? Because every school site
is different. Because even the climate
varies widely from the north of Flor-
ida to the south and from the coast
to the interior. Because every county
(in fact each community in each
county) faces different problems of
population composition, of education
and wealth, of what each expects of
its children. Because costs of mate-

rials and services vary from com-
munity to community. Because
schools are not built in a vacuum, but
play a part in an existing social struc-
ture and act on it as well as being
acted upon. Because each community
has the right, indeed the responsi-
bility, to do what is best for its own
children, and to maintain its own
We still express lip service to the
democratic ideal of individualism, yet
the trend toward mass conformity be-
comes greater every day. There already
are far too many factors contributing
to mass conformity in our civilization
without making assemblyline educa-
tion one of them. Furthermore, no
one yet has designed the perfect
school. And, according to Dr. James
Bryant Conant, even if we had been
able to accomplish this, the same de-
(Continued on Page 14)

It CAN Happen Here...
(Continued from Page 13)
sign would not be "perfect" for any
other school.
Another footnote: The best archi-
tect in the country costs no more
than the worst or the least experi-
enced. Schools, like it or not, are an
important environmental factor in the
growth of children. Esthetics the
development of taste in a child -
should not be ignored, though it
often is.
Douglas Haskell, editor of Archi-
tectural Forum, put his finger on one
reason why more good schools have
not been built: Most school boards,
whose members serve with little or
no compensation, and who number
very few experts on building or archi-
tecture among their members, are
unwilling to take on themselves the

difficult and time-consuming public
relations job entailed in "selling" any-
thing new- be it a change in curri-
culum or one in the type of building
being erected. And too few architects
have been anxious to solve the multi-
tudinous problems of new types of
construction when they could draw
from memory the details of fifty years
ago. But progress can only be bought
at the expense of hard work -hard
work on the part of school boards,
hard work on the part of school ad-
ministrators, and hard work on the
part of architects.
To summarize: School architecture
must be tied to an educational pro-
gram, but proper buildings themselves
can open new horizons in education.
The new Sarasota schools unquestion-
ably attract both students and teach-
ers: They invite rather than repel.
Attendance figures improved substan-

tially in one school when it moved
into new buildings.
These schools are very moderate in
first cost, provide far more than the
minimum requirements, and are easy
to maintain surfaces like glass, tile,
aluminum can be' wiped clean rather
than requiring repainting; do not
crack as easily as ordinary block struc-
tures. Students take more pride in
these buildings, and there is less van-
dalism. Greater flexibility is built into
these new structures, and new uses
are being found that were not pos-
sible in old-type classrooms. Conse-
quently the buildings have influenced
the curriculum by making more
things possible.
Lastly, such schools as we re-
cently have built in Sarasota attract
new and substantial people to the.
community who, in turn, bring new
vitality and strength and progress.


1. Brookside
Junior High
2. Alta Vista
3. Riverview
4. Fruitville
5. Englewood
6. Booker
7. Brentwood
8. Venice
Junior High

Cost ($)'

(sq. ft.) 2

Pupil S
Capacity" C.

494,153.00 56,282 486

154,068.00 18,416 324


92,093 594

185,443.00 15,308 297

271,889.00 22,103 243

454,714.00 61,480 648

594,735.00 70,547 648

408,458.00 37,380 297

1 ... Exclusive of professional fees or costs of site development and equi
2 ... Covers total square foot area. As figured by the Sarasota School Bo
value; covered play areas, porches, sheltered platforms, passages ar
3 ... Rated capacity of regular classrooms, excluding special-purpose class
each classroom, regardless of classroom size.
4 ... Rating used to aid in comparisons of various schools relative to edu
27-pupil capacity) are rated for pupil capacity thus: Science Labor
Art: 25; Band or Chorus Rooms: 35; Study Halls or general educat
partition: 70; Swimming Pools: 25; Kindergarten (double session)
5 ... As used by the Sarasota School Board this rating indicates the rati
and similar areas are included in gross area calculations, ratings fo
than schools without them.

Pupil Gross Cost per Pupil Design
station Area Cost per Pupil Station Efficiency
capacity' ($ per sq. ft.) ($) ($) (percent)'

781 8.80 1,020.00 630.00 71

324 8.40 476.00 476.00 71

1109 11.60 1,805.00 965.00 72

297 12.10 618.00 618.00 78

243 12.30 1,119.00 1,119.00 58

753 7.40 700.00 600.00 57

708 8.40 918.00 740.00 53

512 11.00 1,375.00 800.00 70

,ard, this includes developed basement areas and stairways at full sq. ft.
id like areas at one-half sq.ft. value.
srooms. The Sarasota School Board assigns a capacity of 27 pupils to

icational effectiveness. Spaces other than regular classrooms (with a
stories: 25; Commercial Education: 25; Home Economics: 25; Shops: 20;
ion laboratories: 35; Gyms or Playrooms: 35; Gyms or Playrooms with
o of net educational area to total gross area. Since outdoor classrooms
r schools embodying such spaces tend to be in a percentage scale lower





1-Brookside Junior High School, Sarasota

The success of this school, bid at $45,000 under its budget and
built in 1955, gave the green light to Sarasota County's current
building program, of which eight completed units are presented
here. Ralph & William. Zimmerman, AIA, were the architects for
the clustered Brookside buildings.

Photos, pages 15 to 24, by Philip H. Hiss

This complete departure from the design 5_r
of Sarasota schools existing at the time
Brookside was proposed resulted from an
intensive study of then-existing school SPECIAL cLASSP-OO0S
layouts, education facilities, construction
and equipment. Brookside set a new
pattern of orientation, of planned space
relationships, of construction and design
character. Its low unit construction cost
-$8.80 per square foot resulted LIM. SHL
from imaginative use of high quality but
inexpensive materials. All classrooms are
framed with identical steel bents, ex-
terior end walls are heavy gauge ribbed a .
aluminum sheet. Classrooms have large
window areas combining fixed sash with
jalousies for control of ventilation. Eight- \
foot overhangs shade all window areas to s
cut interior glare.-.
APRIL, 1959 i


2-Alta Vista Elementary School Addition, Sarasota

This 12-room addition to an
existing plant stands entirely free
of the old building and is the
most radically "different" of all -
Sarasota's eight new school
plants. Victor A. Lundy, AIA,
was the architect.

Classrooms, each with an outside teaching
area reached by sliding glass doors, are
ranged on both sides of a glass-roofed
corridor. The roof is framed with glued-
laminated bents 14-feet on centers and
sheathed with 3 by 5 double t-and-g fir .
decking exposed as a ceiling. Cast brick
masonry partitions are kept at door height
and surmounted by fixed sash to provide S
an effect of soaring lightness and an 18-
foot overhang shelter for the outdoor
classroom areas. Square foot cost was .
held to $8.40. Er

APRIL, 1959

3-Riverview High School, Sarasota

The only two-story plant in Sara-
sota's newly-completed program,
this school embodies facilities for ,
a complete secondary educational
program. The architect was Paul e .
M. Rudolph, AIA.

finN~y Fl [ii F2nnz-w
eOr---- - oyrD-- ---







Classrooms on both floors of this steel-
framed, glass, cast brick and cement slab
building are reached from outside corri-
dors ranged along two sides of a central
court. Corridors are protected and class-
room windows shaded by a series of pre-
cast concrete slabs set at alternate
heights to permit free passage of air.
A series of skylights like small pent
houses admit light and air to walkways
between the double row of special activ-
ity classrooms and provide top-lighting
and ventilation in the gym, library and
cafeteria. Construction cost per square
foot was $11.60.

Above, the auditorium, at right the library
which suggests how the overhead sky-
lights are effective in creating a decora-
tive pattern as they serve a practical

APRIL, 1959

4-Fruitville Elementary School Addition

The first of what is planned as a two-stage expansion CLASROOM o 'YFs,
of an existing school which will be retained and joined a~-R
to the additions by covered passages. Bolton McBryde, r--
AIA and the firm of West and Waters, AIA, were asso-
ciated as architects. s- -

Small-scaled in harmony with its small-size pupils, the classrooms
are oriented north and south for light control and are framed with a r----
series of steel bents. Walls are concrete brick, floors terrazzo with cov'.Di ,
other materials selected to provide as maintenance-proof a structureI !_-
as possible. Unit cost was $12.10 per square foot.


5-Englewood Elementary School

Eventually new units will supplant
the old school shown in the air
view below and have been
planned on the basis of an experi-
mental teaching program under
which classes are not organized
in conventional grades but into
various combinations which are
handled by teacher teams. Bolton
McBryde, AIA, and the firm of
West and Waters, AIA, were as-
sociated as architects.

In general layout classrooms are similar
to those of the Fruitville school as is the .
overall design character. Construction _-4__ ,L
details and materials also follow closely i "
the pattern of the Fruitville plant. Ulti-
mate development of this school will em-
body four classroom "nests" of nine
classrooms, the dining-assembly hall -
the diamond-shaped building in the air
view and a centrally located play-
room, administration unit and experimen-
tal education studio. Square foot cost
was $12.30.
APRIL, 1959

6-Booker Elementary School, Sarasota

Embodying many of the principles devel-
oped in the successful Brookside school,
this 648-pupil plant was designed by Ralph
& William Zimmerman, AIA, architects.

The open, but somewhat formal plan includes four
S "school villages" of six classrooms and a court grouped
, MF M: symmetrically about a large central open area flanked
: : by an administration building at one end and a com-
mons building at the other, this containing such
facilities as cafeterium, music room and library. Unit
cost was $7.40 per square foot.


7-Brentwood Elementary School, Sarasota

Classroom wings of this 24-unit
school are linked by covered
walkways. Gene Leedy was the
architect, William Rupp, AIA,
the associate architect.

Basic element of this spacious school is a
double, indoor-outdoor classroom unit
with a utility core containing residential
type forced air heating to serve both
rooms. Classrooms are glass-walled on
each side, but are shaded by eight-foot
roof overhangs. The entire school was
built on a raised platform of fill confined
by retaining walls to overcome drainage
problems created by the low-elevation
site. Square foot cost was $8.40.


APRIL, 1959 T o A
APRIL, 1959

"(:,"?: ::.
:1.. 1
": ~':~

8-Venice Junior High School

Part of what will ultimately be a large educa-
.... . Optional complex, including athletic and recrea-
tional facilities to serve a near-by high school
as well as junior grade pupils. Mark Hampton,
AIA, architect; John M. Crowell, AIA, asso-
ciate architect.

S ,..Structure is reinforced concrete; walls partly stuccoed
fI concrete block, partly a curtain type, glazed in some areas
and fitted with insulated panels elsewhere. Interior
A I partitions are framed with steel studs to which chalkboard
or perforated hardboard panels are bolted. Most floors are
vinyl-asbestos; and ceilings of classrooms have been
sprayed with acoustical asbestos. Unit cost was $11 per
square foot.

I, I I I
I'll 8
~' _~__~L ~_--~~r`LJ__'_J


NWMA Door Guarantee Revised for'59

All doors produced by members of the National Woodwork
Manufacturers Association, Inc. are guaranteed by the manu-
facturer for one year from date of shipment by the manufacturer
to be of good material and workmanship, free from defects which
render them unserviceable or unfit for the use for which they
were manufactured. Natural variations in the color or texture
of the wood are not to be considered as defects.
Doors must be accorded reasonable treatment by the
purchaser. Doors must be stored or hung in dry buildings
and never in damp, moist or freshly plastered areas. Doors
must not be subjected to abnormal heat, dryness or hu-
midity. The utility or structural strength of the door must
not be impaired in the fitting of the door, the application
of hardware, or cutting and altering the door for lights,
louvers, panels and any other special details. When solid
core and hollow core flush doors are cut for lights or lou-
vers, the portion between the cut out area and the edge
of the door shall not be less than 5 inches wide at any
point; and the cut out area shall not exceed 40% of the
area of the face of the door; and in addition the cut out
area of a hollow core door shall not exceed half the height
of the door and shall be suitably prepared. Immediately
after fitting, the entire door including top and bottom
edges must receive two coats of paint, varnish or sealer
to prevent undue absorption of moisture. The manufact-
urer will not assume responsibility for doors which become
defective because of failure to follow these recommenda-
tions or for hazards of shipment or storage after the doors
leave the control of the manufacturer.
Doors must be inspected upon arrival for visible defects
and all claims or complaints based thereon must be filed
immediately and before the doors are hung and before
the first coat of painter's finish is applied.
The manufacturer agrees to repair or replace in the
white, unfitted, and without charge, any door found to be
defective within the meaning of this guarantee.
Doors must not be repaired or replaced without first
obtaining the consent of the manufacturer.
A warp or twist of not to exceed 14 inch shall not be
considered a defect.
"A warp or twist of not to exceed /4 inch shall not be
considered a defect." This refers to any distortion in the
door itself and not its relationship to the frame or jamb

in which it is hung. Therefore, a warp or twist exceeding
inch shall be considered a defect only:
1. When warp is determined by applying a straight
edge to the concave face of the door, or
2. When twist is determined by placing the face of
the door against a true plane surface. A simple de-
vice to determine and measure "twist" may be
made by placing two cross-members on a post, one
about door height and the other slightly above the
floor. The cross-members must be perfectly straight,
and true and plumbed into perfect alignment.
The guarantee against warp or twist does not apply to the
a. 1/4" or thicker doors that are wider than 3'6" or higher
than 8'0".
b. 1/8" and IYs" thick doors that are wider than 3'0" or
higher than 7'0".
c. Doors with face veneers of different species.
d. Doors that are improperly hung or do not swing freely.

The NWMA Standard Door Guarantee applies only to
Ponderosa Pine and Hardwood Veneered Doors manu-
factured by members of the National Woodwork
Manufacturers Association. It has, however, become
accepted as a minimum standard by the construction
industry . Door guarantees of some manufacturers
substantially exceed the NWMA Standard Guarantee.
For example, that covering IPIK Solid Core DOORS
exceeds this Standard as to both time and size limi-
tations . The Guarantee on IPIK DOORS extends
for a two-year period and covers all sizes up to four
by ten feet in a one and three-quarters inch thickness,
but otherwise embodies all the contigent provisions of
the NWMA Standard Door Guarantee printed here . .
This NWMA document was revised in October, 1958,
and is reproduced here as a convenient and ready
reference for architects and specification writers.


71 N. W. 11th TERRACE, MIAMI - -FRanklin 3-0811
Service to Florida's west coast is from our warehouse at Palmetto . Call Palmetto 2-1011

APRIL, 1959

57or *ea% Speciication 7iles ...

The President's Message

Florida Association of Architects

One of the aims of the Florida
Association of Architects this year is
the establishment of workshops for
the membership. Most of us have,
from time to time, been satiated by
a lot of drivel handed out at seminars
and workshops held in conjunction
with conventions. We have seen men
thoroughly familiar with their subject
matter, but incapable of doing a
respectable job of presenting it to
their audience. Most of us are guilty
of the same thing. We, through
education and training, know our sub-
ject; but our clients remain very much
uninformed and at times wind up
thinking of an architect as a some-
what charming, if confusing, charac-
We hope, through our workshops,
that we can take a good look at our-
selves as others see us and improve
what might now be classified as a
mirage. We hope to present ways and
means of reducing office overhead, yet
evolve a better organized and
smoother functioning practice. Our
first workshop, to be held in Gaines-
ville in April, will be aimed at better
public relations. We have asked the
A.I.A. Public Relations experts to
present a program for the individual,
rather than the profession as a whole.
Then in early July, in Palm Beach,
we want to hold a real, two day "get
down to the facts" session on office
Bob Denny of Henry J. Kaufman
& Associates, the A.I.A. Public Rela-
tions firm, has assured us that our
April workshop will be aimed at the
small practitioner. Although it is cus-
tomary in the A.I.A. to ascend and
descend via the vertical committee
structure, this one time we would like
to see the individual given an oppor-
tunity to participate and to learn as
an individual. Heretofore it has been
S.O.P. for information to be dissemi-
nated from the top to the individual
by calling the top dogs together and

giving them the word. They, in turn,
were supposed to pass this along down
the line, and finally, about third hand,
it was presented to the individual at
a chapter meeting. It is my opinion
that most architects won't listen to
another architect. Rightfully or not,
this is a common fault among pro-
fcssional men. If a man is successful,
then there is the matter of profes-
sional jealousy. If he isn't, then every-
one asks, "How come he speaketh
with authority?"
The small practitioner has his hands
full just making a living; keeping the
client happy and the contractor off
his neck. Every mail brings manufac-
turer's literature, architectural maga-
zines, dun letters from charitable
organizations, bills, more bills, and an
occasional copy of playboy. Most, ex-
cepting the last mentioned, get the
"file thirteen" treatment. A great deal
of the advertising issued by the build-
ing products manufacturers is wasted.
Most products vary little from year to
year, and advertising agencies, to
justify their existence, in many cases
pour out tons of pulp each year, mail-
ing it to practitioners who just plain
wish they wouldn't. Rather than
appear partial, the recipient chucks

the whole lot. So many new and note-
worthy products go unnoticed. The
tired old man of the profession wakes
up one morning to find that the job
across the street, being designed by
that young, upstart architect opera-
ting from a back room, has some
entirely new materials and products
incorporated. He can't understand it.
What happened? The young pencil
pusher, given more spare time, reads
his mail and uses a little of what is
This is just one of the many ways
we can expedite our professional
approach. I predict that in years to
come we will have regularly scheduled
meetings and condensed bulletins,
already in the mill, which will enable
us to keep abreast with new develop-
ments. We will learn new techniques
as they are developed, just as the
medical profession does now. As the
country doctor, is content to abide
by those things he learned many years
ago, so will the country architect be
content to go on designing buildings
in the same manner and using the
same construction techniques that he
did thirty years ago. In this age of
specialization, it is increasingly more
difficult for the small practitioner to
keep up with the large organization.
Here is where a really well developed
workshop program can do wonders.
By such a program we can actually
condense a lot of knowledge and new
techniques into a very short period,
thereby in effect giving the small
office several additional employees.
The profession has gone a long way
in the field of public relations since
the turn of the century. How much
further it goes will depend on the in-
dividual practicing architect. The In-
stitute has spent good, hard cash
employing experts to tell us what is
wrong with us, and to demonstrate
how we can correct these faults. In
spite of this, I'd bet plenty that the
majority of our members can't list

three things accomplished by the last
two public relations firms hired by
the A.I.A. The next step, and a big
one, is to convince you individually
that yours is a large role in this job
to be done. One poor example of our
profession, preying on the public, can
do more harm than you think. Every-
one of us should remember this. The
very best way for us to better our
individual lot is to see that the pro-
fession as a whole reaches the highest
plane attainable. The most perfect
machine can fail to function if one
simple part fails to perform.
In the matter of office practice
there is much to be learned by study-
ing the techniques employed by
others. Each of us has some trick
useful to all. Professional jealousy
decrees that these ideas shall remain
the property of the inventor, carefully
hidden and saved for the opportune
time for use on the proper client.
As a result we are thought of as a
group of chronic individualists, dis-
organized in our thinking and doing.
I keep harping on the medical and
legal professions, but let's compare for
the moment. Suppose that every man
in the field of medicine had kept his
discoveries to himself, to be used just
for his individual gain? Do you think
less of your doctor because he wasn't
the one who discovered a particular
operational technique? Do you think
he is only a copier because the pill
he prescribes was first mixed by
another? Did you ever stop to think
that most great trial lawyers have
copied the techniques of many?
Many of you have asked for work-
shops where ideas can be traded, and
new ones developed. Our first, in
Gainesville, will give you ample oppor-
tunity to show your interest or lack
of it. Many of you will alibi that you
don't have the time. If you don't,
you aren't interested in improving
your lot or your professional knowl-
edge. You are content for the pro-
fession and yourself to remain in a
second rate position in the United
States, while in every other country
in the world, architecture is the out-
standing and most revered profession.
Your officers continually hear the out-
cry from anguished members, "Why
don't you and the Association do
something for the poor, little, mis-
understood practitioner?" Okay, let's
go. If you don't show up we'll under-
stand, but will the rest of the building
industry or our clients or the public?
APRIL, 1959


In schools where only the highest safety factor is
good enough Perlite Fireproofing Plaster can literally
surround children with protection. As a guarding coat for
structural steel, as a double-duty finish for walls and
ceilings and as part of fire-retardant construction of roof
decks and interior partitions the heat-barring properties
of Perlite work to solve any fireproofing problem anywhere.

Such positive safety is easy to provide. Perlite Fire-
proofing Plaster can be used under any design condition.
A whole range of tested constructions permit a wide choice
of details to produce safety ratings up to 4 hours for walls
and ceilings and up to 5 hours for structural steel. You
can find complete technical information in Section 5 of
your Perlite Design Manual.

In addition . Perlite concrete is lightweight about
one-fifth the weight of standard concrete. So its use
makes possible construction economies, too thus still
further reducing the cost of using one of the most versatile
and effective materials in building .

Let's face it..

... the SIMMONSES did/

What John Simmons did for his family

John Simmons, 3059 John Anderson Dr., Or-
mond Beach, did something important for his
wife and son John, above. His granddaughter,
Sandra Shreves (on Mrs. Simmons' lap in the
picture) got in on the dividends, too. Let Mr.
Simmons tell you about it:
"When designing our new home, we decided
that central fuel-type heating was a 'must';
and during the extremely cold weather win-
ter before last we were thankful for the com-
fort it provided. We had even temperatures in
all the rooms. Our guests enjoyed their visits
with us in comfort. No more closed-off rooms
and shivering from inadequate heat for us in
cold-snap weather!"

Mr. Architect: Sure, Florida enjoyed "summer"
weather this past winter. But Floridians haven't
forgotten the chills and ills of 1957-58 and other
recent winter seasons. And we'll be reminding new
residents that over the past 35 years Florida homes
have needed heat an average of 42 days a year -even
in South Florida. We believe your clients are "sold"
on the low cost, eco-
nomical operation and
Let's face it-FLORIDA HOMES superior efficiency of
NEED BETTER HEATING! fuel-type home heat-
ing; and that they
S ^ will accept your speci-
S. fiction of permanent
Switch enthusiasm. Please
call on us for any
Install your FUEL-TYPE information you may
"Florida furnace" NOW! need on central home-


1827 S. W. 8th STREET, MIAMI

Match Flooring Materials

To Service Conditions

The author of this article, P. W. CLOYES, is the manager of the building contract depart-
ment of Selby, Battersby and Company, of Philadelphia, and as such is a qualified expert
on maintenance factors involved in the selection of many building materials. His pertinent
comments on the choice of flooring materials first appeared in a late 1958 issue of Better
Building Maintenance. It is reprinted here with grateful appreciation to that magazine.

Whenever a new building is being
designed, or an old building is being
rehabilitated, the selection of the
proper flooring for each area is of
prime importance to the owner's best
interests. This is particularly true
with institutional buildings, because
reliability of material and cost of the
flooring and its maintenance and re-
pair are the two most important fac-
tors to be kept in the minds of the
A reputable general flooring con-
tractor experienced in laying all
types of flooring can be of great
assistance to architects, engineers,
general contractors and managers of
hospitals and institutions in evaluat-
ing floorings as to their suitability for
the respective areas to be covered.
Such a contractor knows, or should
know, more about the subject than
anybody else. Contractors who are
opportunists, or who lay only one
type of flooring, do not fit into the
picture because their experience is
not broad enough.
Purchasing on Cost
Too often, I am sorry to say, floors
are purchased on price alone and un-
fortunately the low installations cost
is the determining factor as to what
type floor should be used. This is the
wrong way to cope with a problem as
big as institutional flooring. What
else in an institution is subjected to
the use and abuse that floors are?
Actually the only way to determine
the true cost of a floor should be the
cost per square foot, including main-
tenance over the years of use. No
flooring is cheap if it does not do
the job.
There is no cure-all for flooring
problems. By that I mean no one
APRIL, 1959

floor will meet all service conditions.
A particular floor will perform well
under certain conditions and fail
miserably under others. I think we
should recognize this at the start.
That is why it is necessary for the
architect and the flooring contractor
to operate in close harmony, not un-
like the physician and surgeon, for
without proper diagnosis of the prob-
lem the treatment will not effect a
Let's look at some of the floors we
see in institutions throughout the
country eliminating, of course, both
wood and concrete. You will find that
predominantly thev will be cement
terrazzo, quarry tile, ceramic tile,
some conductive floors in hospital
suites, a lot of resilient floors, such as
asphalt, linoleum, vinyl, rubber and
cork and then, too, there will be some
composition floors troweledd).
Cement Terrazzo
First let us talk about Portland
cement terrazzo. We all know what
this floor looks like marble chips
of various colors embedded in a ce-
ment matrix. Very little history has
been written on terrazzo. Actually it
owes its wide usage today to the age-
less mosaic work done by the early
Venetians. Here is one floor that has
withstood the test of time over the
centuries, and has proven its worth.
Surely no one can dispute this fact.
In our opinion, for corridors or
areas receiving hard traffic, cement
terrazzo offers the best floor for the
least money per square foot over the
years, including maintenance. Please
note, however, that terrazzo is not
recommended for floors under soup
kettles in kitchens, or in areas sub-
jected to acids or strong alkaline con-

centrations. To use a good material
such as terrazzo under these condi-
tions would be a fallacy.
Here it would be wise to use
quarry tile or packing house brick
with an acid-resisting joint. The acid
resistant joint is most important, for
I know you have all seen quarry tile
floors where the tile has been in-
stalled for a few years and is in
excellent conditions, but the joints
have completely eroded and act as
dirt catchers and a breeding place for
bacteria. These joints, being sand and
cement, are attacked by the acids and
alkalies in the food and fruit juices.
This causes them to deteriorate,
which makes the floor impractical for
the very purpose for which it was
purchased. A little forethought, and
the use of an acid resisting grout,
could have prevented this. It is cer-
tainly more expensive to repair con-
ditions such as these than it is to
spend a few extra pennies necessary
to eliminate them.
Let us just dwell on this item of
cost for a moment. Some of the
problems faced today in institutions
can be traced back to the original
design of the building itself. A given
amount of money was appropriated
to build a building. Because of the
fact that an architect must remain
within a budget, one of the first items
to suffer is the flooring. Where you
planned to have terrazzo or ceramic
tile you get asphalt tile; where you
planned to use quarry with an acid-
resisting joint you get a grease-proof
asphalt tile. No material can be ex-
pected to do the job that it was not
designed to do and it is false economy
to buy the cheapest floor on the
basis of the initial cost.
(Continued on Page 30)

Floorin . .
(Continued from Page 29)

Next we come to the troweled or
composition type floor. Basically they
arc the asphalt type, the mineral type
such as oxychloride or magnesite and
the latices.

Asphalt Type: The asphalt types
are usually sand, cement and asphalt
emulsion. Sometimes heavier aggre-
gates are included. These floors are
oftentimes used as covering in load-
ing docks and platforms and interiors
where water lays on the floor. One
disadvantage of this type of floor
covering is that it is affected by tem-
perature changes. In hot weather it
has a tendency to soften and dent.

Mineral Composition: The mineral
composition, such as magnesite or
oxychloride, lends itself particularly
well in the renovation of old construc-
tion. This type of flooring is often
used where there is an uneven wood
floor. Application is accomplished by
securely nailing all loose boards and
then laying 15-lb. saturated felt. Over

this lath is nailed and upon the lath
magnesite is trowelled to the thick-
ness desired, which should never be
less than /2 in. in finished floors.
This type of installation will actually
lend structural strength to the exist-
ing floor, and effects a savings in
maintenance costs since it is com-
pletely monolithic. This type of floor-
ing should never be used when
subjected to water lying continuously
on its surface, although intermittent
wettings are helpful.
It is fire resistant, vermin-proof and
impervious to most oils and greases.
It lends itself very well as an under-
layment to the various resilient floors
because it does not just bridge ruts
in the sub-floor but rather it fills the
ruts and levels the floor at the same
time. When applied over concrete,
the bond to the concrete is accom-
plished by either roughing the con-
crete or by the application of a latex
bonding agent.

Latex Type: Recently, certain types
of resin latex flooring have begun to
make their mark in the flooring field
and bring promise of great things to

come. One interesting feature is the
fact that these floors are laid excep-
tionally thin-approximately 1/8 in.
thick-and wear tests indicate tre-
mendous resistance to abrasion. Tests
conducted for performance under
certain acids and alkalines urine,
gasoline, etc. indicate there are
great opportunities for its use in both
the industrial and marine field.
The Army and Navy both are
specifying considerable magnesite and
latex in flooring of barracks of the
various camps, while the resin latex
is being used in latrines.

Resilient Floors
Now for the resilient floors, such
as asphalt, rubber, vinyl, cork and
linoleum. Each has its place, but
remember none of these floors are
any better than its underlayment and
none should be installed to correct
uneven appearances of wood or con-
crete floors. For, by their very nature,
they will follow the contour of the
floor below.
Another thing to remember is that
while the flooring itself may resist
water, oils or detergents, will the ad-



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hesive which holds the floor in place
resist these materials?
In applying any resilient floor, start
with the underlayment. The finished
floor will be no better than the under-
layment over which it is applied.
Whenever you can, use a troweled
Conductive Floors
Another problem in institutions to-
day is the need for conductive floors
in operating suites. As a rule, the
majority of institutions today are
either without conductive floors in
their operating suits or have floors
whose conductivity does not meet the
standards set up by the N.F.P.A.
The United States Bureau of
Mines has a bulletin on static elec-
tricity in hospital operating rooms.
The bulletin is No. 520. Unfor-
tunately the subject of conductive
flooring is not widely understood.
However, one of the most important
safety measures to contain this danger
is a conductive floor which will com-
ply with the safety standards of the
National Fire Protection Association
Bulletin No. 56. Briefly these require-
ments are that a conductive floor

should have a resistance of between
25,000 ohms and 1,000,000 ohms.
Conductive floors should be used
in all operating and delivery rooms
and where combustible anesthetics
are administered. Many explosions
have occurred in the past because it
is possible to generate enough static
electricity to cause a spark simply by
pulling a sheet back off a patient.
That is why conductive floors are an
important factor.
Maintenance Costs Keep Rising
No matter what flooring is in-
stalled, the cost of maintenance is a
pertinent factor. It is almost like
getting married The first cost is
negligible, it is the upkeep that
counts. Below are some figures that
may be surprising to those who don't
know what it costs to keep floors
clean. These figures, contained in
the Office Building Experience Ex-
change Report, show the average cost
per year to maintain floors in office
buildings. The figures given are in
cents per square foot of rented area:
In 1924 in 170 buildings a total of
18,017,335 s.f. cost 21.4 per s.f. to

In 1950 in 577 buildings a total of
76,198,830 s.f. cost 39.2 per s.f. to
In 1953 in 571 buildings a total of
74,052,653 s.f. cost 46.1 per s.f. to
In 1954 in 600 buildings a total of
77,079,098 s.f. cost 47.1 per s.f. to
In 1955 in 624 buildings a total of
83,246,374 s.f. cost 47.8 per s.f. to
In 1956 the average cost of main-
taining a square foot of rented floor-
ing jumped to 48.9 per square foot.
In the Philadelphia area alone last
year, depreciation costs per square
foot of rented buildings was 56.3;
cleaning 55.6; taxes 25.7. Thus, main-
tenance is an awfully important part
of the cost of flooring.
It is wishful thinking to select floor-
ing solely on the basis of initial cost.
In maintenance, the major cost is
labor so that any floor that cuts down
on maintenance cost saves a huge
item in labor alone. The only sure
way to solve a flooring problem is to
consult with an architect and a res-
(Continued on Page 35)

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APRIL, 1959 31

vitreous-hard, glazed wall
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News & Notes


Reminder for April . .
During four days starting April 23,
students at U/F will conduct their
fifth Annual Home Show and Archi-
tectural Exposition. This will be held
in Westmorland Estates, west of the
Gainesville city limits, and will in-
clude not only the Exposition shelter,
but a completely equipped and fur-
nished 3-bedroom and 2-bath model
house, designed by architectural stu-
dents and built under the direction of
the Student Contractors and Builders
Association. After the Home Show
the house will be sold, profits from
the operation to be used for Univer-
sity scholarship purposes. Landscap-
ing of the model house will be done
by landscape architecture students.
Furnishings and decor will be design-
ed and executed by Interior Design
Lowell Lotspeich is 1959 president
of the Student Chapter, FAA-AIA
which has been the prime mover of
the Exposition. Donald Singer has
acted for the Chapter as Home Show
Coordinator. Publicity is being han-
dled by Thomas F. Bridges. Frank
Schmidt and Russ Minardi are in
charge of commercial exhibits and
social activities respectively. Practic-
ing architects throughout the state
are being invited to attend the four-
day Exposition.

April 10 and 11 are the dates of
the Florida Community Junior Col-
lege Facilities Conference which will

---, -. *. .

The Student Exposition Shelter will be a unique circular structure 160 ft. in
diameter. Tensioned wires radiating from a central pylon will support a plastic
membrane. Design and construction are in charge of Nelson Weller and Jay

During the 1959 session of
the Florida Legislature-60
calendar days from April 7
-the FAA Executive Direc-
tor will be in Tallahassee on
his second legislative assign-
ment as FAA's representa-
tive. His address will be
The Floridan Hotel; and all
FAA members are urged to
contact him there at any
time relative to any facet
of the FAA's program . .
During his absence, FAA
affairs at the Dupont Plaza
Center office in Miami will
be handled by the FAA's
Administrative Secretary.
She will be in complete
charge of the office opera-
tion. All matters relating to
The Florida Architect and
FAA administrative activi-
ties should be addressed to
her attention at 302 Du-
pont Plaza Center, Miami

be held in the Florida Union Build-
ing. Registration fee is $5.00; and full
information relative to the program
can be obtained from Mr. W. W.
Young, General Extension Division
of Florida, Gainesville. The Confer-
ence, which is jointly sponsored by
the FAA, the U/F College of Archi-
tecture and Fine Arts and the State
Department of Education, has been
planned to include several informal
group discussions involving audience

News & Notes
(Continued from Page 32)
participation as well as panel discus-
sions and addresses by specialists.
FAA members will be welcome also
to attend the two-day Public Relations
Workshop scheduled for April 23 and
24 at the University of Florida. This
is the first of a new FAA plan for
conducting workshops or seminars
prior to FAA Board meetings. The
P/R meeting will be conducted by
Robert E. Denney, AIA public rela-
tions counsel.

New Rating Standards
for Air Conditioning
A new certification program for air
conditioning units has been announc-
ed by the Air Conditioning and Re-
frigeration Institute. The program,
sponsored jointly by the ARI and the
National Warm Air Heating and Air
Conditioning Association, will coordi-
nate research, manufacturing and in-
stallation techniques in setting up
standards of quality and good prac-
tice. Based on tests to establish con-
formity of equipment to these stand-
ards, certification, through means of
the seal shown above, will be issued
to makers of various types of air-con-
ditioning units.
As indicating adherancc to a series
of technical standards, the ARI Cer-
tification Program should provide
both specifiers and users of air-condi-
tioning equipment a reliable basis for
choice and acceptance. ARI has al-
ready issued one directory of certified
unitary air-conditioners co ve r i n g
equipment of 33 leading manufactur-
ers. Others will be issued as the pro-
gram progresses.

Address Change
nounces a change of office address to
308 East Park Avenue, Tallahassee.
APRIL, 1959


0 0 0 0 0 T

AND ALL Thompson doors
stands the guarantee that the
finest materials and workman-
ship have been employed in the
manufacturing of a quality

Thompson flush doors, in beau-
tiful figured gum, lauan ash
and birch can be specified for
both exteriors and interiors in
both standard and special sizes.


S............. Lightweight, but sturdy, Thompson flush
S*......... doors are noted for their rigidity and
resistance to warping and twisting. This
quality is the result of high manufacturing
standards that include: cores of wood ribs
spaced 4-inches apart and butted against
stiles on alternate sides to provide continu-
ous vent space; stiles of a 1 1/8-inch
-minimum width; rails of a minimum 2'/2-
inch width; panels of 3-ply, cross-banded
plywood, hardwood faced; and lock-blocks
4-inches wide, 20-inches long centered on
both sides. Only non-shrinking, craze-re-
sistant adhesives are used to produce inte-
grated bonding that is highly resistant to
both moisture and mildew.
In addition to 11 standard sizes.-1/6x
S 6/8 to 3/0 x 6/8 interior and 2/6 x 6/8
Sto 3/0x7/0 exterior-Thompson flush
doors are obtainable in special sizes.



Mel Banks, Inc.
Ph. HE 6-3400
Ph. 2-0871
Ph. 3-5911

Electrend East
Coast Co., Inc.
Ph. 5101
Call Colleci -
Boca Raton 5101
Ph. JA 3-464

Sales & Service
Ph. GA 2-7 166

Electrend Sales
& Service Co
Ph. RI 7-3380

Mitch's Electrend
Sales &r Service
Ph. HE8-43..3

Carlos M. Hope
Electrical Coniraclor
Ph. FR 2-9867

Milky Way
Building T Heating
Ph. EL 7-2367



drI dJI Electric Circulating
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St. Petersburg 14, Florida
Telephone HEmlock 6-8420

News & Notes
(Continued from Page 33)

Design Award Winner . .
For his design of the four-story
Southern Bell Telephone branch of-
fice building in IIialcah, ROY J.
SCHNEIDER, AIA, right above, was re-
cently presented with the Miami
Window Corporation's "Fencstration
Award" by the company's president,
second Florida architect to receive it.

Heavy builders'
felt contains
100% more Diel-
drin than specified
by U.S. Dept. of
Agriculture for termite-treat-
ment of ground areas.
The film of polyethylene plas-
tic meets the vapor perme-
ability requirements of Federal
Specification UU-P-147b.



Z5eciaUllye for. S hioo els, with S ab- i7L eontwrctieon


One easily-installed product now can solve two of Florida's most
pressing construction problems . BIRD TERMIBAR actually kills
Installation of wet-wood termites while acting as an effective vapor barrier. It's a
tection of house membrane combining a 4 M film of polyethylene plastic with a layer
with slab ounda- of felt impregnated with Dieldrin, one of the most lethal and stable
neer wall. insecticides known . The plastic keeps moisture out; the Dieldrin
kills the bugs and TERMIBAR meets U.S. Govt. specs on both
important counts. For complete termite protection specify that
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TERMIBAR is yours for the asking . .


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Flooring ...
(Continued from Page 31)
ponsible flooring contractor well in
advance of construction or moderni-
zation. Because no floor is any better
than the materials selected and the
contractor who installs it, a little
planning will pay big dividends and
tremendous savings on future main-
In most areas of the United States
there are contractors who will make a
survey of flooring problems, give
recommendations and work with ar-
chitects to furnish budgetary figures,
as well as specifications. By proceed-
ing in this manner, a lot of the floor-
ing problems that have faced hospi-
tals and mental institutions in the
years gone by will be eliminated.
Here is a formula to follow in
selecting a floor covering:
F + YM + YR = Cost per square
Y foot per year
F-First cost of flooring installed
Y-Expected life of flooring in years
M-Cost of maintenance per year
R-Cost of Repairs

Associated Elevator &
Supply Co.. . 6
Bird & Son . . . 34
Briggs Manufacturing Co. . 3
A. R. Cogswell . . 36
Dwoskin, Inc . . 31
Electrend Distributing Co.. 34
Florida Foundry &
Pattern Works . . 32
Florida Home Heating Inst. 28
Florida Power & Light Co. 7
Florida Steel Corp. . 4
Geo. C. Griffin Co. . 12
Hamilton Plywood . . 10
Markowitz Brothers . 2nd Cover
Miami Window Corp. 4th Cover
Mutschler Bros. Co. . 8
Perlite, Inc. . . . 27
A. H. Ramsey & Sons, Inc. . 25
Solite . . . 1
Steward-Mellon Co.
of Jacksonville . . 32
Thompson Door Co . .33
Ben Thomson, Inc. . . .36
Tropix-Weve Products . 5
Unit Structures, Inc. .. 30
F. Graham Williams Co.. Inc. 35
R. H. Wright & Son . 3rd Cover

APRIL, 1959

JOHN F. HALLMAN, JR., Pres. & Treasurer JACK K. WERK, Vice-Pres. & Secretary



"Beautiful and Permanent Building Materials"

A ril A "Trl, A

TRINITY 6-1084 ..


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We are prepared to give the fullest cooperation and the best
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JUstice 5-1122

Can Substitution

Be Controlled?

With the Construction Specifica-
tion Institute in Florida flourishing
like the proverbial green bay tree
(new chapters are now forming in
Jacksonville, Orlando and Tampa)
most technical evils in current speci-
fication writing will eventually be
curbed, if not universally eliminated.
But there is one specification evil
which no amount of technical study
or research can erase.
This is the tendency which both
contractors and building product
manufacturers maintain is increasing
- to permit easy and often radical
deviation from provisions of specifi-
cations by architects who have pre-
pared them as instruments of profes-
sional service.
The shoe must fit, of course, if
you are to wear it. In many firms
the integrity of a specification is as
closely guarded as the architect's own
professional reputation. Such firms
are usually the successful ones. They
enjoy the confidence of their clients
and the respect of those who con-
struct the buildings they design. Con-
tractors who bid their jobs know they
will be treated fairly. Companies fur-
nishing the type of products specified
realize that their particular brand has
a chance of selection equal to others
and that neither substitution on a
mere price basis or an unwarranted
delegation of choice to the whim of
an owner will be tolerated.
But, say the product people in
particular, this type of firm is rapidly
becoming an exception to the rule.
Too many architectural firms are
yielding to the pressure of various
sorts of expediencies and are permit-
ting substitutions to such a degree as
to actually change the character and
quality of buildings they design. One

manufacturer's representative recently
described the situation in these blunt
"I used to work my head off to
get specified. Now I'd rather not be
mentioned in the specs. I've got a
better chance for an installation by
wangling a substitution than I had
when I got an outright written spec."
Competition, of course, is keener
today than ever. And the day of the
tightly closed specification probably
marked the end of a certain era in the
construction industry. Product people
realize this. Most of them aren't dis-
mayed by competition and don't ad-
vocate the type of specification that
prevents it. But they do believe that
a specification should be so written
as to indicate the character and qual-
ity of the construction materials,
products and services wanted. Whole-
some competition can operate within
the limits specified. But when the
architect permits deviations from
specification standards so that cheap-
ness becomes a substitute for qual-
ity, he relinquishes his professional
control of his client's building to the
influence of slick salesmanship and
the come-on of a quick-buck deal.
No one can blame a building own-
er for wanting to save money on his
job in any practical way. But so long
as the architect is a professional man,
his responsibility is to plan for sav-
ings to the owner. Once that plan is
documented in drawings and speci-
fications, he must control the char-
acter and quality established.
Professional integrity, like virtue,
is often easier to maintain than some
people realize. All it takes is one word.
"No", said at the right time to the
proper person will usually do it.


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The architect is the captain of your building team.
He is the person who draws the plans . specifies
materials . takes bids on the job . supervises
construction and approves payment of the bills.
An architect is an artist a creator a person
with the unique ability to combine art and busi-
ness, inspiration and science, imagination and sound
judgment. To become a qualified architect calls for 10
or more years of intensive study and apprenticeship,
and licensing by the state in which he practices. All
this is to prove an ability to solve whatever type build-
ing problem you may have.
Building a home, or any other structure, is one of
the biggest investments most people make in a lifetime.
To protect that investment, consult a professional ..
. . an architect. He is your guide to greatest value
for your building dollar.
R. H. Wright & Son is proud of its friendship with
the architectural profession in this area. As a leading
producer of concrete and concrete products, we con-
stantly strive to produce the materials and render the
services the architect requires for sound, successful

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How Can You Solve The
Problem of Anchorage ?

The method of anchoring a curt
wall to the structural frame of a bu
ing will largely determine the ove:
performance of the curtain wall its
Depending on the method adopted, se
tion to ever-present problems of then
expansion, building tolerances, ei
moisture drainage, may be easy or d:
cult to develop. The type, location, a
number of anchorage devices can me
the difference between smooth, troul
free installation or a series of job cc
plications resulting in wasted time a
labor, unavoidable extras and soar:
And there's the matter of safety, t,
The finest curtain wall system is oi
as strong as the anchors which faster
to the structure of the building. I
question of anchorage is that importa
How to answer it? A curtain w
system can be set on and bolted to sh
angles. Or units can be suspended a
fastened with clips. Or mullions can


rigidly secured to a wall and the window-
and-spandrel units fitted between. Or a
structural grid can be used, anchored
by means of slotted anchor elements
(units) provided as elements of the
building's basic structure.
Which to use and where and how?
The answers must vary according to the
type and size of the building involved,
the character of its basic structural
system, even the type and design of the
curtain wall itself. And each answer
must be detailed on the basis of engin-
eering experience and a knowledge of
the performance required and the job
conditions which will be involved.
We have engineered many answers to
such questions, for our job is curtain
walls. We can advise you on the anchor-
age system best fitted for the specific
job at hand. We can help you develop
the details necessary to satisfy every
technical requirement. And as a result
we can assure you of a curtain wall
installation completed with the skill,
experience and service needed to guar-
antee its satisfactory performance.

The real measure of satisfactory job performance is the quality of skill, knowledge and
experience behind the products which are involved. When it comes to Curtain Walls,
Awning Windows or Projected Sash in any type of building, anywhere you can't
specify better than Miami Window ...


These advertisements have been
developed as suggestive guides
to more economical and efficient
contemporary construction.
Others deal with the specifica-
tion, design and engineering
aspects of curtain walls. Please
call us for answers to any tech-
nical questions on curtain wall
construction or for any engineer-
ing data you might find helpful
on any aspect of curtain wall

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