Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 South Atlantic Region plans Nassau...
 The package deal
 Joint coop committee maps broad...
 News and notes
 Message from the president
 Back Cover


Florida architect
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073793/00056
 Material Information
Title: Florida architect
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30 cm.
Language: English
Creator: American Institute of Architects -- Florida Association
Florida Association of Architects
Publisher: Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Place of Publication: Tallahassee Fla
Creation Date: February 1959
Frequency: quarterly
Subjects / Keywords: Architecture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 4, no. 3 (July 1954)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1996.
Issuing Body: Official journal of the Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects.
Issuing Body: Issued by: Florida Association of Architects of the American Institute of Architects, 1954- ; Florida Association of the American Institute of Architects, <1980->.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06827129
lccn - sn 80002445
issn - 0015-3907
System ID: UF00073793:00056
 Related Items
Preceded by: Bulletin (Florida Association of Architects)
Succeeded by: Florida/Caribbean architect

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    South Atlantic Region plans Nassau cruise conference
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    The package deal
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Joint coop committee maps broad 1959 program
        Page 19
    News and notes
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Message from the president
        Page 25
    Back Cover
        Page 26
Full Text




Is the challenge of the building-package operator a sign
that the architectural profession must re-evaluate its
traditional field of service and, perhaps, widen its range
of professional concern? Answers to that question were
discussed at the 44th Annual FAA Convention at Miami
Beach. Results of that discussion are reported in this
issue as one of the most complete statements of the
package-deal problem to appear in any segment of the
architectural press.

I I c~ - I I

- L -I I I~ 1

Is Your Chapter Using

This Newest P/R Tool?

If you're an AIA member or associate interested
in helping the public to learn about what archi-
tects are and how they work, you'll be interested
in the answer to that question. This informative
booklet was prepared by a Special FAA Committee
for your individual use through distribution by
your AIA Chapter. Ask your Chapter officers
about it . .

;i-" "'I,,
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it I;~ i

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Florida Architect

In T7is Isue ---

Letters .. .
S. A. Region Plans Nassau Cruise Conference .
The Package Deal:
The Package But Not The Deal . . .
By Herbert C. Millkey
The. Deal Versus The Professional Approach .
By Grayson Gill
Fill The Vacuum With Better Service . .
By Vincent G. Kling
Some Questions and Some Answers . .
Joint Coop Committee Maps Broad 1959 Program .
News and Notes:



. . . .11

. 14

. 15
. 19

Pensacola Architects Are Taking Active Part in Quadricentennial Plans
State Board Obtains Injunctions Against Five . . . . .
AIA Approves Changes in General Conditions Form . . . .
Board Meeting Schedule . . . . . . . . .

. . 3rd Cover

Message From The President . . ...
By John Stetson, President, FAA

John Stetson, President, P.O. Box 2174, Palm Beach
Francis R. Walton, Secretary, 142 Bay Street, Daytona Beach
Joseph M. Shifalo, Treasurer, Suite 8, Professional Center, Winter Park
William B. Harvard, First Vice-President, 2714 9th St., N., St. Petersburg
Verner Johnson, Second Vice-President, 250 N. E. 18th St., Miami
Arthur Lee Campbell, Third Vice-President, 115 So. Main Street, Gainesville

Roger W. Sherman, Executive Director, 302 Dupont Plaza Center, Miami 32.
Robert E. Hall, Robert E. Hansen; DAYTONA BEACH: David A. Leete;
FLORIDA CENTRAL: Eugene H. Beach, Anthony L. Pullara, Robert C.
Wielage; FLORIDA NORTH: Turpin C. Bannister, FAIA, M. H. Johnson;
Hugh J. Leitch; FLORIDA SOUTH: James L. Deen, Herbert R. Savage, Wahl,
J. Snyder, Jr.; JACKSONVILLE: Robert C. Broward, A. Eugene Cellar;
MID-FLORIDA: Robert B. Murphy, Rhoderic F. Taylor; PALM BEACH:
Donald R. Edge, Frederick W. Kessler.
At the 44th Annual Convention at Miami Beach, an eminent jury selected
six outstanding designs in as many categories for honor and merit awards.
Next month's issue will feature the presentation of all these award-winning
buildings. Only one of them has been previously published in this FAA Jour-
nal-the national honor award winner Warm Mineral Springs Inn, designed
by Victor Lundy.

The FLORIDA ARCHITECT, Official Journal of
the Florida Association of Architects of the
American Institute of Architects, is owned by
the Florida Association of Architects, Inc., a
Florida Corporation not for profit, and is pub-
lished monthly at Rm. 302-Dupont Plaza Cen-
ter, Miami 32, Florida; telephone FR 1-8331.
Editorial contributions, including plans and
photographs of architects' work, are welcomed
but publication cannot be guaranteed. Opinions
expressed by contributors are not necessarily
those of the Editor or the Florida Association
of Architects. Editorial material may be freely
reprinted by other official AIA publications,
provided full credit is given to the author
and to The FLORIDA ARCHITECT for prior use.
. . Advertisements of products, materials and
services adaptable for use in Florida are wel-
comed, but mention of names or use of illus-
trations, of such materials and products in
either editorial or advertising columns does not
constitute endorsement by the Florida Associ-
ation of Architects. Advertising material must
conform to standards of this publication; and
the right is reserved to reject such material be-
cause of arrangement, copy or illustrations.
. . Accepted as controlled circulation publi-
cation at Miami, Florida.
Printed by McMurray Printers

FAA Administrative Secretary


NUMBER 2 1959






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May we be of service to
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501 N. W. 54th St., Miami


Appreciation ...
On behalf of the students and fac-
ulty of our institution I should like to
express our appreciation to you and to
your professional organization for mak-
ing available to us your official pub-
As a professional librarian I am fa-
miliar with your National Journal
which impressed me as being very su-
perior in style and format, and con-
tained excellent articles relating to
your profession. The advertising lay-
outs were excellent and generally
speaking the entire publication indi-
cated excellent editorship. The Flor-
ida Architect is of the same superior
type as the parent publication.
Madeira Beach Junior High School,
St. Petersburg.

Finest of Its Kind ...
We have found considerable use
for the booklet "How to Build With
Confidence." It is the finest piece of
literature of its kind that I have seen.
I keep my ear to the ground and my
eve on the horizon to spot such things
when they are available, so wish to
thank you for past favors with the
hope that you can supply us with 250-
300 additional copies on the basis of
previous deliveries.
Architect Director
Division of National Missions
of the
Board of Missions of
The Methodist Church
Section of Church Extension

Convention Kudos ...
Thank you for your letter of No-
vember 26, 1958, which was sent to
all exhibitors at the recent 44th An-
nual FAA Convention.
From our observation, we certainly
agree with you that the meeting was
distinguished by the quality of the
attendance rather than by the quan-
tity. Not only did we enjoy exhibit-
ing at this meeting as far as the per-

sonnel was concerned; but we can
truthfully say that at no other Archi-
tects' meeting-either State, Region-
al or National-was our exhibit space
as well placed and in such good at-
mosphere and surroundings.
Please extend our congratulations
to all those who had any part in
handling this convention. And we
will certainly look forward to having
the privilege of working with your
association in the future.
The Mabie-Bell Company
Received with thanks! Though not
all 1958 Convention exhibitors wrote
back about it, those who did were
unanimous in praise of good treat-
ment, a good convention and a prof-
itable show.-Ed.

Guides for Students ...
In the November (1958) issue of
The Florida Architect, I read William
Eaton's report of the F.A.A.'s Com-
mittee on Education. The report con-
tained some information that is of in-
terest to art teachers in Florida, viz,
the steps being undertaken by the
F.A.A. in recruitment in high schools.
Art teachers have frequently reported
the need of information on the pro-
fessional requirements for an architect
when counseling students in their
classes; local architects have usually
been called upon to give information
of this kind.
It would be most helpful if the
F.A.A. Committee on Education
could meet with a committee of high
school art teachers to discuss the
kinds of competencies and interests a
high school student should possess if
he is to be counseled into studying
Another point worth considering is
the matter of helping all students be-
come aware of the part architecture
plays in their lives. This might be
considered, from the architect's view-
point, a consumer angle. It is the
purpose of a good art program to de-
velop the creative capacities of all stu-
dents. As a part of this, an under-
standing of all art forms, including
(Continued on Page 6)

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Built-in electric appliances save so much time and work they're
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(Continued from Page 4)
architecture, is sought. As one whose
work is primarily concerned with the
preparation of teachers, I have often
wished that I might have more mate-
rial on that architecture which is
unique or indigenous to Florida.
The small exhibit which the F.A.A.
circulated last year was most helpful.
However, if we are to teach about
Florida architecture, we need slides
of good examples. It is easy to obtain
slides of the work of Neutra, Mies
Van Der Rohe, Wright and Edward
Stone (all outside of Florida). But
how can we obtain slides of the work
of Hampton, Lundy, Zimmerman,
Hanes, Little or others in the State?
The State School Architect kindly
loans us slides of school architecture;
future taxpayers and parent, we feel,
should be aware of good school archi-
tecture. Therefore, we would like to

South Atlantic Region AIA mem-
bers will hold a 1959 Cruise-ship
Conference, May 22-27, aboard the
Arosa Sun, sailing from Charleston,
South Carolina, for a five-day cruise
to Nassau.
John M. Mitchell, Jr., of Charles-
ton, president of the South Carolina
Chapter of the AIA-which is host-
ing the conference-said that the con-
ference will draw about 350 members
from four southeastern states-North
and South Carolina, Georgia, and
All Convention sessions will be
held while the ship is cruising the
Gulf Stream, according to Greenville
Architect Ralph McPherson, who has
been named as Conference Chairman.
This is so that the two days and one
night in Nassau can be devoted to
independent activities. The ship will
serve as hotel for the conference mem-
bers while in port.
Members are being informed that
they may bring their families and in-
vite guests. Complete information as
to planning and registration will be
given to interested members writing

know if teachers can obtain either
through the F.A.A. or the College of
Architecture at the University of
Florida, slides of other types of struc-
tures in the State.
Magazines and books on architec-
ture are expensive and often too tech-
nical for the purposes of a public
school. Slides and exhibits, if pre-
pared for circulation by the F.A.A.,
would meet a long felt need in our
The sources of information in Mr.
Eaton's report we certainly plan to
follow up. We hope, however, the
F.A.A. will consider some further
means of supplying art teachers with
information about developments in
architecture. This could be done
through the Florida Art Teachers As-
sociation of which Perry Kelly, Or-
lando, Florida, is President.
Department of Arts Education
The Florida State University

Mr. McPherson, The McPherson
Company, Greenville, South Caro-
lina, or to the Chairman of the Sub-
committee for Registration, J. Har-
old Townes, 9 Hermitage Road,
Greenville, South Carolina.
Assisting Mr. McPherson as chair-
men of subcommittees for the con-
ference are: Secretary, W. E. Free-
man, Jr., Greenville; Treasurer, A. H.
Chapman, Jr., Spartanburg; Registra-
tion, Mr. Townes; Architectural Ex-
hibits, John M. Lambert, Jr., Ander-
son; Building Products Exhibits, Co-
Chairmen, T. J. Bissett, Columbia;
and C. T. Cummings, Charleston;
Speakers, Louis M. Wolff, Columbia;
Hospitality and Ladies, G. Thomas
Harmon, III, Columbia; Printed Pro-
grams, Avery W. Wood, Jr., Green-
ville; Publicity, Homer D. Blackwell,
Columbia; and Student Activities,
Harlan E. McClure, Dean, School of
Architecture, Clemson College.
A Directors' Reception will be
held on sailing day, May 22, and the
Annual Banquet will be a feature of
May 26, the night before docking
in Charleston on the return trip.

South Atlantic Region Plans

Nassau Cruise Conference

NWMA Door Guarantee Revised for'59

All doors produced by members of the National Woodwork
Manufacturers Association, Inc. are guaranteed by the manu-
facturer for one year from date of shipment by the manufacturer
to be of good material and workmanship, free from defects which
render them unserviceable or unfit for the use for which they
were manufactured. Natural variations in the color or texture
of the wood are not to be considered as defects.
Doors must be accorded reasonable treatment by the
purchaser. Doors must be stored or hung in dry buildings
and never in damp, moist or freshly plastered areas. Doors
must not be subjected to abnormal heat, dryness or hu-
midity. The utility or structural strength of the door must
not be impaired in the fitting of the door, the application
of hardware, or cutting and altering the door for lights,
louvers, panels and any other special details. When solid
core and hollow core flush doors are cut for lights or lou-
vers, the portion between the cut out area and the edge
of the door shall not be less than 5 inches wide at any
point; and the cut out area shall not exceed 40% of the
area of the face of the door; and in addition the cut out
area of a hollow core door shall not exceed half the height
of the door and shall be suitably prepared. Immediately
after fitting, the entire door including top and bottom
edges must receive two coats of paint, varnish or sealer
to prevent undue absorption of moisture. The manufact-
urer will not assume responsibility for doors which become
defective because of failure to follow these recommenda-
tions or for hazards of shipment or storage after the doors
leave the control of the manufacturer.
Doors must be inspected upon arrival for visible defects
and all claims or complaints based thereon must be filed
immediately and before the doors are hung and before
the first coat of painter's finish is applied.
The manufacturer agrees to repair or replace in the
white, unfitted, and without charge, any door found to be
defective within the meaning of this guarantee.
Doors must not be repaired or replaced without first
obtaining the consent of the manufacturer.
A warp or twist of not to exceed /4 inch shall not be
considered a defect.
"A warp or twist of not to exceed V4 inch shall not be
considered a defect." This refers to any distortion in the
door itself and not its relationship to the frame or jamb

in which it is hung. Therefore, a warp or twist exceeding
/4 inch shall be considered a defect only:
1. When warp is determined by applying a straight
edge to the concave face of the door, or
2. When twist is determined by placing the face of
the door against a true plane surface. A simple de-
vice to determine and measure "twist" may be
made by placing two cross-members on a post, one
about door height and the other slightly above the
floor. The cross-members must be perfectly straight,
and true and plumbed into perfect alignment.
The guarantee against warp or twist does not apply to the
a. 1/4" or thicker doors that are wider than 3'6" or higher
than 8'0".
b. 1V/" and 13/8" thick doors that are wider than 3'0" or
higher than 7'0".
c. Doors with face veneers of different species.
d. Doors that are improperly hung or do not swing freely.

The NWMA Standard Door Guarantee applies only to
Ponderosa Pine and Hardwood Veneered Doors manu-
factured by members of the National Woodwork
Manufacturers Association. It has, however, become
accepted as a minimum standard by the construction
industry . Door guarantees of some manufacturers
substantially exceed the NWMA Standard Guarantee.
For example, that covering IPIK Solid Core DOORS
exceeds this Standard as to both time and size limi-
tations . The Guarantee on IPIK DOORS extends
for a two-year period and covers all sizes up to four
by ten feet in a one and three-quarters inch thickness,
but otherwise embodies all the contigent provisions of
the NWMA Standard Door Guarantee printed here . .
This NWMA document was revised in October, 1958,
and is reproduced here as a convenient and ready
reference for architects and specification writers.


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FEBRUARY, 1959 7


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for builders and architects.



city. state




One of the first comprehensive seminars ever to be held on this important pro-
fessional question took place during the 44th Annual FAA Convention at Miami
Beach. The three-man panel spoke in a room crowded with architects seeking
answers to a problem of practice which has lately appeared to be growing. Head-
ing the panel as Moderator was FAA Vice President Verner Johnson. Speakers
were Herbert C. Millkey, Atlanta, former AIA Regional Director and Chairman,
AIA Package Deal Committee; Grayson Gill, Dallas, Texas; and Vincent G.
Kling, Philadelphia.

The Package---

But Not The Deal


In April of last year the Package
Deal Committee presented its report
to the A.I.A. Board. Its recommenda-
tions were of two general types: the
first stated that the problem of the
Package Dealer should be met head
on with counter measures in order to
re-establish architects in the fields
that are being encroached upon by
the Package Dealers. The second type
was concerned with long-term mea-
sures designed to raise the level of
the profession and to broaden our
effectiveness both now and in the
The committee realized that only
through a complete understanding of
the subject was it possible to attempt
to deal with it, including a recom-
mendation that a program be set up
immediately by the A.I.A. to inform
all its members concerning the Pack-
age Deal, its definition, origin, threat,

types, misconceptions concerning it
and, in short, all aspects of the pro-
gram. It further stated that this
should be done through the various
communications media of the Insti-
tute at all levels.
As a general statement it must be
said that the Package Dealer is but
one of several phenomena indicating
a possible trend of change in the
building field today. Their success is
a manifestation of an increasing grip
of business and industry on the
province of the professional architect.
Fundamentally, there are changes go-
ing on in the building field which
those of us who have participated in
the profession for the last quarter of
a century can clearly see in our own
practices and in the building activity
about us.
These changes upset many of the
principals, policies, and documents

contained in the A.I.A. handbook of
professional practice. Nearly all of the
articles and discussions of the Package
Deal written or given by architects
carefully establish their high-minded
purpose and lack of self-interest by
stating that the matter must be con-
sidered from the standpoint of what
is good for the client and "in the
public interest". This statement is
so obvious as to be misleading. It
results from the commonly-held mis-
conception among architects that to
attack the Package Deal is to attack
the Package concept.
This, of course, is not true. The
fact that architects generally hold a
position of leadership in the building
industry today is due primarily to his
championship of the Package con-
cept. And, in truth, the burden of
the committee's report-particularly
(Continued on Page 10)

The Package Deal ..
(Continued from Page 9)
with respect to its long-term sugges-
tions-is that the profession should
more nearly and completely carry out
this concept in practice.
The design and construction of any
building today requires the proper
performance of twenty or more spe-
cialized services. That is why today's
architectural services must proceed
from a very broad base. Many of these
are concerned with the business side
of building and formerly were gener-
ally not considered part of the archi-
tect's responsibility. But, our sucess-
ful practitioners have recognized this
broadened need and have become
adroit enough and knowledgeable
enough to include them in their
services. Thus, the A.I.A. encourages
the Package Concept and has since
its beginning-and all of its teach-
ings and policies condemn less than
total, and thus unprofessional, services.
The crux of the matter lies with the
word "professional", which, by defini-
tion, the Package Dealer cannot pro-
vide. At best he has axes to grind
which prevent him from performing
his work. At worst he becomes a very
small part "Package" and a very large
part "Deal" and his buildings abund-
antly indicate this to be the case.
This erroneous assumption that to
condemn the Package Dealer is to
deny the Package Concept leads to
another commonly held belief that
any alliance by an architect with a
builder is contrary to A.I.A. policy.
This is completely wrong. This is
important to understand, particularly
since there are building types today
in which it is to the client's best
interest for the architect ally himself
with the builder. I would like to men-
tion here as an example any type of
building in which time is of the
essence or in which difficulties in-
volved in completing the design
necessitates a close alliance with a
builder. Types such as shopping cen-
ters come under this heading. The
important fact to remember here is
that the alliance should be such that
the architect-client-builder relation-
ship will maintain the essential pat-
tern which insists on a clear differen-
tiation of functions which permits
the architect to perform his duties
with absolute impartiality, and no

concern other than the interest of
his client, society, and equity.
The urgency of the problem arises
from the fact that since the end of
World War II a very large variety
of Packages have been offered to the
building public. These, briefly, can
be defined as any building program
which eliminates the professional
service and thus works to the disad-
vantage of the prospective owner.
The first of these four major groups
includes the large Package Deal firms
and is probably most widely known
among our members. This is the large
contracting organization which builds
and furnishes a so-called designing
and architectural service, and often
manufactures or owns a priority inter-
est in some of the components of the
building-a practice which, elimi-
nating competition, assures the Pack-
age Deal a profit while it pre-deter-
mines design, quality, efficiency and
often cost, not necessarily at optimum
The second group are the so-called
Experts, or Specialists. These design-
ing-building firms specialize in any
one of a number of various fields.
These include motels, TV and broad-
casting buildings, parking garages, in-
dustrial and warehouse buildings,
banking structures. (One bank build-
ing specialist alone claims to have
built over 3,200 bank buildings of
all sizes in the last several years. This
same organization, finding the bank-
ing field less profitable at this time,
is now moving into the college build-
ing field.)
The third category is not so well
recognized by our members. This is
the category of complete building
Prefabricators, who must necessarily
predesign, a practice which obviously
limits efficiency and increases cost
for the individual client. Prior to
World War II prefabrication was
primarily used in temporary build-
ings. Now it has expanded to include
industrial buildings, schools, churches,
auditoriums, and bank buildings.
The fourth group is also a very
important one. This is the local
general contractor, lumberyard, etc.,
small and large, who also furnishes
a design service. This group is dotting
the face of America with its own too
permanent examples of mediocrity.
We recognize its twin trade marks.
Its buildings are always cheap and

ugly. We must not underestimate
this group's importance. It may be
honest, but its ignorance hurts the
country and the profession or archi-
tecture, where both are vulnerable.
The new first-time prospective
building owner is a sitting duck for
this operator. He is dazzled by the
Package Deal's apparent knowledge,
he is pleased that he "doesn't need
an architect". The owner's money is
not only wasted, but he is stuck for
a long time with inefficient and awk-
ward handiwork. This type of Pack-
age Dealer competes with our smaller
architectural firms, those who are
least able to combat with him.
In addition to a variety of types
the Package Deal differs in the variety
of services provided. The phrase it-
self implies a complete service, a lock
and key job. Usually this is not, in
fact, the case; and the provision of
design with contracting completes his
services. It is in this manner that he
eliminates the competitive bidding
which would otherwise be required.
Despite the variety of type, these
groups have very important points in
common. They can be characterized
by their enterprise and their initiative;
and they impress the client with their
businesslike approach and ability.
They advertise extensively. They sell.
They are the "Madison Avenue boys"
of the building industry. While we sit
on our ethics, they hustle-with the
result that in some fields very few
commissions are given to architects
without first running the gauntlet of
the Package Deal sales efforts.
Nobody chooses inferior, down-
grade work if he knows that it is such
and that it is a poor investment. Our
client has simply not been told em-
phatically enough, often enough or by
enough people. And he is being taken
while we are only being by passed.
It is our responsibility to perform
this bit of adult education, therefore
what should we do?
First of all, we must make as many
architects as possible fully understand
the Package Deal problem, under-
stand that we are in favor of the
package but not the deal. The archi-
tect must realize that he can ally
himself with a builder but that he
must not do so in such a way as to
relinquish his professional approach.
Further, he must not permit himself
to be used for partial services. Stamp-

ing out this practice would go a long
way to decreasing the Package Deal
problem. He must, in addition, clear
up his own house. One of our com-
mittee states: "In my view, the archi-
tect makes way for the Package Deal
by his own lazy inadequacies." An-
other says "There are too many archi-
tects who sit on their drafting stools
and furnish the client less than the
economic facts, first and last, and do
less than complete top-notch build-
ing documents and thus fail the art
of winning and keeping the respect
of client and builder."
Further the architect must realize
that for many clients time is a dimen-
sion of design as important as the
other three dimensions. In fact, one
of our leading professional magazines
states that this is really the essence
of the Package Dealers' appeal. Chap-
ters should alert their members to the
need for broader architectural service
and can set up, as the Georgia chap-
ter did, post graduate programs of
education for this expansion to be
used by chapters and state associa-

tions and in regional meetings.
The primary importance of adver-
tising in our economic life today
places an overpowering advantage in
the hands of the person with a mega-
phone. Our profession, shackled as
it is with its ethical code, is definitely
at a disadvantage compared to the
Package -Dealer who can afford to
advertise nationally and locally. Our
public relations program must be spe-
cifically geared to combatting this
problem. It must increase public
awareness of the architect, what he
is and his value, and it must define
his position in the building process.
Of great importance, further, is the
fact we have many allies-facets of
the construction industry with in-
vested interest in good design and
sound construction. No jerry-builder
ever used a quality item if he could
get a poor substitute cheaper. No one
believes in quality building more than
the quality building materials manu-
facturers and distributors. The legiti-
mate general contractor whose sole
product is construction quality, does

not have the opportunity of building
a Package Dealer's job whose least
criterion is quality.
We must invite the building ma-
terials companies and organizations
and general contractors, the mortgage
bankers, the insurance companies and
the real estate agencies-all of whom
benefit from architecturally designed
buildings-to train their big guns of
publicity and advertising on this tar-
get. They can raise a cry of "caveat
emptor" that the building commit-
tee, the corporation, the client, the
school board, the city and state
officials and the professional manage-
ment team will heed. We question
the effectiveness of our present code
of ethics with respect to current con-
ditions and needs. Some of these orig-
inally promulgated to protect archi-
tect from architect now must be con-
sidered in the realistic light of the
handicaps they place upon the pro-
fession and its battle against interests
which would absorb it.
That in very large part permits the
Package Deal to exist.

The Deal Versus The

Professional Approach


The announcement of this panel
stated that I had evolved a pattern
of professional operation which is
proving to be a successful answer to
the challenge of the package building
operator. I wrote Herb Millkey I was
appearing under false pretenses, be-
cause I had not found the answer.
I have just been doing some research.
Mr. Millkey has suggested that I talk
about a survey we recently made of
occupants of recently completed in-
dustrial buildings, most of which
were package deal jobs, our personal
experience with the package deal and
our methods of combatting them.

Our experience has been primarily
with the fourth category of package
deal jobs as classified by the AIA
Committee, namely local builders
who furnish a design service. They
started on simple warehouse build-
ings, but in only a few years have
enlarged their field of activity in
Dallas to include multimillion dollar
industrial and commercial complexes
and only recently an important office
The prefabricated building organ-
izations, through their local or re-
gional outlets, present some of the
problems we encounter with the local

builders who furnish a design service.
This is one group, however, with
which we think we can profitably
ally ourselves-and would seem to be
receptive to cooperation with pro-
fessional architects and engineers. It
is not too long a step from utilization
of standard rolled steel sections and
standard open-truss and long-span
joists to an integrated design of rigid
frame wall and roof coverings, in-
cluding excellently-engineered access-
ories, such as gutters. These are the
items which the prefabricated steel
industrial buildings manufacturer
(Continued on Page 12)

Deal vs. Profession ...
(Continued from Page 11)
want to sell. It is possible that they
are being forced into the general con-
tracting business of furnishing the
complete building in order to find
a market for their products.
For the past 20 years we have
enjoyed a modest practice of the per-
sonal, professional-service type. This
involved a substantial amount of in-
dustrial building work which came
to us in many instances through
referrals from previous clients. Begin-
ning a few years ago, one after an-
other of our industrial building clients
informed us they had been ap-
proached by builders disparaging the
services of architects and engineers
and proposing to negotiate for the
construction of their buildings and
the furnishing of design thereby sav-
ing the cost of the architect's fee.
When I found this out in time,
I countered by proposing to nego-
tiate a price for the architect's ser-
vices and throw in the building for
free! This suggestion originated in
a report by our public relations coun-
sel several years ago on how one
of our members in the northwest
handled a similar situation.
There seemed to me to be some
indication that a part of my practice
was evaporating as a result of the
activities of these package fellows. I
felt I should know more about what
was going on than seemed to be avail-
able from any source known to me.
I therefore employed a public rela-
tions counsel to circulate a question-
naire among 123 occupants of recently-
built industrial facilities in the Dallas
area. Sixty-three of these replied-
more than 50 percent-indicating an
interest and a desire on the part of
some of them at least to tell their
troubles to what they hoped might
be a sympathetic listener.
My limited survey indicated there
was a passive acceptance of the pack-
age deal arrangement by many owners
and lessees of these building as a
result of a recommendation from their
bankers, their industrial district de-
velopers or the real estate agents who
made the sale or lease. Often a pros-
pect wishes to obtain a firm commit-
ment on very short notice, probably
within a business day-in which case
the banker calls in his package-dealer

customer with whom he has had
previous satisfactory dealings under
similar circumstances. Within an hour
or two an agreement is made.
Banks are generally reluctant to
admit this practice. It is my im-
pression that it is their policy to
consider this a personal matter be-
tween their industrial development
vice president and the package builder.
The necessity for fast action when
a prospect is ready to close eliminates
the professional architect or engineer
from consideration by him. The real
estate agent plays a similar role to
that of the banker and may make
his contact as a result of a referral
from a bank, the industrial develop-
ment department of a utility or a
railroad, or from an industrial district
The real estate operator, however,
offers a more comprehensive service
than the bank ordinarily does. He
will find the land fitting the pros-
pect's requirements, arrange for its
purchase by a package builder and
negotiate a lease for the complete
project or arrange for the purchase
of the land by the prospect and then
lead him into the package builder's
den. When the contract is initially
made with the developer of the in-
dustrial district, it may, or may not,
involve a real estate agent. In any
event the procedure is similar to that
in which the agent made the initial
contact. It may suit the developer's
financial situation and result in some
tax advantage for him to participate
with the package builder in providing
the facility.
A common arrangement is for the
developer to put up the land, for the
package builder to put up the neces-
sary management, professional ser-
vices and so forth. This will provide
the necessary equity for a loan which
will provide all of the cash required
if the site is in an established in-
dustrial district. The lease will then
amortize the loan; or the facility may
be sold to an investor whose equity
payment provides cash for the land
put up by the developer and a profit
to the package dealer.
What part have the architect, con-
sulting engineer, mechanical, elec-
trical and general contractors played
in any one of these operations? The
package dealer has on his staff a

draftsman who may or may not be
a registered architect or engineer. If
he is registered he may sign the plan.
If he is not registered, the plans are
identified as private plans. He may,
or may not, be a member of the AIA.
If he is, he probably identifies himself
as such in the title block. Almost
without exception there is no mecha-
nical engineer identified with the
plans and specifications.
The mechanical and electrical con-
struction work may be that required
for a simple warehouse, a complex
manufacturing plant, or an important
office building. In any event the
procedure is generally the same. The
package dealer distributes prints of
rudimentary sketches of the project,
prepared by his staff draftsman or
captive architect, to a limited list of
plumbing, heating, ventilating, air-
conditioning and electrical contrac-
tors with some sort of a performance
specification-if the client has been
smart enough to prepare one-and
tells them he wants a price for those
several divisions of the work. Each
of those divisions is contractor-de-
signed or engineered. The results are
obvious; and it is just as obvious that
this procedure does not meet the test
of being in the public interest.
In this situation we as architects
are not in the position to apply the
principle of hot pursuit of the pack-
age dealers since several provisions
of the obligations of good practice
and the mandatory standards of the
Institute serve as a Yaloo River be-
hind which is a sanctuary for them.
The Institute published an undated
circular to all chapter presidents some
time ago containing material prepared
by the public relations committee and
its counsel which outlined some sales
points for the architect-designed
The AIA memo of November 1,
1955, reported that the office prac-
tice committee would study further
the matter of solicitation of work as
it relates to the standards of pro-
fessional practice. If this study has
developed anything else to assist archi-
tects in meeting the package dealer
problem, it has not come to my
It is well-known that members of
the Institute employ non-professional
salesmen and promoters whose

methods are in violation of the obliga-
tions and mandatory standards-but
which are more effective in competi-
tion with the package dealers than
any method yet devised which falls
within the limits of the same. Others
have established some sort of working
agreement with real estate agents in-
volving the furnishing of free sketches
to assist agents in consummating a
sale or lease in return for a contract
with the prospect. Adoption of recom-
mendation 5 of the Package Deal
Committee report to the Board that:
1...The mandatory standards be re-
vised to prevent AIA members from
participating in a package deal under
commercial auspices; 2...that the
standards be clarified so that all
architects will understand the differ-
ence between professional and non-
professional practice; and 3...That the
standards be liberalized to protect the
architect from interests which would
absorb him-this is the essential first
step toward meeting the situation.
My efforts to combat the encroach-
ments of package dealers on my prac-
tice have not produced results com-
mensurate with the effort expended.
And it is my conclusion that the
sanctuary now existing for the pack-
age dealers will continue to be effec-
tive until some recognition is given
by the AIA to the validity of the
Committee's recommendation.
We recognize that the kind of
package deal to which this discussion
is limited meets the requirements of
the prospect in many cases. The near-
est the architect can come to offering
a comparable service is by a joint
venture with a building contractor
and possibly the land owner. Reduced
to its simplest terms, that procedure
would be to meet with the prospect
and/or contractor, develop the preli-
minary sketches and outline specifica-
tions and then arrive at ceiling rental
with the contractor and land owner
associates. Most of these prospects
want a lease. We must therefore
arrange for first mortgage money and
what equity is required over and above
our fees and profit. This leaves the
land owner, the architect and the
builder as owners of a corporation,
owning the facility until they can find
an investor to buy it.
One obstacle to the architect's
meeting the package builder's com-

petition is to secure the lead in the
first place. All sources of leads are
indoctrinated with the idea that the
only workable arrangement is through
a package builder. At regional and
national meetings of industrial organ-
izations-like the American Industrial
Development Council-we have
searched for ideas which are paying
off for the package builder who takes
the lead in these affairs so far as the
construction industry is concerned.
This led us to prepare some data
sheets on typical industrial buildings
with a firm price tag for the basic
building illustrated-and incidentally
this price was a good building built
by a reputable builder. Variable items
which would affect the cost, depend-
ing upon site conditions, owners'
requirements for office space and so
forth, are listed in the outline speci-
fication as not being included in the
firm price. We circulate these stand-
ard building data sheets among a
select list of people whom we con-
sider might be friendly to our ap-
proach to this solution of their pros-
pects' problems. And we promise to
supplement the basic price with the
cost of the variables necessary to
complete the project within a matter
of hours. These data sheets are used
to supplement a verbal presentation
of our service. I must confess that
to date we have not derived a single
commission from this activity.
Recently I received a very friendly
reception from an industrial executive
who expressed his appreciation of my
data sheets. They back-fired however.
A package-dealer salesman convinced
him a package 'job would be much

cheaper-and signed him up. I had
no chance for rebuttal. The prime
selling point of the package dealer is
price; everything is sacrificed to first
cost. A nominal addition to first cost
would result in substantial reduction
in insurance rates in a typical pack-
age-builders' product. Maintenance
costs do not enter into planning.
I am convinced that individual
architects' efforts to combat the pack-
age deal at the local level are not
fruitful. We are probably facing the
necessity of a generation of public
education. Public relations as we know
it to date in Institute activities is not
what I'm talking about. For example,
the very limited number of contacts
with big industries which have had
past experience with package builders
confirms the results of the limited
survey I made in the Dallas area-
which, in effect, are that there is a
substantial doubt in the minds of
the real estate management depart-
ments of these industries about the
benefits derived from the package-
builders' form of service.
It is my impression that it would
not take much more of a push
properly applied by our profession to
swing the balance significantly in our
favor. During this period of mar-
shalling our collective professional re-
sources, to recover and reclaim the
ground we have lost to the rising flood
of package builders, we can as indivi-
duals-if unshackled by a realistic
revision of the AIA standards of prac-
tice-throw an occasional sandbag
onto our crumbling dike when the
occasion seems to make it worth the

Survey of the Package Deal in Dallas ...
A survey of 123 occupants of industrial facilities in Dallas brought 63
replies-more than 50 percent. Of those replying, 58 percent indicated
that their plants had been built through some sort of package deal
arrangement. Eleven of those replying-or about 1712 percent-reported
they had engaged the services of an architect. But 8 of these I 1-or
about 78 percent-were critical of their architects' services. However,
all said they would employ an architect if building again. Of the people
who had availed themselves of the package deal, 14 of the 36 firms-
about 39 percent-were critical of the work done. And of the 63 firms
answering this admittedly limited questionnaire six who had not employed
an architect for their industrial plants indicated they would employ an
architect were they to build again.

Fill The Vacuum

with Better Service


I don't know how many architects
have been belted and beaten by this
package deal proposition. The first
time I came face to face with it was
five years ago. It was a stunning expe-
rience, for I didn't know which way
to turn. But after seeing what my com-
petition did, my immediate reaction
then was that the package deal pro-
gram would fade and die of attrition
in a few years.
Since then, however, I have become
much more concerned about it. I have
seen some very good results come from
the package dealer's operation. But
the only reason he has been able to
make the good showing is because he
has hired some very capable architects
into his building team. To me this
is the really serious sign on the hor-
When the AIA Package Deal Com-
mittee first talked about this problem
some of the members said, "Let's out-
law this thing. Let's stamp out the
package dealer like a fire. Let's build
a legal framework around him that
will put him out of business." My
reaction was not that. It was that the
package deal operation was filling a
sort of vacuum for which we ourselves
were perhaps responsible. Maybe we
had been blind to our opportunities
and had permitted this vacuum to
exist to the point wherein a very
successful and formidable operation
has grown into our field.
If I were to make only one point
relative to this whole subject it would
be this: The only difference between
the package dealer and the architect
is that the architect owns his profes-
sional soul. We architects are the only
ones who can supply leadership for
the building business-which is the
biggest business in America today.

That should give us fortitude. The
strength of my own practice grows
from the fact that some business men
realize that design-and leadership in
design-comes from the professional
architect and not the package dealer.
I say we have to continue to press
for the saving of our own souls-in-
stead of sinking to the commercial
level of becoming captive to the eco-
nomic pattern of building.
We have been given a good look
at the type of client which has gen-
erated the so-called consolidated serv-
ices program. But not only the client
has been to blame. We have helped
to break our own professional backs
in several ways. One is the inadequacy
of our estimating departments and our
laxity in cost consciousness and in
cost forecasting. Let just one architect
mis-advise his client on budget prob-
lems and he has moved the archi-
tectural profession down three notches
in the estimation of the businessmen
of his community. As a group we've
been pretty bad on this. It is at least
one error I attempt to eliminate on
every project, for I believe the cost
structure of every building program
is one of the most basic and important
of all.
Again, we have been lax in expe-
diting our own work. We have prob-
ably all succumbed to the temptation
of letting drawings which should be
completed in six months drag on for
a year. Every time that is done we
put ourselves into an impossible box
with our client. And we are at the
same time inviting the so-called pack-
age operator into a fertile field. Still
another and even more serious point
is our general inability to get good
performance by the contractor's team.
If we would consistently champion

good construction; if we would be-
come the certifying agents for com-
pleted projects in terms of both top
quality and budgeted cost; and if we
also made sure that the time-table was
fixed on every project, we would over-
come the most important obstacles in
our total role of gaining and main-
taining our clients' respect.
This all adds up to a control of
the performance of the building team
on the part of the architect. If any-
thing, I would say that the last decade
or two has seen a lessening of the
architect's ability to get proper per-
formance in his projects. Just about
four decades ago the architect was a

party to the vivisection of the general
contractor. We have gradually per-
mitted this generally strong building
team to be split down into many
segments-so many that it is now dif-
ficult to get a coordinated, pull-to-
gether performance on almost any
building project. I would welcome the
day back when strong, single con-
tractors would again captain building
projects and only the strongest,
most stable general contractor would
be considered as bidders in any proj-
ect. This in itself would add strength
to the architect's position.
We as architects know that our
total approach is that of achieving
a certain standard of value at the end
of a construction period. But the
building public thinks we should be
controlled as to performance, as to
the quality of a project, as to the
timetable of construction. But neither
the public nor ourselves has provided
the whipstick needed to control the
methodology which currently pro-
duces buildings.
That is the real nature of our par-
ticular problem relative to the package

dealer. There are those who feel that
a return to the old-fashioned master-
builder idea is the only answer to it.
To be responsible for performance you
must exercise control over the many
methods and systems by which a pro-
ject is constructed. But I have the'
sensation that a bonding company has
the real control of the building team
on many of my jobs. For example, I
don't know who will build my Junior
High School next month-but I do
know that the control will be at the
level of the lowest bonded bidder who
will then assemble a building team,
many members of which have never
worked together before.
Architects have much work to do
in their own communities toward sup-
porting the best builders and making
sure that construction is done by fully
qualified people. But at the same time
the architect must be free to choose
those techniques which will best serve
the needs and interests of his client.
He cannot be involved in the metho-
dology of one particular builder team
and then pursue a design and write
a specification which slavishly protects
that particular builder's technique,
equipment and experience.
That is the serious essence of the
package deal. It is a captive perform-
ance. In witnessing this performance
I have seen much architectural and
engineering talent and really beautiful
administrative set ups. But I have also
seen the end-product shorn of any
progressive, imaginative leadership by
the designer. On the first time around,
the design of such a captive perform-

ance may be strong. But it gets wat-
ered down to a continuing lower level
with other considerations taking prec-
edence over the quality of the build-
What are we going to do about it?
I still say we hold the trump card.
We are the ones-the professional
architects in independent practice-
who can provide the leadership needed
in the construction industry. But to
achieve the position of leadership we
must offer something positive-and
with the greatest care. What can we
offer? Well, one positive thing has
been helpful in my own practice. In
many instances I have recommended
at the very start of a project two or
three contractors I knew to be espe-
cially suited for the particular project
to be designed. And in many instances
I have been successful in having an
able contractor named as a proprietary
member of the building team at the
beginning of the project.
This has proved a great help to me
and to the client. And it certainly
clears up the muddy pond of perform-
ance, for we know before we start
the team with which we shall be
working in producing the project. This
team-up can be helpful in many ways.
The builder brings the architect a
continuing check on prices and costs;
and with a builder working with you
from the start, the design shouldn't
be very far off its cost base when it
has gone through the preliminary
study period. The builder can be very
helpful, too, on the matter of time
scheduling, thus aiding the owner to

plan the business phases of the project
and providing the architect with a
time-table for both owner and con-
The researching of structural sys-
tems and construction methods has
also proved an advantageous result of
the early incorporation of the builder
team. A good builder can bring you
worlds of information on construction
systems, on the details of putting a
building together-practical informa-
tion from the field which an archi-
tect's limited time has made it vir-
tually impossible to observe and learn,
much less to apply as a building design
progresses. This marriage of design
talent and practical building knowl-
edge-the team-up of architect and
contractor-presents a solid front of
coordinated performance to the owner
from the beginning of a job. It has
proved effective in producing a con-
trol of a project which is otherwise
lacking in the present system of first
choosing the architect, then buying
materials and labor, later putting
them together to build the structure.
Finally, it reflects my main concern
with the operation of the package
dealer. The owner is working with a
team which is free to design and
specify anything which will be to the
advantage of his project. The architect
is not a captive working within a cer-
tain set pattern of either administra-
tion or technique. He has retained,
on behalf of his own and his client's
best interest, that pinnacle of pro-
fessional perspective which only he
can bring to any building project.

Some Questions and Some Answers

Question: Are we as architects only
to be designers? Or should we not be
master builders-in which design is
important and knowledge of construc-
tion is important. It seems to me we
are concerned about being captives of
someone else. We are told we should
be leaders. Why should we not then
become a part of the team--a leading
part, not a captive part? I think we are
missing the boat in saying that an ar-
chitect should not be allowed to build.
I think he should be. In Europe

and South America before an architect
can practice, he must have had actual
building experience in the field, either
as a builder or a supervisor. Tremen-
dous progress has been made this way
in other countries. Why not here? If
an architect can build as well as design,
he can learn as a young man what
makes buildings cost. He won't have
to ask another man the best ways to
put a building together. He won't
have to guess at whether it will take
three months or six months or two

years to build a particular project. If
a man is honest, if a man really be-
lieves in his desire, if he really believes
he is going to bring to his client the
best that his ability is able to create
and produce as a physical thing, why
should he be stopped?
Millkey: In not permitting archi-
tects to build are we negating the
value of packaging? We are merely
recognizing what is apparently a fact
that one man cannot be expert in all
(Continued on Page 16)

Questions and Answers...
(Continued from Page 15)
things. This country began with the
package builders. Only in the last 50
years have architects operated sep-
arately from packaging. The fact is
that in this country the best building,
the best strides, the advance of archi-
tecture have been accomplished pri-
marily-and I would say almost only
-in those buildings that have been
designed under our present system of
architect being able to keep his pro-
fessional approach. The idea is not
to restrict the architect. The idea, the
whole gist of our report, is that he
should become more knowledgeable.
Will: I believe there is nothing in
the mandatory rules which prevents
an architect from building. I believe
the mandatory rules say that an archi-
tect shall not engage in building con-
tracting. Building contracting is quite
different from building itself. The
architect as the owner's agent may
go out and hire all the help he wants.
He can select sub-contractors and he
can even select individual workmen,
provided that in order to save his
profit the architect doesn't have to
change his specifications. So it's per-
fectly possible now. There's no reason
why an architect can't build to his
heart's content.
Gill: I think Mr. Will is correct.
The mandatory standards could be
construed to permit just what he is
talking about. But I think there is
a statement of policy by the AGC
which parallels that of the AIA in that
the architects will do the designing
and the AGC members will do the
building. If we get into the building
business, we can't complain about the
contractors getting into the design
Kling: I think the problem will go
through an evolutionary procedure.
Nobody knows whether the system
which prevails in Europe and South
America will come to pass here in
50 years. The immediate solution to
up-grading the quality of our build-
ings is an alliance between the archi-
tect and the quality builder.
Now the history of our profession
in America makes us realize that the
educational system by which the arch-
itect is prepared and the licensing
laws by which he is permitted to
practice do not place him in a position

of master builder. I feel that what
has been suggested in the way of an
immediate embarkation on master-
building would be practical for small
buildings. I don't see the large project
being handled in this manner today
or next year or in the next ten years.
This is a soul-searching question
which has come up at every major
architectural meeting I have ever at-
tended. One of these days we may
have to lay down long range plans
which will take us into 20 years of
education. And maybe 20 years of
testing out before this system could
change. I think what we are now
trying to recognize is that a change
is creeping across our threshold which
signals a watering-down of the quality
which our profession can and should
bring-and will bring over the next
decade or so until a change of the
major nature you have described can
take place.
Question: As I understand it, a gen-
eral contractor is, in effect, a man who
buys materials and then resells them
to the owner. If an architect gets into
contracting he can't possibly select
materials to be used in the owners
building without prejudice, because
he would be concerned with the profit
and what the owner has to pay. As
I understand it, that explains the man-
datory standard about engaging in
building contracting. Is that correct?
Gill: I think you are correct. If
on the other hand, the architect
selects the material and engages the
labor but the owner pays the bills
direct, there's no question of profit
involved and there's no problem.
Question: What I want to know
is how I can get to the client before
the package dealer does. I've not had
much trouble selling our orthodox
type of architectural service if I got
to the client first. But I feel at a
disadvantage when the package dealer
can put an ad in Fortune and invite
the client to write him-and the
client sees the beautiful ad and writes
him. When I see this man; or when
he talks to some bankers who are my
friends, then I know about the job
he has in mind. But I'm second to
the package dealer. I want to be first.
How do I do that?
Gill: You are paying for the lapses
of the architectural profession for the
last 100 years. Even though the archi-
tectural profession has risen at a tre-

mendous rate in the estimate of the
public and in its own establishment,
we still have not put ourselves in a
position where people come to us first.
And this is going to take time. We
have to, as John Richards says, take
part in civilization so that people will
consult us-and not come to us as
a last resort after they have been con-
fused by package dealers.
But this is not an overnight deal.
This is going to have to start with
the schools. Incidentally, the head of
one of the largest architectural schools
in the South told me there was no
point in his reviewing this report (i.e.,
of the AIA Package Deal Committee)
because he knew nothing about the
matter. I think this is a terrific indict-
ment of the architectural education at
that school. Because this is a two or
three generation deal we are talking
about-and it's going to have to begin
at the schools.

Question: I believe what Mr. Kling
is proposing is a closer relationship
with the contractor. On one recent job

a school board asked two contractors
to recommend construction tech-
niques. The contractors' report indi-
cated what they believed was the
cheapest. But the architect did not
agree. He made up estimates on his
own scheme. It was a better all-round
job and came out cheaper than the
proposals of the contractors. In this
particular case the architect was right;
and he was more satisfied and so was
the public, for the cost was less than
the original estimates. But an architect
is not always free to do what he wants,
particularly if he is to be dictated to
by a contractor.

Will: As a small word of cheer to
some of these gloomy words, my own
experience is that our very best pros-
pects are those who have just finished
working with a package dealer. In
commenting on what was just said,
we are presently working with two of
the largest building construction orga-
nizations in the country. In both cases
these firms were selected jointly by
us and the owners to work with us

from the beginning of the project on
through. Any notions we may have
had that contractors are infallible in
working out time schedules or esti-
mating costs are now out the window.
We found we had to do their esti-
mating for them. And we had to
re-study their time schedules. Gen-
erally their advice on what was a
costly method and what was not a
costly method could be quickly proved
wrong. Their weakest points seem to
be those on which they should have
strength. Now, once the job gets
going, they are pretty good at orga-
nizing their construction teams and
getting the job built.
I am more and more convinced
that the key man in this construction
team is the architect-and so far on
technical grounds. I don't think we
can say we are automatically the lead-
ers of this team, because that isn't
currently inherent in our training. The
men I think will be the leaders are
those of tremendous vision who think
of projects in their broadest scope.
(Continued on Page 18)


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Questions and Answers...
(Continued from Page 17)
I'm thinking of the Zeckendorfs of
this world who take hold of something
big and employ the architect and
others. I would hope that some day
our vision would be on that scale
and as comprehensive.
Millkey: The fact of the matter is
that today an architect to be compe-
tent has to know more structural sys-
tems and materials than any contract-
or-and does. The trouble is that ar-
chitects seem to consider the package
deal conflict as a battle between con-
struction and design. It is not. Our
problem is how to match the surface,
or apparent, advantages of the package
deal and still keep the design and our
services on a professional basis.
The whole experience of this coun-
try has gone from package deal to
architect. In several fields it has not
been completed. The industrial field
is one-but before the architect be-
came involved on a professional basis
with industrial buildings, our indus-
trial neighborhoods were places society
shunned. The field of merchant-
builder houses is another. This is

rapidly changing and more and more
architects are getting involved with
project house design.
The urgency for the architect comes
again to light here. A large proportion
of the building public is made up of
first-time builders, or owner-clients.
They don't know what an architect
does; they haven't been told. So these
other non-professional people come
in to fill the vacuum. That's why we
as a profession must do something
about this including cleaning our
own house.
Question: Given this reasonable
conclusion, the way to beat the pack-
age deal is to have a better architect-
contractor team to produce better pro-
jects. But as Mr. Kling said, in our
public work and in our schools the
architect is unable to choose his team
-and we find a bonding company
really choosing the other very im-
portant members. What can we do
about it?
Kling:Well, charity begins at home.
We are now carrying to the Common-
wealth of Pennsylvania a very firm
AIA recommendation that the law
permitting the splitting of bids on

public work be rescinded. We are sug-
gesting that a single contract be per-
mitted for jobs. I think the architects
have got to support the up-grading
of the builder team to at least a point
where a job can be executed with a
good time-table and a good result. I
think that's one of our responsibilities.
If we can support the good builders
in our communities, up-grading their
total structure, in the long run it's
going to produce better results for
both ourselves and our clients.

Question: The largest volume of
packages is the one in which the
merchant builder builds sometimes up
to 1,000 houses at a time-with stere-
otyped plans. Unless we use publicity
to make the general public dissatisfied
with this great area of mediocrity, we
aren't going to become effective in
this field. We can't do it individually;
we must do it by group publicity,
whether it be advertising or not.
Millkey: The statement goes that
throughout the ages 90 to 95 percent
of residences have been done without
benefit of architect. We have no sur-
vey; but I feel this situation is chang-
ing very rapidly. More and more ope-

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rative builders are using professional
architectural service.
What we keep losing sight of is
the fact that this package deal prob-
lem is not new. It's old. It has been
estimated that 40 percent of all build-
ings in California is done without
benefit of architectural service. Mr.
Gill's survey of his town's industrial
plants indicated that 58 percent of
them were designed without profes-
sional service. My point is that if that
survey had been made 15 years ago
the figure would probably have been
98 percent.
What we're trying to do now is
to hasten our progress-and police the
new areas where this non-professional
activity is showing up. But before we
can do much of anything we must be
fully aware of the problem. This
meeting is one of the first needed
steps toward that goal.

Joint Coop Committee
Maps Broad 1959 Program
The State Joint Cooperative Com-
mittee, expanded last November to
include the Florida Home Builders
Association and the Florida Building
Industry Council, has begun work on
a broad nine-point program for this
year. With a streamlined charter and
by-laws now in effect, the JCC is de-
termined to make its influence felt
throughout the State along these am-
bitious lines:
1. . Develop a method for lim-
iting the number of bid alternates.
2. . Work towards standardiza-
tion of retained percentages by public
awarding authorities.
3. . Stimulate better construc-
tion through improved quality of sub-
4. . Develop a control of plan
and specification purchases from ar-
chitects by contractors.
5. . Promote creation of a State
Building Commission and the stand-
ardization of State public works doc-
6. . Establish closer liaison with
public authorities such as the Florida
Development Commission.
7. . Promote a contractor re-
sponsibility law.
8. . Review and improve recom-
mended bidding procedures.
9. . Improve specification prac-



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News & Notes

Pensacola Architects
Are Taking Active Part
in Quadricentennial Plans

Florida's 400th Anniversary Cele-
bration, slated for a seven-year state-
wide program 1959-65, will officially
begin May 13 at Pensacola . and
architects of that area are deep in the
project. The state-wide Quadricen-
tennial program will feature major
historical exhibitions in approximately
ten cities during the 1959-65 period,
with many smaller communities par-
ticipating through creation of his-
torical sites and markers in their own
localities. At Pensacola, the 1959 pro-
gram will commemorate the landing
400 years ago of Don Tristan de Luna
with 1500 troops and colonists in
what is described as the first full scale
attempt to place a colony in what is
now the continental U.S.A.
The Pensacola exposition will be
held on Santa Rosa Island, with two
major exhibit sites. Area One will in-
clude a Florida Industrial Exhibit and
will house thirty-plus displays pre-
pared by the state's leading industrial
firms, State commissions, and a group
of major communities. The second
major building will be devoted to an

International and Historical presenta-
tion, covering the 400 years of Flor-
ida's history.
Other displays will include an
Armed Forces exhibit, to be prepared
by the U. S. Defense Department,
and the reconstruction of the Pensa-
cola Village of 1723, built on the
island and later destroyed in 1754 by
hurricane winds and tides. The
village, to contain fifteen restored
buildings and homes, is a masterpiece
of community cooperation according
to Stewart Morrison, 1959 president
of the Florida Northwest Chapter.
"As a community project," Morri-
son said, "architects have agreed to
accept revenue certificates as their
guarantee for work performed in pre-
paring plans for this project. Each
firm is charged with one building,
having drawn lots to determine selec-
tions. All firms have performed their
own research, with the cooperation
of the Quadricentennial Commission,
and plans are now virtually complete.
Actual construction began last
The village, designed from an
ancient engraving, will lie on the
quiet water of Pensacola Sound and
will be a permanent exhibit, operated
after the Quadricentennial program of
1959 by the Quadricentennial Com-

Restoration of the 1723 Pensacola is
being developed by Pensacola architects
according to the perspective layout above
made by Roger G. Weeks. Buildings are:
1, stockade; 2. commandant's quarters;
3, residences; 4, gallows; 5, church; 6,
governor's palace. The commandant's
quarters, sketched at the right by Frank
J. Sindelar, typifies the character of the
village which will become a permanent
exhibit. The reconstruction design has
been carefully researched and is based
on authentic documents.


mission and Santa Rosa Island
One building in particular already
has raised area-wide interest. The re-
storation of a small Catholic Church,
being prepared by Ula L. Manning,
was discovered in outline plan form
in an ancient text book. Manning's
sketches, presented to members of
the Catholic Church, have been well
Local architects are also designing
the two major exhibit buildings,
which are convertible to beachside
motels at the close of the celebration.
Contractors in the area are partici-
pating in this program in the same
manner and are working closely with
the architects to complete the pro-
gram by the May 13 opening date.
Architects participating in the Pen-
sacola Quadricentennial activity in-
clude F. T. Edson, Hugh J. Leitch,
James Look, Sam Marshall, Stewart
Morrison, Ula L. Manning, Daniel
Hart, Frank J. Sindelar, and Roger
G. Weeks.

State Board Obtains
Injunctions Against Five
In line with its continuing activity
of prosecuting violations of the archi-
tectural registration law, the State
Board of Architecture recently closed
its files on three more cases which
involved court actions against five un-
registered individuals. One was James
R. Butera of Lakeland. Another was
Matthew B. Bodo, of St. Petersburg.
The third case was brought against
the General Drafting Service which
was being operated in St. Petersburg
by Charles N. Price, Dennis Price and
Marian R. Price.
All five individuals were permanent-
ly enjoined by a circuit court judge
"from practicing architecture, from
holding themselves out as architects
in the State of Florida and from off-
ering to practice architecture in this
State, without first being qualified
and registered to do so".
Once a court has issued such an
injunction against a proven violator
of the architectural registration law,
the State Board's responsibility for
administering the law has in most cases
ended. The enforcement of the in-
junction is then up to the court.
Should any individual fail to obey the
court's injunction against him, he
(Continued on Page 22)



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(Continued from Page 21)

would be held in contempt of court-
and the penalty could be any that the
court might see fit to impose.
What many architects may not
realize is the fact that the State
Board of Architecture is heavily con-
cerned with the painstaking work ne-
cessary to prove conclusively that a
violation of the law exists, openly and
flagrantly. Investigation of complaints
received from registered practising ar-
chitects is constantly underway; and
where this uncovers evidence that in
the Board's experience is regarded as
legally conclusive, action to obtain an
injunction against an un-registered
individual is quickly authorized. At
its November, 1958, meeting at Mi-
ami Beach, four additional new ac-
tions were started by the Board.

AIA Approves Changes in
General Conditions Form

After much consideration the Na-
tional Joint Committee, AIA-AGC,
has approved certain changes in the
General Conditions of the AIA Con-
tract Form which are important to
both architects and contractors. In
effect, they place a somewhat heavier
responsibility on the architect than
formerly; and at the same time clarify
more precisely the liability of the
Most significant change occurs in
Article 14. This was revised by delet-
ing these words at the end of the ar-
ticle . but he shall not be held re-
sponsible for their (error, inconsist-
ency or omission) which he may dis-
cover . ." and by substituting these,
". . but he shall not be liable to the
owner for any damage resulting from
any error or deficiencies in the con-
tract documents or other instructions
by the Architect . ." To effectuate
this change, a slight revision in Ar-
ticle 5 was necessary. At the end of
the first sentence the words . re-
lating to artistic effect ..." were
changed to read . relating to de-
sign and artistic effect .".
Other changes are: In Article 3,
the word "estimated" was inserted be-
fore the words "progress schedule" in
the last paragraph. In article 13, re-
lating to inspection of work, the
words "he shall show" were deleted
from the last sentence of the third


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paragraph and the words "it be
found" used in their place. The re-
vised sentence now reads, . if
such work be found not in accordance
with the Contract Documents, the
Contractor shall pay such cost, unless
it be found that the defect in the
work was caused by the Contractor
employed as provided in Article 35
and in that event the Owner shall
pay the cost".
Time allowances have been changed
in Article 23. The second paragraph
will be changed to read, "Should the
Architect fail to issue any certificate
for payment through no fault of the
Contractor within seven days after the
Contractor's formal request for pay-
ment, or if the Owner should fail to
pay to the Contractor within seven
days of its maturity and presentation
any sum certified by the Architect or
awarded by arbitrators, then the Con-
tractor may, upon seven days written
notice to the Owner and the Archi-
tect, stop the work or terminate this
contract as set out in the preceding

Board Meeting Schedule

As now planned the FAA Board of
Directors will meet five times during
1959. The first meeting was held in
Jacksonville, January 24. The other
four meetings will take place at
Gainesville, in April; Palm Beach, in
June; Tampa, in September; and
Jacksonville, the 45th Annual FAA
Convention site, in November.
Plans are also being considered to
make Board meetings an occasion for
a Chapter meeting in each area. It
has been suggested that Chapters act
as hosts at a Dutch-treat party on the
evening before the Board meets. This
would provide opportunity for both
Board and Chapter members to be-
come better acquainted to the bene-
fit of each.
This has been attempted in other
AIA state organization groups with
good results. FAA officers are even
considering the possibility of asking
various Chapters to plan a special
Chapter event at a regular monthly
meeting which Board members could
attend. In this way a seminar or panel
discussion could be advantageously
held on a subject of importance to
the FAA's state-wide program and
worthy of intensive group study.

JOHN F. HALLMAN, JR., Pres. & Treasurer JACK K. WERK, Vice-Pres. & Secretary



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Message From

The President


President, FAA

The practicing architect possesses both the "work-
ing know-how" and the power to assist the manu-
facturing world in producing better construction
products for our consumers and clients. Florida's
climate and lengthy coast line combine to give us
one of the world's best testing grounds for materials.
Are we assisting the manufacturers or do we just
sit idly by and loudly complain? Too often our criti-
cism is directed at the wrong person. Too often
we shrug our shoulders and tell the client, "I can't
stop rust; and if it's masonry it'll crack.".
A great many of our buildings, hotels, apartments,
commercial structures and residences have their feet
in the Atlantic Ocean or Gulf of Mexico. In spite
of the proximity of so much salt water, the tendency
is to utilize the same materials as would be used in
Lakeland or Orlando far from the effects of salt
water corrosion and erosion. Yacht and motor boat
manufacturers long ago learned that the most eco-
nomical hardware and fittings were those made of
heavy chrome plate on brass or solid bronze. Sliding
door and window manufacturers still think a steel
screw or a steel catch is the cheapest and best.
They never give a thought to the fact that the labor
to remove one screw and replace it costs more than
a half dozen heavy chromed or stainless screws would
cost originally.
Cleaning up upon completion of a construction
operation is costly and a time-consuming job. The
simple expedient of delivering to the job and install-
ing taped and viscose film covered sash and sliding
aluminum and glass doors would save time and
money, plus producing a finer finish. Putty knives
and steel wool can do a lot of damage to aluminum

and glass, removing the after effects of plastering
and painting operations. A few cents spent at the
factory will save dollars at the job. We should lead
a movement to improve these situations. If we don't
demand it, nothing will be done.
It has been estimated that 20% of the materials
delivered to a job are either wasted at the job through
misuse or hauled away as scrap during and after
construction. Our lack of new construction tech-
niques wastes almost half of the labor costs. Pony
express era building methods in a jet age are ridicu-
lous. In forty years the motor car industry has cut
its cost of manufacturing to one-third for a similar
sized and type of vehicle, while the square footage
cost of construction for a residence has increased
ten times. If an automobile was produced in the
manner a home is constructed, it would cost at
least $50,000 to build a Ford or Chevrolet.
Almost all clients and too many architects are
uneducated in the legal responsibilities of each to the
other. There is an increasing tendency on the part
of the architect to "throw off" responsibility for
design, materials and construction. The contractor
is not supposed to specify materials. We are sup-
posed to know what's best for the client and for his
building. We are supposed, also, to guide the client
in the selection of site, building layout and builder,
as well as have a working knowledge of mortgage
availability, insurance requirements, taxes, etc.
We can do something. It is the sincere hope of
your officers that during 1959 a series of workshops
or forums can be scheduled for discussion of these
and other problems, and to find a solution for them.


PI P1 I I I pre



m i a

It Means Experience
-from Engineering
to Installation

Curtain wall construction is achieving
near-miracles of economy, structural effi-
ciency and erection; every one is evi-
dence that solutions to many problems
have been found. Every successful cur-
tain wall installation points up the fact
that performance which can be guar-
anteed doesn't come by accident.
Such performance is the polished re-
sult of engineering a design so that every
detail of its fabrication measures up
precisely to carefully calculated stand-
ards of quality and use.
A curtain wall must insulate and pro-
tect, as well as provide a finished sur-
face for the building of which it is a part.
It must be anchored positively; but it
also must be designed to allow move-
ment under force of air pressures or
temperature changes. Installation must

be weathertight, plumb and true; but it
must also drain moisture and resolve
variations of the rough construction to
which it is fitted. And for guaranteed
performance all this must be done eco-
nomically, efficiently and for keeps.
A Complex Job? Yes, and a demand-
ing one. But it is our job. And we are
good at it. We know its pitfalls, recognize
its possibilities, are busy developing its
Because of these facts we can help
you engineer a design. We can fabricate
that design to your most exacting speci-
fications. And we can install the result-
ing curtain wall with the combination
of skill, experience and service needed
to provide the guaranteed performance
you and your client have a right
to expect.

These advertisements have been
developed as suggestive guides to
more economical and efficient
contemporary construction.
Others will deal with special
design and structural factors of
curtain walls. Please call usfor
answers to any technical ques-
tions on curtain wall construc-
tion orfor any engineering data
you might find helpful on any
aspect of curtain wall design.