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F.P. Blair ( City of Washington D.C )
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I P I a-
rlly pat er, by lne year S10 0.
lor less than t year, I li per morth.
Bemi-weekly paper by ithe year 5 "A
"iar lees tihar a year, I Coants per m.,)nih
SublrClprwrF Ld e- 10aily I',r ledw 11,har IW,, OT 10 tie i'.1il
weekly for epsthan kfur morths, will not b.e ri'ei-re.I.
BubacrDeras may dlicoir rise tie ir I.p s tr a y i i r j by pay.
lag lar the ime hey have reoeivod tIem, r It iirt u 'tilft,
Those who guba:rlbe i.,r a year, artd 0-o :i,,, ti trio ]inL nabcnrbtng orJder a lia',rr-tDiriuanre al Lri eni --i ir, ill L t
Coneadered suiseribera UDtil Uaey order 1he paper IO t r al.,,F'ed
and pay arrealrages
Twelve line, or leap, three iraerhoi, $ 1 00]
Every ebidLieLIal injionion 0 2
Longer ads-r'itemenw cLarlyed in proportion.
A liberal dmasodirt made ,. th.., Khi..'&-i,;ertise bythe year.
AU paymenia I.) be riade in a.lremice Thosewho hare not
an oppoirtuniLy of payire otiherwisc, may remit by mail, at our
risk, potaar, pai. Tha P,..'mi.4.Lin'.*.:-rtificateof such re-
iiftance ball bea sukitrit ree..pi iherei.r. Thenoteofany
apece-pavlrig hark will t I r m i: eal
No airenhii, WIu be Cr n ti.any o&r.der,,uls tuhe mney,
ar a Poea't,aatie's ce'-ii.fiea that it iaM been remitted, ac-
aoMPonmes Ft.
G Leies lIto Lthe Propri tore, eharg td withpostage, will
inot be tten cai of it.: Poat 0fite.

iThe steamboat JOSEPHt
-l^ ^' JOHNSON, having resumed
Usher trips on the above route,
will depart a_ ftlli.,r, viz:
At 10 and 12a. m. At 9 and lla. m.
At 2 and 4 p. m. At 1 and 3 p. m.
Until further notice.
The trips from Georgetown are discontinued for
the season. IGNATIUS ALLEN, Captain.
Oct 15


Via the Chesapeake Bay.
run their splendid STEAMBOATS,
In connection with the PORTSMOUTH and ROANOteE
RAILROAD, leaving Baltimore, from the lower end
of Spear's wharf daily, in accordance with the fol-
lowing schedule:
Leave BALTIMORE at 9 a. m.
Arrive at Portsmouth, Virginia, 180 miles, at or
before 11 p. m.
Leave PORTSMOUTH at 11 i p. m.
Arrive at Weldon, N. C. (80 miles,) at 6 a. m.
Leave Weldon, at 6Q o'clock, a. m.
Arrive at Wilmington (161 miles) same eve-
ning. Leave immediately, and arrive at Charleston
(170 niile)t nexi lay before noon. Thus com-
pleting nearly 0.t) miles in about 50 hours, with
but three change : of person and baggage, and com-
paraiiely no fatigue, while, on any other inland
route, there are rti less than ten changes in the
same distance.
Travellers preferring the Southwestern to the
Southern route-that is, not going through Charles-
ton-can have instant accommodation at Weldon,
by stage twelve miles to the Raleigh railroad,
which places them precisely where they would be
were they to go through WASHINGTON, FRE-
and GASTON, without any more expense, and
one half the fatigue.
Pa',ensers for Richmond, who leave BALTI-
MORE by this line on Monday, Wednesday or
Friday, sleep on board the Bay boats, and dine in
Richmond the following day.
Nor the North, one of the above boats leaves
Portsmouth immediately on the arrival of the
Cars from Welden, and frequently puts passengers
Into Baltimore in time to go on to Philadelphia by
the afternoon train of Cars. Those, therefore, who
select thi line, are sure of arriving here as early as
by'any other route, and stand a good chance of
HOURS in advance.
This despatch cannot be accomplished by any
other route than the CHESAPEAKEBAY-NOW
Prest. Md. and Va. Steamboat Co.
Aug 18-di lst Jan


T HlE "Baltimore Steam Packet Company"
,1. announce to the travelling public that they
have succeeded the Maryland and Virginia Steam-
boat Company, and are now carrying on the above
line in connection with the Portsmouth and Roan
-oke Railroad and Roanoke, Wilmington, and
Charleston Railroad and Steamboat lines.
The following fast and superior steamboats are
employed en the Che ape...-':
One of which leaves the lower end of Spear's
wharf, Baltimore, daily at 9 o'clock, a m. and
arrived, at Portsmouth at 11 to 11i o'clock same
I Cars are on the wharf waiting for travellers who
intend going further South. The moment the
baggage and pa-eentgers can be transferred, they
are off, and arrie at We'di.n (80 miles) in ample
tim to take the cars for Wilnirpngton. where they
arrive same evening in time for the steamboat for
Charleston, arriving in the latter city next morning;
being about 50 hours from Baltimore, a distance of
600 miles.
=This is the only rou'e connecting with the
Wilmington Railroad at Weldon.
Travellers who prefer the Southwestern route,
that is, not going through Charleston, can have in-
stant accommodation at Weldon by siage 12 miles
to the Raleigh Road, which places them precisely
where they would be were they to go through
Gaston, without any more expense, and less than
one-half the fatigue.
Passengers for Richmond and P. tersburg, by
leaving Baltimore in the boats of ihis line on Mon-
day, Wednesday, or Friday, sleep on board, and
arrive in Richmond next afternoon about 3 o'clock.
Agent Baltimore Steam Packet Co. Bait.
Oct 22

The Passenger train on this read will
daily start as follows, viz:
From Washington for Baltimore at 6 o'clock a.
m. and at 5i p. m. Prom Baltimore for Washing-
ton at 9 o'clock a. m. and at 4 p. m. l'.-..r* -r
by the morning train, if proceeding Westwardly,
can connect with the western train on the Baltimore

and Ohio Railroad at the R-lay House, reach Fre-
derick in lime for the WeAstern stages that leave
there at 2 o'clock p. m. for Harper's Ferry in time
for the evening train for Winchester. While pat-
sengers Iravcliing Eii" ar.iiv, are conveyed
through to Phia.lrphia in time for the evening
line to N!w York, an.'r iry accomplish the journey
horn Wa:hingion to Nlw York in one day.
Under no circumsidnecr, whatever, can the train
be delayed beyond ite h. ur fixed for starting. It
Is theref,,re respecifuly :uize.te.l that passengers
procure their Ilickers the previous evening, to ena-
ble them to 4lo which, the office will be kept open
till half past even c'c-ek, p. m. -
Oct 13 Agent.

passenger car ain b- .,' ti-.i ,ail (except San-
day) wihh nhe 1r(mnng," irin, ir, I cl, leaves Wash-
ingion at 114 t,'clnc w, a ni. By thi conveyance
;a.-I'cner'R qr( affor.'ed r, ( .jporiuritIy of reaching
illimore in lime to connect aoih lie evening train
ol cars for i h lad,-I[ h a, or wih ie Western mail
train at the Relav l"u.e, And ihu-. enabling them
to reach Philadelphia by Ii. and Fiederick by 81
o'clock ihe same nt'-'i
Byordrr; SAM'L SrETrINIUS,
Oct 13 Agent.

b1 has returned V) town anl re-umed the prac.
.lce of his profession. Third st. Qtth Oct. 1840;.

oo,'- if,



PROPOSALS for publishing, in the town of
Abingdon, Virginia, a newspaper, entitled the
In establishing a new Democratic press in West-
ern Virginia, it becomes us to state briefly the mo-
tives which induce this step. They refer them-
selves chiefly to the two considerations of place
and time. This portion of the Old Dominion has
been hitherto an impregnable fortress of Democra-
cy. Te ,-ri. in,. the habits, the feelings of its people,
are essentially republican. They preserve in a great
degree the simplicity, lhe en'rr-%.'v, and the equality of
their hardy and enterprising progenitors. They
are not influenced by the traditions of aristocracy,
they are n t enervated by tI c corruptions of lux-
ury, nor separated into widely distinct classes, by a
disproportionate distribution of wealth. Mence, as
we have already said, the manly yeomanry of
Western Virginia are essentially Democratic, and
will remain so at heart, at least, until iheir circum-
stances and habits shall have undergone a thorough
change. The enemies of popular rights are aware
of this; and hence their hostile approaches are
insidious and deceptive. It is under the guise and
name of Democrats, that they seek to seduce the
people of Western Virginia from their allegiance
to their ancient faith and principles. For the pur-
pose of effecting their dishonest ends, they assume
the mask and affect the language of Democracy, as
spies introduce themselves into the opposite camp
to discover its weakness and plan its destruction.
This design has now become the sealed policy of
the enemies of Democracy every where. Its princi-
ples are so just, and have found such favor with
the people, that its foes have renounced in despair
the plan of open opposition. It is as Republicans
that they seek to crush forever the Republican
party. It is as pretended Democrats that they seek
to destroy every thing which is valuable in Demo-
cracy. They fight under a false flag, and pour
their fire from a masked battery. But, fellow-
citizens, in order to detect them, you have only to
apply the test of principles and practice. This is a
comparison which the plainest and most simple-
minded man among you can make with success.
There can be in this country but two great poli-
tical parties-the popular or Democratic, and the
aristocratic or Federal. Democracy is founded
upon the equality of human rights; Federalism upon
individual power and privilege. The Republican
or Democratic party is in favor of a strict construe-
lion of the Constitution; of the rights reserved to, or
rather by, the States; of mild and equal laws which
create or recognize no distinction of men or creed;
of a policy which regards the integrity and
welfare of the whole people, rather than the sudden
enrichment of particular classes by means of priv-
ileges as corrupting as they are unjust.
The Apostle of American Democracy has painted
its features so vividly, yet justly, that we cannot re-
frain from presenting them in his own beautiful
"Equal and exact justice to all men of whatever
state or persuasion, religious or political: peace,
commerce, and honest friendship with all nations,
entangling alliances wilh none: the support
of the State Governments in all their rights, as the
most comp-tent administrations for our domestic
concerns, and the surest bulwarks against anti-re-
publican tendencies: the preservation of the Gene-
ral Government, in its whole constitutional vigor,
as the sheet anchor of our peace at home and safe-
ty abroad; a jealous care of the right of election by
the people-a mild and safe corrective of abuses
which are lopped by the sword of revolution, where
peaceable remedies are unprovided: absolute acqui-
escence in the decisions of the majority-the vital
principle of Republic;, from which there is no appeal
buttoforce-the vital prii.cip!e and immediate pareit
of despotism; a well-disciplined militia, our best re-
liance in peace, and for the first moments of war,
till regulars may relieve them: the supremacy of
the civil over the military authority : economy in
the public eaxpamiaa thotrinorr mn'. 1.- licht'h i Mir.
thened: the honest payment of our Jdet, anI ;a 'redI
preservation of the public faith; encouragement
of agriculture and commerce as its handmaid:
the diffusion of information, and arraignment of
all abuses at the bar of public reason: freedom of
religion, freedom of ilh: p(. : :.,n freeI r.a of
person, under the proieciiiun t the lii l as corpuE,
and trial by juries impartially selected. These
principles form the bright constellation which has
gone before us, and guided our steps through sn
age of revolution and reformation. The wisdom
of our sages and blood of our heroes have been de-
voted to their attainment. They should be the
creed of our political faith; the text of civic instruc-
tion; the touchstone by which to try the services of
those we trust; and should we wander from them
in moments of error and alarm, let us hasten
to retrace our steps, and regain the road which
alone leads to peace, liberty and safety."
These, fellow-citizens, are our principles,
and we are sure that they are also yours.
Let us briefly apply them as a "touchstone "
to the doctrines of the party to which we are
opposed, and which seeks to persuade you that it
maintains the ancient Republican faith. The large
majority of that party is in favor of a Bank of the
United States, which was the first and grossest vio-
lation of the Constitution; which is a great anti-
republican monopoly; which traded upon the reve-
nue and centralized the capital of the country; which
by its dangerous power over the currency, produced
plenty or want, at pleasure; which corrupted the
leaders of the press, and retained as its feed advo-
cates some of the first statesmen in the country.
The Federal or Opposition party is in favor of a
gigantic scheme ot internal improvements by the
General Government, without warrant of the Con-
stitution; a scheme which would lavish the re-
sources of the country upon every wild and abor-
tive project; which would introduce the most
corrupt bargaining in Con-reec; and which
would create the nrc .iry ji.r a heavy taxa-
tion, or a vast and accumulating national
debt. The Federal party, whatever name it may
assume, is generally in favor of a protective tariff,
which finds no sanction in the Constitution; which
is an indirect taxation of the most oppressive kind;
which exalts one portion of the country by the de-
pression of the other; which is fatal to the
r.ti..p.: i",' of the planting Slates; which de-
stroys all harmony among the diff-rent sections
of the Union, and which has once brought us to
the brink of civil war. The Federal party is in
favor of giving up the national income to institu-
tiens not known to the Constituti n, nor created or
controlled by Congress, that it may be employed
to stimulate speculation at the expense of pri-
vate morals, solid prosperity, and the pub
lie security and welfare. The modern Fe-
deral party is in favor of an assumption
of th e debts of the States, direct, or indirect through
a division of the proceeds of the public land.; a
project, unjust, partial, and corrupting; and which
would impose upon every poor man in Ihe c untry,
the burdensome consequences of all tha follies 0(
a period of wild speculation.
But it is impossible to enumerate in so brief
space, the characteristics which identify the present
Opposition wilh the early enemies of Republican-
ism This party isstrungihened, at this time, by
sarous factions elements which are united only by
the bond ofacommon hatred. Am.'-n Iherr ,he m u
dangerous are Abolitionism, which would over-
leap the Constitution to foment insurrection and se-
ver the Union; and Antimasotiry, which wuuld sub-
stitute for the freedom of mind, an inquisitorial ty.
To all these principles and all these objects, fel-
fow-citizens, Democracy is hostile. It represents

and appeals to the plain sense and honest feelings
of the mass of the community. It has faith
in the people, confidence in self-government,
and conviction that public prosperity can only be
promoted .by the same causes and means which
produce private happiness, viz: integrity and in-
dustry. This is our profession of faith, and this
will always be the creed of the LmTTLE TENNES-
In embarking in the present arduous enterprise,.
we are well aware of thlb importance of our psi-
tion, anti the r- 4 i, ;!i'ilii we -hall incur; but, in
spired with diir" p ni-pl-,t whirb our fathers have
bequeathed u- a a I.a-:a-ev %t.irthy of perpetuation,
we shall boldly and fearlessly discuss those prince
pies without hesitation or reservation; and we must
here impress upon our friends the absolute neces-
i ,y ,i their marching up ',johihl anl -iu'lanir 11 ,r,
not with the mere form ofitibrib.ine, bii with ih-
weessary and the needful. This is bihc urest gua-

ranty of our success, which will inspire new vigor
into the hearts of those who are battling for princi-
ples, in contradistinction to those who have none
except log cabins, coon skins, and hard cider, which
are entirely unworthy of the descendants of the
fathers of the American Revolution. All subscri-
bers must pay us in advance, because
we cannot, and will not, incur the responsi-
bility of booking so many small accounts
which necessarily occur in newspaper esta-
blishments. We have incurred considerable ex-
pense in procuring an entirely new establishment,
and placed ourselves on the outer walls of the Con-
stitution, as faithful sentinels, ready to sound the
tocsin of alarm to Old Virginia, whose principle
are identified with the character of her illustrious

L WAIM'S VERMIFUGE.-The most useful
S Family Medicine ever offered to the public.
This well known Anti-Dysenteric and Worm
Medicine has proved successful these twelve years
past, and is universally acknowledged by all'who
have tried it, to be far superior to any other medi-
cine ever employed in the diseases for which it is
recommended. It is perfectly safe, and no child
will refuse to take it.
Worms being especially apt to infest persons of
debilitated digestive organs and emaciated constitu-
tions, much mischief is often done by the ordinary
worm medicines, which generally consist of the
strongest purgatives, calomel, that destroyer of the
constitution, bitters, pink root, spirits of turpentine,
wormseed oil, &c. &c. Articles of this kind may de-
stroy worms, but they debilitate the stomach, and
often materially injure the general health, without
removing the cause. Swaim's Vermifuge has the
peculiar advantage of removing the cause of worms,
by giving vigor and healthy action to the stomuch,
bowels, and organs of digestion, thereby relieving
measles, croup, whooping cough,&c. This medicine,
by invigorating the internal functions, strengthening
the organs ofdigestion, and removing the primary
cause which creates morbid secretions, will relieve
Bowel Complaints, Cholic, Dysentery, Dyspepsia,
and the whole train of biliary affections, Sick
Headache, Acidity of the Stomach, Foul Breath,
Bleeding Piles, &c. It is an antidote in the early
stages of Fever and Cholera Morbus. As a general
family medicine, it stands unrivalled, as it is ap-
plicable to most of the diseases to which children
are subject. Swaim's Vermifuge will be found of
some utility to persons who occasionally indulge
in the conviviality of the table; a dose taken be-
fore dinner will anticipate the effects of acidity of
the stomach, not unfrequently produced by wine.
In the neglect of this, however, a dose in the
morning or the following morning, will, in most
instances, restore the tone of the stomach.
Families resident in the country, and isolated ii
a measure from medical advice, travellers jour.
neying to the far West, or bound to distant ports1
seminaries and ail public institutions and charila,
ble associations, will find this remedy, constantly
t hand, of great utility.
Prepared at SWAIM'S LABORATORY, Phila-
delphia. HENRY JOHN SHARPE, General
Agent, No. 46 Pine street, New York; and sold by
every Druggist in the United States.
Oct 20-3m WM. SWAIM & SON.

wished, a new edition of the Life of Lord
Byron, with his letters and journals, by Thomas
"As a composition it deserves to be classed
amoi:g ihe best specimens of English prose which
our age has produced."
"The letters, at least those which were sent from
Italy, are among the best in our linrig-i..- TIh.-,
are less affected than those of Pope a, -I W'.li,' I,
they h v- n ,. r ,, er in them than ih f ,-
"And if the epistolary style of Lord Byron was
artificial, it was a rare and admirable instance of
that highest art which cannot be distinguished from
nature."-Maicaulay's tMiscellanies, page 388.
Complete in 2 octavo volumes, handsome edi-
tion, with p, rtraits. Price $3 25. Just received
Oct. 28

S HAWLS.-I have on hand a large assortment
of Shaws, consisting of
Rich Cashmere Shawls, white and mode colored
Do. do. black grounds
Fine Brocha Shawls, all colors
Medium and low-priced do
Blanket Shawls
Kabyle do
Plain Thibet Shawls, black and mode colors
Rich black velvet Mantillas
Do colored do
Do cut velvet do changeable
Black and colored plush Mantillas
Rich silk do
Black satin do
Oct. 26-3t D. CLAGETT.
October 12, 1840.
SOTICE is hereby given, that the Library of
Congress will be closed on Tuesday, the 27th
instant, and will not again be op-ned until Tues-
day, the 24th of November.
JOHN S. MEEHAN, Librarian.
Oct 12-3tawlm

December 13, 1837.
IT is respectfully mide known that merchandise
or other commodities received at th.s Depot,
for delivery in this city, or to be forwarded to Bal-
timore, or to points on tie line of the road, will
hereafter be subject to the I.t1 .''ii- regulations, of
which these interested will please take notice:
1st. The freight and charges on all goods con-
signed to individuals in this city or its vicinity must
be paid betoie their removal from the Depot.
2d. Commodities offered tor transportation must
be distinctly marked, and be accompanied by a
list, in duplicate, of the number and description o(
packages to be forwarded, the name of the cn-
.ignee, and of the p-.rty forwarding the same,
otherwise they cannot be received.
The Company will not be responsible for damage
arising from leakage or .r,.is-, nor will they be
responsible for damage ait -, I to have been re-
ceived by any goods or commodities transported by
them unless the claim shall be made before the
removal of the goods from the D if goods which shall have been transported on this
roal be not received or taken away by their con-
1,1' e or owners on the day of their arrival a' the
Depot, the Company will not be respinsible fur
or pay any claims tor lose or damage which may
be sustained by such goods, in other wotds, if
goods, as above described, be permitted to remain
,n or on the cars on the railway, or at the Depot,
one or more nights after their arrival, they will re-
main so at the exclusive risk of the owners or con-
The hour for receiving and delivering goods will,
until further notice, be from 9 a. m. until 4 p. m.
Oct 13-tf Agent.

An effectual cure for Gonorrhoea, Gleets.
Strictures, &c. Of all the remedies yet di-covered
for ihe cure of these complaints, the IV-:. ,t,.
Pills have been the most effectual, as they have
never been known to fail to effect a permanent
cure. They are mild and pleasant to take, yet
powerful in their action, ansl may be taknt wi h-
-out the k' e e,,' of the most intimate friend.
rheer I'l i are putup is square boxes, wi.h full
direclions accompanying each box. For, sale at
.I1-S FRANCE'S Cigar anil Fancy Store, Penn.
a.,rni ,.between 3 and 41 streets.
W. KIRKWOJD'S, corner 12 h s'rest and the
CHARLES STOTT, corner of 7ih street and
the avenue.
In Georgetown, by 0. M. LINTHICUM.
Oct 29-ly

partment.-The Lectures will commence in
this Institution on the first Monday of November
next, in the New College Edifice, in Filbert above
Eleventh street.
Anatomy and Physiology, SAMUEL GEORGE
The Theory and Practice of Medicine, WIL-
Materia Medica and Pharmacy, SAMUEL COL-
Obstetrics and the Diseases of Women and
Chemistry and Natural Philosphy, WALTER
The Students of Pennsylvania College are admit-
ted to the Practice of the Pennsylvania and Block-
ley Hospitals on the same terms as the other Stu-
dents of the city. They besides have the advan-
tage of attending the daily demonstrations from
cases of disease at the dispensary of the College in
Filbert street.
Sep 8-3tawtN2 No. 15 south Seventh street.
-EDWIN C. ESTES, at No. 167 Pearl
street, offers his services to merchants, planters,
and others, in the purchase of every description of
foreign and domestic merchandise, as well as in
the sale of cotton.
He promises fidelity and promptness in filling
any order sent to him, and making returns for any
property entrusted to him for sale, and refers to
Hon. R. Chapman, M. C. City of Washington.
Jos. Brewster, New York.
Lester, Holmes and Co. NewYork
P. Fanning, Norwich, Connecticut.
George and A. B. Hager, Boston.
Fuer,on, Dale and Co. New Orleans.
Keyes and Roberts, I
Gen. J. W. Garth, Decatur, Ala.
John J. Massey, Pickensvills, Ala.
Hon. David C. Neal, Wetumka, Ala.
Bull and Files, ? Mobile, Ala.
I. D. Fuller,I .a
Hon. J. L. Martin, Tuscaloosa, Ala.
C. C. Norvell, Nashville, Tenn.
D. A. Smith, esq. Jacksonville, Ill.
Jas. Brown, Oxford, Miss.
R. M. Williamson, Jackson, Miss.
Win. T. Lewis, Woodville, Miss.
Aug 13-2aw6m*
COLUMBIA.-The Lectures in the Medical
Department of this Institution will commence on
the first Monday in November, annually, and con-
tinue until the first of March.
During this period, full courses will be delivered
on the various branches of Medicine by
THOMAS SEWALL, M. D. Professor of Pa-
thology and the Practice of Medicine.
THOMAS P. JONES, M. D. Professor of Che-
mistry and Pharmacy.
HARVEY LINDSLY, M. D. Professor of Ob-
stetrics, and the Diseases of Women and Children.
THOMAS MILLER, M. D. Professor of Ana-
tomy and Physiology.
JOHN M. THOMAS, M. D. Professor o' Ma-
teria Medica and Therapeutics.
J. FREDERICK MAY, M. D. Professor of
Surgery; late Professor of Surgery in the Univer-
sity of Maryland.
SAMUEL C. SMOOT, M. D. Demontrator
of Anatomy.
The Medical College is situated at the corner of
10th and E streets, equi-distant from the Capitol
and the President's House.
In the arrangements of this building, and the
organization of the schooL particular reference has
been had to the study of Practical Anatomy, a
branch which the student will enjoy pecu!iarfacili-
tie. 1-..1 f. hll t-s .lhO-
Tne ['iri. ,.r ,.i Surgery will show all the ope-
rationv upon the recent subject, and afford the stu-
dent an opportunity of repeating the more impor-
tant ones with his own hand.
The Professor of Chemistry has a complete
Chemical and Philosophical Apparatus.
The Professor of Obstetrics will illustrate his
lectures by obstetrical apparatus, and an ample
collection of preparations and drawings,
As there are many young men of talent and
worth in different parts of our country who, from
restricted circumstances, are unable to avail them-
selves of the benefit of public lectures, the Profes-
sors have resolved to admit, gratuitously, two such
students from each of the States, and one from
each of the Territories. In order, however, to
guard against individuals whose education and cha-
racter do not quality them to become useful mem-
bers of the profession, the selection is placed in the
hands of the Senators and Delegates of Congress,
each of whom has the right to select one student
from his respective State or Territory, and whose
certificate of selection will be a passport to all the
lectures, by paying only, on entering the school,
the usual matriculating fee of five dollars.
The entire expense, for a Course of Lectures by
all the Professors, is $70. Dissecting Ticket $10;
optional with the student.
The requisites for graduation are, that the can-
didate shall have attended the lectures of each Pro-
fessor two full courses, or one full course in this
school, and one in some other respectable institute
tion. Hle shall have entered his name with the
Dean of the Faculty as a candidate for graduation,
and delivered to him an inaugural dissertation on
some medical subject, thirty days before the
close of the session, and pass a satisfactory exami-
All persons who have attended two full courses
of lectures in this school, are entitled to attend suic-
ceeding courses free of expense.
The degrees are conferred by the authority of
the Colombian College, incorporated by an act of
Congress of the United States.
Good board can be procured at from three to
four dollars per week.
Dean of the Faculty.
City of Washington, June 2, 1840--2awtiN
ORPHAN'S COoRT, Note. 3, 1840.
District of Columbia, Washington County, to wit:
%jfN application, it is ordered that lteters if ad-
df ministration on the estate of John L. Ball
late a Li utenant in the Navy of the United Slales,
deceased, be granted to James H. Causten, unless
cause to the contrary be shown on or before lhb
first Tuesday in December next: Provided, a copy
of this order be published in the leI.t i.'. rn.c r and
Globe newspapers of this city once a week for three
successive weeks previous to said first "ri-.,lay is
December next. NATH'L P. CAUSIN,
Judge Orphans' Court.
Test: ED. N. ROACH,
Ntv 4-w3w Register of Wtll.
T IHlS IS TO GIVE NOTICE, That the sub-
scriber has obtained from the Orphan's
Coait cf Washington county, in the District of
Columbia, letters of administration on the personal
estate of John Barry, late of Washington county,
deceased. All persons having claims against the
deceased, are hereby warned to exhibit the same,
with the vouchers thereof, to the subsetiber on or
before the 20th day if Oetober next, They may
otherwise by law be excluded from all benefit of
said estate.
Given under my hand and seal this 20th day of
October, 1840. JOHN FOOTE,
Oct 20-law3w Administrator.

ORPinaNS' CouaT, October 20, 1840.
Ordered, that the administrator of John Barry,
late of Washington county, deceased, give the no-
tice required by law to the creditors of maid de-
ceased, by advertisement once a week for three
wceks in one of the newspapers of the city of
Wa -,,-'.n. D.C,
Tesa: ED. N. ROACH,
Ot.21--liw3v Regis'er f Wills.
EW SILKS-I have j ist opened-
10 pieces rich stiped changeable Gros de
4 dress ra rnr,.i Ch*nu;a P'l;1
20 pieze nrcn h ,ii,: 11- i- ,, -de Algiers
10 do G, i.i Nal.tis
Wh ch, with my I. n,i-r stock, which is very
large, I will offer at very low prices.
Oct26-3t J). CLAGETT.

2 vols. Stokes's Lectures on the Theory and
Practice of Physic, with notes, and twelve addi-
tional Lectures, by John Bell, M. D. 1 vol. Mis-
cellanies on Homoeopathy, by an association of
Homeopathic Physicians, 1 vol. Scoutetten on the
Radical Cure of Clubfoot, 1 vol. Warren's Surgi-
cal Observations on Tumors, with cases and ope-
rations, 1 vol. Burdell on the Structure, Physiolo-
gy, Anatomy, and Diseases of the Teeth, 1 vol.
The Philosophy of Human Nature in its Physical,
Intellectual, and Moral Relations, by H. MeCor-
mac, M. D. London; The Comparative State of
Medicine in France, England, aid Germany, by
A. Muehry, M, D. of Hanover, 1 vol. Tweedie on
Fevers, Inflammation and Diseases of the Skin, 1
vol. just received, together with many other medi-
cal and surgical works, and for sale at the lowest
prices by F. TAYLOR.
Almo, the latest numbers of Bell's Medical Li-
brary, of Dunglison's Medical Magazine, of the
American Journal of Medical Sciences, and of the
New York and Baltimore Medical and Surgical
Journals, for each of which the advertiser acts as
agent, and will have them regularly forwarded to
any part of the United States.
'N OTICE.-This is to give notice that the sub-
J scribers hath obtained from the Orphan's
Court of Charles County letters testamentary on
'the personal estate of William Budd, late of said
county, deceased. All persons having claims
against the said deceased, are hereby warned to
exhibit the same, with the vouchers thereof, to the
subscribers, on or before the twenty-fifth of March
next. They may otherwise by law be excluded
rom all benefit of the said estate.
Given under our hands this 25th day of Septem-
ber, 1840. ARTIMACIA BUDD,
Oct 1-law4wv Executor.
ORPHANS' COURT, September 22, 1840.
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, Washington county, te wit:
N the case of William S. Nicholls, administra-
tor de bonis non of James Kincaid, of said coun-
ty, deceased, the said administrator, with the ap-
probation of the Orphans' Court, has appointed the
second Tuesday in April, 1841, for the final settle-
ment of said estate, and for payment and distribu-
tion, in the court's direction and control, of the as-
sets in said administrator's hands to the legal repre-
sentatives of said deceased; at which time and place
the said legal representatives are requested: Pro.
vided a copy of this order be published once a
manth for three months previous to said second
Tuesday in April next, 1841.
Sept. 29 Register of Wills.
SOTICE -This is to give notice that the subt
scriber has obtained from the Orphan's Cour-
f Wa'hiovton Countv, in the District of Columbia,
'.t -ir *1 .: .: .tiiii itali *n with the will annexed, on
the person.i estate of Samuel Kendall, late of said
county, deceased. All persons having claims
against the deceased, are. hereby warned to exhibit
the same, with the vouchers thereof, to the sub-
scriber, on or before the 15th day of October next.
They may otherwise by law be excluded from all
benefit of said estate, and those indebted to the said
estate will pl-ase to make immediate payment to
Given under my hand this 15 h day of October,
Oct 16-law3w Adminiitratrix.

scriber hag obtained from the Orphans' Court
of Washington county, in the District of Colum-
bia, letters of administration, with the will annexed,
on the personal estate of Eliztbeth A. Greenfield,
lat of Washinaton county aforesaid. deceased. All
p-r-on.- having claims iche deceased arc
hereby warned to exhibit the same, with the vouch-
ers thereof, to the subscriber, on or before the 28th
day of March next: they may otherwise by law be
excluded frem all benefit of said estate.
Given under my hand, this 28(h day of March,
Oct. 26-law3t Adm'r, will annexed.

O-rHANS' COURT, March 28, 1840.
DISTRICT oF COLUMBIA, Washington County, to wit:
Ordered, That the administrator, with the will
annexed, of Elizabeth A. Greenfield, late of Wash-
ington county, deceased, give the notice requiredI
by law to the creditors of said deceased, by adver-
lisement, once a week for three weeks, in one of
the newspapers of the cily of Washington, D. C.
Test: ED. N. ROACH, Reg'r Wills.
FHS1- 0 IS TO GIVE NOTICE, that the sub-
scriber hath obtained from the Orphan's
Court of Charles County, in Maryland, letters of
administration on ths pers,. nal estate of Thomas
Jones, late of Charles county, deceased.
All persons having claims against the said de-
ceased, are hereby warned to exhibit the same, with
the vouchers thereof, to the subscriber, at or before
the 10th of May rbe, i-. thev may otherwise by law
be excluded from all '....=,, of the said estate.
Given under My hand, this 27th day of October,
ONt aB-w4t BFi-s".'""
rA'HIS IS TO GIVE NOTICE, that the sub-
.-L scriber has obtained from the Orphans'
Court of Washington county, in the District of Co-
lumbia, letters ot administration on the personal
estate of Wm. W. Edwards, late of Washington
county, deceased. All persons having claims against
the deceased,are heresy warned to exhibit the same,
with the vouchers their, of, to the subscriber, on or
before the 13hitlay o N november next; they may
otlierwise, by law, be excluded fioni all benefit of
said estate.
Givcn under my hand this 13.h day of Novem-
b-r, 1840. J. L. EDWARDS, Adw.

ORPHANS' COUnT, Nov. 1.3, 1840.
DISTRICT OP COLUMBIA, liVashingt.n c,,unty, to wit:
Ordered, That the adminis.raior ot William W.
Etwards, late of Wa-h rir-'r. county, deceased,
give the noitce required by law to the creditors ot
said deceased, by advertisement ones a week for
three weeks in one of the newspapers of the city of
Washington, D. C.
Test: ED. N. ROACH,
Nov. 13-law3w itegisirr of Will.
A CARD.-If John Reynolds, John Claypool,
or Samuel B. Chandler, who on the I4th
July, 1835, entered at Galena the east half 01 the
southeast quarter of section 22, township 16 north,
range 11, east of the fourth principal meridian, will
either of them give information to the -ubscriber,
or to William Lowry, esq. of LaSalle, I11. whether
they have so!d the same, ir still hold it, they will
confer a great favor upon Mr. Lowry, A letter di-
rected to Mr. L. at La Salle, La Salle co. Illirlie i,
or the subscriber, at the samu place, wi lbe re-
eeived with great pleasure.
Sept 30-4w* _______________
Pi;ATr', Profesor of Ms.ic, (12ih street,
south of Pennsylvania avenue,) hai just received a
rosewood Pitno, superior to any instrument sent to
this District. his exterior is a perfect specimen of
beautiful cabinet wora. Is rich and magnificent
tone equals in power the largest grand pianos ; ii
has a third pedal, producing tones of inconceivable
sweetness, lon which Messrs. Gilbert have obtained
a oatent. It is not possible to give an adequate

idea by description. Profssors, amateurs, and
others, whether wishing to purchase or not, are
respectfully invited to call.
W. P. has for sale several other Pianos, the best
and cheapest ever offered, all warranted.
G. roman and other instruments taken in ex-
change. O_ I22-eolw
-" UITARS -W. FISCHER h s jiat received
Great vaniery of plan and ornamental
Giitzr, with paleat screws, ?quare and flat heads,
wilh or without ca er, at prices from five to sixty
dollars each.
Also, con-.tntly on bard, the best Pianos, from
the unequalled manufacturers, MIessrs. Caickeripg
and Mackays, Boston. Violrns,Fiutes, Clarionets,
Fageolet;, Fifes, and Accordions with semi-tones,
with the most approved instruction books for each

Sores, Syphilis, and the host of painful and hith-
erto incurable affections resulting therefrom; White
Swellings, Diseases of the Liver and Skin, General
Debility, &c. and all diseases arising from Impurity
of the Blood.
This medicine is particularly recommended as
an alterative and a purifier of the Blood. It gives a
tone and vigor to debilitated constitutions which in-
valids are unconscious of until they have experi-
enced its effects.
It is also recommended in Diseases where the
Lungs and Breast are supposed to be affected, and
also where the constitution is broken down by the
use of Mercury or Quinine.
The Swaim's Panacea is an accredited antidote to
the diseases-peculiar to tropical latitudes. It is made
use of en all plantations, and proves a speedier, a
more certain and less expensive medium of perfect
restoration than any other medicine hitherto known
or employed.
This medicine has the singular fortune-a just
tribute to its great merit-of being recommended by
the most cchlebrated practitioners of medicine in the
United States and Europe; whereas not one of the
spurious mixtures made in imitaton of it has the
least support from the medical faculty. This fact
offers an argument so plain and conclusive that it
needs only to be mentioned to enforce conviction.
Swaim's Panacea is recommended to all those inva-
lids for whom physicians prescribe Sarsaparila
Syrups, Extracts, &e.
Swaim's Panacea is in round bottles, fluted longi-
tudinally, with the following word blown in the
glass, "Swaim's Panacea, Philadelphia," having
but one label, which covers the cork, with the sig.
nature of Win. Swaim on it, so that thecoik (bear-
ing also upon it, as a seal, the impression, '"Wm.
Swaim") cannot be drawn without destroying the
signature, without which none is genuine. The
medicine may consequently be known to be genuine
when the signature is visible; to counterfeit it will
be punished as forgery.
Prepared at SWAIM'S LABORATORY, Phila-
delphia. HENRY JOH SHARPE, General
Agent, No. 46 Pine street, New York; and sold by
every Druggist in the United States.
Oct. 10-sod in WM. SWAIM & SON.
GELO having taken the. three story house east side
of 6th street, between E and F streets, will open on
the first Monday of October next a Day School for
a very limited and select number of young ladies,
to whom, with the assistance of other competent
instructors, a thorough English education will be
imparted, together with Music on the Piano or
Guitar, after the true Italian school, and the French
and Spanish languages, if required.
These languages will also be taught in class to
gentlemen from 7 to 11 o'clock in the evening,
after his favorite practico-theoretical method, by
which the willing scholar, endowed with but coem-
mon understanding, will, in the course of three or
four months, be able to perfect himself in the lan-
guage he is studying, without the assistance of a
teacher. He will need no grammar, nor be
obliged to commit any thing to memory; he will-
only want a blank book, in which to insert a few
essential rules, which differ from those of his native.
tongue, and a class book, which will aid him at the
same time in pronunciation, orthography, transla-
tions, analysis, &c. Conversation, writing under
dictation, and other exercises, as useful as pleasant,
will chiefly be upon subjects i.'r, ;i,2 to the mer-
chant, the lawyer, the physician, &c. Latin and
Italiai will also Ie taught, in class or privately,
at his residence or abroai.l, an ae. rai ,: I -,io ar-
rangements made with Iut.le i,.r.iuinr. Trai
nations in English, Frenob, Latin, Italian, and
Spanish made with exactness and despatch.
Pi ..s- Prn,. or Composrtuors esrros f s.
coming acrtainted, in a few lessons, with the French,
Spanish, and Italian orthographies, to spell with
ease and correctness those languages on manuscripts
entrusted to them for publication, could form
separate class.
Terms made known on application.
Mr. S. an inhabitant, during seventeen years, of
the United States, of which he became, in 182), a
naturalized citizen, thinks to have had sufficient
time to learn upon what basis the best system of a
Republican education should be grounded; and
formerly a Professor of Languages in the Columbia
College of New York, and a director of renowned
literary and scientific institutions during six years
ia New Yoik, to in Mexico, and five in New Or-
leans, finding himself in possession of a volum-
nous repertory of the most flattering testimonials
from persons of the highest standing in both worlds,
touching as well his fitness for the task as the re-
spectability of his character, refrains here from
producing new references.
Sept 3()-eodi.t
ORPHAN'S CouRT, aept. 25, 1840.
District of Columbia, Washington county, to wit:
S N APPLICATION, it is offered, that letters
of administration be granted to John Foote,
on the estate of John Barry, late of Washington
county, District of Columbia, deceased, unless
cause he shown to the contrary on or before tht
ihird Tuesday of October next: Provided, a copy
of this order be published in the Globeand Intelli-
gencer newspapers once a week for three succes-
sive weeks previous to said third Tuesday in October
next. True copy-Test:
Oct 8-w3t Register of Wills.
ot Richmond, Kentucky, cures by his mode ol
operating on the ear, about four cases out of five
of deafness, ie has restored to hearing a number
of individuals after its loss, to a great exLens, front,
ten to twenty years, and in one instance for near
forty years; and this individual now hears well.
The length of time deafness has existed is not con.
clusive evidences that hearing cannot be re-
Fro i the fact that a great majority of the large
number deprived of the inestimabls faculty of
heating, car be restored by his mode mf operating
and treatment, in some instances by a single opera-
tion, and at farthest in a few weeks or months,
he invites all those who are deaf to come and be
restored. Cases from a distance will not be re-
quired to remain longer than a few days.
sketch of the origin and rise of the working-
men's party in the city of New York, by Hobart
Berrian, is now offered for sale at tire printing office
of Win. Greer, onF, near 9th streets. Price 6 cents
a single copy, 50 cents a dozen, and $3 a hundre t.
geon Dentist, respectfully announces to the
ladies and gentlemen of Wash-ngton and its vi-
c nity, that he has establihed himself permaneti-
iy at the corner of Pennsylvania avenue and Se-
cond street, east of the railroad depot, where he
may be consulted thn ughout the year, in the va-
rious branches of his prfession.
Determined to render complete satisfaction to
tho~e who may favor him with their patr,,nage,
Mr. MCCONNELL has labored assi In -isly for Se-
veral years in acquiring a thorough knowledge of
the mechanical and surgical branches of his profes-
sion; besides which, he has derived the benefit of
the closest personal observation during a recent
tour of neatly seven years in Europe.
T. Sewill, M. D. H. Lindsly, M. D.
F May, M. D N P. Cairsin. M. D.

.HE POCKET LA WYER-Ju-,t received for
t.ale by F. TAYLOR, comlrte in one vo-
lume of 142 pages, priie 37 cent;, comprising
forums ecnS ory ijn all mercanitile ind money trans-
actions, iot uiI nit every direction essenitl to the
magisrateand private indiiJual, laid down in s,,
pain a manner as to unable every pcrsun to trans-
act his own concerns. To which is added a Lan
Dictionary, coinpiied by ageutlem.n of the Phila-
delphia bar. Sept 26
(-ARPE INGS, &c -We hav just received,
S in addition to a !age s' now on hand-
12 p;eces hard-omse English irgraina Carpeting
very cheap, with Rugs to match
Also, gilt Rods for curtains, wih rings and or-

Remaining in the Poat Office, Washington Cityi
November 15, 1840.
; Z Per.-ons inquiring l..r letters iD the follow-
ing list; will please say they are advertised.
Adams George A. 3 Addison John
Alexander Mrs. Eliza Ame, MNis Sarah
Addison Mrs. M. Ellen

Bright Jacob
Brown J. R.
Brown Miss Ann
Betner Jas. E
Berry Mrs. Eliza T.
Burrass Mrs. Jane 8.
Bryan Elizabeth
Beveridge Miss H. M.
Bellinger Elizabeth
Boswell William

Crown James C.
Clark John
Crane Comn. Win. M.
Clark jr. Henry
Coke William
Clarke Sophia
Collier Richard
Candee Charlet

Dale George
Drake William E.
Diggs Charles
Denham Z. W.

Emory Mrs. Deborah
Evans Susan
Essen, W. V.

Flynn Cornelius
Ferris Mrs. Mary
Franzoni John C. "
Grant Titus A.
Guiner, Mrs. Mary
Gallagher Miss Mary
Garrett George

Hall Lt. F. C.
Hunt Edwin F.
Hord Thomas
Hill Dr. Jonathan
Hall Mrs. Julia Ann
Hood John
Hughes Mrs. Ann 2
Hood Mrs. Hannah
Holtzman Miss Mary I
Harvey Richard
Henry Miss Charlotte
Haslett Samuel 2
Houston Robert
Howard Geo. A.
Havell Robert

Burchenal Jampe
Bordray Naiban
Braiden Miss E.
Burton Charles
Bucknor Mrs. Lonisa H.
Bredekamp J. G.
Barber Joseph
Br score Mrs. Sarah
Bryan Joseph
Basilisco Miss Jo.epbini
Cooper Benjamin
Collins Capt. Charles 0.
Calvert Charles
Conly John T.
County Dolly
Cutter Thos B. 2
Cowan Hughey
Colom Anthony
Dorsey Clement
Deneale James C.
Deringer Calhoun M.
Dugan Alexander
Elmore F. H.
Edwards Dr. H.
Fugate James
Fowlit Miss Katharine
ic; .,
Gorderf John
Gordon Capt. Thos. A.
Gordon Charles
Garner James
Hopkins Mrs. Sarah
Hepburn J. M. 2
Hixton Dr. W. W.
Henderson Annett
Hanna Francis
Hagan Elizabeth -
Hastings Richard F.
Hodges Geo. W.'
1. Handy, sen. Samuel
Heaton David H. 2
Hewilt Mrs Susan L.
Harper Miss Ellen
Henry John
Hoover John

James Mrs. Emma F. Johnson Isaac
Jones Goo. W. Innes Judge
Jewett Mrs. Chas. H. 2
Knight Caleb Keller Otho
Keys Benjamin C. Kendall Martha Ann
Knapp Samuel B. Keating Mrs. Sarah
King Mrs. Virginia Kelso Charles W.
Knight E R.
Louge Francis Loveless James
Lee S.S. Leman Morris
Lewis Henry H. U. S. N.Latiferal Miss Ann M.
Lowry James H. Lamson Silas
Moore William 2 Mickum Mrs. Mary
Murphy Mary Marshall John W.
Martin Mrs. Judge Mason Joseph
Miller George Mustan John L. 4
Murphy Patrick Medara Mrs.
Mason Dr. D. Minor Nancy
McLean John McPherson Mrs. Eliza
McDuell John McDermott William
McKis-,ack Capt. W. M. McSwelligan George
D. MacDowell Dr.
McClellan Capt. J.

Norbeck Mrs. Mary' Nevius J. S.
Nottingham Mrs. Mary

Orme Mrs. Maria W.
Oliver Miss Margaret

Page Sarah Ann
Parris Thos. A.
1'lirrseI- DIirtittmn I. .
Petit Adonis
Parker Mr. U. S. N.
Philips John
Paiton Win. W.

Reeves R. B.
Reid John 2
Rudd Joseph T.
Read Miss Fanny
Roose George
Reid Mrs. Mary
Rhind John

OrV.Lt. d.. C.
0r,1 Lt. LEdwa. O. C.

Pickrell Thomas
Pa 5ite SVl'tlsisx.
P,iridest- G <'rge
Philleo Dr. 1'uilleo
Parker Wi-. H.
Peters Mrs. Louisa
Patker GeM.
Riley Miss Elizabeth B.
Ridgley J. S. U. S. N
Renner Dr. Geo. A. "
Russ-ll Ellison
Rudolph Miss Rebecca F.
Rabb:tt Mrs. Mary

Smith Philip Scott Dr. 3. "
Sears Miss Charlotte Seawell Capt. W.
Slade Mr. Sewall C.
Smoot Mrs. B. M. Sanderson Nicholas G.
Stump Mrs. Catharine Shaclefort Miss Ann
Spence Mrs. Maria Sanders Matthew
Scott Miss Mary C. Spillman Mrs. Rachel
Smith Mrs. Ann Sherman Leonard B.
Smith J. L. Sagar Hiram
Sloan James Stedman Miss
Twig Mrs. Maria Tompkins Capt. D. D.
Thomas John Throckmorton Miss C. S.
Thompson John Thruston Chas. M.
Taylor Lt. R. D. Talburt Geo. W.
Wright Thomas Ward Francis
Wood Mrs. Susan Worthington W. M.
Wade Nelson 2 Wilson Thadens D.
WadeHamiliomi Williamtis Col. Samuel
Waughjr. BeverlyJudge Waltis Hanson
Ward Napoleon B. Wilkinson William 2
Wood Henry S. Williams Miss Julia M.
Well Capt. C. Wilon William
Wtite Henry Windsor Lorenzo B.
Young Richsrd L.
.Iq-The inland posage on all letters intended to
go oi -hip must be pail; otheirwi e, they remain in
ttis oifhie. J. S. GUNNELL, P. M.
Nov 15,1840

U-ARSHAL'S SALE -In virtueof two writs
3. of fire facias, issued from the Clerk's of-
fic- ot th, <;ircut Court of the Distliict of Colum-
bia, for Washington county, and to rue directed, I I %,,-. e at public sale, for cash, on Saturday
next, te 'Il i inst. on the premises, next door to
Doct ir Sewall's, on C street, at the hour of 10
u'c ouk, a. mn. the following property, viz:
1 Sofa; 2 pier Tables, with marble tops; 1 man-
lel Clock, with glass cover; two plated Candle-
saicks, S irffers and Tray; 1 Astral Lamp; 12 cane
botioin Chairs; 2 nah, a ,,ny and 1 centre pine Ta-
bis; 1 mahogany breatlast Tab!e; 2 mahogany
Knife Casesi; 2 plated Candlesticks; 1 set of white
handled Knives and Forks; 1 white damask Table-
cloth; 15 blue dinner Plates and 1 Pitcher; 1 set
Casters; 1 mahogany Bureau; 1 Maitres-v; 1 Bed-
stead; 1 Bolster; 2 Pillows; 2 sheets; 2 blankets;
1 Coverlet; 1 Carpet; I Wash basin and Pitcher;
1 DrI ssing Glass; 1 gilt Glass; 1 Mat-
resy; 1 Bed; 1 Bolster; 2 Pilltows; 2 Sheets;
1 Banket; 1 Coverlit; I itd-tesad; 1 Carpet;
1 mahogany Bureau; 2 dre-sine Tables; Basin and
Pitehtr; 1 piece Carpel; 1 piece Passage Carpet; 2
pieces Ruth Carpet for passage; 3 pieces Rush
Carpeting; 1 snimall Pine Table and Cover; 6 yellow
Cnairs; 1 Feader; 1 pair Amitrontis; Shovel and
Tongs; 1 pair B ass Cand, sticks; Snuffer and
Tray 1 Bed; 1 Matie-s.; 2 jtheet-; 1 Blanket;, 1
Bolster; pillows; 1 Belsieed; 1 Carpet and Green
Haiz-; 1 parr Andirot.s; Shovel and ToBags;
2 Bruanrita LAi.p ; 1 pair Manel Oraaments; 1
Surit c Bedsteai; Bed ,; Mattes,.,; 2 .S'heeis; 1 Pil-
low, and 1 Covele t; IBa rmu artd Diessing Glass;
1 ,Vah tandl, Basin an l Pitcher; 1 pins Ward-
ohe; 1 Mahogany Bareau; 1 pair Brass Andirons;
1 pair Britanuia Lamps, 1 Lookinig G'ass; 1.LPas-
.age antl -tep Cmrp-; 1 Hlat-rack, Canton Mai-
tilg for two ruotnims. S.ze Ia slid ia.ken a the ru-
,)erly of Gewi*e IV. I) -h c, and so'd in saiiriv ji-
licials Nos. 24 andI 25, to November I -rm, 140,
in favor of rh,-ma, Burhb.
Nov 14-dti Mai .hai Lhit. Col.

JI lrM % I ,c l'., N. '' i' i.i iuintu r, all Cco "
nd fun| b u I1 .1. ,I aher, price i..i t lu ithole 62 5o;
ub.istihed ore.ialty l4t an average price c-f L 50
tur each novel.
Nov. 4 F. TAYLOR.


"Or MVdAcniussr'r,
house of Represesltais'-s, May 20, 1840-On the
motion made by him to stm-ke out the enacting
clause of the I/deprendet Treasury Bill.
tCON,:L' itr )
Of the European states, some deposit in bank,
and some do not. The examples, therefore, which
this document af.rds, are both ways. On the first
inspection of the document, there is one line of dis-
tinction apparent in it, which immediately strikes the
eye; and it is, that while European Governments,
like Great Britain and France, which have some-
thing of constiiutionil freedom in their institutions,
which have elected legislative assemblies-Govern-
ments which are at the very top of the scale of mod-
em civilization-while Governments such as these
deposit in bank, and receive bank paper, others,
which have no representative assemblies, nay, some
which are at the very bottom of ihe scale of civiliza-
tion, and but one degree removed from absolute bar-
barism, such as Turkey, do not. This general fact
certainly does not tend to impress the mind very fa-
vorably towards the plan of repudiating bank depos-
itories. Though it may be premature to decide the
question upon this single fact, yet certainly it is a
fact pregnant with inference and meaning.
On looking further, it will be found necessary to
diztinuikh between the question-what shall be the
Government depository, and what the medium of re-
ceipts and payments on the part of the Government?
For instance, not a few Governments in Europe,
especially the heavily indebted ones, make large is-
sues of Government paper, which performs many
of the offices of money, and in some cases is an ex-
press substitute for bank paper. Prussia and Sax-
ony are examples of this. In the case of such Gov-
ernments, it is a secondary question where they
deposit the paper received for public dues, that
paper being Government paper. And their exam-
ple has no application to us, unless it is our inten-
tion also to be overwhelmed with public debt, to
continue to anticipate our revenue, and to make
large issues of Government paper money.
Nor is the place of deposit a matter of much
consequence in this relation, if the receipts and pay-
monte of the Treasury be made in the same medium,
and that medium be either Government paper or
bank paper. The Government may, if it choose,
lock up the notes of a bank in its vaults forever; that
does no injury to the bank, but the contrary. There-
fore the case of Governmen's which, though they
make use of Government agents as depositories, yet
receive and pay bank paper, such as Austria, Den-
mark, and Belgium, goes but little way towards sus-
taining the views of the Administration.
In this document we have, beside the great mon-
archies of Europe, information concerning little
states like the cities of Hamburg and Bremen, which
are of no application; because a particular system
might answer well enough in the narrow limits of a
single insignificant cily, and yet be very unfit for a
great country like ours.
Nor can we derive any instruction from the South
American republics, whose practice if detailed in
this document; for some of them receive bank pa-
per, some of them specie, and others Government
paper; their financial condition being, in general,
like that of the United States in the days of the Con-
federation and of continental paper money, and of
no sort of use as a guide to the United States at the
present conjuncture.
And the Administration, not content with send-
ing us to Turkey to lean how a free people should
be governed, lays before us the examples of the
European colonies in America, such as Halifax,
Jamaica, and Cuba. Truly a profitable study for
the people of the United States! And yet the case
of Cuba-not a Gorernment, not an independ, nt
state, but the mere dependency of Spain, without in-
stitutions of any sort, with scarce the common bene-
fit of decent roads or any ihing else to indicate ma-
terial prosperity-a solitary Spxnish island under
the delegated despo:ism of Spani-h Captains-Gene-
ral and Spanish garrisons-this case, so monstrous-
ly unapposite to that of the Un ted States, has been
much dwelt upon by the advocates of the Admin-
istration, as countenancing scheme of a Gov-
ernment currency and Government sub-treasurers.
If any citizen of the United States wishes to see
This country reduced to the territorial dimensions or
the social or political condition of Cuba, I shall not
contend with him; he is quite welcome to enjoy his
opinions on that head unmolested. Leaving that
question, therefore, to others, it is sufficient for me
S to say that, so long as the-Unltn l U tat -a tst or01
a confederation of States covering a continent-so
long as the United States are an independent Repub
lie--so long as the citizens of the several States are
freemen, having rights of their own, and a country of
their own to be governed for itself-so long the ex-
ample of the political system of Cuba will be the
very last deserving to be quoted for the imitation of
the United States. I like that of Turkey or of the
Barbary States better; for these at least are Govern
ments, nQt dependent colonies; and if their rnler he
a despot, and they grow weaiy of him, they have at
worst the constitutional check of the dagger, l'v
which they may rid themselves of one tyrant, and
try the experiment of another. Not so with a little
colony such as Cuba, garrisoned by a foreign army,
and ruled by a foreign viceroy.
But they who quote upon us the hard-money
currency of Cuba think nothing, it would seem, of
political, social, or moral questions; they look to
the single fact that Cuba produces a large quantity
of sugar for exportation; and that is evidence, un-
doubtedly, of a certain degree of material prosperity.
Whether that prosperity would not be greater under
other circumstances-whether the combination of
dependent colony, forced labor, and specie currency,
does in truth present the beau ideal of political, so-
cial, and financial perfectibility-is a question which
it would be interesting to discuss.
But I shall content myself, at present, with deny-
ing the premises of the argument. Cuba does not,
in fact, possess a stable currency of intrinsic specie
value. Nor does the specie currency which the
island has, such as it is, constitute the chief medium
of purchase and sale for her exports and imports.
According to the best information which I can ob-
tin, the facts in this matter are as follows: Of coin-
ed currency in Cuba, the chief is the Spanish gold
anza, or doubloon, and its parts. This coin is
properly, and according to its original rated value,
equal to sixteen Spanish dollars ; and the doubloons
of recent coinage in independent South America
pass for no more in Cuba, though of about the same
intrinsic value as the old one, which, by Govern-
ment order, passes for seventeen Spanish dollars of
artificial or forced value. Of course, the old Span-
ish doubloon is a mere piece of merchandise out of
Cuba; and whenever that coin reaches the United
States, in the course of our trade with the West In-
dies or with South America, it goes at once to the
broker to be sold at a premium for the artificial de-
mands of Cuba. So much for the gold currency of
Cuba. Nor is the silver currency any better. This
consists, not of Spanish dollars, nor of smaller silver
coins at their intrinsic value; for such coius will
not stay in the island along with doubloons rated at
seventeen dollars, and there is no pillared money in
circulation, but the silver currency is what is called
in the United States headed pistareene, worth only
twenty cents, but passed in Cuba for twenty-five
cents. And many of these coins are, moreover,
grossly adulterated. Thus, very recently, a large
-amount of Isabella headed pistareens, greatly adul-
terated, were sent from Spain to be circulated in

Cuba. That is to say, though Cuba has no bank
paper currency, but a specie currency instead, that
currency has neither a stable nor a true intrinsic
value, Add to which, that specie is the. currency in
small dealings only. Cargoes of sugar in Cuba, as
everybody knows, are purchased, not with doubloons
nor with pistareens, but with bills on England,
drawn either upon previous credits or upon the con-
signment of the cargo. Do the people of the Uni-
ted States want to be blessed, then, with such a
blessful currency of overrated gold and silver as that
of Cuba? Impossible.
SThere is one European Government which,
though not mentioned in this document, is relied
upon very much in argument by the friends of the
Administration-and that is Holland; and it is, I be-
lieve, the only independent state of whose example
they do say much. That Government, we are told,
collects its revenue in specie, and keeps it in the
hands of its own individual agents. If it be so-if
(which I do not believe) the public treasure is con-
tinually transported to and fro, from Amsterdam or
Rotterdam to the Hague, or kept locked up in vaults,
the example proves nothing to us: for a fiscal ma-
chinery which works well in a small kingdom like
Holland, equal in territory only to the smaller among
the States of this Union, and an old country, where
money capital is in excess, and every thing else want-
ing, may be very inadequate, insufficient, and inju-
rious for a republic, so extensive in territory and so
various in wants and resources as the United States.
It costs but a few hours of time, and but little mo-
ney, to convey specie from Amsterdam or Rotter-

dam to the Hague. It would take a many weeks
to make the asine transfers from one extremity of
the United States to the other. The example, there-
fore, seems to me to have no weight, even conceding
the premises assumed.
But the commercial business of Holland is not
done in specie. Amsterdam has its bank. Private
bankers abound, and a paper currency, in the form
of orders or checks, is used in the internal commer-
cial dealings of the great cities.
And if it were otherwise, to what Holland is it
that gentlemen refer us? Is it that Holland from
which the ancestors of a part of the people of the
United States came, and to which their descendants
in New York may look back with just and honest
pride ? Is it Holland in the days of her commercial
and political glory-that Holland which repelled the
armies of Spain, which carried her conquests into
the East and West Indies, which covered every sea
with her ships, and which made the whole world
tributary as it were to the little spot of earth extort-
ed by its industrious, frugal, and hardy people from
the Ocean itself? Is it that Holland which defied
the power of Louis XIV, and contended on equal
terms with Great Britain ? Holland of the days of
De Ruyter, and of Van Tromp, sweeping the Eng-
lish channel with the broom at his masthead ? Hol-
land of the days of the Republic, and of the old
Bank of Amsterdam? No: it is not that Holland
to which the friends of the Admini-tration send us ;
but Holland, shorn of her splendor and her power;
Holland in her decay; Holland at the feet of that
Stadtholder family with which De Witt and Barne-
velt struggled; Holland, become at last the mere
appanage of the house of Nassau: this is the Hol-
land to which the Administration points us, as one
more of the European royal models for the United
States to copy.
If the Administration must have royal models for
imitation, why dues it overlook the case of France,
which not only receives bank paper, but makes de-
posites in the Bank of France? If we are to copy
monarchies, let us copy great and liberal ones.
France has none of this blind hostility against either
a bank of France or joint-stock banks ; and is not
her example as good as that of Holland l I may be
told that in France the bank notes issued by the
bank and received by the Government are not of de-
nominations so small as the banks of this country
issue; and that accordingly France has more specie
in circulation than the United States; but that is a
question of degree, not of principle. What gentle-
men propose in this bill is the proscription of banks,
not the regulation or reform of them. If it were
the latter, we should have little cause of difference;
Once more: if the Administration must needs
have the benefit of some royal example to justify its
policy-if it must go to the old monarchies of Eu-
rope to learn how to conduct the fiscal affairs of the
Government-why does it overlook our fatherland,
Britain ? There is a Government which, differing
as it does from us in its political and social organiza-
tion and in territorial position-differing from us as
all the monarchies of the Old World do-there is at
least one royal Government which, in its chartered
rights, its time-honored Parliament, its intellectual
greatness, its trial by jury, its habeas corpus act, its
advancement in commerce, arts, and power, its
kindred blood, its municipal law almost identically
our own-an American may regard with somewhat
of partial interest, so far as he can entertain such a
feeling for any thing European. Men are prone to
impute to me a sentiment of hostility towards Eng-
land. Not so. I respect her power; and the vely
reasons that cause me to respect her power, make
me to dread her ambition, and to be jealous of her
commercial and colonial aggrandizement. From a
small insular state, England has gradually risen to a
greatness of power beyond that either of the old As-
syrian, Persian, Greek, or Roman empires. On
the narrow surface of the British islands, at once a
workshop and a fortress, England has collected and
concentrated those extraordinary means of power,
whatever they may be, which have enabled her to
extend her dominion over the habitable earth, push-
ing her manufactures and her commerce into every
corner of the earth, and making conquests in every
clime, combining at once the territorial strength of
Rome and the maritime strength of Carthage with
the ambition of both, until she numbers a hundred
and fifty millions of subjects, and is be'ome the
Queen, not of Europe only, but of Asia, and, but for
us, of America too. She may now repeat the boast,
which old Spa;n was once so proud to utter-that in
her dominions the sun never sets; and of her,
the saying of Mr. W.BSTEn is as true as it is beau-
tiful-that the beat of the morning drum in her gar-
risons follows the dawn of day circling around the
Greatness of England, I cannot but watch and dread
it; but I must of necessity respect it. And if I seek
to know how opulence and greatness are to be achiev-
ed, I cannot shut my eyes to the peculiar commer-
cial instruments and ihe peculiar fiscal agents which
England has employed as the means (,i,. ,. other
things) of aiding her in the prosecution of her ex-
traordinary career as a nation. I should presume,
at least, ttat the industrial and fiscal machinery, the
instrumentality of which she had employed in the
Attainment of such wonderful wealth and power,
must be better than that of Turkey, always barba-
rous, and now half ruined, or of Holland and Spain,
which have been losing colonial empires faster than
England gains them. And yet it is the fiscal ma-
chinery of the former "opulent and enlightened
Governments of Europe," and not the latter, which
the President calls on us to admire and to imitate!
Thus far, I have considered chiefly the fiscal ques-
tion of an Independent Treasury ; and I come now
to the fiscal question of an Independent Govern-
ment currency. Indeed, I have incidentally refer-
red to this, in discussing the practice of other Gov-
ernments. What, then, (as a fiscal, not a political
question,) ought the Treasury to receive and pay
out ? Specie only: or Government paper; or bank
and commercial paper, such as the community at
large, and the several States, employ in their receipts
and payments ?
The Administration talks to us of the enormities
of the United States Bank, and the mischief done by
the banks of the several States ; and then exhorts us
not only to dispense with their agency as deposito-
ries, but to proscribe their paper. And here again
it points us to the example of foreign countries. Let
us look at this.
Suppose you had the will and the power to crush
all the present banks. Would that put an end to
banking l No ; for though you should have no bank
corporations, you would have bank princes instead,
like the Rothschilds and the Barings. But would
you rid yourself of paper money l No. Here again
the Treasury document concerning the usages of
foreign States gives us light; for it shows us how
many of the foreign Governments which employ
individual agents exclusively in the safe-keeping of
their public treasure are paper-money Governments.
Prussia, Saxony, Mexico, as we have seen, and others,
have their Government paper. But what need of
foreign example l We have no occasion to go to
Europe to see how this project of the Administration
works. We have the evidence at home. Simulta-
neously with the sub-Treasury scheme come up
Treasury notes.
But it is said these Treasury notes are an old agent
of the Treasury. They are so. Indeed, they differ
in little but the name from the Continental bills of
the Revolution. After that, we saw no more Govern-
ment paper, until the period of the last war. Then
as a fruit of the necessities of that day, came these
Treasury notes fo- the first time. And then, also,
they came after the expiration of the charter of the
first United States Bank. Mark that coincidence.
But though the Treasury notes of 1815, like those

of 1837, did not essentially differ from the Conti-
nental bills of credit, yet the Treasury notes of 1837,
and'those since issued, are a less disguised Govern-
ment paper money than the Treasury notes of 1815.
Not only were the latter issued as a measure of ne-
cessity to meet the war expenditures, but they were
issued to be funded, and as a part of the funded debt
of the United States. But the T,.-a-i,ur notes of
1837 stand upon their own bottom; they are not a
mere evidence of funded debt; they are the original
debt itself; and they have been issued-some millions
of them, at least--at a nominal interest, for the very
object of giving them the capacity to circulate as a
currency. What is the inference? I know that it
is not always easy to distinguish what is mere con-
tiguity of place and contemporaneity of time from
what is really cause and effect. I cannot help think-
ing, however, that, in this case, sub-Treasury is the
cause, and Treasury notes are the effect. For, as I
observed in discussing the Treasury note bill of
this session, every Government must and will have
some kind'of intermediary between its debtor and
itself, and itself and its creditor. No Government,
in its mnses, will voluntarily subject itself to the risk
and trouble of transferring its funds all the time with
a military escort from remote provinces to the capital
and back again. Even Turkey, as the Treasury
Department itself tells us, is willing enough to enjoy
the aid of Greek and Armenian bankers in the per-
formance of this operation.
Indeed, in the discussions on the Treasury note
bill, it might be seen that the advocates of the sub-

Treasury scheme disagree on this point--ome of may be" ameainii his "drafts being used or thrown
thomn adhering rigorously to the idea of using specie into circulation as a paper currency or medium of
alone in the dealings of the Government, and exclud- exchange." But everybody knows that this pro-
ing not only bank paper, but even Government paper. hibition is words only. The drafts can and will be
Such seems to be the idea of one of the distinguish- used in exchange; and the Treasury cannot, if it
ed advocates of this measure, (Mr. BENTON,) who would, prevent this. So that the Independent
has urged it on with so much zeal, industry, and Treasury has, to a certain extent, and according to
perseverance. Others, with a keenecr perception of the amount of its dealings, the currency functions
what the Treasury needs, have seen that Treasury as well as the deposit functions of the United
notes, or some other forms of Government paper, if States Bank.
not necessary, were at least very convenient in the This Government paper, IF all banks are to be
fiscal operations of the Government. When a Go- done away with, will undoubtedly be so far forth a
vernment is in debt, when it has occasion to antici- commercial convenience; but, if banks remain, it
pate its revenues, either bank paper or Government will be a mere engine of power in the hands of the
paper is indispensable, as all the European examples Treasury. And it is by the issue of its own paper
show; and sometimes both are found to be conveni- or of specie, and the refusal to receive bank paper,
ent, as in the case of England, which uses exche- that the Treasury Department is to exercise influ-
quer bills, as well as Bank of England notes. And, ence over the banks and currency of the Union. If
if we are to have no bank paper of any sort, I should the Independent Treasury enables the Department
hesitate to say that Government paper is not better to exercise any influence over the banks and current
than none at all, so far as regards the fiscal conveni- cy, especially if great influence, then it adds in the
ence of the Treasury. same degree to the power of the Federal Govern-
But much has been said, by the Administration meant. If it has power "to unbank the banks," as
and its friends, of the losses which the Government it has been said-nay, if it has but power to restrict
has suffered by the receipt of bank paper. No part and limit their loans and issues, and to reduce their
of this loss, be it observed, has been incurred by the circulation, then is it a tremendous engine of Fed-
paper of either of the two United States Banks. On eral power, as against the States and their institu-
the contrary, it occurred in the period of time be- tions. And if it be powerful for any assumed good,
tween the two banks, and by the receipt of the paper it is equally susceptible of power for evil; for that
of State banks. The amount so lost is estimated by is inherent in the very nature of all power. Or that
the Treasury Department at fire and a half millions, assumed good may itself be a great evil. Which
But was this truly a loss by bank paper ? It is the brings me to a broad question of the general policy
depreciation on the paper of the suspended banks, of the measure; to answer which, requires a deeper
received at the Treasury during the last war with exploration of the subject, in the various details of
Great Britain. If a loss, it was a war loss, and a its different parts.
war necessity. But was it a loss by banks? Not at What is the professed object of the bill ? To
all. The Government needed something with which establish an independent Treasury. Independent
to pay its sailors and troops, to build and armn its of what? Of whom ? Of banks? Is that all?
ships, andm to buy its munitions of war and mouth ; No, it is a Treasury independent of the people.
and it was glad to take whatever it could get-bank The separation ftom banks is but one branch of the
paper, or any thing, else, with which it couil meet operation. So far as regards the place of deposit
the calls on the Treasury. The pretended loss by for the public funds, it is, apparently, a separation
bank paper at that period is no more justly imputa- from banks only. But that is a very small part of
ble to the banks, than the loss on its own paper is. the scheme, i...iI, it is the staple of all the argu-
Both were war losses, necessarily incident to the ment on the subject, by which the Administration
i .i-, -i. of the Government. appealing to the popular jealousy of banks, endea-
i'-I ', so far as regards the fiscal operations of vors to throw dust in the eyes of the people, and to
the Treasury, the practical fact, I apprehend, will be cheat them of their liberties. But the Treasury is
this: A portion of the receipts at the Treasury will to be independent in things receivable and payable,
be in specie, which will go into the vaults and the independent of the people as well as the banks; it
custody of the Treasurer and his deputies, and will is to have an independent currency of Government
lie there a burden rather than a convenience to the paper or specie, while the people are to have some
Treasury, or must be transferred to and fro at much other currency, unless the general currency of the
cost and risk. But very many of the payments will whole country is to be Government paper or specie.
be made as they now are, by a check, or (which is Will Government paper be the general currency
the same thing) an order on a bank or a broker for of the country ? Such a purpose is disavowed in the
the money. A piece of paper will more or less in- bill. And if it were otherwise, the paper issued by
tervene. The course of things in those countries the Government, in its dealings, will obviously be
where the entrepot system prevails illustrates my idea. insufficient in quantity for the commercial uses of
The importer places his goods in the public store, the whole Union. So that cannot be the general
and when he .sells he makes the transfer by an order currency of the people.
on the storekeeper, or by assignment of the store- Will specie become the universal currency ? No;
keeper's certificate of storage. Will not some such i., .|r1m in the United i. t l-1.. i.t,..,,
practice grow up at New York and elsewhere, in tha to answer this purpose, even if it were practicable
payment of duties in specie And what will the (which t is not) to employ specie for all the uses to
Treasury gain, in point of convenience, by the opera- which a paper currency is now applied. If drawn
tion ? N-.iiin.. It is but the substitution of the from abroad, by Government efforts, and against the
agency of brokers for that of bankers, or of individ- current of trade, it disturbs the monetary operations,
ual hankers in the place of bank corporations, as in not of this country only, but of the rest of the world,
Europe, without advantage of any sort to the Govern- as we saw in 1837, when the Bank of England,
ment. alarmed by the forced flow of specie to this country,
But the fiscal question, which I have been discus- adopted such violent measures to stop the stream
sing hitherto, is a question of mere expediency or and thus contributed to produce the commercial conm-
Treasury convenience. Is a sub-treasurer or bank motions of that period. Anid the events of that day
the safer or better -. -i..,%in 4f the public funds ? show that, in proportion as you force the importation
Is bank paper unsafe, ..r .-h.,, -- unfit as medium of specie into this country by Government efforts,
of receipts and payments at the Treasury ? And, you disturb the balance of trade, anid occasion the
though the answer to these questions may be adverse most Jisastrous results. Nay, in proportion as our
to the views of the Administration, yet there may be currency is exclusively a specie currency, in the
other considerations-great reasons of state-which same proportion does it become identified with foreign
dictate the adoption of a particular policy, notwith- causes of uncertainty .-- 11. 1--.-... Everybody knows
standing its cost, hazard, or mere inconvenience to how much of sympathy between Country and country,
the Treasury. And this branch of the subject I and especially between England and the United
proceed next to discuss. States, there now is in all the great operations of
What are those great reasons of state, then, which, commerce; which has led to the saying that the
notwithstanding that the new financial system, con- barometer of our markets hangs ip in the London
sidered as a fiscal agent merely, devolves more ex- Exchange. Amnd, if we have but one and the same
pense, trouble, and hazard of loss on the Treasury currency with these, whatever acts on them acts on
than the old one, yet call for the adoption of the us. Conscious of which, the last Adnministration,
former by Congress ? What are the elements of the when it coceived (-thlis idea of a specie currency, aind
political, as distinguished from the fiscal question, as a part of the scheme, had to adulterate our old coins,
involved in the new scheme of policy ? and to reduce the fineness of the coinage by greater
As a political question, this matter regards the alloy, so as to keep the coins at home- a fact which
power and patronage of the Federal Government; illustrates my idea, that, if you exclude from circula-
its relation to banks; to bank paper and the curren- tion all paper of our own, and render our currency
cy generally; and to the commerce, agriculture, and wholly metallic, the effect will be to identify still
productive industry of the nation, as affected by tihe more all our monetary transactions with those of
fiscal action of the Government. It is this part of Europe. At any rto I ihl- ii fwr rrnt>-t t|-it ti-.
ttn sunect wniclr i cnlerny concerns e people -or tne quantry "f5tm. .... ...i.. ... i ..... i .--....'
United States at large, and which is the more fre- is altogether inadequate for the extended business
quently insisted, on, as a topic of popular discussion, relations and the diversified interests of such a
alike by the friends and the opponents of the Ad- country.
ministration ; and it is entitled, therefore, to careful To be sure, if it were im the power of the Federal
attention at this time. Government to crush all the hanks of the States,
It is obvious that, if the bill pass, it will immedi- anid to exclude from circulation as well their bills
ately place additional patronage in the hands of the and notes as those of individuals-if it were in the
Executive, because it provides for the creation of power of the Government to reduce the country and
new and most important and lucrative offices. It all its business and property to the condition which
will augment the vast army of office-holders, which a limited amount of currency of specie alone would
the Executive already commands, imply-that would be a very definite and intelligi-
It is equally obvious, upon the declarations of ble object, namely :- reversing the natural order of
the Secretary of the Treasury himself, and the things, and restricting the business to the currency,
proofs exhibited by him, that it will enlarge im- instead of providing a currency for the business. Is
mensely the field of peculation, out of which the that intended ? Are we to have a pure specie cur-
individual agents of*the Government have hereto- rency only ? Are we to repudiate all credit in trade?
fore reaped so rich a harvest; or, in the language of To reject the advantages of civilization ? To return
the Globe, it will expose the public treasure to be to the days of barbarism? For I hold it as certain
plundered by a hundred hands, where one cannot thatcommercialcredit, with the co-operation of paper,
reach it now. in the form of bills and notes, as thle representative
Perhaps the scheme involves, on the face of it, of money or other is one of the results of
less of that indirect Government influence which civilization; that -., i,. ..t"I this only, in the present
the Administration was able to exert in 1834 and state of the world, can the complicated anid wide-
1835, by converting the system of the affiliated pet spread affairs ofcommerce be prosperously conducted;
banks into an instrument of party, through appeals and that a paper medium of -.. li..i., ;.- ..q-e of the
to the cupidity of directors, stockholders, and bor- indices of legal stability and ..I -. I- I...-. ..J I freedom
rowers, in the relations of society and of business. On the
But, on the other hand, the Independent Treasury other hand, in a state of barbarism, where every thing
itself has many of the functions of a bank, and so is insecure, where man distrusts man, and Govern-
far forth all the power and influence of one. ment and its subjects alike distrust each other,-
In the first place, it holds deposits, to the amount there is the proper state for a pure specie currency;
of some millions always, of the public treasure ; and for he who sells, will sell for nothing but what is
in that respect it performs the functions of a bank, immediate and tangible ; and he who accumulates,
precisely in the same way, and precisely to the will accumulate only that which is material, and so
same extent, as the United States Bank, or the not subject to the chances of legal and social vicissi-
depository State banks, when they were the agents tudes. Thus it is, that, in some parts of Asia, the
of the Treasury. Whatever amount of public anon- rich man in-ests his wealth in diamonds and other
ey they held under the old system, the same amount gems, which lie may conceal from the rapacity of
will the sub-treasurers hold under the new one. his fellow-men and of his Government, because he
The power comnferred by these deposits will be can trust nobody. Is this what the Administration
great at all times, in proportion to the amount so or its friends desire for thie United States ? I cannot
held in deposit. Even as at present, with a rev- believe it. I the rather imagine that those persons
enue unequal to the public expenditure, the Presi- who reason in this sense, and who labor to this end,
dent concedes it will be five millions. What will it are actuated by a sort of monomania, and are be-
be in case of a surplus revenue? wildered by strong mental delusion.
Not only does the scheme possess the deposit It is conceded, however, by tile President, amid by
functions of a bank, but it has paper issues also. the more rational of his friends, that ai exclusive
I have shown already that, simultaneously with the specie currency is impossible if it were desirable,
sub-Treasury scheme, Pr-. ,-,,, notes made their and undesirable if it were possible. There is to
appearance, having many of the qualities and .uses continue to be, as now, a mixed currency of specie
of a currently, arising as well from their form as from and of paper; and the people are to have, not specie
their receivability at the Treasury in payment of only, nor Government paper only, but ...-i... tl1.
debts and duties to the Government. I have also else.
shown that, of necessity, paper of some sort must But if the Goverunent are to have Government
pass between the Government and its debtors or paper and specie only, and the people something
creditors, and, if not bank paper, then some furm of else, then is the Government independent of the
Government paper. And this bill admits the fact people, as I have said from the outset-mnot in its
on the face of it. In the 10th section, it is provided: Treasury only, but in its currency also ; and that
"And for the purpose of payments on the public as a permanent system of policy.
account, it shall be lawful for the Treasurer of the And what is the assumed relation between the
United States to draw upon any of the said depo- two currencies ? Why, that specie, the superior
sitaries, as he may think most conducive to the currency, is to be for the Government; and that the
public interests, or to the convenience of the public inferior currency of hank paper, drafts, and checks,
creditors, or both." is to be for the people. Such is the theory preached
Here is a paper currency, to a certain amount, to us, and such is the precise point to wtmich the

more or less. Thel6th section enacts: theory brings us. And will the people of the United
S That all marshals, district attorneys, and others, States submit to this ?
having public money to pay to the United States, I have' been accustomed to think that the very
and all patentees, wishing to make payment for essence of democracy consisted in the identification
patents to be issued, may pay all such moneys to of the Government with the people. This idea of
the Treasurer of the United States, at the Treasury, the separation of themn-of the giving to the Govern-
to the Treasurer of either of the Mints in Philadel- meant either an independent place of deposit for the
phia or New Orleans, to either of the Receivers-gen- public revenues, or an independent currency, or in-
eral of public money, or to such other depositary dependence of the people in any thing else-is a
constituted by this act as shall be designated by the new scheme of democracy altogether. To be sure,
Secretary of the Treasury in other parts of the there is enough of this among those "opulent and
United-States to receive such payments, and give enlightened Governments of Europe" to which Mr.
receipts or certificates of deposit therefore Woodbury refers. There, the Government and the
May not these receipts or certificates of deposit people are more or less separate in their interests.
be used in some way as a currency or medium of In some, the governed have extorted from the gov-
exchange? To be sure, the bill requires all "dis- ernors, the hereditary princes and nobles of the land,
bursing officers or other agents of the Government" a portion of political right, as in the constitutional
(section 21st) to pay out what they receive, and monarchies of Europe; in others, none at all, as in
forbids their exchanging Government drafts for any those Asiatic communities where all men (except
thing but gold or' silver; but this restriction applies the prince) are equal, because all men are inferior,
to Government officers only, not to citizens who and alike without rights. There the Government is
are creditors of the Treasury, as contractors and independent of the people. But the United States
others. If I contract to do work for the Govern- compose a republic of associated republics. Our po
meant, or to supply provisions or any thing else to litical organization is republican; our social organi-
the army or navy, though the Government pay me zation is democratic; and all the influences which
in a Treasury draft, it cannot prevent my passing pervade the country, social and political, are dema-
that draft to a bank or to an individual in payment cratic. And the'dearest value of our institutions
of a debt I owe, or selling it at a premium, and pay- rests in the principle thatthe governors and governed
ing my creditor in any thing he may be willing to are identified in their interests; that the least move-
receive. And the bill (section 23d) also requires ment which stirs in the heart beats responsively
the Secretary of the Treasury "to guard as far as through the whole frame, and the least touch on a

single member serinDla ssympaLhe1lc throb to the heart.
Government and people should sail in the same boat,
to sink qr swim t.,either. And yet this. Adminmstra-
tion, professedly, and of set purpose, undertakes to
divorce the Government from the people in the mat-
ter of currency; to give to the Government a sepa-
rate and independent currency; and to do this, for-
sooth, in imitation of the separation policy of those
very monarchies of the Old World, whose political
institutions are (or should be) a name of abomination
to every true-hearted American!
This Administration idea of the independency of
the Government, of its separation from the people,
dates from the message of the extra session of the
last Congress. It proceeded on the assumption that
the Federal Government had no pow-er to do any
thing for the people. For, if the President had ad-
mitted the existence of a power to act, he could not
have resisted the force of the obligation of the Gov-
ernment to use that power for the relief of the peo-
ple, in the midst of evils the existence and magni-
tude of which he has conceded. But, he said, the
people were in the habit of expecting too much from
the Government, which, in the present case, had no
power to act.
The theory and the action of the last President
had been the reverse of this. He not only assumed
the power of the Federal Government to operate on
the currency, but lie was perpetually overacting;
claiming the right, and admitting the duty, and ar-
guing upon the policy of the Government, in this
matter, throughout the controversy with the United
States Bank.
Into the constitutional question of the power of
the Federal Government in relation to the currency,
I will not enter now; but I cannot forbear to point
out the fallacy of an assumption which runs through
all the discussions of the Administration and its
friends. They talk I. i-1. t 1ill of specie as the cur-
rency of the Constitution. I ask them to show me
the word currency any where in the Constitution.
It is not there, either in express language or by allu-
sion. There was a bank paper currency in the coun-
try when the Constitution came into being, which
the Constitution left untouched. It did not in ex-
press terms provide any currency. It left this for
thei people or for Congress to provide. All it did in
regard to specie was, in the first place, to forbid the
States to coin money, or to make any thing but gold
and silver a tender in payment of debts; and, in the
second place, to authorize Congress to coin money,
and to regulate the value thereof or of foreign coin.
That is, it fixed a standard of value, by which all
contracts were to be regulated and prices measured.
But it did not provide that coined money-our own
or that of foreign countries-should be the currency
of the United States.
I repeat that I do not intend to enter into any ex-
hibition of my own constitutional Opinions in this
relation. But the context leads me to investigate
further the question of what opinions the Adminis-
tration holds in the matter, and what its conduct is,
compared with its professed opinions.
After the many disavowals on the part of the Ad-
ministration of all power to regulate the currency, or
otherwise to interpose in that behalf for the benefit
of the people, does the Administration, in its advo-
cacy of this measure of an Independent Treasury,
act or speak as if it had no such power? On the
contrary, the messages of the President are full of
discussions on the currency question and the banks;
Mr. C ,,0.',,- I. ,'s report is replete with considera-
tions -- ...t ,.. ,I policy ; and all the speeches and
newspapers on that side of the question are stark
mad with clamor againstbanks and bank paper. But
if your power stops at the point of making some fis-
cal provision for the mere selfish wants of the Treas-
ury, why do you not stop there in your discussions ?
If you have no power over the currency, then you
have no business to meddle with it; if it is not your
duty to act, then it is your duty to abstain. If Con-
gress cannot legislate on any given subject, it has no
right to agitate on that subject. The abolition ques
tion is an example. Be consistent, then. Why, if
you have no power of legislation to relieve the peo-
ple from a disordered currency, and to provide then
a better, do you i. T.J ,11 lecture and exhort us
in regard to that which you profess to believe apper-
tains exclusively to the several States? \.l,.iii;,,.
that you have no direct power, will you act by indi-
rection ? That would be hypocritical as well as
unconstitutional and unjust.
The Globe, last Tuesday, i. .1 ,..t .1., the very
highest-a private letter from General Jackson him-
self-to the effect that it was the object of this bill to
accomplish a great financial currency and com-
mercial reformi"
Let us have a distinct understanding on this point.
A .'"f o"a~ od ;. ... ,-I,; ;,, -i proper fiscal ma-
chinery for the T'I ,, ',,|1, (Or are you en-
gaged in a great commercial and currency reform ?
If so, by what means, direct or indirect ? Have you
or have you not the constitutional power to direct,
regulate, and control the banks, and to reform and
establish the currency ? If you have, say so. If you
have not, say so. The messages of the President
never cease to parade his denial of the power of Con-
gress in this matter. Are we to understand that,
though no direct power is given, the end is to be
reached indirectly, by the use of some other power?
If you have the power, direct or indirect, to reform
the currency of the United States, that concedes the
whole question; and if you have the power, I call
on you to exercise it, and to bring in a bill at once,
expressly, for this "great financial, commercial, and
currency reform ;" and let the interests of the people,
niot those of the Government, be its primary and
principal endl and aim. But if you have no such
power, then I protest against your talking and argu-
ing as if you had, and thus keeping the whole coun-
try in a perpetual fever of anxiety and agitation by
the discussion of that of which (as you pretend) the
Federal Government has no direct jurisdiction or
control. Be one thing or the other; and whichever
side you take in profession, take the same in action.
Your present course has the evils of both, without
the benefits of either.
If you persevere in the profession that you have
no direct powers, then I demand of you to reflect
whether, according to your own doctrines, you have
any powers at all. I ask the gentleman from New
Hampshire (Mr. ATrHEBarox) to reflect on this. In
the last Congress, the House, on his motion, and by
a vote of nearly two-thirds, adopted a resolution be-
ginning in these words: "lResolved, That Congress
has no right to do that indirectly which it cannot do
directly." Does the Constitution give you power to
"unbank the banks" by direct legislation? No.
Then, "the agitation of the -i-.j.. ]" here, "as a
means, or with the view, of disturbing or overthrow-
ing that institution (banks) in the States, is against
the true spirit and meaning of the Constitution, ani
infringement of the rights of the States affected, and
a breach of the public faith."
There is another question of power involved in
this bill, addressing itself more especially to the
ultra State rights school, if (without any disre-
spectful meaning) I may be allowed to use this ex-
The object of the bill, as described in the title, is
"to provide for the collection, safekeeping, transfer,
and disbursement of the public revenue." No ex-
press power appears in the Constitution to pass a
bill of such a description; but it results from the
express power given to Congress to raise and employ
a revenue, and the power to pass all laws needful to
the due execution of other specific powers. The
precise thing, as we have seen, which the bill pro-
ceeds "to provide," is a system of individual agents
for the -, ,, k.'|;"-"' and the "transfer" of the
revenue, and the exclusion of bank paper in its
"collection" and its "disbursement." Such are the

immediate objects and the provisions of the bill in
terms. It is, in the letter, a mere revenue measure,
But what is it in spirit and ultimate purpose ? All
the Executive messages and all the speeches and
reports in Conmgress imply, and Gen. Jackson ex-
pressly says, it is to effect a f .l commercial and
currency reform." It is for -t. ii, i banks and bank
paper are to be repudiated in all the transactions of
the Treasury. The Government is to receive and
pay specie only, in order (indirectly) to reform the
currency. Wherein consists this "reform of the
currency ?" In the regulation and restriction of the
banks and bank paper, say some; in their total de-
struction and proscription, say others. To what ob-
ject this warfare against banks 1 It will encourage
the planting interest, say some; it will aid the man-
ufacturers, say others. And thus we reach certain
ulterior objects, which, from the stress laid upon
them by the friends of the bill, would seem to be of
more importance in their eyes than the narrow ques-
tion of thc fiscal convenience of the system as a
... ..,. ., agent.
Now this may be a legitimate mode of legislation.
I do not say that it is, or that it is not. What I sug-
gest, however, is, that when, a few years ago, tihe
advocates of protection to manufactures pursued ex-
actly the same mode of legislation-that is, such a
use of the revenue power in the Constitution as
should incidentally promote certain ulterior objects
for which there appears no express' grant of power-
the act was on that very ground pronounced by the
South to be unconstitutional, null, and void.
For, if it be clear that the Constitution contains

no express grant ot power to levy discriminating du-
ties in order ic encourage particular branches oflabor
or investments of capital, it is equally clear that it
gives no express power to discourage any particular
form of labor or investment of capital; no express
power to regulate banks; to restrict their loans or
issues; still less to destroy banks, or to proscribe their
paper, and expel it from the community. Nor does
it contain any express grant of power to encourage
the planting interest, or to aid the manufacturer.
And will you do that indirectly which you have
no right to do directly ? Will you pass a bill which,
though it purports to be a revenue act, is claimed
and understood to be an act "to unbank the banks?"
The South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification, the
South Carolina Exposition, the speeches of eminent
statesmen of South Carolina, agree that such legis-
lation is an abusive exercise of the constitutional
powers of Congress; that though the primary ob-
ject of an act of Congress-the object on its face-be
constitutional within the scope of some granted
power; yet, if the ulterior object-the incidental mo
tive of the act-be the pursuit of a thing not granted,
then the act is, nevertheless, a violation of the spirit
and true intent of the Constitution.
I assure gentlemen that I cite these documents in
no disrespectful sense. On the contrary, I respect
the ability which is displayed in them, and time gal-
lantry of their authors. And the identity of the
constitutional principle involved in the two cases
makes the citation pertinent and proper.
Thus the preamble to the Ordinance speaks of
a' acts purporting to be acts laying duties, &c., but,
in reality, intended for the protection of domestic
manufactures and the giving of bounties to classes
and individuals engaged in particular employments"
&c. So this bill may be characterized as purport-
ing to be all act to provide for the safekeeping, &c.
of the public revenue, but in reality intended for the
indirect proscription of banks, and the imposing of
restrictions on classes and individuals engaged in
particular employment, and the giving of bounties
to others.
The Exposition says: The Constitution may be
as grossly violated by acting against its meaning as
against its letter." And again : "The Constitution
grants to Congress the power of it[..t.-i a duty
on imports for revenue; which i-'-' r i.. .. uascd by
being converted into an instrument for rearing up
the industry of one section of the country on the
tuins of another. The violation consists in using
a power granted for one object to advance another,
and that by the sacrifice of the original object. It
is, in a word, a violation or perversion," &c. These
doctrines apply distinctly to this bill, so far as re-
gards those ulterior objects of a currency reform, or
of acting upon banks, or of promoting this or that
interest, or discouraging any other; which objects
appear to fill the minds and the productions of the
friends ofthe Administration.
And there is a remarkable speech of Mr. Hayne's
to the same point. (Senate, April, 1824.) "Will
gentlemen suffer me to ask them," he says, to
point out to me, if they can, the power which this
Government possesses to adopt a system for the
avowed purpose of encouraging particular branches
of interest ?" And I may add: or of discouraging
p.ati -i ,r branches of industry, such as banking or
any thing else. And again: "But, to tell us we
have a right to resort to theoretical speculations, as
to the most convenient or profitable employment of
industry ; and that you can, by law, encourage cer-
tain pursuits and prohibit others, is to make this not
merely a consolidated, but an unlimited Government.
If you can control and direct any, why not all time
pursuits of your citizens ? And if all, where is the
limitation of your authority ? Gentlemen surely
forget that the supreme power is not in the Govern-
ment of the United States." Do not these expres-
sions seem as if they were designed for this very
bill ? How apt is the remark about "theoretical
speculations as to the most convenient or profitable
employment of industry," and the encouragement
or discouragement of" certain pursuits !" And the
whole passage, how emphatically does it not con-
demn the attempt of this Government to control, by
indirection, the pursuits of those citizens of the
States who have engaged their industry or invested
their capital in the business of banking, under the
guaranty of the authorization of the State Govern-
ments! Again hle says: "But our opponents
gravely inform us that this is a bill to levy imposts;
and that it is, therefore, within the very letter of the
Constitution." So here we are gravely told that
this is a bill to provide for the safekeeping and dis-
bursement of the public revenue. But Mr. Hayne
replies: True, sir, if imports (or revenue) were
the end and aim of the bill. But surely gentlemen
will not attempt to mi-iif, a departure from the
spirit, by an adhemenc.- i... i-I. letter of the Comstitu-
tion. If it he sufficient to adhere to the
letter, without regard to the spirit and intent of the
Constitution-if we may use a power granted for
one purpose, for the accomplishment of another and
a a-ery i ifferen-t purpose, it is easy to show that a
constitution on parchment is worth nothing."
These ideas seem to me to be, all of them, exactly
apposite to this measure, and the objects intended to
be effected by it; since, though the primary and
professed object of the present bill (as in the case of
the tariff bill) be a fiscal one, yet the incidental,
indirect, or ulterior object, is another and a very
different one. I do not mean to say that I adopt
the ideas quoted, for my own ; but I say that if those
gentlemen at the South, who have heretofore con-
curred in the above opinions, abandon them upon
this bill,-if, in their action upon this occasion, they
admit that Congress may do indirectly what it has
no right to do directly,"-if they concede here, that
the "using a power granted for one object, to ad-
vance another" is no "violation or perversion" of the
Constitution-if they consent to "abuse" thie re-
venue power now, by converting it "into an instru-
ment for rearing up the industry of one section of
the country on the ruins of another,"-if to-day they
can see" the power which this Government possesses,
to adopt a system for the avowed purpose of encour-
aging (or discouraging) particular branches of in-
dustry,"-if, on this occasion, they" attempt tojustify
a departure from the spirit, by an adherence to the
letter, of the Constitution,"-if, in fine, they proceed,
by enacting this bill, to "use a power granted for
one purpose, for the accomplishment of another and
a very different purpose,"-then I shall confidently
anticipate, that if, hereafter, it should fall to my lot,
in the defence of the interests of my constituents, to
maintain the constitutionality and \p. ...- of
discrimination in the duties on impor l..r Ii,. pro-
tection of domestic i-lh,-i.n, they will, for consis-
tency's sake, abstain trom alleging again that suchl
.. -].iC.-i, is either a violation or a perversion of the
constitutional powers of the Federal Govermnent.
N.-.-iil i,m the President and his friends
deo, [t:t i. ,. -.t. ,I Government any direct power
in these matters, yet they propose to exert power,
and to effect a reform-a radical change in the cur-
rency-by indirection. The points next to be con-
sidered, therefore, are, in the first place, are the ob-
jects proposed good ones ? And, in the second
place, whatever their character, will -,. h. le attained
by the passage of this bill ?
The primary object, the object of objects, would
seem to be, to act upon banks, or, according to the
currentphrase, to unbank the banks.
I do not scruple to say that much of the general
clamor against banks, which pervades the writings
and speeches of the friends of the Administration, is
mere extravagance, if nothing worse. Take, for
instance, Mr. Gouge's pamphlet as a specimen of
all that class of matter. He heaps together, in a
one-sided view, all the evils and losses incident to

banks, without any exhibition of their compensa-
ting benefits ; and thence infers that banks are inju-
rious to the public welfare. Suppose that precisely
the same mode of -..i-..t. were applied to steam-
boats. By collecting together all the explosions
that have ever taken place since the application of
steam to navigation, with the consequent loss of life
and of property, what an appalling picture would
you not present to the view! Whatlthen ? Would
you reject the use of steamboats ? Have there not
been advantages in the use of them far more than
enough to counterbalance the disadvantages ? Just
so it is with banks.
Again. Admit, for the argument's sake, all that
Mr. Gouge says against banks. Is banking to cease ?
No: all that is to be done is to transfer the business
of banking from incorporated bankers to unincorpo-
rated bankers; for every nation has bankers and
banks of some sort, corporate or unincorporated.
What is the difference between thie two ? So far as
regards the bankers themselves, the only difference
is in a legal form of association, and the limit of
their copartnership responsibility. So far as regards
the community at large, incorporated banks enable
many individuals to have an interest in the stock,
which would otherwise be confined to a few great
capitalists. And the Government, what does that
gain by proscribing such banks as we now have in
the United States, and rearing up a generation of
Rothschilds, Barings, Hopes, Laffittes, Aguados, and
Torlonias in their place? Who does not know that
such men as the Rothschilds have more absolute
power in Europe, more influence with Government,
more to say.on the question of peace and war, and

the stability or the change f dynasties, than eithert
or than all of the banks in the United Statea s Even
Turkey has bher banker. Evan Spain has her Bank
..t 'in F:rnsndnlo. -luhr has, to he sure, little enough
of bank paper, otr ain ulliLr of the great insiruments
of commercial ihteribur-e: and my heart bleeds
when I think of that rich and beautiful land and its
gallant people, and that long prostration of their in-
dustry and commerce, which is hardly a less evil to
her than civil war, foreign invasion. -.r the loss of
her colonies.
What, then, I ask again, is the point of all this
never-ceasing clamor against bank- lIT it io do
away with bankers associated by a charter, and sub-
stitute bankers associated by letters of copartnership ?
A small object, truly, for the convulsions and.agita-
tions of these ten years. For if banks, in some form,
are to continue, and bank paper. also, it is a very
shallow and superficial o)ubre ,ifaremuiernt to be all
the time indulging in ha-c v- oe,aliti. about specu-
lation, and inflated credit, and alternate expansions
and contractions, and the like. Bring the thine to
a practical issue. What is it you wish "A d,,o I u
say there is an evil: give us the remedy. Is it to
destroy the banks? The arguments of many gen-
tlemen aim at that, if they aim at any ilini. Is it
only to amend them where amendment is desirable,
and reform them where they go wrong ? If so, I go
with ... -t--.--, constituents go with you.. The State
of Massachusetts is no friend of bank suspensions.
I say with Burke, that "a disposition to preserve,
and an ability to improve, taken together, would be
my standard of a statesman." But if your object be
reform only, and you have the constitutional power
to reform, why do you not bring in a bill for that ex-
press purpose? If amendment of the bank system
be your purpose in this bill, why do you not say so
in it? This bill proposes no reform of banks, but
their proscription, and that alone. Like the grave,
it levels all distinctions; for by it all banks, good
and bad, specie-paying and itn .i.>-rie-|.amhg. are
condemned -..,h. and hanlu I ,.mer 1. ihe sane
u,, , 1.t,1 *- t- i..*1 massacre.
., .. .i,.-.h-,t th to confound our judgments of
what the Administration would in truth be at, and
to cause us to doubt whether, in the midst of all these
denunciations of banks, the Administration really
intends any thing but to make a parade for popular
effect, at the last session of Congress the President,
after disavowing any hostility, official or personal, to
banks, and after referring to his past course on the
subject, said:
"I have yet ever wished to see them protected in
the exercise of rights conferred by law, and have
never doubted their utility, when properly managed,
i I -.-.I. I 1.1. the interests of trade, and, through that
( t tI, 11 hr other interests of the community. *
Like other State establishments, they may be used,
or not, in conducting the affairs of the Government,
as public policy and the general interests of the
Union may seem to require. The only safe or proper
principle upon which their intercourse with the
Government can be regulated, is that which regulates
their intercourse with the private citizen-the con-
ferring of mutual benefits. When the Government
can accomplish a financial operation better with the
aid of the banks than without it, it should be at lib-
erty to seek that aid, as it would the services of a pri-
vate banker, or other capitalist or agent, giving the
preference to those who will serve it on the best
If the banks are of such undoubtable utility; if
the intercourse of the Government with them is to
- -. .,1.-l.]i .., fl-.' same principle as that of the
V... 0. r.-'-n-it,' conferring of mutual benefits;
and if the Govemnament is to seek their aid whenever
it can accomplish a financial operation better with
their aid than without it: if this be so, what becomes
of all the general declamation against banks which
pervades and distinguishes the orators attached to
the Administration 1
Another great object of the friends of this bill is,
to act upon the c t i-tt it. n.I'nmiv of, or in ad-
dition to, the action upon banks, as such.
All candid men admit that the operation of this
measure upon the currency is a mere experiment.
No one is, or can be, sure that this experiment will
succeed any better than that which preceded it.
General Jackson overthrew the United States Bank,
which did give us a good and equal currency of
stable and uniform value all over the country. In
l .1.. ,;,. ,, i.ublic deposits to the banks of the
-, i. n i i.. ini- .1l that these would give us a still
"better currency," and would, in other respects,
meet the wants of commerce. The better to enable
them to do this, his friends proceeded to multiply
the number of Sta.te banks, to supply the place of
the United States Bank; and, for the same express
purpose, the Secretary of the Treasury (Mr. TANY)
officially prounpted the new deposit banks to enlarge
their discounts, and, of course, to increase their cir-
culation. Meanwhile, the Administration was
drawing specie from Europe, in order to force a
specie currency in the United States. What fol-
lowed ? An excess of credit and of bank paper; a
wihl mania of speculation in all parts of thie United
States ; a panic among the directors of the Bank of
England; a cessation of their discounts to the
American trade; a general suspension of cash pay-
ments by the banks of the United States; and the
utmost disorder in the currency, exchanges, and
commerce: this explosion of General Jackson's
experiment Ih qt iliii.r almost at the very instant of
his leaving the Presidency. And now comes Mr.
Van Buren's experiment. And what is that? By
thIe explosion of General Jackson's, the currency
was blown up, and the patient lies prostrate on the
ground, his limbs broken, and covered with wounds
and bruises. And what does the new State physician
propose ? Whiy, to let the patient lie there, writhing
and groaning in his agony, to bleed to death, or to
get up and get well without help, as he may. Doctor
Van Buren will not set a bone, or even so much as
apply a plaster to a wound; and the only remedy
for the case seems to be to discharge him, and intro-
duce Doctor Harrison in his place. For, in the
message of 1840, as in that of 1837, the President
cavalierly turns over this great currency question to
thIe separate jurisdiction of the several maiie. and
Territories-twenty-nine independent communities,
in all-and invites them to remedy the evil. The
Federal Government is to do nothing. It folds its
arms, whilst the United States needs for its currency,
above all other things, that security of some sort
against tfle adverse action of foreign interests, and
against the irregular and contradictory action of the
several States, which the Federal Government alone
has the power to afford.
Well, did the several States take care of our cur-
rency in the time of the Confederation ? Did they
in 1813, when all the banks out of New England
suspended specie payments? Did they in 1837,
when nearly all the banks in the United States sus-
tended 't Have they taken care of the currency now,
when most of the banks south and west of New
York are in a state of suspension, and seem likely
so to continue we know not how long ? When the
present suspension began, which of the States threw
themselves into the breach to stop the incursion of a
paper-money currency ? Was it the great State of
Pennsylvania, with its Van Buren State Administra-
tion 1 Was it tie State of South Carolina, which
presents itself here as Hite .-in.,-o Pure of a hard-mo-
ney currency l No, it was neither of these, but the
Opposition States of New York and Massachusetts
which were the first to breast the storm. Yes, it was
thIe much denounced capitalists of New York ,and
Boston who stopped the tide of paper money, and
prevented it from overflowing the whole land in the
same common deluge. The gentleman from New
Hampshirg (Mr. ATixvTOt) says, What of New
Hampshire ? I reply; New Hampshire, to be sure,
acted with us in Massachusetts; and it could not well

have done otherwise, had it been otherwise minded;
for it was the mass of capital in Boston and New
York which saved the banks of the Eastern States.
We, in Massachusetts, do not profess to be specie
currency men, hbut we generally strive all we can to
pay our debts, unidert landing that to be good policy.
as well as honesty. And we should find it much
easier than we do to worry along under the difficul-
ties of the present crisis, if the States in the south
and west, which, by their Representatives here, pro-
fess so much fondness for a specie 'imrn-mmcy, w.1ulhd
pay us what they owe, either in specie. -.r. bshat %e
should be very glad to take if wemc.aild gVt it, in good
convertible bank paper. And if those States which,
by their hard-money votes here, :ii l he Administra-
tion to oppress the whole Union, would carry the
same hard-money theories into the practical action
of their State Legislatures, they would then gi'e
some countenance to the President's doctrine, that
each State by itself, and not the Federal Government,
is to adjust the currency qii-, .i.:.,i.
If the Representatives r.:.nm it-te States will take
it in good part, it will be ed;fv in- tu consider what
their Legislatures have done X.l'laim towards the res-
toration of a sound currency. Alabama-she has a
majority of members here supposed to be friendly to '
this bill; and has she taken measures for a resump-
tion of specie payments ? No; but the contrary, as
I understand, in eraintini an extension of time on
the debts due to her banks. Tennessee-she has a
Van Buren State Administration, which refused to !
require her banks to resume, Georgia, the same,

South Carolina, the samo. Virginia-T trust she is
a Whig State; but she hasa majority of Repreienta-
livea here friendrv to the Administration ; and do her
banks (ay. and 'rate bank- i--:i pa' specie ? Not
at all. In short, the sum 1,1il i,, Ilie : Loo rnwnv of
the States, while, as SLatEs,. they iprctine paper m-
S ney in all its forms, and thus conirtute their utmnot
to disorder the currency, come here a1 hard-money
States, and thus enable the Administration t. tiphlten
its gripe around the necks of the rest of us, who, i
they would practise what they profess, could shift
for ourselves, or, if they would profess what ility
practise, could, with tihir a.;l, compel the Fed. r l
Government to hear to reason.
Ilt. therefore. vi, arc lojodu(t of the currency policy
of the Admunitrlati.n b% cNi-tisn facts, that policy
is bad en-uugh ni be t.-,hether, as the President
sreemsr to think, die amenlmeuit of the currency isto
be left to the !Staers them.eni- ; or whether, as many
vfthe friends of liis bill decl.r,- aid argue, one of
Its obj.itts be wo clirLt a "-u'r, iev r, form," by the
procription or b[nks and bank from the busi-
nfes of the Trersur,.
One clais of person, pr..lf' ..4 delil,-'i to an exclu-
sirvc spcie current. -u'lhi r. pr.ik,-- that all they
wi,h is Itlu ilre thr pecier ba~i .,'f bank paper;
while most persons, among the orators and writers
of the Administration, content themselves with gen-
,ieral declamation against bank paper, without propo-
sing an; thin, imp.ritatit ,...I i pi iii'al ri iurie-. Amid
all the ,:ljalnirtc .p thii-rl- lli e -l th, nr is proba-
I[ly le@li dldei-ri,' on thi.- ut i'j... 11 il,. minds of
dircreet p i'.is,, than is generally imagined. That
the speek- hobby is all naught, is very clear; that
suspended bAks .ind irredeemable bank paper are
quite wrong, is equally clear. And it is full time
the currency question was withdrawn from politics,
and settledJ upon the true principle, that the essence
of a good currency is uniformity with stability and
sufficiency; it being less material what it is, if it be
such. And this brings me to another division of
the objects and assumed benefits of this measure-
which is, its effect on commerce; for Gen. Jackson,
as quoted by the Globe, tells us it is to effect a com-
mercial as well as currency reform.
Commerce being the exchange of commodities, in
order to prosper, it needs, first, a medium of direct
payment, sufficient in quantity, fixed in value, and,
as near as may be, equal in all parts of the country;
secondly, for remote operations, where payment is to
be made, not from hand to hand, but by bills of ex-
change, than a rate of exchange, reasonable in amount,
and the lower the better; and, thirdly, commercial
credit and mutual confidence. Whenever, for any
cause, the currency and exchanges are insufficient or
bad, and confidence or credit is disturbed, in such
circumstances, commerce of necessity labors.
Now, if the obj.-i of the Administration be to es-
tablish an c \ilisin. specie currency, the result must
be, as I have heretofore argued, either that the cur-
rency will be insufficient to carry on the commerce
of the country in its present state, and thus will fail
to perform its proper office, or the commerce must
be cut down to that currency, and so be crippled and
paralyzed. If the object of the Administration be,
that we should depend upon the bank bills of the
States, in that case we have a currency, as the present
state of things shows, neither stable nor uniform.
The Administration excludes professedlyy at least)
the idea of Government paper as well as United States
Bank paper; so that, in fact, nothing remains except
the paper either of the banks or the States, unequal
and irregular as it is, or the paper which individuals
might issue under a system of free banking. How
the latter would operate, is a mere speculation ; for,
though it has been proposed, yet it is an untried ex-
periment, in regard to which there is an almost total
absence of ascertained or conclusive facts. At any
rate, I do not understand that the Administration
takes up this plan; and our commerce remains,
therefore, so far as regards the currency, surrounded
with the present difficulties in which the empirical
schemes of the Administration have involved us,
with the certainty that it still persists in those schemes,
but without any certainty as to what are in truth its
precise aims and ends.
And so as to the exchanges. Their equality in
the time of the United States Bank is an historical
fact, which stands forth in striking contrast with
their present inequality under the tinkering of the
Government and the disorganized condition of the
State banks. The Administration does not, that I
can perceive, propose any thing whatever to meet
this difficulty, except in so far as the Government
paper provided for in this bill may serve to that end.
But the amount of aid to the exchanges to be de-
rived from this source is confined within very nar-
row limits. This consists, in the first place, of the
revenues of the Post Oti,, -iii..,iiiin. to say five
million dollars, but which now, as heretofore, goes
chiefly to pay the mail contractors, and is therefore
of no use in commerce. It consists, in the second
place, of the payments at or from the Treasury-
equal in amount, at most, to the sum annually ex-
pended by the Government, say thirty million dol-
lars; a part of which may enter, in one way or ano-
ther, into commerce, though in doing so it will run
counter to the professed object of the bill, which en-
joins upon the Secretary of the Treasury to keep his
draftsout of circulation as far as may be ; because, if
they enter largely into circulation, then, as I have
before argued, the Independent Treasury is a Gov-
ernment Bank. And this remark applies to any
other miscellaneous form of Government drafts or
receipts which may grow up out of the operations
of the Treasury.
Whilst in all these particulars the comerCe of the
country derives little aid from the financial schemes
of the Administration, and is on the contrary :,. ,
obstructed and injured by them, in another respect,
also, it suffers infinitely under the policy of the Gov-
ernment. Confidence and credit, which are the
basis of all prosperous commerce, are struck at di-
rectly by the Administration, in the holding of so
much puIblic treasure, which, under this bill, is to be
locked up in the vaults of the Treasury, and so with-
drawn from business, either for direct use, or for use
as a basis of bank issues; contrary to the opinion
expressed by General Jackson himself; in one of his
messages, to the effect that locking up the public
treasure in this way is a positive wrong done to the
people. Confidence and credit are struck at indi-
rectly by the Administration in the destructive and
radical doctrines which many of its partisans uiter,
alarming capitalists, and checking-their operations;
as also in those many of the acts or declarations of
the Administration denunciatory of the batks, which
are thus held in perpetual terror of runs for specie,
of the withdrawal of their charters, and of bankrupt
laws for their particular destruction. Commercial
credit is also struck at by the Administration direct-
ly, and at the tenderest point; in the wild declama-
tion of its partisans against the use of borrowed cap-
ital: the strangest of all things to come froui -pro-
fessors of democracy, since credit is the only menus
by which the industrious and enterprising poor man
is able to trade at all, and without which itt lhi. iid-
of commerce would be monopolized by rich capital-
ists alone, instead of being diffused through the com-
munity wherever industry and integrity exist, as
they have been and will be under tie influence of
any just and proper system of confidence and credit,
unembarrassed by the crudities of a nmischief-making
But eminent advocates of the Admuinistration are
found, who claim for this bill the merit of being a
boon to the productive industry of the country, who
urge this as among the objects to be promoted by it,
and the motives for its enactment. Though the cur-
rency is disordered by the policy of the Administra-
tion, and exchanges too; and though the internal
commerce of the country is in a most languishing

state; and agriculture and manufacture, which arc so
dependent on commerce, suffer in its train; yet this
bill is to advance the productive industry of the
United States. And how ? By reducing, or tend-
ing to reduce, the cost of production, which is one
day said to be advantageous to the planter, and the
next to the manufacturer.
Now, supposing any such advantage to accrue
from the operation of this bill on currency and bank
paper, (which is the argument;) to whose particular
profit is it to inure? Plainly to that of the manufac-
turer-capitalist, and the planter-capitalist, at the ex-
pense of the laborers hired or employed by each;
that is, of the great mass of the community. The
capitalist-undertaker, whether in planting or manu-
facture, is Jo get his work done cheaper, and thus
to have the cost price of the article raised or manu-
factured less. 'hus, the merchant is to have a ship
built cheaper, not by obtaining at any less price the
foreign hemp, iron, sail-cloth, and copper, which
constitute so large a part in cost of all her materials,
but by paying less to the carpenters. This, and this
alone, is the result of reducing the cost of production
to a specie standard. So of an invoice .of goods
manufactured, or any thing else ; the production is
to cost less to the capitalist, by the mechanics receiv-
ing lees, under a specie currency, or an jpprnxiniu.
tion to that, I put it to gentlemen to -p--ak oui, .inJ
say whether this be not the true mode in which a
redaction of the coat.of production will work; and, if
so, whether this be just and equal, and for the good
of the many.
But I may be asked, if this be the operation of the

bill, why do not the capitalists, north and south,
unite- in the support of it? I reply form con'titu-
ents. that they would disdain to receive from the
Government a supposed benefit, which is to the gen-
,'ral i.r-eji);ce f il.'h cuinmunity as a body, in the
general iuinJury of winch they would lose more in the
end than they ,vould gain by the supposed advantage
to themselves in the beginning. Nor do they believe
thatI, in the long run, any advantage is to accrue to
themrn separately. Their best interest is in the pros-
perity of the whole community. Though, by the
payment of all duties in specie, the relative amount
of the protecting duty on manufactures were to be
in a small degree augmented, and the cost of pro-
duction some little diminished by the reduction of
the price of labor to a specie standard, yet the manu-
facturer, or other producer, is no better off than be-
fore, without there be regular and equal exchanges
and currency with which to carry on his operations,
and without there be such general pr-.zp..r61 of all
branches of business as may ensure to him a steady
demand for consumption, and a consequent steady
market for the sale of his merchandise.
It remains only that I advert to the question,
whether, whatever may be the ulterior and inciden-
tal objects of the Administration, be these good or
bad, they will be attained by the passage of this bill.
Does the Administration really desire to accom-
plish those objects-any of them; and, if so, which
of them? I profess that I cannot tell. Its own
precise ends are so covered up in the obscurity of
mere generalities, and of intangible abstractions, now
swinging over towards the specie currency school,
and now again back to the bank interest, that I doubt
whether it knows itself at what mark it would have
the pendulum to rest. For instance: would the Ad-
ministration destroy bank ,.r,.,-i iior,- 1 When I
see how prone its friends are to grow rabid and al-
most foam at the mouth at the very name of a bank-
when I reflect that declamation against banks consti-
tutes the staple ofall they say-and when I call to mind
the wild visions of a general specie currency, which
some of the more zealous, or it may be the more sin-
cere of its friends have entertained and avowed-at
such times I might suppose that it intended to make
root and brtanclh work with all banks whatever; for,
otherwise, the effusion of so much wordy fury against
them is idle, absurd, undignified, and unjust. But
then, on the other hand, the President tells us that
he has never doubted the utility of banks. Again:
while some of the friends of the Administration are
thus frantic in their denunciation of banks, others
are found who take pains to assure us that they
have no sentiments of hostility whatever towards
those institutions. Nay, as I mentioned before, it
happens that not a few of those States which give
utterance, through their State Governments or their
Representatives here, to the greatest quantity of bank
denunciation, are themselves, as States, inseparably
identified with banks of their own. What conclu-
sion is a plain man to come to, under such circum-
stances, as to that which the Administration really
But if the Administration really intends to pro-
scribe banks and bank paper, as this bill professes,
and as the words (but not the acts) of its friends
declare, and if its object be to effect a "currency
reform," has it the power to do this? Can it stand
the shock of individual interests? Will it dare to
enter into conflict with the power of the States, so
many of which are directly and largely interested in
banks? Will those States consent to a bankrupt law,
for instance, to embrace their banks? I doubt it.
Some affect to believe this; but I do not. In a word,
too many of the objects behind this bill, which are
professed by the friends of the Administration, are
morally, politically, and physically impracticable,
and too evidently so, for me to repose much trust in
the good faith of the measure.
And if this Administration is bent upon the ac-
complishment of those ulterior objects, the discus-
sion of which is by so many of its friends associated
with this bill, will it continue in power long enough
to effect them? This is a question which time only
can determine.
Certain it is, that some of the most intelligent
friends of the Administration begin themselves to
betray a distrust of the efficacy of this bill for an ul-
terior good, by the language in which they deny its
efficiency for evil. Thus, the Boston Morning Post,
a principal Administration journal in the East, says,
"The Government has now no deposits, and has
made none for a long time; and it matters little
where the few scattering dollars unexpended are
kept. They have had, and can have, no effect upon
the country, one way or the other."
And the Democratic Review, in the last number,
SrI'l...,ih the immediate influence of this reform
upon the currency of the country will be but slight,
notwithstanding the most exaggerated views taken of
it by both friends and foes, yet, upon the future ac-
tion of the Government, it will impress itself with
an effect as potent as salutary."
Here is the distinct avowal that thie immediate in-
fluence of this measure on the currency will be but
slight; and that the views of his friends, as well as
foes, are most exaggerated. I sometimes incline to
this opinion myself. It corresponds with a view of
the subject which has been very ably and *,.' il. r. r.-
sented by Mr. Charles F. Adams, son of my colleague,
in several publications of his, which charge upon the
Administration, as its great fault in the matter, its
culpable abnegation of the just powers of the Fede-
ral Government in this behalf, and its consequent
total abandonment of its duty to the people. For,
after so many years' discussion of this measure by
the Administration, it seems now to be chiefly used
by it as a mere stalking-horse of party, and as an
instrument of party ascendency. In this respect,
the Democratic Review is right in saying that upon
the future action of the Government, if successful, it
will impress itself with potent effect; whether a salu-
tary one, is another question, and depends upon
causes and influences wholly beyond thie control of
this or of any other Administration.
For, even upon the premises assumed by the
Administration, and conceding all it asks, the utility
of the measure, or rather, the more or less quantity
oftieischief in it depends, in the first place, on the
singleness and integrity of purpose of its administra-
tors and the abjuration of all party influences by
them; andswhen was there a time that this Adminis-
tion was disposed, or, if disposed, was able, to act
independently of party considerations and with a
single eye to the good of the country? And the
more or less of neischief that it may do depends, also,
upon the state of the Treasury. Consider what
would be the condition of the country, if we had a
large surplus revenue locked up in tite Treasury
vaults. It would withdraw all specie from circulation.
Nor is this an imaginary evil. Whatever disposi-
tion Congress or the Executive may have to keep
the revenues down to the expenditures, and to keep
the latter as low as possible, that is a problem the
equation of which was never yet found for a length
of time by any Government. Nothing is of more dif-
culty than to predict the precise quantity of revenue
derivable from a give state of taxation. Sometimes
a high rate of impost diminishes importation so as
to dry up the revenue froom a given article; and
sometimes a low rate of duty augments the importa-
tion so as to make the aggregate of tax received on
it large beyond all anticipation. Mr. Woodbury
himself, on one occasion, (report of December, 1S34,)
with all the lights which the Treasury Department
possesses on this subject, erred in his calculations to
the amount of the difference between twenty mil-
lions and thirty-five millions, in the revenue of a
single year. And though, in the remarks which I
have been making on this bill, I have assumed, for
.-i,,ii,,,,'; sake, the correctness of the President's
,,I a tHo tilt" amount of specie which this bill is to

lock up in ordinary years will be only five millions,
yet I greatly distrust that calculation. For the
amount of public deposits in the United States
Bank, and afterwards in the State banks, -- ill. ex-
ceeded this, for a long series of years. (Senate Doe.
1st sess. 23d Cong. No. 16, p. 5; House Doc. 2d
sess. 24th Cong. No. 77.)
Suppose, then, a large amount of revenue on
hand, and this in bad hands, in the custody of per-
sons disposed to use the Treasury for purposes of in-
fluence and power. In such hands, and in such
circumstances, the power conferred by the bill would
be stupendous. It would give to the Administra-
tion, which might choose so to employ it, control
over all the business of the country, and, by the com-
bination of political power and money power, fix
and establish that administration in the possession
of the Federal Government. One cause of the fail-
ure of the State bank deposit system, and perhaps
the chief cause, was its being not only mat-adminis-
tered, but mixed up with the interests of party and
of power. What is to prevent the same personal
interests and party passions from fastening them-
selves on this system, to accomplish the same felfish
- ..rtl.' N..ltn.i, so long as the same men and the
- ,ie motives direct the councils of the Federal Go-
The Administration, it may be, has a majority of
members here disposed to pass this bill; though
whether that majority is not obtained by the chance
result ofa question of returns, and whether it repre-

Bites a majority of the people of the Uniied States,
remains to be seen. For this measure is now under
discussion before the people, who are becoming fully
awake to the importancee of the ,ti,,lti..nsI ini..ldi
in it, and will themselves pass ntgdmat there:.ii at
the coming elections. Mr. Van Buren has staked
his political fortunes upon this measure. Would
not his friends best consult his and their interests,
and the welfare of the country, by leaving the fate of
this bill to be decided by the people themselves,
instead of endeavoring to forestall their judgment?
The may hope to gain something, in a party view,
by the passage of the bill now, in the expectation
that it will immediately produce a settled state in
the relations of business. I think, in this, they are
mistaken, if such be their 'expectation. I myself
have been half inclined at times to say to the Ad-
ministration: Pass your bill; fix your independent
Treasury and Independent Currency uln the coun-
try; take the money empire to which you aspire, if
that will content you, so that the business interests
of men may be relieved from the anxiety and sus-
pense ofthis never-ceasing political acit .;,.n. and
give us acertainty at last, though it be h, ... dainty
even of death itself to the industry and enterprise of
the country. But, on further reflection, I saw clear-
ly that, if the bill passes, it does not give to business
men even this poor benefit, of at length knowing
their fate; for its passage brings no certainty with it.
It will not aid the suspended banks to resume, for
instance. Pennsylvania, Alabama, and Mississippi
-these, or any other States, will not be restored by
it to a sound and steady currency. Nay, General
Jackson tells the whole nation, in his recent letter to
the Ohio committee, that "an end to the evils of a
depreciated paper currency" is to be reached, not by
the establishment of the Independent Treasury only,
but when, "in addition to this reform in our finan-
cial system," Congress shall, "at the same time,
pass a general bankrupt law," embracing both "the
banks which are now in existence, or may be hereaf-
ter chartered by the States."
So that we are not to see land until that event hap-
pens. Will this Congress pass such a bankrupt
law? Ask those of the States which are identified
with their banks, whether they stand ready to pass
under a commission of bankruptcy. If they can bear
the operation, we in the specie paying States can
well do it. And ifa commission of bankruptcy is to
issue, to wind up and distribute the effects of those
banks, which, in the words of the letter just quoted,
"refuse to redeem their notes in specie," I ask gentle-
men in the Middle and Southern States, from Penn-
sylvania to Georgia, in how short a time that opera-
tion can be completed? In three months? No, nor
in three years. And meantime, whilst all the sus-
pended banks are in the custody ofcommissioners of
bankruptcy winding up their affairs, what becomes
of the business of the country? Will that enjoy the
repose and certainty which some gentlemen promise
to themselves is to follow the enactment of this law?
We know that, on the contrary, there will be such
a crash and confusion of all business interests in the
performance of that operation as this country has
never yet witnessed.
Apart from all which, there is the question,
whether in the course of a few months, a new Admi-
nistration may not come in, either to admininister
this law with feelings and purposes different from
those of its author, or, it may be, to repeal it, before
a new set of interests shall have had time to gather
themselves around it. Under these circumstances, it
is clear that the mere passage of this bill cannot pro-
duce any such settled condition of business as to aid
the present Administration at the polls, or to justify
the Opposition in voluntarily yielding to its enact-
I have conceived it to be my duty, therefore, with
my convictions of it impolicy, to resist this measure
to the last. In so doing, I act in conformity with
the opinion of the State of Massachusetts, as ex-
pressed by her Legislature, and as entertained, I ful-
ly believe, by the great majority of her people. I
ask the Clerk to 'read the following resolutions of the
General Court of Massachusetts, approved by Gov.
Everett, on the 30th March, 1838, viz:
"Resolutions c ., M." .. inuselts, relating to
"R esolved,r i i. ., i i .,:.. i .. ,... .r

,.......... ,, i . .. it eIt a.
[, ~ ~ h h I. ... I ,, I .. ,..h ... .,....Inlto
.. *: 1, 1 1 1 ~ ... I,,-, i ,,, ,, . i.i i i I, ,, i i ... ilr to o

great a degree in the power of tie General Government, de-
prive them of tie means of extending usual and necessary la.
cilities to those engaged in commerce and manufactures, and,
by causing distrust, have a direct tendency to postpone tIhe re
sumption ofspecie payments.
'"Resolved(, i -.. ,.. 'r.. .,,, .i l ; ., the Go-
vernment and .. , i. . ,, i,., .. thatl pro.
vided for the people, anl l..,.,.,,,.. -,,. power and patron-
age of the Executive, i .i s ,.- 1...ins, md may be do-
*...,. 'i. i permanencee ofrour Repiblcan instilutions.
S, ., that his Excellency tCie Governor he requested
to forward copies of the above resolutions to our Senators and
Representatives in Congress, and that they may be desired to
use allproper and honorable means to prevent the bill in ques-
tion from becoming a law."
The resolution of the State of Massachusetts have
been my guide in the course of argument I have en-
deavored to present to the House. They indicate the
precise line of distinction between the views of the
Administration and those of the Opposition, the
Opposition maintaining the policy of identy of in-
terest between the Government and the people, and
the duty of the former to act for the welfare of the
latter; and the Administration pushing to the utmost
the doctrine of a separation of interest between the
Government and the people, the giving to the for-
mer not only a Treasury independent of the banks,
but a currency independent of and contrary to that
of the people and of the States. And in conclusion,
I have this only to say: that I repose the most confi-
dentreliance on the integrity and iui. .1;.-- .. ofthe
people; that with them is the right i- .. It as well
as the responsibility to decide this question; and
rehatever their decision may be, I shall bow with
wspectful submission to their will, as that of the true
ultimate sovereign power in these United States.

In Georgetown, on Tuesday evening last, by th-,
that place.

Pastor ep'ct of ih- Second Presbyterian Churchl
will, by Divine permission, preach at the Med~ca,
Hall, oa Sabbath morning, at 11 o'clock.

JE^Preachine may be expected in Dr. Lao UIt's
church next Sabbath morning, by the Rev. Mr.
MeVAiN, and in the afternoon by the Rev. Mr. VAN

'" C,'P.[ AGAINSt EP1LEPSi--Thore ts
- ir.lf ii. .1 a wsich destroys 'he human body so
much a. the epilepsy. No greater desire, there-
fore, can be wiah-d, than to be enabled to get rid of
this disease, for which I he eby offer the remedy.
I am at the same time able to prove that this reme-
ly is applied with the happiest effect, and favored
by the morst eminent physicians of Berlin and Ger-
many, as Huselanl, Ham, Bartels, etc. under
whest ruidance of four years' duration I have
finished my studies.
'ihe patient is to commence with this remedy se-
veral days before the commencement of the full
moon; and then the mnon has certainly more influ-
ence upon epilepsy than upon any other disease of
the human body.
Hours of consultation from 12 to -2.
Nov 21-4c* Offiae South Capitol street.

AUCTION.-T. PALMER, intending to close his
Carpet business, will offerlon Wednessay, 25 h No-
vmber, at 10 o'clock, a. m. at his Warehouse,
No 108 Baltimore street, his extensive stock of
C.,i : consisting of Saxony, Wilton and Brus-
sels, wi h Rigs to match; ale, E',,'i h, Venitian
Ingrain, and three ply Carpeting:. Th-1 whole of
which will be salt without reserve.
Baltimore, Nov 20-4t [Intel]
PROVED PROPERTY.-By virtue of a
deed of trust from Richard Wright tv the subscri-
ber, dated the 28ih day of January, 1832, and re.
corded in Liber W. B. No. 41, folios 147, 148,149,
150 and 151 of the Land Records of the county of
Washington and District of Columbia, I will offer
for sale at Public Auction, on Monday, the 30th
iay of November inst. at 4 o'clocklr, p. m. in front
ot the premises, all the west half of the Let of
ground No. 2, in square No. 320 of said city cf
Wash'ngton, with the three story brick Dwelling
and other improvements thereon, and the appurte-
nances thereto belonging. The abyve House is
one of the best three story building,, fronting south
-n F street, between llth and 12th strsers, and now
occupied as a boarding house by Mr. Gflabran.
Terms and conditions made known at the time
and place of sale.
CLEMENt' COX, Trustee,
Nov 19




The office-hating Whigs-those patriotic souls
who entered the political arena with such disinte-
rested motives-have been changed, by the magic
of success, into the fiercest office-seekers. We
were under some apprehension before the election,
lest, when General HA-aRisoN should be elected, he
would find it difficult to get his [followers to accept
office, they all professed to hold the "spoils" and
the "spoilsmen" in such detestation. We had no
idea that these patriots would prove so greedy after
the spoils, as the following, from the New York
Herald, a Whig paper, makes them appear:
Ten brief days have hardly sunk into the West,
since the election of General Harrison was placed
beyond a doubt; but in those ten days, a more sud-
den revolution has taken place in the morals, tac-
tics, talk, and purposes of the politicians, than could
have been effected by the conversion of Satan into
a preacher, or the outpourings of St. John the
Baptist risen from the dead. Last month it was all
song and cider-all morals and religion-all piety
and patriotism, among the politicians. Now that
the victory is certain, the elements of sublime sel-
fishness and pure corruption are beginning to show
themselves in new phases and new shapes.
"What has produced all this awful change?
"The prospects of the spoils-the expectation of
getting office-the hope of reward-the passion for
"In the city of New York alone there are proba-
bly over 5,000, if not 10,000 candidates for the va-
rious offices which will be under the control of
General Harrison, after the 4th of March next.
The number of offices in this city and State are
not over 500 or thereabouts, and already upwards
of 50 or 100 patriots for each office have started
up, and claim them for valuable services at the
last election-some in fighting, some in lying,
some in singing, some in speaking. In Boston,
Baltimore, and Philadelphia, a like proportion of
offices and candidates exist-making in those four
great Atlantic cities about 1000 offices, for which
there are 20,000 patriots sighing to fill.
"In this city, the movements already taking place
are the most amusing and laughable, not to say
melancholy and moral, that can be imagined. The
cliques of Wall street were never more busy than
they are at this time. The Whig politicians have
ceased slandering the Loco Focos, and are now en-
gaged in the delightful business of slandering each
other. Every prominent man's private and public
character is under discussion, and the way in which
they secretly stab each other to the vitals is worthy
of Italian assassins, educated to the business of
throat cutting, and taking their regular degrees in
public robbery. The reforms, the good times, the
prospects, the public and private virtue, which it
was expected would come in like an avalanche,
with the new President, are already cast to the four
winds of Heaven; and nothing is heard of but "of-
fice," "office," "office." Hardly a word is said
about the measures which General Harrison is ex-
pected to introduce, calculated to ameliorate the
condition of the country; but much true eloquence
and precious slander are uttered about the new
cabinet, new collector, new potmasters, and other
new public officers.
"The truth is, we fear that if General Harrison
does not take care, greater instances of gross de-
moralization and public robbery will take place in
the next four years than have disgraced the ccun-
try during the last four. Men are getting up pedi-
tions for office-and preparing memorials-and
procuring influence, that do not possess the slight-
est claim to any species of confidence. Men with-
out character, capacity, talents or morals, are the
most busy in this degrading business-. (liques of
the most worthless reprobates are forming in all
our large cities to control and direct the councils
of General Harrison, and to monopolize all the of-
fices of honor and profit in the gift of the new Pre-

We publish below part of a confession of faith
made by the New York Journal of Commerce,
The currency doctrines which it avows are too
truly republican to escape the denunciations of the
Whigs. We do not wonder at the outcry which
the Federal blacklegs and stock gamblers have
lately raised against it.
WX believe in publishing all the news at the
earliet possible moment, and stating all matters
trtulty, whatever may be the consequences to politi-
We believe in ihe largest liberty; or in other
words, that each citiz, n should be free to think,
Peak and act as he pleases, provided only that he
does not interfere with the equal liberty of every
other citizen.
We believe that men's religious opinions will be
most nearly correct when they are left to) investi-
gate freely and make up their opinions for them-
We believe that that Government is most likely
to be a good one, which is most entirely in the
hands of the people, and which interferes least with
personal liberty.
We believe that liberty is as desirable, in business
as in religion or politics, and that allinterference on
the iart of Government for the purpose of directing
the business of the citizens is injurious.
W- believe that the powers the General Govern-
ment should be confined to the letter of the Consti-
We believe that as to currency, the General Go-
vernment has done all which the Constitution con-
templated, or expediency requires, when it has
coined money and established the value thereof,
and regulated the value of foreign coin.
When the National Bank was in existence v
believed it expedient to maintain the system as it
wat, rather than encounter the horrors of breaking
it dowo; but now that the system is broken down,
we b-'l eve it inexpedient to rebuild it.
We believe that Congress should pass a bank-
rupt act, giving to debtors the power to surrender
all their estates, and thereupon be discharged from
their debts, and giving to creditors the power to
compel such surrendering in case a debtoc suffers
an undisputed claim to remain dishonored and un-
satisfiedt for more than three months, and that banks,
first and foremost, should be subject to the pro-
visions of such a law.
We believe that the operation of such a lat-,
with the absence of all other control from Govern-
ment, would, in the most effectual method wItch
can be devised, secure a tound cn. rency through-
out the country, and that free competition among
merchants, brokers, and bankers, would be the best
regulator ,f exehanuso.
We 1.. i e, Ilitat Ih overwhelming revulsions
which have se often visited the business affairs of
this country, have been greatly increased in their
violence by the efforts which have been made to
regulate business and the currency, by Govern-
ment interference.

WAoES -For months past, the Wh;g party have
been proclaiming NO REDUCTION OF WAGES,
and circulating from one end of the land to the
ether, that the Van Buren party would reduce wa-
ges to 12A cents a day, and that if Harrison should
be elected, wages would go up, antd times would be
better. Ho v has this been carried out? Scarcely
has the contest terminated, before one of the Whig
employers in this city toll his workmen he must
now curtail his expenses, and that in future they
wou'd receive but one dollar for the same work
they had heretofore been getting a dollar and twelve
and a half cents for. Tnis is currying out their pro-
fession with a vengeance.-Delaware Gazette.

BoU-IsEss AND MONEY MATTERS -It seems that
trade has already experienced the effect of the elec-
tion of "Old Tip." Unbleached musln has ad-
vanced half a cent per yard, and produce fallen
much beyond that rate. The Philadlphialrnq,iirer
states that there has been a slight improvement in
bank stocks within the last day or two. This it
verifying the prediction of the Democracy, and
plainly indicates that the fell spirit of speculation,
which has already nearly ruined the country, is
again about being fanned into a blaze
[Delaware Gazelltte.

REDUCTIoN OF WAozs.-The stone cutters em
played on Trinity Church, New York, are now
.,,.i.. ..ut aaini't a reduction of their wages from
,1, "o >e. rn -'iiilng; per day, which the church
corporation attempted to effect.-Delaware Gazette.

Prom the New Torki .Aurnal im Catimnerco', of Notm. 2-.
The Cunar.l ,.i-amer, from Liverpool, arrived at
Bo i.-. 'Thus.dy afternoon. By Harnden's Ex-
pre(-,, via Proidence, we have our despatches.
The cars of the and Providence railroad
were detained until 7 o'clock last evening, for the
purpose of bringing on the news; still the Narra-
gansett was here at 10 o'clock this morning. We
have London papers of the morning of Novemter
The news is decidedly favorable on the great
question of war in Europe, especially as M.
Thiers, the leader of the war party in the Cabinet of
France, had found it necessary to resign his posi-
The cotton market looks tolerably well. Flour
has declined. Money was scarcer, though the
scarcity had not the appearance of long continued
The, packet ship South America, from New
York for Liverpool, was fired upon on the 2d inst.
just as she was entering the Channel, by an Eng-
lish yacht full of men. The yacht proved to be
a revenue cruiser, andi theconduct of the officer in
command in severely censured by the Liverpool
A letter received at Boston, dated at Liverpool,
Nov. 4th, states that the Brttish Queen steamer,
which left Portsmouth for New York, November
2, had put into Hastings. This may be so, but is
quite improbable, as Hastingsis some sixty miles
west of Portsmouth, and it would be strange if the
ship were unable to make a port as far east as the
one she left. Besides, the agents here have no ad-
vices on the subject.
The Great Western which left New York on the
10s of October, arrived at Bristol on the 24th.
There was a terrible collision on the 25.h be-
tween the Britannia and Phoenix, two steamships
which ply between London and Havre. They
met at sea, nearly offDungeness point, in the night.
The Britannia struck the Phoenix just before the
paddle box, the weakest point of a steam vessel,
cutting her down to the water's edge. She immedi-
ately began to fill, and soon sank. The pas.ea-
gers and crew were taken on board the Britannia.
The Queen of Spain has abdicated the throne,
and the management of the affairs has fallen very
much into the hands of General Esparero.
LoSDON, Nov. 3-Madrid journals and letters
of the 23d ult, are chiefly occupied with accounts of
the departure of the Queen Mother and her parting
interview with her two daughters, which is descri-
bed as extremely affecting. She is said to have
fainted twice before she bade them adieu.I
Espartero has played his cards with so much
skill, as to have constituted himself and his wife
the virtual sovereigns of the country. The Duchess
of Victory is to act as Camerara-Mayor to .Isabella
11, and the Duke, her husband, has managed to in-
vest himself with the appointment of Captain Ge-
neral of the Body Guard. Having thus secured to
themselves the two most influential posts in the Pa-
lace, they can, in fact, have no higher object to ob-
The Queen is said to have taken leave of Espar-
tero, when she left Valencia, with the bitterest re-
proaches for his perfidy. Her Majesty ascribed all
her embarrassments to his machinations, and vent-
ed her indignation against him in terms of unmea-
sured acerbity. "Your conduct towards me," said
she, "is unpardonable; for I have ever treated you
with the utmost kindness, and raised you in succes-
sion to the rank of Count of Luchana, of Duke of
Victory and Morella, and Grandee of Spain; the
only thing I could not make you was-a gentle-
man (cabellero) !"
It appears that previous to her abdication her
Majesty had resolved to embark secretly with her
two daughters, and shut herself up in Pampeluna,
where she would have placed herself under the prJ-
tection of certain battalions of the Royal Guard,
which remained faithful to her cause. Tne impro-
vidence of her Ministers, particularly her Minister
of Marine, was such, however, that there was not
a single vessel left at her dispo-al, and she was ac-
cordingly compelled to forego her intention.
A collision between the Government and the
juntas would appear to be inevitable. The latter
are displeased at the curtailment of their powers,
by a recent decree of the Regency, and the question
of the dissolution of the Senate affords also anuc-
ther ground of dispute, even among the members
of the Cabinet. Senor Gonzales has written to
Espartero to request him, for the sake of the con-
Sstitutional cause, not to give up that point. An
animated discussion took place on that letter, in
the course of which Espartero, Gomrz, Beeerra,
Gamboa, and Cortina declared themselves -ii.i--i
the renewal of that assembly, and Messrs. F-rrer,
Chaco-, andi Frias, decidedly in its favor.
Mehemet Ali's affairs in Syria are assuming a
desperate aspect. Beyrout has been occupied by
the Anglo-Turks. They are fortifying Seyde.
The Emir Bechir has gone there, and has deter-
mined to abandon the caue of Mehemet Ali. The
insurrection is rapidly progressing in the moun-
tains. Ibrahim is about to concentrate the whole
of his forces.
Tour.L'N, Nov. 1, half-past 5, p. m.
MALTA, Oct. 27.
The English Government steamer the Cyclops,
arrived here this morning from Seyde, which place
she left on the 2lst ult. She has on board the
Emir Bechir with fifteen members of his family,
and 115 persons of his suite, with whom he is pro-
ceeding to Englsnd.
The captain of the Cyclops confirms the accounts
of the rising throughout nearly the whale moun-
tait .
Thie news from Syria of the general defection
from Mehemet Ali, and the very significant aban-
donment of his cause by the Emir Bechir, removes
the casus belli, indicated by the Thiers ministry, to a
greater distance. If the "chances of war" decide
the event, as they seem to be doing, in Syria, no
case will arise in which England, or the powers in
alliance with her, could be justified in attacking
the power of the Pacha in Egypt, where alone the
late or present rulers of France have declared an
interest in his cause.
LONDON, November 4.-The news from Syria
which arrived yesterday by the telegraphic
despatch of the 31st of October from Tou-
htn is u,,r.:, il-.t" t1\ very important, and though
it shows that that the reports previously re-
ceived were somewhat premature, it fully con-
firms the rumor of the success of the Anglo-Turk-
m hi forces, thb extension of the insurrection through-
out the country of Mount Lebanon, and the proba-
ble defeat of Ibrahim whenever he shall venture to
meet the allied troops. The despatch from Malta
of the 27th ultimo, giving news direct from S yde
of the 21nt, confirms the intelligence from Alexan
dria of the 17th; and the presence of the Emir Be-
chir on board the Cyclops is likewise mentioned.
It is, however, not easy to comprehend for what
reason or in what capacity the Emir is said to be
on his way to England-whether as a hostage, a
prison ,r, or a negotiator.
We may, however, congratulate ourselves on
having nearly arrived at the end contemplated by
M. Thiers in his note. he limits of Syria will be
determined by the fate of war. The forces
of Ibrahim being thus reduced and demora-
lized, it wo'ild be absurd to suppose that an army
and a General so weak as not to have been able to
resist the operations of 2000 Europeans and 8000
ir 10,000 'urks on the coast of Syria, can for the
future st .r.I r.-.uncm of serious apprehension to the
Sultan at Constantinople, or a pretext for sudden in-
terference from the northern shore of the Euxine.
The French, on the other haad, must be undeceivelt
by these events as to the real character of the

Egyptian commanders and their resources. The
reports of renegadoes, and the high-flown panegyrics
of the Semaphore newspaper, which is is said that
the Pacha of Egypt had cunning enough to pur-
chase some ycars ago, had aili -,i ir turned the
heads of his French admirer-. Their reminis-
cences of E-ypt %ere revived by the hopes of a
'resh alliance with the enterprising Viceroy, but the
game has ended in a mu tual deception. At the
first touch of British power, the Viceroy's Syrian
dominion has crumbled like the evanescentstrength
of other rebellious Pashas less known to history;
an in the first hour of trial, Mehemet Ali ha?
learned that tot obtain the real support of France,
he must shoe himself strong enough to demand and
to repay it.
Here, then, as we observed the other day, natu-
rally ends the first ac' or epoch of this eventful his-
tory. The French Ministry is changed, the Cham-
bers are about to meet, the fate of Syria is decided,
ihe sea?(,n for m iritime operations is nearly over,
the leading dipl imatic representatives of Austria
and Prusia nave unexpectedly returned to Lon-
don, and the wisest course will be, without any il
timed retrospection as to past differences, to take
up the question as; it now stand', with an entirety
d fferent state of things in the East, and perhaps
some change in the state of opinions in the 'West.
In short, nothing is wanting to convert this suc-
cess into an honorable triumph but to make a wise
and moderate use of it.

It is no secret that a considerable portion of the
British Cabinet, consisting of the men most entitled
to respect in it, are decided advocates of such mea-
sures as may be requisite to re.'ore the world to its
wonted state of confidence an.l Lranqiiill'iy. It il
believed that the envoys of Autria a-id Pruisia
have returned to this country for the express pur-
pose of recommending similar policy. It is certain
that a Government has just come into power in
France, resolved to do whatever can be done ho-
nestly and honorably to resume its place at the
council-board of Europe. Moderation is on every
tongue; men are still, thank God, ashamed to con-
fess the brutal passion of war.-Times.
Correspondence of the Journal of Commerce.
LIVERPOOL, Oct. 30, 1840.-Since our last of the
20th instant, the money market has undergone no
favorable change, and the Bank of England has
increased rather than diminished her stringent
measures, and this state of things will probably
continue to check active business operations while
the apprehensions of war are felt.
We have however had rather more demand for
cotton the last few days, and a slight improvement
in prices, which is attributed to the later accounts
from the United States being considered more deci-
ded as to the curtailments of the crop, frnm various
causes. The sales for the week ended 23d inst.
16,450 bales; but for that ended this evening, they
amount to 28,480 bales. Of the latter 4,500 are
Upland at 4ia6fj, with 30 at 7; 9,840 Orleans at
41a7h, with 40 bales at 71a8; 9,910 Alabama and
Mobile at 5a6 3-8, and 360 Sea Island at 131a21d.
per lb.; about 3000 of it taken by speculators.
The quantity offering is moderate, and in some
instance an advance of bd. per lb. has been
realized at the lowest rates ten or twelve days
ago. The import since 1st January is 1,314 000
bales, against 948,000 to same period last season;
the supply from the United S:ates is 1,116,000, be-
ing an increase of 360,000 bates. The stock in
this port is estimated at 463,000 bales against
338',000 at same period last season; the stock of
American is about 375,000, or 73,000 more than
it then was.
The duty on wheat is now 23s. 81. per quarter;
and on flour 14). 2d. per bb'. The price of flour,
duty paid, has declined to 33:. 61. and in bond to
23--. 6d. per bbl. at which rates the market is dull.
Turpentine in regular demand at 10s. 61. for infe-
rior, to 12s. l6. per cwt. for prime quality. The
demand for tobacco is le s active, but no change in
4th November.-The slight improvement in oar
cotton market above noticed is sustained, and we
have a steady moderate demand. The sales for
three days past are estimated at about 10,000 bales,
of which 1,000 is on speculation, said to be on
American account. There has been rather more
doing in goods and. yarns at Manchester, but at
lower prices than ever before known; and the state
of the money market has in no degree improved.
In other articles there is no change of interest.
The corn markets continue exceedingly depressed.
From the New York Knickerbocker for October.
When the Floridaa were erected into a Territo-
ry of the United States, one of the earliest cares of
the Governor, William P. Duval, was directed to
the instruction and civilization of the natives. For
this purpose, he called a meeting of the chiefs,
in which he informed them of the wish of their
Great Father at Wafi u_.:.-o that they should have
schools and teachers among them, and that their
children should be instructed like the children of
white men. The chiefs listenened with their cus-
tomary silence and decorum to a long speech, set-
ting forth tht advantages that would accrue to
them from this measure; and when he had con-
cluded, begged the interval of a day to deliberate
on it.
Oai the fi.o-lin.. day, a solemn convocation was
held, at which one of their chiefs addressed the
Governor in the name of all the rest. "My bro-
ther," said he, "we have bren thinking over the
proposition of our Great Father at Washington to
send teachers and set up schools among uc. We
are very thankful for the interest he takes in our
welfare, but, after much deliberation, have con-
cluded to decline his offer. What will do very
well for white men, will not do for red men. 1
know you white men say we all came from the
same father and mother, but you are mista-
ken. We have a tradition handed down
from our forefathers, and we believe it, that
the Great Spirit, when he undertook to make
men, made the black man; it was his first at-
tempt, and pretty well for a beginning; but he
soon saw that he bungled, so he determined to try
his hand again. He did so, and he made the red
man. He liked him much better than the black
man, but still he was not exactly what he wanted.
So he tried once more, and made the white man-
and then he was satisfied. You see, therefore, that
you were made last, and that is the reason I call
you my youngestbrother.
"When the Great Spirit had made the three men,
he called them together, and showed them three
boxes. The first was filled with books, and maps,
and paper; the second with bows and arrows,
knives and tomahawks; the third with spades, axes,
hoes, and hammers. 'These, my sons,' said he,
'are the means by which you are to live, choose
a.i,.-'! them according to your fancy.'
Fri. whie man, being the favorite, had the first
choice. He passed by the box of working tools
without notice; but when he came to the weapons
of war and hunting, he stopped and looked hard at
lhim. The red man trembled, for he had set his
heart upon that box. The while man, however,
after looking upon it for a moment, passed on and
choice the box of boacks and papers. The red man's
turn came next, and you may be sure he seized with
joy upon the bows and arrows and tomahawks.
As to the black man, he had no choice left but to
put up with the box of tools.
"From this it is clear that the Great Spirit in-
tended the white man 'should learn to read and
write, to understand all about the moon and stars;
and to make every thing, even rum and whiskey:
that the red man should be a first rate hunter and a
ii-2hlii warrior; but he was not to learn any thing
Ir.tmti t *i-, as the Great Spirit had not given him
any; nor was he to make rum and whiskey, lest he
should kill himself with drinking. As to the black
man, as he had nothing but working tools, it was
clear he was to work for the white and red man,
which he has continued to do.
"We must go according to the wishes' of the
Great Spirit, or we shall get into trouble. To know
how to read and write is very good for white men,
but very bad for red men. It makes white men
better, but red men worse. Some of the Creeks
and Cherokees learnt to read and write, and they
are the greatest rascals among the Indians. Tney
went on to Washineton, and said they were going
to see their Great Father, to talk about the good
of the nation. And when they got there, they all
wrote upon a little piece of paper, without the na-
tion at home knowing any thing about it. And
the first thing the nation at home knew of the mat-
ter, they were called together by the Indian agent,
who showed them a little piece of paper, which he
told them was a treaty, which their brothers had
made in their name, with their Great Father'at
Washington. And as they knew not what a treaty
was, he held up the little piece of paper, and they
looked under it, and ho! it covered a great extent
of country, and they found that their brethren, by
knowing how to read and write, had sold their
houses, and their lands, and the graves of their

fathers; and that the white man, by knowing how
to read and write, had gained them. Tell our
Great Father at Washington, therefore, that we
are very sorry that we cannot receive teachers
among us; for reading and writing, though very
good for white men, is very bad for Indians."

stated in the Cincinnati papers, on the authority of
a passenger from down the river, that the Persian,
on her passage from New Orleans to St. Louis, six
miles below the mouth of the Arkansas, collapsed
a flue, by which 30 persons were injured, seven o1
them killed and four mortally wounded.

There are no less than four war steamers now build-
ing in this city and Brooklyn, viz: one at the navy
yard for the United States, of 2,000 tons; another
at the foot of 13'h street of about the same tonnage,
for the Russian G )vernmeat; and two at the foot ol
4th street of 1000 tons each, tor the Government'o0
Cuba. All these vessels are considered fine mo-
del,, although that of the United States Navy bear,
away the palm; and it is not doubted that the West
Point Foundry will in this; as in all former cas(s,
maintain its well deserved reputation.
[JV. Y. Standard.

The editors with whom we exchange will please
publish the official returns of the Presidential elec-
tion in their respective States. We wish to publish
the official returns from all the States in the Globe.

At a meeting of the Faculty, alier the death uf
Professor DAvt., Chairman of the Faculty and the
pre,siding officer itl ihe instiution, on Monday, the
16th day of November, 1640, the foll.)win, pream-
ble and resolu'iu'ns were offered by Prof'esour
Tucker, and unanimously adopted:
This day foroieght the members of the Faculty
followed the remains of a lamented colleague to
the grave, and to-day we are about to perform the
same sad obsequies for another associate and
friend, who has not, as Mr. Bonnycastle, been
taken away, in the course of nature, by protracted
disease, but has been snatched from. us by the
hand of a ruthless assassin, utinder circumsiance of
peculiar atrocity. Four nights ago, Professor Da-
vis, in the vigor of health, and in the meridian of
life, was shot down before his own door-sill, in the
wantonness of ruffian malice, when he had no sus-
picion of danger, was without the means of injury
or defence, and when his only provocation was an
unsuccessful attempt to discover who had disturbed
his domestic peace and violated the laws of the
The feelings excited by an act of blood and vil-
lany, without example in the annals of college ex-
cesses, will not permit us to dwell on the rare
merits and virtues of our deceased friend. The
heart-rending lamentations of his widow and or-
phans, his relatives and domestics, the general
voice of the students of this institution and of the
wide citel. of his acquaintance, concur in attesting
them, and proclaim in a vo:ce not to-be mistakes,
that, besides the irreparable loss to his family, the
University has been deprived of a principal prop,
society of a most useful citizen,iand religion of one
of its fairest ornaments.- In a spirit of exalted.
piety, he died forgiving his reckless murderer.
We can now do no more than make the following
brief expression of our sentiments.
Resolved, That while we mingle our tears with
these of the relatives and friends of our colleague,
we feel it to be our duty, as good citizens and officers
of this University, to use all proper exertions for
the purpose of bringi-sg the perpetrator of this foul
deed to c..-,-l;cn punishment .
Reslvit., Tb i amid the feelings of grisf, horror,
and indignation, which now fill our hearts, we find
some solace in the fact that the students, as a body,
have made such active, ardent, and r.ti. taht
efforts to discover the skulking assassit, and sub-
ject him to the impartial sen ence of the law.
Resolved, That we will wear the usual badge of
mourning for sixty days, and that a copy of these
resolutions be sent to Mrs. Davis by the chairman,
and to the public journals by the secretary.
Chairman of the Faculty, pro tempore,
WM. WERTENBAKER, Sec. of Faculty.
The papers announce the appointment of Jacob
Cook as Deputy High Constable of the city of Bal-.
timere, in place of Madison Jeffers, indicted for
conspiracy and fraud. Jefferb'e offence, it will be
remembered, consists in having merely operate. a
negotiation by letter with Riston, the Philadelphia
"pipe" broker, for a loan of 500 feet of that com-
modity to carry the city of Baltimore against the
voice of the resident and lawful voters. The
only evidence required tio suspend his fur.ctions
sia -figh Constable, in the fi,,t instance, vwas etx
parole proof.if you please, that the draft oa Riston
for 500 men, was in his (Jeffers's) handwriting.
Men of all parties in Baltimore, concurred in the
propriety of the suspension from office under these
circumstances, and with equal unanimity, fnr
that appears, concur in his dismissal ir..min r.:',
now that he stands indicted by a grand jury.
But such are not the notions of morality and offi-
cial disqualification prevailing hereabouts, under
circumstances calling for even more summary ac-
tion on the part of the appointing po ver. Here we
have a man retained in a lucrative andI I o ,n-ibln
office, who stands (may we not say c"r,' i.'. it') oti
merely of having arranged theprelimiaarie3 for pre-
cisely such a scheme of fraud as Jeffers contem-
plated upon the electors of Baltimore, but with
having actually carried out the plan, so far as to
cheat the resident and legal voters of the city of
New York out ef their thirteen members of Assembly,
four members of Congress, and a State Senator.
Again, we have a high constable in this city,
who is retained in office, and is a favored applicant
at the Treasury, when others are turned off, after
affidavit upon affidavit has been published, and
brought home to the knowledge of the municipal
authorities, and contradicted from any quarter,
,vhich, if true, fix upon that functionary an active
participation in precisely similar frand upon the
franchise in the city of New York, in t'.e spring of
EBut the contrast deepens, in view of the other
circumstances attending the Glentworth and Coul-
son disclosures. Glentworth claims to have received
the office he holds as the reward of his "pipe lay-
ing" services in 1838, and in his letter found
among the "private paper,"t he dares the "appoint-
ing power" to remove him, on the distinct grourind
that it "knows all the circum tances" under which
he was made tobacco inspector, and that "if there
was any thing wrong" abont it, '"that power sanc-
tioned it, and is equally answerable for the wrong."
Whether Ceulson has the appointing power of the.
city equally at his mercy, remains to be seen. lHe
makes no boast of it, it is true; but the fact that he
is retained in office after the disclosures that have
been made, argues that, like Glentworth, he too
could make disclosures, "if driven into acorn,',"
that the "welfare of the WtVii- p tny" re-luire- ,
be concealed.--lbany Arguss

Tue glorious principles of Jeffersonian Demo-
cracy have fallen, and the principles of the Hart-
tord Convention are again in the ascendant. The
stats and silken folds of the banner of freedom
must for a time give place to Tippecanoe flags, de-
corated with coon skins and embellished with
senseless mottoes; argument and common sense
have been overcome by hard cider, miniature' log
cabins, and bacchanalian songs; and our republican
institutions have be-ime a by-word and a reproach
throughout the world. The boasted intelligence of
a people who could be conquered by sc lh means,
and such argument', is subjected to the mockery of
those who have doubted the capacity of the people
for self-government. To e Government of this
ireat and free country has fallen into the hands of
broken down speculators iu stocks and politics,
and desperate gamblers, without principles and
without honesty, and the country for a time must
be governed by the Ritners, the Penningtons, the
Thad. Stevenses, the John C. Wrights, and the
leaders of the Hartford Convention.
[.Niew Hampsire Patriot.
It may briin rti'inr i. devote afew words to the
description of Ihe youeg QCueen of ihis country, an
she now appears, and curiosity must be the more
active regarding her, as she wss for sofime time in
England. By her first husband, the Prince of
Leuchtenburg, the Queen had no children; by the
second, Prince Ferdinand of Coburg, she has two
princes born; and this gives the husband the right
of being styled King of Portugal. He is extremely
youthful, being not more than twenty-one; the
Queenis twenty. This Coburg prince is said to
be a well meaning young man, without vices, and
disposed to meddle very little in public affairs of
any kind. He is much influenced by a clever
German, a M. Deily, who came to Portugal with
him; and another important personage of his suite
ts a Monsieur St. Leger, a Frenchman who mar-
ried a Portuguese.
*t St 5t 5 a
But, to return to Donna Maria. The small inte-

resting little person, who was so much caressed by
George IV. and William IV. is now grown into a
very large woman. I believe it is rare to see a per-
son of her age of such an extraordinary size. Her
teatutei are of a heavy cast; her hair is light, and
dressed in ringlets, but without ornament, and is tied
in a knot behind; she was dressed in black. She is
reported to be of a harmless inoffensive character;
And, when hanging on the arm of the king, who is
a slender youth, the contrast is singular. The mi-
sery to which the royal household is reduced, can
best be appreeiaxed by staliag the fact that the Go-
verutment find it more convenient to take charge of
and keep the royal establishment than to pay a
stated sum for the purpose to their -overrimin. The
salaries of all are greatly in arrears, and the royal
personages are in such distress for money, that they
are obliged to procure it on their own promisory
mutes, trom Jews and private person', at an im-
manse discount. The king anri queen dine almost
always together, though the later takes her break-
rast and dfjeuners a la fourchellt separate.
There are no tables for o hers, no hangers on, no
cou rt people ke, t. What realains from the royal
board is immediately given to the poor. The ser-
vants and al ithe attendants are on board wages.
Few receptions of any s -rt are given at the palac,;
and even when there is an aun Ie ce of the qieen,
she hardly opens her lips or has a communicaiion
with any one. Tae priests have con,,deratle in-
fluence with her Majesty.
[Leorde Lonelosnees-,-'. Journal,

- *.J.

I N pursuance of law, I, MARTIN VAN BU-
REN, President of the United States of Ame-
rica, do hereby declare and make known, that pub-
lihe sales will be held at the undermentuned land
offices in the State I'f Arkansas, at the periods
herieinafter designated, to wit:
At the land office at Johneon Court-house, com-
mencing on Monday, the twenty-third day of No-
vember next, for the disposal of the public lands
within the limits of the undermentioned townships,
to wit:
NWorth of the base line and west of the meriditan.
Township 'wo, of range twenty-one.
Township five, of range twenty.two.
Township two, of range twenty-three.
Townships three and seven, of range twenty-
Township five, of range twenty-five.
At the land office at Washington, commencing
on Monday, the uwenty-ithirl day of November
next, for the disposal of the public lands within the
limits of the undermentioned townships, to wit:
South of the base line, and west of the meridian.
Township twelve, of range twenty-eight.
Fractional township fourteen, north of Red river,
of range twenty-nine.
Fractional townships thirteen and fourteen, north
of Red river, of range thirty.
Fractional township fourteen, north of Red river,
of range thirty-one.
At the land office at Little Rock, commencing
on Monday, the twenty.third day of November
next, for the disposal of the public lands within the
limits of the undermentioned townships, to wit:
Ssuth of the base line, and west of the meridian.
Township one, of range eight.
Township one, of range nine.
Township fifteen, of range seventeen.-
At the land office at Helena, commencing on
Monday, the thirtieth day of November next, for
S the disposal of the public lands within the limits ot
the undermentioned fractional townships, to wit:
South of the base line, and east of the meridian.
Fractional township nine, north of Arkansas
river, of range one.
Fractional township four, except the north half
of section two, and sections three, four, five, six,
nine, and ten, of range three.
South of the base line, and west of the meridian.
Fractional township nine, north of Arkansas and
south of White river, except sections two, three,
and twelve, of range one.
At the land office at Fayetteville, commencing
on Monday the thirtieth of Novenber next, for the
disposal of the public lands within the limits of
township sixteen, north of the ba~e line, ot 0
eighteen, west of the meridian.
Lands appropriated by law for the use of schools,
military, or other purposes, will be excluded from
The sales will each be kept open for two weeks,
(unless the lands are sooner disposed of,) and no
longer, and no private entries of land, in the town-
ships so offered, will be admitted until after the ex-
piration of the two weeks.
Given under my hand at the City of Washing-
ton, this seventh day of August, anno Domini,
By the President:
Commissioner of the General Land Office.

Every person claiming the right of pre-emption
to land in any of the townships designated in this
proclamationa, in virtue of the provisions of the
act of 22d June, 1838, as extended and modified
by the act of 1st June, 1840, or of the provisions
of the latter act, granting certain privileges to
another class of settlers, is requested to prove the
same to the satisfaction of ths Register and Re-
ceiverof the proper land office, and make payment
therefore as soon as practicable after seeing thts no.
tice, and before the day appointed for the com-
mencement of the public sale of the land as above
designated, otherwise such claims will be for-
Commissioner of the General Land Office.
Aug 10-law30N
IN pursuance of law, I, MAR IN VAN BU-
REN, Presidefft of the United States of Ame-
rica, do hereby declare and make known, that
public sales will be held at the undermentioned
land orheers in the State of Michigan, at the periods
Shmreinafler designated, to wit:
At the land office at lonia, commencing on Mon-
day, the twenty-third day of November next, for
the disposal of the public lands within the limits of
the undermentioned townships, to wit:
North of the base line, and west of the meridian.
Townships twenty-eight, twenty-nine, and thirty,
of range three.
Townships twenty-e'ght, twenty-nine, and thirty,
cf range four.
Township. twenty eight, twenty-nine, and thirty
rangfi ie.
Townships wenty-eii., ./etity-nine, and thirty,
C f range six.
Townships twenty-seven, twenty-eight, twenty-
nine, and thirty, of range seven.
At the land office at Genesee, commencing on
Monday, the twenty-third day of November next,
for the disposal of the public lands within the limits
of the undermentioned townships, to wit:
North of the base line, and west of the meridian.
Townships twenty-eight, twenty-nine, and thirty,
of range one.
Townships twenty-tight, twenty-nine, and thirty,
of range two.
Lands appropriated by law for the use of schools,
military, or other purposes, will be excluded from
The sales will each be kept open for two weeks,
(unless the lands are sooner disposed of,) and no
longer; and no private entries of land, in the town-
ships so offered, will be admitted until after the ex-
piration of the two weeks.
Given under my hand, at the City of Washing-
ton, this third day of August, anno Domini, 1840.
By the President:
Comntissiener of the General Land Office.

Every person claiming the right cf pre-emption to
land in any of the townships designated in this pro-
clamation, in virtue of the provisions of the act of
23d June, 1838, as extended and modified by the
act of 1st June, 1840, or of the provisions of the
latter act granting certain privileges to another
class of settlers, is requested to prove the same to
the satisfaction of the Register and Receiver of the
proper land office, and make payment therefor as
soon as practicable after seeing this notice, and before
the day appointed for the commencement of the
public sale of the land as above designated; other-
wise such claims will be forfeited.
Commissioner o the General Land Office.
Aug 4-lawt23N
IN pursuance oa law, I, MARTIN VAN BU-
REN, President of the United States of Ame-
rica, do hereby declare and make known, that a
public sale will be held at the land office at Ge-
nesse, inthe State of Michigan, commencing on
Monday, the seventh day of December next, for
the disposal of the public lands within the limits
of the undsrmentioned townships to wit:

.North of the base line, andeast of the meridian.
Townships twenty-one, twenty-two, twenty-three,
twenty-four, twenty-five, twenty-six, twenty-seven,
and twenty-eight, of range one.
Townships twenty-one, twenty-two, twenty-three,
twenty-four, twenty-five, twenty-six, twenty-seven,
and twenty-eight, of range two.
Townships twenty-three, twenty-four, twenty-
:five, twenty-six, twenty-seven, and twenty-eight, of
range three.
Lands appropriated by law for the use of schools,
military, or other purposes, will be excluded from
The sale will be kept open for two weeks (un-
less the lands are sooner disposed of) and no lon-
ger; and no private entries of land, in the town-
ships so offered, will be admitted until after the ex-
piration of the two weeks.
Given under my hand, at the city of Washington,
this twenty-ninth day of August, anno Domini
one thousand eight hundred and forty.
By the President t
Commissioner of the General Land Office.

Every person claiming the right of pre-emption
to land in any of the townships designated in this
proclamation, in virtue of t he provisions of the act
of 22d June, 193I, as extended and modified by the
actef 1st June 1840, or o-'f the provisions of the lat-
ter act granting certain priviieees to another crass
of settlers, is requested to proved he same to the sa-
lfaption of the Reister and Reeiver of the Land

O6fce, and make paymen herefer at soon as pre-
ticable afler seeing this notice, and before the day ap.
pinied lor the commencement of the public sale
of the land as above designated, otherwise such
c aims will be forfeited.
Commissioner of the General Land Office.
August 29-lawtDec7
I N pursuance of law, I, MARTIN VAN BU-
L REN, President of the United States of Ameri-
ca, do hereby declare and make known that
public sales will be held at the undermentioned
land offices, in the State of Arkansas, at the pe-
riods hereinafter designated, to wit:
At the land office at Helens, commencing on
Monday, the fifteenth day of February next, for
the disposal of the public lands within the limits of
the undermentioned townships, to wit:
South of the base line and west of the meridian.
The fractional sections twenty-nine, thirty,
thirty-one, and thirty-two, in township eight, on
the south side of Arkansas river, of range one.
The fractional sections twenty-five, twenty-six,
thirty-five, and thirty-six, on the soulh side of Ar-
kansas river, in township eight, of range tw.'.
Township eighteen, of range two.
At the land office at Little Rock, commencing
on Monday, the twenty-second of February next,
for the disposal of the public lands within the
limits of the undermentioned townships, t) wit:
Soth' of the base line and west of the meridian.
Township fourteen, of range 'even.
Township two, of range eight.
Township three, of range nine.
North of the base line and west of the meridian.
1 ownship seven, north of old Cherokee boun-
dart, of range fifteen.
At the land office at Batesville, commencing on
Mon. ay,the first day of March next, for the dis-
posal .A the public lands within the limits of the
under i entioned townships, to wit:
.Nor 'It of the base line and west of the meridian.
Tow: hilp eleven, of range thirteen.
Town '.ip eleven, of range fourteen.
At the and office at Johnson Ccurt-house, com-
mencing t(n Monday, the eighth day of March
next, for nh- disposal of the public lands within the
limits of the undermentioned townships, to wit:
.North of the base line and west rf the meridian.
Townships eight and nine, of range eighteen.
Townships eight and ten, of range nineteen.
Township eight, of range twenty.
Townships two and three, of range 'wenty-
Townships three and five, of range twenty-three.
Townships two, five and six, of range twenty-
Townships six and seven, of range twenty-five.
At the land office at Fayetteville, commencing
on Monday, the fifteenth day of March next, for
the disposal of the public lands within the limits of
the undermentioned townships, to wit:
.North of the base line and west of the meridian.
Townships seventeen and eighteen, of range
Township eighteen, of range twenty.
At the land office at Washington, commencing
on Monday, the twenty-second day of March next,
for the disposal of the public lands wihin the
limits of township eleven south, of range thirty-
two west.
Lands appropriated by law, for the use of
schools, military, or other purposes, will be exclu-
ded from sale.
The sales will be kept open for two weeks, (un
less the lands are sooner disposed of,) and no long-
er; and no private entries of lands in the townships
so'offered, will be admitted until aftei the expira-
tion of the two weeks.
Given under my hand, at the city of Washing-
ton, this fourth day of November, anno Domini
By the President:
JNo. M. MoonE,
acting g Commissioner of the General Land Office.

Every person claiming the right of pre-emption
to land in any of the townships designated in this
proclamation, in virtue of the provisions of the act
Sof 22d June, 1838, as extended and modified by
the act of 1st June, 1840, or of the provisions of
the latter act granting certain pivileges to anoihei
class of settlers, is requested to prove the same to
the satisfaction of the Register and Receiver of the
land office, and make payment therefore as soon as
practicable after seeing this notice, and before the
day appointed for the commencement of the pub-
lic sale of the land as above designated; otherwise
such claims will be forfeited.
Jicting Commissioner of the General Land Office.
Nov 5-lawtMarch22

N pursuance of law, I, MARTIN VAN BU-
REN, President of the United States of Ame-
rica, do hereby declare and make known, that
a public sale will be held at the land office at
Du Buque, in the Territory of Iowa, commencing
on Monday, the eleventh day of January, one
thousand eight hundred and forty-one, for the dis-
posal of the public lands within ths limits of the
undermentioned townships and fractional town-
ships, to wit:
North of the base line and west of the fifth principal
Fractional townships ninety-three, ninety-four
and ninety-five, of range three.
Townships ninety-three, ninety-four and ninety-
five, of ranue four.
Townships ninety-three and ninety-four, of
range five.
Lands appropriated by law for the use of schools,
military, or other purposes, will be excluded from
The sale will be kept open for two weeks, (un-
less the lands are sooner disposed of,) and no
longer, and no private entries of land, in the town-
ships so offered, will be admitted until after the ex-
piration of the two weeks.
Given under my hand at the city of Washing-
ton this twenty-third day of September, A. D. 1840.
By the President:
Commissioner of the General Land Office.

Every person claiming the right of pre-emption
to land in any of the townships designated in this
proclamation, in virtue of the provisions of the act
of 221A June, 1838, as extended and modified by the
act of 1st June, 1840, or of the provisions of the
latter act, granting certain privileges to another
class of settlers, is requested to prove the same, to
the satisfaction of the Register and Receiver of the
proper land office, and make payment therefore as
soon as practicable after seeing this ssotice, and before
the day appointed for the commencement of the
public sale of the land as above designated;
otherwise, such claims will be forfeited.
Commissioner of the General Land Office.
Sept 24-lawtJI1

OTICE IS HEREBY GIVEN, that the pub-
lic sale of the lands within the limits of frac-
tional township four, south of the base line, of
range three east of the meridian, ordered to be held
at the land office at Helena, in the State of Arkan-
sas, on Monday, the thirtieth day of November

next, by proclamation issued on the seventh day of
August last, is postponed until further notice.
Given pnder my hand, at the city of Washing-
ington this twentieth day of October, A. D 1840.
By the President:
JNO. M. MooRx,
Acting Com'r of the General Land Office.

AND DRAWERS.-Gentlemen wishing to
supply themselves with under shirts and drawers,
are respectfully informed that we have received a
very large supply, embracing every kind adapted
to the apprpaching season, such as-
Merino Shirts, fine, single and double breasted
Merino Drawers, extra large and medium size
Heavy Lambswool Shirts
Heavy Lambswool Drawers
Extra heavy Shaker Net Drawers and Shirts
Silk Shirts and Drawers, every kind
Lambswool, Merino, Vigonia Half Hose, and
Gloves of every description.

L ALCOM'S TRAVELS in Southeastern Asia,
i embracing Hindostan, Malaya, Siam, and
China, with Notices of numerous Missionary Sta-
tions, and a full account of the Birman Empire,
with Dissertations, Tables, &c, by Howard Mal-
com. Second edition. Just published and for sale
by W. M. MORRISON, four doors west of
Brown's Hotel. Nov 2

IN pursuance of law, I, MARTIN VAN BU-
REN, President of the United States of Ame-
rica, do hereby declare and make known that
public sales will be held at the undermentioned
land offices in the State of Arkansas, t the peri-
ods hereinafter designated, to wit:
At the land office at Batesville, commencing on
Monday, the fifth day of October next, for the dis-
posal of public lands within the limits of the un-
dermentioned townships, to wit:
North of the base line, and west of the fifth principal
Fractional township nineteen, on the south side
of White river, of range fifteen.
Township eighteen, of range sixteen.
Township nine, of range seventeen.
At the Land Office at Little Rock, commencing
on Monday, the twelfth day of October next, for
the disposal of the public lands within the limits of
the undermentioned townships, to wit:
South of the base line, and west of the principal meri-
Townships three and four, of range six.
At the Land Office at Johnson Court-House,
commencing on Monday, the nineteenth day of Oc-
tober next, for the disposal of the public lands with-
in the limits of the undermentioned townships, to
North of the base line, and west of the fifth principal
Township three, of range eighteen.
Fractional township six, on the north side of
Arkansas river, of range twenty.
Township ten, of range twenty-four.
At the Land Office at Fayetteville, commencing
on Monday, the twenty-sixth day of October next,
for the disposal of the public lands within the
limits of the undermentioned townships and frac-
tional townships, to wit:
North of the base line, and west of the fifth principal
Township fourteen, of range thirty.
Fractional townships eighteen, nineteen, and
twenty, bordering on the Cherokee boundary line,
of range thirty-four.
Lands appropriated by law for the use of schools,
military, or other purposes, will be excluded from
The sales will each be kept oper for two weeks,
(unless the lands are sooner disposed of,) and no
longer; and no private entries of land, in the town-
ships so offered, will be admitted until after the ex-
piration of the two weeks.
Given under my hand at the city of Washington
this twentieth day of June, anno Domini, 1840.
By the President,
Commissioner of the General Land Office.

Every person claiming the right of pre-emption
to Jand in any af the townships designated in this
proclamation in virtue of the provisions of the act
of 22d June, 1838, as extended and modified by the
act of 1st June, 1840, or of the provisions of the
latter' act granting certain privileges to another
class of settlers, is requested to prove the same to
the satisfaction of the register and receiver of the
proper land office, and make payment therefore,
as soon as practicable after seeing this notice, and be-
fore the day appointed for the commencement of
the public sale of the land as above designated;
otherwise such claims will be forfeited.
Commissioner of the General Land Office.
June 26-lawt260

,.OTICE is hereby given that the public sale of
l.' lands ordered to be held at the land office at
l'atieri.t.cli-, in the State ofLouisiana, on Mon-
day, the tenth day of August next, by proclama-
tion issued on the fourth day of April last, is post-
poned until, and will commence on, Monday, the
twenty-third day of November next.
The lands to be then offered, are described as
Township numbered twenty, of range nine.
That part of township seventeen situated north
of Red river, of range thirteen.
Fractional sections three, nine, ten, eleven, four-
teen, fifteen, and twenty-one, section twenty-two,
and fractional sections twenty-three, twenty-six,
ihirty-five, and thirty-six, all situated south of Red
river, in township tt enty, of range fourteen.
Given under my.hand at the city of Washing-
ton this fourth day of August, anno Domini 1840.
By the President:
Commissioner of the General Land Office.
August 7-lawtN23


16th November, 1840.
pROPOSALS, sealed and endorsed, will be re-
Sceived at this office until 3 o'clock, p. m. of
the third of December next, for furnishing and de-
livering at the navy yards at Portsmouth, N. H.
Charlestown, Mass. Brooklyn, N. Y. Philadelphia,
Washington, D. C. Gosport, Va. and the Baltimore
naval station, such quantities of the following arti-
cles as may be ordered or required from the con-
tractors by the respective Commandants of the said
navy yards, or navy agents, during the year 1841,
for the use of the Navy of the United States, viz:
1. C ld rolled Copper
2. Round, flat, and square Iron
3. Superfine Flour
4. Ship Biscuit
5. Whiskey
6. Butter
7. Molasses, Vinegar, Rice, and White Beans.
It is distinctly understood, however, that persons
who may offer are not to have any claim or privi-
lege to furnish any further quantity of any article
than may be expressly ordered or required, as the
Board will probably advertise for specific quanti-
ties of some of the articles, or prefer supplying the
wants of one station by transfer of surplus quan-
tities at others.
It is also to be understood, that when persons re-
side at other places than those near which they en-
gage to furnish articles, they will be expected to
appointand duly authorize some person resident at
or very near the place of delivery, to receive and
act upon the requisitions or orders which may be
And it is further understood, that in case the
person who contracts, or his agent, shall neglect or
fail to comply with the requisitions or orders he
may receive for articles under his contract in pro-
per time and of proper quality, the officers or
agents of the navy shall be authorized to purchase
the same, and the contractor shall be liable for any
excess of cost over the contract price.
Separate proposals must be made for each Navy
Yard, and for Baltimore; the blank offers furnished
to individuals must have all the blanks filled up,
and must be subscribed as directed in the note on
the face of each form, and they must be unqualified
and unconditional.
Bonds with two approved sureties in one third
the estimated amounts of the respective contracts
will be required, and ten per centum in addition
will be withheld from the amount of each payment
to be made, ascollateral security for the due and
faithful performance of the respective contracts,
which will on no account be paid until the con-
tracts are complied with in all respects. After

deducting ten per centum, payment will be made
by the United States within thirty days after the
said articles shall have been inspeced and received,
and bills for the same presented to the Navy Agent,
approved by the Commandants of the respective
navy yards aforesaid, according to the terms of the
The Board reserve to themselves the right to re-
ject all offers from persons who have heretofore
failed to fulfil their contracts.
Blank forms of offers for each denomination of
articles will be furnished by the respective Navy
Agents or Commandants of navy yards, to persons
applying for them, and upon which all offers
should be made, strictly conforming to the directions
which they contain. Samples of the biscuit are
lodged with the Commandants of yards. They are
of the same quality as those for 1840, being made
from s-perfine flour. "
To be published three times a week in the Globe,
National Intelligencer, Army and Navy Chronicle,
Eastern Argus, New Hampshire Patriot, New
Hampshire Gazette, Boston Statesman, Boston
Morning Post, Republican Herald, Hartlord Times,
Vermont Gazette, New York Evening Post, Tren-
ton Emporium, American Sentinel, Pehnsylvanian,
Pennsylvania Reporter, Baltimore Republican,
Norfolk Herald, Norfolk Beacon, and Old Domi-
nion. Nov. 16

ing a Personal Narrative of a Life at Sea,
in one volume; being No. 106 of Harpers' Famit
ly Library, is this day received for sale by

IN pur'ukance j law, I, MARTIN VAN BU-
REN, President of the United State. of Ame-
rica, do hereby declaree and mawe Krnown, that pub-
lic sales will be held at the unaermennonel Land
Offices in the State of Ohio, at ine periods iereiraf-
ter designated, for the dispositt ot a number of the
alternate-sections reserved to the United States,
along the route of the Wabash and Erie canal, and
on both sides of the Maumee river, in that State:
To be sold under the provisions of the act of Con-
gress, approved July 7, 183, entitled "An act to
authorize the sale of certain public lands of the
United States near the Wabash and Erie canal, in
the State of Ohio," at a price not. less than two dol-
lars and fifty cents per acre, not -subject to entry
under any pre-emption law of Congress," to wit:
At the Land Office at Lima, commencing on
the disposal of the public lands within the limits of
the undermentioned sections and parts of sections,
to wit:
`orth of the base line, and east of the first principal
The whole of sections TWO, FOUR, EIGHOnT, TEN,
TWELVE, FOURTEEN, and EIGHTEEN; the whole of
section TWENTY, except the south half of the north-
west quarter; the whole of section TWENTY-TWO;
the north half of the northeast quarter, and the
west half of the northwest quarter, of section
TWENTY-POUR; the north half of section TWENTY-
EIGHT, and the north half of the southwest quarter
of the same section; the whole of section THIRTY;
and the north half of the northwest quarter and
north half of the northeast quarter of section
THIRTY-TWO; all in township TWO, ef range ONE.
The whole of sections TWO and FOUR; the south
half of section six; the whole of sections EIGHT, TEN,
whole of section TWENTY-TWO north of the river;
the south half of section TWENTY-FOUR south ol
the river; the whole of section TWENTY-SIX; the
northeast quarter north of the river, and the south-
east quarter south of the river, of section TWENTY-
EIGHT; the south half of section THIRTY-TWO, and
the northeast quarter south of the river of the
same section; the whole of section THIRTY, north of
the river; and the whole of sections THIRTY-FOUR
and THIRTY-SIX; all in township THREE, of range
The whole of section THIRTY-SIX, in township
FOUR, of of range ONE.
The north half of section TWO, and the north
halt' of the southeast quarter, and the north half of
the southwest quarter, of the same section; the whole
of sections FOUR, six, and EIoHT; the northwest
qu carter of section TEN, and the north half of the
northeast quarter of the same section; and the
whole of section EtOIGHTEENm: all in township TWO,
of range TWO.
The whole of section TWO north of the river; the
north half and the southwest quarter north of the
river of section FOURs; the whole of section six; the
south half and northwest quarter of section sIGHT,
and the west half of the northeast quarter of the
same section; the north half of section TEN, and the
south half south of the river of the same section;
the south half of section TWELVE, and the north-
east quarter south of the river of the same section;
the whole of section FOURTEEN, the southeast quar-
ter south of the river, the north half north of the
river, and the west part of the southwest quarter
north of the river, of section EIGHmTEEN; and the
whole of sections TWENTY, TWENTY-TWO, TWENTY-
TWO, THIRTY-FOUR, and THIRTY-SIX : all in township
THREE, of ranee TWO.
The east half of the southeast quarter of section
TWELVE; the south half of section FOURTEEN, lthe
south halfof section TWENTY; and the whole of
and THiRTY-six: all ia township roun, of range
The whole of section FOun,the south halfof section
six south of the river, and the east half of the
northeast quarter of the same section; and the
whole of sections EIGHT, EIGHTEEN, TWENTY, and
THITVY: all in township THIEE, of range TeREE.
The whole of section i*w(; the south half and
northeast quarter of section FOUR, and the south
halt of the northwest quarter of the same section;
the whole of sections EIGHT, TEN, TWELVE, FOUR-
TEEN, EIGHTEEN, and TWENTY; ihe northwest
quarter of section TWENTY-TWO; the wholn of sec-
lion TWENTY-FtUR north of the river, except the
southeast quarter of the southeast quarter; the
whole of section TWENTY-tFIX; the southeast part
of the east half, the southwest quarter south of the
river, and the northwest quarter north of the river,
of section TWENTY-EIGHT; the whole of section
THIRTY; the whole of section THInTY- TWO south of
the river; except the north part of the northeast
quarter; and the whole of section TIHRTY.FOUR:
all in township Peouit, of range THREt.
The east half and southwest quarter of section
THIRTY-FOUR, in township FIVE, of range THREE.
(The whole of section TWO; the northeast part of
the north half, and the northeast part of the south
half, of section FOUR; the whole of sections six and
EIGHT; the east half of section TEN, and the east
half and northwest quarter of the northwest quar-
ter of the same section; the whole of section EiGH-
TEEN; and the north half of section TWENTY, and
the part ef the southeast quarter north of the river, of
the same section: all in township FOUR, of range
The southeast quarter of section TWENTY-SIX; and
the whole of section THIRTY-SIX, in township FIVE,
of range FOUR.
The whole of section TWO; the west half and
southeast quarter of section FOUR, and the west
half of the northeast quarter of the same section;
the whole of sections EtOIGHT, TEN, and TWELVE, the
north half of the northeast quarter, andithe north
half of the northwest quarter of section FOURTEEN:
all in township THREE, of range FIVE.
The whole of section TWO; the east half ef sc-
tion FOUR; the whole of section six; the west half
of the northeast quarter, and west half of the
southeast quarter, of section EIGHT; and the whole
six: all in township FOUR of range FIVE.
The east half ot the northeast quarter of section
TWENTY-TWO; the whole of section TWEETY Six;
the northwest quarter of section TWENTY-EIGHT;
the west half of the northeast quarter, the west hal for
the southwest quarter, and the east half of the
southeast quarter, of the same section; the south
half of section THIRTY; and the whole of sections
township FIVE of range FIVE.
The whole of section sax; the northwest quarter
of section EIGHT, and the west half of the north-
east quarter, and west half of the southwest quar-
ter, of the same section; and the northwest quarter
of section EIGtTEEN: all in township THREE of
range six.
The whole of sections TWELVE, TWENTY, and
TWENTY-TWO; the northeast quarter of section
TWENTY-FOUR, and the east half of the southeast
quarter and southwest quarter of the southeast
quarter of the same section; and the whole of sec
in township Pssua, of range six.
The southeast quarter of section six: and the
whole of sections aIGHTEEN, TWENTY, THIRTY, and
THIRTY-SIX: all in township FIVE, of range six.
The east half of the northwest quarter of section
TWENTY-TWO; the southwest quarter of section
TWENTY-EIGHT; and the whole of section TWENTY-
SIX, except the east half of the northeast quarter:
all in township six, of range six.
The whole of section six; the west half of section
EtGHT, and the north half of the northeast quarter
of the same section; the whole of section EtGH-
TEEN, except the west half of the southwest quar-
ter; the west half of section TWENTY; and the north

half of section THIRTY: all in township FOUR, ol
range SEVEN.
The whole of sections FOURTEEN, TWENTY, and
TWENTY-TWO; the whole of section TWENTY-POUR
except the ea't half of the northeast quarter; and
the whole of sections TWENTY-SIX, TWENTY-EIGHT,
all in township FIVE, of range SEVEN.
The whole of sections TWENTY, TWENTY-TWO,
TWENTY-POUR, and TWENTY-EIGHT, in township six,
of range SEVEN.
The north half of the northeast quarter, and
north half of northwest quarter of section six, in
township FOUR, of range EIGHT.
The whole of section FOURTEEN; the whole of
section EIGHTEEt, except the southwest quarter of
the southwest quarter, and east half of the north-
east quarter; the whole of section TWENTY; the
east half of section TWENTY-TWO; the whole of sec-
and THIRTY; the whole of section THIRTY-TWO, ex-
cept the south half of the southeastquarter; and the
norihhalf of section THIRTY-FoUR: all in township_
FIVE, range EIGHT.
The fraction of section TWELVE, southwest of
the Ottawa reserve; the south half of section TEN;
the south half of section EIGHT, and the south half
of the northwest quarter, and south half of the
northeast quarter of the same section; the whole of
TY-TWO; and the whole of section TWENTTY-Fou

west of the Ottawa reserves!: al& in township sx, of
range EIGHIT.
At the Land Office at Bucyrus, commencing on
for the disposal ,f the public lands within Ihe limits
of the undermenuioned sections and parts of sec-
tions, to wit:.
North of the base line, and east of the first principal
The northeast quarter and southwest quarter of
section vTWzNTTy-Foua, and the south half of the
northwest quarter, and north half of the southeast
quarter, of the same section; the north half of the
northeast quarter of section TWENTY-SIX; and the
northeast quarter of section TIRaTry-Two: all in
township FIVE, of range mINEz.
The east half and southwest quarter of section
TWELV5, and the east half and southwest quarter of
section FOURTEEN: all in township SEVEN, of range
The north half of the northwest quarter of sec-
I lion TWO; the northwest quarter of section TEN; and
the whole of section EIGHTEEN: all in township
FIVE, of range TEN.
The west half of the northwest quarter of section
THIRTY-SIX, in township six, of range TEN.
The south half of section six, in township SEVEN
of range TEN.
The west half of section EtoITEEN, in township
six, of range ELEVEN.
In the reserve of twelve miles square at the foot of the
The south half of the southwest quart er of section
TWENTY-TWO; the northwest quarter of section TWEN-
TV-EIGHT, and the north half of the northeast quar-
ter of the same section; and the whole of section
THIRTY: all in township FOUi.
The sales will each be kept open for two weeks,
(unless the lands are sooner disposed of,) and no
longer; and no private entries of land in the sec-
tions so offered, will be admitted until after the ex-
piration of the two weeks.
Given under my hand at the City of Washing-
ton, this first day of October, anno Domini 1840.
By the President:
Commissioner of the General Land Office.
Oct 5-lawts
N pursuance of law, I, MARTIN VAN BU-
REN, President of the United States of Ame-
rica, do hereby declare and make known that pub-
lic sales will be held at the undermentioned land
offices in the State of Illinois, at the periods here-
inafter designated, to wit:
At the land office at Chicago, commencing on
Monday, the ninth day of November next, for the
disposal of the public lands within the limits of
the undermentioned townships and fractional town-
ships, to wit:
,North of the base line and east ot the third principal
Townships forty-two, forty-three, and forty-four,
of range ten.
Townships forty-two and forty-three, of range
Fractional townships forty, north of the old In-
dian boundary line, except sections one to six in-
clusive, townships forty-two, ana fractional town-
ship forty-three, except the northeast quarter of
section ten, of range twelve.
Fractional townships forty and forty-one, lying
north of the old Indian boundary, and fractional
townships forty-two and forty-three, bordering on
Lake Michigan, of range thirteen.
Fractional township forty-one, north of the old
Indian boundary line, and bordering on Lake Mich-
igan, of range fourteen.
At the land office at Palestine, commencing on
Monday, the sixteenth day of November next, for
the disposal of the public lands within the limits of
township five, north of the base line, of range four-
teen, west of the second principal meridian.
Lands appropriated by law for the use of schools,
military, or other purposes, will be excluded from
The sales will each be kept open for two weeks,
(unless the lands are sooner disposed of,) and no
longer; and no private entries of land in the town-
ships so offered, will be admitted until after the ex-
piration of the two weeks.
Given under my hand at the City of Washington,
this twenty-third day of July, anno Doiniu
By the President:
Commissioner of the General Land Office.

Every person claiming the right of pre-emption
to land in any of the townships designated in this
proclamation, in virtue of the provisions of the act
of 22d June, 1838, as extended and modified by
the act of 1st June, 1840, or of the provisions of the
latter act granting certain privileges to another
class of settlers, is requested to prove the same to
the satisfaction of the Register and Receiver of the
proper land office, and make payment therefore as
soon as practicable after seeing this notice, and before
the day appointed for the commencement ot the
public sale of the land as above designated; other-
wise such claims will be forfeited.
Commissioner of the General L'nd Office.
NOTICE is hereby given that the public sale of
I lands ordered to he held at the land office at
Chicago, in the State of Illinois, on Monday, the
ninth day of November next, by proclamation issued
on the twenty-third day of July last, is postponed
until, and wilt commence on Monday, the eighth
day of February, one thousand eight hundred and
The lands to be then offered, are described as
town hifps forny-two, forty-three, and forty-four, of
ra.11 i ,.
1,.,n hi?. forty two and forty-three, of range
Fractional township forty, north of the old Indian
boundary line, except sections one to six inclusive,
township forty-two, and fractional township foaty-
three, except the northeast quarter of section ten, of
range twelve.
Fractional townships forty and forty-one, lying
north of the old Indian boundary, and fIrctional
townships forty-two and forty-three, bordering on
Lake Mit-' iai, of range thirteen.
Fractional township forty-one, north of the old
Indian boundary line, and bordering on Lake Mi-
chigan, of range fourteen.
All situated north of the base line, and east of
the third principal meridian.
Given under my hand, at tie city of Washing-
tot, this sixteenth day of September, A. D.
By the President:
Commissioner of the General Land Office.

t COLLECTION of Poliiical Writings oi
.. Wiliam Leggett, selected and arranged,
with a preface, by Theodore Sedgwick, in two
volumes, is for sale by
April 14 Four doors west of Brown's Hotel
and Reflections for Conduct in Society: by
a gentleman. 1 pocket volume, price 50 cents.
Al o, The Canons of Good Breeding, for gentle-
men: by ihe author of Laws of Etiquette. 1 small
volume, price 50 cents. Giving hints on personal

appearance and apparel, on manner, on conversa-
ion, behavior on particular occasions, on good
breeding, on morning calls, evening visits, on re-
ceiving company, &c. &c. &c. For sale by
June 2 F. TAYLOR.

STAND.-W. FISCHER has just opened
a newly patented filtering instand, which, in seve-
ral sizes, he has imported direct from the patentees,
Mesr --. James Perry and Co. This novel and
useful invention insures an instantaneous supply of
clear, filtered ink in the cup of the filter, which can
be returned into the inkstand at any moment, where
it is secured from injury, and net affected by the
atmosphere. The ink, thus protected, never
thickens or moulds, and remains good for any
length of lime, in any climate. The process of fit-
,ration causes the coloring matter to be held. i sus
pension. Hence the trouble and inconven; .ce oc-
casioned by unsuitable ink, generally fo'ad in or-
dinary inkstands, are completely obvia ed by the
use of the filter inkstand. One of mi :erate size
will contain sufficient ink for six or to ive months'
Testimonials from all the principal papers and
periodicals published in England, may be seen a!
StAtioneI's Hall. Aug 26-3taw4w
comprised in a series of original disserta-
ti, arranged and edited by AlexanderTweedie,
M. D., F. R. S. Fevers and Diseases of the Skin,
is this day published and for sale by

J continues to undertake the agency of claims
before Congress, and other branches of the Go
vernment, including commis-soners under treaties,
and the various public offices. He will attend t
pre-emption and other land claims, the prcucring
of patents for public lands, and the confirmation
by Congress of grants and claims to lands; claims
for horses and other property lost in, or taken for,
the service of the United Stales; property de.troyrd
by the Indians, or while in the possession of the
United States; invatd, revolutionary, navy, wi-
dows' and half-pay pensions; claims for Revolu-
tionary services, whether for commutation, half-
pay, or bounty lands-as well those against the
State of Virginia as the United States; all claims
growing out of contracts with the Government, or
damages sustained in consequence of the action or
conduct of the Government; and indeed any busi-
ness before Congress or the public offices, which
may require the aid of an agent or attorney. His
charges will be moderate, and depending upon the
amount of the claim and the extent of the service.
He is also Agent for the American Life Insu-
rance and Trust Company, which has a capital of
wo millions of dollars paid in; and for the Balti-
more Fire Insurance Company.
Mr. F. A. Dickins is known to most of those
who have been in Congress within the last few
years, or who have occupied any public station at
W t iiigI.n.
His office is on Pennsylvania avenue, second
door from 15th street.
All letters must be post paid. July 18-dly
I. This extraordinary medicine s a Purgative
Medicine so justly balanced, and withal so natural!
to the human constitution, that they cannot possibly
inju are even the most delicate; at the same time,if used
in such a manner as to produce free evacuations by
the bowels, it is absolutely impossible for pain (r
distress, of any kind, to continue long in the body.
The reason is plain: they cleanse the system of
those humors which are opposed to health, and
therefore invalids may use them with a certainty of
always obtaining relief, and persevere in the use of
them, with an equal certainty of being cured.
In all disordered motions of the blood, called In
termittent, Remittent, Nervous, Inflammatory, and
The Indian Vegetable Pills will be found a certain
remedy; because they cleanse the Stomach and
Bowels of all bilious matter, and purify the blood;
consequently, as they remove the cause of every
kind of disease, they are absolutely certain to cure
every kind of Fever.
So also when morbid humors are deposited upon
the membrane and muscle, causing those pains, in-
flammations, and swellings, coilled
The Indian Vegetable Pills may be relied on as
always certain into give relief, and if persevered with
will most assuredly, and without fail, make a per-
fect cure of the above painful maladies. From
three to six of said Indian Vegetable Bills, taken
every night on going to bed, will, in a short time,
completely rid the body of all morbid and corrupt
humors: and rheumatism, gout, and pain of every
description, will disappear as if by magic.
For the same reason, when, from sudden changes
of atmosphere, or any other cause, the perspiration
is checked, and those humors which should pass
off by the skin, are thrown inwardly, causing head-
ache, nausea and sickness, pains in the bones, wa-
tery and inflamed eyes, sore throat, hoarseness,
coughs, consumption, rheumatic pains in various
parts of the body, and many other symptoms of
The Indian Vegetable Pills will invariably give im-
mediate relief. Three or four pills, taken at night
on going to bed, and repeated a few times, will re-
move all the above unpleasant symptoms and re-
store the bodtly to even sounder health than it was
before. The same may be said of DIFFIrCULTY OF
nBREATHING, or ASTHMA. The Indian Vegetable
Pills will loosen and carry off, by the stomach and
bowels, those tough phlegmy humors which stop up
the air cells of the lung, and arc the cause of the
above dreadful complaint.
It should also be remembered the Indian Vege-
table Pills are certain to remove pain in the side,
oppression, nausea and sickness, loss of appetie,
costiveness, a yellow tinge of the skin aid eyes,
and every other symptom of
Because they purge from the body those corrupt
and stagnant humors which, when deposited upon
the Liver, are the cause of the above dangerous
complaint. They are also a certain preventive of
Because they carry off those humors which, ob-
striucting the circulation, are the cause of a rush
or determination of blood to the head-giddiness,
especially on turning suddenly round-blindness-
d owsii e.-s-io>s ot rewmory-ioflammnation of the
brain-insanity, and every other disorder of the
Those who labor within doors should remember
that they frequently breath an atmosphere which
is wholly unfit for the proper expansion of the
lungs, and at the same time, owing to want of ex-
ercise, the bowels are r-i -,ifftir,'nml, evacuated-
the blood becomes impure, and headache, indiges-
ion, palpitation of the heart, and many other dis-
agreeable symptoms, are sure to follow.
Being a cleanser of the Stomach and Bowels, and
a DIRECT PURIFIER of the Blood, are certain not
only to remove pain or distress of every kind from
the body, but, if used occasionally, so as to keep
the body free from those humors which are the
will most assuredly promote such a just and equal
circulation of the Blood, that those who lead a se-
dentary life will be enabled to enjoy
And the fluids of the body will be restored to such
a state of purity, that DISEASE OF ANY KIND
Wm. G. Cook, North Gay street, Baltimore.
Race street, PHILADELPHIA. Feb 7-ly

j Splenadidf Carriates.
'.tl.LNUF.SCrY, JV'os. 288 endl
iHCS.s. S S -" i ., Race st.-L. KNOWLES,
for A. KNOWLES, begs leave very respectfully
to return his grateful thanks to the citizens of Phila-
delphtia, and to his friends throughout the Union,
for the large and increasing patronage he hIs re-
ceived since he commenced business, and informs
them that he has now on hand, and is constantly
finishirg, CARRIAGES of every pattern and de-
scription, which he will warrant both as to the du-
rability of the workmanship and elegance of finish.
Inconsequence of various circumstances, such
as the entire saving of the cost of transportation
and the expense of the damage incident thereto,
the saving of large commissions to agents, and the
reduction in the price of labor, he will sell car-
riages and other vehicles, manufactured in a first
rate and superior style, at thirty-five per cent. un-
der the prices of last year.
All orders thankfully received and promptly
In consequence of his constant personal atten-
tion to the business in Philadelphia, he is able to
warrant that all carriages shall be in a superior
style of finish and workmanship to any heretofore
manufactured at Amherst, Massachusetts.
Cartr.n'.,' r,.eed up and sent to order to any part
of .h- I_.uii..,, ;1 the shortest notice.

N. B. York wagons of every pattern, finished in
the most superior manner, on hand, and will be
sold far below the prices of any which have been
heretofore offered for sale in this city.
L. K. having made arrangements with the
Trenton manufactory of Carriage Pows and best
Felloes, he will keep constantly on and a general
assortment of all sizes and patterns if those arti-
cles, made of the very best materials, which he will
dispose of at reduced prices.

I AhCtIE!:e!-WM. BROWN, Chemist, 481
Washington street, Boston, Mass. has invented an
article that will remove this tormenting pain-re-
move all soreness of teeth, andfit them to be filled;
and will remove all unpleasant smell of the breath
when occasioned by defective teeth. It is consi-
dered by the inhabitants of Boston a gteat and
valuable discovery; thousands have already availed
themselves of this never failing remedy. For the
genuine article, call for "Win. Brown's Extract of
Gall and Kreosote," and observe my signature
For sale at TODD'S Drug Sr,.,..
received from the celebrated manufacturers,
Jessup and Brother, 100 reams blue wove hand
made Letter Paper, ruled on three sides-a most
excellent article, for sale aI Siapl r.-,' Haii, .here
the very best writing paper, tih.r of nlci,.h or
American manufacture, are constantly kept for sale,
Oct 10

N OVEL INKSTAND.-"- An Bngllshnmm
named Perry has invented an inkstand
which prevents the ink becoming mouldy or eva-
poraing. He has applied the principle of hlte air-
pump to such a way that by turning a screw the
cup of Wthe inkstand is instantly supplied with pare
filtered Ink arom a reservoir below, into which re-
Eervoi the ink in the cup descends again, when a
reverse turn is given to the screw. On its journey
upward, it passes through a small sieve of fine silver
wire, by which all impurities are excluded. The
'contrivance its ingenious, and works admirably;
giving to the filter inkstands a manifest superiority
over any other kind in existence."--Baltimoe
The above novel inkstand of various sizes have
been imported direct from the patentees, Messrs
James Perry and Co. by Mr. WM. FISCHEP
propietor of Stationers' Hall in this city, front
whom they can be had at wholesale or retail, on
the noi.:i Tea-,inable Irrms. Sept. 99.
SIAN APERIENT, fnr dy.spepsia or indi-
gestion, nervou- lridne;'-, headache, aci-
dity of the stomach, hat.iiual co i -vene' s, cntane-
ous diseases, gout, gravel, &c. and much valuedas
a roll cooling purgative.
Th,- desirable preparation has received the pa-
tronage of many mirent members of the profes-
sion, and from a discerning public many respeota-
ble and unsolicited testimonials of its efficacy as a
medicine have been elicited. With al. the pleasing
qualities of a glass of soda water, it po.serses the
active medicinal properties of the most approved
salinous purgatives; is pleasant to the palate, and
'-.alrifl to the stomach.
V'c are not in the habit of making out certifi-
cates of commendation for unlicensed quackeries,
but we do know of a nostrum, approved, too, by
the Faculty, that cannot be recommended too high-
ly to the attention of every family during the pre-
sent warm weather. It is denominated "Biutler's
Effervescent Magnesian Aperient," and its medi-
cinal properties are admirably adapted to the alle-
viation and removal of the numerous bodily comn-
plainti incidental to the summer season. We
doubt whether the whole Pharmacopie offers a
more innocent and effective remedy, or a more
pleasant and palatable preventative. Having
seenits virtues tested in cases of severe headache
and threatened Cholera Morbus, we can conscien-
tiously testify concerning its utility.-Ed. Newt York
Evening Journal.
For sale at Todd's Drug Store
July 31

S people are very apt to consider a cold but a
trifling matter, and to think that "it will go away
of itsefyin a day or two," and they give themselves
no trouble about it. But to such we would say, "be
careful of your colds"-do not tamper with your
constitutions. If you desire to live to "a good old
age," be careful to take such remedies as will
effect an easy and a speedy cure. Da.
more colds than any other medicine offered for
sale in this country. The certificates of cares
effected by this invaluable medicine, which the
proprietor is daily receiving, are of the most grati-
fying character, and tend to show its sanative pro-
perties, and the high rank it holds in public estima-
tion.-Medical Definer.
For sale at the book store of R. FARNHAM,'
between 9th and 10th streets, sole agent for the city
of Washington.

T[ STV'VE-Fr producing an equal distribu
t: P .. s r. n Rooms, Halls, Academies, Churches,
Steamboats, Railroad Cars, &c. Also, for warm-
ing several apartments by one stove.-Combining
all the advantages of the Stove and Furnace.
A lot of the above invaluable Stoves has been
received, and for sale at Francis Naylor's Tin
and Sheet Iron Factory, Pennsylvania avenue,
vouth side, near Third street, west. Comfort,
economy, and neatness, combined; all who have
an eye to those three essentials, would do well to
call and examine before purchasing other Stoves.
1. n .,t.a;.I1t -The case can never burn out.
The i, i ,..r S,.".P is rendered stronger and more
durable by the patent flange conductors.
2. Comfort.-It distributes a mild, summer-like
temperature equally in every part, so that it is not
uncomfortable near the Stove, from the heat, nor
uncomfortable at a distance, from the cold.
3. Economy.-A considerable amount of fuel s
saved I, ..,';i. inz ihe radiated heat usually lost.
4. S'ir.'y.-No injury is done to furniture or
goods by radiation.
5. Convenience.-Several apartments may be
heated agreeably by one Stove. Though intended
for the Parlor and Hall, it may, if prefi.'prd, be
used to heat them from below, in the manner of a
6. Cleanness.-No dust from the coal is thrown
out, nor does the exterior of the Stove lose its color
rom heat.
7. Ease of management.-The management is
simple and similar to that of a common Stove.
8. Ventilation.-I has an arrangement for ad-
tniii in2 the air to be heated, in any way desired.
From J. B. Burleigh, esq. No. 29, Fayette street,
"Mr. Miller put up his Patent Air-heating Stove
in my office about two months ago. It keeps up a
lively circulation of heated air, and has decided
advantages over any that I have ever seen in use
in regard to health, comfort, and economy.-March
From Rev. E. Hutchinson, Prinelpal of JlAcademy,
Fayette street, Baltimore.
"I have used Mr. Miller's newly invented Air
heating Stove for several months, and am con-
vinced that it is much superior to every other Stove
that I have seen. It is so constructed that it may
be made to heat several rooms with very little extra
expense. I cordially recommend it to the public."
From `Mr. D. Barsum, Proprietor of the City Hotel,
"I put up two of Mr. Miller's Air-heating
Stoves in my City Hotel, and have found them
admirably adapted both to large and small rooms,
in preserving an equallity of temperature, and in my
opinion more conducive to health and comfort than
tne ordinary Stoves. I think them also much more
economical in respect to saving of fuel."
sFrom AMessrs. ,McLauglin awd Stannard.
"We have used Mr. Miller's Air-heating Stoves,
and our opinion coincides with that expressed
abloe by Mr. Barnum.-Baltimore, Feb. 1839.
Extracts from Public .Notices.
"The invention of Mr. James Miller of this
city strikes us as being unsurpassed by any of the
modern apparatus for warming apartments., It
diffuses a mild and uniform heat throughout the room,
and is so constructed that two apartment may be
heated with it at about the same expense of fuel as
is required in ordinary Stoves for one.",
Baltimore Transcript and Corn. Gazette
We attended the examination of an Air.heat-
ing Stove placed in the Reading room of Mr. Bar-
nuov's City Hotel. It has a decided superiority
over every other Stove which we have seen.
[February, 1839.-Balt. Republican.
From Reo. C. Thomas, Philadelphia.
"I have had opportunities of witnessing the ope-
ration of Mr. Miller's Air-Heating Stove, and have
no hesitation in recommending it for several desira-

ble qualities: 1st, The inconvenience and discom-
fort of radiation is nearly avoided, thus adapting
the stove to school rooms and meetings for public
worship, and 2d, the fuel consumed I, considerably
less than was required to produce an equal degree
of heat, by the Stove removed to make room for
Mr. Miller's improvement.--March, 1839.
Extract from a letter of Rev. S. W. Fuller, Phila-
"DEAR Sti: The model of Air-Heating Stove,
suboiitted to my examination last winter, led me
to believe that in several essential provisions it
was decidedly superior to any Stove I had ever
seen, and I am happy to add, that my belief in its
superior properties was soon after fully confirmed
by seeing one of the Stoves in operation. Your ef-
forts and success in providing a Stove .so well cal-
culated to promote the comfort of your fellow-citi-
zeus, deserve, and I doubt not will receive the pa-
trons-ge of a discerning public."---May, 1839.
From the Proprietors of the Globe.
We are now using Miller's Stoves in our office,
and consider them superior to any we have ever
For sale at F. NAYLOR'S,
Nov 8-1y Pennsylvania avenue.

Its operation is often immediate. 'The Li,
niment has frequently cured rheunmatic affectiions,
(.f %eati qlir.]ing. in fiir-and-iweuy hour<, and is
i ,'"-oinrn.:' n 'l- it i -cor. deice as oneofthe bestap-
plications known for chill.lain., stiffness ol the
joints, numbness, sprains, and bruises. Price, 50
cents per bottle. For sale at
April 10--3m TODD'S Dru Store