Citation
The Life and strange surprizing adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York, mariner

Material Information

Title:
The Life and strange surprizing adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York, mariner
Added title page title:
Robinson Crusoe.
Creator:
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731 ( Author, Primary )
Floethe, Richard ( Illustrator )
Peter Pauper Press ( Publisher )
Place of Publication:
Mount Vernon, N.Y.
Publisher:
Peter Pauper Press
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
284 p., 1 l. : col. illus. ; 26 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Imaginary voyages ( lcsh )
Castaways -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Baldwin -- 1945

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
01897114 ( oclc )
023276783 ( aleph )

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Full Text
SDD TIE IP I TI TIP I I EEE EEE

THE LYFE
es
Strange Surprizing
ADVENTURES
of

Robinson Crusoe
of Work, Mariner

Written by DANIEL DEFOE, and
now illustrated by Richard Floethe

And PusrisHepD at Tue Peter Pauper Press

in Mount VERNON, NewYork



Sr So
D2 1H4ASlY

4a 3:5
Pe If



A Note

antEL DeFor was born in London, probably in
1660, and died in 1731. He was the son of a
butcher, and his name was really plain “Foe,” but he
transformed D. Foe to DeFoe about the turn of the
century. He was a writer of exceptional variety and
volume—a novelist, journalist, essayist, pamphleteer,
poet and travel-writer, with more than 250 published
works to his credit.

It is as a novelist that he is most famous, his best
novels being Robinson Crusoe, Moll Flanders, and
A Journal of the Plague Year. The first and last of
these, although fiction in the strict sense, are really
based upon actual events: the Journal of the Plague
Year describes the great London plague of 1664-1665
(shortly after Defoe was born) and describes it so
vividly that some have supposed Defoe must have
rewritten a contemporary but unknown manuscript.

Robinson Crusoe likewise is fiction based on fact.
In 1704, Alexander Selkirk, a sailing-master on a
privateering expedition in the Pacific, quarrelled with
his captain, and asked to be put ashore on the unin-
habited island of Juan Fernandez, 400 miles off the
coast of Chile. There he survived, equipped only with
a gun and ammunition, until rescued in 1709. His
adventures were naturally a journalists’ sensation in
London upon his return: for the rich unexplored
Western Hemisphere was a challenge to every im-
aginative and adventurous European—and a desert
island has always had its appeal to the boy or man
restricted by everyday civilized necessities.

Although he was a good journalist, Defoe took ten
years after Selkirk’s rescue before publishing his
novelization of the adventure. In almost every detail
the novel differed from Selkirk’s story—but its basic
appeal was the same, and so it had an immediate suc-
cess; and for over two hundred years has continued
to be one of the most famous and popular books of
all the world.











The Life & Strange Surprizing Adventures
of Robinson Crusoe, Mariner,

Who lived Eight and Twenty Years, all alone in an un-
inhabited Island on the Coast of America, near the
Mouth of the Great River of ORooNoQuE; Having been
cast on Shore by Ship-Wreck, wherein all the Men perished
but himself. With an Account how he was at last as
strangely delivered by Pyrares. Written by HIMsELF.







‘

THE LEE
CS
Strange Surprizing

ADVENTURES
of

Robinson Crusoe

Cae
7m

ee LE ESS

] WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of
York, of a good family, though not of that
country, my father being a foreigner of
Bremen, who settled first at Hull. He got a
good estate by merchandise, and leaving off
his trade, lived afterward at York, from
whence he had married my mother, whose
relations were named Robinson, a very good family in that
country, and after whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer;
but by the usual corruption of words in England, we are now
called, nay we call ourselves, and write our name Crusoe, and
so my companions always called me.

Thad two elder brothers, one of which was lieutenant colonel
to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly com-

7



a

Kaye

Rae

yj
Or
p
a
Ni
i
N

wn
ON





manded by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the
battle near Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What became of my
second brother I never knew any more than my father and
mother did know what was become of me.

Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade,
my head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts,
my father, who was very ancient, had given me a competent
share of learning, as far as house education and a country free
school generally goes, and designed me for the law; but I would
be satisfied with nothing but going to sea, and my inclination to
this led me so strongly against the will, nay the commands of
my father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of my
mother and other friends, that there seemed to be something
fatal in that propension of Nature tending directly to the life of
misery which was to befall me.

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excel-
lent counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He called
me one morning into his chamber, where he was confined by
the gout, and expostulated very warmly with me upon this
subject. He asked me what reasons more than a mere wandering
inclination I had for leaving my father’s house and my native
country, where I might be well introduced, and had a prospect
of raising my fortunes by application and industry, with a life
of ease and pleasure. He told me it was for men of desperate
fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring, superior fortunes on the
other, who went abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise,
and make themselves famous in undertakings of a nature out of
the common road; that these things were all either too far above
me, or too far below me;\that mine was the middle state, or what
might be called the upper station of low life, which he had
found by long experience was the best state in the world, the
most suited to human happiness, not exposed to the miseries and
hardships, the labor and sufferings of the mechanic part of man-
kind, and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition and
envy of the upper part of mankind. He told me I might judge of
the happiness of this state, by this one thing, viz: That this was
the state of life which all other people envied; that kings have
frequently lamented the miserable consequences of being born
to great things, and wished they had been placed in the middle
of the two extremes, between the mean and the great; that the

8



Q{{__—S>=—ee==e==ces=e=_=Se_e=Eoe_e__
Hs My FatuHer’s ADVICE KEKE Ke

wise man gave his testimony to this as the just standard of true
felicity, when he prayed to have neither poverty or riches.

He bid me observe it, and I should always find, that the
calamities of life were shared among the upper and lower part
of mankind; but that the middle station had the fewest disasters,
and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes as the higher or
lower part of mankind; nay, they were not subjected to so many
distempers and uneasiness either of body or mind, as those were
who, by vicious living, luxury and extravagancies on one hand,
or by hard labor, want of necessaries, and mean or insufficient
diet on the other hand, bring distempers upon themselves by the
natural consequences of their way’of living; that the middle
station of life was calculated for all kind of virtues and all kind
of enjoyments; that peace and plenty were the handmaids of a
middle fortune; that temperance, moderation, quietness, health,
society, all agreeable diversions, and all desirable pleasures, were
the blessings attending the middle station of life{that this way
men went silently and smoothly through the world, and com-
fortably out of it, not embarrassed with the labours of the hands
or of the head, not sold to the life of slavery for daily bread, or
harrassed with perplexed circumstances, which rob the soul of
peace, and the body of rest; not enraged with the passion of
envy, or secret burning lust of ambition for great things; but
in easy circumstances sliding gently through the world, and
sensibly tasting the sweets of living, without the bitter, feeling
that they are happy, and learning by every day’s experience
to know it more sensibly.

After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affection-
ate manner, not to play the young man, not to precipitate myself
into miseries which nature and the station of life I was born in,
seemed to have provided against; that I was under no necessity
of seeking my bread; that he would do well for me, and endeav-
our to enter me fairly into the station of life which he had been
just recommending to me; and that if I was not very easy and
happy in the world, it must be my mere fate or fault that must
hinder it, and that he should have nothing to answer for, having
thus discharged his duty in warning me against measures which
he knew would be to my hurt: in a word, that as he would do
very good things for me if I would stay and settle at home as
he directed, so he would not have so much hand in my misfor-

9





tunes, as to give me any encouragement to go away. And to close
all, he told me I had my elder brother for an example, to whom
he had used the same earnest persuasions to keep him from going
into the low country wars, but could not prevail, his young
desires prompting him to run into the army where he was killed;
and though he said he would not cease to pray for me, yet he
would venture to say to me, that if I did take this foolish step,
God would not bless me, and I would have leisure hereafter to
reflect upon having neglected his counsel when there might be
none to assist in my recovery.

I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly
prophetic, though I suppose my father did not know it to be so
himself; I say, I observed the tears run down his face very
plentifully, and especially when he spoke of my brother who
was killed; and that when he spoke of my having leisure to
repent, and none to assist me, he was so moved, that he broke
off the discourse, and told me his heart was so full he could say
no more to me.

I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed who
could be otherwise? and I resolved not to think of going abroad
any more, but to settle at home according to my father’s desire.
But alas! a few days wore it all off; and, in short, to prevent
any of my father’s farther importunities, in a few weeks after,
I resolved to run quite away from him. However, I did not act
so hastily neither as my first heat of resolution prompted, but
I took my mother, at a time when I thought her alittle pleasanter
than ordinary, and told her that my thoughts were so entirely
bent upon seeing the world, that I should never settle to any-
thing with resolution enough to go through with it, and my
father had better give me his consent than force me to go without
it, that I was now eighteen years old, which was too late to go
apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an attorney; that I was sure if
I did, I should never serve out my time, and I should certainly
run away from my master before my time was out, and go to
sea; and if she would speak to my father to let me go but one
voyage abroad, if I came home again and did not like it, I would
go no more, and I would promise by a double diligence to
recover that time I had lost.

This put my mother into a great passion. She told me she
knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any

10





S59 I Run Away From Home G&&

such subject; that he knew too well what was my interest to
give his consent to anything so much for my hurt, and that she
wondered how I could think of any such thing after such a
discourse as I had had with my father, and such kind and tender
expressions as she knew my father had used to me; and that in
short, if I would ruin myself there was no help for me; but I
might depend I should never have their consent to it. That for
her part she would not have so much hand in my destruction;
and I should never have it to say, that my mother was willing
when my father was not.

Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet as I
have heard afterwards she reported all the discourse to him, and
that my father, after showing a great concern at it, said to her
with a sigh: “That boy might be happy if he would stay at home,
but if he goes abroad he will be the miserablest wretch that was
ever born. I can give no consent to it.”

It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose, though
in the meantime I continued obstinately deaf to all proposals of
settling to business, and frequently expostulating with my father
and mother, about their being so positively determined against
what they knew my inclinations prompted me to. But being
one day at Hull, where I went casually, and without any pur-
pose of making an elopement that time; but I say, being there,
and one of my companions being going by sea to London, in
his father’s ship, and prompting me to go with them, with the
common allurement of seafaring men, viz: that it should cost
me nothing for my passage, I consulted neither father or mother
any more, nor so much as sent them word of it; but leaving them
to hear of it as they might, without asking God’s blessing, or my
father’s, without any consideration of circumstances or con-
sequences, and in an ill hour, God knows, on the first of Septem-
ber, 1651, I went on board a ship bound for London; never any
young adventurer’s misfortunes, I believe, began sooner, or
continued longer than mine. The ship was no sooner gotten out
of the Humber, but the wind began to blow, and the waves to
rise in a most frightful manner; and as I had never been at sea
before, I was most inexpressively sick in body, and terrified in
my mind. I began now seriously to reflect upon what I had
done, and how justly I was overtaken by the judgment of heaven
for my wicked leaving my father’s house, and abandoning my

11



SP > RoBINSON CRUSOE Ke Ke Ke

duty; all the good counsel of my parents, my father’s tears, and
my mother’s entreaties came now fresh into my mind, and my
conscience, which was not yet come to the pitch of hardness
to which it has been since, reproached me with the contempt
of advice, and the breach of my duty to God and my father.

All this while the storm increased, and the sea, which I had
never been upon before, went very high, though nothing like
what I have seen many times since; no, nor like what I saw a few
days after; but it was enough to affect me then, who wasjbut a
young sailor, and had never known anything of the matter. I
expected every wave would have swallowed us up, and that
every time the ship fell down, as I thought, in the trough or
hollow of the sea, we should never rise more; and in this agony
of mind, I made many vows and resolutions, that if it would
please God here to spare my life this one voyage, if ever I got
once my foot upon dry land again, I would go directly home to
my father, and never set it into a ship again while I lived; that
I would take his advice, and never run myself into such miseries
__ as these any more. Now I saw plainly the goodness of his obser-
vations about the middle station of life, how easy, how comfort-
ably he had lived all his days, and never had been exposed to
tempests at sea, or troubles on shore; and I resolved that I would,
like a true repenting prodigal, go home to my father.

These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the
storm continued, and indeed some time after; but the next day
the wind was abated and the sea calmer, and I began to be alittle
inured to it. However, I was very grave for all that day, being
also a little sea-sick still; but towards night the weather cleared
up, the wind was quite over, and a charming fine evening fol-
lowed. The sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next
morning; and having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun
shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most delightful
that I ever saw.

Thad slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick,
but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was
so rough and terrible the day before, and could be so calm and
so pleasant in so little time after. And now lest my good resolu-
tions should continue, my companion, who had indeed enticed
me away, comes to me, “Well Bob,” says he, clapping me on
the shoulder, “how do you do after it? I warrant you were

12



rae My Goon REsotuTions C64

frightened, wa’n’t you, last night, when it blew but a cap full
of wind?” “A cap full d’you call it?” said I, “ twas a terrible
storm.” “A storm, you fool you,” replies he, “do you call that
a storm? Why it was nothing at all; give us but a good ship and
sea room, and we think nothing of such a squall of wind as that!
but you're but a fresh water sailor, Bob. Come, let us make a
bowl of punch and we'll forget all that; d’ye see what charming
weather ’tis now?” To make short this sad part of my story, we
went the old way of all sailors, the punch was made, and I
was made drunk with it, and in that one night’s wickedness I
drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon my past
conduct, and all my resolutions for my future. In a word, as
the sea was returned to its smoothness of surface and settled
calmness by the abatement of that storm, so the hurry of my
thoughts being over, my fears and apprehensions of being
swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and the current of
my former desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and
promises that I made in my distress. I found indeed some intervals
of reflection, and the serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavor
to return again sometimes, but I shook them off, and roused
myself from them as it were from a distemper, and applying
myself to drink and company, soon mastered the return of those
fits, for so I called them, and I had in five or six days got as
complete a victory over conscience as any young fellow that
resolved not to be troubled with it could desire. But I was to
have another trial for it still; and Providence, as in such cases
generally it does, resolved to leave me entirely without excuse.
For if I would not take this for a deliverance, the next was to be
such a one as the worst and most hardened wretch among us
would confess both the danger and the mercy.

The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth
roads; the wind having been contrary, and the weather calm, we
had made but little way since the storm. Here we were obliged
to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing
contrary, viz: at south-west, for seven or eight days, during
which time a great many ships from Newcastle came into the
same roads, as the common harbor where the ships might wait
fora wind for the river.

We had not however rode here so long, but should have tided
it up the river, but that wind blew too fresh; and after we had

13

-





SPP Ronson Crusor RE

lain four or five days, blew very hard. However, the roads
being reckoned as good as a harbor, the anchorage good, and
our ground-tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned,
and not in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent the time
in rest and mirth, after the manner of the sea; but the eighth
day in the morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands
at work to strike our top-masts, and make everything snug and
close, that the ship might ride as easy as possible. By noon the
sea went very high indeed, and our ship rode forecastle in,
shipped several seas, and we thought once or twice our anchor
had come home; upon which our master ordered out the sheet
anchor; so that we rode with two anchors ahead, and the cables
veered out to the better end.

By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed, and now I began
to see terror and amazement in the faces even of the seamen
themselves. The master though vigilant to the business of pre-
serving the ship, yet as he went in and out of his cabin by me,
I could hear him softly to himself say several times, “Lord be
merciful to us, we shall be all lost, we shall be all undone”; and
the like. During these first hurries, I was stupid, lying sti in
my cabin, which was in the steerage, and cannot describe my
temper. I could ill reassume the first penitence which I had so
apparently trampled upon, and hardened myself against. I
thought the bitterness of death had been past, and that this
would be nothing too like the first. But when the master himself
came by me, as I said just now, and said we should be all lost, I
was dreadfully frightened. I got up out of my cabin, and looked
out; but such a dismal sight I never saw. The sea went mountain
high, and broke upon us every three or four minutes. When I
could look about, I could see nothing but distress round us.
Two ships that rode near us we found had cut their masts by
the board, being deeply laden; and our men cried out, that a
ship which rode about a mile ahead of us was foundered. Two
more ships being driven from their anchors, were run out of
the roads to sea at all adventures, and that with not a mast stand-
ing. The light ships fared the best, as not so much laboring in the
sea; but two or three of them drove, and came close by us,
running away with only their sprit-sail out before the wind.

Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master
of our ship to let them cut away the foremast, which he was

14



————E—EE——E—————EEEEEEEEEEEEEeEEeEeeeee—=_—S—_—
HP-Rea> Tue Storm at YARMOUTH 4&6 4O&@

very unwilling to. But the boatswain protesting to him, that if
he did not, the ship would founder, he consented; and when
they had cut away the foremast, the mainmast stood so loose,
and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut her away
also, and make a clear deck.

Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at all this,
who was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright
before at but a little. But if I can express at this distance the
thoughts I had about me at that time, I was in tenfold more
horror of mind upon account of my former convictions, and
the having returned from them to the resolutions I had wickedly
taken at first, than I was at death itself; and these, added to the
terror of the storm, put me into such a condition, that I can by
no words describe it. But the worst was not come yet, the storm
continued with such fury, that the seamen themselves acknowl-
edged they had never known a worse. We had a good ship, but
she was deep laden, and wallowed in the sea, that the seamen
every now and then cried out, she would founder. It was my
advantage in one respect, that I did not know what they meant
by founder, till I enquired. However, the storm was so violent,
that I saw what is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and
some others more sensible than the rest, at their prayers, and
expecting every moment when the ship would go to the bottom.
In the middle of the night, and under all the rest of our distresses,
one of the men that had been down on purpose to see, cried out
we had sprung a leak; another said there was four foot water in
the hold. Then all hands were called to the pump. At that very
word my heart, as I thought, died within me, and I fell back-
wards upon the side of my bed where I sat, into the cabin.
However, the men roused me, and told me, that I that was able
to do nothing before, was as well able to pump as another; at
which I stirred up, and went to the pump and worked very
heartily. While this was doing, the master seeing some light
colliers, who not able to ride out the storm, were obliged to slip
and run away to sea, and would come near us, ordered to fire a
gun as a signal of distress. I who knew nothing what that meant,
was so surprised, that I thought the ship had broke, or some
dreadful thing had happened. In a word, I was so surprised, that
fell down in a swoon. As this was a time when everybody had
his own life to think of, nobody minded me, or what was become

15



of me; but another man stepped up to the pump, and thrusting
me aside with his foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead; and
it was a great while before I came to myself.

We worked on, but the water increasing in the hold, it was
apparent that the ship would founder, and though the storm
began to abate a little, yet as it was not possible she could swim
till we might run into a port, so the master continued firing
guns for help; and a light ship, who had rode it out just ahead
of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the utmost
hazard the boat came near us, but it was impossible for us to get
on board, or for the boat to lie near the ship side, till at last the
men rowing very heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours,
our men cast them a rope over the stern with a buoy to it, and
then veered it out a great length, which they after great labor
and hazard took hold of, and we hauled them close under our
stern, and got all into their boat. It was to no purpose for them
or us after we were in the boat, to think of reaching to their own
ship, so all agreed to let her drive, and only to pull her in towards
shore as much as we could, and our master promised them, that
if the boat was staved upon shore, he would make it good to
their master; so partly rowing and partly driving, our boat went
away to the norward, sloping towards the shore almost as far
as Winterton Ness.

We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of
our ship, but we saw her sink, and then I understood for the
first time what was meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I must
acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up when the seamen
told me she was sinking; for from that moment they rather put
me into the boat than that I might be said to go in, my heart was
as it were dead within me, partly with fright, partly with horror
of mind and the thoughts of what was yet before me.

While we were in this condition, the men yet laboring at the
oar to bring the boat near the shore, we could see, when our
boat mounting the waves we were able to see the shore, a great
many people running along the shore to assist us when we
should come near, but we made but slow way towards the shore,
nor were we able to reach the shore, till being past the light-
house at Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward towards
Cromer, and so the land broke off a little the violence of the
wind. Here we got in, and though not without much difficulty,

16



got all safe on shore, and walked afterwards on foot to Yar-
mouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were used with great
humanity as well by the magistrates of the town, who assigned
us good quarters, as by particular merchants and owners of
ships, and had money given us sufficient to carry us either to
London or back to Hull, as we thought fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and
have gone home, I had been happy; and my father, an emblem
of our blessed Saviour’s parable, had even killed the fatted calf
for me; for hearing the ship I went away in was cast away in
Yarmouth road, it was a great while before he had any assurance
that I was not drowned. But my ill fate pushed me on now with -
an obstinacy that nothing could resist; and though I had several
times loud calls from my reason and my more composed judg-
ment to go home, yet I had no power to do it. I know not what
to call this, nor will I urge that it is a secret overruling decree};
that hurries us on to be the instruments of our own destruction, :
even though it be before us, and that we rush upon it with our
eyes open. Certainly nothing but some such decreed unavoid-
able misery, which was impossible for me to escape, could
have pushed me forward against the calm reasonings and per-





———_—_—_—_—_—_—_—_—_—_—_—_—_
DW Rosinson Crusoe Kee Ke

suasions of my most retired thoughts, and against two such
visible instructions as I had met with in my first attempt.

My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who
was the master’s son, was now less forward than I. The first
time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which was not
till two or three days, for we were separated in the town to
several quarters; I say, the first time he saw me, it appeared his
tone was altered, and looking very melancholy and shaking his
head, asked me how I did, and telling his father who I was, and
how I had come this voyage only for a trial in order to go
abroad. His father turning to me with a very grave and con-
cerned tone, “Young man,” says he, “you ought never to go to
sea any more. You ought to take this for a plain and visible
token that you are not to be a seafaring man.” “Why, sir,” said
I, “will you go to sea no more?” “That is another case,” said he;
“it is my calling, and therefore my duty; but as you made this
voyage for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given you of
what you are to expect if you persist. Perhaps this is all befallen
us on your account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray,”
continues he, “what are you, and on what account did you go
to sea?” Upon that I told him some of my story. At the end of
which he burst out with a strange kind of passion. “What had
I done,” says he, “that such an unhappy wretch should come
into my ship? I would not set my foot in the same ship with
thee again for a thousand pounds.” This indeed was, as I said, an
excursion of his spirits which were yet agitated by the sense
of his loss, and was farther than he could have authority to go.
However, he afterwards talked very gravely to me, exhorted
me to go back to my father, and not tempt Providence to my
ruin; told me I might see a visible hand of Heaven against me,
“And young man,” said he, “depend upon it, if you do not go
back, wherever you go, you will meet with nothing but disasters
and disappointments, till your father’s words are fulfilled upon

ou.”
2 We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I saw
him no more; which way he went, I know not. Asfor me, having
some money in my pocket, J travelled to London by land; and:
there, as well as on the road, had many struggles with myself,
what course of life I should take, and whether I should go home,

or go to Sea.

18



Vua==_"_"_"___—

As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that
offered to my thoughts; and it immediately occurred to me how
I should be laughed at among the neighbors, and should be
ashamed to see, not my father and mother only, but even every
body else; from whence I have since often observed, how
incongruous and irrational the common temper of mankind is,
especially of youth, to that reason which ought to guide them
in such cases, viz: That they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are —
ashamed to repent; not ashamed of the action for which they
ought justly to be esteemed fools, but are ashamed of the return-
ing, which only can make them be esteemed wise men.

In this state of life however, I remained some time, uncertain
what measures to take, and what course of life to lead. An
irresistible reluctance continued to going home; and as I stayed
awhile, the remembrance of the distress I had been in wore off;
and as that abated, the little motion I had in my desires to a
return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts
of it, and looked out fora voyage.

That evil influence which carried me first away from my /
father’s house, that hurried me into the wild and indigested °
notion of raising my fortune; and that impressed those conceits
so forcibly upon me, as to make me deaf to all good advice, and
to the entreaties and even command of my father: I say the
same influence, whatever it was, presented the most unfortunate
of all enterprises to my view, and I went on board a vessel
bound to the coast of Africa; or, as our sailors vulgarly call it,

a voyage to Guinea.

It was my great misfortune, that in all these adventures I did
not ship myself as a sailor; whereby, though I might indeed
have worked a little harder than ordinary, yet at the same time
Thad learned the duty and office of a fore-mast man; and in time
might have qualified myself for a mate or lieutenant, if not for
a master. But as it was always my fate to choose for the worse, ~
so I did here; for having money in my pocket, and good clothes
upon my back, I would always go on board in the habit of a
gentleman; and so I neither had any business in the ship, or

‘learned to do any.

It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in
London, which does not always happen to such loose and mis-
guided young fellows as I then was; the Devil generally not 2

19







St > Rosinson Crusoe Ke Loe

omitting to lay some snare for them very early. But it was not
so with me; I first fell acquainted with the master of a ship
who had been on the coast of Guinea, and who having had
very good success there, was resolved to go again; and who
taking a fancy to my conversation, which was not at all dis-
agreeable at that time, hearing me say I had a mind to see the
world, told me if I would go the voyage with him I should be
at no expense; I should be his messmate and his companion, and
if I could carry anything with me, Ishould have all the advantage
of it that the trade would admit; and perhaps I might meet with
some encouragement.

I embraced the offer, and, entering into a strict friendship
with this captain, who was an honest and plain-dealing man, I
went the voyage with him, and carried a small adventure with
me, which by the disinterested honesty of my friend, the cap-
tain, I increased very considerably; for I carried about £40 in
such toys and trifles as the captain directed me to buy. This £40
I had mustered together by the assistance of some of my rela-
tions whom I corresponded with, and who, I believe, got my
father, or at least my mother, to contribute so much as that to
my first adventure.

This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in
all my adventures, and which I owe to the integrity and honesty
of my friend the captain, under whom also I got a competent
knowledge of the mathematics and the rules of navigation,
learned how to keep an account of the ship’s course, take an
observation, and in short, to understand some things that were
needful to be understood by a sailor. For, as he took delight to
introduce me, I took delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage
made me both a sailor and a merchant; for I brought home
5 lb. 9 oz. of gold dust for my adventure, which yielded me in
London at my return, almost £ 300, and this filled me with those
aspiring thoughts which have since so completed my ruin.

Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too; particu-
larly, that I was continually sick, being thrown into a violent
calenture by the excessive heat of the climate; our principal
trading being upon the coast, from the latitude of 15 degrees
North even to the line itself.

I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my
great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go

20



sisi aaa,
SHH Barrie With THE Pirates Qe

the same voyage again, and I embarked in the same vessel with
one who was his mate in the former voyage, and had now got
the command of the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage that
ever man made; for though I did not carry quite £100 of my
new gained wealth, so that I had 200 left, and which I lodged
with my friend’s widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell
into terrible misfortunes in this voyage; and the first was this,
viz: Our ship making her course towards the Canary Islands, or
rather between those islands and the African shore, was sur-
prised in the grey of the morning, by a Turkish rover of Sallee,
who gave chase to us with all the sail she could make. We
crowded also as much canvas as our yards would spread, or our
masts carry, to have got clear; but finding the pirate gained upon
us, and would certainly come up with us in a few hours, we
prepared to fight; our ship having twelve guns, and the rogue
eighteen. About three in the afternoon he came up with us,
and bringing to by mistake, just athwart our quarter, instead
of athwart our stern, as he intended, we brought eight of our
guns to bear on that side, and poured in a broadside upon him,
which made him sheer off again, after returning our fire, and
pouring in also his small shot from near two hundred men which
he had on board. However, we had not a man touched, all our
men keeping close. He prepared to attack us again, and we
to defend ourselves; but laying us on board the next time upon
our other quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks, who
immediately fell to cutting and hacking the decks and rigging.
We plied them with small-shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and
such like, and cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut
short this melancholy part of our story, our ship being disabled,
and three of our men killed, and eight wounded, we were
obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee, a
port belonging to the Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I appre-
hended, nor was I carried up the country to the emperor's
court, as the rest of our men were, but was kept by the captain
of the rover, as his proper prize, and made his slave, being young
and nimble, and fit for his business. At this surprising change of
my circumstances from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was
perfectly overwhelmed; and now T looked back upon my
father’s prophetic discourse to me, that I should be miserable,

21



itt ee ee
ale on Ce ee

and have none to relieve me, which I thought was now so
effectually brought to pass, that it could not be worse; that now
the hand of heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone with-
out redemption. But alas! this was but a taste of the misery I was
to go through, as will appear in the sequel of this story.

As my new patron or master had taken me home to his house,
so I was in hopes that he would take me with him when he went
to sea again, believing that it would some time or other be his
fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portugal man-of-war; and that
then I should be set at liberty. But this hope of mine was soon
taken away; for when he went to sea, he left me on shore to look
after his little garden, and do the common drudgery of slaves
about his house; and when he came home again from his cruise,
he ordered me to lie in the cabin to look after the ship.

Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method
I might take to effect it, but found no way that had the least
probability in it. Nothing presented to make the supposition of
it rational; for I had nobody to communicate it to, that would
embark with me; no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or
Scotchman there but myself; so that for two years, though I
often pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had the
least encouraging prospect of putting it in practice.

After about two years an odd circumstance presented itself,
which put the old thought of making some attempt for my
liberty again in my head. My patron lying at home longer than
usual, without fitting out his ship, which, as I heard, was for
want of money, he used constantly, once or twice a week,
sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship’s
pinnace, and go out into the road a-fishing; and as he always
took me and a young Maresco with him to row the boat, we
made him very merry, and I proved very dexterous in catching
fish; insomuch that sometimes he would send me with a Moor,
one of his kinsmen, and the youth the Maresco, as they called
him, to catch a dish of fish for him.

It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a stark calm
morning, a fog rose so thick, that though we were not half a
league from the shore we lost sight of it; and rowing we knew
not whither or which way, we labored all day and all the next
night, and when the morning came we found we had pulled off
to sea instead of pulling in for the shore; and that we were at

22



Spepey Our Fisuine Boat SRK

least two leagues from the shore. However, we got well in
again, though with a great deal of labor, and some danger; for
the wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morning; but par-
ticularly we were all very hungry.

But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more
care of himself for the future; and having lying by him the long-
boat of our English ship which he had taken, he resolved he
would not go a-fishing any more without a compass and some
provision; so he ordered the carpenter of his ship, who was also
an English slave, to build a little state-room or cabin in the
middle of the long-boat, like that of a barge, with a place to
stand behind it to steer and haul home the main-sheet; and
room before for a hand or two to stand and work the sails; she
sailed with what we call a shoulder-of-mutton sail; and the
boom jibed over the top of the cabin, which lay very snug and
low, and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and
a table to eat on, with some small lockers to put in some bottles
of such liquor as he thought fit to drink; particularly his bread,
rice and coffee.

We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing, and as I was
most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without
me. It happened that he had appointed to go out in this boat,
either for pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors of some
distinction in that place, and for whom he had provided extra-
ordinarily; and had therefore sent on board the boat over night,
a larger store of provisions than ordinary; and had ordered me
to get ready three fuzees with powder and shot, which were on
board his ship; for that they designed some sport of fowling
as well as fishing.

I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the next
morning with the boat, washed clean, her ancient and pendants
out, and everything to accommodate his guests; when by-and-
by my patron came on board alone, and told me his guests had
put off going, upon some business that fell out, and ordered me
with the man and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat and
catch them some fish, for that his friends were to sup at his house;
and commanded that as soon as I had got some fish I should
bring it home to his house; all which I prepared to do.

This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into
my thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a little ship at

23







S555 Rosinson Crusoe KEKE

my command; and my master being gone, I prepared to furnish
myself, not for a fishing business, but for a voyage; though I
knew not, neither did I so much as consider whither I should
steer; for anywhere to get out of that place was my way.

My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this
Moor, to get something of our subsistence on board; for I told
him we must not presume to eat of our patron’s bread; he said
that was true. So he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit of
their kind, and three jars with fresh water into the boat. I knew
where my patron’s case of bottles stood, which it was evident
by the make were taken out of some English prize; and I con-
veyed them into the boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they
had been there before, for our master. I conveyed also a great
lump of bees-wax into the boat, which weighed about half a
hundred weight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a
saw, and a hammer, all of which were of great use to us after-
wards; especially the wax to make candles. Another trick I tried
upon him, which he innocently came into also. His name was
Ismael, who they call Muly, or Moely, so I called to him,
“Moely,” said I, “our patron’s guns are on board the boat; can
you not get a little powder and shot, it may be we may kill some
alcamies (a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves? for I know he
keeps the gunner’s stores in the ship.” “Yes,” says he, “T’ll bring
some.” And accordingly he brought a great leather pouch which
held about a pound and half of powder, or rather more; and
another with shot, that had five or six pound, with some bullets,
and put all into the boat. At the same time I had found some
powder of my master’s in the great cabin, with which I filled
one of the large bottles in the case, which was almost empty,
pouring what was in it into another; and thus furnished with
everything needful, we sailed out of the port to fish. The castle
which is at the entrance of the port knew who we were, and
took no notice of us; and we were not above a mile out of the
port before we hauled in our sail, and set us down to fish. The
wind blew from the N. N. E., which was contrary to my desire;
for had it blown southerly I had been sure to have made the coast
of Spain, and at least reached the Bay of Cadiz; but my resolu-
tions were, blow which way it would, I would be gone from the
horrid place where I was, and leave the rest to fate.

After we had fished some time and caught nothing, for when

24



[had fish on my hook, I would not pull them up, that he might
not see them, I said to the moor, “this will not do, our master
will not be thus served, we must stand farther off.” He thinking
no harm agreed, and being in the head of the boat set the sails;
and as I had the helm I run the boat out near a league farther,
and then brought her to, as if I would fish. When giving the
boy the helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was, and









Ss Rosinson Crusoe KEKE K

making as if I stooped for something behind me, I took him by
surprise with my arm under his twist, and tossed him clear
overboard into the sea. He rose immediately, for he swam like a
cork, and called to me, begged to be taken in, told me he would
go all the world over with me. He swam so strong after the boat
that he would have reached me very quickly, there being but
little wind. Upon which I stepped into the cabin, and fetching
one of the fowling-pieces, I presented it at him, and told him I
had done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet, I would do him
none; “but,” said I, “you swim well enough to reach to the
shore, and the sea is calm; make the best of your way to shore,
and I will do you no harm, but if you come near the boat I’ll
shoot you through the head; for I am resolved to have my
liberty.” So he turned himself about and swam for the shore,
and I make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for he was an
excellent swimmer.

I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me,
and have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust
him. When he was gone I turned to the boy, who they called
Xury, and said to him, “Xury, if you will be faithful to me I'll
make you a great man, but if you will not stroke your face to be
true to me, that is, swear by Mahomet and his father’s beard, I
must throw you into the sea too.” The boy smiled in my face,
and spoke so innocently that I could not mistrust him; and swore
to be faithful to me, and go all over the world with me.

While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood
out directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching to windward,
that they might think me gone towards the strait’s mouth, (as
indeed any one that had been in their wits must have been sup-
posed to do) for who would have supposed we would sail on to
the southward to the truly barbarian coast, where whole nations
of negroes were sure to surround us with their canoes, and
destroy us; where we could never once go on shore but we
should be devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless savages
of human kind.

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my
course, and steered directly south and by east, bending my
course a little toward the east, that might keep in with the shore;
and having a fair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth, quiet sea, I
made such sail that I believe by the next day at three o’clock in

26



SPP On tHE AFRICAN Coast
the afternoon, when I first made the land, I could not be less than
one hundred and fifty miles south of Sallee; quite beyond the
emperor of Morocco’s dominions, or indeed of any other king
thereabouts, for we saw no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the
dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that I
would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an anchor; the wind
continuing fair, still I had sailed in that manner five days. And
then the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also that
if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would now
give over; so I ventured to make to the coast, and came to an
anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew not what, or where;
neither what latitude, what country, what nation, or what river.
I neither saw, or desired to see any people, the principal thing I
wanted was fresh water. We came into this creek in the evening,
resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and discover
the country; but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such
dreadful noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild
creatures, of we knew not what kinds, that the poor boy was
ready to die with fear, and begged of me not to go on shore till
day. “Well Xury,” said I, “then I won’t, but it may be we may
see men by day, who will be as bad to us as those lions.” “Then
we give them the shoot gun,” says Xury, laughing, “make them
run away.” Such English Xury spoke by conversing among us
slaves; however, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave
him a dram (out of our patron’s case of bottles) to cheer him
up. After all, Xury’s advice was good, and I took it; we dropped
our little anchor and lay still all night; I say still, for we slept
none! for in two or three hours we saw vast great creatures (we
knew not what to call them), of many sorts, come down to the
sea-shore and run into the water, wallowing and washing them-
selves for the pleasure of cooling themselves; and they made
such hideous howlings and yellings, that I never indeed heard
the like.

Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but
we were both more frighted when we heard one of these mighty
creatures come swimming towards our boat; we could not see
him, but we might hear him by his blowing to be a monstrous,
huge and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion, and it might be
so for ought I knew; but poor Xury cried to me to weigh the

27





anchor and row away; “no,” says I, “Xury, we can slip our
cable with the buoy to it and go off to sea; they cannot follow
us far.” I had no sooner said so, but I perceived the creature
(whatever it was) within two oars’ length, which something
surprised me; however, I immediately stepped to the cabin-
door, and taking up my gun fired at him, upon which he imme-
diately turned about and swam towards the shore again.

But it is impossible to describe the horrible noises, and hid-
eous cries and howlings, that were raised as well upon the edge
of the shore as higher within the country, upon the noise or
report of the gun, a thing I have some reason to believe those
creatures had never heard before. This convinced me that there
was no going on shore for us in the night upon that coast; and
how to venture on shore in the day was another question, too;
for to have fallen into the hands of any of the savages, had been
as bad as to have fallen into the hands of lions and tigers; at
least we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.

Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore some-
where or other for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat;
when or where to get to it was the point. Xury said, if I would
let him go on shore with one of the jars, he would find it if there
was any water and bring some to me. I asked him why he would
go? why I should not go and he stay in the boat? The boy
answered with so much affection, that made me love him ever
after. Says he, “if wild mans come, they eat me, you go way.”
“Well, Xury,” said I, “we will both go, and if the wild mans
come, we will kill them, they shall eat neither of us.” So I gave
Xury a piece of rusk-bread to eat, and a dram out of our patron’s
case of bottles which I mentioned before; and we hauled in the
boat as near the shore as we thought was proper, and so waded
on shore, carrying nothing but our arms and two jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the
coming of canoes with savages down the river; but the boy
seeing a low place about a mile up the country rambled to it; and
by-and-by I saw him come running towards me. I thought he
was pursued by some savage, or frightened with some wild
beast, and I run forward towards him to help him, but when I
came nearer to him, I saw something hanging over his shoulders
which was a creature that he had shot, like a hare, but different
in color, and longer legs; however we were very glad of it, and

28



ase We Finn WATER AND MEAT 64K

it was very good meat; but the great joy that poor Xury came
with, was to tell me that he had found good water and seen no
wild men.

But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains
for water, for a little higher up the creek where we were, we
found the water fresh when the tide was out, which flowed but
a little way up; so we filled our jars and feasted on the hare we
had killed, and prepared to go on our way, having seen no foot-
steps of any human creature in that part of the country.

As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very
well that the Islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verde
Islands also, lay not far off from the coast. But as I had no instru-
ments to take an observation to know what latitude we were in,
and did not exactly know, or at least remember what latitude
they were in, I knew not where to look for them, or when to
stand off to sea towards them; otherwise I might now easily
have found some of these islands, But my hope was, that if I
stood along this coast till I came to that part where the English
traded, I should find some of their vessels upon their usual
design of trade, that would relieve and take usin.

By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was,
must be that country which, lying between the emperor of
Morocco’s dominions and the negroes, lies waste and unin-
habited, except by wild beasts; the negroes having abandoned
it and gone farther south for fear of the Moors; and the Moors
not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness;
and indeed both forsaking it because of the prodigious numbers
of tigers, lions, leopards and other furious creatures which
harbor there; so that the Moors use it for their hunting only,
where they go like an army, two or three thousand men at a
time; and indeed for near an hundred miles together upon this
coast, we saw nothing but a waste, uninhabited country, by
day, and heard nothing but howlings and roaring of wild beasts,
by night.

Once or twice in the daytime, I thought I saw the Pico of
Teneriffe, being the high top of the mountain Teneriffe, in the
Canaries, and had a great mind to venture out in hopes of reach-
ing thither; but having tried twice I was forced in again by
contrary winds, the sea also going too high for my little vessel,
so I resolved to pursue my first design and keep along the shore.

29





Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we
had left this place; and once in particular, being early in the
morning, we came to an anchor under a little point of land
which was pretty high, and the tide beginning to flow, we lay
still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about him
than it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me that we
had best go farther off from the shore; “for,” says he, “look,
yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fast
asleep.” I looked where he pointed, and saw a dreadful monster
indeed, for it was a terrible great lion that lay on the side of the
shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill that hung as it were
a little over him. “Xury,” says I, “you shall go on shore and kill
him.” Xury looked frightened, and said, “Me kill! he eat me at
one mouth”; one mouthful he meant. However, I said no more
to the boy, but bade him lie still, and I took our biggest gun,
which was almost musket-bore, and loaded it with a good charge
of powder, and with two slugs, and laid ir down; then I loaded
another gun with two bullets; and the third, for we had three
pieces, I loaded with five smaller bullets. I took the best aim I
could with the first piece to have shot him into the head, but
he lay so with his leg raised a little above his nose, that the slugs
hit his leg about the knee, and broke the bone. He started up
growling at first, but finding his leg broke fell down again, and
then got up upon three legs and gave the most hideous roar
that ever I heard. I was a little surprised that I had not hit him
on the head; however, I took up the second piece immediately,
and though he began to move off fired again, and shot him in
the head, and had the pleasure to see him drop, and make but
little noise, but lay struggling for life. Then Xury took heart
and would have me let him go on shore. “Well, go,” said I; so
the boy jumped into the water, and taking a little gun in one
hand, swam to shore with the other, and coming close to the
creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him in
the head again, which despatched him quite.

This was game indeed to us, but this was no food, and I was
sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a creature
that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury said he would
have some of him; so he comes on board and asked me to give
him the hatchet. “For what, Xury?” said I. “Me cut off his
head,” said he. However, Xury could not cut off his head; but

30





—_—_—_——— — —

he cut off a foot and brought it with him, and it was a monstrous
great one.

I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him
might, one way or other, be of some value to us, and I resolved
to take off his skin if I could. So Xury and I went to work with
him; but Xury was much the better workman at it, for I knew
very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us up both the whole day;
but at last we got off the hide of him, and, spreading it on the
top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two days’ time,
and it afterwards served me to lie upon.

After this stop we made on to the southward continually for
ten or twelve days, living very sparing on our provisions, which
began to abate very much, and going no oftener into the shore
than we were obliged to for fresh water; my design in this way
was to make the river Gambia or Senegal, that is to say, any-
where about the Cape de Verde, where I was in hopes to meet
with some European ship, and if I did not I knew not what
course I had to take, but to seek out for the islands, or perish
there among the negroes. I knew that all the ships from Europe
which sailed either to the coast of Guinea, or to Brazil, or to
the East Indies, made this cape or those islands, and, in a word,
I put the whole of my fortune upon this single point,—either
that I must meet with some ship or must perish.

When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer,
as I have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited, and in
two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand upon
the shore to look at us; we could also perceive they were quite
black and stark naked. I was once inclined to have gone on shore
to them, but Xury was my better counsellor, and said to me,
“no go, no go.” However, I hauled in nearer the shore that I
might talk to them, and I found they ran along the shore by me
a good way. I observed they had no weapons in their hands,
except one, who had a long slender stick, which Xury said was
a lance, and that they would throw them a great way with
good aim; so I kept at a distance, but talked with them by signs
as well as I could, and particularly made signs for something to
eat. They beckoned to me to stop my boat, and that they would
fetch me some meat. Upon this I lowered the top of my sail and
lay by, and two of them ran up into the country, and in less than
half an hour came ‘back and brought with them two pieces

31



Sopa -sdRowinson Crusok Qe Sexe

of dried flesh and some corn, such as is the produce of their
country; but we neither knew what the one or the other was.
However, we were willing to accept it; but how to come at it
was our next dispute, for I was not for venturing on shore to
them, and they were as much afraid of us; but they took a safe
way for us all, for they brought it to the shore and laid it down,
and went and stood a great way off till we fetched it on board,
and then came close to us again.

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to
make them amends; but an opportunity offered that very instant
to oblige them wonderfully, for while we were lying by the
shore, came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the other (as
we took it), with great fury, from the mountains towards the
sea; whether it was the male pursuing the female, or whether
they were in sport or in rage, we could not tell, any more than
we could tell whether it was usual or strange, but I believe it was
the latter; because in the first place, those ravenous creatures
seldom appear but in the night; and, in the second place we
found the people terribly frighted, especially the women. The
man that had the lance or dart, did not fly from them, but the
rest did; however, as the two creatures ran directly into the
water, they did not seem to offer to fall upon any of the negroes,
but plunged themselves into the sea and swam about as if they
had come for their diversion; at last one of them began to come
nearer our boat than at first I expected, but I lay ready for him,
for I had loaded my gun with all possible expedition, and bade
Xury load both the others; as soon as he came fairly within my
reach, I fired, and shot him directly into the head; immediately
he sunk down into the water, but rose instantly and plunged up
and down as if he was struggling for life; and so indeed he was;
he immediately made to the shore; but between the wound
which was his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the water, he
died just before he reached the shore.

It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor
creatures at the noise and the fire of my gun; some of them were
even ready to die for fear, and fell down as dead with the very
terror. But when they saw the creature dead and sunk in the
water, and that I made signs to them to come to the shore, they
took heart and came to the shore and began to search for the
creature. I found him by his blood staining the water, and by the

32



SHH We Sicut Care ve VERVE WEE

help of a rope which I slung round him and gave the negroes to
haul, they dragged him on shore, and found that it was a most
curious leopard, spotted and fine to an admirable degree, and
the negroes held up their hands with admiration to think what
it was I had killed him with.

The other creature frighted with the flash of fire and the noise
of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to the mountains
from whence they came, nor could I at that distance know what
it was. I found quickly the negroes were for eating the flesh of
this creature, so I was willing to have them take it as a favor
from me, which when I made signs to them that they might
take him, they were very thankful for. Immediately they fell
to work with him, and though they had no knife, yet with a
sharpened piece of wood they took off his skin as readily, and
much more readily than we could have done with a knife; they
offered me some of the flesh, which I declined, making as if I
would give it them, but made signs for the skin, which they gave
me very freely, and brought me a great deal more of their pro-
vision, which though I did not understand, yet I accepted; then
I made signs to them for some water, and held out one of my
jars to them, turning it bottom upward, to show that it was
empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They called imme-
diately to some of their friends, and there came two women,
and brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt as I suppose
in the sun; this they set down for me, as before, and I sent Xury
on shore with my jars, and filled them all three. The women
were as stark naked as the men.

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and
water, and leaving my friendly negroes, I made forward for
about eleven days more without offering to go near the shore,
till I saw the land run out a great length into the sea, at about the
distance of four or five leagues before me, and the sea being very
calm I kept a large offering to make this point; at length,
doubling the point at about two leagues from the land, I saw
plainly land on the other side to seaward; then I concluded, as
it was most certain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verde, and
those the islands, called from thence Cape de Verde Islands.
However, they were at a great distance, and I could not well
tell what I had best to do, for if I should be taken with a fresh
wind I might neither reach one nor the other.

33







SD So RoBinson Crusoe Lee KE

In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the cabin
and sat me down, Xury having the helm, when, ona sudden, the
boy cried out, “Master! master! a ship with a sail!” and the
foolish boy was frightened out of his wits, thinking it must
needs be some of his master’s ships sent to pursue us, when I
knew we had got far enough out of their reach. I jumped out
of the cabin, and immediately saw not only the ship but what
she was, viz: that it was a Portuguese ship, and, as I thought, was
bound to the coast of Guinea for negroes. But when I observed
the course she steered I was soon convinced they were bound
some other way, and did not design to come any nearer to the
shore; upon which I stretched out to sea as much as I could,
resolving to speak with them if possible.

With all the sail I could make I found that I should not be
able to come in their way, but that they would be gone by
before I could make any signal to them; but after I had crowded
to the utmost and began to despair, they, it seems, saw me by
the help of their perspective glasses, and that it was some Euro-
pean boat, which, as they supposed, must belong to some ship
that was lost, so they shortened sail to let me come up. I was
encouraged with this, and as I had my patron’s ancient on board
I made a waft of it to them for a signal of distress, and fired a
gun, both of which they saw, for they told me they saw the
smoke though they did not hear the gun. Upon these signals
they were kindly brought to, and lay by for me, and in about
three hours’ time I came up with them.

They asked me what I was, in Portuguese and in Spanish
and in French, but I understood none of them; but at last a
Scots sailor who was on board called to me, and I answered him
and told him I was an Englishman, that I had made my escape
out of slavery from the Moors at Sallee; then they bade me
come on board, and very kindly took me in and all my goods.

It was an inexpressible joy to me that any one will believe
that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable,
and almost hopeless condition as I was in, and I immediately
offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a return for m
deliverance; but he generously told me he would take nothing
from me, but that all I had should be delivered safe to me when
I came to the Brazils. “For,” says he, “I have saved your life on
no other terms than I would be glad to be saved myself, and it

34





may, one time or another, be my lot to be taken up in the same
conditions; besides,” said he, “when I carry you to the Brazils,
so great a way from your own country, if I should take from
you what you have, you will be starved there, and then I only
take away that life I have given. No, no, Seignor Inglese,” says
he, “Mr. Englishman, I will carry you thither in charity, and
those things will help you to buy your subsistence there and
your passage home again.”

As he was charitable in his proposal so he was just in the
performance to a tittle, for he ordered the seamen that none
should offer to touch anything I had; then he took everything
into his own possession, and gave me back an exact inventory
of them, that I might have them, even so much as my three
earthen jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one, and that he saw and
told me he would buy it of me for the ship’s use, and asked me
what I would have for it. I told him he had been so generous to
me in everything that I could not offer to make any price of the
boat, but left it entirely to him,‘upon which he told me he
would give mea note of his hand to pay me eighty pieces of eight
for it at Brazil, and when it came there if anyone offered to give
more he would make it up. He offered me, also, sixty pieces of
eight more for my boy Xury, which I was loth to take: not that
I was not willing to let the captain have him, but I was very loth
to sell the poor boy’s liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in
procuring my own. However, when I let him know my reason,
he owned it to be just and offered me this medium,—that he
would give the boy an obligation to set him free in ten years, if
he turned Christian. Upon this, and Xury saying he was willing
to go to him, I let the captain have him.

We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and arrived in the
Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints Bay, in about twenty-
two days after. And now I was once more delivered from the
most miserable of all conditions of life, and what to do next with
myself I was now to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never
enough remember; he would take nothing of me for my passage,
gave me twenty ducats for the leopard’s skin, and forty for the
lion’s skin which I had in my boat, and caused everything I
had in the ship to be punctually delivered me, and what I was

35





willing to sell he bought, such as the case of bottles, two of my
guns, and a piece of the lump of bees-wax, for had made candles
of the rest; in a word, I made about two hundred and twenty
pieces of eight of all my cargo, and with this stock I went on
shore in the Brazils.

I had not been long here, but being recommended to the
house of a good, honest man like himself, who had an ingeino
as they call it, that is, a plantation and a sugar house, I lived with
him some time, and acquainted myself by that means with the
manner of their planting and making of sugar; and seeing how
well the planters lived, and how they grew rich suddenly, I
resolved if I could get license to settle there, I would turn planter
among them, resolving in the meantime to find out some way
to get my money which I had left in London remitted to me.
To this purpose getting a kind of a letter of naturalization, I
purchased as much land that was uncured, as my money would
reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and settlement, and
such a one as might be suitable to the stock which I proposed
to myself to receive from England.

Thad a neighbor, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of English
parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such circum-
stances as I was. I call him my neighbor, because his plantation
lay next to mine, and we went on very sociably together. My
stock was but low as well as his; and we rather planted for food,
than anything else, for about two years. However, we began
to increase, and our land began to come into order, so that the
third year we planted some tobacco, and made each of usa large
piece of ground ready for planting canes in the year to come;
but we both wanted help: and now I found more than before, I
had done wrong in parting with my boy Xury.

But alas! for me to do wrong that never did right, was no
great wonder. I had no remedy but to go on. I was gotten into
an employment quite remote to my genius, and directly con-
trary to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my
father’s house, and broke through all his good advice. Nay, I
‘was coming into the very middle station, or upper degree of low
life, which my father advised me to before; and which if I
resolved to go on with, I might as welt have staid at home, and
never have fatigued myself in the world as I had done; and I
used often to say to myself, I could have done this as well in

36



SS ees..." _V!=="==
Ss My Frienv’s Goon ApviceE Qe

England among my friends, as have gone five thousand miles
off to do it among strangers and savages in-a wilderness, and at
such a distance as never to hear from any part of the world that
had the least knowledge of me.

In this manner I used to look upon my condition with the
utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with but now and then
this neighbor; no work to be done, but by the labor of my hands;
and I used to say, I lived just like a man cast away upon some
desolate island, that had nobody there but himself. But how
just has it been, and how should all men reflect, that, when they
compare their present conditions with others that are worse,
Heaven may oblige them to make the exchange. I say, how
just has it been, that the truly solitary life I reflected on in an
island of mere desolation should be my lot, who had so often
unjustly compared it with the life which I then led, in which had
I continued, I had in all probability been exceeding prosperous
and rich.

I was in some degree settled in my measures for carrying on
the plantation, before my kind friend, the captain of the ship
that took me up at sea, went back; for the ship remained there
in providing his loading, and preparing for his voyage, near three
months. When telling him what little stock I had left behind
me in London, he gave me this friendly and sincere advice,
“Seignor Inglese,” says he, for so he always called me, “if you
will give me letters, and a procuration here in form to me, with
orders to the person who has your money in London, to send
your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct, and in
such goods as are proper for this country, I will bring you the
produce of them, God willing, at my return; but since human
affairs are all subject to changes and disasters, I would have
you give orders but for one hundred pounds sterling, which
you say is half your stock, and Jet the hazard be run for the
first; so that if it come safe, you may order the rest the same way,
and if it miscarry, you may have the other half to have recourse
to for your supply.”

This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that
I could not but be convinced it was the best course I could take;
so I accordingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman with
whom I had left my money, and a procuration to the Portu-
guese captain, as he desired.

37



—————{—&zzz——>—>———>—>—>———————eeGeU_C—_—_—_——_
o> 99 > Rosinson Crusoe KOKO Ke

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full account of all my
adventures, my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the
Portugal captain at sea, the humanity of his behavior, and in
what condition I was now in, with all other necessary directions
for my supply; and when this honest captain came to Lisbon, he
found means by some of the English merchants there, to send
over not the order only, but a full account of my story to a
merchant at London, who represented it effectually to her;
whereupon, she not only delivered the money, but out of her
own pocket sent the Portugal captain a very handsome present
for his humanity and charity to me.

The merchant in London vesting this hundred pounds in
English goods, such as the captain had wrote for, sent them
directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me to
the Brazils, among which, without my direction (for I was too
young in my business to think of them) he had taken care to
have all sorts of tools, iron-work, and utensils necessary for my
plantation, and which were of great use to me.

When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made, for I
was surprised with joy of it; and my good steward, the captain,
had laid out the five pounds which my friend had sent him for a
present for himself, to purchase, and bring me over a servant
under bond for six years’ service, and would not accept of any
consideration, except a little tobacco, which I would have him
accept, being of my own produce.

Neither was this all; but my goods being all English manu-
factures, such as cloth, stuffs, bays, and things particularly
valuable and desirable in the country, I found means to sell them
to a very great advantage; so that I may say, I had more than
four times the value of my first cargo, and was now infinitely
beyond my poor neighbor, I mean in the advancement of my
plantation; for the first thing I did, I bought me a negro slave,
and an European servant also; I mean another besides that which
the captain brought me from Lisbon.

But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means
of our greatest adversity, so it was with me. I went on the next
year with great success in my plantation. I raised fifty great rolls
of tobacco on my own ground, more than I had disposed of for
necessaries among my neighbors; and these fifty rolls being
each of about roo weight were well cured and laid by against

38



Sapa I Necrsor My Apvantacr @eeeae

the return of the fleet from Lisbon. And now increasing in
business and in wealth, my head began to be full of projects and
undertakings beyond my reach; such as are indeed often the
ruin of the best heads in business.

Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had room for
all the happy things to have yet befallen me, for which my
father so earnestly recommended a quiet, retired life, and of
which he had so sensibly described the middle station of life
to be full of; but other things attended me, and I was still to be
the wilful agent of all my own miseries; and particularly to
increase my fault, and double the reflections upon myself, which
in my future sorrows I should have leisure to make; all these
miscarriages were procured by my apparent obstinate adhering
to my foolish inclination of wandering abroad, and pursuing
that inclination, in contradiction to the clearest views of doing
myself good in a fair and plain pursuit of those prospects and
those measures of life, which nature and Providence concurred
to present me with, and to make my duty.

As I had once done thus in my breaking away from my
parents, so I could not be content now, but I must go and leave
the happy view I had of being a rich and thriving man in my
new plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of
rising faster than the nature of the thing admitted; and thus I
cast myself down again into the deepest gulf of human misery
that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent with life
and a state of health in the world.







ava Rosinsonciuros ) @naeoe

To come then by the just degrees, to the particulars of this
part of my story, you may suppose, that having now lived
almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive and
prosper very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned
the language, but had contracted acquaintance and friendship
among my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants at
St. Salvadore, which was our port; and that in my discourses
among them, I had frequently given them an account of my two
voyages to the coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with the
negroes there, and how easy it was to purchase upon the coast,
for trifles, such as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of
glass, and the like, not only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants’
teeth, etc., but negroes for the service of the Brazils, in great
numbers.

They listened always very attentively to my discourses on
these heads, but especially to that part which related to the
buying negroes, which was a trade at that time not only far
entered into, but as far as it was, had been carried on by the
assiento, or permission, of the kings of Spain and Portugal, and
engrossed in the public, so that few negroes were brought, and
those excessive dear.

It happened, being in company with some merchants and
planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very
earnestly, three of them came to me the next morning, and told
me they had been musing very much upon whatI had discoursed
with them of, the last night, and they came to make a secret
proposal to me; and after enjoining me secrecy, they told me,
that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea, that they
had all plantations as well as I, and were straitened for nothing
so much as servants; that as it was a trade that could not be
carried on, because they could not publicly sell the negroes
when they came home, so they desired to make but one voyage,
to bring the negroes on shore privately, and divide them among
their own plantations; and, in a word, the question was, whether
I would go their super-cargo in the ship to manage the trading
part upon the coast of Guinea? And they offered me that I
should have my equal share of the negroes, without providing
any part of the stock.

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been
made to anyone that had not had a settlement and plantation

49





SPP Make My Witt ee

of his own to look after, which was in a fair way of coming to
be very considerable, and with a good stock upon it. But for me
that was thus entered and established, and had nothing to do
but go on as I had begun for three or four years more, and to
have sent for the other hundred pounds from England, and
who, in that time and with that little addition, could scarce have
failed of being worth three or four thousand pounds sterling,
and that increasing, too, for me to think of such a voyage was
the most preposterous thing that ever man in such circumstances
could be guilty of.

But I that was born to be my own destroyer could no more
resist the offer than I could restrain my first rambling designs,
when my father’s good counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I
told them I would go with all my heart if they would undertake
to look after my plantation in my absence, and would dispose
of it to such as I should direct if I miscarried. This they all
engaged to do, and entered into writings or covenants to do so,
and I made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and effects
in case of my death, making the captain of the ship that had
saved my life as before my universal heir, but obliging him to
dispose of my effects as I had directed in my will, one-half of the
produce being to himself and the other to be shipped to England.

In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects and
keep up my plantation. Had I used half as much prudence to
have looked into my own interest, and have made a judgment
of what I ought to have done and not to have done, I had cer-
tainly never gone away from so prosperous an undertaking,
leaving all the probable views of a thriving circumstance, and
gone upon a voyage to sea, attended with all its common hazards,
to say nothing of the reasons I had to expect particular mis-
fortunes to myself.

But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my
fancy rather than my reason; and accordingly, the ship being
fitted out and the cargo furnished, and all things done as by
agreement by my partners in the voyage, I went on board in an
evil hour, the rst of September, 1659, being the same day, eight
year, that I went from my father and mother at Hull, in order
to act the rebel to their authority, and the fool to my own
interest.

Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burthen,

41





carried six guns and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy
and myself. We had on board no large cargo of goods, except
of such toys as were fit for our trade with the negroes, such as
beads, bits of glass, shells and odd trifles, especially little looking-
glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.

The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away
to the northward upon our own coast, with design to stretch
over for the African coast, when they came about ten or twelve
degrees of northern latitude, which it seems was the manner of
their course in those days. We had very good weather, only
excessive heat all the way upon our own coast, till we came to the
height of Cape St. Augustino, from whence, keeping farther off
at sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if we were bound for
the Isle Fernand de Noronha, holding our course N. E. by N.,
and leaving those isles on the east. In this course we passed the
line in about twelve days’ time, and were, by our last observa-
tion, in seven degrees, twenty-two minutes, northern latitude,
when a violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our
knowledge. It began from the south-east, came about to the
north-west, and then settled into the north-east, from whence it
blew in such a terrible manner, that for 12 days together we
could do nothing but drive, and scudding away before it, let it
carry us whither ever fate and the fury of the winds directed;
and during these 12 days, I need not say, that I expected every
day to be swallowed up, nor indeed did any in the ship expect
to save their lives.

In this distress, we had, besides the terror of the storm, one
of our men died of the calenture, and one man and the boy
washed overboard; about the 12th day the weather abating a
little, the master made an observation as well as he could, and
found that he was in about 11 degrees north latitude, but that he
was 22 degrees of longitude difference west from Capt St.
Augustino; so that he found he was gotten upon the coast of
Guinea, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river Amozones,
toward that of the river Oronoque, commonly called the Great
River, and began to consult with me what course he should take,
for the ship was leaky and very much disabled, and he was
going directly back to the coast of Brazil.

I was positively against that, and looking over the charts of
the sea-coast of America with him, we concluded there was no

42



q

B> > > We Run Acrounp Ke Ke Ke

inhabited country for us to have recourse to, till we came within
the circle of the Carribbe-Islands, and therefore resolved to
stand away for Barbadoes, which by keeping off at sea, to avoid
the indraft of the bay or gulf of Mexico, we might easily per-
form, as we hoped, in about fifteen days sail, whereas we could
not possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa without
some assistance, both to our ship and to ourselves.

With this design we changed our course, and steered away
N. W. by W. in order to reach some of our English islands,
where I hoped for relief; but our voyage was otherwise deter-
mined, for being in the latitude of 12 deg. 18 min. a second storm '
came upon us, which carried us away with the same impetuosit
westward, and drove us so out of the very way of all humane
commerce, that had all our lives been saved, as to the sea, we
were rather in danger of being devoured by savages than ever
returning to our own country.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our
men early in the morning, cried out, “land”; and we had no
sooner run out of the cabin to look out in hopes of seeing where-
abouts in the world we were, but the ship struck upon a sand,
and in a moment her motion being so stopped, the sea broke over
her in such a manner, that we expected we should all have
perished immediately, and we were immediately driven into our
close quarters to shelter us from the very foam and spray of the
sea.

It is not easy for anyone, who has not been in the like condi-
tion, to describe or conceive the consternation of men in such
circumstances; we knew nothing where we were, or upon what
land it was we were driven, whether an island or the main,
whether inhabited or not inhabited; and as the rage of the wind
was still great, though rather less than at first, we could not so
much as hope to have the ship hold many minutes without
breaking in pieces, unless the winds by a kind of miracle should
turn immediately about. In a word, we sat looking one upon
another, and expecting death every moment, and every man
acting accordingly, as preparing for another world, for there
was little or nothing more for us to do in this; that which was
our present comfort, and all the comfort we had, was, that
contrary to our expectation the ship did not break yet, and that
the master said the wind began to abate.

43





cf sm _ _aEeGV7—VX_—X—X—<—
Now though we thought that the wind did a little abate,
yet the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too
fast for us to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful condi-
tion indeed, and had nothing to do but to think of saving our
lives as well as we could; we had a boat at our stern, just before
the storm, but she was first staved by dashing against the ship’s
rudder, and in the next place she broke away, and either sunk
or was driven off to sea, so there was no hope from her; we had
another boat on board, but how to get her off into the sea, was
a doubtful thing; however, there was no room to debate, for
we fancied the ship would break in pieces every minute, and
some told us she was actually broken already.

In this distress the mate of our vessel laid hold of the boat,
and with the help of the rest of the men they got her slung over
the ship’s side, and getting all into her, let go, and committed
ourselves, being eleven in number, to God’s mercy and the wild
sea; for, though the storm was abated considerably, yet the sea
went dreadfully high upon the shore, and might well be called
‘Den wild Zee,” as the Dutch call the sea ina storm.

And now our case was very dismal indeed, for we all saw
plainly that the sea went so high that the boat could not live,
and that we should be inevitably drowned. As to making sail,
we had none, nor, if we had could we have done anything with
it; so we worked at the oar towards the land, though with
heavy hearts, like men going to execution, for we all knew that
when the boat came nearer the shore she would be dashed in
a thousand pieces by the breach of the sea. However, we com-
mitted our souls to God in the most earnest manner, and, the
wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened our destruction
with our own hands, pulling as well as we could towards land.

What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep or
shoal, we knew not. The only hope that could rationally give
us the least shadow of expectation was if we might happen into
some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where, by great
chance, we might have run our boat in, or got under the lea of
the land, or perhaps made smooth water. But there was nothing
of this appeared; but as we made nearer and nearer the shore the
land looked more frightful than the sea.

After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and a
half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came

44



SP > > I Am Wasuep AsHorRE KEKE

rowling astern of us, and plainly bade us expect the coup-de-
grace. In a word, it took us with such a fury that it overset the
boat at once, and separating us as well from the boat as from
one another, gave us not time hardly to say, “O God!” for we
were all swallowed up in a moment.

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt
when I sunk into the water, for though I swam very well, yet I
could not deliver myself from the waves so as to draw breath till
that wave having driven me, or rather carried me a vast way on
towards the shore, and having spent itself, went back and left
me upon the land almost dry, but half dead with the water I
took in. I had so much presence of mind as well as breath left
that seeing myself nearer the main land than I expected, I got
upon my feet and endeavored to make on towards the land as
fast as I could, before another wave should return and take me
up again. But I soon found it was impossible to avoid it, for I
saw the sea come after me as high as a great hill, and as furious
as an enemy which I had no means or strength to contend with.
My business was to hold my breath and raise myself upon the
water if I could, and so, by swimming, to preserve my breathing
and pilot myself towards the shore if possible, my greatest con-
cern now being that the sea, as it would carry me a great way
towards the shore when it came on, might not carry me back
again with it when it gave back towards the sea.

The wave that came upon me again buried me at once twenty
or thirty feet deep in its own body, and I could feel myself
carried with a mighty force and swiftness towards the shore a
very great way; but I held my breath and assisted myself to
swim still forward with all my might. I was ready to burst with
holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising up, so, to my
immediate relief, I found my head and hands shoot out above
the surface of the water, and though it was not two seconds of
time that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave
me breath and new courage. I was covered again with water a
good while, but not so long but I held it out, and finding the
water had spent itself and began to return, I struck forward
against the return of the waves and felt ground again with my
feet. I stood still a few moments to recover breath and till the
water went from me, and then took to my heels and run with
what strength I had farther towards the shore. But neither would

45



3 D> p> Rosinson Crusoe Ke Ke Ke

this deliver me from the fury of the sea, which came pouring in
after me again, and twice more I was lifted up by the waves and
carried forwards as before, the shore being very flat.

The last time of these two had well near been fatal to me;
for the sea having hurried me along as before, landed me, or
rather dashed me against a piece of rock, and that with such
force, as it left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own
deliverance; for the blow taking my side and breast, beat the
breath as it were quite out of my body; and had it returned
again immediately, I must have been strangled in the water; but
I recovered a little before the return of the waves, and seeing I
should be covered again with the water, I resolved to hold fast
by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath, if possible, till
the wave went back. Now as the waves were not so high as at
first, being near land, I held my hold till the wave abated, and
then fetched another run which brought me so near the shore,
that the next wave, though it went over me, yet did not so
swallow me up as to carry me away, and the next run I took, I
got to the main land, where, to my great comfort, I clambered
up the cliffs of the shore, and sat me down upon the grass, free
from danger, and quite out of the reach of the water.

I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up
and thank God that my life was saved in a case wherein there
was some minutes before scarce any room to hope. I believe it
is impossible to express to the life what the ecstacies and trans-
ports of the soul are, when it is so saved, as I may say, out of the
very grave; and I do not wonder now at that custom, viz: That
when a malefactor, who has the halter about his neck, is tied up,
and just going to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought to
him; I say, I do not wonder that they bring a surgeon with it, to
let him bleed that very moment they tell him of it, that the
surprise may not drive the animal spirits from the heart and
overwhelm him. For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.

I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my
whole being, as I may say, wrapped up in the contemplation
of my deliverance, making a thousand gestures and motions
which I cannot describe, reflecting upon all my comrades that
were drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved but
myself; for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any
sign of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes

46



D> > > I Loox Asout ME Ke ee

that were not fellows. I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel,
when the breach and froth of the sea being so big I could hardly
see it, it lay so far off, and considered, Lord! how was it possible
Icould get on shore?

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of
my condition, I began to look round me to see what kind of
place I was in, and what was next to be done, and I soon found
my comforts abate, and that in a word I had a dreadful deliver-
ance. For I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor anything
either to eat or drink to comfort me, neither did I see any pros-
pect before me but that of perishing with hunger, or being
devoured by wild beasts; and that which was particularly afflict-
ing to me, was, that I had no weapon either to hunt and kill any







ee ee
Sys Rosinson CRUSOE Ke Ke Ke

creature for my sustenance, or to defend myself against any
other creature that might desire to kill me for theirs. In a word,
I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco pipe, and a little
tobacco in a box. This was all my provisions, and this threw me
into terrible agonies of mind, that for a while I ran about like a
mad man. Night coming upon me, I began with a heavy heart
to consider what would be my lot if there were any ravenous
beasts in that country, seeing at night they always come abroad
for their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time, was
to get up into a thick bushy tree like a fir, but thorny, which
grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all night, and consider
the next day what death I should die, for as yet I saw no prospect
of life; I walked about a furlong from the shore, to see if I could
find any fresh water to drink, which I did, to my great joy; and
having drank, and put a little tobacco in my mouth to prevent
hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavored to
place myself so as that if I should sleep I might not fall; and
having cut me a short stick, like a truncheon, for my defence, I
took up my lodging, and having been excessively fatigued, I fell
fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could have
done in my condition, and found myself the most refreshed
with it, that I think I ever was on such an occasion.

When I woke it was broad day, the weather clear, and the
storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as before;
but that which surprised me most, was, that the ship was lifted
off in the night from the sand where she lay, by the swelling of
the tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock which I
first mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the dashing me
against it; this being within about a mile from the shore where
Iwas, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished myself
on board, that, at least, I might have some necessary things for
my use.

When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked
about me again, and the first thing I found was the boat, which
lay as the wind and the sea had tossed her up upon the land,
about two miles on my right hand. I walked as far as I could
upon the shore to have got to her, but found a neck or inlet of
water between me and the boat, which was about half a mile
broad, so I came back for the present, being more intent upon

48



Sapa 1Gusrinrotas Suir eee
getting at the ship, where I hoped to find something for my

present subsistence.

A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the tide
ebbed so far out, that I could come within a quarter of a mile
of the ship; and here I found a fresh renewing of my grief, for
I saw evidently, that if we had kept on board, we had been all
safe, that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had not
been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort
and company, as I now was; this forced tears from my eyes
again, but as there was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible,
to get to the ship, so I pulled off my clothes, for the weather
was hot to extremity, and took the water; but when I came to
the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how to get on
board, for as she lay aground, and high out of the water, there
was nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her
twice, and the second time I spied a small piece of a rope, which
I wondered I did not see at first, hang down by the fore-chains
so low, as that with great difficulty I got hold of it, and by the
help of that rope, got up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I
found that the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water in
her hold, but that she lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand,
or rather earth, that her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and
her head low almost to the water; by this means all her quarter
was free, and all that was in that part was dry; for you may be
sure my first work was to search and to see what was spoiled
and what was free; and first I found that all the ship’s provisions
were dry and untouched by the water, and being very well dis-
posed to eat, I went to the bread-room and filled my pockets
with biscuit, and eat it as I went about other things, for I had no
time to lose; I also found some rum in the great cabin, of which I
took a large dram, and which I had indeed need enough of to
spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a
boat to furnish myself with many things which I foresaw would
be very necessary to me.

It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had,
and this extremity roused my application; we had several spare
yards, and two or three large spars of wood, and a spare top-
mast or two in the ship. I resolved to fall to work with these,
and flung as many of them overboard as I could manage for
their weight, tying every one with a rope that they might not

49



——_—_—_—_———————————
Sp S9> Rosinson Crusoe Ke eK

drive away; when this was done I went down the ship’s side,
and pulling them to me, I tied four of them fast together at
both ends as well as I could, in the form of a raft, and laying two
or three short pieces of plank upon them crossways, I found
I could walk upon it very well, but that it was not able to bear
any great weight, the pieces being too light; so I went to work,
and with the carpenter’s saw I cut a spare top-mast into three
lengths, and added them to my raft, with a great deal of labor
and pains; but hope of furnishing myself with necessaries, en-
couraged me to go beyond what I should have been able to have
done upon another occasion.

My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable
weight. My next care was what to load it with, and how to
preserve what I laid upon it from the surf of the sea; but I was
not long considering this. I first laid all the planks or boards
upon it that I could get, and having considered well what I most
wanted, I first got three of the seamen’s chests, which I had
broken open and emptied, and lowered them down upon my
raft; the first of these I filled with provisions, viz: bread, rice,
three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goat’s flesh, which we
lived much upon, and a little remainder of European corn which
had been laid by for some fowls which we brought to sea with
us, but the fowls were killed. There had been some barley and
wheat together, but, to my great disappointment, I found after-
wards that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all; as for liquors, I
found several cases of bottles belonging to our skipper, in which
were some cordial waters, and in all about five or six gallons of
rack; these I stowed by themselves, there being no need to put
them into the chest, nor no room for them. While I was doing
this, I found the tide began to flow, though very calm, and I
had the mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waist-coat,
which I had left on shore upon the sand, swim away; as for my
breeches which were only linen and open-kneed, I swam on
board in them and my stockings. However this put me upon
tummaging for clothes, of which I found enough, but took no
more than I wanted for present use, for I had other things which
my eye was more upon, as first, tools to work with on shore;
and it was after long searching that I found out the carpenter’s
chest, which was indeed a very useful prize to me, and much
more valuable than a ship loading of gold would have been at

50



Sesame TSarir My RarrAsHorE 6G

that time; I got it down to my raft, even whole as it was, with-
out losing time to look into it, for I knew in general what it
contained.

My next care was for some ammunition, and arms; there
were two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two
pistols; these I secured first, with some powder-horns, and a
small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there were
three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where our
gunner had stowed them, but with much search I found them,
two of them dry and good, the third had taken water; those
two I got to my raft with the arms, and now I thought myself
pretty well freighted, and began to think how I should get to
shore with them, having neither sail, oar, or rudder, and the least
cap full of wind would have overset all my navigation.

I had three encouragements. 1. A smooth,.calm sea. 2. The
tide rising and setting in to the shore. 3. What little wind there
was blew me towards the land; and thus, having found two or
three broken oars belonging to the boat, and besides the tools
which were in the chest, I found two saws, an axe, and a ham-
mer, and with this cargo I put to sea. For a mile, or thereabouts,
my raft went very well, only that I found it drive a little distance
from the place where I had landed before, by which I perceived
that there was some indraft of the water, and consequently I
hoped to find some creek or river there, which I might make use
of asa port to get to land with my cargo.

As I imagined, so it was; there appeared before me a little
opening of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide
set into it, so I guided my raft as well as I could to keep in the
middle of the stream. But here I had like to have suffered a
second shipwreck, which, if I had, I think verily would have
broke my heart, for knowing nothing of the coast, my raft run
aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and not being aground at
the other end, it wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped
off towards that end that was afloat, and so fallen into the water.
I did my utmost by setting my back against the chests, to keep
them in their places, but could not thrust off the raft with all
my strength, neither durst I stir from the posture I was in, but
holding up the chests with all my might, stood in that manner
near half an hour, in which time the rising of the water brought
me a little more upon a level, and a little after, the water still ris-

5l



ing, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off with the oar Thad,
into the channel, and then driving up higher, I at length found
myself in the mouth of a little river, with land on both sides, and
a strong current of tide running up. I looked on both sides for a
proper place to get to shore, for I was not willing to be driven
too high up the river, hoping in time to see some ship at sea, and
therefore resolved to place myself as near the coast as I could.

At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek,
to which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and
at last got so near, as that, reaching ground with my oar, I could
thrust her directly in, but here I had like to have dipped all my
cargo in the sea again; for that shore lying pretty steep, that is
to say, sloping, there was no place to land, but where one end
of my float, if it run on shore, would lie so high, and the other
sink lower as before, that it would endanger my cargo again.
All that I could do, was to wait until the tide was at the highest,
keeping the raft with my oar like an anchor to hold the side of
it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of ground, which I expected
the water would flow over; and so it did. As soon as I found
water enough, for my raft drew about a foot of water, I thrust
her on upon that flat piece of ground, and there fastened or
moored her by sticking my two broken oars into the ground;
one on one side near one end, and one on the other side near
the other end; and thus I lay until the water ebbed away, and left
my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.

My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper
place for my habitation, and where to stow my goods to secure
them from whatever might happen. Where I was I yet knew
not, whether on the continent or on an island, whether inhabited
or not inhabited, whether in danger of wild beasts or not. There
was a hill not above a mile from me, which rose up very steep
and high, and which seemed to over-top some other hills which
lay as in a ridge from it northward; I took out one of the
fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols, and an horn of powder,
and thus armed I travelled for discovery up to the top of that
hill, where, after I had with great labor and difficulty got to the
top, I saw my fate to my great affliction, viz: that I was in an
island environed every way with the sea, no land to be seen,
except some rocks which lay a great way off, and two small
islands less than this, which lay about three leagues to the west.

52





Se eee
Sh sh > I Sez THE ISLAND eee

I found also that the island I was in was barren, and as I saw
good reason to believe, uninhabited, except by wild beasts, of
whom, however, I saw none, yet I saw abundance of fowls, but
knew not their kinds, neither when I killed them could I tell
what was fit for food, and what not; at my coming back, I shot
at a great bird which I saw sitting upon a tree on the side of a
great wood. I believe it was the first gun that had been fired
there since the creation of the world; I had no sooner fired, but
from all the parts of the wood there arose an innumerable num-
ber of fowls of many sorts, making a confused screaming, and
crying every one according to his usual note; but not one of
them of any kind that I knew. As for the creature I killed, I took
it to be a kind of a hawk, its color and beak resembling it, but
had no talons or claws more than common; its flesh was carrion,
and fit for nothing.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and
fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the
rest of that day, and what to do with myself at night I knew not,
nor indeed where to rest; for I was afraid to lie down on the
ground, not knowing but some wild beast might devour me,







SMPs —sRowinson CRusor RK

though, as I afterwards found, there was really no need for those
fears.

However, as well I could, I barricaded myself round with
the chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and made a
kind of a hut for that night’s lodging; as for food, I yet saw not
which way to supply myself, except that I had seen two or three
creatures like hares run out of the wood where I shot the fowl.

I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many
things out of the ship, which would be useful to me, and par-
ticularly some of the rigging and sails, and such other things as
might come to land, and I resolved to make another voyage on
board the vessel, if possible; and as I knew that the first storm
that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I resolved to
set all other things apart, till I got everything out of the ship
that I could get. Then I called a council, that is to say, in my
thoughts, whether I should take back the raft, but this appeared
impracticable; so I resolved to go as before, when the tide was
down, and I did so, only that I stripped before I went from my
hut, having nothing on but a checkered shirt, and a pair of linen
drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.

I got on board the ship, as before, and prepared a second raft,
and having had experience of the first, I neither made this so
unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard; but yet I brought away several
things very useful to me: as first, in the carpenter’s stores I found
two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great screw-jack, a
dozen or two of hatchets, and above all, that most useful thing
called a grindstone. All these I secured, together with several
things belonging to the gunner, particularly two or three iron
crows, and two barrels of musket bullets, seven muskets, and
another fowling-piece, with some small quantity of powder
more; a large bag full of small shot, and a great roll of sheet
lead; but this last was so heavy, I could not hoist it up to get it
over the ship’s side.

Besides these things, I took all the men’s clothes that I could -
find, and a spare fore-top-sail, a hammock, and some bedding;
and with this I loaded my second raft, and brought them all
safe on shore to my very great comfort.

I was under some apprehensions during my absence from the
land, that at least my provisions might be devoured on shore;
but when I came back, I found no sign of any visitor, only there

54



—_—!'(-( eee :. :_.ege_Qj»j\ i

sat a creature like a wild cat upon one of the chests, which when
I came towards it, ran away a little distance, and then stood
still. She sat very composed and unconcerned, and looked full
in my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with me. I
presented my gun at her, but as she did not understand it, she
was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer to stir away.
Upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit, though by the way, I
was not very free of it, for my store was not great. However, I
spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled of it, and ate
it, and looked as pleased for more; but I thanked her, and could
share no more; so she marched off.

Having got my second cargo on shore, though I was fain to
open the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for they
were too heavy, being large casks, I went to work to make me
a little tent with the sail and some poles which I cut for that
purpose, and into this tent I brought everything that I knew
would spoil, either with rain or sun, and I piled all the empty
chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from
any sudden attempt, either from man or beast.

‘When I had done this I blocked up the door of the tent with
some boards within, and an empty chest set up on end without,
and spreading one of the beds upon the ground, laying my two
pistols just at my head, and my gun at length by me, I went
to bed for the first time, and slept very quietly all night, for I
was very weary and heavy, for the night before I had slept
little, and had labored very hard all day, as well to fetch all
those things from the ship, as to get them on shore.

I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever were
laid up, I believe, for one man, but I was not satisfied still; for
while the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought I ought to
get everything out of her that I could, so every day at low water
I went on board, and brought away some thing or other. But
particularly the third time I went, I brought away as much of
the rigging as I could, as also all the small ropes and rope-twine
I could get, with a piece of spare canvas, which was to mend
the sails upon occasion, and the barrel of wet gun-powder. In
a word, I brought away all the sails first and last, only that I
was fain to cut them in pieces, and bring as much at a time as I
could; for they were no more useful to be sails, but as mere
canvas only.

55





But that which comforted me more still, was, that at last of
all, after I had made five or six such voyagesas these, and thought
I had nothing more to expect from the ship that was worth
meddling with, I say, after all this, I found a great hogshead of
bread, and three large runlets of rum or spirits, and a box of
sugar, and a barrel of fine flour; this was surprising to me, be-
cause I had given over expecting any more provisions, except
what was spoiled by the water. I soon emptied the hogshead of
that bread, and wrapped it up parcel by parcel in pieces of the
sails, which I cut out; and in a word, I got all this safe on shore
also.

The next day I made another voyage; and now having
plundered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out,
I began with the cables, and cutting the great cable into pieces,
such as I could move, I got two cables and a hawser on shore,
with all the iron work I could get; and having cut down the
spritsail-yard, and the mizzen-yard, and everything I could to
make a large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods and
came away. But my good luck began now to leave me, for this
raft was so unwieldy, and so overloaden, that after I was entered
the little cove, where I had landed the rest of my goods, not
being able to guide it so handily as I did the other, it overset, and
threw me and all my cargo into the water; as for myself it was
no great harm, for I was near the shore, but as to my cargo, it
was great part of it lost, especially the iron, which I expected
would have been of great use to me. However, when the tide
was out, I got most of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the
iron, though with infinite labor; for I was fain to dip for it into
the water, a work which fatigued me very much. After this I
went every day on board, and brought away what I could get.

I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven
times on board the ship, in which time I had brought away all
that one pair of hands could well be supposed capable to bring;
though I believe verily, had the calm weather held, I should
have brought away the whole ship piece by piece. But preparing
the twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind begin to rise;
however, at low water I went on board, and though I thought
I had rummaged the cabin so effectually, as that nothing more
could be found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers in it,
in one of which I found two or three razors, and one pair of

56



ee
wae Last Visit ro THE SHIP QE KEKE
Seen ee ne ee eee NEST

large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good knives and
forks; in another I found about thirty-six pounds value in
money, some European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight,
some gold, some silver.

I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. O drug! said I,
aloud, what art thou good for? Thou art not worth to me, no,
not the taking off of the ground; one of those knives is worth all
this heap; I have no manner of use for thee; even remain where
thou art, and go to the bottom as a creature whose life is not
worth saving. However, upon second thoughts, I took it away,
and wrapping all this in a piece of canvas, I began to think of
making another raft, but while I was preparing this, I found the
sky overcast, and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter of an
hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore; it presently occurred
to me, that it was in vain to pretend to make a raft with the
wind off shore, and that it was my business to be gone before the
tide of flood began, otherwise I might not be able to reach the
shore at all; accordingly I let myself down into the water, and
swam cross the channel, which lay between the ship and the
sands, and even that with difficulty enough, partly with the
weight of the things I had about me, and partly the roughness
of the water, for the wind rose very hastily, and before it was
quite high water, it blew a storm.

But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I lay with all
my wealth about me very secure. It blew very hard all that
night, and in the morning when I looked out, behold no more
ship was to be seen. I was a little surprised, but recovered myself
with this satisfactory reflection, viz: that I had lost no time, nor
abated no diligence to get everything out of her that could be
useful to me, and that indeed there was little left in her that I was
able to bring away, if had had more time.

Inow gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of anything
out of her, except what might drive on shore from her wreck,
as indeed divers pieces of her afterwards did; but those things
were of small use tome. .

My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing my-
self against either savages, if any should appear, or wild beasts,
if any were in the island; and I had many thoughts of the method
how to do this, and what kind of dwelling to make, whether I
should make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the earth;

57







SHS} > Rosinson Crusoe EEK

and, in short, I resolved upon both, the manner and description
of which it may not be improper to give an account of.

I soon found the place I was in was not for my settlement,
particularly because it was upon a low moorish ground near
the sea, and I believed would not be wholesome, and more par-
ticularly because there was no fresh water near it, so I resolved
to find a more healthy and more convenient spot of ground.

I consulted several things in my situation which I found
would be proper for me. First, health, and fresh water I just
now mentioned. Secondly, shelter from the heat of the sun.
Thirdly, security from ravenous creatures, whether men or
beasts. Fourthly, a view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in
sight, I might not lose any advantage for my deliverance, of
which I was not willing to banish all my expectation yet.

In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on
the side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was
steep as a house-side, so that nothing could come down upon
me from the top; on the side of this rock there was a hollow
place worn a little way in, like the entrance or door of a cave,
but there was not really any cave or way into the rock at all.

On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I
resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above an hundred
yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a green before
my door, and at the end of it descended irregularly every way
down into the low grounds by the seaside. It was on the N.
N. W. side of the hill, so that I was sheltered from the heat
every day, till it came to a W. and by S. sun, or thereabouts,
which in those countries is near the setting.

Before I set up my tent I drew a half circle before the hollow
place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter from
the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter, from its beginning
and ending.

In this half circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving
them into the ground till they stood very firm, like piles, the
biggest end being out of the ground about five feet and a half,
and sharpened on the top. The two rows did not stand above
six inches from one another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship
and laid them in rows one upon another within the circle,
between these two rows of stakes, up to the top, placing other

58





a re
So I Buitp My PatisavE Ke ee ie

stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two feet and a
half high, like a spur to a post, and this fence was so strong that
neither man nor beast could get into it or over it. This cost me
a great deal of time and labor, especially to cut the piles in the
woods, bring them to the place, and drive them into the earth.

The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but
by a short ladder to go over the top, which ladder, when I was



YY

Per





SS HP > RosBinson Crusoe Ke Kee

in, I lifted over after me; and so I was completely fenced in and
fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and consequently
slept secure in the night, which otherwise I could not have
done, though, as it appeared afterward, there was no need of all
this caution from the enemies that I apprehended danger from.

Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labor, I carried all
my riches, all my provisions, ammunition and stores, of which
you have the account above; and I made me a large tent, which,
to preserve me from the rains that in one part of the year are
very violent there, I made double, viz: one smaller tent within,
and one larger tent above it, and covered the uppermost with
a large tarpaulin which I had saved among the sails.

And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had
brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was, indeed, a very
good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.

Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that
would spoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed all my goods,
I made up the entrance, which till now I had left open, and so
passed and re-passed, as I said, by a short ladder.

When I had done this I began to work my way into the rock,
and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down out through
my tent, I laid them up within my fence in the nature of a ter-
race, that so it raised the ground within about a foot and a half,
and thus I made me a cave just behind my tent, which served me
like a cellar to my house.

It cost me much labor and many days before all these things
were brought to perfection, and therefore I must go back to
some other things which took up some of my thoughts. At the
same time it happened, after I had laid my scheme for the setting
up my tent and making the cave, that a storm of rain falling
from a thick dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened,
and after that a great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect
of it. I was not so much surprised with the lightning as I was
with a thought which darted into my mind as swift as the light-
ning itself: “Oh, my powder!” My very heart sunk within me
when I thought that at one blast all my powder might be
destroyed, on which not my defence only but the providing me
food, as I thought, entirely depended. I was nothing near so
anxious about my own danger, though had the powder took
fire, [had never known who had hurt me.

60



e—==___——_—_—_—_—____
>>> Tur Goats or tue Istanp KEKE Ke

Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm
was over I laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying,
and applied myself to make bags and boxes to separate the
powder and keep it a little and a little in a parcel, in hope that
whatever might come it might not all take fire at once, and to
keep it so apart that it should not be possible to make one part
fire another. I finished this work in about a fortnight, and I
think my powder, which in all was about two hundred and
forty pounds weight, was divided in not less than a hundred
parcels. As to the barrel that had been wet, I did not apprehend
any danger from that, so I placed it in my new cave, which in
my fancy I called my kitchen, and the rest I hid up and down in
holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, mark-
ing very carefully where I laid it.

In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out once
at least every day with my gun, as well to divert myself, as to
see if I could kill anything fit for food, and as near as I could
to acquaint myself with what the island produced. The first
time I went out I presently discovered that there were goats in
the island, which was a great satisfaction to me; but then it was
attended with this misfortune to me, viz: That they were so
shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the difficultest
thing in the world to come at them. But I was not discouraged
at this, not doubting but I might now and then shoot one, as it
soon happened, for after I had found their haunts a little, I laid
wait in this manner for them. I observed if they saw me in the
valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would run
away as in a terrible fright; but if they were feeding in the
valleys, and I was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me,
from whence I concluded, that by the position of their optics,
their sight was so directed downward, that they did not readily
see objects that were above them. So afterward I took this
method: I always climbed the rocks first to get above them,
and then had frequently a fair mark. The first shot I made among
these creatures, I killed a she-goat, which had a little kid by her
which she gave suck to, which grieved me heartily; but when
the old one fell, the kid stood stock still by her till I came and
took her up, and not only so, but when I carried the old one
with me upon my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my
enclosure, upon which I laid down the dam, and took the kid

61





in my arms, and carried it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it
up tame, but it would not eat, so I was forced to kill it and eat
it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I
eat sparingly, and saved my provisions (my bread especially)
as much as possibly I could.

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely neces-
sary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn; and
what I did for that, as also how I enlarged my cave, and what
conveniences I made, I shall give a full account of in its place;
but I must first give some little account of myself, and of my
thoughts about living, which it may well be supposed were not
a few.

I had a dismal prospect of my condition, for as I was not cast
away upon that island without being driven, as is said, by a
violent storm quite out of the course of our intended voyage,
and a great way, viz: some hundreds of leagues out of the ordi-
nary course of the trade of mankind, I had great reason to
consider it as a determination of Heaven, that in this desolate
place, and in this desolate manner, I should end my life. The
tears would run plentifully down my face when I made these
reflections; and sometimes I would expostulate with myself,
why Providence should thus completely ruin its creatures, and
render them so absolutely miserable, so without help abandoned,
so entirely depressed that it could hardly be rational to be thank-
ful for such a life.

But something always returned swift upon me to check these
thoughts, and to reprove me; and particularly one day walking
with my gun in my hand by the seaside, I was very pensive upon
the subject of my present condition, when reason as it were,
expostulated with me the other way, thus: Well, you are in a
desolate condition, ’t is true, but pray remember, where are the
rest of you? Did not you come eleven of you into the boat?
where are the ten? Why were not they saved, and you lost?
Why were you singled out? Is it better to be here or there? and
then I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be considered with the
good that isin them, and with what worse attends them.

Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished for
my subsistence, and what would have been my case if it had
not happened, which was an hundred thousand to one, that the
ship floated from the place where she first struck and was driven

62



FF rE SS> 39> > My WoopeEn CAaLeNnpDAR Ee Ke KE

so near to the shore that I had time to get all these things out of
her. What would have been my case, if I had been to have lived
in the condition in which I at first came on shore, without
necessaries of life, or necessaries to supply and procure them?
Particularly, said I aloud (though to myself), what should I
had done without a gun, without ammunition, without any
tools to make anything, or to work with, without clothes, bed-
ding, a tent, or any manner of covering, and that now I had all
these to a sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to provide
myself in such a manner, as to live without my gun when my
ammunition was spent; so that I had a tolerable view of sub-
sisting without any wantas long as I lived; for I considered from
the beginning how I would provide for the accidents that might
happen, and for the time that was to come, even not only after
my ammunition should be spent, but even after my health or
strength should decay.

I confess I had not entertained any notion of my ammunition
being destroyed at one blast, I mean my powder being blown
up by lightning, and this made the thoughts of it so surprising
to me when it lightened and thundered, as I observed just now.

And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene
of silent life, such perhaps as was never heard of in the world
before, I shall take it from its beginning, and continue it in its
order. It was, by my account, the 3oth of September, when, in
the manner as abovesaid, I first set foot upon this horrid island,
when the sun being, to us, in its autumnal equinox, was almost
just over my head, for I reckoned myself, by observation, to
be in the latitude of 9 degrees 22 minutes north of the line.

After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into
my thoughts, that I should lose my reckoning of time for want
of books and pen and ink, and should even forget the Sabbath
days from the working days; but to prevent this, I cut it with
my knife upon a large post, in capital letters, and making it into
a great cross, I set it up on the shore when I first landed, viz: I
came on shore here on the 30th of September, 1659. Upon the
sides of this square post, I cut every day a notch with my knife,
and every seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and every
first day of the month as long again as that long one, and thus
I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning
of time.

63





55> RoBINSON CRUSOE KEKE KE

In the next place we are to observe, that among the many
things which I brought out of the ship in the several voyages,
which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got several things of
less value, but not all less useful to me, which I omitted setting
down before; as in particular, pens, ink, and paper, several
parcels in the captain’s, mate’s, gunner’s, and carpenter’s keep-
ing, three or four compasses, some mathematical instruments,
dials, perspectives, charts, and books of navigation, all which I
huddled together, whether I might want them or not; also, I
found three very good bibles which came to me in my cargo
from England, and which I had packed up among my things;
some Portuguese books also, and among them two or three
Popish prayer-books, and several other books, all which I care-
fully secured. And I must not forget, that we had in the ship a
dog and two cats, of whose eminent history I may have occasion
to say something in its place; for I carried both the cats with
me; and as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship of himself,
and swam on shore to me the day after I went on shore with my
first cargo, and was a trusty servant to me many years; I wanted
nothing that he could fetch me, nor any company that he could
make up to me; I only wanted to have him talk to me, but that
would not do. As I observed before, I found pen, ink and paper,
and I husbanded them to the utmost; and I shall show, that
while my ink lasted, I kept things very exact; but after that was
gone, I could not, for I could not make any ink, by any means
that I could devise.

And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwith-
standing all that I had amassed together, and of these this of ink
was one, as also spade, pick-axe, and shovel, to dig or remove
the earth, needles, pins and thread; as for linen, I soon learned
to want that without muchdifficulty.

This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily, and
it was near a whole year before I had entirely finished my little
pale, or surrounded habitation. The piles, or stakes, which were
as heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in cutting and
preparing in the woods, and more by far in bringing home, so
that I spent sometimes two days in cutting and bringing home
one of those posts, and a third day in driving it into the ground,
for which purpose I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at
last bethought myself of one of the iron crows, which, however,

64



eCoC":"""""laSaTa.SFT
wee Ll App Up Goon ann Evin 64646

though I found it, yet it made driving those posts, or piles, very
laborious and tedious work.

But what need I have been concerned at the tediousness of
anything I had to do seeing I had time enough to do it in; nor
had I any other employment if that had been over, at least that
I could foresee, except the ranging the island to seek for food,
which I did more or less every day.

I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the
circumstance I was reduced to, and I drew up the state of my
affairs in writing, not so much to leave them to any that were
to come after me, for I was like to have but few heirs, as to -
deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon them and affecting
my mind; and as my reason began now to master my despon-
dency, I began to comfort myself as well as I could, and to set
the good against the evil, that I might have something to dis-
tinguish my case from worse, and I stated it very impartially,
like debtor and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed against the
miseries I suffered, thus:

EVIL GooD
I am cast upon a horrible, But I am alive and not
desolate island, void of all drowned, as all my ship’s
hope of recovery. company were.
I am singled out and sep- But I am singled out, too,
arated, as it were, from all from all the ship’s crew to be
the world, to be miserable. spared from death; and He

that miraculously saved me
from death can deliver me
from this condition.

I am divided from man- But I am not starved and
kind, a solitaire, one ban- perishing on a barren place,
ished from human society. affording no sustenance.

Thave not clothes to cover But I am in a hot climate,
me. where, if I had clothes, I

could hardly wear them.

I am without any defence But I am cast on an island
or means to resist any vio- where I see no wild beasts
lence of man or beast. to hurt me, as I saw on the

coast of Africa; and what
if I had been shipwrecked.
there?

65



ona Rosset cnuics, Gee

I have no soul to speak to But God wonderfully sent
or relieve me. the ship in near enough to
the shore that I have gotten

out so many necessary things

as will either supply my
wants or enable me to sup-
ply myself, even as long as
Ihive.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony, that
. there was scarce any condition in the world so miserable, but
that was something negative or something positive to be thank-
ful for in it and let this stand as a direction from the experience
of the most miserable of all conditions in this world, that we
may always find in it something to comfort ourselves from, and
to set in the description of good and evil, on the credit side of
the account.

Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition,
and given over looking out to sea, to see, if I could spy a ship;
Isay, giving over these things, I began to apply myself to accom-
modate my way of living, and to make things as easy to me as
I could.

I have already described my habitation, which was a tent
under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts
and cables, but I might now rather call it a wall, for I raised a
kind of wall up against it of turfs, about two foot thick on the
outside, and after some time, I think it was a year and half, I
raised rafters from it leaning to the rock, and thatched or
covered it with boughs of trees, and such things as I could get
to keep out the rain, which I found at some times of the year
very violent.

Ihave already observed how I brought all my goods into this
pale, and into the cave which I had made behind me. But I must
observe too that at first this was a confused heap of goods, which
as they lay in no order, so they took up all my place; I had no
room to turn myself; so I set myself to enlarge my cave and
works farther into the earth; for it was a loose sandy rock,
which yielded easily to the labor I bestowed on it. And so when
I found I was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways
to the right hand into the rock; and then turning to the right

66



S> > > I BECOME A CARPENTER KK Ke

again, worked quite out, and made me a door to come out, on
the outside of my pale or fortification.

This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were a back-
way to my tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room to stow
my goods.

And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary
things as I found I most wanted, as particularly a chair and a
table; for without these I was not able to enjoy the few comforts
Thad in the world; I could not write or eat, or do several things
with so much pleasure without a table.

So I went to work; and here I must needs observe, that as
reason is the substance and original of the mathematics, so by
stating and squaring every thing by reason, and by making the
most rational judgment of things, every man may be in time
master of every mechanic art. I had never handled a tool in my
life, and yet in time by labor, application and contrivance, I
found at last that I wanted nothing but I could have made it,
especially if I had had tools; however, I made abundance of
things, even without tools, and some with no more tools than an
adze and a hatchet, which perhaps were never made that way
before, and that with infinite labor. For example, if I wanted a
board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree, set it on an
edge before me, and hew it flat on either side with my axe, till I
had brought it to be thin as a plank, and then dubb it smooth
with my adze. It is true by this method I could make but one
board out of a whole tree, but this I had no remedy for but
patience, any more than I had for the prodigious deal of time
and labor which it took me up to make a plank or board. But
my time or labor was little worth, and so it was as well employed
one way as another.

However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above,
in the first place, and this I did out of the short pieces of boards
that I brought on my raft from the ship. But when I had wrought
out some boards, as above, I made large shelves of the breadth of
a foot and a half, one over another, all along one side of my cave,
to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work, and in a word, to sep-
arate every thing at large in their places, that I might come
easily at them; I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock to
hang my guns and all things that would hang up.

So that had my cave been to be seen, it looked like a general

67



SPs Rosinson Crusor REE

magazine of all necessary things, and I had everything so ready
at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me to see all my goods
in such order, and especially to find my stock of all necessaries
So great.

And now it was when I began to keep a journal of every
day’s employment, for indeed at first I was in too much hurry,
and not only hurry as to labor, but in too much discomposure
of mind, and my journal would have been full of many dull
things. For example, I must have said thus: September the 3oth.
After I got to shore and had escaped drowning, instead of being
thankful to God for my deliverance, having first vomited with
the great quantity of salt water which was gotten into my
stomach, and recovering myself a little, I ran about the shore,
wringing my hands and beating my head and face, exclaiming
at my misery, and crying out I was undone, undone, till tired
and faint I was forced to lie down on the ground to repose, but
durst not sleep for fear of being devoured.

Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship,
and got all that I could out of her, yet I could not forbear getting
up to the top of a little mountain and looking out to sea in hopes
of seeing a ship, then fancy at a vast distance I spied a sail, please
myself with the hopes of it, and then after looking steadily until
I was almost blind, lose it quite, and sit down and weep like a
child, and thus increase my misery by my folly.

But having gotten over these things in some measure, and
having settled my household stuff and habitation, made me a
table and a chair, and all as handsome about me as I could, I
began to keep my journal, of which I shall here give you the
copy (though in it will be told all these particulars over again)
as long as it lasted, for having no more ink I was forced to leave
it off.

The Journal

EPTEMBER 30, 1659. I, poor, miserable Robinson Crusoe,
S being shipwrecked during a dreadful storm, in the offing,
came on shore on this dismal, unfortunate island, which I called
the Island of Despair, all the rest of the ship’s company being
drowned, and myself almost dead.

All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting myself at the dismal

68



ee
DP DP > My Journat Kee Ke

circumstances I was brought to, viz: I had neither food, house,
clothes, weapon, or place to fly to, and in despair of any relief,
saw nothing but death before me, either that I should be de-
voured by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or starved to death
for want of food. At the approach of night, I slept in a tree for
fear of wild creatures, but slept soundly though it rained all
night.

October 1. In the morning I saw to my great surprise the ship
had floated with the high tide, and was driven on shore again
much nearer the island, which as it was some comfort on one
hand, for seeing her sit upright, and not broken to pieces, I
hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board, and get some
food and necessaries out of her for my relief; so on the other
hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades, who I
imagined if we had all staid on board might have saved the ship,
or at least that they would not have been all drowned as they
were; and that had the men been saved, we might perhaps have
built us a boat out of the ruins of the ship, to have carried us
to some other part of the world. I spent great part of this day
in perplexing myself on these things; but at length, seeing the
ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as near as I could, and
then swam on board; this day also it continued raining, though
with no wind at all.

From the 1st of October to the 24th. All these days entirely
spent in many several voyages to get all I could out of the ship,
which I brought on shore, every tide of flood, upon rafts.
Much rain also in these days, though with some intervals of fair
weather. But it seems this was the rainy season.

October 20. I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got
upon it, but being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly
heavy, I recovered many of them when the tide was out.

October 25. It rained all night and all day, with some gusts
of wind, during which time the ship broke in pieces, the wind
blowing a little harder than before, and was no more to be seen,
except the wreck of her, and that only at low water. I spent
this day in covering and securing the goods which I had saved,
that the rain might not spoil them.

October 26. I walked about the shore almost all day to find
out a place to fix my habitation, greatly concerned to secure
myself from an attack in the night, either from wild beasts or

69



Ss > RosBinson CRUSOE EEK

men. Towards night I fixed upon a proper place under a rock,
and marked out a semi-circle for my encampment, which I
resolved to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification made
of double piles, lined within with cables and without with turf.

From the 26th to the 30th I worked very hard in carrying
all my goods to my new habitation, though some part of the
time it rained exceeding hard.

The 31st, in the morning I went out into the island with my
gun to see for some food, and discover the country; when I
killed a she goat, and her kid followed me home, which I after-
wards killed also, because it would not feed.

November 1. I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there for
the first night, making it as large as I could with stakes driven
in to swing my hammock upon.

November 2. I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces
of timber which made my rafts, and with them formed a fence
round me, a little within the place I had marked out for my
fortification.

November 3. I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls
like ducks which were very good food. In the afternoon went
to work to make me a table.

November 4. This morning I began to order my times of
work, of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of
diversion, viz: Every morning I walked out with my gun for
two or three hours if it did not rain, then employed myself to
work till about eleven o’clock, then eat what I had to live on,
and from twelve to two I lay down to sleep, the weather being
excessive hot, and then in the evening to work again; the work-
ing part of this day and of the next were wholly employed in
making my table, for I was yet but a very sorry workman,
though time and necessity made me a complete natural mechanic
soon after, as I believe it would do any one else.

November 5. This day I went abroad with my gun and my
dog, and killed a wild cat, her skin pretty soft, but her flesh
good for nothing. Every creature I killed, I took off the skins
and preserved them. Coming back by the seashore, I saw many
sorts of sea fowls, which I did not understand; but was surprised,
and almost frighted with two or three seals, which, while I was
gazing at, not well knowing what they were, got into the sea,
and escaped me for that time.

70



Te WP AP My Journat Kee KE

November 6. After my morning walk I went to work with
my table again, and finished it, though not to my liking; nor was
it long before I learnt to mend it.

November 7. Now it begun to be settled fair weather. The
7th, 8th, oth, roth, and part of the r2th, (for the 11th was
Sunday) I took wholly up to make me a chair, and with much
ado brought it to a tolerable shape, but never to please me; and
even in the making I pulled it in pieces several times. Note.—I
soon neglected my keeping Sundays, for omitting my mark for
them on my post, I forgot which was which.

November 13. This day it rained, which refreshed me exceed-
ingly, and cooled the earth, but it was accompanied with terrible
thunder and lightning, which frighted me dreadfully, for fear of
my powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved to separate my
stock of powder into as many little parcels as possible, that it
might not be in danger.

November 14, 15, 16. These three days I spent in making
little square chests, or boxes, which might hold about a pound,
or two pounds at most, of powder; and so, putting the powder
in, I stowed it in places as secure and remote from one another
as possible. On one of these three days I killed a large bird that
was good to eat, but I know not what to call it.







November 17. This day I began to dig behind my tent into
the rock, to make room for my farther conveniency. Note.—
Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work, viz: a pick-axe,
a shovel, and a wheelbarrow or basket, so I desisted from my
work and began to consider how to supply that want and make
me some tools. As for a pick-axe, I made use of the iron crows,
which were proper enough though heavy. But the next thing
was a shovel or spade. This was so absolutely necessary that,
indeed, I could do nothing effectually without it; but what kind
of one to make I knew not.

November 18. The next day in searching the woods I founda
tree of that wood, or like it, which in the Brazils they call the
iron tree, for its exceeding hardness; of this, with great labor
and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece and brought it home,
too, with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy.

The excessive hardness of the wood, and having no other
way, made me a long while upon this machine, for I worked it
effectually by little and little into the form of a shovel or spade,
the handle exactly shaped like ours in England, only that the
broad part having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not
last me so long. However, it served well enough for the uses
which I had occasion to put it to; but never was a shovel, I
believe, made after that fashion, or so long a making.

I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket or a wheelbarrow;
a basket I could not make by any means, having no such things
as twigs that would bend to make wicker ware,—at least, none
yet found out; and as to a wheelbarrow, I fancied I could make
all but the wheel, but that I had no notion of, neither did I know
how to go about it; besides I had no possible way to make the
iron gudgeons for the spindle or axis of the wheel to run in, so I
gave it over; and so for carrying away the earth which I dug out
of the cave I made me a thing like a hod which the laborers
carry mortar in when they serve the bricklayers.

This was not so difficult to me as the making the shovel; and
yet this, and the shovel, and the attempt which I made in vain
to make a wheelbarrow took me up no less than four days,—I
mean, always, excepting my morning walk with my gun, which
I seldom failed, and very seldom failed, also, bringing home
something fit to eat.

November 23. My other work having now stood still because

72







S> > > My Journat Ke Ke KH

of my making these tools, when they were finished I went on,
and working every day as my strength and time allowed, I spent
eighteen days entirely in widening and deepening my cave,
that it might hold my goods commodiously.

Note.—During all this time I worked to make this room, or
cave, spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse, or
magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room and a cellar. As for my
lodging, I kept to the tent, except that sometimes in the wet
season of the year it rained so hard that I could not keep myself
dry, which caused me afterwards to cover all my place within
my pale with long poles in the form of rafters, leaning against
the rock, and load them with flags and large leaves of trees, like
a thatch.

December 10. I began now to think my cave, or vault,
finished, when, on a sudden, (it seems I had made it too large,)
a great quantity of earth fell down from the top and one side,
so much that, in short, it frighted me, and not without reason,
too, for if ] had been under it I had never wanted a grave-digger.
Upon this disaster I had a great deal of work to do over again,
for I had the loose earth to carry out, and which was of more
importance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure
no more would come down.

December 11. This day I went to work with it accordingly,
and got two shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with two
pieces of boards across over each post. This I finished the next
day, and setting more posts up with boards, in about a week
more I had the roof secured; and the posts standing in rows
served me for partitions to part off my house.

December 17. From this day to the twentieth I placed shelves,
and knocked up nails on the posts to hang everything up that
could be hung up, and now I began to be in some order within
doors.

December 20. Now I carried everything into the cave, and
began to furnish my house, and set up some pieces of boards,
like a dresser, to order my victuals upon, but boards began to
be very scarce with me; also I made me another table.

December 24. Much rain all night and all day, no stirring out.

December 25. Rain all day.

December 26. No rain, and the earth much cooler than before
and pleasanter.

73



SHsHs —sdRowrnson Cruson ERE

December 27. Killed a young goat, and lamed another so
that I caught it, and led it home ina string. When I had it home,
I bound and splintered up its leg which was broke. N. B.—I took
such care of it, that it lived, and the leg grew well, and as strong
as ever; but by my nursing it so long it grew tame, and fed upon
the little green at my door, and would not go away. This was
the first time that I entertained a thought of breeding up some
tame creatures, that I might have food when my powder and
shot was all spent.

December 28, 29, 30. Great heats and no breeze; so that there
was no stirring abroad, except in the evening for food. This
time I spent in putting all my things in order within doors.

January 1. Very hot still, but I went abroad early and late
with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day. This evening,
going farther into the valleys which lay towards the center of
the island, I found there was plenty of goats, though exceeding
shy and hard to come at; however, I resolved to try if I could
not bring my dog to hunt them down.

January 2. Accordingly, the next day, I went out with my
dog, and set him upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for they
all faced about upon the dog, and he knew his danger too well,
for he would not come near them.

_~ January 3.1 began my fence or wall; which, being still jealous
of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very
thick and strong.

N. B.—This wall being described before, I purposely omit
what was said in the journal. It is sufficient to observe, that I
was no less time than from the third of January to the fourteenth
of April, working, finishing and perfecting this wall, though it
was no more than about twenty-four yards in length, being a
half circle from one place in the rock to another place about
eight yards from it, the door of the cave being in the centre
behind it.

All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me many
days, nay, sometimes weeks together; but I thought I should
never be perfectly secure till this wall was finished; and it is
scarce credible what inexpressible labor everything was done
with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods, and driving
them into the ground, for I made them much bigger than I need
to have done.

74



———e~i~_~e~E~E=E~E-ieE~—eEieE~->~»a—a—eEiEie—>—*x*K=zz:z:7yx[z7xz{&@[=Trl__—_L_>e@————eeeeee_e_ee_—_—_ =
35> > > Tue Bac or Corn KE Ke KE

When this wall was finished, and the outside double fenced
with a turf wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that if
any people were to come on shore there, they would not per-
ceive anything like a habitation; and it was very well I did so,
as may be observed hereafter upon a very remarkable occasion.

During this time I made my rounds in the woods for game
every day when the rain admitted me, and made frequent dis-
coveries in these walks of something or other to my advantage;
particularly I found a kind of wild pigeons, who built not as
wood pigeons, in a tree, but rather as house pigeons, in the holes
of the rocks, and taking some young ones I endeavored to breed
them up tame, and did so; but when they grew older they flew
all away, which perhaps was at first for want of feeding them,
for I had nothing to give them. However, I frequently found
their nests and got their young ones, which were very good
meat.

And now, in the managing my household affairs I found
myself wanting in many things, which I thought at first it was
impossible for me to make, as, indeed, as to some of them it was.
For instance, I could never make a cask to be hooped. I had a
small runlet or two, as I observed before, but I could never
arrive to the capacity of making one by them, though I spent
many weeks about it. I could neither put in the heads or joint
the staves so true to one another as to make them hold water, so
I gave that, also, over.

In the next place I was at a great loss for candles, so that as
soon as ever it was dark, which was generally by seven o’clock,
I was obliged to go to bed. I remembered the lump of bees-wax
with which I made candles in my African adventure, but I had
none of that now; the only remedy I had was that when I had
killed a goat I saved the tallow, and with a little dish made of
clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I added a wick of some
oakum, I made me a lamp; and this gave me light, though not a
clear, steady light, like a candle.

In the middle of all my labors it happened, that, rummaging
my things, I found a little bag, which, as I hinted before, had
been filled with corn for the feeding of poultry, not for this
voyage but before, as I suppose, when the ship came from
Lisbon. What little remainder of corn had been in the bag was
all devoured with the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but

75







SS Robinson Crusor Kee

husks and dust, and being willing to have the bag for some other
use, (I think it was to put powder in when I divided it for fear
of the lightning, or some such use,) I shook the husks of corn
out of it on one side of my fortification, under the rock.

It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned that
I threw this stuff away, taking no notice of anything, and not
so much as remembering that I had thrown anything there,
when, about a month after, or thereabout, I saw some few stalks
of something green shooting out of the ground, which I fancied
might be some plant I had not seen; but I was surprised and
perfectly astonished when, after a little longer time, I saw about
ten or twelve ears come out, which were perfect green barley,
of the same kind as our European, nay, as our English barley.

It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion
of my thoughts on this occasion. I had hitherto acted upon no
religious foundation at all; indeed, I had very few notions of
religion in my head, or had entertained any sense of anything
that had befallen me otherwise than asa chance, or, as we lightly
say, what pleases God, without so much as enquiring into the
end of Providence in these things, or his order in governing
events in the world. But after I saw barley grow there, in a
climate which I knew was not proper for corn, and especially
that I knew not how it came there, it startled me strangely, and
I began to suggest that God had miraculously caused this grain
to grow without any help of seed sown, and that it was so
directed purely for my sustenance on that wild, miserable place.

This touched my heart a little and brought tears out of my
eyes, and I began to bless myself that such a prodigy of nature
should happen upon my account; and this was the more strange
to me because I saw near it still all along by the side of the rock
some other straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks of rice,
and which I knew, because I had seen it grow in Africa when I
was ashore there.

I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence
for my support, but not doubting but that there was more in
the place, I went all over that part of the island, where I had
been before, peering in every corner, and under every rock, to
seek for more of it, but I could not find any; at last it occurred
to my thoughts, that I had shook a bag of chicken’s meat out in
that place, and then the wonder began to cease; and I must

76



lll ee
PH) > MIRACLE oF THE CORN OO

confess, my religious thankfulness to God’s providence began
to abate, too, upon the discovering that all this was nothing but
what was common; though I ought to have been as thankful
for so strange and unforeseen Providence, as if it had been
miraculous; for it was really the work of Providence as to me,
that should order or appoint, that ten or twelve grains of corn
should remain unspoiled (when the rats had destroyed all the
rest), as if it had been dropped from Heaven; asalso that I should
throw it out in that particular place, where it being in the shade
of a high rock, it sprang up immediately; whereas, if I had
thrown it anywhere else at that time, it had been burnt up and
destroyed.

I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in
their season, which was about the end of June; and laying up
every corn, I resolved to sow them all again, hoping in time to
have some quantity sufficient to supply me with bread. But it
was not till the fourth year, that I could allow myself the least
grain of this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly, as I shall
say afterwards in its order; for I lost all that I sowed the first
season, by not observing the proper time; for I sowed it just
before the dry season, so that it never came up at all, at least, not
as it would have done. Of which in its place.

Besides this barley, there was, as above, twenty or thirty stalks
of rice, which I preserved with the same care, and whose use
was of the same kind or to the same purpose, viz: to make me
bread, or rather food; for I found ways to cook it up without
baking, though I did that also after some time. But to return to
my journal.

I worked excessive hard these three or four months to get _
my wall done, and the rqth of April I closed it up, contriving
to go into it, not by a door, but over the wall by a ladder, that
there might be no sign in the outside of my habitation.

April 16. I finished the ladder, so I went up with the ladder
to the top, and then pulled it up after me, and let it down on
the inside. This was a complete enclosure to me; for within I
had room enough, and nothing could come at me from without,
unless it could first mount my wall.

The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost
had all my labor overthrown at once, and myself killed; the
case was thus: As I was busy in the inside of it, behind my tent,

77



S45 o> Rosinson Crusoe Bomosod

just in the entrance into my cave, I was terribly frighted with
a most dreadful, surprising thing indeed; for all on a sudden I
found the earth come crumbling down from the roof of my
cave, and from the edge of the hill over my head, and two of
the posts I had set up in the cave cracked in a frightful manner.
I was heartily scared, but thought nothing of what was really
the cause, only thinking that the top of my cave was falling in,
as some of it had done before, and for fear I should be buried
in it, I ran forward to my ladder, and not thinking myself safe
there neither, I got over my wall for fear of the pieces of the hill
which I expected might roll down upon me. I was no sooner
stepped down upon the firm ground, but I plainly saw it was a
terrible earthquake, for the ground I stood on shook three times
at about eight minutes distance, with three such shocks as would
have overturned the strongest building that could be supposed
to have stood on the earth; and a great piece of the top of a
rock, which stood about half a mile from me next to the sea,
fell down with such a terrible noise as I never heard in all my
life. I perceived also, the very sea was put into violent motion by
it; and I believe the shocks were stronger under the water than
on the island.

I was so amazed with the thing itself, having never felt the
like, or discoursed with any one that had, that I was like one
dead or stupefied; and the motion of the earth made my stomach
sick, like one that was tossed at sea; but the noise of the falling
of the rock awakened me, as it were, and rousing me from the
stupefied condition I was in, filled me with horror, and I thought
of nothing then but the hill falling upon my tent and all my
household goods, and burying all at once; and this sunk my very
soul within mea second time.

After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some
tme, I began to take courage, and yet I had not heart enough to
go over my wall again, for fear of being buried alive, but sat still
upon the ground, greatly cast down and disconsolate, not know-
ing what to do. All this while I had not the least serious religious
thoughts, nothing but the common “Lord have mercy upon
me”; and when it was over that went away too.

While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow cloudy,
as if it would rain; soon after that the wind rose by little and
little, so that in less than half an hour it blew a most dreadful

8



EEE ______ 2
Se > EarRTHQUAKE AND STORM 6 Q&4&&

hurricane. The sea was all on a sudden covered over with foam
and froth, the shore was covered with the breach of the water,
the trees were torn up by the roots, and a terrible storm it was;
and this held about three hours, and then began to abate, and
in two hours more it was stark calm, and began to rain very hard.

All this while I sat upon the ground very much terrified and
dejected, when on a sudden it came into my thoughts, that these
winds and rain being the consequences of the earthquake, the
earthquake itself was spent and over, and I might venture into
my cave again. With this thought my spirits began to revive,
and the rain also helping to persuade me, I went in and sat down
in my tent, but the rain was so violent, that my tent was ready
to be beaten down with it, and I was forced to go into my cave,
though very much afraid and uneasy for fear it should fall on
my head.

This violent rain forced me to a new work, viz: To cut a hole
through my new fortification like a sink to let the water go out,
which would else have drowned my cave. After I had been in
my cave some time, and found still no more shocks of the earth-
quake follow, I began to be more composed; and now to support
my spirits, which indeed wanted it very much, I went to my
little store and took a small sup of rum, which, however, I did
then and always very sparingly, knowing I could have no more
when that was gone.

It continued raining all that night, and a great part of the next
day, so that I could not stir abroad, but my mind being more
composed, I began to think of what I had best do, concluding
that if the island was subject to these earthquakes, there would
be no living for me in a cave; but I must consider of building me
some little hut in an open place which I might surround with a
wall as I had done here, and so make myself secure from wild
beasts or men; but concluded, if I staid where I was, I should
certainly, one time or another, be buried alive.

With these thoughts I resolved to remove my tent from the
place where it stood, which was just under the hanging precipice
of the hill, and which, if it should be shaken again, would cer-
tainly fall upon my tent. And I spent the two next days, being
the roth and 2oth of April, in contriving where and how to
remove my habitation.

The fear of being swallowed up alive, made me that I never

79





Ss 5 RoBinson CRUSOE Ee Ke

slept in quiet, and yet the apprehension of lying abroad without
any fence was almost equal to it; but still when I looked about
and saw how everything was put in order, how pleasantly con-
cealed I was, and how safe from danger, it made me very loth
to remove.

In the meantime it occurred to me that it would require a
vast deal of time for me to do this, and that I must be contented
to run the venture where I was, till I had formed a camp for
myself, and had secured it so as to remove to it. So with this
resolution I composed myself for a time, and resolved that I
would go to work with all speed to build me a wall with piles
and cables, etc., in a circle as before, and set my tent up in it
when it was finished, but that I would venture to stay where I
was till it was finished and fit to remove to. This was the 21st.

April 22. The next morning I began to consider of means to
put this resolve in execution, but I was at a great loss about my
tools; I had three large axes and abundance of hatchets, (for
we carried the hatchets for traffic with the Indians), but with
much chopping and cutting knotty hard wood, they were all
full of notches and dull, and though I had a grind-stone, I could
not turn it and grind my tools too; this cost me as much thought
as a statesman would have bestowed upon a grand point of
politics, or a judge upon the life and death of a man. At length
I contrived a wheel with a string, to turn it with my foot, that
I might have both my hands at liberty. Note.—I had never seen
any such thing in England, or at least not to take notice how it
was done, though since I have observed it is very common there;
besides that, my grind-stone was very large and heavy. This
machine cost me a full week’s work to bring it to perfection.

April 28, 29. These two whole days I took up in grinding my
tools, my machine for turning my grind-stone performing very
well.

April 30. Having perceived my bread had been low a great
while, now I took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one
biscuit-cake a day, which made my heart very heavy.

May tr. In the morning, looking towards the sea-side, the tide
being low, Isaw something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary,
and it looked like a cask; when I came to it, I found a small
barrel, and two or three pieces of the wreck of the ship, which
were driven on shore by the late hurricane; and looking towards

80







fe Se
SPP > Tue Suip Is Movep Ke Ko ee

the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher out of the
water, than it used to do; I examined the barrel which was driven
on shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder, but it
had taken water, and the powder was caked as hard as a stone;
however, I rolled it farther on shore for the present, and went
on upon the sands as near as I could to the wreck of the ship to
look for more.

When I came down to the ship I found it strangely removed;
the fore-castle, which lay before buried in sand, was heaved up
at least six foot; and the stern, which was broke to pieces and









a Rosineow Givsor Cae

parted from the rest by the force of the sea soon after I had left
rummaging her, was tossed, as it were, up, and cast on one side,
and the sand was thrown so high on that side next her stern,
that, whereas, there was a great place of water before, so that
I could not come within a quarter of a mile of the wreck without
swimming, I could now walk quite up to her when the tide was
out; I was surprised with this at first, but soon concluded it must
be done by the earthquake. And as by this violence the ship was
more broken open than formerly, so many things came daily on
shore, which the sea had loosened, and which the winds and
water rolled by degrees to the land.

This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of remov-
ing my habitation; and I busied myself mightily that day
especially, in searching whether I could make any way into
the ship; but I found nothing was to be expected of that kind,
for that all the inside of the ship was choked up with sand.
However, as I had learned not to despair of anything, I resolved
to pull everything to pieces that I could of the ship, concluding,
that everything I could get from her would be of some use or
other to me.

May 3. I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam
through, which I thought held some of the upper part or
quarter-deck together, and when I had cut it through, I cleared
away the sand as well as I could from the side which lay highest;
but the tide coming in, I was obliged to give over for that time.

May 4. I went a fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst
eat of, till I was weary of my sport; when just going to leave
off, I caught a young dolphin. I had made me a long line of
some rope yarn, but I had no hooks, yet I frequently caught
fish enough, as much as I cared to eat; all which I dried in the
sun, and eat them dry.

May 5. Worked on the wreck, cut another beam asunder,
and brought three great fir planks off from the decks, which I
tied together, and made swim on shore, when the tide of flood
came on.

May 6. Worked on the wreck, got several iron bolts out of
her, and other pieces of iron work; worked very hard, and came
home very much tired, and had thoughts of giving it over.

May 7. Went to the wreck again, but with an intent not to
work, but found the weight of the wreck had broke itself down,

82



LLL
Ss TL Worconrue Wreck eG

the beams being cut, that several pieces of the ship seemed to lie
loose, and the inside of the hold lay so open, that I could see
into it, but almost full of water and sand.

May 8. Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to
wrench up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the water or
sand; I wrenched open two planks, and brought them on shore
also with the tide; I left the iron crow in the wreck for next day.

May 9. Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way
into the body of the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened
them with the crow, but could not break them up; I felt also the
roll of English lead, and could stir it, but it was too heavy to
remove.

May 10, 11, 12, 13, 14. Went every day to the wreck, and got
a great deal of pieces of timber, and boards, or plank, and two
or three hundred weight of iron.

May 15. I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a
piece off the roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet,
and driving it with the other; but as it lay about a foot and a
half in the water, I could not make any blow to drive the hatchet.

May 16. It had blowed hard in the night, and the wreck
appeared more broken by the force of the water; but I stayed
so long in the woods to get pigeons for food, that the tide
prevented me going to the wreck that day.

May 17. I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore, at
a great distance, near two miles off me, but resolved to see what
they were, and found it was a piece of the head, but too heavy
for me to bring away.

May 24. Every day to this day I worked on the wreck, and
with hard labor I loosened some things so much with the crow,
that the first blowing tide several casks floated out, and two of
the seamen’s chests; but the wind blowing from the shore,
nothing came to land that day, but pieces of timber, and a hogs-
head which had some Brazil pork in it, but the salt water and
the sand had spoiled it.

I continued this work every day to the 15th of June, except
the time necessary to get food, which I always appointed, dur-
ing this part of my employment, to be when the tide was up,
that I might be ready when it was ebbed out, and by this time I
had gotten timber, and plank, and iron work enough, to have
builded a good boat, if I had known how; and also, I got at

83





a ee eee
Ss Rosinson Crusoe KOKO KE

several times, and in several pieces, near one hundred weight
of the sheet lead.

June 16. Going down to the seaside, I found a large tortoise
or turtle; this was the first I had seen, which it seems was only
my misfortune, not any defect of the place, or scarcity; for had
I happened to be on the other side of the island, I might have
had hundreds of them every day, as I found afterwards; but
perhaps had paid dear enough for them.

June 17. I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her three
score eggs, and her flesh was to me, at that time, the most savory
and pleasant that ever I tasted in my life, having had no flesh
but of goats and fowls since I landed in this horrid place.

June 18. Rained all day, and I stayed within. I thought at this
time the rain felt cold, and I was something chilly, which I
knew was not usual in that latitude.

June 19. Very ill and shivering, as if the weather had been
cold.

June 20. No rest all night; violent pains in my head and
feverish.

June 21. Very ill; frighted almost to death with the appre-
hensions of my sad condition,—to be sick and no help. Prayed
to God for the first time since the storm off of Hull, but scarce
knew what I said, or why, my thoughts being all confused.

June 22. A little better, but under dreadful apprehensions of
sickness.

June 23. Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a
violent headache.

June 24. Much better.

June 25. An ague very violent. The fit held me seven hours,
cold fit and hot, with faint sweats after it.

June 26. Better; and having no victuals to eat took my gun,
but found myself very weak. However, I killed a she-goat,
and with much difficulty got it home and broiled some of it and
eat. I would fain have stewed it and made some broth, but had
no pot.

June 27. The ague again so violent that I lay abed all day,
and neither eat or drank. I was ready to perish for thirst, but
so weak I had not strength to stand up, or to get myself any
water to drink. Prayed to God again, but was light-headed, and
when I was not I was so ignorant that I knew not what to say,

84





ss s> I Dream oF SATAN Ke ee Ke

only I lay and cried, “Lord, look upon me! Lord, pity me! Lord,
have mercy upon me!” I suppose I did nothing else for two or
three hours, till, the fit wearing off, I fell asleep and did not
wake till far in the night. When I waked I found myself much
refreshed but weak and exceeding thirsty. However, asI had no
water in my whole habitation, I was forced to lie till morning,
and went to sleep again. In this second sleep I had this terrible
dream.

I thought that I was sitting on the ground on the outside of
my wall, where I sat when the storm blew after the earthquake,
and that I saw a man descend from a great black cloud, in a
bright flame of fire, and light upon the ground. He was all over
as bright as a flame, so that I could but just bear to look towards
him. His countenance was most inexpressively dreadful, impos-
sible for words to describe. When he stepped upon the ground
with his feet I thought the earth trembled, just as it had done
before in the earthquake, and all the air looked, to my appre-
hension, as if it had been filled with flashes of fire.

He was no sooner landed upon the earth but he moved
towards me, with a long spear, or weapon, in his hand, to kill
me, and when he came to a rising ground, at some distance, he
spoke to me, or I heard a voice so terrible that it is impossible to
express the terror of it. All that I can say I understood was this:
“Seeing all these things have not brought thee to repentance,
now thou shalt die.” At which words I thought he lifted up the
spear that was in his hand to kill me.

No one that shall ever read this account will expect that I
should be able to describe the horrors of my soul at this terrible
vision; I mean, that even while it was a dream, I even dreamed of
those horrors. Nor is it any more possible to describe the impres-
sion that remained upon my mind when I awaked and found
it was but a dream.

Thad, alas! no divine knowledge. What I had received by the
good instruction of my father was then worn out by an unin-
terrupted series, for eight years, of seafaring wickedness, and a
constant conversation with nothing but such as were like myself,
—wicked and profane to the last degree. I do not remember that
Thad in all that time one thought that so much as tended either
to looking upwards towards God, or inwards towards a reflec-
tion upon my own ways. Buta certain stupidity of soul, without

85



————————~———————
SH Ps RosBinson Crusoe KEKE
wae ROBINSON CRUSOE EEK

desire of good or conscience of evil, had entirely overwhelmed
me, and I was all that the most hardened, unthinking, wicked
creature among our common sailors can be supposed to be, not
having the least sense either of the fear of God in danger, or of
thankfulness to God in deliverances.

In the relating what is already past of my story, this will be
the more easily believed, when I shall add, that through all the
variety of miseries that had to this day befallen me, I never had
so much as one thought of it being the hand of God, or that
it was a just punishment for my sin; my rebellious behavior
against my father, or my present sins which were great; or so
much as a punishment for the general course of my wicked life.
When I was on the desperate expedition on the desert shores of
Africa, I never had so much as one thought of what would
become of me; or one wish to God to direct me whither I should
go, or to keep me from the danger which apparently surrounded
me, as well from voracious creatures as cruel savages. But I was
merely thoughtless of a God, or a Providence; acted like a mere
brute from the principles of nature, and by the dictates of
common sense only, and indeed hardly that.

When I was delivered and taken up at sea by the Portugal
captain, well used, and dealt justly and honorably with, as well
as charitably, I had not the least thankfulness on my thoughts.
When again I was shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger of
drowning on this island, I was as far from remorse, or looking
on it as a judgment; I only said to myself often, that I was an
unfortunate dog, and born to be always miserable.

It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found all my
ship’s crew drowned, and myself spared, I was surprised with a
kind of ecstasy, and some transports of soul, which, had the
grace of God assisted, might have come up to true thankfulness;
but it ended where it begun, in a mere common flight of joy, or,
as I may say, being glad I was alive, without the least reflection
upon the distinguishing goodness of the hand which had pre-
served me, and had singled me out to be preserved, when all the
rest were destroyed; even just the same common sort of joy
which seamen generally have after they are got safe ashore
from a shipwreck, which they drown all in the next bow! of
punch, and forget almost as soon as it is over, and all the rest
of my life was like it.

86



EEE
S> > > I Fatt Into a Fever Kee Ke

Even when I was afterwards, on due consideration, made
sensible of my condition, how I was cast on this dreadful place,
out of the reach of human kind, out of all hope of relief, or
prospect of redemption, as soon as I saw but a prospect of living,
and that I should not starve and perish for hunger, all the sense
of my affliction wore off, and I begun to be very easy, applied
myself to the works proper for my preservation and supply,
and was far enough from being afflicted at my condition, as a
judgment from Heaven, or as the hand of God against me; these
were thoughts which very seldom entered into my head.

The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my journal, had
at first some little influence upon me, and began to affect me
with seriousness, as long as I thought it had something miracu-
lous in it; but as soon as ever that part of the thought was
removed, all the impression which was raised from it, wore off
also, as I have noted already.

Even the earthquake, though nothing could be more terrible
in its nature, or more immediately directing to the invisible
power which alone directs such things, yet no sooner was the
first fright over, but the impression it had made went off also. I
had no more sense of God or his judgments, much less of the
present affliction of my circumstances being from his hand, than
if I had been in the most prosperous condition of life.

But now when I began to be sick, anda leisurely view of the
miseries of death came to place itself before me; when my spirits
began to sink under the burden of a strong distemper, and
nature was exhausted with the violence of the fever; conscience,
that had slept so long, begun to awake, and I began to reproach
myself with my past life, in which I had so evidently, by uncom-
mon wickedness, provoked the justice of God to lay me under
uncommon strokes, and to deal with me in so vindictive a
manner.

These reflections oppressed me for the second or third day of
my distemper, and in the violence, as well of the fever, as of the
dreadful reproaches of my conscience, extorted some words
from me like praying to God, though I cannot say they were
either a prayer attended with desires or with hopes. It was rather
the voice of mere fright and distress; my thoughts were con-
fused, the convictions great upon my mind, and the horror of
dying in such a miserable condition raised vapors into my head

87





with the mere apprehensions; and in these hurries of my soul,
I know not what my tongue might express; but it was rather
exclamation, such as, “Lord! what a miserable creature am I! If I
should be sick, I shall certainly die for want of help, and what
will become of me?” Then the tears burst out of my eyes, and
I could say no more fora good while.

In this interval the good advice of my father came to my
mind; and presently his prediction, which I mentioned at the
beginning of this story, viz: That if I did take this foolish step,
God would not bless me, and I would have leisure hereafter to
reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there might be
none to assist in my recovery. Now, said I aloud, my dear
father’s words are come to pass. God’s justice has overtaken me,
and I have none to help or hear me. I rejected the voice of
Providence, which had mercifully put me in a posture or station
of life wherein I might have been happy and easy; but I would
neither see it myself, or learn to know the blessing of it from
my parents. I left them to mourn over my folly, and now I am
left to mourn under the consequences of it. I refused their help
and assistance who would have lifted me into the world, and
would have made everything easy to me, and now I have diffi-
culties to struggle with, too great for even nature itself to
support, and no assistance, no help, no comfort, no advice. Then
I cried out, “Lord, be my help, for Iam in great distress.”

This was the first prayer, if I may call it so, that I had made
for many years. But I return to my journal.

June 28. Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I
had had, and the fit being entirely off, I got up; and though the
fright and terror of my dream was very great, yet I considered
that the fit of the ague would return again the next day, and
now was my time to get something to refresh and support my-
self when I should be ill; and the first thing I did, I filled a large
square case bottle with water, and set it upon my table, in reach
of my bed; and to take off the chill or aguish disposition of the
water, I put about a quarter of a pint of rum into it, and mixed
them together; then I got mea piece of goat’s flesh, and I broiled
it on the coals, but could eat very little. I walked about, but was
very weak, and withal very sad and heavy hearted in the sense
of my miserable condition, dreading the return of my distemper
the next day. At night I made my supper of three of the turtle’s

88



eee. —_
spe> Turk on Gop’s Power 46464

eggs, which I roasted in the ashes, and eat, as we call it, in the
shell; and this was the first bit of meat I had ever asked God’s
blessing to, even asI could remember, in my whole life.

After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself so weak
that I could hardly carry the gun, (for I never went out without
that), so I went buta little way, and sat down upon the ground,
looking out upon the sea, which was just before me, and very
calm and smooth. As I sat here, some such thoughts as these
occurred to me.

What is this earth and sea of which I have seen so much,
whence is it produced, and what am I, andall the other creatures,
wild and tame, humane and brutal, whence are we?

Sure, we are all made by some secret Power, who formed
the earth and sea, the air and sky. And who is that?

Then it followed most naturally: It is God that has made
it all. Well, but then it came on strangely, if God has made all
these things He guides and governs them all, and all things that
concern them, for the power that could make all things must
certainly have power to guide and direct them.

If so, nothing can happen in the great circuit of his works
either without His knowledge or appointment.

And if nothing happens without His knowledge, He knows
that I am here and am in this dreadful condition; and if nothing
happens without His appointment, he has appointed all this to
befall me.

Nothing occurred to my thoughts to contradict any of these
conclusions, and therefore it rested upon me with the greater
force that it must needs be that God had appointed all this to
befall me, that I was brought to this miserable circumstance by
His direction, He having the sole power not of me only, but of
everything that happened in the world. Immediately it followed:

Why has God done this to me? What have I done to be thus
used?

My conscience presently checked me in that enquiry, as if I
had blasphemed, and methought it spoke to me like a voice:
“Wretch! dost thou ask what thou hast done? Look back upon
a dreadful, mis-spent life, and ask thyself what thou hast not
done. Ask, ‘Why is it that thou wert not long ago destroyed?
Why wert thou not drowned in Yarmouth Roads? Killed in
the fight when the ship was taken by the Sallee man-of-war?

89



Ds 5 Robinson Crusoe KEKE KE
cee ee eee ARREARS

Devoured by the wild beasts on the coast of Africa? Or drowned
here when all the crew perished but thyself?’ Dost thou ask,
‘What have I done?’ ”

I was struck dumb by these reflections, as one astonished, and
had not a word to say, no, not to answer to myself, but rose up
pensive and sad, walked back to my retreat, and went up over
my wall, as if I had been going to bed; but my thoughts were
sadly disturbed, and I had no inclination to sleep, so I sat down
in my chair and lighted my lamp, for it began to be dark. Now,
as the apprehension of the return of my distemper terrified me
very much, it occurred to my thought that the Brazilians take
no physic but their tobacco for almost all distempers, and I had
a piece of a roll of tobacco in one of the chests, which was quite
cured, and some also that was green and not quite cured.

I went, directed by Heaven, no doubt, for in this chest I
found a cure both for soul and body. I opened the chest and
found what I looked for, viz: the tobacco; and as the few books
I had saved lay there too, I took out one of the Bibles which I
mentioned before, and which to this time I had not found lei-
sure, or so much as inclination to look into. I say I took it out,
and brought both that and the tobacco with me to the table.

What use to make of the tobacco I knew Not, as to my dis-
temper, or whether it was good for it or no; but I tried several
experiments with it, as if I was resolved it should hit one way or
other. I first took a piece of a leaf and chewed it in my mouth,
which, indeed, at first almost stupefied my brain, the tobacco
being green and strong, and that I had not been much used to
it. Then I took some and steeped it an hour or two in some rum,
and resolved to take a dose of it when I lay down. And, lastly,
I burnt some upon a pan of coals, and held my nose close over
the smoke of it as long as I could bear it, as well for the heat as
almost for suffocation.

In the interval of this operation I took up the Bible and began
to read, but my head was too much disturbed with the tobacco
to bear reading, at least that time. Only having opened the book
casually, the first words that occurred to me were these: “Call
on me in the day of trouble and I will deliver, and thou shale
glorify me.”

The words were very apt to my case, and made some impres-
sion upon my thoughts at the time of reading them, though not

go



so much as they did afterwards! for as for being delivered, the
Word had no sound, as I may say, to me. The thing was so
remote, so impossible in my apprehension of things, that I began
to say as the children of Israel did, when they were promised
flesh to eat, “Can God spread a table in the wilderness?” So I
began to say, Can God himself deliver me from this place? and
as it was not for many years that any hope appeared, this pre-
vailed very often upon my thoughts. But however, the words
made a great impression upon me, and I mused upon them very
often. It grew now late, and the tobacco had, as I said, dozed my
head so much, that I inclined to sleep; so I left my lamp burning
in the cave, lest I should want anything in the night, and went
to bed; but before I lay down, I did what I never had done in all
my life: I kneeled down and prayed to God to fulfill the promise
to me, that if I called upon him in the day of trouble, he would
deliver me. After my broken and imperfect prayer was over, I
drank the rum in which I had steeped the tobacco, which was
so strong and rank of the tobacco, that indeed I could scarce
get it down; immediately upon this I went to bed; I found
presently it flew up in my head violently, but I fell into a sound
sleep, and waked no more, until by the sun it must necessarily
be near three o’clock in the afternoon the next day; nay, to this
hour, I’m partly of the opinion, that I slept all the next day and
night, and till almost three the day after; for otherwise I knew
not how I should lose a day out of my reckoning in the days of
the week, as it appeared some years after I had done. For if I
had lost it by crossing and recrossing the line, I should have lost
more than one day. But certainly I lost a day in my account,
and never knew which way.

Be that however one way or the other, when I awaked I
found myself exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively and
cheerful; when I got up, I was stronger than I was the day
before, and my stomach better, for I was hungry; and in short,
Thad no fit the next day, but continued much altered for the
better; this was the 29th

The 30th was my rel BY of course, and I went abroad with
my gun, but did not care to travel too far. I killed a sea-fowl
or two, something like a brandt-goose, and brought them home,
but was not very forward to eat them; so I eat some more of
the turtle’s eggs, which were very good. This evening I renewed

gl





the medicine which I had supposed did me good the day before,
viz: the tobacco steeped in rum, only I did not take so much as
before, nor did I chew any of the leaf, or hold my head over
the smoke; however, I was not so well the next day, which was
the first of July, as I hoped I should have been; for I had a little
spice of the cold fit, but it was not much.

July 2. I renewed the medicine all the three ways, and dosed
myself with itas at first, and doubled the quantity which I drank.

3. I missed the fit for good and all, though I did not recover
my full strength for some weeks after. While I was thus gather-
ing strength, my thoughts run exceedingly upon this Scripture,
“T will deliver thee”; and the impossibility of my deliverance lay
much-pertmy mind in bar of my ever expecting it. But as I was
discouraging myself with such thoughts, ic occurred to my
mind, that I pored so much upon my deliverance from the main
affliction, that I disregarded the deliverance I had received; and
I was, as it were, made to ask myself such questions as these, viz:
Have I not been delivered, and wonderfully too, from sickness?
from the most distressed condition that could be, and that was
so frightful to me, and what notice had I taken of it? Had I
done my part? God had delivered me, but I had not glorified
him; that is to say, I had not owned and been thankful for that
as a deliverance, and how could I expect greater deliverance?

This touched my heart very much, and immediately I kneeled
down, and gave God thanks aloud for my recovery from my
sickness.

July 4. In the morning I took the Bible, and beginning at the
new testament, I began seriously to read it, and imposed upon
myself to read awhile every morning and every night, not tying
myself to the number of chapters, but as long as my thoughts
should engage me.|It was not long after I set seriously to this
work, but I found my heart more deeply and sincerely affected
with the wickedness of my past life. The impression of my
dream revived, and the words, “all these things have not brought
thee to repentance,” ran seriously in my thought. I was earnestly
begging of God to give me repentance, when it happened
providentially the very day that reading the Scripture, I came
to these words, “the is exalted a Prince and a Saviour, to give
repentance, and to give remission.” I threw down the book, and
with my heart as well as my hands lifted up to heaven, in a kind

g2







of ecstasy of joy, I cried out aloud, Jesus, thou son of David,
Jesus, thou exalted Prince and Saviour, give me repentance!

This was the first time that I could say, in the true sense of
the words, that I prayed in all my life; for now I prayed with
a sense of my condition, and with a true scripture view of hope
founded on the encouragement of the word of God; and from
this time, I may say, I began to have hope that God would
hear me. ;

Now I began to construe the words mentioned above, “call
on me, and I will deliver you,” in a different sense from what I
had ever done before; for then I had no notion of anything
being called deliverance, but my being delivered from the
captivity I was in; for though I was indeed at large in the place,
yet the island was certainly a prison to me, and that in the worst
sense in the world; but now I learned to take it in another sense.
Now I looked back upon my past life with such horror, and
my sins appeared so dreadful, that my soul sought nothing of
God, but deliverance from the load of guilt that bore down all
my comfort. As for my solitary life it was nothing; I did not so
much as pray to be delivered from it, or think of it; it was all
of no consideration in comparison to this. And I add this part
here, to hint to whoever shall read it, that whenever they come





sm Roniwson Crusor eae ee

to a true sense of things, they will find deliverance from sin a
much greater blessing, than deliverance from affliction.

But leaving this part, I return to my journal.

My condition began now to be, though not less miserable as
to my way of living, yet much easier to my mind; and my
thoughts being directed, by a constant reading the Scripture,
and praying to God, to things of a higher nature, I had a great
deal of comfort within, which till now I knew nothing of; also,
as my health and strength returned, I bestirred myself to furnish
myself with everything that I wanted, and make my way of
living as regular as I could.

From the qth of July to the rqth, I was chiefly employed in
walking about with my gun in my hand, a little and a little at a
time, as a man that was gathering up his strength after a fit of
sickness. For it is hardly to be imagined, how low I was, and to
what weakness I was reduced. The application which I made
use of was perfectly new, and perhaps what had never cured
an ague before, neither can I recommend it to any one to prac-
tice, by this experiment; and though it did carry off the fit, yet
it rather contributed to weakening me; for I had frequent con-
vulsions in my nerves and limbs for some time.

I learnt from it also this in particular, that being abroad in
the rainy season was the most pernicious thing to my health
that could be, especially in those rains, which came attended
with storms and hurricanes of wind; for as the rain which came
in the dry season was always most accompanied with such
storms, so I found that rain was much more dangerous than
the rain which fell in September and October.

Thad been now in this unhappy island above ten months; all
possibility of deliverance from this condition seemed to be
entirely taken from me; and I firmly believed, that no human
shape had ever set foot upon that place. Having now secured
my habitation, as I thought, fully to my mind, I hada great desire
to make a more perfect discovery of the island, and to see what
other productions I might find, which I yet knew nothing of.

Tt was the rsth of July that I began to take a more particular
survey of the island itself. I went up the creek first, where, as I
hinted, I brought my rafts on shore; I found after I came about
two miles up, that the tide did not flow any higher, and that it
was no more than a little brook of running water, and very fresh

94



and good; but this being the dry season, there was hardly any
water in some parts of it, at least, not enough to run in any
stream, so as it could be perceived.

On the bank of this brook I found many pleasant savannas, or
meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with grass; and on the
rising parts of them next to the higher grounds, where the
water, as it might be supposed, never overflowed, I found a great
deal of tobacco, green, and growing to a great and very strong
stalk; there were divers other plants which I had no notion of,
or understanding about, and might perhaps have virtues of their
own, which I could not find out.

I searched for the cassava root, which the Indians in all that
climate make their bread of, but I could find none. I saw large
plants of aloes, but did not then understand them. I saw several
sugar canes, but wild, and for want of cultivation, imperfect. I
contented myself with these discoveries for this time, and came
back musing with myself what course I might take to know the
virtue and goodness of any of the fruits or plants which I should
discover; but could bring it to no conclusion; for in short, I had
made so little observation while I was in the Brazils, that I knew
little of the plants in the field, at least very little that might serve
me to any purpose now in my distress.

The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again, and
after going something farther than I had gone the day before, I
found the brook, and the savannas began to cease, and the country
became more woody than before; in this part I found different
fruits, and particularly I found melons upon the ground in great
abundance, and grapes upon the trees; the vines had spread
indeed over the trees, and the clusters of grapes were just now
in their prime, very ripe and rich, This was a surprising dis-
covery, and I was exceeding glad of them; but I was warned by
my experience to eat sparingly of them, remembering, that
when I was ashore in Barbary, the eating of grapes killed several
of our Englishmen who were slaves there, by throwing them
into fluxes and fevers. But I found an excellent use for these
grapes, and that was to cure or dry them in the sun, and keep
them as dried grapes or raisins are kept, which I thought would
be, as indeed they were, as wholesome as agreeable to eat, when
no grapes might be to be had.

I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my habi-

95





Ss RoBINSON CRUSOE Ke Ke KE

tation, which by the way was the first night, as I might say, I
had lain from home. In the night I took my first contrivance, and
got up into a tree, where I slept well, and the next morning
proceeded upon my discovery, travelling near four miles, as I
might judge by the length of the valley, keeping still due north,
with a ridge of hills on the south and north side of me.

At the end of this march I came to an opening, where the
country seemed to descend to the west, and a little spring of
fresh water, which issued out of the side of the hill by me, run
the other way, that is, due east; and the country appeared so
fresh, so green, so flourishing, everything being in a constant
verdure, or flourish of spring, that it looked like a planted
garden.

I descended a little on the side of that delicious vale, survey-
ing it with a secret kind of pleasure (though mixed with my
other afflicting thoughts), to think that this was all my own,
that I was king and lord of all this country indefeasibly; and had
a right of possession; and if I could convey it, I might have it in
inheritance, as completely as any lord of a manor in England. I
saw here abundance of cocoa trees, orange, and lemon, and
citron trees; but all wild, and very few bearing any fruit, at
least not then. However, the green limes that I gathered, were
not only pleasant to eat, but very wholesome; and I mixed their
juice afterwards with water, which made it very wholesome,
and very cool, and refreshing.

I found now I had business enough to gather and carry home;
and I resolved to lay up a store as well of grapes, as limes and
lemons, to furnish myself for the wet season, which I knew was
approaching.

In order to this, I gathered a great heap of grapes in one place,
and a lesser heap in another place; and a great parcel of limes and
lemons in another place; and taking a few of each with me, I
travelled homeward, and resolved to come again, and bring a
bag or sack, or what I could make to carry the rest home.

Accordingly, having spent three days in this journey, I came
home; so I must now call my tent and my cave. But before I got
thither, the grapes were spoiled, the richness of the fruits, and
the weight of the juice having broken them and bruised them,
they were good for little or nothing; as to the limes, they were
good, but I could bring but a few.

96



pres
>> > A PLEASANT VALLEY Ke Kee

The next day, being the roth, I went back, having made two
small bags to bring home my harvest. But I was surprised, when
coming to my heap of grapes, which were so rich and fine when
I gathered them, I found them all spread about, trod to pieces,
and dragged about, some here, some there, and abundance eaten
and devoured. By this I concluded there were some wild
creatures thereabouts, which had done this; but what they were
I knew not.

However, as I found that there was no laying them up on
heaps, and no carrying them away in a sack, but that one way
they would be destroyed, and the other way they would be
crushed with their own weight, I took another course; for I
gathered a large quantity of the grapes, and hung them up upon
the out-branches of the trees, that they might cure and dry in
the sun; and as for the limes and lemons, I carried as many back
as I could well stand under.

When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with
great pleasure the fruitfulness of that valley, and the pleasant-
ness of the situation, the security from storms on that side the
water, and the wood, and concluded that I had pitched upon a
place to fix my abode, which was by far the worst part of the
country. Upon the whole I began to consider of removing my
habitation; and to look out for a place equally safe, as where
Inow was situate, if possible, in that pleasant, fruitful part of the
island.

This thought run long in my head, and I was exceedingly
fond of it for some time, the pleasantness of the place tempting
me; but when I came to a nearer view of it, and to consider that
I was now by the seaside, where it was at least possible that
something might happen to my advantage, and by the same ill
fate that brought me, might bring some other unhappy wretches
to the same place; and though it was scarce probable that any
such thing should ever happen, yet to enclose myself among the
hills and woods, in the centre of the island, was to anticipate my
bondage, and to render such an affair not only improbable,
but impossible; and that therefore I ought not by any means to
remove.

However, I was so enamored of this place, that I spent much
of my time there for the whole remaining part of the month of
July; and though upon second thoughts I resolved as above, not

97





to remove, yet I built me a little kind of a bower, and sur-
rounded it at a distance with a strong fence, being a double
hedge, as high as I could reach, well staked, and filled between
with brushwood; and here I lay very secure, sometimes two or
three nights together, always going over it with a ladder, as
before; so that I fancied now I had my country house, and my
sea-coast house; and this work took me up to the beginning of
August.

I had but newly finished my fence and began to enjoy my
labor, but the rains came on and made me stick close to my first
habitation; for though I had made me a tent like the other, with
a piece of a sail, and spread it very well, yet I had not the shelter
of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a cave behind me to retreat
into when the rains were extraordinary.

About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my
bower, and began to enjoy myself. The 3d of August I found
the grapes I had hung up were perfectly dried, and, indeed,
were excellent good raisins of the sun; so I began to take them
down from the trees, and it was very happy that I did so, for the
rains which followed would have spoiled them, and I had lost
the best part of my winter food, for I had above two hundred
large bunches of them. No sooner had I taken them all down
and carried most of them home to my cave but it began to
rain, and from hence, which was the 14th of August, it rained
more or less every day till the middle of October, and sometimes
so violently that I could not stir out of my cave for several days.

In this season I was much surprised with the increase in my
family. I had been concerned for the loss of one of my cats, who
ran away from me, or, as I thought, had been dead, and I heard
no more tale or tidings of her till, to my astonishment, she came
home about the end of August with three kittens. This was the
more strange to me because, though I had killed a wildcat, as I
called it, with my gun, yet I thought it was a quite differing kind
from our European cats; yet the young cats were the same kind
of house breed like the old one, and both my cats being females
I thought it very strange. But from these three cats I afterwards
came to be so pestered with cats that I was forced to kill them
like vermin, or wild beasts, and to drive them from my house
as much as possible.

From the 14th of August to the 26th incessant rain, so that

98



Ss Env or My First YEAR &QOQQ®

I could not stir, and was now very careful not to be much wet.
In this confinement I began to be straightened for food. But,
venturing out twice, I one day killed a goat, and the last day,
which was the 26th, found a very large tortoise, which was a
treat to me, and my food was regulated thus: I eat a bunch of
raisins for my breakfast, a piece of the goat’s flesh or of the
turtle for my dinner, broiled (for, to my great misfortune, I had
no vessel to boil or stew any thing), and two or three of the
turtle’s eggs for my supper.

During this confinement in my cover by the rain I worked
daily two or three hours at enlarging my cave, and by degrees
worked it on towards one side till I came to the outside of the
hill, and made a door, or way out, which came beyond my
fence, or wall, and so I came in and out this way. But I was not
perfectly easy at lying so open, for as I had managed myself
before, I was in a perfect enclosure, whereas now I thought I
lay exposed, and open for anything to come in upon me; and
yet I could not perceive that there was any living thing to fear,
the biggest creature that I had yet seen upon the island being a

oat.

% September 30. I was now come to the unhappy anniversary
of my landing. I cast up the notches on my post and found I had
been on shore three hundred and sixty-five days. I kept this day
as a solemn fast, setting it apart to religious exercise, prostrating
myself on the ground with the most serious humiliation, con-
fessing my sins to God, acknowledging his righteous judgments
upon me, and praying to him to have mercy on me, through
Jesus Christ; and having not tasted the least refreshment for
twelve hours, even till the going down of the sun, I then eat a
biscuit cake and a bunch of grapes and went to bed, finishing
the day as I began it.

I had all this time observed no Sabbath-day; for as at first I
had no sense of religion upon my mind, I had after some time
omitted to distinguish the weeks, by making a longer notch
than ordinary for the Sabbath-day, and so did not really know
what any of the days were; but now having cast up the days as
above, I found I had been there a year; so I divided it into weeks,
and set apart every seventh day for a Sabbath, though I found at
the end of my account I had lost a day or two in my reckoning.

A little after this my ink began to fail me, and so I contented

99





Ss 5p RoBInson CRUSOE Kee KE

myself to use it more sparingly, and to write down only the
most remarkable events of my life, without continuing a daily
memorandum of other things.

The rainy season, and the dry season, began now to appear
regular to me, and I learned to divide them so as to provide for
them accordingly. But I bought all my experience before I had
it, and this Iam going to relate, was one of the most discouraging
experiments that I made at all. I have mentioned that I had saved
the few ears of barley and rice, which I had so surprisingly
found spring up, as I thought, of themselves, and believe there
were about thirty stalks of rice, and about twenty of barley;
and now I thought it a proper time to sow it after the rains, the
sun being in its southern position, going from me.

Accordingly, I dug up a piece of ground as well as I could
with my wooden spade, and dividing it into two parts, I sowed
my grain; but as I was sowing, it casually occurred to my
thoughts, that I would not sow it all at first, because I did not
know when was the proper time for it; so I sowed about two-
thirds of the seed, leaving about a handful of each.

It was a great comfort to me afterwards, that I did so, for not
one grain of that I sowed this time came to anything; for the dry
months following, the earth having had no rain after the seed
was sown, it had no moisture to assist its growth, and never came
up at all, till the wet season had come again, and then it grew as
if it had been but newly sown.

Finding my first seed did not grow, which I easily imagined
was by the drought, I sought for a moister piece of ground to
make another trial in, and I dug up a piece of ground near my
new bower, and sowed the rest of my seed in February, a little
before the vernal equinox; and this having the rainy months of
March and April to water it, sprung up very pleasantly, and
yielded a very good crop, but having part of the seed left only,
and not daring to sow all that I had, I had but a small quantity
at last, my whole crop not amounting to above half a peck of
each kind.

But by this experiment I was made master of my business, and
knew exactly when the proper season was to sow; and that I
might expect two seed-times, and two harvests every year.

While this corn was growing, I made a little discovery which
was of use to me afterwards. As soon as the rains were over, and

100



Full Text


xml record header identifier oai:www.uflib.ufl.edu.ufdc:UF0007364000001datestamp 2009-03-16setSpec [UFDC_OAI_SET]metadata oai_dc:dc xmlns:oai_dc http:www.openarchives.orgOAI2.0oai_dc xmlns:dc http:purl.orgdcelements1.1 xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance xsi:schemaLocation http:www.openarchives.orgOAI2.0oai_dc.xsd dc:title The life and strange surprizing adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York, mariner,Robinson Crusoe.dc:creator Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731dc:publisher Peter Pauper Pressdc:date 1945dc:type Bookdc:format 284 p., 1 l. col. illus. 26 cm.dc:identifier http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/ufdc/?b=UF00073640&v=0000101897114 (oclc)1897114 (oclc)dc:source University of Floridadc:language English


SDD TIE IP I TI TIP I I EEE EEE

THE LYFE
es
Strange Surprizing
ADVENTURES
of

Robinson Crusoe
of Work, Mariner

Written by DANIEL DEFOE, and
now illustrated by Richard Floethe

And PusrisHepD at Tue Peter Pauper Press

in Mount VERNON, NewYork
Sr So
D2 1H4ASlY

4a 3:5
Pe If
A Note

antEL DeFor was born in London, probably in
1660, and died in 1731. He was the son of a
butcher, and his name was really plain “Foe,” but he
transformed D. Foe to DeFoe about the turn of the
century. He was a writer of exceptional variety and
volume—a novelist, journalist, essayist, pamphleteer,
poet and travel-writer, with more than 250 published
works to his credit.

It is as a novelist that he is most famous, his best
novels being Robinson Crusoe, Moll Flanders, and
A Journal of the Plague Year. The first and last of
these, although fiction in the strict sense, are really
based upon actual events: the Journal of the Plague
Year describes the great London plague of 1664-1665
(shortly after Defoe was born) and describes it so
vividly that some have supposed Defoe must have
rewritten a contemporary but unknown manuscript.

Robinson Crusoe likewise is fiction based on fact.
In 1704, Alexander Selkirk, a sailing-master on a
privateering expedition in the Pacific, quarrelled with
his captain, and asked to be put ashore on the unin-
habited island of Juan Fernandez, 400 miles off the
coast of Chile. There he survived, equipped only with
a gun and ammunition, until rescued in 1709. His
adventures were naturally a journalists’ sensation in
London upon his return: for the rich unexplored
Western Hemisphere was a challenge to every im-
aginative and adventurous European—and a desert
island has always had its appeal to the boy or man
restricted by everyday civilized necessities.

Although he was a good journalist, Defoe took ten
years after Selkirk’s rescue before publishing his
novelization of the adventure. In almost every detail
the novel differed from Selkirk’s story—but its basic
appeal was the same, and so it had an immediate suc-
cess; and for over two hundred years has continued
to be one of the most famous and popular books of
all the world.





The Life & Strange Surprizing Adventures
of Robinson Crusoe, Mariner,

Who lived Eight and Twenty Years, all alone in an un-
inhabited Island on the Coast of America, near the
Mouth of the Great River of ORooNoQuE; Having been
cast on Shore by Ship-Wreck, wherein all the Men perished
but himself. With an Account how he was at last as
strangely delivered by Pyrares. Written by HIMsELF.

‘

THE LEE
CS
Strange Surprizing

ADVENTURES
of

Robinson Crusoe

Cae
7m

ee LE ESS

] WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of
York, of a good family, though not of that
country, my father being a foreigner of
Bremen, who settled first at Hull. He got a
good estate by merchandise, and leaving off
his trade, lived afterward at York, from
whence he had married my mother, whose
relations were named Robinson, a very good family in that
country, and after whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer;
but by the usual corruption of words in England, we are now
called, nay we call ourselves, and write our name Crusoe, and
so my companions always called me.

Thad two elder brothers, one of which was lieutenant colonel
to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly com-

7



a

Kaye

Rae

yj
Or
p
a
Ni
i
N

wn
ON


manded by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the
battle near Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What became of my
second brother I never knew any more than my father and
mother did know what was become of me.

Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade,
my head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts,
my father, who was very ancient, had given me a competent
share of learning, as far as house education and a country free
school generally goes, and designed me for the law; but I would
be satisfied with nothing but going to sea, and my inclination to
this led me so strongly against the will, nay the commands of
my father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of my
mother and other friends, that there seemed to be something
fatal in that propension of Nature tending directly to the life of
misery which was to befall me.

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excel-
lent counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He called
me one morning into his chamber, where he was confined by
the gout, and expostulated very warmly with me upon this
subject. He asked me what reasons more than a mere wandering
inclination I had for leaving my father’s house and my native
country, where I might be well introduced, and had a prospect
of raising my fortunes by application and industry, with a life
of ease and pleasure. He told me it was for men of desperate
fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring, superior fortunes on the
other, who went abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise,
and make themselves famous in undertakings of a nature out of
the common road; that these things were all either too far above
me, or too far below me;\that mine was the middle state, or what
might be called the upper station of low life, which he had
found by long experience was the best state in the world, the
most suited to human happiness, not exposed to the miseries and
hardships, the labor and sufferings of the mechanic part of man-
kind, and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition and
envy of the upper part of mankind. He told me I might judge of
the happiness of this state, by this one thing, viz: That this was
the state of life which all other people envied; that kings have
frequently lamented the miserable consequences of being born
to great things, and wished they had been placed in the middle
of the two extremes, between the mean and the great; that the

8
Q{{__—S>=—ee==e==ces=e=_=Se_e=Eoe_e__
Hs My FatuHer’s ADVICE KEKE Ke

wise man gave his testimony to this as the just standard of true
felicity, when he prayed to have neither poverty or riches.

He bid me observe it, and I should always find, that the
calamities of life were shared among the upper and lower part
of mankind; but that the middle station had the fewest disasters,
and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes as the higher or
lower part of mankind; nay, they were not subjected to so many
distempers and uneasiness either of body or mind, as those were
who, by vicious living, luxury and extravagancies on one hand,
or by hard labor, want of necessaries, and mean or insufficient
diet on the other hand, bring distempers upon themselves by the
natural consequences of their way’of living; that the middle
station of life was calculated for all kind of virtues and all kind
of enjoyments; that peace and plenty were the handmaids of a
middle fortune; that temperance, moderation, quietness, health,
society, all agreeable diversions, and all desirable pleasures, were
the blessings attending the middle station of life{that this way
men went silently and smoothly through the world, and com-
fortably out of it, not embarrassed with the labours of the hands
or of the head, not sold to the life of slavery for daily bread, or
harrassed with perplexed circumstances, which rob the soul of
peace, and the body of rest; not enraged with the passion of
envy, or secret burning lust of ambition for great things; but
in easy circumstances sliding gently through the world, and
sensibly tasting the sweets of living, without the bitter, feeling
that they are happy, and learning by every day’s experience
to know it more sensibly.

After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affection-
ate manner, not to play the young man, not to precipitate myself
into miseries which nature and the station of life I was born in,
seemed to have provided against; that I was under no necessity
of seeking my bread; that he would do well for me, and endeav-
our to enter me fairly into the station of life which he had been
just recommending to me; and that if I was not very easy and
happy in the world, it must be my mere fate or fault that must
hinder it, and that he should have nothing to answer for, having
thus discharged his duty in warning me against measures which
he knew would be to my hurt: in a word, that as he would do
very good things for me if I would stay and settle at home as
he directed, so he would not have so much hand in my misfor-

9


tunes, as to give me any encouragement to go away. And to close
all, he told me I had my elder brother for an example, to whom
he had used the same earnest persuasions to keep him from going
into the low country wars, but could not prevail, his young
desires prompting him to run into the army where he was killed;
and though he said he would not cease to pray for me, yet he
would venture to say to me, that if I did take this foolish step,
God would not bless me, and I would have leisure hereafter to
reflect upon having neglected his counsel when there might be
none to assist in my recovery.

I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly
prophetic, though I suppose my father did not know it to be so
himself; I say, I observed the tears run down his face very
plentifully, and especially when he spoke of my brother who
was killed; and that when he spoke of my having leisure to
repent, and none to assist me, he was so moved, that he broke
off the discourse, and told me his heart was so full he could say
no more to me.

I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed who
could be otherwise? and I resolved not to think of going abroad
any more, but to settle at home according to my father’s desire.
But alas! a few days wore it all off; and, in short, to prevent
any of my father’s farther importunities, in a few weeks after,
I resolved to run quite away from him. However, I did not act
so hastily neither as my first heat of resolution prompted, but
I took my mother, at a time when I thought her alittle pleasanter
than ordinary, and told her that my thoughts were so entirely
bent upon seeing the world, that I should never settle to any-
thing with resolution enough to go through with it, and my
father had better give me his consent than force me to go without
it, that I was now eighteen years old, which was too late to go
apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an attorney; that I was sure if
I did, I should never serve out my time, and I should certainly
run away from my master before my time was out, and go to
sea; and if she would speak to my father to let me go but one
voyage abroad, if I came home again and did not like it, I would
go no more, and I would promise by a double diligence to
recover that time I had lost.

This put my mother into a great passion. She told me she
knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any

10


S59 I Run Away From Home G&&

such subject; that he knew too well what was my interest to
give his consent to anything so much for my hurt, and that she
wondered how I could think of any such thing after such a
discourse as I had had with my father, and such kind and tender
expressions as she knew my father had used to me; and that in
short, if I would ruin myself there was no help for me; but I
might depend I should never have their consent to it. That for
her part she would not have so much hand in my destruction;
and I should never have it to say, that my mother was willing
when my father was not.

Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet as I
have heard afterwards she reported all the discourse to him, and
that my father, after showing a great concern at it, said to her
with a sigh: “That boy might be happy if he would stay at home,
but if he goes abroad he will be the miserablest wretch that was
ever born. I can give no consent to it.”

It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose, though
in the meantime I continued obstinately deaf to all proposals of
settling to business, and frequently expostulating with my father
and mother, about their being so positively determined against
what they knew my inclinations prompted me to. But being
one day at Hull, where I went casually, and without any pur-
pose of making an elopement that time; but I say, being there,
and one of my companions being going by sea to London, in
his father’s ship, and prompting me to go with them, with the
common allurement of seafaring men, viz: that it should cost
me nothing for my passage, I consulted neither father or mother
any more, nor so much as sent them word of it; but leaving them
to hear of it as they might, without asking God’s blessing, or my
father’s, without any consideration of circumstances or con-
sequences, and in an ill hour, God knows, on the first of Septem-
ber, 1651, I went on board a ship bound for London; never any
young adventurer’s misfortunes, I believe, began sooner, or
continued longer than mine. The ship was no sooner gotten out
of the Humber, but the wind began to blow, and the waves to
rise in a most frightful manner; and as I had never been at sea
before, I was most inexpressively sick in body, and terrified in
my mind. I began now seriously to reflect upon what I had
done, and how justly I was overtaken by the judgment of heaven
for my wicked leaving my father’s house, and abandoning my

11
SP > RoBINSON CRUSOE Ke Ke Ke

duty; all the good counsel of my parents, my father’s tears, and
my mother’s entreaties came now fresh into my mind, and my
conscience, which was not yet come to the pitch of hardness
to which it has been since, reproached me with the contempt
of advice, and the breach of my duty to God and my father.

All this while the storm increased, and the sea, which I had
never been upon before, went very high, though nothing like
what I have seen many times since; no, nor like what I saw a few
days after; but it was enough to affect me then, who wasjbut a
young sailor, and had never known anything of the matter. I
expected every wave would have swallowed us up, and that
every time the ship fell down, as I thought, in the trough or
hollow of the sea, we should never rise more; and in this agony
of mind, I made many vows and resolutions, that if it would
please God here to spare my life this one voyage, if ever I got
once my foot upon dry land again, I would go directly home to
my father, and never set it into a ship again while I lived; that
I would take his advice, and never run myself into such miseries
__ as these any more. Now I saw plainly the goodness of his obser-
vations about the middle station of life, how easy, how comfort-
ably he had lived all his days, and never had been exposed to
tempests at sea, or troubles on shore; and I resolved that I would,
like a true repenting prodigal, go home to my father.

These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the
storm continued, and indeed some time after; but the next day
the wind was abated and the sea calmer, and I began to be alittle
inured to it. However, I was very grave for all that day, being
also a little sea-sick still; but towards night the weather cleared
up, the wind was quite over, and a charming fine evening fol-
lowed. The sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next
morning; and having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun
shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most delightful
that I ever saw.

Thad slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick,
but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was
so rough and terrible the day before, and could be so calm and
so pleasant in so little time after. And now lest my good resolu-
tions should continue, my companion, who had indeed enticed
me away, comes to me, “Well Bob,” says he, clapping me on
the shoulder, “how do you do after it? I warrant you were

12
rae My Goon REsotuTions C64

frightened, wa’n’t you, last night, when it blew but a cap full
of wind?” “A cap full d’you call it?” said I, “ twas a terrible
storm.” “A storm, you fool you,” replies he, “do you call that
a storm? Why it was nothing at all; give us but a good ship and
sea room, and we think nothing of such a squall of wind as that!
but you're but a fresh water sailor, Bob. Come, let us make a
bowl of punch and we'll forget all that; d’ye see what charming
weather ’tis now?” To make short this sad part of my story, we
went the old way of all sailors, the punch was made, and I
was made drunk with it, and in that one night’s wickedness I
drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon my past
conduct, and all my resolutions for my future. In a word, as
the sea was returned to its smoothness of surface and settled
calmness by the abatement of that storm, so the hurry of my
thoughts being over, my fears and apprehensions of being
swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and the current of
my former desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and
promises that I made in my distress. I found indeed some intervals
of reflection, and the serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavor
to return again sometimes, but I shook them off, and roused
myself from them as it were from a distemper, and applying
myself to drink and company, soon mastered the return of those
fits, for so I called them, and I had in five or six days got as
complete a victory over conscience as any young fellow that
resolved not to be troubled with it could desire. But I was to
have another trial for it still; and Providence, as in such cases
generally it does, resolved to leave me entirely without excuse.
For if I would not take this for a deliverance, the next was to be
such a one as the worst and most hardened wretch among us
would confess both the danger and the mercy.

The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth
roads; the wind having been contrary, and the weather calm, we
had made but little way since the storm. Here we were obliged
to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing
contrary, viz: at south-west, for seven or eight days, during
which time a great many ships from Newcastle came into the
same roads, as the common harbor where the ships might wait
fora wind for the river.

We had not however rode here so long, but should have tided
it up the river, but that wind blew too fresh; and after we had

13

-


SPP Ronson Crusor RE

lain four or five days, blew very hard. However, the roads
being reckoned as good as a harbor, the anchorage good, and
our ground-tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned,
and not in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent the time
in rest and mirth, after the manner of the sea; but the eighth
day in the morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands
at work to strike our top-masts, and make everything snug and
close, that the ship might ride as easy as possible. By noon the
sea went very high indeed, and our ship rode forecastle in,
shipped several seas, and we thought once or twice our anchor
had come home; upon which our master ordered out the sheet
anchor; so that we rode with two anchors ahead, and the cables
veered out to the better end.

By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed, and now I began
to see terror and amazement in the faces even of the seamen
themselves. The master though vigilant to the business of pre-
serving the ship, yet as he went in and out of his cabin by me,
I could hear him softly to himself say several times, “Lord be
merciful to us, we shall be all lost, we shall be all undone”; and
the like. During these first hurries, I was stupid, lying sti in
my cabin, which was in the steerage, and cannot describe my
temper. I could ill reassume the first penitence which I had so
apparently trampled upon, and hardened myself against. I
thought the bitterness of death had been past, and that this
would be nothing too like the first. But when the master himself
came by me, as I said just now, and said we should be all lost, I
was dreadfully frightened. I got up out of my cabin, and looked
out; but such a dismal sight I never saw. The sea went mountain
high, and broke upon us every three or four minutes. When I
could look about, I could see nothing but distress round us.
Two ships that rode near us we found had cut their masts by
the board, being deeply laden; and our men cried out, that a
ship which rode about a mile ahead of us was foundered. Two
more ships being driven from their anchors, were run out of
the roads to sea at all adventures, and that with not a mast stand-
ing. The light ships fared the best, as not so much laboring in the
sea; but two or three of them drove, and came close by us,
running away with only their sprit-sail out before the wind.

Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master
of our ship to let them cut away the foremast, which he was

14
————E—EE——E—————EEEEEEEEEEEEEeEEeEeeeee—=_—S—_—
HP-Rea> Tue Storm at YARMOUTH 4&6 4O&@

very unwilling to. But the boatswain protesting to him, that if
he did not, the ship would founder, he consented; and when
they had cut away the foremast, the mainmast stood so loose,
and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut her away
also, and make a clear deck.

Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at all this,
who was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright
before at but a little. But if I can express at this distance the
thoughts I had about me at that time, I was in tenfold more
horror of mind upon account of my former convictions, and
the having returned from them to the resolutions I had wickedly
taken at first, than I was at death itself; and these, added to the
terror of the storm, put me into such a condition, that I can by
no words describe it. But the worst was not come yet, the storm
continued with such fury, that the seamen themselves acknowl-
edged they had never known a worse. We had a good ship, but
she was deep laden, and wallowed in the sea, that the seamen
every now and then cried out, she would founder. It was my
advantage in one respect, that I did not know what they meant
by founder, till I enquired. However, the storm was so violent,
that I saw what is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and
some others more sensible than the rest, at their prayers, and
expecting every moment when the ship would go to the bottom.
In the middle of the night, and under all the rest of our distresses,
one of the men that had been down on purpose to see, cried out
we had sprung a leak; another said there was four foot water in
the hold. Then all hands were called to the pump. At that very
word my heart, as I thought, died within me, and I fell back-
wards upon the side of my bed where I sat, into the cabin.
However, the men roused me, and told me, that I that was able
to do nothing before, was as well able to pump as another; at
which I stirred up, and went to the pump and worked very
heartily. While this was doing, the master seeing some light
colliers, who not able to ride out the storm, were obliged to slip
and run away to sea, and would come near us, ordered to fire a
gun as a signal of distress. I who knew nothing what that meant,
was so surprised, that I thought the ship had broke, or some
dreadful thing had happened. In a word, I was so surprised, that
fell down in a swoon. As this was a time when everybody had
his own life to think of, nobody minded me, or what was become

15
of me; but another man stepped up to the pump, and thrusting
me aside with his foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead; and
it was a great while before I came to myself.

We worked on, but the water increasing in the hold, it was
apparent that the ship would founder, and though the storm
began to abate a little, yet as it was not possible she could swim
till we might run into a port, so the master continued firing
guns for help; and a light ship, who had rode it out just ahead
of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the utmost
hazard the boat came near us, but it was impossible for us to get
on board, or for the boat to lie near the ship side, till at last the
men rowing very heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours,
our men cast them a rope over the stern with a buoy to it, and
then veered it out a great length, which they after great labor
and hazard took hold of, and we hauled them close under our
stern, and got all into their boat. It was to no purpose for them
or us after we were in the boat, to think of reaching to their own
ship, so all agreed to let her drive, and only to pull her in towards
shore as much as we could, and our master promised them, that
if the boat was staved upon shore, he would make it good to
their master; so partly rowing and partly driving, our boat went
away to the norward, sloping towards the shore almost as far
as Winterton Ness.

We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of
our ship, but we saw her sink, and then I understood for the
first time what was meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I must
acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up when the seamen
told me she was sinking; for from that moment they rather put
me into the boat than that I might be said to go in, my heart was
as it were dead within me, partly with fright, partly with horror
of mind and the thoughts of what was yet before me.

While we were in this condition, the men yet laboring at the
oar to bring the boat near the shore, we could see, when our
boat mounting the waves we were able to see the shore, a great
many people running along the shore to assist us when we
should come near, but we made but slow way towards the shore,
nor were we able to reach the shore, till being past the light-
house at Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward towards
Cromer, and so the land broke off a little the violence of the
wind. Here we got in, and though not without much difficulty,

16
got all safe on shore, and walked afterwards on foot to Yar-
mouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were used with great
humanity as well by the magistrates of the town, who assigned
us good quarters, as by particular merchants and owners of
ships, and had money given us sufficient to carry us either to
London or back to Hull, as we thought fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and
have gone home, I had been happy; and my father, an emblem
of our blessed Saviour’s parable, had even killed the fatted calf
for me; for hearing the ship I went away in was cast away in
Yarmouth road, it was a great while before he had any assurance
that I was not drowned. But my ill fate pushed me on now with -
an obstinacy that nothing could resist; and though I had several
times loud calls from my reason and my more composed judg-
ment to go home, yet I had no power to do it. I know not what
to call this, nor will I urge that it is a secret overruling decree};
that hurries us on to be the instruments of our own destruction, :
even though it be before us, and that we rush upon it with our
eyes open. Certainly nothing but some such decreed unavoid-
able misery, which was impossible for me to escape, could
have pushed me forward against the calm reasonings and per-


———_—_—_—_—_—_—_—_—_—_—_—_—_
DW Rosinson Crusoe Kee Ke

suasions of my most retired thoughts, and against two such
visible instructions as I had met with in my first attempt.

My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who
was the master’s son, was now less forward than I. The first
time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which was not
till two or three days, for we were separated in the town to
several quarters; I say, the first time he saw me, it appeared his
tone was altered, and looking very melancholy and shaking his
head, asked me how I did, and telling his father who I was, and
how I had come this voyage only for a trial in order to go
abroad. His father turning to me with a very grave and con-
cerned tone, “Young man,” says he, “you ought never to go to
sea any more. You ought to take this for a plain and visible
token that you are not to be a seafaring man.” “Why, sir,” said
I, “will you go to sea no more?” “That is another case,” said he;
“it is my calling, and therefore my duty; but as you made this
voyage for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given you of
what you are to expect if you persist. Perhaps this is all befallen
us on your account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray,”
continues he, “what are you, and on what account did you go
to sea?” Upon that I told him some of my story. At the end of
which he burst out with a strange kind of passion. “What had
I done,” says he, “that such an unhappy wretch should come
into my ship? I would not set my foot in the same ship with
thee again for a thousand pounds.” This indeed was, as I said, an
excursion of his spirits which were yet agitated by the sense
of his loss, and was farther than he could have authority to go.
However, he afterwards talked very gravely to me, exhorted
me to go back to my father, and not tempt Providence to my
ruin; told me I might see a visible hand of Heaven against me,
“And young man,” said he, “depend upon it, if you do not go
back, wherever you go, you will meet with nothing but disasters
and disappointments, till your father’s words are fulfilled upon

ou.”
2 We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I saw
him no more; which way he went, I know not. Asfor me, having
some money in my pocket, J travelled to London by land; and:
there, as well as on the road, had many struggles with myself,
what course of life I should take, and whether I should go home,

or go to Sea.

18
Vua==_"_"_"___—

As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that
offered to my thoughts; and it immediately occurred to me how
I should be laughed at among the neighbors, and should be
ashamed to see, not my father and mother only, but even every
body else; from whence I have since often observed, how
incongruous and irrational the common temper of mankind is,
especially of youth, to that reason which ought to guide them
in such cases, viz: That they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are —
ashamed to repent; not ashamed of the action for which they
ought justly to be esteemed fools, but are ashamed of the return-
ing, which only can make them be esteemed wise men.

In this state of life however, I remained some time, uncertain
what measures to take, and what course of life to lead. An
irresistible reluctance continued to going home; and as I stayed
awhile, the remembrance of the distress I had been in wore off;
and as that abated, the little motion I had in my desires to a
return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts
of it, and looked out fora voyage.

That evil influence which carried me first away from my /
father’s house, that hurried me into the wild and indigested °
notion of raising my fortune; and that impressed those conceits
so forcibly upon me, as to make me deaf to all good advice, and
to the entreaties and even command of my father: I say the
same influence, whatever it was, presented the most unfortunate
of all enterprises to my view, and I went on board a vessel
bound to the coast of Africa; or, as our sailors vulgarly call it,

a voyage to Guinea.

It was my great misfortune, that in all these adventures I did
not ship myself as a sailor; whereby, though I might indeed
have worked a little harder than ordinary, yet at the same time
Thad learned the duty and office of a fore-mast man; and in time
might have qualified myself for a mate or lieutenant, if not for
a master. But as it was always my fate to choose for the worse, ~
so I did here; for having money in my pocket, and good clothes
upon my back, I would always go on board in the habit of a
gentleman; and so I neither had any business in the ship, or

‘learned to do any.

It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in
London, which does not always happen to such loose and mis-
guided young fellows as I then was; the Devil generally not 2

19




St > Rosinson Crusoe Ke Loe

omitting to lay some snare for them very early. But it was not
so with me; I first fell acquainted with the master of a ship
who had been on the coast of Guinea, and who having had
very good success there, was resolved to go again; and who
taking a fancy to my conversation, which was not at all dis-
agreeable at that time, hearing me say I had a mind to see the
world, told me if I would go the voyage with him I should be
at no expense; I should be his messmate and his companion, and
if I could carry anything with me, Ishould have all the advantage
of it that the trade would admit; and perhaps I might meet with
some encouragement.

I embraced the offer, and, entering into a strict friendship
with this captain, who was an honest and plain-dealing man, I
went the voyage with him, and carried a small adventure with
me, which by the disinterested honesty of my friend, the cap-
tain, I increased very considerably; for I carried about £40 in
such toys and trifles as the captain directed me to buy. This £40
I had mustered together by the assistance of some of my rela-
tions whom I corresponded with, and who, I believe, got my
father, or at least my mother, to contribute so much as that to
my first adventure.

This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in
all my adventures, and which I owe to the integrity and honesty
of my friend the captain, under whom also I got a competent
knowledge of the mathematics and the rules of navigation,
learned how to keep an account of the ship’s course, take an
observation, and in short, to understand some things that were
needful to be understood by a sailor. For, as he took delight to
introduce me, I took delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage
made me both a sailor and a merchant; for I brought home
5 lb. 9 oz. of gold dust for my adventure, which yielded me in
London at my return, almost £ 300, and this filled me with those
aspiring thoughts which have since so completed my ruin.

Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too; particu-
larly, that I was continually sick, being thrown into a violent
calenture by the excessive heat of the climate; our principal
trading being upon the coast, from the latitude of 15 degrees
North even to the line itself.

I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my
great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go

20
sisi aaa,
SHH Barrie With THE Pirates Qe

the same voyage again, and I embarked in the same vessel with
one who was his mate in the former voyage, and had now got
the command of the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage that
ever man made; for though I did not carry quite £100 of my
new gained wealth, so that I had 200 left, and which I lodged
with my friend’s widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell
into terrible misfortunes in this voyage; and the first was this,
viz: Our ship making her course towards the Canary Islands, or
rather between those islands and the African shore, was sur-
prised in the grey of the morning, by a Turkish rover of Sallee,
who gave chase to us with all the sail she could make. We
crowded also as much canvas as our yards would spread, or our
masts carry, to have got clear; but finding the pirate gained upon
us, and would certainly come up with us in a few hours, we
prepared to fight; our ship having twelve guns, and the rogue
eighteen. About three in the afternoon he came up with us,
and bringing to by mistake, just athwart our quarter, instead
of athwart our stern, as he intended, we brought eight of our
guns to bear on that side, and poured in a broadside upon him,
which made him sheer off again, after returning our fire, and
pouring in also his small shot from near two hundred men which
he had on board. However, we had not a man touched, all our
men keeping close. He prepared to attack us again, and we
to defend ourselves; but laying us on board the next time upon
our other quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks, who
immediately fell to cutting and hacking the decks and rigging.
We plied them with small-shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and
such like, and cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut
short this melancholy part of our story, our ship being disabled,
and three of our men killed, and eight wounded, we were
obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee, a
port belonging to the Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I appre-
hended, nor was I carried up the country to the emperor's
court, as the rest of our men were, but was kept by the captain
of the rover, as his proper prize, and made his slave, being young
and nimble, and fit for his business. At this surprising change of
my circumstances from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was
perfectly overwhelmed; and now T looked back upon my
father’s prophetic discourse to me, that I should be miserable,

21
itt ee ee
ale on Ce ee

and have none to relieve me, which I thought was now so
effectually brought to pass, that it could not be worse; that now
the hand of heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone with-
out redemption. But alas! this was but a taste of the misery I was
to go through, as will appear in the sequel of this story.

As my new patron or master had taken me home to his house,
so I was in hopes that he would take me with him when he went
to sea again, believing that it would some time or other be his
fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portugal man-of-war; and that
then I should be set at liberty. But this hope of mine was soon
taken away; for when he went to sea, he left me on shore to look
after his little garden, and do the common drudgery of slaves
about his house; and when he came home again from his cruise,
he ordered me to lie in the cabin to look after the ship.

Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method
I might take to effect it, but found no way that had the least
probability in it. Nothing presented to make the supposition of
it rational; for I had nobody to communicate it to, that would
embark with me; no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or
Scotchman there but myself; so that for two years, though I
often pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had the
least encouraging prospect of putting it in practice.

After about two years an odd circumstance presented itself,
which put the old thought of making some attempt for my
liberty again in my head. My patron lying at home longer than
usual, without fitting out his ship, which, as I heard, was for
want of money, he used constantly, once or twice a week,
sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship’s
pinnace, and go out into the road a-fishing; and as he always
took me and a young Maresco with him to row the boat, we
made him very merry, and I proved very dexterous in catching
fish; insomuch that sometimes he would send me with a Moor,
one of his kinsmen, and the youth the Maresco, as they called
him, to catch a dish of fish for him.

It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a stark calm
morning, a fog rose so thick, that though we were not half a
league from the shore we lost sight of it; and rowing we knew
not whither or which way, we labored all day and all the next
night, and when the morning came we found we had pulled off
to sea instead of pulling in for the shore; and that we were at

22
Spepey Our Fisuine Boat SRK

least two leagues from the shore. However, we got well in
again, though with a great deal of labor, and some danger; for
the wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morning; but par-
ticularly we were all very hungry.

But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more
care of himself for the future; and having lying by him the long-
boat of our English ship which he had taken, he resolved he
would not go a-fishing any more without a compass and some
provision; so he ordered the carpenter of his ship, who was also
an English slave, to build a little state-room or cabin in the
middle of the long-boat, like that of a barge, with a place to
stand behind it to steer and haul home the main-sheet; and
room before for a hand or two to stand and work the sails; she
sailed with what we call a shoulder-of-mutton sail; and the
boom jibed over the top of the cabin, which lay very snug and
low, and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and
a table to eat on, with some small lockers to put in some bottles
of such liquor as he thought fit to drink; particularly his bread,
rice and coffee.

We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing, and as I was
most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without
me. It happened that he had appointed to go out in this boat,
either for pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors of some
distinction in that place, and for whom he had provided extra-
ordinarily; and had therefore sent on board the boat over night,
a larger store of provisions than ordinary; and had ordered me
to get ready three fuzees with powder and shot, which were on
board his ship; for that they designed some sport of fowling
as well as fishing.

I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the next
morning with the boat, washed clean, her ancient and pendants
out, and everything to accommodate his guests; when by-and-
by my patron came on board alone, and told me his guests had
put off going, upon some business that fell out, and ordered me
with the man and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat and
catch them some fish, for that his friends were to sup at his house;
and commanded that as soon as I had got some fish I should
bring it home to his house; all which I prepared to do.

This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into
my thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a little ship at

23




S555 Rosinson Crusoe KEKE

my command; and my master being gone, I prepared to furnish
myself, not for a fishing business, but for a voyage; though I
knew not, neither did I so much as consider whither I should
steer; for anywhere to get out of that place was my way.

My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this
Moor, to get something of our subsistence on board; for I told
him we must not presume to eat of our patron’s bread; he said
that was true. So he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit of
their kind, and three jars with fresh water into the boat. I knew
where my patron’s case of bottles stood, which it was evident
by the make were taken out of some English prize; and I con-
veyed them into the boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they
had been there before, for our master. I conveyed also a great
lump of bees-wax into the boat, which weighed about half a
hundred weight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a
saw, and a hammer, all of which were of great use to us after-
wards; especially the wax to make candles. Another trick I tried
upon him, which he innocently came into also. His name was
Ismael, who they call Muly, or Moely, so I called to him,
“Moely,” said I, “our patron’s guns are on board the boat; can
you not get a little powder and shot, it may be we may kill some
alcamies (a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves? for I know he
keeps the gunner’s stores in the ship.” “Yes,” says he, “T’ll bring
some.” And accordingly he brought a great leather pouch which
held about a pound and half of powder, or rather more; and
another with shot, that had five or six pound, with some bullets,
and put all into the boat. At the same time I had found some
powder of my master’s in the great cabin, with which I filled
one of the large bottles in the case, which was almost empty,
pouring what was in it into another; and thus furnished with
everything needful, we sailed out of the port to fish. The castle
which is at the entrance of the port knew who we were, and
took no notice of us; and we were not above a mile out of the
port before we hauled in our sail, and set us down to fish. The
wind blew from the N. N. E., which was contrary to my desire;
for had it blown southerly I had been sure to have made the coast
of Spain, and at least reached the Bay of Cadiz; but my resolu-
tions were, blow which way it would, I would be gone from the
horrid place where I was, and leave the rest to fate.

After we had fished some time and caught nothing, for when

24
[had fish on my hook, I would not pull them up, that he might
not see them, I said to the moor, “this will not do, our master
will not be thus served, we must stand farther off.” He thinking
no harm agreed, and being in the head of the boat set the sails;
and as I had the helm I run the boat out near a league farther,
and then brought her to, as if I would fish. When giving the
boy the helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was, and






Ss Rosinson Crusoe KEKE K

making as if I stooped for something behind me, I took him by
surprise with my arm under his twist, and tossed him clear
overboard into the sea. He rose immediately, for he swam like a
cork, and called to me, begged to be taken in, told me he would
go all the world over with me. He swam so strong after the boat
that he would have reached me very quickly, there being but
little wind. Upon which I stepped into the cabin, and fetching
one of the fowling-pieces, I presented it at him, and told him I
had done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet, I would do him
none; “but,” said I, “you swim well enough to reach to the
shore, and the sea is calm; make the best of your way to shore,
and I will do you no harm, but if you come near the boat I’ll
shoot you through the head; for I am resolved to have my
liberty.” So he turned himself about and swam for the shore,
and I make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for he was an
excellent swimmer.

I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me,
and have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust
him. When he was gone I turned to the boy, who they called
Xury, and said to him, “Xury, if you will be faithful to me I'll
make you a great man, but if you will not stroke your face to be
true to me, that is, swear by Mahomet and his father’s beard, I
must throw you into the sea too.” The boy smiled in my face,
and spoke so innocently that I could not mistrust him; and swore
to be faithful to me, and go all over the world with me.

While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood
out directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching to windward,
that they might think me gone towards the strait’s mouth, (as
indeed any one that had been in their wits must have been sup-
posed to do) for who would have supposed we would sail on to
the southward to the truly barbarian coast, where whole nations
of negroes were sure to surround us with their canoes, and
destroy us; where we could never once go on shore but we
should be devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless savages
of human kind.

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my
course, and steered directly south and by east, bending my
course a little toward the east, that might keep in with the shore;
and having a fair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth, quiet sea, I
made such sail that I believe by the next day at three o’clock in

26
SPP On tHE AFRICAN Coast
the afternoon, when I first made the land, I could not be less than
one hundred and fifty miles south of Sallee; quite beyond the
emperor of Morocco’s dominions, or indeed of any other king
thereabouts, for we saw no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the
dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that I
would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an anchor; the wind
continuing fair, still I had sailed in that manner five days. And
then the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also that
if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would now
give over; so I ventured to make to the coast, and came to an
anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew not what, or where;
neither what latitude, what country, what nation, or what river.
I neither saw, or desired to see any people, the principal thing I
wanted was fresh water. We came into this creek in the evening,
resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and discover
the country; but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such
dreadful noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild
creatures, of we knew not what kinds, that the poor boy was
ready to die with fear, and begged of me not to go on shore till
day. “Well Xury,” said I, “then I won’t, but it may be we may
see men by day, who will be as bad to us as those lions.” “Then
we give them the shoot gun,” says Xury, laughing, “make them
run away.” Such English Xury spoke by conversing among us
slaves; however, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave
him a dram (out of our patron’s case of bottles) to cheer him
up. After all, Xury’s advice was good, and I took it; we dropped
our little anchor and lay still all night; I say still, for we slept
none! for in two or three hours we saw vast great creatures (we
knew not what to call them), of many sorts, come down to the
sea-shore and run into the water, wallowing and washing them-
selves for the pleasure of cooling themselves; and they made
such hideous howlings and yellings, that I never indeed heard
the like.

Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but
we were both more frighted when we heard one of these mighty
creatures come swimming towards our boat; we could not see
him, but we might hear him by his blowing to be a monstrous,
huge and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion, and it might be
so for ought I knew; but poor Xury cried to me to weigh the

27


anchor and row away; “no,” says I, “Xury, we can slip our
cable with the buoy to it and go off to sea; they cannot follow
us far.” I had no sooner said so, but I perceived the creature
(whatever it was) within two oars’ length, which something
surprised me; however, I immediately stepped to the cabin-
door, and taking up my gun fired at him, upon which he imme-
diately turned about and swam towards the shore again.

But it is impossible to describe the horrible noises, and hid-
eous cries and howlings, that were raised as well upon the edge
of the shore as higher within the country, upon the noise or
report of the gun, a thing I have some reason to believe those
creatures had never heard before. This convinced me that there
was no going on shore for us in the night upon that coast; and
how to venture on shore in the day was another question, too;
for to have fallen into the hands of any of the savages, had been
as bad as to have fallen into the hands of lions and tigers; at
least we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.

Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore some-
where or other for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat;
when or where to get to it was the point. Xury said, if I would
let him go on shore with one of the jars, he would find it if there
was any water and bring some to me. I asked him why he would
go? why I should not go and he stay in the boat? The boy
answered with so much affection, that made me love him ever
after. Says he, “if wild mans come, they eat me, you go way.”
“Well, Xury,” said I, “we will both go, and if the wild mans
come, we will kill them, they shall eat neither of us.” So I gave
Xury a piece of rusk-bread to eat, and a dram out of our patron’s
case of bottles which I mentioned before; and we hauled in the
boat as near the shore as we thought was proper, and so waded
on shore, carrying nothing but our arms and two jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the
coming of canoes with savages down the river; but the boy
seeing a low place about a mile up the country rambled to it; and
by-and-by I saw him come running towards me. I thought he
was pursued by some savage, or frightened with some wild
beast, and I run forward towards him to help him, but when I
came nearer to him, I saw something hanging over his shoulders
which was a creature that he had shot, like a hare, but different
in color, and longer legs; however we were very glad of it, and

28
ase We Finn WATER AND MEAT 64K

it was very good meat; but the great joy that poor Xury came
with, was to tell me that he had found good water and seen no
wild men.

But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains
for water, for a little higher up the creek where we were, we
found the water fresh when the tide was out, which flowed but
a little way up; so we filled our jars and feasted on the hare we
had killed, and prepared to go on our way, having seen no foot-
steps of any human creature in that part of the country.

As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very
well that the Islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verde
Islands also, lay not far off from the coast. But as I had no instru-
ments to take an observation to know what latitude we were in,
and did not exactly know, or at least remember what latitude
they were in, I knew not where to look for them, or when to
stand off to sea towards them; otherwise I might now easily
have found some of these islands, But my hope was, that if I
stood along this coast till I came to that part where the English
traded, I should find some of their vessels upon their usual
design of trade, that would relieve and take usin.

By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was,
must be that country which, lying between the emperor of
Morocco’s dominions and the negroes, lies waste and unin-
habited, except by wild beasts; the negroes having abandoned
it and gone farther south for fear of the Moors; and the Moors
not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness;
and indeed both forsaking it because of the prodigious numbers
of tigers, lions, leopards and other furious creatures which
harbor there; so that the Moors use it for their hunting only,
where they go like an army, two or three thousand men at a
time; and indeed for near an hundred miles together upon this
coast, we saw nothing but a waste, uninhabited country, by
day, and heard nothing but howlings and roaring of wild beasts,
by night.

Once or twice in the daytime, I thought I saw the Pico of
Teneriffe, being the high top of the mountain Teneriffe, in the
Canaries, and had a great mind to venture out in hopes of reach-
ing thither; but having tried twice I was forced in again by
contrary winds, the sea also going too high for my little vessel,
so I resolved to pursue my first design and keep along the shore.

29


Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we
had left this place; and once in particular, being early in the
morning, we came to an anchor under a little point of land
which was pretty high, and the tide beginning to flow, we lay
still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about him
than it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me that we
had best go farther off from the shore; “for,” says he, “look,
yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fast
asleep.” I looked where he pointed, and saw a dreadful monster
indeed, for it was a terrible great lion that lay on the side of the
shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill that hung as it were
a little over him. “Xury,” says I, “you shall go on shore and kill
him.” Xury looked frightened, and said, “Me kill! he eat me at
one mouth”; one mouthful he meant. However, I said no more
to the boy, but bade him lie still, and I took our biggest gun,
which was almost musket-bore, and loaded it with a good charge
of powder, and with two slugs, and laid ir down; then I loaded
another gun with two bullets; and the third, for we had three
pieces, I loaded with five smaller bullets. I took the best aim I
could with the first piece to have shot him into the head, but
he lay so with his leg raised a little above his nose, that the slugs
hit his leg about the knee, and broke the bone. He started up
growling at first, but finding his leg broke fell down again, and
then got up upon three legs and gave the most hideous roar
that ever I heard. I was a little surprised that I had not hit him
on the head; however, I took up the second piece immediately,
and though he began to move off fired again, and shot him in
the head, and had the pleasure to see him drop, and make but
little noise, but lay struggling for life. Then Xury took heart
and would have me let him go on shore. “Well, go,” said I; so
the boy jumped into the water, and taking a little gun in one
hand, swam to shore with the other, and coming close to the
creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him in
the head again, which despatched him quite.

This was game indeed to us, but this was no food, and I was
sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a creature
that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury said he would
have some of him; so he comes on board and asked me to give
him the hatchet. “For what, Xury?” said I. “Me cut off his
head,” said he. However, Xury could not cut off his head; but

30


—_—_—_——— — —

he cut off a foot and brought it with him, and it was a monstrous
great one.

I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him
might, one way or other, be of some value to us, and I resolved
to take off his skin if I could. So Xury and I went to work with
him; but Xury was much the better workman at it, for I knew
very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us up both the whole day;
but at last we got off the hide of him, and, spreading it on the
top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two days’ time,
and it afterwards served me to lie upon.

After this stop we made on to the southward continually for
ten or twelve days, living very sparing on our provisions, which
began to abate very much, and going no oftener into the shore
than we were obliged to for fresh water; my design in this way
was to make the river Gambia or Senegal, that is to say, any-
where about the Cape de Verde, where I was in hopes to meet
with some European ship, and if I did not I knew not what
course I had to take, but to seek out for the islands, or perish
there among the negroes. I knew that all the ships from Europe
which sailed either to the coast of Guinea, or to Brazil, or to
the East Indies, made this cape or those islands, and, in a word,
I put the whole of my fortune upon this single point,—either
that I must meet with some ship or must perish.

When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer,
as I have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited, and in
two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand upon
the shore to look at us; we could also perceive they were quite
black and stark naked. I was once inclined to have gone on shore
to them, but Xury was my better counsellor, and said to me,
“no go, no go.” However, I hauled in nearer the shore that I
might talk to them, and I found they ran along the shore by me
a good way. I observed they had no weapons in their hands,
except one, who had a long slender stick, which Xury said was
a lance, and that they would throw them a great way with
good aim; so I kept at a distance, but talked with them by signs
as well as I could, and particularly made signs for something to
eat. They beckoned to me to stop my boat, and that they would
fetch me some meat. Upon this I lowered the top of my sail and
lay by, and two of them ran up into the country, and in less than
half an hour came ‘back and brought with them two pieces

31
Sopa -sdRowinson Crusok Qe Sexe

of dried flesh and some corn, such as is the produce of their
country; but we neither knew what the one or the other was.
However, we were willing to accept it; but how to come at it
was our next dispute, for I was not for venturing on shore to
them, and they were as much afraid of us; but they took a safe
way for us all, for they brought it to the shore and laid it down,
and went and stood a great way off till we fetched it on board,
and then came close to us again.

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to
make them amends; but an opportunity offered that very instant
to oblige them wonderfully, for while we were lying by the
shore, came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the other (as
we took it), with great fury, from the mountains towards the
sea; whether it was the male pursuing the female, or whether
they were in sport or in rage, we could not tell, any more than
we could tell whether it was usual or strange, but I believe it was
the latter; because in the first place, those ravenous creatures
seldom appear but in the night; and, in the second place we
found the people terribly frighted, especially the women. The
man that had the lance or dart, did not fly from them, but the
rest did; however, as the two creatures ran directly into the
water, they did not seem to offer to fall upon any of the negroes,
but plunged themselves into the sea and swam about as if they
had come for their diversion; at last one of them began to come
nearer our boat than at first I expected, but I lay ready for him,
for I had loaded my gun with all possible expedition, and bade
Xury load both the others; as soon as he came fairly within my
reach, I fired, and shot him directly into the head; immediately
he sunk down into the water, but rose instantly and plunged up
and down as if he was struggling for life; and so indeed he was;
he immediately made to the shore; but between the wound
which was his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the water, he
died just before he reached the shore.

It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor
creatures at the noise and the fire of my gun; some of them were
even ready to die for fear, and fell down as dead with the very
terror. But when they saw the creature dead and sunk in the
water, and that I made signs to them to come to the shore, they
took heart and came to the shore and began to search for the
creature. I found him by his blood staining the water, and by the

32
SHH We Sicut Care ve VERVE WEE

help of a rope which I slung round him and gave the negroes to
haul, they dragged him on shore, and found that it was a most
curious leopard, spotted and fine to an admirable degree, and
the negroes held up their hands with admiration to think what
it was I had killed him with.

The other creature frighted with the flash of fire and the noise
of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to the mountains
from whence they came, nor could I at that distance know what
it was. I found quickly the negroes were for eating the flesh of
this creature, so I was willing to have them take it as a favor
from me, which when I made signs to them that they might
take him, they were very thankful for. Immediately they fell
to work with him, and though they had no knife, yet with a
sharpened piece of wood they took off his skin as readily, and
much more readily than we could have done with a knife; they
offered me some of the flesh, which I declined, making as if I
would give it them, but made signs for the skin, which they gave
me very freely, and brought me a great deal more of their pro-
vision, which though I did not understand, yet I accepted; then
I made signs to them for some water, and held out one of my
jars to them, turning it bottom upward, to show that it was
empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They called imme-
diately to some of their friends, and there came two women,
and brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt as I suppose
in the sun; this they set down for me, as before, and I sent Xury
on shore with my jars, and filled them all three. The women
were as stark naked as the men.

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and
water, and leaving my friendly negroes, I made forward for
about eleven days more without offering to go near the shore,
till I saw the land run out a great length into the sea, at about the
distance of four or five leagues before me, and the sea being very
calm I kept a large offering to make this point; at length,
doubling the point at about two leagues from the land, I saw
plainly land on the other side to seaward; then I concluded, as
it was most certain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verde, and
those the islands, called from thence Cape de Verde Islands.
However, they were at a great distance, and I could not well
tell what I had best to do, for if I should be taken with a fresh
wind I might neither reach one nor the other.

33




SD So RoBinson Crusoe Lee KE

In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the cabin
and sat me down, Xury having the helm, when, ona sudden, the
boy cried out, “Master! master! a ship with a sail!” and the
foolish boy was frightened out of his wits, thinking it must
needs be some of his master’s ships sent to pursue us, when I
knew we had got far enough out of their reach. I jumped out
of the cabin, and immediately saw not only the ship but what
she was, viz: that it was a Portuguese ship, and, as I thought, was
bound to the coast of Guinea for negroes. But when I observed
the course she steered I was soon convinced they were bound
some other way, and did not design to come any nearer to the
shore; upon which I stretched out to sea as much as I could,
resolving to speak with them if possible.

With all the sail I could make I found that I should not be
able to come in their way, but that they would be gone by
before I could make any signal to them; but after I had crowded
to the utmost and began to despair, they, it seems, saw me by
the help of their perspective glasses, and that it was some Euro-
pean boat, which, as they supposed, must belong to some ship
that was lost, so they shortened sail to let me come up. I was
encouraged with this, and as I had my patron’s ancient on board
I made a waft of it to them for a signal of distress, and fired a
gun, both of which they saw, for they told me they saw the
smoke though they did not hear the gun. Upon these signals
they were kindly brought to, and lay by for me, and in about
three hours’ time I came up with them.

They asked me what I was, in Portuguese and in Spanish
and in French, but I understood none of them; but at last a
Scots sailor who was on board called to me, and I answered him
and told him I was an Englishman, that I had made my escape
out of slavery from the Moors at Sallee; then they bade me
come on board, and very kindly took me in and all my goods.

It was an inexpressible joy to me that any one will believe
that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable,
and almost hopeless condition as I was in, and I immediately
offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a return for m
deliverance; but he generously told me he would take nothing
from me, but that all I had should be delivered safe to me when
I came to the Brazils. “For,” says he, “I have saved your life on
no other terms than I would be glad to be saved myself, and it

34


may, one time or another, be my lot to be taken up in the same
conditions; besides,” said he, “when I carry you to the Brazils,
so great a way from your own country, if I should take from
you what you have, you will be starved there, and then I only
take away that life I have given. No, no, Seignor Inglese,” says
he, “Mr. Englishman, I will carry you thither in charity, and
those things will help you to buy your subsistence there and
your passage home again.”

As he was charitable in his proposal so he was just in the
performance to a tittle, for he ordered the seamen that none
should offer to touch anything I had; then he took everything
into his own possession, and gave me back an exact inventory
of them, that I might have them, even so much as my three
earthen jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one, and that he saw and
told me he would buy it of me for the ship’s use, and asked me
what I would have for it. I told him he had been so generous to
me in everything that I could not offer to make any price of the
boat, but left it entirely to him,‘upon which he told me he
would give mea note of his hand to pay me eighty pieces of eight
for it at Brazil, and when it came there if anyone offered to give
more he would make it up. He offered me, also, sixty pieces of
eight more for my boy Xury, which I was loth to take: not that
I was not willing to let the captain have him, but I was very loth
to sell the poor boy’s liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in
procuring my own. However, when I let him know my reason,
he owned it to be just and offered me this medium,—that he
would give the boy an obligation to set him free in ten years, if
he turned Christian. Upon this, and Xury saying he was willing
to go to him, I let the captain have him.

We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and arrived in the
Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints Bay, in about twenty-
two days after. And now I was once more delivered from the
most miserable of all conditions of life, and what to do next with
myself I was now to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never
enough remember; he would take nothing of me for my passage,
gave me twenty ducats for the leopard’s skin, and forty for the
lion’s skin which I had in my boat, and caused everything I
had in the ship to be punctually delivered me, and what I was

35


willing to sell he bought, such as the case of bottles, two of my
guns, and a piece of the lump of bees-wax, for had made candles
of the rest; in a word, I made about two hundred and twenty
pieces of eight of all my cargo, and with this stock I went on
shore in the Brazils.

I had not been long here, but being recommended to the
house of a good, honest man like himself, who had an ingeino
as they call it, that is, a plantation and a sugar house, I lived with
him some time, and acquainted myself by that means with the
manner of their planting and making of sugar; and seeing how
well the planters lived, and how they grew rich suddenly, I
resolved if I could get license to settle there, I would turn planter
among them, resolving in the meantime to find out some way
to get my money which I had left in London remitted to me.
To this purpose getting a kind of a letter of naturalization, I
purchased as much land that was uncured, as my money would
reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and settlement, and
such a one as might be suitable to the stock which I proposed
to myself to receive from England.

Thad a neighbor, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of English
parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such circum-
stances as I was. I call him my neighbor, because his plantation
lay next to mine, and we went on very sociably together. My
stock was but low as well as his; and we rather planted for food,
than anything else, for about two years. However, we began
to increase, and our land began to come into order, so that the
third year we planted some tobacco, and made each of usa large
piece of ground ready for planting canes in the year to come;
but we both wanted help: and now I found more than before, I
had done wrong in parting with my boy Xury.

But alas! for me to do wrong that never did right, was no
great wonder. I had no remedy but to go on. I was gotten into
an employment quite remote to my genius, and directly con-
trary to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my
father’s house, and broke through all his good advice. Nay, I
‘was coming into the very middle station, or upper degree of low
life, which my father advised me to before; and which if I
resolved to go on with, I might as welt have staid at home, and
never have fatigued myself in the world as I had done; and I
used often to say to myself, I could have done this as well in

36
SS ees..." _V!=="==
Ss My Frienv’s Goon ApviceE Qe

England among my friends, as have gone five thousand miles
off to do it among strangers and savages in-a wilderness, and at
such a distance as never to hear from any part of the world that
had the least knowledge of me.

In this manner I used to look upon my condition with the
utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with but now and then
this neighbor; no work to be done, but by the labor of my hands;
and I used to say, I lived just like a man cast away upon some
desolate island, that had nobody there but himself. But how
just has it been, and how should all men reflect, that, when they
compare their present conditions with others that are worse,
Heaven may oblige them to make the exchange. I say, how
just has it been, that the truly solitary life I reflected on in an
island of mere desolation should be my lot, who had so often
unjustly compared it with the life which I then led, in which had
I continued, I had in all probability been exceeding prosperous
and rich.

I was in some degree settled in my measures for carrying on
the plantation, before my kind friend, the captain of the ship
that took me up at sea, went back; for the ship remained there
in providing his loading, and preparing for his voyage, near three
months. When telling him what little stock I had left behind
me in London, he gave me this friendly and sincere advice,
“Seignor Inglese,” says he, for so he always called me, “if you
will give me letters, and a procuration here in form to me, with
orders to the person who has your money in London, to send
your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct, and in
such goods as are proper for this country, I will bring you the
produce of them, God willing, at my return; but since human
affairs are all subject to changes and disasters, I would have
you give orders but for one hundred pounds sterling, which
you say is half your stock, and Jet the hazard be run for the
first; so that if it come safe, you may order the rest the same way,
and if it miscarry, you may have the other half to have recourse
to for your supply.”

This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that
I could not but be convinced it was the best course I could take;
so I accordingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman with
whom I had left my money, and a procuration to the Portu-
guese captain, as he desired.

37
—————{—&zzz——>—>———>—>—>———————eeGeU_C—_—_—_——_
o> 99 > Rosinson Crusoe KOKO Ke

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full account of all my
adventures, my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the
Portugal captain at sea, the humanity of his behavior, and in
what condition I was now in, with all other necessary directions
for my supply; and when this honest captain came to Lisbon, he
found means by some of the English merchants there, to send
over not the order only, but a full account of my story to a
merchant at London, who represented it effectually to her;
whereupon, she not only delivered the money, but out of her
own pocket sent the Portugal captain a very handsome present
for his humanity and charity to me.

The merchant in London vesting this hundred pounds in
English goods, such as the captain had wrote for, sent them
directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me to
the Brazils, among which, without my direction (for I was too
young in my business to think of them) he had taken care to
have all sorts of tools, iron-work, and utensils necessary for my
plantation, and which were of great use to me.

When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made, for I
was surprised with joy of it; and my good steward, the captain,
had laid out the five pounds which my friend had sent him for a
present for himself, to purchase, and bring me over a servant
under bond for six years’ service, and would not accept of any
consideration, except a little tobacco, which I would have him
accept, being of my own produce.

Neither was this all; but my goods being all English manu-
factures, such as cloth, stuffs, bays, and things particularly
valuable and desirable in the country, I found means to sell them
to a very great advantage; so that I may say, I had more than
four times the value of my first cargo, and was now infinitely
beyond my poor neighbor, I mean in the advancement of my
plantation; for the first thing I did, I bought me a negro slave,
and an European servant also; I mean another besides that which
the captain brought me from Lisbon.

But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means
of our greatest adversity, so it was with me. I went on the next
year with great success in my plantation. I raised fifty great rolls
of tobacco on my own ground, more than I had disposed of for
necessaries among my neighbors; and these fifty rolls being
each of about roo weight were well cured and laid by against

38
Sapa I Necrsor My Apvantacr @eeeae

the return of the fleet from Lisbon. And now increasing in
business and in wealth, my head began to be full of projects and
undertakings beyond my reach; such as are indeed often the
ruin of the best heads in business.

Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had room for
all the happy things to have yet befallen me, for which my
father so earnestly recommended a quiet, retired life, and of
which he had so sensibly described the middle station of life
to be full of; but other things attended me, and I was still to be
the wilful agent of all my own miseries; and particularly to
increase my fault, and double the reflections upon myself, which
in my future sorrows I should have leisure to make; all these
miscarriages were procured by my apparent obstinate adhering
to my foolish inclination of wandering abroad, and pursuing
that inclination, in contradiction to the clearest views of doing
myself good in a fair and plain pursuit of those prospects and
those measures of life, which nature and Providence concurred
to present me with, and to make my duty.

As I had once done thus in my breaking away from my
parents, so I could not be content now, but I must go and leave
the happy view I had of being a rich and thriving man in my
new plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of
rising faster than the nature of the thing admitted; and thus I
cast myself down again into the deepest gulf of human misery
that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent with life
and a state of health in the world.




ava Rosinsonciuros ) @naeoe

To come then by the just degrees, to the particulars of this
part of my story, you may suppose, that having now lived
almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive and
prosper very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned
the language, but had contracted acquaintance and friendship
among my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants at
St. Salvadore, which was our port; and that in my discourses
among them, I had frequently given them an account of my two
voyages to the coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with the
negroes there, and how easy it was to purchase upon the coast,
for trifles, such as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of
glass, and the like, not only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants’
teeth, etc., but negroes for the service of the Brazils, in great
numbers.

They listened always very attentively to my discourses on
these heads, but especially to that part which related to the
buying negroes, which was a trade at that time not only far
entered into, but as far as it was, had been carried on by the
assiento, or permission, of the kings of Spain and Portugal, and
engrossed in the public, so that few negroes were brought, and
those excessive dear.

It happened, being in company with some merchants and
planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very
earnestly, three of them came to me the next morning, and told
me they had been musing very much upon whatI had discoursed
with them of, the last night, and they came to make a secret
proposal to me; and after enjoining me secrecy, they told me,
that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea, that they
had all plantations as well as I, and were straitened for nothing
so much as servants; that as it was a trade that could not be
carried on, because they could not publicly sell the negroes
when they came home, so they desired to make but one voyage,
to bring the negroes on shore privately, and divide them among
their own plantations; and, in a word, the question was, whether
I would go their super-cargo in the ship to manage the trading
part upon the coast of Guinea? And they offered me that I
should have my equal share of the negroes, without providing
any part of the stock.

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been
made to anyone that had not had a settlement and plantation

49


SPP Make My Witt ee

of his own to look after, which was in a fair way of coming to
be very considerable, and with a good stock upon it. But for me
that was thus entered and established, and had nothing to do
but go on as I had begun for three or four years more, and to
have sent for the other hundred pounds from England, and
who, in that time and with that little addition, could scarce have
failed of being worth three or four thousand pounds sterling,
and that increasing, too, for me to think of such a voyage was
the most preposterous thing that ever man in such circumstances
could be guilty of.

But I that was born to be my own destroyer could no more
resist the offer than I could restrain my first rambling designs,
when my father’s good counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I
told them I would go with all my heart if they would undertake
to look after my plantation in my absence, and would dispose
of it to such as I should direct if I miscarried. This they all
engaged to do, and entered into writings or covenants to do so,
and I made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and effects
in case of my death, making the captain of the ship that had
saved my life as before my universal heir, but obliging him to
dispose of my effects as I had directed in my will, one-half of the
produce being to himself and the other to be shipped to England.

In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects and
keep up my plantation. Had I used half as much prudence to
have looked into my own interest, and have made a judgment
of what I ought to have done and not to have done, I had cer-
tainly never gone away from so prosperous an undertaking,
leaving all the probable views of a thriving circumstance, and
gone upon a voyage to sea, attended with all its common hazards,
to say nothing of the reasons I had to expect particular mis-
fortunes to myself.

But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my
fancy rather than my reason; and accordingly, the ship being
fitted out and the cargo furnished, and all things done as by
agreement by my partners in the voyage, I went on board in an
evil hour, the rst of September, 1659, being the same day, eight
year, that I went from my father and mother at Hull, in order
to act the rebel to their authority, and the fool to my own
interest.

Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burthen,

41


carried six guns and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy
and myself. We had on board no large cargo of goods, except
of such toys as were fit for our trade with the negroes, such as
beads, bits of glass, shells and odd trifles, especially little looking-
glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.

The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away
to the northward upon our own coast, with design to stretch
over for the African coast, when they came about ten or twelve
degrees of northern latitude, which it seems was the manner of
their course in those days. We had very good weather, only
excessive heat all the way upon our own coast, till we came to the
height of Cape St. Augustino, from whence, keeping farther off
at sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if we were bound for
the Isle Fernand de Noronha, holding our course N. E. by N.,
and leaving those isles on the east. In this course we passed the
line in about twelve days’ time, and were, by our last observa-
tion, in seven degrees, twenty-two minutes, northern latitude,
when a violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our
knowledge. It began from the south-east, came about to the
north-west, and then settled into the north-east, from whence it
blew in such a terrible manner, that for 12 days together we
could do nothing but drive, and scudding away before it, let it
carry us whither ever fate and the fury of the winds directed;
and during these 12 days, I need not say, that I expected every
day to be swallowed up, nor indeed did any in the ship expect
to save their lives.

In this distress, we had, besides the terror of the storm, one
of our men died of the calenture, and one man and the boy
washed overboard; about the 12th day the weather abating a
little, the master made an observation as well as he could, and
found that he was in about 11 degrees north latitude, but that he
was 22 degrees of longitude difference west from Capt St.
Augustino; so that he found he was gotten upon the coast of
Guinea, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river Amozones,
toward that of the river Oronoque, commonly called the Great
River, and began to consult with me what course he should take,
for the ship was leaky and very much disabled, and he was
going directly back to the coast of Brazil.

I was positively against that, and looking over the charts of
the sea-coast of America with him, we concluded there was no

42
q

B> > > We Run Acrounp Ke Ke Ke

inhabited country for us to have recourse to, till we came within
the circle of the Carribbe-Islands, and therefore resolved to
stand away for Barbadoes, which by keeping off at sea, to avoid
the indraft of the bay or gulf of Mexico, we might easily per-
form, as we hoped, in about fifteen days sail, whereas we could
not possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa without
some assistance, both to our ship and to ourselves.

With this design we changed our course, and steered away
N. W. by W. in order to reach some of our English islands,
where I hoped for relief; but our voyage was otherwise deter-
mined, for being in the latitude of 12 deg. 18 min. a second storm '
came upon us, which carried us away with the same impetuosit
westward, and drove us so out of the very way of all humane
commerce, that had all our lives been saved, as to the sea, we
were rather in danger of being devoured by savages than ever
returning to our own country.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our
men early in the morning, cried out, “land”; and we had no
sooner run out of the cabin to look out in hopes of seeing where-
abouts in the world we were, but the ship struck upon a sand,
and in a moment her motion being so stopped, the sea broke over
her in such a manner, that we expected we should all have
perished immediately, and we were immediately driven into our
close quarters to shelter us from the very foam and spray of the
sea.

It is not easy for anyone, who has not been in the like condi-
tion, to describe or conceive the consternation of men in such
circumstances; we knew nothing where we were, or upon what
land it was we were driven, whether an island or the main,
whether inhabited or not inhabited; and as the rage of the wind
was still great, though rather less than at first, we could not so
much as hope to have the ship hold many minutes without
breaking in pieces, unless the winds by a kind of miracle should
turn immediately about. In a word, we sat looking one upon
another, and expecting death every moment, and every man
acting accordingly, as preparing for another world, for there
was little or nothing more for us to do in this; that which was
our present comfort, and all the comfort we had, was, that
contrary to our expectation the ship did not break yet, and that
the master said the wind began to abate.

43


cf sm _ _aEeGV7—VX_—X—X—<—
Now though we thought that the wind did a little abate,
yet the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too
fast for us to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful condi-
tion indeed, and had nothing to do but to think of saving our
lives as well as we could; we had a boat at our stern, just before
the storm, but she was first staved by dashing against the ship’s
rudder, and in the next place she broke away, and either sunk
or was driven off to sea, so there was no hope from her; we had
another boat on board, but how to get her off into the sea, was
a doubtful thing; however, there was no room to debate, for
we fancied the ship would break in pieces every minute, and
some told us she was actually broken already.

In this distress the mate of our vessel laid hold of the boat,
and with the help of the rest of the men they got her slung over
the ship’s side, and getting all into her, let go, and committed
ourselves, being eleven in number, to God’s mercy and the wild
sea; for, though the storm was abated considerably, yet the sea
went dreadfully high upon the shore, and might well be called
‘Den wild Zee,” as the Dutch call the sea ina storm.

And now our case was very dismal indeed, for we all saw
plainly that the sea went so high that the boat could not live,
and that we should be inevitably drowned. As to making sail,
we had none, nor, if we had could we have done anything with
it; so we worked at the oar towards the land, though with
heavy hearts, like men going to execution, for we all knew that
when the boat came nearer the shore she would be dashed in
a thousand pieces by the breach of the sea. However, we com-
mitted our souls to God in the most earnest manner, and, the
wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened our destruction
with our own hands, pulling as well as we could towards land.

What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep or
shoal, we knew not. The only hope that could rationally give
us the least shadow of expectation was if we might happen into
some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where, by great
chance, we might have run our boat in, or got under the lea of
the land, or perhaps made smooth water. But there was nothing
of this appeared; but as we made nearer and nearer the shore the
land looked more frightful than the sea.

After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and a
half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came

44
SP > > I Am Wasuep AsHorRE KEKE

rowling astern of us, and plainly bade us expect the coup-de-
grace. In a word, it took us with such a fury that it overset the
boat at once, and separating us as well from the boat as from
one another, gave us not time hardly to say, “O God!” for we
were all swallowed up in a moment.

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt
when I sunk into the water, for though I swam very well, yet I
could not deliver myself from the waves so as to draw breath till
that wave having driven me, or rather carried me a vast way on
towards the shore, and having spent itself, went back and left
me upon the land almost dry, but half dead with the water I
took in. I had so much presence of mind as well as breath left
that seeing myself nearer the main land than I expected, I got
upon my feet and endeavored to make on towards the land as
fast as I could, before another wave should return and take me
up again. But I soon found it was impossible to avoid it, for I
saw the sea come after me as high as a great hill, and as furious
as an enemy which I had no means or strength to contend with.
My business was to hold my breath and raise myself upon the
water if I could, and so, by swimming, to preserve my breathing
and pilot myself towards the shore if possible, my greatest con-
cern now being that the sea, as it would carry me a great way
towards the shore when it came on, might not carry me back
again with it when it gave back towards the sea.

The wave that came upon me again buried me at once twenty
or thirty feet deep in its own body, and I could feel myself
carried with a mighty force and swiftness towards the shore a
very great way; but I held my breath and assisted myself to
swim still forward with all my might. I was ready to burst with
holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising up, so, to my
immediate relief, I found my head and hands shoot out above
the surface of the water, and though it was not two seconds of
time that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave
me breath and new courage. I was covered again with water a
good while, but not so long but I held it out, and finding the
water had spent itself and began to return, I struck forward
against the return of the waves and felt ground again with my
feet. I stood still a few moments to recover breath and till the
water went from me, and then took to my heels and run with
what strength I had farther towards the shore. But neither would

45
3 D> p> Rosinson Crusoe Ke Ke Ke

this deliver me from the fury of the sea, which came pouring in
after me again, and twice more I was lifted up by the waves and
carried forwards as before, the shore being very flat.

The last time of these two had well near been fatal to me;
for the sea having hurried me along as before, landed me, or
rather dashed me against a piece of rock, and that with such
force, as it left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own
deliverance; for the blow taking my side and breast, beat the
breath as it were quite out of my body; and had it returned
again immediately, I must have been strangled in the water; but
I recovered a little before the return of the waves, and seeing I
should be covered again with the water, I resolved to hold fast
by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath, if possible, till
the wave went back. Now as the waves were not so high as at
first, being near land, I held my hold till the wave abated, and
then fetched another run which brought me so near the shore,
that the next wave, though it went over me, yet did not so
swallow me up as to carry me away, and the next run I took, I
got to the main land, where, to my great comfort, I clambered
up the cliffs of the shore, and sat me down upon the grass, free
from danger, and quite out of the reach of the water.

I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up
and thank God that my life was saved in a case wherein there
was some minutes before scarce any room to hope. I believe it
is impossible to express to the life what the ecstacies and trans-
ports of the soul are, when it is so saved, as I may say, out of the
very grave; and I do not wonder now at that custom, viz: That
when a malefactor, who has the halter about his neck, is tied up,
and just going to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought to
him; I say, I do not wonder that they bring a surgeon with it, to
let him bleed that very moment they tell him of it, that the
surprise may not drive the animal spirits from the heart and
overwhelm him. For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.

I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my
whole being, as I may say, wrapped up in the contemplation
of my deliverance, making a thousand gestures and motions
which I cannot describe, reflecting upon all my comrades that
were drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved but
myself; for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any
sign of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes

46
D> > > I Loox Asout ME Ke ee

that were not fellows. I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel,
when the breach and froth of the sea being so big I could hardly
see it, it lay so far off, and considered, Lord! how was it possible
Icould get on shore?

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of
my condition, I began to look round me to see what kind of
place I was in, and what was next to be done, and I soon found
my comforts abate, and that in a word I had a dreadful deliver-
ance. For I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor anything
either to eat or drink to comfort me, neither did I see any pros-
pect before me but that of perishing with hunger, or being
devoured by wild beasts; and that which was particularly afflict-
ing to me, was, that I had no weapon either to hunt and kill any




ee ee
Sys Rosinson CRUSOE Ke Ke Ke

creature for my sustenance, or to defend myself against any
other creature that might desire to kill me for theirs. In a word,
I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco pipe, and a little
tobacco in a box. This was all my provisions, and this threw me
into terrible agonies of mind, that for a while I ran about like a
mad man. Night coming upon me, I began with a heavy heart
to consider what would be my lot if there were any ravenous
beasts in that country, seeing at night they always come abroad
for their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time, was
to get up into a thick bushy tree like a fir, but thorny, which
grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all night, and consider
the next day what death I should die, for as yet I saw no prospect
of life; I walked about a furlong from the shore, to see if I could
find any fresh water to drink, which I did, to my great joy; and
having drank, and put a little tobacco in my mouth to prevent
hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavored to
place myself so as that if I should sleep I might not fall; and
having cut me a short stick, like a truncheon, for my defence, I
took up my lodging, and having been excessively fatigued, I fell
fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could have
done in my condition, and found myself the most refreshed
with it, that I think I ever was on such an occasion.

When I woke it was broad day, the weather clear, and the
storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as before;
but that which surprised me most, was, that the ship was lifted
off in the night from the sand where she lay, by the swelling of
the tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock which I
first mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the dashing me
against it; this being within about a mile from the shore where
Iwas, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished myself
on board, that, at least, I might have some necessary things for
my use.

When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked
about me again, and the first thing I found was the boat, which
lay as the wind and the sea had tossed her up upon the land,
about two miles on my right hand. I walked as far as I could
upon the shore to have got to her, but found a neck or inlet of
water between me and the boat, which was about half a mile
broad, so I came back for the present, being more intent upon

48
Sapa 1Gusrinrotas Suir eee
getting at the ship, where I hoped to find something for my

present subsistence.

A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the tide
ebbed so far out, that I could come within a quarter of a mile
of the ship; and here I found a fresh renewing of my grief, for
I saw evidently, that if we had kept on board, we had been all
safe, that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had not
been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort
and company, as I now was; this forced tears from my eyes
again, but as there was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible,
to get to the ship, so I pulled off my clothes, for the weather
was hot to extremity, and took the water; but when I came to
the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how to get on
board, for as she lay aground, and high out of the water, there
was nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her
twice, and the second time I spied a small piece of a rope, which
I wondered I did not see at first, hang down by the fore-chains
so low, as that with great difficulty I got hold of it, and by the
help of that rope, got up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I
found that the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water in
her hold, but that she lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand,
or rather earth, that her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and
her head low almost to the water; by this means all her quarter
was free, and all that was in that part was dry; for you may be
sure my first work was to search and to see what was spoiled
and what was free; and first I found that all the ship’s provisions
were dry and untouched by the water, and being very well dis-
posed to eat, I went to the bread-room and filled my pockets
with biscuit, and eat it as I went about other things, for I had no
time to lose; I also found some rum in the great cabin, of which I
took a large dram, and which I had indeed need enough of to
spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a
boat to furnish myself with many things which I foresaw would
be very necessary to me.

It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had,
and this extremity roused my application; we had several spare
yards, and two or three large spars of wood, and a spare top-
mast or two in the ship. I resolved to fall to work with these,
and flung as many of them overboard as I could manage for
their weight, tying every one with a rope that they might not

49
——_—_—_—_———————————
Sp S9> Rosinson Crusoe Ke eK

drive away; when this was done I went down the ship’s side,
and pulling them to me, I tied four of them fast together at
both ends as well as I could, in the form of a raft, and laying two
or three short pieces of plank upon them crossways, I found
I could walk upon it very well, but that it was not able to bear
any great weight, the pieces being too light; so I went to work,
and with the carpenter’s saw I cut a spare top-mast into three
lengths, and added them to my raft, with a great deal of labor
and pains; but hope of furnishing myself with necessaries, en-
couraged me to go beyond what I should have been able to have
done upon another occasion.

My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable
weight. My next care was what to load it with, and how to
preserve what I laid upon it from the surf of the sea; but I was
not long considering this. I first laid all the planks or boards
upon it that I could get, and having considered well what I most
wanted, I first got three of the seamen’s chests, which I had
broken open and emptied, and lowered them down upon my
raft; the first of these I filled with provisions, viz: bread, rice,
three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goat’s flesh, which we
lived much upon, and a little remainder of European corn which
had been laid by for some fowls which we brought to sea with
us, but the fowls were killed. There had been some barley and
wheat together, but, to my great disappointment, I found after-
wards that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all; as for liquors, I
found several cases of bottles belonging to our skipper, in which
were some cordial waters, and in all about five or six gallons of
rack; these I stowed by themselves, there being no need to put
them into the chest, nor no room for them. While I was doing
this, I found the tide began to flow, though very calm, and I
had the mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waist-coat,
which I had left on shore upon the sand, swim away; as for my
breeches which were only linen and open-kneed, I swam on
board in them and my stockings. However this put me upon
tummaging for clothes, of which I found enough, but took no
more than I wanted for present use, for I had other things which
my eye was more upon, as first, tools to work with on shore;
and it was after long searching that I found out the carpenter’s
chest, which was indeed a very useful prize to me, and much
more valuable than a ship loading of gold would have been at

50
Sesame TSarir My RarrAsHorE 6G

that time; I got it down to my raft, even whole as it was, with-
out losing time to look into it, for I knew in general what it
contained.

My next care was for some ammunition, and arms; there
were two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two
pistols; these I secured first, with some powder-horns, and a
small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there were
three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where our
gunner had stowed them, but with much search I found them,
two of them dry and good, the third had taken water; those
two I got to my raft with the arms, and now I thought myself
pretty well freighted, and began to think how I should get to
shore with them, having neither sail, oar, or rudder, and the least
cap full of wind would have overset all my navigation.

I had three encouragements. 1. A smooth,.calm sea. 2. The
tide rising and setting in to the shore. 3. What little wind there
was blew me towards the land; and thus, having found two or
three broken oars belonging to the boat, and besides the tools
which were in the chest, I found two saws, an axe, and a ham-
mer, and with this cargo I put to sea. For a mile, or thereabouts,
my raft went very well, only that I found it drive a little distance
from the place where I had landed before, by which I perceived
that there was some indraft of the water, and consequently I
hoped to find some creek or river there, which I might make use
of asa port to get to land with my cargo.

As I imagined, so it was; there appeared before me a little
opening of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide
set into it, so I guided my raft as well as I could to keep in the
middle of the stream. But here I had like to have suffered a
second shipwreck, which, if I had, I think verily would have
broke my heart, for knowing nothing of the coast, my raft run
aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and not being aground at
the other end, it wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped
off towards that end that was afloat, and so fallen into the water.
I did my utmost by setting my back against the chests, to keep
them in their places, but could not thrust off the raft with all
my strength, neither durst I stir from the posture I was in, but
holding up the chests with all my might, stood in that manner
near half an hour, in which time the rising of the water brought
me a little more upon a level, and a little after, the water still ris-

5l
ing, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off with the oar Thad,
into the channel, and then driving up higher, I at length found
myself in the mouth of a little river, with land on both sides, and
a strong current of tide running up. I looked on both sides for a
proper place to get to shore, for I was not willing to be driven
too high up the river, hoping in time to see some ship at sea, and
therefore resolved to place myself as near the coast as I could.

At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek,
to which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and
at last got so near, as that, reaching ground with my oar, I could
thrust her directly in, but here I had like to have dipped all my
cargo in the sea again; for that shore lying pretty steep, that is
to say, sloping, there was no place to land, but where one end
of my float, if it run on shore, would lie so high, and the other
sink lower as before, that it would endanger my cargo again.
All that I could do, was to wait until the tide was at the highest,
keeping the raft with my oar like an anchor to hold the side of
it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of ground, which I expected
the water would flow over; and so it did. As soon as I found
water enough, for my raft drew about a foot of water, I thrust
her on upon that flat piece of ground, and there fastened or
moored her by sticking my two broken oars into the ground;
one on one side near one end, and one on the other side near
the other end; and thus I lay until the water ebbed away, and left
my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.

My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper
place for my habitation, and where to stow my goods to secure
them from whatever might happen. Where I was I yet knew
not, whether on the continent or on an island, whether inhabited
or not inhabited, whether in danger of wild beasts or not. There
was a hill not above a mile from me, which rose up very steep
and high, and which seemed to over-top some other hills which
lay as in a ridge from it northward; I took out one of the
fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols, and an horn of powder,
and thus armed I travelled for discovery up to the top of that
hill, where, after I had with great labor and difficulty got to the
top, I saw my fate to my great affliction, viz: that I was in an
island environed every way with the sea, no land to be seen,
except some rocks which lay a great way off, and two small
islands less than this, which lay about three leagues to the west.

52


Se eee
Sh sh > I Sez THE ISLAND eee

I found also that the island I was in was barren, and as I saw
good reason to believe, uninhabited, except by wild beasts, of
whom, however, I saw none, yet I saw abundance of fowls, but
knew not their kinds, neither when I killed them could I tell
what was fit for food, and what not; at my coming back, I shot
at a great bird which I saw sitting upon a tree on the side of a
great wood. I believe it was the first gun that had been fired
there since the creation of the world; I had no sooner fired, but
from all the parts of the wood there arose an innumerable num-
ber of fowls of many sorts, making a confused screaming, and
crying every one according to his usual note; but not one of
them of any kind that I knew. As for the creature I killed, I took
it to be a kind of a hawk, its color and beak resembling it, but
had no talons or claws more than common; its flesh was carrion,
and fit for nothing.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and
fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the
rest of that day, and what to do with myself at night I knew not,
nor indeed where to rest; for I was afraid to lie down on the
ground, not knowing but some wild beast might devour me,




SMPs —sRowinson CRusor RK

though, as I afterwards found, there was really no need for those
fears.

However, as well I could, I barricaded myself round with
the chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and made a
kind of a hut for that night’s lodging; as for food, I yet saw not
which way to supply myself, except that I had seen two or three
creatures like hares run out of the wood where I shot the fowl.

I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many
things out of the ship, which would be useful to me, and par-
ticularly some of the rigging and sails, and such other things as
might come to land, and I resolved to make another voyage on
board the vessel, if possible; and as I knew that the first storm
that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I resolved to
set all other things apart, till I got everything out of the ship
that I could get. Then I called a council, that is to say, in my
thoughts, whether I should take back the raft, but this appeared
impracticable; so I resolved to go as before, when the tide was
down, and I did so, only that I stripped before I went from my
hut, having nothing on but a checkered shirt, and a pair of linen
drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.

I got on board the ship, as before, and prepared a second raft,
and having had experience of the first, I neither made this so
unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard; but yet I brought away several
things very useful to me: as first, in the carpenter’s stores I found
two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great screw-jack, a
dozen or two of hatchets, and above all, that most useful thing
called a grindstone. All these I secured, together with several
things belonging to the gunner, particularly two or three iron
crows, and two barrels of musket bullets, seven muskets, and
another fowling-piece, with some small quantity of powder
more; a large bag full of small shot, and a great roll of sheet
lead; but this last was so heavy, I could not hoist it up to get it
over the ship’s side.

Besides these things, I took all the men’s clothes that I could -
find, and a spare fore-top-sail, a hammock, and some bedding;
and with this I loaded my second raft, and brought them all
safe on shore to my very great comfort.

I was under some apprehensions during my absence from the
land, that at least my provisions might be devoured on shore;
but when I came back, I found no sign of any visitor, only there

54
—_—!'(-( eee :. :_.ege_Qj»j\ i

sat a creature like a wild cat upon one of the chests, which when
I came towards it, ran away a little distance, and then stood
still. She sat very composed and unconcerned, and looked full
in my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with me. I
presented my gun at her, but as she did not understand it, she
was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer to stir away.
Upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit, though by the way, I
was not very free of it, for my store was not great. However, I
spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled of it, and ate
it, and looked as pleased for more; but I thanked her, and could
share no more; so she marched off.

Having got my second cargo on shore, though I was fain to
open the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for they
were too heavy, being large casks, I went to work to make me
a little tent with the sail and some poles which I cut for that
purpose, and into this tent I brought everything that I knew
would spoil, either with rain or sun, and I piled all the empty
chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from
any sudden attempt, either from man or beast.

‘When I had done this I blocked up the door of the tent with
some boards within, and an empty chest set up on end without,
and spreading one of the beds upon the ground, laying my two
pistols just at my head, and my gun at length by me, I went
to bed for the first time, and slept very quietly all night, for I
was very weary and heavy, for the night before I had slept
little, and had labored very hard all day, as well to fetch all
those things from the ship, as to get them on shore.

I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever were
laid up, I believe, for one man, but I was not satisfied still; for
while the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought I ought to
get everything out of her that I could, so every day at low water
I went on board, and brought away some thing or other. But
particularly the third time I went, I brought away as much of
the rigging as I could, as also all the small ropes and rope-twine
I could get, with a piece of spare canvas, which was to mend
the sails upon occasion, and the barrel of wet gun-powder. In
a word, I brought away all the sails first and last, only that I
was fain to cut them in pieces, and bring as much at a time as I
could; for they were no more useful to be sails, but as mere
canvas only.

55


But that which comforted me more still, was, that at last of
all, after I had made five or six such voyagesas these, and thought
I had nothing more to expect from the ship that was worth
meddling with, I say, after all this, I found a great hogshead of
bread, and three large runlets of rum or spirits, and a box of
sugar, and a barrel of fine flour; this was surprising to me, be-
cause I had given over expecting any more provisions, except
what was spoiled by the water. I soon emptied the hogshead of
that bread, and wrapped it up parcel by parcel in pieces of the
sails, which I cut out; and in a word, I got all this safe on shore
also.

The next day I made another voyage; and now having
plundered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out,
I began with the cables, and cutting the great cable into pieces,
such as I could move, I got two cables and a hawser on shore,
with all the iron work I could get; and having cut down the
spritsail-yard, and the mizzen-yard, and everything I could to
make a large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods and
came away. But my good luck began now to leave me, for this
raft was so unwieldy, and so overloaden, that after I was entered
the little cove, where I had landed the rest of my goods, not
being able to guide it so handily as I did the other, it overset, and
threw me and all my cargo into the water; as for myself it was
no great harm, for I was near the shore, but as to my cargo, it
was great part of it lost, especially the iron, which I expected
would have been of great use to me. However, when the tide
was out, I got most of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the
iron, though with infinite labor; for I was fain to dip for it into
the water, a work which fatigued me very much. After this I
went every day on board, and brought away what I could get.

I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven
times on board the ship, in which time I had brought away all
that one pair of hands could well be supposed capable to bring;
though I believe verily, had the calm weather held, I should
have brought away the whole ship piece by piece. But preparing
the twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind begin to rise;
however, at low water I went on board, and though I thought
I had rummaged the cabin so effectually, as that nothing more
could be found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers in it,
in one of which I found two or three razors, and one pair of

56
ee
wae Last Visit ro THE SHIP QE KEKE
Seen ee ne ee eee NEST

large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good knives and
forks; in another I found about thirty-six pounds value in
money, some European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight,
some gold, some silver.

I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. O drug! said I,
aloud, what art thou good for? Thou art not worth to me, no,
not the taking off of the ground; one of those knives is worth all
this heap; I have no manner of use for thee; even remain where
thou art, and go to the bottom as a creature whose life is not
worth saving. However, upon second thoughts, I took it away,
and wrapping all this in a piece of canvas, I began to think of
making another raft, but while I was preparing this, I found the
sky overcast, and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter of an
hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore; it presently occurred
to me, that it was in vain to pretend to make a raft with the
wind off shore, and that it was my business to be gone before the
tide of flood began, otherwise I might not be able to reach the
shore at all; accordingly I let myself down into the water, and
swam cross the channel, which lay between the ship and the
sands, and even that with difficulty enough, partly with the
weight of the things I had about me, and partly the roughness
of the water, for the wind rose very hastily, and before it was
quite high water, it blew a storm.

But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I lay with all
my wealth about me very secure. It blew very hard all that
night, and in the morning when I looked out, behold no more
ship was to be seen. I was a little surprised, but recovered myself
with this satisfactory reflection, viz: that I had lost no time, nor
abated no diligence to get everything out of her that could be
useful to me, and that indeed there was little left in her that I was
able to bring away, if had had more time.

Inow gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of anything
out of her, except what might drive on shore from her wreck,
as indeed divers pieces of her afterwards did; but those things
were of small use tome. .

My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing my-
self against either savages, if any should appear, or wild beasts,
if any were in the island; and I had many thoughts of the method
how to do this, and what kind of dwelling to make, whether I
should make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the earth;

57




SHS} > Rosinson Crusoe EEK

and, in short, I resolved upon both, the manner and description
of which it may not be improper to give an account of.

I soon found the place I was in was not for my settlement,
particularly because it was upon a low moorish ground near
the sea, and I believed would not be wholesome, and more par-
ticularly because there was no fresh water near it, so I resolved
to find a more healthy and more convenient spot of ground.

I consulted several things in my situation which I found
would be proper for me. First, health, and fresh water I just
now mentioned. Secondly, shelter from the heat of the sun.
Thirdly, security from ravenous creatures, whether men or
beasts. Fourthly, a view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in
sight, I might not lose any advantage for my deliverance, of
which I was not willing to banish all my expectation yet.

In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on
the side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was
steep as a house-side, so that nothing could come down upon
me from the top; on the side of this rock there was a hollow
place worn a little way in, like the entrance or door of a cave,
but there was not really any cave or way into the rock at all.

On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I
resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above an hundred
yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a green before
my door, and at the end of it descended irregularly every way
down into the low grounds by the seaside. It was on the N.
N. W. side of the hill, so that I was sheltered from the heat
every day, till it came to a W. and by S. sun, or thereabouts,
which in those countries is near the setting.

Before I set up my tent I drew a half circle before the hollow
place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter from
the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter, from its beginning
and ending.

In this half circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving
them into the ground till they stood very firm, like piles, the
biggest end being out of the ground about five feet and a half,
and sharpened on the top. The two rows did not stand above
six inches from one another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship
and laid them in rows one upon another within the circle,
between these two rows of stakes, up to the top, placing other

58


a re
So I Buitp My PatisavE Ke ee ie

stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two feet and a
half high, like a spur to a post, and this fence was so strong that
neither man nor beast could get into it or over it. This cost me
a great deal of time and labor, especially to cut the piles in the
woods, bring them to the place, and drive them into the earth.

The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but
by a short ladder to go over the top, which ladder, when I was



YY

Per


SS HP > RosBinson Crusoe Ke Kee

in, I lifted over after me; and so I was completely fenced in and
fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and consequently
slept secure in the night, which otherwise I could not have
done, though, as it appeared afterward, there was no need of all
this caution from the enemies that I apprehended danger from.

Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labor, I carried all
my riches, all my provisions, ammunition and stores, of which
you have the account above; and I made me a large tent, which,
to preserve me from the rains that in one part of the year are
very violent there, I made double, viz: one smaller tent within,
and one larger tent above it, and covered the uppermost with
a large tarpaulin which I had saved among the sails.

And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had
brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was, indeed, a very
good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.

Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that
would spoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed all my goods,
I made up the entrance, which till now I had left open, and so
passed and re-passed, as I said, by a short ladder.

When I had done this I began to work my way into the rock,
and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down out through
my tent, I laid them up within my fence in the nature of a ter-
race, that so it raised the ground within about a foot and a half,
and thus I made me a cave just behind my tent, which served me
like a cellar to my house.

It cost me much labor and many days before all these things
were brought to perfection, and therefore I must go back to
some other things which took up some of my thoughts. At the
same time it happened, after I had laid my scheme for the setting
up my tent and making the cave, that a storm of rain falling
from a thick dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened,
and after that a great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect
of it. I was not so much surprised with the lightning as I was
with a thought which darted into my mind as swift as the light-
ning itself: “Oh, my powder!” My very heart sunk within me
when I thought that at one blast all my powder might be
destroyed, on which not my defence only but the providing me
food, as I thought, entirely depended. I was nothing near so
anxious about my own danger, though had the powder took
fire, [had never known who had hurt me.

60
e—==___——_—_—_—_—____
>>> Tur Goats or tue Istanp KEKE Ke

Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm
was over I laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying,
and applied myself to make bags and boxes to separate the
powder and keep it a little and a little in a parcel, in hope that
whatever might come it might not all take fire at once, and to
keep it so apart that it should not be possible to make one part
fire another. I finished this work in about a fortnight, and I
think my powder, which in all was about two hundred and
forty pounds weight, was divided in not less than a hundred
parcels. As to the barrel that had been wet, I did not apprehend
any danger from that, so I placed it in my new cave, which in
my fancy I called my kitchen, and the rest I hid up and down in
holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, mark-
ing very carefully where I laid it.

In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out once
at least every day with my gun, as well to divert myself, as to
see if I could kill anything fit for food, and as near as I could
to acquaint myself with what the island produced. The first
time I went out I presently discovered that there were goats in
the island, which was a great satisfaction to me; but then it was
attended with this misfortune to me, viz: That they were so
shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the difficultest
thing in the world to come at them. But I was not discouraged
at this, not doubting but I might now and then shoot one, as it
soon happened, for after I had found their haunts a little, I laid
wait in this manner for them. I observed if they saw me in the
valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would run
away as in a terrible fright; but if they were feeding in the
valleys, and I was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me,
from whence I concluded, that by the position of their optics,
their sight was so directed downward, that they did not readily
see objects that were above them. So afterward I took this
method: I always climbed the rocks first to get above them,
and then had frequently a fair mark. The first shot I made among
these creatures, I killed a she-goat, which had a little kid by her
which she gave suck to, which grieved me heartily; but when
the old one fell, the kid stood stock still by her till I came and
took her up, and not only so, but when I carried the old one
with me upon my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my
enclosure, upon which I laid down the dam, and took the kid

61


in my arms, and carried it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it
up tame, but it would not eat, so I was forced to kill it and eat
it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I
eat sparingly, and saved my provisions (my bread especially)
as much as possibly I could.

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely neces-
sary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn; and
what I did for that, as also how I enlarged my cave, and what
conveniences I made, I shall give a full account of in its place;
but I must first give some little account of myself, and of my
thoughts about living, which it may well be supposed were not
a few.

I had a dismal prospect of my condition, for as I was not cast
away upon that island without being driven, as is said, by a
violent storm quite out of the course of our intended voyage,
and a great way, viz: some hundreds of leagues out of the ordi-
nary course of the trade of mankind, I had great reason to
consider it as a determination of Heaven, that in this desolate
place, and in this desolate manner, I should end my life. The
tears would run plentifully down my face when I made these
reflections; and sometimes I would expostulate with myself,
why Providence should thus completely ruin its creatures, and
render them so absolutely miserable, so without help abandoned,
so entirely depressed that it could hardly be rational to be thank-
ful for such a life.

But something always returned swift upon me to check these
thoughts, and to reprove me; and particularly one day walking
with my gun in my hand by the seaside, I was very pensive upon
the subject of my present condition, when reason as it were,
expostulated with me the other way, thus: Well, you are in a
desolate condition, ’t is true, but pray remember, where are the
rest of you? Did not you come eleven of you into the boat?
where are the ten? Why were not they saved, and you lost?
Why were you singled out? Is it better to be here or there? and
then I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be considered with the
good that isin them, and with what worse attends them.

Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished for
my subsistence, and what would have been my case if it had
not happened, which was an hundred thousand to one, that the
ship floated from the place where she first struck and was driven

62
FF rE SS> 39> > My WoopeEn CAaLeNnpDAR Ee Ke KE

so near to the shore that I had time to get all these things out of
her. What would have been my case, if I had been to have lived
in the condition in which I at first came on shore, without
necessaries of life, or necessaries to supply and procure them?
Particularly, said I aloud (though to myself), what should I
had done without a gun, without ammunition, without any
tools to make anything, or to work with, without clothes, bed-
ding, a tent, or any manner of covering, and that now I had all
these to a sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to provide
myself in such a manner, as to live without my gun when my
ammunition was spent; so that I had a tolerable view of sub-
sisting without any wantas long as I lived; for I considered from
the beginning how I would provide for the accidents that might
happen, and for the time that was to come, even not only after
my ammunition should be spent, but even after my health or
strength should decay.

I confess I had not entertained any notion of my ammunition
being destroyed at one blast, I mean my powder being blown
up by lightning, and this made the thoughts of it so surprising
to me when it lightened and thundered, as I observed just now.

And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene
of silent life, such perhaps as was never heard of in the world
before, I shall take it from its beginning, and continue it in its
order. It was, by my account, the 3oth of September, when, in
the manner as abovesaid, I first set foot upon this horrid island,
when the sun being, to us, in its autumnal equinox, was almost
just over my head, for I reckoned myself, by observation, to
be in the latitude of 9 degrees 22 minutes north of the line.

After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into
my thoughts, that I should lose my reckoning of time for want
of books and pen and ink, and should even forget the Sabbath
days from the working days; but to prevent this, I cut it with
my knife upon a large post, in capital letters, and making it into
a great cross, I set it up on the shore when I first landed, viz: I
came on shore here on the 30th of September, 1659. Upon the
sides of this square post, I cut every day a notch with my knife,
and every seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and every
first day of the month as long again as that long one, and thus
I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning
of time.

63


55> RoBINSON CRUSOE KEKE KE

In the next place we are to observe, that among the many
things which I brought out of the ship in the several voyages,
which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got several things of
less value, but not all less useful to me, which I omitted setting
down before; as in particular, pens, ink, and paper, several
parcels in the captain’s, mate’s, gunner’s, and carpenter’s keep-
ing, three or four compasses, some mathematical instruments,
dials, perspectives, charts, and books of navigation, all which I
huddled together, whether I might want them or not; also, I
found three very good bibles which came to me in my cargo
from England, and which I had packed up among my things;
some Portuguese books also, and among them two or three
Popish prayer-books, and several other books, all which I care-
fully secured. And I must not forget, that we had in the ship a
dog and two cats, of whose eminent history I may have occasion
to say something in its place; for I carried both the cats with
me; and as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship of himself,
and swam on shore to me the day after I went on shore with my
first cargo, and was a trusty servant to me many years; I wanted
nothing that he could fetch me, nor any company that he could
make up to me; I only wanted to have him talk to me, but that
would not do. As I observed before, I found pen, ink and paper,
and I husbanded them to the utmost; and I shall show, that
while my ink lasted, I kept things very exact; but after that was
gone, I could not, for I could not make any ink, by any means
that I could devise.

And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwith-
standing all that I had amassed together, and of these this of ink
was one, as also spade, pick-axe, and shovel, to dig or remove
the earth, needles, pins and thread; as for linen, I soon learned
to want that without muchdifficulty.

This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily, and
it was near a whole year before I had entirely finished my little
pale, or surrounded habitation. The piles, or stakes, which were
as heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in cutting and
preparing in the woods, and more by far in bringing home, so
that I spent sometimes two days in cutting and bringing home
one of those posts, and a third day in driving it into the ground,
for which purpose I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at
last bethought myself of one of the iron crows, which, however,

64
eCoC":"""""laSaTa.SFT
wee Ll App Up Goon ann Evin 64646

though I found it, yet it made driving those posts, or piles, very
laborious and tedious work.

But what need I have been concerned at the tediousness of
anything I had to do seeing I had time enough to do it in; nor
had I any other employment if that had been over, at least that
I could foresee, except the ranging the island to seek for food,
which I did more or less every day.

I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the
circumstance I was reduced to, and I drew up the state of my
affairs in writing, not so much to leave them to any that were
to come after me, for I was like to have but few heirs, as to -
deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon them and affecting
my mind; and as my reason began now to master my despon-
dency, I began to comfort myself as well as I could, and to set
the good against the evil, that I might have something to dis-
tinguish my case from worse, and I stated it very impartially,
like debtor and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed against the
miseries I suffered, thus:

EVIL GooD
I am cast upon a horrible, But I am alive and not
desolate island, void of all drowned, as all my ship’s
hope of recovery. company were.
I am singled out and sep- But I am singled out, too,
arated, as it were, from all from all the ship’s crew to be
the world, to be miserable. spared from death; and He

that miraculously saved me
from death can deliver me
from this condition.

I am divided from man- But I am not starved and
kind, a solitaire, one ban- perishing on a barren place,
ished from human society. affording no sustenance.

Thave not clothes to cover But I am in a hot climate,
me. where, if I had clothes, I

could hardly wear them.

I am without any defence But I am cast on an island
or means to resist any vio- where I see no wild beasts
lence of man or beast. to hurt me, as I saw on the

coast of Africa; and what
if I had been shipwrecked.
there?

65
ona Rosset cnuics, Gee

I have no soul to speak to But God wonderfully sent
or relieve me. the ship in near enough to
the shore that I have gotten

out so many necessary things

as will either supply my
wants or enable me to sup-
ply myself, even as long as
Ihive.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony, that
. there was scarce any condition in the world so miserable, but
that was something negative or something positive to be thank-
ful for in it and let this stand as a direction from the experience
of the most miserable of all conditions in this world, that we
may always find in it something to comfort ourselves from, and
to set in the description of good and evil, on the credit side of
the account.

Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition,
and given over looking out to sea, to see, if I could spy a ship;
Isay, giving over these things, I began to apply myself to accom-
modate my way of living, and to make things as easy to me as
I could.

I have already described my habitation, which was a tent
under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts
and cables, but I might now rather call it a wall, for I raised a
kind of wall up against it of turfs, about two foot thick on the
outside, and after some time, I think it was a year and half, I
raised rafters from it leaning to the rock, and thatched or
covered it with boughs of trees, and such things as I could get
to keep out the rain, which I found at some times of the year
very violent.

Ihave already observed how I brought all my goods into this
pale, and into the cave which I had made behind me. But I must
observe too that at first this was a confused heap of goods, which
as they lay in no order, so they took up all my place; I had no
room to turn myself; so I set myself to enlarge my cave and
works farther into the earth; for it was a loose sandy rock,
which yielded easily to the labor I bestowed on it. And so when
I found I was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways
to the right hand into the rock; and then turning to the right

66
S> > > I BECOME A CARPENTER KK Ke

again, worked quite out, and made me a door to come out, on
the outside of my pale or fortification.

This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were a back-
way to my tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room to stow
my goods.

And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary
things as I found I most wanted, as particularly a chair and a
table; for without these I was not able to enjoy the few comforts
Thad in the world; I could not write or eat, or do several things
with so much pleasure without a table.

So I went to work; and here I must needs observe, that as
reason is the substance and original of the mathematics, so by
stating and squaring every thing by reason, and by making the
most rational judgment of things, every man may be in time
master of every mechanic art. I had never handled a tool in my
life, and yet in time by labor, application and contrivance, I
found at last that I wanted nothing but I could have made it,
especially if I had had tools; however, I made abundance of
things, even without tools, and some with no more tools than an
adze and a hatchet, which perhaps were never made that way
before, and that with infinite labor. For example, if I wanted a
board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree, set it on an
edge before me, and hew it flat on either side with my axe, till I
had brought it to be thin as a plank, and then dubb it smooth
with my adze. It is true by this method I could make but one
board out of a whole tree, but this I had no remedy for but
patience, any more than I had for the prodigious deal of time
and labor which it took me up to make a plank or board. But
my time or labor was little worth, and so it was as well employed
one way as another.

However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above,
in the first place, and this I did out of the short pieces of boards
that I brought on my raft from the ship. But when I had wrought
out some boards, as above, I made large shelves of the breadth of
a foot and a half, one over another, all along one side of my cave,
to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work, and in a word, to sep-
arate every thing at large in their places, that I might come
easily at them; I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock to
hang my guns and all things that would hang up.

So that had my cave been to be seen, it looked like a general

67
SPs Rosinson Crusor REE

magazine of all necessary things, and I had everything so ready
at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me to see all my goods
in such order, and especially to find my stock of all necessaries
So great.

And now it was when I began to keep a journal of every
day’s employment, for indeed at first I was in too much hurry,
and not only hurry as to labor, but in too much discomposure
of mind, and my journal would have been full of many dull
things. For example, I must have said thus: September the 3oth.
After I got to shore and had escaped drowning, instead of being
thankful to God for my deliverance, having first vomited with
the great quantity of salt water which was gotten into my
stomach, and recovering myself a little, I ran about the shore,
wringing my hands and beating my head and face, exclaiming
at my misery, and crying out I was undone, undone, till tired
and faint I was forced to lie down on the ground to repose, but
durst not sleep for fear of being devoured.

Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship,
and got all that I could out of her, yet I could not forbear getting
up to the top of a little mountain and looking out to sea in hopes
of seeing a ship, then fancy at a vast distance I spied a sail, please
myself with the hopes of it, and then after looking steadily until
I was almost blind, lose it quite, and sit down and weep like a
child, and thus increase my misery by my folly.

But having gotten over these things in some measure, and
having settled my household stuff and habitation, made me a
table and a chair, and all as handsome about me as I could, I
began to keep my journal, of which I shall here give you the
copy (though in it will be told all these particulars over again)
as long as it lasted, for having no more ink I was forced to leave
it off.

The Journal

EPTEMBER 30, 1659. I, poor, miserable Robinson Crusoe,
S being shipwrecked during a dreadful storm, in the offing,
came on shore on this dismal, unfortunate island, which I called
the Island of Despair, all the rest of the ship’s company being
drowned, and myself almost dead.

All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting myself at the dismal

68
ee
DP DP > My Journat Kee Ke

circumstances I was brought to, viz: I had neither food, house,
clothes, weapon, or place to fly to, and in despair of any relief,
saw nothing but death before me, either that I should be de-
voured by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or starved to death
for want of food. At the approach of night, I slept in a tree for
fear of wild creatures, but slept soundly though it rained all
night.

October 1. In the morning I saw to my great surprise the ship
had floated with the high tide, and was driven on shore again
much nearer the island, which as it was some comfort on one
hand, for seeing her sit upright, and not broken to pieces, I
hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board, and get some
food and necessaries out of her for my relief; so on the other
hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades, who I
imagined if we had all staid on board might have saved the ship,
or at least that they would not have been all drowned as they
were; and that had the men been saved, we might perhaps have
built us a boat out of the ruins of the ship, to have carried us
to some other part of the world. I spent great part of this day
in perplexing myself on these things; but at length, seeing the
ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as near as I could, and
then swam on board; this day also it continued raining, though
with no wind at all.

From the 1st of October to the 24th. All these days entirely
spent in many several voyages to get all I could out of the ship,
which I brought on shore, every tide of flood, upon rafts.
Much rain also in these days, though with some intervals of fair
weather. But it seems this was the rainy season.

October 20. I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got
upon it, but being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly
heavy, I recovered many of them when the tide was out.

October 25. It rained all night and all day, with some gusts
of wind, during which time the ship broke in pieces, the wind
blowing a little harder than before, and was no more to be seen,
except the wreck of her, and that only at low water. I spent
this day in covering and securing the goods which I had saved,
that the rain might not spoil them.

October 26. I walked about the shore almost all day to find
out a place to fix my habitation, greatly concerned to secure
myself from an attack in the night, either from wild beasts or

69
Ss > RosBinson CRUSOE EEK

men. Towards night I fixed upon a proper place under a rock,
and marked out a semi-circle for my encampment, which I
resolved to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification made
of double piles, lined within with cables and without with turf.

From the 26th to the 30th I worked very hard in carrying
all my goods to my new habitation, though some part of the
time it rained exceeding hard.

The 31st, in the morning I went out into the island with my
gun to see for some food, and discover the country; when I
killed a she goat, and her kid followed me home, which I after-
wards killed also, because it would not feed.

November 1. I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there for
the first night, making it as large as I could with stakes driven
in to swing my hammock upon.

November 2. I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces
of timber which made my rafts, and with them formed a fence
round me, a little within the place I had marked out for my
fortification.

November 3. I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls
like ducks which were very good food. In the afternoon went
to work to make me a table.

November 4. This morning I began to order my times of
work, of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of
diversion, viz: Every morning I walked out with my gun for
two or three hours if it did not rain, then employed myself to
work till about eleven o’clock, then eat what I had to live on,
and from twelve to two I lay down to sleep, the weather being
excessive hot, and then in the evening to work again; the work-
ing part of this day and of the next were wholly employed in
making my table, for I was yet but a very sorry workman,
though time and necessity made me a complete natural mechanic
soon after, as I believe it would do any one else.

November 5. This day I went abroad with my gun and my
dog, and killed a wild cat, her skin pretty soft, but her flesh
good for nothing. Every creature I killed, I took off the skins
and preserved them. Coming back by the seashore, I saw many
sorts of sea fowls, which I did not understand; but was surprised,
and almost frighted with two or three seals, which, while I was
gazing at, not well knowing what they were, got into the sea,
and escaped me for that time.

70
Te WP AP My Journat Kee KE

November 6. After my morning walk I went to work with
my table again, and finished it, though not to my liking; nor was
it long before I learnt to mend it.

November 7. Now it begun to be settled fair weather. The
7th, 8th, oth, roth, and part of the r2th, (for the 11th was
Sunday) I took wholly up to make me a chair, and with much
ado brought it to a tolerable shape, but never to please me; and
even in the making I pulled it in pieces several times. Note.—I
soon neglected my keeping Sundays, for omitting my mark for
them on my post, I forgot which was which.

November 13. This day it rained, which refreshed me exceed-
ingly, and cooled the earth, but it was accompanied with terrible
thunder and lightning, which frighted me dreadfully, for fear of
my powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved to separate my
stock of powder into as many little parcels as possible, that it
might not be in danger.

November 14, 15, 16. These three days I spent in making
little square chests, or boxes, which might hold about a pound,
or two pounds at most, of powder; and so, putting the powder
in, I stowed it in places as secure and remote from one another
as possible. On one of these three days I killed a large bird that
was good to eat, but I know not what to call it.




November 17. This day I began to dig behind my tent into
the rock, to make room for my farther conveniency. Note.—
Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work, viz: a pick-axe,
a shovel, and a wheelbarrow or basket, so I desisted from my
work and began to consider how to supply that want and make
me some tools. As for a pick-axe, I made use of the iron crows,
which were proper enough though heavy. But the next thing
was a shovel or spade. This was so absolutely necessary that,
indeed, I could do nothing effectually without it; but what kind
of one to make I knew not.

November 18. The next day in searching the woods I founda
tree of that wood, or like it, which in the Brazils they call the
iron tree, for its exceeding hardness; of this, with great labor
and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece and brought it home,
too, with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy.

The excessive hardness of the wood, and having no other
way, made me a long while upon this machine, for I worked it
effectually by little and little into the form of a shovel or spade,
the handle exactly shaped like ours in England, only that the
broad part having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not
last me so long. However, it served well enough for the uses
which I had occasion to put it to; but never was a shovel, I
believe, made after that fashion, or so long a making.

I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket or a wheelbarrow;
a basket I could not make by any means, having no such things
as twigs that would bend to make wicker ware,—at least, none
yet found out; and as to a wheelbarrow, I fancied I could make
all but the wheel, but that I had no notion of, neither did I know
how to go about it; besides I had no possible way to make the
iron gudgeons for the spindle or axis of the wheel to run in, so I
gave it over; and so for carrying away the earth which I dug out
of the cave I made me a thing like a hod which the laborers
carry mortar in when they serve the bricklayers.

This was not so difficult to me as the making the shovel; and
yet this, and the shovel, and the attempt which I made in vain
to make a wheelbarrow took me up no less than four days,—I
mean, always, excepting my morning walk with my gun, which
I seldom failed, and very seldom failed, also, bringing home
something fit to eat.

November 23. My other work having now stood still because

72




S> > > My Journat Ke Ke KH

of my making these tools, when they were finished I went on,
and working every day as my strength and time allowed, I spent
eighteen days entirely in widening and deepening my cave,
that it might hold my goods commodiously.

Note.—During all this time I worked to make this room, or
cave, spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse, or
magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room and a cellar. As for my
lodging, I kept to the tent, except that sometimes in the wet
season of the year it rained so hard that I could not keep myself
dry, which caused me afterwards to cover all my place within
my pale with long poles in the form of rafters, leaning against
the rock, and load them with flags and large leaves of trees, like
a thatch.

December 10. I began now to think my cave, or vault,
finished, when, on a sudden, (it seems I had made it too large,)
a great quantity of earth fell down from the top and one side,
so much that, in short, it frighted me, and not without reason,
too, for if ] had been under it I had never wanted a grave-digger.
Upon this disaster I had a great deal of work to do over again,
for I had the loose earth to carry out, and which was of more
importance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure
no more would come down.

December 11. This day I went to work with it accordingly,
and got two shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with two
pieces of boards across over each post. This I finished the next
day, and setting more posts up with boards, in about a week
more I had the roof secured; and the posts standing in rows
served me for partitions to part off my house.

December 17. From this day to the twentieth I placed shelves,
and knocked up nails on the posts to hang everything up that
could be hung up, and now I began to be in some order within
doors.

December 20. Now I carried everything into the cave, and
began to furnish my house, and set up some pieces of boards,
like a dresser, to order my victuals upon, but boards began to
be very scarce with me; also I made me another table.

December 24. Much rain all night and all day, no stirring out.

December 25. Rain all day.

December 26. No rain, and the earth much cooler than before
and pleasanter.

73
SHsHs —sdRowrnson Cruson ERE

December 27. Killed a young goat, and lamed another so
that I caught it, and led it home ina string. When I had it home,
I bound and splintered up its leg which was broke. N. B.—I took
such care of it, that it lived, and the leg grew well, and as strong
as ever; but by my nursing it so long it grew tame, and fed upon
the little green at my door, and would not go away. This was
the first time that I entertained a thought of breeding up some
tame creatures, that I might have food when my powder and
shot was all spent.

December 28, 29, 30. Great heats and no breeze; so that there
was no stirring abroad, except in the evening for food. This
time I spent in putting all my things in order within doors.

January 1. Very hot still, but I went abroad early and late
with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day. This evening,
going farther into the valleys which lay towards the center of
the island, I found there was plenty of goats, though exceeding
shy and hard to come at; however, I resolved to try if I could
not bring my dog to hunt them down.

January 2. Accordingly, the next day, I went out with my
dog, and set him upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for they
all faced about upon the dog, and he knew his danger too well,
for he would not come near them.

_~ January 3.1 began my fence or wall; which, being still jealous
of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very
thick and strong.

N. B.—This wall being described before, I purposely omit
what was said in the journal. It is sufficient to observe, that I
was no less time than from the third of January to the fourteenth
of April, working, finishing and perfecting this wall, though it
was no more than about twenty-four yards in length, being a
half circle from one place in the rock to another place about
eight yards from it, the door of the cave being in the centre
behind it.

All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me many
days, nay, sometimes weeks together; but I thought I should
never be perfectly secure till this wall was finished; and it is
scarce credible what inexpressible labor everything was done
with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods, and driving
them into the ground, for I made them much bigger than I need
to have done.

74
———e~i~_~e~E~E=E~E-ieE~—eEieE~->~»a—a—eEiEie—>—*x*K=zz:z:7yx[z7xz{&@[=Trl__—_L_>e@————eeeeee_e_ee_—_—_ =
35> > > Tue Bac or Corn KE Ke KE

When this wall was finished, and the outside double fenced
with a turf wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that if
any people were to come on shore there, they would not per-
ceive anything like a habitation; and it was very well I did so,
as may be observed hereafter upon a very remarkable occasion.

During this time I made my rounds in the woods for game
every day when the rain admitted me, and made frequent dis-
coveries in these walks of something or other to my advantage;
particularly I found a kind of wild pigeons, who built not as
wood pigeons, in a tree, but rather as house pigeons, in the holes
of the rocks, and taking some young ones I endeavored to breed
them up tame, and did so; but when they grew older they flew
all away, which perhaps was at first for want of feeding them,
for I had nothing to give them. However, I frequently found
their nests and got their young ones, which were very good
meat.

And now, in the managing my household affairs I found
myself wanting in many things, which I thought at first it was
impossible for me to make, as, indeed, as to some of them it was.
For instance, I could never make a cask to be hooped. I had a
small runlet or two, as I observed before, but I could never
arrive to the capacity of making one by them, though I spent
many weeks about it. I could neither put in the heads or joint
the staves so true to one another as to make them hold water, so
I gave that, also, over.

In the next place I was at a great loss for candles, so that as
soon as ever it was dark, which was generally by seven o’clock,
I was obliged to go to bed. I remembered the lump of bees-wax
with which I made candles in my African adventure, but I had
none of that now; the only remedy I had was that when I had
killed a goat I saved the tallow, and with a little dish made of
clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I added a wick of some
oakum, I made me a lamp; and this gave me light, though not a
clear, steady light, like a candle.

In the middle of all my labors it happened, that, rummaging
my things, I found a little bag, which, as I hinted before, had
been filled with corn for the feeding of poultry, not for this
voyage but before, as I suppose, when the ship came from
Lisbon. What little remainder of corn had been in the bag was
all devoured with the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but

75




SS Robinson Crusor Kee

husks and dust, and being willing to have the bag for some other
use, (I think it was to put powder in when I divided it for fear
of the lightning, or some such use,) I shook the husks of corn
out of it on one side of my fortification, under the rock.

It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned that
I threw this stuff away, taking no notice of anything, and not
so much as remembering that I had thrown anything there,
when, about a month after, or thereabout, I saw some few stalks
of something green shooting out of the ground, which I fancied
might be some plant I had not seen; but I was surprised and
perfectly astonished when, after a little longer time, I saw about
ten or twelve ears come out, which were perfect green barley,
of the same kind as our European, nay, as our English barley.

It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion
of my thoughts on this occasion. I had hitherto acted upon no
religious foundation at all; indeed, I had very few notions of
religion in my head, or had entertained any sense of anything
that had befallen me otherwise than asa chance, or, as we lightly
say, what pleases God, without so much as enquiring into the
end of Providence in these things, or his order in governing
events in the world. But after I saw barley grow there, in a
climate which I knew was not proper for corn, and especially
that I knew not how it came there, it startled me strangely, and
I began to suggest that God had miraculously caused this grain
to grow without any help of seed sown, and that it was so
directed purely for my sustenance on that wild, miserable place.

This touched my heart a little and brought tears out of my
eyes, and I began to bless myself that such a prodigy of nature
should happen upon my account; and this was the more strange
to me because I saw near it still all along by the side of the rock
some other straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks of rice,
and which I knew, because I had seen it grow in Africa when I
was ashore there.

I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence
for my support, but not doubting but that there was more in
the place, I went all over that part of the island, where I had
been before, peering in every corner, and under every rock, to
seek for more of it, but I could not find any; at last it occurred
to my thoughts, that I had shook a bag of chicken’s meat out in
that place, and then the wonder began to cease; and I must

76
lll ee
PH) > MIRACLE oF THE CORN OO

confess, my religious thankfulness to God’s providence began
to abate, too, upon the discovering that all this was nothing but
what was common; though I ought to have been as thankful
for so strange and unforeseen Providence, as if it had been
miraculous; for it was really the work of Providence as to me,
that should order or appoint, that ten or twelve grains of corn
should remain unspoiled (when the rats had destroyed all the
rest), as if it had been dropped from Heaven; asalso that I should
throw it out in that particular place, where it being in the shade
of a high rock, it sprang up immediately; whereas, if I had
thrown it anywhere else at that time, it had been burnt up and
destroyed.

I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in
their season, which was about the end of June; and laying up
every corn, I resolved to sow them all again, hoping in time to
have some quantity sufficient to supply me with bread. But it
was not till the fourth year, that I could allow myself the least
grain of this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly, as I shall
say afterwards in its order; for I lost all that I sowed the first
season, by not observing the proper time; for I sowed it just
before the dry season, so that it never came up at all, at least, not
as it would have done. Of which in its place.

Besides this barley, there was, as above, twenty or thirty stalks
of rice, which I preserved with the same care, and whose use
was of the same kind or to the same purpose, viz: to make me
bread, or rather food; for I found ways to cook it up without
baking, though I did that also after some time. But to return to
my journal.

I worked excessive hard these three or four months to get _
my wall done, and the rqth of April I closed it up, contriving
to go into it, not by a door, but over the wall by a ladder, that
there might be no sign in the outside of my habitation.

April 16. I finished the ladder, so I went up with the ladder
to the top, and then pulled it up after me, and let it down on
the inside. This was a complete enclosure to me; for within I
had room enough, and nothing could come at me from without,
unless it could first mount my wall.

The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost
had all my labor overthrown at once, and myself killed; the
case was thus: As I was busy in the inside of it, behind my tent,

77
S45 o> Rosinson Crusoe Bomosod

just in the entrance into my cave, I was terribly frighted with
a most dreadful, surprising thing indeed; for all on a sudden I
found the earth come crumbling down from the roof of my
cave, and from the edge of the hill over my head, and two of
the posts I had set up in the cave cracked in a frightful manner.
I was heartily scared, but thought nothing of what was really
the cause, only thinking that the top of my cave was falling in,
as some of it had done before, and for fear I should be buried
in it, I ran forward to my ladder, and not thinking myself safe
there neither, I got over my wall for fear of the pieces of the hill
which I expected might roll down upon me. I was no sooner
stepped down upon the firm ground, but I plainly saw it was a
terrible earthquake, for the ground I stood on shook three times
at about eight minutes distance, with three such shocks as would
have overturned the strongest building that could be supposed
to have stood on the earth; and a great piece of the top of a
rock, which stood about half a mile from me next to the sea,
fell down with such a terrible noise as I never heard in all my
life. I perceived also, the very sea was put into violent motion by
it; and I believe the shocks were stronger under the water than
on the island.

I was so amazed with the thing itself, having never felt the
like, or discoursed with any one that had, that I was like one
dead or stupefied; and the motion of the earth made my stomach
sick, like one that was tossed at sea; but the noise of the falling
of the rock awakened me, as it were, and rousing me from the
stupefied condition I was in, filled me with horror, and I thought
of nothing then but the hill falling upon my tent and all my
household goods, and burying all at once; and this sunk my very
soul within mea second time.

After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some
tme, I began to take courage, and yet I had not heart enough to
go over my wall again, for fear of being buried alive, but sat still
upon the ground, greatly cast down and disconsolate, not know-
ing what to do. All this while I had not the least serious religious
thoughts, nothing but the common “Lord have mercy upon
me”; and when it was over that went away too.

While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow cloudy,
as if it would rain; soon after that the wind rose by little and
little, so that in less than half an hour it blew a most dreadful

8
EEE ______ 2
Se > EarRTHQUAKE AND STORM 6 Q&4&&

hurricane. The sea was all on a sudden covered over with foam
and froth, the shore was covered with the breach of the water,
the trees were torn up by the roots, and a terrible storm it was;
and this held about three hours, and then began to abate, and
in two hours more it was stark calm, and began to rain very hard.

All this while I sat upon the ground very much terrified and
dejected, when on a sudden it came into my thoughts, that these
winds and rain being the consequences of the earthquake, the
earthquake itself was spent and over, and I might venture into
my cave again. With this thought my spirits began to revive,
and the rain also helping to persuade me, I went in and sat down
in my tent, but the rain was so violent, that my tent was ready
to be beaten down with it, and I was forced to go into my cave,
though very much afraid and uneasy for fear it should fall on
my head.

This violent rain forced me to a new work, viz: To cut a hole
through my new fortification like a sink to let the water go out,
which would else have drowned my cave. After I had been in
my cave some time, and found still no more shocks of the earth-
quake follow, I began to be more composed; and now to support
my spirits, which indeed wanted it very much, I went to my
little store and took a small sup of rum, which, however, I did
then and always very sparingly, knowing I could have no more
when that was gone.

It continued raining all that night, and a great part of the next
day, so that I could not stir abroad, but my mind being more
composed, I began to think of what I had best do, concluding
that if the island was subject to these earthquakes, there would
be no living for me in a cave; but I must consider of building me
some little hut in an open place which I might surround with a
wall as I had done here, and so make myself secure from wild
beasts or men; but concluded, if I staid where I was, I should
certainly, one time or another, be buried alive.

With these thoughts I resolved to remove my tent from the
place where it stood, which was just under the hanging precipice
of the hill, and which, if it should be shaken again, would cer-
tainly fall upon my tent. And I spent the two next days, being
the roth and 2oth of April, in contriving where and how to
remove my habitation.

The fear of being swallowed up alive, made me that I never

79


Ss 5 RoBinson CRUSOE Ee Ke

slept in quiet, and yet the apprehension of lying abroad without
any fence was almost equal to it; but still when I looked about
and saw how everything was put in order, how pleasantly con-
cealed I was, and how safe from danger, it made me very loth
to remove.

In the meantime it occurred to me that it would require a
vast deal of time for me to do this, and that I must be contented
to run the venture where I was, till I had formed a camp for
myself, and had secured it so as to remove to it. So with this
resolution I composed myself for a time, and resolved that I
would go to work with all speed to build me a wall with piles
and cables, etc., in a circle as before, and set my tent up in it
when it was finished, but that I would venture to stay where I
was till it was finished and fit to remove to. This was the 21st.

April 22. The next morning I began to consider of means to
put this resolve in execution, but I was at a great loss about my
tools; I had three large axes and abundance of hatchets, (for
we carried the hatchets for traffic with the Indians), but with
much chopping and cutting knotty hard wood, they were all
full of notches and dull, and though I had a grind-stone, I could
not turn it and grind my tools too; this cost me as much thought
as a statesman would have bestowed upon a grand point of
politics, or a judge upon the life and death of a man. At length
I contrived a wheel with a string, to turn it with my foot, that
I might have both my hands at liberty. Note.—I had never seen
any such thing in England, or at least not to take notice how it
was done, though since I have observed it is very common there;
besides that, my grind-stone was very large and heavy. This
machine cost me a full week’s work to bring it to perfection.

April 28, 29. These two whole days I took up in grinding my
tools, my machine for turning my grind-stone performing very
well.

April 30. Having perceived my bread had been low a great
while, now I took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one
biscuit-cake a day, which made my heart very heavy.

May tr. In the morning, looking towards the sea-side, the tide
being low, Isaw something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary,
and it looked like a cask; when I came to it, I found a small
barrel, and two or three pieces of the wreck of the ship, which
were driven on shore by the late hurricane; and looking towards

80




fe Se
SPP > Tue Suip Is Movep Ke Ko ee

the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher out of the
water, than it used to do; I examined the barrel which was driven
on shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder, but it
had taken water, and the powder was caked as hard as a stone;
however, I rolled it farther on shore for the present, and went
on upon the sands as near as I could to the wreck of the ship to
look for more.

When I came down to the ship I found it strangely removed;
the fore-castle, which lay before buried in sand, was heaved up
at least six foot; and the stern, which was broke to pieces and






a Rosineow Givsor Cae

parted from the rest by the force of the sea soon after I had left
rummaging her, was tossed, as it were, up, and cast on one side,
and the sand was thrown so high on that side next her stern,
that, whereas, there was a great place of water before, so that
I could not come within a quarter of a mile of the wreck without
swimming, I could now walk quite up to her when the tide was
out; I was surprised with this at first, but soon concluded it must
be done by the earthquake. And as by this violence the ship was
more broken open than formerly, so many things came daily on
shore, which the sea had loosened, and which the winds and
water rolled by degrees to the land.

This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of remov-
ing my habitation; and I busied myself mightily that day
especially, in searching whether I could make any way into
the ship; but I found nothing was to be expected of that kind,
for that all the inside of the ship was choked up with sand.
However, as I had learned not to despair of anything, I resolved
to pull everything to pieces that I could of the ship, concluding,
that everything I could get from her would be of some use or
other to me.

May 3. I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam
through, which I thought held some of the upper part or
quarter-deck together, and when I had cut it through, I cleared
away the sand as well as I could from the side which lay highest;
but the tide coming in, I was obliged to give over for that time.

May 4. I went a fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst
eat of, till I was weary of my sport; when just going to leave
off, I caught a young dolphin. I had made me a long line of
some rope yarn, but I had no hooks, yet I frequently caught
fish enough, as much as I cared to eat; all which I dried in the
sun, and eat them dry.

May 5. Worked on the wreck, cut another beam asunder,
and brought three great fir planks off from the decks, which I
tied together, and made swim on shore, when the tide of flood
came on.

May 6. Worked on the wreck, got several iron bolts out of
her, and other pieces of iron work; worked very hard, and came
home very much tired, and had thoughts of giving it over.

May 7. Went to the wreck again, but with an intent not to
work, but found the weight of the wreck had broke itself down,

82
LLL
Ss TL Worconrue Wreck eG

the beams being cut, that several pieces of the ship seemed to lie
loose, and the inside of the hold lay so open, that I could see
into it, but almost full of water and sand.

May 8. Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to
wrench up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the water or
sand; I wrenched open two planks, and brought them on shore
also with the tide; I left the iron crow in the wreck for next day.

May 9. Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way
into the body of the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened
them with the crow, but could not break them up; I felt also the
roll of English lead, and could stir it, but it was too heavy to
remove.

May 10, 11, 12, 13, 14. Went every day to the wreck, and got
a great deal of pieces of timber, and boards, or plank, and two
or three hundred weight of iron.

May 15. I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a
piece off the roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet,
and driving it with the other; but as it lay about a foot and a
half in the water, I could not make any blow to drive the hatchet.

May 16. It had blowed hard in the night, and the wreck
appeared more broken by the force of the water; but I stayed
so long in the woods to get pigeons for food, that the tide
prevented me going to the wreck that day.

May 17. I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore, at
a great distance, near two miles off me, but resolved to see what
they were, and found it was a piece of the head, but too heavy
for me to bring away.

May 24. Every day to this day I worked on the wreck, and
with hard labor I loosened some things so much with the crow,
that the first blowing tide several casks floated out, and two of
the seamen’s chests; but the wind blowing from the shore,
nothing came to land that day, but pieces of timber, and a hogs-
head which had some Brazil pork in it, but the salt water and
the sand had spoiled it.

I continued this work every day to the 15th of June, except
the time necessary to get food, which I always appointed, dur-
ing this part of my employment, to be when the tide was up,
that I might be ready when it was ebbed out, and by this time I
had gotten timber, and plank, and iron work enough, to have
builded a good boat, if I had known how; and also, I got at

83


a ee eee
Ss Rosinson Crusoe KOKO KE

several times, and in several pieces, near one hundred weight
of the sheet lead.

June 16. Going down to the seaside, I found a large tortoise
or turtle; this was the first I had seen, which it seems was only
my misfortune, not any defect of the place, or scarcity; for had
I happened to be on the other side of the island, I might have
had hundreds of them every day, as I found afterwards; but
perhaps had paid dear enough for them.

June 17. I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her three
score eggs, and her flesh was to me, at that time, the most savory
and pleasant that ever I tasted in my life, having had no flesh
but of goats and fowls since I landed in this horrid place.

June 18. Rained all day, and I stayed within. I thought at this
time the rain felt cold, and I was something chilly, which I
knew was not usual in that latitude.

June 19. Very ill and shivering, as if the weather had been
cold.

June 20. No rest all night; violent pains in my head and
feverish.

June 21. Very ill; frighted almost to death with the appre-
hensions of my sad condition,—to be sick and no help. Prayed
to God for the first time since the storm off of Hull, but scarce
knew what I said, or why, my thoughts being all confused.

June 22. A little better, but under dreadful apprehensions of
sickness.

June 23. Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a
violent headache.

June 24. Much better.

June 25. An ague very violent. The fit held me seven hours,
cold fit and hot, with faint sweats after it.

June 26. Better; and having no victuals to eat took my gun,
but found myself very weak. However, I killed a she-goat,
and with much difficulty got it home and broiled some of it and
eat. I would fain have stewed it and made some broth, but had
no pot.

June 27. The ague again so violent that I lay abed all day,
and neither eat or drank. I was ready to perish for thirst, but
so weak I had not strength to stand up, or to get myself any
water to drink. Prayed to God again, but was light-headed, and
when I was not I was so ignorant that I knew not what to say,

84


ss s> I Dream oF SATAN Ke ee Ke

only I lay and cried, “Lord, look upon me! Lord, pity me! Lord,
have mercy upon me!” I suppose I did nothing else for two or
three hours, till, the fit wearing off, I fell asleep and did not
wake till far in the night. When I waked I found myself much
refreshed but weak and exceeding thirsty. However, asI had no
water in my whole habitation, I was forced to lie till morning,
and went to sleep again. In this second sleep I had this terrible
dream.

I thought that I was sitting on the ground on the outside of
my wall, where I sat when the storm blew after the earthquake,
and that I saw a man descend from a great black cloud, in a
bright flame of fire, and light upon the ground. He was all over
as bright as a flame, so that I could but just bear to look towards
him. His countenance was most inexpressively dreadful, impos-
sible for words to describe. When he stepped upon the ground
with his feet I thought the earth trembled, just as it had done
before in the earthquake, and all the air looked, to my appre-
hension, as if it had been filled with flashes of fire.

He was no sooner landed upon the earth but he moved
towards me, with a long spear, or weapon, in his hand, to kill
me, and when he came to a rising ground, at some distance, he
spoke to me, or I heard a voice so terrible that it is impossible to
express the terror of it. All that I can say I understood was this:
“Seeing all these things have not brought thee to repentance,
now thou shalt die.” At which words I thought he lifted up the
spear that was in his hand to kill me.

No one that shall ever read this account will expect that I
should be able to describe the horrors of my soul at this terrible
vision; I mean, that even while it was a dream, I even dreamed of
those horrors. Nor is it any more possible to describe the impres-
sion that remained upon my mind when I awaked and found
it was but a dream.

Thad, alas! no divine knowledge. What I had received by the
good instruction of my father was then worn out by an unin-
terrupted series, for eight years, of seafaring wickedness, and a
constant conversation with nothing but such as were like myself,
—wicked and profane to the last degree. I do not remember that
Thad in all that time one thought that so much as tended either
to looking upwards towards God, or inwards towards a reflec-
tion upon my own ways. Buta certain stupidity of soul, without

85
————————~———————
SH Ps RosBinson Crusoe KEKE
wae ROBINSON CRUSOE EEK

desire of good or conscience of evil, had entirely overwhelmed
me, and I was all that the most hardened, unthinking, wicked
creature among our common sailors can be supposed to be, not
having the least sense either of the fear of God in danger, or of
thankfulness to God in deliverances.

In the relating what is already past of my story, this will be
the more easily believed, when I shall add, that through all the
variety of miseries that had to this day befallen me, I never had
so much as one thought of it being the hand of God, or that
it was a just punishment for my sin; my rebellious behavior
against my father, or my present sins which were great; or so
much as a punishment for the general course of my wicked life.
When I was on the desperate expedition on the desert shores of
Africa, I never had so much as one thought of what would
become of me; or one wish to God to direct me whither I should
go, or to keep me from the danger which apparently surrounded
me, as well from voracious creatures as cruel savages. But I was
merely thoughtless of a God, or a Providence; acted like a mere
brute from the principles of nature, and by the dictates of
common sense only, and indeed hardly that.

When I was delivered and taken up at sea by the Portugal
captain, well used, and dealt justly and honorably with, as well
as charitably, I had not the least thankfulness on my thoughts.
When again I was shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger of
drowning on this island, I was as far from remorse, or looking
on it as a judgment; I only said to myself often, that I was an
unfortunate dog, and born to be always miserable.

It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found all my
ship’s crew drowned, and myself spared, I was surprised with a
kind of ecstasy, and some transports of soul, which, had the
grace of God assisted, might have come up to true thankfulness;
but it ended where it begun, in a mere common flight of joy, or,
as I may say, being glad I was alive, without the least reflection
upon the distinguishing goodness of the hand which had pre-
served me, and had singled me out to be preserved, when all the
rest were destroyed; even just the same common sort of joy
which seamen generally have after they are got safe ashore
from a shipwreck, which they drown all in the next bow! of
punch, and forget almost as soon as it is over, and all the rest
of my life was like it.

86
EEE
S> > > I Fatt Into a Fever Kee Ke

Even when I was afterwards, on due consideration, made
sensible of my condition, how I was cast on this dreadful place,
out of the reach of human kind, out of all hope of relief, or
prospect of redemption, as soon as I saw but a prospect of living,
and that I should not starve and perish for hunger, all the sense
of my affliction wore off, and I begun to be very easy, applied
myself to the works proper for my preservation and supply,
and was far enough from being afflicted at my condition, as a
judgment from Heaven, or as the hand of God against me; these
were thoughts which very seldom entered into my head.

The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my journal, had
at first some little influence upon me, and began to affect me
with seriousness, as long as I thought it had something miracu-
lous in it; but as soon as ever that part of the thought was
removed, all the impression which was raised from it, wore off
also, as I have noted already.

Even the earthquake, though nothing could be more terrible
in its nature, or more immediately directing to the invisible
power which alone directs such things, yet no sooner was the
first fright over, but the impression it had made went off also. I
had no more sense of God or his judgments, much less of the
present affliction of my circumstances being from his hand, than
if I had been in the most prosperous condition of life.

But now when I began to be sick, anda leisurely view of the
miseries of death came to place itself before me; when my spirits
began to sink under the burden of a strong distemper, and
nature was exhausted with the violence of the fever; conscience,
that had slept so long, begun to awake, and I began to reproach
myself with my past life, in which I had so evidently, by uncom-
mon wickedness, provoked the justice of God to lay me under
uncommon strokes, and to deal with me in so vindictive a
manner.

These reflections oppressed me for the second or third day of
my distemper, and in the violence, as well of the fever, as of the
dreadful reproaches of my conscience, extorted some words
from me like praying to God, though I cannot say they were
either a prayer attended with desires or with hopes. It was rather
the voice of mere fright and distress; my thoughts were con-
fused, the convictions great upon my mind, and the horror of
dying in such a miserable condition raised vapors into my head

87


with the mere apprehensions; and in these hurries of my soul,
I know not what my tongue might express; but it was rather
exclamation, such as, “Lord! what a miserable creature am I! If I
should be sick, I shall certainly die for want of help, and what
will become of me?” Then the tears burst out of my eyes, and
I could say no more fora good while.

In this interval the good advice of my father came to my
mind; and presently his prediction, which I mentioned at the
beginning of this story, viz: That if I did take this foolish step,
God would not bless me, and I would have leisure hereafter to
reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there might be
none to assist in my recovery. Now, said I aloud, my dear
father’s words are come to pass. God’s justice has overtaken me,
and I have none to help or hear me. I rejected the voice of
Providence, which had mercifully put me in a posture or station
of life wherein I might have been happy and easy; but I would
neither see it myself, or learn to know the blessing of it from
my parents. I left them to mourn over my folly, and now I am
left to mourn under the consequences of it. I refused their help
and assistance who would have lifted me into the world, and
would have made everything easy to me, and now I have diffi-
culties to struggle with, too great for even nature itself to
support, and no assistance, no help, no comfort, no advice. Then
I cried out, “Lord, be my help, for Iam in great distress.”

This was the first prayer, if I may call it so, that I had made
for many years. But I return to my journal.

June 28. Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I
had had, and the fit being entirely off, I got up; and though the
fright and terror of my dream was very great, yet I considered
that the fit of the ague would return again the next day, and
now was my time to get something to refresh and support my-
self when I should be ill; and the first thing I did, I filled a large
square case bottle with water, and set it upon my table, in reach
of my bed; and to take off the chill or aguish disposition of the
water, I put about a quarter of a pint of rum into it, and mixed
them together; then I got mea piece of goat’s flesh, and I broiled
it on the coals, but could eat very little. I walked about, but was
very weak, and withal very sad and heavy hearted in the sense
of my miserable condition, dreading the return of my distemper
the next day. At night I made my supper of three of the turtle’s

88
eee. —_
spe> Turk on Gop’s Power 46464

eggs, which I roasted in the ashes, and eat, as we call it, in the
shell; and this was the first bit of meat I had ever asked God’s
blessing to, even asI could remember, in my whole life.

After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself so weak
that I could hardly carry the gun, (for I never went out without
that), so I went buta little way, and sat down upon the ground,
looking out upon the sea, which was just before me, and very
calm and smooth. As I sat here, some such thoughts as these
occurred to me.

What is this earth and sea of which I have seen so much,
whence is it produced, and what am I, andall the other creatures,
wild and tame, humane and brutal, whence are we?

Sure, we are all made by some secret Power, who formed
the earth and sea, the air and sky. And who is that?

Then it followed most naturally: It is God that has made
it all. Well, but then it came on strangely, if God has made all
these things He guides and governs them all, and all things that
concern them, for the power that could make all things must
certainly have power to guide and direct them.

If so, nothing can happen in the great circuit of his works
either without His knowledge or appointment.

And if nothing happens without His knowledge, He knows
that I am here and am in this dreadful condition; and if nothing
happens without His appointment, he has appointed all this to
befall me.

Nothing occurred to my thoughts to contradict any of these
conclusions, and therefore it rested upon me with the greater
force that it must needs be that God had appointed all this to
befall me, that I was brought to this miserable circumstance by
His direction, He having the sole power not of me only, but of
everything that happened in the world. Immediately it followed:

Why has God done this to me? What have I done to be thus
used?

My conscience presently checked me in that enquiry, as if I
had blasphemed, and methought it spoke to me like a voice:
“Wretch! dost thou ask what thou hast done? Look back upon
a dreadful, mis-spent life, and ask thyself what thou hast not
done. Ask, ‘Why is it that thou wert not long ago destroyed?
Why wert thou not drowned in Yarmouth Roads? Killed in
the fight when the ship was taken by the Sallee man-of-war?

89
Ds 5 Robinson Crusoe KEKE KE
cee ee eee ARREARS

Devoured by the wild beasts on the coast of Africa? Or drowned
here when all the crew perished but thyself?’ Dost thou ask,
‘What have I done?’ ”

I was struck dumb by these reflections, as one astonished, and
had not a word to say, no, not to answer to myself, but rose up
pensive and sad, walked back to my retreat, and went up over
my wall, as if I had been going to bed; but my thoughts were
sadly disturbed, and I had no inclination to sleep, so I sat down
in my chair and lighted my lamp, for it began to be dark. Now,
as the apprehension of the return of my distemper terrified me
very much, it occurred to my thought that the Brazilians take
no physic but their tobacco for almost all distempers, and I had
a piece of a roll of tobacco in one of the chests, which was quite
cured, and some also that was green and not quite cured.

I went, directed by Heaven, no doubt, for in this chest I
found a cure both for soul and body. I opened the chest and
found what I looked for, viz: the tobacco; and as the few books
I had saved lay there too, I took out one of the Bibles which I
mentioned before, and which to this time I had not found lei-
sure, or so much as inclination to look into. I say I took it out,
and brought both that and the tobacco with me to the table.

What use to make of the tobacco I knew Not, as to my dis-
temper, or whether it was good for it or no; but I tried several
experiments with it, as if I was resolved it should hit one way or
other. I first took a piece of a leaf and chewed it in my mouth,
which, indeed, at first almost stupefied my brain, the tobacco
being green and strong, and that I had not been much used to
it. Then I took some and steeped it an hour or two in some rum,
and resolved to take a dose of it when I lay down. And, lastly,
I burnt some upon a pan of coals, and held my nose close over
the smoke of it as long as I could bear it, as well for the heat as
almost for suffocation.

In the interval of this operation I took up the Bible and began
to read, but my head was too much disturbed with the tobacco
to bear reading, at least that time. Only having opened the book
casually, the first words that occurred to me were these: “Call
on me in the day of trouble and I will deliver, and thou shale
glorify me.”

The words were very apt to my case, and made some impres-
sion upon my thoughts at the time of reading them, though not

go
so much as they did afterwards! for as for being delivered, the
Word had no sound, as I may say, to me. The thing was so
remote, so impossible in my apprehension of things, that I began
to say as the children of Israel did, when they were promised
flesh to eat, “Can God spread a table in the wilderness?” So I
began to say, Can God himself deliver me from this place? and
as it was not for many years that any hope appeared, this pre-
vailed very often upon my thoughts. But however, the words
made a great impression upon me, and I mused upon them very
often. It grew now late, and the tobacco had, as I said, dozed my
head so much, that I inclined to sleep; so I left my lamp burning
in the cave, lest I should want anything in the night, and went
to bed; but before I lay down, I did what I never had done in all
my life: I kneeled down and prayed to God to fulfill the promise
to me, that if I called upon him in the day of trouble, he would
deliver me. After my broken and imperfect prayer was over, I
drank the rum in which I had steeped the tobacco, which was
so strong and rank of the tobacco, that indeed I could scarce
get it down; immediately upon this I went to bed; I found
presently it flew up in my head violently, but I fell into a sound
sleep, and waked no more, until by the sun it must necessarily
be near three o’clock in the afternoon the next day; nay, to this
hour, I’m partly of the opinion, that I slept all the next day and
night, and till almost three the day after; for otherwise I knew
not how I should lose a day out of my reckoning in the days of
the week, as it appeared some years after I had done. For if I
had lost it by crossing and recrossing the line, I should have lost
more than one day. But certainly I lost a day in my account,
and never knew which way.

Be that however one way or the other, when I awaked I
found myself exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively and
cheerful; when I got up, I was stronger than I was the day
before, and my stomach better, for I was hungry; and in short,
Thad no fit the next day, but continued much altered for the
better; this was the 29th

The 30th was my rel BY of course, and I went abroad with
my gun, but did not care to travel too far. I killed a sea-fowl
or two, something like a brandt-goose, and brought them home,
but was not very forward to eat them; so I eat some more of
the turtle’s eggs, which were very good. This evening I renewed

gl


the medicine which I had supposed did me good the day before,
viz: the tobacco steeped in rum, only I did not take so much as
before, nor did I chew any of the leaf, or hold my head over
the smoke; however, I was not so well the next day, which was
the first of July, as I hoped I should have been; for I had a little
spice of the cold fit, but it was not much.

July 2. I renewed the medicine all the three ways, and dosed
myself with itas at first, and doubled the quantity which I drank.

3. I missed the fit for good and all, though I did not recover
my full strength for some weeks after. While I was thus gather-
ing strength, my thoughts run exceedingly upon this Scripture,
“T will deliver thee”; and the impossibility of my deliverance lay
much-pertmy mind in bar of my ever expecting it. But as I was
discouraging myself with such thoughts, ic occurred to my
mind, that I pored so much upon my deliverance from the main
affliction, that I disregarded the deliverance I had received; and
I was, as it were, made to ask myself such questions as these, viz:
Have I not been delivered, and wonderfully too, from sickness?
from the most distressed condition that could be, and that was
so frightful to me, and what notice had I taken of it? Had I
done my part? God had delivered me, but I had not glorified
him; that is to say, I had not owned and been thankful for that
as a deliverance, and how could I expect greater deliverance?

This touched my heart very much, and immediately I kneeled
down, and gave God thanks aloud for my recovery from my
sickness.

July 4. In the morning I took the Bible, and beginning at the
new testament, I began seriously to read it, and imposed upon
myself to read awhile every morning and every night, not tying
myself to the number of chapters, but as long as my thoughts
should engage me.|It was not long after I set seriously to this
work, but I found my heart more deeply and sincerely affected
with the wickedness of my past life. The impression of my
dream revived, and the words, “all these things have not brought
thee to repentance,” ran seriously in my thought. I was earnestly
begging of God to give me repentance, when it happened
providentially the very day that reading the Scripture, I came
to these words, “the is exalted a Prince and a Saviour, to give
repentance, and to give remission.” I threw down the book, and
with my heart as well as my hands lifted up to heaven, in a kind

g2




of ecstasy of joy, I cried out aloud, Jesus, thou son of David,
Jesus, thou exalted Prince and Saviour, give me repentance!

This was the first time that I could say, in the true sense of
the words, that I prayed in all my life; for now I prayed with
a sense of my condition, and with a true scripture view of hope
founded on the encouragement of the word of God; and from
this time, I may say, I began to have hope that God would
hear me. ;

Now I began to construe the words mentioned above, “call
on me, and I will deliver you,” in a different sense from what I
had ever done before; for then I had no notion of anything
being called deliverance, but my being delivered from the
captivity I was in; for though I was indeed at large in the place,
yet the island was certainly a prison to me, and that in the worst
sense in the world; but now I learned to take it in another sense.
Now I looked back upon my past life with such horror, and
my sins appeared so dreadful, that my soul sought nothing of
God, but deliverance from the load of guilt that bore down all
my comfort. As for my solitary life it was nothing; I did not so
much as pray to be delivered from it, or think of it; it was all
of no consideration in comparison to this. And I add this part
here, to hint to whoever shall read it, that whenever they come


sm Roniwson Crusor eae ee

to a true sense of things, they will find deliverance from sin a
much greater blessing, than deliverance from affliction.

But leaving this part, I return to my journal.

My condition began now to be, though not less miserable as
to my way of living, yet much easier to my mind; and my
thoughts being directed, by a constant reading the Scripture,
and praying to God, to things of a higher nature, I had a great
deal of comfort within, which till now I knew nothing of; also,
as my health and strength returned, I bestirred myself to furnish
myself with everything that I wanted, and make my way of
living as regular as I could.

From the qth of July to the rqth, I was chiefly employed in
walking about with my gun in my hand, a little and a little at a
time, as a man that was gathering up his strength after a fit of
sickness. For it is hardly to be imagined, how low I was, and to
what weakness I was reduced. The application which I made
use of was perfectly new, and perhaps what had never cured
an ague before, neither can I recommend it to any one to prac-
tice, by this experiment; and though it did carry off the fit, yet
it rather contributed to weakening me; for I had frequent con-
vulsions in my nerves and limbs for some time.

I learnt from it also this in particular, that being abroad in
the rainy season was the most pernicious thing to my health
that could be, especially in those rains, which came attended
with storms and hurricanes of wind; for as the rain which came
in the dry season was always most accompanied with such
storms, so I found that rain was much more dangerous than
the rain which fell in September and October.

Thad been now in this unhappy island above ten months; all
possibility of deliverance from this condition seemed to be
entirely taken from me; and I firmly believed, that no human
shape had ever set foot upon that place. Having now secured
my habitation, as I thought, fully to my mind, I hada great desire
to make a more perfect discovery of the island, and to see what
other productions I might find, which I yet knew nothing of.

Tt was the rsth of July that I began to take a more particular
survey of the island itself. I went up the creek first, where, as I
hinted, I brought my rafts on shore; I found after I came about
two miles up, that the tide did not flow any higher, and that it
was no more than a little brook of running water, and very fresh

94
and good; but this being the dry season, there was hardly any
water in some parts of it, at least, not enough to run in any
stream, so as it could be perceived.

On the bank of this brook I found many pleasant savannas, or
meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with grass; and on the
rising parts of them next to the higher grounds, where the
water, as it might be supposed, never overflowed, I found a great
deal of tobacco, green, and growing to a great and very strong
stalk; there were divers other plants which I had no notion of,
or understanding about, and might perhaps have virtues of their
own, which I could not find out.

I searched for the cassava root, which the Indians in all that
climate make their bread of, but I could find none. I saw large
plants of aloes, but did not then understand them. I saw several
sugar canes, but wild, and for want of cultivation, imperfect. I
contented myself with these discoveries for this time, and came
back musing with myself what course I might take to know the
virtue and goodness of any of the fruits or plants which I should
discover; but could bring it to no conclusion; for in short, I had
made so little observation while I was in the Brazils, that I knew
little of the plants in the field, at least very little that might serve
me to any purpose now in my distress.

The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again, and
after going something farther than I had gone the day before, I
found the brook, and the savannas began to cease, and the country
became more woody than before; in this part I found different
fruits, and particularly I found melons upon the ground in great
abundance, and grapes upon the trees; the vines had spread
indeed over the trees, and the clusters of grapes were just now
in their prime, very ripe and rich, This was a surprising dis-
covery, and I was exceeding glad of them; but I was warned by
my experience to eat sparingly of them, remembering, that
when I was ashore in Barbary, the eating of grapes killed several
of our Englishmen who were slaves there, by throwing them
into fluxes and fevers. But I found an excellent use for these
grapes, and that was to cure or dry them in the sun, and keep
them as dried grapes or raisins are kept, which I thought would
be, as indeed they were, as wholesome as agreeable to eat, when
no grapes might be to be had.

I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my habi-

95


Ss RoBINSON CRUSOE Ke Ke KE

tation, which by the way was the first night, as I might say, I
had lain from home. In the night I took my first contrivance, and
got up into a tree, where I slept well, and the next morning
proceeded upon my discovery, travelling near four miles, as I
might judge by the length of the valley, keeping still due north,
with a ridge of hills on the south and north side of me.

At the end of this march I came to an opening, where the
country seemed to descend to the west, and a little spring of
fresh water, which issued out of the side of the hill by me, run
the other way, that is, due east; and the country appeared so
fresh, so green, so flourishing, everything being in a constant
verdure, or flourish of spring, that it looked like a planted
garden.

I descended a little on the side of that delicious vale, survey-
ing it with a secret kind of pleasure (though mixed with my
other afflicting thoughts), to think that this was all my own,
that I was king and lord of all this country indefeasibly; and had
a right of possession; and if I could convey it, I might have it in
inheritance, as completely as any lord of a manor in England. I
saw here abundance of cocoa trees, orange, and lemon, and
citron trees; but all wild, and very few bearing any fruit, at
least not then. However, the green limes that I gathered, were
not only pleasant to eat, but very wholesome; and I mixed their
juice afterwards with water, which made it very wholesome,
and very cool, and refreshing.

I found now I had business enough to gather and carry home;
and I resolved to lay up a store as well of grapes, as limes and
lemons, to furnish myself for the wet season, which I knew was
approaching.

In order to this, I gathered a great heap of grapes in one place,
and a lesser heap in another place; and a great parcel of limes and
lemons in another place; and taking a few of each with me, I
travelled homeward, and resolved to come again, and bring a
bag or sack, or what I could make to carry the rest home.

Accordingly, having spent three days in this journey, I came
home; so I must now call my tent and my cave. But before I got
thither, the grapes were spoiled, the richness of the fruits, and
the weight of the juice having broken them and bruised them,
they were good for little or nothing; as to the limes, they were
good, but I could bring but a few.

96
pres
>> > A PLEASANT VALLEY Ke Kee

The next day, being the roth, I went back, having made two
small bags to bring home my harvest. But I was surprised, when
coming to my heap of grapes, which were so rich and fine when
I gathered them, I found them all spread about, trod to pieces,
and dragged about, some here, some there, and abundance eaten
and devoured. By this I concluded there were some wild
creatures thereabouts, which had done this; but what they were
I knew not.

However, as I found that there was no laying them up on
heaps, and no carrying them away in a sack, but that one way
they would be destroyed, and the other way they would be
crushed with their own weight, I took another course; for I
gathered a large quantity of the grapes, and hung them up upon
the out-branches of the trees, that they might cure and dry in
the sun; and as for the limes and lemons, I carried as many back
as I could well stand under.

When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with
great pleasure the fruitfulness of that valley, and the pleasant-
ness of the situation, the security from storms on that side the
water, and the wood, and concluded that I had pitched upon a
place to fix my abode, which was by far the worst part of the
country. Upon the whole I began to consider of removing my
habitation; and to look out for a place equally safe, as where
Inow was situate, if possible, in that pleasant, fruitful part of the
island.

This thought run long in my head, and I was exceedingly
fond of it for some time, the pleasantness of the place tempting
me; but when I came to a nearer view of it, and to consider that
I was now by the seaside, where it was at least possible that
something might happen to my advantage, and by the same ill
fate that brought me, might bring some other unhappy wretches
to the same place; and though it was scarce probable that any
such thing should ever happen, yet to enclose myself among the
hills and woods, in the centre of the island, was to anticipate my
bondage, and to render such an affair not only improbable,
but impossible; and that therefore I ought not by any means to
remove.

However, I was so enamored of this place, that I spent much
of my time there for the whole remaining part of the month of
July; and though upon second thoughts I resolved as above, not

97


to remove, yet I built me a little kind of a bower, and sur-
rounded it at a distance with a strong fence, being a double
hedge, as high as I could reach, well staked, and filled between
with brushwood; and here I lay very secure, sometimes two or
three nights together, always going over it with a ladder, as
before; so that I fancied now I had my country house, and my
sea-coast house; and this work took me up to the beginning of
August.

I had but newly finished my fence and began to enjoy my
labor, but the rains came on and made me stick close to my first
habitation; for though I had made me a tent like the other, with
a piece of a sail, and spread it very well, yet I had not the shelter
of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a cave behind me to retreat
into when the rains were extraordinary.

About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my
bower, and began to enjoy myself. The 3d of August I found
the grapes I had hung up were perfectly dried, and, indeed,
were excellent good raisins of the sun; so I began to take them
down from the trees, and it was very happy that I did so, for the
rains which followed would have spoiled them, and I had lost
the best part of my winter food, for I had above two hundred
large bunches of them. No sooner had I taken them all down
and carried most of them home to my cave but it began to
rain, and from hence, which was the 14th of August, it rained
more or less every day till the middle of October, and sometimes
so violently that I could not stir out of my cave for several days.

In this season I was much surprised with the increase in my
family. I had been concerned for the loss of one of my cats, who
ran away from me, or, as I thought, had been dead, and I heard
no more tale or tidings of her till, to my astonishment, she came
home about the end of August with three kittens. This was the
more strange to me because, though I had killed a wildcat, as I
called it, with my gun, yet I thought it was a quite differing kind
from our European cats; yet the young cats were the same kind
of house breed like the old one, and both my cats being females
I thought it very strange. But from these three cats I afterwards
came to be so pestered with cats that I was forced to kill them
like vermin, or wild beasts, and to drive them from my house
as much as possible.

From the 14th of August to the 26th incessant rain, so that

98
Ss Env or My First YEAR &QOQQ®

I could not stir, and was now very careful not to be much wet.
In this confinement I began to be straightened for food. But,
venturing out twice, I one day killed a goat, and the last day,
which was the 26th, found a very large tortoise, which was a
treat to me, and my food was regulated thus: I eat a bunch of
raisins for my breakfast, a piece of the goat’s flesh or of the
turtle for my dinner, broiled (for, to my great misfortune, I had
no vessel to boil or stew any thing), and two or three of the
turtle’s eggs for my supper.

During this confinement in my cover by the rain I worked
daily two or three hours at enlarging my cave, and by degrees
worked it on towards one side till I came to the outside of the
hill, and made a door, or way out, which came beyond my
fence, or wall, and so I came in and out this way. But I was not
perfectly easy at lying so open, for as I had managed myself
before, I was in a perfect enclosure, whereas now I thought I
lay exposed, and open for anything to come in upon me; and
yet I could not perceive that there was any living thing to fear,
the biggest creature that I had yet seen upon the island being a

oat.

% September 30. I was now come to the unhappy anniversary
of my landing. I cast up the notches on my post and found I had
been on shore three hundred and sixty-five days. I kept this day
as a solemn fast, setting it apart to religious exercise, prostrating
myself on the ground with the most serious humiliation, con-
fessing my sins to God, acknowledging his righteous judgments
upon me, and praying to him to have mercy on me, through
Jesus Christ; and having not tasted the least refreshment for
twelve hours, even till the going down of the sun, I then eat a
biscuit cake and a bunch of grapes and went to bed, finishing
the day as I began it.

I had all this time observed no Sabbath-day; for as at first I
had no sense of religion upon my mind, I had after some time
omitted to distinguish the weeks, by making a longer notch
than ordinary for the Sabbath-day, and so did not really know
what any of the days were; but now having cast up the days as
above, I found I had been there a year; so I divided it into weeks,
and set apart every seventh day for a Sabbath, though I found at
the end of my account I had lost a day or two in my reckoning.

A little after this my ink began to fail me, and so I contented

99


Ss 5p RoBInson CRUSOE Kee KE

myself to use it more sparingly, and to write down only the
most remarkable events of my life, without continuing a daily
memorandum of other things.

The rainy season, and the dry season, began now to appear
regular to me, and I learned to divide them so as to provide for
them accordingly. But I bought all my experience before I had
it, and this Iam going to relate, was one of the most discouraging
experiments that I made at all. I have mentioned that I had saved
the few ears of barley and rice, which I had so surprisingly
found spring up, as I thought, of themselves, and believe there
were about thirty stalks of rice, and about twenty of barley;
and now I thought it a proper time to sow it after the rains, the
sun being in its southern position, going from me.

Accordingly, I dug up a piece of ground as well as I could
with my wooden spade, and dividing it into two parts, I sowed
my grain; but as I was sowing, it casually occurred to my
thoughts, that I would not sow it all at first, because I did not
know when was the proper time for it; so I sowed about two-
thirds of the seed, leaving about a handful of each.

It was a great comfort to me afterwards, that I did so, for not
one grain of that I sowed this time came to anything; for the dry
months following, the earth having had no rain after the seed
was sown, it had no moisture to assist its growth, and never came
up at all, till the wet season had come again, and then it grew as
if it had been but newly sown.

Finding my first seed did not grow, which I easily imagined
was by the drought, I sought for a moister piece of ground to
make another trial in, and I dug up a piece of ground near my
new bower, and sowed the rest of my seed in February, a little
before the vernal equinox; and this having the rainy months of
March and April to water it, sprung up very pleasantly, and
yielded a very good crop, but having part of the seed left only,
and not daring to sow all that I had, I had but a small quantity
at last, my whole crop not amounting to above half a peck of
each kind.

But by this experiment I was made master of my business, and
knew exactly when the proper season was to sow; and that I
might expect two seed-times, and two harvests every year.

While this corn was growing, I made a little discovery which
was of use to me afterwards. As soon as the rains were over, and

100
the weather began to settle, which was about the month of
November, I made a visit up the country to my bower, where,
though I had not been some months, yet I found all things just as
I left them. The circle or double hedge that I had made, was
not only firm and entire, but the stakes which I had cut out of
some trees that grew thereabouts, were all shot out and grown
with long branches, as much as a willow tree usually shoots the
first year after lopping its head. I could not tell what tree to call
it, that these stakes were cut from. I was surprised, and yet very
well pleased to see the young trees grow, and I pruned them,
and led them up to grow as much alike as I could, and it is scarce
credible how beautiful a figure they grew into in three years; so
that though the hedge made a circle of about twenty-five yards
in diameter, yet the trees, for such I might now call them, soon
covered it; and it was a complete shade, sufficient to lodge under
all the dry season.

This made me resolve to cut some more stakes and make me
a hedge like this in a semi-circle round my wall (I mean that of
my first dwelling), which I did, and placing the trees, or stakes,
in a double row, at about eight yards’ distance from my first
fence, they grew presently, and were at first a fine cover to
my habitation, and afterward served for a defence, also, as I shall
observe in its order.

I now found that the seasons of the year might generally be
divided, not into summer and winter, as in Europe, but into the
rainy seasons and the dry seasons, which were generally thus:

Half of February, March and April. Rainy, the sun being
then on or near the equinox.

Half of April, May, June, July and August. Dry, the sun
being then to the north of the Line.

Half of August, September and October. Rainy, thesun being
then come back.

Half of October, November, December, January and Febru-
ary. Dry, the sun being then to the south of the Line.

The rainy season sometimes held longer or shorter, as the
winds happened to blow, but this was the general observation
I made. After I had found by experience the ill consequence of
being abroad in the rain, I took care to furnish myself with
provisions beforehand, that I might not be obliged to go out,
and I sat within doors as much as possible during the wet months.

101
In this time I found much employment (and very suitable,
also, to the time), for I found great occasion of many things
which I had no way to furnish myself with but by hard labor
and constant application; particularly I tried many ways to
make myself a basket, but all the twigs I could get for the pur-
pose proved so brittle that they would do nothing. It proved of
excellent advantage to me now that when I was a boy I used
to take great delight in standing at a basket-maker’s in the town
where my father lived, to see them make their wicker-ware;
and being, as boys usually are, very officious to help, and a great
observer of the manner how they worked those things, and
sometimes lending a hand, I had by this means full knowledge
of the methods of it, that I wanted nothing but the materials,
when it came into my mind that the twigs of that tree from
whence I cut my stakes that grew, might possibly be as tough
as the sallows, and willows, and osiers in England, and I resolved
to try.

Accordingly, the next day I went to my country-house, as
I called it, and cutting some of the smaller twigs, I found them
to my purpose as much as I could desire; whereupon I came the
next time prepared with a hatchet to cut down a quantity,
which I soon found, for there was great plenty of them. These
Iset up to dry within my circle, or hedge, and when they were
fit for use I carried them to my cave, and here, during the next
season, I employed myself in making, as well as I could, a great
many baskets, both to carry earth, or to carry or lay up anything
as I had occasion. And, though I did not finish them very hand-
somely, yet I made them sufficiently serviceable formy purpose,
and thus afterwards I took care never to be without them; and
as my wicker-ware decayed I made more, especially I made
strong deep baskets to place my corn in, instead of sacks, when
Ishould come to have any quantity of it.

Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of
time about it, I bestirred myself to see, if possible, how to supply
two wants: I had no vessels to hold anything that was liquid,
except two runlets, which were almost full of rum, and some
glass bottles, some of the common size, and others which were
case-bottles,—square, for the holding of waters, spirits, etc. I had
not so much asa pot to boil anything, except a great kettle which
I saved out of the ship, and which was too big for such use as I

102


Soe I Wisu ro Exprore FurRTHER Gee

desired it, viz: to make broth, and stew a bit of meat by itself.
The second thing I would fain have had was a tobacco-pipe,
but it was impossible for me to make one; however, I found a
contrivance for that, too, at last.

I employed myself in planting my second rows of stakes, or
piles, and in this wicker working all the summer, or dry season,
when another business took me up more time than it could be
imagined I could spare.

I mentioned before that I had a great mind to see the whole
island, and that I had travelled up the brook, and so on to where

\y






I built my bower, and where I had an opening quite to the sea
on the other side of the island. I now resolved to travel quite
across to the seashore on that side; so taking my gun, a hatchet,
and my dog, and a larger quantity of powder and shot than
usual, with two biscuit cakes, and a great bunch of raisins in
my pouch for my store, I began my journey. When I had passed
the vale where my bower stood, as above, I came within view of
the sea to the west, and it being a very clear day, I fairly descried
land, whether an island or a continent I could not tell; but it
lay very high, extending from the west to the W.S. W. ata very
great distance. By my guess it could not be less than fifteen or
twenty leagues off.

I could not tell what part of the world this might be, other-
wise than that I knew it must be part of America, and as I
concluded, by all my observations, must be near the Spanish
dominions, and perhaps was all inhabited by savages, where, if I
should have landed, I had been in a worse condition than I was
now; and therefore I acquiesced in the dispositions of Provi-
dence, which I began now to own, and to believe, ordered
everything for the best. I say, I quieted my mind with this, and
left afflicting myself with fruitless wishes of being there.

Besides, after some pause upon this affair, I considered that
if this land was the Spanish coast I should certainly, one time
or other, see some vessel pass or repass one way or other; but
if not, then it was the savage coast between the Spanish country
and Brazils, which are, indeed, the worst of savages, for they
are cannibals, or men-eaters, and fail not to murder or devour
all the human bodies that fall into their hands.

With these considerations I walked very leisurely forward.
I found that side of the island where I now was much pleasanter
than mine, the open or savanna fields sweet, adorned with flowers
and grass, and full of very fine woods. I saw abundance of
parrots, and fain I would have caught one, if possible, to have
kept it to be tame, and taught it to speak to me. I did, after some
painstaking, catch a young parrot, for I knocked it down with a
stick, and having recovered it, I brought it home; but it was
some years before I could make him speak. However, at last I
taught him to call me by my name very familiarly; but the
accident that followed, though it be a trifle, will be very divert-
ing in its place.

104


Spe I Reacu THE OTHER SHORE Ce KOK

I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found in the
low grounds hares, as I thought them to be, and foxes; but they
differed greatly from all other kinds I had met with. Nor could
I satisfy myself to eat them, though I killed several. But I had
no need to be venturous, for I had no want of food, and of that
which was very good, too, especially these three sorts, viz: goats,
pigeons, and turtle or tortoise, which, added to my grapes,
Leadenhall Market could not have furnished a table better than
I, in proportion to the company. And though my case was
deplorable enough, yet I had great cause for thankfulness, and
that I was not driven to any extremities for food, but rather
plenty, even to dainties.

I never travelled in this journey above two miles outright in
a day, or thereabouts; but I took so many turns and returns to
see what discoveries I could make, that I came weary enough to
the place where I resolved to sit down for all night; and then
I either reposed myself in a tree, or surrounded myself with a
row of stakes, set upright in the ground, either from one tree to
another, or so as no wild creature could come at me, without
waking me.

As soon as I came to the sea-shore, I was surprised to see that
Thad taken up my lot on the worst side of the island; for here
indeed the shore was covered with innumerable turtles, whereas
on the other side I had found but three in a year and a half.
Here was also an infinite number of fowls, of many kinds, some
which I had seen, and some which I had not seen of before, and
many of them very good meat; but such as I knew not the names
of, except those called penguins.

I could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very sparing
of my powder and shot, and therefore had more mind to kill a
she-goat, if I could, which I could better feed on; and though
there were many goats here, more than on my side of the island,
yet it was with much more difficulty that I could come near
them, the country being flat and even, and they saw me much
sooner than when I was on the hill.

I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than
mine, but yet I had not the least inclination to remove; for as I
was fixed in my habitation, it became natural to me, and I seemed
all the while I was here, to be as it were upon a journey, and
from home. However, I travelled along the shore of the sea,

105




ee ee
WP DP > Rosinson Crusoe Ke Ree
waaea__CXROBINSON CRUSOE KEKE

towards the east, I suppose about twelve miles, and then setting
up a great pole upon the shore for a mark, I concluded I would
go home again, and that the next journey I took should be on
the other side of the island, east from my dwelling, and so round
tll I came to my post again. Of which in its place.

I took another way to come back than that I went, thinking
I could easily keep all the island so much in my view, that I could
not miss finding my first dwelling by viewing the country; but
I found myself mistaken, for being come about two or three
miles, I found myself descended into a very large valley, but so
surrounded with hills, and those hills covered with wood, that
I could not see which was my way by any direction but that of
the sun, nor even then, unless I knew very well the position of
the sun at that time of the day.

It happened to my farther misfortune, that the weather
proved hazy for three or four days, while I was in this valley,
and not being able to see the sun, I wandered about very uncom-
fortably, and at last was obliged to find out the seaside, look for
my post, and come back the same way I went; and then by easy
journeys I turned homeward; the weather being exceeding hot,
and my gun, ammunition, hatchet, and other things very heavy.

In this journey my dog surprised a young kid, and seized upon
it, and I running in to take hold of it, caught it, and saved it
alive from the dog. I had a great mind to bring it home if I could,
for I had often been musing whether it might not be possible
to get a kid or two, and so raise a breed of tame goats, which
might supply me when my powder and shot should be all spent.

I made a collar to this little creature, and with a string which
I made of some rope-yarn, which I always carried about me, I
led him along, though with some difficulty, till I came to my
bower, and there I enclosed him, and left him: for I was very
impatient to be at home, from whence I had been absent above
a month. I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me, to
come intomy old hutch, and lie down in my hammock-bed. This
little wandering journey, without settled place of abode, had
been so unpleasant to me, that my own house, as I called it to
myself, was a perfect settlement to me, compared to that; and it
rendered everything about me so comfortable, that I resolved I
would never go a great way from it again, while it should be
my lot to stay on the island.

106


Warde My Srcons Axeimemaxt 4aewe

I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale myself after
my long journey; during which, most of the time was taken up
in the weighty affair of making a cage for my poll, who began
now to be a mere domestic, and to be mighty well acquainted
with me. Then I began to think of the poor kid, which I had
penned in within my little circle, and resolved to go and fetch
it home, or give it some food; accordingly I went, and found
it where I left it; for indeed it could not get out, but almost
starved for want of food. I went and cut boughs of trees, and
branches of such shrubs as I could find, and threw it over, and
having fed it, I tied it as I did before, to lead it away; but it was
so tame with being hungry, that I had no need to have tied it;
for it followed me like a dog; and as I continually fed it, the
creature became so loving, so gentle, and so fond, that it became
from that time one of my domestics also, and would never leave
me afterwards.

The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come,
and I kept the 30th of September in the same solemn manner
as before, being the anniversary of my landing on the island,
having now been there two years, and no more prospect of
being delivered than the first day I came there. I spent the whole
day in humble and thankful acknowledgments of the many
wonderful mercies which my solitary condition was attended
with, and without which it might have been infinitely more
miserable. I gave humble and hearty thanks that God had been
pleased to discover to me, even that it was possible I might be
more happy in this solitary condition, than I should have been
in a liberty of society, and in all the pleasures of the world.
That he could fully make up tome the deficiencies of my solitary
state and the want of human society, by his presence, and the
communications of his grace to my soul, supporting, comfort-
ing, and encouraging me to depend upon his providence here,
and hope for his eternal presence hereafter. |

It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much more |
happy this life I now led was, with all its miserable circum- |
stances, than the wicked, cursed, abominable life I led all the
past part of my days; and now I changed both my sorrows and |
my joys; my very desires altered, my affections changed their |
gusts, and my delights were perfectly new, from what they
were at my first coming, or indeed for the two years past.

107




SRS er en e ee

Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting, or for view-
ing the country, the anguish of my soul at my condition, would
break out upon me on a sudden, and my very heart would die
within me, to think of the woods, the mountains, the deserts, I
was in; and how I wasa prisoner locked up with the eternal bars
and bolts of the ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness, without
redemption. In the midst of the greatest composures of mind,
this would break out upon me like a storm, and make me wring
my hands, and weep like a child. Sometimes it would take me in
the middle of my work, and I would immediately sit down and
sigh, and look upon the ground for an hour or two together; and
this was still worse to me; for if I could burst out into tears, or
vent myself by words, it would go off, and the grief having
exhausted itself, would abate.

But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts; I
daily read the word of God, and applied all the comforts of it to
my present state. One morning, being very sad, I opened the
Bible upon these words, “I will never, never leave thee, nor
forsake thee.” Immediately it occurred, that these words were
to me; why else should they be directed in such a manner, just
at the moment when I was mourning over my condition, as one
forsaken of God and man? Well then, said I, if God does not
forsake me, of what ill consequence can it be, or what matters
it, though the world should all forsake me, seeing on the other
hand, if I had all the world, and should lose the favor and bless-
ing of God, there would be no comparison in the loss.

From this moment I began to conclude in my mind, that it
was possible for me to be more happy in this forsaken, solitary
condition, than it was probable I should ever have been in any
other particular state in the world; and with this thought I was
going to give thanks to God for bringing me to this place.

I know not what it was, but something shocked my mind at
that thought, and I durst not speak the words. How canst thou
be such a hypocrite (said I, even audibly), to pretend to be
thankful for a condition, which however thou may’st endeavor
to be contented with, thou would’st rather pray heartily to be
delivered from? so I stopped there. But, though I could not say
I thanked God for being there, yet I sincerely gave thanks to
God for opening my eyes, by whatever afflicting Providences,
to see the former condition of my life, and to mourn for my

108


poy Howl Mavsa Boas @@ee@®

wickedness and repent. I never opened the Bible, or shut it, but
my very soul within me blessed God for directing my friend in
England, without any order of mine, to pack it up among my
goods; and for assisting me afterwards to save it out of the wreck
of the ship.

Thus, and in this disposition of mind, I began my third year;
and though I have not given the reader the trouble of so parti-
cular account of my works this year as the first, yet in general
it may be observed, that I was very seldom idle; but having
regularly divided my time, according to the several daily
employments that were before me, such as, first, my duty to
God, and the reading the Scriptures, which I constantly set
apart some time for thrice every day; secondly, the going abroad
with my gun for food, which generally took me up three hours
in every morning, when it did not rain; thirdly, the ordering,
curing, preserving, and cooking what I had killed or catched for
my supply. These took up great part of the day; also it is to be
considered that the middle of the day, when the sun was in the
zenith, the violence of the heat was too great to stir out; so that
about four hours in the evening was all the time I could be sup-
posed to work in; with this exception, that sometimes I changed
my hours of hunting and working, and went to work in the
morning, and abroad with my gun in the afternoon.

To this short time allowed for labor, I desire may be added
the exceeding laboriousness of my work; the many hours which
for want of tools, want of help, and want of skill, everything I
did took up out of my time. For example, I was full two and
forty days making me a board for a long shelf, which I wanted
in my cave; whereas two sawyers with their tools anda saw-pit,
would have cut six of them out of the same tree in half a day.

My case was this: It was to be a large tree, which was to be
cut down, because my board was to be a broad one. This tree I
was three days a cutting down, and two more cutting of the
boughs, and reducing it to a log, or piece of timber. With inex-
pressible hacking and hewing I reduced both the sides of it into
chips, till it begun to be light enough to move. Then I turned it,
and made one side of it smooth and flat as a board, from end to
end; then turning that side downward, cut the other side, till I
brought the plank to be about three inches thick, and smooth on
both sides. Any one may judge the labor of my hands in such a

109


piece of work; but labor and patience carried me through that
and many other things. I only observe this in particular to show
the reason why so much of my time went away with so little
work, viz: That what might be a little to be done with help and
tools, was a vast labor, and required a prodigious time to do
alone, and by hand.

But notwithstanding this, with patience and labor I went
through many things; and indeed everything that my circum-
stances made necessary to me to do, as will appear by what
follows.

I was now, in the month of November and December, expect-
ing my crop of barley and rice. The ground I had manured or
dug up for them was not great; for as I observed, my seed of
each was not above the quantity of half a peck, for I had lost
one whole crop by sowing in the dry season; but now my crop
promised very well, when on a sudden I found I was in danger
of losing it all again by enemies of several sorts, which it was
scarce possible to keep from it; as first, the goats, and wild
creatures which I called hares, who, tasting the sweetness of the
blade, lay in it night and day, as soon as it came up, and eat it so
close, that it could get no time to shoot up into stalk.

This I saw no remedy for, but by making an enclosure about
it with a hedge, which I did with a great deal of toil; and the
more, because it required speed. However, as my arable land
was but small, suited to my crop, I got it totally well fenced in
about three weeks time. I set my dog to guard it in the night,
tying him up to a stake at the gate, where he would stand and
bark all night long; so in a little time the enemies forsook the
place, and the corn grew very strong, and well, and began to
ripen apace.

But as the beasts ruined me before, while my corn was in the
blade, so the birds were as likely to ruin me now, when it was in
the ear; for going along by the place to see how it throve, I saw
my little crop surrounded with fowls of I know not how many
sorts, who stood as it were watching till I should be gone. I
immediately let fly among them (for I always had my gun with
me). I had no sooner shot but there rose up a little cloud of
fowls, which I had not seen at all, from among the corn itself.

This touched me sensibly, for I foresaw that in a few days
they would devour all my hopes, that I should be starved, and

110


Spe > My Harvest DIFFICULTIES COQ

never be able to raise a crop at all, and what to do I could not
tell. However, I resolved not to lose my corn, if possible, though
Ishould watch it night and day. In the first place, I went among
it to see what damage was already done, and found they had
spoiled a good deal of it, but that as it was yet too green for them,
the loss was not so great but that the remainder was like to be a
good crop if it could be saved.

I staid by it to load my gun, and then coming away I could
easily see the thieves sitting upon all the trees about me, as if they
only waited till I was gone away, and the event proved it to be
so; for as I walked off as if I was gone, I was no sooner out of
their sight, but they dropped down one by one into the corn
again. I was so provoked that I could not have patience to stay
till more came on, knowing that every grain that they eat now,
was, as it might be said, a peck-loaf to me in the consequence;
but coming up to the hedge, I fired again, and killed three of
them. This was what I wished for; so I took them up, and served
them as we serve notorious thieves in England, viz: hanged them
in chains for a terror to others. It is impossible to imagine almost
that this should have such an effect as it had, for the fowls would
not only not come at the corn, but in short they forsook all that
part of the island, and I could never see a bird near the place as
long as my scare-crows hung there.

This I was very glad of, you may be sure, and about the latter
end of December, which was our second harvest of the year,
I reaped my crop.

I was sadly put to it for a scythe or a sickle to cut it down,
and all I could do was to make one as well as I could out of one
of the broad swords or cutlasses, which I saved among the arms
out of the ship. However, as my first crop was but small, I had
no great difficulty to cut it down; in short, I reaped it my way,
for I cut nothing off but the ears, and carried it away in a great
basket which I had made, and so rubbed it out with my hands;
and at the end of all my harvesting, I found that out of my half
peck of seed, I had near two bushels of rice, and above two
bushels and half of barley, that is to say, by my guess, for I had
no measure at that time.

However, this was a great encouragement to me, and I fore-
saw that in time it would please God to supply me with bread.
And yet, here I was perplexed again, for I neither knew how to

111


Ss 45> RoBINsoNn CRUSOE KER E

grind or make meal of my corn, or, indeed, how to clean it or
part it; nor, if made into meal, how to make bread of it; and, if
how to make it, yet I knew not how to bake it. These things
being added to my desire of having a good quantity for store,
and to secure a constant supply, I resolved not to taste any of
this crop, but to preserve it all for seed against the next season,
and in the meantime to employ all my study and hours of work-
ing to accomplish this great work of providing myself with
corn and bread.

It might be truly said that now I worked for my bread. "Tis
a little wonderful, and what I believe few people have thought
much upon, viz: the strange multitude of little things necessary
in the providing, producing, curing, dressing, making and
finishing this one article of bread.

I, that was reduced to a mere state of nature, found this to
my daily discouragement, and was made more and more sensible
of it every hour, even after I had got the first handful of seed-
corn, which, as I have said, came up unexpectedly, and, indeed,
to a surprise.

First, I had no plow to turn up the earth, no spade or shovel
to dig it. Well, this I conquered by making a wooden spade, as
I observed before; but this did my work in but a wooden man-
ner, and though it cost me a great many days to make it, yet, for
want of iron, it not only wore out the sooner, but made my
work the harder, and made it be performed much worse.

However, this I bore with, and was content to work it out
with patience, and bear with the badness of the performance.
When the corn was sowed, I had no harrow, but was forced to
go over it myself, and drag a great heavy bough of a tree over it,
to scratch it, as it may be called, rather than rake or harrow it.

When it was growing and grown, I have observed already
how many things I wanted, to fence it, secure it, mow or reap
it, cure and carry it home, thrash, part it from the chaff, and
save it. Then I wanted a mill to grind it, sieves to dress it, yeast
and salt to make it into bread, and an oven to bake it; and yet,
all these things I did without, as shall be observed; and yet the
corn was an inestimable comfort and advantage to me, too. All
this, as I said, made everything laborious and tedious to me; but
that there was no help for. Neither was my time so much loss
to me, because, as I had divided it, a certain part of it was every

112
NP Sd? > I Envarce My Fietps EEK

day appointed to these works; and as I resolved to use none of
the corn for bread till I had a greater quantity by me, I had the
next six months to apply myself wholly, by labor and invention,
to furnish myself with utensils proper for the performing all the
operations necessary for the making the corn (when I had it)
fit for my use.

But first, I was to prepare more land, for I had now seed
enough to sow above an acre of ground. Before I did this I had
a week’s work, at least, to make me a spade, which, when it was
done was but a sorry one indeed, and very heavy, and required
double labor to work with it. However, I went through that,
and sowed my seed in two large flat pieces of ground, as near
my house as I could find them to my mind, and fenced them in
with a good hedge, the stakes of which were all cut of that wood
which I had set before, and knew it would grow, so that in one
year’s time I knew I should have a quick or living hedge, that
would want but little repair. This work was not so little as to
take me up less than three months, because great part of that
time was of the wet season, when I could not go abroad.


Spay) Rosinson Cavsor

Within doors, that is, when it rained and I could not go out,
I found employment on the following occasions, always observ-
ing, that all the while I was at work I diverted myself with
talking to my parrot and teaching him to speak, and I quickly
learned him to know his own name, and at last to speak it out
pretty loud,—“Poll!” which was the first word I ever heard
spoken in the island by any mouth but my own. This, therefore,
was not my work, but an assistant to my work, for now, as I
said, I had a great employment upon my hands, as follows, viz:
Thad long studied, by some means or other, to make myself some
earthen vessels, which, indeed, I wanted sorely, but knew not
where to come at them. However, considering the heat of the
climate, I did not doubt but if I could find out any such clay, I
might botch up some such pot as might, being dried in the sun,
be hard enough and strong enough to bear handling, and to
hold anything that was dry, and required to be kept so; and
as this was necessary in the preparing corn, meal, etc., which
was the thing I was upon, I resolved to make some as large as I
could, and fit only to stand, like jars, to hold what should be
put into them.

It would make the reader pity me, or rather laugh at me, to
tell how many awkward ways I took to raise this paste, what
odd, misshapen, ugly things I made, how many of them fell in,
and how many fell out, the clay not being stiff enough to bear
its own weight; how many cracked by the over violent heat of
the sun, being set out too hastily; and how many fell in pieces
with only removing, as well before as after they were dried;
and, in a word, how after having labored hard to find the clay,
to dig it, to temper it, to bring it home and work it, I could not
make above two large, earthen, ugly things—I cannot call them
jars—in about two months’ labor.

However, as the sun baked these two very dry and hard,
1 lifted them very gently up, and set them down again in two
great wicker baskets which I had made on purpose for them,
that they might not break; and, as between the pot and the
basket there was a little room to spare, I stuffed it full of the
rice and barley straw, and these two pots being to stand always
dry, I thought would hold my dry corn, and perhaps the meal,
when the corn was bruised. ‘

Though I miscarried so much in my design for large pots, yet

114


SYP 9 Ho I Make Cray VEssELs Ke Ko Ke

I made several smaller things with better success; such as little
round pots, flat dishes, pitchers and pipkins, and any things my
hand turned to, and the heat of the sun baked them strangely
hard.

But all this would not answer my end, which was to get an
earthen pot to hold what was liquid, and bear the fire, which
none of these could do. It happened after some time, making a
pretty large fire for cooking my meat, when I went to put it
out after I had done with it, I found a broken piece of one of
my earthen-ware vessels in the fire, burnt as hard as a stone, and
red asa tile. I was agreeably surprised to see it, and said to myself,
that certainly they might be made to burn whole, if they would
burn broken.

This set me to studying how to order my fire, so as to make
it burn me some pots. I had no notion of a kiln, such as the
potters burn in, or of glazing them with lead, though I had some
lead to do it with; but I placed three large pipkins, and two or
three pots in a pile one upon another, and placed my fire-wood
all round it with a great heap of embers under them; I plied the
fire with fresh fuel round the outside, and upon the top, till I
saw the pots in the inside red-hot quite through, and observed
that they did not crack at all. When I saw them clear red, I let
them stand in that heat about five or six hours, till I found one
of them, though it did not crack, did melt or run, for the sand
which was mixed with the clay melted by the violence of the
heat, and would have run into glass if I had gone on; so I slacked
my fire gradually, till the pots began to abate of the red color,
and watching them all night, that I might not let the fire abate
too fast, in the morning I had three very good, I will not say
handsome, pipkins, and two other earthen pots, as hard burnt
as could be desired, and one of them perfectly glazed with the
running of the sand.

After this experiment, I need not say that I wanted no sort
of earthen-ware for my use; but I must needs say, as to the
shapes of them, they were very indifferent, as any one may
suppose, when I had no way of making them; but as the children
make dirt-pies, or as a woman would make pies that never
learned to raise paste.

No joy at a thing of so mean a nature was ever equal to mine,
when I found I had made an earthen pot that would bear the

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fire; and I had hardly patience to stay till they were cold,
before I set one upon the fire again, with some water in it, to
boil me some meat, which it did admirably well; and with a
piece of a kid I made some very good broth, though I wanted
oatmeal, and ‘several other ingredients requisite to make it so
good as I would have had it been.

My next concern was, to get me a stone mortar to stamp or
beat some corn in; for as to the mill, there was no thought at
arriving to that perfection of art, with one pair of hands. To
supply this want I was at a great loss; for of all trades in the
world I was as perfectly unqualified for a stone-cutter, as for
any whatever; neither had I any tools to go aboutit with. I spent
many a day to find out a great stone big enough to cut hollow,
and make fit for a mortar, and could find none at all; except
what was in the solid rock, and which I had no way to dig or
cut out; nor indeed were the rocks in the island of hardness
sufficient, but were all of a sandy, crumbling stone, which
neither would bear the weight of a heavy pestle, or would break
the corn without filling it with sand; so after a great deal of
time lost in searching for a stone, I gave it over, and resolved to
look out for a great block of hard wood, which I found indeed
much easier; and getting one as big as I had strength to stir, I
rounded it, and formed it in the outside with my axe and hatchet,
and then with the help of fire, and infinite labor, made a hollow
place in it, as the Indians in Brazil make their canoes. After this,
I made a great heavy pestle or beater, of the wood called the
iron-wood, and this I prepared and laid by against I had my
next crop of corn, when I proposed to myself to grind, or rather
pound, my corn into meal to make my bread.

My next difficulty was to make a sieve, or search, to dress my
meal, and to part it from the bran and the husk, without which
I did not see it possible I could have any bread. This was a most
difficult thing so much as but to think on, for to be sure I had
nothing like the necessary thing to make it; I mean fine, thin
canvas, or stuff to search the meal through. And here I was at a
full stop for many months; nor did I really know what to do;
linen I had none left, but what was mere rags; I had goats’ hair,
but neither knew I how to weave it, or spin it; and had I known
how, here was no tools to work it with; all the remedy that I
found for this, was, that at last I did remember I had among the

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SP > How I Baxep Breap Ke Lee

seamen’s clothes which were saved out of the ship, some neck-
clothes of calico or muslin; and with some pieces of these I made
three small sieves, but proper enough for the work; and thus
I made shift for some years; how I did afterwards, I shall show
in its place.

The baking part was the next thing to be considered, and how
I should make bread when I came to have corn; for first I had
no yeast; as to that part, as there was no supplying the want, so
I did not concern myself much about it. But for an oven, I was
indeed in great pain; at length I found out an experiment for
that also, which was this: I made some earthen vessels very
broad, but not deep; that is to say, about two foot diameter, and
not above nine inches deep; these I burnt in the fire, as I had
done the other, and laid them by; and when I wanted to bake, I
made a great fire upon my hearth, which I had paved with some
square tiles of my own making, and burning also; but I should
not call them square.

When the fire-wood was burnt pretty much into embers, or
live coals, I drew them forward upon this hearth, so as to cover
it all over, and there I let them lie, till the hearth was very hot;
then sweeping away all the embers, I set down my loaf, or
loaves, and whelming down the earthen pot upon them, drew
the embers all round the outside of the pot, to keep in, and add
to the heat; and thus, as well as in the best oven in the world, I
baked my barley loaves, and became in little time a mere pastry
cook into the bargain; for I made myself several cakes of the
rice, and puddings; indeed I made no pies, neither had I any-
thing to put into them, supposing I had, except the flesh either
of fowls or goats.

It need not be wondered at, if all these things took me up most
part of the third year of my abode here; for it is to be observed,
that in the intervals of these things, I had my new harvest and
husbandry to manage; for I reaped my corn in its season, and
carried it home as well as I could, and laid it up in the ear, in my
large baskets, till I had time to rub it out, for I had no floor to
thrash it on, or instrument to thrash it with.

And now, indeed, my stock of corn increasing, I really wanted
to build my barns bigger. I wanted a place to lay it up in; for the
increase of the corn now yielded me so much, that I had of the
barley about twenty bushels, and of the rice as much, or more;

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Ss o> RosBrinson CRUSOE KK

insomuch, that now I resolved to begin to use it freely, for my
bread had been quite gone a great while; also I resolved to see
what quantity would be sufficient for me a whole year, and to
sow but once a year. Upon the whole, I found that the forty
bushels of barley and rice was much more than I could consume
in a year, so I resolved to sow just the same quantity every year
that I sowed the last, in hopes that such a quantity would fully
provide me with bread, etc.

All the while these things were doing, you may be sure my
thoughts run many times upon the prospect of land which I had
seen from the other side of the island, and I was not without
secret wishes that I were on shore there, fancying the seeing the
main land, and in an inhabited country I might find some way or
other to convey myself farther, and perhaps at last find some
means of escape.

But, all this while, I made no allowance for the dangers of
such a condition, and how I might fall into the hands of savages,
and, perhaps, such as I might have reason to think far worse than
the lions and tigers of Africa. That if I once came into their
power, I should run a hazard more than a thousand to one of
being killed, and perhaps of being eaten—for I had heard that
the people of the Caribbean coasts were cannibals, or man eaters;
and I knew by the latitude that I could not be far off from that
shore. That, suppose they were not cannibals, yet that they
might kill me, as many Europeans who had fallen into their
hands had been served, even when they had been twenty or
thirty together; much more I, that was but one, and could make
little or no defense. All these things, I say, which I ought to
have considered well of, and did cast up in my thoughts after-
wards, yet took up none of my apprehensions at first; but my
head ran mightily upon the thought of getting over to the shore.

Now I wished for my boy Xury, and the long boat, with
the shoulder-of-mutton sail, with which I sailed above a thou-
sand miles on the coast of Africa; but this was in vain. Then I
thought I would go and look at our ship’s boat, which, as I have
said, was blown up upon the shore a great way in the storm,
when we were first cast away. She lay almost where she did at
first, but not quite; and was turned by the force of the waves
and the winds almost bottom upward, against a high ridge of
beachy rough sand; but no water about her as before.

118
ee
sos> Tue Prosiem or a Boat Ke Ke Ke
eR ees

If I had had hands to have refitted her, and to have launched
her into the water, the boat would have done well enough, and
I might have gone back into the Brazils with her easily enough;
but I might have foreseen, that I could no more turn her, and
set her upright upon her bottom, than I could remove the island.
However, I went to the woods, and cut levers and rollers, and
brought them to the boat, resolved to try what I could do, sug-
gesting to myself, that if I could but turn her down, I might
easily repair the damage she had received, and she would be
avery good boat, and I might go to sea in her very easily.

I spared no pains, indeed, in this piece of fruitless toil, and
spent, I think, three or four weeks about it; at last, finding it
impossible to heave it up with my little strength, I fell to digging
away the sand to undermine it, and so to make it fall down,
setting pieces of wood to thrust and guide it right in the fall.

But, when I had done this, I was unable to stir it up again, or
to get under it, much less to move it forward towards the water;
so I was forced to give it over. And yet, though I gave over the
hopes of the boat, my desire to venture over, for the main,
increased rather than decreased as the means for it seemed
impossible.

This at length put me upon thinking whether it was not
possible to make myself a canoe, or periagua, such as the natives
of those climates make, even without tools, or, as I might say,
without hands, viz: of the trunk of a great tree. This I not only
thought possible, but easy, and pleased myself extremely with
the thoughts of making it, and with my having much more
convenience for it than any of the negroes or Indians, but not
at all considering the particular inconveniences which I lay
under more than the Indians did, viz: want of hands to move it,
when it was made, into the water,—a difficulty much harder for
me to surmount than all the consequences of want of tools
could be to them; for, what was it to me, that, when I had chosen
a vast tree in the woods, I might with much trouble cut it down,
if, after, I might be able with my tools to hew and dub the out-
side into the proper shape of a boat, and burn or cut out the
inside to make it hollow, so to make a boat of it, if, after all this,
I must leave it just there where I found it, and was not able to
launch it into the water.

One would have thought I could not have had the least

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SHspsy sRosinson Crusonr = Ke Kes

reflection upon my mind of my circumstance while I was mak-
ing this boat, but I should have immediately thought how I
should get it into the sea; but my thoughts were so intent upon
my voyage over the sea in it that I never once considered how
I should get it off of the land. And, it was really, in its own
nature, more easy for me to guide it over forty-five miles of
sea than about forty-five fathom of land, where it lay, to set it
afloat in the water.

I went to work upon this boat the most like a fool that ever
man did who had any of his senses awake. I pleased myself with
the design, without determining whether I was ever able to
undertake it. Not but that the difficulty of launching my boat
came often into my head; but I put a stop to my own enquiries
into it by this foolish answer, which I gave myself: “Let’s first
make it; I’ll warrant I'll find some way or other to get it along
when ’tis done.”

This was a most preposterous method; but the eagerness of
my fancy prevailed, and to work I went. I felled a cedar tree.
I question much whether Solomon ever had such a one for the
building of the temple at Jerusalem. It was five feet ten inches
diameter at the lower part, next the stump, and four feet eleven
inches diameter at the end of twenty-two feet, after which it
lessened for a while, and then parted into branches. It was not
without infinite labor that I felled this tree. I was twenty days
hacking and hewing at it at the bottom. I was fourteen more
getting the branches and limbs, and the vast spreading head of
it cut off, which I hacked and hewed through with axe and
hatchet, and inexpressible labor. After this it cost me a month
to shape it, and dub it to a proportion, and to something like the
bottom of a boat, that it might swim upright, as it ought to do.
It cost me near three months more to clear the inside, and work
it so as to make an exact boat of it. This I did, indeed, without
fire, by mere mallet and chisel, and by the dint of hard labor,
till I had brought it to be a very handsome periagua, and big
enough to have carried six and twenty men, and consequently
big enough to have carried me and all my cargo.

When I had gone through this work, I was extremely de-
lighted with it. The boat was really much bigger than I ever saw
acanoe, or periagua, that was made of one tree, in my life. Many
a weary stroke it had cost, you may be sure, and there remained

120


ee a ee ee ee
D> ssp My Work Is WasteEp Eee

nothing but to get it into the water; and had I gotten it into the
water, I make no question but I should have began the maddest
voyage, and the most unlikely to be performed, that ever was
undertaken.

But all my devices to get it into the water failed me, though
they cost me infinite labor, too. It lay about one hundred yards
from the water, and not more. But the first inconvenience was,
it was up-hill towards the creek; well, to take away this dis-
couragement, I resolved to dig into the surface of the earth, and
so make a declivity. This I begun, and it cost me a prodigious

Rw

TSE

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Fill






SHS > RosBinson Crusoe SEEKS

deal of pains; but who grudges pains, that have their deliverance
in view? But when this was worked through, and this difficulty
managed, it was still much at one; for I could no more stir the
canoe, than I could the other boat.

Then I measured the distance of ground, and resolved to cut
a dock, or canal, to bring the water up to the canoe, seeing I
could not bring the canoe down to the water. Well, I began
this work, and when I began to enter into it, and calculate how
deep it was to be dug, how broad, how the stuff to be thrown
out, I found, that by the number of hands I had, being none but
my own, it must have been ten or twelve years before I should
have gone through with it; for the shore lay high, so that at the
upper end it must have been at least twenty foot deep; so at
length, though with great reluctancy, I gave this attempt over
also.

This grieved me heartily, and now I saw, though too late, the
folly of beginning a work before we count the cost, and before
we judge rightly of our own strength to go through with it.

In the middle of this work, I finished my fourth year in this
place, and kept my anniversary with the same devotion, and
with as much comfort as ever before; for, by a constant study,
and serious application of the Word of God, and by the assis-
tance of his grace, I gained a different knowledge from what I
had before. I entertained different notions of things. I looked
now upon the world as a thing remote, which I had nothing to
do with, no expectation from, and, indeed, no desires about. In
a word, I had nothing indeed to do with it, nor was ever like to
have; so I thought it looked as we may perhaps look upon it
hereafter, viz: as a place I had lived in, but was come out of it;
and well might I say, as Father Abraham to Dives, “Between
me and thee isa great gulf fixed.”

In the first place, I was removed from all the wickedness of
the world here. I had neither the lust of the flesh, the lust of the
eye, or the pride of life. I had nothing to covet; for I had all that
I was now capable of enjoying. I was Lord of the whole manor;
or, if I pleased, I might call myself king, or emperor, over the
whole country which I had possession of. There were no rivals.
Thad no competitor, none to dispute sovereignty or command
with me. I might have raised ship loadings of corn, but I had
no use for it; so I let as little grow as I thought enough for my



122




Pe > Oniy tHe Userut Is Goon BGeK

occasion. I had tortoise or turtles enough, but now and then one
was as much as I could put to any use. I had timber enough to
have built a fleet of ships. I had grapes enough to have made
wine, or to have cured into raisins, to have loaded that fleet
when they had been built.

But all I could make use of, was all that was valuable. I had
enough to eat, and to supply my wants—and, what was all the
rest to me? If I killed more flesh than I could eat, the dog must
eat it, or the vermin. If I sowed more corn than I could eat, it
must be spoiled. The trees that I cut down, were lying to rot on
the ground. I could make no more use of them than for fuel,
and that I had no occasion for, but to dress my food.

In a word, the nature and experience of things dictated to
me, upon just reflection, that all the good things of this world,
are no farther good to us, than they are for our use; and that
whatever we may heap up, indeed, to give to others, we enjoy
just as much as we can use, and no more. The most covetous,
griping miser in the world would have been cured of the vice of
covetousness, if he had been in my case, for I possessed infinitely
more than I knew what to do with. I had no room for desire,
except it was of things which I had not, and they were but
trifles, though, indeed, of great use to me. I had, as I hinted
before, a parcel of money, as well gold as silver, about thirty-
six pounds sterling. Alas! there the nasty, sorry useless stuff lay.
I had no manner of business for it, and I often thought with
myself, that I would have given a handful of it for a gross of
tobacco pipes, or for a hand-mill to grind my corn; nay, I would
have given it all for sixpenny-worth of turnip and carrot seed
out of England, or for a handful of peas or beans, and a bottle of
ink. As it was, I had not the least advantage by it, or benefit
from it but there it lay in a drawer, and grew mouldy with the
damp of the cave, in the wet season; and if I had had the drawer
full of diamonds, it had been the same case; and they had been
of no manner of value to me, because of no use.

Thad now brought my state of life to be much easier in itself
than it was at first, and much easier to my mind, as well as to
my body. I frequently sat down to my meat with thankfulness,
and admired the hand of God’s providence, which had thus
spread my table in the wilderness. I learned to look more upon
the bright side of my condition, and less upon the dark side;

123
a mm ze
DPS > Rosinson CRusoE KKK

and to consider what I enjoyed, rather than what I wanted; and
this gave me sometimes such secret comforts that I cannot
express them; and which I take notice of here, to put those
discontented people in mind of it, who cannot enjoy comfort-
ably what God has given them, because they see and covet
something that he has not given them. All our discontents about
what we want, appeared to me to spring from the want of
thankfulness for what we have.

Another reflection was of great use to me, and doubtless
would be so to any one that should fall into such distress as mine
was, and this was, to compare my present condition with what
Tat first expected it should be; nay, with what it would certainly
have been, if the good providence of God had not wonderfully
ordered the ship to be cast up nearer to the shore, where I not
only could come at her, but could bring what I got out of her
to the shore for my relief and comfort; without which, I had
wanted for tools to work, weapons for defense, or gunpowder
and shot for getting my food.

I spent whole hours, I may say, whole days, in representing
to myself in the most lively colors, how I must have acted if I
had got nothing out of the ship; how I could not have so much
as got any food, except fish and turtles; and that, as it was long
before I found any of them, I must have perished first. That I
should have lived, if I had not perished, like a mere savage. That
if I had killed a goat, or a fowl, by any contrivance, I had no
way to flea or open them, or part the flesh from the skin and
the bowels, or to cut it up; but must gnaw it with my teeth,
and pull it with my claws, like a beast.

These reflections made me very sensible of the goodness of
Providence to me, and very thankful for my present condition,
with all its hardships and misfortunes. And this part, also, I
cannot but recommend to the reflection of those who are apt
in their misery to say, “Is any affliction like mine?” Let them
consider how much worse the cases of some people are, and
their case might have been, if Providence had thought fit.

I had another reflection which assisted me, also, to comfort
my mind with hopes; and this was, comparing my present con-
dition with what I had deserved, and had therefore reason to
expect from the hand of Providence. I had lived a dreadful life,
perfectly destitute of the knowledge and fear of God. I had

124
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MPP > REPENTANCE FORTHE Past “6

been well instructed by father and mother; neither had they
been wanting to me, in their early endeavors, to infuse a religious
awe of God into my mind, a sense of my duty, and of what the
nature and end of my being required of me. But, alas! falling
early into the sea-faring life, which of all the lives is the most
destitute of the fear of God, though his terrors are always before
them; I say, falling early into the sea-faring life, and into sea-
faring company, all that little sense of religion which I had
entertained, was laughed out of me by my mess-mates, by a
hardened despising of dangers, and the views of death, which
grew habitual to me, by my long absence from all manner of
opportunities to converse with anything but what was like my-
self, or to hear anything that was good, or tended towards it.

So void was I of everything that was good, or of the least
sense of what I was, or was to be, that, in the greatest deliver-
ances I enjoyed, such as my escape from Sallee; my being taken
up by the Portuguese master of the ship; my being planted so
well in the Brazils; my receiving the cargo from England, and
the like; I never had once the word, “thank God,” so much as on
my mind, or in my mouth; nor in the greatest distress, had I so
much as a thought to pray to him, or so much as to say, “Lord
have mercy upon me”; no nor to mention the name of God,
unless it was to swear by and blaspheme it.

I had terrible reflections upon my mind for many months, as
I have already observed, on the account of my wicked and
hardened life past; and, when I looked about me, and considered
what particular providences had attended me since my coming
into this place, and how God had dealt bountifully with me;
had not only punished me less than any iniquity had deserved,
but had so plentifully provided for me; this gave me great hopes
that my repentance was accepted, and that God had yet mercy
in store for me.

With these reflections I worked my mind up, not only to
resignation to the will of God in the present disposition of my
circumstances, but even to a sincere thankfulness for my con-
dition; and, that I, who was yet a living man, ought not to
complain, seeing I had not the due punishment of my sins; that I
enjoyed so many mercies which I had no reason to have expected
in that place; that I ought never more to repine at my condition,
but to rejoice, and to give daily thanks for that daily bread,

125


33> > > RoBinson CRUSOE KEKE Ke

which nothing but a crowd of wonders could have brought.
That I ought to consider I had been fed even by miracle, even
as great as that of feeding Elijah by ravens; nay, by a long series
of miracles; and that I could hardly have named a place in the
unhabitable part of the world where I could have been cast more
to my advantage. A place, where, as I had no society, which
was my affliction on one hand; so I found no ravenous beasts, no
furious wolves or tigers to threaten my life, no venomous crea-
tures, or poisonous, which I might feed on tomy hurt, no savages
to murder and devour me.

In a word, as my life was a life of sorrow, one way, so it was
a life of mercy, another; and I wanted nothing to make it a life
of comfort, but to be able to make my sense of God’s goodness
to me, and care over me in this condition, be my daily consola-
tion; and after I did make a just improvement of these things, I
went away and was no more sad.

I had now been here so long, that many things which I
brought on shore for my help were either quite gone, or very
much wasted and near spent.

My ink, as I observed, had been gone for some time, all but
a very little, which I eked out with water a little and a little, till
it was so pale it scarce left any appearance of black upon the
paper. As long as it lasted, I made use of it to minute down the
days of the month on which any remarkable thing happened
to me, and first by casting up times past. I remember that there
was a strange concurrence of days in the various providences
which befel me; and which, if I had been superstitiously inclined
to observe days as fatal or fortunate, I might have had reason to
have looked upon with a great deal of curiosity.

First, I had observed, that the same day that I broke away
from my father and my friends, and run away to Hull, in order
to go to sea, the same day afterwards I was taken by the Sallee
man-of-war, and made a slave.

The same day of the year that I escaped out of the wreck of
that ship in Yarmouth roads, that same day-year afterwards I
made my escape from Sallee in the boat.

The same day of the year I was born on, viz: the 3oth of
September, that same day I had my life so miraculously saved
twenty-six years after, when I was cast on shore on this island,
so that my wicked life and my solitary life began both on a day.

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DP > > I Become A TAILOR Kee Ke

The next thing to my ink being wasted, was that of my bread,
I mean the biscuit which I brought out of the ship; this I had
husbanded to the last degree, allowing myself but one cake of
bread a day for above a year, and yet I was quite without bread
for near a year before I got any corn of my own, and great
reason I had to be thankful that I had any at all, the getting it
being, as has been already observed, next to miraculous.

My clothes began to decay, too, mightily. As to linen, I had
none a good while, except some checkered shirts which I found
in the chests of the other seamen, and which I carefully pre-
served, because many times I could bear no other clothes on
but a shirt; and it was a very great help to me that I had among
all the men’s clothes of the ship almost three dozen of shirts.
There were also several thick watch-coats of the seamen, which
were left indeed, but they were too hot to wear; and though it
is true that the weather was so violent hot that there was no need
of clothes, yet I could not go quite naked; no, though I had
been inclined to it, which I was not, nor could not abide the
thoughts of it, though I was all alone.

The reason why I could not go quite naked, was, I could not
bear the heat of the sun so well when quite naked, as with some
clothes on; nay, the very heat frequently blistered my skin;
whereas, with a shirt on, the air itself made some motion, and
whistling under that shirt, was twofold cooler than without it.
No more could I ever bring myself to go out in the heat of the
sun without a cap or a hat; the heat of the sun beating with such
violence as it does in that place, would give me the head-ache
presently, by darting so directly on my head, without a cap or
hat on, so that I could not bear it; whereas, if I put on my hat,
it would presently go away.

Upon those views I began to consider about putting the few
rags I had, which I called clothes, into some order. I had worn
out all the waistcoats I had, and my business was now to try if
I could not make jackets out of the great watch-coats which I
had by me, and with such other materials as I had; so I set to
work a tailoring, or rather indeed a botching, for I made most
piteous work of it. However, I made shift to make two or three
new waistcoats, which I hoped would serve me a great while;
as for breeches or drawers, I made but a very sorry shift indeed,
till afterward.

127
I have mentioned that I saved the skins of all the creatures
that I killed, I mean four-footed ones, and I had hung them up
stretched out with sticks in the sun, by which means some of
them were so dry and hard that they were fit for little, but others
it seems were very useful. The first thing I made of these was a
great cap for my head, with the hair on the outside to shoot off
the rain; and this I performed so well, that after this I made me
a suit of clothes wholly of these skins, that is to say, a waistcoat,
and breeches open at knees, and both loose, for they were rather
wanting to keep me cool than to keep me warm. I must not omit
to acknowledge that they were wretchedly made; for if I was a
bad carpenter, I was a worse tailor. However, they were such
as I made very good shift with; and when I was abroad, if it hap-
pened to rain, the hair of my waistcoat and cap being outermost,
I was kept very dry.

After this I spent a great deal of time and pains to make me
an umbrella. I was indeed in great want of one, and had a great
mind to make one. I had seen them made in the Brazils, where
they are very useful in the great heats which are there; and I
felt the heats every jot as great here, and greater, too, being
nearer the equinox; besides, as I was obliged to be much abroad,
it was a most useful thing to me, as well for the rains as the heats.
I took a world of pains at it, and was a great while before I could
make anything likely to hold; nay, after I thought I had hit the
way, I spoiled two or three before I made one to my mind; but
at last I made one that answered indifferently well. The main
difficulty I found was to make it let down. I could make it to
spread, but if it did not let down too, and draw in, it was not
portable for me any way but just over my head, which would
not do. However, at last, as I said, I made one to answer, and
covered it with skins, the hair upwards, so that it cast off the
rains like a pent-house, and kept off the sun so effectually, that
I could walk out in the hottest of the weather with greater
advantage than I could before in the coolest, and when I had no
need of it, could close it and carry it under my arm.

Thus I lived mighty comfortably, my mind being entirely
composed by resigning to the will of God, and throwing myself
wholly upon the disposal of his Providence. This made my life
better than sociable; for when I began to regret the want of
conversation, I would ask myself whether thus conversing

128
Spopa) Make a New Boat ee

mutually with my own thoughts, and, as I hope I may say, with
even God himself, by ejaculations, was not better than the
utmost enjoyment of human society in the world?

=. I cannot say that after this, for five years, any extraordinary
thing happened to me, but I lived on in the same course, in the
same posture and place, just as before. The chief things I was
employed in, besides my yearly labor of planting my barley and
rice, and curing my raisins, of both which I always kept up just
enough to have sufficient stock of one year’s provisions before-
hand; I say, besides this yearly labor, and my daily labor of
going out with my gun, I had one labor to make me a canoe,
which at last I finished. So that by digging a canal to it of six foot
wide, and four foot deep, I brought it into the creek, almost half
a mile. As for the first, which was so vastly big, as I made it
without considering beforehand, as I ought to do, how I should
be able to launch it; so never being able to bring it to the water,
or bring the water to it, I was obliged to let it lie where it was,
as a memorandum to teach me to be wiser next time. Indeed, the
next time, though I could not get a tree proper for it, and in a
place where I could not get the water to it, at any less distance
than as I have said, near half a mile, yet as I saw it was practicable
at last, I never gave it over; and though I was near two years
about it, yet I never grudged my labor, in hopes of having a boat
to go off to sea at last.

However, though my little periagua was finished, yet the
size of it was not at all answerable to the design which I had in
view, when I made the first; I mean, of venturing over to the
terra firma, where it was above forty miles broad. Accordingly,
the smallness of my boat assisted to put an end to that design,
and now I thought no more of it. But as I had a boat, my next
design was to make a tour round the island; for as I had been on
the other side, in one place, crossing, as I have already described
it, over the land, so the discoveries I made in that little journey
made me very eager to see other parts of the coast, and now I
had a boat, I thought of nothing but sailing round the island.

For this purpose, that I might do everything with discretion
and consideration, I fitted up a little mast to my boat, and made
a sail to it, out of some of the pieces of the ship’s sail, which lay
in store, and of which I hada great stock by me.

Having fitted my mast and sail, and tried the boat, I found

129
Ss} s> RoBINSON CRUSOE Ke Ka

she would sail very well; then I made little lockers or boxes, at
either end of my boat, to put provisions, necessaries and ammu-
nition, etc., into, to be kept dry, either from the rain or the spray
of the sea; and a little long, hollow place I cut in the inside of the
boat, where I could lay my gun, making a flap to hang down
over it to keep it dry.

I fixed my umbrella, also, in a step at the stern, like a mast, to
stand over my head, and keep the heat of the sun off of me like
an awning; and thus I every now and then took a little voyage
upon the sea, but never went far out, not far from the little
creek; but at last, being eager to view the circumference of my
little kingdom, I resolved upon my tour, and accordingly I
victualled my ship for the voyage, putting in two dozen of my
loaves (cakes I should rather call them) of barley bread, an
earthen pot full of parched rice, a food I eat a great deal of, a
little bottle of rum, half a goat, and powder and shot for killing
more, and two large watch-coats of those which, as I mentioned
before, I had saved out of the seamen’s chests; these I took, one
to lie upon, and the other to cover me in the night.

It was the sixth of November, in the sixth year of my reign,
or my captivity, which you please, that I set out on this voyage,
and I found it much longer than I expected; for though the
island itself was not very large, yet when I came to the east side
of it, I found a great ledge of rocks lie out above two leagues
into the sea, some above water, some under it; and beyond that,
a shoal of sand, lying dry half a league more; so that I was
obliged to go a great way out to sea to double the point.

When first I discovered them, I was going to give over my
enterprise, and come back again, not knowing how far it might
oblige me to go out to sea; and above all, doubting how I should
get back again; so I came to an anchor, for I had made mea kind
of an anchor with a piece of a broken graphlin, which I got out
of the ship.

Having secured my boat, I took my gun, and went on shore,
climbing up upon 2 hill, which seemed to over-look that point,
where I saw the full extent of it, and resolved to venture.

In my viewing the sea from that hill where I stood, I per-
ceived a strong, and indeed, a most furious current, which run
to the east, and even came close to the point; and I took the more
notice of it, because I saw there might be some danger, that

130
Sh > CARRIED BY THE CURRENT 64K

when I came into it, I might be carried out to sea by the strength
of it, and not be able to make the island again; and indeed, had
I not gotten first up upon this hill, I believe it would have been
so; for there was the same current on the other side the island,
only, that it set off at a further distance; ard I saw there was a
strong eddy under the shore; so I had nothing to do but to get
in out of the first current, and I should presently be in an eddy.

I lay here, however, two days; because the wind blowing
pretty fresh at E. S. E., and that being just contrary to the said
current, made a great breach of the sea upon the point; so that
it was not safe for me to keep too close to the shore for the
breach, nor to go too far off because of the stream.

The third day, in the morning, the wind having abated over
night, the sea was calm, and I ventured; but I am a warning-
piece again to all rash and ignorant pilots; for no sooner was |
comié to thé point, when even I was not my boat’s length from
the shore, but I found myself in a great depth of water, and a
current like the sluice of a mill; it carried my boat along with it
with such violence, that all I could do could not keep her so
much as on the edge of it; but I found it hurried me farther and
farther out from the eddy, which was on my left hand. There
was no wind stirring to help me, and all I could do with my




SP > > RosBInson CRUSOE KE KE Ke

paddlers signified nothing; and now I began to give myself over
for lost; for as the current was on both sides the island, I knew
in a few leagues distance they must join again, and then I was
irrecoverably gone; nor did I see any possibility of avoiding it;
so that I had no prospect before me but of perishing; not by the
sea, for that was calm enough, but of starving for hunger. I had
indeed found a tortoise on the shore, as big almost as I could lift,
and had tossed it into the boat; and I had a great jar of fresh
water, that is to say, one of my earthen pots; but what was all
this to being driven into the vast ocean, where to be sure, there
was no shore, no main land, or island, for a thousand leagues at
least.

And now I saw how easy it was for the Providence of God
to make the most miserable condition mankind could be in,
worse. Now I looked back upon my desolate, solitary island,
as the most pleasant place in the world, and all the happiness my
heart could wish for, was to be but there again. I stretched out
my hands to it with eager wishes. O happy desert, said I, I shall
never see thee more! O miserable creature, said I, whither am
I going! Then I reproached myself with my unthankful temper,
and how I had repined at my solitary condition; and now what
would I give to be on shore there again. Thus we never see the
true state of our condition, till it is illustrated to us by its con-
traries; nor know how to value what we enjoy, but by the want
of it. It is scarce possible to imagine the consternation I was now
in, being driven from my beloved island (for so it appeared to
me now to be) into the wide ocean, almost two leagues, and in
the utmost despair of ever recovering it again. However, I
worked hard, till indeed my strength was almost exhausted, and
kept my boat as much to the northward, that is, towards the
side of the current which the eddy lay on, as possibly I could;
when about noon, as the sun passed the meridian, I thought I felt
a little breeze of wind in my face, springing up from the S. S. E.
This cheered my heart a little, and especially when in about half
an hour more, it blew a pretty small, gentle gale. By this time I
was gotten at a frightful distance from the island, and had the
least cloud or hazy weather intervened, I had been undone
another way, too; for I had no compass on board, and should
never have known how to have steered towards the island, if
Thad but once lost sight of it; but the weather continuing clear,

132
———————E—E—E—E—E——EEE——>———E_=z{]>_}_}&]===—
pee Escapge rroM THE CuRRENT G6XGQe

I applied myself to get up my mast again, and spread my sail,
standing away to the north, as much as possible, to get out of
the current.

Just as I had set my mast and sail, and the boat began to
stretch away, I saw, even by the clearness of the water, some
alteration of the current was near; for where the current was
so strong, the water was foul; but perceiving the water clear, I
found the current abate, and presently I found to the east, at
about half a mile, a breach of the sea upon some rocks; these
rocks I found caused the current to part again, and as the main
stress of it ran away more southerly, leaving the rocks to the
north-east, so the other returned by the repulse of the rocks, and
made a strong eddy, which ran back again to the north-west,
with a very sharp stream.

They who know what it is to have a reprieve brought to
them upon the ladder, or to be rescued from thieves just going
to murder them, or who have been in such like extremities, may
guess what my present surprise of joy was, and how gladly I
put my boat into the stream of this eddy, and the wind also
freshening, how gladly I spread my sail to it, running cheerfully
before the wind, and with a strong tide or eddy under foot.

This eddy carried me about a league in my way back again
directly towards the island, but about two leagues more to the
northward than the current which carried me away at first; so
that when I came near the island, I found myself open to the
northern shore of it, that is to say, the other end of the island
opposite to that which I went out from.

When I had made something more than a league of way by
the help of this current or eddy, I found it was spent and served
me no farther. However, I found that being between the two
great currents, viz: that on the south side, which had hurried
me away, and that on the north, which lay about a league on
the other side,—I say, between these two, in the wake of the
island, I found the water at least still and running no way; and
having still a breeze of wind fair for me, I kept on steering
directly for the island, though not making such fresh way as I
did before.

About four o’clock in the evening, being then within about
a league of the island, I found the point of the rocks which occa-
sioned this disaster, stretching out, as is described before, to the

133
SPs Rowinson Crusoe ERE

southward, and casting off the current more southwardly, had,
of course, made another eddy to the north, and this I found
very strong, but not directly setting the way my course lay,
which was due west, but almost full north. However, having a
fresh gale, I stretched across this eddy, slanting north-west, and,
in about an hour, came within about a mile of the shore, where,
it being smooth water, I soon got to land.

When I was on shore, I fell on my knees and gave God
thanks for my deliverance, resolving to lay aside all thoughts
of my deliverance by my boat; and refreshing myself with such
things as I had, I brought my boat close to the shore in a little
cove that I had spied under some trees, and laid me down to
sleep, being quite spent with the labor and fatigue of the voyage.

I was now at a great loss which way to get home with my
boat. I had run so much hazard, and knew too much the case
to think of attempting it by the way I went out; and what might
be at the other side (I mean the west side) I know not, nor had
Tany mind to run any more ventures;-so I only resolved in the
morning to make my way westward along the shore, and to see
if there was no creek where I might lay up my frigate in safety,
so as to have her again if I wanted her. In about three miles or
thereabout, coasting the shore, I came to a very good inlet or
bay, about a mile over, which narrowed till it came to a very
little rivulet or brook, where I found a very convenient harbor
for my boat, and where she lay as if she had been ina little dock
made on purpose for her. Here I put in, and having stowed my
boat very safe, I went on shore to look about me, and see where
I was.

Isoon found I had but a little passed by the place where I had
been before, when I travelled on foot to that shore; so taking
nothing out of my boat, but my gun and my umbrella, for it was
exceedingly hot, I began my march. The way was comfortable
enough after such a voyage as I had been upon, and I reached
my old bower in the evening, where I found everything stand-
ing as I left it; for I always kept it in good order, being, as I said
before, my country-house.

I got over the fence, and laid me down in the shade to rest
my limbs, for I was very weary, and fell asleep; but judge you,
if you can, that read my story, what a surprise I must be in,
when I was waked out of my sleep by a voice calling me by my

134
Pe > My Parrot FRIGHTENS ME Xe

name several times, “Robin, Robin, Robin Crusoe, poor Robin
Crusoe! Where are you, Robin Crusoe? Where are you? Where
have you been?”

I was so dead asleep at first, being fatigued with rowing or
paddling, as it is called, the first part of the day, and with
walking the latter part, that I did not wake thoroughly; but
dozing between sleeping and waking, thought I dreamed that
somebody spoke to me. But, as the voice continued to repeat,
“Robin Crusoe, Robin Crusoe,” at last I began to wake more
perfectly, and was at first dreadfully frightened, and started up
in the utmost consternation; but, no sooner were my eyes open
but I saw my Poll sitting on the top of the hedge, and immedi-
ately knew that it was he that spoke to me; for just in such
bemoaning language I had used to talk to him, and teach him;
and he had learned it so perfectly, that he would sit upon my
finger, and lay his bill close to my face, and cry, “Poor Robin
Crusoe, where are you? Where have you been? How came you
here?” and such things as I had taught him.

However, even though I knew it was the parrot, and that
indeed it could be nobody else, it was a good while before I
could compose myself. First, I was amazed how the creature got
thither, and then how he should just keep about the place, and
no where else. But, as I was well satisfied it could be nobody but
honest Poll, I got it over; and holding out my hand, and calling
him by his name Poll, the sociable creature came to me, and sat
upon my thumb, as he used to do, and continued talking to me,
“Poor Robin Crusoe,” and “how did I come here?” and “where
had I been?” just as if he had been overjoyed to see me again;
and so I carried him home along with me.

Thad now had enough of rambling to sea for some time, and
had enough to do for many days to sit still and reflect upon the
danger I had been in. I would have been very glad to have
had my boat again on my side of the island; but I knew not how
it was practicable to get it about. As to the east side of the
island, which I had gone round, I knew well enough there was
no venturing that way; my very heart would shrink, and my
very blood run chill but to think of it. And as to the other side
of the island, I did not know how it might be there; but suppos-
ing the current ran with the same force against the shore at the
east as it passed by it on the other, I might run the same risk of

135
ee
SPP Rowinson Cruson eRe
eee ROR Ne erson eee

being driven down the stream, and carried by the island, as I
had been before, of being carried away from it; so with these
thoughts I contented myself to be without any boat, though it
had been the product of so many months’ labor to make it, and
of so many more to get it unto the sea.

In this government of my temper I remained near a year,
lived a very sedate, retired life, as you may well suppose; and my
thoughts being very much composed as to my condition, and
fully comforted in resigning myself to the dispositions of Provi-
dence, I thought I lived really very happily in all things, except
that of society. I improved myself in this time in all the mechanic
exercises which my necessities put me upon applying myself to,
and I believe could, upon occasion, make a very good carpenter,
especially considering how few tools I had.

Besides this, I arrived at an unexpected perfection in my
earthenware, and contrived well enough to make them with a
wheel, which I found infinitely easier and better; because I made
things round and shapeable, which before were filthy things
indeed to look on. But I think I was never more vain of my own
performance, or more joyful for anything I found out, than for
my being able to make a tobacco-pipe, and though it was a very
ugly, clumsy thing, when it was done, and only burnt red like
other earthen ware, yet as it was hard and firm, and would
draw the smoke, I was exceedingly comforted with it; for I had
been always used to smoke, and there were pipes in the ship,
but I forgot them at first, not knowing that there was tobacco
on the island; and afterwards, when I searched the ship again,
Icould not come at any pipes at all.

In my wicker ware, also, I improved much, and made abun-
dance of necessary baskets, as well as my invention showed me,
though not very handsome, yet they were such as were very
handy and convenient for my laying things up in, or fetching
things home in. For example, if I killed a goat abroad, I could
hang it up in a tree, flea it, and dress it, and cut it in pieces, and
bring it home in a basket; and the like by a turtle,—I could cut
it up, take out the eggs, and a piece or two of the flesh, which
was enough for me, and bring them home in a basket, and leave
the rest behind me. Also, large deep baskets were my receivers
for my corn, which I always rubbed out as soon as it was dry,
and cured, and keptit in great baskets.

136
—_____-__—_————————————
ape a> I Trap Some Live Goats QQ

I began now to perceive my powder abated considerably, and
this was a want which it was impossible for me to supply, and
I began seriously to consider what I must do when I should have
no more powder; that is to say, how I should do to kill any goat.
Thad, as is observed in the third year of my being here, kept a
young kid, and bred her up tame, and I was in hope of getting
a he-goat, but I could not by any means bring it to pass; still my
kid grew an old goat, and I could never find in my heart to kill
her, till she died at last of mere age.

But being now in the eleventh year of my residence, and, as I
have said, my ammunition growing low, I set myself to study
some art to trap and snare the goats, to see whether I could not
catch some of them alive, and, particularly, I wanted a she-goat
great with young.

To this purpose I made snares to hamper them, and I do
believe they were more than once taken in them, but my tackle
was not good, for I had no wire, and I always found them
broken, and my bait devoured.

At length, I resolved to try a pit-fall; so I dug several large
pits in the earth, in places where I had observed the goats used
to feed, and over these pits I placed hurdles of my own making
too, with a great weight upon them; and several times I put ears
of barley and dry rice, without setting the trap, and I could
easily perceive that the goats had gone in and eaten up the corn,
for I could see the mark of their feet. At length, I set three traps
in one night, and going the next morning I found them all stand-
ing, and yet the bait eaten and gone. This was very discourag-
ing; however, I altered my trap, and, not to trouble you with
particulars, going one morning to see my trap, I found in one
of them a large old he-goat, and in one of the other three kids, a
male and two females.

As to the old one, I knew not what to do with him, he was so
fierce I durst not go into the pit to him; that is to say, to go about
to bring him away alive, which was what I wanted. I could
have killed him, but that was not my business, nor would it
answer my end. So I e’en let him out, and he ran away as if he
had been frighted out of his wits. But I had forgot then, what I
learned afterwards, that hunger will tame a lion. If I had let him
stay there three or four days without food, and then have car-
ried him some water to drink, and then a little corn, he would

137


Se ee Se a eee eee
SH > Rosinson CRUSOE EEK

have been as tame as one of the kids, for they are mighty
sagacious, tractable creatures where they are well used.

However, for the present I let him go, knowing no better at
that time; then I went to the three kids, and taking them one
by one, I tied them with strings together, and, with some
difficulty, brought them all home.

It was a good while before they would feed, but throwing
them some sweet corn, it tempted them, and they began to be
tame. And now I found that if I expected to supply myself with
goat-flesh when I had no powder or shot left, breeding some
up tame was my only way, when perhaps I might have them
about my house like a flock of sheep.

But then it presently occurred to me, that I must keep the
tame from the wild, or else they would always run wild when
they grew up; and the only way for this was to have some
enclosed piece of ground, well fenced, either with hedge or
pale, to keep them in so effectually, that those within might not
break out, or those without break in.

This was a great undertaking for one pair of hands; yet, as
I saw there was an absolute necessity of doing it, my first piece
of work was to find out a proper piece of ground, viz: where
there was likely to be herbage for them to eat, water for them
to drink, and cover to keep them from the sun.

Those who understand such enclosures will think I had very
little contrivance, when I pitched upon a place very proper
for all these, being a plain, open piece of meadowland, or
savanna (as our people call it in the western colonies), which
had two or three little rills of fresh water in it, and at one end
was very woody; I say, they will smile at my forecast, when
I shall tell them I began my enclosing of this piece of ground
in such a manner, that my hedge or pale must have been at least
two miles about. Nor, was the madness of it so great as to the
compass, for, if it was ten miles about, I was like to have time
enough to do it in. But I did not consider that my goats would
be as wild in so much compass, as if they had had the whole
island, and I should have so much room to chase them in, that
Tshould never catch them.

My hedge was begun and carried on, I believe, about fifty
yards, when this thought occurred to me; so I presently stopped |
short, and, for the first beginning, I resolved to enclose a piece



138


SPL Burep Ur My Frock —§ RK

of about 150 yards in length, and 100 yards in breadth, which,
as it would maintain as many as I should have in any reasonable
time, so as my flock increased, I could add more ground to my
enclosure.

This was acting with some prudence, and I went to work
with courage. I was about three months hedging in the first
piece, and till I had done it I tethered the three kids in the best
part of it, and used them to feed as near me as possible to make
them familiar; and very often I would go and carry them some
ears of barley, or a handful of rice, and feed them out of my
hand; so that, after my enclosure was finished, and I let them
loose, they would follow me up and down, bleating after me
for a handful of corn.

This answered my end, and in about a year and a half I had
a flock of about twelve goats, kids and all; and in two years more
I had three and forty, besides several that I took and killed for
my food. And after that I enclosed five several pieces of ground
to feed them in, with little pens to drive them into, to take them
as I wanted, and gates out of one piece of ground into another.

But this was not all, for now I not only had goat’s flesh to
feed on when I pleased, but milk too, a thing which indeed in
my beginning I did not so much as think of, and which, when
it came into my thoughts, was really an agreeable surprise. For
now I set up my dairy, and had sometimes a gallon or two of
milk in a day. And as Nature, who gives supplies of food to
every creature, dictates even naturally how to make use of it,
so I, that had never milked a cow, much less a goat, or seen
butter or cheese made, very readily and handily, though after
a great many essays and miscarriages, made me both butter and
cheese at last, and never wanted it afterwards.

How mercifully can our great Creator treat his creatures, |
even in those conditions in which they seemed to be over-)
whelmed in destruction! How can he sweeten the bitterest
providences, and give us cause to praise him for dungeons and
prisons! What a table was here spread for me in a wilderness,
where I saw nothing at first but to perish for hunger!

It would have made a stoic smile to have seen me and my)
little family sit down to dinner; there was my majesty, the|
prince and lord of the whole island. I had the lives of all my |
subjects at my absolute command. I could hang, draw, give |

139
FRR
3s Robinson Crusoe Ke Ke KE
ee ee RNR

liberty, and take it away, and no rebels among all my subjects.

Then, to see how like a king I dined, too, all alone, attended
by my servants. Poll, as if he had been my favorite, was the only
person permitted to talk to me. My dog, who was now grown
very old and crazy, and had found no species to multiply his
kind upon, sat always at my right hand; and two cats, one on
one side the table, and one on the other, expecting now and then
a bic from my hand, asa mark of special favor.

But these were not the two cats which I brought on shore at
first, for they were both of them dead, and had been interred
near my habitation by my own hand; but one of them having
multiplied by I know not what kind of a creature, these were
two which I had preserved tame, whereas the rest run wild in
the woods, and became indeed troublesome to me at last; for
they would often come into my house, and plunder me, too,
till at last I was obliged to shoot them, and did kill a great many;
at length they left me with this attendance, and in this plentiful
manner I lived; neither could I be said to want anything but
society, and of that, in some time after this, was I like to have
too much.

I was something impatient, as I have observed, to have the
use of my boat, though very loth to run any more hazards; and,
therefore, sometimes, I sat contriving ways to get her about the
island, and at other times I sat myself down contented enough
without her. But I had a strange uneasiness in my mind to go
down to the point of the island, where, as I have said, in my last
ramble, I went up the hill to see how the shore lay, and how the
current set, that I might see what I had to do. This inclination
increased upon me every day, and at length I resolved to travel
thither by land, following the edge of the shore. I did so. But
had any one in England been to meet such a man as I was, it
must either have frightened them, or raised a great deal of
laughter; and, as I frequently stood still to look at myself, I
could not but smile at the notion of my travelling through
Yorkshire with such an equipage, and in such a dress. Be pleased
to take asketch of my figure, as follows:

Thad a great high shapeless cap, made of a goat’s skin, with a
flap hanging down behind, as well to keep the sun from me, as
to shoot the rain off from running into my neck; nothing being
so hurtful, in these climates, as the rain upon the flesh under the

clothes.
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HPs My Strrance APPEARANCE 6 C64Q

I had a short jacket of goat-skin, the skirts coming down
to about the middle of my thighs; and a pair of open-kneed
breeches of the same; the breeches were made of the skin of an
old he-goat, whose hair hung down such a length on either side,
that, like pantaloons, it reached to the middle of my legs; stock-
ings and shoes I had none, but had made me a pair of some things,
I scarce know what to call them, like buskins, to flap over my
legs, and lace on either side, like spatter-dashes; but of a most
barbarous shape, as indeed were all the rest of my clothes.

Thad on a broad belt of goat’s-skin dried, which I drew to-
gether with two thongs of the same, instead of buckles, and, in
a kind of frog on either side of this, instead of a sword and a
dagger, hung a little saw and a hatchet, one on one side, one on
the other. I had another belt not so broad, and fastened in the
same manner, which hung over my shoulder; and at the end of
it, under my left arm, hung two pouches, both made of goat’s-
skin, too; in one of which hung my powder, in the other my
shot. At my back I carried my basket, on my shoulder my gun,
and over my head a great clumsy, ugly skin umbrella, but which,
after all, was the most necessary thing I had about me, next to
my gun. As for my face, the color of it wasreally not so mulatto-
like as one might expect from a man not at all careful of it, and
living within nineteen degrees of the equinox. My beard I had
once suffered to grow till it was about a quarter of a yard
long; but as I had both scissors and razors sufficient, I had cut
it pretty short, except what grew on my upper lip, which I had
trimmed into a large pair of Mahometan whiskers, such as I had
seen worn by some Turks, who I saw at Sallee; for the Moors
did not wear such, though the Turks did; of these mustachios
or whiskers, I will not say they were long enough to hang my
hat upon them, but they were of a length and shape monstrous
enough, and such as in England would have passed for frightful.

But all this is by the by; for, as to my figure, I had so few to
observe me, that it was of no manner of consequence; so I say |
no more to that part. In this kind of figure I went my new!
journey, and was out five or six days. I travelled first along the
sea-shore, directly to the place where I first brought my boat
to an anchor, to get up upon the rocks; and having no boat now
to take care of, I went over the land a nearer way, to the same
height that I was upon before; when looking forward to the

141

|
—EEE—————————————————————— EE
SP HP sop Rosinson Crusoe Ke

point of the rocks which lay out, and which I was obliged to
double with my boat, as is said above, I was surprised to see the
sea all smooth and quiet—no rippling, no motion, no current,
any more there than in other places.

I was at a strange loss to understand this, and resolved to
spend some time in the observing it, to see if nothing from the
sets of the tide had occasioned it; but I was presently convinced
how it was, viz: that the tide of ebb setting from the west, and
joining with the current of waters from some great river on the
shore, must be the occasion of this current; and that, according
as the wind blew more forcibly from the west, or from the
north, this current came near, or went farther from the shore;
for waiting thereabouts till evening, I went up to the rock again,
and then the tide of ebb being made, I plainly saw the current
again as before, only, that it run farther off, being near half a
league from the shore; whereas, in my case, it set close upon the
shore, and hurried me and my canoe along with it, which at
another time it would not have done.

This observation convinced me that I had nothing to do but
to observe the ebbing and the flowing of the tide, and I might
very easily bring my boat about the island again. But when I
began to think of putting it in practice, I had such a terror upon
my spirits at the remembrance of the danger I had been in, that
I could not think of it again with any patience; but on the con-
trary, I took up another resolution, which was more safe,
though more laborious, and this was, that I would build, or
rather make, me another periagua or canoe; and so have one for
one side of the island, and one for the other.

You are to understand, that now I had, as I may call it, two
plantations in the island; one, my little fortification or tent, with
the wall about it under the rock, with the cave behind me, which
by this time I had enlarged into several apartments, or caves,
one within another. One of these, which was the driest, and
largest, and had a door out beyond my wall or fortification, that
is to say, beyond where my wall joined to the rock, was all filled
up with the large earthen pots, of which I have given an account,
and with fourteen or fifteen great baskets, which would hold
five or six bushels each, where I laid up my stores of provision,
especially my corn, some in the ear, cut off short from the straw,
and the other rubbed out with my hand.

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Ses My Estates anp PasturE e@@&

As for my wall, made, as before, with long stakes or piles,
those piles grew all like trees, and were by this time grown so
big, and spread so very much, that there was not the least
appearance to any one’s view of any habitation behind them.

Near this dwelling of mine, but a little farther within the
land, and upon lower ground, lay my two pieces of corn-
ground, which I kept duly cultivated and sowed, and which
duly yielded me their harvest in its season; and whenever I had
occasion for more corn, I had more land adjoining as fit as that.

Besides this, I had my country seat, and I had now a tolerable
plantation there also; for first, I had my little bower, as I called
it, which I kept in repair; that is to say, I kept the hedge which
circled it in constantly fitted up to its usual height, the ladder
standing always in the inside; I kept the trees, which at first
were no more than my stakes, but were now grown very firm
and tall—I kept them always so cut, that they might spread and
grow thick and wild, and make the more agreeable shade, which
they did effectually to my mind. In the middle of this I had my
tent always standing, being a piece of a sail spread over poles
set up for that purpose, and which never wanted any repair or
renewing; and under this I had made me a squab or couch, with
the skins of the creatures I had killed, and with other soft things,
and a blanket laid on them, such as belonged to our sea-bedding,
which I had saved, and a great watch-coat to cover me; and
here, whenever I had occasion to be absent from my chief seat,
I took up my country habitation.

Adjoining to this, I had my enclosures for my cattle, that is
to say, my goats. And as I had taken an inconceivable deal of
pains to fence and enclose this ground, so I was so uneasy to see
it kept entire, lest the goats should break through, that I never
left off, till with infinite labor I had stuck the outside of the
hedge so full of small stakes, and so near to one another, that it
was rather a pale than a hedge, and there was scarce room to put
a hand through between them; which afterwards, when those
stakes grew, as they all did in the next rainy season, made the
enclosure strong like a wall, indeed, stronger than any wall.

This will testify for me that I was not idle, and that I spared
no pains to bring to pass whatever appeared necessary for my
comfortable support; for I considered the keeping up a breed
of tame creatures thus at my hand, woud bea living magazine of

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flesh, milk, butter and cheese for me as long as I lived in the
place, if it were to be forty years; and that keeping them in my
reach, depended entirely upon my perfecting my enclosures
to such a degree, that I might be sure of keeping them together;
which, by this method indeed, I so effectually secured, that
when these little stakes began to grow, I had planted them so
very thick, I was forced to pull some of them up again.

In this place, also, I had my grapes growing, which I prin-
cipally depended on for my winter store of raisins; and which
I never failed to preserve very carefully, as the best and most
agreeable dainty of my whole diet; and, indeed, they were
not agreeable only, but physical, wholesome, nourishing, and
refreshing, to the last degree.

As this was, also, about half way between my other habita-
tion and the place where I had laid up my boat, I generally
stayed, and lay here in my way thither; for L used frequently to
visit my boat, and I kept all things about or belonging to her in
very good order. Sometimes I went out in her to divert myself;
but no more hazardous voyages would I go, nor scarce ever
above a stone’s cast or two from the shore, I was so apprehensive
of being hurried out of my knowledge by the currents or winds,
or other accident. But now I come to a new scene of my life.

It happened, one day, about noon, going towards my boat, I
was exceedingly surprised with the print of a man’s naked foot
on the shore, which was very plain to be seen in the sand. I
stood like one thunder-struck, or as if I had seen an apparition.
I listened, I looked round me, I could hear nothing, nor see any-
thing. I went up to a rising ground to look farther. I went up
the shore, and down the shore, but it was all one, I could see no
other impression but that one. I went to it again to see if there
were any more, and to observe if it might not be my fancy;
but there was no room for that, for there was exactly the very
print of a foot, toes, heel, and every part of a foot. How it came
thither I knew not, nor could in the least imagine. But, after
innumerable fluttering thoughts, like a man perfectly confused
and out of myself, I came home to my fortification, not feeling,
as we say, the ground I went on, but terrified to the last degree,
looking behind me at every two or three steps, mistaking every
bush and tree, and fancying every stump at a distance to be a
man. Nor is it possible to describe how many various shapes

144


affrighted imagination represented things to me in; how many
wild ideas were found every moment in my fancy, and what
strange, unaccountable whimsies came into my thoughts by
the way.

When I came to my castle, for so I think I called it ever after
this, I fled into it like one pursued; whether I went over by the
ladder, as first contrived, or went in at the hole in the rock,
which I called a door, I cannot remember. No, nor could I
remember the next morning; for never frighted hare fled to
cover, or fox to earth, with more terror of mind than I to this .
retreat.



145
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o> Rosinson Crusoe Ke KEKE

I slept none that night. The farther I was from the occasion
of my fright, the greater my apprehensions were; which is
something contrary to the nature of such things, and especially
to the usual practice of all creatures in fear; but I was so embar-
rassed with my own frightful ideas of the thing, that I formed
nothing but dismal imaginations to myself, even though I was
now a great way off it, Sometimes I fancied it must be the devil;
and reason joined in with me upon this supposition. For how
should any other thing in human shape come into the place?
Where was the vessel that brought them? What marks were
there of any other footsteps? And how was it possible a man
should come there? But then, to think that Satan should take
human shape upon him in such a place, where there could be
no manner of occasion for it, but to leave the print of his foot
behind him; and that, even, for no purpose too, for he could
not be sure I should see it. This was an amusement the other
way. I considered that the devil might have found out abun-
dance of other ways to have terrified me, than this of the single *
print of a foot. That as I lived quite on the other side of the
island, he would never have been so simple to leave a mark in a
place where it was ten thousand to one whether I should ever
see it or not, and in the sand too, which the first surge of the sea
upon a high wind would have defaced entirely. All this seemed
inconsistent with the thing itself, and with all the notions we
usually entertain of the subtilty of the devil.

Abundance of such things as these assisted to argue me out
of all apprehensions of its being the devil. And I presently con-
cluded then, that it must be some more dangerous creature, viz:
that it must be some of the savages of the main land over against
me, who had wandered out to sea in their canoes, and either
driven by the currents, or by contrary winds, had made the
island; and had been on shore, but were gone away again to
sea, being as loth, perhaps, to have stayed in this desolate island,
as I would have been to have had them.

While these reflections were rolling upon my mind, I was
very thankful in my thoughts, that I was so happy as not to be
thereabouts at that time, or that they did not see my boat, by
which they would have concluded that some inhabitants had
been in the place, and perhaps have searched farther for me.
Then, terrible thoughts racked my imagination about their

146
—————=~—~EzEzEqIie=E——=zxIx =&& = eEeEeEe=e=E=Esee_e_a_e=_=e=E_e_s_=e=EE— eee
> > > Now I Fear Society eH

having found my boat, and that there were people here; and
that, if so, I should certainly have them come again in greater
numbers and devour me; that if it should happen so that they
should not find me, yet they would find my enclosure, destroy
all my corn, carry away all my flock of tame goats, and I should
perish at last for mere want.
Thus my fear banished all my religious hope; all that former
* “confidence in God, which was founded upon such wonderful
{| experience as I had had of his goodness, now vanished, as if
| he that had fed me by miracle hitherto, could not preserve by
his power the provision which he had made for me by his good-
| ness, I reproached myself with my easiness, that would not sow
any more corn one year than would just serve me till the next
season, as if no accident could intervene to prevent my enjoy-
ing the crop that was upon the ground; and this I thought so
just a reproof, that I resolved for the future to have two or three
years’ corn beforehand, so that, whatever might come, I might
_not perish for wantof bread:
- How strange a checker-work of Providence is the life of
\\. man! and by what secret, differing springs are the affections
\ hurried about, as differing circumstances present! To-day we
_ love what to-morrow we hate; to-day we seek what to-morrow
we shun; to-day we desire what to-morrow we fear, nay, even
\ tremble at the apprehensions of. This was exemplified in me, at
\this time, in the most lively manner imaginable; for I, whose
(only affliction was, that I seemed banished from human society,
that I was alone, circumscribed by the boundless ocean, cut off .
from mankind, and condemned to what I called silent life; that
I was as one whom Heaven thought not worthy to be num-
bered among the living, or to appear among the rest of his
creatures; that to have seen one of my own species would have
seemed to me a raising me from death to life, and the greatest
blessing that Heaven itself, next to the supreme blessing of
salvation, could bestow, I say, that I should now tremble at the
very apprehensions of seeing a man, and was ready to sink into
the ground but at the shadow or silent appearance of a man
having set his foot in the island]
Such is the uneven state of human life: and it afforded me a
great many curious speculations afterwards, when I had a little
recovered my first surprise. I considered that this was the station

147
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> > > RosBinson CRUSOE Ke Ke Ke

of life the infinitely wise and good Providence of God had
determined for me; that as I could not foresee-what the ends of
Divine wisdom might be in all this, so, I was not to dispute his
sovereignty, who, as I was his creature, had an undoubted right,
by creation, to govern and dispose of me absolutely ashe thought
fit; and who, as I was a creature who had offended him, had like-
wise a judicial right to condemn me to what punishment he
thought fit; and that it was my part to submit to bear his indigna-
tion, because I had sinned against him.

I then reflected that God, who was not only righteous but
omnipotent, as he had thought fit thus to punish and afflict me,
so he was able to deliver me; that if he did not think fit to do it,
it was my unquestioned duty to resign myself absolutely and
entirely to his will; and on the other hand, it was my duty also
to hope in him, pray to him, and quietly to attend the dictates
and directions of his daily providence.

These thoughts took me up many hours, days, nay, I may
say, weeks and months; and one particular effect of my cogita-
tions on this occasion, I cannot omit, viz: one morning early,
lying in my bed, and filled with thought about my danger from
the appearance of savages, I found it discomposed me very
much; upon which those words of the Scripture came into my
thoughts, “Call upon me in the day of trouble, and I will deliver,

,and thou shalt glorify me.”
' ]Upon this, rising cheerfully out of my bed, my heart was not
comforted, but I was guided and encouraged to pray
earnestly to God for deliverance. When I had done praying, I
took up my Bible, and opening it to read, the first words that
presented to me, were, “Wait on the Lord, and be of good
cheer, and he shall strengthen thy heart; wait, I say, on the
Lord.” It is impossible to express the comfort this gave me. In
answer, I thankfully laid down the book, and was no more
sad,—at least, not on that occasion. :

In the middle of these cogitations, apprehensions, and reflec-
tions, it came into my thought one day, that all this might be
a mere chimera of my own; and that this foot might be the print
of my own foot, when I came on shore from my boat; this
cheered me up 2 little, too, and I began to persuade myself it
was all a delusion; that it was nothing else but my own foot; and
why might not I come that way from the boat, as well as I was

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Ww I Becin to Lose My FEAR 6 @@

going that way to the boat; again, I considered also, that I could
by no means tell for certain where I had trod, and where I had
not; and that if at last this was only the print of my own foot, I
had played the part of those fools who strive to make stories of
spectres and apparitions, and then are frightened at them more
than anybody.

Now I began to take courage, and to peep abroad again; for
Thad not stirred out of my castle for three days and nights; so
that I began to starve for provision; for I had little or nothing
within doors, but some barley cakes and water. Then I knew
that my goats wanted to be milked too, which usually was my
evening diversion; and the poor creatures were in great pain
and inconvenience for want of it; and indeed, it almost spoiled
some of them, and almost dried up their milk.

Heartening myself therefore with the belief that this was
nothing but the print of one of my own feet, and so I might be
truly said to start at my own shadow, I began to go abroad again,
and went to my country house, to milk my flock; but to see with
what fear I went forward, how often I looked behind me, how I
was ready every now and then to lay down my basket, and run
for my life, it would have made any one have thought I was
haunted with an evil conscience, or that I had been lately most
terribly frightened,—and so indeed I had.

However, as I went down thus two or three days, and having
seen nothing, I began to be a little bolder, and to think there
was really nothing in it, but my own imagination. But I could
not persuade myself fully of this, till I should go down to the
shore again, and see this print of a foot, and measure it by my
own, and see if there was any similitude or fitness, that I might
be assured it was my own foot. But when I came to the place,
first, it appeared evidently to me, that when I laid up my boat,
Icould not possibly be on shore anywhere there about; secondly,
when I came to measure the mark with my own foot, I found
my foot not so large by a great deal. Both these things filled my
head with new imaginations, and gave me the vapors again, to
the highest degree; so that I shook with cold, like one in an
ague. And I went home again, filled with the belief that some
man or men had been on shore there; or, in short, that the island
was inhabited, and I might be surprised before I was aware; and
what course to take for my security I knew not.

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3>3)> o> RoBINSON CRUSOE Ke Ke Ke

Oh, what ridiculous resolutions men take, when possessed
with fear! It deprives them of the use of those means which
reason offers for their relief. The first thing I proposed-to my-
self, was, to throw down my enclosures, and turn all my tame
cattle wild into the woods, that the enemy might not find them,
and then frequent the island in prospect of the same, or the
like booty; then to the simple thing of digging up my two corn
fields, that they might not find such a grain there, and still be
prompted to frequent the island; then to demolish my bower,
and tent, that they might not see any vestiges of habitation, and
be prompted to look farther, in order to find out the persons
inhabiting.

These were the subject of the first night’s cogitation, after I
was come home again, while the apprehensions which had so
over-run my mind were fresh upon me, and my head was full
of vapors, as above. Thus, fear of danger is ten thousand times
more terrifying than danger itself, when apparent to the eyes;
and we find the burthen of anxiety greater by much than the
evil which we are anxious about; and which was worse than all
this, I had not that relief in this trouble from the resignation I
used to practice, that I hoped to have. I looked, I thought, like
Saul, who complained not only that the Philistines were upon
him, but that God had forsaken him; for I did not now take due
ways to compose my mind, by crying to God in my distress,
and resting upon his Providence, as I had done before, for my
defense and deliverance; which, if I had done, I had, at least,
been more cheerfully supported under this new surprise, and
perhaps carried through it with more resolution.

This confusion of my thoughts kept me waking all night;
but in the morning I fell asleep, and, having by the amusement
of my mind, been, as it were, tired, and my spirits exhausted, I
slept very soundly, and waked much better composed than I
had ever been before; and now I began to think sedately; and
upon the utmost debate with myself, I concluded, that this
island, which was so exceeding pleasant, fruitful, and no farther
from the main land than as I had seen, was not so entirely
abandoned as I might imagine. That although there were no
stated inhabitants who lived on the spot; yet that there might
sometimes come boats off from the shore, who either with
design, or perhaps never, but when they were driven by cross

150


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33> 3) > I App to My DEFENCES Re KH

winds, might come to this place. That I had lived here fifteen
years now, and had not met with the least shadow of any people
yet; and that if at any time they should be driven here, it was
probable they went away again as soon as ever they could, see-
ing they had never thought fit to fix there upon any occasion.

That the most I could suggest any danger from, was, from
any such casual accidental landing of straggling people from
the main, who, as it was likely, if they were driven hither, were
here against their wills; so they made no stay here, but went
off again with all possible speed, seldom staying one night on
shore, lest they should not have the help of the tides, and
daylight back again; and that therefore I had nothing to do but
to consider of some safe retreat, in case I should see any savages
land upon the spot.

Now I began sorely to repent that I had dug my cave so large,
as to bring a door through again, which door, as I said, came out
beyond where my fortification joined to the rock. Upon
maturely considering this, therefore, I resolved to draw me a
second fortification, in the same manner of a semicircle, at a
distance from my wall, just where I had planted a double row
of trees, about twelve years before, of which I made mention.
These trees having been planted so thick before, they wanted
but a few piles to be driven between them, that they should be
thicker and stronger, and my wall would be soon finished.

So that I had now a double wall, and my outer wall was
thickened with pieces of timber, old cables, and everything I
could think of to make it strong; having in it seven little holes,
about as big as I might put my arm out at. In the inside of this,
I thickened my wall to above ten foot thick, with continual
bringing earth out of my cave, and laying it at the foot of the
wall, and walking upon it; and through the seven holes I con-
trived to plant the muskets, of which I took notice that I got
seven on shore out of the ship. These, I say, I planted like my
cannon, and fitted them into frames that held them like a car-
riage, that so I could fire all the seven guns in two minutes’ time.
This wall I was many a weary month a-finishing, and yet never
thought myself safe till it was done.

When this was done, I stuck all the ground without my wall,
for a great way every way, as full with stakes or sticks of the
osier-like wood, which I found so apt to grow, as they could

151
eee
WIP PD Rosinson Crusoe Kee Ke oS
mare sRosinson Crusoe ee

well stand; insomuch, that I believe I might set in near twenty
thousand of them, leaving a pretty large space between them
and my wall, that I might have room to see an enemy, and they
might have no shelter from the young trees, if they attempted
to approach my outer wall.

Thus, in two years’ time, I had a thick grove, and in five or
six years’ time, I had a wood before my dwelling, growing so
monstrous thick and strong, that it was indeed perfectly impass-
able; and no men of what kind soever, would ever imagine that
there was anything beyond it, much less a habitation. As for
the way which I proposed to myself to go in and out—for I left
no avenue,—it was by setting two ladders, one, to a part of the
rock which was low, and then broke in, and left room to place
another ladder upon that; so, when the two ladders were taken
down, no man living could come down to me without mischiev-
ing himself; and if they had come down, they were still on the
outside of my outer wall.

Thus, I took all the measures human prudence could suggest
for my own preservation; and it will be seen at length, that they
were not altogether without just reason, though I foresaw noth-
ing at that time, more than my mere fear suggested to me.

While this was doing, I was not altogether careless of my
other affairs, for I had a great concern upon me, for my little
herd of goats; they were not only a present supply to me upon
every occasion, and began to be sufficient to me without the
expense of powder and shot, but also without the fatigue of
hunting after the wild ones; and I was loth to lose the advantage
of them, and to have themall to nurse up over again.

To this purpose, after long consideration, I could think of but
two ways to preserve them; one was to find another convenient
place to dig a cave under ground, and to drive them into it every
night; and the other was to enclose two or three little bits of
land, remote from one anotherandasmuch concealedas I could,
where I might keep about half a dozen young goats in each
place, so that if any disaster happened to the flock in general, I
might be able to raise them again with little trouble and time.
And this, though it would require a great deal of time and labor,
I thought was the most rational design.

Accordingly, I spent some time to find out the most retired
parts of the island, and I pitched upon one which was as private

152
DPM Divine My Hern SRK

indeed as my heart could wish for; it was a little damp piece of
ground in the middle of the hollow and thick woods, where, as
is observed, I almost lost myself once before, endeavoring to
come back that way from the eastern part of the island. Here I
found a clear piece of land, near three acres, so surrounded with
woods that it was almost an enclosure by nature; at least, it did
not want near so much labor to make it so, as the other pieces of
ground I had worked so hard at.

I immediately went to work with this piece of ground, and in
less than a month’s time, I had so fenced it round, that my flock
or herd, call it which you please, who were not so wild now as
at first they might be supposed to be, were well enough secured
in it. So, without any farther delay, I removed ten young she-
goats and two he-goats to this piece; and when they were there,
I continued to perfect the fence till I had made it as secure as
the other, which, however, I did at more leisure, and it took me
up more time by a great deal.

All this labor I was at the expense of purely from my appre-
hensions on the account of the print of a man’s foot which I
had seen; for as yet I never saw any human creature come near


={[={=={=[===__—___———————————
PNP RoBinson Crusoe Ke Keo

the island, and I had now lived two years under these uneasi-
nesses, which indeed made my life much less comfortable than
it was before, as may well be imagined by any who know what
it is to live in the constant snare of the fear of man; and this, I
must observe with grief too, that the discomposure of my mind
had too great impressions also upon the religious part of my
thoughts, for the dread and terror of falling into the hands of
savages and cannibals lay so upon my spirits, that I seldom found
myself in a due temper for application to my Maker, at least not
with the sedate calmness and resignation of soul which I was
wont to do. I rather prayed to God as under great affliction and
pressure of mind, surrounded with danger, and in expectation
every night of being murdered and devoured before morning;
and I must testify from my experience, that a temper of peace,
thankfulness, love and affection, is much more the proper frame
for prayer, than that of terror and discomposure; and that under
the dread of mischief impending, a man is no more fit for a
comforting performance of the duty of praying to God, than
he is for repentance on a sick-bed; for these discomposures
affect the mind as the others do the body; and the discomposure
of the mind must necessarily be as great a disability as that of
the body, and much greater—praying to God being properly an
act of the mind, not of the body.

But to go on. After I had thus secured one part of my little
living stock, I went about the whole island, searching for
another private place, to make such another deposit; when
wandering more to the west point of the island than I had ever
done yet, and looking out to sea, I thought I saw a boat upon
the sea, at a great distance. I had found a perspective glass, or
two, in one of the seamen’s chests, which I saved out of our
ship; but I had it not about me, and this was so remote, that I
could not tell what to make of it; though I looked at it till my
eyes were not able to hold to look any longer. Whether it was
a boat, or not, I do not know; but, as I descended from the hill,
I could see no more of it, so I gave it over; only I resolved to
go no more out without a perspective-glass in my pocket.

When I was come down the hill, to. the end of the island,
where indeed I had never been before, I was presently con-
vinced, that the seeing the print of a man’s foot, was not such
a strange thing in the island as I imagined; and but that it was

154
sop Tue CanniBaL FEAST Ke Ke Ke

a special Providence that I was cast upon the side of the island,
where the savages never came. I should easily have known that
nothing was more frequent than for the canoes from the main,
when they happened to be a little too far out at sea, to shoot
over to that side of the island for harbor; likewise, as they often
met, and fought in their canoes, the victors having taken any
prisoners, would bring them over to this shore, where, accord-
ing to their dreadful customs, being all cannibals, they would
kill and eat them; of which hereafter.

When I was come down the hill to the shore, as I said above,
being the S. W. point of the island, I was perfectly confounded
and amazed; nor is it possible for me to express the horror of
my mind at seeing the shore spread with skulls, hands, feet, and
other bones of human bodies; and, particularly, I observed a
place where there had been a fire made, and a circle dug in the
earth, like a cockpit, where it is supposed the savage wretches
had sat down to their inhuman feastings upon the bodies of
their fellow creatures.

I was so astonished with the sight of these things, that I enter-
tained no notion of any danger to myself from it for a long
while. All my apprehensions were buried in the thoughts of
such a pitch of inhuman, hellish brutality, and the horror of the
degeneracy of human nature; which, though I had heard of
often, yet I never had so near a view of before. In short, I turned
away my face from the horrid spectacle, my stomach grew
sick, and I was just at the point of fainting, when nature dis-
charged the disorder from my stomach, and, having vomited
with an uncommon violence, I was a little relieved, but could
not bear to stay in the place a moment; so I got me up the hill
again, with all the speed I could, and walked on towards my
own habitation.

When I came a little out of that part of the island, I stood still
awhile, as amazed; and then, recovering myself, I looked up
with the utmost affection of my soul, and with a flood of tears
in my eyes, gave God thanks that had cast my first lot in a part
of the world where I was distinguished from such dreadful
creatures as these; and that, though I had esteemed my present
condition very miserable, had yet given me so many comforts
in it, that I had still more to give thanks for than to complain of;
and this, above all, that I had, even in this miserable condition,

155
——yyyy———X—X—X—X—X—X—X—i—ss_.,
SS > Rosinson Crusoe Ke Ke KE

been comforted with the knowledge of himself, and the hope
of his blessing, which was a felicity more than sufficiently
equivalent to all the misery which I had suffered, or could suffer.

In this frame of thankfulness, I went home to my castle, and
began to be much easier now, as to the safety of my circum-
stances, than ever I was before; for I observed that these
wretches never came to this island in search of what they could
get; perhaps not seeking, not wanting, or not expecting any-
thing here; and having often, no doubt, been up in the covered
woody part of it, without finding anything to their purpose. I
knew I had been here now almost eighteen years, and never saw
the least footsteps of human creature there before; and I might
be here eighteen more, as entirely concealed as I was now, if I
did not discover myself to them, which I had no manner of
occasion to do, it being my only business to keep myself entirely
concealed where I was, unless I found a better sort of creatures
than cannibals to make myself known to.

Yet I entertained such an abhorrence of the savage wretches
that I have been speaking of, and of the wretched, inhuman
custom of their devouring and eating one another up, that I
continued pensive and sad, and kept close within my own
circle for almost two years after this. When I say my own circle,
I mean by it, my three plantations, viz: my castle, my country
seat, which I called my bower, and my enclosure in the woods;
nor did I look after this for any other use than as an enclosure
for my goats; for the aversion which nature gave me to these
hellish wretches, was such, that I was fearful of seeing them, as
of seeing the devil himself; nor did I so much as go to look after
my boat, in all this time, but began rather to think of making
me another; for I could not think of ever making any more
attempts to bring the other boat round the island to me, lest I
should meet with some of these creatures at sea, in which, if
I had happened to have fallen into their hands I knew what
would have been my lot.

Time, however, and the satisfaction I had that I was in no
danger of being discovered by these people, began to wear off
my uneasiness about them; and I began to live just in the same
composed manner as before; only with this difference, that I
used more caution, and kept my eyes more about me than I did
before, lest I should happen to be seen by any of them; and,

156
Sr
Pe LT Become More Cautious eee

particularly, I was more cautious of firing my gun, lest any
of them being on the island, should happen to hear of it; and it
was therefore a very good providence tome, that I had furnished
myself with a tame breed of goats, that I need not hunt any
more about the woods, or shoot at them; and if I did catch any
of them after this, it was by traps and snares, as I had done
before; so, that for two years after this, I believe I never fired
my gun once off, though I never went out without it; and
which was more, as I had saved three pistols out of the ship, I
always carried them out with me, or at least two of them, stick-
ing them in my goat-skin belt; also I furbished up one of the
great cutlasses, that I had out of the ship, and made me a belt to
putit on also; sothat I was now a most formidable fellow to look
at, when I went abroad, if you add to the former description of
myself, the particular of two pistols, and a great broad-sword,
hanging at my side in a belt, but without a scabbard.

Things going on thus, as I have said, for some time, I seemed,
excepting these cautions, to be reduced to my former calm,
sedate way of living. All these things tended to showing me
more and more how far my condition was from being miserable,
compared to some others; nay, to many other particulars of
life, which it might have pleased God to have made my lot. It
put me upon reflecting how little repining there would be
among mankind, at any condition of life, if people would rather
compare their condition with those that are worse, in order to
be thankful, than be always comparing them with those which
are better, to assist their murmurings and complainings.

Asin my present condition there were not really many things
which I wanted, so indeed I thought that the frights I had been
in about these savage wretches, and the concern I had been in
for my own preservation, had taken off the edge of my inven-
tion for my own conveniences; and I had dropped a good
design, which I had once bent my thoughts too much upon; and
that was, to try if I could not make some of my barley into malt,
and then try to brew myself some beer. This was really a whim-
sical thought, and I reproved myself often for the simplicity of
it; for I presently saw there would be the want of several things
necessary to the making my beer, that it would be impossible
for me to supply; as first, casks to preserve it in, which was a
thing, that as I have observed already, I could never compass;

157
Oo_—=>o——Ees=eEeeeeE=_S—S—S—X—X—X—X_———
S95 Rosinson Crusoe Eee Ke

no, though I spent not many days, but weeks, nay months in
attempting it, but to no purpose. In the next place, I had no
hops to make it keep; no yeast to make it work; no copper or
kettle to make it boil; and yet all these things, notwithstanding,
I verily believe, had not these things intervened, I mean the
frights and terrors I was in about the savages, I had undertaken
it, and, perhaps, brought it to pass, too: for I seldom gave any-
thing over without accomplishing it, when I once had it in my
head enough to begin it. ;

But my invention now run quite another way; for night and
day I could think of nothing but how I might destroy some of
these monsters in their cruel, bloody entertainment, and, if
possible, save the victim they should bring hither to destroy. It
would take up a larger volume than this whole work is intended
to be, to set down all the contrivances I hatched, or rather
brooded upon in my thought, for the destroying these creatures,
or at least frightening them, so as to prevent their coming hither
any more; but all was abortive, nothing could be possible to
take effect, unless I was to be there to do it myself; and what
could one man do among them, when perhaps there might be
twenty or thirty of them together, with their darts, or their
bows and arrows, with which they could shoot as true to a mark
as I could with my gun?

Sometimes I contrived to dig a hole under the place where
they made their fire, and put in five or six pound of gun powder,
which, when they kindled their fire, would consequently take
fire, and blow up all that was near it; but as in the first place, I
should be very loth to waste so much powder upon them, my
store being now within the quantity of one barrel, so neither
could I be sure of its going off at any certain time, when it
might surprise them, and at best, that it would do little more
than just blow the fire about their ears and fright them, but not
sufficient to make them forsake the place; so I laid it aside, and
then proposed that I would place myself in ambush, in some
convenient place, with my three guns, all double loaded, and
in the middle of their bloody ceremony, let fly at them, when
I should be sure to kill or wound perhaps two or three at every
shot; and then falling in upon them with my three pistols, and
my sword, I made no doubt but that if there was twenty I
should kill them all. This fancy pleased my thoughts for some

158


> 3 > I PLran A MASSACRE KE Ke Ke

weeks, and I was so full of it that I often dreamed of it; and
sometimes, that I was just going to let fly at them, in my sleep.

I went so far with it in my imagination, that I employed my-
self several days to find out proper places to put myself in
ambuscade, as I said, to watch for them; and I went frequently
to the place itself, which was now grown more familiar to me;
and especially while my mind was thus filled with thoughts of
revenge, and of a bloody putting twenty or thirty of them to
the sword, as I may call it, the horror I had at the place, and at
the signals of the barbarous wretches devouring one another,
abated my malice.

Well, at length I found a place in the side of the hill, where I
was satisfied I might securely wait till I saw any of their boats
coming, and might then, even before they would be ready to
come on shore, convey myself unseen into thickets of trees, in
one of which there was a hollow large enough to conceal me
entirely; and where I might sit, and observe all their bloody
doing, and take my full aim at their heads, when they were so
close together, as that it would be next to impossible that I
should miss my shot, or that I could fail wounding three or four
of them at the first shot.

In this place then I resolved to fix my design, and accord-
ingly I prepared two muskets and my ordinary fowling-piece.
The two muskets I loaded with a brace of slugs each, and four
or five smaller bullets, about the size of pistol bullets; and the
fowling-piece I loaded with near a handful of swan-shot, of the
largest size; I also loaded my pistols with about four bullets
each, and in this posture, well provided with ammunition for
asecond and third charge, I prepared myself for my expedition.

After I had thus laid the scheme of my design, and in my
imagination put it in practice, I continually made my tour every
morning up to the top of the hill, which was from my castle, as
I called it, about three miles or more, to see if I could observe
any boats upon the sea, coming near the island, or standing over
towards inibat I began to tire of this hard duty, after I had for
two or three months constantly kept my watch; but came
always back without any discovery, there having not in all that
time been the least appearance, not only on, or near the shore,
but not on the whole ocean, so far as my eyes or glasses could
reach every way.

159




As long as I kept up my daily tour to the hill to look out, so
long also I kept up the vigor of my design; and my spirits seemed
to be all the while in a suitable form, for so outrageous an execu-
tion as the killing twenty or thirty naked savages, for an offence
which I had not at all entered intoa discussion of in my thoughts,
any farther than my passions were at first fired by the horror I
conceived at the unnatural custom of that people of the country,
who it seems had been suffered by Providence in his wise dis-
position of the world, to have no other guide than that of their
own abominable and vitiated passions; and consequently were
left, and perhaps had been so for some ages, to act such horrid
things, and receive such dreadful customs, as nothing but nature
entirely abandoned of Heaven, and acted by some hellish
degeneracy, could have run them into. But now when, as I

~ have said, I began to be weary of the fruitless excursion which

| T had made so long, and so far, every morning in vain, so my
opinion of the action itself began to alter, and I began with
cooler and calmer thoughts, to consider what it was I was going

— to engage in. What authority or call I had, to pretend to be
judge and executioner upon these men as criminals, whom
Heaven had thought fit for so many ages to suffer unpunished,
to go on, and to be, as it were, the executioners of his judgments
one upon another. How far these people were offenders against
me, and what right I had to engage in the quarrel of that blood,
which they shed promiscuously one upon another. I debated
this very often with myself thus: How do I know what God
himself judges in this particular case? It is certain these people
in fact do not commit this as a crime; it is not against their own
conscience’s reproving, or their light reproaching them. They
do not know it to be an offense, and then commit it in defiance
of Divine justice, as we do in almost all the sins we commit.
They think it no more a crime to kill a captive taken in war,
than we do to kill an ox; nor to eat human flesh, than we do to
eat mutton.

- When I had considered this a little, it followed necessarily,
that I was certainly in the wrong in it; that|these people were
not murderers in the sense that I had before condemned them,
in my thoughts, any more than those Christians were murderers,
who often put to death the prisoners taken in battle; or more
frequently, upon many occasions, put whole troops of men to

\

160


the sword, without giving quarter, though they threw down
their arms and submitted.

In the next place it occurred to me, that albeit the usage they
thus gave one another, was thus brutish and inhuman, yet it was
really nothing to me; these people had done me no injury. That
if they attempted me, or I saw it necessary for my immediate
preservation to fall upon them, something might be said for it;
but that as I was yet out of their power, and they had really no
knowledge of me, and consequently no design upon me; and
therefore it could not be just for me to fall upon them.\Phat






WP TP > RosBinson Crusoe KO KEK

this would justify the conduct of the Spaniards in all their bar-
barities practiced in America, and where they destroyed millions
of these people, who, however they were idolaters and bar-
barians, and had several bloody and barbarous rites in their
customs, such as sacrificing human bodies to their idols, were
yet, as to the Spaniards, very innocent people; and that the
rooting them out of the country, is spoken of with the utmost
abhorrence and detestation, by even the Spaniards themselves,
at this time, and by all other Christian nations of Europe, as a
mere butchery, a bloody and unnatural piece of cruelty, unjus-
tifiable either to God or man; and such, as for which the very
name of a Spaniard is reckoned to be frightful and terrible to
all people of humanity, or of Christian compassion. As if the
kingdom of Spain were particularly eminent for the product of
a race of men who were without principles of tenderness, or the
common bowels of pity to the miserable, which is reckoned to
bea mark of generous temper in the mind.

These considerations really put me to a pause, and to a kind
of a full stop; and I began by little and little to be off of my
design, and to conclude I had taken wrong measures in my
resolutions to attack the savages; that it was not my business
to meddle with them, unless they first attacked me, and this it
was my business if possible to prevent; but that if I were dis-
covered and attacked, then I knew my duty.

On the other hand, I argued with myself, that this really was
the way not to deliver myself, but entirely to ruin and destroy
myself; for unless I was sure to kill every one that not only
should be on shore at that time, but that should ever come on
shore afterwards, if but one of them escaped, to tell their
country people what had happened, they would come over
again by thousands to revenge the death of their fellows, and
I ‘should only bring upon myself a certain destruction, which at
present, I had no manner of occasion for.

Upon the whole, I concluded that neither in principles nor
in policy, I ought one way or other to concern myself in this
affair. That my business was by all possible means to conceal
myself from them, and not to leave the least signal to them to
guess by, that there were any living creatures upon the island,
I mean of human shape.

Religion joined in with this prudential, and I was convinced

162




now many ways, that I was perfectly out of my duty when I
was laying all my bloody schemes for the destruction of inno-
cent creatures, I mean innocent as to.me. As to the crimes they _
were guilty of towards one.another, I had-nothing to.do with.
them. They were national, and I ought to leave them to the
justice of God, who is the governor of nations, and knows how _
by national punishments, to make a just retribution for national
offenses; and to bring public judgments upon those who offend
in a public manner, by such-waysas best pleases him.

This appeared so clear to me now, that nothing was a greater
satisfaction to me, than that I had not been suffered to do a
thing which I now saw so much reason to believe would have
been no less a sin, than that of wilful murder, if I had com-
mitted it; and I gave most humble thanks on my knees to God,
that had thus delivered me from blood guiltiness; beseeching
him to grant me the protection of his Providence, that I might
not fall into the hands of the barbarians; or that I might not lay
my hands upon them, unless I had a more clear call from Heaven
to do it, in defense of my own life.

In this disposition I continued for near a year after this; and
so far was I from desiring an occasion for falling upon these
wretches, that in all that time, I never once went up the hill to
see whether there was any of them in sight, or to know whether
any of them had been on shore there or not, that I might not
be tempted to renew any of my contrivances against them, or
be provoked by any advantage which might present itself to
fall upon them; only this I did, I went and removed my boat,
which I had on the other side the island, and carried it down to
the east end of the whole island, where I ran it into a little cove
which I found under some high rocks, and where I knew, by
reason of the currents, the savages durst not, at least, would not,
come with their boats upon any account whatsoever.

With my boat I carried away everything that I had left there
belonging to her, though not necessary for the bare going
thither, viz: A mast and sail which I had made for her, and a
thing like an anchor, but indeed, which could not be called
either anchor or grapling; however, it was the best I could
make of its kind. All these I removed, that there might not be
the least shadow of any discovery, or any appearance of any
boat, or of any human habitation upon the island.

163
pape Roninson Cnuson eee

Besides this, I kept myself, as I said, more retired than ever,
and seldom went from my cell, other than upon my constant
employment, viz: to milk my she-goats, and manage my little
flock in the wood; which, as it was quite on the other part of the
island, was quite out of danger; for certain it is, that these
savage people, who sometimes haunted this island, never came
with any thoughts of finding anything here; and, consequently,
never wandered off from the coast; and I doubt not, but they
might have been several times on shore, after my apprehensions

‘of them had made me cautious, as well as before; and, indeed, I
looked back with some horror upon the thought of what my
condition would have been, if I had chopped upon them, and
been discovered before that, when, naked and unarmed, except
with one gun, and that loaden often only with small shot, I
walked everywhere peeping and peeping about the island, to
see what I could get. What a surprise should I have been in, if,
when I discovered the print of a man’s foot, I had, instead of
that, seen fifteen or twenty savages, and found them pursuing
me, and by the swiftness of their running no possibility of my
escaping them.

The thoughts of this sometimes sunk my very soul within
me, and distressed my mind so much, that I could not soon
recover it, to think what I should have done, and how I not only
should not have been able to resist them, but even should not
have had presence of mind enough to do what I might have
done; much less, what now after so much consideration and
preparation I might be able to do: indeed, after serious think-
ing of these things, I should be very melancholy, and sometimes
it would last a great while; but I resolved it at last all into thank-
fulness to that Providence, which had delivered me from so
many unseen dangers, and had kept me from those mischiefs
which I could no way have been the agent in delivering myself
from; because I had not the least notion of any such thing
depending, or the least supposition of it being possible.

This renewed a contemplation, which often had come to my
thoughts in former time, when first I began to see the merciful
dispositions of heaven, in the dangers we run through in this
life. How wonderfully we are delivered, when we know noth-
ing of it. How, when we are in a quandary, as we call it, a doubt
or hesitation, whether to go this way, or that way, a secret hint

164.
Gn E__—_________________—__ ____}4
s>> > > I Osey My IMPULSES Ke ee ee

shall direct us this way, when we intend to go that way; nay,
when sense, our own inclination, and perhaps business has
called us to go the other way, yet a strange impression upon the
mind, from we know not what springs, and by we know not
what power, shall over-rule us to go this way; and it shall after-
wards appear, that had we gone that way which we should have
gone, and even to our imagination ought to have gone, we
should have been ruined and Jost; upon these, and many like
reflections, I afterwards made it a certain rule with me, that
whenever I found those secret hints, or pressings of my mind,
to doing, or not to doing anything that presented, or to going
this way or that way, I never failed to obey the secret dictate;
though I knew no other reason for it, than that such a pressure,
or such a hint hung upon my mind. I could give many examples
of the success of this conduct in the course of my life; but more
especially in the latter part of my inhabiting this unhappy
island; besides many occasions which it is very likely I might
have taken notice of, if I had seen with the same eyes then, that
I see with now. But it is never too late to be wise; and I cannot}
but advise all considering men, whose lives are attended with,
such extraordinary incidents as mine, or even not so extra~;
ordinary, not to slight such secret intimations of Providence, let;
them come from what invisible intelligence they will; that I shall\
not discuss, and perhaps cannot account for; but certainly they |
are a proof of the converse of spirits, and the secret communi-
cation between those embodied, and those unembodied; and |
such a proof as can never be withstood; of which I shall have |
occasion to give some very remarkable instances, in the remain-
der of my solitary residence in this dismal place. |
I believe the reader of this will not think strange, if I confess \
that these anxieties, these constant dangers I lived in, and the
concern that was now upon me, put an end to all invention, and
to all the contrivances that I had laid for my future accommo-
dations and conveniences. I had the care of my safety more now
upon my hands, than that of my food. I cared not to drive a nail,
or chop a stick of wood now, for fear the noise I should make
should be heard; much less would I fire a gun, for the same
reason; and above all, I was intolerably uneasy at making any
fire, least the smoke which is visible at a great distance in the
day should betray me; and for this reason I removed that part of

165
ieee ee ee
WM __Rowinson Cuuson QOQeae
SAM Rowiwson Cr

my business which required fire; such as burning of pots and
Pipes, etc., into my new apartments in the woods, where after I
had been some time, I found to my unspeakable consolation, a
mere natural cave in the earth, which went in a vast way, and
where, I dare say, no savage, had he been at the mouth of it,
would be so hardy as to venture in, nor indeed, would any man
else, but one who like me wanted nothing so much as a safe
retreat.

— The mouth of this hollow was at the bottom of a great rock
) where, by mere accident (I would say, if I did not see abundant
| reason to ascribe all such things now to Providence), I was cut-
\— ting down some thick branches of trees, to make charcoal; and

before I go on, I must observe the reason of my making this
charcoal, which was thus:

I was afraid of making a smoke about my habitation, as I
said before; and yet I could not live there without baking my
bread, cooking my meat, etc., so I contrived to burn some wood
here, as I had seen done in England, under turf, till it became
chark, or dry coal; and then putting the fire out, I preserved
the coal to carry home, and perform the other services, which
fire was wanting for at home, without danger of smoke.

But this is by the by. While I was cutting down some wood
here, I perceived that behind a very thick branch of low brush-
wood, or underwood, there was a kind of hollow place; I was
Curious to look into it, and getting with difficulty into the
mouth of it, I found it was pretty large; that is to say, sufficient
for me to stand upright in it, and perhaps another with me; but
I must confess to you, I made more haste out than I did in, when
looking farther into the place, and which was perfectly dark, I
saw two broad, shining eyes of some creature, whether devil or
man I knew not, which twinkled like two stars, the dim light
from the cave’s mouth shining directly in and making the
reflection.

However, after some pause, I recovered myself, and began
to call myself a thousand fools, and tell myself that he that was
afraid to see the devil was not fit to live twenty years in an
island all alone; and that I durst to believe there was nothing in
this cave that was more frightful than myself; upon this, pluck-
ing up my courage, I took up a great firebrand, and in I rushed
again, with the stick flaming in my hand; I had not gone three

166
SD > I Exprore THE CAVE Ke Ke Ke

steps in, but I was almost as much frighted as I was before; for
I heard a very loud sigh, like that of a man in some pain, and it
was followed by a broken noise, as if of words half expressed,
and then a deep sigh again. I stepped back, and was indeed struck
with such a surprise that it put me into a cold sweat; and if I
had had a hat on my head, I will not answer for it that my hair
might not have lifted it off. But still plucking up my spirits as
well as I could, and encouraging myself a little, with consider-
ing that the power and presence of God was everywhere, and
was able to protect me; upon this I stepped forward again, and
by the light of the firebrand, holding it up a little over my head,
I saw lying on the ground a most monstrous, frightful, old he-
goat, just making his will, as we say, and gasping for life, and
dying indeed of mere old age.

I stirred him a little to see if I could get him out, and he
essayed to get up, but was not able to raise himself; and I thought
with myself, he might even lie there; for if he had frighted me
so, he would certainly fright any of the savages, if any of them
should be so hardy as to come in there, while he had any life
in him.

I was now recovered from my surprise, and began to look
round me, when I found the cave was but very small, that is to
say, it might be about twelve foot over, but in no manner of
shape, either round or square, no hands having ever been em-
ployed in making it, but those of mere nature. I observed, also,
that there was a place at the farther side of it, that went farther,
but was so low that it required me to creep upon my hands and
knees to go into it, and whither I went I knew not; so, having
no candle, I gave it over for some time, but resolved to come
again the next day, provided with candles, and a tinder-box,
which I had made of the lock of one of the muskets, with some
wild-fire in the pan.

Accordingly, the next day I came provided with six large
candles of my own making; for I made very good candles now
of goat’s tallow; and going into this low place, I was obliged to
creep upon all fours, as I have said, almost ten yards; which, by
the way, I thought was a venture bold enough, considering that
I knew not how far it might go, nor what was beyond it. When
I was got through the strait, I found the roof rose higher up, I
believe nearly twenty feet; but never was such a glorious sight

167


————
SIs Rospinson Crusoe ee Ke
ST OBEN ONS RUS ORT Soa etaeeenters

seen in the island, I dare say, as it was to look round the sides
and roof of this vault, or cave. The walls reflected a hundred
thousand lights to me from my two candles! what it was in
rock, whether diamonds, or any other precious stones, or gold,
which I rather supposed it to be, I know not.

The place I was in was a most delightful cavity, or grotto, of
its kind, as could be expected, though perfectly dark; the floor
was dry and level, and had a sort of small, loose gravel upon it,
so that there was no nauseous or venomous creature to be seen,
neither was there any damp or wet on the sides or roof. The
only difficulty in it was the entrance, which however, as it was
a place of security, and such a retreat as I wanted, I thought that
was a convenience; so that I was really rejoiced at the discovery,
and resolved without any delay, to bring some of those things
which I was most anxious about, to this place; particularly, I
resolved to bring hither my magazine of powder, and all my
Spare arms, viz: two fowling-pieces, for I had three in all; and
three muskets, for of them I had eight in all; so I kept at my
castle only five, which stood ready mounted, like pieces of
cannon, on my outmost fence, and were ready also to take out
upon any expedition.

Upon this occasion of removing my ammunition, I took
occasion to open the barrel of powder which I took up out of
the sea, and which had been wet; and I found that the water
had penetrated about three or four inches into the powder on
every side, which, caking and growing hard, had preserved the
inside like a kernel in a shell; so that I had near sixty pounds of
very good powder in the centre of the cask, and this was an
agreeable discovery to me at that time; so I carried all away
thither, never keeping above two or three pounds of powder
with me in my castle, for fear of a surprise of any kind; I also
carried thither all the lead I had left for bullets.

I fancied myself now like one of the ancient giants, which
were said to live in caves and holes in the rocks where none
could come at them; for I persuaded myself, while I was here,
if five hundred savages were to hunt me, they could never find
me out; or if they did, they would not venture to attack me here.

The old goat who I found expiring, died in the mouth of the
cave, the next day after I made this discovery, and I found it
much easier to dig a great hole there, and throw him in, and

168
SESS TE
sD op My Hovusenotp Pers KEKE Ke

cover him with earth, than to drag him out; so I interred him
there, to prevent offense to my nose.

I was now in my twenty-third year of residence in this
island, and was so naturalized to the place, and to the manner of
living, that could but have enjoyed the certainty that no savages
would come to the place to disturb me, I could have been con-
tent to have capitulated for spending the rest of my time there,
even to the last moment, till I had laid me down and died, like
the old goat in the cave. I had also arrived to some little diver-
sions and amusements, which made the time pass more pleasantly
with me a great deal, than it did before; as first, I had taught my
Poll, as I noted before, to speak; and he did it so familiarly, and
talked so articulately and plain, that it was very pleasant to me;
and he lived with me no less than six and twenty years. How
long he might live afterwards, I know not; though I know they
have a notion in the Brazils that they live a hundred years;
perhaps poor Poll may be alive there still, calling after “Poor
Robin Crusoe,” to this day. I wish no Englishman the ill luck to
come there and hear him; but if he did, he would certainly
believe it was the devil. My dog was a very pleasant and loving
companion to me, for no less than sixteen years of my time, and
then died of mere old age; as for my cats, they multiplied, as
I have observed, to that degree that I was obliged to shoot
several of them at first, to keep them from devouring me and
all I had; but at length, when the two old ones I brought with
me were gone, and after some time continually driving them
from me, and letting them have no provision with me, they all
ran wild into the woods, except two or three favorites, which
I kept tame; and whose young, when they had any, I always
drowned; and these were part of my family. Besides these, I
always kept two or three household kids about me, who I
taught to eat out of my hand; and I had two more parrots which
talked pretty well, and would all call “Robin Crusoe,” but none
like my first; nor, indeed, did I take the pains with any of them
that I had with him. I had also several tame sea-fowls, whose
names I know not, who I caught upon the shore, and cut their
wings; and the little stakes which I had planted before my
castle-wall being now grown up to a good thick grove, these
fowls all lived among these low trees, and bred there, which was
very agreeable to me; so that, as I said above, I began to be very

169
Sey —sRosinson Cruson @e@eae

well contented with the life I led, if it might but have been
secured from the dread of the savages.

But it was otherwise directed; and it may not be amiss for
all people who shall meet with my story, to make this just
observation from it, viz: how frequently in the course of our
lives, the evil which in itself we seek most to shun, and which,
when we are fallen into it, is the most dreadful to us, is often-
times the very means or door of our deliverance, by which
alone we can be raised again from the affliction we are fallen
into. I could give many examples of this in the course of my
unaccountable life; but in nothing was it more particularly
remarkable, than in the circumstances of my last years of
solitary residence in this island.

It was now the month of December, as I said above, in my
twenty-third year; and this being the southern solstice, for
winter I cannot call it, was the particular time of my harvest,
and required my being pretty much abroad in the fields; when
going out pretty early in the morning, even before it was
thorough daylight, I was surprised with seeing a light of some
fire upon the shore, at a distance from me of about two miles
towards the end of the island, where I had observed some
savages had been as before, but not on the other side; but, to
my great affliction, it was on my side of the island.

I was indeed terribly surprised at the sight, and stepped short
within my grove, not daring to go out, lest I might be sur-
prised; and yet, I had no more peace within, from the apprehen-
sions I had, that if these savages, in rambling over the island,
should find my corn standing, or cut, or any of my works and
improvements, they would immediately conclude that there
were people in the place, and would then never give over till
they had found me out. Ia this extremity, I went back directly
to my castle, pulled up the ladder after me, and made all things
without look as wild and natural as I could,

Then I prepared myself within, putting myself in a posture
of defense. I loaded ail my cannon, as I called them; that is to
say, my muskets, which were mounted upon my new fortifica-
tion, and all my pistols, and resolved to defend myself to the
last gasp, not forgetting seriously to commend myself to the
Divine protection, and earnestly to pray to God to deliver me
out of the hands of the barbarians; and in this posture I con-

170
NP > I Warcu THE SavaGEs Ke Kee

tinued about two hours, but began to be mighty impatient for
intelligence abroad, for I had no spies to send out.

After sitting a while longer, and musing what I should do in
this case, I was not able to bear sitting in ignorance any longer; »
so setting up my ladder to the side of the hill, where there was
a flat place, as I observed before, and then pulling the ladder up
after me, I set it up again, and mounted to the top of the hill;
and pulling out my perspective glass, which I had taken on pur-
pose, I laid me down flat on my belly, on the ground, and began
to look for the place. I presently found there was no less than
nine naked savages, sitting round a small fire they had made, not
to warm them, for they had no need of that, the weather being
extreme hot; but, as I supposed, to dress some of their barbarous
diet of human flesh, which they had brought with them, whether
alive or dead I could not know.

They had two canoes with them, which they had hauled up
upon the shore; and as it was then tide of ebb, they seemed to
me to wait for the return of the flood to go away again. It is not
easy to imagine what confusion this sight put me into, especially
seeing them come on my side the island, and so near me, too;
but when I observed their coming must be always with the
current of the ebb, I began afterwards to be more sedate in my
mind, being satisfied that I might go abroad with safety all the

time of the tide of flood, if they were not on shore before; and
having made this observation, I went abroad about my harvest
work with the more composure. »

As'I expected, so it proved; for as soon as the tide made to
the westward, I saw them all take boat, and row (or paddle, as
we call it) all away. I should have observed, that, for an hour
and more before they went off, they went to dancing, and I
could easily discern their postures and gestures by my glasses. I
could not perceive, by my nicest observation, but that they
were stark naked, and had not the least covering upon them; but
whether they were men or women, that I could not distinguish.

As soon as I saw them shipped and gone, I took two guns
upon my shoulders, and two pistols at my girdle, and my great
sword by my side, without a scabbard, and with all the speed
I was able to make, I went away to the hill, where I had dis-
covered the first appearance of all; and as soon as I got thither,
which was not less than two hours (for I could not go apace,

171


eee
ss RosBinson CRUSOE Ree

being so loaden with arms as I was), I perceived there had been
three canoes more of savages on that place; and looking out
farther, I saw they were all at sea together, making over for
the main.

This was a dreadful sight to me, especially when going down
to the shore, I could see the marks of horror which the dismal
work they had been about had left behind it, viz: the blood, the
bones, and part of the flesh of human bodies, eaten and devoured
by those wretches with merriment and sport. I was so filled with
indignation at the sight, that I began now to premeditate the
destruction of the next that I saw there, let them be who, or
how many soever.

It seemed evident to me, that the visits which they thus make
to this island, are not very frequent; for it was above fifteen
months before any more of them came on shore there again;
that is to say, I neither saw them, or any footsteps or signals of
them, in all that time; for as to the rainy seasons, then they are
sure not to come abroad, at least not so far; yet all this while I
lived uncomfortably, by reason of the constant apprehensions
I was in of their coming upon me by surprise; from whence, I
observe, that the expectation of evil is more bitter than the suf-
fering, especially if there isnoroom to shake off that expectation,
or those apprehensions.




G=I=Innnanana._kLx—xy—an—
>> o> My Anxiety or Minp KE Ke Ke

During all this time, I was in the murdering humor, and took
up most of my hours, which should have been better employed,
in contriving how to circumvent and fall upon them, the very
next time I should see them; especially if they should be divided,
as they were the last time, into two parties; nor did I consider at
all, that if I killed one party, suppose ten or a dozen, I was still
the next day, or week, or month, to kill another, and so another,
even ad infinitum, till I should be at length no less a murderer
than they were in being man-eaters, and perhaps much more so.

Ispent my days now in great perplexity, and anxiety of mind,
expecting that I should one day or other fall into the hands of
these merciless creatures; and if I did at any time venture abroad,
it was not without looking round me with the greatest care and
caution imaginable; and now I found to my great comfort, how
happy it was that I provided for a tame flock or herd of goats;
for I durst not, upon any account, fire my gun, especially near
that side of the island where they usually came, lest I should
alarm the savages; and if they had fled from me now, I was sure
to have them come back again, with perhaps two or three hun-
dred canoes with them, in a few days, and then I knew what
to expect.

However, I wore out a year and three months more, before
I ever saw any more of the savages, and then I found them
again, as I shall soon observe. It is true, they might have been
there once, or twice; but either they made no stay, or at, least
I did not hear them; but in the month of May, as near as I could
calculate, and in my four-and-twentieth year, I had a very
strange encounter with them, of which in its place.

The perturbation of my mind, during this fifteen or sixteen
months’ interval, was very great; I slept unquiet, dreamed always
frightful dreams, and often started out of my sleep in the night.
In the day great troubles overwhelmed my mind, and in the
night I dreamed often of killing the savages, and of the reasons
why I might justify the doing of it. But to waive all this for a
while. It was in the middle of May, on the sixteenth day, I think,
as well as my poor wooden calendar would reckon,—for I
marked all upon the post still—I say, it was the sixteenth of May,
that it blew a very great storm of wind, all day, with a great deal
of lightning and thunder, and a very foul night it was after it.
I know not what was the particular occasion of it, but as I was

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Ss o> RoBINSON CRUSOE KEKE KE

reading in the Bible, and taken up with very serious thoughts
about my present condition, I was surprised with a noise of a
gun, as I thought, fired at sea.

This was, to be sure, a surprise of quite different nature from
any I had met with before; for the notions this put into my
thoughts were quite of another kind. I started up in the greatest
haste imaginable, and in a trice clapped my ladder to the middle
place of the rock, and pulled it after me, and mounting it the
second time, got to the top of the hill the very moment that a
flash of fire bid me listen for a second gun, which, accordingly,
in about half a minute, I heard, and by the sound, knew that it
was from that part of the sea where I was driven down the
current in my boat.

I immediately considered that this must be some ship in
distress, and that they had some comrade, or some other ship
in company, and fired these guns for signals of distress, and to
obtain help. I had this presence of mind at that minute, as to
think that, though I could not help them, it may be they might
help me; so I brought together all the dry wood I could get at
hand, and making a good handsome pile, I set it on fire upon
the hill. The wood was dry, and blazed freely; and, though the
wind blew very hard, yet it burnt fairly out; that I was certain,
if there was any such thing asa ship, they must need see it, and
no doubt they did; for as soon as ever my fire blazed up, I heard
another gun, and after that several others, all from the same
quarter. I plied my fire all night long, till day broke; and when
it was broad day, and the air cleared up, I saw something at a
great distance at sea, full east of the island, whether a sail, or a
hull, I could not distinguish, no, not with my glasses, the distance
was so great, and the weather still something hazy also; at least,
it was so out at sea.

I looked frequently at it all that day, and soon perceived that
it did not move; so I presently concluded that it was a ship at
an anchor; and being eager, you may be sure, to be satisfied, I
took my gun in my hand, and ran toward the south side of the
island, to the rocks where I had formerly been carried away
with the current, and getting up there, the weather by this time
being perfectly clear, I could plainly see, to my great sorrow,
the wreck of a ship cast away in the night, upon those concealed
rocks which I found, when I was out in my boat; and which

174
ccc
aeaa> Tue Surpontue Rocks 64

rocks, as they checked the violence of the stream, and made a
kind of counter-stream, or eddy, were the occasion of my
recovering from the most desperate, hopeless condition that
ever I had been in, in all my life.

Thus, what is one man’s safety, is another man’s destruction;
for it seems these men, whoever they were, being out of their
knowledge, and the rocks being wholly under water, had been
driven upon them in the night, the wind blowing hard at E. and
E. N. E. Had they seen the island, as I must necessarily suppose
they did not, they must, as I thought, have endeavored to have
saved themselves on shore, by the help of their boat; but their
firing of guns for help, especially when they saw, as I imagined,
my fire, filled me with many thoughts. First, I imagined, upon
seeing my light, they might have put themselves into their boat,
and have endeavored to make the shore; but, that the sea going
very high, they might have been cast away; other times I
imagined that they might have lost their boat before, as might
be the case many ways, as particularly, by the breaking of the
sea upon their ship, which many times obliges men to stave, or
take in pieces their boat, and sometimes to throw it overboard
with their own hands. Other times I imagined they had some
other ship or ships in company, who, upon the signals of distress
they had made, had taken them up, and carried them off. Other
whiles I fancied they were all gone off to sea in their boat, and
being hurried away by the current that I had been formerly in,
were carried out into the great ocean, where there was nothing
but misery and perishing; and that, perhaps, they might by this
time think of starving, and of eating one another.

As all these were but conjectures, at best, so in the condition
I was in, I could do no more than look on upon the misery of
the poor men, and pity them, which had still this good effect on
my side, that it gave me more and more cause to give thanks to
God who had so happily and comfortably provided for me in
my desolate condition; and that, of two ships’ companies who
were now cast away upon this part of the world, not one life
should be spared but mine. I learned here again to observe, that it
is very rare that the providence of God casts us into any condi-
tion of life so low, or any misery so great, but we may see
something or other to be thankful for, and may see others in
worse circumstances than our own.

175
SS ss sso eeeeeeeOOeeeeeeeeoee@®eSee=_eEl_l_l_—___——_—_—=
Ss o> Robinson Crusork Kee Ke

Such, certainly, was the case of these men, of whom I could
not so much as see room to suppose any of them were saved;
nothing could make it rational, so much as to wish or expect
that they did not all perish there, except the possibility only of
their being taken up by another ship in company, and this was
but mere possibility indeed; for I saw not the least signal or
appearance of any such thing.

I cannot explain, by any possible energy of words, what a
strange longing or hankering of desires I felt in my soul upon
this sight, breaking out sometimes thus: O that there had been
but one or two, nay, or but one soul saved out of this ship, to
have escaped to me, that I might but have had one companion,
one fellow-creature to have spoken to me, and to have con-
versed with! In all the time of my solitary life, I never felt
so carnest, so strong a desire after the society of my fellow-
creatures, or so deep a regret at the want of it.

There are some secret, moving springs in the affections, which
when they are set a-going by some object in view, or be it
some object, though not in view, yet rendered present to the
mind by the power of imagination, that motion carries out the
soul by its impetuosity to such violent, eager embracings of the
object, that the absence of it is insupportable.

Such were these earnest wishings, that but one man had been
saved! Oh, that it had been but one! I believe I repeated the
words, “Oh, that it had been but one!” a thousand times; and
the desires were so moved by it, that when I spoke the words,
my hands would clinch together, and my fingers press the palms
of my hands, that if I had any soft thing in my hand, it would
have crushed it involuntarily; and my teeth in my head would
strike together, and set against one another so strong, that for
some time I could not part them again.

Let the naturalists explain these things, and the reason and
manner of them; all I can say to them, is, to describe the fact,
which was even surprising to me when I found it, though I knew
not from what it should proceed; it was doubtless the effect of
ardent wishes, and of strong ideas formed in my mind, realizing
the comfort which the conversation of one of my fellow-
christians would have been to me.

But it was not to be; either their fate, or mine, or both, forbid
it; for until the last year of my being on this island, I never knew

176
Ss LT Prepare ror My Voyrace Gee
whether any were saved out of that ship or no; and had only
the affliction some days after, to see the corpse of a drowned
boy come on shore, at the end of the island which was next
the shipwreck. He had on no clothes but a seaman’s waistcoat,
a pair of open-kneed linen drawers, and a blue linen shirt; but
nothing to direct me so much as to guess what nation he was of.
He had nothing in his pocket but two pieces of eight and a
tobacco pipe; the last was to me of ten times more value than
the first.

Tt was now calm, and I had a great mind to venture out in
my boat, to this wreck; not doubting but I might find some-
thing on board, that might be useful to me; but that did not
altogether press me so much, as the possibility that there might
be yet some living creature on board, whose life I might not
only save, but might, by saving that life, comfort my own to the
last degree; and this thought clung so to my heart, that I could
not be quiet, night nor day, but I must venture out in my boat
on board this wreck; and committing the rest to God’s provi-
dence, I thought the impression was so strong upon my mind,
that it could not be resisted, that it must come from some invisible
direction, and that I should be wanting to myself if I did not go.

Under the power of this impression, I hastened back to my
castle, prepared everything for my voyage, took a quantity of
bread, a great pot for fresh water, a compass to steer by, a bottle
of rum—for I had still a great deal of that left; a basket full of
raisins. And thus loading myself with every thing necessary, I
went down to my boat, got the water out of her, and got her
afloat, loaded all my cargo in her, and then went home again
for more. My second cargo was a great bag full of rice, the
umbrella to set up over my head for shade, another large pot
full of fresh water, and about two dozen of my small loaves, or
barley cakes, more than before, with a bottle of goat’s milk,
and a cheese; all which, with great labor and sweat, I brought
to my boat; and praying to God to direct my voyage, I put out,
and rowing or paddling the canoe along the shore, I came at last
to the utmost point of the island on that side, viz: N. E. And
now I was to launch out into the ocean, and either to venture,
or not to venture. I looked on the rapid currents which ran
constantly on both sides of the island, at a distance, and which
were very terrible to me, from the remembrance of the hazard

177




SPI CRosrnson Crusor eRe

I had been in before, and my heart began to fail me; for I fore-
saw that if I was driven in to either of those currents, I should
be carried a vast way out to sea, and perhaps out of my reach,
or sight of the island again, and that then, as my boat was but
small, if any little gale of wind should rise, I should be inevitably
lost.

These thoughts so oppressed my mind, that I began to give
over my enterprise, and having hauled my boat into a little
creek on the shore, I stepped out, and sat me down upon a little
rising bit of ground, very pensive and anxious, between fear
and desire about my voyage; when as I was musing, I could
perceive that the tide was turned, and the flood come on, upon
which my going was for so many hours impracticable. Upon
this presently it occurred to me, that I should go up to the
highest piece of ground I could find, and observe, if I could,
how the sets of the tide, or currents, lay, when the flood came
in, that I might judge whether, if I was driven one way out, I
might not expect to be driven another way home, with the same
rapidness of the currents,. This thought was no sooner in m
head, but I cast my eye upon a little hill, which sufficiently
overlooked the sea both ways, and from whence I had a clear
view of the currents, or sets of the tide, and which way I was
to guide myself in my return. Here I found, that as the current
of the ebb set out close by the south point of the island, so the
current of the flood set in close by the shore of the north side,
and that I had nothing to do but to keep to the north of the
island in my return, and I should do well enough.

Encouraged with this observation, I resolved the next morn-
ing to set out with the first of the tide; and reposing myself for
the night in the canoe, under the great watch-coat I mentioned,
I launched out. I made first a little out to sea full north, till I
began to feel the benefit of the current, which set eastward,
and which carried me at a great rate, and yet did not so hurry
me as the southern side current had done before, and so as to
take from me all government of the boat; but having a strong
steerage with my paddle, I went at a great rate directly for the
wreck, and in less than two hours, I came up to it.

It was a dismal sight to look at. The ship, which by its build-
ing was Spanish, stuck fast, jammed in between two rocks. All
the stern and quarter of her was beaten to pieces with the sea;

178




Ss I Reacu THE Sup EEK

and as her forecastle, which stuck in the rocks, had run on with
great violence, her mainmast and foremast were brought by
the board; that is to say, broken short off; but her bowsprit was
sound, and the head and bow appeared firm. When I came close
to her, a dog appeared upon her, who, seeing me coming, yelped
and cried; and as soon as I called him, jumped into the sea to
come to me, and I took him into the boat, but found him almost
dead for hunger and thirst. I gave him a cake of my bread, and
he eat it like a ravenous wolf, that had been starving a fortnight
in the snow. I then gave the poor creature some fresh water,



®,
we




179
SPs Rosinson Crusoe Ke ie

with which, if I would have let him, he would have burst
himself.

After this, 1 went on board; but the first sight I met with,
was two men drowned in the cook-room, or forecastle of the
ship, with their arms fast about one another. I concluded, as is
indeed probable, that when the ship struck, it being in a storm,
the sea broke so high, and so continually over her, that the men
were not able to bear it, and were strangled with the constant
rushing in of the water, as much as if they had been under the
water. Besides the dog, there was nothing left in the ship that
had life, nor any goods that I could see, but what were spoiled
by the water. There were some casks of liquor, whether wine
or brandy, I knew not, which lay lower in the hold; and which,
the water being ebbed out, I could see; but they were too big
to meddle with. I saw several chests, which I believed belonged
to some of the seamen, and I got two of them into the boat,
without examining what was in them.

Had the stern of the ship been fixed, and the forepart broken
off, I am pursuaded I might have made a good voyage; for by
what I found in these two chests, I had room to suppose the
ship had a great deal of wealth on board; and if I may guess by
the course she steered, she must have been bound from the
Buenos Ayres, or the Rio de la Plata, in the south part of
America, beyond the Brazils to the Havana, in the Gulf of
Mexico, and so, perhaps, to Spain. She had, no doubt, a great
treasure in her, but of no use, at that time, to anybody; and
what became of the rest of her people, I then knew not.

I found, besides these chests, a little cask full of liquor, of
about twenty gallons, which I got into my boat, with much
difficulty; there were several muskets in a cabin, and a great
powder-horn, with about four pounds of powder in it. As for
the muskets, I had no occasion for them, so I left them, but took
the powder-horn. I took a fire-shovel and tongs, which I wanted
extremely, as also two little brass kettles, a copper pot to make
chocolate, and a gridiron; and with this cargo, and the dog, I
came away, the tide beginning to make home again, and the
same evening, about an hour within night, I reached the island
again, weary and fatigued to the last degree.

I reposed that night in the boat, and in the morning I resolved
to harbor what I had gotten in my new cave, not to carry it

180
Sa My Booty FROMTHE SHIP Qe

home to my castle, After refreshing myself, I got all my cargo
on shore, and began to examine the particulars. The cask of
liquor I found to be a kind of rum, but not such as we had at
the Brazils, and in a word, not at all good; but when I came to
open the chests, I found several things of great use to me. For
example, I found in one a fine case of bottles, of an extraordinary
kind, and filled with cordial waters, fine, and very good; the
bottles held about three pints each, and were tipped with silver.
I found two pots of very good succades, or sweet-meats, so
fastened also on top, that the salt water had not hurt them; and
two more of the same, which the water had spoiled. I found
some very good shirts, which were very welcome to me, and
about a dozen and half of linen white handkerchiefs, and colored
neckcloths; the former also were very welcome, being exceed-
ing refreshing to wipe my face in a hot day. Besides this, when
I came to the till in the chest, I found there three great bags of
pieces of eight, which held out about eleven hundred pieces in
all; and in one of them, wrapped up in a paper, six doubloons of
gold, and some small bars or wedges of gold; I suppose they
might all weigh near a pound.

The other chest I found had some clothes in it, but of little
value; but by the circumstances it must have belonged to the
gunner’s mate, though there was no powder in it, but about two
pounds of fine glazed powder in three small flasks, kept, I sup-
pose, for charging their fowling-pieces on occasion. Upon the
whole, I got very little by this voyage, that was of any use to
me; for as to the money, I had no manner of occasion for it;
*twas to me as the dirt under my feet, and I would have given
it all for three or four pairs of English shoes and stockings,
which were things I greatly wanted, but had not had on my
feet now for many years. I had, indeed, gotten two pairs of
shoes now, which I took off of the feet of the two drowned
men, who I saw in the wreck; and I found two pairs more in
one of the chests, which were very welcome to me; but they
were not like our English shoes, either for ease or service, being
rather what we call pumps than shogs. I found in this seaman’s
chest about fifty pieces of eight, in TONE, but no gold. I suppose
this belonged to a poorer man than the other, which seemed to
belong to some officer.

Well, however, I lugged this money home to my cave, and

181
eEGGDGoeem"na"@@eE=TananaE=aa=a=a_a=S=S=SsaVXrV—XV
laid it up, as I had done that before, which I brought from our
own ship; but it was great pity, as I said, that the other part of
this ship had not come to my share, for Lam satisfied I might have
loaded my canoe several times over with money, which if I
had ever escaped to England, would have lain here safe enough
till I might have come again and fetched it.

Having now brought all my things on shore, and secured
them, I went back to my boat, and rowed or paddled her along
the shore, to her old harbor, where I laid her up, and made the
best of my way to my old habitation, where I found everything
safe and quict; so I began to repose myself; live after my old
fashion, and take care of my family affairs; and, for a while, I
lived easy enough, only that I was more vigilant than I used to
be, looked out oftener, and did not go abroad so much; and if,
atany time, I did stir with any freedom, it was always to the east
part of the island, where I was pretty well satisfied the savages
never came, and where I could go without so many precautions,
and such a load of arms and ammunition, as I always carried
with me if I went the other way.

I lived in this condition nearly two years more; but my
unlucky head, that was always to let me know it was born to
make my body miserable, was all these two years filled with
projects and designs, how, if it were possible, I might get away
from this island; for sometimes I was for making another voyage
to the wreck, though my reason told me that there was nothing
left there worth the hazard of my voyage; sometimes for a
ramble one way, sometimes another; and I believe verily, if I
had had the boat that I went from Sallee in, I should have
ventured to sea, bound anywhere, I knew not whither.

Thave been in all my circumstances, a memento to those who
are touched with the general plague of mankind, whence, for
aught I know, one half of their miseries flow; I mean, that of
not being satisfied with the station wherein God and Nature
has placed them; for not to look back upon my primitive condi-
tion, and the excellent advice of my father, the opposition to
which, was, as I may call it, my original sin; my subsequent
mistakes of the same kind had been the means of my coming
into this miserable condition; for had that Providence, which
so happily had seated me at the Brazils, as. a planter, blessed me
with confined desires, and I could have been contented to have

182
—X—X—_—«—«X—«K—«V—_=[=_=_==*_==_*=_=**_Ci—>e>*—*—&—=—={&CYCiYCYiYCY~iY~Y~Se=—=—{{z—z]———=—=
>> > I REMAIN UNSATISFIED Ke Ke Ke

gone on gradually, I might have been by this time,—I mean, in
the time of my being in this island,—one of the most considerable
planters in the Brazils; nay, Iam persuaded, that by the improve-
ments I had made in that little time I lived there, and the increase
I should probably have made, if I had stayed, I might have been
worth an hundred thousand moidores; and what business had I
to leave a settled fortune, a well-stocked plantation, improving
and increasing, to turn supercargo to Guinea, to fetch negroes,
when patience and time would have so increased our stock at
home, that we could have bought them at our own door, from
those whose business it was to fetch them; and though it cost
us something more, yet the difference of that price was by no
means worth saving at so great a hazard.

But, as this is ordinarily the fate of young heads, so reflection
upon the folly of it is as ordinarily the exercise of more years,
or of the dear-bought experience of time; and so it was with
me now; and yet so deep had the mistake taken root in my
temper, that I could not satisfy myself in my station, but was
continually poring upon the means and possibility of my escape
from this place; and that I may, with the greater pleasure to the
reader, bring on the remaining part of my story, it may not be
improper to give some account of my first conceptions on the
subject of this foolish scheme for my escape; and how, and upon
what foundation, I acted.

T am now supposed to be retired into my castle, after my late
voyage to the wreck, my frigate laid up, and secured under
water, as usual, and my condition restored to what it was before.
Thad more wealth, indeed, than I had before, but was not at all
the richer; for I had no more use for it, than the Indians of Peru
had before the Spaniards came there.

It was one of the nights in the rainy season in March, the
four-and-twentieth year of my first setting foot in this island of
solitariness. I was lying in my bed, or hammock, awake, very
well in health, had no pain, or distemper, no uneasiness of body;
no, nor any uneasiness of mind, more than ordinary; but could
by no means close my eyes; that is, so as to sleep; no, not a wink
all night long, otherwise than as follows.

It is as impossible as needless, to set down the innumerable
crowd of thoughts that whirled through that great thorough-
fare of the brain, the memory, in this night’s time. I ran over the

183


ieab OROMINFON Cation Rea

whole history of my life in miniature, or by abridgment, as I
may call it, to my coming to this island; and also of the part of
my life since I came to this island. In my reflections upon the
state of my case, since I came on shore on this island, I was com-
paring the happy posture of my affairs, in the first years of my
habitation here, compared to the life of anxiety, fear and care,
which I had lived ever since I had seen the print of a foot in
the sand; not that I did not believe the savages had frequented
the island even all the while, and might have been several hun-
dreds of them at times on shore there; but I had never known
it, and was incapable of any apprehensions about it; my satisfac-
tion was perfect, though my danger was the same; and I was as
happy in not knowing my danger, as if I had never really been
exposed to it, This furnished my thoughts with many very
profitable reflections, and particularly this one, how infinitely
good that Providence is, which has provided in its government
of mankind such narrow bounds to his sight and knowledge of
things; and though he walks in the midst of so many thousand
dangers, the sight of which, if discovered to him, would distract
his mind, and sink his spirits, he is kept serene and calm, by
having the events of things hid from his eyes, and knowing
nothing of the dangers which surround him.

After these thoughts had for some time entertained me, I
came to reflect seriously upon the real danger I had been in for
so many years, in this very island, and how I had walked about
in the greatest security and with all possible tranquility; even
when perhaps nothing but a brow of a hill, a great tree, or the
casual approach of night, had been between me and the worst
kind of destruction, viz: that of falling into the hands of canni-
bals and savages, who would have seized on me with the same
view as I did of a goat or a turtle, and have thought it no more
a crime to kill and devour me, than I did of a pigeon or a cur-
lew. I would unjustly slander myself, if I should say I was not
sincerely thankful to my great Preserver, to whose singular
protection I acknowledged, with great humility, that all these
unknown deliverances were due; and without which I must
inevitably have fallen into their merciless hands.

When these thoughts were over, my head was for some time
taken up in considering the nature of these wretched creatures,
I mean the savages; and how it came to pass in the world, that

184
ee
>>> I Crave tHe MAINLAND Ke Ke Ke

the wise Governor of all things should give up any of his crea-
tures to such inhumanity; nay, to something so much below
even brutality itself, as to devour its own kind; but, as this ended
in some (at that time fruitless) speculations, it occurred to me
to inquire what part of the world these wretches lived in; how
far off the coast was from whence they came; what they ven-
tured over so far from home for; what kind of boats they had;
and why I might not order myself and my business, so that I
might be as able to go over thither as they were to come to me.
~ never so much as troubled myself to consider what I should
do with myself when I came thither; what would become of
me, if I fell into the hands of the savages; or how I should escape
from them, if they attempted me; no, nor so much as how it was
possible for me to reach the coast, and not be attempted by
some one or other of them, without any possibility of deliver-
ing myself; and, if I should not fall into their hands, what I
should do for provision, or whither I should bend my course.
None of these thoughts, I say, so much as came in my way; but
my mind was wholly bent upon the notion of my passing over
in my boat to the main-land. I looked back upon my present
condition as the most miserable that could possibly be; that I
was not able to throw myself into anything but death that could
be called worse; that, if I reached the shore of the main, I might,
perhaps, meet with relief, or I might coast along, as I did on the
shore of Africa, till I came to some inhabited country, and where
I might find some relief. And, after all, perhaps I might fall in
with some Christian ship that might take me in; and if the worst
came to the worst, I could but die, which would put an end to
all these miseries at once. Pray, note, all this was the fruit of a
disturbed mind, an impatient temper, made, as it were, desperate
by the long continuance of my troubles, and the disappoint-
ments I had met in the wreck I had been on board of, and where
Ihad been so near obtaining what I so earnestly longed for, viz:
somebody to speak to, and to learn some knewledge from, of
the place where I was, and of the probable means of my deliver-
ance. I say, I was agitated wholly by these thoughts. All my
calm of mind in my resignation to Providence, and waiting the
issue of the dispositions of Heaven, seemed to be suspended;
and I had, as it were, no power to turn my thoughts to any
thing but to the project of a voyage to the main, which came

185


PH > Rosrnson CRUSOE Ke Ke

upon me with such force, and such an impetuosity of desire,
that it was not to be resisted.

When this had agitated my thoughts for two hours or more,
with such violence that it set my very blood into a ferment, and
my pulse beat as high as if I had been in a fever, merely with
the extraordinary fervor of my mind about it; nature, as if I had
been fatigued and exhausted with the very thought of it, threw
me into a sound sleep. One would have thought I should have
dreamed of it, but I did not, nor of any thing relating to it; but
I dreamed that, as I was going out in the morning as usual from
my castle, I saw upon the shore two canoes and eleven savages
coming to land, and that they brought with them another savage
who they were going to kill in order to eat him; when, on a
sudden, the savage that they were going to kill jumped away
and ran for his life; and I thought in my sleep that he came
running into my little thick grove, before my fortification, to
hide himself; and that I, seeing him alone, and not perceiving
that the others sought him that way, showed myself to him, and
smiling upon him, encouraged him; that he kneeled down to
me, seeming to pray me to assist him; upon which I showed my
ladder, made him go up, and carried him into my cave, and he
became my servant; and that, as soon as I had gotten this man, I
said to myself, now I may certainly venture to the main-land;
for this fellow will serve me as a pilot, and will tell me what to
do, and whither to go for provisions, and whither not to go for
fear of being devoured, what places to venture into, and what
to escape. I waked with this thought, and was under such inex-
pressible impressions of joy at the prospect of my escape in my
dream, that the disappointments which I felt upon coming to
myself, and finding it was no more than a dream, were equally
extravagant the other way, and threw me into a very great
dejection of spirit.

Upon this, however, I made this conclusion, that my only
way to go about an attempt for an escape was, if possible, to
get a savage into my possession; and, if possible, it should be one
of their prisoners, who they had condemned to be eaten, and
should bring thither to kill; but these thoughts still were attended
with this difficulty, that it was impossible to effect this without
attacking a whole caravan of them and killing them all; and
this was not only a very desperate attempt, and might miscarry;

186


but, on the other hand, I had greatly scrupled the lawfulness of
FE: to me; and my heart trembled at the thoughts of shedding
so much blood, though it was for my deliverance. I need not
L repeat the arguments which occurred to me against this, they
being the same mentioned before. But, though I had other
reasons to offer now, viz: that those men were enemies to my
life, and would devour me, if they could; that it was self-preser-
vation in the highest degree to deliver myself from this death
of a life, and was acting in my own defense as much as if they
were actually assaulting me, and the like,—I say, though these
things argued for it, yet the thoughts of shedding human blood
for my deliverance, were very terrible to me, and such as I could
by no means reconcile myself to for a great while.
_- However, at last, after many secret disputes with myself, and
{ after great perplexities about it,—for all these arguments one
way and another struggled in my head a long time,—the eager,
prevailing desire of deliverance at last mastered all the rest, and
I resolved, if possible, to get one of those savages into my hands,
~ cost what it would. My next thing, then, was to contrive how to
do ig, and this indeed, was very difficult to resolve on. But, as I
could pitch upon no probable means for it, so I resolved to put
myself upon the watch, to see them when they came on shore,
and leave the rest to the event, taking such measures as the
opportunity should present, let be what would be.

With these resolutions in my thoughts, I set myself upon the
scout, as often as possible, and indeed, so often, that I was
heartily tired of it; for it was above a year and half that I waited,
and for great part of that time went out to the west end, and to
the south-west corner of the island, almost every day, to see for
canoes, but none appeared. This was very discouraging, and be-
gan to trouble me much; though I cannot say that it did in this
case, as it had done some time before that, viz: wear off the edge
of my desire for the thing. But the longer it seemed to be de-
layed, the more eager I was for it; in a word, I was not at first so
careful to shun the sight of these savages, and avoid being seen
by them, as I was now eager to be upon them.

Besides, I fancied myself able to manage one, nay, two or
three savages, if I had them, so as to make them entirely slaves
to me, to do whatever I should direct them, and to prevent their
being able, at any time, to do me any hurt. It was a great while

187


that I pleased myself with this affair, but nothing still presented;
all my fancies and schemes came to nothing, for no savages
came near me fora great while.

About a year and half after I had entertained these notions,
and, by long musing, had, as it were, resolved them all into
nothing, for want of an occasion to put them in execution, I
was surprised one morning early, with seeing no less than five
canoes, all on shore together on my side the island; and the
people who belonged to them all landed, and out of my sight.
The number of them broke all my measures; for, seeing so
many, and knowing that they always came four or six, or some-
times more, in a boat, I could not tell what to think of it, or how
to take my measures to attack twenty or thirty men single-
handed; so I lay still in my castle, perplexed and discomforted.
However, I put myself into all the same postures for an attack
that I had formerly provided, and was just ready for action, if
anything had presented. Having waited a good while, listening
to hear if they made any noise, at length, being very impatient,
Iset my guns at the foot of my ladder, and clambered up to the
top of the hill, by my two stages, as usual; standing so, however,
that my head did not appear above the hill, so that they could
not perceive me by any means. Here I observed, by the help of
my perspective glass, that they were no less than thirty in num-
ber, that they had a fire kindled, that they had meat dressed.
How they had cooked it, that I knew not, or what it was; but
they were all dancing in I. know not how many barbarous
gestures and figures, their own way, round the fire.

While I was thus looking on them, I perceived by my per-
spective, two miserable wretches dragged from the boats, where,
it seems, they were laid by, and were now brought out for the
slaughter. I perceived one of them immediately fell, being
knocked down, I suppose, with a club or wooden sword, for
that was their way; and two or three others were at work imme-
diately cutting him open for their cookery, while the other
victim was left standing by himself, till they should be ready
for him. In that very moment, this poor wretch, seeing himself
a litrle at liberty, nature inspired him with hopes of life, and he
started away from them, and ran with incredible swiftness along
the sands directly towards me, I mean towards that part of the
coast where my habitation was.

188


Se
SS sp One Victim Escapes Kee

I was dreadfully frighted (that I must acknowledge) when
I perceived him to run my way; and especially, when, as I
thought, I saw him pursued by the whole body; and now I
expected that part of my dream was coming to pass, and that
he would certainly take shelter in my grove; but I could not
depend by any means upon my dream for the rest of it, viz: that
the other savages would not pursue him thither, and find him
there. However, I kept my station, and my spirits began to re-
cover, when I found that there was not above three men that
followed him; and still more was I encouraged, when I found
that he outstripped them exceedingly in running, and gained
ground of them; so that if he could but hold it for half an hour,
Isaw easily he would fairly get away from them all.

There was between them and my castle the creek which I
mentioned often at the first part of my story, when I landed
my cargoes out of the ship; and this, I saw plainly, he must
necessarily swim over, or the poor wretch would be taken
there. But when the savage escaping came thither, he made
nothing of it, though the tide was then up; but plunging in,
swam through: in about thirty strokes or thereabouts, landed,
and fan on with exceeding strength and swiftness. When the
three persons came to the creek, I found that two of them
could swim, but the third could not, and that standing on the
other side, he looked at the others, but went no further; and
soon after went softly back, which, as it happened, was very
well for him in the main.

I observed that the two who swam were yet more than twice
as long swimming over the creek as the fellow was that fled from

them. It came now very warmly upon my thoughts, and indeed
irresistibly, that now was my time to get me 2 ervant, and

all possible expedition, fetched my
two guns, for they were both but at the foot of the ladders, as
I observed above; and getting up again, with the same haste, to
the top of the hill, I crossed toward the sea; and having a very
short cur, and all down hill, clapped myself in the way, between
the pursuers and the pursued; hallooing aloud to him that fled,
who, looking back, was at first perhaps as much frighted at me,
as at them; but I beckoned with my hand to him to come back;




189
Spas Ronrnson Crusor EME

and, in the meantime, I slowly advanced towards the two that
followed; then, rushing at once upon the foremost, I knocked
him down with the stock of my piece; I was loath to fire,
because I would not have the rest hear; though at that distance
it would not have been easily heard, and being out of sight of
the smoke too, they would not have easily known what to make
of it. Having knocked this fellow down, the other who pursued
with him stopped, as if he had been frighted, and I advanced
a pace towards him; but as I came nearer, I perceived, presently,
he had a bow and arrow, and was fitting it to shoot at me; so I
was then necessitated to shoot at him first, which I did and
killed him at the first shot; the poor savage who fled, but had
stopped, though he saw both his enemies fallen, and killed, as
he thought, yet was so frighted with the fire and noise of my
piece, that he stood stock still, and neither came forward or
went backward, though he seemed rather inclined to fly still,
than to come on: I hallooed again to him, and made signs to
come forward, which he easily understood, and came a little
way; then stopped again, and then a little further, and stopped
again; and I could then perceive that he stood trembling, as
if he had been taken prisoner, and had just been to be killed,
as his two enemies were; I beckoned him again to come to
me, and gave him all the signs of encouragement that I could
think of; and he came nearer and nearer, kneeling down every
ten or twelve steps in token of acknowledgment for my saving
his life. I smiled at him, and looked pleasantly and beckoned to
him to come still nearer; at length he came close to me, and then
he kneeled down again, kissed the ground, and laid his head
upon the ground, and, taking me by the foot, set my foot upon
his head; this it seems was in token of swearing to be my slave
for ever. I took him up, and made much of him, and encouraged
him all I could. But there was more work to do yet, for I per-
ceived the savage, whom I knocked down, was not killed, but
stunned with the blow, and began to come to himself; so I
pointed to him, and showing him the savage, that he was not
dead; upon this, he spoke some words to me, and, though I could
not understand them, yet I thought they were pleasant to hear,
for they were the first sound of a man’s voice that I had heard,
my own excepted, for above twenty-five years} But there was
no time for such reflections now; the savage who was knocked

190


down recovered himself so far, as to sit up upon the ground,
and I perceived that my savage began to be afraid; but when I
saw that, I presented my other piece at the man, as if I would
shoot him; upon this, my savage, for so I call him now, made a
motion to me to lend him my sword, which hung naked in a
belt by my side; so I did. He no sooner had it, but he ran to his
enemy, and at one blow cut off his head as cleverly, no execu-
tioner in Germany could have done it sooner or better, which
I thought very strange for one who, I had reason to believe,
never saw a sword in his life before, except their own wooden
swords; however, it seems, as I learned afterwards, they make
their wooden swords so sharp, so heavy, and the wood is so
hard, that they will cut off heads even with them, aye, and arms,
and that at one blow too. When he had done this, he came
laughing to me in sign of triumph, and brought me the sword
again, and with abundance of gestures which I did not under-
stand, laid it down with the head of the savage, that he had
killed just before me.

But that which astonished him most, was to know how I
had killed the other Indian so far off; so, pointing to him,
he made signs to me to let him go to him, so I bade him go as

A

NV
. x \




>> > RoBINSON CRUSOE Kee Ke

well as I could. When he came to him, he stood like one amazed,
looking at him, turned him first on one side, then on the other,
looked at the wound the bullet had made, which it seems was
just in his breast, where it had made a hole, and no great quantity
of blood had followed, but he had bled inwardly, for he was
quite dead. He took up his bow and arrows, and came back; so
I turned to go away, and beckoned to him to follow me, making
signs to him that more might come after them.

Upon this, he signed to me, that he should bury them with
sand, that they might not be seen by the rest if they followed,
and so I made signs again to him to do so; he fell to work, and in
an instant he had scraped a hole in the sand with his hands, big
enough to bury the first in, and then dragged him into it, and
covered him, and did so also by the other,—I believe he had
buried them both in a quarter of an hour; then calling him away,
I carried him not to my castle, but quite away to my cave, on
the farther part of the island; so I did not let my dream come to
pass in that part, viz: that he came into my grove for shelter.

Here I gave him bread, and a bunch of raisins to eat, and a
draught of water, which I found he was indeed in great distress
for, by his running; and, having refreshed him, I made signs for
him to go lie down and sleep, pointing to a place where I had
laid a great parcel of rice straw, and a blanket upon it, which I
used to sleep upon myself sometime; so the poor creature laid
down and went to sleep.

:— He wasacomely, handsome fellow, perfectly well-made, with
straight, strong limbs, not too large; tall and well-shaped, and,
as I reckon, about twenty-six years of age. He had a very good
countenance, not a fierce and surly aspect, but seemed to have
something very manly in his face, and yet he had all the sweet-
ness and softness of an European in his countenance too,
especially when he smiled. His hair was long and black, not
curled like a wool; his forehead very high and large, and a great
vivacity and sparkling sharpness in his eyes. The color of his
skin was not quite black, but very tawny, and yet not of an
ugly, yellow, nauseous tawny, as the Brazilians and Virginians,
and other natives of America are, but of a bright kind of a dun
olive color, that had in it something very agreeable, though not
very easy to describe. His face was round and plump; his nose
small, not flat like the negroes, a very good mouth, thin lips, and

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Wy My Stave Fripay Ke Ke Ke

his fine teeth well set, and white as ivory] After he had slum-
bered, rather than slept, about half an hour, he waked again,
and came out of the cave to me, for I had been milking my
goats, which I had in the enclosure just by. When he espied me,
he came running to me, laying himself down again upon the
ground, with all the possible signs of an humble, thankful dis-
position, making many antic gestures to show it. At last he laid
his head flat upon the ground, close to my foot, and set my other
foot upon his head, as he had done before; and after this, made
all the signs to me of subjection, servitude, and submission
imaginable, to let me know how he would serve me as long as
he lived. I understood him in many things, and let him know I
was very well pleased with him; in a little time I began to speak
to him, and teach him to speak to me; and, first, I made him
know his name should be Friday, which was the day I saved
his life—I called him so for the memory of the time. I likewise
taught him to say master, and then let him know that was to be
my name; I likewise taught him to say yes and no, and to know
the meaning of them. I gave him some milk, in an earthen pot,
and let him see me drink it before him, and sop my bread in it;
and I''gave him a cake of bread, to do the like, which he quickly
complied with, and made signs that it was very good for him.

I kept there with him all that night; but as soon as it was
day, I beckoned to him to come with me and let him know I
would give him some clothes, at which he seemed very glad, for
he was stark naked. As we went by the place where he had
buried the two men, he pointed exactly to the place and showed
me the marks that he had made to find them again, making signs
to me that we should dig them up again, and eat them; at this
I appeared very angry, expressed my abhorrence of it, made as
if I would vomit at the thoughts of it, and beckoned with my
hand to him to come away, which he did immediately, with
great submission. I then led him up to the top of the hill, to see
if his enemies were gone; and, pulling out my glass, I looked, and
saw plainly the place where they had been, but no appearance
of them or of their canoes; so that it was plain that they were
gone, and had left their two comrades behind them, without
any search after them.

But I was not content with this discovery; but, having now
more courage, and consequently more curiosity, I took my man

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Friday with me, giving him the sword in his hand, with the
bow and arrows at his back, which I found he could use very
dexterously, making him carry one gun for me, and I two for
myself, and away we marched to the place where these crea-
tures had been; for I had a mind now to get some fuller intelli-
gence of them. When I came to the place, my very blood ran
chill in my veins, and my heart sunk within me at the horror
of the spectacle. Indeed, it was a dreadful sight, at least it was so
to me; though Friday made nothing of it. The place was covered
with human bones, the ground dyed with their blood, great
pieces of flesh left here and there, and half eaten, mangled and
scorched; and in short all the tokens of the triumphant feast they
had been making there, after a victory over their enemies. I saw
three skulls, five hands, and the bones of three or four legs and
feet, and abundance of other parts of the bodies; and Friday,
by his signs, made me understand that they brought over four
prisoners to feast upon; that three of them were eaten up, and
that he, pointing to himself, was the fourth; that there had been
a great battle between them and their next king, whose subjects
it seems he had been one of, and that they had taken a great
number of prisoners, all which were carried to several places
by those that had taken them in the fight, in order to feast upon
them, as was done here by these wretches upon those they
brought hither.

I caused Friday to gather all the skulls, bones, flesh, and what-
ever remained, and lay them together on a heap, and make a
great fire upon it, and burn them all to ashes. I found Friday had
still a hankering stomach after some of the flesh, and was still a
cannibal in his nature; but I discovered so much abhorrence at
the very thoughts of it, and at the least appearance of it, that he
durst not discover it; for I had by some means let him know that
I would kill him if he offered it.

When we had done this, we came back to our castle, and
there I fell to work for my man Friday; and first of all I gave
him a pair of linen drawers which I had out of the poor gunner’s
chest I mentioned, and which I found in the wreck, and which,
with a little alteration, fitted him very well; then I made him a
jerkin of goat’s-skin, as well as my skill would allow; and I was
now grown a tolerable good tailor; and I gave him a cap, which
I had made of a hare-skin, very convenient, and fashionable

194
wil

HPs A Lovaina ror FRipAY eee

enough; and thus he was clothed for the present tolerably well;
and was mighty well pleased to see himself almostas well clothed
as his master. It is true, he went awkwardly in these things at
first; wearing the drawers was very awkward to him, and the
sleeves of the waistcoat galled his shoulders and the inside of his
arms; but a little easing them where he complained they hurt
him, and using himself to them, at length he took to them very
well.

The next day after I came home to my hutch with him, I
began to consider where I should lodge him; and that I might do
well for him, and yet be perfectly easy myself, I made a little
tent for him in the vacant place between my two fortifications,
in the inside of the last, and in the outside of the first. And as
there was door or entrance there into my cave, I made a formal
framed door-case, and a door to it of boards, and set it up in the
passage, a little within the entrance; and, causing the door to
open on the inside, I barred it up in the night, taking in my

‘ladders too; so that Friday could no way come at me in the

inside of my innermost wall, without making so much noise in
getting over that it must needs waken me, for my first wall
had low a complete roof over it of long poles, covering all my
tent, and leaning up to the side of the hill, which was again laid
across with smaller sticks instead of laths, and then thatched
over a great thickness with the rice straw, which was strong like
reeds; and at the hole or place which was left to go in or out
by the ladder, I had placed a kind of trap-door, which, if it had
been attempted on the outside, would not have opened at all,
but would have fallen down, and made a great noise; and as to
weapons, I took them all into my side every night.

But I needed none of all this precaution; for never man had
amore faithful, loving, sincere servant than Friday was to me;
without passions, sullenness, or designs, perfectly obliged and
engaged; his very affections were tied to me, like those of a
child to a father; and I dare say he would have sacrificed his life
for the saving of mine, upon any occasion whatsoever; the many
testimonies he gave me of this put it out of doubt, and soon
convinced me that I needed to use no precautions as to my
safety on his account.

This frequently gave me occasion to observe, and that with
wonder, that, however it had pleased God, in his Providence,

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a seine pees 2 eee

and in the government of the works of his hands, to take from
so great a part of the world of his creatures, the best use to which
their faculties and the powers of their souls are adapted; yet that
he has bestowed upon them the same powers, the same reason,
the same affections, the same sentiments of kindness and obliga-
tion, the same passions and resentment of wrongs, the same sense
of gratitude, sincerity, fidelity, and all the capacities of doing
good and receiving good that he has given to us; and that when
he pleases to offer to them occasions of exerting these, they are
as ready, nay, more ready, to apply them to the right uses for
which they were bestowed, than we are. And this made me
very melancholy sometimes, in reflecting, as the several occa-
sions presented, how mean a use we make of all these, even
though we have these powers enlightened by the great lamp of
instruction, the spirit of God, and by the knowledge of his word,
added to our understanding; and why it has pleased God to hide
the like saving knowledge from so many millions of souls, who,
if I might judge by this poor savage, would make a much better
use of it than we did.
From hence I sometimes was led too far to invade the sov-
ereignty of Providence, and, as it were, arraign the justice of so
| arbitrary a disposition of things, that should hide that light
from some, and reveal it to others, and yet expect a like duty
from both. But I shut it up, and checked my thoughts with this
conclusion: first, that we did not know by what light and law
these should be condemned; but that as God was necessarily,
and by the nature of his being, infinitely holy and just, so it
could not be; but that if these creatures were all sentenced to
absence from himself, it was on account of sinning against that
light, which, as the Scripture says, was a law to themselves, and
by such rules as their consciences would acknowledge to be just,
though the foundation was not discovered to us. And, second,
that still as we are all like clay in the hand of the potter, no vessel
could say to him, why hast thou formed me thus?
_~ Butto return to my new companion, I was greatly delighted
\ with him, and made it my business to teach him everything that
was proper to make him useful, handy, and helpful: but espe-
} cially to make him speak, and understand me when I spoke; and
he was the aptest scholar that ever was, and particularly was so
merry, so constantly diligent, and so pleased when he could

196
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SP sh p> Fripay Learns Asout Guns Gee

a but understand me, or make me understand him, that it was
very pleasant to me to talk to him; and now my life began to be
so easy, that I began to say to myself that, could I but have
been safe from more savages, I cared not if I wasnever to remove
from the place while I lived.

j- After I had been two or three days returned to my castle, I
thought that, in order to bring Friday off from his horrid way
of feeding, and from the relish of a cannibal’s stomach, I ought
to let him taste other flesh; so I took him out with me one morn-
ing to the woods. I went indeed intending to kill a kid out of
my own flock, and bring him home and dress it: but as I was
going I saw a she-goat lying down in the shade, and two young
kids sitting by her; I caught hold of Friday, “Hold,” said I,
“stand still”; and made signs to him not to stir; immediately I
presented my piece, shot and killed one of the kids. The poor
creature, who at a distance indeed had seen me kill the savage his
enemy, but did not know, or could not imagine how it was
done, was sensibly surprised, trembled, and shook, and looked
so amazed that I thought he would have sunk down. He did

| notsee the kid I had shot at, or perceive I had killed it, but ripped

\ up His waistcoat to feel if he was not wounded, and, as I found,

\ presently thought I was resolved to kill him; for he came and

| kneeled down to me, and, embracing my knees, said a great

| many things I did not understand, but I could easily see that the
\ meaning was to pray me not to kill him.

Isoon found a way to convince him that I would do him no
harm; and taking him up by the hand, laughed at him and,
pointing to the kid which I had killed, beckoned to him to run
and fetch it, which he did; and while he was wondering and
looking to see how the creature was killed, I loaded my gun
again, and by-and-by I saw a great fowl like a hawk sit upon a
tree within shot; so, to let Friday understand a little what I
would do, I called him to me again, pointing at the fowl, which
was indeed a parrot, though I thought it had been a hawk; I said,
pointing to the parrot, and my gun, and to the ground under
the parrot, to let him see I would make it fall, I made him under-
stand that I would shoot and kill that bird; accordingly I fired,
and bade him look, and immediately he saw the parrot fall; he
stood like one frighted again, notwithstanding all I had said
to him; and I found he was the more amazed because he did not

197


see me put anything into the gun; but thought that there must
be some wonderful fund of death and destruction in that thing,
able to kill man, beast, bird, or anything, near or far off; and
the astonishment this created in him was such as could not wear
off for a long time; and I believe, if I would have let him, he
would have worshipped me and my gun; as for the gun itself,
he would not so much as touch it for several days after, but
would speak to it, and talk to it as if it had answered him, when
he was by himself; which, as I afterwards learned of him, was
to desire it not to kill him.

Well, after his astonishment was a little over at this, I pointed
to him to run and fetch the bird I had shot, which he did, but
stayed some time; for the parrot not being quite dead, was
fluttered a good way off from the place where she fell. How-
ever, he found her, took her up, and brought her to me; and, as
I had perceived his ignorance about the gun before, I took this
advantage to charge the gun again, and not let him see me do it,
that I might be ready for any other mark that might present; but
nothing more offered at that time; so I brought home the kid,
and the same evening I took the skin off, and cut it out as well as
I could; and having a pot for that purpose, I boiled or stewed
some of the flesh, and made some very good broth; and after I
had begun to eat some, I gave some to my man, who seemed
very glad of it, and liked it very well; but that which was
strangest to him was to see me eat salt with it. He made a sign
to me that the salt was not good to eat, and putting a little into
his own mouth, he seemed to nauseate it, and would spit and
sputter at it, washing his mouth with fresh water after it. On
the other hand, I took some meat in my mouth without salt, and
I pretended to spit and sputter for want of salt as he had done
at the salt; but it would not do, he would never care for salt
with his meat, or in his broth; at least, not for a great while, and
then buta very little.

Having thus fed him with boiled meat and broth, I was
resolved to feast him the next day with roasting a piece of the
kid. This I did by hanging it before the fire in a string, as I had
seen many people do in England, setting two poles up, one on
each side of the fire, and one cross on the top, and tying the
string to the cross-stick, letting the meat turn continually. This
Friday admired very much; but when he came to taste the flesh,

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Ph > Fripay a Goop CoMPANION 46 Qe

he took so many ways to tell me how well he liked it, that I
could not but understand him; and at last he told me he would
never eat man’s flesh any more, which I was very glad to hear.

The next day I set him to work to beating some corn out, and
sifting it in the manner I used to do, as I observed before; and
he soon understood how to do it as well as I, especially, after he
had seen what the meaning of it was, and that it was to make
bread of; for after that I let him see me make my bread, and
bake it too, and in a little time, Friday was able to do all the
work for me, as well as I could do it myself.

I began now to consider, that having two mouths to feed
instead of one, I must provide more ground for my harvest,
and planta larger quantity of corn than | used to do. So I marked
out a larger piece of land, and began the fence in the same
manner as before, in which Friday not only worked very will-
ingly and very hard, but did it very cheerfully; and I told him
what it was for; that it was for corn to make more bread, because
he was now with me, and that I might have enough for him and
myself too. He appeared very sensible of that part, and let me
know that he thought I had much more labor upon me on his
accouft than I had for myself; and that he would work the
harder for me, if I would tell him what to do.

This was the pleasantest year of all the life I led in this place.
Friday began to talk pretty well, and understand the names of
almost everything I had occasion to call for, and of every place
Thad to send him to, and talk a great deal to me; so that, in short,
I began now to have some use for my tongue again, which,
indeed, I had very little occasion for before,—that is to say,
about speech. Besides the pleasure of talking to him, I had a
singular satisfaction in the fellow himself; his simple, unfeigned
honesty appeared to me more and more every day, and I began
really to love the creature; and on his side, I believe he loved me
more than it was possible for him ever to love anything before.

Thad a mind once to try if he had any hankering inclination
to his own country again; and having learned him English so
well that he could answer me almost any question, I asked him
whether the nation that he belonged to never conquered in
battle. At which he smiled and said: “Yes, yes; we always fight
the better.” That is, he meant we always get the better in fight.
And so we began the following discourse: “You always fight

199


aw RosimsowGrvson ARE

the better”; said I; “how come you to be taken prisoner, then,
Friday?”

Friday: “My nation beat much, for all that.”

Master: “How beat? If your nation beat them, how come you
to be taken?”

Friday: “They more many than my nation in the place where
me was; they take one, two, three, and me. My nation over beat
them in the yonder place, where me no was. There my nation
take one, two, great thousand.”

Master: “But why did not your side recover you from the
hands of your enemies, then?”

Friday: “They run, one, two, three, and me, and make go
in the canoe. My nation have no canoe that time.”

Master: “Well, Friday, and what does your nation do with
the men they take? Do they carry them away, and eat them,
as these did?”

Friday: “Yes; my nation eat mans, too,—eat allup.”

Master: “Where do they carry them?”

Friday: “Go to other place where they think.”

Master: “Do they come hither?”

Friday: “Yes, yes; they come hither,—come other else place.”

Master: “Have you been here with them?”

Friday: “Yes, I been here.” [Points to the N. W. side of the
island, which it seems was their side. ]

By this I understood that my man Friday had formerly been
among the savages who used to come on shore on the farther
part of the island, on the same man-eating occasions that he was
now brought for; and some time after, when I took the courage
to carry him to that side, being the same I formerly mentioned,
he presently knew the place, and told me he was there once
when they eat up twenty men, two women, and one child. He
could not tell twenty in English, but he numbered them by
laying so many stones on a row, and pointing to me to tell
them over.

I have told this passage because it introduces what follows;
that after I had had this discourse with him, I asked him how far
it was from our island to the shore, and whether the canoes were
not often lost. He told me there was no danger, no canoes ever
lost; but that after a little way out to the sea there was a current,
and a wind, always one way in the morning, the other in the

afternoon.
200
EE —————_———_—____—_________}
Spee I Learnor My NEIcGHBoRS 46%

This I understood to be no more than the sets of the tide,—
as going out, or coming in; but I afterwards understood it was
occasioned by the great draft and reflux of the mighty river
Orinoco, in the mouth or the gulf of which river, as I found
afterwards, our island lay. And this land which I perceived to
the W. and N. W., was the great island Trinidad, on the north
point of the mouth of the river. I asked Friday a thousand
questions about the country, the inhabitants, the sea, the coast,
and what nations were near. He told me all he knew, with the
greatest openness imaginable. I asked him the names of the sev-
eral nations of his sort of people, but could get no other name
than Caribs; from whence I easily understood that these were the
Caribbees, which our maps place on that part of America which
reaches from the mouth of the river Orinoco to Guiana, and
onwards to St. Martha. He told me that, up a great way beyond
the moon,—that was, beyond the setting of the moon, which
must be W. from their country, there dwelt white bearded
men, like me (and pointed to my great whiskers, which I men-
tioned before), and that they had killed much mans (that was
his word). By all which, I understood he meant the Spaniards,
whos¢ cruelties in America had been spread over the whole
countries, and was remembered by all the nations, from father
to son.

I inquired if he could tell me how I might come from this
island and get among those white men. He told me: “Yes, yes;
I might go in two canoe.” I could not understand what he meant,
or make him describe to me what he meant by “two canoe,” till,
at last, with great difficulty, I found he meant it must be in a
large, great boat, as big as two canoes.

This part of Friday’s discourse began to relish with me very
well; and from this time I entertained some hopes that, one time
or other, I might find an opportunity to make my escape from
this place, and that this poor savage might be a means to help
me to do it.

During the long time that Friday had now been with me, and
that he began to speak to me and understand me, I was not
wanting to lay a foundation of religious knowledge in his mind;
particularly, I asked him one time who made him. The poor
creature did not understand me at all, but thought I had asked
who was his father. But I took it by another handle, and asked

201




35) >> Rosinson CRUSOE EEK KE

him who made the sea, the ground we walked on, and the hills
and woods. He told me it was one old Benamuckee, that lived
beyond all. He could describe nothing of this great person but
that he was very old,—much older, he said, than the sea or the
land, than the moon or the stars. I asked him then, If this old
person had made all things, why did not all things worship him?
He looked very grave, and, with a perfect look of innocence,
said, “All things do say ‘O’ to him.” I asked him if the people
who die, in his country, went away anywhere. He said, “Yes;
they all went to Benamuckee.” Then I asked him, “Whether
these they eat up went thither too? ” He said, “Yes.”

From these things I began to instruct him in the knowledge
of the true God. I told him that the great Maker of all things
lived up there,—pointing up towards heaven; that He governed
the world by the same power and providence by which He
had made it; that He was omnipotent, could do everything for
us, give everything to us, take everything from us. And thus
by degrees, I opened his eyes. He listened with great attention,
and received with pleasure the notion of Jesus Christ being sent
to redeem us, and of the manner of making our prayers to God,
and his being able to hear us, even into heaven. He told me, one
day, that if our God could hear us up beyond the sun, he must
needs be a greater God than their Benamuckee, who lived but a
little way off, and yet could not hear till they went up to the
great mountains, where he dwelt, to speak to him. I asked him if
ever he went thither to speak to him. He said, “No; they never
went that were young men.” None went thither but the old
men, who he called their Oowokakee,—that is, as I made him
explain it to me, their religious or clergy, and that they went to
say “O” (so he called saying prayers), and then came back,
and told them what Benamuckee said. By this, I observed that
there is priestcraft, even amongst the most blinded, ignorant

agans in the world; and the policy of making a secret religion,
in order to preserve the veneration of the people to the clergy,

‘ not only to be found in the Roman, but perhaps among all



religions in the world, even among the most brutish and bar-
barous savages.

I endeavored to clear up this fraud to my man Friday, and
told him, that the pretence of their old men going up to the
mountains to say “O” to their god Benamuckee, was a cheat,

202


Se Nei ees

and their bringing word from thence what he said, was much
more so; that if they met with any answer, or spoke with any
one there, it must be with an evil spirit. And then I entered into
a long discourse with him about the devil, the original of him,
his rebellion against God, his enmity to man, the reason of it,
his setting himself up in the dark parts of the world to be wor-
shipped instead of God, and as God; and the many stratagems he




made use of to delude mankind to their ruin; how he had a secret
access to our passions, and to our affections, to adapt his snares
so to our inclinations, as to cause us even to be our own tempters,
and to run upon our destruction by our own choice.

I found it was not so easy to imprint right notions in his mind
about the devil, as it was about the being of a God. Nature
assisted all my arguments to evidence to him even the necessity
of a great first cause and overruling, governing power, a secret,
directing Providence, and of the equity and justice of paying
homage td him that made us and the like. But there appeared
nothing of all this in the notion of an evil spirit, of his original,
his being, his nature, and above all, of his inclination to do evil
and to draw us in to do so too; and the poor creature puzzled me
once in such a manner, by a question merely natural and inno-
cent, that I scarce knew what to say to him. I had been talking
a great deal to him of the power of God, his omnipotence, his
dreadful aversion to sin, his being a consuming fire to the
workers of iniquity; how, as he had made us all, he could destroy
us, and all the world in a moment; and he listened with great
seriousness to me all the while.

After this, I had been telling him how the devil was God’s
enemy in the hearts of men, and used all his malice and skill to
defeat the good designs of Providence, and to ruin the kingdom
of Christ in the world, and the like. “Well,” said Friday, “but
you say, God is so strong, so great, is he not much strong, much
might as the devil?” “Yes, yes,” said I, “Friday, God is stronger
than the devil, God is above the devil, and therefore we pray to
God to tread him down under our feet, and enable us to resist
his temptations, and quench his fiery darts.” “But,” says he
again, “if God much strong, much might as the devil, why God
no kill the devil, so make him no more do wicked?”

I was strangely surprised at his question; and after all, though
I was now an old man, yet I was but a young doctor, and ill
enough qualified for a casuist, or a solver of difficulties; and, at
first, I could not tell what to say, so I pretended not to hear him,
and asked him what he said. But he was too earnest for an
answer to forget his question; so that he repeated it in the very
same broken words, as above. By this time, I had recovered
myself a little, and I said, “God will at last punish him severely.
He is reserved for the Judgment, and is to be cast into the bot-

204
DP DP > I Teacu THEOLOGY KE Kee

tomless pit, to dwell with everlasting fire.” This did not satisfy
Friday, but he returns upon me, repeating my words, “Reserve,
at last, me no understand; but why not kill the devil now, not
kill great ago?” “You may as well ask me,” said I, “why God
does not kill you and I, when we do wicked things here that
offend him? We are preserved to repent and be pardoned.” He
mused awhile at this. “Well, well,” says he, mighty affection-
ately, “that well; so you, I, devil, all wicked, all preserve, repent,
God pardon all.” Here I was, run down again by him to the
last degree; and it was a testimony to me, how the mere notions
of nature, though they will guide reasonable creatures to the
knowledge of a God, and of a worship or homage due to the
supreme being of God, as the consequence of our nature; yet
nothing but divine revelation can form the knowledge of Jesus
Christ, and of a redemption purchased for us, of a mediator of
the new covenant, and of an intercessor, at the footstool of
God’s throne. I say, nothing but a revelation from Heaven can
form these in the soul; and that, therefore, the Gospel of our
Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, I mean, the word of God and
the spirit of God, promised for the guide and sanctifier of his
people, fre the absolutely necessary instructors of the souls of
men in the saving knowledge of God, and the means of salvation.

I therefore diverted the present discourse between me and
my man, rising up hastily, as upon some sudden occasion of
going out; then, sending him for something a good way off, I
seriously prayed to God that he would enable me to instruct
savingly this poor savage, assisting by his spirit the heart of the
poor ignorant creature, to receive the light of the knowledge of
God in Christ, reconciling him to himself, and would guide me
to speak so to him from the Word of God, as his conscience
might be convinced, his eyes opened, and his soul saved. When
he came again to me, I entered into a long discourse with him
upon the subject of the redemption of man by the Savior of
the world, and of the doctrine of the Gospel preached from
Heaven, viz: of repentance towards God, and faith in our
blessed Lord Jesus. I then explained to him, as well as I could,
why our blessed Redeemer took not on him the nature of angels,
but the seed of Abraham, and how for that reason the fallen
angels had no share in the redemption; that he came only to
the lost sheep of the house of Israel, and the like.

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BPP > RoBinson CRUSOE Ke Ke Ke

I had, God knows, more sincerity than knowledge in all the
methods I took for this poor creature’s instruction, and must
acknowledge, what I believe all that act upon the same principle
will find, that in laying things open to him, I really informed and
instructed myself in many things, that either I did not know, or
had not fully considered before, but which occurred naturally
to my mind, upon my searching into them, for the information
of this poor savage; and I had more affection in my inquiry
after things upon this occasion, than ever I felt before; so that
whether this poor wild wretch was the better for me, or no, I
had great reason to be thankful that ever he came to me. My
grief set lighter upon me, my habitation grew comfortable to
me beyond measure, and when I reflected that in this solitary
life which I had been confined to, I had not only been moved
myself to look up to Heaven, and to seek the hand that had
brought me there, but was now to be made an instrument under
Providence to save the life, and, for aught I knew, the soul of a
poor savage, and bring him to the true knowledge of religion,
and of the Christian doctrine, that he might know Christ Jesus,
to know whom is life eternal; I say, when I reflected upon all
these things, a secret joy ran through every part of my soul, and
I frequently rejoiced that ever I was brought to this place, which
I had so often thought the most dreadful of all afflictions that
could possibly have befallen me.

In this thankful frame I continued all the remainder of my
time, and the conversation which employed the hours between
Friday and I was such as made the three years which we
lived there together, perfectly and completely happy, if any
such thing as complete happiness can be formed in a sublunary
state. The savage was now a good Christian, a much better than
I, though I have reason to hope and bless God for it, that we
were equally penitent, and comforted, restored penitents. We
had here the Word of God to read, and no farther off from his
Spirit to instruct, than if we had been in England.

I always applied myself to reading the Scripture, to let him
know, as well as I could, the meaning of what I read; and he
again, by his serious enquiries and questions, made me, as I
said before, a much better scholar in the Scripture knowledge,
than I should ever have been by my own private mere reading.
Another thing I cannot refrain from observing here also from

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—_— EE
Rew Simpce Rexicron __ Hee ey

experience in this retired part of my life, viz: how infinite and
inexpressible a blessing it is, that the knowledge of God, and of
the doctrine of salvation by Christ Jesus, is so plainly laid do’
in the Word of God, so easy to be received and understood, that
as the bare reading of the Scripture made me capable of under-
, standing enough of my duty, to carry me directly on to the
| great work of sincere repentance for my sins, and laying hold of
a Savior for life and salvation, to a stated reformation in prac-
tice, and obedience to all God’s commands, and this without any
teacher or instructor (I mean, human), so thesame plain instruc-
| tion sufficiently served to the enlightening this savage creature,
and bringing him to be such a Christian, as I have known few
equal to him in my life.

As to all the disputes, wrangling, strife, and contentions,
which have happened in the world about religion, whether nice-
ties in doctrines, or schemes of church government, they were
all perfectly useless to us, as for aught I can yet see, they have
been to all the rest in the world; we had the sure guide to heaven,
viz: the Word of God; and we had, blessed be God, com-
fortable views of the Spirit of God, teaching and instructing
us by his word, leading us into all truth and making us both
willing and obedient to the instruction of his word; and I can-
not see the least use that the greatest knowledge of the disputed
points in religion, which have made such confusions in the
world, would have been to us, if we could have obtained it:
but I must go on with the historical part of things, and take
every part in its order.

After Friday and I became more intimately acquainted, and
that he could understand almost all I said to him, and speak
fluently, though in broken English, to me, I acquainted him with
my own story, or at least so much of it as related to my coming
into the place, how I had lived there, and how long. I let him
into the mystery, for such it was to him, of gunpowder and
bullet, and taught him how to shoot; I gave him a knife, which
he was wonderfully delighted with, and I made him a belt, with
a frog hanging to it, such as in England we wear hangers in;
and in the frog, instead of a hanger, I gave him a hatchet, which
was not only as good a weapon in some cases, but much more
useful upon other occasions.

I described to him the country of Europe, and particularly

207
> > > Rosinson CRUSOE Ke Ke Ke

England, which I came from; how we lived, how we worshipped
God, how we behaved to one another; and how we traded in
ships to all parts of the world. I gave him an account of the
wreck which I had been on board of, and showed him as near
as I could, the place where she lay; but she was all beaten in
pieces before, and gone.

I showed him the ruins of our boat, which we lost when we
escaped, and which I could not stir with my whole strength
then, but was now fallen almost all to pieces. Upon seeing this
boat, Friday stood musing a great while and said nothing. I
asked him what it was he studied upon; at last said he, “me see
such boat like come to place at my nation!”

I did not understand him a good while; but, at last, when I
had examined farther into it, I understood by him, that a boat,
such as that had been, came on shore upon the country where
he lived; that is, as he explained it, was driven thither by stress
of weather. I presently imagined, that some European ship
must have been cast away upon their coast, and the boat might
get loose, and drive ashore; but was so dull, that I never once
thought of men making escape from a wreck thither, much less
whence they might come; so I only enquired after a description
of the boat.

Friday described the boat to me well enough; but brought me
better to understand him, when he added with some warmth,
“we save the white man from drown.” Then I presently asked
him, if there was any white mans, as he called them, in the boat,
“Yes,” he said, “the boat full of white mans.” I asked him how
many; he told upon his fingers seventeen. I asked him then, what
became of them; he told me, “they live, they dwell at my nation.”

This put new thoughts into my head; for I presently imagined
that these might be the men belonging to the ship that was cast
away in sight of my island, as I now call it; and who, after the
ship was struck on the rock, and they saw her inevitably lost,
had saved themselves in their boat, and were landed upon that
wild shore, among the savages.

Upon this, I enquired of him more critically what was become
of them. He assured me they lived still there; that they had been
there about four years; that the savages let them alone, and
gave them victuals to live. I asked him, how it came to pass they
did not kill them and eat them. He said, “no, they make brother

208


Ss Frivay Sees His Country G@GEeK

with them”; that is, as I understood him, a truce. And then he
added, “they no eat mans, but when make the war fight”; that is
to say, they never eat any men, but such as come to fight with
them, and are taken in battle.

It was after this, some considerable time, that being on the
top of the hill, at the east side of the island, (from whence, as I
have said, I had in a clear day discovered the main, or continent
of America), Friday, the weather being very serene, looks very
earnestly towards the main-land, and, in a kind of surprise, falls
a jumping and dancing, and calls out to me, for I was at some
distance from him. I asked him, what was the matter. “Oh, joy!”
says he, “oh, glad! There see my country, there my nation!”

I observed an extraordinary sense of pleasure appeared in his
face, and his eyes sparkled, and his countenance discovered a
strange eagerness, as if he had a mind to be in his own country
again; and this observation of mine put a great many thoughts
into me, which made me at first not so easy about my new man
Friday, as I was before; and I made no doubt but that if Friday

could get back to his own nation again, he would not only forget

| all his religion, but all his obligation to me; and would be forward

|_ enough to give his country men an account of me, and come
back perhaps with a hundred or two of them, and make a feast
upon me, at which he might be as merry as he used to be with
those of his enemies, when they were taken in war.

But I wronged the poor honest creature very much, for which
I was very sorry afterwards. However, asmy jealousy increased,
and held me some weeks, I was a little more circumspect, and
not so familiar and kind to him as before; in which I was cer-
tainly in the wrong, too, the honest grateful creature having
no thought about it, but what consisted with the best principles,
both asa religious Christian, and as a grateful friend, as appeared
afterwards to my full satisfaction.

While my jealousy of him lasted, you may be sure I was
every day pumping him to see if he would discover any of the
new thoughts, which I suspected were in him; but I found
everything he said was so honest, and so innocent, that I could
find nothing to nourish my suspicion; and, in spite of all my
uneasiness, he made me at last entirely his own again, nor did
he in the least perceive that I was uneasy, and therefore I could
not suspect him of deceit.

209


Sh > Rosinson Crusoe EER

One day, walking up the same hill, but the weather being
hazy at sea, so that we could not see the continent, I called to
him, and said, “Friday, do not you wish yourself in your own
country, your own nation?” “Yes,” he said, “I be much O glad
to be at my own nation.” “What would you do there,” said I,
“would you turn wild again, eat men’s flesh again, and be a
savage as you were before?” He looked full of concern, and,
shaking his head, said, “No, no, Friday tell them to live good,
tell them to pray God, tell them to eat corn-bread, cattle-flesh,
milk, no eat man again.” “Why, then,” said I to him, “they will
kill you.” He looked grave at that, and then said, “no, they no
kill me, they willing love learn.” He meant by this, they would
be willing to learn. He added, “they learned much of the
bearded-mans that come in the boat.” Then I asked him if he
would go back to them. He smiled at that, and told me he could
not swim so far. I told him I would make a canoe for him. He
told me he would go if I would go with him. “I go!” says I,
“why, they will eat me if I come there!” “No, no,” says he,
“me make they no eat you; me make they much love you.” He
meant, he would tell them how I had killed his enemies, and
saved his life, and so he would make them love me; then he told
me as well as he could how kind they were to the seventeen
white men, or bearded men, as he called them, who came on
shore there in distress.

From this time, I confess, I had a mind to venture over and
see if I could possibly join with these bearded men, who I made
no doubt were Spaniards or Portuguese, not doubting but, if I
could, we might find some method to escape from thence, being
upon the continent, and a good company together, better than
I could from an island forty miles off the shore, and alone,
without help. So, after some days, I took Friday to work again,
by way of discourse, and told him I would give him a boat to
go back to his own nation; and, accordingly, I carried him to
my frigate, which lay on the other side of the island, and having
cleared it of water (for I always kept it sunk in the water), I
brought it out, showed it him, and we both went into it.

I found he was a most dexterous fellow at managing it,—
would make it go almost as swift and fast again as I could; so,
when he was in, I said to him, “Well, now, Friday, shall we go
to your nation?” He looked very dull at my saying so, which,

210
—_—_——ccc Ds =. ea
Sas os Fripay’s FairHFruLness Ke Ke Ke

it seems, was because he thought the boat too small to go so far.
I told him, then, I had a bigger; so the next day I went to the
place where the first boat lay which I had made, but which I
could not get into water. He said that was big enough; but then,
as I had taken no care of it, and it had lain two or three and
twenty years there, the sun had split and dried it, that it was
in a manner rotten. Friday told me such a boat would do very
well, and would carry “much enough vittle, drink, bread.” That
was his way of talking.

Upon the whole, I was by this time so fixed upon my design
of going over with him to the continent, that I told him we
would go and make one as big as that, and he should go home
in it. He answered not one word, but looked very grave and
sad. I asked him what was the matter with him. He asked me
again, thus: “Why you angry mad with Friday? What me
done?” I asked him what he meant. I told him I was not angry
with him at all. “No angry! no angry!” says he, repeating the
words several times. “Why send Friday home, away to my
nation?” “Why,” said I, “Friday, did you not say you wished
you were there?” “Yes, yes,” said he; “wish be both there; no
wish Friday there, no master there.” In a word, he would not
think of going without me. “I go there, Friday!” said I. “What
shall I do there?” He turned very quick upon me at this. “You
do great deal much good,” said he. “You teach wild mans to be
good, sober, tame mans; you tell them know God, pray God,
and live new life.” “Alas! Friday,” said I, “thou knowest not
what thou sayest. I am but an ignorant man myself.” “Yes,
yes,” said he. “You teachee me good, you teachee them good.”
“No, no, Friday,” said I, “you shall go without me. Leave me
here to live by myself, as I did before.” He looked confused
again at that word, and running to one of the hatchets which
he used to wear, he took it up hastily, came and gave it me.
“What must I do with this?” said I to him. “You take kill Fri-
day,” said he. “What must I kill you for?” said I, again. He
returned very quick. “What you send Friday away for? Take
kill Friday. No send Friday away.” This he spoke so earnestly
that I saw tears stand in his eyes. In a word, I so plainly dis-
covered the utmost affection in him to me, and a firm resolution
in him, that I told him then, and often after, that I would never
send him away from me, if he was willing to stay with me.

211
Spe _—séRoinson Crusor eee

Upon the whole, as I found by all his discourse a settled
affection to me, and that nothing should part him from me, so I
( found all the foundation of his desire to go to his own country
|| was laid in his ardent affection to the people, and his hopes of
| my doing them good,—a thing which I had no notion of myself,
\ so Thad not the least thought, or intention, or desire of under-
taking it. But still, I found a strong inclination to my attempting
(3 escape, as above, founded on the supposition gathered from
the discourse, viz: that there were seventeen bearded men there;
\, and, therefore, without any more delay, I went to work with
Friday to find out a great tree proper to fell, and make a large
periagua, or canoe, to undertake the voyage. There were trees
enough in the island to have built a little fleet,—not of periaguas
and canoes, but even of good large vessels. But the main thing
I looked at was to get one so near the water that we might
launch it, when it was made, to avoid the mistake I committed
at first.

At last, Friday pitched upon a tree, for I found he knew
much better than I what kind of wood was fittest for it; nor
can I tell, to this day, what wood to call the tree we cut down,
except that it was very like the tree we call fustic, or between
that and the Nicaragua wood, for it was much of the same color
and smell. Friday was for burning the hollow or cavity of this
tree out to make it for a boat; but I showed him how rather to °
cut it out with tools, which, after I had showed him how to use,
he did very handily, and in about a month’s hard labor, we
finished it, and made it very handsome, especially when, with
our axes, which I showed him how to handle, we cut and hewed
the outside into the true shape of a boat. After this, however,
it cost us near a fortnight’s time to get her along, as it were, inch
by inch, upon great rollers, into the water. But when she was
in, she would have carried twenty men with great ease.

When she was in the water, and though she was so big, it
amazed me to see with what dexterity and how swift my man
Friday would manage her, turn her, and paddle her along; so I
asked him if he would, and if we might venture over in her.
“Yes,” he said, “we venture over in her very well, though great
blow wind.” However, I had a farther design that he knew
nothing of, and that was to make a mast and sail, and to fit her
with an anchor and cable. As to a mast, that was easy enough to

212
cc ttttttgsyDyS\W\ cc ____\_Ci0w\ ‘(: "==
SP op We Finisxu Our Boat Ke Kee

get; so I pitched upon a straight young cedar-tree, which I
found near the place, and of which there was great plenty in
the island, and I set Friday to work to cut it down, and gave him
directions how to shape and order it. But as to the sail, that was
my particular care. I knew I had old sails, or rather pieces of
old sails enough, but as I had had them now twenty-six years
by me, and had not been very careful to preserve them, not
imagining that I should ever have this kind of use for them, I did
not doubt but they were all rotten, and indeed most of them
were so. However, I found two pieces which appeared pretty
good, and with these I went to work, and with a great deal of
pains, and awkward, tedious stitching (you may be sure) for
want of needles, I at length made a three-cornered, ugly thing,
like what we call in England, a shoulder-of-mutton sail, to go
with a boom at bottom, and a little short sprit at the top, such
as usually our ships’ long-boats sail with, and such as I best
knew how to manage; because it was such a one as I had to the
boat in which I made my escape from Barbary, as related in the
first part of my story.

I was near two months performing this last work, viz: rigging
and fitting my mast and sails; for I finished them very complete,

We

S




making a small stay, and a sail, or foresail to it, to assist, if we
should turn to windward. And what was more than all, I fixed a
rudder to the stern of her, to steer with, and though I was but
a bungling shipwright, yet, as I knew the usefulness, and even
necessity of such a thing, I applied myself with so much pains to
do it, that at last I brought it to pass, though, considering the
many dull contrivances I had for it that failed, I think it cost
me almost as much labor as making the boat.

After all this was done, too, I had my man Friday to teach as
to what belonged to the navigation of my boat; for though he
knew very well how to paddle a canoe, he knew nothing what
belonged to a sail and a rudder, and was the most amazed when
he saw me work the boat to and again in the sea by the rudder,
and how the sail jibed and filled this way or that way, as the
course we sailed changed. I say, when he saw this, he stood
like one astonished and amazed. However, with a little use, I
made all these things familiar to him, and he became an expert
sailor, except that as to the compass, I could make him under-
stand very little of that. On the other hand, as there was very
little cloudy weather, and seldom or never any fogs in those
parts, there was the less occasion for a compass, seeing the stars
were always to be seen by night, and the shore by day, except
in the rainy seasons, and then nobody cared to stir abroad,
either by land or sea.

I was now entered on the seven-and-twentieth year of my
captivity in this place, though the three last years that I had this
creature with me ought, rather, to be left out of the account,
my habitation being quite of another kind than in all the rest
of the time. I kept the anniversary of my landing here with the
same thankfulness to God for his mercies as at first; and if I had

- such cause of acknowledgmentat first, I had much more so now,
| having such additional testimonies of the care of Providence
over me, and the great hope I had of being effectually and
speedily delivered; for I had an invincible impression upon my
thoughts that my deliverance was at hand, and that I should not
be another year in this place. However, I went on with my
husbandry,—digging, planting, fencing as usual. I gathered and
cured my grapes, and did every necessary thing, as before.

The rainy season was, in the meantime, upon me, when I
kept more within doors than at other times. So I had stowed our

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SHS Frivay Siauts CANNIBALS eee

new vessel as secure as we could, bringing her up into the creek,
where, as I said in the beginning, I landed my rafts from the
ship, and, hauling her up to the shore at high water mark, I made
my man Friday dig a little dock, just big enough to hold her, and
just deep enough to give her water enough to float in; and then,
when the tide was out, we made a strong dam cross the end
of it, to keep the water out; and so she lay dry, as to the tide
from the sea. And, to keep the rain off, we laid a great many
boughs of trees, so thick that she was as well thatched asa house;
and thus we waited for the months of November and December,
in which I designed to make my adventure.

When the settled season began to come in, as the thought of
my design returned with the fair weather, I was preparing daily
for the voyage; and the first thing I did was to lay by a certain
quantity of provisions, being the stores for our voyage; and
intended, in a week or a fortnight’s time, to open the dock and
launch out our boat. I was busy, one morning, upon something
of this kind, when I called to Friday and bid him go to the sea-
shore and see if he could find a turtle, or tortoise,—a thing which
we generally got once a week, for the sake of the eggs as well as
the flesh. Friday had not been long gone, when he came running
back, and flew over my outer wall, or fence, like one that felt
not the ground, or the steps he set his feet on; and before I had
time to speak to him, he cried out to me, “O Master! O Master!
O sorrow! O bad!” “What’s the matter, Friday?” said I. “O
yonder, there,” said he; “one, two, three canoe! one, two,
three!” By his way of speaking I concluded there were six; but,
on inquiry, I found it was but three. “Well, Friday,” said I, “do
not be frighted.” So I heartened him up as well as I could. How-
ever, I saw the poor fellow was most terribly scared, for nothing
ran in his head but that they were come to look for him, and
would cut him in pieces and eat him; and the poor fellow
trembled so that I scarce knew what to do with him. I com-
forted him as well as I could, and told him I was in as much
danger as he, and that they would eat me as well as him. “But,”
said I, “Friday, we must resolve to fight them. Can you fight,
Friday?” “Me shoot,” said he; “but there come many great
number.” “No matter for that,” said I, again; “our guns will
fright them that we do not kill.” So I asked him whether, if I
resolved to defend him, he would defend me, and stand by me,

215
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PP > Rosinson Crusoe Ke ie ie
ee RR

and do just as I bid him. He said, “Me die when you bid die,
master.” So I went and fetched a good dram of rum and gave
him; for I had been so good a husband of my rum that I had a
great deal left. When he had drank it, I made him take the two
fowling-pieces, which we always carried, and load them with
large swan-shot,—as big as small pistol bullets. Then I took four
muskets, and loaded them with two slugs and five small bullets
each; and my two pistols I loaded with a brace of bullets each.
I hung my great sword, as usual, naked, by my side, and gave
Friday his hatchet.

When I had thus prepared myself, I took my perspective-
glass, and went up to the side of the hill, to see what I could
discover; and I found quickly, by my glass, that there were
one-and-twenty savages, three prisoners, and three canoes; and
that their whole business seemed to be the triumphant banquet
upon these three human bodies (a barbarous feast indeed), but
nothing else more than as I had observed was usual with them.

I observed also, that they were landed, not where they had
done when Friday made his escape, but nearer to my creek,
where the shore was low, and where a thick wood came close
almost down to the sea. This, with the abhorrence of the in-
human errand these wretches came about, filled me with such
indignation, that I came down again to Friday, and told him,
I was resolved to go down to them, and kill them all; and I
asked him if he would stand by me? He was now gotten over
his fright, and his spirits being a little raised with the dram I had
given him, he was very cheerful, and told me, as before, “he
would die, when I bid die.”

In this fit of fury, I took first and divided the arms which I
had charged, as before, between us. I gave Friday one pistol to
stick in his girdle, and three guns upon his shoulder; and I took
one pistol, and the other three myself; and in this posture we
marched out. I took a small bottle of rum in my pocket, and gave
Friday a large bag, with more powder and bullets; and as to
orders, I charged him to keep close behind me, and not to stir
or shoot, or do anything till I bid him; and in the meantime, not
to speak a word. In this posture I fetched a compass to my right
hand of near a mile, as well to get over the creek, as to get into
the wood; so that I might come within shot of them before I
should be discovered, which I had-seen by my glass it was easy
to do. sa
———————————————————
oss We AvvanceE To THE ATTACK GQ

While I was making this march, my former thoughts return-
ing, I began to abate my resolution; I do not mean that I enter-
tained any fear of their number; for, as they were naked,
unarmed wretches, ’tis certain I was superior to them; nay,
though I had been alone; but it occurred to my thoughts, what
call? what occasion? much less, what necessity I was in to go
and dip my hands in blood, to attack people, who had neither
done, or intended me any wrong? Whoas to me were innocent,
and whose barbarous customs were their own disaster, being in
them a token indeed of God having left them, with the other
nations of that part of the world, to such stupidity, and to such
inhuman courses; but did not call me to take upon me to be a
judge of their actions, much less an executioner of his justice;
that whenever he thought fit, he would take the cause into his
own hands, and by national vengeance punish them as a people,
for national crimes; but, that in the meantime, it was none of my
business; that it was true, Friday might justify it, because he
was a declared enemy, and in a state of war with those very
particular people; and it was lawful for him to attack them; but
I could not say the same with respect to me. These things were
so warmly pressed upon my thoughts, all the way as I went, that
I resolved I would only go and place myself near them, that I
might observe their barbarous feast, and that I would act then
as God should direct; but that unless something offered that
was more a call to me than yet I knew of, I would not meddle
with them.

With this resolution I entered the wood, and with all possible
wariness and silence, Friday following close at my heels, I
marched till I came to the skirt of the wood, on the side which
was next to them, only that one corner of the wood lay between
me and them. Here I called softly to Friday, and showing him
a great tree, which was just at the corner of the wood, I bade
him go to the tree, and bring me word if he could see there
plainly what they were doing. He did so, and came immediately
back to me, and told me they might be plainly viewed there;
that they were all about their fire, eating the flesh of one of
their prisoners; and that another lay bound upon the sand, a litcle
from them, which he said they would kill next, and which fired
all the very soul within me. He told me it was not one of their
nation; but one of the bearded men, who he had told me of, that

217
eS Ee eee
HP > Roninson Crusoe ee Ke

came to their country in the boat. I was filled with horror at
the very naming the white bearded man, and going to the tree,
I saw plainly by my glass, a white man who lay upon the beach
of the sea, with his hands and his feet tied with flags, or things
like rushes; and that he was an European, and had clothes on.

There was another tree, and a little thicket beyond it, about
fifty yards nearer to them than the place where I was, which, by
going a little way about, I saw I might come at undiscovered,
and then I should be within half-shot of them. So I withheld my
passion, though I was indeed enraged to the highest degree, and
going back about twenty paces, I got behind some bushes, which
held all the way, till I came to the other tree; and then I came
to a little rising ground, which gave me a full view of them,
at the distance of about eighty yards.

T had now not a moment to lose; for nineteen of the dread-
ful wretches sat upon the ground, all close huddled together,
and had just sent the other two to butcher the poor Christian,
and bring him, perhaps limb by limb, to their fire, and they
were stooped down to untie the bands at his feet. I turned to
Friday, “Now, Fi riday,” said I, “do as I bid thee.” Friday said he
would; “then Friday,” said I, “do exactly as you see me do; fail
in nothing.” So I set down one of the muskets, and the fowling-
piece, upon the ground, and Friday did the like by his; and with
the other musket, I took my aim at the savages, bidding him do
the like; then asking him if he was ready? He said “yes”; “then
fire at them,” said I; and the same moment I fired also.

Friday took his aim so much better than I, that on the side
that he shot, he killed two of them, and wounded three more;
and on my side, I killed one, and wounded two. They were,
you may be sure, in a dreadful consternation; and all of them,
who were not hurt, jumped up upon their feet, but did not
immediately know which way to run, or which way to look;
for they knew not from whence their destruction came. Friday
kept his eyes close upon me, that, as I had bid him, he might
observe what I did. So as soon as the first shot was made, I threw
down the piece, and took up the fowling-piece, and Friday did
the like. He saw me cock, and present; he did the same again.
“Are you ready Friday,” said I. “Yes,” said he. “Let fly then,”
said I, “in the name of God”; and with that I fired again among
the amazed wretches, and so did Friday; and as our pieces were

218


QQQ"""''"kK*“_““**""*****=***}**___=
33> 93> > Srory oF THE BATTLE Kee Ke

now loaded with what I called swan shot, or small pistol bullets,
we found only two drop: but so many were wounded, that they
ran about yelling and screaming, like mad creatures, all bloody,
and miserably wounded, most of them; whereof three more
fell quickly after, though not quite dead.

“Now Friday,” said I, laying down the discharged pieces,
and taking up the musket, which was yet loaded, “follow me,”
said I, which he did with a great deal of courage; upon which I
rushed out of the wood, and showed myself, and Friday close
at my feet. As soon as I perceived they saw me, I shouted as loud
as I could, and bade Friday do so too; and running as fast as I
could (which, by the way, was not very fast, being loaded with
arms as I was), I made directly towards the poor victim, who
was, as I said, lying upon the beach, or shore, between the place
where they sat, and the sea. The two butchers who were just
going to work with him, had left him, at the surprise of our first
fire, and fled in a terrible fright to the seaside, and had jumped
into a canoe, and three more of the rest made the same way. I
turned to Friday, and bid him step forwards, and fire at them.
He understood me immediately, and running about forty yards,
to be near them, he shot at them, and I thought he had killed
them all; for I saw them all fall of a heap into the boat; though I
saw two of them up again quickly. However, he killed two of
them, and wounded the third; so that he lay down in the bottom
of the boat, as if he had been dead.

While my man Friday fired at them, I pulled out my knife
and cut the flags that bound the poor victim, and loosing his
hands and feet, I lifted him up, and asked him in the Portuguese
tongue, what he was? He answered in Latin, Christianus, but
was so weak and faint, that he could scarce stand, or speak. I
took my bottle out of my pocket, and gave it him, making signs
that he should drink, which he did; and I gave him a piece of
bread, which he ate; then I asked him, what countryman he
was? And he said, “Espagniole,” and being a little recovered,
let me know by all the signs he could possibly make, how much
he was in my debt for his deliverance. “Seignior,” said I, with
as much Spanish as I could make up, “we will talk afterwards,
but we must fight now; if you have any strength left, take this
pistol and sword, and lay about you.” He took them very thank-
fully, and no sooner had he the arms in his hands, but as.if they

219
Ss > Rosinson CRUSOE Ke Kee

had put new vigor into him, he flew upon his murderers like a
fury, and had cut two of them in pieces in an instant; for the
truth is, as the whole was a surprise to them, so the poor crea-
tures were so much frighted with the noise of our pieces, that
they fell down for mere amazement and fear, and had no more
power to attempt their own escape, than their flesh had to resist
our shot; and that was the case of those five that Friday shot at
in the boat, for as three of them fell with the hurt they received,
so the other two fell with the fright.

I kept my piece in my hand still, without firing, being willing
to keep my charge ready, because I had given the Spaniard my


BP Sh > Enp oF THE BATTLE Eee

pistol and sword; so I called to Friday, and bade him run up
to the tree, from whence we first fired, and fetch the arms which
lay there, that had been discharged, which he did with great
swiftness; and then, giving him my musket, I sat down myself
to load all the rest again, and bade them come to me when they
wanted. While I was loading these pieces, there happened a fierce
engagement between the Spaniard and one of the savages, who
made at him with one of their great wooden swords, the same
weapon that was to have killed him before, if I had not prevented
it. The Spaniard, who was as bold and as brave as could be
imagined, though weak, had fought this Indian a good while,
and had cut him two great wounds on his head; but the savage
being a stout, lusty fellow, closing in with him, had thrown
him down (being faint) and was wringing my sword out of his
hand, when the Spaniard, though undermost, wisely quitting
the sword, drew the pistol from his girdle, shot the savage
through the body, and killed him upon the spot, before I, who
was running to help him, could come near him.

Friday, being now left to his liberty, pursued the flying
wretches with no weapon in his hand but his hatchet; and with
that he dispatched those three, who, as I said before, were
wounded at first and fallen, and all the rest he could come up
with, and the Spaniard coming to me for a gun, I gave him one
of the fowling-pieces, with which he pursued two of the savages,
and wounded them both; but as he was not able to run, they
got from him into the wood, where Friday pursued them, and
killed one of them, but the other was too nimble for him, and,
though he was wounded, yet had plunged himself into the sea,
and swam with all his might off to those two who were left in
the canoe; which three in the canoe, with one wounded, who
we know not whether he died or no, were all that escaped our
hands of one-and-twenty. The account of the rest is as follows:

Three killed at our first shot from the tree; two killed at the
next shot; two killed by Friday in the boat; two killed by
Friday, of those at first wounded; one killed by Friday in the
wood; three killed by the Spaniard; four killed, being found
dropped here and there of their wounds, or killed by Friday in
chase of them; four escaped in the boat, whereof one wounded,
if not dead; twenty-one in all.

Those that were in the canoe worked hard to get out of

221




Ss s> RoBINSON CRUSOE Kee Ke

gun-shot; and though Friday made two or three shots at them,
I did not find thathe hitany of them. Friday would fain have had
me take one of their canoes, and pursue them; and, indeed I was
very anxious about their escape, lest carrying the news home
to their people, they should come back, perhaps with two or
three hundred of their canoes, and devour us by mere multitude;
so I consented to pursue them by sea, and running to one of
their canoes I jumped in, and bade Friday follow me; but when
I was in the canoe, I was surprised to find another poor creature
lie there alive, bound hand and foot, as the Spaniard was, for the
slaughter, and almost dead with fear, not knowing what the
matter was, for he had not been able to look up over the side of
the boat, he was tied so hard, neck and heels, and had been tied
so long, that he had really but little life in him.

I immediately cut the twisted flags, or rushes, which they
had bound him with, and would have helped him up; but he
could not stand, or speak, but groaned most piteously, believing,
it seems, still that he was only unbound in order to be killed.

When Friday came to me, I bade him speak to him and tell
him of his deliverance, and pulling out my bottle, made him give
the poor wretch a dram, which, with the news of his being
delivered, revived him, and he sat up in the boat; but when
Friday came to hear him speak, and look in his face, it would
have moved anyone to tears, to have seen how Friday kissed
him, embraced him, hugged him, cried, laughed, hallooed,
jumped about, danced, sung, then cried again, wrung his
hands, beat his own face and head, and then sung, and jumped
about again, like a distracted creature. It was a good while
before I could make him speak to me, or tell me what was
the matter; but when he came a little to himself, he told me that
it was his father.

It is not easy for me to express how it moved me to see what
ecstasy and filial affection had worked in this poor savage, at the
sight of his father, and of his being delivered from death; nor
indeed can I describe half the extravagancies of his affection
after this; for he went into the boat and out of the boat a great
many times. When he went in to him, he would sit down by
him, open his breast, and hold his father’s head close to his
bosom, half an hour together, to nourish it; then he took his
arms and ankles, which were numbed and stiff with the binding,

222
cr 8 8 89S Sas
Ss Fripay’s FATHER REVIVED (Qe

and chafed and rubbed them with his hands; and I, perceiving
what the case was, gave him some rum out of my bottle to rub
them with, which did them a great deal of good.

This action put an end to our pursuit of the canoe, with the
other savages, who were getting almost out of sight; and it was
happy for us that we did not; for it blew so hard within two
hours after, and before they could be gone a quarter of their
way, and continued blowing so hard all night, and that from the
north-west, which was against them, that I could not suppose
their boat could live, or that they ever reached their own coast.

But to return to Friday, he was so busy about his father, that
I could not find in my heart to take him off for some time; but
after I thought he could leave him a little, I called him to me,
and he came jumping and laughing, and pleased to the highest
extreme; then I asked him, if he had given his father any bread?
He shook his head, and said, “None: ugly dog eat all up self”;
so I gave him a cake of bread out of a little pouch I carried on
purpose; I also gave him a dram for himself, but he would not
taste it, but carried it to his father. I had in my pocket, also, two
or three bunches of my raisins, so I gave him a handful of them
for his father. He had no sooner given his father these raisins,
but I saw him come out of the boat, and run away, as if he had
been bewitched, he run at such a rate; for he was the swiftest
fellow of his foot that ever I saw,—I say he run at such a rate,
that he was out of sight, as it were, in an instant; and though I
called, and hallooed too, after him, it was all one, away he went,
and in a quarter of an hour, I saw him come back again, though
not so fast as he went; and, as he came nearer, I found his pace
was slacker, because he had something in his hand.

When he came up to me, I found he had been quite home for
an earthen jug or pot to bring his father some fresh water, and
that he had got two more cakes, or loaves of bread: the bread he
gave me, but the water he carried to his father; however, as I
was very thirsty too, I took a little sup of it. This water revived
his father more than all the rum or spirits I had given him; for
he was just fainting with thirst.

When his father had drank, I called to him to know if there
was any water left; he said yes; and I bade him give it to the
poor Spaniard, who was in as much want of it as his father; and
[sent one of the cakes that Friday brought, to the Spaniard too,

223


> Rosinson CRUSOE KKK

who was indeed very weak, and was reposing himself upon a
green place, under the shade of a tree, and whose limbs were
also very stiff, and very much swelled with the rude bandage he
had been tied with. When I saw that upon Friday’s coming to
him with the water, he sat up and drank, and took the bread,
and began to eat, I went to him, and gave him a handful of
raisins; he looked up in my face with all the tokens of gratitude
and thankfulness that could appear in any countenance; but was
so weak, notwithstanding he had so exerted himself in the fight,
that he could not stand up upon his feet; he tried to do it two
or three times, but was really not able, his ankles were so swelled
and so painful to him; so I bade him sit still, and caused Friday to
rub and bathe his ankles with rum, as he had done his father’s.

I observed the poor affectionate creature every two minutes,
or perhaps less, all the while he was here, turned his head about,
to see if his father was in the same place, and posture, as he left
him sitting; and at last he found he was not to be seen; at which
he started up, and without speaking a word, flew with that
swiftness to him, that one could scarce perceive his feet to
touch the ground, as he went: but when he came, he only found
he had laid himself down to ease his limbs; so Friday came back
to me presently, and I then spoke to the Spaniard to let Friday
help him up if he could, and lead him to the boat, and then he
should carry him to our dwelling, where I would take care of
him; but Friday, a lusty, strong fellow, took the Spaniard quite
up upon his back, and carried him away to the boat, and set
him down softly upon the side or gunnel of the canoe, with
his feet in the inside of it, and then lifted him quite in, and
set him close to his father, and presently stepping out again,
launched the boat off, and paddled it along the shore faster than
I could walk, though the wind blew pretty hard too; so he
brought them both safe into our creek; and leaving them in the
boat, ran away to fetch the other canoe. As he passed me, I spoke
to him, and asked him, whither he went; he told me, “go fetch
more boat”; so away he went, like the wind; for sure never
man or horse run like him, and he had the other canoe in the
creek almost as soon as I got to it by land; so he wafted me over,
and then went to help our new guests out of the boat, which he
did, but they were neither of them able to walk; so that poor
Friday knew not what to do.

224


> > > My New Susjects Ke Ke Ke

To remedy this I went to work in my thought, and calling to
Friday to bid them sit down on the bank while he came to me,
I soon made a kind of hand-barrow to lay them on, and Friday
and I carried them up both together upon it between us. But
when we got them to the outside of our wall, or fortification,
we were at a worse loss than before; for it was impossible to get
them over, and I was resolved not to break it down. So I set to
work again, and Friday and I, in about two hours’ time, made
a very handsome tent, covered with old sails, and above that
with boughs of trees, being in the space without our outward
fence, and between that and the grove of young wood which I
had planted. And here we made them two beds of such things
as I had, viz: of good rice-straw, with blankets laid upon it to
lie on, and another to cover them, on each bed.

My island was now peopled, and I thought myself very rich
in subjects; and it was a merry reflection which I frequently
made, how like a king I looked. First of all, the whole country
was my own mere property, so that I had an undoubted right
of dominion. Secondly, my people were perfectly subjected. I
was absolute lord and lawgiver. They all owed their lives to me,
and were ready to lay down their lives, if there had been
occasion of it, for me. It was remarkable, too, we had but three
subjects, and they were of three different religions. My man
Friday was a Protestant, his father was a Pagan and a cannibal,
and the Spaniard was a Papist. However, I allowed liberty of
conscience throughout my dominions. But this is by the way.

As soon as I had secured my two weak, rescued prisoners, and
given them shelter and a place to rest them upon, I began to
think of making some provision for them; and the first thing I
did, I ordered Friday to take a yearling goat (betwixt a kid and
a goat), out of my particular flock, to be killed, when I cut off
the hinder quarter, and chopping it into small pieces, I set
Friday to work to boiling and stewing, and made them a very
good dish, I assure you, of flesh and broth, having put some
barley and rice, also, into the broth. And as I cooked it without
doors, for I made no fire within my inner wall, so I carried it all
into the new tent: and having set a table there for them, I sat
down and eat my own dinner, also, with them, and, as well as
I could, cheered them and encouraged them, Friday being my
interpreter, especially to his father, and, indeed, to the Spaniard,

225
eee
too; for the Spaniard spoke the language of the savages pretty

well.

After we had dined, or rather supped, I ordered Friday to
take one of the canoes and go and fetch our muskets, and other
fire-arms, which, for want of time, we had left upon the place
of battle. And the next day I ordered him to go and bury the
dead bodies of the savages, which lay open to the sun, and
would presently be offensive. And I also ordered him to bury
the horrid remains of their barbarous feast, which I knew were
pretty much, and which I could not think of doing myself; nay,
I could not bear to see them, if I went that way,—all which he
punctually performed, and effaced the very appearance of the
savages being there; so that when I went again I could scarce
know where it was, otherwise than by the corner of the wood
pointing to the place.

I then began to enter into a little conversation with my two
new subjects; and first, I set Friday to inquire of his father what
he thought of the escape of the savages in that canoe, and
whether we might expect a return of them with a power too
great for us to resist. His first opinion was that the savages in
the boat never could live out the storm which blew that night
they went off, but must, of necessity, be drowned, or driven
south, to those other shores, where they were as sure to be
devoured as they were to be drowned if they were cast away.
But as to what they would do if they came safe on shore, he
said he knew not; but it was his opinion that they were so
dreadfully frighted with the manner of their being attacked,
the noise and the fire, that he believed they would tell their
people they were all killed by thunder and lightning, not by the
hand of man, and that the two which appeared, viz: Friday and
me, were two heavenly spirits, or furies, come down to destroy
them, and not men with weapons. This he said he knew, because
he heard them all cry out so, in their language, to one another;
for it was impossible to them to conceive that a man could dart
fire, and speak thunder, and kill at a distance without lifting up
the hand, as was done now. And this old savage was in the right;
for, as I understood since, by other hands, the savages never
attempted to go over to the island afterwards. They were so
terrified with the accounts given by those four men (for, it
seems, they did escape the sea), that they believed whoever

226
BP > > Tue SPANIARD’s STORY Ke Ke Ke

went to that enchanted island would be destroyed with fire from
the gods.

This, however, I knew not, and therefore was under con-
tinual apprehensions for a good while, and kept always upon
my guard,—me, and all my army. For as we were now four of
us, I would have ventured upon a hundred of them fairly, in
the open field, at any time.

In a little time, however, no more canoes appearing, the
fear of their coming wore off, and I began to take my former
thoughts of a voyage to the main into consideration, being
likewise assured by Friday’s father that I might depend upon
good usage from their nation on his account, if I would go.

But my thoughts were a little suspended, when I had a serious
discourse with the Spaniard, and when I understood that there
were sixteen more of his countrymen and Portuguese, who,
having been cast away, and made their escape to that side, lived
there at peace, indeed, with the savages, but were very sore
put to it for necessaries, and, indeed, for life. I asked him all the
particulars of their voyage, and found they were a Spanish ship,
bound from the Rio de la Plata to the Havana, being directed
to leave their loading there, which was chiefly hides and silver,
and to bring back what European goods they could meet with
there; that they had five Portuguese seamen on board, whom
they took out of another wreck; that five of their own men
were drowned when the first ship was lost, and that these
escaped through infinite dangers and hazards, and arrived,
almost starved, on the cannibal coast, where they expected to
have been devoured every moment.

He told me they had some arms with them, but they were
perfectly useless, for that they had neither powder nor ball,
the washing of the sea having spoiled all their powder buta little,
which they used at their first landing to provide themselves
some food.

T asked him what he thought would become of them there,
and if they had formed no design of making any escape. He
said they had many consultations about it, but that having
neither vessel nor tools to build one, nor provisions of any kind,
their councils always ended in tears and despair.

I asked him how he thought they would receive a proposal
from me which might tend towards an escape; and whether, if

227
olalleEe___eeeeeeeeee————
> RoBinson Crusoe Ke KOM

they were all here, it might not be done. I told him, with free-
dom, I feared mostly their treachery and ill usage of me, if I
put my life in their hands, for that gratitude was no inherent
virtue in the nature of man; nor did men always square their
dealings by the obligations they had received, so much as they
did by the advantages they expected. I told him it would be
very hard, that I should be the instrument of their deliverance,
and that they should afterward make me their prisoner in New
Spain, where an Englishman was certain to be made a sacrifice,
what necessity, or what accident soever brought him thither;
and that I had rather be delivered up to the savages, and be
devoured alive, than fall into the merciless claws of the priests,
and be carried into the inquisition. I added, that otherwise I was
persuaded, if they were all here, we might, with so many hands,
build a bark large enough to carry us all away, either to the
Brazils, southward, or to the islands, or Spanish coast northward;
but that, if in requital, they should, when I had put weapons
into their hands, carry me by force among their own people,
I might be ill used for my kindness to them, and make my case
worse than it was before.

He answered with a great deal of candor and ingenuity, that
their condition was so miserable, and they were so sensible of
it, that he believed they would abhor the thought of using any
man unkindly that should contribute to their deliverance; and
that, if I pleased, he would go to them with the old man, and
discourse with them about it, and return again, and bring me
their answer. That he would make conditions with them upon
their solemn oath, that they should be absolutely under my
leading, as their commander and captain; and that they should
swear upon the holy sacraments and the Gospel, to be true to
me, and to go to such Christian country, as that I should agree
to, and no other; and to be directed wholly and absolutely by
my orders, till they were landed safely in such country as I
intended; and that he would bring a contract from them under
their hands for that purpose.

Then he told me he would first swear to me himself, that he
would never stir from me as long as he lived, till I gave him
orders; and that he would take my side to the last drop of his
blood, if there should happen the least breach of faith among
his countrymen.

228
spo Tue Spaniarp’s ADVICE Ke Ke Ke

He told me, they were all of them very civil, honest men,
and that they were under the greatest distress imaginable, having
neither weapons or clothes, nor any food, but at the mercy
and discretion of the savages; out of all hopes of ever returning
to their own country; and that he was sure, if I would under-
take their relief, they would live and die by me.

Upon these assurances, I resolved to venture to relieve them,
if possible, and to send the old savage and this Spaniard over to
them to treat; but when we had gotten all things in a readiness
to go, the Spaniard himself started an objection, which had so
much prudence in it on one hand, and so much sincerity on the
other hand, that I could not but be very well satisfied in it; and
by his advice, put off the deliverance of his comrades for at
least half a year. The case was thus:

He had been with us now about a month; during which time,
I had let him see in what manner I had provided, with the
assistance of Providence, for my support; and he saw evidently
what stock of corn and rice I had laid up; which, as it was more
than sufficient for myself, so it was not sufficient, at least with-
out good husbandry, for my family. Now it was increased to
number four; but much less would it be sufficient, if his country-
men, who were, as he said, fourteen still alive, should come
over. And least of all would it be sufficient to victual our vessel,
if we should build one, for a voyage to any of the Christian
colonies of America. So he told me he thought it would be more
advisable, to let him and the two others dig and cultivate some
more land, as much as I could spare seed to sow; and that we
should wait another harvest, that we might have a supply of
corn for his countrymen when they should come; for want
might be a temptation to them to disagree, or not to think
themselves delivered, otherwise than out of one difficulty into
another. “You know,” said he, “the children of Israel, though
they rejoiced at first for their being delivered out of Egypt, yet
rebelled even against God himself, that delivered them, when
they came to want bread in the wilderness.”

His caution was so seasonable, and his advice so good, that
I could not but be very well pleased with his proposal, as well
as I was satisfied with his fidelity. So we fell to digging, all four
of us, as well as the wooden tools we were furnished with per-
mitted; and in about a month’s time, by the end of which it was

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SS Rosinson Crusoe Ree

seed-time, we had gotten as much land cured and trimmed up,
as we sowed twenty-two bushels of barley on, and sixteen jars
of rice, which was, in short, all the seed we had to spare; nor
indeed, did we leave ourselves barley sufficient for our own
food, for the six months that we had to expect our crop; that is
to say, reckoning from the time we set our seed aside for sowing;
for it is not to be supposed it is six months in the ground in that
country.

Having now society enough, and our number being sufficient
to put us out of fear of the savages, if they had come, unless
their number had been very great, we went freely all over the
island, wherever we found occasion; and as here we had our
escape or deliverance upon our thoughts, it was impossible, at
least for me, to have the means of it out of mine; to this purpose,
I marked out several trees which I thought fit for our work, and
I set Friday and his father to cutting them down; and then I
caused the Spaniard, to whom I imparted my thought on that
affair, to oversee and direct their work. I showed them with
what indefatigable pains I had hewed a large tree into single
planks, and I caused them to do the like, till they had made about
a dozen large planks of good oak, near two feet broad, thirty-
five feet long, and from two inches to four inches thick. What
prodigious labor it took up, anyone may imagine.

At the same time I contrived to increase my little flock of
tame goats as much as I could; and to this purpose, I made
Friday and the Spaniard go out one day, and myself with Friday
the next day; for we took our turns. And by this means we got
above twenty young kids to breed up with the rest; for when-
ever we shot the dam, we saved the kids, and added them to our
flock. But above all, the season for curing the grapes coming on,
I caused such a prodigious quantity to be hung up in the sun,
that, I believe, had we been at Alicant, where the raisins of the
sun are cured, we could have filled sixty or eighty barrels; and
these with our bread was a great part of our food, and very
good living too, I assure you; for it is an exceeding nourishing
food.

Tt was now harvest, and our crop in good order; it was not
the most plentiful increase I had seen in the island, but, however,
it was enough to answer our end; for from our twenty-two
bushels of barley, we brought in and threshed out above two

230
BP > We Pian THE RESCUE Ke Kee

hundred and twenty bushels; and the like in proportion of the
rice, which was store enough for our food to the next harvest,
though all the sixteen Spaniards had been on shore with me;
or if we had been ready for a voyage, it would very plentifully
have victualled our ship, to have carried us to any part of the
world, that is to say, of America.

When we had thus housed and secured our magazine of corn,
we fell to work to make more wicker work, viz: great baskets
in which we kept it; and the Spaniard was very handy and
dexterous at this part, and often blamed me that I did not make
some things for defense, of this kind of work, but I saw no
need of it.

And now having a full supply of food for all the guests I
expected, I gave the Spaniard leave to go over to the main, to

_see what he could do with those he had left behind him there.
\ Igave him a strict charge in writing, not to bring any men with
/_ him who would not first swear in the presence of himself and of
the old savage, that he would no way injure, fight with, or attack
the person he should find in the island, who was so kind to send
for them in order to their deliverance; but that they would stand
by and defend him against all such attempts, and wherever they
went, would be entirely under and subjected to his commands;
and that this should be put in writing, and signed with their
hands. How we were to have this done, when I knew they had
neither pen or ink; that, indeed was a question which we never
asked.

Under these instructions, the Spaniard, and the old savage,
the father of Friday, went away in one of the canoes, which
they might be said to come in, or rather were brought in, when
they came as prisoners to be devoured by the savages.

I gave each of them a musket with a firelock on it, and about
eight charges of powder and ball, charging them to be very good
husbands of both, and not to use either of them but upon urgent
occasion.

This was a cheerful work, being the first measures used by
me in view of my deliverance for now twenty-seven years and
some days. I gave them provisions of bread, and of dried grapes,
sufficient for themselves for many days, and sufficient for all
their countrymen for about eight days’ time; and wishing them
a good voyage, I saw them go, agreeing with them about a

231


DP > Rosinson CRUSOE Ke Ke Ke

signal they should hang out at their return, by which I should
know them again, when they came back, at a distance, before
they came on shore.

They went away with a fair gale on the day that the moon
was at full, by my account, in the month of October: but as for
an exact reckoning of days, after I had once lost it, I could never
recover it again; nor had I kept even the number of years so
punctually, as to be sure that I was right, though, as it proved,
when I afterwards examined my account, I found I had kept
a true reckoning of years.

It was no less than eight days I had waited for them, when a
strange and unforeseen accident intervened, of which the like
has not perhaps been heard of in history. I was fast asleep in my
hutch one morning, when my man Friday came running in to
me, and called aloud, “Master, master, they are come, they are
come.”

I jumped up, and regardless of danger, I went out, as soon as
I could get my clothes on, through my little grove, which by
the way was by this time grown to bea very thick wood; I say,
regardless of danger, I went without my arms, which was not
my custom to do; but I was surprised, when turning my eyes to
the sea, I presently saw a boat at about a league and a half’s
distance, standing in for the shore, with a shoulder-of-mutton
sail, as they call it; and the wind blowing pretty fair to bring
them in; also I observed, presently, that they did not come from
that side which the shore lay on, but from the southernmost end
of the island. Upon this I called Friday in, and bade him lie
close, for these were not the people we looked for, and that we
might not know yet whether they were friends or enemies.

In the next place, I went in to fetch my perspective-glass, to
see what I could make of them; and having taken the ladder
out, I climbed up to the top of the hill, as I used to do when I
was apprehensive of anything, and to take my view the plainer
without being discovered.

Thad scarce set my foot on the hill, when my eye plainly
discovered a ship lying at an anchor, at about two leagues
and an half distance from me south-south-east, but not above
a league and an half from the shore. By my observation it
appeared plainly to be an English ship, and the boat appeared
to bean English long-boat.

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> 99> > I See an ENG tisH SHIP Ke Ke Ke

I cannot express the confusion I was in, though the joy of
seeing a ship, and one which I had reason to believe was manned
by my own countrymen, and consequently friends, was such as
I cannot describe; but yet I had some secret doubts hung about
me, I cannot tell from whence they came, bidding me keep upon
my guard. In the first place, it occurred to me to consider what
business an English ship could have in that part of the world,
since it was not the way to or from any part of the world where
the English had any traffic; and I knew there had been no storms
to drive them in there, as in distress; and that if they were
English really, it was most probable that they were here upon
no good design; and that I had better continue as I was, than
fall into the hands of thieves and murderers.

Let no man despise the secret hints and notices of danger,
which sometimes are given him, when he may think there is no
possibility of its being real. That such hints and notices are
given us, I believe few that have made any observations of
things can deny; that they are certain discoveries of an invisible
world, and a converse of spirits, we cannot doubt; and if the
tendency of them seems to be to warn us of danger, why should
we not suppose they are from some friendly agent, whether



233
Spa Roninson Causon eee

supreme, or inferior and subordinate, is not the question; and
that they are given for our good?

The present question abundantly confirms me in the justice
of this reasoning; for had I not been made cautious by this secret
admonition, come it from whence it will, I had been undone
inevitably, and in a far worse condition than before, as you will
see presently.

Thad not kept myself long in this posture, but I saw the boat
draw near the shore, as if they looked for a creek to thrust in
at for the convenience of landing. However, as they did not
come quite far enough, they did not see the little inlet where I
formerly landed my rafts, but run their boat on shore upon the
beach, at about half a mile from me, which was very happy for
me; for, otherwise, they would have landed just as I may say at
my door, and would soon have beaten me out of my castle, and
perhaps would have plundered me of all I had.

When they were on shore, I was fully satisfied that they
were Englishmen, at least most of them; one or two I thought
were Dutch, but it did not prove so. There were in all eleven
men, whereof three of them I found were unarmed, and as I
thought bound; and when the first four or five of them were
jumped on shore, they took those three out of the boat as
prisoners. One of the three I could perceive using the most
passionate gestures of entreaty, affliction and despair, even to a
kind of extravagance; the other two I could perceive lifted up
their hands sometimes, and appeared concerned indeed, but
not to such a degree as the first.

I was perfectly confounded at the sight, and knew not what
the means of it should be. Friday called out to me in English as
well as he could, “O Master! You see English mans eat prisoner
as well as savage mans.” “Why,” says I, “Friday, do you think
they are going to eat them, then?” “Yes,” says Friday, “they
will eat them.” “No, no,” says I, “Friday, I am afraid they will
murder them indeed, but you may be sure they will not eat
them.”

All this while I had no thought of what the matter really was;
but stood trembling with the horror of the sight, expecting
every moment when the three prisoners should be killed; nay,
once I saw one of the villains lift up his arm with a great cutlass,
as the seamen call it, or sword, to strike one of the poor men,

234
C7I___=zzrrE55..9.9.9°99& =
> > > Tue THREE CasTAways KKK

and I expected to see him fall every moment, at which all the
blood in my body seemed to run chill in my veins.

I wished heartily now for my Spaniard, and the savage that
was gone with him; or that I had any way to have confe undis-
covered within shot of them, that I might have rescued the
three men, for I saw no firearms they had among them; but it
fell out tomy mind another way.

After I had observed the outrageous usage of the three men
by the insolent seamen, I observed the fellows run scattering
about the land, as if they wanted to see the country. I observed
that the three other men had liberty to go also where they
pleased; but they sat down all three upon the ground, very
pensive, and looked like men in despair.

This put me in mind of the first time when I came on shore,
and began to look about me; how I gave myself over for lost;
how wildly I looked round me; what dreadful apprehensions I
had; and how I lodged in the tree all night for fear of being
devoured by wild beasts.

As I knew nothing that night of the supply I was to receive
by the providential driving of the ship nearer the land, by the
storms and tide, by which I have since been so long nourished
and supported, so these three poor desolate men knew nothing
how certain of deliverance and supply they were, how near it
was to them, and how effectually and really they were in a
condition of safety, at the same time that they thought them-
selves lost, and their case desperate.

So little do we see before us in the world, and so much reason
have we to depend cheerfully upon the great Maker of the
world, that he does not leave his creaturesso absolutely destitute,
but that in the worst circumstances they have always something
to be thankful for, and sometimes are nearer their deliverance
than they imagine,—nay, are even brought to their deliverance
by the means by which they seem to be brought to their
destruction.

Tt was just at the top of high water when these people came
on shore, and while partly they stood parleying with the pris-
oners they brought, and partly while they rambled about to see
what kind of a place they were in, they had carelessly stayed
till the tide was spent, and the water was ebbed considerably
away, leaving their boat aground.

235




ERE eeneres Cee iaT eee

They had left two men in the boat, who, as I found after-
wards, having drank a little too much brandy, fell asleep. How-
ever, one of them waking sooner than the other, and finding the
boat too fast aground for him to stir it, hallooed for the rest
who were straggling about, upon which they all soon came to
the boat; but it was past all their strength to launch her, the boat
being very heavy, and the shore on that side being a soft, oozy
sand, almost like a quicksand.

In this condition, like true seamen, who are, perhaps, the
least of all mankind given to forethought, they gave it over, and
away they strolled about the country again, and I heard one of
them say aloud to another, calling them off from the boat, “Why
let her alone, Jack, can’t ye, she will float next tide?” by which
I was fully confirmed in the main enquiry ,—of what countrymen
they were.

All this while I kept myself very close, not once daring to stir
out of my castle any farther than to my place of observation,
near the top of the hill; and very glad I was to think how well
it was fortified. I knew it was no less than ten hours before the
boat could be on float again, and by that time it would be
dark, and I might be at more liberty to see their motions, and to
hear their discourse, if they had any.

In the meantime I fitted myself up for a battle, as before,
though with more caution, knowing I had to do with another
kind of enemy than I had at first. I ordered Friday, also, who
I had made an excellent marksman with his gun, to load himself
with arms. I took, myself, two fowling-pieces, and I gave him
three muskets. My figure, indeed, was very fierce: I had my
formidable goat-skin coat on, with a great cap I have mentioned,
a naked sword by my side, two pistols in my belt, and a gun
upon each shoulder.

It was my design, as I said before, not to have made any
attempt till it was dark. But about two o’clock, being the heat
of the day, I found that, in short, they were all gone straggling
into the woods, and, as I thought, were laid down to sleep.
The three poor distressed men, too anxious for their condition
to get any sleep, were, however, set down under the shelter of
a great tree, at about a quarter of a mile from me, and, as I
thought, out of sight of any of the rest.

Upon this I resolved to discover myself to them, and learn

236
———={=[—T—~=~==ua~;«~=qyqyq~=~=~=~=~q{&{Ex{xxyxyy{{z{_TC—_———EEEEOEOE_—_EE=_—_———_—__—=_
BH LGreetr tHe Castaways CeCe

something of their condition. Immediately I marched in the
figure as above, my man Friday at a good distance behind me,
as formidable for his arms as I, but not making quite so staring
aspectre-like figure asI did.

Icame as near them, undiscovered, as I could, and then, before
any of them saw me, I called aloud to them, in Spanish, “What
are ye, gentlemen?”

They started up at the noise, but were ten times more con-
founded when they saw me, and the uncouth figure that I made.
They made no answer at all, but I thought I perceived them
just going to fly from me, when I spoke to them in English.
“Gentlemen,” said I, “do not be surprised at me; perhaps you
may have a friend near you when you did not expect it.” “He
must be sent directly from Heaven, then,” said one of them,
very gravely, to me, and pulling off his hat at the same time to
me, “for our condition is past the help of man.” “All help is from
Heaven, sir,” said I. “But can you put a stranger in the way how
to help you, for you seem to me to be in some great distress? I
saw you when you landed; and when you seemed to make
supplications to the brutes that came with you, I saw one of
them lift up his sword to kill you.”

The poor man, with tears running down his face, and trem-
bling, looking like one astonished, returned, “Am I talking to
God or man? Is it a real man, or an angel?” “Be in no fear about
that, sir,” said I, “if God had sent an angel to relieve you, he
would have come better clothed, and armed after another
manner than you see me in; pray lay aside your fears, I am a
man, an Englishman, and disposed to assist you, you see. I have
one servant only; we have arms and ammunition; tell us freely,
can we serve you? What is your case?”

“Our case,” said he, “sir, is too long to tell you, while our
murderers are so near; but, in short, sir, I was commander of
that ship; my men have mutinied against me. They have been
hardly prevailed on not to murder me, and at last have set me
on shore in this desolate place, with these two men with me;
one my mate, the other a passenger, where we expected to
perish, believing the place to be uninhabited, and know not yet
what to think of it.”

‘Where are those brutes, your enemies?” said I; “do you
know where they are gone?” “There they lie, sir,” said he,

237


WIP BM Rosinson CRUSOE Ke Ke KE

pointing to a thicket of trees; “my heart trembles for fear they
have seen us, and heard you speak; if they have, they will
certainly murder us all.”

“Have they any fire-arms?” said I. He answered they had
only two pieces, and one which they left in the boat. “Well,
then,” said I, “leave the rest to me; I see they are all asleep, it is
an easy thing to kill them all, but shall we rather take them
prisoners?” He told me there were two desperate villains among
them that it was scarce safe to show any mercy to, but if they
were secured, he believed all the rest would return to their
duty. I asked him which they were. He told me he could not
at that distance describe them; but he would obey my orders in
anything I would direct. “Well,” said I, “let us retreat out of
their view or hearing, lest they awake, and we will resolve
further.” So they willingly went back with me, till the woods
covered us from them.

“Look you, sir,” said I, “if I venture upon your deliverance,
are you willing to make two conditions with me?” He antici-
pated my proposals, by telling me, that both he and the ship,
if recovered, should be wholly directed and commanded by me
in everything; and if the ship was not recovered, he would live
and die with me in what part of the world soever I would send
him; and the two other men said the same.

“Well,” said I, “my conditions are but two. First, that while
you stay on this island with me, you will not pretend to any
authority here; and if I put arms into your hands, you will upon
all occasions give them up to me, and do no prejudice to me
or mine, upon this island, and in the mean time be governed by
my orders.

“Second, that if the ship is, or may be recovered, you will
carry me and my man to England, passage free.”

He gave me all the assurances that the invention and faith of
man could devise, that he would comply with these most reason-
able demands; and, besides, would owe his life to me, and
acknowledge it upon all occasions as long as he lived.

“Well, then,” said I, “here are three muskets for you, with
powder and ball; tell me next what you think is proper to be
done.” He showed all the testimony of his gratitude that he
was able; but offered to be wholly guided by me. I told him I
thought it was hard venturing anything, but the best method

238
WP > Tue First ENCOUNTER Ke Ke Ke

I could think of was to fire upon them at once, as they lay; and
if any was not killed at the first volley, and offered to submit, we
might save them, and so put it wholly upon God’s providence
to direct the shot.

He said very modestly, that he was loath to kill them, if he
could help it; but that those two were incorrigible villains, and
had been the authors of all the mutiny in the ship, and if they
escaped, we should be undone still; for they would go on board,
and bring the whole ship’s company, and destroy us all. “Well
then,” said I, “Necessity legitimates my advice; for it is the only
way to save our lives.” However, seeing him still cautious of
shedding blood, I told him they should go themselves, and
manage as they found convenient.

In the middle of this discourse, we heard some of them awake,
and soon after we saw two of them on their feet. I asked him,
if either of them were of the men who he had said were the
heads of the mutiny. He said, “No.” “Well then,” said I, “you
may let them escape, and Providence seems to have wakened
them on purpose to save themselves. Now,” said I, “if the rest
escape you, it is your fault.”

Animated with this, he took the musket I had given him, in
his hand, and a pistol in his belt; and his two comrades with him,
with each man a piece in his hand. The two men who were with
him going first, made some noise, at which one of the seamen,
who was awake, turned about, and seeing them coming, cried
out to the rest; but it was too late then; for the moment he cried
out, they fired; I mean the two men, the captain wisely reserving
his own piece. They had so well aimed their shot at the men
they knew, that one of them was killed on the spot, and the
other very much wounded; but not being dead, he started up
upon his feet, and called eagerly for help to the other; but the
captain, stepping to him, told him ’twas too late to cry for help,
he should call upon God to forgive his villainy, and with that
word knocked him down with the stock of his musket, so that
he never spoke more. There were three more in the company,
and one of them was also slightly wounded. By this time I was
come; and when they saw their danger, and that it was in vain
to resist, they begged for mercy. The captain told them he
would spare their lives, if they would give him any assurance
of their abhorrence of the treachery they had been guilty of,

239


and would swear to be faithful to him in recovering the ship,
and afterwards in carrying her back to Jamaica, from whence
they came. They gave him all the protestations of their sincerity
that could be desired, and he was willing to believe them, and
spare their lives, which I was not against; only I obliged him to
keep them bound hand and foot while they were upon the
island.

While this was doing, I sent Friday with the captain’s mate
to the boat, with orders to secure her, and bring away the
oars and sail, which they did; and by-and-by, three straggling
men that were (happily for them) parted from the rest, came
back upon hearing the guns fired; and seeing their captain, who
before was their prisoner, now their conqueror, they submitted
to be bound also; and so our victory was complete.

It now remained, that the captain and I should enquire into
one another’s circumstances. I began first, and told him my
whole history, which he heard with an attention even to amaze-
ment; and particularly, at the wonderful manner of my being
furnished with provisions and ammunition; and indeed, as my
story is a whole collection of wonders, it affected him deeply;
but when he reflected from thence upon himself, and how I
seemed to have been preserved there, on purpose to save his life,
the tears ran down his face, and he could not speak a word more.

After this communication was at an end, I carried him and
his two men into my apartment, leading them in, just where I
came out, viz: at the top of the house, where I refreshed them
with such provisions as I had, and showed them all the con-
trivances I had made, during my long, long inhabiting that

lace,

All I showed them, all I said to them, was perfectly amazing;
but, above all, the captain admired my fortification, and how
perfectly I had concealed my retreat with a grove of trees,
which, having been now planted near twenty years, and the
trees growing much faster than in England, was become a little
wood, and so thick that it was unpassable in any part of it but
at that one side where I had reserved my little winding passage
into it. I told him this was my castle and my residence, but that
Thad a seat in the country, as most princes have, whither I could
retreat upon occasion, and I would show him that, too, another
time; but, at present, our business was to consider how to

240


recover the ship. He agreed with me as to that, but told me he
was perfectly at a loss what measures to take, for that there were
still six-and-twenty hands on board, who, having entered into
a cursed conspiracy, by which they had all forfeited their lives
to the law, would be hardened in it now by desperation; and
would carry it on, knowing that, if they were reduced, they
should be brought to the gallows as soon as they came to Eng-
land, or to any English colony; and that, therefore, there would
be no attacking them with so small a number as we were.

I mused for some time upon what he said, and found it was a
very rational conclusion, and that, therefore, something was to
be resolved on very speedily, as well to draw the men on board
into some snare for their surprise, as to prevent their landing
upon us, and destroying us. Upon this it presently occurred to
me that, in a little while, the ship’s crew, wondering what was
become of their comrades and of the boat, would certainly come
on shore in their other boat to seek for them, and that then,
perhaps, they might come armed and be too strong for us; this,
he allowed, was rational.

Upon this, I told him the first thing we had to do was to stave
the boat, which lay upon the beach, so that they might not carry
her off, and, taking everything out of her, leave her so far
useless as not to be fit to swim. Accordingly, we went on
board, took the arms which were left on board out of her, and
whatever else we found there,—which was a bottle of brandy
and another of rum, a few biscuit cakes, a horn of powder, and
a great lump of sugar, in a piece of canvas; the sugar was five or
six pounds. All which was very welcome to me, especially the
brandy and sugar, of which I had had none left for many years.

When we had carried all these things on shore (the oars,
mast, sail and rudder of the boat were carried away before, as
above), we knocked a great hole in her bottom, that if they had
come near enough to master us, yet they could not carry off
the boats

Indeed, it was not much in my thoughts that we could be
able to recover the ship; but my view was, that if they went
away without the boat, I did not much question to make her fit
again to carry us away to the leeward islands, and call upon
our friends, the Spaniards, in my way, for I had them still in
my thoughts.

241


While we were thus preparing our designs, and had first, by
main strength, heaved the boat up upon the beach, so high that
the tide would not float her off at high-water mark, and, besides,
had broke a hole in her bottom too big to be quickly stopped,
and were sat down musing what we should do, we heard the
ship fire a gun, and saw her make a waft with her ancient, as
a signal for the boat to come on board; but no boat stirred, and
they fired several times, making other signals for the boat.

At last, when all their signals and firings proved fruitless,
and they found the boat did not stir, we saw them, by the help
of my glasses, hoist another boat out and row towards the shore;
and we found, as they approached, that there was no less than
ten men in her, and that they had firearms with them.

As the ship lay almost two leagues from the shore, we had a
full view of them as they came, and a plain sight of the men,—
even of their faces, because the tide having set them a little to
the east of the other boat, they rowed up under shore, to come
to the same place where the other had landed, and where the
boat lay.

By this means, I say, we had a full view of them, and the
captain knew the persons and characters of all the men in the
boat, of whom he said, that there were three very honest fellows,
who he was sure, were led into this conspiracy by the rest,
being overpowered and frighted.

But that as for the boatswain, who, it seems, was the chief
officer among them, and all the rest, they were as outrageous
as any of the ship’s crew, and were, no doubt, made desperate
in their new enterprise, and terribly apprehensive he was that
they should be too powerful for us.

I smiled at him, and told him, that men in our circumstances
were past the operation of fear. That seeing almost every condi-
tion that could be, was better than that which we were supposed
to be in, we ought to expect that the consequence, whether
death or life, would be sure to be a deliverance. I asked him,
what he thought of the circumstances of my life; and whether a
deliverance were not worth venturing for. “And where, sir,”
said I, “is your belief of my being preserved here on purpose to
save your life, which elevated you a little while ago? For my
part,” said I, “there seems to be but one thing amiss in all the
prospect of it.” “What's that,” said he. “Why,” said I, “tis that,

242
SP spss> We Secure Our Prisoners GK

as you say, there are three or four honest fellows among them,
which should be spared. Had they been all of the wicked part
of the crew, I should have thought God’s providence had singled
them out to deliver them into your hands; for, depend upon it,
every man of them that comes ashore are our own, and shall
die or live, as they behave to us.”

As I spoke this with a raised voice and cheerful countenance,
I found it greatly encouraged him; so we set vigorously to our
business. We had, upon the first appearance of the boat’s com-
ing from the ship, considered of separating our prisoners, and
had indeed secured them effectually.

Two of them, of whom the captain was less assured than
ordinary, I sent with Friday, and one of the three delivered
men to my cave, where they were remote enough, and out
of danger of being heard or discovered, or of finding their way
out of the woods, if they could have delivered themselves.
Here they left them bound, but gave them provisions, and
promised them if they continued there quietly, to give them
their liberty in a day or two; but that, if they attempted their
escape, they should be put to death without mercy. They
promised faithfully to bear their confinement with patience, and
were very thankful that they had such good usage, as to have
provisions, and a light left them; for Friday gave them candles
(such as we made ourselves) for their comfort; and they did not
know but that he stood sentinel over them at the entrance.

The other prisoners had better usage. Two of them were
kept pinioned indeed, because the captain was not free to trust
them; but the other two were taken into my service upon their
captain’s recommendation, and upon their solemnly engaging
to live and die with us; so with them and the three honest men,
we were seven men well armed; and I made no doubt we should
be able to deal well enough with the ten that were coming,
considering that the captain had said there were three or four
honest men among them also.

As soon as they got to the place where their other boat lay,
they run their boat into the beach, and came all on shore, haul-
ing the boat up after them, which I was glad to see; for I was
afraid they would rather have left the boat at an anchor, some
distance from the shore, with some hands in her, to guard her;
and so we should not be able to seize the boat.

243




SHS Rosinson Crusoe RE

Being on shore, the first thing they did, they ran all to their
other boat, and it was easy to see that they were under a great
surprise, to find her stripped as above, of all that was in her,
and a great hole in her bottom.

After they had mused awhile upon this, they set up two or
three great shouts, hallooing with all their might, to try if they
could make their companions hear; but all was to no purpose.
Then they came all close in a ring, and fired a volley of their
small arms, which, indeed, we heard, and the echoes made the
woods ring; but it was all one, those in the cave we were sure
could not hear, and those in our keeping, though they heard it
well enough, yet durst give no answer to them.

They were so astonished at the surprise of this, that, as they
told us afterwards, they resolved to go all on board again to
their ship, and let them know there that the men were all
murdered, and the long-boat staved. Accordingly, they imme-
diately launched their boat again, and all of them got on board.

The captain was terribly amazed, and even confounded, at
this, believing they would go on board the ship again, and set
sail, giving their comrades for lost, and so he should still lose
the ship, which he was in hopes we should have recovered; but
he was quickly as much frighted the other way.

They had not been long put off with the boat, but we per-
ceived them all coming on shore again, but with this new
measure in their conduct, which, it seems, they consulted to-
gether upon, viz: to leave three men in the boat, and the rest
to go on shore, and to go up into the country, to look for their
fellows.

This was a great disappointment to us, for now we were at
a loss what to do; for our seizing those seven men on shore
would be no advantage to us if we let the boat escape, because
they would then row away to the ship, and then the rest of
them would be sure to weigh and set sail, and so our recovering
the ship would be lost.

However, we had no remedy but to wait and see what the
issue of things might present. The seven men came on shore,
and the three who remained in the boat put her off to a good
distance from the shore, and came to an anchor to wait for them;
so that it was impossible for us to come at them in the boat.

Those that came on shore kept close together, marching

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Spsspss> Tue Murineers AsHorE 64666

towards the top of the little hill, under which my habitation
lay; and we could see them plainly, though they could not
perceive us. We could have been very glad they would have
come nearer to us, so that we might have fired at them, or that
they would have gone farther off, that we might have come
abroad.

But when they were come to the brow of the hill, where they
could see a great way into the valleys and woods which lay
towards the north-east part, and where the island lay lowest,
they shouted and hallooed till they were weary; and not caring,
it seems, to venture far from the shore, nor far from one another,
they sat down together under a tree, to consider of it. Had they
thought fit to have gone to sleep there, as the other party of
them had done, they had done the job for us; but they were
too full of apprehensions of danger to venture to go to sleep,
though they could not tell what the danger was they had to
fear, neither. :

The captain made a very just proposal to me, upon this con-
sultation of theirs, viz: that perhaps they would all fire a volley
again, to endeavor to make their fellows hear, and that we should
all sally upon them, just at the juncture when their pieces were
all discharged, and they would certainly yield, and we should
have them without bloodshed. I liked the proposal, provided it
was done while we were near enough to come up to them,
before they could load their pieces again.

But this event did not happen, and we lay still a long time,
very irresolute what course to take. At length, I told them there
would be nothing to be done, in my opinion, till night; and then,
if they did not return to the boat, perhaps we might find a way
to get between them and the shore, and so might use some
stratagem with them in the boat, to get them on shore.

We waited a great while, though very impatient for their
removing, and were very uneasy when, after long consulta-
tions, we saw them start all up and march down towards the
sea. It seems they had such dreadful apprehensions upon them
of the danger of the place, that they resolved to go on board
the ship again, give their companions over for lost, and so go on
with their intended voyage with the ship.

As soon as I perceived them go towards the shore, I imagined
it to be as it really was, that they had given over their search,

245


S>9)> >>> RoBINSON CRUSOE Ke Ke Ke

and were for going back again; and the captain, as soon as I
told him my thoughts, was ready to sink at the apprehension
of it, But I presently thought of a stratagem to fetch them back
again, and which answered my end toa tittle.

I ordered Friday and the captain’s mate to go over the little
creek westward, towards the place where the savages came on
shore when Friday was rescued; and as soon as they came to a
little rising ground, at about half a mile distance, I bade them
halloo as loud as they could, and wait till they found the seamen
heard them; that as soon as ever they heard the seamen answer
them, they should return it again, and then, keeping out of
sight, take a round, always answering when the other hallooed,
to draw them as far into the island, and among the woods as
possible, and then wheel about again to me, by such ways as I
directed them.

They were just going into the boat, when Friday and the
mate hallooed, and they presently heard them, and, answering,
ran along the shore westward, towards the voice they heard,
when they were presently stopped by the creek, where the
water being up, they could not get over, and called for the boat
to come up and set them over, as, indeed, I expected.

When they had set themselves over, I observed that, the boat
being gone up a good way into the creek, and, as it were, in a
harbor within the land, they took one of the three men out of
her to go along with them, and left only two in the boat, having
fastened her to the stump of a little tree on the shore.

This was what I wished for, and immediately leaving Friday
and the captain’s mate to their business, I took the rest with
me, and, crossing the creek out of their sight, we surprised the
two men before they were aware,—one of them lying on shore,
and the other being i in the boat. The fellow on shore was be-
tween sleeping and waking, and, going to start up, the captain,
who was foremost, ran in upon him and knocked him down,
and then called out to him in the boat to yield, or he was a dead
man. There needed very few arguments to persuade a single
man to yield when he saw five men upon him, and his comrade
knocked down. Besides, this was, it seems, one of the three who
was not so hearty in the mutiny as the rest of the crew, and
therefore was easily persuaded, not only to yield, but afterwards
to join very sincerely with us.

246
e__aa_a__eSeQeQ..555

In the meantime, Friday and the captain’s mate so well man-
aged their business with the rest, that they drew them, by
hallooing and answering, from one hill to another, and from
one wood to another, till they not only heartily tired them,
but left them where they were very sure they could not reach
back to the boat before it was dark; and, indeed, they were
heartily tired themselves, also, by the time they came back to us.

We had nothing now to do but to watch for them in the
dark, and to fall upon them, so as to make sure work with them.

It was several hours after Friday came back to me before
they came back to their boat; and we could hear the foremost
of them, long before they came quite up, calling to those behind
to come along, and could also hear them answer, and complain
how lame and tired they were, and not able to come any faster,
which was very welcome news to us.

At length they came up to the boat; but ’tis impossible to
express their confusion when they found the boat fast aground
in the creek, the tide ebbed out, and their two men gone. We
could hear them call to one another in a most lamentable man-
ner, telling one another they were gotten into an enchanted
island; that either there were inhabitants in it, and they should
all be murdered, or else there were devils and spirits in it, and
they should be all carried away and devoured.

They hallooed again, and called their two comrades by their
names a great many times, but no answer. After some time, we
could see them, by the little light there was, run about wringing
their hands like men in despair; and that sometimes they would
go and sit down in the boat to rest themselves, then come ashore
again, and walk about again, and so the same thing over again.

My men would fain have me give them leave to fall upon
them at once in the dark; but I was willing to take them at some
advantage, so to spare them, and kill as few of them as I could,
and especially I was unwilling to hazard the killing any of our
own men, knowing the others were very well armed. I resolved
to wait to see if they did not separate, and therefore to make
sure of them. I drew my ambuscade nearer, and ordered Friday
and the captain to creep upon their hands and feet as close to
the ground as they could, that they might not be discovered,
and get as near them as they could possibly, before they offered
to fire.

247




They had not been long in that posture, but that the boat-
swain, who was the principal ringleader of the mutiny, and had
now shown himself the most dejected and dispirited of all the
rest, came walking towards them with two more of their crew;
the captain was so eager, at having this principal rogue so much
in his power, that he could hardly have patience to let him come
so near, as to be sure of him, for they only heard his tongue
before. But when they came nearer, the captain and Friday
starting up on their feet, let fly at them.

The boatswain was killed upon the spot, the next man was
shot in the body, and fell just by him, though he did not die
till an hour or two after, and the third run for it.

At the noise of the fire, I immediately advanced with my
whole army, which was now eight men, viz: myself, generalis-
simo, Friday, my lieutenant-general, the captain and his two
men, and the three prisoners of war, whom we had trusted
with arms.

We came upon them indeed in the dark, so that they could
not see our number; and I made the man we had left in the
boat, who was now one of us, call to them by name, to try if I
could bring them to a parley, and so might perhaps reduce
them to terms, which fell out just as we desired. For indeed
it was easy to think, as their condition then was, they would
be very willing to capitulate; so he calls out, as loud as he
could, to one of them, “Tom Smith, Tom Smith!” Tom Smith
answered immediately, “Who’s that, Robinson?” for it seems
he knew his voice. The other answered, “Ay, ay; for God’s
sake, Tom Smith, throw down your arms and yield, or you are
all dead men this moment.”

“Who must we yield to? Where are they?” said Smith again.
“Here they are,” said he, “here’s our captain and fifty men
with him, have been hunting you this two hours; the boatswain
is killed, Will Frye is wounded, and I am a prisoner, and if you
do not yield, you are all lost.”

“Will they give us quarter then?” said Tom Smith, “and we
will yield?” “I'll go and ask, if you promise to yield,” said
Robinson. So he asked the captain, and the captain then called
himself out, “You Smith, you know my voice; if you lay down
your arms immediately, and submit, you shall have your lives,
all but Will Atkins.”

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Sos) Tue Murineers SuRRENDER GOK

Upon this, Will Atkins cried out, “For God’s sake, captain,
give me quarter; what have I done? They have all been as bad
as I.” Which, by the way, was not true neither; for it seems this
Will Atkins was the first man that laid hold of the captain, when
they first mutinied, and used him barbarously, in tying his
hands, and giving him injurious language. However, the captain
told him he must lay down his arms at discretion, and trust to
the governor’s mercy, by which he meant me; for they all
called me governor.

In a word, they all laid down their arms, and begged their
lives; and I sent the man that had parleyed with them, and two
more, who bound them all; and then my great army of fifty


= .\WXRWvW\ \ \ c_uh""*""”"*"*"*>>===
SH RoBinson CrRuSOE KEKE KE

men, which particularly with those three, were all but eight,
came up and seized upon them all, and upon their boat, only
that I kept myself and one more out of sight, for reasons of
state.

Our next work was to repair the boat, and think of seizing
the ship; and as for the captain, now he had leisure to parley
with them, he expostulated with them upon the villainy of their
practices with him, and at length upon the farther wickedness
of their design, and how certainly it must bring them to misery
and distress in the end, and perhaps to the gallows.

They all appeared very penitent, and begged hard for their
lives; as for that, he told them they were none of his prisoners,
but the commander of the island; that they thought they had set
him on shore in a barren, uninhabited island, but it had pleased
God so to direct them, that the island was inhabited, and that
the governor was an Englishman; that he might hang them all
there, if he pleased; but as he had given them all quarter, he
supposed he would send them to England to be dealt with
there, as justice required, except Atkins, who he was com-
manded by the governor, to advise to prepare for death: for that
he would be hanged in the morning.

Though this was alla fiction of his own, yet it had its desired
effect. Atkins fell upon his knees to beg the captain to intercede
with the governor for his life; and all the rest begged of him,
for God’s sake, that they might not be sent to England.

It now occurred to me that the time of our deliverance was
come, and that it would be a most easy thing to bring these
fellows in, to be hearty in getting possession of the ship; so, I
retired in the dark from them, that they might not see what
kind of a governor they had, and called the captain to me.
When I called, as at a good distance, one of the men was ordered
to speak again, and say to the captain, “Captain, the com-
mander calls for you”; and presently the captain replied, “Tell
his excellency I am just a coming.” This more perfectly amused
them; and they all believed that the commander was just by
with his fifty men.

Upon the captain’s coming to me, I told him my project for
seizing the ship, which he liked wonderfully well, and resolved
to put it in execution the next morning.

But in order to execute it with more art, and secure of suc-

250
SP We Pian tue Capture Meee

cess, I told him we must divide the prisoners, and that he should
go and take Atkins and two more of the worst of them, and
send them pinioned to the cave where the others lay. This was
committed to Friday, and the two men who came on shore with
the captain.

They conveyed them to the cave, as to a prison; and it was
indeed, a dismal place, especially to men in their condition.

The other I ordered to my bower, as I called it, of which
T have given a full description; and as it was fenced in, and they
pinioned, the place was secure enough, considering they were
upon their behavior.

To these in the morning I sent the captain, who was to enter
into a parley with them. In a word, to try them, and tell me
whether he thought they might be trusted or not to go on
board and surprise the ship. He talked to them of the injury
done him, of the condition they were brought to; and that
though the governor had given them quarter for their lives, as
to the present action, yet that if they were sent to England, they
would all be hanged in chains, to be sure; but that if they would
join in so just an attempt as to recover the ship, he would have
the governor's engagement for their pardon.

Any one may guess how readily such a proposal would be
accepted by men in their condition; they fell down on their
knees to the captain, and promised, with the deepest impre-
cations, that they would be faithful to him to the last drop, and
that they should owe their lives to him, and would go with him
all over the world, that they would own him for a father to
them as long as they lived.

“Well,” said the captain, “I must go and tell the governor
what you say, and see what I can do to bring him to consent to
it.” So he brought me an account of the temper he found them
in; and that he verily believed they would be faithful.

However, that we might be very secure, I told him he should
go back again, and choose out five of them, and tell them they
might see that he did not want men, that he would take out five
of them to be his assistants, and that the governor would keep
the other two, and the three that were sent prisoners to the castle
(my cave) as hostages, for the fidelity of those five; and that if
they proved unfaithful in the execution, the five hostages should
be hanged in chains alive upon the shore.

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DPI > Rosinson CRUSOE Kee Ries Ribs

This looked severe, and convinced them that the governor
was in earnest. However, they had no way left them, but to
accept it; and it was now the business of the prisoners, as much
as of the captain, to persuade the other five to do their duty.

Our strength was now thus ordered for the expedition: First,
the captain, his mate, and passenger. Second, then the two
prisoners of the first gang, to whom having their characters
from the captain, I had given their liberty, and trusted them
with arms. Third, the other two who I had kept till now in my
apartment, pinioned, but upon the captain’s motion, had now
released. Fourth, the single man taken in the boat. Fifth, these
five released at last. So that they were thirteen in all, besides five
we kept prisoners in the cave, for hostages.

I asked the captain if he was willing to venture with these
hands on board the ship; for as for me and my man Friday, I did
not think it was proper for us to stir, having seven men left
behind; and it was employment enough for us to keep them
asunder, and supply them with victuals.

As to the five in the cave, I resolved to keep them fast, but
Friday went in twice a day to them, to supply them with
necessaries, and I made the other two carry provisions to a
certain distance, where Friday was to take it.

When I showed myself to the two hostages, it was with the
captain, who told them I was the person the governor had
ordered to look after them, and that it was the governor’s
pleasure they should not stir any where, but by my direction;
that if they did, they should be fetched into the castle and be
laid in irons; so that as we never suffered them to see me as
governor, so I now appeared as another person, and spoke of
the governor, the garrison, the castle, and the like, upon all
occasions.

The captain now had no difficulty before him, but to furnish
his two boats, stop the breach of one, and man them. He made
his passenger captain of one, with four other men; and himself,
and his mate, and six more went in the other, and they contrived
their business very well, for they came up to the ship about
midnight. As soon as they came within call of the ship, he made
Robinson hail them, and tell them they had brought off the
men and the boat, but that it was a long time before they had
found them, and the like, holding them in a chat till they came

252
35> 39> > Tue Surp Is CaprurepD KKK

to the ship’s side; when the captain and the mate, entering first
with their arms, immediately knocked down the second mate
and carpenter, with the butt-end of their muskets; being very
faithfully seconded by their men, they secured all the rest that
were upon the main and quarter-decks, and began to fasten the
hatches to keep them down who were below, when the other
boat and their men entering at the fore-chains, secured the fore-
castle of the ship, and the scuttle which went down into the
cook-room, making three men they found there prisoners.

When this was done, and all safe upon deck, the captain
ordered the mate, with three men, to break into the round-
house, where the new rebel captain lay, and having taken the
alarm, was gotten up, and with two men and a boy, had gotten
firearms in their hands; and when the mate, with a crow, split
open the door, the new captain and his men fired boldly among
them, and wounded the mate with a musket-ball, which broke
his arm, and wounded two more of the men, but killed nobody.

The mate, calling for help, rushed, however, into the round-
house, wounded as he was, and, with his pistol, shot the new
captain through the head, the bullet entering at his mouth, and
coming out again behind one of his ears, so that he never spoke
a word; upon which the rest yielded, and the ship was taken
effectually, without any more lives lost.

As soon as the ship was thus secured, the captain ordered
seven guns to be fired, which was the signal agreed upon with
me, to give me notice of his success, which, you may be sure, I
was very glad to hear, having sat watching upon the shore for
it until near two of the clock in the morning.

Having thus heard the signal plainly, I laid me down; and
it having been a day of great fatigue to me, I slept very sound,
till I was something surprised with the noise of a gun; and,
presently starting up, I heard a man call me by the name of
“Governor! Governor!” And, presently, I knew the captain’s
voice, when, climbing up to the top of the hill, there he stood,
and, pointing to the ship, he embraced me in his arms. “My dear
friend and deliverer,” said he, “there’s your ship; for she is all
yours, and so are we, and all that belong to her.” I cast my eyes
to the ship, and there she rode, within little more than half a mile
of the shore; for they had weighed her anchor as soon as they
were masters of her, and, the weather being fair, had brought

253


SP > > Rosinson Crusoe Ee Ke

her to an anchor just against the mouth of the little creek; and,
the tide being up, the captain had brought the pinnace in near
the place where I at first landed my rafts, and so landed just at
my door.

I was, at first, ready to sink down with the surprise; for I saw
my deliverance, indeed, visibly put into my hands, all things
easy, and a large ship just ready to carry me away, whither I
pleased to go. At first, for some time, I was not able to answer
him one word; but as he had taken me in his arms, I held fast by
him, or I should have fallen to the ground.

He perceived the surprise, and immediately pulled a bottle
out of his pocket, and gave me a dram of cordial, which he had
brought on purpose for me. After I had drank it, I sat down
upon the ground; and though it brought me to myself, yet it
wasa good while before I could speak a word to him.

All this while the poor man was in as great an ecstacy as I,
only not under any surprise, as I was; and he said a thousand
kind, tender things to me, to compose me and to bring me to
myself; but such was the flood of joy in my breast, that it put
all my spirits into confusion. At last it broke out into tears, and,
ina little while after, I recovered my speech.

Then I took my turn, and embraced him as my deliverer,
and we rejoiced together. I told him I looked upon him as a man
sent from Heaven to deliver me, and that the whole transaction
seemed to be a chain of wonders; that such things as these were
the testimonies we had of a secret hand of Providence governing
the world, and an evidence that the eyes of an Infinite Power
could search into the remotest corner of the world, and send
help to the miserable whenever he pleased.

I forgot not to lift up my heart in thankfulness to Heaven;
and what heart could forbear to bless Him, who had not only,
in a miraculous manner, provided for one in such a wilderness,
and in such a desolate condition, but from whom every deliver-
ance must always be acknowledged to proceed?

When we had talked awhile, the captain told me he had
brought me some little refreshment, such as the ship afforded,
and such as the wretches that had been so long his masters had
not plundered him of. Upon this he called aloud to the boat,
and bid his men bring the things ashore that were for the gover-
nor; and, indeed, it was a present, as if I had been one, not that

254
was to be carried away along with them, but as if I had been
to dwell upon the island still, and they were to go without me.

First he had brought me a case of bottles full of excellent
cordial waters; six large bottles of Madeira wine: the bottles
held two quarts a-piece; two pounds of excellent good tobacco,
twelve good pieces of the ship’s beef, and six pieces of pork,
with a bag of peas, and about a hundred weight of biscuit.

He brought me also a box of sugar, a box of flour, a bag full
of lemons, and two bottles of lime-juice, and abundance of
other things; but, besides these, and what was a thousand times
more useful to me, he brought me six clean new shirts, six very
good neckcloths, two pair of gloves, one pair of shoes, a hat,
and one pair of stockings, and a very good suit of clothes of his
own, which had been worn but very little: ina word, he clothed
me from head to foot.

It was a very kind and agreeable present, as any one may
imagine, to one in my circumstances; but never was anything
in the world of that kind so unpleasant, awkward, and uneasy,
as it was to me to wear such clothes at their first putting on.

After these ceremonies past, and after all his good things
were brought into my little apartment, we began to consult
what was to be done with the prisoners we had; for it was
worth considering, whether we might venture to take them
away with us or no, especially two of them, whom we knew to
be incorrigible and refractory to the last degree; and the captain
said he knew they were such rogues, that there was no obliging
them, and if he did carry them away, it must be in irons, as male-
factors to be delivered over to justice at the first English colony
he could come at; and I found that the captain himself was very
anxious about it.

Upon this, I told him, that if he desired it, I dared undertake
to bring the two men he spoke of, to make it their own request
that he should leave them upon the island. “I should be very
glad of that,” said the captain, “with all my heart.”

“Well,” said I, “I will send for them up, and talk with them
for you”; so I caused Friday and the two hostages, for they
were now discharged, their comrades having performed their
promise; I said I caused them to go to the cave, and bring up
the five men pinioned, as they were, to the bower, and keep
them there till I came.

255


so RoBINsoNn CRUSOE KE KO KE

After some time, I came thither dressed in my new habit, and
now I was called governor again. Being all met, and the captain
with me, I caused the men to be brought before me; and I told
them I had had a full account of their villainous behavior to
the captain, and how they had run away with the ship, and
were preparing to commit farther robberies, but that Provi-
dence had ensnared them in their own ways, and that they were
fallen into the pit which they had digged for others.

I let them know, that by my direction the ship had been
seized; that she lay now in the road; and they might see by-and-
by, that their new captain had received the reward of his
villainy; for that they might see him hanging at the yard-arm.

That as to them, I wanted to know what they had to say,
why I should not execute them as pirates taken in the fact, as by
my commission they could not doubt I had authority to do.

One of them answered in the name of the rest, that they had
nothing to say but this, that when they were taken, the captain
promised them their lives, and they humbly implored my mercy;
but I told them, I knew not what mercy to show them; for, as
for myself, I had resolved to quit the island with all my men,
and had taken passage with the captain to go for England; and
as for the captain, he could not carry them to England, other
than as prisoners in irons to be tried for mutiny, and running
away with the ship; the consequence of which, they must needs
know, would be the gallows; so that I could not tell which was
best for them, unless they had a mind to take their fate in the
island; if they desired that, I did not care, as I had liberty to leave
it; [had some inclination to give them their lives, if they thought
they could shift on shore.

They seemed very thankful for it, said they would much
rather venture to stay there, than to be carried to England to
be hanged; so I left it on that issue.

However, the captain seemed to make some difficulty of it,
as if he durst not leave them there. Upon this I seemed a little
angry with the captain, and told him that they were my
prisoners, not his; and that, seeing I had offered them so much
favor, I would be as good as my word; and that if he did not
think fit to consent to it, I would set them at liberty as I found
them; and if he did not like it, he might take them again if he
could catch them.

256
—eeeeeEeEeEeEeeeeeEOEEEee——————————————————————————__
>> > I BequeatH My Istann 6G

Upon this they appeared very thankful, and I accordingly
set them at liberty, and bade them retire into the woods to the
place whence they came, and I would leave them some fire~
arms, some ammunition, and some directions how they should
live very well, if they thought fit.

Upon this I prepared to go on board the ship, but told the
captain that I would stay that night to prepare my things; and
desired him to go on board, in the meantime, and keep all right
in the ship, and send the boat on shore the next day for me;
ordering him, in the meantime, to cause the new captain, who
was killed, to be hanged at the yard-arm, that these men might
see him. When the captain was gone, I sent for the men up to me
to my apartment, and entered seriously into discourse with them
of their circumstances. I told them I thought they had made a
right choice; that if the captain carried them away, they would
certainly be hanged. I showed them the new captain, hanging at
the yard-arm of the ship, and told them they had nothing less
to expect.

When they had all declared their willingness to stay, I then
told them I would let them into the story of my living there,
and put them into the way of making it easier to them. Accord-
ingly, I gave them the whole history of the place, and of my
coming to it; shewed them my fortifications, the way I made
my bread, planted my corn, cured my grapes; and, in a word,
all that was necessary to make them easy. I told them the story,
also, of the sixteen Spaniards that were to be expected; for
whom I left a letter, and made them promise to treat them in
common with themselves.

I left them my fire-arms, viz: Five muskets, three fowling-
pieces, and three swords. I had above a barrel and half of powder
left; for after the first year or two, I used but little, and wasted
none. I gave them a description of the way I managed the goats,
and directions to milk and fatten them, and to make both butter
and cheese.

In a word, I gave them every part of my own story; and I
told them I would prevail with the captain to leave them two
barrels of gunpowder more, and some garden-seeds, which, I
told them, I would have been very glad of; also I gave them the
bag of peas which the captain had brought me to eat, and bade
them be sure to sow and increase them.

257


>>> RoBINSON CRUSOE Ke KE Ke

Having done all this, I left them the next day, and went on
board the ship. We prepared immediately to sail, but did not
weigh that night. The next morning early, two of the five men
came swimming to the ship’s side, and, making a most lament-
able complaint of the other three, begged to be taken into the
ship, for God’s sake, for they should be murdered, and begged
the captain to take them on board, though he hanged them
immediately.

Upon this, the captain pretended to have no power without
me; but, after some difficulty, and after their solemn promises
of amendment, they were taken on board, and were some time
after soundly whipped and pickled; after which they proved
very honest and quiet fellows.

Some time after this, the boat was ordered on shore, the tide
being up, with the things promised to the men, to which the
captain, at my intercession, caused their chests and clothes to
be added; which they took, and were very thankful for. I also
encouraged them, by telling them that if it lay in my way to
send any vessel to take them in, I would not forget them.

When I took leave of this island, I carried on board for relics
the great goat-skin cap I had made, my umbrella, and my parrot;
also I forgot not to take the money I formerly mentioned,
which had lain by me so long useless, that it was grown rusty,
or tarnished, and could hardly pass for silver, till it had been
a little rubbed and handled; as also the money I found in the
wreck of the Spanish ship.

And thus I left the island the roth of December, as I found
by the ship’s account, in the year 1686, after I had been upon
it eight-and-twenty years, two months, and nineteen days;
being delivered from this second captivity, the same day of the
month that I first made my escape in the Barco-Longo, from
among the Moors of Sallee.

In this vessel, after a long voyage, I arrived in England, the
11th of June, in the year 1687, having been thirty-and-five years
absent.

When I came to England, I was as perfect a stranger to all the
world, as if I had never been known there. My benefactor and
faithful steward, who I had left in trust with my money, was
alive, but had had great misfortunes in the world; was become a
widow the second time, and very low in the world. I made her

258
SH My Return To ENGrann Qe

easy as to what she owed me, assuring her I would give her no
trouble; but, on the contrary, in gratitude to her former care
and faithfulness to me, I relieved her, as my little stock would
afford, which at that time would indeed allow me to do but
little for her. But I assured her, I would never forget her former
kindness to me; nor did I forget her, when I had sufficient to
help her, as shall be observed in its place.

I went down afterwards into Yorkshire; but my father was
dead, and my mother, and all the family extinct, except that I
found two sisters, and two of the children of one of my brothers.
And as I had been long ago given over for dead, there had been
no provision made for me; so that, in a word, I found nothing to
relieve or assist me, and that little money I had would not do
much for meas to settling in the world.

I met with one piece of gratitude indeed, which I did not
expect; and this was, that the master of the ship, who I had so
happily delivered, and by the same means saved the ship and
cargo, having given a very handsome account to the owners, of
the manner how I had saved the lives of the men, and the ship,
they invited me to meet them, and some other merchants con-
cerned, and all together made me a very handsome compliment




upon the subject, and a present of almost two hundred pounds
sterling.

But after making several reflections upon the circumstances
of my life, and how little way this would go towards settling
me in the world, I resolved to go to Lisbon, and see if I might
not come by some information of the state of my plantation in
the Brazils, and of what was become of my partner, who I had
reason to suppose had some years now given me over for dead.

With this view, I took shipping for Lisbon, where I arrived
in April following; my man Friday accompanying me very
honestly in all these ramblings, and proving a most faithful
servant upon all occasions.

When I came to Lisbon, I found out by enquiry, and to my
particular satisfaction, my old friend, the captain of the ship,
who first took me up at sea, off of the shore of Africa. He was
now grown old, and had left off the sea, having put his son, who
was far from a young man, into his ship; and who still used the
Brazil trade. The old man did not know me, and, indeed, I
hardly knew him, but I soon brought him to my remembrance,
and as soon brought myself to his remembrance, when I told him
who I was.

After some passionate expressions of the old acquaintance, I
enquired, you may be sure, after my plantation and my partner.
The old man told me he had not been in the Brazils for about
nine years, but that he could assure me that when he came away
my partner was living, but the trustees, who I had joined with
him to take cognizance of my part, were both dead; that, how-
ever, he believed that I would have a very good account of the
improvement of the plantation; for that, upon the general
belief of my being cast away and drowned, my trustees had
given in the account of the produce of my part of the planta-
tion to the procurator fiscal, who had appropriated it in case I
never came to claim it,—one-third to the king, and two-thirds to
the monastery of St. Augustine, to be expended for the benefit
of the poor and for the conversion of the Indians to the Catholic
faith. But that if I appeared, or any one for me, to claim the
inheritance, it should be restored; only that the improvement, or
annual production, being distributed to charitable uses, could
not be restored. But he assured me that the Steward of the King’s
Revenue (from lands) and the Provedidore, or Steward of the

260
—=£=======_$=£_=_$_¥_£€_<_$_$_=_=_$£—=£=_£_=_=—¥—<—<—$_$_—=—<_=_[_—X—<——_i_i—<—<——————————L==——— SE
SPP My Brazivian PLanTATION Wee

Monastery, had taken great care, all along, that the incumbent,
—that is to say, my partner, gave, every year, a faithful account
of the produce, of which they received duly my moiety.

I asked him if he knew to what height of improvement he had
brought the plantation; and whether he thought it might be
worth looking after; or, whether, on my going thither, I should
meet with no obstruction to my possessing my just right in
the moiety.

He told me he could not tell exactly to what degree the
plantation was improved; but this he knew, that my partner
was grown exceeding rich upon the enjoying but one-half of
it; and that, to the best of his remembrance, he had heard that
the king’s third of my part, which was, it seems, granted away
to some other monastery, or religious house, amounted to above
200 moidores a year; that, as to my being restored to a quiet
possession of it, there was no question to be made of that, my
partner being alive to witness my title, and my name being also
enrolled in the register of the country; also he told me, that the
survivors of my two trustees were very fair, honest people, and
very wealthy; and he believed I would not only have their
assistance for putting me in possession, but would find a very
- considerable sum of money in their hands for my account, being
the produce of the farm while their fathers held the trust, and
before it was given up as above, which, as he remembered, was
for about twelve years.

I showed myself a little concerned and uneasy at this account,
and enquired of the old captain, how it came to pass that the
trustees should thus dispose my effects, when he knew that I
had made my will, and had made him (the Portuguese captain),
my universal heir, etc.

He told me that was true; but as there was no proof of my
being dead, he could not act as executor until some certain
account should come of my death, and that, besides, he was not
willing to intermeddle with a thing so remote; that it was true
he had registered my will, and put in his claim; and could he
have given any account of my being dead or alive, he would
have acted by procuration, and taken possession of the ingenio
(as they called the sugar-house), and had given his son, who
was now at the Brazils, order to do it.

“But,” said the old man, “I have one piece of news to tell

261


you which, perhaps, may not beso acceptable to you as the rest;
and that is, that believing you were lost, and all the world
believing so, also, your partner and trustees did offer to account
to me, in your name, for six or eight of the first years of profits,
which I received; but there being, at that time,” said he, “great
disbursements for increasing the works, building an ingenio,
and buying slaves, it did not amount to near so much as after-
wards it produced. However,” said the old man, “I shall give
you a true account of what I have received in all, and how I have
disposed of it.”

After a few days’ further conference with this ancient friend,
he brought me an account of the six first years’ income of my
plantation, signed by my partner and the merchant’s trustees,
being always delivered in goods, viz: tobacco in roll, and sugar
in chests, besides rum, molasses, etc., which is the consequence
of asugar work; and I found by this account that every year the
income considerably increased; but, as above, the disbursement
being large, the sum at first was small; however, the old man let
me see that he was debtor to me 470 moidores of gold, besides
sixty chests of sugar, and fifteen double rolls of tobacco which
were lost in his ship; he having been shipwrecked coming home
to Lisbon about eleven years after my leaving the place.

The good man then began to complain of his misfortunes,
and how he had been obliged to make use of my money to
recover his losses, and buy him a share in a new ship. “However,
my old friend,” said he, “you shall not want a supply in your
necessity; and as soon as my son returns, you shall be fully
satisfied.”

Upon this, he pulled out an old pouch, and gave me 160
Portugal moidores in gold; and giving me the writing of his
title to the ship, which his son was gone to the Brazils in, of
which he was a quarter-part owner, and his son another, he put
them both into my hands for security of the rest.

I was too much moved with the honesty and kindness of the
poor man, to be able to bear this; and remembering what he
had done for me, how he had taken me up at sea, and how
generously he had used me on all occasions, and particularly,
how sincere a friend he was now to me, I could hardly refrain
from weeping at what he said to me; therefore, first, I asked him
if his circumstances admitted him to spare so much money at

262
—__________—__—_—_—_————_—_—_—[_—[_—[—=="_—=—=—X—X———X—X—X—X——
sees 1 Craim My PLANTATION Q6QEKQ_

that time, and if it would not straiten him? He told me, he
could not say but it might straiten him a little; but, however,
it was my money, and I might want it more than he.

Everything the good man said was full of affection, and I
could hardly refrain from tears while he spoke; in short, I took
too of the moidores, and called for a pen and ink to give him a
receipt for them, then I returned him the rest, and told him, if
ever I had possession of the plantation, I would return the other
to him also, as indeed I afterwards did; and that as to the bill of
sale of his part in his son’s ship, I would not take it by any means;
but that if I wanted the money, I found he was honest enough
to pay me; and if I did not, but came to receive what he gave me
reason to expect, I would never have a penny more from him.

When this was passed, the old man began to ask me, if he
should put me into a method to make my claim to my planta-
tion? I told him, I thought to go over to it myself. He said I
might do so if I pleased; but that if I did not, there were ways
enough to secure my right, and immediately to appropriate the
profits to my use; and as there were ships in the river of Lisbon,
just ready to go away to Brazil, he made me enter my name in
a public register, with his affidavit, affirming upon oath that I
was alive, and that I was the same person who took up the land
for the planting the said plantation at first.

This being regularly attested by a notary, and a procuration
affixed, he directed me to send it with a letter of his writing, to
a merchant of his acquaintance at the place, and then proposed
my staying with him tillan account came of the return.

Never anything was more honorable than the proceedings
upon this procuration; for in less than seven months I received
a large packet from the survivors of my trustees the merchants,
for whose account I went to sea, in which were the following
particular letters and papers enclosed.

First, There was the account current of the produce of my
farm or plantation, from the year when their fathers had
balanced with my old Portugal captain, being for six years.
The balance appeared to be 1,174 moidores in my favor.

Secondly, There was the account of four years more while
they kept the effects in their hands, before the government
claimed the administration, as being the effects of a person not
to be found, which they call civil death; and the balance of this,

263
Sapa Roninson Cnuson eee

the value of the plantation increasing, amounted to 38,892
cruisadoes, which made 3,241 moidores.

Thirdly, There was the prior of the Augustine’s account,
who had received the profits for above fourteen years; but not
being to account for what was disposed to the hospital, very
honestly declared he had 872 moidores not distributed, which
he acknowledged to my account. As to the king’s part, that
refunded nothing.

There was a letter of my partner's, congratulating me very
affectionately upon my being alive, giving me an account how
the estate was improved, and what it produced a year, with a
particular of the number of squares or acres that it contained;
how planted, how many slaves there were upon it, and making
two-and-twenty crosses for blessings, told me he had said so
many Ave Maria’s to thank the blessed Virgin that I was alive;
inviting me very passionately to come over and take possession
of my own; and in the meantime, to give him orders to whom
he should deliver my effects, if I did not come myself; conclud-
ing with a hearty tender of his friendship, and that of his family;
and sent me, asa present, seven fine leopards’ skins, which he had,
it seems, received from Africa, by some other ship which he had
sent thither, and who, it seems, had made a better voyage than I.
He sent me also, five chests of excellent sweetmeats, and an
hundred pieces of gold uncoined, not quite so large as moidores.

By the same fleet, my two merchant trustees shipped me 1,200
chests of sugar, 800 rolls of tobacco, and the rest of the whole
account in gold.

I might well say now, indeed, that the latter end of Job was
better than the beginning. It is impossible to express the flutter-
ings of my very heart, when I looked over these letters, and
especially when I found all my wealth about me; for as the
Brazil ships come all in fleets, the same ships which brought my
letters, brought my goods; and the effects were safe in the river
before the letters came to my hand. In a word, I turned pale,
and grew sick; and had not the old man run and fetched me a
cordial, I believe the sudden surprise of joy had overset nature,
and I had died upon the spot.

Nay, after that, I continued very ill, and was so some hours,
tll a physician being sent for, and something of the real cause
of my illness being known, he ordered me to be let blood;

264
——————EEEEEEEE——~&z&z&I=eeee——ee=_ee_e—
Psy TL Repay My Oty Frienn eee

after which, I had relief, and grew well. But I verily believe, if
it had not been eased by a vent given in that manner to the
spirits, I should have died.

I was now master, all on a sudden, of above £ 5,000 sterling
in money, and had an estate, as I might well call it, in the Brazils,
of above a thousand pounds a year, as sure as an estate of lands
in England; and, in a word, I was in a condition which I scarce
knew how to understand, or how to compose myself for the
enjoyment of it.

The first thing I did, was to recompense my original bene-
factor, my good old captain, who had been first charitable to
me in my distress, kind to me in my beginning, and honest to
me at the end. I showed him all that was sent me. I told him,|
that next to the Providence of Heaven, which disposes all things, '
it was owing to him; and that it now lay on me to reward him,
which I would do a hundred. -fold. So I first returned to him the
hundred moidores I had received of him, then Isent for a notary,
and caused him to draw up a general release or discharge for the
470 moidores, which he had acknowledged he owed me in the
fullest and firmest manner possible; after which, I caused a
procuration to be drawn, empowering him to be my receiver
of the annual profits of my plantation, and appointing my part-
ner to account to him and make the returns by the usual fleets
to him in my name; and a clause in the end, being a grant of
100 moidores a year to him, during his life, out of the effects,
and 50 moidores a year to his son after him, for his life; and
thus I requited my old man.

I was now to consider which way to steer my course next, ,
and what to do with the estate that Providence had thus putinto ||
my hands; and indeed I had more care upon my head now than
Thad in my silent state of life in the island, where I wanted
nothing but what I had, and had nothing but what I wanted; ,
whereas I had now a great charge upon me, and my business |
was how to secure it. I had ne’er a cave now to hide my money
in, or a place where it might lie without lock or key, till it grew
mouldy and tarnished before anybody would meddle with it.
On the contrary, I knew not where to put it, or who to trust
with it. My old patron, the captain, indeed, was honest, and
that was the only refuge I had.

In the next place, my interest in the Brazils seemed to summon

265
PP > Robinson CRUSOE KE Ke Ke

me thither, but now I could not tell how to think of going
thither, till I had settled my affairs, and left my effects in some
safe hands behind me. At first I thought of my old friend the
widow, who I knew was honest, and would be just to me; but
then she was in years, and but poor, and for aught I knew,
might be in debt; so that in a word, I had no way but to go back
to England myself, and take my effects with me.

It was some months, however, before I resolved upon this;
and therefore, as I had rewarded the old captain fully, and to
his satisfaction, who had been my former benefactor, so I began
to think of my poor widow, whose husband had been my first
benefactor, and she, while it was in her power, my faithful
steward and instructor. So, the first thing I did, I gota merchant
in Lisbon to write to his correspondent in London, not only to
pay a bill, but to go find her out, and carry her in money, an
hundred pounds from me, and to talk with her, and comfort her
in her poverty, by telling her she should, if I lived, havea further
supply. At the same time I sent my two sisters in the country,
each of them an hundred pounds, they being, though not in
want, yet not in very good circumstances; one having been
married, and left a widow, and the other having a husband not
so kind to her as he should be.

But among all my relations, or acquaintances, I could not yet
pitch upon one, to whom I dared commit the gross of my stock,
that I might go away to the Brazils, and leave things safe behind
me; and this greatly perplexed me.

Thad once a mind to have gone to the Brazils, and have settled
myself there; for I was, as it were, naturalized to the place; but
I had some little scruples in my mind about religion, which
insensibly drew me back, of which I shall say more presently.
However, it was not religion that kept me from going there for
the present; and as I had made no scruples of being openly of
the religion of the country, all the while I was among them, so
neither did I yet; only that now and then having of late thought
more of it than formerly, when I began to think of living and
dying among them, I began to regret my having professed
myself a Papist, and thought it might not be the best religion
to die with.

But, as I have said, this was not the main thing that kept me
from going to the Brazils, but that really I did not know with

266
BP > > I Serrre My AFFAIRS Ke ee

whom to leave my effects behind me; so I resolved at last to go
to England with it, where, if I arrived, I concluded I should
make some acquaintance, or find some relations that would be
faithful to me; and accordingly I prepared to go for England
with all my wealth.

In order to prepare things for my going home, I first (the
Brazil fleet being just going away) resolved to give answers
suitable to the just and faithful account of things I had from
thence; and, first, to the prior of St. Augustine I wrote a letter
full of thanks for their just dealings, and the offer of the 872
moidores, which was undisposed of, which I desired might be
given 500 to the monastery, and 372 to the poor, as the prior
should direct, desiring the good padre’s prayers for me, and
the like.

I wrote next a letter of thanks to my two trustees, with all
the acknowledgment that so much justice and honesty called
for; as for sending them any present, they were far above having
any occasion for it.

Lastly, I wrote to my partner, acknowledging his industry in
the improving the plantation, and his integrity in increasing
the stock of the works, giving him instructions for his future
government of my part, according to the powers I had left with
my old patron, to whom I desired him to send whatever became
due to me, until he should hear from me more particularly;
assuring him that it was my intention, not only to come to him,
but to settle myself there for the remainder of my life. To this
I added a very handsome present of some Italian silks for his
wife and two daughters, for such the captain’s son informed
me he had; with two pieces of fine English broadcloth, the best
I could get in Lisbon, five pieces of black baize, and some
Flanders lace of a good value.

Having thus settled my affairs, sold my cargo, and turned all
my effects into good bills of exchange, my next difficulty was
which way to go to England. I had been accustomed enough to
the sea, and yet I had a strange aversion to going to England by
sea at that time; and though I could give no reason for it, yet the
difficulty increased upon me so much, that though I had once
shipped my baggage, in order to go, yet I altered my mind, and
that not once, but rwo or three times.

It is true, I had been very unfortunate by sea, and this might

267


be some of the reason. But let no man slight the strong impulses
of his own thoughts in cases of such moment. Two of the ships
which I had singled out to go in, I mean, more particularly
singled out than any other; that is to say, so as in one of them
to put my things on board, and in the other to have agreed with
the captain; I say, two of these ships miscarried, viz: one was
taken by the Algerines, and the other was cast away on the start
near Torbay, and all the people drowned except three. So that
in either of those vessels I had been made miserable; and in
which most, it was hard to say.

Having been thus harassed in my thoughts, my old pilot, to
whom I communicated everything, pressed me earnestly not
to go by sea, but either to go by land to the Groyne, and cross
over the Bay of Biscay to Rochelle, from whence it was but an
easy and safe journey by land to Paris, and so to Calais and
Dover; or, to go up to Madrid, and so all the way by land
through France.

In a word, I was so prepossessed against my going by sea at
all, except from Calais to Dover, that I resolved to travel all the
way by land, which, as I was not in haste, and did not value the
charge, was by much the pleasanter way. And to make it more
so, my old captain brought an English gentleman, the son of a
merchant in Lisbon, who was willing to travel with me. After
which, we picked up two more English merchants also, and two
young Portuguese gentlemen, the last going to Paris only; so
that we were in all six of us, and five servants; the two mer-
chants and the two Portuguese contenting themselves with one
servant between two, to save the charge. And, as for me, I got
an English sailor to travel with me as a servant, besides my man
Friday, who was too much a stranger to be capable of supplying
the place of a servant on the road.

In this manner, I set out from Lisbon; and our company
being all very well mounted and armed, we made a little troop,
whereof they did me the honor to call me captain, as well be-
cause I was the oldest man, as because I had two servants, and
indeed, was the original of the whole journey.

As I have troubled you with none of my sea-journals, so I
shall trouble you now with none of my land-journals; but some
adventures that happened to us, on this tedious and difficult
journey, I must not omit.

268
===
Wee We Are Stopren By SNow Kee

When we came to Madrid, we being all of us strangers to
Spain, were willing to stay some time to see the court of Spain,
and to see what was worth observing, but, it being the latter
part of the summer, we hastened away and set out from Madrid
about the middle of October. But when we came to the edge of
Navarre, we were alarmed at several towns on the way, with an
account that so much snow was fallen on the French side of
the mountains, that several travellers were obliged to come back
to Pampeluna after having attempted, at an extreme hazard, to
pass on.

When we came to Pampeluna itself we found it so indeed;
and to me, that had been always used to a hot climate, and,
indeed, to countries where we could scarce bear any clothes
on, the cold was insufferable; nor, indeed, was it more painful
than it was surprising to come but ten days before out of the
old Castile, where the weather was not only warm, but very hot,
and immediately to feel a wind from the Pyrenean mountains,
so very keen, so severely cold, as to be intolerable, and to
endanger benumbing and perishing of our fingers and toes.

Poor Friday was really frighted, when he saw the mountains
all covered with snow, and felt cold weather, which he had
never seen or felt before in his life.

To mend the matter, when we came to Pampeluna it con-
tinued snowing with so much violence and so long, that the
people said winter was come before its time, and the roads
which were difficult before, were now quite impassable: for, in
a word, the snow lay in some places too thick for us to travel;
and being not hard frozen, as is the case in northern countries,
there was no going without danger of being buried alive at
every step. We stayed no less than twenty days at Pampeluna,
when, seeing the winter coming on and no likelihood of its being
better, for it was the severest winter all over Europe that had
been known in the memory of man, I proposed that we should
all go away to Fontarabia, and there take shipping for Bordeaux,
which wasa very little voyage.

But while we were considering this, there came in four
French gentlemen, who having been stopped on the French
side of the passes, as we were on the Spanish, had found out a
guide, who traversing the country near the head of Languedoc,
had brought them over the mountains by such ways that they

269
Ds o> RoBinson Crusoe Ke Ke Ke

were not much incommoded with the snow; and where they
met with snow in any quantity, they said it was frozen hard
enough to bear them and their horses.

We sent for this guide, who told us he would undertake to
carry us the same way, with no hazard from the snow, provided
we were armed sufficiently to protect us from wild beasts; for
he said “Upon these great snows, it was frequent for some
wolves to show themselves at the foot of the mountains, being
made ravenous for want of food, the ground being covered
with snow.” We told him we were well enough prepared for
such creatures as they were, if he would insure us from a kind
of two-legged wolves, which, we were told, we were in most
danger from, especially on the French side of the mountains.

He satisfied us there was no danger of that kind in the way
that we were to g0; so we readily agreed to follow him, as did
also twelve other gentlemen, with their servants, some French,
some Spanish, who, as I said, had attempted to go, and were
obliged to come back again.

Accordingly, we all set out from Pampeluna, with our guide,
on the fifteenth of November; and, indeed, I was surprised when,
instead of going forward, he came directly back with us, on
the same road that we came from Madrid, about twenty miles;
when, having passed two rivers, and come into the plain coun-
try, we found ourselves in a warm climate again, where the
country was pleasant, and no snow to be seen; but on a sudden,
turning to his left, he approached the mountains another way;
and, though it is true the hills and precipices looked dreadful,
yet he made so many tours, such meanders, and led us by such
winding ways, that we insensibly passed the height of the
mountains without being much encumbered with the snow; and
all on a sudden he showed us the pleasant, fruitful provinces of
Languedoc and Gascoigne, all green and flourishing; though
indeed it was at a great distance, and we had some rough way
to pass yet.

We were a little uneasy however, when we found it snowed
one whole day and a night, so fast that we could not travel;
but he bid us be easy, we should soon be past it all. We found
indeed, that we began to descend every day, and to come
more north than before; and so, depending upon our guide,
we went on.

270
Ce
PH > We Encounter Wotves 6H

It was about two hours before night, when our guide being
something before us, and not just in sight, out rushed three
monstrous wolves, and after them a bear, out of a hollow way,
adjoining to a thick wood. Two of the wolves flew upon the
guide, and had he been half a mile before us, he had been de-
voured indeed, before we could have helped him. One of them
fastened upon his horse, and the other attacked the man with
that violence that he had not time, or not presence of mind
enough to draw his pistol, but hallooed and cried out to us most
lustily. My man Friday being next to me, I bade him ride up,
and see what was the matter. As soon as Friday came in sight of
the man, he hallooed as loud as t’other, “O master! O master!”
but, like a bold fellow, rode directly up to the poor man, and
with his pistol shot the wolf, that attacked him, in the head.

It was happy for the poor man that it was my man Friday;
for he, having been used to that kind of creature in his country,
had not fear upon him; but went close up to him, and shot him
as above; whereas any of us would have fired at a farther dis-
tance, and have perhaps, either missed the wolf, or endangered _
shooting the man.

But it was enough to have terrified a bolder man than I, and
indeed it alarmed all our company, when with the noise of
Friday’s pistol, we heard on both sides the dismallest howling
of wolves, and the noise redoubled by the echo of the moun- °
tains, that it was to us as if there had been a prodigious multitude
of them; and perhaps, indeed, there was not such a few as that
we had no cause of apprehensions.

However, as Friday had killed this wolf, the other that had
fastened upon the horse, left him immediately, and fled; having
happily fastened upon his head, where the bosses of the bridle
had stuck in his teeth; so that he had not done him much hurt.
The man indeed was most hurt; for the raging creature had bit
him twice, once on the arm, and the other time a little above

“his knee; and he was just as it were tumbling down by the
disorder of his horse, when Friday came up and shot the wolf.

It is easy to suppose, that at the noise of Friday’s pistol, we all
mended our pace, and rode up as fast as the way (which was
very difficult) would give us leave, to see what was the matter.
As soon as we came clear of the trees, which blinded us before,
we saw clearly what had been the case, and how Friday had

271
ey
BH SH op RoBinson CRUSOE Ke Ke Ke
SS einen soon ae ae esos

disengaged the poor guide; though we did not presently discern
what kind of creature it was he had killed.

But never was a fight managed so hardily, and in such a sur-
prising manner, as that which followed between Friday and
the bear, which gave us all (though at first we were surprised
and afraid for him) the greatest diversion imaginable. As the
bear is a heavy, clumsy creature, and does not gallop as the
wolf does, who is swift and light; so he has two particular quali-
ties, which generally are the rule of his actions. First, as to men,
who are not his proper prey. I say, not his proper prey; because,
though I cannot say what excessive hunger might do, which was
now their case, the ground being all covered with snow; but as
to men, he does not usually attempt them, unless they first
attack him. On the contrary, if you meet him in the woods, if
you don’t meddle with him, he won’t meddle with you; but
then, you must take care to be very civil to him and give him
the road; for he isa very nice gentleman, he won’t goa step out
of his way for a prince; nay, if you are really afraid, your best
way is to look another way, and keep going on; for sometimes,
if you stop, and stand still, and look steadily at him, he takes it
for an affront; but if you throw or toss anything at him, and it
hits him, though it were but a bit of a stick, as big as your
finger, he takes it for an affront, and sets all his other business
aside to pursue his revenge; for he will have satisfaction in point
of honor; that is his first quality. The next is, that if he be once
affronted, he will never leave you, night or day, till he has his
revenge; but follows at a good round rate till he overtakes you.

My man Friday had delivered our guide, and when we came
up to him, he was helping him off from his horse, for the man
was both hurt and frighted, and indeed, the last more than the
first; when, on the sudden, we spied the bear come out of the
wood, and a vast monstrous one it was, the biggest by far that
ever I saw. We were alla little surprised when we saw him but
when Friday saw him, it was easy to see joy and courage in the
fellow’s countenance, “O! O! O!” said Friday, three times,
pointing to him. “O master! you give me te leave, me shakee te
hand with him; me make you good laugh.”

I was surprised to sec the fellow so well pleased. “You fool,
you,” said I, “he will eat you up.” “Eatee me up; eatee me up!”
said Friday, twice over again; “me eatee him up. Me make you

272
—_____
S3> SP > FRIDAY AND THE BEAR Ke Kee

good laugh. You all stay here, me show you good laugh.” So
down he sat, and got his boots off in a moment, and put on a
pair of pumps (as we call the flat shoes they wear, and which
he had in his pocket), gave my other servant his horse, and,
with his gun, away he flew swift like the wind.

The bear was walking softly on, and offered to meddle with
nobody, till Friday coming pretty near, calls to him, as if the
bear could understand him: “Hark ye, hark ye,” said Friday,
“me speakee wit you.” We followed at a distance; fornow being
come down on the Gascoigne side of the mountains, we were
entered a vast great forest, where the country was plain and
pretty open, though many trees in it scattered here and there.

Friday, who had, as we say, the heels of the bear, came up
with him quickly, and took up a great stone, and threw at him,
and hit him just on the head, but did him no more harm, than
if he had thrown it against a wall. But it answered Friday’s end;
for the rogue was so void of fear, that he did it purely to make
the bear follow him, and show us some laugh as he called it.

As soon as the bear felt the stone, and saw him, he turned
about, and came after him, taking devilish long strides, and
shuffling along at a strange rate, so as would have put a horse
to a middling gallop. Away ran Friday, and took his course, as
if he ran towards us for help; so we all resolved to fire at once
upon the bear, and deliver my man, though I was angry at him
heartily, for bringing the bear back upon us, when he was
going about his own business another way; and especially I was
angry that he had turned the bear upon us, and then ran away.
And I called out, “You dog,” said I, “is this your making us
laugh? Come away, and take your horse, that we may shoot the
creature.” He heard me, and cried out, “No shoot! no shoot!
stand still, you get much laugh.” And as the nimble creature ran
two feet for the beast’s one, he turned on a sudden, on one side
of us, and seeing a great oak-tree fit for his purpose, he beckoned
to us to follow, and doubling his pace, he got nimbly up the
tree, laying his gun down upon the ground, at about five or six
yards from the bottom of the tree.

The bear soon came to the tree, and we followed at a distance.
The first thing he did, he stopped at the gun, smelt it, but let
it lay, and up he scrambles into the tree, climbing like a cat,
though so monstrously heavy. I was amazed at the folly, as I

273
SPP Rowinson Crusoe EEE

thought it, of my man, and could not for my life see anything
to laugh at yet, till seeing the bear get up the tree, we all rode
nearer to him.

When we came to the tree, there was Friday got out to the
small end of a large limb of the tree, and the bear got about half
way to him; as soon as the bear got out to that part where the
limb of the tree was weaker, “Ha!” said he to us, “now you see
me teachee the bear dance”; so he fell a jumping and shaking
the bough, at which the bear began to totter, but stood still, and
began to look behind him, to see how he should get back; then
indeed we did laugh heartily, but Friday had not done with him
by a great deal; when he saw him stand still, he called out to him
again, as if he had supposed the bear could speak English.
“What, you no come further? pray you come further”; so he
left jumping and shaking the tree, and the bear, just as if he
had understood what he said, did come a little further, then he
fell a jumping again, and the bear stopped again.

We thought now was a good time to knock him on the head,
and I called to Friday to stand still, and we would shoot the
bear; but he cried out earnestly, “O pray! O pray! No shoot,
me shoot by and then”; he would have said, by-and-by. How-
ever, to shorten the story, Friday danced so much, and the bear
stood so ticklish, that we had laughing enough indeed, but still
could not imagine what the fellow would do; for, first, we
thought he depended upon shaking the bear off; and we found
the bear was too cunning for that too; for he would not go out
far enough to be thrown down, but clung fast with his great
broad claws and fect, so that we could not imagine what would
be the end of it, and where the jest would be at last.

But Friday put us out of doubt quickly; for seeing the bear
cling fast to the bough, and that he would not be persuaded to
come any further, “Well, well,” said Friday, “you no come
further, me go, me go; you no come to me, me gocome to you”;
and upon this, he goes out to the smallest end of the bough,
where it would bend with his weight, and gently let himself
down by it, sliding down the bough, till he came near enough
to jump down on his feet, and away he ran to his gun, took it
up, and stood still.

“Well,” said I to him, “Friday, what will you do now? why
don’t you shoot him?” “No shoot,” said Friday, “no yet, me

274
SPaa) Feipay Kinis rae Bran eee

shoot now, me no kill; me stay, give you one more laugh”; and
indeed, so he did, as you will see presently; for, when the bear
saw his enemy gone, he came back from the bough where he
stood; but did it mighty leisurely, looking behind him every
step, and coming backward till he got into the body of the tree;
then, with the same hinder-end foremost, he came down the
tree, grasping it with his claws, and moving one foot at a time,
very leisurely; at this juncture, and just before he could set his
hind feet upon the ground, Friday stepped up close to him,
clapped the muzzle of his piece into his ear, and shot him dead
as a stone.

Then the rogue turned about, to see if we did not laugh,


Sopp —SRowinson Crvuson MEK

and when he saw we were pleased by our looks, he fell a laugh-
ing himself very loud. “So we kill bear in my country,” said
Friday. “So you kill them?” said I, “why, you have no guns.”
“No,” said he, “no gun, but shoot, great much long arrow.”

This was indeed a good diversion to us; but we were still in
a wild place, and our guide very much hurt, and what to do we
hardly knew; the howling of wolves run much in my head; and
indeed, except the noise I once heard on the shore of Africa, of
which I have said something already, I never heard anything
that filled me with so much horror.

These things, and the approach of night, called us off, or else,
as Friday would have had us, we should certainly have taken the
skin of this monstrous creature off, which was worth saving;
but we had three leagues to go, and our guide hastened us, so
we left him, and went forward on our journey.

The ground was still covered with snow, though not so deep
and dangerous as on the mountains, and the ravenous creatures,
as we heard afterwards, were come down into the forest and
plain country, pressed by hunger to seek for food; and had done
a great deal of mischief in the villages, where they surprised the
country people, killed a great many of their sheep and horses,
and some people, too.

We had one dangerous place to pass, which our guide told
us, if there were any more wolves in the country, we should
find them there; and this was in a small plain, surrounded with
woods on every side, and a long, narrow defile or lane, which
we were to pass to get through the wood, and then we should
come to the village where we were to lodge.

Tt was within half an hour of sunset when we entered the
first wood, and a little after sunset, when we came into the plain;
we met with nothing in the first wood, except, that in a little
plain within the wood, which was not above two furlongs over,
we saw five great wolves cross the road, full speed, one after
another, as if they had been in chase of some prey, and had it
in view; they took no notice of us, and were gone, and out of
our sight in a few moments.

Upon this, our guide, who by the way, was a wretched
faint-hearted fellow, bade us keep in a ready posture; for he
believed there were more wolves a-coming.

We kept our arms ready, and our eyes about us, but we saw

276
> > > Tue Wotves ATTACK Ke Ka ie

no more wolves, till we came through that wood, which was
near half a league, and entered the plain; as soon as we came
into the plain, we had occasion enough to look about us. The
first object we met with was a dead horse; that is to say, a poor
horse which the wolves had killed, and, at least, a dozen of them
at work: we could not say eating of him, but picking of his
bones rather, for they had eaten up all the flesh before.

We did not think fit to disturb them at their feast, neither
did they take much notice of us. Friday would have let fly at
them, but I would not suffer him by any means; for I found we
were like to have more business upon our hands than we were
aware of. We were not gone half over the plain, but we began
to hear the wolves howl in the wood on our left, in a frightful
manner, and presently after we saw about a hundred coming on
directly towards us, all in a body, and most of them in a line,
as regularly as an army drawn up by experienced officers. I
scarce knew in what manner to receive them, but found to draw
ourselves in a close line was the only way; so we formed in a
moment. But that we might not have too much interval, I
ordered that only every other man should fire, and that the
others who had not fired should stand ready to give them a
second volley immediately, if they continued to advance upon
us, and then those who had fired at first, should not pretend to
load their fusees again, but stand ready with every one a pistol;
for we were all armed with a fusee, and a pair of pistols each
man. So we were by this method able to fire six volleys, half of
us at a time. However, at present we had no necessity; for
upon firing the first volley, the enemy made a full stop, being
terrified as well with the noise, as with the fire. Four of them
being shot in the head, dropped; several others were wounded,
and went bleeding off, as we could see by the snow. I found they
stopped, but did not immediately retreat; whereupon, remem-
bering that I had been told that the fiercest creatures were
terrified at the voice of a man, I caused all our company to halloo
as loud as we could; and I found the notion not altogether mis-
taken, for upon our shout they began to retire, and turn about.
Then I ordered a second volley to be fired in their rear, which
put them to gallop, and away they went to the woods.

This gave us leisure to charge our pieces again, and, that we
might lose no time, we kept going; but we had but little more

277


than loaded our fusees, and put ourselves into a readiness, when
we heard a terrible noise in the same wood on our left; only
that it was farther onward the same way we were to go.

The night was coming on and the light began to be dusky,
which made it worse on our side, but the noise increasing, we
could easily perceive that it was the howling and yelling of those
hellish creatures; and on a sudden we perceived two or three
troops of wolves, one on our left, one behind us and one on our
front; so that we seemed to be surrounded with them; how-
ever, as they did not fall upon us, we kept our way forward as
fast as we could make our horses go, which the way being very
rough, was only a good large trot; and in this manner we came
in view of the entrance of a wood, through which we were to
pass, at the farther side of the plain; but we were greatly sur-
prised, when coming nearer the lane or pass, we saw a confused
number of wolves standing just at the entrance.

On a sudden, at another opening of the wood, we heard the
noise of a gun, and, looking that way, out rushed a horse with
a saddle and a bridle on him, flying like the wind, and sixteen
or seventeen wolves after him full speed; indeed, the horse had
the heels of them, but as we supposed that he could not hold it at
that rate, we doubted not but they would get up with him at
last, and no question but they did.

But here we had a most horrible sight, for riding up to the -
entrance where the horse came out, we found the carcass of
another horse and of two men, devoured by the ravenous crea-
tures; and one of the men was no doubt the same who we heard
fire the gun, for there lay a gun just by him, fired off; but as to
the man, his head, and the upper part of his body was eaten up.

This filled us with horror, and we knew not what course to
take; but the creatures resolved us soon, for they gathered
about us presently in hopes of prey, and I verily believe there
were three hundred of them. It happened very much to our
advantage, that at the entrance into the wood, but a little way
from it, there lay some large timber trees which had been cut
down the summer before, and I suppose lay there for carriage.
I drew my little troop in among those trees, and placing our-
selves in a line, behind one long tree, I advised them all to light,
and keeping that tree before us for a breast-work, to stand in
a triangle or three fronts, enclosing our horses in the center.

278
SPapa) Tur Srconn Attack Qe ae

We did so, and it was well we did, for never was a more
furious charge than the creatures made upon us in the place.
They came upon us with a growling kind of anoise and mounted
the piece of timber, which as I said was our breast-work, as if
they were only rushing upon their prey; and this fury of theirs,
it seems, was principally occasioned by their seeing our horses
behind us, which was the prey they aimed at. I ordered our
men to fire as before, every other man, and they took their aim
so sure, that indeed they killed several of the wolves at the first
volley; but there was a necessity to keep a continual firing, for
they came on like devils, those behind pushing on those before.

When we had fired our second volley of our fusees, we
thought they stopped a little, and I hoped they would have gone
off, but it was but a moment, for others came forward again; so
we fired two volleys of our pistols and I believe in these four
firings we had killed seventeen or eighteen of them and lamed
twice as many, yet they came on again.

I was loath to spend our last shot too hastily; so I called my
servant, not my man Friday, for he was better employed, for
with the greatest dexterity imaginable he had charged my fusee
and his own, while we were engaged; but as I said, I called my
other man, and giving him a horn of powder I bade him lay a
train all along the piece of timber, and let it be a large train; he
did so, and had but just time to get away when the wolves came
up to it, and some were got upon it, when I, snapping an un-
charged pistol close to the powder, set it on fire; those that were
upon the timber were scorched with it, and six or seven of them
fell or rather jumped in among us with the force and fright of
the fire; we dispatched these in an instant, and the rest were so
frightened with the light which the night, for it was now very
near dark, made more terrible, that they drew back a little.

Upon which, I ordered our last pistol to be fired off in one
volley, and after that we gave a shout; upon this, the wolves
turned tail, and we sallied immediately upon near twenty lame
ones, whom we found struggling on the ground, and fell a
cutting them with our swords, which answered our expectation;
for the crying and howling they made was better understood
by their fellows, so that they all fled and left us.

We had, first and last, killed about three score of them; and
had it been daylight, we had killed many more. The field of

279
DH op Rosinson Crusog Ke KE KE

battle being thus cleared, we made forward again; for we had
still near a league to go. We heard the ravenous creatures how]
and yell in the woods, as we went, several times; and sometimes
we fancied we saw some of them, but the snow dazzling our
eyes, We were not certain; so in about an hour more, we came
to the town, where we were to lodge, which we found in a
terrible fright, and all in arms; for it seems, that the night before,
the wolves and some bears had broke into the village in the
night, and put them ina terrible fright, and they were obliged to
keep guard night and day, but especially in the night, to preserve
their cattle, and indeed their people.

The next morning our guide was so ill, and his limbs swelled
with the rankling of his two wounds, that he could go no
farther; so we were obliged to take a new guide there, and go
to Toulouse, where we found a warm climate, a fruitful, pleas-
ant country, and no snow, no wolves, or anything like them; but
when we told our story at Toulouse, they told us it was nothing
but what was ordinary in the great forest at the foot of the
mountains, especially when the snow lay on the ground; but
they enquired much what kind of a guide we had gotten, that
would venture to bring us that way in such a severe season; and
told us, it was very strange we were not all devoured. When
we told them how we placed ourselves, and the horses in the
middle, they blamed us exceedingly, and told us it was fifty to
one but we had been all destroyed; for it was the sight of the
horses which made the wolves so furious, seeing their prey; and
that, at other times, they are really afraid of a gun; but they
being excessively hungry, and raging on that account, the
eagerness to come at the horses had made them senseless of
danger; and that if we had not, by the continued fire, and at
last, by the stratagem of the train of powder, mastered them, it
had been great odds but that we had been torn to pieces; whereas,
had we been content to have sat still on horseback, and fired as
horsemen, they would not have taken the horses for so much
their own, when men were on their backs, as otherwise; and
withal they told us, that at last, if we had stood altogether, and
left our horses, they would have been so eager to have devoured
them, that we might have come off safe, especially having our
fire-arms in our hands, and being so many in number.

For my part, I was never so sensible of danger in my life;

280
i _______________________________}
WIM My Furure Prans KE KEKE

for, seeing above three hundred devils come roaring and open-
mouthed to devour us, and having nothing to shelter us, or
retreat to, I gave myself over for lost; and as it was, I believe,
I shall never care to cross those mountains again. I think I would
much rather go a thousand leagues by sea, though I were sure
to meet with a storm once a week.

I have nothing uncommon to take notice of, in my passage
through France. Nothing but what other travellers have given
an account of, with much more advantage than I can. I travelled
from Toulouse to Paris, and without any considerable stay came
to Calais, and landed safe at Dover, the fourteenth of January,
after having had a severe cold season to travel in.

I was now come to the centre of my travels, and had in a
little time all my newly discovered estate safe about me, the
bills of exchange which I brought with me having been very
currently paid.

My principal guide and privy councellor, was my good
ancient widow, who, in gratitude for the money I had sent her,
thought no pains too much, or care too great, to employ for me;
and I trusted her so entirely with everything, that I was per-
fectly easy as to the security of my effects: and indeed, I was
very happy from my beginning, and now to the end, in the
unspotted integrity of this good gentlewoman.

And now I began to think of leaving my effects with this
woman, and setting out for Lisbon, and so to the Brazils; but
now another scruple came in my way, and that was religion;
for as I had entertained some doubts about the Roman religion,
even while I was abroad, especially in my state of solitude; so I
knew there was no going to the Brazils for me, much less going
to settle there, unless I resolved to embrace the Roman Catholic
religion, without any reserve: unless on the other hand, I re-
solved to bea sacrifice to my principles, be a martyr for religion,
and die in the Inquisition; so I resolved to stay at home, and if I
could find means for it, to dispose of my plantation.

To this purpose I wrote to my old friend at Lisbon, who in
return gave me notice, that he could easily dispose of it there:
but that if I thought fit to give him leave to offer it in my name
to the two merchants, the survivors of my trustees, who lived
in the Brazils, who must fully understand the value of it, who
lived just upon the spot, and who I knew were very rich; so that

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SP 3H > RoBinson Crusoe Ke Ke Ke

he believed they would be fond of buying it,—he did not doubt
but I should make 4,000 or 5,000 pieces of eight the more of it.

Accordingly I agreed, gave him orders to offer it to them,
and he did so; and in about eight months more, the ship being
then returned, he sent me an account, that they had accepted
the offer, and had remitted 33,000 pieces of eight to a corres-
pondent of theirs at Lisbon, to pay for it.

In return, I signed the instrument of sale in the form which
they sent from Lisbon, and sent it to my old man, who sent me
bills of exchange for 32,800 pieces of eight to me, for the estate;
reserving the payment of 100 moidores a year to him, the old
man, during his life, and fifty moidores afterwards to his son
for his life, which I had promised them, which the plantation
was to make good as a rent-charge. And thus I have given the
first part of a life of fortune and adventure, a life of Providence’s
checker-work, and of a variety which the world will seldom be
able to show the like of: beginning foolishly, but closing much
more happily than any part of it ever gave me leave so much
as to hope for.

Any one would think that, in this state of complicated good
fortune, I was past running any more hazards; and so indeed I
had been, if other circumstances had concurred, but I was
inured to a wandering life, had no family, not many relations,
nor, however rich, had I contracted much acquaintance; and
though I had sold my estate in the Brazils, yet I could not keep
the country out of my head, and had a great mind to be upon
the wing again; especially I could not resist the strong inclina-
tion I had to sce my island, and to know if the poor Spaniards
were in being there, and how the rogues I left there had used
them.

My true friend, the widow, earnestly dissuaded me from it,
and so far prevailed with me, that for almost seven years she
prevented my running abroad; during which time, I took my
two nephews, the children of one of my brothers, into my care.
The eldest, having something of his own, I bred up as a gentle-
man, and gave him a settlement of some addition to his estate,
after my decease; the other I put out to a captain of a ship, and
after five years, finding him a sensible, bold, enterprising young
fellow, I put him into a good ship, and sent him to sea; and this
young fellow afterwards drew me in, as old as I was, to further

adventures myself. as






> SH oP A FurtHer VoyaGe Kee

In the meantime, I in part settled myself here; for first of all
I married, and that not either to my disadvantage or dissatisfac-
tion, and had three children, two sons and one daughter. But
my wife dying, and my nephew coming home with good
success from a voyage to Spain, my inclination to go abroad,
and his importunity prevailed and engaged me to go in his ship,
as a private trader to the East Indies. This was in the year 1694.

In this voyage I visited my new colony in the island, saw my
successors, the Spaniards, had the whole story of their lives,
and of the villains I left there. How at first they insulted the
poor Spaniards, how they afterwards agreed, disagreed, united,
separated, and how at last the Spaniards were obliged to use
violence with them, how they were subjected to the Spaniards,
how honestly the Spaniards used them. A history, if it were
entered into, as full of variety and wonderful accidents, as my
own part; particularly also, as to their battles with the Carib-
beans, who landed several times upon the island, and as to the
improvement they made upon the island itself; and how five
of them made an attempt upon the main land, and brought away
eleven men and five women prisoners, by which, at my coming,
I found about twenty young children on the island.

Here I stayed about twenty days, left them supplies of all
necessary things, and particularly of arms, powder, shot, clothes,
tools, and two workmen, which I brought from England with
me, viz: a carpenter anda smith.

Besides this, I shared the island into parts with them, reserved
to myself the property of the whole, but gave them such parts
respectively as they agreed on; and having settled all things
with them, and engaged them not to leave the place, I left
them there.

From thence I touched at the Brazils, from whence I sent a
bark, which I brought there, with more people to the island,
and in it, besides other supplies, I sent seven women, being such
as I found proper for service, or for wives to such as would take
them. As to the Englishmen, I promis