Around the college
 Faculty in the news
 Book beat
 On current events...
 Condon on computing
 From the chair...


CLAS notes
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073682/00100
 Material Information
Title: CLAS notes the monthly news publication of the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- College of Arts and Sciences
Publisher: College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: January 1997
Frequency: monthly
Subjects / Keywords: Education, humanistic -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
periodical   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
General Note: Subtitle varies; some numbers issued without subtitle.
General Note: Description based on: Vol. 2, no. 11 (Nov. 1988); title from caption.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001806880
oclc - 28575488
notis - AJN0714
lccn - sn 93026902
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Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Around the college
        Page 2
    Faculty in the news
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Book beat
        Page 6
        Page 7
    On current events...
        Page 8
    Condon on computing
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    From the chair...
        Page 12
Full Text


On Writing Better

About two
years ago, CLAS began a major effort
to improve the writing skills of stu-
dents at UF With the assistance of a $1
million gift from IBM and an equal re-
source commitment from UF, the IBM
Writing Project was established. Now
in its second year, several thousand
students have gained new writing
experiences through the networked
writing environment.
The next step in the plan involved
the formation of a Center to be respon-
sible for the overall effort in composi-
tion, working in close cooperation
with the Department of English, but
also drawing on other departments
to address overall writing needs of the
College. The Center began operation
this past fall, and in this first semester
of activity, it has developed the begin-
nings of a Writing in the Disciplines
program to complement and supple-
ment the standard freshman composi-
tion offerings.
In the midst of our efforts to en-
hance writing in the curriculum, the
Board of Regents made a counter
move by reducing the General Educa-
tion requirements, resulting in what
is effectively a one semester writing
obligation. It is a challenge to learn
almost anything well in one semester.
To suggest that something as impor-
tant as writing can be absorbed in
only one course strains credibility. We
believe students should write more,
not less. Our alumni tell us, beg us,
reproach us, to emphasize writing.
Few things, they say, can be more
important to UF graduates, no matter
what the major. We agree.
The problem we face in add-
ing more writing to our academic
majors is that the disciplinary re-
quirements, in many cases, already


American Indian Philosophy a

Contrast to Traditional Thought

The American Indians can teach
us a lot if we're willing to study their
criminal justice system, their respect for
the environment and their unique form
of government, said Marilyn Holly, as-
sociate professor of philosophy.
Holly, who has been interested in
American Indian spirituality since
she was a child, has studied this form
of philosophy for about 25 years and
has had many essays on this topic
published. Her most recent essay is on
the American Indian criminal justice
system and will appear in an anthology
of related subjects.
"They have this fantastically inter-
esting criminal justice system," she
said. "In the Navaho nation a criminal
is not bad but they're sick, according to
their version of health and illness."
The entire community then takes an
active role in the rehabilitation of the
"Criminals are given a healing and
justice ceremony," she said. "It's so
interesting because the criminal isn't
rejected but is helped by family and
friends to regain a helpful interaction
with the community."
Although most Indian nations place
a priority on reforming criminals and
integrating them back into the commu-
nity, Holly emphasizes that dangerous
criminals are treated very differently.
"Anybody who is really dangerous,
like a murderer, would be isolated from
the community," she said. "But this is
only in cases where the person is con-
sidered harmful to others."
Through her research, Holly has also
discovered that most Indian nations


share an unusually strong sense of
responsibility to the community and
the environment.
"There tends to be a fairly wide-
spread sense of respect for everything
in the world," she said. "For example,

In addition to her interest in
American Indian philosophy,
Marilyn Holly also conducts
research in the philosophies of
science and social science.

if I killed a deer to eat, I would not kill
any more than my family needed and
I would pray to the deer to forgive
The Indians' respect for their com-
munity involves an ethical respon-
sibility to reciprocate for what they
"There tends not to be a sense of
sin against some deity but instead a
sense of obligation to give back to the
community," she said. "If I just take

--See Philosophy, page 12

This month's focus: Department of Philosophy

I Vl. 1, o.1 Te Uivesiy o Flrid Cllee o Lierl Ats Scenes anury 99

--See Musiugs, page 12

Around the College


Jim Haskins was a featured speaker
at the Discovery Conference spon-
sored by the Center for Multicultural
Children's Books at HarperCollins in
New York on Oct. 20.

James Brooks presented a lecture at
the International Conference on Analysis
at the Mathematics Institute in Peru-
gia, Italy, Sept. 30-Oct.4.
Gang Bao was an invited speaker at
the 1996 Conference on Computational
Physics and Applied Mathematics in
Beijing in June.
Paul Ehrlich lectured at three South
Korean universities in June and par-
ticipated in the Second World Congress
on Nonlinear Analysts in Athens,
Greece in July.
Andrew Vince was an invited
speaker at the Mathematical Science
Research Institute in Berkeley in Oc-

Kirk Ludwig and Greg Ray each
presented invited papers at the Fifth
Karlovy Vary Symposium held in the
Cech Republic. They also presented a
jointly authored paper to the Europe-
an Congress for Analytic Philosophy
in Leeds, England.
Ofelia Schutte gave an invited pa-
per at the Third International Congress
on Latin American Philosophy in San
Jose, Costa Rica.



CLAS notes is published monthly by the Col-
lege of Liberal Arts and Sciences to inform fac-
ulty and staff of current research and events.


Willard Harrison
Lurel D. Ponjuan
Sally Brooks

CLAS Alumni Return to Campus to

See How Things Have Changed

On November 15, seven CLAS alumni returned to the University of Florida for
the annual Grand Guard Reunion. This event honors those alumni who graduated
from UF 50+ years ago. CLAS held a special luncheon for its alumni in the O. Ruth
McQuown Room during which Gareth Schmeling, professor of classics, gave an
interesting talk on the influence of Greek and Latin in today's society. Those CLAS
alumni in attendance are (some not pictured): Clark Dowdell '43, Harold Henderly '37,
Herbert Kay '40, Charles Lasley '43, Marion Lasley '44, William Rion '45 and '50 and
Julian Williams '40. Dean Harrison (1.) and Professor Gareth Schmeling (r.).


The College ofLiberal Arts and Sciences would like to congratulate the following
faculty members for their achievements and recognition.

Michael Gannon (History) received the Tampa Historical Society's D.B.
McKay Award.

Robert Kennedy (Chemistry) received the Presidential Early Career Award
for Scientists and Engineers. It is the highest honor bestowed by the
U.S. government on outstanding scientists and engineers beginning
their independent careers.

Andres Avellaneda (Romance Lang. & Lit.) was elected to the Execu-
tive Board of the Instituto Internacional de Literatura Iberoamericana and
was appointed to the Editorial Board of Mora. Revista de la Asociacion
Interdisciplinaria de Estudios de la Mujer.

Cesar Caviedes (Geography) received the 1995 Preston E. James Eminent
Latin Americanist Career Award.

Jay Gubrium (Sociology) has been appointed to a three-year term on
the editorial board of the American Sociological Review.

Worldwideweb ml,

Faculty in the News

CLAS Faculty Make Headline News

CLAS faculty are recognized as experts in their fields of research in academia and the private sector. Following is a list
of UF researchers whose comments and research have recently appeared in the media.

Many Butterflies Near Extinction
Audubon magazine quoted zoology Professor Tom Emmel
on the fragility of butterfly populations and his work to
keep the Schaus swallowtail from extinction.

Prof. Reflects on Rwanda/Zaire Turmoil
Michael Chege, director of the Center for African Studies,
was interviewed by Boston's National Public Radio station
on the unfolding tragedy on the Rwanda/Zaire border.
Christian Science Monitor Radio, International Division, also
interviewed Chege.

Discrimination Isn't Healthy
The New York Times quoted sociology Professor Joe Feagin,
who said that discrimination can lead to physical health

John Steinbeck's Literature Still Studied
The New York Times quoted Graduate Research Professor
of English John Seelye on John Steinbeck's literature.

Monarch Butterflies Have Unique Migration
Zoologist Lincoln Brower was quoted in Cooking Light
magazine in an article on Monarch butterfly migration
through the United States and into Mexico.

James Hoffa's Legacy Lives On
Robert Zieger, professor of history, appeared on BBC Over-
night to discuss the election between Ron Carey and James
Hoffa, Jr. for presidency of the Teamsters Union.

$500,000 Opportunity Fund and $1,000,000 Special Board
Allocations Fund Give CLAS Faculty Additional Opportunities
(an excerpt from a memo written by James Dufty, Associate Dean for Research)

In a recent memo to the faculty,
Vice President Holbrook described
the creation of a College Incentive
Fund. This Fund provides re-
sources to the Colleges for sponsor-
ship of research offered previously
at ORTGE through the DSR-B,
DSR-C. DSR-D. and RDA pro-
grams, and the Research Contin-
gency Fund. These programs
have been discontinued so that
requests to ORTGE for support in
the corresponding categories is
no longer appropriate. However,
some of the resources from these
programs have been retained at
ORTGE to create an Opportunity
Fund ($500,000) in addition to the
Special Board Allocations Fund
To make the most effective use
of these limited resources it is rec-
ognized that some responsibilities

should be delegated to the Depart-
ments where differences associated
with our diversity of needs can be
accommodated. Other responsibilities
properly rest at the College level for
consistency with priorities transcend-
ing the Departments. In both cases it
is understood that the funds must be
distributed in a targeted rather than
diffuse manner, based on identified
highest priorities.
In this transition year, and as an
experiment, the responsibilities for
support of Travel, Graduate Assis-
tantships, Summer Fellowships, and
miscellaneous support previously
obtained from the Research Contigency
Fund has been transferred to the De-
partments. The amount returned to
each Department is a prorated amount
based on previous awards from the DSR
programs over the past three years. It
is understood that these categories are
at each Department's discretion. Each

Department will be responsible
for setting guidelines for faculty
to apply for these resources.
The remaining funds will be
distributed at the College level
through the Research Initiation
Program. The format is intended
to have the flexibility to allow pro-
posals to be tailored to the differing
needs of the CLAS Divisions, while
identifying why the proposed
research should be considered
of high priority. The maximum
allowed budget is $20,000. Since
only $350,000 is available this will
be an unusually competitive pro-
gram. The proposals will be peer-
reviewed within the Divisions,
and to account for Departmental
priorities a Chair's ranking will
be requested. Deadline for sub-
mission by Department: 4:00 PM
January 24,1997.

UF Professor: Financial Ethics Can Be Just as

Important to Our Health as Medical Ethics

Questions of financial ethics
aren't easy to answer, as Robert
Baum, professor of philosophy, is
finding out.
A pioneer in the field of applied
ethics, Baum encouraged scholarly
research in engineering ethics in the
'70s when no such work had been
done previously. He was the first to
publish a journal on business ethics
in the early '80s so scholars had an
avenue for getting their research
published. And now he's initiating
research and discussion in the field
of financial ethics.
"Even though the field of busi-
ness ethics is really booming, one
of the main areas in business has
received relatively little attention,
namely financial ethics," he said.
"This includes areas such as bank-
ing, securities, stocks and bonds,
insurance and real estate."
Baum's interest in financial ethics
is fueled by his belief that decisions
and actions made in this area have
a greater impact on an individual's
life than many people realize.
"My argument is that financial
issues are at least as important for
the general well-being of people as
anything in the area of medicine,

"My argument is
that financial issues
are at least as impor-
tant for the general
well-being of people
as anything in the
area of medicine,
which is the most
developed field of ap-
plied ethics."
Robert Baum
Professor of philosophy

which is the most developed field of ap-
plied ethics," he said. "What's needed
is to stimulate more research."
One example of how corporate
financial decisions can directly affect
individuals is the following. If a per-
son invests in a life insurance policy
or an IRA for his/her retirement, and
the financial company does not fulfill
its responsibilities, the investor can
lose money. Without these funds, a
retired person may be unable to afford
adequate medical care or a good diet.
Consequently, his/her health could suf-
fer as a result of irresponsible behavior
by the company managing his/her
"On the other hand, good financial
management could be very beneficial,"
Baum said. "If the financial manage-
ment is handled in an ethically respon-
sible way, this produces great benefit
just like good health care."
While most people hear only about
the professionals who do not act
ethically, Baum is quick to explain
that when discussing ethics, it's not
just about the negative side. While it's
important for professions to identify
what actions aren't considered ethical,
it's just as important to identify what
actions are ethical.
"When we're approaching this from
a responsible academic point of view,
we have to be careful not to convey a
misrepresentation that the whole in-
dustry is corrupt and that anyone who
is in the financial business is ethically
irresponsible," he said. "Instead, we
have to ask what are the good things
that can be done by a person who has
certain expertise, professional training
and ability?"
Although it may seem that in
recent years increased attention has
been paid to ethics in business and the
professions, Baum believes that it's not
because people are less ethical than
they once were but because new situa-
tions have arisen and modem problems
are more complex than those of 20 to
30 years ago.

Robert Baum is editor of the
Business& Professional Ethics
journal and Professional Ethics: A
Multi-Disciplinary Journal.

"I've never seen any evidence
that things are getting worse," he
said. "I think that there are two kinds
of situations: new situations which
continually evolve and traditional
problems which are just very com-
plex and require extensive study in
order to understand."
In fact, it was the appearance of
new situations that led to the devel-
opment of the field of medical ethics
in the '60s, Baum said. New break-
throughs such as organ transplants
forced the medical community to
update and revise its ethical stan-
dards, since there weren't any rules
for such procedures.
"The other reason for the in-
creased awareness in ethics is that
many of the problems discussed in
the areas of business and medicine
are just very complex," he said. "No-
body adequately understands these
incredibly complex circumstances,
and we need to increase our under-
standing in order to deal with these
problems in an ethically responsible
h a ) "

1997 CLAS Dissertation Fellowship Winners
Each year the Graduate School and the Graduate Committee of the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences award
CLAS dissertation fellowships to students pursuing the Ph.D. Students receive $3,150 in addition to a tuition
waiver for $1,031 for the Summer A term. Listed below are the Fellowship winners for 1997.


Zobeida Bonilla
Thersa Schober
Marieka Heemskerk

Communication Processes & Disorders


Xinyan Huang

Susan-Marie Birkenstock
David Lashmet
Angela Bacsik
Tracy Cox
Dina Smith
Ron Broglio



Michael Harrison
Avrum Shriar

Jan Shetler
Frankie White

Michelle Schaefer
Timothy Ajani
Gea DeJong
Lucy Pickering


Political Science


Romance Languages & Literatures



Peter Rogers
Nigel Austin

Alysia Reid

Joe Johnson
Lynn Scott

Janis Weber
Sylvia Ansay

Michael Blake

Book Beat

The Cheyenne (Blackwell
Publishers) by John H.
Moore (Anthropology).
(review taken from book
This book provides his-
tory and ethnography of
the Cheyenne people from
their prehistoric origins
north of the Great Lakes
S .to their present life on their
reservations in Oklahoma

provides a detailed ac-
count of reservation life
and shows how the dance
ceremonies and oral tradi-
tions have largely survived
the Cheyenne's enforced removal from their long-held
homelands. He concludes with a critical examination of
contemporary Cheyenne life and of the mixed results of the
often inept intrusions of State and Federal bureaucracies.

(Excerpt) Those Native American tribes who arrived ear-
liest on the plains naturally took for themselves the most
desirable territories. The Middle Missouri was a prime loca-
tion, and when the Cheyennes arrived there in the middle
18th century the area had been continuously occupied by
Indian farmers for over a thousand years. The advantage of
the location was the opportunity to engage in horticulture
on the fertile natural terraces of the Missouri, with vast
supplies of timber nearby for firewood.

Magnetic Stratigraphy (Ac-
ademic Press) by Neil D.
Opdyke (Geology) and James
E. T. Channell (Geology). (re-
view taken from book preface)
Magnetic polarity stra-
tigraphy, the stratigraphic
record of polarity reversals
in rocks and sediments, is
now thoroughly integrated
into biostratigraphy and
chemostratigraphy. The
application of magnetic
stratigraphy in geologic
investigations is now com-
monplace; however, the use
of magnetic stratigraphy as
a correlation tool in sediments and lava flows has devel-
oped only in the past 35 years. This book is aimed at this

expanding practitioner base, providing information about
the principles of magnetostratigraphy and the present
state of our knowledge concerning correlations among the
various (biostratigraphic, chemostratigraphic, magnet-os-
tratigraphic and numerical) facets of geologic time.

(Excerpt) The magnetic field of the Earth has fascinated
human beings for well over 2 millenia. The Chinese in-
vented the magnetic compass in the second century B.C.
(Needham, 1962) and knowledge of the magnetic compass
reached Western Europe over a thousand years later in the
twelfth century A.D. The first truly scientific paper on
geomagnetism was written in 1262 by Petrus Peregrinus
and entitled "Epistola de Magnete" (Smith, 1970).

Why We Eat What
We Eat: The Psychol-
ogy of Eating (Amer- TY V'E ErL
ican Psychological
Association) edited b I N1 W. I.:.'I
by Elizabeth Capaldi i. f,.,,! 1 ,,11,
(Psychology). (review
taken from book jacket)
Eating is arguably
the most fundamental
of human activities.
In Western societies
in particular, there is
great interest in diet,
health, and food pref-
erences. This volume
explores the shift in ?:I.efn -al I eui ,I.
eating research from
the search for bodily
signals that trigger
hunger to a focus on eating patterns emerging from a learn-
ing process that is based on life experience. This new book
offers hope that healthful eating patterns can be learned.

(Excerpt) Studies on animal models of obesity demon-
strated that obesity is the outcome of an interaction between
a genetic predisposition and exposure to environmental
factors such as diet. The most promising strategy for the
study of the behavioral phenotype in human obesity might
be to focus on dietary behaviors that are most likely to carry
a heritable component; however, it is unclear what those
behaviors are. Past investigators have variously examined
attitudes and beliefs as well as sweet taste preferences,food
choices, iid i,(ii.,l; t tl, such studies have almost invari-
ably failed to establish any consistent differences between
obese patients and control groups of lean persons.

Book Beat

The Silent Dialogue: Zen Letters to
a Trappist Monk (The Continuum
A j Publishing Company) by David Hack-
The ett (Religion). (review taken from book
5il jacket)
In August 1974, following conver-
sion to the Catholic faith while living
in a Trappist monastery, David Hackett
set out on a two-year journey to Japan
and Southeast Asia. Hackett became
a Catholic through Zen meditation
and an understanding of Catholicism
acquired by the patient guidance of a Trappist monk. Yet
baptism marked the beginning of a new inquiry. What was
the relationship between Buddhism and Catholicism? And
how could Zen meditation best be employed to deepen
Christian faith? Asking these questions, Hackett began a
journey which led to meetings and meditations with Catho-

(Excerpt) I am at Father Lassalle's Zen retreat house awaiting
the arrival of twenty-five sesshin fans. We will have an even
number of men and women and nearly half will be members
of l. li:ibjn-_ orders. The sesshin will last seven days with more
than eight hours of meditation each day. I will be burrowing
into the slow repetition of "Lord Have Mercy," if my legs do
not give out. I fell like I'm about to run the marathon and
must pace myself. I have to somehow keep focused upon my
prayer and not allow the sitting to deteriorate into a leg pain
endurance contest.

Women of Belize: Gender and Change
in Central America (Rutgers University
Press) by Irma McClaurin (Anthropol-
ogy) (review taken from book cover)
This ethnography is set in the re-
mote district of Toledo, Belize, Central
America, where three women weave
personal stories about the events in
their lives. Each describes her experi-
ences of motherhood, marriage, family
illness, emigration, separation, work,
or domestic violence that led her to
recognize gender inequality and then to do something about
it. All three challenge the culture of gender at home and in
the larger community.

(Excerpt) Women sometimes become involved in interpersonal
relationships that are more economically based than romantic,
as I discussed in chapter 7. Although Evelyn's relationship
with her husband does not exactly fit the model I described, it
is a variation on a theme. Alan has access to resources (land,
credit and some prestige by virtue of his family's name and
status in the community), and Evelyn is willing to remain
in their relationship if he can provide her with the needed
resources (even if sporadic) she needs to maintain herself and
her family. In exchange, she ignores his infidelities and erratic
work behavior.

Unifying Biology: The Evolutionary
Synthesis and Evolutionary Biology
(Princeton University Press) by Vassiliki
Betty Smocovitis (History). (review taken
from book jacket)
Unifying Biology offers a histori-
cal reconstruction of one of the most
important yet elusive episodes in the
history of modern science: the evolu-
tionary synthesis of the 1930s and the
1940s. For more than seventy years
after Darwin proposed his theory of evolution, it was hotly
debated by biological scientists. It was not until the 1930s
that opposing theories were finally refuted and a unified
Darwinian evolutionary theory came to be widely accepted
by biologists. Using methods gleaned from a variety of
disciplines, Vassiliki Betty Smocovitis aruges that the evolu-
tionary synthesis was part of the larger process of unifying

(Excerpt) If science is narrative constituted, philosophers of
science will want to know how one can discriminate between
stories or whether all stories will hold true (another way of
phrasing the problem of relativism). The response here is to
state that while science may be narrative-based activity, this
does not necessarily mean that all narratives will do. The key
question is how narratives are reworked within sets of validat-
ing or evidentiary constraints.

Science, Materialism, and the Study of
Culture (University Press of Florida)
edited by Martin E. Murphy and Maxine
L. Margolis (Anthropology). (review taken
from book cover)
The social sciences, especially cultural
anthropology, are mired in contentious
arguments about the desirability even
the applicability of scientific and
causal principles in the study of culture
and society. The authors of these essays
come down clearly on the side of the significance of these
principles, claiming that a cultural materialist approach is
the most productive way of explaining cultural differences
and similarities and of understanding many "unexplain-

(Excerpt) Political decisions taken at the national level after
1970 brought changes that affected low-income families sub-
stantially. Public assistance and social service budgets were
cut at the same time that eligibility criteria were tightened.
Federal accounting rules introduced by the Nixon administra-
tion penalized the states for overpayments to public assistance
recipients, while at the same time ignoring underpayments and
payment denials to many people who were legally eligible. As
the states responded with stricter verification requirements for
opening and maintaining cases, many needy families simply
did not enroll.

On Current Events...

First-Hand Experience with Poverty Gives UF

Researcher Unique Insight into Welfare
-Karen Meisenheimer, writer for UF News and Public Affairs

Cheryl Amey was a 30-year-
old single mother of four living
in poverty when she realized the
only chance for a better life was to
go back to school and get a college
Today, six years later, the mother
who depended on welfare and
financial aid for support is a doc-
toral candidate in the University of
Florida's department of sociology,
bringing a personal perspective to
her research on poverty and minor-
ity issues that most in the academic
world can only imagine. But, Amey
is quick to point out her story should
not be promoted as an example of
how people on welfare can pull
themselves out of poverty with just

"A program similar to
Project Independence
was supportive to the
point that when my
junky old car broke
down, they could help
fix it. If it weren't for
the resources avail-
able to me back then,
I'd still be on welfare
Cheryl Amey
Doctoral candidate in

a little hard work and education.
"I had tons of resources to help
me get started and stay in college,
Amey said. "Those resources just
aren't available to women today."

Amey said welfare reform has, for
the most part, eliminated the opportu-
nities that contributed to her academic
success. That success includes gradu-
ating from the University of North
Carolina-Wilmington in 1992 with
honors, earning her master's degree
in sociology from UF in 1994, again
with honors, and a host of published
academic articles. Amey's most recent
honor comes from the university's As-
sociation of Academic Women, which
awarded her the first Madelyn Lockhart
Fellowship. To recognize the outstand-
ing achievement and promise she has
shown in her chosen field, Amey will
receive $1,000 to assist in the disserta-
tion phase of her doctoral degree.
As someone who studies the plight
of women in poverty, Amey is con-
cerned for those who will be forced
to take jobs that don't provide much
"Women on welfare don't have
access to education anymore," Amey
said. "Instead, they have to take jobs
that require minimal skills and provide
little opportunity."
New welfare policies limit the num-
ber of women who can count full-time
school as their work requirement to re-
ceive cash assistance and child care. In
Florida, the limit is 20 percent of female
welfare recipients, and that includes
teen mothers still in high school.
Programs such as Project Indepen-
dence, which was the boost Amey
needed to pull herself out of poverty,
have been replaced with Work and Gain
Economic Self-sufficiency (WAGES).
Amey said there is no equal trade
"A program similar to Project Inde-
pendence was supportive to the point
that when my junky old car broke
down, they could help fix it," Amey
said. "If it weren't for the resources
available to me back then, I'd still be
on welfare today."
Don Winstead, Florida's welfare

reform administrator, said Amey
wouldn't be able to stay on welfare
long under today's stricter limita-
tions. The state's reform, which
went into effect Oct. 1, cuts people
off welfare after two years. Win-
stead said while fewer women can
choose college over a low paying
job, WAGES includes programs
that help those seeking to further
their education once they are off
However, Amey said the educa-
tion must be job-related. The new
policies mandate that a woman
going to school is required to work
in addition to raising her children.
"What if she is flipping burg-
ers?" Amey said. "Then what kind
of school will these new programs
allow her to attend?"
Amey's research over the last
four years has focused on issues
of poverty, inequalities in welfare
policy and minority health. She said
obstacles within the structure of
welfare prevent people from help-
ing themselves.
Amey admits there have been
many difficult and tiring days for
her as a student. She recalls staying
up until 3 a.m. to study so she could
spend evenings with her kids. She
also remembers having no electric-
ity in the house when there wasn't
any money to pay the bill. She de-
pended on friends, the school and
the state to help her make it through
the tough spells.
Today, she is remarried, her
children are now teenagers and the
oldest plans to attend Florida State
University next year. Amey's career
goal is to help develop support pro-
grams that assist women with child
care issues, building self esteem
and continuing education.%

Conlon on Computing

Pros and Cons of Multimedia Software

ways for one slide to dissolve into
another you've seen these effects in
S"very bad movies).
-- One good feature-the current
version of Powerpoint has an "Export
HTML" feature so that your slides
can be transformed into web pages
with the touch of a button. This works
..'" I reasonably well. So at least you are not
S Trapped in Microsoft's proprietary slide
..-- I --" file format.
Using a computer introduces a host
i --- I of problems, risks and technical bar-
4 Lriers for the instructor. The instructor
Must have a current generation desktop
S computer with presentation software
-_- with which to create the slide show.
-' Learning how to use the software is
actually not a problem. Then comes
finding and scheduling a room with
Perhaps you have seen one of a projection system and a computer
those new-fangled presentations connection. About a million dollars has
given with "multimedia" presenta- been spent at UF recently to upgrade
tion software. The presenter uses the major lecture halls for just this
a computer rather than overheads capability (see the Multimedia Support
and presses keys to advance to the Project on-line at http://www.circa.ufl.
next "slide." The computer duti- edu/msp ). All the equipment has to
fully displays full-color bulleted work and the faculty member often
lists of text, pictures or even audio needs a bit of hand-holding (I know I
or video clips. A sub-industry has did) in mastering whatever switches
been created around such pre- and settings must be correct for the
sentations. Presentation software computer to display. And of course the
such as Microsoft's Powerpoint is lights must be lowered (but not too far
being used by our faculty. Training students will be taking notes). Even
courses are available, after a million dollars, the number of
I've tried the current crop of places you can use this technology is
presentation software and given limited.
several presentations using it. I've The last thing I need in classrooms
used the software to produce color is a new way to lecture. Lecturing is not
overheads for presentations where a very effective method for teaching.
using a computer was not feasible. Turning down the lights and showing
I'm not impressed. colored slides of text makes it much
The software is not hard to use. worse. I use presentation software
Powerpoint's "slide editor" orga- strictly for short "sales" talks. I don't
nizes material in an outline and use it in class. But then, I don't often
then fill in the outline with slide need to show photographs. I can pro-
after slide of deadly dull lecture duce graphic displays of data quite
material. Only now it's in color, nicely in black and white and I use
You can add sound effects (ama- overheads for this purpose. Black and
teurish) and transitions (weird white graphics are still the "state of the

art" in the statistical and medical
Is there a use for such tools?
Most of the faculty who have ex-
plored multimedia software are
now using web-based solutions for
the intended purpose display of
information and student access for
custom course material. The web
is a much better medium for this
- students can access the material
anytime from any Internet con-
nected device.
Presentation tools are good at
photographs. You can get pho-
tographs into presentations (of
course you'll need access to a scan-
ner) and they can then be called up
quickly during a lecture. If show-
ing photographs during class is
useful, presentation software is a
way to go. Animation can also be
produced and shown using pre-
sentation software. This is another
good use. May of the key concepts
in my own discipline of statistics
are easily illustrated with anima-
tions. It's certainly not trivial to
produce them, but once produced
they can easily be reused. A good
animation can create insight and
understanding of concepts that are
much more difficult to explain with
words, symbols or static graphics.
But should your photographs
and animations be stored using
your presentation software and
accessible to students only dur-
ing your lecture? Perhaps a better
approach is to use presentation
software to create presentations
and then use HTML to store them
on the web for student access. All
this takes a bit of extra work the
first time around, but then forms
a basic set of materials that can be
improved each time the course is

Professor Works to Develop Theory Which Will

Explain How We're Able to Use Language

Following is an interview with Kirk Lud-
wig, associate professor of philosophy.

Kirk Ludwig conducts research in
the areas ofphiosophy of language,
the philosophy of mind and the
theory of knowledge.

What areas of philosophy are you
interested in?

I work primarily in the philosophy
of language, the philosophy of mind,
and the theory of knowledge. Rather
than try to discuss my interests in all
these areas, let me concentrate on the
philosophy of language. The ques-
tion that best characterizes my long
term interests in the philosophy of
language is, "What is it for words to
mean what they do?" That is, how
are we to understand what it is for
the sounds we make when speaking,
or the inscriptions we leave on paper,
to mean something, that is, to mean
anything at all, and to mean the par-
ticular things they do?

One of your primary research proj-

ects, then, is to develop a general theory
of meaningfor natural languages. Can
you explain how this theory will

The project I just mentioned is too big
to tackle all at once. It breaks down
naturally into two parts, the task of
giving what is called a compositional
meaning theory for a natural language,
and the task of explaining what it is for
primitive expressions in a language to
have the meanings they do. In the end,
it turns out these are not completely
independent. But for the moment I am
mainly working on the first of these.

Can you say more about what a com-
positional meaning theory is?

One of the most remarkable facts
about us is that although we're finite
beings and have only a finite capacity
for learning things, the languages we
speak and understand have an infinite
number of nonsynonymous sentences
in them. Most of the sentences we hear
other people utter we hear for the first
time-we seldom hear the same sen-
tence twice-and we understand these
completely novel sentences effortlessly.
There are an infinite number of these
sentences. We clearly haven't-and
couldn't have-learned them one by

So a central problem in the philosophy
of language is to understand how finite
beings like us-with finite capacities
for understanding things-could mas-
ter a language with infinite expressive
resources. This capacity enables us to
understand novel sentences when we
hear them, and is what separates our
symbol manipulating capacities from
those of the other higher primates.
How is this possible? Well, we know it
is possible and the question is, can we
come up with a theoretical representa-

tion of this practical ability we have?
The job of a compositional meaning
theory is to provide a theoretical rep-
resentation of this practical ability.

Will this kind of research have practi-
cal implications?

Philosophical research is basic re-
search for the most part. I'm primar-
ily interested in understanding things.
I want to know what the relation is
between our thoughts and language
and the world they are both about, and
the answers to similar foundational
questions. Much of the value of the
pursuit of these questions lies in the
greater understanding it promises
to give us of the kind of beings we
are and where we fit into the natural
order. But most basic research has
practical implications also, though
sometimes you don't discover them
for a long, long time. The more basic
the research, the longer the time. For
example, research in philosophical
logic beginning over two thousand
years ago laid the foundations for the
modern development of computer

Research on compositional meaning
theories is important for figuring
out how to model linguistic com-
petence computationally. Without
a theory that can generate meaning
assignments to every sentence in
the language, we're not in a position
to think about modeling linguistic
competence. But it is hard to predict
the uses of basic research. Under-
standing things better at a basic level
opens up possibilities which could
not have been anticipated beforehand.
That's one reason why the Philistine
insistence that all research should be
directed at practical ends is so wrong-
headed. The mother of invention is
not necessity but understanding.%

Grant Awards through Division of Sponsored Research

November 1996 Total $1,628,509


Dept. Agency

Corporate... $252,132

Schanze, K. &
Ifju, P.
Katritzky, A.
Reynolds, J.
Haynes, R.


Ford Motor
Multiple Co.
Texas Inst.
AHV Inc.


Strain sensitive paints for experimental stress analysis.
Miles Compound Contract.
Polymer films for reversible conductivity switching.
Publication of Agricultural and Human Values Journal.


Gustafson, B.
Benner, S.
Angerhofer, A &
Powell, D.
Talham, D.
Weltner, W.
Micha, D.
Ohrn, Y. &
Micha, D.
Hyden, G.
Hager, W. &
Mair, B.
Obukhov, S.
Tanner, D.
Stewart, G.




US Navy

US Navy


52,570 Optical properties of irregular dust particles: experiment and

139,729 Protein sequence analysis and structure perdiction.


Upgrade of EPR/ENDOR/ODMR instrumentation.
Inorganic monolayers formed at organic templates.
Magnetic molecules, ions, and clusters.
Molecular spectra and dynamics at interfaces.

13,097 Molecular spectra and dynamic at interfaces.
17,877 Fulbright-Hays Doctoral Disertation Research Abroad Prog.


Conference on optimal control.
Simulation, modelling and visualization.
Engineered particulates.
Studies of correlated electron materials: Superconductivity.


Hollinger, R.
Hollinger, R.
Conlon, M.


Multi Sourc
Multi Sourc


Security research project.
Security research project.
Evaluation of residential treatment of postpartum women.


Jones, D. &
Gordon, D.
Randazzo, A.



125,323 Roadside management of native plants.
20,000 Assessment of lakes and ground-water levels in St. Johns River.

Awards through University of Florida Research Foundation or Other Universities...$23,200
Holling, C. ZOO UF 23,200 UF Foundation account for R. C. S. Holling.



--Musings continued from page 1

comprise a very busy program for the
students. However, in discussing this
dilemma with faculty and chairs, I have
been pleased to find that most of them are
enthusiastic about giving their students
the opportunity to improve their writing
skills. The importance of writing is not
lost in the disciplines, particularly if we
can develop courses that address spe-
cific writing situations in the discipline
Dr. Jane Douglas, who heads up the
Center's writing initiative, would like to
see our students write more during their
time at UF A tentative model might
call for two writing courses in the lower
division, taught by English and Center
faculty, followed by two Writing in the
Discipline courses at the upper division
taught as disciplinary offerings, either
by interested departmental faculty or
coordinated with Center faculty. The first
two of these courses, in Sociology and in
Psychology, are already underway, with
more planned according to department
interests. A graduate writing course will
also be taught this fall in Chemistry. We
are interested in talking with faculty and
departments who wish to add a writing
component to their curricula, under-
graduate or graduate.
Ideally, our students would take one
writing course each of their four years.
Studies have shown that students who
write only once in the freshman year
have poorer writing skills when they
graduate than at the end of that single
course. Writing is not like riding a bicycle;
once learned, forever secure. Perhaps it's
more like a foreign language that benefits
from practice, practice, practice. What
our Center hopes to show students is that
writing more is not only important, it can
also be enjoyable. The encouragement
and involvement of the departments are
essential in this regard.
We believe that state policies of rush-
ing students through a minimalist cur-
riculum are wrong-headed. We owe our
students more, not less education. And
writing is simply too important to be left
to students to pick up on their own. I ask
those of you who may believe likewise to
help us develop this initiative across the
College of Liberal Arts and Sciences.

Will Harrison,


--Philosophy continued from page 1

from nature and from other human
beings and I don't give anything back,
I'm weakening the strength of my
community. I need them and they need
Likewise, because of the belief that
everything in the environment belongs
to Mother Earth, Holly said, the concept
of owning private property and/or
land is unfathomable.
"Some Indian writers have said this
(private land ownership) is evil, that
you can't own pieces of your "moth-
er"," she said. "Even the tribe doesn't
really own the land it lives on, but is
allowed to live there if they treat the
land and the animals the right way. This
is a quite different philosophy from the
English tradition which actually elects
a government to protect property own-
Another difference between Ameri-
can Indian and Western philosophy is
the role government plays in society.
For instance, although many people

The role of a department of phi-
losophy in a major university is a
multi-faceted one. It must contribute
to the liberal education of as many
undergraduates as possible. It must
offer a competitive graduate pro-
gram. And it must be an intellectual
resource other disciplines can draw
on in both their teaching and re-
search. All three of these, of course,
require a faculty familiar with, and
active in, up-to-date research in the
Our department offers an under-
graduate major (in which student
numbers have quadrupled in the
last four years, to over a hundred).
We also provide a wide variety of
courses to satisfy university- and col-
lege-wide requirements, the special
needs of several other disciplines,
and the variety of electives our large
and diverse student body deserves.
Our graduate program admits a small
number of applicants with among
the highest GRE scores in the uni-
versity and tries to give them the

assume the chief is the leader of the
tribe, he or she is usually instead a
"There was a real misunderstand-
ing when the settlers came over
because they thought an Indian chief
was like a king but that, in fact, was
not true," she said. "In many North
American tribes the chief is there to
execute the will of the people. The
idea of a head of state that indepen-
dently has power was quite foreign
to many Indians."
Women were also active in Indian
government, a fact most people don't
realize, Holly said.
"In many tribes, women held more
active political roles than was, or even
is, the case in Western traditions," she
said. "In some tribes, women could
be chiefs and there were instances
of women on the tribal council. This
was a different sense of government
which allowed greater participation
by women."

training to make them competitive
in today's difficult academic job
market. In recent years, we have
strengthened and broadened our
curriculum at every level to match
those of our peer departments and
to take account of recent develop-
ments in the discipline. This has
meant introducing new courses in
the core areas of the subject, such
as logic, metaphysics, and episte-
mology, in important special fields
such as the philosophy of science,
the philosophy of language, and the
philosophy of mind, and in devel-
oping areas such as applied ethics
and non-western philosophy.
In addition, most of our faculty
maintain intellectual contact, and
sometimes collaborate in research,
with colleagues in the College and
beyond, particularly in disciplines
such as mathematics, physics, psy-
chology, history, classic, languages,
as well as in programs such as Latin
American Studies and Women's

From the Chair....

John Biro, chairman of the Department of Philosophy