Citation
The Life & adventures of Robinson Crusoe

Material Information

Title:
The Life & adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Series Title:
The World's classics
Uniform Title:
Robinson Crusoe
Alternate Title:
Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Creator:
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731 ( Author, Primary )
Milford, Humphrey ( Publisher )
Oxford University Press ( Publisher )
Place of Publication:
London
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Edition:
Reset ed..
Physical Description:
394 p. ; 16 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Castaways -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1864 ( rbgenr )
Genre:
fiction ( marcgt )
Children's literature ( fast )
Imaginary voyages ( rbgenr )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
"London: Humphrey Milford."
Statement of Responsibility:
by Daniel Defoe.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
30874902 ( oclc )

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Full Text






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The World's Classics

2d
XVII
THE LIFE @ ADVENTURES
OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE



DANIEL DEFOE
Born : St. Giles’s, Cripplegate 7 . 1660 or 16
Died : Moorfields : : . 6 April 17

‘The Life and Adventures of Robinson Crusoe’ was first publish
in1719. In ‘The World’s Classics’ it was first published in 1.
and reprinted in 1904, 1905, 1911, 1920 and 1937 (reset).

PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN





= >

THE a3 7 &
LIFE & ADVENTURES

OF
ROBINSON CRUSOE

BY
DANIEL DEFOE



University of Floriga Ldrariay

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
LONDON : HUMPHREY MILFORD



1QO7
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
AMEN HOUSE, E.C. 4
London Edinburgh Glasgow New York
Toronto Melbourne Capetown Bombay
Calcutta Madras
HUMPHREY MILFORD
PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY



AUTHOR’S PREFACE

F ever the story of any private man’s adventures
1 the world were worth making public, and
ier acceptable when published, the Editor of
is account thinks this will be so.
The wonders of this man’s life exceed all that
he thinks) is to be found extant; the life of one
aan being scarce capable of a greater variety.
The story is told with modesty, with serious-
ess, and with a religious application of events
the uses to which wise men always apply
hem, viz., to the instruction of others by this
ample, and to justify and honour the wisdom
f Providence in all the variety of our circum-
tances, let them happen how they will.
| The Editor believes the thing to be a just
listory of fact; neither is there any appearance
° fiction in it; and, however, thinks, because
‘l such things are despatched, that the improve-
nent of it, as well to the diversion as to the
astruction of the reader, will be the same. And
is such, he thinks, without further compliment
o the world, he does them a great service in
he publication.









i









THE
LIFE AND ADVENTURES
OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE

I was born in the year 1632, in the city’of York,
of a good family, though not of that country, my
father being a foreigner of Bremen, who settled
‘first at Hull. He got a good estate by merchan-
\dise, and leaving off his trade, lived afterward at
York, from whence he had married my mother,
whose relations were named Robinson, a very
good family in that country, and from whom I
was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but by the
usual corruption of words in England we are
now called, nay, we call ourselves, and write our
{name, Crusoe, and so my companions always
\called me.

I had two elder brothers, one of which was
lieutenant-colonel to an English regiment of foot
in Flanders, formerly commanded by the famous
Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle

ear Dunkirk against the Spaniards; what be-
came of my second brother I never knew, any
more than my father and mother did know what
was become of me.

Being the third son of the family, and not bred
to any trade, my head began to be filled very
early with rambling thoughts. My father, who
was very ancient, had given me a competent
share of learning, as far as house-education
and a country free school generally goes, and

17 B



2 THE ADVENTURES OF

designed me for the law; but I would be satisfied
with nothing but going to sea; and my inclina-
tion to this led me so strongly against the will,
nay, the commands, of my father, and against
all the entreaties and persuasions of my mother
and other friends, that there seemed to be some-
thing fatal in that propension of nature tend-
ing directly to the life of misery which was to
befall me.

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me
serious and excellent counsel against what he
foresaw was my design. He called me one morn-
ing into his chamber, where he was confined by
the gout, and expastulated very warmly with me
upon this subject} He asked me what reasons
more than a mere wandering inclination I had
for leaving my father’s house and my native
country, where I might be well introduced, and

had a prospect of raising my fortunes by ap-
‘plication and industry, with a life of ease and
pleasure. He told mé€it was for men of desperate
‘fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring, superior
fortunes on the other, who went abroad upon
adventures, to rise by enterprise, and make
themselves famous in undertakings of a nature
out of the common road; that these things were
all either too far above me, or too far below me;
that mine was the middle state, or what might
be called the upper station of low life, which he
had found by long experience was the best state
in the world, the most suited to human happi-
ness, not exposed to the miseries and hardships,
the labour and sufferings, of the mechanic part
of mankind, and not embarrassed with the
pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the upper!



ROBINSON CRUSOE | 3

part of mankind.. He told me I might judge
of the happiness of this state by this one
thing, viz., that this was the state of life which all
other people envied; that kings have frequently
lamented the miserable consequences of being
born to great things, and wished they had been
placed in the middle of the two extremes, between
the mean and the great; that the wise man gave
his testimony to this as the just standard of true
felicity, when he prayed to have neither poverty
or riches.

He bid me observe it, and I should always
find, that the calamities of life were shared
among the upper and lower part of mankind;
but that the middle station had the fewest dis-
asters, and was not exposed to so many vicissi-
tudes as the higher or lower part of mankind.
Nay, they were not subjected to so. many dis-
tempers and uneasinesses either of body or mind
as those were who, by vicious living, luxury, and
extravagances on one hand, or by hard labour,
want of necessaries, and mean or insufficient diet
on the other hand, bring distempers upon them-
selves by the natural consequences of their way
of living; that the middle station of life was
calculated for all kind of virtues and all kind of
enjoyments; that peace and plenty were the
handmaids of a middle fortune; that temper-
ance, moderation, quietness, health, society, all
agreeable diversions, and all desirable pleasures,

| were the blessings attending the middle station
|of life; that this way men went silently and
|smoothly through the world, and comfortably
out of it, not embarrassed with the labours of
the hands or of the head, not sold to the life



4 THE ADVENTURES OF

of slavery for daily bread, or harrassed with per-
plexed circumstances, which rob the soul of
peace, and the body of rest; not enraged with
the passion of envy, or secret burning lust of
ambition for great things; but in easy circum-
stances sliding gently through the world, and
sensibly tasting the sweets of living, without the
bitter, feeling that they are happy, and learning by
every day’s experience to know it more sensibly.

After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the
most afféctionate manner, not to play the young
man, not to precipitate myself into miseries
which Nature and the station of life I was born
in seemed to have provided against; that I was
under no necessity of seeking my bread; that he
would do well for me, and endeavour to enter
me fairly into the station of life which he had
been just recommending to me; and that if I
was not very easy and happy in the world it must
be my mere fate or fault that must hinder it, and
that he should have nothing to answer for,
having thus discharged his duty in warning me
against measures which he knew would be to my
hurt; in a word, that as he would do very kind
things for me if I would stay and settle at home
as he directed, so he would not have so much
hand in my misfortunes, as to give me any en-
couragement to go away. And to close all, he
told me I had my elder brother for an example,
to whom he had used the same earnest per-
suasions to keep him from going into the Low
Country wars, but could not prevail, his young
desires prompting him to run into the army,
where he was killed; and though he said he
would not cease to pray for me, yet he would



ROBINSON CRUSOE 5

venture to say to me, that if I did take this foolish
step, God would not bless me, and I would have
leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neglected
his counsel when there might be none to assist in
my recovery.

I observed in this last part of his discourse,
which was truly prophetic, though I suppose my
father did not know it to be so himself—I say,
I observed the tears run down his face very
plentifully, and especially when he spoke of my
brother who was killed; and that when he spoke
of my having leisure to repent, and none to assist
me, he was so moved, that he broke off the dis-
course, and told me, his heart was so full he
could say no more to me.

I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as
indeed who could be otherwise? and I resolved
not to think of going abroad any more, but to
settle at home according to my father’s desire.
But alas! a few days wore it all off; and, in short,
to prevent any of nty father’s farther importuni-
ties, in a few weeks after I resolved to run quite
away from him. However, I did not act so
hastily neither as my first heat of resolution
prompted, but I took my mother, at a time when
I thought her a little pleasanter than ordinary,
and told her, that my thoughts were so entirely
bent upon seeing the world, that I should never
settle to anything with resolution enough to go
through with it, and my father had better give
me his consent than force me to go without it;
that I was now eighteen years old, which was too
late to go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an
attorney; that I was sure if I did, I should never
serve out my time, and I should certainly run



6 THE ADVENTURES OF

away from my master before my time was out,
and go to sea; and if she would speak to my
father to let me go but one voyage abroad, if I,
came home again and did not like it, I would
go no more, and I would promise by a double
diligence to recover that time I had lost.

This put my mother into a great passion. She
told me, she knew it would be to no purpose to
speak to my father upon any such subject; that
he knew too well what was my interest to give his
consent to anything so much for my hurt, and
that she wondered how I could think of any such
thing after such a discourse as I had had with
my father, and such kind and tender expressions
as she knew my father had used to me; and that,
in short, if I would ruin myself there was no help
for me; but I might depend I should never have
their consent to it; that for her part, she would
not have so much hand in my destruction, and
I should never have it to say, that my mother
was willing when my father was not.

Though my mother refused to move it to my
father, yet, as I have heard afterwards, she
reported all the discourse to him, and that my
father, after showing a great concern at it, said
to her with a sigh, “That boy might be happy if
he would stay at home, but if he goes abroad he
will be the miserablest wretch that was ever
born: I can give no consent to it.’

It was not till almost a year after this that I
broke loose, though in the meantime I continued
obstinately deaf to all proposals of settling to
business, and frequently expostulating with my
father and mother about their being so positively
determined against what they knew my inclina-



ROBINSON CRUSOE 7

tions prompted me to. But being one day at
Hull, where I went casually, and without any
purpose of making an elopement that time; but
I say, being there, and one of my companions
being going by sea to London, in his father’s
ship, and prompting me to go with them, with
the common allurement of seafaring men, viz.,
that it should cost me nothing for my passage,
I consulted neither father or mother any more,
nor so much as sent them word of it; but leaving
them to hear of it as they might, without asking
God’s blessing, or my father’s, without any con-
sideration of circumstances or consequences,
and in an ill hour, God poe cn the first of
September, 1651, I went on board a ship bound
for London. Never any young adventurer’s
misfortunes, I believe, began sooner, or con-
tinued longer than mine. The ship was no
sooner gotten out of the Humber, but the wind
began to blow, and the waves to rise in a most
frightful manner; and as I had never been at sea
before, I was most inexpressibly sick in body,
and terrified in my mind.) I began now seriously
to reflect upon what I had done, and how justly
I was overtaken by the judgment of heaven for
my wicked leaving my father’s house, and aban-
doning my duty; all the good counsel of my
parents, my father’s tears and my mother’s
entreaties, came now fresh into my mind, and
my conscience, which was not yet come to the
pitch of hardness which it has been since, re-
proached me with the contempt of advice, and
the breach of my duty to God and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the
sea, which I had never been upon before, went



8 THE ADVENTURES OF

very high, though nothing like what I have seen
many times since; no, nor like what I saw a few
days after. But it was enough to affect me then,
who was but a young sailor, and had never
known anything of the matter. I expected every
wave would have swallowed us up, and that
every time the ship fell down, as I thought, in
the trough or hollow of the sea, we should never
rise more; and in this agony of mind I made
many vows and resolutions, that if it would
please God here to spare my life this one voyage,
if ever I got once my foot upon dry land again,
I would go directly home to my father, and never
set it into a ship again while I lived; that I
would take his advice, and never run myself into
such miseries as these any more. Now I saw
plainly the goodness of his observations about
the middle station of life, how easy, how com-
fortably he had lived all his days, and never had
been exposed to tempests at sea, or troubles on
shore; and I resolved that I would, like a true
repenting prodigal, go home to my father.

These wise and sober thoughts continued all
the while the storm continued, and indeed some
time after; but the next day the wind was abated
and the sea calmer, and I began to be a little
inured to it. However, I was very grave for all
that day, being also a little sea-sick still; but
towards night the weather cleared up, the wind
was quite over, and a charming fine evening
followed; the sun went down perfectly clear,
and rose so the next morning; and having little
or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun shining
upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most
delightful that ever I saw.



ROBINSON CRUSOE 9

I had slept well in the night, and was now no
more sea-sick but very cheerful, looking with
wonder upon the sea that was so rough and
terrible the day before, and could be so calm
and so pleasant in so little time after. And now
lest my good resolutions should continue, my
companion, who had indeed enticed me away,
comes to me: ‘Well, Bob,’ says he, clapping me
on the shoulder, ‘how do you do after it? I
warrant you were frighted, wa’n’t you, last
night, when it blew but a capful of wind?’ ‘A
capful, d’you ‘call it?’ said I; “’twas a terrible
storm.’ ‘A storm, you fool you,’ replies he; ‘do
you call that a storm? Why, it was nothing at
all; give us but a good ship and sea-room, and
we think nothing of such a squall of wind as that;
but you’re but a fresh-water sailor, Bob. Come,
let us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget
all that; d’ye see what charming weather ’tis
now?’ To make short this sad part of my story,
we went the old way of all sailors; the punch *
was made, and I was made drunk with it, and
in that one night’s wickedness I drowned all my
repentance, all my reflections upon my past con-
duet, and all my resolutions for my future. Ina
word, as the sea was returned to its smoothness
of surface and settled calmness by the abate-
ment of that storm, so the hurry of my thoughts
being over, my fears and apprehensions of being
swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and
the current of my former desires returned, I
entirely forgot the vows and promises that I
made in my distress. I found indeed some
intervals of reflection, and the serious thoughts
did, as it were, endeavour to return again some-



10 THE ADVENTURES OF

times; but I shook them off, and roused myself
from them as it were from a distemper, and
applying myself to drink and company, soon
‘mastered the return of those fits, for so I called
them, and I had in five or six days got as com-
plete a victory over conscience as any young
fellow that resolved not to be troubled with it
could desire. But I was to have another trial
for it still; and Providence, as in such cases
generally it does, resolved to leave me entirely
without excuse. For if I would not take this
for a deliverance, the next was to be such a
one as the worst and most hardened wretch
among us would confess both the danger and
the mercy.

The sixth day of our being at sea we came into
Yarmouth roads; the wind having been contrary
and the weather calm, we had made but little
way since the storm. Here we were obliged to
come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind
continuing contrary, viz., at south-west, for
seven or eight days, during which time a great
many ships from Newcastle came into the same
roads, as the common harbour where the ships
might wait for a wind for the river.

We had not, however, rid here so long, but
should have tided it up the river, but that the
wind blew too fresh; and after we had lain four
or five days, blew very hard. However, the
roads being reckoned as good as a harbour, the
anchorage good, and our ground-tackle very
strong, our men were unconcerned, and not in
the least apprehensive of danger, but spent the
time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the
sea; but the eighth day in the morning the wind



ROBINSON CRUSOE II

increased, and we had all hands at work to
strike our topmasts, and make everything snug
and close, that the ship might ride as easy as
possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed,
and our ship rid forecastle in, shipped several
seas, and we thought once or twice our anchor
had come home; upon which our master ordered
out the sheet-anchor, so that we rode with two
anchors ahead, and the cables veered out to the
better end.

By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed,
and now I began to see terror and amazement
in the faces even of the seamen themselves. The
master, though vigilant to the business of pre-
serving the ship, yet as he went in and out of
his cabin by me, I could hear him softly to
himself say several times, ‘Lord be merciful to
us, we shall be all lost, we shall be all undone’;
and the like. During these first hurries I was
stupid, lying still in my cabin, which was in the
steerage, and cannot describe my temper; I
could ill reassume the first penitence, which
I had so apparently trampled upon, and hard-
ened myself against; I thought the bitterness of
death had been past, and that this would be
nothing too, like the first. But when the master
himself came by me, as I said just now, and said
we should be all lost, I was dreadfully frighted;
I got up out of my cabin, and looked out. But
such a dismal sight I never saw; the sea went
mountains high, and broke upon us every three
or four minutes; when I could look about, I
could see nothing but distress round us. Two
ships that rid near us we found had cut their
masts by the board, being deep loaden; and our



12 THE ADVENTURES OF

men cried out, that a ship which rid about a mile
ahead of us was foundered. Two more ships
being driven from their anchors, were run out
of the roads to sea at all adventures, and that
with not a mast standing. The light ships fared
the best, as not so much labouring in the sea;
but two or three of them drove, and came close
by us, running away with only their sprit-sail
out before the wind.

Towards evening the mate and boatswain
begged the master of our ship to let them cut
away the foremast, which he was very unwilling
to. But the boatswain protesting to him that if
he did not the ship would founder, he consented ;
and when they had cut away the foremast, the
mainmast stood so loose, and shook the ship so
much, they were obliged to cut her away also,
and make a clear deck.

Any one may judge what a condition I must
be in at all this, who was but a young sailor, and
who had been in such a fright before at but a
little. But if I can express at this distance the
thoughts I had about me at that time, I was in
tenfold more horror of mind upon account of
my former convictions, and the having returned
from them to the resolutions I had wickedly
taken at first, than I was at death itself; and
these, added to the terror of the storm, put me
into such a condition, that I can by no words
describe it. But the worst was not come yet; the
storm continued with such fury, that the seamen
themselves acknowledged they had never known
a worse. We had a good ship, but she was deep
loaden, and wallowed in the sea, that the seamen
every now and then cried out she would founder.



ROBINSON CRUSOE 13

It was my advantage in one respect, that I did
not know what they meant by founder till I
inquired. However, the storm was so violent,
that I saw what is not often seen, the master, the
boatswain, and some others‘ more sensible than
the rest, at their prayers, and expecting every
moment when the ship would go to the bottom.
In the middle of the night, and under all the
rest of our distresses, one of the men that had
been down on purpose to see cried out we had
sprung a leak, another said there was four foot
water in the hold. Then all hands were called
to the pump. At that very word my heart, as I
thought, died within me, and I fell backwards
upon the side of my bed where I sat, into the
cabin. However, the men roused me, and told
me, that I, that was able to do nothing before,
was as well able to pump as another; at which
I stirred up and went to the pump and worked
very heartily. While this was doing, the master
seeing some light colliers, who, not able to ride
out the storm, were obliged to slip and run away
to sea, and would come near us, ordered to fire
a gun asa signal of distress. I, who knew nothing
what that meant, was so surprised that I thought
the ship had broke, or some dreadful thing had
happened. In a word, I was so surprised that
I fell down in a swoon. As this was a time when
everybody had his own life to think of, no-
body minded me, or what was become of me;
but another man stepped up to the pump, and
thrusting me aside with his foot, let me lie, think-
ing I had been dead; and it was a great while
before I came to myself.

We worked on, but the water increasing in



14 THE ADVENTURES OF

the hold, it was apparent that the ship would
founder, and though the storm began to abate
a little, yet as it was not possible she could swim
till we might run into a port, so the master con-
tinued firing guns for help; and a light ship,
who had rid it out just ahead of us, ventured a
boat out to help us. It was with the utmost
hazard the boat came near us, but it was im-
possible for us to get on board, or for the boat
to lie near the ship’s side, till at last the men
rowing very heartily, and venturing their lives
to save ours, our men cast them a rope over the
stern with a buoy to it, and then veered it out
a great length, which they after great labour
and hazard took hold of, and we hauled them
close under our stern, and got all into their boat.
It was to no purpose for them or us after we
were in the boat to think of reaching to their
own ship, so all agreed to let her drive, and only
to pull her in towards shore as much as we could,
and our master promised them that if the boat
was staved upon shore he would make it good
to their master; so partly rowing and partly
driving, our boat went away to the norward,
sloping towards the shore almost as far as
Winterton Ness.

We were not much more than a quarter of an
hour out of our ship but we saw her sink, and
then I understood for the first time what was
meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I must
acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up when
the seamen told me she was sinking; for from
that moment they rather put me into the boat
than that I might be said to go in; my heart
was as it were dead within me, partly with fright,



ROBINSON CRUSOE 15

partly with horror of mind and the thoughts of
what was yet before me.

While we were in this condition, the men yet
labouring at the oar to bring the boat near the
shore, we could see, when, our boat mounting
the waves, we were able to see the shore, a great
many people running along the shore to assist us
when we should come near. But we made but
slow way towards the shore, nor were we able to
reach the shore, till being past the lighthouse
at Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward
towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a
little the violence of the wind. Here we got in,
and though not without much difficulty got all
safe on shore, and walked afterwards on foot to
Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were
used with great humanity as well by the magis-
trates of the town, who assigned us good quarters,
as by particular merchants and owners of ships,
and had money given us sufficient to carry us
either to London or back to Hull, as we thought
fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone back
to Hull, and have gone home, I had been happy,
and my father, an emblem of our blessed
Saviour’s parable, had even killed the fatted
calf for me; for hearing the ship I went away in
was cast away in Yarmouth road, it was a great
while before he had any assurance that I was
not drowned.

But my ill fate pushed me on now with an
obstinacy that nothing could resist; and though
I had several times loud calls from my reason
and my more composed judgment to go home,
yet I had no power to doit. I know not what to



16 THE ADVENTURES OF

call this, nor will I urge that it is a secret over-
ruling decree that hurries us on to be the instru-
ments of our own destruction, even though it be
before us, and that we rush upon it with our
eyes open. Certainly nothing but some such
decreed unavoidable misery attending, and
which it was impossible for me to escape, could
have pushed me forward against the calm
reasonings and persuasions of my most retired
thoughts, and against two such visible instruc-
tions as I had met with in my first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me
before, and who was the master’s son, was now
less forward than I. The first time he spoke to
me after we were at Yarmouth, which was not
till two or three days, for we were separated in
the town to several quarters—I say, the first time
he saw me, it appeared his tone was altered,
and looking very melancholy and shaking his
head, asked me how I did, and telling his father
who I was, and how I had come this voyage only
for a trial in order to go farther abroad, his
father turning to me with a very grave and
concerned tone, ‘Young man,’ says he, ‘you
ought never to go to sea any more, you ought
to take this for a plain and visible token, that
you are not to be a seafaring man.’ ‘Why, sir,’
said I, ‘will you go to sea no more?’ “That is
another case,’ said he; ‘it is my calling, and
therefore my duty; but as you made this voyage
for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given
you of what you are to expect if you persist;
perhaps this is all befallen us on your account,
like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray,’ con-
tinues he, ‘what are you? and on what account



ROBINSON CRUSOE 17

did you go to sea?’ Upon that I told him some
of my story, at the end of which he burst out
with a strange kind of passion. ‘What had I
done,’ says he, ‘that such an unhappy wretch
should come into my ship? I would not set my
foot in the same ship with thee again for a thous-
and pounds.’ This indeed was, as I said, an ex-
cursion of his spirits, which were yet agitated by
the sense of his loss, and was farther than he
could have authority to go. However, he after-
wards talked very gravely to me, exhorted me
to go back to my father, and not tempt Provi-
dence to my ruin; told me I might see a visible
hand of Heaven against me. ‘And, young man,’
said he, ‘depend upon it, if you do not go back,
wherever you go you will meet with nothing but
disasters and disappointments, till your father’s
words are fulfilled upon you.’

We parted soon after; for I made him little
answer, and I saw him no more; which way he
went, I know not. As forme, having some money
in my pocket, I travelled to London by land;
and there, as well as on the road, had many
struggles with myself what course of life I should
take, and whether I should go home, or go to sea.

As to going home, shame opposed the best
motions that offered to my thoughts; and it
immediately occurred to me how I should be
laughed at among the neighbours, and should
be ashamed to see, not my father and mother
only, but even everybody else; from whence I
have since often observed how incongruous and
irrational the common temper of mankind is,
especially of youth, to that reason which ought
to guide them in such cases, viz., that they are



18 THE ADVENTURES OF

not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to
repent; not ashamed of the action for which
they ought justly to be esteemed fools, but are
ashamed of the returning, which only can make
them be esteemed wise men.

In this state of life, however, I remained some
time, uncertain what measures to take, and what
course of life to lead. An irresistible reluctance
continued to going home; and as I stayed a
while, the remembrance of the distress I had
been in wore off; and as that abated, the little
motion I had in my desires to a return wore off
with it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts
of it, and looked out for a voyage.

That evil influence which carried me first
away from my father’s house, that hurried me
into the wild and indigested notion of raising
my fortune, and that impressed those conceits
so forcibly upon me as to make me deaf to all
good advice, and to the entreaties and even
command of my father—I say, the same in-
fluence, whatever it was, presented the most
unfortunate of all enterprises to my view; and
I went on board a vessel bound to the coast of
Africa, or, as our sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage
to Guinea.

It was my great misfortune that,in all these
adventures I did not ship myself as a sailor,
whereby, though I might indeed have worked
a little harder than ordinary, yet at the same
time I had learned the duty and ofiice of a fore-
mast man, and in time might have qualified
myself for a mate or lieutenant, if not for a
master. But as it was always my fate to choose
for the worse, so I did here; for having money



ROBINSON CRUSOE 19)

in my pocket, and good clothes upon my back,
I would always go on board in the habit of a
gentleman; and so I neither had any business
in the ship, or learned to do any.

It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good
company in London, which does not always
happen to such loose and misguided young
fellows as I then was; the devil generally not
omitting to lay some snare for them very early;
but it was not so with me. I first fell acquainted
with the master of a ship who had been on the
coast of Guinea, and who, having had very good
success there, was resolved to go again; and
who, taking a fancy to my conversation, which
was not at all disagreeable at that time, hearing
me say I had a mind to see the world, told me
if I would go the voyage with him I should be
at no expense; I should be his messmate and
his companion; and if I could carry anything
with me, I should have all the advantage of it
that the trade would admit, and perhaps I
might meet with some encouragement.

I embraced the offer; and, entering into a
strict friendship with this captain, who was an
honest and plain-dealing man, I went the voyage
with him, and carried a small adventure with
me, which, by the disinterested honesty of my
friend the captain, I increased very considerably,
for I carried about £40 in such toys and trifles
as the captain directed me to buy. This £40 I
had mustered together by the assistance of some
of my relations whom I corresponded with, and
who, I believe, got my father, or at least my
mother, to contribute so much as that to my
first adventure.



20 THE ADVENTURES OF

This was the only voyage which I may say
was successful in all my adventures, and which
I owe to the integrity and honesty of my friend
the captain; under whom also I got a competent
knowledge of the mathematics and the rules of
navigation, learned how to keep an account
of the ship’s course, take an observation, and,
in short, to understand some things that were
needful to be understood by a sailor. For, as
he took delight to introduce me, I took delight
to learn; and, in a word, this voyage made me
both a sailor and a merchant; for I brought
home five pounds nine ounces of gold dust for
my adventure, which yielded me in London at
my return almost £300, and this filled me with
those aspiring thoughts which have since so
completed my ruin.

Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes
too; particularly, that I was continually sick,
being thrown into a violent calenture by the
excessive heat of the climate; our principal
trading being upon the coast, from the latitude
of 15 degrees north even to the line itself.

I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my
friend, to my great misfortune, dying soon after
his arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage
again, and I embarked in the same vessel with
one who was his mate in the former voyage, and
had now got the command of the ship. This was
the unhappiest voyage that ever man made;
for though I did not carry quite £100 of my
new-gained wealth, so that I had £200 left, and
which I lodged with my friend’s widow, who
was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible mis-
fortunes in this voyage; and the first was this,



ROBINSON CRUSOE QI

viz., our ship making her course towards the
Canary Islands, or rather between those islands
and the African shore, was surprised in the grey
of the morning by a Turkish rover of Sallee,
who gave chase to us with all the sail she could
make. We crowded also as much canvas as our
yards would spread, or our masts carry, to have
got clear; but finding the pirate gained upon
us, and would certainly come up with us in a
few hours, we prepared to fight, our ship having
twelve guns, and the rogue eighteen. About
three in the afternoon he came up with us, and
bringing to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter,
instead of athwart our stern, as he intended, we
brought eight of our guns to bear on that side,
and poured in a broadside upon him, which
made him sheer off again, after returning our
fire and pouring in also his small-shot from near
200 men which he had on board. However, we
had not a man touched, all our men keeping
close. He prepared to attack us again, and we
to defend ourselves; but laying us on board the
next time upon our other quarter, he entered
sixty men uponourdecks, who immediately fell to
cutting and hacking the decks and rigging. We
plied them with small-shot, half-pikes, powder-
chests, and such like, and cleared our deck of
them twice. However, to cut short this melan-
choly part of our story, our ship being disabled,
and three of our men killed and eight wounded,
we were obliged to yield, and were carried all
prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to the
Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as
at first I apprehended, nor was I carried up the



22 THE ADVENTURES OF

country to the emperor’s court, as the rest of our
men were, but was kept by the captain of the
rover as his proper prize, and made his slave,
being young and nimble, and fit for his business.
At this surprising change of my circumstances
from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was
perfectly overwhelmed; and now I looked back
upon my father’s prophetic discourse to me, that
I should be miserable, and have none to relieve
me, which I thought was now so effectually
brought to pass, that it could not be worse; that
now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and
I was undone without redemption. But alas!
this was but a taste of the misery I was to go
through, as will appear in the sequel of this story.

As my new patron, or master, had taken me
home to his house, so I was in hopes that he
would take me with him when he went to sea
again, believing that it would some time or other
be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portugal
man-of-war; and that then I should be set at
liberty. But this hope of mine was soon taken
away; for when he went to sea, he left me on
shore to look after his little garden, and do the
common drudgery of-slaves about his house; and
when he came home again from his cruise, he
ordered me to lie in the cabin to look after the
ship. :

Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and
what method I might take to effect it, but found
no way that had the least probability in it.
Nothing presented to make the supposition of
it rational; for I had nobody to communicate
it to that would embark with me, no fellow-slave,
no Englishman, Irishman, or Scotsman there



ROBINSON CRUSOE 23

but myself; so that for two years, though I often
pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never
had the least encouraging prospect of putting it
in practice.

After about two years an odd circumstance
presented itself, which put the old thought of
making some attempt for my liberty again in
my head. My patron lying at home longer than
usual without fitting out his ship, which, as I
heard, was for want of money, he used con-
stantly, once or twice a week, sometimes oftener,
if the weather was fair, to take the ship’s pinnace,
and go out into the road a-fishing; and as he
always took me and a young Maresco with him
to row the boat, we made him very merry, and
I proved very dexterous in catching fish; inso-
much, that sometimes he would send me with
a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth the
Maresco, as they called him, to catch a dish of
fish for him.

It happened one time that, going a-fishing in
a stark calm morning, a fog rose so thick, that
though we were not half a league from the shore
we lost sight of it; and rowing we knew not
whither or which way, we laboured all day, and
all the next night, and when the morning came
we found we had pulled off to sea instead of
pulling in for the shore; and that we were at
least two leagues from the shore. However, we
got well in again, though with a great deal of
labour, and some danger, for the wind began to
blow pretty fresh in the morning; but ‘particu-
larly we were all very hungry.

But our patron, warned by this disaster,
resolved to take more care of himself for the



24 THE ADVENTURES OF

future; and having lying by him the long-boat
of our English ship which he had taken, he
resolved he would not go a-fishing any more
without a compass and some provision; so he
ordered the carpenter of his ship, who also was
an English slave, to build a little state-room,
or cabin, in the middle of the long-boat, like
that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it
to steer and haul home the main-sheet, and
room before for a hand or two to stand and
work the sails. She sailed with what we call a
shoulder-of-mutton sail; and the boom jibbed
over the top of the cabin, which lay very snug
and low, and had in it room for him to lie, with
a slave or two, and a table to eat on, with some
small lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor
as he thought fit to drink; particularly his bread,
rice, and coffee.

We went frequently out with this boat a-fish-
ing, and as I was most dexterous to catch fish
for him, he never went without me. It happened
that he had appointed to go out in this boat,
either for pleasure or for fish, with two or three

.Moors of some distinction in that place, and for
whom he had provided extraordinarily; and had
therefore sent on board the boat overnight a
larger store of provisions than ordinary; and
had ordered me to get ready three fuzees with
powder and shot, which were on board his ship,
for that they designed some sport of fowling as
well as fishing.

I got all things ready as he had directed, and
waited the next morning with the boat, washed
‘clean, her ancient and pendants out, and every-
thing to accommodate his guests; when by and



ROBINSON CRUSOE 25

by my patron came on board alone, and told
me his guests had put off going, upon some
business that fell out, and ordered me with the
man and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat
and catch them some fish, for that his friends
were to sup at his house; and commanded that
as soon as I had got some fish I should bring it
home to his house; all which I prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance
darted into my thoughts, for now I found I was
like to have a little ship at my command; and
my master being gone, I prepared to furnish
myself, not for a fishing business, but for a
voyage; though I knew not, neither did I so
much as consider, whither I should steer; for
anywhere, to get out of that place, was my way.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence
to speak to this Moor, to get something for our
subsistence on board; for I told him we must
not presume to eat of our patron’s bread. He
said that was true; so he brought a large basket
of rusk or biscuit of their kind, and three jars
with fresh water, into the boat. I knew where
my patron’s case of bottles stood, which it was
evident by the make were taken out of some
English prize; and I conveyed them into the
boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they had
been there before for our master. I conveyed
also a great lump of beeswax into the boat,
which weighed above half a hundredweight,
with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a
saw, and a hammer, all which were great use
to us afterwards, especially the wax to make
candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which
he innocently came into also. His name was

Sepe1g)7 PPHOLY Jo GIsseaug



26 THE ADVENTURES OF

Ismael, who they call Muly, or Moely; so I
called to him, ‘Moely,’ said I, ‘our patron’s guns
are on board the boat; can you not get a little
powder and shot? it may be we may kill some
alcamies (a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves,
for I know he keeps the gunner’s stores in the
ship.” ‘Yes,’ says he, ‘I’ll bring some’; and
accordingly he brought a great leather pouch
which held about a pound and a half of powder,
or rather more; and another with shot, that had
five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put
all into the boat. At the same time I had found
some powder of my master’s in the great cabin,
with which I filled one of the large bottles in the
case, which was almost empty, pouring what
was in it into another; and thus furnished with
everything needful, we sailed out of the port to
fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of the
port, knew who we were, and took no notice of
us; and we were not above a mile out of the
port before we hauled in our sail, and set us
down to fish. The wind blew from the N.N.E.,
which was contrary to my desire; for had it
blown southerly I had been sure to have made
the coast of Spain, and at least reached to the
bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow
which way it would, I would be gone from the
horrid place where I was, and leave the rest
to Fate.

After we had fished some time and catched
nothing, for when I had fish on my hook I would
not pull them up, that he might not see them,
I said to the Moor, “This will not do; our master
will not be thus served; we must stand farther
off.’ He, thinking no harm, agreed, and being



ROBINSON CRUSOE 27

in the head of the boat set the sails; and as I had
the helm I run the boat out near a league
farther, and then brought her to as if I would
fish; when giving the boy the helm, I stepped
forward to where the Moor was, and making
as if I stooped for something behind him, I took
him by surprise with my arm under his twist,
and tossed him clear overboard into the sea. He
rose immediately, for he swam like a cork, and
called to me, begged to be taken in, told me he
would go all the world over with me. He swam
so strong after the boat, that he would have
reached me very quickly, there being but little
wind; upon which I stepped into the cabin, and
fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented
it at him, and told him I had done him no hurt,
and if he would be quiet I would do him none.
‘But,’ said I, ‘you swim well enough to reach to
the shore, and the sea is calm; make the best of
your way to shore, and I will do you no harm;
but if you come near the boat [ll shoot you
through the head, for I am resolved to have
my liberty.” So he turned himself about, and
swam for the shore, and I make no doubt but
he reached it with ease, for he was an excellent
swimmer. —
I could have been content to have taken this
Moor with me, and have drowned the boy, but
there was no venturing to trust him. When he
was gone I turned to the boy, whom they called
Xury, and said to him, ‘Xury, if you will be
faithful to me TP’ll make you a great man; but
if you will not stroke your face to be true to me,’
that is, swear by Mahomet and his father’s
beard, ‘I must throw you into the sea too.’ The



28 THE ADVENTURES OF

boy smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently,
that I could not mistrust him, and swore to be
faithful to me, and go all over the world with me.

—=—While I was in view of the Moor that was
swimming, I stood out directly to sea with the
boat, rather stretching to windward, that they
might think me gone towards the straits’ mouth
(as indeed any one that had been in their wits
must have been supposed to do) ; for who would
have supposed we were sailed on to the south-
ward to the truly barbarian coast, where whole
nations of negroes were sure to surround us with
their canoes, and destroy us; where we could
ne’er once go on shore but we should be de-
voured by savage beasts, or more merciless
savages of human kind?

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening,
I changed my course, and steered directly south
and by east, bending my course a little toward
the east, that I might keep in with the shore;
and having a fair, fresh gale of wind, and a
smooth, quiet sea, I made such sail that I believe
by the next day, at three o’clock in the afternoon,
when I first made the land, I could not be less
than 150 miles south of Sallee; quite beyond the
Emperor of Morocco’s dominions, or indeed of
any other king thereabouts, for we saw no
people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken at the
Moors, and the dreadful apprehensions I had
of falling into their hands, that I would not stop,
or go on shore, or come to an anchor, the wind
continuing fair, till I had sailed in that manner
five days; and then the wind shifting to the
southward, I concluded also that if any of our



ROBINSON CRUSOE 29

vessels were in chase of me, they also would now
give over; so I ventured to make to the coast,
and came to an anchor in the mouth of a little
river, I knew not what, or where; neither what
latitude, what country, what nations, or what
river. I neither saw, or desired to see, any
people; the principal thing I wanted was fresh
water. We came into this creek in the evening,
resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark,
and discover the country; but as soon as it was
quite dark we heard such dreadful noises of the
barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures,
of we knew not what kinds, that the poor boy
was ready to die with fear, and begged of me not
to go on shore till day. ‘Well, Xury,’ said I,
‘then I won’t; but it may be we may see men by
day, who will be as bad to us as those lions.’
‘Then we give them the shoot gun,’ says Xury,
laughing; ‘make them run away.’ Such English
Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves.
However, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful,
and I gave him a dram (out of our patron’s case
of bottles) to cheer him up. After all, Xury’s
advice was good, and I took it; we dropped our
little anchor and lay still all night. I say still,
for we slept none; for in two or three hours we
saw vast great creatures (we knew not what to
call them) of many sorts come down to the sea-
shore and run into the water, wallowing and
washing themselves for the pleasure of cooling
themselves; and they made such hideous howl-
ings and yellings, that I never indeed heard
the like.

Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so
was I too; but we were both more frighted when



30 THE ADVENTURES OF

we heard one of these mighty creatures come
swimming towards our boat; we could not see
him, but we might hear him by his blowing to
be a monstrous huge and furious beast. Xury
said it was a lion, and it might be so for aught
I know; but poor Xury cried to me to weigh the
anchor and row away. ‘No,’ says I, “Xury; we
can slip our cable with the buoy to it, and go
off to sea; they cannot follow us far.’ I had no
sooner said so, but I perceived the creature
(whatever it was) within two oars’ length, which
something surprised me; however, I imme-
diately stepped to the cabin door, and taking
up my gun, fired at him, upon which he im-
mediately turned about and swam towards the
shore again.

But it is impossible to describe the horrible
noises, and hideous cries and howlings, that were
raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as
higher within the country, upon the noise or
report of the gun, a thing I have some reason
to believe those creatures had never heard
before. This convinced me that there was no
going on shore for us in the night upon that
coast; and how to venture on shore in the day
was another question too; for to have fallen into
the hands of any of the savages, had been as bad
as to have fallen into the hands of lions and
tigers; at least we were equally apprehensive of
the danger of it.

Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on
shore somewhere or other for water, for we had
not a pint left in the boat; when or where to get
to it, was the point. Xury said if I would let
him go on shore with one of the jars, he would



ROBINSON CRUSOE 3I

find if there was any water and bring some to
me. I asked him why he would go? why I should
not go and he stay in the boat? The boy
answered with so much affection, that made me
love him ever after. Says he, ‘If wild mans
come, they eat me, you go way.’ ‘Well, Xury,’
said I, ‘we will both go; and if the wild mans
come, ‘we will kill them, they shall eat neither
of us.? So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to
eat, and a dram out of our patron’s case of
bottles which I mentioned before; and we hauled
in the boat as near the shore as we thought was
proper, and so waded on shore, carrying nothing
but our arms and two jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat,
fearing the coming of canoes with savages down
the river; but the boy seeing a low place about
a mile up the country, rambled to it; and by
and by I saw him come running towards me.
I thought he was pursued by some savage, or
frighted with some wild beast, and I ran forward
towards him to help him; but when I came
nearer to him, I saw something hanging over
his shoulders, which was a creature that he had
shot, like a hare, but different in colour, and
longer legs. However, we were very glad of it,
and it was very good meat; but the great joy
that poor Xury came with was to tell me he had
found good water, and seen no wild mans.

But we found afterwards that we need not
take such pains for water, for a little higher up
the creek where we were we found the water
fresh when the tide was out, which flowed but
a little way up; so we filled our jars, and feasted
on the hare we had killed, and prepared to go on



32 THE ADVENTURES OF

our way, having seen no footsteps of any human
creature in that part of the country.

As I had been one voyage to this coast before,
I knew very well that the islands of the Canaries,
and the Cape de Verde Islands also, lay not far
off from the coast. But as I had no instruments
to take an observation to know what latitude
we were in, and did not exactly know, or at least
remember, what latitude they were in, I knew
not where to look for them, or when to stand off
to sea towards them; otherwise I might now
easily have found some of these islands. But my
hope was, that if I stood along this coast till I
came to that part where the English traded,
I should find some of their vessels upon their
usual design of trade, that would relieve and
take us in.

By the best of my calculation, that place
where I now was must be that country which,
lying between the Emperor of Morocco’s domin-
ions and the negroes, lies waste and uninhabited,
except by wild beasts; the negroes having aban-
doned it and gone farther south for fear of the
Moors, and the Moors not thinking it worth
inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness; and
indeed both forsaking it because of the pro-
digious numbers of tigers, lions, leopards, and
other furious creatures which harbour there;
so that the Moors use it for their hunting only,
where they go like an army, two or three
thousand men at a time; and indeed for near
an hundred miles together upon this coast we
saw nothing but a waste uninhabited country
by day, and heard nothing but howlings and
roarings of wild beasts by night.



ROBINSON CRUSOE 33

Once or twice in the daytime I thought I saw
the Pico of Teneriffe, being the high top of the
Mountain Teneriffe in the Canaries, and had
a great mind to venture out, in hopes of reaching
thither; but having tried twice, I was forced in
again by contrary winds, the sea also going too
high for my little vessel; so I resolved to pursue
my first design, and keep along the shore.

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh
water after we had left this place; and once in
particular, being early in the morning, we came
to an anchor under a little point of land which
was pretty high; and the tide beginning to flow,
we lay still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes
were more about him than it seems mine were,
calls softly to me, and tells me that we had best
go farther off the shore; ‘For,’ says he, ‘look,
yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of
that hillock fast asleep.’ I looked where he
pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed,
for it was a terrible great lion that lay on the
side of the shore, under the shade of a piece of
the hill that hung as it were a little over him.
‘Xury,’ says I, ‘you shall go on shore and kill
him.’ Xury looked frighted, and said, ‘Me kill! .
he eat me at one mouth’; one mouthfull he
meant. However, I said no more to the boy,
but bade him lie still, and I took our biggest
gun, which was almost musket-bore, and loaded
it with a good charge of powder, and with two
slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded another
gun with two bullets; and the third (for we had
three pieces) I loaded with five smaller bullets.
I took the best aim I could with the first piece
to have shot him into the head, but he lay so

17 Cc



34 THE ADVENTURES OF

with his leg raised a little above his nose, that
the slugs hit his leg about the knee, and broke
the bone. He started up growling at first, but
finding his leg broke, fell down again, and then
got up upon three legs and gave the most
hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a little
surprised that I had not hit him on the head.
However, I took up the second piece immedi-
ately, and, though he began to move off, fired
again, and shot him into the head, and had the
pleasure to see him drop, and make but little
noise, but lay struggling for life. Then Xury
took heart, and would have me let him go on
shore. ‘Well, go,’ said I; so the boy jumped
into the water, and taking a little gun in one
hand, swam to shore with the other hand, and
coming close to the creature, put the muzzle
of the piece to his ear, and shot him into the
head again, which despatched him quite.

This was game indeed to us, but this was no
food; and I was very sorry to lose three charges
of powder arid shot upon a creature that was
good for nothing to us. However, Xury said he
would have some of him; so he comes on board,

-and asked me to give him the hatchet. ‘For
what, Xury?’ said I. ‘Me cut off his head,’ said
he. However, Xury could not cut off his head,
but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him,
and it was a monstrous great one.

I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the
skin of him might one way or other be of some
value to us; and I resolved to take off his skin if
I could. So Xury and I went to work with him;
but Xury was much the better workman at it,
for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took



ROBINSON CRUSOE 35

us up both the whole day, but at last we got off
the hide of him, and spreading it on the top of
our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two
days’ time, and it afterwards served me to lie
upon.

After this stop we made on to the southward
continually for ten or twelve days, living very
sparing on our provisions, which began to abate
very much, and going no oftener into the shore
than we were obliged to for fresh water. My
design in this was to make the river Gambia or
Senegal—that is to say, anywhere about the
Cape de Verde—where I was in hopes to meet
with some European ship; and if I did not, I
knew not what course I had to take, but to seek
out for the islands, or perish there among the
negroes. I knew that all the ships from Europe,
which sailed either to the coast of Guinea or to
Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this cape,
or those islands; and in a word, I put the whole
of my fortune upon this single point, either that
I must meet with some ship, or must perish.

When I had pursued this resolution about ten
days longer, as I have said, I began to see that
the land was inhabited; and in two or three
places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand
upon the shore to look at us; we could also
perceive they were quite black, and stark naked.
I was once inclined to have gone on shore to
them; but Xury was my better counsellor, and
said to me, ‘No go, no go.’ However, I hauled
in nearer the shore that I might talk to them,
and I found they ran along the shore by me a
good way. I observed they had no weapons in
their hands, except one, who had a long slender



36 THE ADVENTURES OF

stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that
they would throw them a great way with good
aim. So I kept at a distance, but talked with
them by signs as well as I could, and particularly
made signs for something to eat; they beckoned
to me to stop my boat, and that they would
fetch me some meat. Upon this I lowered the
top of my sail, and lay by, and two of them ran
up into the country, and in less than halfan hour
came back, and brought with them two pieces
of dried flesh and some corn, such as is the
produce of their country; but we neither knew
what the one or the other was. However, we
were willing to accept it, but how to come at it
was our next dispute, for I was not for venturing
on shore to them, and they were as much afraid
of us; but they took a safe way for us all, for they
brought it to the shore and laid it down, and
went and stood a great way off till we fetched
it on board, and then came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had
nothing to make them amends. But an oppor-
tunity offered that very instant to oblige them
wonderfully; for while we were lying by the
shore came two mighty creatures, one pursuing
the other (as we took it)with great fury from the
mountains towards the sea; whether it was the
male pursuing the female, or whether they were
in sport or in rage, we could not tell, any more
than we could tell whether it was usual or
strange, but I believe it was the latter; because,
in the first place, those ravenous creatures seldom
appear but in the night; and in the second place,
we found the people terribly frighted, especially
the women. The man that had the lance or dart



ROBINSON CRUSOE 37

did not fly from them, but the rest did; however,
as the two creatures ran directly into the water,
they did not seem to offer to fall upon any of the
negroes, but plunged themselves into the sea,
and swam about, as if they had come for their
diversion. At last, one of them began to come
nearer our boat than at first I expected; but I
lay ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with
all possible expedition, and bade Xury load both
the others. As soon as he came fairly within my
reach, I fired, and shot him directly into the
head; immediately he sunk down into the water,
but rose instantly, and plunged up and down,
as if he was struggling for life, and so indeed he
was. He immediately made to the shore; but
between the wound, which was his mortal hurt,
and the strangling of the water, he died just
before he reached the shore.

It is impossible to express the astonishment
of these poor creatures, at the noise and the fire
of my gun; some of them were even ready to die
for fear, and fell down as dead with the very
terror. But when they saw the creature dead,
and sunk in the water, and that I made signs to
them to come to the shore, they took heart and
came to the shore, and began to search for the
creature. I found him by his blood staining the
water: and by the help of a rope, which I slung
round him, and gave the negroes to haul, they
dragged him on the shore, and found that it was
a most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an
admirable degree; and the negroes held up their
hands with admiration, to think what it was I
had killed him with.

The other creature, frighted with the flash of



38 THE ADVENTURES OF

fire and the noise of the gun, swam on shore,
and ran up directly to the mountains from
whence they came; nor could I, at that distance,
know what it was. I found quickly the negroes
were for eating the flesh of this creature, so I was
willing to have them take it as a favour from
me; which, when I made signs to them that
they might take him, they were very thankful
for. Immediately they fell to work with him;
and though they had no knife, yet, with a
sharpened piece of wood, they took off his skin
as readily, and much more readily, than we
could have done with a knife. They offered me
some of the flesh, which I declined, making as
if I would give it them, but made signs for the
skin, which they gave me very freely, and
brought me a great deal more of their provision,
which, though I did not understand, yet I
accepted. Then I made signs to them for some
water, and held out one of my jars to them,
turning it bottom upward, to show that it was
empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They
called immediately to some of their friends, and
there came two women, and brought a great
vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I suppose,
in the sun; this they set down for me, as before,
and I sent Xury on shore with my jars, and
filled them all three. The women were as stark
naked as the men.

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such
as it was, and water; and leaving my friendly
negroes, I made forward for about eleven days
more, without offering to go near the shore, till
I saw the land run out a great length into the
sea, at about the distance of four or five leagues



ROBINSON CRUSOE 39

before me; and the sea being very calm, I kept
a large offing, to make this point. At length,
doubling the point, at about two leagues from
the land, I saw plainly land on the other side,
to seaward; then I concluded, as it was most
certain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verde,
and those the islands, called from thence Cape
de Verde Islands. However, they were at a
great distance, and I could not well tell what
I had best to do; for if I should be taken with a
fresh of wind, I might neither reach one or other.

In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I
stepped into the cabin, and sat me down, Xury
having the helm; when, on a sudden, the boy
cried out, ‘Master, master, a ship with a sail!’
and the foolish boy was frighted out of his wits,
thinking it must needs be some of his master’s
ships sent to pursue us, when I knew we were
gotten far enough out of their reach. I jumped
out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only
the ship, but what she was, viz., that it was a
Portuguese ship, and, as I thought, was bound
to the coast of Guinea, for negroes. But when
I observed the course she steered, I was soon
convinced they were bound some other way,
and did not design to come any nearer to the
shore; upon which I stretched out to sea as
much as I could, resolving to speak with them,
if possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I
should not be able to come in their way, but
that they would be gone by before I could make
any signal to them; but after I had crowded to
the utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems,
saw me by the help of their perspective glasses,



40 THE ADVENTURES OF

and that it was some European boat, which, as
they supposed, must belong to some ship that was
lost, so they shortened sail to let me come up.
I was encouraged with this; and as I had my
patron’s ancient on board, I made a waft of it
to them for a signal of distress, and fired a gun,
both which they saw; for they told me they saw
the smoke, though they did not hear the gun.
Upon these signals they very kindly brought to,
and lay by for me; and in about three hours’
time I came up with them.

They asked me what I was, in Portuguese,
and in Spanish, and in French, but I understood
none of them; but at last a Scots sailor, who was
on board, called to me, and I answered him,
and told him I was an Englishman, that I had
made my escape out of slavery from the Moors,
at Sallee. Then they bade me come on board,
and very kindly took me in, and all my goods.

It was an inexpressible joy to me, that any
one will believe, that I was thus delivered, as
I esteemed it, from such a miserable, and almost
hopeless, condition as I was in; and I immedi-
ately offered all I had to the captain of the ship,
as a return for my deliverance. But he gener-
ously told me he would take nothing from me,
but that all I had should be delivered safe to
me when I came to the Brazils. ‘For,’ says he,
‘I have saved your life on no other terms than
I would be glad to be saved myself; and it may,
one time or other, be my lot to be taken up in
the same condition. Besides,’ says he, ‘when I
carry you to the Brazils, so great a way from your
own country, if I should take from you what
you have, you will be starved there, and then



\

nN

ROBINSON CRUSOE 4)

I only take away that life I have given. No, no,
Seignior Inglese,’ says he, ‘Mr. Englishman, I
will carry you thither in charity, and those
things will help you to buy your subsistence
there, and your passage home again.’

As he was charitable in his proposal, so he
was just in the performance to a tittle; for he
ordered the seamen that none should offer to
touch anything I had; then he took everything
into his own possession, and gave me back an
exact inventory of them, that I might have them,
even so much as my three earthen jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one, and
that he saw, and told me he would buy it of me
for the ship’s use, and asked me what I would
have for it? I told him he had been so generous
to me in everything, that I could not offer to
make any price of the boat, but left it entirely
to him; upon which he told me he would give
me a note of his hand to pay me eighty pieces
of eight for it at Brazil, and when it came there,
if any one offered to give more, he would make _—
it up. He offered me also sixty pieces of eight
more for my boy Xury, which I was loth to take;
not that I was not willing to let the captain have
him, but I was very loth to sell the poor boy’s
liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in
procuring my own. However, when I let him
know my reason, he owned it to be just, and
offered me this medium, that he would give the
boy an obligation to set him free in ten years if
he turned Christian. Upon this, and Xury
saying he was willing to go to him, I let the |
captain have him. —

We had a very good voyage tq the Brazils, and



42 THE ADVENTURES OF

arrived in the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All
Saints’ Bay, in about twenty-two days after.
And now I was once more delivered from the
most miserable of all conditions of life; and what
to do next with myself, I was now to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me,
I can never enough remember. He would take
nothing of me for my passage, gave me twenty
ducats for the leopard’s skin, and forty for the
lion’s skin, which I had in my boat, and caused
everything I had in the ship to be punctually
delivered me; and what I was willing to sell he
bought, such as the case of bottles, two of my
guns, and a piece of the lump of beeswax—for
I had made candles of the rest; in a word, I
made about 220 pieces of eight of all my cargo,
and with this stock I went on shore in the
Brazils.

I had not been long here, but being recom-
mended to the house of a good honest man like
himself, who had an ingeino as they call it, that
is, a plantation and a sugar-house, I lived with
him some time, and acquainted myself by that
means with the manner of their planting and
making of sugar; and seeing how well the
planters lived, and how they grew rich suddenly,
I resolved, if I could get licence to settle there, I
would turn planter among them, resolving in
the meantime to find out some way to get my
money which [J had left in London remitted to
me. To this purpose, getting a kind of a letter
of naturalisation, I purchased as much land that
was uncured as my money would reach, and
formed a plan for my plantation and settlement,
and such a one as might be suitable to the stock,



ROBINSON CRUSOE 43

which I proposed to myself to receive from
England.

I had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon,
but born of English parents, whose name was
Wells, and in much such circumstances as I was.
I called him my neighbour, because his planta-
tion lay next to mine, and we went on very
sociably together. My stock was but low, as well
as his; and we rather planted for food than
anything else, for about two years. However,
we began to increase, and our land began to
come into order; so that the third year we
planted some tobacco, and made each of us a
large piece of ground ready for planting canes
in the year to come. But we both wanted help;
and now I found, more than before, I had done
wrong in parting with my boy Xury.

But alas! for me to do wrong that never did
right was no great wonder. I had no remedy
but to go on. I was gotten into an employment
quite remote to my genius, and directly contrary
to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook
my father’s house, and broke through all his
good advice; nay, I was coming into the very
middle station, or upper degree of low life, which
my father advised me to before; and which, if
I resolved to go on with, I might as well have
stayed at home, and never have fatigued myself
in the world as I had done. And I used often
to say to myself, I could have done this as well
in England among my friends, as have gone
5000 miles off to do it among strangers and
savages, in a wilderness, and at such a distance
as never to hear from any part of the world that
had the least knowledge of me.



44 THE ADVENTURES OF

In this manner I used to look upon my con-
dition with the utmost regret. I had nobody to
converse with, but now and then this neighbour;
no work to be done, but by the labour of my
hands; and I used to say, I lived just like a man
cast away upon some desolate island, that had
nobody there but himself. But how just has it
been! and how should all men reflect, that when
they compare their present conditions with
others that are worse, Heaven may oblige them
to make the exchange, and be convinced of
their former felicity by their experience ;—I say,
how just has it been, that the truly solitary life
I reflected on in an island of mere desolation
should be my lot, who had so often unjustly
compared it with the life which I then led, in
which, had I continued, I had in all probability
been exceeding prosperous and rich.

I was in some degree settled in my measures
for carrying on the plantation before my kind
friend, the captain of the ship that took me up
at sea, went back; for the ship remained there
in providing his loading, and preparing for his
voyage, near three months; when, telling him
what little stock I had left behind me in London,
he -gave me this friendly and sincere advice:
‘Seignior Inglese,’ says he, for so he always
called me, ‘if you will give me letters, and a
procuration here in form to me, with orders to
the person who has your money in London to
send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as
I shall direct, and in such goods as are proper
for this country, I will bring you the produce
of them, God willing, at my return. But since
human affairs are all subject to changes and



ROBINSON CRUSOE 45

disasters, I would have you give orders but for
one hundred. pounds sterling, which, you say,
is half your stock, and let the hazard be run for
the first; so that if it come safe, you may order
the rest the same way; and if it miscarry, you
may have the other half to have recourse to for
your supply.’

This was so wholesome advice, and looked so
friendly, that I could not but be convinced it
was the best course I could take; so I accordingly
prepared letters to the gentlewoman with whom
I had left my money, and a procuration to the
Portuguese captain, as he desired.

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full
account of all my adventures; my slavery,
escape, and how I had met with the Portugal
captain at sea, the humanity of his behaviour,
and in what condition I was now in, with all
other necessary directions for my supply. And
when this honest captain came to Lisbon, he
found means, by some of the English merchants
there, to send over not the order only, but a full
account of my story to a merchant at London,
who represented it effectually to her; where-
upon, she not only delivered the money, but
out of her own pocket sent the Portugal captain
a very handsome present for his humanity and
charity to me.

The merchant in London vesting this hundred
pounds in English goods, such as the captain
Phad writ for, sent them directly to him at Lisbon,

“and he br ought them all safe to me to the Brazils;
-among which, without my direction (for I was
too young in my business to think of them), he
“had taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron-



46 THE ADVENTURES OF

work, and utensils necessary for my plantation,
and which were of great use to me.

When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune
made, for I was surprised with joy of it; and my
good steward, the captain, had laid out the five
pounds, which my friend had sent him for a
present for himself, to purchase and bring me
over a servant under bond for six years’ service,
and would not accept of any consideration,
except a little tobacco, which I would have him
accept, being of my own produce.

Neither was this all; but my goods being all
English manufactures, such as cloth, stuffs,
baize, and things particularly valuable and
desirable in the country, I found means to sell
them to a very great advantage; so that I may
say I had more than four times the value of my
first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond my
poor neighbour, I mean in the advancement of
my plantation; for the first thing I did, I bought
me a negro slave, and an European servant also;
I mean another besides that which the captain
brought me from Lisbon.

But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made
the very means of our greatest adversity, so was
it with me. I went on the next year with great
success in my plantation. I raised fifty great
rolls of tobacco on my own ground, more than
I had disposed of for necessaries among my
neighbours; and these fifty rolls, being each of
above a hundredweight, were well cured, and
laid by against the return of the fleet from
Lisbon. And now, increasing in business and
in wealth, my head began to be full of projects
and undertakings beyond my reach, such as



ROBINSON CRUSOE 47

are, indeed, often the ruin of the best heads in
business.

Had I continued in the station I was now in,
I had room for all the happy things to have yet
befallen me for which my father so earnestly
recommended a quiet, retired life, and of which
he had so sensibly described the middle station
of life to be full of. But other things attended
me, and I was still to be the wilful agent of all
my own miseries; and particularly, to increase
my fault and double the reflections upon myself,
which in my future sorrows I should have leisure
to make. All these miscarriages were procured
by my apparent obstinate adhering to my foolish
inclination of wandering abroad, and pursuing
that inclination in contradiction to the clearest
views of doing myself good in a fair and plain
pursuit of those prospects, and those measures
of life, which Nature and Providence concurred
to present me with, and to make my duty.

As I had once done thus in my breaking away
from my parents, so I could not be content now,
but I must go and leave the happy view I had
of being a rich and thriving man in my new
plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoder-
ate desire of rising faster than the nature of the
thing admitted; and thus I cast myself down
again into the deepest gulf of human misery
that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be
consistent with life and a state of health in the
world.

To come, then, by the just degrees to the
particulars of this part of my story. You may
suppose, that having now lived almost four years
in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive and



48 THE ADVENTURES OF

prosper very well upon my plantation, I had
not only learned the language, but had con-
tracted acquaintance and friendship among my
fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants
at St. Salvador, which was our port, and that
in my discourses among them I had frequently
given them an account of my two voyages to
the coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with
the negroes there, and how easy it was to pur-
chase upon the coast for trifles—such as beads,
toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and
the like—not only gold-dust, Guinea grains,
elephants’ teeth, etc., but negroes, for the service
of the Brazils, in great numbers.

They listened always very attentively to my
discourses on these heads, but especially to that
part which related to the buying negroes; which
was a trade, at that time, not only not far entered
into, but, as far as it was, had been carried on
by the assiento, or permission, of the Kings of
Spain and Portugal, and engrossed in the public,
so that few negroes were brought, and those
excessive dear.

It happened, being in company with some
merchants and planters of my acquaintance,
and talking of those things very earnestly, three
of them came to me the next morning, and told
me they had been musing very much upon what
I had discoursed with them of, the last night,
and they came to make a secret proposal to me.
And after enjoining me secrecy, they told me
that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to
Guinea; that they had all plantations as well
as I, and were straitened for nothing so much
as servants; that as it was a trade that could not



ROBINSON CRUSOE 49

be carried on because they could not publicly
sell the negroes when they came home, so they
desired to make but one voyage, to bring the
negroes on shore privately, and divide them
among their own plantations; and, in a word,
the question was, whether I would go their
supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading
part upon the coast of Guinea; and they offered
me that I should have my equal share of the
negroes without providing any part of the stock.

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed,
had it been made to any one that had not had a
settlement and plantation of his own to look
after, which was in a fair way of coming to be
very considerable, and with-a good stock upon
it. But for me, that was thus entered and
established, and had nothing to do but go on
as I had begun, for three or four years more,
and to have sent for the other hundred pounds
from England; and who, in that time, and with
that little addition, could scarce have failed
of being worth three or four thousand pounds
sterling, and that increasing too—for me to
think of such a voyage, was the most preposter-
ous thing that ever man, in such circumstances,
could be guilty of.

But I, that was born to be my own destroyer,
could no more resist the offer than I could
restrain my first rambling designs, when my
father’s good counsel was lost upon me. In a
word, I told them I would go with all my heart,
if they would undertake to look after my planta-
tion in my absence, and would dispose of it to
such as I should direct if I miscarried. This
they all engaged to do, and entered into writings



50 THE ADVENTURES OF

or covenants to do so; and I made a formal will,
disposing of my plantation and effects, in case
of my death; making the captain of the ship
that had saved my life, as before, my universal
heir, but obliging him to dispose of my effects
as I had directed in my will; one-half of the
produce being to himself, and the other to be
shipped to England.

In short, I took all possible caution to preserve
my effects, and keep up my plantation. Had I
used half as much prudence to have looked into
my own interest, and have made a judgment of
what I ought to have done and not to have done,
J had certainly never gone away from so prosper-
ous an undertaking, leaving all the probable
views of a thriving circumstance, and gone upon
a voyage to sea, attended with all its common
hazards, to say nothing of the reasons I had to
expect particular misfortunes to myself.

But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the
dictates of my fancy rather than my reason.
And accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and
the cargo furnished, and all things done as by
agreement by my partners in the voyage, I went
on board in an evil hour, the [first] of [Septem-
ber 1659], being the same day eight year that
I went from my father and mother at Hull, in
order to act the rebel to their authority, and
the fool to my own interest.

Our ship was about 120 tons burthen, carried
six guns and fourteen men, besides the master,
his boy, and myself. We had on board no large
cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit
for our trade with the negroes—such as beads,
bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles, especially



ROBINSON CRUSOE 51

little looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets,
and the like.

The same day I went on board we set sail,
standing away to the northward upon our own
coast, with design to stretch over for the African
coast, when they came about 10 or 12 degrees
of northern latitude, which, it seems, was the
manner of their course in those days. We had
very good weather, only excessive hot, all the
way upon our own coast, till we came the height
of Cape St. Augustino, from whence, keeping
farther off at sea, we lost sight of land, and
steered as if we were bound for the Isle Fernando
de Noronha, holding our course N.E. by N.,
and leaving those isles on the east. In this course
we passed the line in about twelve days’ time,
and were, by our last observation, in 7 degrees
22 minutes northern latitude, when a violent
tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our
knowledge. It began from the south-east, came
about to the north-west, and then settled into
the north-east, from whence it blew in such a
terrible manner, that for twelve days together
we could do nothing but drive, and, scudding
away before it, let it carry us wherever fate and
the fury of the winds directed; and during these
twelve days, I need not say that I expected
every day to be swallowed up, nor, indeed, did
any in the ship expect to save their lives.

In this distress we had, besides the terror of
the storm, one of our men died of the calenture,
and one man and the boy washed overboard.
About the twelfth day, the weather abating a
little, the master made an observation as well
as he could, and found that he was in about



52 THE ADVENTURES OF

11 degrees north latitude, but that he was 22
degrees of longitude difference west from Cape
St. Augustino; so that he found he was gotten
upon the coast of Guiana, or the north part of
Brazil, beyond the river Amazon, toward that
of the river Orinoco, commonly called the Great
River, and began to consult with me what course
he should take, for the ship was leaky and very
much disabled, and he was going directly back
to the coast of Brazil.

I was positively against that; and looking over
the charts of the sea-coast of America with him,
we concluded there was no inhabited country
for us to have recourse to till we came within the
circle of the Carribbee Islands, and therefore
resolved to stand away for Barbadoes, which by
keeping off at sea, to avoid the indraft of the
Bay or Gulf of Mexico, we might easily perform,
as we hoped, in about fifteen days’ sail; whereas
we could not possibly make our voyage to the
coast of Africa without some assistance, both to
our ship and to ourselves.

With this design we changed our course, and
steered away N.W. by W. in order to reach some
of our English islands, where I hoped for relief;
but our voyage was otherwise determined; for
being in the latitude of 12 degrees 18 minutes,
a second storm came upon us, which carried
us away with the same impetuosity westward,
and drove us so out of the very way of all human
commerce, that had all our lives been saved,
as to the sea, we were rather in danger of being
devoured by savages than ever returning to our
own country.

In this distress, the wind: still blowing very



ROBINSON CRUSOE 53

hard, one of our men early in the morning cried
out, ‘Land!’ and we had no sooner ran out of
the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing where-
abouts in the world we were, but the ship struck
upon a sand, and in a moment, her motion
being so stopped, the sea broke over her in such
a manner, that we expected we should all have
perished immediately; and we were immediately
driven into our close quarters, to shelter us from
the very foam and spray of the sea.

It is not easy for any one, who has not been
in the like condition, to describe or conceive
the consternation of men in such circumstances.
We knew nothing where we were, or upon what
land it was we were driven, whether an island
or the main, whether inhabited or not inhabited ;
and as the rage of the wind was still great,
though rather less than at first, we could not so
much as hope to have the ship hold many
minutes without breaking in pieces, unless the
winds, by a kind of miracle, shou!d turn imme-
diately about. Ina word, we sat looking one upon
another, and expecting death every moment,
and every man acting accordingly, as preparing
for another world; for there was little or nothing
more for us to do in this. That which was our
present comfort, and all the comfort we had,
was that, contrary to our expectation, the ship
did not break yet, and that the master said the
wind began to abate.

Now, though we thought that the wind did
a little abate, yet the ship having thus struck
upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us to
expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful
condition indeed, and had nothing to do but to



54 THE ADVENTURES OF

think of saving our lives as well as we could.
We had a boat at our stern just before the storm,
but she was first staved by dashing against the
ship’s rudder, and in the next place, she broke
away, and either sunk, or was driven off to sea,
so there was no hope from her; we had another
boat on board, but how to get her off into the
sea was a doubtful thing. However, there was
no room to debate, for we fancied the ship would
break in pieces every minute, and some told
us she was actually broken already.

In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold
of the boat, and with the help of the rest of the
men they got her slung over the ship’s side; and
getting all into her, let go, and committed our-
selves, being eleven in number, to God’s mercy,
and the wild sea; for though the storm was
abated considerably, yet the sea went dreadful
high upon the shore, and might well be called
den wild zee, as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.

And now our case was very dismal indeed, for
we all saw plainly that the sea went so high, that
the boat could not live, and that we should be
inevitably drowned.. As to making sail, we had
none; nor, if we had, could we have done any-
thing with it; so we worked at the oar towards
the land, though with heavy hearts, like men
going to execution, for we all knew that when
the boat came nearer the shore, she would be
dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach of the
sea. However, we committed our souls to God
in the most earnest manner; and the wind
driving us towards the shore, we hastened our
destruction with our own hands, pulling as well
as we could towards land.



ROBINSON CRUSOE 55

What the shore was, whether rock or sand,
whether steep or shoal, we knew not; the only
hope that could rationally give us the least
shadow of expectation was, if we might happen
into some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some
river, where by great chance we might have run
our boat in, or got under the lee of the land, and
perhaps made smooth water. But there was
nothing of this appeared; but as we made nearer
and nearer the shore, the land looked more
frightful than the sea.

After we had rowed, or rather driven, about
a league and a half, as we reckoned it, a raging
wave, mountainlike, came rolling astern of us,
and plainly bade us expect the coup de grdce.
In a word, it took us with such a fury, that it
overset the boat at once; and separating us, as
well from the boat as from one another, gave-us
not time hardly to say, ‘O God!’ for we were all
swallowed up in a moment.

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought
which I felt when I sunk into the water; for
though I swam very well, yet I could not deliver
myself from the waves so as to draw breath, till
that wave having driven me, or rather carried
me, a vast way on towards the shore, and having
spent itself} went back, and left me upon the
land almost dry, but half dead with the water
I took in. I had so much presence of mind, as
well as breath left, that seeing myself nearer the
mainland than I expected, I got upon my feet,
and endeavoured to make on towards the land
as fast as I could, before another wave should
return and take me up again. But I soon found
it was impossible to avoid it; for I saw the sea



56 THE ADVENTURES OF

come after me as high as a great hill, and as
furious as an enemy, which I had no means or
strength to contend with. My business was to
hold my breath, and raise myself upon the water,
if I could; and so, by swimming, to preserve
my breathing, and pilot myself towards the
shore, if possible; my greatest concern now being,
that the sea, as it would carry me a great way
towards the shore when it came on, might not
carry me back again with it when it gave back
towards the sea.

The wave that came upon me again, buried
me at once 20 or 30 feet deep in its own body,
and I could feel myself carried with a mighty
force and swiftness towards the shore a very
great way; but I held my breath, and assisted
myself to swim still forward with all my might.
I was ready to burst with holding my breath,
when, as I felt myself rising up, so, to my
immediate relief, I found my head and hands
shoot out above the surface of the water; and
though it was not two seconds of time that I
could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly,
gave me breath and new courage. I was covered
again with water a good while, but not so long
but I held it out; and finding the water had
spent itself, and began to return, I struck forward
against the return of the waves, and felt ground
again with my feet. I stood still a few moments
to recover breath, and till the water went
from me, and then took to my heels and ran
with what strength I had farther towards the
shore. But neither would this deliver me from
the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after
me again, and twice more I was lifted up by the



ROBINSON CRUSOE 57

waves and carried forwards as before, the shore
being very flat.

The last time of these two had well near been
fatal to me; for the sea, having hurried me along
as before, landed me, or rather dashed me,
against a piece of a rock, and that with such
force, as it left me senseless, and indeed helpless,
as to my own deliverance; for the blow taking
my side and breast, beat the breath as it were
quite out of my body; and had it returned again
immediately, I must have been strangled in the
water. But I recovered a little before the return
of the waves, and seeing I should be covered
again with the water, I resolved to hold fast by
a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath, if
possible, till the wave went back. Now as the
waves were not so high as at first, being near
land, I held my hold till the wave abated, and
then fetched another run, which brought me so
near the shore, that the next wave, though it
went over me, yet did not so swallow me up as
to carry me away, and the next run I took I got
to the mainland, where, to my great comfort,
I clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and sat
me down upon the grass, free from danger, and
quite out of the reach of the water.

I was now landed, and safe on shore, and
began to look up and thank God that my life
was saved in’ a case wherein there was some
minutes before scarce any room to hope. I
believe it is impossible to express to the life what
the ecstasies and transports of the soul are when
it is so saved, as I may say, out of the very grave;
and I do not wonder now at that custom, viz.,
that when a malefactor, who has the halter



58 THE ADVENTURES OF

about his neck, is tied up, and just going to be
turned off, and has a reprieve brought to him—
I say, I do not wonder that they bring a surgeon
with it, to let him blood that very moment they
tell him of it, that the surprise may not drive
the animal spirits from the heart, and over-
whelm him:

For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.

I walked about on the shore, lifting up my
hands, and my whole being, as I may say, wrapt
up in the contemplation of my deliverance,
making a thousand gestures and motions which
I cannot describe, reflecting upon all my com-
rades that were drowned, and that there should
not be one soul saved but myself; for, as for
them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign
of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and
two shoes that were not fellows.

I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when
the breach and froth of the sea being so big, I
could hardly see it, it lay so far off, and con-
sidered, Lord! how was it possible I could get
on shore?

After I had solaced my mind with the comfort-
able part of my condition, I began to look
round me to see what kind of place I was in, and
what was next to be done, and I soon found my
comforts abate, and that, in a word, I had a
dreadful deliverance; for I was wet, had no
clothes to shift me, nor anything either to eat
or drink to comfort me, neither did I see any
prospect before me but that of perishing with
hunger, or being devoured by wild beasts; and
that which was particularly afflicting to me was,



ROBINSON CRUSOE . 59

that I had no weapon either to hunt and kill
any creature for my sustenance, or to defend
myself against any other creature that might
desire to kill me for theirs. In a word, I had
nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe,
and a little tobacco in a box. This was all my
provision; and this threw me into terrible agonies
‘of mind, that for a while I ran about like a
madman. Night coming upon me, I began,
with a heavy heart, to consider what would be
my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that
country, seeing at night they always come
abroad for their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts
at that time was, to get up into a thick bushy
tree like a fir, but thorny, which grew near me,
and where I resolved to sit all night, and con-
sider the next day what death I should die, for
as yet I saw no prospect of life. I walked about
a furlong from the shore, to see if I could find
any fresh water to drink, which I did, to my
great joy; and having drank, and put a little
tobacco in my mouth to prevent hunger, I went
to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured
to place myself so, as that if I should sleep I
might not fall; and having cut me a short stick,
like a truncheon, for my defence, I took up my
lodging, and having been excessively fatigued,
I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I
believe, few could have done in my condition,
and found myself the most refreshed with it that
I think I ever was on such an occasion.

When I waked it was broad day, the weather
clear, and the storm abated, so that the sea did
not rage and swell as before. But that which



60 THE ADVENTURES OF

surprised me most was, that the ship was lifted
off in the night from the sand where she lay, by
the swelling of the tide, and was driven up
almost as far as the rock which I first mentioned,
where I had been so bruised by the dashing me
against it. This being within about a mile from
the shore where I was, and the ship seeming
to stand upright still, I wished myself on board,
that, at least, I might have some necessary
things for my use.

When I came down from my apartment in
the tree I looked about me again, and the first
thing I found was the boat, which lay as the
wind and the sea had tossed her up upon the
land, about two miles on my right hand. I
walked as far as I could upon the shore to have
got to her, but found a neck or inlet of water
between me and the boat, which was about half
a mile broad; so I came back for the present,
being more intent upon getting at the ship,
where I hoped to find something for my present
subsistence.

A little after noon I found the sea very calm,
and the tide ebbed so far out, that I could come
within a quarter of a mile of the ship; and here
I found a fresh renewing of my grief, for I saw
evidently, that if we had kept on board we had
been all safe, that is to say, we had all got safe on
shore, and I had not been so miserable as to be
left entirely destitute of all comfort and com-
pany, as I now was. This forced tears from my
eyes again; but as there was little relief in that,
I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship; so I
pulled off my clothes, for the weather was hot
to extremity, and took the water. But when I



ROBINSON CRUSOE 61

came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater
to know how to get on board; for as she lay
aground, and high out of the water, there was
nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam
round her twice, and the second time I spied a
small piece of a rope, which I wondered I did not
see at first, hang down by the fore-chains so
low, as that with great difficulty I got hold of it,
and by the help of that rope got up into the
forecastle of the ship. Here I found that the
ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water
in her hold, but that she lay so on the side of a
bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that her
stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head
low almost to the water. By this means all her
quarter was free, and all that was in that part
was dry; for you may be sure my first work was
to search and to see what was spoiled and what
was free. And first I found that all the ship’s
provisions were dry and untouched by the water;
and being very well disposed to eat, I went to
the bread-room and filled my pockets with
biscuit, and eat it as I went about other things,
for I had no time to lose. I also found some rum
in the great cabin, of which I took a large dram,
and which I had indeed need enough of to spirit
me for what was before me. Now I wanted
nothing but a boat, to furnish myself with many
things which I foresaw would be very necessary
to me.

It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was
not to be had, and this extremity roused my
application. We had several spare yards, and
two or three large spars of wood, and a spare
top-mast or two in the ship. I resolved to fall



62 THE ADVENTURES OF

to work with these, and flung as many of them
overboard as I could manage for their weight,
tying every one with a rope, that they might not
drive away. When this was done I went down
the ship’s side, and, pulling them to me, I tied
four of them fast together at both ends as well
as I could, in the form of a raft; and laying two
or three short pieces of plank upon them cross-
ways, I found I could walk upon it very well,
but that it was not able to bear any great weight,
the pieces being too light. So I went to work,
and with the carpenter’s saw I cut a spare top-
mast into three lengths, and added them to my
raft, with a great deal of labour and pains;
but hope of furnishing myself with necessaries
encouraged me to go beyond what I should have
been able to have done upon another occasion.

My raft was now strong enough to bear any
reasonable weight. My next care was what to
load it with, and how to preserve what I laid
upon it from the surf of the sea; but I was not
long considering this. I first laid all the planks
or boards upon it that I could get, and having
considered well what I most wanted, I first got
three of the seamen’s chests, which I had broken
open and emptied, and lowered them down
upon my raft. The first of these I filled with
provisions, viz., bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses,
five pieces of dried goat’s flesh, which we lived
much upon, and a little remainder of European
corn, which had been laid by for some fowls
which we brought to sea with us, but the fowls
were killed. There had been some barley and
wheat together, but, to my great disappoint-
ment, I found afterwards that the rats had eaten



ROBINSON CRUSOE 63

or spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found several
cases of bottles belonging to our skipper, in
which were some cordial waters, and, in all,
about five or six gallons of rack. These I stowed
by themselves, there being no need to put them
into the chest, nor no room for them. While I
was doing this, I found the tide began to flow,
though very calm, and I had the mortification
to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had
left on shore upon the sand, swim away; as for
my breeches, which were only linen, and open-
kneed, I swam on board in them, and my stock-
ings. However, this put me upon rummaging
for clothes, of which I found enough, but took
no more than I wanted for present use; for I
had other things which my eye was more upon,
as first tools to work with on shore; and it was
after long searching that I found out the car-
penter’s chest, which was indeed a very useful
prize to me, and much more valuable than a
ship-loading of gold would have been at that
time. I got it down to my raft, even whole as it
was, without losing time to look into it, for I
knew in general what it contained.

My next care was for some ammunition and
arms; there were two very good fowling-pieces
in the great cabin, and two pistols; these I
secured first, with some powder-horns, and a
small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords.
I knew there were three barrels of powder in
the ship, but knew not where our gunner had
stowed them; but with much search I found
them, two of them dry and good, the third had
taken water; those two I got to my raft with the
arms. And now I thought myself pretty well



64. THE ADVENTURES OF

freighted, and began to think how I should get
to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, or
rudder; and the least capful of wind would have
overset all my navigation.

I had three encouragéments. 1. A smooth,
calm sea. 2. The tide rising and setting in to
the shore. 3. What little wind there was blew
me towards the land. And thus, having found
two or three broken oars belonging to the boat,
and besides the tools which were in the chest,
I found two saws, an axe, and a hammer, and
with this cargo I put to sea. For a mile or there-
abouts my raft went very well, only that I found
it drive a little distant from the place where I
had landed before, by which I perceived that
there was some indraft of the water, and conse-
quently I hoped to find some creek or river there,
which I might make use of as a port to get to
land with my cargo.

As I imagined, so it was; there appeared
before me a little opening of the land, and I
found a strong current of the tide set into it, so
I guided my raft as well as I could to keep in the
middle of the stream. But here I had like to
have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if I
had, I think verily would have broke my heart;
for knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran
aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and not
being aground at the other end, it wanted but a
little that all my cargo had slipped off towards
that end that was afloat, and so fallen into the
water. I did my utmost by setting my back
against the chests to keep them in their places,
but could not thrust off the raft with all my
strength, neither durst I stir from the posture



ROBINSON CRUSOE 65

I was in, but holding up the chests with all my
might, stood in that manner near half an hour,
in which time the rising of the water brought
me a little more upon a level; and a little after,
the water still rising, my raft floated again, and
I thrust her off with the oar I had into the
channel, and then driving up higher, I at length
found myself in the mouth of a little river, with
land on both sides, and a strong current or tide
running up. I looked on both sides for a proper
place to get to shore, for I was not willing to be
driven too high up the river, hoping in time to
see some ship at sea, and therefore resolved to
place myself as near the coast as I could.

At length I spied a little cove on the right
shore of the creek, to which, with great pain and
difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last got so
near, as that, reaching ground with my oar, I
could thrust her directly in; but here I had like
to have dipped all my cargo in the sea again;
for that shore lying pretty steep, that is to say,
sloping, there was no place to land but where
one end of my float, if it run on shore, would lie
so high and the other sink lower, as before, that
it would endanger my cargo again. All that I
could do was to wait till the tide was at the
highest, keeping the raft with my oar like an
anchor to hold the side of it fast to the shore,
near a flat piece of ground, which I expected
the water would flow over; and so it did. As
soon as I found water enough, for my raft drew
about a foot of water, I thrust her on upon that
flat piece of ground, and there fastened or
moored her by sticking my two broken oars into
the ground; one on one side near one end, and

17 D



66 THE ADVENTURES OF

one on the other side near the other end; and
thus I lay till the water ebbed away, and left my
raft and all my cargo safe on shore.

My next work was to view the country and
seek a proper place for my habitation, and where
to stow my goods to secure them from whatever
might happen. Where I was, I yet knew not;
whether on. the continent, or on an island;
whether inhabited, or not inhabited; whether
in danger of wild beasts, or not. There was a
hill, not above a mile from me, which rose up
very steep and high, and which seemed to over-
top some other hills, which lay as in a ridge from
it, northward. I took out one of the fowling-
pieces and one of the pistols, and a horn of
powder; and thus armed, I travelled for dis-
covery up to the top of that hill, where, after
I had with great labour and difficulty got to the
top, I saw my fate to my great affliction, viz.,
that I was in an island environed every way with
the sea, no land to be seen, except some rocks
which lay a great way off, and two small islands
less than this, which lay about three leagues to
the west.

I found also that the island I was in was
barren, and, as I saw good reason to believe,
uninhabited, except by wild beasts, of whom,
however, I saw none; yet I saw abundance of
fowls, but knew not their kinds; neither when
I killed them, could I tell what was fit for food,
and what not. At my coming back, I shot at a
great bird which I saw sitting upon a tree on the
side of a great wood. I believe it was the first
gun that had been fired there since the creation
of the world. I had no sooner fired, but from all



ROBINSON CRUSOE 67

the parts of the wood there arose an innumerable
number of fowls of many sorts, making a con-
fused screaming, and crying every one according
to his usual note; but not one of them of any
kind that I knew. As for the creature I killed,
I took it to be a kind of a hawk, its colour and
beak resembling it, but had no talons or claws
more than common; its flesh was carrion, and
fit for nothing.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to
my raft, and fell to work to bring my cargo on
shore, which took me up the rest of that day; and
what to do with myself at night, I knew not, nor
indeed where to rest; for I was afraid to lie down
on the ground, not knowing but some wild beast
might devour me, though, as I afterwards found,
there was really no need for those fears. How-
ever, as well as I could, I barricaded myself
round with the chests and boards that I had
brought on shore, and made a kind of a hut for
that night’s lodging; as for food, I yet saw not
which way to supply myself, except that I had
seen two or three creatures like hares run out of
the wood where I shot the fowl.

I now began to consider, that I might yet get a
great many things out of the ship, which would
be useful to me, and particularly some of the
rigging and sails, and such other things as might
come to land; and I resolved to make another
voyage on board the vessel, if possible. And as
I knew that the first storm that blew must neces-
sarily break her all in pieces, I resolved to set all
other things apart till I got everything out of
the ship that I could get. Then I called a council,
that is to say, in my thoughts, whether I should



68 THE ADVENTURES OF

take back the raft, but this appeared impractic-
able; so I resolved to go as before, when the tide
was down; and I did so, only that I stripped
before I went from my hut, having nothing on
but a chequered shirt and a pair of linen drawers,
and a pair of pumps on my feet.

I got on board the ship as before, and prepared
a second raft, and having had experience of the
first, I neither made this so unwieldy, nor loaded
it so hard; but yet I brought away several things
very useful to me; as, first, in the carpenter’s
stores I found two or three bags full of nails and
spikes, a great screw-jack, a dozen or two of
hatchets, and above all, that most useful thing
called a grindstone. All these I secured, to-
gether with several things belonging to the
gunner, particularly two or three iron crows,
and two barrels of musket bullets, seven muskets,
and another fowling-piece, with some small
quantity of powder more; a large bag full of
small-shot, and a great roll of sheet lead; but
this last was so heavy, I could not hoist it up to
get it over the ship’s side. Besides these things,
I took all the men’s clothes that I could find, and
a spare fore-top sail, a hammock, and some bed-
ding; and with this I loaded my second raft, and
brought them all safe on shore, to my very great
comfort.

I was under some apprehensions during my
absence from the land, that at least my provisions
might be devoured on shore; but when I came
back, I found no sign of any visitor, only there
sat a creature like a wild cat upon one of the
chests, which, when I came towards it, ran away
a little distance, and then stood still. She sat



ROBINSON CRUSOE 69

very composed and unconcerned, and looked
full in my face, as if she had a mind to be
acquainted with me. I presented my gun at her;
but as she did not understand it, she was per-
fectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer to stir
away; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit,
though, by the way, I was not very free of it,
for my store was not great. However, I spared
her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled of it,
and ate it, and looked (as pleased) for more; but
I thanked her, and could spare no more, so she
marched off. /

Having got my second cargo on shore, though
I was fain to open the barrels of powder and
bring them by parcels, for they were too heavy,
being large casks, I went to work to make me a
little tent with the sail and some poles which I
cut for that purpose; and into this tent I brought
everything that I knew would spoil either with
rain or sun; and I piled all the empty chests and
casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it
from any sudden attempt, either from man or
beast.

When I had done this I blocked up the door
of the tent with some boards within, and an
empty chest set up on end without; and spread-
ing one of the beds upon the ground, laying my
two pistols just at my head, and my gun at
length by me, I went to bed for the first time,
and slept very quietly all night, for I was very
weary and heavy; for the night before I had
slept little, and had laboured very hard all day,
as well to fetch all those things from the ship, as
te-get them on shore.
| T had the biggest magazine of all kinds now



70, THE ADVENTURES OF

‘that ever was laid up, I believe, for one man;
but I was not satisfied still, for while the ship sat
upright in that posture, I thought I ought to get
everything out of her that I could.| So every day
“at low water I'went on board, and’brought away
something or other; but, particularly the third
time I went I brought away as much of the
rigging as I could, as also all the small ropes and
rope-twine I could get, with a piece of spare
canvas, which was to mend the sails upon
occasion, the barrel of wet gunpowder; in a
word, I brought away all the sails first and last,
only that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and
bring as much at a time as I could; for they
were no more useful to be sails, but as mere
canvas only.

But that which comforted me more still was,
that at last of all, after I had made five or six
such voyages as these, and thought I had nothing
more to expect from the ship that was worth my
meddling with; I say, after all this, I found a
great hogshead of bread, and three large runlets
of rum or spirits, and a box of sugar, and a barrel
of fine flour; this was surprising to me, because
I had given over expecting any more provi-
sions, except what was spoilt by the water. I
soon emptied the hogshead of that bread, and
wrapped it up parcel by parcel in pieces of the
sails, which I cut out; and, in a word, I got all
this safe on shore also.

The next day I made another voyage. And
now, having plundered the ship of what was
portable and fit to hand out, I began with the
cables; and cutting the great cable into pieces,
such as I could move, I got two cables and a



ROBINSON CRUSOE 71

hawser on shore, with all the ironwork I could
get; and having cut down the sprit-sail-yard,
and the mizzen-yard, and everything I could to
make a large raft, I loaded it with all those
heavy goods, and came away. But my good
luck began now to leave me; for this raft was so
unwieldy, and so overladen, that after I was
entered the little cove where I had landed the
rest of my goods, not being able to guide it so
handily as I did the other, it overset, and threw
me and all my cargo into the water. As for
myself, it was no great harm, for I was near the
shore; but as to my cargo, it was great part of it
lost, especially the iron, which I expected would
have been of great use to me. However, when
the tide was out I got most of the pieces of cable
ashore, and some of the iron, though with
infinite labour; for I was fain to dip for it into
the water, a work which fatigued me very much.
After this I went every day on board, and
brought away what I could get.

I had been now thirteen days on shore, and
had been eleven times on board the ship; in
which time I had brought away all that one
pair of hands could well be supposed capable
to bring, though I believe verily, had the calm
weather held, I should have brought away the
whole ship piece by piece. But preparing the
twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind
begin to rise. However, at low water I went on
board, and though I thought I had rummaged
the cabin so effectually as that nothing more
could be found, yet I discovered a locker with
drawers in it, in one of which I found two or
three razors, and one pair of large scissors, with



a
a3 THE ADVENTURES OF

some ten or a dozen of good knives and forks; in
another, I found about thirty-six pounds value
in money, some European coin, some Brazil,
some pieces of eight, some gold, some silver.
/Tsmiled to myself at the sight of this money.
*O drug!’ said I aloud, ‘what art thou good for?
‘Thou art not worth to me, no, not the taking
off of the ground; one of those knives is worth
all this heap. I have no manner of use for thee;
even remain where thou art, and go to the
bottom as a creature whose life is not worth
| saving.’ However, upon second thoughts, I took
it aways and wrapping all this in a piece of
canvas, J began to think of making another raft;
but while I was preparing this, I found the sky
overcast, and the wind began to rise, and in a
quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the
shore. It presently occurred to me that it was
in vain to pretend to make a raft with the wind
off shore, and that it was my business to be gone
before the tide of flood began, otherwise I might
not be able to reach the shore at all. Accord-
-ingly I let myself down into the water, and swam
across the channel, which lay between the ship
and the sands, and even that with difficulty
enough, partly with the weight of the things I
had about me, and partly the roughness of the
water; for the wind rose very hastily, and before
it was quite high water it blew a storm.
But I was gotten home to my little tent, where

I lay with all my wealth about me very secure.
It blew very hard all that night, and in the
morning, when I looked out, behold, no more
ship was to be seen. I was a little surprised, but
recovered myself with this satisfactory reflection,



ROBINSON CRUSOE 73

viz., that I had lost no time, nor abated no
diligence, to get everything out of her that could
be useful to me, and that indeed there was little
left in her that I was able to bring away if I had
had more time.

I now gave over any more thoughts of the
ship, or of anything out of her, except what
might drive on shore from her wreck, as indeed
divers pieces of her afterwards did; but those
things were of small use to me.

My thoughts were now wholly employed
about securing myself against either savages, if
any should appear, or wild beasts, if any were
in the island; and I had many thoughts of the
method how to do this, and what kind of dwell-
ing to make, whether I should make me a cave
in the earth, or a tent upon the earth; and, in
short, I resolved upon both, the manner and
description of which it may not be improper to
give an account of.

I soon found the place I was in was not for my
settlement, particularly because it was upon a
low moorish ground near the sea, and I believed
would not be wholesome; and more particularly
because there was no fresh water near it. So I
resolved to find a more healthy and more con-
venient spot of ground.

I consulted several things in my situation,
which I found would be proper for me. First,
health and fresh water, I just now men-
tioned. Secondly, shelter from the heat of the
sun. Thirdly, security from ravenous creatures,
whether men or beasts. Fourthly, a view to the
sea, that if God sent any ship in sight I might
not lose any advantage for my deliverance, of



74 THE ADVENTURES OF

which I was not willing to banish all my expecta-
tion yet.

In search of a place proper for this, I found a
little plain on the side ofa rising hill, whose front
towards this little plain was steep as a house-
side, so that nothing could come down upon me
from the top; on the side of this rock there was
a hollow place, worn a little way in, like the
entrance or door of a cave; but there was not
really any cave, or way into the rock at all.

On the flat of the green, just before this hollow
place, I resolved to pitch my tent. This plain
was not above an hundred yards broad, and
about twice as long, and lay like a green before
my door, and at the end of it descended irregu-
larly every way down into the low grounds by
the seaside. It was on the N.N.W. side of the
hill, so that I was sheltered from the heat every
day, till it came to a W. and by S. sun, or there-
abouts, which in those countries is near the
setting.

Before I set up my tent, I drew a half circle
before the hollow place, which took in about
ten yards in its semi-diameter from the rock,
and twenty yards in its diameter from its begin-
ning and ending. In this half-circle I pitched
two rows of strong stakes, driving them into the
ground till they stood very firm like piles, the
biggest end being out of the ground about five
feet and a half, and sharpened on the top. The
two rows did not stand above six inches from one
another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I had
cut in the ship, and laid them in rows one upon
another, within the circle, between these two



ROBINSON CRUSOE 75

rows of stakes, up to the top, placing other stakes
in the inside leaning against them, about two
feet and a half high, like a spur to a post; and
this fence was so strong, that neither man or
beast could get into it, or over it. This cost me
a great deal of time and labour, especially to
cut the piles in the woods, bring them to the
place, and drive them into the earth.

The entrance into this place I made to be not
by a door, but by a short ladder to go over the
top; which ladder, when I was in, I lifted over
after me, and so I was completely fenced in, and
fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and
consequently slept secure in the night, which
otherwise I could not have done; though as it
appeared afterwards, there was no need of all
this caution from the enemies that I appre-
hended danger from.

Into this fence or fortress, with infinite labour,
I carried all my riches, all my provisions,
ammunition, and stores, of which you have the
account above; and I made me a large tent,
which, to preserve me from the rains that in one
part of the year are very violent there, I made
double, viz., one smaller tent within, and one
larger tent above it, and covered the uppermost
with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among
the sails. And now I lay no more for a while
in the bed which I had brought on shore, but
in a hammock, which was indeed a very good
one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.

Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and
everything that would spoil by the wet; and
having thus enclosed all my goods, I made up
the entrance, which, till now, I had left open,



76 THE ADVENTURES OF

and so passed and repassed, as I said, by a short
ladder.

When I had done this, I began to work my
way into the rock; and bringing all the earth
and stones that I dug down out through my tent,
I laid them up within: my fence in the nature
of a terrace, so that it raised the ground within
about a foot and a half; and thus I made me a
cave just behind my tent, which served me like
a cellar to my house.

It cost me much labour, and many days,
before all these things were brought to perfec-
tion, and therefore I must go back to some other
things which took up some of my thoughts. At
the same time it happened, after I had laid my
scheme for the setting up my tent, and making
the cave, that a storm of rain falling from a thick
dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning hap-
pened, and after that a great clap of thunder,
as is naturally the effect of it. I was not so much
surprised with the lightning, as I was with a
thought which darted into my mind as swift as
the lightning itself. O my powder! My very
heart sunk within me when I thought, that at
one blast all my powder might be destroyed,
on which, not my defence only, but the provid-
ing me food, as I thought, entirely depended.
I was nothing near so anxious about my own
danger; though had the powder took fire, I had
never known who had hurt me.

Such impression did this make upon me, that
after the storm was over I laid aside all my
works, my building, and fortifying, and applied
myself to make bags and boxes to separate the
powder, and keep it a little and a little in a



ROBINSON CRUSOE 77

parcel, in hope that whatever might come it
might not all take fire at once, and to keep it so
apart, that it should not be possible to make one
part fire another. I finished this work in about
a fortnight; and I think my powder, which in
all was about 240 pounds weight, was divided
in not less than a hundred parcels. As to the
barrel that had been wet, I did not apprehend
any danger from that, so I placed it in my new
cave, which in my fancy I called my. kitchen,
and the rest I hid up and down in holes among
the rocks, so that no wet might come to it,
marking very carefully where I laid it.

In the interval of time while this was doing,
I went out once, at least, every day with my gun,
as well to divert myself, as to see if I could kill
anything fit for food, and as near as I could to
acquaint myself with what the island produced.
The first time I went out, I presently discovered
that there were goats in the island, which was a
great satisfaction to me; but then it was attended
with this misfortune to me, viz., that they were
so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was
the difficultest thing in the world to come at
them. But I was not discouraged at this, not
doubting but I might now and then shoot one,
as it soon happened; for after I had found their
haunts a little, I laid wait in this manner for
them. I observed if they saw me in the valleys,
though they were upon the rocks, they would
run away as in a terrible fright; but if they were
feeding in the valleys, and I was upon the rocks,
they took no notice of me, from whence I con-
cluded that, by the position of their optics, their
sight was so directed downward, that they did



78 THE ADVENTURES OF

not readily see objects that were above them.
So afterward I took this method; I always
climbed the rocks first to get above them, and
then had frequently a fair mark. The first shot
I made among these creatures I killed a she-
goat, which had a little kid by her, which she
gave suck to, which grieved me heartily ; but
when the old one fell, the kid stood stock still by
her till I came and took her up; and not only so,
but when I carried the old one with me upon my
shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my
enclosure; upon which I laid down the dam, and
took the kid in my arms, and carried it over my
pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame; but it
‘would not eat, so I was forced to kill it, and eat
it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a
great while, for I eat sparingly, and saved my
provisions, my bread especially, as much as
possibly I could.

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it
absolutely necessary to provide a place to make
a fire in, and fuel to burn; and what I did for
that, as also how I enlarged my cave, and what
conveniences I made, I shall give a full account
of in its place. But I must first give some little
account of myself, and of my thoughts about
living, which it may well be supposed were not
a few.

I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for
as I was not cast away upon that island without
being driven, as is said, by a violent storm, quite
out of the course of our intended voyage, and a
great way, viz., some hundreds of leagues out
of the ordinary course of the trade of mankind,
I had great reason to censider it as a determina-



ROBINSON GRUSOE 79)
A

tion of Heaven, that in this desolate place, and)
in this desolate manner, I should end my life. /
The tears would run plentifully down my face!
when I made these reflections, and sometimes|
I would expostulate with myself, why Provi-
dence should thus completely ruin its creatures, |
and render them so absolutely miserable, so
without help abandoned, so entirely depressed, |
that it could hardly be rational to be thankful /
for such a life.

But something always returned swift upon me
to check these thoughts, and to reprove me; and
particularly one day, walking with my gun in
my hand by the seaside, I was very pensive upon
the subject of my present condition, when |
Reason, as it were, expostulated with me t’other
way, thus: ‘Well, you are in a desolate condition |
it is true, but pray remember, where are the rest /
of you? Did not you come ‘eleven of you into!
the boat? Where are the ten? Why were not
they saved, and you lost? Why were you singled
out? Is it better to be here, or there?’ And then
I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be con-
sidered with the good that is in them, and with
what worse attends them.

Then it occurred to me again, how well I was
furnished for my subsistence, and what would
have been my case if it had not happened, which
was an hundred thousand to one, that the ship
floated from the place where she first struck and
was driven so near to the shore that I had time
to get all these things out of her; what would
have been my case, if I had been to have lived
in the condition in which J at first came on shore,
without necessaries of life, or necessaries to



80 THE ADVENTURES OF

supply and procure them? ‘Particularly,’ said
I aloud (though to myself), ‘what should I have
done without a gun, without ammunition, with-
out any tools to make anything or to work with,
without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any manner
of covering?’ and that now I had all these to a
sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to
provide myself in such a manner, as to live with-
out my gun when my ammunition was spent;
so that I had a tolerable view of subsisting
without any want as long as I lived. For I
considered from the beginning how I would
provide for the accidents that might happen,
and for the time that was to come, even not
only after my ammunition should be spent, but
even after my health or strength should decay.

I confess I had not entertained any notion of
my ammunition being destroyed at one blast—
I mean, my powder being blown up by light-
ning; and this made the thoughts of it so surpris-
ing to me when it lightened and thundered, as
I observed just now. -

And now being to enter into a melancholy
relation of a scene of silent life, such, perhaps,
as was never heard of in the world before, I shall
take it from its beginning, and continue it in its
order. It was, by my account, the 3oth of
September when, in the manner as above said,
I first set foot upon this horrid island, when the
sun being to us in its autumnal equinox, was
almost just over my head, for I reckoned myself,
by observation, to be in the latitude of 9 degrees
22 minutes north of the line.

After I had been there about ten or twelve
days, it came into my thoughts that I should





ROBINSON CRUSOE 81

lose my reckoning of time for want of books and
pen and ink, and should even forget the Sabbath
days from the working days; but to prevent this,
I cut it with my knife upon a large post, in
capital letters; and making it into a great cross,
I set it up on the shore where I first landed, viz.,
‘I came on shore here on the 30th of September
1659.’ Upon the sides of this square post I cut
every day a notch with my knife, and every
seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and
every first day of the month as long again as
that long one; and thus I kept my calendar, or
weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.

In the next place we are to observe, that
among the many things which I brought out of
the ship in the several voyages, which, as above
mentioned, I made to it, I got several things of
less value, but not all less useful to me, which
I omitted setting down before; as in parti-
cular, pens, ink, and paper, several parcels in
the captain’s, mate’s, gunner’s, and carpenter’s
keeping, three or four compasses, some mathe-
matical instruments, dials, perspectives, charts,
and books of navigation, all which I huddled
together, whether I might want them or no.
Also I found three very good Bibles, which came
to me in my cargo from England, and which I
had packed up among my things; some Portu-
guese books also, and among them two or three
Popish prayer-books, and several other books,
all which I carefully secured. And I must not
forget, that we had in the ship a dog and two
cats, of whose eminent history I may have
occasion to say something in its place; for I
carried both the cats with me; and as for the



82 THE ADVENTURES OF

dog, he jumped out of the ship of himself, and
swam on shore to me the day after I went on
shore with my first cargo, and was a trusty
servant to me many years. I wanted nothing
that he could fetch me, nor any company that
he could make up to me; I only wanted to have
him talk to me, but that would not do. As I
observed before, I found pen, ink, and paper,
and I husbanded them to the utmost; and I shall
show that while my ink lasted, I kept things very
exact; but after that was gone, I could not, for I
could not make any ink by any means that I
could devise.

And this put me in mind that I wanted many
things, notwithstanding all that I had amassed
together; and of these, this of ink was one, as also
spade, pick-axe, and shovel, to dig or remove
the earth, needles, pins, and thread; as for linen,
I soon learned to want that without much
difficulty.

This want of tools made every work I did go
on heavily; and it was near a whole year before
I had entirely finished my little pale or sur-
rounded habitation. The piles or stakes, which
were as heavy as I could well lift, were a long
time in cutting and preparing in the woods, and
more by far in bringing home; so that I spent
sometimes two days in cutting and bringing
home one of those posts, and a third day in
driving it into the ground; for which purpose I
got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last
bethought myself of one of the iron crows, which,
however, though I found it, yet it made driving
those posts or piles very laborious and tedious
work.



ROBINSON CRUSOE 83

But what need I have been concerned at the
tediousness of anything I had to do, seeing I had
time enough to do it in? nor had I any other
employment, if that had been over, at least, that
I could foresee, except the ranging the island to
seek for food, which I did more or less every day.

I now began to consider seriously my condi-
tion, and the circumstance I was reduced to;
and I drew up the state of my affairs in writing;
not so much to leave them to any that were to
come after me, for I was like to have but few
heirs, as to deliver my thoughts from daily por-
ing upon them, and afflicting my mind. And as
my reason began now to master my despon-
dency, I began to comfort myself as well as I
could, and to set the good against the evil, that
I might have something to distinguish my case
from worse; and I stated it very impartially, like
debtor and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed
against the miseries I suffered, thus:

Evil.

I am cast upon a hor-
rible desolate island, void
of all hope of recovery.

I am singled out and
separated, as it were,
from all the world to be
miserable.

I am divided from
mankind, a solitaire, one
banished from human
society.

Good.

But I am alive, and
not drowned, as all my
ship’s company was.

But I am singled out,
too, from all the ship’s
crew to be spared from
death; and He that mira-
culously saved me from
death, can deliver me /
from this condition. |

But I am not starved”
and perishing on a barren
place, affording no sus-
tenance.



84. THE ADVENTURES OF

Evil. Good.
I have not clothes to But I am in a hot cli-
cover me. mate, where if I had
clothes I could hardly
wear them.
I am without any de- But I am cast on an

fence or means to resist island, where I see no
any violence of man or wild beasts to hurt me,
beast. as I saw on the coast of
Africa; and what if I had
been shipwrecked there?
I have no soul to speak But God wonderfully
to, or relieve me. sent the ship in near
enough to the shore, that
I have gotten out so
many necessary things as
will either supply my
wants, or enable me to
supply myself even as

long as I live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testi-
mony, that there was scarce any condition in
the world so miserable, but there was something
negative or something positive to be thankful
for in it; and let this stand as a direction from
the experience of the most miserable of all con-
ditions in this world, that we may always find
in it something to comfort ourselves from, and to
set in the description of good and evil on the
credit side of the account.

Having now brought my mind a little to relish
my condition, and given over looking out to sea,
to see if I could spy a ship; I say, giving over
these things, I began to apply myself to accom-
modate my way of living, and to make things as
easy to me as I could.



ROBINSON CRUSOE 85

I have already described my habitation, which
was a tent under the side of a rock, surrounded
with a strong pale of posts and cables; but I
might now rather call it a wall, for I raised a
kind of wall up against it of turfs, about two feet
thick on the outside, and after some time—I
think it was a year and a half—I raised rafters
from it leading to the rock, and thatched or
covered it with boughs of trees and such things
as I could get to keep out the rain, which I found
at some times of the year very violent.

I have already observed how I brought all my
goods into this pale, and into the cave which I
had made behind me. But I must observe, too,
that at first this was a confused heap of goods,
which as they lay in no order, so they took up all
my place; I had no room to turn myself. So I
set myself to enlarge my cave and works farther
into the earth; for it was a loose sandy rock,
which yielded easily to the labour I bestowed on
it. And so, when I found I was pretty safe as to
beasts of prey, I worked sideways to the right
hand into the rock; and then, turning to the
right again, worked quite out, and made me a
door to come out on the outside of my pale or
fortification. This gave me not only egress and
regress, as it were a back-way to my tent and to my
storehouse, but gave me room to stow my goods.

And now I began to apply myself to make such
necessary things as I found I most wanted, as par-
ticularly a chair and a table; for without these I
was not able to enjoy the few comforts I had in
the world. I could not write or eat, or do several
things with so much pleasure without a table.

So I went to work; and here I must needs



86 THE ADVENTURES OF

observe, that as reason is the substance and
original of the mathematics, so by stating and
squaring everything by reason, and by making
the most rational judgment of things, every man
may be in time master of every mechanic art.
I had never handled a tool in my life; and yet
in time, by labour, application, and contrivance,
I found at last that I wanted nothing but I could
have made it, especially if I had had tools.
However, I made abundance of things even
without tools, and some with no more tools than
an adze and a hatchet, which, perhaps, were
never made that way before, and that with
infinite labour. For example, if I wanted a
board, I had no other way but to cut down a
tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat
on either side with my axe, till I had brought it
to be thin as a plank, and then dub it smooth
with my adze. It is true, by this method I could
make but one board out of a whole tree; but this
T had no remedy for but patience, any more than
I had for the prodigious deal of time and labour
which it took me up to make a plank or board.
But my time or labour was little worth, and so
it was as well employed one way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I
observed above, in the first place, and this I did
out of the short pieces of boards that I brought
on my raft from the ship. But when I had
wrought out some boards, as above, I made
large shelves of the breadth of a foot and a half
one over another, all along one side of my cave,
to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work; and,
in a word, to separate everything at large in
their places, that I might come easily at them.



ROBINSON CRUSOE 87

I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock to hang
my guns and all things that would hang up; so
that had my cave been to be seen, it looked like
a general magazine of all necessary things; and
I had everything so ready at my hand, that it
was a great pleasure to me to see all my goods
in such order, and especially to find my stock of
all necessaries so great.

And now it was when I began to keep a
journal of every day’s employment; for, indeed,
at first, I was in too much hurry, and not only
hurry as to labour, but in too much discom-
posure of mind; and my journal would have
been full of many dull things. For example, I
must have said thus: Sept. the 30th.—After I got
to shore, and had escaped drowning, instead
of being thankful to God for my deliverance,
having first vomited with the great quantity of
salt water which was gotten into my stomach,
and recovering myself a little, I ran about the
shore, wringing my hands, and beating my head
and face, exclaiming at my misery, and crying
out, I was undone, undone, till, tired and faint,
I was forced to lie down on the ground to repose;
but durst not sleep, for fear of being devoured.

Some days after this, and after I had been on
board the ship, and got all that I could out of
her, yet I could not forbear getting up to the
top of a little mountain, and looking out to sea,
in hopes of seeing a ship; then fancy at a vast
distance I spied a sail, please myself with the
hopes of it, and then, after looking steadily till
I was almost blind, lose it quite, and sit down
and weep like a child, and thus increase my
misery by my folly.



88 THE ADVENTURES OF

But having gotten over these things in some
measure, and having settled my household stuff
and habitation, made me a table and a chair,
and all as handsome about me as I could, I
began to keep my journal, of which I shall here
give you the copy (though in it will be told all
these particulars over again) as long as it lasted;
for, having no more ink, I was forced to leave
it off.

THE JOURNAL

September 30, 1659.—I, poor miserable Robin-
son Crusoe, being shipwrecked, during a dread-
ful storm, in the offing, came on shore on this
dismal unfortunate island, which I called the
Island of Despair, all the rest of the ship’s com-
pany being drowned, and myself almost dead.

All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting
myself at the dismal circumstances I was brought
to, viz., I had neither food, house, clothes,
weapon, or place to fly to; and in despair of any
relief, saw nothing but death before me; either
that I should be devoured by wild beasts, mur-
dered by savages, or starved to death for want
of food. At the approach of night, I slept in a
tree for fear of wild creatures, but slept soundly,
though it rained all night.

Oct. 1—In the morning I saw, to my great
surprise, the ship had floated with the high tide,
and was driven on shore again much nearer the
island; which, as it was some comfort on one
hand, for seeing her sit upright, and not broken
to pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I might
get on board, and get some food and necessaries
out of her for my relief; so, on the other hand,



Full Text



CAISZ

ERSITY of FLORIDA }{]}

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The World's Classics

2d
XVII
THE LIFE @ ADVENTURES
OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE
DANIEL DEFOE
Born : St. Giles’s, Cripplegate 7 . 1660 or 16
Died : Moorfields : : . 6 April 17

‘The Life and Adventures of Robinson Crusoe’ was first publish
in1719. In ‘The World’s Classics’ it was first published in 1.
and reprinted in 1904, 1905, 1911, 1920 and 1937 (reset).

PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN


= >

THE a3 7 &
LIFE & ADVENTURES

OF
ROBINSON CRUSOE

BY
DANIEL DEFOE



University of Floriga Ldrariay

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
LONDON : HUMPHREY MILFORD
1QO7
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
AMEN HOUSE, E.C. 4
London Edinburgh Glasgow New York
Toronto Melbourne Capetown Bombay
Calcutta Madras
HUMPHREY MILFORD
PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY
AUTHOR’S PREFACE

F ever the story of any private man’s adventures
1 the world were worth making public, and
ier acceptable when published, the Editor of
is account thinks this will be so.
The wonders of this man’s life exceed all that
he thinks) is to be found extant; the life of one
aan being scarce capable of a greater variety.
The story is told with modesty, with serious-
ess, and with a religious application of events
the uses to which wise men always apply
hem, viz., to the instruction of others by this
ample, and to justify and honour the wisdom
f Providence in all the variety of our circum-
tances, let them happen how they will.
| The Editor believes the thing to be a just
listory of fact; neither is there any appearance
° fiction in it; and, however, thinks, because
‘l such things are despatched, that the improve-
nent of it, as well to the diversion as to the
astruction of the reader, will be the same. And
is such, he thinks, without further compliment
o the world, he does them a great service in
he publication.






i






THE
LIFE AND ADVENTURES
OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE

I was born in the year 1632, in the city’of York,
of a good family, though not of that country, my
father being a foreigner of Bremen, who settled
‘first at Hull. He got a good estate by merchan-
\dise, and leaving off his trade, lived afterward at
York, from whence he had married my mother,
whose relations were named Robinson, a very
good family in that country, and from whom I
was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but by the
usual corruption of words in England we are
now called, nay, we call ourselves, and write our
{name, Crusoe, and so my companions always
\called me.

I had two elder brothers, one of which was
lieutenant-colonel to an English regiment of foot
in Flanders, formerly commanded by the famous
Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle

ear Dunkirk against the Spaniards; what be-
came of my second brother I never knew, any
more than my father and mother did know what
was become of me.

Being the third son of the family, and not bred
to any trade, my head began to be filled very
early with rambling thoughts. My father, who
was very ancient, had given me a competent
share of learning, as far as house-education
and a country free school generally goes, and

17 B
2 THE ADVENTURES OF

designed me for the law; but I would be satisfied
with nothing but going to sea; and my inclina-
tion to this led me so strongly against the will,
nay, the commands, of my father, and against
all the entreaties and persuasions of my mother
and other friends, that there seemed to be some-
thing fatal in that propension of nature tend-
ing directly to the life of misery which was to
befall me.

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me
serious and excellent counsel against what he
foresaw was my design. He called me one morn-
ing into his chamber, where he was confined by
the gout, and expastulated very warmly with me
upon this subject} He asked me what reasons
more than a mere wandering inclination I had
for leaving my father’s house and my native
country, where I might be well introduced, and

had a prospect of raising my fortunes by ap-
‘plication and industry, with a life of ease and
pleasure. He told mé€it was for men of desperate
‘fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring, superior
fortunes on the other, who went abroad upon
adventures, to rise by enterprise, and make
themselves famous in undertakings of a nature
out of the common road; that these things were
all either too far above me, or too far below me;
that mine was the middle state, or what might
be called the upper station of low life, which he
had found by long experience was the best state
in the world, the most suited to human happi-
ness, not exposed to the miseries and hardships,
the labour and sufferings, of the mechanic part
of mankind, and not embarrassed with the
pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the upper!
ROBINSON CRUSOE | 3

part of mankind.. He told me I might judge
of the happiness of this state by this one
thing, viz., that this was the state of life which all
other people envied; that kings have frequently
lamented the miserable consequences of being
born to great things, and wished they had been
placed in the middle of the two extremes, between
the mean and the great; that the wise man gave
his testimony to this as the just standard of true
felicity, when he prayed to have neither poverty
or riches.

He bid me observe it, and I should always
find, that the calamities of life were shared
among the upper and lower part of mankind;
but that the middle station had the fewest dis-
asters, and was not exposed to so many vicissi-
tudes as the higher or lower part of mankind.
Nay, they were not subjected to so. many dis-
tempers and uneasinesses either of body or mind
as those were who, by vicious living, luxury, and
extravagances on one hand, or by hard labour,
want of necessaries, and mean or insufficient diet
on the other hand, bring distempers upon them-
selves by the natural consequences of their way
of living; that the middle station of life was
calculated for all kind of virtues and all kind of
enjoyments; that peace and plenty were the
handmaids of a middle fortune; that temper-
ance, moderation, quietness, health, society, all
agreeable diversions, and all desirable pleasures,

| were the blessings attending the middle station
|of life; that this way men went silently and
|smoothly through the world, and comfortably
out of it, not embarrassed with the labours of
the hands or of the head, not sold to the life
4 THE ADVENTURES OF

of slavery for daily bread, or harrassed with per-
plexed circumstances, which rob the soul of
peace, and the body of rest; not enraged with
the passion of envy, or secret burning lust of
ambition for great things; but in easy circum-
stances sliding gently through the world, and
sensibly tasting the sweets of living, without the
bitter, feeling that they are happy, and learning by
every day’s experience to know it more sensibly.

After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the
most afféctionate manner, not to play the young
man, not to precipitate myself into miseries
which Nature and the station of life I was born
in seemed to have provided against; that I was
under no necessity of seeking my bread; that he
would do well for me, and endeavour to enter
me fairly into the station of life which he had
been just recommending to me; and that if I
was not very easy and happy in the world it must
be my mere fate or fault that must hinder it, and
that he should have nothing to answer for,
having thus discharged his duty in warning me
against measures which he knew would be to my
hurt; in a word, that as he would do very kind
things for me if I would stay and settle at home
as he directed, so he would not have so much
hand in my misfortunes, as to give me any en-
couragement to go away. And to close all, he
told me I had my elder brother for an example,
to whom he had used the same earnest per-
suasions to keep him from going into the Low
Country wars, but could not prevail, his young
desires prompting him to run into the army,
where he was killed; and though he said he
would not cease to pray for me, yet he would
ROBINSON CRUSOE 5

venture to say to me, that if I did take this foolish
step, God would not bless me, and I would have
leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neglected
his counsel when there might be none to assist in
my recovery.

I observed in this last part of his discourse,
which was truly prophetic, though I suppose my
father did not know it to be so himself—I say,
I observed the tears run down his face very
plentifully, and especially when he spoke of my
brother who was killed; and that when he spoke
of my having leisure to repent, and none to assist
me, he was so moved, that he broke off the dis-
course, and told me, his heart was so full he
could say no more to me.

I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as
indeed who could be otherwise? and I resolved
not to think of going abroad any more, but to
settle at home according to my father’s desire.
But alas! a few days wore it all off; and, in short,
to prevent any of nty father’s farther importuni-
ties, in a few weeks after I resolved to run quite
away from him. However, I did not act so
hastily neither as my first heat of resolution
prompted, but I took my mother, at a time when
I thought her a little pleasanter than ordinary,
and told her, that my thoughts were so entirely
bent upon seeing the world, that I should never
settle to anything with resolution enough to go
through with it, and my father had better give
me his consent than force me to go without it;
that I was now eighteen years old, which was too
late to go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an
attorney; that I was sure if I did, I should never
serve out my time, and I should certainly run
6 THE ADVENTURES OF

away from my master before my time was out,
and go to sea; and if she would speak to my
father to let me go but one voyage abroad, if I,
came home again and did not like it, I would
go no more, and I would promise by a double
diligence to recover that time I had lost.

This put my mother into a great passion. She
told me, she knew it would be to no purpose to
speak to my father upon any such subject; that
he knew too well what was my interest to give his
consent to anything so much for my hurt, and
that she wondered how I could think of any such
thing after such a discourse as I had had with
my father, and such kind and tender expressions
as she knew my father had used to me; and that,
in short, if I would ruin myself there was no help
for me; but I might depend I should never have
their consent to it; that for her part, she would
not have so much hand in my destruction, and
I should never have it to say, that my mother
was willing when my father was not.

Though my mother refused to move it to my
father, yet, as I have heard afterwards, she
reported all the discourse to him, and that my
father, after showing a great concern at it, said
to her with a sigh, “That boy might be happy if
he would stay at home, but if he goes abroad he
will be the miserablest wretch that was ever
born: I can give no consent to it.’

It was not till almost a year after this that I
broke loose, though in the meantime I continued
obstinately deaf to all proposals of settling to
business, and frequently expostulating with my
father and mother about their being so positively
determined against what they knew my inclina-
ROBINSON CRUSOE 7

tions prompted me to. But being one day at
Hull, where I went casually, and without any
purpose of making an elopement that time; but
I say, being there, and one of my companions
being going by sea to London, in his father’s
ship, and prompting me to go with them, with
the common allurement of seafaring men, viz.,
that it should cost me nothing for my passage,
I consulted neither father or mother any more,
nor so much as sent them word of it; but leaving
them to hear of it as they might, without asking
God’s blessing, or my father’s, without any con-
sideration of circumstances or consequences,
and in an ill hour, God poe cn the first of
September, 1651, I went on board a ship bound
for London. Never any young adventurer’s
misfortunes, I believe, began sooner, or con-
tinued longer than mine. The ship was no
sooner gotten out of the Humber, but the wind
began to blow, and the waves to rise in a most
frightful manner; and as I had never been at sea
before, I was most inexpressibly sick in body,
and terrified in my mind.) I began now seriously
to reflect upon what I had done, and how justly
I was overtaken by the judgment of heaven for
my wicked leaving my father’s house, and aban-
doning my duty; all the good counsel of my
parents, my father’s tears and my mother’s
entreaties, came now fresh into my mind, and
my conscience, which was not yet come to the
pitch of hardness which it has been since, re-
proached me with the contempt of advice, and
the breach of my duty to God and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the
sea, which I had never been upon before, went
8 THE ADVENTURES OF

very high, though nothing like what I have seen
many times since; no, nor like what I saw a few
days after. But it was enough to affect me then,
who was but a young sailor, and had never
known anything of the matter. I expected every
wave would have swallowed us up, and that
every time the ship fell down, as I thought, in
the trough or hollow of the sea, we should never
rise more; and in this agony of mind I made
many vows and resolutions, that if it would
please God here to spare my life this one voyage,
if ever I got once my foot upon dry land again,
I would go directly home to my father, and never
set it into a ship again while I lived; that I
would take his advice, and never run myself into
such miseries as these any more. Now I saw
plainly the goodness of his observations about
the middle station of life, how easy, how com-
fortably he had lived all his days, and never had
been exposed to tempests at sea, or troubles on
shore; and I resolved that I would, like a true
repenting prodigal, go home to my father.

These wise and sober thoughts continued all
the while the storm continued, and indeed some
time after; but the next day the wind was abated
and the sea calmer, and I began to be a little
inured to it. However, I was very grave for all
that day, being also a little sea-sick still; but
towards night the weather cleared up, the wind
was quite over, and a charming fine evening
followed; the sun went down perfectly clear,
and rose so the next morning; and having little
or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun shining
upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most
delightful that ever I saw.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 9

I had slept well in the night, and was now no
more sea-sick but very cheerful, looking with
wonder upon the sea that was so rough and
terrible the day before, and could be so calm
and so pleasant in so little time after. And now
lest my good resolutions should continue, my
companion, who had indeed enticed me away,
comes to me: ‘Well, Bob,’ says he, clapping me
on the shoulder, ‘how do you do after it? I
warrant you were frighted, wa’n’t you, last
night, when it blew but a capful of wind?’ ‘A
capful, d’you ‘call it?’ said I; “’twas a terrible
storm.’ ‘A storm, you fool you,’ replies he; ‘do
you call that a storm? Why, it was nothing at
all; give us but a good ship and sea-room, and
we think nothing of such a squall of wind as that;
but you’re but a fresh-water sailor, Bob. Come,
let us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget
all that; d’ye see what charming weather ’tis
now?’ To make short this sad part of my story,
we went the old way of all sailors; the punch *
was made, and I was made drunk with it, and
in that one night’s wickedness I drowned all my
repentance, all my reflections upon my past con-
duet, and all my resolutions for my future. Ina
word, as the sea was returned to its smoothness
of surface and settled calmness by the abate-
ment of that storm, so the hurry of my thoughts
being over, my fears and apprehensions of being
swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and
the current of my former desires returned, I
entirely forgot the vows and promises that I
made in my distress. I found indeed some
intervals of reflection, and the serious thoughts
did, as it were, endeavour to return again some-
10 THE ADVENTURES OF

times; but I shook them off, and roused myself
from them as it were from a distemper, and
applying myself to drink and company, soon
‘mastered the return of those fits, for so I called
them, and I had in five or six days got as com-
plete a victory over conscience as any young
fellow that resolved not to be troubled with it
could desire. But I was to have another trial
for it still; and Providence, as in such cases
generally it does, resolved to leave me entirely
without excuse. For if I would not take this
for a deliverance, the next was to be such a
one as the worst and most hardened wretch
among us would confess both the danger and
the mercy.

The sixth day of our being at sea we came into
Yarmouth roads; the wind having been contrary
and the weather calm, we had made but little
way since the storm. Here we were obliged to
come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind
continuing contrary, viz., at south-west, for
seven or eight days, during which time a great
many ships from Newcastle came into the same
roads, as the common harbour where the ships
might wait for a wind for the river.

We had not, however, rid here so long, but
should have tided it up the river, but that the
wind blew too fresh; and after we had lain four
or five days, blew very hard. However, the
roads being reckoned as good as a harbour, the
anchorage good, and our ground-tackle very
strong, our men were unconcerned, and not in
the least apprehensive of danger, but spent the
time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the
sea; but the eighth day in the morning the wind
ROBINSON CRUSOE II

increased, and we had all hands at work to
strike our topmasts, and make everything snug
and close, that the ship might ride as easy as
possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed,
and our ship rid forecastle in, shipped several
seas, and we thought once or twice our anchor
had come home; upon which our master ordered
out the sheet-anchor, so that we rode with two
anchors ahead, and the cables veered out to the
better end.

By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed,
and now I began to see terror and amazement
in the faces even of the seamen themselves. The
master, though vigilant to the business of pre-
serving the ship, yet as he went in and out of
his cabin by me, I could hear him softly to
himself say several times, ‘Lord be merciful to
us, we shall be all lost, we shall be all undone’;
and the like. During these first hurries I was
stupid, lying still in my cabin, which was in the
steerage, and cannot describe my temper; I
could ill reassume the first penitence, which
I had so apparently trampled upon, and hard-
ened myself against; I thought the bitterness of
death had been past, and that this would be
nothing too, like the first. But when the master
himself came by me, as I said just now, and said
we should be all lost, I was dreadfully frighted;
I got up out of my cabin, and looked out. But
such a dismal sight I never saw; the sea went
mountains high, and broke upon us every three
or four minutes; when I could look about, I
could see nothing but distress round us. Two
ships that rid near us we found had cut their
masts by the board, being deep loaden; and our
12 THE ADVENTURES OF

men cried out, that a ship which rid about a mile
ahead of us was foundered. Two more ships
being driven from their anchors, were run out
of the roads to sea at all adventures, and that
with not a mast standing. The light ships fared
the best, as not so much labouring in the sea;
but two or three of them drove, and came close
by us, running away with only their sprit-sail
out before the wind.

Towards evening the mate and boatswain
begged the master of our ship to let them cut
away the foremast, which he was very unwilling
to. But the boatswain protesting to him that if
he did not the ship would founder, he consented ;
and when they had cut away the foremast, the
mainmast stood so loose, and shook the ship so
much, they were obliged to cut her away also,
and make a clear deck.

Any one may judge what a condition I must
be in at all this, who was but a young sailor, and
who had been in such a fright before at but a
little. But if I can express at this distance the
thoughts I had about me at that time, I was in
tenfold more horror of mind upon account of
my former convictions, and the having returned
from them to the resolutions I had wickedly
taken at first, than I was at death itself; and
these, added to the terror of the storm, put me
into such a condition, that I can by no words
describe it. But the worst was not come yet; the
storm continued with such fury, that the seamen
themselves acknowledged they had never known
a worse. We had a good ship, but she was deep
loaden, and wallowed in the sea, that the seamen
every now and then cried out she would founder.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 13

It was my advantage in one respect, that I did
not know what they meant by founder till I
inquired. However, the storm was so violent,
that I saw what is not often seen, the master, the
boatswain, and some others‘ more sensible than
the rest, at their prayers, and expecting every
moment when the ship would go to the bottom.
In the middle of the night, and under all the
rest of our distresses, one of the men that had
been down on purpose to see cried out we had
sprung a leak, another said there was four foot
water in the hold. Then all hands were called
to the pump. At that very word my heart, as I
thought, died within me, and I fell backwards
upon the side of my bed where I sat, into the
cabin. However, the men roused me, and told
me, that I, that was able to do nothing before,
was as well able to pump as another; at which
I stirred up and went to the pump and worked
very heartily. While this was doing, the master
seeing some light colliers, who, not able to ride
out the storm, were obliged to slip and run away
to sea, and would come near us, ordered to fire
a gun asa signal of distress. I, who knew nothing
what that meant, was so surprised that I thought
the ship had broke, or some dreadful thing had
happened. In a word, I was so surprised that
I fell down in a swoon. As this was a time when
everybody had his own life to think of, no-
body minded me, or what was become of me;
but another man stepped up to the pump, and
thrusting me aside with his foot, let me lie, think-
ing I had been dead; and it was a great while
before I came to myself.

We worked on, but the water increasing in
14 THE ADVENTURES OF

the hold, it was apparent that the ship would
founder, and though the storm began to abate
a little, yet as it was not possible she could swim
till we might run into a port, so the master con-
tinued firing guns for help; and a light ship,
who had rid it out just ahead of us, ventured a
boat out to help us. It was with the utmost
hazard the boat came near us, but it was im-
possible for us to get on board, or for the boat
to lie near the ship’s side, till at last the men
rowing very heartily, and venturing their lives
to save ours, our men cast them a rope over the
stern with a buoy to it, and then veered it out
a great length, which they after great labour
and hazard took hold of, and we hauled them
close under our stern, and got all into their boat.
It was to no purpose for them or us after we
were in the boat to think of reaching to their
own ship, so all agreed to let her drive, and only
to pull her in towards shore as much as we could,
and our master promised them that if the boat
was staved upon shore he would make it good
to their master; so partly rowing and partly
driving, our boat went away to the norward,
sloping towards the shore almost as far as
Winterton Ness.

We were not much more than a quarter of an
hour out of our ship but we saw her sink, and
then I understood for the first time what was
meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I must
acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up when
the seamen told me she was sinking; for from
that moment they rather put me into the boat
than that I might be said to go in; my heart
was as it were dead within me, partly with fright,
ROBINSON CRUSOE 15

partly with horror of mind and the thoughts of
what was yet before me.

While we were in this condition, the men yet
labouring at the oar to bring the boat near the
shore, we could see, when, our boat mounting
the waves, we were able to see the shore, a great
many people running along the shore to assist us
when we should come near. But we made but
slow way towards the shore, nor were we able to
reach the shore, till being past the lighthouse
at Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward
towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a
little the violence of the wind. Here we got in,
and though not without much difficulty got all
safe on shore, and walked afterwards on foot to
Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were
used with great humanity as well by the magis-
trates of the town, who assigned us good quarters,
as by particular merchants and owners of ships,
and had money given us sufficient to carry us
either to London or back to Hull, as we thought
fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone back
to Hull, and have gone home, I had been happy,
and my father, an emblem of our blessed
Saviour’s parable, had even killed the fatted
calf for me; for hearing the ship I went away in
was cast away in Yarmouth road, it was a great
while before he had any assurance that I was
not drowned.

But my ill fate pushed me on now with an
obstinacy that nothing could resist; and though
I had several times loud calls from my reason
and my more composed judgment to go home,
yet I had no power to doit. I know not what to
16 THE ADVENTURES OF

call this, nor will I urge that it is a secret over-
ruling decree that hurries us on to be the instru-
ments of our own destruction, even though it be
before us, and that we rush upon it with our
eyes open. Certainly nothing but some such
decreed unavoidable misery attending, and
which it was impossible for me to escape, could
have pushed me forward against the calm
reasonings and persuasions of my most retired
thoughts, and against two such visible instruc-
tions as I had met with in my first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me
before, and who was the master’s son, was now
less forward than I. The first time he spoke to
me after we were at Yarmouth, which was not
till two or three days, for we were separated in
the town to several quarters—I say, the first time
he saw me, it appeared his tone was altered,
and looking very melancholy and shaking his
head, asked me how I did, and telling his father
who I was, and how I had come this voyage only
for a trial in order to go farther abroad, his
father turning to me with a very grave and
concerned tone, ‘Young man,’ says he, ‘you
ought never to go to sea any more, you ought
to take this for a plain and visible token, that
you are not to be a seafaring man.’ ‘Why, sir,’
said I, ‘will you go to sea no more?’ “That is
another case,’ said he; ‘it is my calling, and
therefore my duty; but as you made this voyage
for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given
you of what you are to expect if you persist;
perhaps this is all befallen us on your account,
like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray,’ con-
tinues he, ‘what are you? and on what account
ROBINSON CRUSOE 17

did you go to sea?’ Upon that I told him some
of my story, at the end of which he burst out
with a strange kind of passion. ‘What had I
done,’ says he, ‘that such an unhappy wretch
should come into my ship? I would not set my
foot in the same ship with thee again for a thous-
and pounds.’ This indeed was, as I said, an ex-
cursion of his spirits, which were yet agitated by
the sense of his loss, and was farther than he
could have authority to go. However, he after-
wards talked very gravely to me, exhorted me
to go back to my father, and not tempt Provi-
dence to my ruin; told me I might see a visible
hand of Heaven against me. ‘And, young man,’
said he, ‘depend upon it, if you do not go back,
wherever you go you will meet with nothing but
disasters and disappointments, till your father’s
words are fulfilled upon you.’

We parted soon after; for I made him little
answer, and I saw him no more; which way he
went, I know not. As forme, having some money
in my pocket, I travelled to London by land;
and there, as well as on the road, had many
struggles with myself what course of life I should
take, and whether I should go home, or go to sea.

As to going home, shame opposed the best
motions that offered to my thoughts; and it
immediately occurred to me how I should be
laughed at among the neighbours, and should
be ashamed to see, not my father and mother
only, but even everybody else; from whence I
have since often observed how incongruous and
irrational the common temper of mankind is,
especially of youth, to that reason which ought
to guide them in such cases, viz., that they are
18 THE ADVENTURES OF

not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to
repent; not ashamed of the action for which
they ought justly to be esteemed fools, but are
ashamed of the returning, which only can make
them be esteemed wise men.

In this state of life, however, I remained some
time, uncertain what measures to take, and what
course of life to lead. An irresistible reluctance
continued to going home; and as I stayed a
while, the remembrance of the distress I had
been in wore off; and as that abated, the little
motion I had in my desires to a return wore off
with it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts
of it, and looked out for a voyage.

That evil influence which carried me first
away from my father’s house, that hurried me
into the wild and indigested notion of raising
my fortune, and that impressed those conceits
so forcibly upon me as to make me deaf to all
good advice, and to the entreaties and even
command of my father—I say, the same in-
fluence, whatever it was, presented the most
unfortunate of all enterprises to my view; and
I went on board a vessel bound to the coast of
Africa, or, as our sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage
to Guinea.

It was my great misfortune that,in all these
adventures I did not ship myself as a sailor,
whereby, though I might indeed have worked
a little harder than ordinary, yet at the same
time I had learned the duty and ofiice of a fore-
mast man, and in time might have qualified
myself for a mate or lieutenant, if not for a
master. But as it was always my fate to choose
for the worse, so I did here; for having money
ROBINSON CRUSOE 19)

in my pocket, and good clothes upon my back,
I would always go on board in the habit of a
gentleman; and so I neither had any business
in the ship, or learned to do any.

It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good
company in London, which does not always
happen to such loose and misguided young
fellows as I then was; the devil generally not
omitting to lay some snare for them very early;
but it was not so with me. I first fell acquainted
with the master of a ship who had been on the
coast of Guinea, and who, having had very good
success there, was resolved to go again; and
who, taking a fancy to my conversation, which
was not at all disagreeable at that time, hearing
me say I had a mind to see the world, told me
if I would go the voyage with him I should be
at no expense; I should be his messmate and
his companion; and if I could carry anything
with me, I should have all the advantage of it
that the trade would admit, and perhaps I
might meet with some encouragement.

I embraced the offer; and, entering into a
strict friendship with this captain, who was an
honest and plain-dealing man, I went the voyage
with him, and carried a small adventure with
me, which, by the disinterested honesty of my
friend the captain, I increased very considerably,
for I carried about £40 in such toys and trifles
as the captain directed me to buy. This £40 I
had mustered together by the assistance of some
of my relations whom I corresponded with, and
who, I believe, got my father, or at least my
mother, to contribute so much as that to my
first adventure.
20 THE ADVENTURES OF

This was the only voyage which I may say
was successful in all my adventures, and which
I owe to the integrity and honesty of my friend
the captain; under whom also I got a competent
knowledge of the mathematics and the rules of
navigation, learned how to keep an account
of the ship’s course, take an observation, and,
in short, to understand some things that were
needful to be understood by a sailor. For, as
he took delight to introduce me, I took delight
to learn; and, in a word, this voyage made me
both a sailor and a merchant; for I brought
home five pounds nine ounces of gold dust for
my adventure, which yielded me in London at
my return almost £300, and this filled me with
those aspiring thoughts which have since so
completed my ruin.

Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes
too; particularly, that I was continually sick,
being thrown into a violent calenture by the
excessive heat of the climate; our principal
trading being upon the coast, from the latitude
of 15 degrees north even to the line itself.

I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my
friend, to my great misfortune, dying soon after
his arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage
again, and I embarked in the same vessel with
one who was his mate in the former voyage, and
had now got the command of the ship. This was
the unhappiest voyage that ever man made;
for though I did not carry quite £100 of my
new-gained wealth, so that I had £200 left, and
which I lodged with my friend’s widow, who
was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible mis-
fortunes in this voyage; and the first was this,
ROBINSON CRUSOE QI

viz., our ship making her course towards the
Canary Islands, or rather between those islands
and the African shore, was surprised in the grey
of the morning by a Turkish rover of Sallee,
who gave chase to us with all the sail she could
make. We crowded also as much canvas as our
yards would spread, or our masts carry, to have
got clear; but finding the pirate gained upon
us, and would certainly come up with us in a
few hours, we prepared to fight, our ship having
twelve guns, and the rogue eighteen. About
three in the afternoon he came up with us, and
bringing to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter,
instead of athwart our stern, as he intended, we
brought eight of our guns to bear on that side,
and poured in a broadside upon him, which
made him sheer off again, after returning our
fire and pouring in also his small-shot from near
200 men which he had on board. However, we
had not a man touched, all our men keeping
close. He prepared to attack us again, and we
to defend ourselves; but laying us on board the
next time upon our other quarter, he entered
sixty men uponourdecks, who immediately fell to
cutting and hacking the decks and rigging. We
plied them with small-shot, half-pikes, powder-
chests, and such like, and cleared our deck of
them twice. However, to cut short this melan-
choly part of our story, our ship being disabled,
and three of our men killed and eight wounded,
we were obliged to yield, and were carried all
prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to the
Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as
at first I apprehended, nor was I carried up the
22 THE ADVENTURES OF

country to the emperor’s court, as the rest of our
men were, but was kept by the captain of the
rover as his proper prize, and made his slave,
being young and nimble, and fit for his business.
At this surprising change of my circumstances
from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was
perfectly overwhelmed; and now I looked back
upon my father’s prophetic discourse to me, that
I should be miserable, and have none to relieve
me, which I thought was now so effectually
brought to pass, that it could not be worse; that
now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and
I was undone without redemption. But alas!
this was but a taste of the misery I was to go
through, as will appear in the sequel of this story.

As my new patron, or master, had taken me
home to his house, so I was in hopes that he
would take me with him when he went to sea
again, believing that it would some time or other
be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portugal
man-of-war; and that then I should be set at
liberty. But this hope of mine was soon taken
away; for when he went to sea, he left me on
shore to look after his little garden, and do the
common drudgery of-slaves about his house; and
when he came home again from his cruise, he
ordered me to lie in the cabin to look after the
ship. :

Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and
what method I might take to effect it, but found
no way that had the least probability in it.
Nothing presented to make the supposition of
it rational; for I had nobody to communicate
it to that would embark with me, no fellow-slave,
no Englishman, Irishman, or Scotsman there
ROBINSON CRUSOE 23

but myself; so that for two years, though I often
pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never
had the least encouraging prospect of putting it
in practice.

After about two years an odd circumstance
presented itself, which put the old thought of
making some attempt for my liberty again in
my head. My patron lying at home longer than
usual without fitting out his ship, which, as I
heard, was for want of money, he used con-
stantly, once or twice a week, sometimes oftener,
if the weather was fair, to take the ship’s pinnace,
and go out into the road a-fishing; and as he
always took me and a young Maresco with him
to row the boat, we made him very merry, and
I proved very dexterous in catching fish; inso-
much, that sometimes he would send me with
a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth the
Maresco, as they called him, to catch a dish of
fish for him.

It happened one time that, going a-fishing in
a stark calm morning, a fog rose so thick, that
though we were not half a league from the shore
we lost sight of it; and rowing we knew not
whither or which way, we laboured all day, and
all the next night, and when the morning came
we found we had pulled off to sea instead of
pulling in for the shore; and that we were at
least two leagues from the shore. However, we
got well in again, though with a great deal of
labour, and some danger, for the wind began to
blow pretty fresh in the morning; but ‘particu-
larly we were all very hungry.

But our patron, warned by this disaster,
resolved to take more care of himself for the
24 THE ADVENTURES OF

future; and having lying by him the long-boat
of our English ship which he had taken, he
resolved he would not go a-fishing any more
without a compass and some provision; so he
ordered the carpenter of his ship, who also was
an English slave, to build a little state-room,
or cabin, in the middle of the long-boat, like
that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it
to steer and haul home the main-sheet, and
room before for a hand or two to stand and
work the sails. She sailed with what we call a
shoulder-of-mutton sail; and the boom jibbed
over the top of the cabin, which lay very snug
and low, and had in it room for him to lie, with
a slave or two, and a table to eat on, with some
small lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor
as he thought fit to drink; particularly his bread,
rice, and coffee.

We went frequently out with this boat a-fish-
ing, and as I was most dexterous to catch fish
for him, he never went without me. It happened
that he had appointed to go out in this boat,
either for pleasure or for fish, with two or three

.Moors of some distinction in that place, and for
whom he had provided extraordinarily; and had
therefore sent on board the boat overnight a
larger store of provisions than ordinary; and
had ordered me to get ready three fuzees with
powder and shot, which were on board his ship,
for that they designed some sport of fowling as
well as fishing.

I got all things ready as he had directed, and
waited the next morning with the boat, washed
‘clean, her ancient and pendants out, and every-
thing to accommodate his guests; when by and
ROBINSON CRUSOE 25

by my patron came on board alone, and told
me his guests had put off going, upon some
business that fell out, and ordered me with the
man and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat
and catch them some fish, for that his friends
were to sup at his house; and commanded that
as soon as I had got some fish I should bring it
home to his house; all which I prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance
darted into my thoughts, for now I found I was
like to have a little ship at my command; and
my master being gone, I prepared to furnish
myself, not for a fishing business, but for a
voyage; though I knew not, neither did I so
much as consider, whither I should steer; for
anywhere, to get out of that place, was my way.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence
to speak to this Moor, to get something for our
subsistence on board; for I told him we must
not presume to eat of our patron’s bread. He
said that was true; so he brought a large basket
of rusk or biscuit of their kind, and three jars
with fresh water, into the boat. I knew where
my patron’s case of bottles stood, which it was
evident by the make were taken out of some
English prize; and I conveyed them into the
boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they had
been there before for our master. I conveyed
also a great lump of beeswax into the boat,
which weighed above half a hundredweight,
with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a
saw, and a hammer, all which were great use
to us afterwards, especially the wax to make
candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which
he innocently came into also. His name was

Sepe1g)7 PPHOLY Jo GIsseaug
26 THE ADVENTURES OF

Ismael, who they call Muly, or Moely; so I
called to him, ‘Moely,’ said I, ‘our patron’s guns
are on board the boat; can you not get a little
powder and shot? it may be we may kill some
alcamies (a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves,
for I know he keeps the gunner’s stores in the
ship.” ‘Yes,’ says he, ‘I’ll bring some’; and
accordingly he brought a great leather pouch
which held about a pound and a half of powder,
or rather more; and another with shot, that had
five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put
all into the boat. At the same time I had found
some powder of my master’s in the great cabin,
with which I filled one of the large bottles in the
case, which was almost empty, pouring what
was in it into another; and thus furnished with
everything needful, we sailed out of the port to
fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of the
port, knew who we were, and took no notice of
us; and we were not above a mile out of the
port before we hauled in our sail, and set us
down to fish. The wind blew from the N.N.E.,
which was contrary to my desire; for had it
blown southerly I had been sure to have made
the coast of Spain, and at least reached to the
bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow
which way it would, I would be gone from the
horrid place where I was, and leave the rest
to Fate.

After we had fished some time and catched
nothing, for when I had fish on my hook I would
not pull them up, that he might not see them,
I said to the Moor, “This will not do; our master
will not be thus served; we must stand farther
off.’ He, thinking no harm, agreed, and being
ROBINSON CRUSOE 27

in the head of the boat set the sails; and as I had
the helm I run the boat out near a league
farther, and then brought her to as if I would
fish; when giving the boy the helm, I stepped
forward to where the Moor was, and making
as if I stooped for something behind him, I took
him by surprise with my arm under his twist,
and tossed him clear overboard into the sea. He
rose immediately, for he swam like a cork, and
called to me, begged to be taken in, told me he
would go all the world over with me. He swam
so strong after the boat, that he would have
reached me very quickly, there being but little
wind; upon which I stepped into the cabin, and
fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented
it at him, and told him I had done him no hurt,
and if he would be quiet I would do him none.
‘But,’ said I, ‘you swim well enough to reach to
the shore, and the sea is calm; make the best of
your way to shore, and I will do you no harm;
but if you come near the boat [ll shoot you
through the head, for I am resolved to have
my liberty.” So he turned himself about, and
swam for the shore, and I make no doubt but
he reached it with ease, for he was an excellent
swimmer. —
I could have been content to have taken this
Moor with me, and have drowned the boy, but
there was no venturing to trust him. When he
was gone I turned to the boy, whom they called
Xury, and said to him, ‘Xury, if you will be
faithful to me TP’ll make you a great man; but
if you will not stroke your face to be true to me,’
that is, swear by Mahomet and his father’s
beard, ‘I must throw you into the sea too.’ The
28 THE ADVENTURES OF

boy smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently,
that I could not mistrust him, and swore to be
faithful to me, and go all over the world with me.

—=—While I was in view of the Moor that was
swimming, I stood out directly to sea with the
boat, rather stretching to windward, that they
might think me gone towards the straits’ mouth
(as indeed any one that had been in their wits
must have been supposed to do) ; for who would
have supposed we were sailed on to the south-
ward to the truly barbarian coast, where whole
nations of negroes were sure to surround us with
their canoes, and destroy us; where we could
ne’er once go on shore but we should be de-
voured by savage beasts, or more merciless
savages of human kind?

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening,
I changed my course, and steered directly south
and by east, bending my course a little toward
the east, that I might keep in with the shore;
and having a fair, fresh gale of wind, and a
smooth, quiet sea, I made such sail that I believe
by the next day, at three o’clock in the afternoon,
when I first made the land, I could not be less
than 150 miles south of Sallee; quite beyond the
Emperor of Morocco’s dominions, or indeed of
any other king thereabouts, for we saw no
people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken at the
Moors, and the dreadful apprehensions I had
of falling into their hands, that I would not stop,
or go on shore, or come to an anchor, the wind
continuing fair, till I had sailed in that manner
five days; and then the wind shifting to the
southward, I concluded also that if any of our
ROBINSON CRUSOE 29

vessels were in chase of me, they also would now
give over; so I ventured to make to the coast,
and came to an anchor in the mouth of a little
river, I knew not what, or where; neither what
latitude, what country, what nations, or what
river. I neither saw, or desired to see, any
people; the principal thing I wanted was fresh
water. We came into this creek in the evening,
resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark,
and discover the country; but as soon as it was
quite dark we heard such dreadful noises of the
barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures,
of we knew not what kinds, that the poor boy
was ready to die with fear, and begged of me not
to go on shore till day. ‘Well, Xury,’ said I,
‘then I won’t; but it may be we may see men by
day, who will be as bad to us as those lions.’
‘Then we give them the shoot gun,’ says Xury,
laughing; ‘make them run away.’ Such English
Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves.
However, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful,
and I gave him a dram (out of our patron’s case
of bottles) to cheer him up. After all, Xury’s
advice was good, and I took it; we dropped our
little anchor and lay still all night. I say still,
for we slept none; for in two or three hours we
saw vast great creatures (we knew not what to
call them) of many sorts come down to the sea-
shore and run into the water, wallowing and
washing themselves for the pleasure of cooling
themselves; and they made such hideous howl-
ings and yellings, that I never indeed heard
the like.

Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so
was I too; but we were both more frighted when
30 THE ADVENTURES OF

we heard one of these mighty creatures come
swimming towards our boat; we could not see
him, but we might hear him by his blowing to
be a monstrous huge and furious beast. Xury
said it was a lion, and it might be so for aught
I know; but poor Xury cried to me to weigh the
anchor and row away. ‘No,’ says I, “Xury; we
can slip our cable with the buoy to it, and go
off to sea; they cannot follow us far.’ I had no
sooner said so, but I perceived the creature
(whatever it was) within two oars’ length, which
something surprised me; however, I imme-
diately stepped to the cabin door, and taking
up my gun, fired at him, upon which he im-
mediately turned about and swam towards the
shore again.

But it is impossible to describe the horrible
noises, and hideous cries and howlings, that were
raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as
higher within the country, upon the noise or
report of the gun, a thing I have some reason
to believe those creatures had never heard
before. This convinced me that there was no
going on shore for us in the night upon that
coast; and how to venture on shore in the day
was another question too; for to have fallen into
the hands of any of the savages, had been as bad
as to have fallen into the hands of lions and
tigers; at least we were equally apprehensive of
the danger of it.

Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on
shore somewhere or other for water, for we had
not a pint left in the boat; when or where to get
to it, was the point. Xury said if I would let
him go on shore with one of the jars, he would
ROBINSON CRUSOE 3I

find if there was any water and bring some to
me. I asked him why he would go? why I should
not go and he stay in the boat? The boy
answered with so much affection, that made me
love him ever after. Says he, ‘If wild mans
come, they eat me, you go way.’ ‘Well, Xury,’
said I, ‘we will both go; and if the wild mans
come, ‘we will kill them, they shall eat neither
of us.? So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to
eat, and a dram out of our patron’s case of
bottles which I mentioned before; and we hauled
in the boat as near the shore as we thought was
proper, and so waded on shore, carrying nothing
but our arms and two jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat,
fearing the coming of canoes with savages down
the river; but the boy seeing a low place about
a mile up the country, rambled to it; and by
and by I saw him come running towards me.
I thought he was pursued by some savage, or
frighted with some wild beast, and I ran forward
towards him to help him; but when I came
nearer to him, I saw something hanging over
his shoulders, which was a creature that he had
shot, like a hare, but different in colour, and
longer legs. However, we were very glad of it,
and it was very good meat; but the great joy
that poor Xury came with was to tell me he had
found good water, and seen no wild mans.

But we found afterwards that we need not
take such pains for water, for a little higher up
the creek where we were we found the water
fresh when the tide was out, which flowed but
a little way up; so we filled our jars, and feasted
on the hare we had killed, and prepared to go on
32 THE ADVENTURES OF

our way, having seen no footsteps of any human
creature in that part of the country.

As I had been one voyage to this coast before,
I knew very well that the islands of the Canaries,
and the Cape de Verde Islands also, lay not far
off from the coast. But as I had no instruments
to take an observation to know what latitude
we were in, and did not exactly know, or at least
remember, what latitude they were in, I knew
not where to look for them, or when to stand off
to sea towards them; otherwise I might now
easily have found some of these islands. But my
hope was, that if I stood along this coast till I
came to that part where the English traded,
I should find some of their vessels upon their
usual design of trade, that would relieve and
take us in.

By the best of my calculation, that place
where I now was must be that country which,
lying between the Emperor of Morocco’s domin-
ions and the negroes, lies waste and uninhabited,
except by wild beasts; the negroes having aban-
doned it and gone farther south for fear of the
Moors, and the Moors not thinking it worth
inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness; and
indeed both forsaking it because of the pro-
digious numbers of tigers, lions, leopards, and
other furious creatures which harbour there;
so that the Moors use it for their hunting only,
where they go like an army, two or three
thousand men at a time; and indeed for near
an hundred miles together upon this coast we
saw nothing but a waste uninhabited country
by day, and heard nothing but howlings and
roarings of wild beasts by night.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 33

Once or twice in the daytime I thought I saw
the Pico of Teneriffe, being the high top of the
Mountain Teneriffe in the Canaries, and had
a great mind to venture out, in hopes of reaching
thither; but having tried twice, I was forced in
again by contrary winds, the sea also going too
high for my little vessel; so I resolved to pursue
my first design, and keep along the shore.

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh
water after we had left this place; and once in
particular, being early in the morning, we came
to an anchor under a little point of land which
was pretty high; and the tide beginning to flow,
we lay still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes
were more about him than it seems mine were,
calls softly to me, and tells me that we had best
go farther off the shore; ‘For,’ says he, ‘look,
yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of
that hillock fast asleep.’ I looked where he
pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed,
for it was a terrible great lion that lay on the
side of the shore, under the shade of a piece of
the hill that hung as it were a little over him.
‘Xury,’ says I, ‘you shall go on shore and kill
him.’ Xury looked frighted, and said, ‘Me kill! .
he eat me at one mouth’; one mouthfull he
meant. However, I said no more to the boy,
but bade him lie still, and I took our biggest
gun, which was almost musket-bore, and loaded
it with a good charge of powder, and with two
slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded another
gun with two bullets; and the third (for we had
three pieces) I loaded with five smaller bullets.
I took the best aim I could with the first piece
to have shot him into the head, but he lay so

17 Cc
34 THE ADVENTURES OF

with his leg raised a little above his nose, that
the slugs hit his leg about the knee, and broke
the bone. He started up growling at first, but
finding his leg broke, fell down again, and then
got up upon three legs and gave the most
hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a little
surprised that I had not hit him on the head.
However, I took up the second piece immedi-
ately, and, though he began to move off, fired
again, and shot him into the head, and had the
pleasure to see him drop, and make but little
noise, but lay struggling for life. Then Xury
took heart, and would have me let him go on
shore. ‘Well, go,’ said I; so the boy jumped
into the water, and taking a little gun in one
hand, swam to shore with the other hand, and
coming close to the creature, put the muzzle
of the piece to his ear, and shot him into the
head again, which despatched him quite.

This was game indeed to us, but this was no
food; and I was very sorry to lose three charges
of powder arid shot upon a creature that was
good for nothing to us. However, Xury said he
would have some of him; so he comes on board,

-and asked me to give him the hatchet. ‘For
what, Xury?’ said I. ‘Me cut off his head,’ said
he. However, Xury could not cut off his head,
but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him,
and it was a monstrous great one.

I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the
skin of him might one way or other be of some
value to us; and I resolved to take off his skin if
I could. So Xury and I went to work with him;
but Xury was much the better workman at it,
for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took
ROBINSON CRUSOE 35

us up both the whole day, but at last we got off
the hide of him, and spreading it on the top of
our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two
days’ time, and it afterwards served me to lie
upon.

After this stop we made on to the southward
continually for ten or twelve days, living very
sparing on our provisions, which began to abate
very much, and going no oftener into the shore
than we were obliged to for fresh water. My
design in this was to make the river Gambia or
Senegal—that is to say, anywhere about the
Cape de Verde—where I was in hopes to meet
with some European ship; and if I did not, I
knew not what course I had to take, but to seek
out for the islands, or perish there among the
negroes. I knew that all the ships from Europe,
which sailed either to the coast of Guinea or to
Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this cape,
or those islands; and in a word, I put the whole
of my fortune upon this single point, either that
I must meet with some ship, or must perish.

When I had pursued this resolution about ten
days longer, as I have said, I began to see that
the land was inhabited; and in two or three
places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand
upon the shore to look at us; we could also
perceive they were quite black, and stark naked.
I was once inclined to have gone on shore to
them; but Xury was my better counsellor, and
said to me, ‘No go, no go.’ However, I hauled
in nearer the shore that I might talk to them,
and I found they ran along the shore by me a
good way. I observed they had no weapons in
their hands, except one, who had a long slender
36 THE ADVENTURES OF

stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that
they would throw them a great way with good
aim. So I kept at a distance, but talked with
them by signs as well as I could, and particularly
made signs for something to eat; they beckoned
to me to stop my boat, and that they would
fetch me some meat. Upon this I lowered the
top of my sail, and lay by, and two of them ran
up into the country, and in less than halfan hour
came back, and brought with them two pieces
of dried flesh and some corn, such as is the
produce of their country; but we neither knew
what the one or the other was. However, we
were willing to accept it, but how to come at it
was our next dispute, for I was not for venturing
on shore to them, and they were as much afraid
of us; but they took a safe way for us all, for they
brought it to the shore and laid it down, and
went and stood a great way off till we fetched
it on board, and then came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had
nothing to make them amends. But an oppor-
tunity offered that very instant to oblige them
wonderfully; for while we were lying by the
shore came two mighty creatures, one pursuing
the other (as we took it)with great fury from the
mountains towards the sea; whether it was the
male pursuing the female, or whether they were
in sport or in rage, we could not tell, any more
than we could tell whether it was usual or
strange, but I believe it was the latter; because,
in the first place, those ravenous creatures seldom
appear but in the night; and in the second place,
we found the people terribly frighted, especially
the women. The man that had the lance or dart
ROBINSON CRUSOE 37

did not fly from them, but the rest did; however,
as the two creatures ran directly into the water,
they did not seem to offer to fall upon any of the
negroes, but plunged themselves into the sea,
and swam about, as if they had come for their
diversion. At last, one of them began to come
nearer our boat than at first I expected; but I
lay ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with
all possible expedition, and bade Xury load both
the others. As soon as he came fairly within my
reach, I fired, and shot him directly into the
head; immediately he sunk down into the water,
but rose instantly, and plunged up and down,
as if he was struggling for life, and so indeed he
was. He immediately made to the shore; but
between the wound, which was his mortal hurt,
and the strangling of the water, he died just
before he reached the shore.

It is impossible to express the astonishment
of these poor creatures, at the noise and the fire
of my gun; some of them were even ready to die
for fear, and fell down as dead with the very
terror. But when they saw the creature dead,
and sunk in the water, and that I made signs to
them to come to the shore, they took heart and
came to the shore, and began to search for the
creature. I found him by his blood staining the
water: and by the help of a rope, which I slung
round him, and gave the negroes to haul, they
dragged him on the shore, and found that it was
a most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an
admirable degree; and the negroes held up their
hands with admiration, to think what it was I
had killed him with.

The other creature, frighted with the flash of
38 THE ADVENTURES OF

fire and the noise of the gun, swam on shore,
and ran up directly to the mountains from
whence they came; nor could I, at that distance,
know what it was. I found quickly the negroes
were for eating the flesh of this creature, so I was
willing to have them take it as a favour from
me; which, when I made signs to them that
they might take him, they were very thankful
for. Immediately they fell to work with him;
and though they had no knife, yet, with a
sharpened piece of wood, they took off his skin
as readily, and much more readily, than we
could have done with a knife. They offered me
some of the flesh, which I declined, making as
if I would give it them, but made signs for the
skin, which they gave me very freely, and
brought me a great deal more of their provision,
which, though I did not understand, yet I
accepted. Then I made signs to them for some
water, and held out one of my jars to them,
turning it bottom upward, to show that it was
empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They
called immediately to some of their friends, and
there came two women, and brought a great
vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I suppose,
in the sun; this they set down for me, as before,
and I sent Xury on shore with my jars, and
filled them all three. The women were as stark
naked as the men.

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such
as it was, and water; and leaving my friendly
negroes, I made forward for about eleven days
more, without offering to go near the shore, till
I saw the land run out a great length into the
sea, at about the distance of four or five leagues
ROBINSON CRUSOE 39

before me; and the sea being very calm, I kept
a large offing, to make this point. At length,
doubling the point, at about two leagues from
the land, I saw plainly land on the other side,
to seaward; then I concluded, as it was most
certain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verde,
and those the islands, called from thence Cape
de Verde Islands. However, they were at a
great distance, and I could not well tell what
I had best to do; for if I should be taken with a
fresh of wind, I might neither reach one or other.

In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I
stepped into the cabin, and sat me down, Xury
having the helm; when, on a sudden, the boy
cried out, ‘Master, master, a ship with a sail!’
and the foolish boy was frighted out of his wits,
thinking it must needs be some of his master’s
ships sent to pursue us, when I knew we were
gotten far enough out of their reach. I jumped
out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only
the ship, but what she was, viz., that it was a
Portuguese ship, and, as I thought, was bound
to the coast of Guinea, for negroes. But when
I observed the course she steered, I was soon
convinced they were bound some other way,
and did not design to come any nearer to the
shore; upon which I stretched out to sea as
much as I could, resolving to speak with them,
if possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I
should not be able to come in their way, but
that they would be gone by before I could make
any signal to them; but after I had crowded to
the utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems,
saw me by the help of their perspective glasses,
40 THE ADVENTURES OF

and that it was some European boat, which, as
they supposed, must belong to some ship that was
lost, so they shortened sail to let me come up.
I was encouraged with this; and as I had my
patron’s ancient on board, I made a waft of it
to them for a signal of distress, and fired a gun,
both which they saw; for they told me they saw
the smoke, though they did not hear the gun.
Upon these signals they very kindly brought to,
and lay by for me; and in about three hours’
time I came up with them.

They asked me what I was, in Portuguese,
and in Spanish, and in French, but I understood
none of them; but at last a Scots sailor, who was
on board, called to me, and I answered him,
and told him I was an Englishman, that I had
made my escape out of slavery from the Moors,
at Sallee. Then they bade me come on board,
and very kindly took me in, and all my goods.

It was an inexpressible joy to me, that any
one will believe, that I was thus delivered, as
I esteemed it, from such a miserable, and almost
hopeless, condition as I was in; and I immedi-
ately offered all I had to the captain of the ship,
as a return for my deliverance. But he gener-
ously told me he would take nothing from me,
but that all I had should be delivered safe to
me when I came to the Brazils. ‘For,’ says he,
‘I have saved your life on no other terms than
I would be glad to be saved myself; and it may,
one time or other, be my lot to be taken up in
the same condition. Besides,’ says he, ‘when I
carry you to the Brazils, so great a way from your
own country, if I should take from you what
you have, you will be starved there, and then
\

nN

ROBINSON CRUSOE 4)

I only take away that life I have given. No, no,
Seignior Inglese,’ says he, ‘Mr. Englishman, I
will carry you thither in charity, and those
things will help you to buy your subsistence
there, and your passage home again.’

As he was charitable in his proposal, so he
was just in the performance to a tittle; for he
ordered the seamen that none should offer to
touch anything I had; then he took everything
into his own possession, and gave me back an
exact inventory of them, that I might have them,
even so much as my three earthen jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one, and
that he saw, and told me he would buy it of me
for the ship’s use, and asked me what I would
have for it? I told him he had been so generous
to me in everything, that I could not offer to
make any price of the boat, but left it entirely
to him; upon which he told me he would give
me a note of his hand to pay me eighty pieces
of eight for it at Brazil, and when it came there,
if any one offered to give more, he would make _—
it up. He offered me also sixty pieces of eight
more for my boy Xury, which I was loth to take;
not that I was not willing to let the captain have
him, but I was very loth to sell the poor boy’s
liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in
procuring my own. However, when I let him
know my reason, he owned it to be just, and
offered me this medium, that he would give the
boy an obligation to set him free in ten years if
he turned Christian. Upon this, and Xury
saying he was willing to go to him, I let the |
captain have him. —

We had a very good voyage tq the Brazils, and
42 THE ADVENTURES OF

arrived in the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All
Saints’ Bay, in about twenty-two days after.
And now I was once more delivered from the
most miserable of all conditions of life; and what
to do next with myself, I was now to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me,
I can never enough remember. He would take
nothing of me for my passage, gave me twenty
ducats for the leopard’s skin, and forty for the
lion’s skin, which I had in my boat, and caused
everything I had in the ship to be punctually
delivered me; and what I was willing to sell he
bought, such as the case of bottles, two of my
guns, and a piece of the lump of beeswax—for
I had made candles of the rest; in a word, I
made about 220 pieces of eight of all my cargo,
and with this stock I went on shore in the
Brazils.

I had not been long here, but being recom-
mended to the house of a good honest man like
himself, who had an ingeino as they call it, that
is, a plantation and a sugar-house, I lived with
him some time, and acquainted myself by that
means with the manner of their planting and
making of sugar; and seeing how well the
planters lived, and how they grew rich suddenly,
I resolved, if I could get licence to settle there, I
would turn planter among them, resolving in
the meantime to find out some way to get my
money which [J had left in London remitted to
me. To this purpose, getting a kind of a letter
of naturalisation, I purchased as much land that
was uncured as my money would reach, and
formed a plan for my plantation and settlement,
and such a one as might be suitable to the stock,
ROBINSON CRUSOE 43

which I proposed to myself to receive from
England.

I had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon,
but born of English parents, whose name was
Wells, and in much such circumstances as I was.
I called him my neighbour, because his planta-
tion lay next to mine, and we went on very
sociably together. My stock was but low, as well
as his; and we rather planted for food than
anything else, for about two years. However,
we began to increase, and our land began to
come into order; so that the third year we
planted some tobacco, and made each of us a
large piece of ground ready for planting canes
in the year to come. But we both wanted help;
and now I found, more than before, I had done
wrong in parting with my boy Xury.

But alas! for me to do wrong that never did
right was no great wonder. I had no remedy
but to go on. I was gotten into an employment
quite remote to my genius, and directly contrary
to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook
my father’s house, and broke through all his
good advice; nay, I was coming into the very
middle station, or upper degree of low life, which
my father advised me to before; and which, if
I resolved to go on with, I might as well have
stayed at home, and never have fatigued myself
in the world as I had done. And I used often
to say to myself, I could have done this as well
in England among my friends, as have gone
5000 miles off to do it among strangers and
savages, in a wilderness, and at such a distance
as never to hear from any part of the world that
had the least knowledge of me.
44 THE ADVENTURES OF

In this manner I used to look upon my con-
dition with the utmost regret. I had nobody to
converse with, but now and then this neighbour;
no work to be done, but by the labour of my
hands; and I used to say, I lived just like a man
cast away upon some desolate island, that had
nobody there but himself. But how just has it
been! and how should all men reflect, that when
they compare their present conditions with
others that are worse, Heaven may oblige them
to make the exchange, and be convinced of
their former felicity by their experience ;—I say,
how just has it been, that the truly solitary life
I reflected on in an island of mere desolation
should be my lot, who had so often unjustly
compared it with the life which I then led, in
which, had I continued, I had in all probability
been exceeding prosperous and rich.

I was in some degree settled in my measures
for carrying on the plantation before my kind
friend, the captain of the ship that took me up
at sea, went back; for the ship remained there
in providing his loading, and preparing for his
voyage, near three months; when, telling him
what little stock I had left behind me in London,
he -gave me this friendly and sincere advice:
‘Seignior Inglese,’ says he, for so he always
called me, ‘if you will give me letters, and a
procuration here in form to me, with orders to
the person who has your money in London to
send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as
I shall direct, and in such goods as are proper
for this country, I will bring you the produce
of them, God willing, at my return. But since
human affairs are all subject to changes and
ROBINSON CRUSOE 45

disasters, I would have you give orders but for
one hundred. pounds sterling, which, you say,
is half your stock, and let the hazard be run for
the first; so that if it come safe, you may order
the rest the same way; and if it miscarry, you
may have the other half to have recourse to for
your supply.’

This was so wholesome advice, and looked so
friendly, that I could not but be convinced it
was the best course I could take; so I accordingly
prepared letters to the gentlewoman with whom
I had left my money, and a procuration to the
Portuguese captain, as he desired.

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full
account of all my adventures; my slavery,
escape, and how I had met with the Portugal
captain at sea, the humanity of his behaviour,
and in what condition I was now in, with all
other necessary directions for my supply. And
when this honest captain came to Lisbon, he
found means, by some of the English merchants
there, to send over not the order only, but a full
account of my story to a merchant at London,
who represented it effectually to her; where-
upon, she not only delivered the money, but
out of her own pocket sent the Portugal captain
a very handsome present for his humanity and
charity to me.

The merchant in London vesting this hundred
pounds in English goods, such as the captain
Phad writ for, sent them directly to him at Lisbon,

“and he br ought them all safe to me to the Brazils;
-among which, without my direction (for I was
too young in my business to think of them), he
“had taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron-
46 THE ADVENTURES OF

work, and utensils necessary for my plantation,
and which were of great use to me.

When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune
made, for I was surprised with joy of it; and my
good steward, the captain, had laid out the five
pounds, which my friend had sent him for a
present for himself, to purchase and bring me
over a servant under bond for six years’ service,
and would not accept of any consideration,
except a little tobacco, which I would have him
accept, being of my own produce.

Neither was this all; but my goods being all
English manufactures, such as cloth, stuffs,
baize, and things particularly valuable and
desirable in the country, I found means to sell
them to a very great advantage; so that I may
say I had more than four times the value of my
first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond my
poor neighbour, I mean in the advancement of
my plantation; for the first thing I did, I bought
me a negro slave, and an European servant also;
I mean another besides that which the captain
brought me from Lisbon.

But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made
the very means of our greatest adversity, so was
it with me. I went on the next year with great
success in my plantation. I raised fifty great
rolls of tobacco on my own ground, more than
I had disposed of for necessaries among my
neighbours; and these fifty rolls, being each of
above a hundredweight, were well cured, and
laid by against the return of the fleet from
Lisbon. And now, increasing in business and
in wealth, my head began to be full of projects
and undertakings beyond my reach, such as
ROBINSON CRUSOE 47

are, indeed, often the ruin of the best heads in
business.

Had I continued in the station I was now in,
I had room for all the happy things to have yet
befallen me for which my father so earnestly
recommended a quiet, retired life, and of which
he had so sensibly described the middle station
of life to be full of. But other things attended
me, and I was still to be the wilful agent of all
my own miseries; and particularly, to increase
my fault and double the reflections upon myself,
which in my future sorrows I should have leisure
to make. All these miscarriages were procured
by my apparent obstinate adhering to my foolish
inclination of wandering abroad, and pursuing
that inclination in contradiction to the clearest
views of doing myself good in a fair and plain
pursuit of those prospects, and those measures
of life, which Nature and Providence concurred
to present me with, and to make my duty.

As I had once done thus in my breaking away
from my parents, so I could not be content now,
but I must go and leave the happy view I had
of being a rich and thriving man in my new
plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoder-
ate desire of rising faster than the nature of the
thing admitted; and thus I cast myself down
again into the deepest gulf of human misery
that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be
consistent with life and a state of health in the
world.

To come, then, by the just degrees to the
particulars of this part of my story. You may
suppose, that having now lived almost four years
in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive and
48 THE ADVENTURES OF

prosper very well upon my plantation, I had
not only learned the language, but had con-
tracted acquaintance and friendship among my
fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants
at St. Salvador, which was our port, and that
in my discourses among them I had frequently
given them an account of my two voyages to
the coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with
the negroes there, and how easy it was to pur-
chase upon the coast for trifles—such as beads,
toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and
the like—not only gold-dust, Guinea grains,
elephants’ teeth, etc., but negroes, for the service
of the Brazils, in great numbers.

They listened always very attentively to my
discourses on these heads, but especially to that
part which related to the buying negroes; which
was a trade, at that time, not only not far entered
into, but, as far as it was, had been carried on
by the assiento, or permission, of the Kings of
Spain and Portugal, and engrossed in the public,
so that few negroes were brought, and those
excessive dear.

It happened, being in company with some
merchants and planters of my acquaintance,
and talking of those things very earnestly, three
of them came to me the next morning, and told
me they had been musing very much upon what
I had discoursed with them of, the last night,
and they came to make a secret proposal to me.
And after enjoining me secrecy, they told me
that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to
Guinea; that they had all plantations as well
as I, and were straitened for nothing so much
as servants; that as it was a trade that could not
ROBINSON CRUSOE 49

be carried on because they could not publicly
sell the negroes when they came home, so they
desired to make but one voyage, to bring the
negroes on shore privately, and divide them
among their own plantations; and, in a word,
the question was, whether I would go their
supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading
part upon the coast of Guinea; and they offered
me that I should have my equal share of the
negroes without providing any part of the stock.

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed,
had it been made to any one that had not had a
settlement and plantation of his own to look
after, which was in a fair way of coming to be
very considerable, and with-a good stock upon
it. But for me, that was thus entered and
established, and had nothing to do but go on
as I had begun, for three or four years more,
and to have sent for the other hundred pounds
from England; and who, in that time, and with
that little addition, could scarce have failed
of being worth three or four thousand pounds
sterling, and that increasing too—for me to
think of such a voyage, was the most preposter-
ous thing that ever man, in such circumstances,
could be guilty of.

But I, that was born to be my own destroyer,
could no more resist the offer than I could
restrain my first rambling designs, when my
father’s good counsel was lost upon me. In a
word, I told them I would go with all my heart,
if they would undertake to look after my planta-
tion in my absence, and would dispose of it to
such as I should direct if I miscarried. This
they all engaged to do, and entered into writings
50 THE ADVENTURES OF

or covenants to do so; and I made a formal will,
disposing of my plantation and effects, in case
of my death; making the captain of the ship
that had saved my life, as before, my universal
heir, but obliging him to dispose of my effects
as I had directed in my will; one-half of the
produce being to himself, and the other to be
shipped to England.

In short, I took all possible caution to preserve
my effects, and keep up my plantation. Had I
used half as much prudence to have looked into
my own interest, and have made a judgment of
what I ought to have done and not to have done,
J had certainly never gone away from so prosper-
ous an undertaking, leaving all the probable
views of a thriving circumstance, and gone upon
a voyage to sea, attended with all its common
hazards, to say nothing of the reasons I had to
expect particular misfortunes to myself.

But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the
dictates of my fancy rather than my reason.
And accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and
the cargo furnished, and all things done as by
agreement by my partners in the voyage, I went
on board in an evil hour, the [first] of [Septem-
ber 1659], being the same day eight year that
I went from my father and mother at Hull, in
order to act the rebel to their authority, and
the fool to my own interest.

Our ship was about 120 tons burthen, carried
six guns and fourteen men, besides the master,
his boy, and myself. We had on board no large
cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit
for our trade with the negroes—such as beads,
bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles, especially
ROBINSON CRUSOE 51

little looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets,
and the like.

The same day I went on board we set sail,
standing away to the northward upon our own
coast, with design to stretch over for the African
coast, when they came about 10 or 12 degrees
of northern latitude, which, it seems, was the
manner of their course in those days. We had
very good weather, only excessive hot, all the
way upon our own coast, till we came the height
of Cape St. Augustino, from whence, keeping
farther off at sea, we lost sight of land, and
steered as if we were bound for the Isle Fernando
de Noronha, holding our course N.E. by N.,
and leaving those isles on the east. In this course
we passed the line in about twelve days’ time,
and were, by our last observation, in 7 degrees
22 minutes northern latitude, when a violent
tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our
knowledge. It began from the south-east, came
about to the north-west, and then settled into
the north-east, from whence it blew in such a
terrible manner, that for twelve days together
we could do nothing but drive, and, scudding
away before it, let it carry us wherever fate and
the fury of the winds directed; and during these
twelve days, I need not say that I expected
every day to be swallowed up, nor, indeed, did
any in the ship expect to save their lives.

In this distress we had, besides the terror of
the storm, one of our men died of the calenture,
and one man and the boy washed overboard.
About the twelfth day, the weather abating a
little, the master made an observation as well
as he could, and found that he was in about
52 THE ADVENTURES OF

11 degrees north latitude, but that he was 22
degrees of longitude difference west from Cape
St. Augustino; so that he found he was gotten
upon the coast of Guiana, or the north part of
Brazil, beyond the river Amazon, toward that
of the river Orinoco, commonly called the Great
River, and began to consult with me what course
he should take, for the ship was leaky and very
much disabled, and he was going directly back
to the coast of Brazil.

I was positively against that; and looking over
the charts of the sea-coast of America with him,
we concluded there was no inhabited country
for us to have recourse to till we came within the
circle of the Carribbee Islands, and therefore
resolved to stand away for Barbadoes, which by
keeping off at sea, to avoid the indraft of the
Bay or Gulf of Mexico, we might easily perform,
as we hoped, in about fifteen days’ sail; whereas
we could not possibly make our voyage to the
coast of Africa without some assistance, both to
our ship and to ourselves.

With this design we changed our course, and
steered away N.W. by W. in order to reach some
of our English islands, where I hoped for relief;
but our voyage was otherwise determined; for
being in the latitude of 12 degrees 18 minutes,
a second storm came upon us, which carried
us away with the same impetuosity westward,
and drove us so out of the very way of all human
commerce, that had all our lives been saved,
as to the sea, we were rather in danger of being
devoured by savages than ever returning to our
own country.

In this distress, the wind: still blowing very
ROBINSON CRUSOE 53

hard, one of our men early in the morning cried
out, ‘Land!’ and we had no sooner ran out of
the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing where-
abouts in the world we were, but the ship struck
upon a sand, and in a moment, her motion
being so stopped, the sea broke over her in such
a manner, that we expected we should all have
perished immediately; and we were immediately
driven into our close quarters, to shelter us from
the very foam and spray of the sea.

It is not easy for any one, who has not been
in the like condition, to describe or conceive
the consternation of men in such circumstances.
We knew nothing where we were, or upon what
land it was we were driven, whether an island
or the main, whether inhabited or not inhabited ;
and as the rage of the wind was still great,
though rather less than at first, we could not so
much as hope to have the ship hold many
minutes without breaking in pieces, unless the
winds, by a kind of miracle, shou!d turn imme-
diately about. Ina word, we sat looking one upon
another, and expecting death every moment,
and every man acting accordingly, as preparing
for another world; for there was little or nothing
more for us to do in this. That which was our
present comfort, and all the comfort we had,
was that, contrary to our expectation, the ship
did not break yet, and that the master said the
wind began to abate.

Now, though we thought that the wind did
a little abate, yet the ship having thus struck
upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us to
expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful
condition indeed, and had nothing to do but to
54 THE ADVENTURES OF

think of saving our lives as well as we could.
We had a boat at our stern just before the storm,
but she was first staved by dashing against the
ship’s rudder, and in the next place, she broke
away, and either sunk, or was driven off to sea,
so there was no hope from her; we had another
boat on board, but how to get her off into the
sea was a doubtful thing. However, there was
no room to debate, for we fancied the ship would
break in pieces every minute, and some told
us she was actually broken already.

In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold
of the boat, and with the help of the rest of the
men they got her slung over the ship’s side; and
getting all into her, let go, and committed our-
selves, being eleven in number, to God’s mercy,
and the wild sea; for though the storm was
abated considerably, yet the sea went dreadful
high upon the shore, and might well be called
den wild zee, as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.

And now our case was very dismal indeed, for
we all saw plainly that the sea went so high, that
the boat could not live, and that we should be
inevitably drowned.. As to making sail, we had
none; nor, if we had, could we have done any-
thing with it; so we worked at the oar towards
the land, though with heavy hearts, like men
going to execution, for we all knew that when
the boat came nearer the shore, she would be
dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach of the
sea. However, we committed our souls to God
in the most earnest manner; and the wind
driving us towards the shore, we hastened our
destruction with our own hands, pulling as well
as we could towards land.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 55

What the shore was, whether rock or sand,
whether steep or shoal, we knew not; the only
hope that could rationally give us the least
shadow of expectation was, if we might happen
into some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some
river, where by great chance we might have run
our boat in, or got under the lee of the land, and
perhaps made smooth water. But there was
nothing of this appeared; but as we made nearer
and nearer the shore, the land looked more
frightful than the sea.

After we had rowed, or rather driven, about
a league and a half, as we reckoned it, a raging
wave, mountainlike, came rolling astern of us,
and plainly bade us expect the coup de grdce.
In a word, it took us with such a fury, that it
overset the boat at once; and separating us, as
well from the boat as from one another, gave-us
not time hardly to say, ‘O God!’ for we were all
swallowed up in a moment.

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought
which I felt when I sunk into the water; for
though I swam very well, yet I could not deliver
myself from the waves so as to draw breath, till
that wave having driven me, or rather carried
me, a vast way on towards the shore, and having
spent itself} went back, and left me upon the
land almost dry, but half dead with the water
I took in. I had so much presence of mind, as
well as breath left, that seeing myself nearer the
mainland than I expected, I got upon my feet,
and endeavoured to make on towards the land
as fast as I could, before another wave should
return and take me up again. But I soon found
it was impossible to avoid it; for I saw the sea
56 THE ADVENTURES OF

come after me as high as a great hill, and as
furious as an enemy, which I had no means or
strength to contend with. My business was to
hold my breath, and raise myself upon the water,
if I could; and so, by swimming, to preserve
my breathing, and pilot myself towards the
shore, if possible; my greatest concern now being,
that the sea, as it would carry me a great way
towards the shore when it came on, might not
carry me back again with it when it gave back
towards the sea.

The wave that came upon me again, buried
me at once 20 or 30 feet deep in its own body,
and I could feel myself carried with a mighty
force and swiftness towards the shore a very
great way; but I held my breath, and assisted
myself to swim still forward with all my might.
I was ready to burst with holding my breath,
when, as I felt myself rising up, so, to my
immediate relief, I found my head and hands
shoot out above the surface of the water; and
though it was not two seconds of time that I
could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly,
gave me breath and new courage. I was covered
again with water a good while, but not so long
but I held it out; and finding the water had
spent itself, and began to return, I struck forward
against the return of the waves, and felt ground
again with my feet. I stood still a few moments
to recover breath, and till the water went
from me, and then took to my heels and ran
with what strength I had farther towards the
shore. But neither would this deliver me from
the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after
me again, and twice more I was lifted up by the
ROBINSON CRUSOE 57

waves and carried forwards as before, the shore
being very flat.

The last time of these two had well near been
fatal to me; for the sea, having hurried me along
as before, landed me, or rather dashed me,
against a piece of a rock, and that with such
force, as it left me senseless, and indeed helpless,
as to my own deliverance; for the blow taking
my side and breast, beat the breath as it were
quite out of my body; and had it returned again
immediately, I must have been strangled in the
water. But I recovered a little before the return
of the waves, and seeing I should be covered
again with the water, I resolved to hold fast by
a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath, if
possible, till the wave went back. Now as the
waves were not so high as at first, being near
land, I held my hold till the wave abated, and
then fetched another run, which brought me so
near the shore, that the next wave, though it
went over me, yet did not so swallow me up as
to carry me away, and the next run I took I got
to the mainland, where, to my great comfort,
I clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and sat
me down upon the grass, free from danger, and
quite out of the reach of the water.

I was now landed, and safe on shore, and
began to look up and thank God that my life
was saved in’ a case wherein there was some
minutes before scarce any room to hope. I
believe it is impossible to express to the life what
the ecstasies and transports of the soul are when
it is so saved, as I may say, out of the very grave;
and I do not wonder now at that custom, viz.,
that when a malefactor, who has the halter
58 THE ADVENTURES OF

about his neck, is tied up, and just going to be
turned off, and has a reprieve brought to him—
I say, I do not wonder that they bring a surgeon
with it, to let him blood that very moment they
tell him of it, that the surprise may not drive
the animal spirits from the heart, and over-
whelm him:

For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.

I walked about on the shore, lifting up my
hands, and my whole being, as I may say, wrapt
up in the contemplation of my deliverance,
making a thousand gestures and motions which
I cannot describe, reflecting upon all my com-
rades that were drowned, and that there should
not be one soul saved but myself; for, as for
them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign
of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and
two shoes that were not fellows.

I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when
the breach and froth of the sea being so big, I
could hardly see it, it lay so far off, and con-
sidered, Lord! how was it possible I could get
on shore?

After I had solaced my mind with the comfort-
able part of my condition, I began to look
round me to see what kind of place I was in, and
what was next to be done, and I soon found my
comforts abate, and that, in a word, I had a
dreadful deliverance; for I was wet, had no
clothes to shift me, nor anything either to eat
or drink to comfort me, neither did I see any
prospect before me but that of perishing with
hunger, or being devoured by wild beasts; and
that which was particularly afflicting to me was,
ROBINSON CRUSOE . 59

that I had no weapon either to hunt and kill
any creature for my sustenance, or to defend
myself against any other creature that might
desire to kill me for theirs. In a word, I had
nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe,
and a little tobacco in a box. This was all my
provision; and this threw me into terrible agonies
‘of mind, that for a while I ran about like a
madman. Night coming upon me, I began,
with a heavy heart, to consider what would be
my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that
country, seeing at night they always come
abroad for their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts
at that time was, to get up into a thick bushy
tree like a fir, but thorny, which grew near me,
and where I resolved to sit all night, and con-
sider the next day what death I should die, for
as yet I saw no prospect of life. I walked about
a furlong from the shore, to see if I could find
any fresh water to drink, which I did, to my
great joy; and having drank, and put a little
tobacco in my mouth to prevent hunger, I went
to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured
to place myself so, as that if I should sleep I
might not fall; and having cut me a short stick,
like a truncheon, for my defence, I took up my
lodging, and having been excessively fatigued,
I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I
believe, few could have done in my condition,
and found myself the most refreshed with it that
I think I ever was on such an occasion.

When I waked it was broad day, the weather
clear, and the storm abated, so that the sea did
not rage and swell as before. But that which
60 THE ADVENTURES OF

surprised me most was, that the ship was lifted
off in the night from the sand where she lay, by
the swelling of the tide, and was driven up
almost as far as the rock which I first mentioned,
where I had been so bruised by the dashing me
against it. This being within about a mile from
the shore where I was, and the ship seeming
to stand upright still, I wished myself on board,
that, at least, I might have some necessary
things for my use.

When I came down from my apartment in
the tree I looked about me again, and the first
thing I found was the boat, which lay as the
wind and the sea had tossed her up upon the
land, about two miles on my right hand. I
walked as far as I could upon the shore to have
got to her, but found a neck or inlet of water
between me and the boat, which was about half
a mile broad; so I came back for the present,
being more intent upon getting at the ship,
where I hoped to find something for my present
subsistence.

A little after noon I found the sea very calm,
and the tide ebbed so far out, that I could come
within a quarter of a mile of the ship; and here
I found a fresh renewing of my grief, for I saw
evidently, that if we had kept on board we had
been all safe, that is to say, we had all got safe on
shore, and I had not been so miserable as to be
left entirely destitute of all comfort and com-
pany, as I now was. This forced tears from my
eyes again; but as there was little relief in that,
I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship; so I
pulled off my clothes, for the weather was hot
to extremity, and took the water. But when I
ROBINSON CRUSOE 61

came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater
to know how to get on board; for as she lay
aground, and high out of the water, there was
nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam
round her twice, and the second time I spied a
small piece of a rope, which I wondered I did not
see at first, hang down by the fore-chains so
low, as that with great difficulty I got hold of it,
and by the help of that rope got up into the
forecastle of the ship. Here I found that the
ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water
in her hold, but that she lay so on the side of a
bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that her
stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head
low almost to the water. By this means all her
quarter was free, and all that was in that part
was dry; for you may be sure my first work was
to search and to see what was spoiled and what
was free. And first I found that all the ship’s
provisions were dry and untouched by the water;
and being very well disposed to eat, I went to
the bread-room and filled my pockets with
biscuit, and eat it as I went about other things,
for I had no time to lose. I also found some rum
in the great cabin, of which I took a large dram,
and which I had indeed need enough of to spirit
me for what was before me. Now I wanted
nothing but a boat, to furnish myself with many
things which I foresaw would be very necessary
to me.

It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was
not to be had, and this extremity roused my
application. We had several spare yards, and
two or three large spars of wood, and a spare
top-mast or two in the ship. I resolved to fall
62 THE ADVENTURES OF

to work with these, and flung as many of them
overboard as I could manage for their weight,
tying every one with a rope, that they might not
drive away. When this was done I went down
the ship’s side, and, pulling them to me, I tied
four of them fast together at both ends as well
as I could, in the form of a raft; and laying two
or three short pieces of plank upon them cross-
ways, I found I could walk upon it very well,
but that it was not able to bear any great weight,
the pieces being too light. So I went to work,
and with the carpenter’s saw I cut a spare top-
mast into three lengths, and added them to my
raft, with a great deal of labour and pains;
but hope of furnishing myself with necessaries
encouraged me to go beyond what I should have
been able to have done upon another occasion.

My raft was now strong enough to bear any
reasonable weight. My next care was what to
load it with, and how to preserve what I laid
upon it from the surf of the sea; but I was not
long considering this. I first laid all the planks
or boards upon it that I could get, and having
considered well what I most wanted, I first got
three of the seamen’s chests, which I had broken
open and emptied, and lowered them down
upon my raft. The first of these I filled with
provisions, viz., bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses,
five pieces of dried goat’s flesh, which we lived
much upon, and a little remainder of European
corn, which had been laid by for some fowls
which we brought to sea with us, but the fowls
were killed. There had been some barley and
wheat together, but, to my great disappoint-
ment, I found afterwards that the rats had eaten
ROBINSON CRUSOE 63

or spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found several
cases of bottles belonging to our skipper, in
which were some cordial waters, and, in all,
about five or six gallons of rack. These I stowed
by themselves, there being no need to put them
into the chest, nor no room for them. While I
was doing this, I found the tide began to flow,
though very calm, and I had the mortification
to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had
left on shore upon the sand, swim away; as for
my breeches, which were only linen, and open-
kneed, I swam on board in them, and my stock-
ings. However, this put me upon rummaging
for clothes, of which I found enough, but took
no more than I wanted for present use; for I
had other things which my eye was more upon,
as first tools to work with on shore; and it was
after long searching that I found out the car-
penter’s chest, which was indeed a very useful
prize to me, and much more valuable than a
ship-loading of gold would have been at that
time. I got it down to my raft, even whole as it
was, without losing time to look into it, for I
knew in general what it contained.

My next care was for some ammunition and
arms; there were two very good fowling-pieces
in the great cabin, and two pistols; these I
secured first, with some powder-horns, and a
small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords.
I knew there were three barrels of powder in
the ship, but knew not where our gunner had
stowed them; but with much search I found
them, two of them dry and good, the third had
taken water; those two I got to my raft with the
arms. And now I thought myself pretty well
64. THE ADVENTURES OF

freighted, and began to think how I should get
to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, or
rudder; and the least capful of wind would have
overset all my navigation.

I had three encouragéments. 1. A smooth,
calm sea. 2. The tide rising and setting in to
the shore. 3. What little wind there was blew
me towards the land. And thus, having found
two or three broken oars belonging to the boat,
and besides the tools which were in the chest,
I found two saws, an axe, and a hammer, and
with this cargo I put to sea. For a mile or there-
abouts my raft went very well, only that I found
it drive a little distant from the place where I
had landed before, by which I perceived that
there was some indraft of the water, and conse-
quently I hoped to find some creek or river there,
which I might make use of as a port to get to
land with my cargo.

As I imagined, so it was; there appeared
before me a little opening of the land, and I
found a strong current of the tide set into it, so
I guided my raft as well as I could to keep in the
middle of the stream. But here I had like to
have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if I
had, I think verily would have broke my heart;
for knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran
aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and not
being aground at the other end, it wanted but a
little that all my cargo had slipped off towards
that end that was afloat, and so fallen into the
water. I did my utmost by setting my back
against the chests to keep them in their places,
but could not thrust off the raft with all my
strength, neither durst I stir from the posture
ROBINSON CRUSOE 65

I was in, but holding up the chests with all my
might, stood in that manner near half an hour,
in which time the rising of the water brought
me a little more upon a level; and a little after,
the water still rising, my raft floated again, and
I thrust her off with the oar I had into the
channel, and then driving up higher, I at length
found myself in the mouth of a little river, with
land on both sides, and a strong current or tide
running up. I looked on both sides for a proper
place to get to shore, for I was not willing to be
driven too high up the river, hoping in time to
see some ship at sea, and therefore resolved to
place myself as near the coast as I could.

At length I spied a little cove on the right
shore of the creek, to which, with great pain and
difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last got so
near, as that, reaching ground with my oar, I
could thrust her directly in; but here I had like
to have dipped all my cargo in the sea again;
for that shore lying pretty steep, that is to say,
sloping, there was no place to land but where
one end of my float, if it run on shore, would lie
so high and the other sink lower, as before, that
it would endanger my cargo again. All that I
could do was to wait till the tide was at the
highest, keeping the raft with my oar like an
anchor to hold the side of it fast to the shore,
near a flat piece of ground, which I expected
the water would flow over; and so it did. As
soon as I found water enough, for my raft drew
about a foot of water, I thrust her on upon that
flat piece of ground, and there fastened or
moored her by sticking my two broken oars into
the ground; one on one side near one end, and

17 D
66 THE ADVENTURES OF

one on the other side near the other end; and
thus I lay till the water ebbed away, and left my
raft and all my cargo safe on shore.

My next work was to view the country and
seek a proper place for my habitation, and where
to stow my goods to secure them from whatever
might happen. Where I was, I yet knew not;
whether on. the continent, or on an island;
whether inhabited, or not inhabited; whether
in danger of wild beasts, or not. There was a
hill, not above a mile from me, which rose up
very steep and high, and which seemed to over-
top some other hills, which lay as in a ridge from
it, northward. I took out one of the fowling-
pieces and one of the pistols, and a horn of
powder; and thus armed, I travelled for dis-
covery up to the top of that hill, where, after
I had with great labour and difficulty got to the
top, I saw my fate to my great affliction, viz.,
that I was in an island environed every way with
the sea, no land to be seen, except some rocks
which lay a great way off, and two small islands
less than this, which lay about three leagues to
the west.

I found also that the island I was in was
barren, and, as I saw good reason to believe,
uninhabited, except by wild beasts, of whom,
however, I saw none; yet I saw abundance of
fowls, but knew not their kinds; neither when
I killed them, could I tell what was fit for food,
and what not. At my coming back, I shot at a
great bird which I saw sitting upon a tree on the
side of a great wood. I believe it was the first
gun that had been fired there since the creation
of the world. I had no sooner fired, but from all
ROBINSON CRUSOE 67

the parts of the wood there arose an innumerable
number of fowls of many sorts, making a con-
fused screaming, and crying every one according
to his usual note; but not one of them of any
kind that I knew. As for the creature I killed,
I took it to be a kind of a hawk, its colour and
beak resembling it, but had no talons or claws
more than common; its flesh was carrion, and
fit for nothing.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to
my raft, and fell to work to bring my cargo on
shore, which took me up the rest of that day; and
what to do with myself at night, I knew not, nor
indeed where to rest; for I was afraid to lie down
on the ground, not knowing but some wild beast
might devour me, though, as I afterwards found,
there was really no need for those fears. How-
ever, as well as I could, I barricaded myself
round with the chests and boards that I had
brought on shore, and made a kind of a hut for
that night’s lodging; as for food, I yet saw not
which way to supply myself, except that I had
seen two or three creatures like hares run out of
the wood where I shot the fowl.

I now began to consider, that I might yet get a
great many things out of the ship, which would
be useful to me, and particularly some of the
rigging and sails, and such other things as might
come to land; and I resolved to make another
voyage on board the vessel, if possible. And as
I knew that the first storm that blew must neces-
sarily break her all in pieces, I resolved to set all
other things apart till I got everything out of
the ship that I could get. Then I called a council,
that is to say, in my thoughts, whether I should
68 THE ADVENTURES OF

take back the raft, but this appeared impractic-
able; so I resolved to go as before, when the tide
was down; and I did so, only that I stripped
before I went from my hut, having nothing on
but a chequered shirt and a pair of linen drawers,
and a pair of pumps on my feet.

I got on board the ship as before, and prepared
a second raft, and having had experience of the
first, I neither made this so unwieldy, nor loaded
it so hard; but yet I brought away several things
very useful to me; as, first, in the carpenter’s
stores I found two or three bags full of nails and
spikes, a great screw-jack, a dozen or two of
hatchets, and above all, that most useful thing
called a grindstone. All these I secured, to-
gether with several things belonging to the
gunner, particularly two or three iron crows,
and two barrels of musket bullets, seven muskets,
and another fowling-piece, with some small
quantity of powder more; a large bag full of
small-shot, and a great roll of sheet lead; but
this last was so heavy, I could not hoist it up to
get it over the ship’s side. Besides these things,
I took all the men’s clothes that I could find, and
a spare fore-top sail, a hammock, and some bed-
ding; and with this I loaded my second raft, and
brought them all safe on shore, to my very great
comfort.

I was under some apprehensions during my
absence from the land, that at least my provisions
might be devoured on shore; but when I came
back, I found no sign of any visitor, only there
sat a creature like a wild cat upon one of the
chests, which, when I came towards it, ran away
a little distance, and then stood still. She sat
ROBINSON CRUSOE 69

very composed and unconcerned, and looked
full in my face, as if she had a mind to be
acquainted with me. I presented my gun at her;
but as she did not understand it, she was per-
fectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer to stir
away; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit,
though, by the way, I was not very free of it,
for my store was not great. However, I spared
her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled of it,
and ate it, and looked (as pleased) for more; but
I thanked her, and could spare no more, so she
marched off. /

Having got my second cargo on shore, though
I was fain to open the barrels of powder and
bring them by parcels, for they were too heavy,
being large casks, I went to work to make me a
little tent with the sail and some poles which I
cut for that purpose; and into this tent I brought
everything that I knew would spoil either with
rain or sun; and I piled all the empty chests and
casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it
from any sudden attempt, either from man or
beast.

When I had done this I blocked up the door
of the tent with some boards within, and an
empty chest set up on end without; and spread-
ing one of the beds upon the ground, laying my
two pistols just at my head, and my gun at
length by me, I went to bed for the first time,
and slept very quietly all night, for I was very
weary and heavy; for the night before I had
slept little, and had laboured very hard all day,
as well to fetch all those things from the ship, as
te-get them on shore.
| T had the biggest magazine of all kinds now
70, THE ADVENTURES OF

‘that ever was laid up, I believe, for one man;
but I was not satisfied still, for while the ship sat
upright in that posture, I thought I ought to get
everything out of her that I could.| So every day
“at low water I'went on board, and’brought away
something or other; but, particularly the third
time I went I brought away as much of the
rigging as I could, as also all the small ropes and
rope-twine I could get, with a piece of spare
canvas, which was to mend the sails upon
occasion, the barrel of wet gunpowder; in a
word, I brought away all the sails first and last,
only that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and
bring as much at a time as I could; for they
were no more useful to be sails, but as mere
canvas only.

But that which comforted me more still was,
that at last of all, after I had made five or six
such voyages as these, and thought I had nothing
more to expect from the ship that was worth my
meddling with; I say, after all this, I found a
great hogshead of bread, and three large runlets
of rum or spirits, and a box of sugar, and a barrel
of fine flour; this was surprising to me, because
I had given over expecting any more provi-
sions, except what was spoilt by the water. I
soon emptied the hogshead of that bread, and
wrapped it up parcel by parcel in pieces of the
sails, which I cut out; and, in a word, I got all
this safe on shore also.

The next day I made another voyage. And
now, having plundered the ship of what was
portable and fit to hand out, I began with the
cables; and cutting the great cable into pieces,
such as I could move, I got two cables and a
ROBINSON CRUSOE 71

hawser on shore, with all the ironwork I could
get; and having cut down the sprit-sail-yard,
and the mizzen-yard, and everything I could to
make a large raft, I loaded it with all those
heavy goods, and came away. But my good
luck began now to leave me; for this raft was so
unwieldy, and so overladen, that after I was
entered the little cove where I had landed the
rest of my goods, not being able to guide it so
handily as I did the other, it overset, and threw
me and all my cargo into the water. As for
myself, it was no great harm, for I was near the
shore; but as to my cargo, it was great part of it
lost, especially the iron, which I expected would
have been of great use to me. However, when
the tide was out I got most of the pieces of cable
ashore, and some of the iron, though with
infinite labour; for I was fain to dip for it into
the water, a work which fatigued me very much.
After this I went every day on board, and
brought away what I could get.

I had been now thirteen days on shore, and
had been eleven times on board the ship; in
which time I had brought away all that one
pair of hands could well be supposed capable
to bring, though I believe verily, had the calm
weather held, I should have brought away the
whole ship piece by piece. But preparing the
twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind
begin to rise. However, at low water I went on
board, and though I thought I had rummaged
the cabin so effectually as that nothing more
could be found, yet I discovered a locker with
drawers in it, in one of which I found two or
three razors, and one pair of large scissors, with
a
a3 THE ADVENTURES OF

some ten or a dozen of good knives and forks; in
another, I found about thirty-six pounds value
in money, some European coin, some Brazil,
some pieces of eight, some gold, some silver.
/Tsmiled to myself at the sight of this money.
*O drug!’ said I aloud, ‘what art thou good for?
‘Thou art not worth to me, no, not the taking
off of the ground; one of those knives is worth
all this heap. I have no manner of use for thee;
even remain where thou art, and go to the
bottom as a creature whose life is not worth
| saving.’ However, upon second thoughts, I took
it aways and wrapping all this in a piece of
canvas, J began to think of making another raft;
but while I was preparing this, I found the sky
overcast, and the wind began to rise, and in a
quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the
shore. It presently occurred to me that it was
in vain to pretend to make a raft with the wind
off shore, and that it was my business to be gone
before the tide of flood began, otherwise I might
not be able to reach the shore at all. Accord-
-ingly I let myself down into the water, and swam
across the channel, which lay between the ship
and the sands, and even that with difficulty
enough, partly with the weight of the things I
had about me, and partly the roughness of the
water; for the wind rose very hastily, and before
it was quite high water it blew a storm.
But I was gotten home to my little tent, where

I lay with all my wealth about me very secure.
It blew very hard all that night, and in the
morning, when I looked out, behold, no more
ship was to be seen. I was a little surprised, but
recovered myself with this satisfactory reflection,
ROBINSON CRUSOE 73

viz., that I had lost no time, nor abated no
diligence, to get everything out of her that could
be useful to me, and that indeed there was little
left in her that I was able to bring away if I had
had more time.

I now gave over any more thoughts of the
ship, or of anything out of her, except what
might drive on shore from her wreck, as indeed
divers pieces of her afterwards did; but those
things were of small use to me.

My thoughts were now wholly employed
about securing myself against either savages, if
any should appear, or wild beasts, if any were
in the island; and I had many thoughts of the
method how to do this, and what kind of dwell-
ing to make, whether I should make me a cave
in the earth, or a tent upon the earth; and, in
short, I resolved upon both, the manner and
description of which it may not be improper to
give an account of.

I soon found the place I was in was not for my
settlement, particularly because it was upon a
low moorish ground near the sea, and I believed
would not be wholesome; and more particularly
because there was no fresh water near it. So I
resolved to find a more healthy and more con-
venient spot of ground.

I consulted several things in my situation,
which I found would be proper for me. First,
health and fresh water, I just now men-
tioned. Secondly, shelter from the heat of the
sun. Thirdly, security from ravenous creatures,
whether men or beasts. Fourthly, a view to the
sea, that if God sent any ship in sight I might
not lose any advantage for my deliverance, of
74 THE ADVENTURES OF

which I was not willing to banish all my expecta-
tion yet.

In search of a place proper for this, I found a
little plain on the side ofa rising hill, whose front
towards this little plain was steep as a house-
side, so that nothing could come down upon me
from the top; on the side of this rock there was
a hollow place, worn a little way in, like the
entrance or door of a cave; but there was not
really any cave, or way into the rock at all.

On the flat of the green, just before this hollow
place, I resolved to pitch my tent. This plain
was not above an hundred yards broad, and
about twice as long, and lay like a green before
my door, and at the end of it descended irregu-
larly every way down into the low grounds by
the seaside. It was on the N.N.W. side of the
hill, so that I was sheltered from the heat every
day, till it came to a W. and by S. sun, or there-
abouts, which in those countries is near the
setting.

Before I set up my tent, I drew a half circle
before the hollow place, which took in about
ten yards in its semi-diameter from the rock,
and twenty yards in its diameter from its begin-
ning and ending. In this half-circle I pitched
two rows of strong stakes, driving them into the
ground till they stood very firm like piles, the
biggest end being out of the ground about five
feet and a half, and sharpened on the top. The
two rows did not stand above six inches from one
another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I had
cut in the ship, and laid them in rows one upon
another, within the circle, between these two
ROBINSON CRUSOE 75

rows of stakes, up to the top, placing other stakes
in the inside leaning against them, about two
feet and a half high, like a spur to a post; and
this fence was so strong, that neither man or
beast could get into it, or over it. This cost me
a great deal of time and labour, especially to
cut the piles in the woods, bring them to the
place, and drive them into the earth.

The entrance into this place I made to be not
by a door, but by a short ladder to go over the
top; which ladder, when I was in, I lifted over
after me, and so I was completely fenced in, and
fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and
consequently slept secure in the night, which
otherwise I could not have done; though as it
appeared afterwards, there was no need of all
this caution from the enemies that I appre-
hended danger from.

Into this fence or fortress, with infinite labour,
I carried all my riches, all my provisions,
ammunition, and stores, of which you have the
account above; and I made me a large tent,
which, to preserve me from the rains that in one
part of the year are very violent there, I made
double, viz., one smaller tent within, and one
larger tent above it, and covered the uppermost
with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among
the sails. And now I lay no more for a while
in the bed which I had brought on shore, but
in a hammock, which was indeed a very good
one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.

Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and
everything that would spoil by the wet; and
having thus enclosed all my goods, I made up
the entrance, which, till now, I had left open,
76 THE ADVENTURES OF

and so passed and repassed, as I said, by a short
ladder.

When I had done this, I began to work my
way into the rock; and bringing all the earth
and stones that I dug down out through my tent,
I laid them up within: my fence in the nature
of a terrace, so that it raised the ground within
about a foot and a half; and thus I made me a
cave just behind my tent, which served me like
a cellar to my house.

It cost me much labour, and many days,
before all these things were brought to perfec-
tion, and therefore I must go back to some other
things which took up some of my thoughts. At
the same time it happened, after I had laid my
scheme for the setting up my tent, and making
the cave, that a storm of rain falling from a thick
dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning hap-
pened, and after that a great clap of thunder,
as is naturally the effect of it. I was not so much
surprised with the lightning, as I was with a
thought which darted into my mind as swift as
the lightning itself. O my powder! My very
heart sunk within me when I thought, that at
one blast all my powder might be destroyed,
on which, not my defence only, but the provid-
ing me food, as I thought, entirely depended.
I was nothing near so anxious about my own
danger; though had the powder took fire, I had
never known who had hurt me.

Such impression did this make upon me, that
after the storm was over I laid aside all my
works, my building, and fortifying, and applied
myself to make bags and boxes to separate the
powder, and keep it a little and a little in a
ROBINSON CRUSOE 77

parcel, in hope that whatever might come it
might not all take fire at once, and to keep it so
apart, that it should not be possible to make one
part fire another. I finished this work in about
a fortnight; and I think my powder, which in
all was about 240 pounds weight, was divided
in not less than a hundred parcels. As to the
barrel that had been wet, I did not apprehend
any danger from that, so I placed it in my new
cave, which in my fancy I called my. kitchen,
and the rest I hid up and down in holes among
the rocks, so that no wet might come to it,
marking very carefully where I laid it.

In the interval of time while this was doing,
I went out once, at least, every day with my gun,
as well to divert myself, as to see if I could kill
anything fit for food, and as near as I could to
acquaint myself with what the island produced.
The first time I went out, I presently discovered
that there were goats in the island, which was a
great satisfaction to me; but then it was attended
with this misfortune to me, viz., that they were
so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was
the difficultest thing in the world to come at
them. But I was not discouraged at this, not
doubting but I might now and then shoot one,
as it soon happened; for after I had found their
haunts a little, I laid wait in this manner for
them. I observed if they saw me in the valleys,
though they were upon the rocks, they would
run away as in a terrible fright; but if they were
feeding in the valleys, and I was upon the rocks,
they took no notice of me, from whence I con-
cluded that, by the position of their optics, their
sight was so directed downward, that they did
78 THE ADVENTURES OF

not readily see objects that were above them.
So afterward I took this method; I always
climbed the rocks first to get above them, and
then had frequently a fair mark. The first shot
I made among these creatures I killed a she-
goat, which had a little kid by her, which she
gave suck to, which grieved me heartily ; but
when the old one fell, the kid stood stock still by
her till I came and took her up; and not only so,
but when I carried the old one with me upon my
shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my
enclosure; upon which I laid down the dam, and
took the kid in my arms, and carried it over my
pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame; but it
‘would not eat, so I was forced to kill it, and eat
it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a
great while, for I eat sparingly, and saved my
provisions, my bread especially, as much as
possibly I could.

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it
absolutely necessary to provide a place to make
a fire in, and fuel to burn; and what I did for
that, as also how I enlarged my cave, and what
conveniences I made, I shall give a full account
of in its place. But I must first give some little
account of myself, and of my thoughts about
living, which it may well be supposed were not
a few.

I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for
as I was not cast away upon that island without
being driven, as is said, by a violent storm, quite
out of the course of our intended voyage, and a
great way, viz., some hundreds of leagues out
of the ordinary course of the trade of mankind,
I had great reason to censider it as a determina-
ROBINSON GRUSOE 79)
A

tion of Heaven, that in this desolate place, and)
in this desolate manner, I should end my life. /
The tears would run plentifully down my face!
when I made these reflections, and sometimes|
I would expostulate with myself, why Provi-
dence should thus completely ruin its creatures, |
and render them so absolutely miserable, so
without help abandoned, so entirely depressed, |
that it could hardly be rational to be thankful /
for such a life.

But something always returned swift upon me
to check these thoughts, and to reprove me; and
particularly one day, walking with my gun in
my hand by the seaside, I was very pensive upon
the subject of my present condition, when |
Reason, as it were, expostulated with me t’other
way, thus: ‘Well, you are in a desolate condition |
it is true, but pray remember, where are the rest /
of you? Did not you come ‘eleven of you into!
the boat? Where are the ten? Why were not
they saved, and you lost? Why were you singled
out? Is it better to be here, or there?’ And then
I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be con-
sidered with the good that is in them, and with
what worse attends them.

Then it occurred to me again, how well I was
furnished for my subsistence, and what would
have been my case if it had not happened, which
was an hundred thousand to one, that the ship
floated from the place where she first struck and
was driven so near to the shore that I had time
to get all these things out of her; what would
have been my case, if I had been to have lived
in the condition in which J at first came on shore,
without necessaries of life, or necessaries to
80 THE ADVENTURES OF

supply and procure them? ‘Particularly,’ said
I aloud (though to myself), ‘what should I have
done without a gun, without ammunition, with-
out any tools to make anything or to work with,
without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any manner
of covering?’ and that now I had all these to a
sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to
provide myself in such a manner, as to live with-
out my gun when my ammunition was spent;
so that I had a tolerable view of subsisting
without any want as long as I lived. For I
considered from the beginning how I would
provide for the accidents that might happen,
and for the time that was to come, even not
only after my ammunition should be spent, but
even after my health or strength should decay.

I confess I had not entertained any notion of
my ammunition being destroyed at one blast—
I mean, my powder being blown up by light-
ning; and this made the thoughts of it so surpris-
ing to me when it lightened and thundered, as
I observed just now. -

And now being to enter into a melancholy
relation of a scene of silent life, such, perhaps,
as was never heard of in the world before, I shall
take it from its beginning, and continue it in its
order. It was, by my account, the 3oth of
September when, in the manner as above said,
I first set foot upon this horrid island, when the
sun being to us in its autumnal equinox, was
almost just over my head, for I reckoned myself,
by observation, to be in the latitude of 9 degrees
22 minutes north of the line.

After I had been there about ten or twelve
days, it came into my thoughts that I should


ROBINSON CRUSOE 81

lose my reckoning of time for want of books and
pen and ink, and should even forget the Sabbath
days from the working days; but to prevent this,
I cut it with my knife upon a large post, in
capital letters; and making it into a great cross,
I set it up on the shore where I first landed, viz.,
‘I came on shore here on the 30th of September
1659.’ Upon the sides of this square post I cut
every day a notch with my knife, and every
seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and
every first day of the month as long again as
that long one; and thus I kept my calendar, or
weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.

In the next place we are to observe, that
among the many things which I brought out of
the ship in the several voyages, which, as above
mentioned, I made to it, I got several things of
less value, but not all less useful to me, which
I omitted setting down before; as in parti-
cular, pens, ink, and paper, several parcels in
the captain’s, mate’s, gunner’s, and carpenter’s
keeping, three or four compasses, some mathe-
matical instruments, dials, perspectives, charts,
and books of navigation, all which I huddled
together, whether I might want them or no.
Also I found three very good Bibles, which came
to me in my cargo from England, and which I
had packed up among my things; some Portu-
guese books also, and among them two or three
Popish prayer-books, and several other books,
all which I carefully secured. And I must not
forget, that we had in the ship a dog and two
cats, of whose eminent history I may have
occasion to say something in its place; for I
carried both the cats with me; and as for the
82 THE ADVENTURES OF

dog, he jumped out of the ship of himself, and
swam on shore to me the day after I went on
shore with my first cargo, and was a trusty
servant to me many years. I wanted nothing
that he could fetch me, nor any company that
he could make up to me; I only wanted to have
him talk to me, but that would not do. As I
observed before, I found pen, ink, and paper,
and I husbanded them to the utmost; and I shall
show that while my ink lasted, I kept things very
exact; but after that was gone, I could not, for I
could not make any ink by any means that I
could devise.

And this put me in mind that I wanted many
things, notwithstanding all that I had amassed
together; and of these, this of ink was one, as also
spade, pick-axe, and shovel, to dig or remove
the earth, needles, pins, and thread; as for linen,
I soon learned to want that without much
difficulty.

This want of tools made every work I did go
on heavily; and it was near a whole year before
I had entirely finished my little pale or sur-
rounded habitation. The piles or stakes, which
were as heavy as I could well lift, were a long
time in cutting and preparing in the woods, and
more by far in bringing home; so that I spent
sometimes two days in cutting and bringing
home one of those posts, and a third day in
driving it into the ground; for which purpose I
got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last
bethought myself of one of the iron crows, which,
however, though I found it, yet it made driving
those posts or piles very laborious and tedious
work.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 83

But what need I have been concerned at the
tediousness of anything I had to do, seeing I had
time enough to do it in? nor had I any other
employment, if that had been over, at least, that
I could foresee, except the ranging the island to
seek for food, which I did more or less every day.

I now began to consider seriously my condi-
tion, and the circumstance I was reduced to;
and I drew up the state of my affairs in writing;
not so much to leave them to any that were to
come after me, for I was like to have but few
heirs, as to deliver my thoughts from daily por-
ing upon them, and afflicting my mind. And as
my reason began now to master my despon-
dency, I began to comfort myself as well as I
could, and to set the good against the evil, that
I might have something to distinguish my case
from worse; and I stated it very impartially, like
debtor and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed
against the miseries I suffered, thus:

Evil.

I am cast upon a hor-
rible desolate island, void
of all hope of recovery.

I am singled out and
separated, as it were,
from all the world to be
miserable.

I am divided from
mankind, a solitaire, one
banished from human
society.

Good.

But I am alive, and
not drowned, as all my
ship’s company was.

But I am singled out,
too, from all the ship’s
crew to be spared from
death; and He that mira-
culously saved me from
death, can deliver me /
from this condition. |

But I am not starved”
and perishing on a barren
place, affording no sus-
tenance.
84. THE ADVENTURES OF

Evil. Good.
I have not clothes to But I am in a hot cli-
cover me. mate, where if I had
clothes I could hardly
wear them.
I am without any de- But I am cast on an

fence or means to resist island, where I see no
any violence of man or wild beasts to hurt me,
beast. as I saw on the coast of
Africa; and what if I had
been shipwrecked there?
I have no soul to speak But God wonderfully
to, or relieve me. sent the ship in near
enough to the shore, that
I have gotten out so
many necessary things as
will either supply my
wants, or enable me to
supply myself even as

long as I live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testi-
mony, that there was scarce any condition in
the world so miserable, but there was something
negative or something positive to be thankful
for in it; and let this stand as a direction from
the experience of the most miserable of all con-
ditions in this world, that we may always find
in it something to comfort ourselves from, and to
set in the description of good and evil on the
credit side of the account.

Having now brought my mind a little to relish
my condition, and given over looking out to sea,
to see if I could spy a ship; I say, giving over
these things, I began to apply myself to accom-
modate my way of living, and to make things as
easy to me as I could.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 85

I have already described my habitation, which
was a tent under the side of a rock, surrounded
with a strong pale of posts and cables; but I
might now rather call it a wall, for I raised a
kind of wall up against it of turfs, about two feet
thick on the outside, and after some time—I
think it was a year and a half—I raised rafters
from it leading to the rock, and thatched or
covered it with boughs of trees and such things
as I could get to keep out the rain, which I found
at some times of the year very violent.

I have already observed how I brought all my
goods into this pale, and into the cave which I
had made behind me. But I must observe, too,
that at first this was a confused heap of goods,
which as they lay in no order, so they took up all
my place; I had no room to turn myself. So I
set myself to enlarge my cave and works farther
into the earth; for it was a loose sandy rock,
which yielded easily to the labour I bestowed on
it. And so, when I found I was pretty safe as to
beasts of prey, I worked sideways to the right
hand into the rock; and then, turning to the
right again, worked quite out, and made me a
door to come out on the outside of my pale or
fortification. This gave me not only egress and
regress, as it were a back-way to my tent and to my
storehouse, but gave me room to stow my goods.

And now I began to apply myself to make such
necessary things as I found I most wanted, as par-
ticularly a chair and a table; for without these I
was not able to enjoy the few comforts I had in
the world. I could not write or eat, or do several
things with so much pleasure without a table.

So I went to work; and here I must needs
86 THE ADVENTURES OF

observe, that as reason is the substance and
original of the mathematics, so by stating and
squaring everything by reason, and by making
the most rational judgment of things, every man
may be in time master of every mechanic art.
I had never handled a tool in my life; and yet
in time, by labour, application, and contrivance,
I found at last that I wanted nothing but I could
have made it, especially if I had had tools.
However, I made abundance of things even
without tools, and some with no more tools than
an adze and a hatchet, which, perhaps, were
never made that way before, and that with
infinite labour. For example, if I wanted a
board, I had no other way but to cut down a
tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat
on either side with my axe, till I had brought it
to be thin as a plank, and then dub it smooth
with my adze. It is true, by this method I could
make but one board out of a whole tree; but this
T had no remedy for but patience, any more than
I had for the prodigious deal of time and labour
which it took me up to make a plank or board.
But my time or labour was little worth, and so
it was as well employed one way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I
observed above, in the first place, and this I did
out of the short pieces of boards that I brought
on my raft from the ship. But when I had
wrought out some boards, as above, I made
large shelves of the breadth of a foot and a half
one over another, all along one side of my cave,
to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work; and,
in a word, to separate everything at large in
their places, that I might come easily at them.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 87

I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock to hang
my guns and all things that would hang up; so
that had my cave been to be seen, it looked like
a general magazine of all necessary things; and
I had everything so ready at my hand, that it
was a great pleasure to me to see all my goods
in such order, and especially to find my stock of
all necessaries so great.

And now it was when I began to keep a
journal of every day’s employment; for, indeed,
at first, I was in too much hurry, and not only
hurry as to labour, but in too much discom-
posure of mind; and my journal would have
been full of many dull things. For example, I
must have said thus: Sept. the 30th.—After I got
to shore, and had escaped drowning, instead
of being thankful to God for my deliverance,
having first vomited with the great quantity of
salt water which was gotten into my stomach,
and recovering myself a little, I ran about the
shore, wringing my hands, and beating my head
and face, exclaiming at my misery, and crying
out, I was undone, undone, till, tired and faint,
I was forced to lie down on the ground to repose;
but durst not sleep, for fear of being devoured.

Some days after this, and after I had been on
board the ship, and got all that I could out of
her, yet I could not forbear getting up to the
top of a little mountain, and looking out to sea,
in hopes of seeing a ship; then fancy at a vast
distance I spied a sail, please myself with the
hopes of it, and then, after looking steadily till
I was almost blind, lose it quite, and sit down
and weep like a child, and thus increase my
misery by my folly.
88 THE ADVENTURES OF

But having gotten over these things in some
measure, and having settled my household stuff
and habitation, made me a table and a chair,
and all as handsome about me as I could, I
began to keep my journal, of which I shall here
give you the copy (though in it will be told all
these particulars over again) as long as it lasted;
for, having no more ink, I was forced to leave
it off.

THE JOURNAL

September 30, 1659.—I, poor miserable Robin-
son Crusoe, being shipwrecked, during a dread-
ful storm, in the offing, came on shore on this
dismal unfortunate island, which I called the
Island of Despair, all the rest of the ship’s com-
pany being drowned, and myself almost dead.

All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting
myself at the dismal circumstances I was brought
to, viz., I had neither food, house, clothes,
weapon, or place to fly to; and in despair of any
relief, saw nothing but death before me; either
that I should be devoured by wild beasts, mur-
dered by savages, or starved to death for want
of food. At the approach of night, I slept in a
tree for fear of wild creatures, but slept soundly,
though it rained all night.

Oct. 1—In the morning I saw, to my great
surprise, the ship had floated with the high tide,
and was driven on shore again much nearer the
island; which, as it was some comfort on one
hand, for seeing her sit upright, and not broken
to pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I might
get on board, and get some food and necessaries
out of her for my relief; so, on the other hand,
ROBINSON CRUSOE, 89

it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades,
who, I imagined, if we had all stayed on board,
might have saved the ship, or at least that they
would not have been all drowned as they were;
and that had the men been saved, we might
perhaps have built us a boat out of the ruins of
the ship, to have carried us to some other part
of the world. I spent great part of this day in
perplexing myself on these things; but at length
seeing the ship almost dry, I went upon the sand
as near as I could, and then swam on board;
this day also it continued raining, though with
no wind at all.

From the rst of October to the 24th.—All these
days entirely spent in many several voyages to
get all I could out of the ship, which I brought
on shore, every tide of flood, upon rafts. Much
rain also in these days, though with some inter-
vals of fair weather; but, it seems, this was the
rainy season.

Oct. 20.—I overset my raft, and all the goods
I had got upon it; but being in shoal water, and
the things being chiefly heavy, I recovered many
of them when the tide was out.

Oct. 25.—It rained all night and all day, with
some gusts of wind, during which time the ship
broke in pieces, the wind blowing a little harder
than before, and was no more to be seen, except
the wreck of her, and that only at low water.
I spent this day in covering and securing the
goods which I had saved, that the rain might
not spoil them.

Oct. 26.—I walked about the shore almost all
day to find out a place to fix my habitation,
greatly concerned to secure myself from an
go THE ADVENTURES OF

attack in the night, either from wild beasts or
men. Towards night I fixed upon a proper place
under a rock, and marked out a semicircle for
my encampment, which I resolved to strengthen
with a work, wall, or fortification made of double
piles, lined within with cables, and without with
turf.

From the 26th to the goth I worked very hard
in carrying all my goods to my new habitation,
though some part of the time it rained exceeding
hard.

The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the
island with my gun to see for some food, and
discover the country; when I killed a she-goat,
and her kid followed me home, which I after-
wards killed also, because it would not feed.

Nov. 1.—I set up my tent under a rock, and
lay there for the first night, making it as large
as I could, with stakes driven i in to swing my
hammock upon.

Nov. 2.—I set up all my hea and boards,
and the pieces of timber which made my rafts,
and with them formed a fence round me, a little
within the place I had marked out for my forti-
fication.

Nov. 3.—I went out with my gun, and killed
two fowls like ducks, which were very good food.
In the afternoon went to work to make me a table.

Nov. 4.—This morning I began to order my
times of work, of going out with my gun, time
of sleep, and time of diversion, viz., every morn-
ing I walked out with my gun for two or three
hours, if it did not rain; then employed myself
to work till about eleven o’clock; then eat what
I had to live on; and from twelve to two I lay
ROBINSON CRUSOE gt

down to sleep, the weather being excessive hot;
and then in the evening to work again. The
working part of this day and of the next were
wholly employed in making my table; for I was
yet but a very sorry workman, though time and
necessity made me a complete natural mechanic
soon after, as I believe it would do any one else.

Nov. 5.—This day went abroad with my gun
and my dog, and killed a wild cat; her skin
pretty soft, but her flesh good for nothing. Every
creature I killed, I took off the skins and pre-
served them. Coming back by the sea-shore,
I saw many sorts of sea-fowls, which I did
not understand; but was surprised, and almost
frighted, with two or three seals, which, while I
was gazing at, not well knowing what they were,
got into the sea, and escaped me for that time.

Nov. 6.—After my morning walk I went to
work with my table again, and finished it,
though not to my liking; nor was it long before
I learned to mend it.

Nov. 7.—Now it began to be settled fair
weather. The 7th, 8th, gth, roth, and part of
the 12th (for the 11th was Sunday) I took wholly
up to make me a chair, and with much ado,
brought it to a tolerable shape, but never to
please me; and even in the making, I pulled it
in pieces several times. Note, I soon neglected
my keeping Sundays; for, omitting my mark for
them on my post, I forgot which was which.

Nov. 13.—This day it rained, which refreshed
me exceedingly, and cooled the earth; but it was
accompanied with terrible thunder and light-
ning, which frighted me dreadfully, for fear of
my powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved
92 THE ADVENTURES OF

to separate my stock of powder into as many
little parcels as possible, that it might not be in
danger.

Nov. 14, 15, 16.—These three days I spent in
making little square chests or boxes, which
might hold about a pound, or two pound at
most, of powder; and so putting the powder in,
I stowed it in places as secure and remote from
one another as possible. On one of these three
days I killed a large bird that was good to eat,
but I know not what to call it.

Nov. 17.—This day I began to dig behind my
tent into the rock, to make room for my farther
conveniency. Note, three things I wanted ex-
ceedingly for this work, viz., a pick-axe, a shovel,
and a wheelbarrow or basket; so I desisted from
my work, and began to consider how to supply
that want, and make me some tools. As for a
pick-axe, I made use of the iron crows, which
were proper enough, though heavy; but the
next thing was a shovel or spade. This was so
absolutely necessary, that indeed I could do
nothing effectually without it; but what kind
of one to make, I knew not.

Nov. 18.—The next day, in searching the
woods, I found a tree of that wood, or like it,
which in the Brazils they call the iron tree, for
its exceeding hardness; of this, with great labour,
and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece, and
brought it home, too, with difficulty enough, for
it was exceeding heavy.

The excessive hardness of the wood, and
having no other way, made me a long while
upon this machine, for I worked it effectually,
by little and little, into the form of a shovel or
ROBINSON CRUSOE 93

spade, the handle exactly shaped like ours in
England, only that the broad part having no
iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not last
me so long. However, it served me well enough
for the uses which I had occasion to put it to;
but never was a shovel, I believe, made after
that fashion, or so long a-making.

I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket or a
wheelbarrow. A basket I could not make by any
means, having no such things as twigs that would
bend to make wicker ware, at least none yet
found out. And as to a wheelbarrow, I fancied
I could make all but the wheel, but that I had
no notion of, neither did I know how to go about
it; besides, I had no possible way to make the
iron gudgeons for the spindle or axis of the wheel
to run in, so I gave it over; and so for carrying
away the earth which I dug out of the cave, I
made me a thing like a hod which the labourers
carry mortar in, when they serve the bricklayers.

This was not so difficult to me as the making
the shovel; and yet this, and the shovel, and the
attempt which I made in vain to make a wheel-
barrow, took me up no less than four days; I
mean always, excepting my morning walk with
my gun, which I seldom failed, and very seldom
failed also bringing home something fit to eat.

Nov. 23.—My other work having now stood
still because of my making these tools, when
they were finished I went on, and working every
day, as my strength and time allowed, I spent
eighteen days entirely in widening and deepen-
ing my cave, that it might hold my goods
commodiously.

Note.—During all this time I worked to make
04. THE ADVENTURES OF

this room or cave spacious enough to accom-
modate me as a warehouse or magazine, a
kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar; as for my
lodging, I kept to the tent, except that some-
times in the wet season of the year it rained so
hard, that I could not keep myself dry, which
caused me afterwards to cover all my place
within my pale with long poles, in the form of
rafters, leaning against the rock, and load them
with flags and large leaves of trees, like a thatch.

Dec. 10.—I began now to think my cave or
vault finished, when on a sudden (it seems I had
made it too large) a great quantity of earth fell
down from the top and one side, so much, that,
in short, it frighted me, and not without reason
too; for if I had been under it, I had never
wanted a grave-digger. Upon this disaster I
had a great deal of work to do over again; for
I had the loose earth to carry out; and, which
was of more importance, I had the ceiling to
prop up, so that I might be sure no more would
come down.

Dec. 11.—This day I went to work with it
accordingly, and got two shores or posts pitched
upright to the top, with two pieces of boards
across over each post. This I finished the next
day; and setting more posts up with boards, in
about a week more I had the roof secured; and
the posts standing in rows, served me for parti-
tions to part of my house.

Dec. 17.—From this day to the twentieth I
placed shelves, and knocked up nails on the
posts to hang everything up that could be hung
up; and now I began to be in some order within
doors.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 95

Dec. 20.—Now I carried everything into. the
cave, and began to furnish my house, and set
up some pieces of boards, like a dresser, to order
my victuals upon; but boards began to be very
scarce with me; also I made me another table.

Dec. 24.—Much rain all night and all day; no
stirring out.

Dec. 25.—Rain all day.

Dec. 26.—No rain, and the earth much cooler
than before, and pleasanter.

Dec. 27.—Killed a young goat, and lamed
another, so that I catched it, and led it home in
a string. When I had it home, I bound and
splintered up its leg, which was broke. V.B.—
I took such care of it, that it lived; and the leg
grew well and as strong as ever; but by my
nursing it so long it grew tame, and fed upon
the little green at my door, and would not go
away. This was the first time that I entertained
a thought of breeding up some tame creatures,
that I might have food when my powder and
shot was all spent.

Dec. 28, 29, 30.—Great heats and no breeze,
‘so that there was no stirring abroad, except in
the evening, for food. This time I spent in put-
ting all my things in order within doors.

Jan. 1.—Very hot still, but I went abroad
early and late with my gun, and lay still in the
middle of the day. This evening, going farther
into the valleys which lay towards the centre of
the island, I found there was plenty of goats,
though exceeding shy, and hard to come at.
However, I resolved to try if I could not bring
my dog to hunt them down.

Jan. 2.—Accordingly, the next day, I went
96 THE ADVENTURES OF

out with my dog, and set him upon the goats;
but I was mistaken, for they all faced about upon
the dog; and he knew his danger too well, for
he would not come near them.

Jan. 3.—I began my fence or wall; which,
being still jealous of my being attacked by some-
body, I resolved to make very thick and strong.

N.B.—This wall being described before, I
purposely omit what was said in the journal.
It is sufficient to observe that I was no less time
than from the 3rd of January to the 14th of
April working, finishing, and perfecting this
wall, though it was no more than about twenty-
four yards in length, being a half circle from one
place in the rock to another place about eight
yards from it, the door of the cave being in the
centre behind it.

All this time I worked very hard, the rains
hindering me many days, nay, sometimes weeks
together; but I thought I should never be per-
fectly secure till this wall was finished. And it
is scarce credible what inexpressible labour
everything was done with, especially the bring-
ing piles out of the woods, and driving them into
the ground; for I made them much bigger than
I need to have done.

When this wall was finished, and the outside
double-fenced with a turf-wall raised up close
to it, I persuaded myself that if any people were
to come on shore there, they would not perceive
anything like a habitation; and it was very well
I did so, as may be observed hereafter upon a
very remarkable occasion.

During this time, I made my rounds in the
ROBINSON CRUSOE 97

woods for game every day, when the rain
admitted me, and made frequent discoveries in
these walks of something or other to my advan-
tage; particularly I found a kind of wild pigeons,
who built, not as wood pigeons in a tree, but
rather as house pigeons, in the holes of the rocks.
And taking some young ones, I endeavoured to
breed them up tame, and did so; but when they
grew older they flew all away, which, perhaps,
was at first for want of feeding them, for I had
nothing to give them. However, I frequently
found their nests, and got their young ones,
which were very good meat.

And now in the managing my household
affairs I found myself wanting in many things,
which I thought at first it was impossible for me
to make, as indeed, as to some of them, it was.
For instance, I could never make a cask to be
hooped; I had a small runlet or two, as I
observed before, but I could never arrive to the
capacity of making one by them, though I spent
many weeks about it. I could neither put in the
heads, or joint the staves so true to one another,
as to make them hold water; so I gave that
also over.

In the next place,. I was at a great loss for
candle; so that as soon as ever it was dark, which
was generally by seven o’clock, I was obliged to
go to bed. I remembered the lump of beeswax
with which I made candles in my African adven-
ture, but I had none of that now. The only
remedy I had was, that when I had killed a goat
I saved the tallow, and with a little dish made
of clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I
added a wick of some oakum, I made mea lamp;

17 E
&
98 THE ADVENTURES OF

and this gave me light, though not a clear steady
light like a candle.

In the middle of all my labours it happened,
that rummaging my things, I found a little bag,
which, as I hinted before, had been filled with
corn for the feeding of poultry, not for this
voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the ship
came from Lisbon. What little remainder of
corn had been in the bag was all devoured with
the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but husks
and dust; and being willing to have the bag for
some other use, I think it was to put powder in,
when I divided it for fear of the lightning, or
some such use, I shook the husks of corn out of
it on one side of my fortification, under the rock.
It was a little before the great rains, just now
mentioned, that I threw this stuff away, taking
no notice of anything, and not so much as
remembering that I had thrown anything there;
when, about a month after, or thereabout, I saw
some few stalks of something green shooting out
of the ground, which I fancied might be some
plant I had not seen; but I was surprised, and
perfectly astonished, when, after a little longer
time, I saw about ten or twelve ears come out,
which were perfect green barley of the same kind
as our European, nay, as our English barley.

It is impossible to express the astonishment
and confusion of my thoughts on this occasion.
I had hitherto acted upon no religious founda-
tion at all; indeed, I had very few notions of
religion in my head, or had entertained any
sense of anything that had befallen me otherwise
than as a chance, or, as we lightly say, what
pleases God; without so much as inquiring into

a
ROBINSON CRUSOE 99

the end of Providence in these things, or His
order in governing events in the world. But after
I saw barley grow there, in a climate which I
know was not proper for corn, and especially
that I knew not how it came there, it startled
me strangely, and I began to suggest that God
had miraculously caused this grain to grow
without any help of seed sown, and that it was
so directed purely for my sustenance on that
wild miserable place.

This touched my heart a little, and brought
tears out of my eyes; and I began to bless myself,
that such a prodigy of Nature should happen
upon my account; and this was thé more strange
to me, because I saw near it still, all along by
the side of the rock, some other straggling stalks,
which proved to be stalks of rice, and which
I knew, because I had seen it grow in Africa,
when I was ashore there.

I not only thought these the pure productions
of Providence for my support, but, not doubting
but that there was more in the place, I went all
over that part of the island where I had been
before, peering in every corner, and under every
rock, to see for more of it; but I could not find
any. At last it occurred to my thoughts that I
had shook a bag of chickens’ meat out in that
place, and then the wonder began to cease; and
I must confess, my religious thankfulness to
God’s providence began to abate too, upon the
discovering that all this was nothing but what
was common; though I ought to have been as
thankful for so strange and unforeseen provi-
dence, as if it had been miraculous; for it was
really the work of Providence as to me, that
100 THE ADVENTURES OF

should order or appoint, that ten or twelve grains
of corn should remain unspoiled (when the rats
had destroyed all the rest), as if it had been
dropped from heaven; as also that I should
throw it out in that particular place, where, it
being in the shade of a high rock, it sprang up
immediately; whereas, if I had thrown it any-
where else at that time, it had been burnt up
and destroyed.

I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may
be sure, in their season, which was about the end
of June; and laying up every corn, I resolved
to sow them all again, hoping in time to have
some quantity sufficient to supply me with
bread. But it was not till the fourth year that
I could allow myself the least grain of this corn
to eat, and even then but sparingly, as I shall
say afterwards in its order; for I lost all that I
sowed the first season, by not observing the
proper time; for I sowed it just before the dry
season, so that it never came up at all, at least
not as it would have done; of which in its place.

Besides this barley, there was, as above, twenty
or thirty stalks of rice, which I preserved with
the same care, and whose use was of the same
kind, or to the same purpose, viz., to make me
bread, or rather food; for I found ways to cook
it up without baking, though I did that also
after some time. But to return to my journal.

I worked excessive hard these three or four
months to get my wall done; and the 14th of
April I closed it up, contriving to go into it, not
by a door, but over the wall by a ladder, that
there might be no sign in the outside of my
habitation.
ROBINSON GRUSOE 101

April 16.—I finished the ladder, so I went up
with the ladder to the top, and then pulled it up
after me, and let it down on the inside. This
was a complete enclosure to me; for within I had
room enough, and nothing could come at me
from without, unless it could first mount my
wall.

The very next day after this wall was finished,
I had almost had all my labour overthrown at
once, and myself killed. The case was thus: As
I was busy in the inside of it, behind my tent,
just in the entrance into my cave, I was terribly
frighted with a most dreadful surprising thing
indeed; for all on a sudden I found the earth
come crumbling down from the roof of my cave,
and from the edge of the hill over my head, and
two of the posts I had set up in the cave cracked
in a frightful manner. I was heartily scared, but
thought nothing of what was really the cause,
only thinking that the top of my cave was falling
in, as some of it had done before; and for fear
I should be buried in it, I ran forward to my
ladder; and not thinking myself safe there
neither, I got over my wall for fear of the pieces
of the hill which I expected might roll down
upon me. I was no sooner stepped down upon
the firm ground, but I plainly saw it was a
terrible earthquake; for the ground I stood on
shook three times at about eight minutes’ dis-
tance, with three such shocks, as would have
overturned the strongest building that could be
supposed to have stood on the earth; and a great
piece of the top of a rock, which stood about
half a mile from me next the sea, fell down with
such a terrible noise, as I never heard in all my
(102 THE ADVENTURES OF

life. I perceived also the very sea was put into
violent motion by it; and I believe the shocks
were stronger under the water than on the
island.

I was so amazed with the thing itself, having
never felt the like, or discoursed with any one
that had, that I was like one dead or stupefied;
and the motion of the earth made my stomach
sick, like one that was tossed at sea. But the
noise of the falling of the rock awaked me, as it
were, and rousing me from the stupefied condi-
tion I was in, filled me with horror, and I
thought of nothing then but the hill falling upon
my tent and all my household goods, and bury-
ing all at once; and this sunk my very soul within
me a second time.

After the third shock was over, and I felt no
more for some time, I began to take courage;
and yet I had not heart enough to go over my
wall again, for fear of being buried alive, but
sat still upon the ground, greatly cast down and

cisconsolate, not knowing what to do. All this
| while I had not the least serious religious thought,
jnothing but the common, ‘Lord, have mercy
jupon me!’ and when it was over, that went
jaway too.

——While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and
grow cloudy, as if it would rain. Soon after that
the wind rose by little and little, so that in less
than half an hour it blew a most dreadful hurri-
cane. The sea was all on a sudden covered over
with foam and froth; the shore was covered with
the breach of the water; the trees were torn up
by the roots; and a terrible storm it was: and
this held about three hours, and then began to
ROBINSON CRUSOE 103

abate; and in two hours more it was stark calm,
and began to rain very hard.

All this while I sat upon the ground, very
much terrified and dejected; when on a sudden
it came into my thoughts, that these winds and
rain being the consequences of the earthquake,
the earthquake itself was spent and over, and I
might venture into my cave again. With this
thought my spirits began to revive; and the rain
also helping to persuade me, I went in and sat
down in my tent. But the rain was so violent,
that my tent was ready to be beaten down with
it, and I was forced to go into my cave, though
very much afraid and uneasy, for fear it should
fall on my head.

This violent rain forced me to a new work, viz.,
to cut a hole through my new fortification, like
a sink, to let the water go out, which would else
have drowned my cave. After I had been in my
cave some time, and found still no more shocks
of the earthquake follow, I began to be more
composed. And now to support my spirits,
which indeed wanted it very much, I went to
my little store, and took a small sup of rum,
which, however, I did then, and always, very
sparingly, knowing I could have no more when
that was gone.

It continued raining all that night and great
part of the next day, so that I could not stir
abroad; but my mind being more composed, I
began to think of what I had best do, concluding
that if the island was subject to these earthquakes,
there would be no living for me in a cave, but
I must consider of building me some little hut
in an open place, which I might surround
104 THE ADVENTURES OF

with a wall, as I had done here, and so make
myself secure from wild beasts or men; but con-
cluded, if I stayed where I was, I should cer-
tainly, one time or other, be buried alive.

With these thoughts I resolved to remove my
tent from the place where it stood, which was
just under the hanging precipice of the hill, and
which, if it should be shaken again, would cer-
tainly fall upon my tent; and I spent the two
next days, being the 19th and goth of April, in
contriving where and how to remove my habi-
tation.

The fear of being swallowed up alive made
me that I never slept in quiet; and yet the appre-
hension of lying abroad without any fence was
almost equal to it. But still, when I looked about
and saw how everything was put in order, how
pleasantly concealed I was, and how safe from
danger, it made me very loth to remove.

In the meantime it occurred to me that it
would require a vast deal of time for me to do
this, and that I must be contented to run the
venture where I was, till I had formed a camp
for myself, and had secured it so as to remove
to it. So with this resolution I composed myself
for a time, and resolved that I would go to work
with all speed to build me a wall with piles and
cables, etc., in a circle as before, and set my tent
up in it when it was finished, but that I would
venture to stay where I was till it was finished,
and fit to remove to. This was the ast.

April 22.—The next morning I began to con-
sider of means to put this resolve in execution;
but I was at a great loss about my tools. I had
three large axes, and abundance of hatchets (for


ROBINSON CRUSOE 105

we carried the hatchets for traffic with the
Indians), but with much chopping and cutting
knotty hard wood, they were all full of notches
and dull; and though I had a grindstone, I could
not turn it and grind my tools too. This cost
me as much thought as a statesman would have
bestowed upon a grand point of politics, or a
judge upon the life and death of a man. At
length I contrived a wheel with a string, to turn
it with my foot, that I might have both my hands
at liberty. Note, I had never seen any such thing
in England, or at least not to take notice how it
was done, though since I have observed it is very
common there; besides that, my grindstone was
very large and heavy. This machine cost me a
full week’s work to bring it to perfection.

April 28, 29.—These two whole days I took up
in grinding my tools, my machine for turning
my grindstone performing very well.

April 30.—Having perceived my bread had
been low a great while, now I took a survey of
it, and reduced myself to one biscuit-cake a day,
which made my heart very heavy.

May 1.—In the morning, looking towards the
seaside, the tide being low, I saw something lie
on the shore bigger than ordinary, and it looked
like a cask. When I came to it, I found a small
barrel, and two or three pieces of the wreck of
the ship, which were driven on shore by the late
hurricane; and looking towards the wreck itself,
I thought it seemed to lie higher out of the water
than it use to do. I examined the barrel which
was driven on shore, and soon found it was a
barrel of gunpowder; but it had taken water,
and the powder was caked as hard as a stone.
106 THE ADVENTURES OF

However, I rolled it farther on shore for the
present, and went on upon the sands as near as
I could to the wreck of the ship to look for more.

When I came down to the ship I found it
strangely removed. The forecastle, which lay
before buried in sand, was heaved up at least
six feet; and the stern, which was broken to
pieces, and parted from the rest by the force of
the sea soon after I had left rummaging her, was
tossed, as it were, up, and cast on one side, and
the sand was thrown so high on that side next
her stern, that whereas there was a great place
of water before, so that I could not come within
a quarter of a mile of the wreck without swim-
ming, I could now walk quite up to her when
the tide was out. I was surprised with this at
first, but soon concluded it must be done by the
earthquake. And as by this violence the ship
was more broken open than formerly, so many
things came daily on shore, which the sea had
loosened, and which the winds and water rolled
by degrees to the land.

This wholly diverted my thoughts from the
design of removing my habitation; and I busied
myself mightily, that day especially, in searching
whether I could make any way into the ship.
But I found nothing was to be expected of that
kind, for that all the inside of the ship was choked
up with sand. However, as I had learned not to
despair of anything, I resolved to pull everything
to pieces that I could of the ship, concluding,
that everything I could get from her would be
of some use or other to me.

May 3.—I began with my saw, and cut a piece
of a beam through, which I thought held some
ROBINSON CRUSOE 107

of the upper part or quarter-deck together; and
when I had cut it through, I cleared away the
sand as well as I could from the side which lay
highest; but the tide coming in, I was obliged to
give over for that time. -

May 4.—I went a-fishing, but caught not one
fish that I durst eat of, till I was weary of my
sport; when, just going to leave off, I caught a
young dolphin. I had made me a long line of
some rope-yarn, but I had no hooks; yet I fre-
quently caught fish enough, as much as I cared
to eat; all which I dried in the sun, and eat
them dry.

May 5.—Worked on the wreck, cut another
beam asunder, and brought three great fir-
planks off from the decks, which I tied together,
and made swim on shore, when the tide of flood
came on. ;

May 6.—Worked on the wreck, got several iron
bolts out of her, and other pieces of ironwork;
worked very hard, and came home very much
tired, and had thoughts of giving it over.

May 7.—Went to the wreck again, but with an
intent not to work, but found the weight of the
wreck had broke itself down, the beams being
cut; that several pieces of the ship seemed to lie
loose, and the inside of the hold lay so open, that
I could see into it, but almost full of water and
sand.

May 8.—Went to the wreck, and carried an
iron crow to wrench up the deck, which lay now
quite clear of the water or sand. I wrenched
open two planks, and brought them on shore
also with the tide. I left the iron crow in the
wreck for next day.
108 THE ADVENTURES OF

May 9.—Went to the wreck, and with the crow
made way into the body of the wreck, and felt
several casks, and loosened them with the crow,
but could not break them up. I felt also the roll
of English lead, and could stir it, but it was too
heavy to remove.

May 10, 11, 12, 13, 14.—Went every day to the
wreck, and. got a great deal of pieces of timber,
and boards, or plank, and two or three hundred-
weight of iron.

May 15.—I carried two hatchets to try if I
cau not cut a piece off of the roll of lead, by
placing the edge of one hatchet, and driving it
with the other; but as it lay about a foot and a
half in the water, I could not make any blow to
drive the hatchet.

May 16.—It had blowed hard in the night, and
the wreck appeared more broken by the force of
the water; but I stayed so long in the woods to
get pigeons for food, that the tide prevented me
going to the wreck that day.

May 17.—I saw some pieces of the wreck
blown on shore, at a great distance, near two
miles off me, but resolved to see what they were,
and found it was a piece of the head, but too
heavy for me to bring away.

May 24.—Every day to this day I worked on
the wreck, and with hard labour I loosened some
things so much with the crow, that the first blow-
ing tide several casks floated out, and two of the
seamen’s chests. But the wind blowing from the
shore, nothing came to land that day but pieces
of timber, and a hogshead, which had some
Brazil pork in it, but the salt water and the sand
had spoiled it.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 109

I continued this work every day to the 15th of
June, except the time necessary to get food,
which I always appointed, during this part of
my employment, to be when the tide was up,
that I might be ready when it was ebbed out.
And by this time I had gotten timber, and plank,
and ironwork enough to have builded a good
boat, if I had known how; and also, I got at
several times, and in several pieces, near one
hundredweight of the sheet lead.

June 16.—Going down to the seaside, I found
a large tortoise, or turtle. This was the first I
had seen, which it seems was only my misfortune,
not any defect of the place, or scarcity; for had
I happened to be on the other side of the island,
I might have had hundreds of them every day,
as I found afterwards; but, perhaps, had paid
dear enough for them.

June 17 I spent in cooking the turtle. I found
in her threescore eggs; and her flesh was to me,
at that time, the most savoury and pleasant that
ever I tasted in my life, having had no flesh, but
of goats and fowls, since I landed in this horrid
place.

June 18.—Rained all day, and I stayed within.
I thought at this time the rain felt cold, and I
was something chilly, which I knew was not
usual in that latitude.

June 19.—Very ill, and shivering, as if the
weather had been cold.

June 20.—No rest all night; violent pains in
my head, and feverish.

June 21.—Very ill, frighted almost to death
with the apprehensions of my sad condition, to
be sick, and no help. Prayed to God for the first
110 THE ADVENTURES OF

time since the storm off of Hull, but scarce knew
what I said, or why; my thoughts being all
confused.

June 22.—A little better, but under dreadful
apprehensions of sickness.

June 23.—Very bad again; cold and shivering,
and then a violent headache.

June 24.—Much better.

June 25.—An ague very violent; the fit held
me seven hours; cold fit, and hot, with faint
sweats after it.

June 26.—Better; and having no victuals to
eat, took my gun, but found myself very weak.
However, I killed a she-goat, and with much
difficulty got it home, and broiled some of it,
and eat. I would fain have stewed it, and made
some broth, but had no pot.

June 27.—The ague again so violent that I lay
abed all day, and neither eat or drank. I was
ready to perish for thirst; but so weak, I had not
strength to stand up, or to get myself any water
to drink. Prayed to God again, but was light-
headed; and when I was not, I was so ignorant
that I knew not what to say; only I lay and cried,
‘Lord, look upon me! Lord, pity me! Lord,
have mercy upon me!’ I suppose I did nothing
else for two or three hours, till the fit wearing
off, I fell asleep, and did not wake till far in the
night. When I waked, I found myself much
refreshed, but weak, and exceeding thirsty.
However, as I had no water in my whole habita-
tion, I was forced to lie till morning, and went
to sleep again. In this second sleep I had this
terrible dream.

I thought that I was sitting on the ground, on
ROBINSON CRUSOE III

the outside of my wall, where I sat when the
storm blew after the earthquake, and that I saw
a man descend from a great black cloud, in a
bright flame of fire, and light upon the ground.
He was all over as bright as a flame, so that I
could but just bear to look towards him. His
countenance was most inexpressibly dreadful,
impossible for words to describe. When he
stepped upon the ground with his feet, I thought
the earth trembled, just as it had done before
in the earthquake, and all the air looked, to my
apprehension, as if it had been filled with flashes
of fire.

He was no sooner landed upon the earth, but
he moved forward towards me, with a long spear
or weapon in his hand, to kill me; and when he
came to a rising ground, at some distance, he
spoke to me, or I heard a voice so terrible, that
it is impossible to express the terror of it. All
that I can say I understood was this: ‘Seeing all
these things have not brought thee to repent-
ance, now thou shalt die’; at which words I
thought he lifted up the spear that was in his
hand to kill me.

No one that shall ever read this account, will
expect that I should be able to describe the
horrors of my soul at this terrible vision; I mean,
that even while it was a dream, I even dreamed
of those horrors; nor is it any more possible to
describe the impression that remained upon my
mind when I awaked, and found it was but a
dream.

I had, alas! no divine knowledge; what I had
received by the good instruction of my father
was then worn out, by an uninterrupted series,
to

112 THE ADVENTURES OF

for eight years, of seafaring wickedness, and a
constant conversation with nothing but such as
were, like myself, wicked and profane to the last
degree. I do not remember that I had, in all
that time, one thought that so much as tended
either to looking upwards toward God, or in-
wards towards a reflection upon my ways; but
a certain stupidity of soul, without desire of
good, or conscience of evil, had entirely over-
whelmed me; and I was all that the most hard-
ened, unthinking, wicked creature among our
common sailors can be supposed to be;. not
having the least sense, either of the fear of God,
in danger, or of thankfulness to God, in deliver-
ances

In the relating what is already past of my

| story, this will be the more easily believed, when

I shall add, that through all the variety of

)miseries that had to this day befallen me, I never
‘had so much as one thought of it being the hand

of God, or that it was a just punishment for my
isin; my rebellious behaviour against my father,
|or my present sins, which were great; or so much
las a punishment for the general course of
‘my wicked life.--When I was on the desperate
expedition on the desert shores of Africa, I never
had so much as one thought of what would
become of me; or one wish to God to direct me
whither I should go, or to keep me from the
danger which apparently surrounded me, as well
from voracious creatures as cruel savages. But
I was merely thoughtless of a God or a Provi-
dence; acted like a mere brute from the prin-
ciples of Nature, and by the dictates of common
sense only, and indeed hardly that.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 113
When I was delivered and taken up at sea ‘by’

the Portugal captain, well used, and dealt justly \

and honourably with, as well as charitably, I
had not the least thankfulness in my thoughts.
When again I was shipwrecked, ruined, and in
danger of drowning on this island, I was as far
from remorse, or looking on it as a judgment;
I only said to myself often, that I was an un-
fortunate dog, and born to be always miserable.

It is true, when I got on shore first here, and
found all my ship’s crew drowned, and myself
spared, I was surprised with a kind of ecstasy,
and some transports of soul, which, had the
grace of God assisted, might have come up to
true thankfulness; but it ended where it begun,
in a mere common flight of joy, or, as I may say,
being glad I was alive, without the least reflec-
tion upon the distinguishing goodness of the
hand which had preserved me, and had singled
me out to be preserved, when all the rest were
destroyed; or an inquiry why Providence had
been thus merciful to me; even just the same
common sort of joy which seamen generally have
after they are got safe ashore from a shipwreck,

which they drown all in the next bowl of punch,

and forget almost as soon as it is over, and all
the rest of my life was like it.

Even when I was afterwards, on due con-
sideration, made sensible of my condition, how
I was cast on this dreadful place, out of the
reach of human kind, out of all hope of relief, or
prospect of redemption, as soon as I saw but a
prospect of living, and that I should not starve
and perish for hunger, all the sense of my afflic-
tion wore off, and I began to be very easy,
114. THE ADVENTURES OF

applied myself to the works proper for my
preservation and supply, and was far enough
from being afflicted at my condition, as a judg-
ment from heaven, or as the hand of God against
me; these were thoughts which very seldom
entered into my head.

The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in
my journal, had at first some little influence
upon me, and began to affect me with serious-
ness, as long as I thought it had something
miraculous in it; but as soon as ever that part
of the thought was removed, all the impression
which was raised from it wore off also, as I have
noted already.

Even the earthquake, though nothing could
be more terrible in its nature, or more imme-
diately directing to the invisible Power, which
alone directs such things, yet no sooner was the
first fright over, but the impression it had made
went off also. I had no more sense of God or
His judgments, much less of the present afflic-
tion of my circumstances being from His hand,
than if I had been in the most prosperous condi-
tion of life.

But now, when I began to be sick, and a
leisurely view of the miseries of death came to
place itself before me; when my spirits began
to sink under the burthen of a strong distemper,
and Nature was exhausted with the violence
of the fever; conscience, that had slept so long,
began to awake, and I began to reproach myself
with my past life, in which I had so evidently,
by uncommon wickedness, provoked the justice
of God to lay me under uncommon strokes, and
to deal with me in so vindictive a manner.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 115

These reflections oppressed me for the second
or third day of my distemper; and in the violence,
as well of the fever as of the dreadful reproaches
of my conscience, extorted some words from me,
like praying to God, though I cannot say they
were either a prayer attended with desires or
with hopes; it was rather the voice of mere fright
and distress. My thoughts were confused, the
convictions great upon my mind, and the horror
of dying in such a miserable condition, raised
vapours into my head with the mere apprehen-
sions; and in these hurries of my soul, I know
not what my tongue might express; but it was
rather exclamation, such as, ‘Lord! what a
miserable creature am I! If I should be sick, I
shall certainly die for want of help; and what
will become of me?’ Then the tears burst out
of my eyes, and I could say no more for a good
while.

In this interval, the good advice of my father
came to my mind, and presently his prediction,
which I mentioned at the beginning of this story,
viz., that if I did take this foolish step, God
would not bless me, and I would have leisure
hereafter to reflect upon having neglected his
counsel, when there might be none to assist in
my recovery. ‘Now,’ said I aloud, ‘my dear
father’s words are come to pass; God’s justice
has overtaken me, and I have none to help or
hear me. I rejected the voice of Providence,
which had mercifully put me in a posture or
station of life wherein I might have been happy
and easy; but I would neither see it myself, or
learn to know the blessing of it from my parents.
I left them to mourn over my folly, and now I
116 THE ADVENTURES OF

am left.to mourn under the consequences of it.
I refused their help and assistance, who would
have lifted me into the world, and would have
made everything easy to me; and now I have
difficulties to struggle with, too great for even
Nature itself to support, and no assistance, no
help, no comfort, no advice.’ Then I cried out,
‘Lord, be my help, for I am in great distress.’

This was the first prayer, if I may call it so,
that I had made for many years. But I return
to my journal.

June 28.—Having been somewhat refreshed
with the sleep I had had, and the fit being
entirely off, I got up; and though the fright and
terror of my dream was very great, yet I con-
sidered that the fit of the ague would return
again the next day, and now was my time to get
something to refresh and support myself when
I should be ill. And the first thing I did I filled
a large square case-bottle with water, and set it
upon my table, in reach of my bed; and to take
off the chill or aguish disposition of the water,
I put about a quarter of a pint of rum into it,
and mixed them together. ‘Then I got me a piece
of the goat’s flesh, and broiled it on the coals,
but could eat very little. I walked about, but
was very weak, and withal very sad and heavy-
hearted in the sense of my miserable condition,
dreading the return of my distemper the next
day. At night I made my supper of three of the
turtle’s eggs, which I roasted in the ashes, and
eat, as we call it, in the shell; and this was the
first bit of meat I had ever asked God’s blessing
to, even as I could remember, in my whole life.

After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found
ROBINSON CRUSOE 117

myself so weak, that I could hardly carry the
gun (for I never went out without that); so I
went but a little way, and sat down.upon the
ground, looking out upon the sea, which was
just before me, and very calm and smooth. As
I sat there, some such thoughts as these occurred
to me. ~~

What is this earth and sea, of which I have
seen so much? whence is it produced? And
what am J, and all the other creatures, wild and
tame, human and brutal, whence are we? Sure
we are all made by some secret Power, who

formed the earth and sea, the air and sky. And |

who is that?

Then it followed most naturally, It is God that

has made it all. Well, but then it came on
strangely, if God has made all these things, He
guides and governs them all, and all things that
concern them; for the Power that could make
all things, must certainly have power to guide
and direct them.

If so, nothing can happen in the great circuit
of His works, either without His knowledge or
appointment. And if nothing happens without
His knowledge, He knows that I am here, and

am in this dreadful condition. And if nothing ~

happens: without His appointment, He has ap-
pointed all this to befall me.

Nothing occurred to my thoughts to contra=
dict any of these conclusions; and therefore it
rested upon me with the greater force, that it
must needs be that God had appointed all this
to befall me; that I was brought to this miserable
circumstance by His direction, He having the
sole power, not of me only, but of everything
118 THE ADVENTURES OF

that happened in the world. Immediately it
followed, Why has God done this to me? What
have I done to be thus used?

My conscience presently checked me in that
inquiry, as if I had blasphemed, and methought
} it spoke to me like a voice: ‘Wretch! dost thou

| ask what thou hast done? Look back upon a
dreadful misspent life, and ask thyself what thou
hast not done? Ask, why is it that thou wert not
long ago destroyed? Why wert thou not drowned
in Yarmouth Roads; killed in the fight when
the ship was taken by the Sallee man-of-war;
devoured by the wild beasts on the coast of
Africa; or drowned here, when all the crew
perished but thyself? Dost thou ask, What have
I done?’

I was struck dumb with these feflections as
one astonished, and had not a word to say, no,
not to answer to myself, but rose up pensive and
sad, walked back to my retreat, and went up
over my wall, as if I had been going to bed. But
my thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I had no
inclination to sleep; so I sat down in my chair,
and lighted my lamp, for it began to be dark.
Now, as the apprehension of the return of my
distemper terrified me very much, it occurred to
my thought that the Brazilians take no physic
but their tobacco for almost all distempers; and
I had a piece of a roll of tobacco in one of the
chests, which was quite cured, and some also
that was green, and not quite cured.

I went, directed by Heaven no doubt; for in
this chest I found a cure both for soul and body.
I opened the chest, and found what I looked for,
viz., the tobacco; and as the few books I had

f
ROBINSON CRUSOE 11g

saved lay there too, I took out one of the Bibles
which I mentioned before, and which to this
time I had not found leisure, or so much as
inclination, to look into. I say, I took it out, and
brought both that and the tobacco with me to
the table.

What use to make of the tobacco I knew not,
as to my distemper, or whether it was good for
it or no; but I tried several experiments with
it, as if I was resolved it should hit one way or
other. I first took a piece of a leaf, and chewed
it in my mouth, which indeed at first almost
stupefied my brain, the tobacco being green and
strong, and that I had not been much used to
it. Then I took some and steeped it an hour or
two in some rum, and resolved to take a dose of
it when I lay down. And lastly, I burnt some
upon a pan of coals, and held my nose close over
the smoke of it, as long as I could bear it, as well
for the heat, as almost for suffocation.

In the interval of this operation, I took up the
Bible, and began to read, but my head was too
much disturbed with the tobacco to bear read-
ing, at least that time; only having opened the
book casually, the first words that occurred to
me were these, ‘Call on Me in the day of trouble,
and I will deliver, and thou shalt glorify Me” —

The words were very apt to my case, and
made some impression upon my thoughts at the
time of reading them, though not so much as
they did afterwards; for as for being delivered,
the word had no sound, as I may say, to me, the
thing was so remote, so impossible in my appre-
hension of things, that I began to say, as the
children of Israel did when they were promised
120 THE ADVENTURES OF

flesh to eat, ‘Can God spread a table in the
wilderness?’ so I began to say, Can God Himself
deliver me from this place? And as it was not
for many years that any hope appeared, this
prevailed very often upon my thoughts. But,
however, the words made a great impression
upon me, and I mused upon them very often.

It grew now late, and the tobacco had, as I
said, dozed my head so much, that I inclined to
sleep; so I left my lamp burning in the cave, lest
I should want anything in the night, and went
to bed. But before I lay down, I did what I
never had done in all my life; I kneeled down,
and prayed to God to fulfil the promise to me,
that if I called upon Him in the day of trouble,
He would deliver me. After my broken and
imperfect prayer was over, I drank the rum in
which I had steeped the tobacco; which was so
strong and rank of the tobacco, that indeed I
could scarce get it down. Immediately upon
this I went to bed. I found presently it flew up
in my head violently; but I fell into a sound
sleep, and waked no more till, by the sun, it
must necessarily be near three o’clock in the
afternoon the next day. Nay, to this hour I am
partly of the opinion that I slept all the next day
and night, and till almost three that day after;
for otherwise I knew not how I should lose a day
out of my reckoning in the days of the week, as
it appeared some years after I had done. For
if I had lost it by crossing and re-crossing the
line, I should have lost more than one day. But
certainly I lost a day in my account, and never
knew which way.

Be that, however, one way or the other, when
ROBINSON CRUSOE 12t

I awaked I found myself exceedingly refreshed,
and my spirits lively and cheerful. When I got
up, I was stronger than I was the day before,
and my stomach better, for I was hungry; and,
in short, I had no fit the next day, but continued
much altered for the better. This was the 2gth.

The goth was my well day, of course, and I
went abroad with my gun, but did not care to
travel too far. I killed a sea-fowl or two, some-
thing like a brandgoose, and brought them
home, but was not very forward to eat them; so
I eat some more of the turtle’s eggs, which were
very good. This evening I renewed the medi-
cine, which I had supposed did me good the day
before, viz., the tobacco steeped in rum; only
I did not take so much as before, nor did I chew
any of the leaf, or hold my head over the smoke.
However, I was not so well the next day, which
was the first of July, as I hoped I should have
been; for I had a little spice of the cold fit, but
it was not much.

July 2.—I renewed the medicine all the three
ways; and dosed myself with it as at first, and
doubled the quantity which I drank.

July 3.—I missed the fit for good and all,
though I did not recover. my full strength for
some weeks after. While I was thus gathering
strength, my thoughts ran exceedingly upon this
Scripture, ‘I will deliver thee’; and the impossi-
bility of my deliverance lay much upon my
mind, in bar of my ever expecting it. But as I
was discouraging myself with such thoughts, it
occurred to my mind that I pored so much upon
my deliverance from the main affliction, that
I disregarded the deliverance I had received;
iT22 THE ADVENTURES OF

|and I was, as it were, made to ask myself such
questions as these, viz., Have I not been de-
livered, and wonderfully too, from sickness? from
the most distressed condition that could be, and
that was so frightful to me? and what notice had
I taken of it? Had I done my part? God had
delivered me, but I had not glorified Him; that
is to say, I had not owned and been thankful for
that as a deliverance; and how could I expect
cater deliverance?

/ This touched my heart very much; and imme-

/ diately I kneeled down, and gave God thanks

\ aloud for my recovery from my sickness.

~~ July 4.—In the morning I took the Bible;
and beginning at the New Testament, I began
seriously to read it, and imposed upon myself
to read awhile every morning and every night,
not tying myself to the number of chapters, but
as long as my thoughts should engage me. It
was not long after I set seriously to this work, but
I found my heart more deeply and sincerely
affected with the wickedness of my past life.
‘The impression of my dream revived, and the
words, ‘All these things have not brought thee
to repentance,’ ran seriously in my thought. I
was earnestly begging of God to give me repen-
tance, when it happened providentially, the very
day, that, reading the Scripture, I came to these
words, ‘He is exalted a Prince and a Saviour, to
give repentance, and to give remission.’ I threw
down the book; and with my heart as well as my
hands lifted up to heaven, in a kind of ecstasy of
joy, I cried out aloud, ‘Jesus, Thou son of David!
Jesus, Thou exalted Prince and Saviour, give
me repentance!’
ROBINSON CRUSOE 123

This was the first time that I could say, in the
true sense of the words, that I prayed in all my
life; for now I prayed with a sense of my condi-
tion, and with a true Scripture view of hope
founded on the encouragement of the Word of
God; and from this time, I may say, I began to
have hope that God would hear me.

Now I began to construe the words mentioned
above, ‘Call on-Me,-and I will deliver you,’ in a
different sense from what I had ever done before;
for then I had no notion of anything being called

deliverance but my being delivered from_the—.,

captivity I was in; forthough I was indeed_at

large in the place, yet the island was certainly a
prison .to me, and-that inthe worst-sense-in-the

world=> But now I learned to take it in another |

sense; now I looked back upon my past life with
such horror, and my sins appeared so dreadful,
that my soul sought nothing of God but deliver-
ance from the load of guilt that bore down all

f

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my comfort. [As-for-my solitary life, it was-|
nothing; [did not so much as pray to be |

delivered from it, or think of it; it was all of no |
consideration, in comparison to this. And I add |
this part here, to hint to whoever shall read it, |

that whenever they come to a true sense of
things, they will find deliverance from sin a
much greater blessing than deliverance from
affliction. ae

“But leaving this part, I return to my journal.

My condition began now to be, though not
less miserable as to my way of living, yet much
easier to my mind; and my thoughts being
directed, by .a constant reading the Scripture,
and praying to God, to things of a higher nature,

een
124 THE ADVENTURES OF

I had a great deal of comfort within, which, till
now, I knew nothing of. Also, as my health and
strength returned, I bestirred myself to furnish
myself with everything that I wanted, and make
my way of living as regular as I could. .

From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly
employed in walking about with my gun in my.
hand, a little and a little at a time, as a man that
was gathering up his strength after a fit of sick-
ness; for it is hardly to be imagined how low I
was, and to what weakness I was reduced. The
application which I made use of was perfectly
new, and perhaps what had never cured an ague
before; neither can I recommend it to any one
to practise, by this experiment; and though it
did carry off the fit, yet it rather contributed to
weakening me; for I had frequent convulsions
in my nerves and limbs for some time.

I learnt from it also this, in particular, that
being abroad in the rainy season was the most
pernicious thing to my health that could be,
especially in those rains which came attended
with storms and hurricanes of wind; for as the
rain which came in the dry season was always
most accompanied with such storms, so I found
that rain was much more dangerous than the
rain which fell in September and October.

I had been now in this unhappy island above
ten months; all possibility of deliverance from
this condition seemed to be entirely taken from
me; and I firmly believed that no human shape
had ever set foot upon that place. Having now
secured my habitation, as I thought, fully to my
mind, I had a great desire to make a more
perfect discovery of the island, and to see what
ROBINSON CRUSOE 125

other productions I might find, which I yet
knew nothing of.

It was the 15th July that I began to take a
more particular survey of the island itself. I
went up the creek first, where, as I hinted, I
brought my rafts on shore. I found, after I came
about two miles up, that the tide did not flow
any higher, and that it was no more than a little
brook of running water, and very fresh and
good; but this being the dry season, there was
hardly any water in some parts of it, at least, not
enough to run in any stream, so as it could be
perceived.

On the bank of this brook I found many
pleasant savannas or meadows, plain, smooth,
and covered with grass; and on the rising parts
of them, next to the higher grounds, where the
water, as might be supposed, never overflowed,
I found a great deal of tobacco, green, and
growing to a great and very strong stalk. There
were divers other plants, which I had no notion
of, or understanding about, and might perhaps
have virtues of their own, which I could not
find out.

I searched for the cassava root, which the
Indians, in all that climate, make their bread
of, but I could find none. I saw large plants of
aloes, but did not then understand them. I saw
several sugar-canes, but wild, and, for want of
cultivation, imperfect. I contented myself with
these discoveries for this time, and came back,
musing with myself what course I might take to
know the virtue and goodness of any of the fruits
or plants which I should discover; but could
bring it to no conclusion; for, in short, I had
126 THE ADVENTURES OF

made so little observation while I was in the
Brazils, that I knew little of the plants in the
field, at least very little that might serve me to
any purpose now in my distress.

The next day, the 16th, I went up the same
way again; and after going something farther
than I had gone the day before, I found the
brook and the savannas began to cease, and the
country became more woody than before. In
this part I found different fruits, and particularly
I found melons upon the ground in great abun-
dance, and grapes upon the trees. The vines
had spread indeed over the trees, and the clusters
of grapes were just now in their prime, very ripe
and rich. This was a surprising discovery, and
I was exceeding glad of them; but I was warned
by my experience to eat sparingly of them,
remembering that when I was ashore in Barbary
the eating of grapes killed several of our English-
men, who were slaves there, by throwing them
into fluxes and fevers. But I found an excellent
use for these grapes; and that was, to cure or
dry them in the sun, and keep them as dried
grapes or raisins are kept, which I thought
would be, as indeed they were, as wholesome as
agreeable to eat, when no grapes might be to
be had.

I spent all that evening there, and went not
back to my habitation; which, by the way, was
the first night, as I might say, I had lain from
home. In the night, I took my first contrivance,
and got up into a tree, where I slept well; and
the next morning proceeded upon my discovery,
travelling near four miles, as I might judge by
the length of the valley, keeping still due north,
ROBINSON CRUSOE 127

with a ridge of hills on the south and north
side of me.

At the end of this march I came to an opening,
where the country seemed to descend to the
west; and a little spring of fresh water, which
issued out of the side of the hill by me, ran the
other way, that is, due east; and the country
appeared so fresh, so green, so flourishing, every-
thing being in a constant verdure or flourish of
spring, that it looked like a planted garden.

I descended a little on the side of that delicious
vale, surveying it with a secret kind of pleasure,
though mixed with my other afflicting thoughts,
to think that this was all my own; that I was
king and lord of all this country indefeasibly,
and had a right of possession; and, if I could
convey it, I might have it in inheritance as com-
pletely as any lord of a manor in England. I saw
here abundance of cocoa trees, orange, and
lemon, and citron trees; but all wild, and very few
bearing any fruit, at least not then. However,
the green limes that I gathered were not only
pleasant to eat, but very wholesome; and I mixed
their juice afterwards with water, which made it
very wholesome, and very cool and refreshing.

I found now I had business enough to gather
and carry home; and I resolved to lay up a store,
as well of grapes as limes and lemons to furnish
myself for the wet season, which I knew was
approaching.

In order to this, I gathered a great heap of
grapes in one place, and a lesser heap in another
place, and a great parcel of limes and lemons in
another place; and, taking a few of each with
me, I travelled homeward; and resolved to come
128 THE ADVENTURES OF

again, and bring a bag or sack, or what I could
make, to carry the rest home.

Accordingly, having spent three days in this
journey, I came home (so I must now call my
tent and my cave); but before I got thither, the
grapes were spoiled; the richness of the fruits,
and the weight of the juice, having broken them
and bruised them, they were good for little or
nothing: as to the limes, they were good, but I
could bring but a few.

The next day, being the 19th, I went back,
having made me two small bags to bring home
my harvest; but I was surprised, when, coming
to my heap of grapes, which were so rich and
fine when I gathered them, I found them all
spread about, trod to pieces, and dragged about,
some here, some there, and abundance eaten
and devoured. By this I concluded there were
some wild creatures thereabouts, which had
done this; but what they were, I knew not.

However, as I found that there was no laying
them up on heaps, and no carrying them away
in a sack, but that one way they would be
destroyed, and the other way they would be
crushed with their own weight, I took another
course; for I gathered a large quantity of the
grapes, and hung them up upon the out-branches
of the trees, that they might cure and dry in the
sun; and as for the limes and lemons, I carried
as many back as I could well stand under.

When I came home from this journey, I con-
templated with great pleasure the fruitfulness
of that valley, and the pleasantness of the situa-
tion; the security from storms on that side the
water and the wood; and concluded that I had
ROBINSON CRUSOE 129

pitched upon a place to fix my abode, which
was by far the worst part of the country. Upon
the whole, I began to consider of removing my
habitation, and to look out for a place equally
safe as where I now was situate, if possible, in
that pleasant fruitful part of the island.

This thought ran long in my head, and I was
exceeding fond of it for some time, the pleasant-
ness of the place tempting me; but when I came
to a nearer view of it, and to consider that I was
now by the seaside, where it was at least possible
that something might happen to my advantage,
and, by the same ill fate that brought me hither,
might bring some other unhappy wretches to
the same place; and though it was scarce prob-
able that any such thing should ever happen,
yet to enclose myself among the hills and woods
in the centre of the island, was to anticipate my
bondage, and to render such an affair not only
improbable, but impossible; and that therefore
I ought not by any means to remove.

However, I was so enamoured of this place,
that I spent much of my time there for the whole
remaining part of the month of July; and though,
upon second thoughts, I resolved, as above, not
to remove, yet I built me a little kind of a bower,
and surrounded it at a distance with a strong
fence, being a double hedge as high as I could
reach, well staked, and filled between with
brushwood. And here I lay very secure, some-
times two or three nights together, always going
over it with a ladder, as before; so that I fancied
now I had my country house and my sea-coast
house; and this work took me up to the begin-
ning of August.

17 F
130 THE ADVENTURES OF

I had but newly finished my fence, and began
to enjoy my labour, but the rains came on, and
made me stick close to my first habitation; for
though I had made me a tent like the other, with
a piece of a sail, and spread it very well, yet I
had not the shelter of a hill to keep me from
storms, nor a cave behind me to retreat into
when the rains were extraordinary.

About the beginning of August, as I said, I
had finished my bower, and began to enjoy
myself. The 3rd of August, I found the grapes
I had hung up were perfectly dried, and indeed
were excellent good raisins of the sun; so I
began to take them down from the trees. And
it was very happy that I did so, for the rains
which followed would have spoiled them, and
I had lost the best part of my winter food; for I
had above two hundred large bunches of them.
No sooner had I taken them all down, and
carried most of them home to my cave, but it
began to rain; and from hence, which was the
14th of August, it rained, more or less, every day
till the middle of October, and sometimes so
violently, that I could not stir out of my cave for
several days.

In this season, I was much surprised with the
increase of my family. I had been concerned for
the loss of one of my cats, who run away from
me, or, as I thought, had been dead, and I
heard no more tale or tidings of her, till, to my
astonishment, she came home about the end of
August with three kittens. This was the more
strange to me, because, though I had killed a
wild cat, as I called it, with my gun, yet I
thought it was a quite different kind from our
ROBINSON CRUSOE 131

European cats; yet the young cats were the same
kind of house-breed like the old one; and both
my cats being females, I thought it very strange.
But from these three cats I afterwards came to be
so pestered with cats, that I was forced to kill
them like vermin, or wild beasts, and to drive
them from my house as much as possible.

From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant
rain, so that I could not stir, and was now very
careful not to be much wet. In this confinement,
I began to be straitened for food; but venturing
out twice, I one day killed a goat, and the last
day, which was the 26th, found a very large
tortoise, which was a treat to me, and my food
was regulated thus: I eat a bunch of raisins for
my breakfast, a piece of the goat’s flesh, or of the
turtle, for my dinner, broiled; for, to my great
misfortune, I had no vessel to boil or stew any-
thing; and two or three of the turtle’s eggs for
my supper.

During this confinement in my cover by the
rain, I worked daily two or three hours at
enlarging my cave, and by degrees worked it on
towards one side, till I came to the outside of the
hill, and made a door, or way out, which came
beyond my fence or wall; and so I came in and
out this way. But I was not perfectly easy at
lying so open; for as I had managed myself
before, I was in a perfect enclosure; whereas
now, I thought I lay exposed, and open for any-
thing to come in upon me; and yet I could not
perceive that there was any living thing to fear,
the biggest creature that I had yet seen upon
the island being a goat.

Sept. 30.—I was now come to the unhappy
132 THE ADVENTURES OF

anniversary of my landing. I cast up the notches
on my post, and found I had been on shore three
hundred and sixty-five days. I kept this day as
a solemn fast, setting it apart to religious exer-
cise, prostrating myself on the ground with the
most serious humiliation, confessing my sins to
God, acknowledging His righteous judgments
upon me, and praying to Him to have mercy
on me through Jesus Christ; and having not
tasted the least refreshment for twelve hours,
even till the going down of the sun, I then eat
a biscuit-cake and a bunch of grapes, and went
to bed, finishing the day as I began it.

I had all this time observed no Sabbath day,
for as at first I had no sense of religion upon my
mind, I had, after some time, omitted to distin-
guish the weeks, by making a longer notch than
ordinary for the Sabbath day, and so did not
really know what any of the days were. But now,
having cast up the days, as above, I found I had
been there a year, so I divided it into weeks, and
set apart every seventh day for a Sabbath;
though I found at the end of my account, I had
lost a day or two in my reckoning.

A little after this my ink began to fail me, and
so I contented myself to use it more sparingly,
and to write down only the most remarkable
events of my life, without continuing a daily
memorandum of other things.

The rainy season and the dry season began
now to appear regular to me, and I learned to
divide them so as to provide for them accord-
ingly; but I bought all my experience before I
had it, and this I am going to relate was one of
the most discouraging experiments that I made
ROBINSON CRUSOE © 133

at all. I have mentioned that I had saved the
few ears of barley and rice, which I had so sur-
prisingly found spring up, as I thought, of them-
selves, and believe there were about thirty stalks
of rice, and about twenty of barley; and now I
thought it a proper time to sow it after the rains,
the sun being in its southern position, going
from me.

Accordingly I dug up a piece of ground as well
as I could with my wooden spade, and dividing
it into two parts, I sowed my grain; but as I was
sowing, it casually occurred to my thoughts that
I would not sow it all at first, because I did not
know when was the proper time for it, so I sowed
about two-thirds of the seed, leaving about a
handful of each.

It was a great comfort to me afterwards that
I did so, for not one grain of that I sowed this
time came to anything, for the dry months
following, the earth having had no rain after the
seed was sown, it had no moisture to assist its
growth, and never came up at all till the wet
season had come again, and then it grew as if it
had been but newly sown.

Finding my first seed did not grow, which I
easily imagined was by the drought, I sought
for a moister piece of ground to make another
trial in, and I dug up a piece of ground near my
new bower, and sowed the rest of my seed in
February, a little before the vernal equinox.
And this having the rainy months of March and
April to water it, sprung up very pleasantly, and
yielded a very good crop; but having part of the
seed left only, and not daring to sow all that I
had, I had but a small quantity at last, my whole
134 THE ADVENTURES OF

crop not amounting to above half a peck of each
kind. But by this experiment I was made master
of my business, and knew exactly when the
proper season was to sow, and that I might
expect two seed-times and two harvests every
year.

While this corn was growing, I made a little
discovery, which was of use to me afterwards.
As soon as the rains were over, and the weather
began to settle, which was about the month of
November, I made a visit up the country to my
bower, where, though I had not been some
months, yet I found all things just as I left them.
The circle or double hedge that I had made was
not only firm and entire, but the stakes which
Thad cut out of some trees that grew thereabouts
were all shot out, and grown with long branches,
as much as a willow-tree usually shoots the first
year after lopping its head. I could not tell what
tree to call it that these stakes were cut from.
I was surprised, and yet very well pleased to see
the young trees grow, and I pruned them, and
led them up to grow as much alike as I could.
And it is scarce credible how beautiful a figure
they grew into in three years; so that though
the hedge made a circle of about twenty-five
yards in diameter, yet the trees, for such I might
now call them, soon covered it, and it was a
complete shade, sufficient to lodge under all the
dry season.

‘This made me resolve to cut some more stakes,
and make me a hedge like this, in a semicircle
round my wall (I mean that of my first dwell-
ling), which I did; and placing the trees or
stakes in a double row, at about eight yards
ROBINSON CRUSOE 135

distance from my first fence, they grew presently,
and were at first a fine cover to my habitation,
and afterward served for a defence also, as I
shall observe in its order.

I found now that the seasons of the year might
generally be divided, not into summer and win-
ter, as in Europe, but into the rainy seasons and
the dry seasons; which were generally thus:
Half February pe the sun being then on, or

March .
near the equinox.

Half April
Half April

Dry, the sun being then to the
June north of the line.

Half August

Half August |Ray the sun being then come

September pS ap

Half October

Half October
November
December
January

Half February

The rainy season sometimes held longer or
shorter as the winds happened to blow, but this
was the general observation I made. After I had
found by experience the ill consequence of being
abroad in the rain, I took care to furnish myself
with provisions beforehand, that I might not be
obliged to go out; and I sat within doors as much
as possible during the wet months.

In this time I found much employment, and
very suitable also to the time, for I found great

Dry, the sun being then to the
south of the line.
136 THE ADVENTURES OF

occasion of many things which I had no way to
furnish myself with but by hard labour and
constant application; particularly, I tried many
ways to make myself a basket; but all the twigs
I could get for the purpose proved so brittle,
that they would do nothing. It proved of excel-
lent advantage to me now, that when I was a
boy I used to take great delight in standing at a
basket-maker’s in the town where my father
lived, to see them make their wicker-ware; and
being, as boys usually are, very officious to help,
and a great observer of the manner how they
worked those things, and sometimes lending a
hand, I had by this means full knowledge of
the methods of it, that I wanted nothing but the
materials; when it came into my mind that the
twigs of that tree from whence I cut my stakes
that grew might possibly be as tough as the
sallows, and willows, and osiers in England, and
I resolved to try.

Accordingly, the next day, I went tomy country
house, as I called it; and cutting some of the
smaller twigs, I found them to my purpose as
much as I could desire; whereupon I came the
next time prepared with a hatchet to cut down
a quantity, which I soon found, for there was
great plenty of them. These I set up to dry
within my circle or hedge, and when they were
fit for use, I carried them to my cave; and here
during the next season I employed myself in
making, as well as I could, a great many baskets,
both to carry earth, or to carry or lay up any-
thing as I had occasion. And though I did not
finish them very handsomely, yet I made them
sufficiently serviceable for my purpose. And thus,
ROBINSON CRUSOE 137

afterwards, I took care never to be. without
them; and as my wicker-ware decayed, I made
more, especially I made strong deep baskets to
place my corn in, instead of sacks, when I should
come to have any quantity of it.

Having mastered this difficulty, and employed
a world of time about it, I bestirred myself to
see, if possible, how to supply two wants. I had
no vessels to hold anything that was liquid,
except two runlets, which were almost full of
rum, and some glass bottles, some of the common
size, and others which were case-bottles square,
for the holding of waters, spirits, etc. I had not
so much as a pot to boil anything, except a great
kettle, which I saved out of the ship, and which
was too big for such use as I desired it, viz., to
make broth, and stew a bit of meat by itself.
The second thing I would fain have had was a
tobacco-pipe; but it was impossible to me to
make one. However, I found a contrivance for
that, too, at last.

I employed myself in planting my second rows
of stakes or piles and in this wicker-working all
the summer or dry season, when another busi-
ness took me up more time than it could be
imagined I could spare.

I mentioned before that I had a great mind
to see the whole island, and that I had travelled
up the brook, and so on to where I built my
bower, and where I had an opening quite to the
sea, on the other side of the island. I now
resolved to travel quite across to the seashore
on that side; so taking my gun, a hatchet, and
my dog, and a larger quantity of powder and
shot than usual, with two biscuit-cakes and a
138 THE ADVENTURES OF

great bunch of raisins in my pouch for my store,
I began my journey. When I had passed the
vale where my bower stood, as above, I came
within view of the sea to the west; and it being
a very clear day, I fairly descried land, whether
an island or a continent I could not tell; but it
lay very high, extending from the west to the
W.S.W. at a very great distance; by my guess,
it could not be less than fifteen or twenty
leagues off.

I could not tell what part of the world this
might be, otherwise than that I know it must
be part of America, and, as I concluded, by all
my observations, must be near the Spanish
dominions, and perhaps was all inhabited by
savages, where, if I should have landed, I had
been in a worse condition than I was now; and
therefore I acquiesced in the dispositions of Provi-
dence, which I began now to own and to believe
ordered everything for the best. I say, I quieted
my mind with this, and left afflicting myself
with fruitless wishes of being there.

Besides, after some pause upon this affair, I
considered that if this land was the Spanish
coast, I should certainly, one time or other, see
some vessel pass or repass one way or other;
but if not, then it was the savage coast between
the Spanish country and Brazils, which are
indeed the worst of savages; for they are canni-
bals or men-eaters, and fail not to murder and
devour all the human bodies that fall into their
hands.

With these considerations I walked very
leisurely forward. I found that side of the
island, where I now was, much pleasanter than
ROBINSON CRUSOE 139

mine, the open or savanna fields sweet, adorned
with flowers and grass, and full of very fine
woods.

I saw abundance of parrots, and fain I would
have caught one, if possible, to have kept it to
be tame, and taught it to speak to me. I did,
after some painstaking, catch a young parrot,
for I knocked it down with a stick, and having
recovered it, I brought it home; but it was some
years before I could make him speak. However,
at last I taught him to call me by my name very
familiarly. But the accident that followed,
though it be a trifle, will be very diverting in
its place.

I was exceedingly diverted with this journey.
I found in the low grounds hares, as I thought
them to be, and foxes; but they differed greatly
from all the other kinds I had met with, nor
could I satisfy myself to eat them, though I killed
several. But I had no need to be venturous, for
I had no want of food, and of that which was
very good too; especially these three sorts, viz.,
goats, pigeons, and turtle, or tortoise; which,
added to my grapes, Leadenhall Market could
not have furnished a table better than I, in
proportion to the company. And though my
case was deplorable enough, yet I had great
cause for thankfulness, and that I was not driven
to any extremities for food, but rather plenty,
even to dainties.

I never travelled in this journey above two
miles outright in a day, or thereabouts; but I
took so many turns and returns, to see what
discoveries I could make, that I came weary
enough to the place where I resolved to sit down
140 THE ADVENTURES OF

for all night; and then I either reposed myself
in a tree, or surrounded myself with a row of
stakes, set upright in the ground, either from
one tree or another, or so as no wild creature
could come at me without waking me.

As soon as I came to the seashore, I was sur-
prised to see that I had taken up my lot on the
worst side of the island, for here indeed the shore
was covered with innumerable turtles; whereas,
on the other side, I had found but three in a
year and a half. Here was also an infinite
number of fowls of many kinds, some which I
had seen, and some which I had not seen of
before, and many of them very good meat, but
such as I knew not the names of, except those
called penguins.

I could have shot as many as I pleased, but
was very sparing of my powder and shot, and
therefore had more mind to kill a she-goat, if I
could, which I could better feed on; and though
there were many goats here, more than on my
side the island, yet it was with much more difhi-
culty that I could come near them, the country
being flat and even, and they saw me much
sooner than when I was on the hill.

I confess this side of the country was much
pleasanter than mine; but yet I had not the
least inclination to remove, for as I was fixed in
my habitation, it became natural to me, and I
seemed all the while I was here to be as it were
upon a journey, and from home. However, I
travelled along the shore of the sea towards the
east, I suppose about twelve miles, and then
setting up a great pole upon the shore for a
mark, I concluded I would go home again; and
ROBINSON CRUSOE i4t

that the next journey I took should be on the
other side of the island, east from my dwelling,
and so round till I came to my post again; of
which in its place.

I took another way to come back than that I
went, thinking I could easily keep all the island
so much in my view, that I could not miss find-
ing my first dwelling by viewing the country.
But I found myself mistaken; for being come
about two or three miles, I found myself de-
descended into a very large valley, but so sur-
rounded with hills, and those hills covered with
wood, that I could not see which was my way by
any direction but that of the sun, nor even then,
unless I knew very well the position of the sun at
that time of the day.

It happened to my farther misfortune, that
the weather proved hazy for three or four days
while I was in this valley; and not being able to
see the sun, I wandered about very uncomfort-
ably, and at last was obliged to find out the
seaside, look for my post, and come back the
same way I went; and then by easy journeys
I turned homeward, the weather being exceed-
ing hot, and my gun, ammunition, hatchet, ant
other things very heavy.

In this journey my dog surprised a young kid
and seized upon it, and I running in to take hold
of it, caught it, and saved it alive from the dog::
I had a great mind to bring it home if I could;
for I had often been musing whether it might
not be possible to get a kid or two, and so raise
a breed of tame goats, which might supply me
when my powder and shot should be all spent.
. I made a collar to this little creature, and with:
142 THE ADVENTURES OF

a string, which I made of some rope-yarn, which
I. always carried about me, I led him along,
though with some difficulty, till I came to my
bower, and there I enclosed him and left him,
for I was very impatient to be at home, from
whence I had been absent above a month.

I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to
me to come into my old hutch, and lie down in my
hammock-bed. This little wandering journey,
without settled place of abode, had been so
unpleasant to me, that my own house, as I called
it to myself, was a perfect settlement to me com-
pared to that; and it rendered everything about
me so comfortable, that I resolved I would never
go a great way from it again, while it should be
my lot to stay on the island.

I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale
myself after my long journey; during which most
of the time was taken up in the weighty affair of
making a cage for my Poll, who began now to
be a mere domestic, and to be mighty well
acquainted with me. Then I began to think of
the poor kid which I had penned in within my
little circle, and resolved to go and fetch it home,
or give it some food. Accordingly I went, and
found it where I left it, for indeed it could not
get out, but almost starved for want of food.
I went and cut boughs of trees, and branches of
such shrubs as I could find, and threw it over,
and having fed it, I tied it as I did before, to
lead it away; but it was so tame with being
hungry, that I had no need to have tied it, for it
followed me like a dog. And as I continually
fed it, the creature became so loving, so gentle,
and so fond, that it became from that time one
ROBINSON CRUSOE 143

of my domestics also, and would never leave me
afterwards.

The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was
now come, and I kept the 3oth of September in
the same solemn manner as before, being the
anniversary of my landing on the island, having
now been there two years, and no more prospect
of being delivered than the first day I came
there. I spent the whole day in humble and
thankful acknowledgments of the many wonder-
ful mercies which my solitary condition was
attended with, and without which it might have
been infinitely more miserable. I gave humble
and hearty thanks that God had been pleased
to discover to me even that it was possible I
might be more happy in this solitary condition,
than I should have been in a liberty of society,
and in all the pleasures of the world; that He
could fully make up to me the deficiencies of my
solitary state, and the want of human society,
by His presence, and the communications of
His grace to my soul, supporting, comforting,
and encouraging me to depend upon His provi-
dence here, and hope for His eternal presence
hereafter.

It was now that I began sensibly to feel how
much more happy this life I now led was, with
all its miserable circumstances, than the wicked,
cursed, abominable life I led all the past part of
my days. And now I changed both my sorrows
and my joys; my very desires altered, my affec-
tions changed their gusts, and my delights were
perfectly new from what they were at my first
coming, or indeed for the two years past.

Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting,
144 THE ADVENTURES OF

or for viewing the country, the anguish of my
soul at my condition would break out upon
me on a sudden, and my very heart would die
within me, to think of the woods, the mountains,
the deserts I was in, and how I-was a prisoner,
locked up with the eternal bars and bolts of the
ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness, without
redemption. In the midst of the greatest com-
posures of my mind, this would break out upon
me like a storm, and make me wring my hands,
and weep like a child. Sometimes it would take
me in the middle of my work, and I would
immediately sit down and sigh, and look upon
the ground for an hour or two together; and
this was still worse to me, for if I could burst out
into tears, or vent myself by words, it would go
off, and the grief, having exhausted itself, would
abate. —
But now I began to exercise myself with new
thoughts. I daily read the Word of God, and
_applied all the comforts of it to my present state.
‘One-morning, being very sad, I-opened the
Bible upon these words, ‘T will never, never
leave thee, nor forsake thee.’ Immediately it
| occurred that these words were to me; why else
\should they be directed in such a manner, just at
| the moment when I was mourning over my con-
dition, as one forsaken of God and man? ‘Well
then,’ said I, ‘if God does not forsake me, of
what ill consequence can it be, or what matters
it, though the world should all foresake me,
seeing on the other hand if I had all the world,
and should lose the favour and blessing of God,
there would be no comparison in the loss?’
From this moment I began to conclude in my
ROBINSON CRUSOE 145

mind that it was possible for me to be more
happy in this forsaken solitary condition, than
it was probable I should ever have been in any
other particular state in the world, and with this
thought I was going to give thanks to God for
bringing me to this place.

I know not what it was, but something shocked
my mind at that thought, and I durst not speak
the words. ‘How canst thou be such a hypo-
crite,’ said I, even audibly, ‘to pretend to be
thankful for a condition which, however thou
mayest endeavour to be contented with, thou
wouldest rather pray heartily to be delivered
from?’ So I stopped there; but though I could
not say I thanked God for being there, yet I
sincerely gave thanks to God for opening my
eyes, by whatever afflicting providences, to see
the former condition of my life, and to mourn
for my wickedness, and repent. I never opened
the Bible, or shut it, but my very soul within me
blessed God for directing my friend in England,
without any order of mine, to pack it up among
my goods, and for assisting me afterwards to
save it out of the wreck of the ship.

Thus, and in this disposition of mind, I began
my third year; and though I have not given the
reader the trouble of so particular account of
my works this year as the first, yet in general it
may be observed, that I was very seldom idle,
but having regularly divided my time, according
to the several daily employments that were
before me, such as, first, my duty to God, and
the reading the Scriptures, which I constantly
set apart some time for, thrice every day;
secondly, the going abroad with my gun for
146 THE ADVENTURES OF

food, which generally took me up three hours
in every morning, when it did not rain; thirdly,
the ordering, curing, preserving, and cooking
what I had killed or catched for my supply;
these took up great part of the day; also, it is to
be considered that the middle of the day, when
the sun was in the zenith, the violence of the
heat was too great to stir-out; so that about four
hours in the evening was all the time I could be
supposed to work in, with this exception, that
sometimes I changed my hours of hunting and
working, and went to work in the morning, and
abroad with my gun in the afternoon.

To this short time allowed for labour, I desire
may be added the exceeding laboriousness of my
work; the many hours which, for want of tools,
want of help, and want of skill, everything I did.
took up out of my time. For example, I was full
two and forty days making me a board for a long
shelf, which I wanted in my cave; whereas two
sawyers, with their tools and a saw-pit, would
have cut six of them out of the same tree in half
a day.

My case was this: it was to be a large tree
which was to be cut down, because my board
was to be a broad one. This tree I was three
days a-cutting down, and two more cutting off
the boughs, and reducing it to a log, or piece of
timber. With inexpressible hacking and hewing,
I reduced both the sides of it into chips till it
begun to be light enough to move; then I turned
it, and made one side of it smooth and flat as a
board from end to end; then turning that side
downward, cut the other side, till I brought the
plank to be about three inches thick, and smooth
ROBINSON CRUSOE 147

on both sides. Any one may judge the labour of
my hands in such a piece of work; but labour
and patience carried me through that, and many
other things. I only observe this in particular,
to show the reason why so much of my time went
away with so little work, viz., that what might
be a little to be done with help and tools, was a
vast labour, and required a prodigious time to
do alone, and by hand. But notwithstanding
this, with patience and labour, I went through
many things, and, indeed, everything that my
circumstances made necessary to me to do, as
will appear by what follows.

I was now, in the months of November and
December, expecting my crop of barley and
rice. The ground I had manured or dug up for
them was not great; for as I observed, my seed
of each was not above the quantity of half a
peck; for I had lost one whole crop by sowing
in the dry season. But now my crop promised
very well, when on a sudden I found I was in
danger of losing it all again by enemies of several
sorts, which it was scarce possible to keep from
it; as, first the goats and wild creatures which
I called hares, who, tasting the sweetness of the
blade, lay in it night and day, as soon as it came
up, and eat it so close, that it could get no time
to shoot up into stalk.

This I saw no remedy for but by making an
enclosure about it with a hedge, which I did
with a great deal of toil, and the more, because
it required speed. However, as my arable land
was but small, suited to my crop, I got it totally
well fenced in about three weeks’ time, and
shooting some of the creatures in the daytime,
148 THE ADVENTURES OF

I set my dog to guard it in the night, tying him
up to a stake in the gate, where he would stand
and bark all night long; so in a little time the
enemies forsook the place, and the corn grew
very strong and well, and began to ripen apace.

But as the beasts ruined me before while my
corn was in the blade, so the birds were as likely
to ruin me now when it was in the ear; for going
along by the place to see how it throve, I saw
my little crop surrounded with fowls, of I know
not how many sorts, who stood, as it were,
watching till I should be gone. I immediately
let fly among them, for I always had my gun
with me. I had no sooner shot, but there rose
up a little cloud of fowls, which I had not seen
at all, from among the corn itself.

This touched me sensibly, for I foresaw that
in a few days they would devour all my hopes,
that I should be starved, and never be able to
raise a crop at all, and what to do I could not
tell. However, I resolved not to lose my corn,
if possible, though I should watch it night and
day. In the first place, I went among it to see
what damage was already done, and found they
had spoiled a good deal of it; but that as it was
yet too green for them, the loss was not so great
but that the remainder was like to be a good
crop if it could be saved.

I stayed by it to load my gun, and then coming
away, I could easily see the thieves sitting upon
all the trees about me, as if they only waited till
I was gone away. And the event proved it to
be so; for as I walked off, as if I was gone, I was
no sooner out of their sight but they dropped
down, one by one, into the corn again. I was
ROBINSON CRUSOE 149

so provoked, that I could not have patience to
stay till more came on, knowing that every grain
that they eat now was, as it might be said, a
peck-loaf to me in the consequence; but coming
up to the hedge, I fired again, and killed three
of them. This was what I wished for; so I took
them up, and served them as we serve notorious
thieves in England, viz., hanged them in chains,
for a terror to others. It is impossible to imagine
almost that this should have such an effect as it
had, for the fowls would not only not come at
the corn, but, in short, they forsook all that part
of the island, and I could never see a bird near
the place as long as my scare-crows hung there.
This I was very glad of, you may be sure; and
about the latter end of December, which was
our second harvest of the year, I reaped my crop.
I was sadly put to it for a scythe or a sickle to
cut it down, and all I could do was to make one
as well as I could out of one of the broadswords,
or cutlasses, which I saved among the arms out
of the ship. However, as my first crop was but
small, I had no great difficulty to cut it down;
in short, I reaped it my way, for I cut nothing
off but the ears, and carried it away in a great
basket which I had made, and so rubbed it out
with my hands; and at the end of all my harvest-
ing, I found that out of my half peck of seed I
had near two bushels of rice, and above two
bushels and a half of barley, that is to say, by my
guess, for I had no measure at that time.
However, this was a great encouragement to
me, and I foresaw that, in time, it would please
God to supply me with bread. And yet here I
was perplexed again, for I neither knew how to
150 THE ADVENTURES OF

grind or make meal of my corn, or indeed how
to clean it and part it; nor, if made into meal,
how to make bread of it, and if how to make it,
yet I knew not how to bake it. These things
being added to my desire of having a good
quantity for store, and to secure a constant
supply, I resolved not to taste any of this crop,
but to preserve it all for seed against the next
season, and, in the meantime, to employ all my
study and hours of working to accomplish this
great work of providing myself with corn and
bread.

It might be truly said, that now I worked for
my bread. °Tis a little wonderful, and what I
believe few people have thought much upon,
viz., the strange multitude of little things neces-
sary in the providing, producing, curing, dress-
ing, making, and finishing this one article of
bread.

I, that was reduced to a mere state of nature,
found this to my daily discouragement, and was
made more and more sensible of it every hour,
even after I had got the first handful of seed-
corn, which, as I have said, came up unex-
pectedly, and indeed to a surprise.

First, I had no plough to turn up the earth, no
spade or shovel to dig it. Well, this I conquered
by making a wooden spade, as I observed before,
but this did my work in but a wooden manner;
and though it cost me a great many days to
make it, yet, for want of iron, it not only wore
out the sooner, but made my work the harder,
and made it be performed much worse.

However, this I bore with, and was content
to work it out with patience, and bear with the
ROBINSON CRUSOE 151

badness of the performance. When the corn
was sowed, I had no harrow, but was forced to
go over it myself, and drag a great heavy bough
of a tree over it, to scratch it, as it may be called,
rather than rake or harrow it.

When it was growing and grown, I have
observed already how many things I wanted to
fence it, secure it, mow or reap it, cure and carry
it home, thrash, part it from the chaff, and save
it. Then I wanted a mill to grind it, sieves to
dress it, yeast and salt to make it into bread, and
an oven to bake it, and yet all these things I did
without, as shall be observed; and yet the corn
was an inestimable comfort and advantage to
me too. All this, as I said, made everything
laborious and tedious to me, but that there was
no help for; neither was my time so much loss
to me, because, as I had divided it, a certain
part of it was every day appointed to these works,
and as I resolved to use none of the corn for
bread till I had a greater quantity by me, I had
the next six months to apply myself wholly, by
labour and invention, to furnish myself with
utensils proper for the performing all the opera-
tions necessary for the making the corn, when
IT had it, fit for my use.

But first I was to prepare more land, for I had
now seed enough to sow above an acre of ground.
Before I did this, I had a week’s work at least to
make me a spade, which, when it was done, was
but a sorry one indeed, and very heavy, and
required double labour to work with it. How-
ever, I went through that, and sowed my seed
in two large flat pieces of ground, as near my
house as I could find them to my mind, and
152 THE ADVENTURES OF

fenced them in with a good hedge, the stakes of
which were all cut of that wood which I had set
before, and knew it would grow; so that in one
year’s time I knew I should have a quick, or
living hedge, that would want but little repair.
This work was not so little as to take me up less
than three months, because great part of that
time was of the wet season, when I could not
go abroad.

Within doors, that is, when it rained, and I
could not go out, I found employment on the
following occasions; always observing, that all
the while I was at work, I diverted myself with
talking to my parrot, and teaching him to speak,
and I quickly learned him to know his own
name, and at last to speak it out pretty loud,
‘Poll,’ which was the first word I ever heard
spoken in the island by any mouth but my own.
This, therefore, was not my work, but an assis-
tant to my work; for now, as I said, I had a great
employment upon my hands, as follows, viz.,
I had long studied, by some means or other, to
make myself some earthen vessels, which indeed
I wanted sorely, but knew not where to come at
them. However, considering the heat of the
climate, I did not doubt but if I could find out
any such clay, I might botch up some such pot
as might, being dried in the sun, be hard enough
and strong enough to bear handling, and to
hold anything that was dry, and required to be
kept so; and as this was necessary in the prepar-
ing corn, meal, etc., which was the thing I was
upon, I resolved to make some as large as I
could, and fit only to stand like jars, to hold
what should be put into them.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 153

It would make the reader pity me, or rather
laugh at me, to tell how many awkward ways I
took to raise this paste; what odd, misshapen,
ugly things I made; how many of them fell in,
and how many fell out, the clay not being stiff
enough to bear its own weight; how many
cracked by the over-violent heat of the sun,
being set out too hastily; and how many fell in
pieces with only removing, as well before as
after they were dried; and, in a word, how, after
having laboured hard to find the clay, to dig it,
to temper it, to bring it home, and work it, I
could not make above two large earthen ugly
things (I cannot call them jars) in about two
months’ labour.

However, as the sun baked these two very dry
and hard, I lifted them very gently up, and set
them down again in two great wicker baskets,
which I had made on purpose for them, that
they might not break; and as between the pot
and the basket there was a little room to spare,
I stuffed it full of the rice and barley straw, and
these two pots being to stand always dry, I
thought would hold my dry corn, and perhaps
the meal, when the corn was bruised.

Though I miscarried so much in my design
for large pots, yet I made several smaller things
with better success; such as little round pots,
flat dishes, pitchers, and pipkins, and any things
my hand turned to; and the heat of the sun
baked them strangely hard. But all this would
not answer my end, which was to get an earthen
pot to hold what was liquid, and bear the fire,
which none of these could do. It happened after
some time, making a pretty large fire for cooking
154 THE ADVENTURES OF

my meat, when I went to put it out after I had
done with it, I found a broken piece of one of
my earthenware vessels in the fire, burnt as hard
as a stone, and red as a tile. I was agreeably
surprised to see it, and said to myself, that
certainly they might be made to burn whole,
if they would burn broken.

This set me to studying how to order my fire,
so as to make it burn me some pots. I had no
notion of a kiln, such as the potters burn in, or
of glazing them with lead, though I had some
lead to do it with; but I placed three large
pipkins, and two or three pots in a pile, one
upon another, and placed my firewood all round
it, with a great heap of embers under them.
I plied the fire with fresh fuel round the outside,
and upon the top, till I saw the pots in the inside
red-hot quite through, and observed that they
did not crack at all. When I saw them clear red,
I let them stand in that heat about five or six
hours, till I found one of them, though it did not
crack, did melt or run, for the sand which was
mixed with the clay melted by the violence of
the heat, and would have run into glass, if I had
gone on; so I slacked my fire gradually till the
pots began to abate of the red colour; and
watching them all night, that I might not let
the fire abate too fast, in the morning I had
three very good, I will not say handsome, pip-
kins, and. two other earthen pots, as hard burnt
as could be desired, and one of them perfectly
glazed with the running of the sand.

After this experiment, I need not say that I
wanted no sort of earthenware for my use; but
I must needs say, as to the shapes of them, they
ROBINSON CRUSOE 155

were very indifferent, as any one may suppose,
when I had no way of making them but as the
children make dirt pies, or as a woman would
make pies that never learned to raise paste.

No joy at a thing of so mean a nature was ever
equal to mine, when I found I had made an
earthen pot that would bear the fire; and I had
hardly patience to stay till they were cold, before
I set one upon the fire again, with some water
in it, to boil me some meat, which it did admir-
ably well; and with a piece of a kid I made some
very good broth, though I wanted oatmeal and
several other ingredients requisite to make it so
good as I would have had it been.

My next concern was to get me a stone mortar
to stamp or beat some corn in; for as to the mill,
there was no thought at arriving to that perfec-
tion of art with one pair of hands. To supply
this want I was at a great loss; for, of all trades
in the world, I was as perfectly unqualified for
a stone-cutter as for any whatever; neither had
I any tools to go about it with. I spent many a
day to find out a great stone big enough to cut
hollow, and make fit for a mortar, and could
find none at all, except what was in. the solid
rock, and which I had no way to dig or cut out;
nor indeed were the rocks in the island of hard-
ness sufficient, but were all of a sandy crumbling
stone, which neither would bear the weight of
a heavy pestle, or would break the corn without
filling it with sand. So, after a great deal of time
lost in searching for a stone, I gave it over, and
resolved to look out for a great block of hard
wood, which I found indeed much easier; and
getting one as big as I had strength to stir, I
156 THE ADVENTURES OF

rounded it, and formed it in the outside with my
axe and hatchet, and then, with the help of fire,
and infinite labour, made a hollow place in it,
as the Indians in Brazil make their canoes. After
this, I made a great heavy pestle, or beater, of
the wood called the iron-wood; and this I pre-
pared and laid by against I had my next crop of
corn, when I proposed to myself to grind, or
rather pound, my corn into meal, to make my
bread.

My next difficulty was to make a sieve, or
search, to dress my meal, and to part it from
the bran and the husk, without which I did not
see it possible I could have any bread. This was
a most difficult thing, so much as but to think
on, for to be sure I had nothing like the necessary
thing to make it; I mean fine thin canvas or
stuff, to search the meal through. And here I
was at a full stop for many months, nor did I
really know what to do; linen I had none left,
but what was mere rags; I had goats’-hair, but
neither knew I how to weave it or spin it; and
had I known how, here was no tools to work it
with. All the remedy that I found for this was,
that at last I did remember I had, among the
seamen’s clothes which were saved out of the
ship, some neckcloths of calico or muslin; and
with some pieces of these I made three small
sieves, but proper enough for the work; and
thus I made shift for some years. How I did
afterwards, I shall show in its place.

The baking part was the next thing to be
considered, and how I should make bread when
I came to have corn; for, first, I had no yeast.
As to that part, as there was no supplying the
ROBINSON CRUSOE 157

want, so I did not concern myself much about
it; but for.an oven I was indeed in great pain.
At length I found out an experiment for that
also, which was this: I made some earthen vessels
very broad, but not deep, that is to say, about
two feet diameter, and not above nine inches
deep; these I burned in the fire, as I had done
the other, and laid them by; and when I wanted
to bake, I made a great fire upon my hearth,
which I had paved with some square tiles, of
my own making and burning also; but I should
not call them square.

When the firewood was burned pretty much
into embers, or live coals, I drew them forward
upon this hearth, so as to cover it all over, and
there I let them lie till the hearth was very hot;
then sweeping away all the embers, I set down
my loaf, or loaves, and whelming down the
earthen pot upon them, drew the embers all
round the outside of the pot, to keep in and add
to the heat. And thus, as well as in the best
oven in the world, I baked my barley-loaves,
and became, in little time, a mere pastry-cook
into the bargain; for I made myself several cakes
of the rice, and puddings; indeed I made no
pies, neither had I anything to put into them,
supposing I had, except the flesh either of fowls
or goats.

It need not be wondered at, if all these things
took me up most part of the third year of my
abode here; for it is to be observed, that in the
intervals of these things I had my new harvest
and husbandry to manage; for I reaped my corn
in its season, and carried it home as well as I
could, and laid it up in the ear, in my large
158 THE ADVENTURES OF

baskets, till I had time to rub it out, for I had
no floor to thrash it‘on, or instrument to thrash
it with,

And now, indeed, my stock of corn increasing,
I really wanted to build my barns bigger. I
wanted a place to lay it up in, for the increase
of the corn now yielded me so much, that I had
of the barley about twenty bushels, and of the
rice as much, or more, insomuch that now I
resolved to begin to use it freely; for my bread
had been quite gone a great while; also, I re-
solved to see what quantity would be sufficient
for me a whole year, and to sow but once a year.

Upon the whole, I found that the forty bushels
of barley and rice was much more than I could
consume in a year; so I resolved to sow just the
same quantity every year that I sowed the last,
in hopes that such a quantity would fully pro-
vide me with bread, etc.

All the while these things were doing, you may
be sure my thoughts run many times upon the
prospect of land which I had seen from the
other side of the island, and I was not without
secret wishes that I were on shore there, fancying
the seeing the mainland, and in an inhabited
country, I might find some way or other to
convey myself farther, and perhaps at last find
some means of escape.

But all this while I made no allowance for the
dangers of such a condition, and how I might
fall into the hands of savages, and perhaps such
as I might have reason to think far worse than
the lions and tigers of Africa; that if I once came
into their power, I should run a hazard more
than a thousand to one of being killed, and
ROBINSON CRUSOE 159

perhaps of being eaten; for I had heard that the
people of the Caribbean coasts were cannibals,
or man-eaters, and I knew by the latitude that
I could not be far off from that shore. That
suppose they were not cannibals, yet that they
might kill me, as many Europeans who had
fallen into their hands had been served, even
when they had been ten or twenty together,
much more I, that was but one, and could make
little or no defence; all these things, I say, which
I ought to have considered well of, and did cast
up in my thoughts afterwards, yet took up none
of my apprehensions at first, but my head ran
mightily upon the thought of getting over to
the shore.

Now I wished for my boy Xury, and the lone)
boat with the shoulder-of-mutton sail, with
which I sailed above a thousand miles on the |
coast of Africa; but this was in vain. Then I
thought. I would go and look at our ship’s boat, |
which, as I have said, was blown up upon the
shore a great way, in the storm, when we were
first cast away. She lay almost where she did
at first, but not quite; and was turned, by the
force of the waves and the winds, almost bottom
upward, against a high ridge of beachy rough
sand, but no water about her, as before.

If I had had hands to have refitted her, and
to have launched her into the water, the boat
would have done well enough, and I might
have gone back into the Brazils with her easily
enough; but I might have foreseen that I could
no more turn her and set her upright upon her
bottom, than I could remove the island. How-
ever, I went to the woods, and cut levers and
160 THE ADVENTURES OF

rollers, and brought them to the boat, resolved
to try what I could do; suggesting to myself that
if I could but turn her down, I might easily
repair the damage she had received, and she
would be a very good boat, and I might go to
sea in her very easily.

I spared no pains, indeed, in this piece of
fruitless toil, and spent, I think, three or four
weeks about it. At last finding it impossible to
heave it up with my little strength, I fell to
digging away the sand, to undermine it, and
so to make it fall down, setting pieces of wood
to thrust and guide it right in the fall. But when
I had done this, I was unable to stir it up again,
or to get under it, much less to move it forward
towards the water; so I was forced to give it
over. And yet, though I gave over the hopes of
the boat, my desire to venture over for the main
increased, rather than decreased, as the means
for it seemed impossible.

This at length put me upon thinking whether
it was not possible to make myself a canoe, or
pertagua, such as the natives of those climates
make, even without tools, or, as I might say,
without hands, viz., of the trunk of a great tree.
This I not only thought possible, but easy, and
pleased myself extremely with the thoughts of
making it, and with my having much more
convenience for it than any of the negroes or
Indians; but not at all considering the particular
inconveniences which I lay under more than the
Indians did, viz., want of hands to move it, when
it was made, into the water, a difficulty much
harder for me to surmount than all the con-
sequences of want of tools could be to them. For
ROBINSON CRUSOE 161

what was it to me, that when J had chosen a
vast tree in the woods, I might with much
trouble cut it down, if, after I might be able
with my tools to hew and dub the outside into
the proper shape of a boat, and burn or cut out
the inside to make it hollow, so to make a boat
of it; if, after all this, I must leave it just there
where I found it, and was not able to launch it
into the water?

One would have thought I could not have had
the least reflection upon my mind of my circum-
stance while I was making this boat, but I should
have immediately thought how I should get it
into the sea; but my thoughts were so intent
upon my voyage over the sea in it, that I never
once considered how I should: get it off of the
land; and it was really, in its own nature, more
easy for me to guide it over forty-five miles of sea,
than about forty-five fathoms of land, where it
lay, to set it afloat in the water.

I went to work upon this boat the most like
a fool that ever man did who had any of his
senses awake. I pleased myself with the design,
without determining whether I was ever able
to undertake it. Not but that the difficulty of
launching my boat came often into my head;
but I put a stop to my own inquiries into it, by
this foolish answer which I gave myself, ‘Let’s
first make it; I'll warrant I’ll find some way or
other to get it along when ’tis done.’

This was a most preposterous method; but
the eagerness of my fancy prevailed, and to work
I went. I felled a cedar tree: I question much
whether Solomon ever had such a one for the
building of the Temple at Jerusalem. It was five

17 G
162 THE ADVENTURES OF

feet ten inches diameter at the lower part next
the stump, and four feet eleven inches diameter
at the end of twenty-two feet, after which
it lessened for awhile, and then parted into
branches. It was not without infinite labour
that I felled this tree. I was twenty days hacking
and hewing at it at the bottom; I was fourteen
more getting the branches and limbs, and the
vast spreading head of it cut off, which I hacked
and hewed through with axe and hatchet, and
inexpressible labour. After this, it cost me a
month to shape it and dub it to a proportion,
and to something like the bottom of a boat, that
it might swim upright as it ought to do. It cost
me near three months more to clear the inside,
and work it so as to make an exact boat of it.
This I did, indeed, without fire, by mere mallet
and chisel, and by the dint of hard labour, till
I had brought it to be a very handsome periagua
and big enough to have carried six and twenty
men, and consequently big enough to have
carried me and all my cargo.

When I had gone through this work, I was
extremely delighted with it. The boat was really
much bigger than I ever saw a canoe or periagua,
that was made of one tree, in my life. Many a
weary stroke it had cost, you may be sure; and
there remained nothing but to get it into the
water; and had I gotten it into the water, I make
no question but I should have begun the mad-
dest voyage, and the most unlikely to be per-
formed, that ever was undertaken.

But all my devices to get it into the water
failed me, though they cost me infinite labour
too. It lay about one hundred yards from the
ROBINSON CRUSOE 163

water, and not more; but the first inconvenience
was, it was uphill towards the creek. Well, to
take away this discouragement, I resolved to
dig into the surface of the earth, and so make a
declivity. This I began, and it cost me a pro-
digious deal of pains; but who grudges pains,
that have their deliverance in view? But when
this was worked through, and this difficulty
managed, it was still much at one, for I could no
more stir the canoe than I could the other boat.

Then I measured the distance of ground, and
resolved to cut a dock or canal, to bring the
water up to the canoe, seeing I could not bring
the canoe down to the water. Well, I began this
work; and when I began to enter into it, and
calculate how deep it was to be dug, how broad,
how the stuff to be thrown out, I found that by
the number of hands I had, being none but my
own, it must have been ten or twelve years
before I should have gone through with it; for
the shore lay high, so that at the upper end it
must have been at least twenty feet deep; so at
length, though with great reluctancy, I gave
this attempt over also.

This grieved me heartily; and now I saw,
though too late, the folly of beginning a work
before we count the cost, and before we judge
rightly of our own strength to go through with it.

In the middle of this work I finished-‘my fourth
year in this place, and kept my anniversary with
the same devotion, and with as much comfort as
ever before; for, by a constant study and serious
application of the Word of God, and by the assis-
tance of His grace, I gained a different know-
ledge from what I had before. I entertained
164° THE ADVENTURES OF

different notions of things. I looked now upon
the world as a thing remote, which I had
nothing to do with, no expectation from, and,
indeed, no desires about. In a word, I had
nothing indeed to do with it, nor was ever like
to have; so I thought it looked, as we may per-
haps look upon it hereafter, viz., as a place I had
lived in, but was come out of it; and well might
I say, as father Abraham to Dives, ‘Between me
and thee is a great gulf fixed.’

In the first place, I was removed from all the
wickedness of the world here. I had neither the
lust of the flesh, the lust of the eye, or the pride
of life. I had nothing to covet, for I had all that
I was now capable of enjoying. I was lord of the
whole manor; or, if I pleased, I might call myself
king or emperor over the whole country which
I had possession of. There were no rivals: I had
no competitor, none to dispute sovereignty or
command with me. I might have raised ship-
loadings of corn, but I had no use for it; so I
let as little grow as I thought enough for my
occasion. I had tortoise or turtles enough, but
now and then one was as much as I could put
to any use. I had timber enough to have built
a fleet of ships. I had grapes enough to have
made wine, or to have cured into raisins, to have
loaded that fleet when they had been built.

But all I could make use of was all that was
valuable. I had enough to eat and to supply my
wants, and what was all the rest to me? If
killed more flesh than I could eat, the dog must
eat it, or the vermin. If I sowed more corn than
I could eat, it must be spoiled. The trees that
T cut down were lying to rot on the ground; I
ROBINSON CRUSOE 165

could make no more use of them than for fuel,
and that I had no occasion for but to dress my
food.

In a word, the nature and experience of things
dictated to me, upon just reflection, that all the
good things of this world are no farther good to
us than they are for our use; and that whatever
we may heap up indeed to give others, we enjoy
just as much as we can use, and no more. The
most covetous, griping miser in the world would
have been cured of the vice of covetousness, if
he had been in my case; for I possessed infinitely
more than I knew what to do with. I had no
room for desire, except it was of things which
I had not, and they were but trifles, though
indeed of great use to me. I had, as I hinted
before, a parcel of money, as well gold as silver,
about thirty-six pounds sterling. Alas! there the
nasty, sorry, useless stuff lay; I had no manner
of business for it; and I often thought with my-
self, that I would have given a handful of it for
a gross of tobacco-pipes, or for a hand-mill to
grind my corn; nay, I would have given it all for
sixpennyworth of turnip and carrot seed out of
England, or for a handful of peas and beans, and
a bottle of ink. As it was, I had not the least
advantage by it, or benefit from it; but there it
lay in a drawer, and grew mouldy with the damp
of the cave in the wet season; and if I had had
the drawer full of diamonds, it had been the
same case, and they had been of no manner of
value to me because of no use.

I had now brought my state of life to be much
easier in itself than it was at first, and much
easier to my mind, as well as to my body. I
166 THE ADVENTURES OF

frequently sat down to my meat with thankful-
ness, and admired the hand of God’s providence,
which had thus spread my table in the wilder-
eness. I learned to look more upon the bright
side of my condition, and less upon the dark
side, and to consider what I enjoyed, rather than
what I wanted; and this gave me sometimes
such secret comforts, that I cannot express them;
and which I take notice of here, to put those
discontented people in mind of it, who cannot
enjoy comfortably what God has given them,
because they see and covet something that He
has not given them. All our discontents ‘about
what we want, appeared to me to spring from
the want of thankfulness for what we have.

Another reflection was of great use to me, and
doubtless would be so to any one that should fall
into such distress as mine was; and this was, to
compare my present condition with what I at
first expected it should be; nay, with what it
would certainly have been, if the good provi-
dence of God had not wonderfully ordered the
ship to be cast up nearer to the shore, where I
not only could come at her, but could bring what
I got out of her to the shore, for my relief and
comfort; without which I had wanted for tools
to work, weapons for defence, or gunpowder and
shot for getting my food.

I spent whole hours, I may say whole days, in
representing to myself, in the most lively colours,
how I must have.acted if I had got nothing out
of the ship. How I could not have so much as
got any food, except fish and turtles; and that
as it was long before I found any of them, I must
have perished first; that I should have lived, if
ROBINSON CRUSOE 167

I had not perished, like a mere savage; that if I
had killed a goat or a fowl, by any contrivance,
I had no way to flay or open them, or part the
flesh from the skin and the bowels, or to cut it
up; but must gnaw it with my teeth, and pull it
with my claws, like a beast.

These reflections made me very sensible of the
goodness of Providence to me, and very thankful
for my present condition, with all its hardships
and misfortunes; and this part also I cannot but
recommend to the reflection of those who are
apt, in their misery, to say, Is any affliction like
mine? Let them consider how much worse the
cases of some people are, and their case might
have been, if Providence had thought fit.

I had another reflection, which assisted me
also to comfort my mind with hopes; and this
was, comparing my present condition with what
I had deserved, and had therefore reason to
expect from the hand of Providence. I had lived
a dreadful life, perfectly destitute of the know-
ledge and fear of God. I had been well in-
structed by father and mother; neither had they
been wanting to me in their early endeavours
to infuse a religious awe of God into my mind,
a sense of my duty, and of what the nature and
end of my being required of me. But, alas!
falling early into the seafaring life, which, of all
the lives, is the most destitute of the fear of God,
though His terrors are always before them; I say,
falling early into the seafaring life, and into sea-
faring company, all that little sense of religion
which I had entertained was laughed out of me
by my messmates; by a hardened despising of
dangers, and the views of death, which grew
168 THE ADVENTURES OF

habitual to me; by my long absence from all
manner of opportunities to converse with any-
thing but what was like myself, or to hear
anything that was good, or tended towards it.

So void was I of everything that was good, or
of the least sense of: what I was, or was to be,
that in the greatest deliverances I enjoyed, such
as my escape from Sallee; my being taken up by
the Portuguese master of the ship; my being
planted so well in the Brazils; my receiving the
cargo from England, and the like; I never had
once the words, “Thank God,’ as much as on my
mind, or in my mouth; nor in the greatest
distress had I so much as a thought to pray to
Him, or so much as to say, ‘Lord, have mercy
upon me!’ no, nor to mention the name of God,
unless it was to swear by and blaspheme it.

I had terrible reflections upon my mind for
many months, as I have already observed, on the
account of my wicked and hardened life past;
and when I looked about me, and considered
what particular providences had attended me
since my coming into this place, and how God
had dealt bountifully with me, had not only
punished me less than my iniquity had deserved,
but had so plentifully provided for me; this
gave me great hopes that my repentance was
accepted, and that God had yet mercy in store
for me.

With these reflections, I worked my mind up,
not only to resignation to the will of God in the
present disposition of my circumstances, but
even to a sincere thankfulness for my condition;
and that I, who was yet a living man, ought not
to complain, seeing I had not the due punish-
ROBINSON CRUSOE 169

ment of my sins; that I enjoyed so many mercies,
which I had no reason to have expected in that
place; that I ought never more to repine at my
condition, but to rejoice, and to give daily thanks
for that daily bread, which nothing but a crowd
of wonders could have brought; that I ought to
consider I had been fed even by miracle, even
as great as that of feeding Elijah by ravens; nay,
by a long series of miracles; and that I could
hardly have named a place in the unhabitable
part of the world where I could have been cast
more to my advantage; a place where, as I had
no society, which was my affliction on one hand,
so I found no ravenous beasts, no furious wolves
or tigers, to threaten my life; no venomous crea-
tures or poisonous, which I might feed on to my
hurt; no savages to murder and devour me.

In a word, as my life was a life of sorrow one
way, so it was a life of mercy another; and I
wanted nothing to make it a life of comfort, but
to be able to make my sense of God’s goodness
to me, and care over me in this condition, be my
daily consolation; and after I did make a just
improvement of these things, I went away, and
was no more sad.

I had now been here so long, that many things
which I brought on shore for my help were either
quite gone, or very much wasted, and near spent.
My ink, as I observed, had been gone for some
time, all but a very little, which I eked out with
water, a little and a little, till it was so pale it
scarce left any appearance of black upon the
paper. As long as it lasted, I made use of it to
minute down the days of the month on which
any remarkable thing happened to me. And,
170 THE ADVENTURES OF

first, by casting up times past, I remember that
there was a strange concurrence of days in the
various providences which befell me, and which,
if I had been superstitiously inclined to observe
days as fatal or fortunate, I might have had
reason to have looked upon with a great deal of
curiosity.

First, I had observed that the same day that I
broke away from my father and my friends, and
run away to Hull, in order to go to sea, the same
day afterwards I was taken by the Sallee man-
of-war, and made a slave.

The same day of the year that I escaped out
of the wreck of that ship in Yarmouth Roads,
that same day-year afterwards I made my escape
from Sallee in the boat.

The same day of the year I was born on, viz.,
the 3oth of September, that same day I had my
life so miraculously saved twenty-six years after,
when I was cast on shore in this island; so that
my wicked life and my solitary life began both
on a day.

The next thing to my ink’s being wasted, was
that of my bread; I mean the biscuit, which I
brought out of the ship. This I had husbanded
to the last degree, allowing myself but one cake
of bread a day for above a year; and yet I was
quite without bread for near a year before I got
any corn of my own; and great reason I had to
be thankful that I had any at all, the getting it
being, as has been already observed, next to
miraculous.

My clothes began to decay, too, mightily. As
to linen, I had none a good while, except some
chequered shirts which I found in the chests of
ROBINSON CRUSOE 171

the other seamen, and which I carefully pre-
served, because many times I could bear no
other clothes on but a shirt; and it was a very
great help to me that I had, among all the men’s
clothes of the ship, almost three dozen of shirts.
There were also several thick watch-coats of the
seamen’s which were left indeed, but they were
too hot to wear; and though it is true that the
weather was so violent hot that there was no
need of clothes, yet I could not go quite naked,
no, though I had been inclined to it, which I was
not, nor could abide the thoughts of it, though
I was all alone.

The reason why I could not go quite naked
was, I could not bear the heat of the sun so well
when quite naked as with some clothes on; nay,
the very heat frequently blistered my skin;
whereas, with a shirt on, the air itself made some
motion, and whistling under that shirt, was two-
fold cooler than without it. No more could I
ever bring myself to go out in the heat of the sun
without a cap or a hat. The heat of the sun
beating with such violence, as it does in that
place, would give me the headache presently,
by darting so directly on my head, without a
cap or hat on, so that I could not bear it;
whereas, if I put on my hat, it would presently
go away.

Upon those views, I began to consider about
putting the few rags I had, which I called
clothes, into some order. I had worn out all the
waistcoats I had, and my business was now to
try if I could not make jackets out of the great
watch-coats which I had by me, and with
such other materials as I had; so I set to work
172 THE ADVENTURES OF

a-tailoring, or rather, indeed, a-botching, for I
made most piteous work of it. However, I made
shift to make me two or three new waistcoats,
which I hoped would serve me a great while.
As for breeches or drawers, I made but a very
sorry shift indeed till afterward.

I have mentioned that I saved the skins of all
the creatures that I killed, I mean four-footed
ones, and I had hung them up stretched out with
sticks in the sun, by which means some of them
were so dry and hard that they were fit for little,
but others it seems were very useful. The first
thing I made of these was a great cap for my
head, with the hair on the outside, to shoot off
the rain; and this I performed so well, that after
this I made me a suit of clothes wholly of these
skins, that is to say, a waistcoat, and breeches
open at knees, and both loose, for they were
rather wanting to keep me cool than to keep me
warm. I must not omit to acknowledge that
they were wretchedly made; for if I was a bad
carpenter, I was a worse tailor. However, they
were such as I made very good shift with; and
when I was abroad, if it happened to rain, the
hair of my waistcoat and cap being outermost,
I was kept very dry.

After this I spent a great deal of time and
pains to make me an umbrella. I was indeed
in great want of one, and had a great mind to
make one. I had seen them made in the Brazils,
where they are very useful in the great heats
which are there; and I felt the heats every jot as
great here, and greater too, being nearer the
equinox. Besides, as I was obliged to be much
abroad, it was a most useful thing to me, as well
ROBINSON CRUSOE 173

for the rains as the heats. I took a world of pains
at it, and was a great while before I could make
anything likely to hold; nay, after I thought I
had hit the way, I spoiled two or three before
I made one to my mind; but at last I made
one that answered indifferently well. The main
difficulty I found was to make it to let down.
I could make it.to spread; but if it did not let
down too, and draw in, it was not portable for
me any way but just over my head, which would
not do. However, at last, as I said, I made one
to answer, and covered it with skins, the hair
upwards, so that it cast off the rains like a pent-
house, and kept off the sun so effectually, that
I could walk out in the hottest of the weather
with greater advantage than I could before in
the coolest; and when J had no need of it, could
close it, and carry it under my arm.

Thus I lived mighty comfortably, my mind
being entirely composed by resigning to the will
of God, and throwing myself wholly upon the
disposal of His providence. This made my life
better than sociable; for when I began to regret
the want of conversation, I would ask myself
whether thus conversing mutually with my own
thoughts and, as I hope I may say, with even
God Himself, by ejaculations, was not better
than the utmost enjoyment of human society
in the world?

I cannot say that after this, for five years, any
extraordinary thing happened time; but Tiived
on in the same course, in the same posture and
place, just as before. The chief things I was
employed in, besides my yearly labour of plant-
ing my barley and rice, and curing my raisins,
174 THE ADVENTURES OF

of both which I always kept up just enough to
have sufficient stock of one year’s provisions
beforehand—I say, besides this yearly labour,
and my daily labour of going out with my gun,
I had one labour, to make me a canoe, which at
last I finished; so that by digging a canal to it of
six feet wide, and four feet deep, I brought it
into the creek, almost halfa mile. As for the first,
which was so vastly big, as I made it without
considering beforehand, as I ought to do, how
I should be able to launch it; so, never being
able to bring it to the water, or bring the water
to it, I was obliged to let it lie where it was, as a
memorandum to teach me to be wiser next time.
Indeed, the next time, though I could not get a
tree proper for it, and in a place where I could
not get the water to it at any less distance than,
as I have said, near half a mile, yet as I saw it
was practicable at last, I never gave it over; and
though I was near two years about it, yet I never
grudged my labour, in hopes of having a boat to
go off to sea at last.

However, though my little periagua was fin-
ished, yet the size of it was not at all answerable
to the design which I had in view when I made
the first; I mean, of venturing over to the terra
firma, where it was above forty miles broad.
Accordingly, the smallness of my boat assisted
to put an end to that design, and now I thought
no more of it. But as I had a boat, my next
design was to make a tour round the island; for
as I had been on the other side in one place,
crossing, as I have already described it, over the
land, so the discoveries I made in that little
journey made me very eager to see other parts
ROBINSON CRUSOE 175

of the coast; and now I had a boat, I thought of
nothing but sailing round the island.

For this. purpose, that I might do everything
with discretion and consideration, I fitted up a
little mast to my boat, and made a sail to it out
of some of the pieces of the ship’s sail, which lay
in store, and of which I had a great stock by me.

Having fitted my mast and sail, and tried the
boat, I found she would sail very well. Then I
made little lockers, or boxes, at either end of my
boat, to put provisions, necessaries, and ammu-
nition, etc., into, to be kept dry, either from rain
or the spray of the sea; and a little long hollow
place I cut in the inside of the boat, where I
could lay my gun, making a flap to hang down
over it to keep it dry.

I fixed my umbrella also in a step at the stern,
like a mast, to stand over my head, and keep the
heat of the sun off of me, like an awning; and
thus I every now and then took a little voyage
upon the sea, but never went far out, nor far
from the little creek. But at last, being eager to
view the circumference of my little kingdom, I
resolved upon my tour; and accordingly I vic-
tualled my ship for the voyage, putting in two
dozen of my loaves (cakes I should rather call
them) of barley bread, an earthen pot full of
parched rice, a food I eat a great deal of, a little
bottle of rum, half a goat, and powder and shot
for killing more, and two large watch-coats, of
those which, as I mentioned before, I had saved
out of the seamen’s chests; these I took, one to
lie upon, and the other to cover me in the night.

It was the 6th of November, in the sixth year
of my reign, or my captivity, which you please,
176 THE ADVENTURES OF

that I set out on this voyage, and I found it much
longer than I expected; for though the island itself
was not very large, yet when I came to the east
side of it I founda great ledge of rocks lieout above
two leagues into the sea, some above water, some
under it, and beyond that a shoal of sand, lying
dry half a league more; so that I was obliged to
go a great way out to sea to double the point.

When first I discovered them, I was going to
give over my enterprise, and come back again,
not knowing how far it might oblige me to go
out to sea, and, above all, doubting how I should
get back again, so I came to an anchor; for I
had made me a kind of an anchor with a piece of
a broken grappling which I got out of the ship.

Having secured my boat, I took my gun and
went on shore, climbing up upon a hill, which
seemed to overlook that point, where I saw the
full extent of it, and resolved to venture.

In my viewing the sea from that hill, where I
stood, I perceived a strong, and indeed a most
furious current, which run to the east, and even
came close to the point; and I took the more
notice of it, because I saw there might be some
danger that when I came into it I might be
carried out to sea by the strength of it, and not
be able to make the island again. And indeed,
had I not gotten first up upon this hill, I believe
it would have been so; for there was the same
current on the other side the island, only that it
set off at a farther distance; and I saw there was
a strong eddy under the shore; so I had nothing
to do but to get in out of the first current, and I
should presently be in an eddy.

I lay here, however, two days; because the
ROBINSON CRUSOE 177

wind, blowing pretty fresh at E.S.E., and that
being just contrary to the said current, made a
great breach of the sea upon the point; so that
it was not safe for me to keep too close to the
shore for the breach, nor to go too far off because
of the stream.

The third day, in the morning, the wind
having abated overnight, the sea was calm, and
I ventured. But I am a warning piece again to
all rash and ignorant pilots; for no sooner was
I come to the point, when even I was not my
boat’s length from the shore, but I found myself
in a great depth of water, and a current like the
sluice of a mill. It carried my boat along with
it with such violence, that all I could do could
not keep her so much as on the edge of it, but I
found it hurried me farther and farther out from
the eddy, which was on my left hand. There was
no wind stirring to help me, and all I could do
with my paddlers signified nothing. And now
I began to give myself over for lost; for, as the
current was on both sides the island, I knew in
a few leagues distance they must join again, and
then I was irrecoverably gone. Nor did I see any
possibility of avoiding it; so that I had no pros-
pect before me but of perishing; not by the sea,
for that was calm enough, but of starving for
hunger. I had indeed found a tortoise on the
shore, as big almost as I could lift, and had
tossed it into the boat; and I had a great jar of
fresh water, that is to say, one of my earthen
pots; but what was all this to being driven into
the vast ocean, where, to be sure, there was no
shore, no mainland or island, for a thousand
leagues at least.
178 THE ADVENTURES OF

And now I saw how easy it was for the provi-
dence of God to make the most miserable con-
dition mankind could be in worse. Now I looked
back upon my desolate solitary island as the
most pleasant place in the world, and all the
happiness my heart could wish for was to be but
there again. I stretched out my hands to it, with
eager wishes. ‘O happy desert!’ said I, ‘I shall
never see thee more. O miserable creature,’ said
I, ‘whither am I going?’ Then I reproached
myself with my unthankful temper, and how I
had repined at my solitary condition; and now
what would I give to be on shore there again.
Thus we never see the true state of our condition
till it is illustrated to us by its contraries; nor
know how to value what we enjoy, but by the
want of it. It is scarce possible to imagine the
consternation I was now in, being driven from
my beloved island (for so it appeared to me now
to be) into the wide ocean, almost two leagues,
and in the utmost despair of ever recovering it
again. However, I worked hard, till indeed my
strength was almost exhausted, and kept my
boat as much to the northward, that is, towards
the side of the current which the eddy lay on,
as possibly I could; when about noon, as the sun
passed the meridian, I thought I felt a little
breeze of wind in my face, springing up from
the S.S.E. This cheered my heart a little, and
especially when, in about half an hour more,
it blew a pretty small gentle gale. By this time
I was gotten at a frightful distance from the
island; and had the least cloud or hazy weather
intervened, I had been undone another way
too; for I had no compass on board, and should
ROBINSON CRUSOE 179

never have known how to have steered towards
the island if I had but once lost sight of it. But
the weather continuing clear, I applied myself
to get up my mast again, and spread my sail,
standing away to the north as much as possible,
to get out of the current.

Just as I had set my mast and sail, and the
boat began to stretch away, I saw even by
the clearness of the water some alteration of
the current was near; for where the current was
so strong, the water was foul. But perceiving the
water clear, I found the current abate, and
presently I found to the east, at about half a
mile, a breach of the sea upon some rocks. These
rocks I found caused the current to part again;
and as the main stress of it ran away more
southerly, leaving the rocks to the north-east,
so the other returned by the repulse of the rocks,
and made a strong eddy, which ran back again
to the north-west with a very sharp stream.

They who know what it is to have a reprieve
brought to them upon the ladder, or. to be
rescued from thieves just going to murder them,
or who have been in such like extremities, may
guess what my present surprise of joy was, and
how gladly I put my boat into the stream of this
eddy; and the wind also freshening, how gladly
I spread my sail to it, running cheerfully before
the wind, and with a strong tide or eddy under
foot.

This eddy carried me about a league in my
way back again, directly towards the island, but
about two leagues more to the northward than
the current which carried me away at first; so
that when I came near the island, I found myself
180 THE ADVENTURES OF

open to the northern shore of it, that is to say,
the other end of the island, opposite to that
which I went out from.

When I had made something more than a
league of way by the help of this current or eddy,
I found it was spent, and served me no farther.
However, I found that being between the two
great currents, viz., that on the south side, which
had hurried me away, and that on the north,
which lay about a league on the other side; I
say, between these two, in the wake of the island,
I found the water at least still, and running no
way; and having still a breeze of wind fair for
me, I kept on steering directly for the island,
though not making such fresh way as I did
before.

About four o’clock in the evening, being then
within about a league of the island, I found the
point of the rocks which occasioned this disaster
stretching out, as is described before, to the
southward, and casting off the current more
southwardly had, of course, made another eddy
to the north, and this I found very strong, but
not directly setting the way my course lay, which
was due west, but almost full north. However,
having a fresh gale, I stretched across this eddy,
slanting north-west; and in about an hour came
within about a mile of the shore, where, it being
smooth water, I soon got to land.

When I was on shore, I fell on my knees, and
gave God thanks for my deliverance, resolving
to lay aside all thoughts of my deliverance by
my boat; and refreshing myself with such things
as I had, I brought my boat close to the shore,
in a little cove that I had spied under some
ROBINSON CRUSOE 181

trees, and laid me down to sleep, being quite
spent with the labour and fatigue of the voyage.

I was now at a great loss which way to get
home with my boat. I had run so much hazard,
and knew too much the case, to think of attempt-
ing it by the way I went out; and what might
be at the other side (I mean the west side) I
knew not, nor had I any mind to run any more
ventures. So I only resolved in the morning to
make my way westward along the shore, and
to see if there was no creek where I might lay up
my frigate in safety, so as to have her again if I
wanted her. In about three miles, or there-
abouts, coasting the shore, I came to a very
good inlet or bay, about a mile over, which
narrowed till it came to a very little rivulet or
brook, where I found a very convenient harbour
for my boat, and where she lay as if she had
been in a little dock made on purpose for her.
Here I put in, and having stowed my boat very
safe, I went on shore to look about me, and see
where I was.

I soon found I had but a little passed by the
place where I had been before, when I travelled
on foot to that shore; so taking nothing out of
my boat but my gun and my umbrella, for it
was exceedingly hot, I began my march. The
way was comfortable enough after such a voyage
as I had been upon, and I reached my old bower
in the evening, where I found everything stand-
ing as I left it; for I always kept it in good order,
being, as I said before, my country house.

I got over the fence, and laid me down in the
shade to rest my limbs, for I was very weary, and
fell asleep. But judge you, if you can,.that read
182 THE ADVENTURES OF

my story, what a surprise I must be in, when I
was waked out of my sleep by a voice calling me
by my name several times, ‘Robin, Robin, Robin
Crusoe, poor Robin Crusoe! Where are you,
Robin Crusoe? Where are you? Where have
you been?’

I was so dead asleep at first, being fatigued
with rowing, or paddling, as it is called, the first
part of the day, and with walking the latter part,
that I did not wake thoroughly; but dozing
between sleeping and waking, thought I dreamed
that somebody spoke to me. But as the voice
continued to repeat ‘Robin Crusoe, Robin
Crusoe,’ at last I began to wake more perfectly,
and was at first dreadfully frighted, and started
up in the utmost consternation. But no sooner
were my eyes open, but I saw my Poll sitting on
the top of the hedge, and immediately knew that
it was he that spoke to me; for just in such be-
moaning language I had used to talk to him,
and teach him; and he had learned it so per-
fectly, that he would sit upon my finger, and lay
his bill close to my face, and cry, ‘Poor Robin
Crusoe! Where are you? Where have you been?
How come you here?’ and such things as I had
taught him.

However, even though I knew it was the
parrot, and that indeed it could be nobody else,
it was a good while before I could compose my-
self. First, I was amazed how the creature got
thither, and then, how he should just keep about
the place, and nowhere else. But as I was well
satisfied it could be nobody but honest Poll, I
got it over; and holding out my hand, and call-
ing him by his name, Poll, the sociable creature
ROBINSON CRUSOE 183

came to me, and sat upon my thumb, as he used
to do, and continued talking to me, ‘Poor Robin
Crusoe! and how did I come here? and where
had I been?’ just as if he had been overjoyed to
see me again; and so I carried him home along
with me.

I had now had enough of rambling to sea for
some time, and had enough to do for many days
to sit still, and reflect upon the danger I had
been in. I would have been very glad to have
had my boat again on my side of the island; but
I knew not how it was practicable to get it about.
As to the east side of the island, which I had gone
round, I knew well enough there was no ventur-
ing that way; my very heart would shrink, and
my very blood run chill, but to think of it. And
as to the other side of the island, I did not know
how it might be there; but supposing the current
ran with the same force against the shore at the
east as it passed by it on the other, I might run
the same risk of being driven down the stream,
and carried by the island, as I had been before
of being carried away from it. So, with these
thoughts, I contented myself to be without any
boat, though it had been the product of so many
months’ labour to make it, and of so many more
to get it unto the sea.

In this government of my temper I remained
near a year, lived a very sedate, retiréd life, as
you may well suppose; and my thoughts being
very much composed as to my condition, and
fully comforted in resigning myself to the disposi-
tions of Providence, I thought I lived really very
happily in all things, except that of society.

I improved myself in this time in all the
184 THE ADVENTURES OF

mechanic exercises.which my necessities put me
upon applying myself to, and I believe could,
upon occasion, make a very good carpenter,
especially considering how few tools I had. Be-
sides this, I arrived at an unexpected perfection
in my earthenware, and contrived well enough
to make them with a wheel, which I found
infinitely easier and better, because I made
things round and shapable which before were
filthy things indeed to look on. But I think I
was never more vain of my own performance,
or more joyful for anything I found out, than
for my being able to make a tobacco-pipe. And
though it was a very ugly, clumsy thing when it
was done, and only burnt red, like other earthen-
ware, yet as it was hard and firm, and would
draw the smoke, I was exceedingly comforted
with it; for I had been always used to smoke,
and there were pipes in the ship, but I forgot
them at first, not knowing that there was tobacco
in the island; and afterwards, when I searched
the ship again, I could not come at any pipes
at all.

In my wicker-ware also I improved much, and
made abundance of necessary baskets, as well
as my invention showed me; though not very
handsome, yet they were such as were very
handy and convenient for my laying things up
in, or fetching things home in. For example, if
I killed a goat abroad, I could hang it up ina
tree, flay it, and dress it, and cut it in pieces, and
bring it home in a basket; and the like bya turtle;
I could cut it up, take out the eggs, and a piece
or two of the flesh, which was enough for me,
and bring them home in a basket, and leave
ROBINSON CRUSOE 185

the rest behind me. Also large deep baskets
were my receivers for my corn, which I always
rubbed out as soon as it was dry, and cured,
and kept it in great baskets.

I began now to perceive my powder abated
considerably, and this was a want which it
was impossible for me to supply, and I began
seriously to consider what I'must do when I
should have no more powder; that is to say,
how I should do to kill any goats. I had, as is
observed, in the third year of my being here
kept a young kid, and bred her up tame, and I
was in hope of getting a he-goat. But I could
not by any means bring it to pass, till my kid
grew an old goat; and I could never find in my
heart to kill her, till she died at last of mere age.

But being now in the eleventh year of my
residence, and, as I have said, my ammunition
growing low, I set myself to study some art to
trap and snare the goats, to see whether I could
not catch some of them alive; and particularly,
I wanted a she-goat great with young.

To this purpose, I made snares to hamper
them, and I do believe they were more than
once taken in them; but my tackle was not good,
for I had no wire, and I always found them
broken, and my bait devoured. At length I
resolved to try a pitfall; so I dug several large
pits in the earth, in places where I had observed
the goats used to feed, and over these pits I
placed hurdles, of my own making too, with a
great weight upon them; and several times I
put ears of barley and dry rice, without setting
the trap, and I could easily perceive that the
goats had gone in and eaten up the corn, for I
186 THE ADVENTURES OF

could see the mark of their feet. At length I set
three traps in one night, and going the next
morning, I found them all standing, and yet the
bait eaten and gone; this was very discouraging.
However, I altered my trap; and, not to trouble
you with particulars, going one morning to see
my trap, I found in one of them a large old he-
goat, and in one of the other three kids, a male
and two females.

As to the old one, I knew not what to do with
him, he was so fierce I durst not go into the pit
to him; that is to say, to go about to bring him
away alive, which was what I wanted. I could
have killed him, but that was not my business,
nor would it answer my end; so I even let him
out, and he ran away, as if he had been frighted
out of his wits. But I had forgot then what I
learned afterwards, that hunger will tame a lion.
If I had let him stay there three or four days
without food, and then have carried him some
water to drink, and then a little corn, he would
have been as tame as one of the kids, for they
are mighty sagacious, tractable creatures where
they are well used.

However, for the present I let him go, know-
ing no better at that time. Then I went to the
three kids, and taking them one by one, I tied
them with strings together, and with some diffi-
culty brought them all home.

It was a good while before they would feed,
but throwing them some sweet corn, it tempted
them, and they began to be tame. And now I
found that if I expected to supply myself with
goat-flesh when I had no powder or shot left,
breeding some up tame was my only way, when
ROBINSON CRUSOE 187

perhaps I might have them about my house like
a flock of sheep.

But then it presently occurred to me that I
must keep the tame from the wild, or else they
would always run wild when they grew up; and
the only way for this was to have some enclosed
piece of ground, well fenced either with hedge
or pale, to keep them in so effectually, that those
within might not break out, or those without
break in.

This was a great undertaking for one pair of
hands; yet as I saw there was an absolute neces-
sity of doing it, my first piece of work was to
find out a proper piece of ground, viz., where
there was likely to be herbage for them to eat,
water for them to drink, and cover to keep them
from the sun.

Those who understand such enclosures will
think I had very little contrivance when I
pitched upon a place very proper for all these,
being a plain open piece of meadow land, or
savanna (as our people call it in the western
colonies), which had two or three little drills of
fresh water in it, and at one end was very woody;
I say, they will smile at my forecast, when I shall
tell them I began my enclosing of this piece of
ground in such a manner, that my hedge or pale
must have been at least two miles about. Nor
was the madness of it so great as to the compass,
for if it was ten miles about, I was like to have
time enough to do it in. But I did not consider
that my goats would be as wild in so much com-
pass as if they had had the whole island, and I
should have so much room to chase them in,
that I should never catch them.
188 THE ADVENTURES OF

My hedge was begun and carried on, I believe,
about fifty yards, when this thought occurred
to me, so I presently stopped short, and, for the:
first beginning, I resolved to enclose a piece of
about 150 yards in length, and roo yards in
breadth; which, as it would maintain as many
as I should have in any reasonable time, so, as
my flock increased, I could add more ground
to my enclosure.

This was acting with some prudence, and I
went to work with courage. I was about three
months hedging in the first piece, and, till I had
done it, I tethered the three kids in the best part
of it, and used them to feed as near me as pos-
sible, to make them familiar; and very often I
would go and carry them some ears of barley,
or a handful of rice, and feed them out of my
hand; so that after my enclosure was finished,
and I let them loose, they would follow me up
and down, bleating after me for a handful of
corn.

This answered my end, and in about a year
and half I had a flock of about twelve goats, kids
and all; and in two years more I had three and
forty, besides several that I took and killed for
my food. And after that I enclosed five several
pieces of ground to feed them in, with little pens
to drive them into, to take them as I wanted,
and gates out of one piece of ground into
another.

But this was not all, for now I not only had
goat’s flesh to feed on when I pleased, but milk
too, a thing which, indeed, in my beginning, I
did not so much as think of, and which, when
it came into my thoughts, was really an agree-
ROBINSON CRUSOE 189

able surprise. For now I set up my dairy, and
had sometimes a gallon or two of milk in a day;
and as Nature, who gives supplies of food to
every creature, dictates even naturally how to
make use of it, so I, that had never milked a
cow, much less a goat, or seen butter or cheese
made, very readily and handily, though after
a great many essays and miscarriages, made me
both butter and cheese at last, and never wanted
it afterwards.

How mercifully can our great Creator treat
His creatures, even in those conditions in which
they seemed to be overwhelmed in destruction!
How can He sweeten the bitterest providences,
and give us cause to praise Him for dungeons
and prisons! What a table was here spread for
me in a wilderness, where I saw nothing at first
but to perish for hunger!

It would. have made a stoic smile, to have seen
me and my little family sit down to dinner.
There was my majesty, the prince and lord of
the whole island; I had the lives of all my sub-
jects at my absolute command. I could hang,
draw, give liberty, and take it away; and no
rebels among all my subjects.

Then to see how like a king I dined, too, all
alone, attended by my servants. Poll, as if he
had been my favourite, was the only person
permitted to talk to me. My dog, who was now
grown very old and crazy, and had found no
species to multiply his kind upon, sat always at
my. right hand, and two cats, one on one side
the table, and one on the other, expecting now
and then a bit from my hand, as a mark of
special favour.
190 THE ADVENTURES OF

But these were not the two cats which I
brought on shore at first, for they were both of
them dead, and had been interred near my
habitation, by my own hand. But one of them
having multiplied by I know not what kind of
creature, these were two which I had preserved
tame, whereas the rest run wild in the woods,
and became indeed troublesome to me at last;
for they would often come into my house, and
plunder me too, till at last I was obliged to shoot
them, and did kill a great many; at length
they left me. With this attendance, and in this
plentiful manner, I lived; neither could I be
said to want anything but society; and of that
in some time after this, I was like to have too
much.

I was something impatient, as I have observed,
to have the use of my boat, though very loth to
run any more hazards; and therefore sometimes
I sat contriving ways to get her about the island,
and at other times I sat myself down contented
enough without her. But I had a strange un-
easiness in my mind to go down to the point of
the island, where, as I have said, in my last
ramble, I went up the hill to see how the shore
lay, and how the current set, that I might see
what I had to do. This inclination increased
upon me every day, and at length I resolved to
travel thither by land, following the edge of the
shore. I did so; but had any one in England
been to meet such a man as I was, it must either
have frighted them, or raised a great deal of
laughter; and as I frequently stood still to look
at myself, I could not but smile at the notion of
my travelling through Yorkshire, with such an
ROBINSON CRUSOE Igl

equipage, and in such a dress. Be pleased to take
a sketch of my figure, as follows.

I had a great high shapeless cap, made of a
goat’s skin, with a flap hanging down behind,
as well to keep the sun from me, as to shoot the
rain off from running into my neck; nothing
being so hurtful in these climates as the rain
upon the flesh, under the clothes.

I had a short jacket of goat-skin, the skirts
coming down to about the middle of my thighs;
and a pair of open-kneed breeches of the same.
The breeches were made of the skin of an old
he-goat, whose hair hung down such a length
on either side, that, like pantaloons, it reached
to the middle of my legs. Stockings and shoes I
had none, but had made me a pair of some-
things, I scarce know what to call them, like
buskins, to flap over my legs, and lace on either
side like spatterdashes; but of a most barbarous
shape, as indeed were all the rest of my clothes.

I had on a broad belt of goat’s skin dried,
which I drew together with two thongs of the
same, instead of buckles; and in a kind of a frog
on either side of this, instead of a sword and a
dagger, hung a little saw and a hatchet, one on
one side, one on the other. I had another belt,
not so broad, and fastened in the same manner,
which hung over my shoulder; and at the end
of it, under my left arm, hung two pouches, both
made of goat’s skin too; in one of which hung my
powder, in the other my shot. At my back I
carried my basket, on my shoulder my gun, and
over my head a. great clumsy ugly goat-skin
umbrella, but which, after all, was the most
necessary thing I had about me, next to my
192 THE ADVENTURES OF

gun. As for my face, the colour of it was really
not so mulatto-like as one might expect from a
man not at all careful of it, and living within
nineteen degrees of the equinox. My beard I
had once suffered to grow till it was about a
quarter of a yard long; but as I had both
scissors and razors sufficient, I had cut it pretty
short, except what grew on my upper lip, which
I had trimmed into a large pair of Mahometan
whiskers, such as I had seen worn by some
Turks whom I saw at Sallee; for the Moors did
not wear such, though the Turks did. Of these
mustachios or whiskers, I will not say they were
long enough to hang my hat upon them, but
they were of a length and shape monstrous
enough, and such as, in England, would have
passed for frightful.

But all this is by the bye; for, as to my figure,
I had so few to observe me, that it was of no
manner of consequence; so I say no more to
that part. In this kind of figure I went my new
journey, and was out five or six days. I travelled
first along the sea-shore, directly to the place
where I first brought my boat to an anchor, to
get up upon the rocks. And having no boat now
to take care of, I went over the land, a nearer
way, to the same height that I was upon before;
when, looking forward to the point of the rocks
which lay out, and which I was obliged to
double with my boat, as is said above, I was
surprised to see the sea all smooth and quiet, no
rippling, no motion, no current, any more there
than in other places.

I was at a strange loss to understand this, and
resolved to spend some time in the observing it,
ROBINSON CRUSOE 193

to see if nothing from the sets of the tide had
occasioned it. But I was presently convinced
how it was, viz., that the tide of ebb setting from
the west, and joining with the current of waters
from some great river on the shore, must be the
occasion of this current; and that according as
the wind blew more forcibly from the west, or
from the north, this current came near, or went
farther from the shore; for waiting thereabouts
till evening, I went up to the rock again, and
then the tide of ebb being made, I plainly saw
the current again as before, only that it run
farther off, being near half a league from the
shore; whereas in my case it set close upon the
shore, and hurried me and my canoe along with
it, which, at another time, it would not have
done.

This observation convinced me that I had
nothing to do but to observe the ebbing and the
flowing of the tide, and I might very easily bring
my boat about the island again. But when I
began to think of putting it in practice, I had
such a terror upon my spirits at the remem-
brance of the danger I had been in, that I could
not think of it again with any patience; but, on
the contrary, I took up another resolution, which
was more safe, though more laborious; and this
was, that I would build, or rather make me
another periagua or canoe; and so have one for
one side of the island, and one for the other.

You are to understand that now I had, as I
may call it, two plantations in the island; one,
my little fortification or tent, with the wall about
it, under the rock, with the cave behind me,
which, by this time, I had enlarged into several

17 H
194. THE ADVENTURES OF

apartments or caves, one within another. One
of these, which was the driest and largest, and
had a door out beyond my wall or fortification,
that is to say, beyond where my wall joined to
the rock, was all filled up with the large earthen
pots, of which I have given an account, and with
fourteen or fifteen great baskets, which would
hold five or six bushels each, where I laid up my
stores of provision, especially my corn, some in
the ear, cut off short from the straw, and the
other rubbed out with my hand.

As for my wall, made, as before, with long
stakes or piles, those piles grew all like trees, and
were by this time grown so big, and spread so
very much, that there was not the least appear-
ance, to any one’s view, of any habitation behind
them.

Near this dwelling of mine, but a little farther
within the land, and upon lower ground, lay my
two pieces of corn ground, which I kept duly
cultivated and sowed, and which duly yielded
me their harvest in its season; and whenever I
had occasion for more corn, I had more land
adjoining as fit as that.

Besides this, I had my country seat, and I had
now a tolerable plantation there also; for, first,
I had my little bower, as I called it, which I
kept in repair; that is to say, I kept the hedge
which circled it in constantly fitted up to its
usual height, the ladder standing always in the
inside. I kept the trees, which at first were no
more than my stakes, but were now grown very
firm and tall, I kept them always so cut, that
they might spread and grow thick and wild, and
make the more agreeable shade, which they did
ROBINSON CRUSOE 195

effectually to my mind. In the middle of this,
I had my tent always standing, being a piece of
a sail spread over poles, set up for that purpose,
and which never wanted any repair or renewing;
and under this I had made me a squab or couch,
with the skins of the creatures I had killed, and
with other soft things, and a blanket laid on
them, such as belonged to our sea-bedding,
which I had saved, and a great watch-coat to
cover me; and here, whenever I had occasion
to be absent from my chief seat, I took up my
country habitation.

Adjoining to this I had my enclosures for my
cattle, that is to say, my goats. And as I had
taken an inconceivable deal of pains to fence
and enclose this ground, so I was so uneasy to
see it kept entire, lest the goats should break
through, that I never left off till, with infinite
labour, I had stuck the outside of the hedge so
full of small stakes, and so near to one another,
that it was rather a pale than a hedge, and there
was scarce room to put a hand through between
them; which afterwards, when those stakes grew,
as they all did in the next rainy season, made the
enclosure strong like a wall, indeed, stronger
than any wall.

This will testify for me that I was not idle, and
that I spared no pains to bring to pass whatever
appeared necessary for my comfortable support;
for I considered the keeping up a breed of tame
creatures thus at my hand would be a living
magazine of flesh, milk, butter, and cheese for
me as long as I lived in the place, if it were to
be forty years; and that keeping them in my
reach depended entirely upon my perfecting my
196 THE ADVENTURES OF

enclosures to such a degree, that I might be sure
of keeping them together; which, by this method,
indeed, I so effectually secured, that when these
little stakes began to grow, I had planted them
so very thick, I was forced to pull some of them
up again.

In this place also I had my grapes growing,
which I principally depended on for my winter
store of raisins, and which I never failed to
preserve very carefully, as the best and most
agreeable dainty of my whole diet. And indeed
they were not agreeable only, but physical,
wholesome, nourishing, and refreshing to the
last degree.

As this was also about half-way between my
other habitation and the place where I had laid
up my boat, I generally stayed and lay here in
my way thither; for I used frequently to visit my
boat, and I kept all things about, or belonging
to her, in very good order. Sometimes I went
out in her to divert myself, but no more hazard-
ous voyages would I go, nor scarce ever above a
stone’s cast or two from the shore, I was so
apprehensive of being hurried out of my know-
ledge again by the currents or winds, or any
other accident. But now I come to a new scene
of my life.

It happened one day, about noon, going to-
wards my boat, I was exceedingly surprised with
the print of a man’s naked foot on the shore,
which was very plain to be seen in the sand. I
stood like one thunderstruck, or as if I had seen
an apparition. I listened, I looked round me, I
could hear nothing, nor see anything. I went
up to a rising ground, to look farther. I went
ROBINSON CRUSOE 197

up the shore, and down the shore, but it was all
one; I could see no other impression but that
one. I went to it again to see if there were any
more, and to observe if it might not be my fancy;
but there was no room for that, for there was
exactly the very print of a foot—toes, heel, and
every part of a foot. How it came thither I
knew not, nor could in the least imagine. But
after innumerable fluttering thoughts, like a man
perfectly confused and out of myself, I came
home to my fortification, not feeling, as we say,
the ground I went on, but terrified to the last
degree, looking behind me at every two or three
steps, mistaking every bush and tree, and fancy-
ing every stump at a distance to be a man; nor
is it possible to describe how many various shapes
affrighted imagination represented things to me
in, how many wild ideas were found every
moment in my fancy, and what strange, unac-
countable whimsies came into my thoughts by
the way.

When I came to my castle, for so I think I
called it ever after this, I fled into it like one
pursued. Whether I went over by the ladder,
as first contrived, or went in at the hole in the
rock, which I called a door, I cannot remember;
no, nor could I remember the next morning, for
never frighted hare fled to cover, or fox to earth,
with more terror of mind than I to this retreat.

Islept none that night. The farther I was from
the occasion of my fright, the greater my appre-
hensions were; which is something contrary to
the nature of such things, and especially to the
usual practice of all creatures in fear. But I was
so embarrassed with my own frightful ideas of
198 THE ADVENTURES OF

the thing, that I formed nothing but dismal
imaginations to myself, even though I was now
a great way off it. Sometimes I fancied it must
be the devil, and reason joined in with mé upon
this supposition; for how should any other thing
in human shape come into the place? Where
was the vessel that brought them? What marks
was there of any other footsteps? And how was
it possible a man should come there? But then
to think that Satan should take human shape
upon him in such a place, where there could be
no manner of occasion for it, but to leave the
print of his foot behind him, and that even for
no purpose too, for he could not be sure I should
see it; this was an amusement the other way.
I considered that the devil might have found out
abundance of other ways to have terrified me
than this of the single print of a foot; that as I
lived quite on the other side of the island, he
would never have been so simple to leave a
mark in a place where it was ten thousand to
one whether I should ever see it or not, and in
the sand too, which the first surge of the sea,
upon a high wind, would have defaced entirely.
All this seemed inconsistent with the thing itself,
and with all the notions we usually entertain of
the subtilty of the devil.

Abundance of such things as these assisted to
argue me out of all apprehensions of its being
the devil; and I presently concluded then, that
it must be some more dangerous creature, viz.,
that it must be some of the savages of the main-
land over against me, who had wandered out
to sea in their canoes, and, either driven by the
currents or by contrary winds, had made the
ROBINSON CRUSOE 199

island, and had been on shore, but were gone
away again to sea, being as loth, perhaps, to
have stayed in this desolate island as I would
have been to have had them.

While these reflections were rolling upon my
mind, I was very thankful in my thoughts that
I was so happy as not to be thereabouts at that
time, or that they did not see my boat, by which
they would have concluded that some inhabi-
tants had been in the place, and perhaps have
searched farther for me. Then terrible thoughts
racked my imagination about their having found
my boat, and that there were people here; and
that if so, I should certainly have them come
again in greater numbers, and devour me; and
if it should happen so that they should not find
me, yet they would find my enclosure, destroy
all my corn, carry away all my flock of tame
goats, and I should perish at last for mere want.

Thus my fear banished all my religious hope.
All that former confidence in God, which was
founded upon such wonderful experience as I
had had of His goodness, now vanished, as if He
that had fed me by miracle hitherto could not
preserve, by His power, the provision which He
had made for me by His goodness. I reproached
myself with my easiness, that would not sow any
more corn one year than would just serve me till
the next season, as if no accident could intervene
to prevent my enjoying the crop that was upon
the ground. And this I thought so just a reproof,
that I resolved for the future to have two or
three years’ corn beforehand, so that, whatever
might come, I might not perish for want of
bread.
200 THE ADVENTURES OF

How strange a chequer-work of Providence
is the life of man! and by what secret differ-
ing springs are the affections hurried about
as differing circumstances present! To-day we
love what to-morrow we hate; to-day we seek
what to-morrow we shun; to-day we desire
what to-morrow we fear; nay, even tremble at
the apprehensions of. This was exemplified in
me, at this time, in the most lively manner
imaginable; for I, whose only affliction was
that I seemed banished from human society,
that I was alone, circumscribed by the boundless
ocean, cut off from mankind, and condemned
to what I called silent life; that I was as one
whom Heaven thought not worthy to be num-
bered among the living, or to appear among
the rest of His creatures; that to have seen one
of my own species would have seemed to me a
raising me from death to life, and the greatest
-blessing that Heaven itself, next to the supreme
blessing of salvation, could bestow; I say, that
I should now tremble at the very apprehensions
of seeing a man, and was ready to sink into the
ground at but the shadow or silent appearance
of a man’s having set his foot in the island!

Such is the uneven state of human life; and it
afforded me a great many curious speculations
afterwards, when I had a little recovered my
first surprise. I considered that this was the
station of life the infinitely wise and good provi-
dence of God had determined for me; that, as I
could not foresee what the ends of Divine wisdom
might be in all this, so I was not to dispute His
sovereignty, who, as I was His creature, had an
undoubted right, by creation, to govern and
ROBINSON CRUSOE 201

dispose of me absolutely as He thought fit, and
who, as I was a creature who had offended Him,
had likewise a judicial right to condemn me to
what punishment He thought fit; and that it was
my part to submit to bear His indignation,
because I had sinned against Him.

I then reflected that God, who was not only
righteous, but omnipotent, as He had thought
fit thus to punish and afflict me, so He was able
to deliver me; that if He did not think fit to do
it, *twas my unquestioned duty to resign myself
absolutely and entirely to His will; and, on the
other hand, it was my duty also to hope in Him,
pray to Him, and quietly to attend the dictates
and directions of His daily providence.

These thoughts took me up many hours, days,
nay, I may say, weeks and months; and one
particular effect of my cogitations on this occa-
sion I cannot omit, viz., one morning early, lying
in my bed, and filled with thought about my
danger from the appearance of savages, I found
it discomposed me very much; upon which those
words of the Scripture came into my thoughts,
‘Call upon Me in the day of trouble, and I will
deliver, and thou shalt glorify Me.’

Upon this, rising cheerfully out of my bed, my
heart was not only comforted, but I was guided
and encouraged to pray earnestly to God for
deliverance. When I had done praying, I took
up my Bible, and opening it to read, the first
words that presented to me were, ‘Wait on the
Lord, and be of good cheer, and He shall
strengthen thy heart; wait, I say, on the Lord.’
It is impossible to express the comfort this gave
me. In answer, I thankfully laid down the book,
202 THE ADVENTURES OF

and was no more sad, at least, not on that
occasion.

In the middle of these cogitations, apprehen-
sions, and reflections, it came into my thought
one day, that all this might be a mere chimera
of my own; and that this foot might be the print
of my own foot, when I came on shore from my
boat. This cheered me up a little too, and I
began to persuade myself it was all a delusion,
that it was nothing else but my own foot; and
why might not I come that way from the boat,
as well as I was going that way to the boat?
Again, I considered also, that I could by no
means tell, for certain, where I had trod, and
where I had not; and that if, at last, this was
only the print of my own foot, I had played the
part of those fools who strive to make stories of
spectres and apparitions, and then are frighted
at them more than anybody.

Now I began to take courage, and to peep
abroad again, for I had not stirred out of my
castle for three days and nights, so that I began
to starve for provision; for I had little or nothing
within doors but some barley-cakes and water.
Then I knew that my goats wanted to be milked
too, which usually was my evening diversion;
and the poor creatures were in great pain and
inconvenience for want of it; and, indeed, it
almost spoiled some of them, and almost dried
up their milk.

Heartening myself, therefore, with the belief
that this was nothing but the print of one of my
own feet, and so I might be truly said to start at
my own shadow, I began to go abroad again,
and went to my country house to milk my flock.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 203

But to see with what fear I went forward, how
often I looked behind me, how I was ready,
every now and then, to lay down my basket, and
run for my life, it would have made any one have
thought I was haunted with an evil conscience,
or that I had been lately most terribly frighted;
and so, indeed, I had.

However, as I went down thus two or three
days, and having seen nothing, I began to be
a little bolder, and to think there was really
nothing in it but my own imagination. But I
could not persuade myself fully of this till I
should go down to the shore again, and see this
print of a foot, and measure it by my own, and
see if there was any similitude or fitness, that I
might be assured it was my own foot. But when
I came to the place, first, it appeared evidently
to me, that when I laid up my boat, I could
not possibly be on shore anywhere thereabout;
secondly, when I came to measure the mark
with my own foot, I found my foot not so large
by a great deal. Both these things filled my head
with new imaginations, and gave me the vapours
again to the highest degree; so that I shook with
cold, like one in an ague; and I went home again,
filled with the belief that some man or men had
been on shore there; or, in short, that the island
was inhabited, and I might be surprised before
I was aware. And what course to take for my
security, I knew not.

Oh, what ridiculous resolution men take when
possessed with fear! It deprives them of the use
of those means which reason offers for their
relief. The first thing I proposed to myself was
to throw down my enclosures, and turn all my
204 THE ADVENTURES OF

tame cattle wild into the woods, that the enemy
might not find them, and then frequent the
island in prospect of the same or the like booty;
then to the simple thing of digging up my two
corn-fields, that they might not find such a grain
there, and still be prompted to frequent the
island; then to demolish my bower and tent, that
they might not see any vestiges of habitation,
and be prompted to look farther, in order to find
out the persons inhabiting.

These were the subject of the first night’s
cogitation, after I was come home again, while
the apprehensions which had so overrun my
mind were fresh upon me, and my head was full
of vapours, as above. Thus fear of danger is
ten thousand times more terrifying than danger
itself when apparent to the eyes; and we find
the burthen of anxiety greater, by much, than
the evil which we are anxious about; and, which
was worse than all this, I had not that relief in
this trouble from the resignation I used to prac-
tise, that I hoped to have. I looked, I thought,
like Saul, who complained not only that the
Philistines were upon him, but that God had
forsaken him; for I did not now take due ways
to compose my mind, by crying to God in my
distress, and resting upon His providence, as I
had done before, for my defence and deliver-
ance; which, if I had done, I had at least been
more cheerfully supported under this new sur-
prise, and perhaps carried through it with more
resolution.

This confusion of my thoughts kept me waking
all night, but in the morning I fell asleep; and
having, by the amusement of my mind, been,
ROBINSON CRUSOE 205

as it were, tired, and my spirits exhausted, I
slept very soundly, and waked much better com-
posed than I had ever been before. And now I
began to think sedately; and upon the utmost
debate with myself, I concluded that this island,
which was so exceeding pleasant, fruitful, and
no farther from the: mainland than as I had
seen, was not so entirely abandoned as I might
imagine; that although there were no stated
inhabitants who lived on the spot, yet that there
might sometimes come boats off from the shore,
who, either with design, or perhaps never but
when they were driven by cross winds, might
come to this place; that I had lived here fifteen
years now, and had not met with the least
shadow or figure of any people yet; and that if
at any time they should be driven here, it was
probable they went away again as soon as ever
they could, seeing they had never thought. fit to
fix there upon any occasion to this time; that
the most I could suggest any danger from, was
from any such casual accidental landing of
straggling people from the main, who, as it was
likely, if they were driven hither, were here
against their wills; so they made no stay here,
but went off again with all possible speed,
seldom staying one night on shore, lest they
should not have the help of the tides and day-
light back again; and that, therefore, I had
nothing to do but to consider of some safe re-
treat, in case I should see any savages land upon
the spot. :
Now I began sorely to repent that I had dug
my cave so large as to bring a door through
again, which door, as I said, came out beyond
206 THE ADVENTURES OF

where my fortification joined to the rock. Upon
maturely considering this, therefore, I resolved
to draw me a second fortification, ‘in the same
manner of a semicircle, at a distance from my
wall, just where I had planted a double row of
trees about twelve years before, of which I made
mention. These trees having been planted so
thick before, they wanted but a few piles to
be driven between them, that they should be
thicker and stronger, and my wall would be
soon finished.

So that I had now a double wall; and my
outer wall was thickened with pieces of timber,
old cables, and everything I could think of, to
make it strong, having in it seven little holes,
about as big as I might put my arm out at. In
the inside of this I thickened my wall to above
ten feet thick, with continual bringing earth out
of my cave, and laying it at the foot of the wall,
and walking upon it; and through the seven
holes I contrived to plant the muskets, of which
I took notice that I got seven on shore out of the
ship. These, I say, I planted like my cannon,
and fitted them into frames, that held them like
a carriage, that so I could fire all the seven guns
in two minutes’ time. This wall I was many a
weary month a-finishing, and yet never thought
myself safe till it was done.

When this was done, I stuck all the ground
without my wall, for a great way every way, as
full with stakes, or sticks, of the osier-like wood,
which I found so apt to grow, as they could well
stand; insomuch, that I believe I might set in
near twenty thousand of them, leaving a pretty
large space between them and my wall, that I
ROBINSON CRUSOE 207

might have room to see an enemy, and they
might have no shelter from the young trees, if
they attempted to approach my outer wall.

Thus in two years’ time I had a thick grove;
and in five or six years’ time I had a wood before
my dwelling, growing so monstrous thick and
strong, that it was indeed perfectly impassable;
and no men, of what kind soever, would ever
imagine that there was anything beyond it,
much less a habitation. As for the way which I
proposed to myself to go in and out, for I left no
avenue, it was by setting two ladders, one to a
part of the rock which was low, and then broke
in, and left room to place another ladder upon
that; so when the two ladders were taken down,
no man living could come down to me without
mischieving himself; and if they had come down,
they were still on the outside of my outer wall.

Thus I took all the measures human prudence
could suggest for my own preservation; and it
will be seen, at length, that they were not alto-
gether without just reason; though I. foresaw
nothing at that time more than my mere fear
suggested to me.

While this was doing, I was not altogether
careless of my other affairs; for I had a great
concern upon me for my little herd of goats.
They were not only a present supply to me upon
every occasion, and began to be sufficient to me,
without the expense of powder and shot, but
also without the fatigue of hunting after the
wild ones; and I was loth to lose the advantage
of them, and to have them all to nurse up
over again.

To this purpose, after long. consideration, I
208 THE ADVENTURES OF

could think of but two ways to preserve them.
One was, to find another convenient place to
dig a cave under ground, and to drive them into
it every night; and the other was, to enclose two
or three little bits of land, remote from one
another, and as much concealed as I could,
where I might keep about half a dozen young
goats in each place; so that if any disaster hap-
pened to the flock in general, I might be able
to raise them again with little trouble and time.
And this, though it would require a great deal
of time and labour, I thought was the most
rational design.

Accordingly I spent some time to find out the
most retired parts of the island; and I pitched
upon one which was as private indeed as my
heart could wish for. It was a little damp piece
of ground, in the middle of the hollow and thick
woods, where, as is observed, I almost lost my-
self once before, endeavouring to come back
that way from the eastern part of the island.
Here I found a clear piece of land, near three
acres, so surrounded with woods, that it was
almost an enclosure by Nature; at least, it did
not want near so much labour to make it so as
the other pieces of ground I had worked so
hard at.

I immediately went to work with this piece of
ground, and in less than a month’s time I had
so fenced it round, that my flock, or herd, call
it which you please, who were not so wild now
as at first they might be supposed to be, were
well enough secured in it. So, without any
farther delay, I removed ten young she-goats
and two he-goats to this piece. And when they
ROBINSON CRUSOE 209

were there, I continued to perfect the fence, till
I had made it as secure as the other, which,
however, I did at more leisure, and it took me
up more time by a great deal.

All this labour I was at the expense of, purely
from my apprehensions on the account of the
print of a man’s foot which I had seen; for, as
yet, I never saw any human creature come near
the island. And I had now lived two years under
these uneasinesses, which, indeed, made my life
much less comfortable than it was before, as
may well be imagined by any who know what
it is to live in the constant snare of the fear of
man. And this I must observe, with grief too,
that the discomposure of my mind had too great
impressions also upon the religious part of my
thoughts; for the dread and terror of falling into
the hands of savages and cannibals lay so upon
my spirits, that I seldom found myself in a due
temper for application to my Maker, at least
not with the sedate calmness and resignation of
soul which I was wont to do. I rather prayed
to God as under great affliction and pressure of
mind, surrounded with danger, and in expecta-
tion every night of being murdered and devoured
before morning; and I must testify from my
experience, that a temper of peace, thankfulness,
love, and affection, is much more the proper
frame for prayer than that of terror and discom-
posure; and that under the dread of mischief
impending, a man is no more fit for a comforting
performance of the duty of praying to God, than
he is for repentance on a sick-bed. For these
discomposures affect the mind, as the others do
the body; and the discomposure of the mind
210 THE ADVENTURES OF

must necessarily be as great a disability as that
of the body, and much greater, praying to God
being properly an act of the mind, not of the
body.

But to go on. After I had thus secured one
part of my little living stock, I went about the
whole island, searching for another private place
to make such another deposit; when, wandering
more to the west point of the island than I had
ever done yet, and looking out to sea, I thought
I saw a boat upon the sea, at a great distance.
I had found a prospective glass or two in one of
the seamen’s chests, which I saved out of our
ship, but I had it not about me; and this was so
remote, that I could not tell what to make of it,
though I looked at it till my eyes were not able
to hold to look any longer. Whether it was a
boat or not, I do not know; but as I descended
from the hill, I could see no more of it, so I gave
it over; only I resolved to go no more out with-
out a prospective glass in my pocket.

When I was come down the hill to the end of
the island, where, indeed, I had never been
before, I was presently convinced that the seeing
the print of a man’s foot was not such a strange
thing in the island as I imagined. And, but that
it was a special providence that I was cast upon
the side of the island where the savages never
came, I should easily have known that nothing
was more frequent than for the canoes from the
main, when they happened to be a little too far,
out at sea, to shoot over to that side of the island
for harbour; likewise, as they often met and
fought in their canoes, the victors having taken
any prisoners would bring them over to this
ROBINSON CRUSOE QiI

shore, where, according to their dreadful cus-
toms, being all cannibals, they would kill and
eat them; of which hereafter.

When I was come down the hill to the shore,
as I said above, being the S.W. point of the
island, I was perfectly confounded and amazed;
nor is it possible for me to express the horror of
my mind at seeing the shore spread with skulls,
hands, feet, and other bones of human bodies;
and particularly, I observed a place where there
had been a fire made, and a circle dug in the
earth, like a cockpit, where it is supposed the
savage wretches had sat down to their inhuman
feastings upon the bodies of their fellow-creatures.

I was so astonished with the sight of these
things, that I entertained no notion of any
danger to myself from it for a long while. All
my apprehensions were buried in the thoughts
of such a pitch of inhuman, hellish brutality,
and the horror of the degeneracy of human
nature, which, though I had heard of often, yet
I never had so near a view of before. In short,
I turned away my face from the horrid spectacle.
My stomach grew sick, and I was just at the
point of fainting, when Nature discharged the
disorder from my stomach. And having vomited
with an uncommon violence, I was a little
relieved, but could not bear to stay in the place
a moment; so I got me up the hill again with all
the speed I could, and walked on towards my
own habitation.

When I came a little out of that part of the
island, I stood still a while, as amazed; and then
recovering myself, I looked up with the utmost
affection of my soul, and with a flood of tears in
aig. THE ADVENTURES OF

my eyes, gave God thanks, that had cast my first
lot in a part of the world where I was distin-
guished from such dreadful creatures as these;
and that, though I had esteemed my present
condition very miserable, had yet given me so
many comforts in it, that I had still more to give
thanks for than to complain of; and this above
all, that I had, even in this miserable condition,
been comforted with the knowledge of Himself,
and the hope of His blessing; which was a felicity
more than sufficiently equivalent to all the
misery which I had suffered, or could suffer.

In this frame of thankfulness I went home to
my castle, and began to be much easier now, as
to the safety of my circumstances, than ever I
was before; for I observed that these wretches
never came to this island in search of what they
could get; perhaps not seeking, not wanting,
or not expecting, anything here; and having
often, no doubt, been up in the covered, woody
part of it, without finding anything to their
purpose. I knew I had been here now almost
eighteen years, and never saw the least footsteps
of human creature there before; and I might be
here eighteen more as entirely concealed as I
was now, if I did not discover myself to them,
which I had no manner of occasion to do; it
being my only business to keep myself entirely
concealed where I was, unless I found a better

- sort of creatures than cannibals to make myself
known to,

Yet I entertained such an abhorrence of the
savage wretches that I have been speaking of,
and of the wretched, inhuman custom of their
devouring and eating one another up, that I
ROBINSON CRUSOE 213

continued pensive and sad, and kept close within
my own circle for almost two years after this.
When I say my own circle, I mean by it my three
plantations, viz., my castle, my country seat,
which I called my bower, and my enclosure in
the woods. Nor did I look after this for any other
use than as an enclosure for my goats; for the
aversion which Nature gave me to these hellish
wretches was such, that I was fearful of seeing
them as of seeing the devil himself. Nor did I so
much as go to look after my boat in all this time,
but began rather to think of making me another;
for I could not think of ever making any more
attempts to bring the other boat round the
island to me, lest I should meet with some of
these creatures at sea, in which, if I had hap-
pened to have fallen into their hands, I knew
what would have been my lot.

Time, however, and the satisfaction I had that
I was in no danger of being discovered by these
people, began to wear off my uneasiness about
them; and I began to live just in‘the same com-
posed manner as before; only with this differ-
ence, that I used more caution, and kept my
eyes more about me, than I did before, lest I
should happen to be seen by any of them; and
particularly, I was more cautious of firing my
gun, lest any of them being on the island should
happen to hear of it. And it was, therefore, a
very good providence to me that I had furnished
myself with a tame breed of goats, that I needed
not hunt any more about the woods, or shoot at
them. And if I did catch any of them after this,
it was by traps and snares, as I had done before;
so that for two years after this I believe I never
214 THE ADVENTURES OF

fired my gun once off, though I never went out
without it; and, which was more, as I had saved
three pistols out of the ship, I always carried
them out with me, or at least two of them,
sticking them in my goat-skin belt. Also I
furbished up one of the great cutlasses that I had
out of the ship, and made me a belt to put it on
also; so that I was now a most formidable fellow
to look at when I went abroad, if you add to the
former description of myself the particular of
two pistols and a great broadsword hanging at
my side in a belt, but without a scabbard.

Things going on thus, as I have said, for some
time, I seemed, excepting these cautions, to be
reduced to my former calm, sedate way of living.
All these things tended to showing me, more and
more, how far my condition was from being
miserable, compared to some others; nay, to
many other particulars of life, which it might
have pleased God to have made my lot. It put
me upon reflecting how little repining there
would be among mankind at any condition of
life, if people would rather compare their con-
dition with those that are worse, in order to be
thankful, than be always comparing them with
those which are better, to assist their murmur-
ings and complainings.

As in my present condition there were not
really many things which I wanted, so indeed
I thought that the frights I had been in about
these savage wretches, and the concern I had
been in for my own preservation, had taken off
the edge of my invention for my own conveni-
ences. And I had dropped a good design, which
I had once bent my thoughts too much upon;
ROBINSON CRUSOE 215

and that was, to try if I could not make some of
my barley into malt, and then try to brew my-
self some beer. This was really a whimsical
thought, and I reproved myself often for the
simplicity of it; for I presently saw there would
be the want of several things necessary to the
making my beer, that it would be impossible for
me to supply. As, first, casks to preserve it in,
which was a thing that, as I have observed
already, I could never compass; no, though I
spent not many days, but weeks, nay, months,
in attempting it, but to no purpose. In the next
place, I had no hops to make it keep, no yeast
to make it work, no copper or kettle to make it
boil; and yet all these things notwithstanding,
I verily believe, had not these things intervened,
I mean the frights and terrors I was in about
the savages, I had‘ undertaken it, and perhaps
brought it to pass too; for I seldom gave any-
thing over without accomplishing it when I once
had it in my head enough to begin it.

But my invention now ran quite another way;
for, night and day, I could think of nothing but
how I might destroy some of these monsters in
their cruel, bloody entertainment, and, if pos-
sible, save the victim they should bring hither
to destroy. It would take up a larger volume
than this whole work is intended to be, to set
down all the contrivances I hatched, or rather
brooded upon, in my thought, for the destroying
these creatures, or at least frighting them so as to
prevent their coming hither any more. But all
was abortive; nothing could be possible to take
effect, unless I was to be there to do it myself.
And what could one man do among them, when
216 THE ADVENTURES OF

perhaps there might be twenty or thirty of them
together, with their darts, or their bows and
arrows, with which they could shoot as true to a
mark as I could with my gun?

Sometimes I contrived to dig a hole under the
place where they made their fire, and put in five
or six pound of gunpowder, which, when they
kindled their fire, would consequently take fire,
and blow up all that was near it. But as, in the
first place, I should be very loth to waste so much
powder upon them, my store being now within
the quantity of one barrel, so neither could I be
sure of its going off at any certain time, when it
might surprise them; and, at best, that it would
do little more than just blow the fire about their
ears, and fright them, but not sufficient to make
them forsake the place. So I laid it aside, and
then proposed that I would place myself in
ambush in some convenient place, with my three
guns all double-loaded, and, in the middle of
their bloody ceremony, let fly at them, when I
should be sure to kill or wound perhaps two or
three at every shot; and then falling in upon
them with my three pistols and my sword, I
made no doubt but that if there was twenty
I should kill them all. This fancy pleased my
thoughts for some weeks; and I was so full of it,
that I often dreamed of it, and sometimes that I
was just going to let fly at them in my sleep.

I went so far with it in my imagination, that I
employed myself several days to find out proper
places to put myself in ambuscade, as I said, to
watch for them; and I went frequently to the
place itself, which was now grown more familiar
to me; and especially while my mind was thus
ROBINSON CRUSOE 217

filled with thoughts of revenge, and of a bloody
putting twenty or thirty of them to the sword, as
I may call it, the horror I had at the place, and
at the signals of the barbarous wretches devour-
ing one another, abated my malice.

Well, at length I found a place in the side of
the hill, where I was satisfied I might securely
wait till I saw any of their boats coming; and
might then, even before they would be ready to
come on shore, convey myself, unseen, into
thickets of trees, in one of which there was a
hollow large enough to conceal me entirely;
and where I might sit and observe all their
bloody doings, and take my full aim at their
heads, when they were so close together, as that
it would be next to impossible that I should miss
my shot, or that I could fail wounding three or
four of them at the first shot.

In this place, then, I resolved to fix my design;
and, accordingly, I prepared two muskets and
my ordinary fowling-piece. The two muskets I
loaded with a brace of slugs each, and four or
five smaller bullets, about the size of pistol-
bullets; and the fowling-piece I loaded with
near a handful of swan-shot, of the largest size.
I also loaded my pistols with about four bullets
each; and in this posture, well provided with
ammunition for a second and third charge, I
prepared myself for my expedition.

After I had thus laid the scheme of my design,
and in my imagination put it in practice, I con-
tinually made my tour every morning up to the
top of the hill, which was from my castle, as I
called it, about three miles, or more, to see if I
could observe any boats upon the sea coming
218 THE ADVENTURES OF

near the island, or standing over towards it.
But I began to tire of this hard duty, after I had,
for two or three months, constantly kept my
watch, but came always back without any dis-
covery; there having not, in all that time, been
the least appearance, not only on or near the
shore, but not on the whole ocean, so far as my
eyes or glasses could reach every way.

As long as I kept up my daily tour to the hill
to look out, so long also I kept up the vigour of
my design, and my spirits seemed to be all the
while in a suitable form for so outrageous an
execution as the killing twenty or thirty naked
savages for an offence which I had not at all
entered into a discussion of in my thoughts, any
farther than my passions were at first fired by
the horror I conceived at the unnatural custom
of that people of the country; who, it seems, had
been suffered by Providence, in His wise disposi-
tion of the world, to have no other guide than
that of their own abominable and _ vitiated
passions; and consequently were left, and per-
haps had been so for some ages, to act such
horrid things, and receive such dreadful customs,
as nothing but nature entirely abandoned of
Heaven, and acted by some hellish degeneracy,
could have run them into. But now when, as I
have said, I began to be weary of the fruitless
excursion which I had made so long and so far
every morning in vain, so my opinion of the
action itself began to alter; and I began, with
cooler and calmer thoughts, to consider what
it was I was going to engage in. What authority
or call I had to pretend to be judge and execu-
tioner upon these men as criminals, whom
ROBINSON CRUSOE 219

Heaven had thought fit, for so many ages, to
suffer, unpunished, to go on, and to be, as it
were, the executioners of His judgments one
upon another. How far these people were offen-
ders against me, and what right I had to engage
in the quarrel of that blood which they shed
promiscuously one upon another. I debated
this very often with myself, thus: How do I
know what God Himself judges in this particular
case? It is certain these people either do not
commit this as a crime; it is not against their
own consciences’ reproving, or their light re-
proaching them. They do not know it to be an
offence, and then commit it in defiance of Divine
justice, as we do in almost all the sins we commit.
They think it no more a crime to kill a captive
taken in war, than we do to kill an ox; nor to eat
human flesh, than we do to eat mutton.

When I had considered this a little, it followed
necessarily that I was certainly in the wrong in
it; that these people were not murderers in the
sense that I had before condemned them in my
thoughts, any more than those Christians were
murderers who often put to death the prisoners
taken in battle; or more frequently, upon many
occasions, put whole troops of men to the sword,
without giving quarter, though they threw down
their arms and submitted.

In the next place it occurred to me, that albeit
the usage they thus gave one another was thus
brutish and inhuman, yet it was really nothing
to me; these people had done me no injury.
That if they attempted me, or I saw it necessary
for my immediate preservation to fall upon
them, something might be said for it; but that
220 THE ADVENTURES OF

as I was yet out of their power, and they had
really no knowledge of me, and consequently no
design upon me, and therefore it could not be
just ‘for me to fall upon them. That this would
justify the conduct of the Spaniards in all their
barbarities practised in America, and where they
destroyed millions of these people; who, how-
ever they were idolaters and barbarians, and
had several bloody and barbarous rites in their
customs, such as sacrificing human bodies to
their idols, were yet, as to the Spaniards, very
innocent people; and that the rooting them
out of the country is spoken of with the utmost
abhorrence and detestation by even the Spaniards
themselves at this time, and by all other Chris-
tian nations of Europe, as a mere butchery, a
bloody and unnatural piece of cruelty, unjustifi-
able either to God or man; and such, as for
which the very name of a Spaniard is reckoned
to be frightful and terrible to all people of
humanity, or of Christian compassion; as if the
kingdom of Spain were particularly eminent for
the product of a race of men who were without
principles of tenderness, or the common bowels
of pity to the miserable, which is reckoned to be
a mark of generous temper in the mind.

These considerations really put me to a pause,
and to a kind ofa full stop; and I began, by little
and little, to be off of my design, and to conclude
I had taken wrong measures in my resolutions
to attack the savages; that it was not my business
to meddle with them, unless they first attacked
me; and this it was my business, if possible, to
prevent; but that if I were discovered and
attacked, then I knew my duty.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 221

On the other hand, I argued with myself that
this really was the way not to deliver myself, but
entirely to ruin and destroy myself; for unless
I was sure to kill every one that not only should
be on shore at that time, but that should ever
come on shore afterwards, if but one of them
escaped to tell their country people what had
happened, they would come over again by
thousands to revenge the death of their fellows,
and I should only bring upon myself a certain
destruction, which, at present, I had no manner
of occasion for.

Upon the whole, I concluded that neither in
principles nor in policy I ought, one way or
other, to concern myself in this affair. That my
business was, by all possible means, to conceal
myself from them, and not to leave the least
signal to them to guess by that there were any
living creatures upon the island; I mean of
human shape.

_Religion joined in with this prudential, and I
Was convinced now, many ways, that. I was
perfectly out of my duty when I was laying all
my bloody schemes for the destruction of inno-
cent creatures; I mean innocent as to me. As
to the crimes they were guilty of towards one
another, I had nothing to do with them. They
were national, and I ought to leave them to the
justice of God, who is the Governor of nations,
and knows how, by national punishments, to
make a just retribution for national offences,
and to bring public judgments upon those who
offend in a public manner by such ways as best
pleases Him.

This appeared so clear to me now, that
222 THE ADVENTURES OF

nothing was a greater satisfaction to me than
that I had not been suffered to do a thing which
I now saw so much reason to believe would have
been no less a sin than that of wilful murder, if
I had commited it. And I gave most humble
thanks on my knees to God, that had thus
delivered me from blood-guiltiness; beseeching
Him to grant me the protection of His provi-
dence, that I might not fall into the hands of the
barbarians, or that I might not lay my hands
upon them, unless I had a more clear call from
Heaven to do it, in defence of my own life.

In this disposition I continued for near a year
after this; and so far was I from desiring an
occasion for falling upon these wretches, that in
all that time I never once went up the hill to see
whether there were any of them in sight, or to
know whether any of them had been on shore
there or not, that I might not be tempted to
renew any of my contrivances against them, or
be provoked, by any advantage which might
present itself, to fall upon them. Only this I did,
I went and removed my boat, which I had on
the other side the island, and carried it down to
the east end of the whole island, where I ran it
into a little cove, which I found under some high
rocks, and where I knew, by reason of the
currents, the savages durst not, at least would
not come, with their boats, upon any account
whatsoever.

With my boat I carried away everything that
I had left there belonging to her, though not
necessary for the bare going thither, viz., a mast
and sail which I had made for her, and a thing
like an anchor, but indeed which could not be
ROBINSON CRUSOE 223

called either anchor or grappling; however, it
was the best I could make of its kind. All these
I removed, that there might not be the least
shadow of any discovery, or any appearance of
any boat, or of any human habitation, upon
the island.

Besides this, I kept myself, as I said, more
retired than ever, and seldom went from my
cell, other than upon my constant employment,
viz., to milk my she-goats, and manage my little
flock in the wood, which, as it was quite on the
other part of the island, was quite out of danger;
for certain it is, that these savage people, who
sometimes haunted this island, never came with
any thoughts of finding anything here, and con-
sequently never wandered off from the coast;
and I doubt not but they might have been
several times on shore after my apprehensions
of them had made me cautious, as well as before;
and indeed, I looked back with some horror
upon the thoughts of what my condition would
have been if I had chopped upon them and been
discovered before that, when, naked and un-
armed, except with one gun, and that loaded
often only with small shot, I walked everywhere,
peeping and peeping about the island to see
what I could get. What a surprise should I have
been in if, when I discovered the print of a man’s
foot, I had, instead of that, seen fifteen or twenty
savages, and found them pursuing me, and by
the swiftness of their running, no possibility of
my escaping them!

The thoughts of this sometimes sunk my very
soul within me, and distressed my mind so much,
that I could not soon recover it, to think what
224 THE ADVENTURES OF

I should have done, and how I not only should
not have been able to resist’ them, but even
should not have had presence of mind enough
to do what I might have done, much less what
now, after so much consideration and prepara-
tion, I might be able to do. Indeed, after serious
thinking of these things, I should be very melan-
choly, and sometimes it would last a great while;
but I resolved it, at last, all into thankfulness to
that Providence which had delivered me from
so many unseen dangers, and had kept me from
those mischiefs which I could no way have been
the agent in delivering myself from, because I
had not the least notion of any such thing
depending, or the least supposition of it being
possible.

This renewed a contemplation which often
had come to my thoughts in former time, when
first I began to see the merciful dispositions of
Heaven, in the dangers we run through in this
life. How wonderfully we are delivered when
we know nothing of it. How, when we are in a
quandary, as we call it, a doubt or hesitation,
whether to go this way, or that way, a secret
hint shall direct us this way, when we intended
to go that way; nay, when sense, our own
inclination, and perhaps business, has called to
go the other way, yet a strange impression upon
the mind, from we know not what springs, and
by we know not what power, shall overrule us
to go this way; and it shall afterwards appear,
that had we gone that way which we should
have gone, and even to our imagination ought
to have gone, we should have been ruined and
lost. Upon these and many like reflections I
ROBINSON CRUSOE 225

afterwards made it a certain rule with me, that
whenever I found those secret hints or pressings
of my mind to doing, or not doing, anything
that presented, or to going this way or that way,
I never failed to obey the secret dictate, though I
knew no other reason for it than that such a
pressure, or such a hint, hung upon my mind. I
could give many examples of the success of this
conduct in the course of my life, but more
especially in the latter part of my inhabiting this
unhappy island; besides many occasions which
it is very likely I might have taken notice of, if
I had seen with the same eyes then that I saw
with now. But ’tis never too late to be wise; and
I cannot but advise all considering men, whose
lives are attended with such extraordinary inci-
dents as mine, or even though not so extra-
ordinary, not to slight such secret intimations
of Providence, let them come from what invisible
intelligence they will. That I shall not discuss,
and perhaps cannot account for; but certainly
they are a proof of the converse of spirits, and
the secret communication between those em-
bodied and those unembodied, and such a proof
as can never be withstood, of which I shall have
occasion to give some very remarkable instances
in the remainder of my solitary residence in this
dismal place.

I believe the reader of this will not think
strange if I confess that these anxieties, these
constant dangers I lived in, and the concern
that was now upon me, put an end to all inven-
tion, and to all the contrivances that I had laid
for my future accommodations and conveni-
ences. I had the care of my safety more now

17 I
226 THE ADVENTURES OF

upon my hands than that of my food. I cared
not to drive a nail, or chop a stick of wood now,
for fear the noise I should make should be heard;
much less would I fire a gun, for the same reason;
and, above all, I was intolerably uneasy at mak-
ing any fire, lest the smoke, which is visible at a
great distance in the day, should betray me; and
for this reason I removed that part of my business
which required fire, such as burning of pots and
pipes, etc., into my new apartment in the woods;
where, after I had been some time, I found, to
my unspeakable consolation, a mere natural
cave in the earth, which went in a vast way,
and where, I dare say, no savage, had he been
at the mouth of it, would be so hardy as to
venture in; nor, indeed, would any man else,
but one who, like me, wanted nothing so much
as a safe retreat.

The mouth of this hollow was at the bottom
of a great rock, where, by mere accident I would
say (if I did not see abundant reason to ascribe
all such things now to Providence), I was cutting
down some thick branches of trees to make
charcoal; and before I go on, I must observe the
reason of my making this charcoal, which was thus.

I was afraid of making a smoke about my
habitation, as I said before; and yet I could not
live there without baking my bread, cooking my
meat, etc. So I contrived to burn some wood
here, as I had seen done in England under turf,
till it became chark, or dry coal; and then put-
ting the fire out, I preserved the coal to carry
home, and perform the other services which fire
was wanting for at home, without danger of
smoke.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 227

But this is by the bye. While I was cutting
down some wood here, I perceived that behind
avery thick branch of low brushwood, or under-
wood, there was a kind of hollow place. I was
curious to look into it; and getting with difficulty
into the mouth of it, I found it was pretty large;
that is to say, sufficient for me to stand upright
in it, and perhaps another with me. But I must
confess to you I made more haste out than I did
in when, looking farther into the place, and
which was perfectly dark, I saw two broad
shining eyes of some creature, whether devil or
man I knew not, which twinkled like two stars,
the dim light from the cave’s mouth shining
directly in, and making the reflection.

However, after some pause I recovered my-
self, and began to call myself a thousand fools,
and tell myself that he that was afraid to see the
devil was not fit to live twenty years in an island
all alone, and that I durst to believe there was
nothing in this cave that was more frightful than
myself. Upon this, plucking up my courage, I
took up a great firebrand, and in I rushed again,
with the stick flaming in my hand. I had not
gone three steps in, but I was almost as much
frighted as I was before; for I heard a very loud
sigh, like that of a man in some pain, and it was
followed by a broken noise, as if of words half
expressed, and then a deep sigh again. I stepped
back, and was indeed struck with such a surprise,
that it put me into a cold sweat; and if I had
had a hat on my head, I will not answer for it,
that my hair might not have lifted it off. But
still plucking up my spirits as well as I could,
and encouraging myself a little with considering
228 THE ADVENTURES OF

that the power and presence of God was every-
where, and was able to protect me, upon this I
stepped forward again, and by the light of the
firebrand, holding it up a little over my head, I
saw lying on the ground a most monstrous,
frightful; old he-goat, just making his will, as we
say, and gasping for life; and dying, indeed, of
mere old age.

I stirred him a little to see if I could get him
out, and he essayed to get up, but was not able
to raise himself; and I thought with myself he
might even lie there; for if he had frighted me
so, he would certainly fright any of the savages,
if any of them should be so hardy as to come in
there while he had any life in him.

I was now recovered from my surprise, and
began to look round me, when I found the cave
was but very small; that is to say, it might be
about twelve feet over, but in no manner of
shape, either round or square, no hands having
ever been employed in making it but those of
mere Nature. I observed also that there was a
place at the farther side of it that went iti farther,
but was so low, that it required me to creep
upon my hands and knees to go into it, and
whither I went I knew not; so having no candle,
I gave it over for some time, but resolved to
come again the next day, provided with candles
and a tinder-box, which I had made of the lock
of one of the muskets, with some wild-fire in
the pan.

Accordingly, the next day I came provided
with six large candles of my own making, for I
made very good candles now of goat’s tallow;
and going into this low place, I was obliged to
ROBINSON CRUSOE 229

creep upon all fours, as I have said, almost ten
yards; which, by the way, I thought was a
venture bold enough, considering that I knew
not how far it might go, nor what was beyond
it. When I was got through the strait, I found
the roof rose higher up, I believe near twenty
feet. But never was such a glorious sight seen
in the island, I dare say, as it was, to look round
the sides and roof of this vault or cave; the walls
reflected a hundred thousand lights to me from
my two candles. What it was in the rock,
whether diamonds, or any other precious stones,
or gold, which I rather supposed it to be, I
knew not.

The place I was in was a most delightful
cavity or grotto of its kind, as could be expected,
though perfectly dark. The floor was dry and
level, and had a sort of small loose gravel upon
it, so that there was no nauseous or venomous
creature to be seen; neither was there any damp
or wet on the sides or roof. The only difficulty
in it was the entrance, which, however, as it was
a place of security, and such a retreat as I
wanted, I thought that was a convenience; so
that I was really rejoiced at the discovery, and
resolved, without any delay, to bring some of
those things which I was most anxious about to
this place; particularly, I resolved to bring hither
my magazine of powder, and all my spare arms,
viz., two fowling-pieces, for I had three in all,
and three muskets, for of them I had eight in all.
So I kept at my castle only five, which stood
ready-mounted, like pieces of cannon, on’ my
outmost fence; and were ready also to take out
upon any expedition.
230 THE ADVENTURES OF

Upon this occasion of removing my ammuni-
tion, I took occasion to open the barrel of
powder, which I took up out of the sea, and
which had been wet; and I found that the water
had penetrated about three or four inches into
the powder on every side, which caking, and
growing hard, had preserved the inside like a
kernel in a shell; so that I had near sixty pounds
of very good powder in the centre of the cask.
And this was an agreeable discovery to me at
that time; so I carried all away thither, never
keeping above two or three pounds of powder
with me in my castle, for fear of a surprise of
any kind. I also carried thither all the lead I had
left for bullets.

I fancied myself now like one of the ancient
giants, which were said to live in caves and holes
in the rocks, where none could come at them;
for I persuaded myself, while I was here, if five
hundred savages were to hunt me, they could
never find me out; or, if they did, they would
not venture to attack me here.

The old goat, whom I found expiring, died in
the mouth of the cave the next day after I made
this discovery; and I found it much easier to dig
a great hole there, and throw him in and cover
him with earth, than to drag him out; so I
interred him there, to prevent the offence to
my nose.

I was now in my twenty-third year of residence
in this island; and was so naturalised to the
place, and to the manner of living, that could
I have but enjoyed the certainty that no savages
would come to the place to disturb me, I could
have been content to have capitulated for spend-
ROBINSON CRUSOE 231

ing the rest of my time there, even to the last
moment, till I had laid me down and died, like
the old goat in the cave. I had also arrived to
some little diversions and amusements, which
made the time pass more pleasantly with mesa.
great deal than it did before. As, first, I had '
taught my Poll; as I noted before, to speak; and
hedid it so familiarly, and talked so articulately
and plain, that it was very pleasant to me; and
he lived with me no less than. six and twenty |
years. How long he might live afterwards I |
know not, though I know they have a notion in
the Brazils that they live a hundred years.
Perhaps poor Poll may be alive there still, calling
after poor Robin Crusoe to this day. I wish no
Englishman the ill luck to come there and hear
him; but if he did, he would certainly believe
it was the devil. My dog was a very pleasant and
loving companion to me for no less than sixteen
years of my time, and then died of mere old age.
As for my cats, they multiplied, as I have
observed, to that degree, that I was obliged to
shoot several of them at first to keep them from
devouring me and all I had; but at length, when
the two old ones I brought with me were gone,
and after some time continually driving them
from me, and letting them have no provision
with me, they all ran wild into the woods, except
two or three favourites, which I kept tame, and
whose young, when they had any, I always
drowned; and these were part of my family.
Besides these, I always kept two or three house-
hold kids about me, whom I taught to feed out
of my hand. And I had two more parrots, which
talked pretty well, and would all call ‘Robin
232 THE ADVENTURES OF

Crusoe,’ but none like my first; nor, indeed, did
I take the pains with any of them that I had
done with him. I had also several tame sea-
fowls, whose names I know not, whom I caught
upon the shore, and cut their wings; and the
little stakes which I had planted before my castle
wall being now grown up to a good thick grove,
these fowls all lived among these low trees, and
bred there, which was very agreeable to me;
so that, as I said above, I began to be very well
contented with the life I led, if it might but have
been secured from the dread of the savages.

But it was otherwise directed; and it may not
be amiss for all people who shall meet with my
story, to make this just observation from it, viz.,
how frequently, in the course of our lives, the
evil which in itself we seek most to shun, and
which, when we are fallen into it, is the most
dreadful to us, is oftentimes the very means or
door of our deliverance, by which alone we can
be raised again from the affliction we are fallen
into. I could give many examples of this in the
course of my unaccountable life; but in nothing
was it more particularly remarkable, than in the
circumstances of my last years of solitary resi-
dence in this island.

It was now the month of December, as I said
above, in my twenty-third year; and this, being
the southern solstice (for winter I cannot call it),
was the particular time of my harvest, and
required my being pretty much abroad in the
fields; when, going out pretty early in the morn-
ing, even before it was thorough daylight, I was
surprised with seeing a light of some fire upon
the shore, at a distance from me of about two
ROBINSON CRUSOE 233

miles, towards the end of the island, where I had
observed some savages had been, as before. But
not on the other side; but, to my great affliction,
it was on my side of the island.

I was indeed terribly surprised at the sight,
and stepped short within my grove, not daring
to go out, lest I might be surprised; and yet I
had no more peace within, from the apprehen-
sions I had that if these savages, in rambling
over the island, should find my corn standing or
cut, or any of my works and improvements, they
would immediately conclude that there were
people in the place, and would then never give
over till they had found me out. In this extrem-
ity I went back directly to my castle, pulled up
the ladder after me, and made all things without
look as wild and natural as I could.

Then I prepared myself within, putting myself
in a posture of defence. I loaded all my cannon,
as I called them, that is to say, my muskets,
which were mounted upon my new fortification,
and all my pistols, and resolved to defend myself
to the last gasp; not forgetting seriously to com-
mend myself to the Divine protection, and
earnestly to pray to God to deliver me out of the
hands of the barbarians. And in this posture I
continued about two hours; but began to be
mighty impatient for intelligence abroad, for I
had no spies to send out.

After sitting a while longer, and musing what
I should do in this case, I was not able to bear
sitting in ignorance any longer; so setting up
my ladder to the side of the hill where there was
a flat place, as I observed before, and then pull-
ing the ladder up after me, I set it up again, and
234 THE ADVENTURES OF

mounted to the top of the hilt; and pulling out
my perspective-glass, which I had taken on
purpose, I laid me down flat on my belly on the
ground, and began to look for the place. I
presently found there was no less than nine
naked savages sitting round a small fire they had
made, not to warm them, for they had no need
of that, the weather being extreme hot, but, as
I supposed, to dress some of their barbarous diet
of human flesh which they had brought with
them, whether alive or dead, I could not know.

They had two canoes with them, which they
had hauled up upon the shore; and as it was
then tide of ebb, they seemed to me to wait for
the return of the flood to go away again. It is
not easy to imagine what confusion this sight
put me into, especially seeing them come on my
side the island, and so near me too. But when
I observed their coming must be always with the
current of the ebb, I began afterwards to be more
sedate in my mind, being satisfied that I might
go abroad with safety all the time of the tide of
flood, if they were not on shore before; and
having made this observation, I went abroad
about my harvest-work with the more com-
posure.

As I expected, so it proved; for as soon as the
tide made to the westward, I saw them all take
boat, and row (or paddle, as we call it) all away.
I should have observed, that for an hour and
more before they went off, they went to dancing;
and I could easily discern their postures and
gestures by my glasses. I could not perceive, by
my nicest observation, but that they were stark
naked, and had not the least covering upon
ROBINSON CRUSOE 235

them; but whether they were men or women;
that I could not distinguish.

As soon as I saw them shipped and gone, I
took two guns upon my shoulders, and two
pistols at my girdle, and my great sword by my
side, without a scabbard, and with all the speed
I was able to make I went away to the hill where
I had discovered the ‘first appearance of all.
And as soon as I gat thither, which was not less
than two hours (for I could not go apace, being
so loaden with arms as I was), I perceived there
had been three canoes more of savages on that
place; and looking out farther, I saw they were
all at sea together, making over for the main.

This was a dreadful sight to me, especially
when going down to the shore, I could see the
marks of horror which the dismal work they had
been about had left behind it, viz., the blood,
the bones, and part of the flesh of human bodies,
eaten and devoured by those wretches with
merriment and sport. I was so filled with in-
dignation at the sight, that I began now to
premeditate the destruction of the next that. I
saw there, let them be who or how many soever.

It seemed evident to me that the visits which
they thus made to this island are not very
frequent, for it was above fifteen months before
any more of them came on shore there again ;
that is to say, I neither saw them, or any foot-
steps or signals of them, in all that time; for, as
to the rainy seasons, then they are sure not to
come abroad, at least not so far. Yet all the
while I lived uncomfortably, by reason of the
constant apprehensions I was in of their com ing
upon me by surprise; from whence I observe ,
236 THE ADVENTURES OF

that the expectation of evil is more bitter than
the suffering, especially if there is no room to
shake off that expectation, or those apprehen-
sions.

During all this time I was in a murdering
humour, and took up most of my hours, which
should have been better employed, in contriving
how to circumvent and fall upon them the very
next time I should see them; especially if they
should be divided, as they were the last time,
into two parties. Nor did I consider at all that
if I killed one party, suppose ten or a dozen, I
was still the next day, or week, or month, to kill
another, and so another, even ad infinitum, till
I should be at length no less a murderer than
they were in being man-eaters, and perhaps
much more so.

I spent my days now in great perplexity and
anxiety of mind, expecting that I should, one
day or other, fall into the hands of these merci-
less creatures; and if I did at any time venture
abroad, it was not without looking round me
with the greatest care and caution imaginable.
And now I found, to my great comfort, how
happy it was that I provided for a tame flock or
herd of goats; for I durst not, upon any account,
fire my gun, especially near that side of the island
where they usually came, lest I should alarm
the savages. And if they had fled from me now,
I was sure to have them come back again, with
perhaps two or three hundred canoes with them,
in a few days, and then I knew what to expect.

However, I wore out a year and three months
more before I ever saw any more of the savages,
and then I found them again, as I shall soon
ROBINSON CRUSOE 237

observe. It is true they might have been there
once or twice, but either they made no stay, or
at least I did not hear them; but in the month
of May, as near as I could calculate, and in my
four and twentieth year, I had a very strange
encounter with them; of which in its place.

The perturbation of my mind, during this
fifteen or sixteen months’ interval, was very
great. I slept unquiet, dreamed always frightful
dreams, and often started out of my sleep in the
night. In the day great troubles overwhelmed
my mind, and in the night I dreamed often of
killing the savages, and of the reasons why I
might justify the doing of it. But, to waive all
this for a while, it was in the middle of May, on
the sixteenth day, I think, as well as my poor
wooden calendar would reckon, for I marked
all upon the post still; I say, it was the sixteenth
of May that it blew a very great storm of wind
all day, with a great deal of lightning and thun-
der, and a very foul night it was after it. I know
not what was the particular occasion of it, but
as I was reading in the Bible, and taken up with
very serious thoughts about my present condi-
tion, I was surprised with a noise of a gun, as I
thought, fired at sea.

This was, to be sure, a surprise of a quite
different nature from any I had met with before;
for the notions this put into my thoughts were
quite of another kind. I started up in the greatest
haste imaginable, and, in a trice, clapped my
ladder to the middle place of the rock, and pulled
it after me; and mounting it the second time,
got to the top of the hill the very moment that
a flash of fire bid me listen for a second gun,
238 THE ADVENTURES OF

which accordingly, in about half a minute, I
heard; and, by the sound, knew that it was from
that part of the sea where I was driven down the
current in my boat.

I immediately considered that this must be
some ship in distress, and that they had some
comrade, or some other ship in company, and
fired these guns for signals of distress, and to
obtain help. I had this presence of mind, at that
minute, as to think that though I could not help
them, it may be they might help me; so I
brought together all the dry wood I could get
at hand, and, making a good handsome pile, I
set it on fire upon the hill. The wood was dry,
and blazed freely; and though the wind blew
very hard, yet it burnt fairly out; so that I was
certain, if there was any such thing as a ship,
they must needs see it, and no doubt they did;
for as soon as ever my fire blazed up I heard
another gun, and after that several others, all
from the same quarter. I plied my fire all night
long till day broke; and when it was broad day,
and the air cleared up, I saw something at a
great distance at sea, full east of the island,
whether a sail or a hull I could not distinguish,
no, not with my glasses, the distance was so
great, and the weather still something hazy also;
at least it was so out at sea.

I looked frequently at it all that day, and soon
perceived that it did not move; so I presently
concluded that it was a ship at an anchor. And
being eager, you may be sure, to be satisfied,
I took my gun in my hand and ran toward the
south side of the island, to the rocks where I had
formerly been carried away with the current;
ROBINSON CRUSOE 239

and getting up there, the weather by this time
being perfectly clear, I could plainly see, to my
great sorrow, the wreck of a ship, cast away in
the night upon those concealed rocks which I
found when I was out in my boat; and which
rocks, as they checked the violence of the stream,
and made a kind of counter-stream or eddy,
were the occasion of my recovering from the
most desperate, hopeless condition that ever I
had been in in all my life.

Thus, what is one man’s safety is another
man’s destruction; for it seems these men, who-
ever they were, being out of their knowledge,
and the rocks being wholly under water, had
been driven upon them in the night, the wind
blowing hard at E. and E.N.E. Had they seen
the island, as I must necessarily suppose they did
not, they must, as I thought, have endeavoured
to have saved themselves on shore by the help
of their boat; but their firing of guns for help,
especially when they saw, as I imagined, my
fire, filled me with many thoughts. First, I
imagined that upon seeing my light, they might
have put themselves into their boat, and have
endeavoured to make the shore; but that the sea
going very high, they might have been cast away.
Other times I imagined that they might have
lost their boat before, as might be the case many
ways; as, particularly, by the breaking of the sea
upon their ship, which many times obliges men
to stave, or take in pieces their boat, and some-
times to throw it overboard with their own
hands. Other times I imagined they had some
other ship or ships in company, who, upon the
signals of distress they had made, had taken them
240 THE ADVENTURES OF

up and carried them off. Other whiles I fancied
they were all gone off to sea in their boat, and
being hurried away by the current that I had
been formerly in, were carried out into the great
ocean, where there was nothing but misery and
perishing; and that, perhaps, they might by this
time think of starving, and of being in a condi-
tion to eat one another.

As all these were but conjectures at best, so, in
the condition I was in, I could do no more than
look on upon the misery of the poor men, and
pity them; which had still this good effect on
my side, that it gave me more and more cause
to give thanks to God, who had so happily and
comfortably provided for me in my desolate
condition; and that of two ships’ companies who
were now cast away upon this part of the world,
not one life should be spared but mine. I learned
here again to observe, that it is very rare that the
providence of God casts us into any condition of
life so low, or any misery so great, but we may
see something or other to be thankful for, and
may see others in worse circumstances than
our own.

Such certainly was the case of these men, of
whom I could not so much as see room to sup-
pose any of them were saved. Nothing could
make it rational so much as to wish or expect
that they did not all perish there, except the
possibility only of their being taken up by
another ship in company; and this was but mere
possibility indeed, for I saw not the least signal
or appearance of any such thing.

I cannot explain, by any possible energy of
words, what a strange longing or hankering of
ROBINSON CRUSOE 24U

desires I felt in my soul upon this sight, breaking
out sometimes thus: ‘Oh that there had been \
but one or two, nay, or but one soul, saved out
of this ship, to have escaped to me, that I might |
but have had one companion, one fellow- |
creature, to have spoken to me, and to have
conversed with!’ In all the time of my solitary |
life, I never felt so earnest, so strong a desire
after the society of my fellow-creatures, or so
deep a regret at the want of it. acl

There are some secret moving springs in the
affections which, when they are set agoing by
some object in view, or be it some object, though
not in view, yet rendered present to the mind by
the power of imagination, that motion carries
out the soul by its impetuosity to such violent,
eager embracings of the object, that the absence
of it is insupportable.

Such were these earnest wishings that but one
man had been saved! ‘Oh that it had been but
one!’ I believe I repeated the words, ‘Oh that
it had been one!’ a thousand times; and the
desires were so moved by it, that when I spoke
the words my hands would clinch together, and
my fingers press the palms of my hands, that if
I had had any soft thing in my hand, it would
have crushed it involuntarily; and my teeth in
my head would strike together, and set against
one another so strong, that for some time I could
not part them again.

Let the naturalists explain these things, and
the reason and manner of them. All I can say to
them is to describe the fact, which was even sur-
prising to me when I found it, though I knew not
from what it should proceed. It was doubtless
242 THE ADVENTURES OF

the effect of ardent wishes, and of strong ideas
formed in my mind, realising ‘the comfort which
the conversation of one of my fellow-Christians
would have been to me.

But it was not to be. Either their fate or mine,
or both, forbid it; for, till the last year of my
being on this island, I never knew whether any
were saved out of that ship or no; and had only
the affliction, some days after, to see the corpse
of a drowned boy come on shore at the end of
the island which was next the shipwreck. He
had on no clothes but a seaman’s waistcoat, a
pair of open-kneed linen drawers, and a blue
linen shirt; but nothing to direct me so much as
to guess what nation he was of. He had nothing
in his pocket but two pieces of eight and a
tobacco-pipe. The last was to me of ten times
more value than the first.

It was now calm, and I had a great mind to
venture out in my boat to this wreck, not doubt-

ing but I might find something on board that
| might be useful to me. But that did not-alto-
gether press me so much as the possibility that
| there might be yet some living creature on
| board, whose life I might not only save, but
| might, by saving that life, comfort my own to
| the last degree. And this thought clung so to my
| heart, that I could not be quiet night nor day,
but I must venture out in my boat on board this
wreck; and committing the rest to God’s provi-
dence, I thought, the impression was so strong
upon my mind that it could not be resisted, that
it must come from some invisible direction, and
that I should be wanting to myself ifI did not go.
Under the power of this impression, I hastened
ROBINSON CRUSOE 243

back to my castle, prepared everything for my
voyage, took a quantity of bread, a great pot for
fresh water, a compass to steer by, a bottle of
rum (for I had still a great deal of that left), a
basket full of raisins. And thus, loading myself
with everything necessary, I went down to my
boat, got the water out of her, and got her afloat,
loaded all my cargo in her, and then went home
again for more. My second cargo was a great
bag full of rice, the umbrella to set up over my
head for shade, another large pot full of fresh
water, and about two dozen of my small loaves,
or barley-cakes, more than before, with a bottle
of goat’s milk and a cheese; all which, with great
labour and sweat, I brought to my boat. And
praying to God to direct my voyage, I put out;
and rowing, or paddling, the canoe along the
shore, I came at last to the utmost point of the
island on that side, viz., N.E. And now I was to
launch out into the ocean, and either to venture
or not to venture. I looked on the rapid currents
which ran constantly on both sides of the island
at a distance, and which were very terrible to
me, from the remembrance of the hazard I had
been in before, and my heart began to fail me;
for I foresaw that if I was driven into either of
those currents, I should be carried a vast way
out to sea, and perhaps out of my reach, or sight
of the island again; and that then, as my boat
was but small, if any little gale of wind should
rise, I should be inevitably lost.

These thoughts so oppressed my mind, that I
began to give over my enterprise; and having
hauled my boat into a little creek on the shore,
I stepped out, and sate me down upon a little
244 THE ADVENTURES OF

rising bit of ground, very pensive and anxious,
between fear and desire, about my voyage;
when, as I was musing, I could perceive that the
tide was turned, and the flood come on; upon
which my going was for so many hours imprac-
ticable. Upon this, presently it occurred to me
that I should go up to the highest piece of ground
I could find and observe, if I could, how the sets
of the tide, or currents, lay when the flood came
in, that I might judge whether, if I was driven
one way out, I might not expect to be driven
another way home, with the same rapidness of
the currents. This thought was no sooner in my
head but I cast my eye upon a little hill, which
sufficiently overlooked the sea both ways, and
from whence I had a clear view of the currents,
or sets of the tide, and which way I was to guide
myself in my return. Here I found, that as the
current of the ebb set out close by the south
point of the island, so the current of the flood set
in close by the shore of the north side; and that
I had nothing to do but to keep to the north of
the island in my return, and I should do well
enough.

Encouraged with this observation, I resolved
the next morning to set out with the first of the
tide, and reposing myself for the night in the
canoe, under the great watch-coat I mentioned,
I launched out. I made first a little out to sea,
full north, till I began to feel the benefit of the
current which set eastward, and which carried
me at a great rate; and yet did not so hurry me
as the southern side current had done before,
and so as to take from me all government of the
boat: but having a strong steerage with my
ROBINSON CRUSOE 245

paddle, I went at a great rate directly for the
wreck, and in less than two hours I came up to it.

It was a dismal sight to look at. The ship,
which, by its building, was Spanish, stuck fast,
jammed in between two rocks. All the stern and
quarter of her was beaten to pieces with the sea;
and as her forecastle, which stuck in the rocks,
had run on with great violence, her mainmast
and foremast were brought by the board; that
is to say, broken short off; but her bowsprit was
sound, and the head and bow appeared firm.
When I came close to her a dog appeared upon
her, who, seeing me coming, yelped and cried;
and as soon as I called him, jumped into the sea
to come to me, and I took him into the boat, but
found him almost dead for hunger and thirst.
I gave him a cake of my bread, and he eat it like
a ravenous wolf that had been starving a fort-
night in the snow. I then gave the poor creature
some fresh water, with which, if I would have let
him, he would have burst himself.

After this I went on board; but the first sight
I met with was two men drowned in the cook-
room, or forecastle of the ship, with their arms
fast about one another. I concluded, as is indeed
probable, that when the ship struck, it being in a
storm, the sea broke so high, and so continually
over her, that the men were not able to bear it,
and were strangled with the constant rushing in
of the water, as much as if they had been under
water. Besides the dog, there was nothing left
in the ship that had life; nor any goods that I
could see, but what were spoiled by the water.
There were some casks of liquor, whether wine
or brandy I knew not, which lay lower in the
246 THE ADVENTURES OF

hold, and which, the water being ebbed out, I
could see; but they were too big to meddle with.
I saw several chests, which I believed belonged
to some of the seamen; and I got two of them
into the boat, without examining what was in
them.

Had the stern of the ship been fixed, and the
forepart broken off, I am persuaded I might
have made a good voyage; for by what I found
in these two chests, I had room to suppose the
ship had a great deal of wealth on board; and if
I may guess by the course she steered, she must
have been bound from the Buenos Ayres, or the
Rio de la Plata, in the south part of America,
beyond the Brazils, to the Havana, in the Gulf
of Mexico, and so perhaps to Spain. She had,
no doubt, a great treasure in her, but of no use,
at that time, to anybody; and what became of
the rest of her people, I then knew not.

I found, besides these chests, a little cask full
of liquor, of about twenty gallons, which I got
into my boat with much difficulty. There were
several muskets in a cabin, and a great powder-
horn, with about four pounds of powder in it.
As for the muskets, I had no occasion for them,
so I left them, but took the powder-horn. I took
a fire-shovel and tongs, which I wanted ex-
tremely; as also two little brass kettles, a copper
pot to make chocolate, and a gridiron. And
with this cargo, and the dog, I came away, the
tide beginning to make home again; and the
same evening, about an hour within night, I
reached the island again, weary and fatigued
to the last degree.

I reposed that night in the boat; and in the
ROBINSON CRUSOE 247

morning I resolved to harbour what I had got-
ten in my new cave, not carry it home to my
castle. After refreshing myself, I got all my cargo
on shore, and began to examine the particulars.
The cask of liquor I found to be a kind of rum,
but not such as we had at the Brazils, and, in a
word, not at all good. But when I came to open
the chests, I found several things of great use to
me. For example, I found in one a fine case of
bottles, of an extraordinary kind, and filled with
cordial waters, fine, and very good; the bottles
held about three pints each, and were tipped
with silver. I found two pots of very good
succades, or sweetmeats, so fastened also on top,
that the salt water had not hurt them; and two
more of the same, which the water had spoiled.
I found some very good shirts, which were very
welcome to me; and about a dozen and half of
linen white handkerchiefs and coloured neck-
cloths. The former were also very welcome,
being exceedingly refreshing to wipe my face
in a hot day. Besides this, when I came to the
till in the chest, I found there three great bags
of pieces of eight, which held out about eleven
hundred pieces in all; and in one of them,
wrapped up in a paper, six doubloons of gold,
and some small bars or wedges of gold. I sup-
pose they might all weigh near a pound.

The other chest I found had some clothes in
it, but of little value; but by the circumstances,
it must have belonged to the gunner’s mate;
though there was no powder in it, but about two
pounds of fine glazed powder, in three small
flasks, kept, I suppose, for charging their fowling-
pieces on occasion. Upon the whole, I got very
248 THE ADVENTURES OF

little by this voyage that was of any use to me;
for as to the money, I had no manner of occasion
for it; twas to me as the dirt under my feet; and
I would have given it all for three or four pair
of English shoes and stockings, which were things
I greatly wanted, but had not had on my feet
now for many years. I had indeed gotten two
pair of shoes now, which I took off of the feet of
the two drowned men whom I saw in the wreck,
and I found two pair more in one of the chests,
which were very welcome to me; but they were
not like our English shoes, either for ease or
service, being rather what we call pumps than
shoes. I found in this seaman’s chest about fifty
pieces of eight in royals, but no gold. I suppose
this belonged to a poorer man than the other,
which seemed to belong to some officer.

Well, however, I lugged this money home to
my cave, and laid it up, as I had done that before
which I brought from our own ship; but it was
great pity, as I said, that the other part of this
ship had not come to my share, for I am satisfied
I might have loaded my canoe several times
over with money, which, if I had ever escaped
to England, would have lain here safe enough
till I might have come again and fetched it.

Having now brought all my things on shore,
and secured them, I went back to my boat, and
rowed or paddled her along the shore to her old
harbour, where I laid her up, and made the best
of my way to my old habitation, where I found
everything safe and quiet. So I began to repose
myself, live after my old fashion, and take care
of my family affairs; and, for a while, I lived
easy enough, only that I was more vigilant than
ROBINSON CRUSOE 349

I used to be, looked out oftener, and did not go
abroad so much; and if at any time I did stir
with any freedom, it was always to the east part
of the island, where I was pretty well satisfied
the savages never came, and where I could go
without so many precautions, and such a load
of arms and ammunition as I always carried
with me if I went the other way.

I lived in this condition near two years more;
but my unlucky head, that was always to let me _
know it was born to make my body miserable,
was all this two years filled with projects and
designs, how, if it were possible, I might get
away from this island; for sometimes I was for
making another voyage to the wreck, though
my reason told me that there was nothing left
there worth the hazard of my voyage; some-
times for a ramble one way, sometimes another;
and I believe verily, if I had had the boat that
I went from Sallee in, I should have ventured to
sea, bound anywhere, I knew not whither.

I have been, in all my circumstances, a me-
mento to those who are touched with the general
plague of mankind, whence, for aught I know,
one-half of their miseries flow; I mean, that of
not being satisfied with the station wherein God 7}
and Nature has placed them; for not to look
back upon my primitive condition, and the
excellent advice of my father, the opposition to /
which was, as I may call it, my original sin, my |
subsequent mistakes of the same kind had been=
the means of my coming into this miserable
condition; for had that Providence, which so
happily had seated me at the Brazils as a planter,
blessed me with confined desires, and I could
250 THE ADVENTURES OF

have been contented to have gone on gradually,
I might have been, by this time, I mean in the
time of my being in this island, one of the most
considerable planters in the Brazils; nay, I am
persuaded that by the improvements I had
made in that little time I lived there, and the
increase I should probably have made if I had
stayed, I might have been worth an hundred
thousand moidores. And what business had I
to leave a settled fortune, a well-stocked planta-
tion, improving and increasing, to turn super-
cargo to Guinea to fetch negroes, when patience
and time would have so increased our stock at
home, that we could have bought them at our
own door from those whose business it was to
fetch them; and though it had cost us something
more, yet the difference of that price was by no
means worth saving at so great a hazard.

But as this is ordinarily the fate of young
heads, so reflection upon the folly of it is as
ordinarily the exercise of more years, or of the
dear-bought experience of time; and so it was
with me now. And yet, so deep had ‘the mistake
taken root in my temper, that I could not satisfy
myself in my station, but was continually poring
upon the means and possibility of my escape
from this place. And that I may, with the
greater pleasure to the reader, bring on the
remaining part of my story, it may not be im-
proper to give some account of my first concep-
tions on the subject of this foolish scheme for my
escape, and how, and upon what foundation,
IT acted.

I am now to be supposed retired into my
castle, after my late voyage to the wreck, my
ROBINSON CRUSOE 251

frigate laid up and secured under water, as
usual, and my condition restored to what it was
before. I had more wealth, indeed, than I had
before, but was not at all the richer; for I had no
more use for it than the Indians of Peru had
before the Spaniards came there.

It was one of the nights in the rainy season in
March, the four and twentieth year of my first
setting foot in this island of solitariness. I was
lying in my bed, or hammock, awake, very well
in health, had no pain, no distemper, no uneasi-
ness of body, no, nor any uneasiness of mind,
more than ordinary, but could by no means close
my eyes, that is, so as to sleep; no, not a wink all
night long, otherwise than as follows.

It is as impossible, as needless, to set down the
innumerable crowd of thoughts that whirled
through that great thoroughfare of the brain,
the memory, in this night’s time. I ran over the
whole history of my life in miniature, or by
abridgment, as I may call it, to my coming to
this island, and also of the part of my life since
I came to this island. In my reflections upon
the state of my case since I came on shore on
this island, I was comparing the happy posture
of my affairs in the first years of my habitation
here compared to the life of anxiety, fear, and
care which I had lived ever since I had seen the
print of a foot in the sand; not that I did not
believe the savages had frequented the island
even all the while, and might have been several
hundreds of them at times on shore there; but
I had never known it, and was incapable of any
apprehensions about it. My satisfaction was
perfect, though my danger was the same; and
#252 THE ADVENTURES OF

I was as happy in not knowing my danger, as if
I had never really been exposed to it. This
furnished my thoughts with many very profit-
able reflections, and particularly this one: how
‘infinitely good that Providence is which has pro-
vided, in its government of mankind, such nar-
row bounds to his sight and knowledge of things;
and though he walks in the midst of so many
thousand dangers, the sight of which, if dis-
covered to him, would distract his mind and
sink his spirits, he is kept serene and calm, by
having the events of things hid from his eyes,
and knowing nothing of the dangers which sur-
round him.

After these thoughts had for some time enter-
tained me, I came to reflect seriously upon the
real danger I had been in for so many years in
this very island, and how I had walked about
in the greatest security, and with all possible
tranquillity, even when perhaps nothing but a
brow of a hill, a great tree, or the casual ap-
proach of night had been between me and the
worst kind of destruction, viz., that of falling
into the hands of cannibals and savages, who
would have seized on me with the same view as
I did of a goat or a turtle, and have thought it
no more a crime to kill and devour me, than I
did of a pigeon or a curlew. I would unjustly
slander myself if I should say I was not sincerely
thankful to my great Preserver, to whose singular
protection I acknowledged, with great humility,
that all these unknown deliverances were due,
and without which I must inevitably have fallen
into their merciless hands.

When these thoughts were over, my head was
ROBINSON CRUSOE 253

for some time taken up in considering the nature
of these wretched creatures, I mean the savages,
and how it came to pass in the world that the
wise Governor of all things should give up any
of His creatures to such inhumanity; nay, to
something so much below even brutality itself,
as to devour its own kind. But as this ended in
some (at that time fruitless) speculations, it
occurred to me to inquire what part of the world
these wretches lived in? how far off the coast was
from whence they came? what they ventured
over so far from home for? what kind of boats
they had? and why I might not order myself and
my business so, that I might be as able to go over
thither, as they were to come to me.

I never so much as troubled myself to consider
what I should do with myself when I came
thither; what would become of me, if I fell into
the hands of the savages; or how I should escape
from them, if they attempted me; no, nor so
much as how it was possible for me to reach the
coast, and not be attempted by some or other
of them, without any possibility of delivering
myself; and if I should not fall into their hands,
what I should do for provision, or whither I
should bend my course. None of these thoughts,
I say, so much as came in my way; but my mind
was wholly bent upon the notion of my passing
over in my boat to the mainland. I looked back
upon my present condition as the most miserable
that could possibly be; that I was not able to
throw myself into anything, but death, that
could be called worse; that if I reached the shore
of the main, I might perhaps meet with relief,
or I might coast along, as I did on the shore of
254 THE ADVENTURES OF

Africa, till I came to some inhabited country,
and where I might find some relief; and after all,
perhaps I might fall in with some Christian ship
that might take me in; and if the worse came to
the worst, I could but die, which would put an
end to all these miseries at once. Pray note, all
this was the fruit of a disturbed mind, an impa-
tient temper, made as it were desperate by the
long continuance of my troubles, and the disap-
pointments I had met in the wreck I had been
on board of, and where I had been so near the
obtaining what I so earnestly longed for, viz.,
somebody to speak to, and to learn some know-
ledge from of the place where I was, and of the
probable means of my deliverance. I say, I was
agitated wholly by these thoughts. All my calm
of mind, in my resignation to Providence, and
waiting the issue of the dispositions of Heaven,
seemed to be suspended; and I had, as it were,
no power to turn my thoughts to anything but
to the project of a voyage to the main, which
came upon me with such force, and such an
impetuosity of desire, that it was not to be
resisted.

When this had agitated my thoughts for two
hours, or more, with such violence that it set my
very blood into a ferment, and my pulse beat as
high as if I had been in a fever, merely with the
extraordinary fervour of my mind about it,
Nature, as if I had been fatigued and exhausted
with the very thought of it, threw me into a
sound sleep. One would have thought I should
have dreamed of it, but I did not, nor of any-
thing relating to it; but I dreamed that as I was
going out in the morning, as usual, from my
ROBINSON CRUSOE 255

castle, I saw upon the shore two canoes and
eleven savages coming to land, and that they
brought with them another savage,-whom they
were going to kill in order to eat him; when, on
a sudden, the savage that they were going to kill
jumped away, and ran for his life. And I
thought, in my sleep, that he came running into
my little thick grove before my fortification to
hide himself; and that I, seeing him alone, and
not perceiving that the other sought him that
way, showed myself to him, and smiling upon
him, encouraged him; that he kneeled down to
me, seeming to pray me to assist him; upon
which I showed my ladder, made him go up,
and carried him into my cave, and he became
my servant; and that as soon as I had gotten this
man, I said to myself, ‘Now I may certainly
venture to the mainland; for this fellow will
serve me as a pilot, and will tell me what to do,
and whither to go for provisions, and whither
not to go for fear of being devoured; what places
to venture into, and what to escape.’ I waked
with this thought, and was under such inexpress-
ible impressions of joy at the prospect of my
escape in my dream, that the disappointments
which I felt upon coming to myself and finding
it was no more than a dream were equally
extravagant the other way, and threw me into
a very great dejection of spirit.

Upon this, however, I made this conclusion;
that my only way to go about an attempt for an
escape was, if possible, to get a savage into my
possession; and, if possible, it should be one of
their prisoners whom they had condemned to be
eaten, and should bring thither to kill. But these
256 THE ADVENTURES OF

thoughts still were attended with this difficulty,
that it was impossible to effect this without
attacking a whole caravan of them, and killing
them all; and this was not only a very desperate
attempt, and might miscarry, but, on the other
hand, I had greatly scrupled the lawfulness of
it to me; and my heart trembled at the thoughts
of shedding so much blood, though it was for my
deliverance. I need not repeat the arguments
which occurred to me against this, they being
the same mentioned before. But though I had
other reasons to offer now, viz., that those men
were enemies to my life, and would devour me
if they could; that it was self-preservation, in the
highest degree, to deliver myself from this death
of a life, and was acting in my own defence as
much as if they were actually assaulting me, and
the like; I say, though these things argued for it,
yet the thoughts of shedding human blood for
my deliverance were very terrible to me, and
such as I could by no means reconcile myself to
a great while.

However, at last, after many secret disputes
with myself, and after great perplexities about
it, for all these arguments, one way and another,
struggled in my head a long time, the eager
prevailing desire of deliverance at length mas-
tered all the rest, and I resolved, if possible, to
get one of those savages into my hands, cost what
it would. My next thing then was to contrive
how to do it, and this indeed was very difficult
to resolve on. But as I could pitch upon no
probable means for it, so I resolved to put myself
upon the watch, to see them when they came.on
shore, and leave the rest to the event, taking such
ROBINSON CRUSOE 257

measures as the opportunity should present, let
be what would be.

With these resolutions in my thoughts, I set
myself upon the scout as often as possible, and
indeed so often, till I was heartily tired of it; for
it was above a year and half that I waited; and
for great part of that time went out to the west
end, and to the south-west corner of the island,
almost every day, to see for canoes, but none
appeared. This was very discouraging, and
began to trouble me much; though I cannot say
that it did in this case, as it had done some time
before that, viz., wear off the edge of my desire
to the thing. But the longer it seemed to be
delayed, the more eager I was for it. In a word,
I was not at first so careful to shun the sight of
these savages, and avoid being seen by them, as

I was now eager to be upon them, mec
Besides, I fancied myself able to manage one, |

nay, two or three savages, if I had them, so as to
make them entirely slaves to me, to do whatever
I should direct them, and to prevent their being
able at_any time to ‘do -me any hurt,_It was a
great while that I pleased myself with 1 this affair;
but nothing still presented. All my fancies and
schemes came to nothing, for no savages came
near me for a great while.

About a year and half after I had entertained
these notions, and by long musing had, as it
were, resolved them all into nothing, for want
of an occasion to put them in execution, I was
surprised, one morning early, with seeing no less
than five canoes all on shore together on my side
the island, and the people who belonged to them
all landed, and out of my sight. The number of

17 K
258 THE ADVENTURES OF

them broke all my measures; for seeing so many,
and knowing that they always came four, or
six, or sometimes more, in a boat, I could not
tell what to think of it, or how to take my
measures to attack twenty or thirty men single-
handed; so I lay still in my castle, perplexed and
discomforted. However, I put myself into all the
same postures for an attack that I had formerly
provided, and was just ready for action if any-
thing had presented. Having waited a good
while, listening to hear if they made any noise,
at length, being very impatient, I set my guns at
the foot of my ladder, and clambered up to the
top of the hill, by my two stages, as usual; stand-
ing so, however, that my head did not appear
above the hill, so that they could not perceive
me by any means. Here I observed, by the help
of my perspective-glass, that they were no less
than thirty in number, that they had a fire
kindled, that they had had meat dressed. How
they had cooked it, that I knew not, or what it
was; but they were all dancing, in I know not
how many barbarous gestures and figures, their
own way, round the fire.

While I was thus looking on them, I perceived
by my perspective two miserable wretches
dragged from the boats, where, it seems, they
were laid by, and were now brought out for the
slaughter. I perceived one of them immediately
fell, being knocked down, I suppose, with a club
or wooden sword, for that was their way, and
two or three others were at work immediately,
cutting him open for their cookery, while the
other victim was left standing by himself, till
they should be ready for him. In that very
ROBINSON CRUSOE 259

moment this poor wretch seeing himself a little
at liberty, Nature inspired him with hopes of
life, and he started away from them, and ran
with incredible swiftness along the sands directly
towards me, I mean towards that part of the
coast where my habitation was.

I was dreadfully frighted (that I must acknow-
ledge) when I perceived him to run my way, and
especially when, as I thought, I saw him pursued
by the whole body; and now I expected that part
of my dream was coming to pass, and that he
would certainly take shelter in my grove; but I
could not depend, by any means, upon my
dream for the rest of it, viz., that the other
savages would not pursue him thither, and find
him there. However, I kept my station, and my
spirits began to recover when I found that there
was not above three men that followed him; and
still more was I encouraged when I found that
he outstripped them exceedingly in running, and
gained ground of them; so that if he could but
hold it for half an hour, I saw easily he would
fairly get away from them all.

There was between them and my castle the
creek, which I mentioned often at the first part
of my story, when I landed my cargoes out of the
ship; and this I saw plainly he must necessarily
swim over, or the poor wretch would be taken
there. But when the savage escaping came
thither he made nothing of it, though the tide
was then up; but plunging in, swam through in
about thirty strokes or thereabouts, landed, and
ran on with exceeding strength and swiftness.
When the three persons came to the creek, I
found that two of them could swim, but the third
3)
260./ THE ADVENTURES OF
could not, and that, standing on the other side,
he looked at the other, but went no further, and
soon after went softly back, which, as it hap-
pened, was very well for him in the main.

I observed, that the two who swam were yet
more than twice as long swimming over the
creek as the fellow was that fled from them; It
[came now very warmly upon my thoughts, and
‘indeed irresistibly, that now was my time to get
jme.a-servant, and perhaps a companion or assis-
tant, and that I was called plainly by Providence

_ to save this poor creature’s life. \I immediately
run down the ladders with all possible expedi-
tion, fetches my two guns, for they were both
but at the foot of the ladders, as I observed
above, and getting up again, with the same
haste, to the top of the hill, I crossed toward the
sea, and having a very short cut, and all down
hill, clapped myself in the way between the
pursuers and the pursued, hallooing aloud to
him that fled, who, looking back, was at first
perhaps as much frighted at me as at them; but
I beckoned with my hand to him to come back;
and, in the meantime, I slowly advanced towards
the two that followed; then rushing at once upon
the foremost, I knocked him down with the stock
of my piece. I was loth to fire, because I would
not have the rest hear; though, at that distance,
it would not have been easily heard, and being
out of sight of the smoke too, they would not
have easily known what to make of it. Having
knocked this fellow down, the other who pursued
with him stopped, as if he had been frighted, and
I advanced apace towards him; but as I came
nearer, I perceived presently he had a bow and
ROBINSON CRUSOE 261

arrow, and was fitting it to shoot at me; so I was
then necessitated to shoot at him first, which I
did, and killed him at the first shot.

The poor savage who fled, but had stopped,
though he saw both his enemies fallen and killed,
as he thought, yet was so frighted with the fire
and noise of my piece, that he stood stock-still,
and neither came forward or went backward,
though he seemed rather inclined to fly still, than
to come on. I hallooed again to him, and made
signs to come forward, which he easily under-
stood, and came a little way, then stopped again,
and then a little further, and stopped again; and
I could then perceive that he stood trembling,
as if he had been taken prisoner, and had just
been to be killed, as his two enemies were. I
beckoned him again to come to me, and gave
him all the signs of encouragement that I could
think of; and he came nearer and nearer, kneel-
ing down every ten or twelve steps, in token of
acknowledgment for my saving his life. I smiled
at him, and looked pleasantly, and beckoned to
him to come still nearer. At length he came
close to me, and then he kneeled down again,
kissed the ground, and laid his head upon the
ground, and taking me by the foot, set my foot
upon his head. This, it seems, was in token of
swearing to be my slave for ever. I took him up,
and made much of him, and encouraged him all
I could. But there was more work to do yet; for
I perceived the savage whom I knocked down
was not killed, but stunned with the blow, and
began to come to himself; so I pointed to him,
and showing him the savage, that he was not
dead, upon this he spoke some words to me; and
262 THE ADVENTURES OF

though I could not understand them, yet I
thought they were pleasant to hear; for they
were the first sound of a man’s voice that I had
heard, my own excepted, for above twenty-five
years. But there was no time for such reflections
now. The savage who was knocked down re-
covered himself so far as to sit up upon the
ground, and I perceived that my savage began
to be afraid; but when I saw that, I presented
my other piece at the man, as if I would shoot
him. Upon this my savage, for so I call him
now, made a motion to me to lend him my
sword, which hung naked in a belt by my side;
so I did. He no sooner had it but he runs to his
enemy, and, at one blow, cut off his head as
cleverly, no executioner in Germany could have
done it sooner or better; which I thought very
strange for one who, I had reason to believe,
never saw a sword in his life before, except their
own wooden swords. However, it seems, as I
learned afterwards, they make their wooden
swords so sharp, so heavy, and the: wood is so
hard, that they will cut off heads even with them,
ay, and arms, and that at one blow too. When
he had done this, he comes laughing to me in
sign of triumph, and brought me the sword
again, and with abundance of gestures, which
I did not understand, laid it down, with the
head of the savage that he had killed, just
before me.

But that which astonished him most, was to
know how I had killed the other Indian so far
off; so pointing to him, he made signs to me
to let him go to him; so I bade him go, as well
as I could. When he came to him, he stood like
ROBINSON CRUSOE 263

one amazed, looking at him, turned him first
on one side, then on t’other, looked at the wound
the bullet had made, which, it seems, was just
in his breast, where it had made a hole, and no
great quantity of blood had followed; but he
had bled inwardly, for he was quite dead. He
took up his bow and arrows, and came back; so
I turned to go away, and beckoned to him to
follow me, making signs to him that more might
come after them.

Upon this he signed to me that he should bury
them with sand, that they might not be seen by
the rest if they followed; and so I made signs
again to him to do so. He fell to work, and in
an instant he had scraped a hole in the sand
with his hands big enough to bury the first in,
and then dragged him into it, and covered him,
and did so also by the other. I believe he had
buried them both in a quarter ofan hour. Then
calling him away, I carried him, not to my
castle, but quite away to my cave, on the farther
part of the island; so I did not let my dream
come to pass in that part, viz., that he came into
my grove for shelter.

Here I gave him bread and a bunch of raisins
to eat, and a draught of water, which I found he
was indeed in great distress for, by his running;
and having refreshed him, I made signs for him
to go lie down and sleep, pointing to a place
where I had laid a great parcel of rice-straw, and
a blanket upon it, which I used to sleep upon
myself sometimes; so the poor creature laid
down, and went to sleep.

He was a comely, handsome fellow, perfectly
well made, with straight strong limbs, not too
264 THE ADVENTURES OF

large, tall, and well-shaped, and, as I reckon,
about twenty-six years of age. He had a very
good countenance, not a fierce and surly aspect,
but seemed to have something very manly in his
face; and yet he had all the sweetness and soft-
ness of an European in his countenance too,
especially when he smiled. His hair was long
and black, not curled like wool; his forehead
very high and large; and a great vivacity and
sparkling sharpness in his eyes. The colour of
his skin was not quite black, but very tawny;
and yet not of an ugly, yellow, nauseous tawny,
as the Brazilians and Virginians, and other
natives of America are, but of a bright kind of a
dun olive colour, that had in it something very
agreeable, though not very easy to describe.
His face was round and plump; his nose small,
not flat like the negroes; a very good mouth, thin
lips, and his fine teeth well set, and white as
ivory.

After he had slumbered, rather than slept,
about half an hour, he waked again, and comes
out of the cave to me, for I had been milking my
goats, which I had in the enclosure just by.
When he espied me, he came running to me,
laying himself down again upon the ground,
with all the possible signs of an humble, thankful
disposition, making a many antic gestures to
show it. At last he lays his head flat upon the
ground, close to my foot, and sets my other foot
upon his head, as he had done before, and after
this made all the signs to me of subjection, servi-
tude, and submission imaginable, to let me know
how he would serve me as long as he lived. I
understood him in many things, and let him
ROBINSON CRUSOE 265

know I was very well pleased with him. In a
little time I began to speak to him, and teach
him to speak to me; and, first, I made him know
his name should be Friday, which was the day
I saved his life. I called him so for the memory
of the time. I likewise taught him to say master,
and then let him know that was to be my name.
I likewise taught him to say Yes and No, and to
know the meaning of them. I gave him some
milk in an earthen pot, and let him see me drink
it before him, and sop my bread in it; and I gave
him a cake of bread to do the like, which he
quickly complied with, and made signs that it
was very good for him.

I kept there with him all that night; but as
soon as it was day, I beckoned to him to come
with me, and let him know I would give him
some clothes; at which he seemed very glad, for
he was stark naked. As we went by the place
where he had buried the two men, he pointed
exactly to the place, and showed me the marks
that he had made to find them again, making
signs to me that we should dig them up again,
and eat them. At this I appeared very angry,
expressed my abhorrence of it, made as if I
would vomit at the thoughts of it, and beckoned
with my hand to him to come away; which he
did immediately, with great submission. I then
led him up to the top of the hill, to see if his
enemies were gone; and pulling out my glass, I
looked, and saw plainly the place where they
had been, but no appearance of them or of their
canoes; so that it was plain that they were gone,
and had left their two comrades behind them,
without any search after them.
266 | THE ADVENTURES OF

But I was not content with this discovery; but
having now more courage, and consequently more
curiosity, I takes my man Friday with me, giving
him the sword in his hand, with the bow and
arrows at his back, which I found he could use
very dexterously, making him carry one gun for
me, and I two for myself, and away we marched
to the place where these creatures had been; for
I had a mind now to get some fuller intelligence
of them. When I came to the place, my very
blood ran chill in my veins, and my heart
sunk within me, at the horror of the spectacle.
Indeed, it was a dreadful sight, at least it was
so to me, though Friday made nothing of it.
The place was covered with human bones, the
ground dyed with their blood, great pieces of
flesh left here and there, half-eaten, mangled
and scorched; and, in short, all the tokens of the
triumphant feast they had been making there,
after a victory over their enemies. I saw three
skulls, five hands, and the bones of three or four
legs and feet, and abundance of other parts of
the bodies; and Friday, by his signs, made me
understand that they brought over four prisoners
to feast upon; that three of them were eaten up,
and that he, pointing to himself, was the fourth;
that there had been a great battle between them
and their next king, whose subjects it seems he
had been one of, and that they had taken a
great number of prisoners; all which were
carried to several places by those that had taken
them in the fight, in order to feast upon them,
as was done here by these wretches upon those
they brought hither.

I caused Friday to gather all the skulls, bones,
ROBINSON CRUSOE 267

flesh, and whatever remained, and lay them
together on a heap, and make a great fire upon
it, and burn them all to ashes. I found Friday
had still a hankering stomach after some of the
flesh, and was still a cannibal in his nature; but
I discovered so much abhorrence at the very
thoughts of it, and at the least appearance of it,
that he durst not discover it; for I had, by some
means, let him know that I would kill him if he
offered it.

When we had done this we came back to our
castle, and there I fell to work for my man
Friday; and, first of all, I gave him a pair of
linen drawers, which I had out of the poor
gunner’s chest I mentioned, and which I found
in the wreck; and which, with a little alteration,
fitted him very well. Then I made him a jerkin
of goat’s-skin, as well as my skill would allow,
and I was now grown a tolerable good tailor;
and I gave him a cap, which I had made of
a hare-skin, very convenient and fashionable
enough; and thus he was clothed for the present
tolerably well, and was mighty well pleased to
see himself almost as well clothed as his master.
It is true he went awkwardly in these things at
first; wearing the drawers was very awkward to
him, and the sleeves of the waistcoat galled his
shoulders, and the inside of his arms; but a little
easing them where he complained they hurt him,
and using himself to them, at length he took to
them very well.

The next day after I came home to my hutch
with him, I began to consider where I should
lodge him. And that I might do well for him,
and yet be perfectly easy myself, I made a little
258 THE ADVENTURES OF

them broke all my measures; for seeing so many,
and knowing that they always came” four, or
six, or sometimes more, in a boat, I could not
tell what to think of it, or how to take my
measures to attack twenty or thirty men single-
handed; so I lay still in my castle, perplexed and
discomforted. However, I put myself into all the
same postures for an attack that I had formerly
provided, and was just ready for action if any-
thing had presented. Having waited a good
while, listening to hear if they made any noise,
at length, being very impatient, I set my guns at
the foot of my ladder, and clambered up to the
top of the hill, by my two stages, as usual; stand-
ing so, however, that my head did not appear
above the hill, so that they could not perceive
me by any means. Here I observed, by the help
of my perspective-glass, that they were no less
than thirty in number, that they had a fire
kindled, that they had had meat dressed. How
they had cooked it, that I knew not, or what it
was; but they were all dancing, in I know not
how many barbarous gestures and figures, their
own way, round the fire.

While I was thus looking on them, I perceived
by my perspective two miserable wretches
dragged from the boats, where, it seems, they
were laid by, and were now brought out for the
slaughter. I perceived one of them immediately
fell, being knocked down, I suppose, with a club
or wooden sword, for that was their way, and
two or three others were at work immediately,
cutting him open for their cookery, while the
other victim was left standing by himself, till
they should be ready for him. In that very
ROBINSON CRUSOE 259

moment this poor wretch seeing himself a little
at liberty, Nature inspired him with hopes of
life, and he started away from them, and ran
with incredible swiftness along the sands directly
towards me, I mean towards that part of the
coast where my habitation was.

I was dreadfully frighted (that I must acknow-
ledge) when I perceived him to run my way, and
especially when, as I thought, I saw him pursued
by the whole body; and now I expected that part
of my dream was coming to pass, and that he
would certainly take shelter in my grove; but I
could not depend, by any means, upon my
dream for the rest of it, viz., that the other
savages would not pursue him thither, and find
him there. However, I kept my station, and my
spirits began to recover when I found that there
was not above three men that followed him; and
still more was I encouraged when I found that
he outstripped them exceedingly in running, and
gained ground of them; so that if he could but
hold it for half an hour, I saw easily he would
fairly get away from them all.

There was between them and my castle the
creek, which I mentioned often at the first part
of my story, when I landed my cargoes out of the
ship; and this I saw plainly he must necessarily
swim over, or the poor wretch would be taken
there. But when the savage escaping came
thither he made nothing of it, though the tide
was then up; but plunging in, swam through in
about thirty strokes or thereabouts, landed, and
ran on with exceeding strength and swiftness.
When the three persons came to the creek, I
found that two of them could swim, but the third
270 THE ADVENTURES OF

that we did not know by what light and law
these should be condemned; but that as God was
necessarily, and, by the nature of His being,
infinitely holy and just, so it could not be but
that if these creatures were all sentenced to
absence from Himself, it was on account of sin-
ning against that light, which, as the Scripture
says, was a law to themselves, and by such rules
as their consciences would acknowledge to be
just, though the foundation was not discovered
to us; and, second, that still, as we are all the
clay in the hand of the potter, no vessel could
say to Him, ‘Why hast Thou formed me thus?’

But to return to my new companion. I was
greatly delighted with him, and made it my
business to teach him everything that was proper
to make him useful, handy, and helpful; but
especially to make him speak, and understand
me when I spake. And he was the aptest scholar
that ever was; and particularly was so merry,
so constantly diligent, and so pleased when he
could but understand me, or make me under-
stand him, that it was very pleasant to me to
talk to him. And now my life began to be so easy,
that I began to say to myself, that could I but
have been safe from more savages, I cared not if I
was never to remove from the place while I lived.

After I had been two or three days returned
to my castle, I thought that, in order to bring
Friday off from his horrid way of feeding, and
from the relish of a cannibal’s stomach, I ought
to let him taste other flesh; so I took him out
with me one morning to the woods. I went,
indeed, intending to kill a kid out of my own
flock, and bring him home and dress it; but as
ROBINSON CRUSOE 271

I was going, I saw a she-goat lying down in the
shade, and two young kids sitting by her. I
catched hold of Friday. ‘Hold,’ says I, ‘stand
still,’ and made signs to him not to stir. _Immedi-
ately I presented my piece, shot and killed one
of the kids. The poor creature, who had, at a
distance indeed, seen me kill the savage, his
enemy, but did not know, or could imagine, how
it was done, was sensibly surprised, trembled
and shook, and looked so amazed, that I thought
he would have sunk down. He did not see the
kid I had shot at, or perceive I had killed it,
but ripped up his waistcoat to feel if he was not
wounded; and, as I found presently, thought I
was resolved to kill him; for he came and kneeled
down to me, and embracing my knees, said a
great many things I did not understand; but I
could easily see that the meaning was to pray me
not to kill him.

I soon found a way to convince him that I
would do him no harm; and taking him up by
the hand, laughed at him, and pointing to the
kid which I had killed, beckoned to him to run
and fetch it, which he did; and while he was
wondering, and looking to see how the creature
was killed, I loaded my gun again; and by and
by I saw a great fowl, like a hawk, sit upon a
tree, within shot; so, to let Friday understand
a little what I would do, I called him to me
again, pointing at the fowl, which was indeed a
parrot, though I thought it had been a hawk; I
say, pointing to the parrot, and to my gun, and
to the ground under the parrot, to let him see I
would make it fall, I made him understand that
I would shoot and kill that bird. Accordingly
272 THE ADVENTURES OF

I fired, and bade him look, and immediately
he saw the parrot fall. He stood like one frighted
again, notwithstanding all I had said to him;
and I found he was the more amazed, because
he did not see me put anything into the gun,
but thought that there must be some won-
derful fund of death and destruction in that
thing, able to kill man, beast, bird, or anything
near or far off; and the astonishment this created
in him was such as could not wear off for a long
time; and I believe, if I would have let him, he
would have worshipped me and my gun. As for
the gun itself, he would not so much as touch it
for several days after; but would speak to it, and
talk to it, as ifit had answered him, when he was
by himself; which, as I afterwards learned of
him, was to desire it not to kill him.

Well, after his astonishment was a little over
at this, I pointed to him to run and fetch the
bird I had shot, which he did, but stayed some
time; for the parrot, not being quite dead, was
fluttered a good way off from the place where
she fell. However, he found her, took her up,
and brought her to me; and as I had perceived
his ignorance about the gun before, I took this
advantage to charge the gun again, and not let
him see me do it, that I might be ready for any
other mark that might present. But nothing
more offered at that time; so I brought home
the kid, and the same evening I took the skin off,
and cut it out as well as I could; and having a
pot for that purpose, I boiled or stewed some of
the flesh, and made some very good broth; and
after I had begun to eat some, I gave some to my
man, who seemed very glad of it, and liked it
ROBINSON CRUSOE 273

very well; but that which was strangest to him,
was to see me eat salt with it. He made a sign
to me that the salt was not good to eat, and
putting a little into his own mouth, he seemed
to nauseate it, and would spit and sputter at it,
washing his mouth with fresh water after it. On
the other hand, I took some meat in my mouth
without salt, and I pretended to spit and sputter
for want of salt, as fast as he had done at the salt.
But it would not do; he would never care for
salt with his meat or in his broth; at least, not a
great while, and then but a very little.

Having thus fed him with boiled meat and
broth, I was resolved to feast him the next day
with roasting a piece of the kid. This I did by
hanging it before the fire in a string, as I had seen
many people do in England, setting two poles
up, one on each side of the fire, and one cross on
the top, and tying the string to the cross stick,
letting the meat turn continually. This Friday
admired very much. But when he came to taste
the flesh, he took so many ways to tell me how
well he liked it, that I could not but understand
him; and at last he told me he would never eat
man’s flesh any more, which I was very glad
to hear.

The next day I set him to work to beating
some corn out, and sifting it in the manner I
used to do, as I observed before; and he soon
understood how to do it as well as I, especially
after he had seen what the meaning of it was,
and that it was to make bread of; for after that
T let him see me make my bread, and bake it too;
and in a little time Friday was able to do all the
work for me, as well as I could do it myself.
274 THE ADVENTURES OF

I began now to consider that, having two
mouths to feed instead of one, I must provide
more ground for my harvest, and plant a larger
quantity of corn than I used to do; so I marked
out a larger piece of land, and began the fence
in the same manner as before, in which Friday
not only worked very willingly and very hard,
but did it very cheerfully; and I told him what
it was for; that it was for corn to make more
bread, because he was now with me, and that
I might have enough for him and myself too.
He appeared very sensible of that part, and let
me know that he thought I had much more
labour upon me on his account, than I had for
myself; and that he would work the harder for
me, if I would tell him what to do.

This was the pleasantest year of all the life I
led in this place. Friday began to talk pretty
well, and understand the names of almost every-
thing I had occasion to call for, and of every
place I had to send him to, and talk a great deal
to me; so that, in short, I began now to have
some use for my tongue again, which, indeed,
I had very little occasion for before, that is to
say, about speech. Besides the pleasure of talking
to him, I had a singular satisfaction in the fellow
himself. His simple, unfeigned honesty appeared
to me more and more every day, and I began
really to love the creature; and, on his side, I
believe he loved me more than it was possible
for him ever to love anything before.

I had a mind once to try if he had any hanker-
ing inclination to his own country again; and
having learned him English so well that he could
answer me almost any questions, I asked him
ROBINSON CRUSOE 275

whether the nation that he belonged to never
conquered in battle? At which he smiled, and
said, ‘Yes, yes, we always fight the better’; that
is, he meant, always get the better in fight; and
so we began the following discourse: “You always
fight the better,’ said I. ‘How came you to be
taken prisoner then, Friday?’

Friday. My nation beat much for all that.

Master. How beat? If your nation beat them,
how came you to bé taken?

Friday. They more many than my nation in
the place where me was; they take one, two,
three, and me. My nation overbeat them in the
yonder place, where me no was; there my nation
take one, two, great thousand.

Master. But why did not your side recover you
from the hands of your enemies then?

Friday. They run one, two, three, and me,
and make go in the canoe; my nation have no
canoe that time.

Master. Well, Friday, and what does your
nation do with the men they take? Do they
carry them away and eat them, as these did?

Friday. Yes, my nation eat mans too; eat all up.

Master. Where do they carry them?

Friday. Go to other place, where they think.

Master. Do they come hither?

Friday. Yes, yes, they come hither; come other
else place.

Master. Have you been here with them?

Friday. Yes, I been here. (Potnts to the N.W.
side of the island, which, it seems, was their side.)

By this I understood that my man Friday had
formerly been among the savages who used to
come on shore on the farther part of the island,
276 THE ADVENTURES OF

on the same man-eating occasions that he was
now brought for; and, some time after, when I
took the courage to carry him to that side, being
the same I formerly mentioned, he presently
knew the place, and told me he was there once
when they eat up twenty men, two women, and
one child. He could not tell twenty in English,
but he numbered them by laying so many stones
on a row, and pointing to me to tell them over.

I have told this passage, because it introduces
what follows; that after I had had this discourse
with him, I asked him how far it was from our
island to the shore, and whether the canoes were
not often lost. He told me there was no danger,
no canoes ever lost; but that, after a little way
out to the sea, there was a current and a wind,
always one way in the morning, the other in the
afternoon.

This I understood to be no more than the sets
of the tide, as going out or coming in; but I
afterwards understood it was occasioned by the
great draught and reflux ofthe mighty river
Oroonoko, in the mouth or the gulf of which
river, as I found afterwards, our island lay; and
this land which I perceived to the W. and N.W.
was the great island Trinidad, on the north point
of the mouth of the river. I asked Friday a
thousand questions about the country, the in-
habitants, the sea, the coast, and what nation
were near. He told me all he knew, with the
greatest openness imaginable. I asked him the
names of the several nations of his sort of people,
but could get no other name than Caribs; from
whence I easily understood that these were the
Caribbees, which our maps place on the part of
ROBINSON CRUSOE 277,

America which reaches from the mouth of the
river Oroonoko to Guiana, and onwards to
St. Martha. He told me that up a great way
beyond the moon, that was, beyond the setting
of the moon, which must be W. from their
country, there dwelt white-bearded men, like
me, and pointed to my great whiskers, which I
mentioned before; and that they had- killed
much mans, that was his word; by all which I
understood he meant the Spaniards, whose cruel-
ties in America had been spread over the whole
countries, and was remembered by all the
nations from father to son. ;

I inquired if he could tell me how I might
come from this island and get among those white
men. He told me, ‘Yes, yes, I might go in two
canoe.’ I could not understand what he meant,
or make him describe to me what he meant by
two canoe; till at last, with great difficulty, I
found he meant it must be in a large great boat,
as big as two canoes.

This part of Friday’s discourse began to relish
with me very well; and from this time I enter-
tained some hopes that, one time or other, I
might find an opportunity to make my escape
from this place, and that this poor savage might
be a means to help me to do it. ;

During the long time that Friday had now
been with me, and that he began to speak to me,
and understand me, I was not wanting to lay a
foundation of religious knowledge in his mind;
particularly I asked him one time, Who made
him? The poor creature did not understand me |
at all, but thought I had asked who was his
father. But I took it by another handle, and
278 THE ADVENTURES OF

-asked him who made the sea, the ground we
walked on, and the hills and woods? He told me
it was one old Benamuckee, that lived beyond
all. He could describe nothing of this great
person, but that he was very old, much older,
he said, than the sea or the land, than the moon
or the stars. I asked him then, if this old person
had made all things, why did not all things
worship him? He looked very grave, and with
a perfect look of innocence said, ‘All things do
say O to him.’ I asked him if the people who
die in his country went away anywhere? He
said, ‘Yes, they all went to Benamuckee.’ Then
I asked him whether these they eat up went
thither too? He said ‘Yes.’
“~¥From these things I began to instruct him in
| the knowledge of the true God. I told him that
| the great Maker of all things lived up there,
| pointing up towards heaven; that He governs
| the world by the same power and providence
by which He had made it; that He was omni-
potent, could do everything for us, give every-
thing to us, take everything from us; and thus,
by degrees, I opened his eyes. He listened with
great attention, and received with pleasure the
notion of Jesus Christ being sent to redeem us,
and of the manner of making our prayers to God,
and His being able to hear us, even into heaven.
He told me one day that if our God could hear
us up beyond the sun, He must needs be a
greater God than their Benamuckee, who lived
but a little way off, and yet could not hear till
they went up to the great mountains where he
dwelt to speak to him. I asked him if he ever
went thither to speak to him? He said, No; they
ROBINSON CRUSOE 279

never went that were young men; none went
thither but the old men, whom he called their
Oowokakee, that is, as I made him explain it to
me, their religious, or clergy; and that they went
to say O (so he called saying prayers), and then
came back, and told them what Benamuckee
said. By this I observed that there is priestcraft
even amongst the most blinded, ignorant pagans
in the world; and the policy of making a secret
religion in order to preserve the veneration of
the people to the clergy is not only to be found
in the Roman, but perhaps among all religions
in the world, even among the most brutish and
barbarous savages.

I endeavoured to clear up this fraud to my
man Friday, and told him that the pretence of
their old men going up to the mountains to say
O to their god Benamuckee was a cheat, and
their bringing word from thence what he said
was much more so; that if they met with any
answer, or spoke with any one there, it must be
with an evil spirit; and then I entered into a long
discourse with him about the devil, the original
of him, his rebellion against God, his enmity to
man, the reason of it, his setting himself up in
the dark parts of the world to be worshipped
instead of God, and as God, and the many
stratagems he made use of to delude mankind
to their ruin; how he had a secret access to our
passions and to our affections, to adapt his snares
so to our inclinations, as to cause us even to be
our own tempters, and to run upon our destruc-
tion by our own choice.

I found it was not so easy to imprint right
notions in his mind about the devil, as it was
280 THE ADVENTURES OF

about the being of a God. Nature assisted all
my arguments to evidence to him even‘ the
necessity of a great First Cause and overruling,
governing Power, a secret directing Providence,
and of the equity and justice of paying homage
to Him that made us, and the like. But there
appeared nothing of all this in the notion of an
evil spirit; of his original, his being, his nature,
and above all, of his inclination to do evil, and
to draw us in to do so too; and the poor creature
puzzled me once in such a manner by a question
merely natural and innocent, that I scarce knew
what to say to him. I had been talking a great
deal to him of the power of God, His omnipo-
tence, His dreadful aversion to sin, His being a
consuming fire to the workers of iniquity; how,
as He had made us all, He could destroy us and
all the world in a moment; and he listened with
great seriousness to me all the while.

After this I had been telling him how the devil
was God’s enemy in the hearts of men, and used
all his malice and skill to defeat the good designs
of Providence, and to ruin the kingdom of
Christ in the world, and the like. ‘Well,’ says
Friday, ‘but you say God is so strong, so great;
is He not much strong, much might as the devil?’
“Yes, yes,’ says I, ‘Friday, God is stronger than
the devil; God is above the devil, and therefore
we pray to God to tread him down under our
feet, and enable us to resist his temptation, and
quench his fiery darts.’ ‘But,’ says he again,
‘if God much strong, much might as the devil,
why God no kill the devil, so make him no more
do wicked?’

I was strangely surprised at his question; and
ROBINSON CRUSOE 281

after all, though I was now an old man, yet I
was but a young doctor, and ill enough qualified
for a casuist, or a solver of difficulties; and at
first I could not tell what to say; so I pretended
not to hear him, and asked him what he said?
But he was too earnest for an answer to forget
his question, so that he repeated it in the very
same broken words as above. By this time I had
recovered myself a little, and I said, ‘God will at
last punish him severely; he is reserved for the
judgment, and is to be cast into the bottomless
pit, to dwell with everlasting fire.’. This did not
satisfy Friday; but he returns upon me, repeating
my words, ‘Reserve at last! me no understand;
but why not kill the devil now? not kill great
ago?’ ‘You may as well ask me,’ said I, ‘why
God does not kill you and I, when we do wicked
things here that offend Him; we are preserved
to repent and be pardoned.’ He muses awhile
at this. ‘Well, well,’ says he, mighty affection-
ately, ‘that well; so you, I, devil, all wicked, all
preserve, repent, God pardon all.’ Here I was
run down again by him to the last degree, and
it was a testimony to me how the mere notions
of nature, though they will guide reasonable
creatures to the knowledge of a God, and of a
worship or homage due to the supreme being
of God, as the consequence of our nature, yet
nothing but Divine revelation can form the
knowledge of Jesus Christ, and of a redemption
purchased for us, of a Mediator of the new
covenant, and of an Intercessor at the footstool
of God’s throne; I say, nothing but a revelation
from heaven can form these in the soul, and that
therefore the Gospel of our Lord and Saviour
282 THE ADVENTURES OF

Jesus Christ, I mean the Word of God, and the
Spirit of God, promised for the guide and sancti-
fier of His people, are the absolutely necessary
instructors of the souls of men in the saving
knowledge of God, and the means of salvation,

I therefore diverted the present discourse
between me and my man, rising up hastily, as
upon some sudden occasion of going out; then
sending him for something a good way off, I
‘seriously prayed to God that He would enable
me to instruct savingly this poor savage, assist-
ing, by His Spirit, the heart of the poor ignorant
‘creature to receive the light of the knowledge of

God in Christ, reconciling him to Himself, and

| would guide me to speak so to him from the Word
' of God as his conscience might be convinced, his
eyes opened, and: his soul saved. When he came
again to me, I entered into a long discourse with
him upon the subject of the redemption of man
by the Saviour of the world, and of the doctrine
of the Gospel preached from heaven, viz., of
repentance towards God, and faith in our blessed
Lord Jesus. I then explained to him as well as I
could why our blessed Redeemer took not on
Him the nature of angels, but the seed of
Abraham; and how, for that reason, the fallen
angels had no share in the redemption; that He
came only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel,
and the like.

I had, God knows, more sincerity than know-
ledge in all the methods I took for this poor
creature’s instruction, and must acknowledge,
what I believe all that act upon the same prin-
ciple will find, that in laying things open to him,
I really informed and instructed myself in many
ROBINSON CRUSOE 283

things that either I did not know, or had not
fully considered before, but which occurred
naturally to my mind upon my searching into
them for the information of this poor savage.
And I had more affection in my inquiry after
things upon this occasion than ever I felt before;
so that whether this poor wild wretch was the
better for me or no, I had great reason to be
thankful that ever he came to me. My grief sét’
lighter upon me, my habitation grew comfort-
able to me beyond measure; and when I
reflected, that in this solitary life which I had
been confined to, I had not only been moved
myself to look up to heaven, and to seek to the
Hand that had brought me there, but was now
to be made an instrument, under Providence,
to save the life, and, for aught I know, the soul
of a poor savage, and bring him to the true
knowledge of religion, and of the Christian
doctrine, that he might know Christ Jesus, to
know whom is life eternal;—I say, when J]
reflected upon all these things, a secret joy ran}
through every part of my soul, and I frequently}
rejoiced that ever I was brought to this place, |
which I had so often thought the most dreadful
of all afflictions that could possibly have be-
fallen me. =>

In this thankful frame I continued all the
remainder of my time, and the conversation
which employed the hours between Friday and
I was such, as made the three years which we
lived there together perfectly and completely
happy, if any such thing as complete happiness
can be formed in a sublunary state. The savage
was now a good Christian, a much better than
284 THE ADVENTURES OF

I; though I have reason to hope, and bless God
for it, that we were equally penitent, and com-
forted, restored penitents. We had here the
Word of God to read, and no farther off from
His Spirit to instruct than if we had been in
England. - Lae

‘Talways applied myself to ‘reading the Scrip-
ture, to let him know, as well as I could, the
meaning of what I read; and he again, by
his serious inquiries and questions, made me,
as I said before, a much better scholar-in the
Scripture-knowledge than I should ever have
‘been by my.own private mere reading/ ( Another
‘thing I cannot refrain from observing here also,
from experience in this retired part of my life,
viz., how infinite and inexpressible a blessing it
is that the knowledge of God, and of the doctrine
of salvation by Christ Jesus, is so plainly laid
down in the Word of God, so easy to be received
and understood; that as the bare reading the
Scripture made me capable of understanding
enough of my duty to carry me directly on to
the great work of sincere repentance for my sins,
and laying hold of a Saviour for life and salva-
tion, to a stated reformation in practice, and
obedience to all God’s commands, and this with-
out any teacher or instructor (I mean human);
so the same plain instruction sufficiently served
to the enlightening this savage creature, and
bringing him to be such a Christian, as I have
known few equal to him in my life.

As to all the disputes, wranglings, strife, and
contention which has happened in the world
about religion, whether niceties in doctrines, or
schemes of Church government, they were all


ROBINSON CRUSOE 285

perfectly useless to us; as, for aught I can yet
see, they have been to all the rest in the world.
We had the sure guide to heaven, viz., the Word
of God; and we had, blessed be God, comfortable
views of the Spirit of God teaching and instruct-
ing us by His Word, leading us into all truth,
and making us both willing and obedient to the
instruction of His Word; and I cannot see
the least use that the greatest knowledge of the
disputed points in religion, which have made
such confusions in the world, would have been
to us if we could have obtained it. But I must
go on with the historical part of things, and take
every part in its order.

After Friday and I became more intimately
acquainted, and that he could understand almost
all I said to him, and speak fluently, though in
broken English, to me, I acquainted him with
my own story, or at least so much of it as related
to my coming into the place; how I had lived
there, and how long. I let him into the mystery,
for such it was to him, of gunpowder and bullet,
and taught him how to shoot; I gave him a
knife, which he was wonderfully delighted with,
and I made him a belt, with a frog hanging to
it, such as in England we wear hangers in; and
in the frog, instead of a hanger, I gave him a
hatchet, which was not only as good a weapon,
in some cases, but much more useful upon other
occasions.

I described to him the country of Europe, and
particularly England, which I came from; how
we lived, how we worshipped God, how we
behaved to one another, and how we traded in
ships to all parts of the world. I gave him an
286 THE ADVENTURES OF

account of the wreck which I had been on board
of, and showed him, as near as I could, the place
where she lay; but she was all beaten in pieces
before, and gone.

I showed him the ruins of our boat, which we
lost when we escaped, and which I could not
stir with my whole strength then, but was now
fallen almost all to pieces. Upon seeing this
boat, Friday stood musing a great while, and
said nothing. I asked him what it was he studied
upon. At last says he, ‘Me see such boat like
come to place at my nation.’

I did not understand him a good while; but at
last, when I had examined further into it, I
understood by him that a boat such as that had
been, came on shore upon the country where he
lived; that is, as he explained it, was driven
thither by stress of weather. I presently imagined
that some European ship must have been cast
away upon their coast, and the boat might get
loose and drive ashore; but was so dull, that I
never once thought of men making escape from
a wreck thither, much less whence they might
come; so I only inquired after a description of
the boat.

Friday described the boat to me well enough;
but brought me better to understand him when
he added with some warmth, ‘We save the white
mans from drown.’ Then I presently asked him
if there was any white mans, as he called them,
in the boat. ‘Yes,’ he said, ‘the boat full of
white mans.’ I asked him how many. He told
upon his fingers seventeen. I asked him then
what became of them. He told me, “They live,
they dwell at my nation.’
ROBINSON CRUSOE 287

This put new thoughts into my head; for I
presently imagined that these might be the men,
belonging to the ship that was cast away in sight
of my island, as I now call it; and who, after the
ship was struck on the rock, and they saw her
inevitably lost, had saved themselves in their
boat, and were landed upon that wild shore
among the savages.

Upon this I inquired of him more critically
what was become of them. He assured me they
lived still there; that they had been there about
four years; that the savages let them alone, and
gave them victuals to live. I asked him how it
came to pass they did not kill them, and eat
them. He said, ‘No, they make brother with
them’; that is, as I understood him, a truce; and
then he added, “They no eat mans but when
make the war fight’; that is to say, they never
eat any men but such as come to fight with them
and are taken in battle.

It was after this some considerable time, that
being on the top of the hill, at the east side of
the island (from whence, as I have said, I had
in a clear day discovered the main or continent
of America), Friday, the weather being very
serene, looks very earnestly towards the main-
land, and, in a kind of surprise, falls a-jamping
and dancing, and calls out to me, for I was at
some distance from him. I asked him what was
the matter? ‘O joy!’ says he, ‘O glad! there see
my country, there my nation!’

I observed an extraordinary sense of pleasure
appeared in his face, and his eyes sparkled, and
his countenance discovered a strange eagerness,
as if he had a mind to be in his own country
288 THE ADVENTURES OF

again; and this observation of mine put a great
many thoughts into me, which made me at first
not so easy about my new man Friday as I was
before; and I made no doubt but that if Friday
could get back to his own nation again, he would
not only forget all his religion, but all his obliga-
tion to me; and would be forward enough to
give his countrymen an account of me, and come
back perhaps with a hundred or two of them,
and make a feast upon me, at which he might
be as merry as he used to be with those of his
enemies, when they were taken in war.

But I wronged the poor-honest.creature very

, much, for which I was very sorry afterwards.

However, as my jealousy increased, and held
me some weeks, I was a little more circumspect,
and not so familiar and kind to him as before;
in which I was certainly in the wrong too, the

Jhonest;—grateful—creature having no thought

labout it but what consisted with the best prin-
ciples, both as a religious Christian and as a
grateful friend, as appeared afterwards to my
full satisfaction.

While my jealousy of him lasted, you may be
sure I was every day pumping hin, to see if he
would discover any of the new thoughts which
I suspected were in him; but I found everything
he said was so honest and so innocent, that I
could find nothing to nourish my suspicion; and,
in spite of all my uneasiness, he made me at last
entirely his own again, nor did he in the least
perceive that I was uneasy, and therefore I could
not suspect him of deceit.

One day, walking up the same hill, but the
weather being hazy at sea, so that we could not
ROBINSON CRUSOE 289

see the continent, I called to him, and said,
‘Friday, do not you wish yourself in your own
country, your own nation?’ ‘Yes,’ he said, ‘I be
much O glad to be at my own nation.’ ‘What
would you do there?’ said I. ‘Would you turn
wild again, eat men’s flesh again, and be a
savage as you were before?’ He looked full of
concern, and shaking his head said, ‘No, no;
Friday tell them to live good; tell them to pray
God; tell them to eat corn-bread, cattle-flesh,
milk, no eat man again.’ ‘Why then,’ said I to
him, ‘they will kill you.” He looked grave at
that, and then said, ‘No, they no kill me, they
willing love learn.’ He meant by this they would
be willing to learn. He added, they learned much
of the bearded mans that come in the boat.
Then I asked him if he would go back to them?
He smiled at that, and told me he could not
swim so far. I told him I would make a canoe
for him. He told me he would go, if I would go
with him. ‘I go!’ says I; ‘why, they will eat me
if I come there.’ ‘No, no,’ says he, ‘me make
they no eat you; me make they much love you.’
He meant, he would tell them how I had killed
his enemies, and saved his life, and so he.would
make them love me. Then he told me, as well
as he could, how kind they were to seventeen
white men, or bearded men, as he called them,
who came on shore there in distress.

From this time I confess I had a mind to
venture over, and see if I could possibly join
with these bearded men, who, I made no doubt,
were Spaniards or Portuguese; not doubting
but, if I could, we might find some method to
escape from thence, being upon the continent,

17 L
290 THE ADVENTURES OF

and a good company together, better than I
could from an island forty miles off the shore,
and alone, without help. So, after some days,
I took Friday to work again, by way of discourse,
and told him I would give him a boat to go back
to his own nation; and accordingly I carried him
to my frigate, which lay on the other side of the
island, and having cleared it of water, for I
always kept it sunk in the water, I brought it
out, showed it him, and we both went into it.

I found he was a most dexterous fellow at
managing it, would make it go almost as swift
and fast again as I could. So when he was in I
said to him, ‘Well now, Friday, shall we go to
your nation?’ He looked very dull at my saying
so, which, it seems, was because he thought the
boat too small to go so far. I told him then I had
a bigger; so the next day I went to the place
where the first boat lay which I had made, but
which I could not get into water. He said that
was big enough; but then, as I had taken no
care of it, and it had lain two or three and
twenty years there, the sun had split and dried
it, that it was in a manner rotten. Friday told
me such a boat would do very well, and would
carry ‘much enough victual, drink, bread’; that
was his way of talking.

Upon the whole, I was by this time so fixed
upon my design of going over with him to the
continent, that I told him we would go and
make one as big as that, and he should go home
in it. He answered not one word, but looked
very grave and sad. I asked him what was the
matter with him? He asked me again thus,
‘Why you angry mad with Friday? what me
ROBINSON CRUSOE 291

done?’ I asked him what he meant. I told him
I was not angry with him at all. ‘No angry! no
angry!’ says he, repeating the words several
times. ‘Why send Friday home away to my
nation?’ ‘Why,’ says I, ‘Friday, did you not say
you wished you were there?’ ‘Yes, yes,’ says he,
‘wish be both there, no wish Friday there, no
master there.’ In a word, he would not think
of going there without me. ‘I go there, Friday!’
says I; what shall I do there?’ He turned very
quick upon me at this: ‘You do great deal much
good,’ says he; ‘you teach wild mans to be good,
sober, tame mans; you tell them know God,
pray God, and live new life.’ ‘Alas! Friday,’
says I, ‘thou knowest not what thou sayest. Iam
but an ignorant man myself.’ ‘Yes, yes,’ says he,
‘you teachee me good, you teachee them good.’
‘No, no, Friday,’ says I, ‘you shall go without
me; leave me here to live by myself, as I did
before.” He looked confused again at that word,
and running to one of the hatchets which he
used to wear, he takes it up hastily, comes and
gives it me. ‘What must I do with this?’ says I
to him. ‘You take kill Friday,’ says he. ‘What
must I kill you for?’ said I again. He returns
very quick, ‘What you send Friday away for?
Take kill Friday, no send Friday away.’ This
he spoke so earnestly, that I saw tears stand in
his eyes. In a word, I so plainly discovered the
utmost affection in him to me, and a firm resolu-
tiomin him, that I told-him then, and often after,
that I would never send him away from me if he
was willing to stay with me.

Upon the whole, as I found by all his discourse
a settled affection to me, and that nothing should
292 THE ADVENTURES OF

part him from me, so I found all the foundation
of his desire to go to his.own country was laid
in his ardent affection to the people, and his
hopes of my doing them good; a thing which,
as I had no notion of myself, so I had not the
least thought or intention or desire of under-
taking it. But still I found a strong inclination
to my attempting an escape, as above, founded
on the supposition gathered from the discourse,
viz., that there were seventeen bearded men
there; and, therefore, without any more delay
I went to work with Friday to find out a great
tree proper to fell, and make a large periagua, or
canoe, to undertake the voyage. There were
trees enough in the island to have built a little
fleet, not of pertaguas and canoes, but even of
good large vessels. But the main thing I looked
at was, to get one so near the water that we
might launch it when it was made, to avoid the
mistake I committed at first.

At last Friday pitched upon a tree, for I found
he knew much better than I what kind of wood
was fittest for it; nor can I tell, to this day, what
wood to call the tree we cut down, except that
it was very like the tree we call fustic, or between
that and the Nicaragua wood, for it was much
of the same colour and smell. Friday was for
burning the hollow or cavity of this tree out,
to make it for a boat, but I showed him how
rather to cut it out with tools; which, after I had
showed him how to use, he did very handily;
and in about a month’s hard labour we finished
it, and made it very handsome; especially when,
with our axes, which I showed him how to
handle, we cut and hewed the outside into the
ROBINSON CRUSOE 293

true shape of a boat. After this, however, it
cost us near a fortnight’s time to get her along,
as it were inch by inch, upon great rollers into
the water; but when she was in, she would have
carried twenty men with great ease.

When she was in the water, and though she
was so big, it amazed me to see with what
dexterity, and how swift my man Friday would
manage her, turn her, and paddle her along.
So I asked him if he would, and if we might
venture over in her. ‘Yes,’ he said, ‘he venture
over in her very well, though great blow wind.’
However, I had a farther design that he knew
nothing of, and that was to make a mast and
sail, and to fit her with an anchor and cable.
As to a mast, that was easy enough to get; so
I pitched upon a straight young cedar tree,
which I found near the place, and which there
was great plenty of in the island; and I set
Friday to work to cut it down, and gave him
directions how to shape and order it. But as to
the sail, that was my particular care. I knew
I had old sails, or rather pieces of old sails
enough; but as I had had them now twenty-six
years by me, and had not been very careful to
preserve them, not imagining that I should ever
have this kind of use for them, I did not doubt
but they were all rotten, and, indeed, most of
them were so. However, I found two pieces
which appeared pretty good, and with these I
went to work, and with a great deal of pains,
and awkward tedious stitching (you may be
sure) for want of needles, I, at length, made a
three-cornered ugly thing, like what we call in
England a shoulder-of-mutton sail, to go with
294. THE ADVENTURES OF

a boom at bottom, and a little short sprit at the
top, such as usually our ships’ longboats sail
with, and such as I best knew how to manage;
because it was such a one as I had to the boat
in which I made my escape from Barbary, as
related in the first part of my story.

I was near two months performing this last
work, viz., rigging and fitting my mast and sails;
for I finished them very complete, making a
small stay, and a sail, or foresail, to it, to assist,
if we should turn to windward; and, which was
more than all, I fixed a rudder to the stern of
her to steer with; and though I was but a
bungling shipwright, yet as I knew the useful-
ness, and even necessity, of such a thing, I
applied myself with so much pains to do it, that
at last I brought it to pass; though, considering
the many dull contrivances I had for it that
failed, I think it cost me almost as much labour
as making the boat.

After all this was done too, I had my man
Friday to teach as to what belonged to the
navigation of my boat; for though he knew very
well how to paddle a canoe, he knew nothing
what belonged to a sail and a rudder; and was
the most amazed when he saw me work the boat
to and again in the sea by the rudder, and how
the sail jibbed, and filled this way, or that way,
as the course we sailed changed; I say, when
he saw this, he stood like one astonished and
amazed. However, with a little use I made all
these things familiar to him, and he became an
expert sailor, except that as to the compass I
could roake him understand very little of that.
On the other hand, as there was very little
ROBINSON CRUSOE 295

cloudy weather, and seldom or never any fogs
in those parts, there was the less occasion for a
compass, seeing the stars were always to be seen
by night, and the shore by day, except in the
rainy seasons, and then nobody cared to stir
abroad, either by land or sea.

I was now entered on the seven and twentieth
year of my captivity in this place; though the
three last years that I had this creature with me
ought rather to be left out of the account, my
habitation being quite of another kind than in
all the rest of the time. I kept the anniversary
of my landing here with the same thankfulness
to God for His mercies as at first; and if I had
such cause of acknowledgment at first, I had
much more so now, having such additional
testimonies of the care of Providence over me,
and the great hopes I had of being effectually
and speedily delivered; for I had an invincible
impression upon my thoughts that my deliver-
ance was at hand, and that I should. not be
another year in this place. However, I went on
with my husbandry, digging, planting, fencing,
as usual. I gathered and cured my grapes, and
did every necessary thing as before.

The rainy season,was, in the meantime, upon
me, when I kept more within doors than at
other times; so I had stowed our new vessel as
secure as we could, bringing her up into the
creek, where, as I said in the beginning, I landed
my rafts from the ship; and hauling her up to
the shore at high-water mark, I made my man
Friday dig a little dock, just big enough to hold
her, and just deep enough to give her water
enough to float in; and then, when the tide was
296 THE ADVENTURES OF

out, we made a strong dam cross the end of it,
to keep the water out; and so she lay dry, as to
the tide, from the sea; and to keep the rain off,
we laid a great many boughs of trees, so thick,
that she was as well thatched as a house; and
thus we waited for the month of November and
December, in which I designed to make my
adventure.

When the settled season began to come in, as
the thought of my design returned with the fair
weather, I was preparing daily for the voyage;
and the first thing I did was to lay by a certain
quantity of provisions, being the stores for our
voyage; and intended, in a week or a fortnight’s
time, to open the dock, and launch out our boat.
I was busy one morning upon something of this
kind, when I called to Friday, and bid him go
to the sea-shore and see if he could find a turtle,
or tortoise, a thing which we generally got once
a week, for the sake of the eggs as well as the
flesh. Friday had not been long gone when he
came running back, and flew over my outer
wall, or fence, like one that felt not the ground,
or the steps he set his feet on; and before I had
time to speak to him, he cries out to me, ‘O
master! O master! O sorrow! O bad!’ ‘What’s
the matter, Friday?’ says I. ‘O yonder, there,’
says he, ‘one, two, three canoe! one, two, three!’
By his way of speaking, I concluded there were
six; but, on inquiry, I found it was but three.
‘Well, Friday,’ says I, ‘do not be frighted.’ So I
heartened him up as well as I could. However,
I saw the poor fellow was most terribly scared;
for nothing ran in his head but that they were
come to look for him, and would cut him in
ROBINSON CRUSOE 297

pieces, and eat him; and the poor fellow trem-
bled so, that I scarce knew what to do with him.
I comforted him as well as I could, and told him
I was in as much danger as he, and that they
would eat me as well as him. ‘But,’ says I,
‘Friday, we must resolve to fight them. Can
you fight, Friday?’ ‘Me shoot,’ says he; ‘but
there come many great number.’ ‘No matter
for that,’ said I again; ‘our guns will fright them
that we do not kill.’ So I asked him whether, if
I resolved to defend him, he would defend me,
and stand by me, and do just as I bid him. ._He
said, ‘Me die when you bid die, master.’ So I
went and fetched a good dram of.rum, and gave
him; for I had been so good a husband of my
rum, that I had a great deal left. When he had
drank it, I made him take the two fowling-pieces,
which we always carried, and load them with
large swan-shot, as big as small pistol-bullets.
Then I took four muskets, and loaded them
with two slugs and five small bullets each; and
my two pistols I loaded with a brace of bullets
each. I hung my great sword, as usual, naked
by my side, and gave Friday his hatchet.

When I had thus prepared myself, I took my
perspective-glass, and went up to the side of the
hill to see what I could discover; and I found
quickly, by my glass, that there were one and
twenty savages, three prisoners, and three canoes,
and that their whole business seemed to be the
triumphant banquet upon these three human
bodies; a barbarous feast indeed, but nothing
more than, as I had observed, was usual with
them.

I observed also that they were landed, not
298 THE ADVENTURES OF

where they had done when Friday made his
escape, but nearer to my creek, where the shore
was low, and where a thick wood came close
almost down to the sea. This, with the abhor-
rence of the inhuman errand these wretches
came about, filled me with such indignation,
that I came down again to Friday, and told him
I was resolved to go down to them, and kill them
all, and asked him if he would stand by me.
He was now gotten over his fright, and his spirits
being a little raised with the dram I had given
him, he was very cheerful, and told me, as before,
he would die when I bid die.

In this fit of fury, I took first and divided the
arms which I had charged, as before, between
us. I gave Friday one pistol to stick in his girdle,
and three guns upon his shoulder; and I took
one pistol, and the other three myself, and in
this posture we marched out. I took a small
bottle of rum in my pocket, and gave Friday a
large bag with more powder and bullet; and as
to orders, I charged him to keep close behind
me, and not to stir, or shoot, or do anything, till
I bid him, and in the meantime not to speak a
word. In this posture I fetched a compass to
my right hand of near a mile, as well to get over
the creek as to get into the wood, so that I might
come within shot of them before I should be
discovered, which I had seen, by my glass, it
was easy to do.

While I was making this march, my former
thoughts returning, I began to abate my resolu-
tion. I do not mean that I entertained any fear
of their number; for as they were naked, un-
armed wretches, ’tis certain I was superior to
ROBINSON CRUSOE 299

them; nay, though I had been alone. But it
occurred to my thoughts what call, what occa-
sion, much less what necessity, I was in to go
and dip my hands in blood, to attack people
who had neither done or intended me any
wrong; who, as to me, were innocent, and whose
barbarous customs were their own disaster; being
in them a token indeed of God’s having left them,
with the other nations of that part of the world,
to such stupidity, and to such inhuman courses;
but did not call me to take upon me to be a
judge of their actions, much less an executioner
of His justice; that whenever He thought fit,
He would take the cause into His own hands,
and by national vengeance, punish them, as a
people, for national crimes; but that, in the
meantime, it was none of my business; that, it
was true, Friday might justify it, because he was
a declared enemy, and in a state of war with
those very particular people, and it was lawful
for him to attack them; but I could not say the
same with respect to me. These things were so
warmly pressed upon my thoughts all the way
as I went, that I resolved I would only go and
place myself near them, that I might observe
their barbarous feast, and that I would act then
as God should direct; but that, unless something
offered that was more a call to me than yet I
knew of, I would not meddle with them.

With this resolution I entered the wood, and
with all possible wariness and silence, Friday
following close at my heels, I marched till I came
to the skirt of the wood, on the side which was
next to them; only that one corner of the wood
lay between me and them. Here I called softly
300 THE ADVENTURES OF

to Friday, and showing him a great tree, which
was just at the corner of the wood, I bade him
go to the tree and bring me word if he could see
there plainly what they were doing. He did so,
and came immediately back to me, and told me
they might be plainly viewed there; that they
were all about their fire, eating the flesh of one
of their prisoners, and that another lay bound
upon the sand, a little from them, which, he
said, they would kill next; and, which fired all
the very soul within me, he told me it was not
one of their nation, but one of the bearded men,
whom he had told me of, that came to their
country in the boat. I was filled with horror at
the very naming the white, bearded man; and
going to the tree, I saw plainly, by my glass, a
white man, who lay upon the beach of the sea,
with his hands and his feet tied with flags, or
things like rushes, and that he was an European,
and had clothes on.

There was another tree, and a little thicket
beyond it, about fifty yards nearer to them than
the place where I was, which, by going a little
way about, I saw I might come at undiscovered,
and that then I should be within half shot of
them; so I withheld my passion, though I was
indeed enraged to the highest degree; and going
back about twenty paces, I got behind some
bushes, which held all the way till I came to the
other tree; and then I came to a little rising
ground, which gave me a full view of them, at
the distance of about eighty yards.

I had now not a moment to lose, for nineteen
of the dreadful wretches sat upon the ground,
all close huddled together, and had just sent the
ROBINSON CRUSOE 301

other two to butcher the poor Christian, and
bring him, perhaps limb by limb, to their fire;
and they were stooped down to untie the bands
at his feet. I turned to Friday: ‘Now, Friday,’
said I, ‘do as I bid thee.’ Friday said he would.
‘Then, Friday,’ says I, ‘do exactly as you see me
do; fail in nothing.’ So I set down one of the
muskets and the fowling-piece upon the ground,
and Friday did the like by his; and with the
other musket I took my aim at the savages,
bidding him do the like. Then asking him if he
was ready, he said, ‘ Yes.’ ‘Then fire at them,’
said I; and the same moment I fired also.
Friday took his aim so much better than I,
that on the side that he shot he killed two of
them, and wounded three more; and on my side
I killed one, and wounded two. They were, you
may be sure, in a dreadful consternation; and
all of them who were not hurt jumped up upon
their feet, but did not immediately know which
way to run, or which way to look, for they knew
not from whence their destruction came. Friday
kept his eyes close upon me, that, as I had bid
him, he might observe what I did; so as soon as
the first shot was made I threw down the piece,
and took up the fowling-piece, and Friday
did the like. He sees me cock and present; he
did the same again. ‘Are you ready, Friday?’
said I. ‘Yes,’ says he. | ‘Let fly, then,’ says I,
‘in the name of God!’ and with that I fired
again among the amazed wretches, and so did
Friday; and as our pieces were now loaded with
what I called swan-shot, or small pistol-bullets,
we found only two drop, but so many were
wounded, that they ran about yelling and
302 THE ADVENTURES OF

screaming like mad creatures, all bloody, and
miserably wounded most of them; whereof three
more fell quickly after, though not quite dead.

‘Now, Friday,’ says I, laying down the dis-
charged pieces, and taking up the musket which
was yet loaded, ‘follow me,’ says I, which he did
with a great deal of courage; upon which I
rushed out of the wood, and showed myself, and
Friday close at my foot. As soon as I perceived
they saw me, I shouted as loud as I could, and
bade Friday do so too; and running as fast as I
could, which, by the way, was not very fast,
being loaden with arms as I was, I made directly
towards the poor victim, who was, as I said,
lying upon the beach, or shore, between the
place where they sat and the sea. The two
butchers, who were just going to work with him,
had left him at the surprise of our first fire, and
fled in a terrible fright to the seaside, and had
jumped into a canoe, and three more of the rest
made the same way. I turned to Friday, and
bid him step forwards and fire at them. He
understood me immediately, and running about
forty yards, to be near them, he shot at them,
and I thought he had killed them all, for I saw
them all fall of a heap into the boat; though I
saw two of them up again quickly. However, he
killed two of them, and wounded the third, so
that he lay down in the bottom of the boat as
if he had been dead.

While my man Friday fired at them, I pulled
out my knife and cut the flags that bound the
poor victim; and loosing his hands and feet, I
lifted him up, and asked him in the Portuguese
tongue what he was. He answered in Latin,
ROBINSON CRUSOE 303

Christianus; but was so weak and faint, that he
could scarce stand or speak. I took my bottle
out of my pocket and gave it him, making signs
that he should drink, which he did; and I gave
him a piece of bread, which he eat. Then I
asked him what countryman he was; and he
said, Espagniole; and being a little recovered,
let me know, by all the signs he could possibly
make, how much he was in my debt for his
deliverance. ‘Seignior,’ said I, with as much
Spanish as I could make up, ‘we will talk after-
wards, but we must fight now. If you have any
strength left, take this pistol and sword, and lay
about you.’ He took them very thankfully, and
no sooner had he the arms in his hands but, as if
they had put new vigour into him, he flew upon
his murderers like a fury, and had cut two of
them in pieces in an instant; for the truth is, as
the whole was a surprise to them, so the poor
creatures were so much frighted with the noise
of our pieces, that they fell down for mere
amazement and fear, and had no more power to
attempt their own escape, than their flesh had
to resist our shot; and that was the case of those
five that Friday shot at in the boat; for as three
of them fell with the hurt they received, so the
other two fell with the fright.

I kept my piece in my hand still without firing,
being willing to keep my charge ready, because
I had given the Spaniard my pistol and sword.
So I called to Friday, and bade him run up to
the tree from whence we first fired, and fetch the
arms which lay there that had been discharged,
which he did with great swiftness; and then
giving him my musket, I sat down myself to load
304 THE ADVENTURES OF

all the rest again, and bade them come to me
when they wanted. While I was loading these
pieces, there happened a fierce engagement
between the Spaniard and one of the savages,
who made at him with one of their great wooden
swords, the same weapon that was to have killed
him before if I had not prevented it. The
Spaniard, who-was as bold and as brave as could
be imagined, though weak, had fought this
Indian a good while, and had cut him two great
wounds on his head; but the savage being a
stout, lusty fellow, closing in with him, had
thrown him down, being faint, and was wringing
my sword out of his hand, when the Spaniard,
though undermost, wisely quitting the sword,
drew the pistol from his girdle, shot the savage
through the body, and killed him upon the spot,
before I, who was running to help him, could
come near him.

Friday being now left to his liberty, pursued
the flying wretches with no weapon in his hand
but his hatchet; and with that he despatched
those three who, as I said before, were wounded
at first, and fallen, and all the rest he could
come up with; and the Spaniard coming to me
for a gun, I gave him one of the fowling-pieces,
with which he pursued two of the savages, and
wounded them both; but as he was not able to
run, they both got from him into the wood,
where Friday pursued them, and killed one of
them; but the other was too nimble for him, and
though he was wounded, yet had plunged him-
self into the sea, and swam with all his might off
to those two who were left in the canoe; which
three in the canoe, with one wounded, who we
ROBINSON CRUSOE 305

know not whether he died or no, were all that
escaped our hands of one and twenty. The
account of the rest is as follows :—

3 killed at our first shot from the tree.

2 killed at the next shot.

2 killed by Friday in the boat.

2 killed by ditto, of those at first wounded.

1 killed by ditto in the wood.

3 killed by the Spaniard.

4 killed, being found dropped here and there
of their wounds, or killed by Friday in
his chase of them.

4. escaped in the boat, whereofone wounded,

if not dead.



21 in all.

Those that were in the canoe worked hard to
get out of gun-shot; and though Friday made
two or three shots at them, I did not find that he
hit any of them. Friday would fain have had
me take one of their canoes, and pursue them;
and, indeed, I was very anxious about their
escape, lest carrying the news home to their
people they should come back perhaps with two
or three hundred of their canoes, and devour us
by mere multitude. So I consented to pursue
them by sea, and running to one of their canoes
I jumped in, and bade Friday follow me. But
when I was in the canoe, I was surprised to find
another poor creature lie there alive, bound
hand and foot, as the Spaniard was, for the
slaughter, and almost dead with fear, not know-
ing what the matter was; for he had not been able
to look up over the side of the boat, he was tied
306 THE ADVENTURES OF

so hard, neck and heels, and had been tied so
long, that he had really but little life in him.

I immediately cut the twisted flags or rushes,
which they had bound him with, and would
have helped him up; but he could not stand or
speak, but groaned most piteously, believing, -it
seems, still that he was only unbound in order
to be killed.

When Friday came to him, I bade him speak
to him, and tell him of his deliverance; and
pulling out my bottle, made him give the poor
wretch a dram; which, with the news of his
being delivered, revived him, and he sat up in
the boat. But when Friday came to hear him
speak, and look in his face, it would have moved
any one to tears to have seen how Friday kissed
him, embraced him, hugged him, cried, laughed,
halloed, jumped about, danced, sung; then cried
again, wrung his hands, beat his own face and
head, and then sung and jumped about again,
like a distracted creature. It was a good while
before I could make him speak to me, or tell me
what was the matter; but when he came a little
to himself, he told me that it was his father.

It is not easy for me to express how it moved
me to see what ecstasy and filial affection had
worked in this poor savage at the sight of his
father, and of his being delivered from death;
nor, indeed, can I describe half the extrava-
gances of his affection after this; for he went
into the boat, and out of the boat, a great many
times. When he went in to him, he would sit
down by him, open his breast, and hold his
father’s head close to his bosom, half an hour
together, to nourish it; then he took his arms
ROBINSON CRUSOE 307

and ankles, which were numbed and stiff with
the binding, and chafed and rubbed them with
his hands; and I, perceiving what the case was,
gave him some rum out of my bottle to rub them
with, which did them a great deal of good.

This action put an end to our pursuit of the
canoe with the other savages, who were now
gotten almost out of sight; and it was happy for
us that we did not, for it blew so hard within
two hours after, and before they could be gotten
a quarter of their way, and continued blowing
so hard all night, and that from the north-
west, which was against them, that I could not
suppose their boat could live, or that they ever
reached to their own coast.

But to return to Friday. He was so busy about
his father, that I could not find in my heart to
take him off for some time; but after I thought
he could leave him a little, I called him to me,
and he came jumping and laughing, and pleased
to the highest extreme. Then I asked him if he
had given his father any bread. He shook his
head, and said, ‘None; ugly dog eat all up self.’
So I gave him a cake of bread out of a little
pouch I carried on purpose. I also gave him a
dram for himself, but he would not taste it, but
carried it to his father. I had in my pocket also
two or three bunches of my raisins, so I gave
him a handful of them for his father. He had no
sooner given his father these raisins, but I saw
him come out of the boat and run away, as if he
had been bewitched, he ran at such a rate; for
he was the swiftest fellow of his foot that ever I
saw. I say, he run at such a rate, that he was
out of sight, as it were, in an instant; and though
308 THE ADVENTURES OF

I called, and hallooed too, after him, it was all
one, away he went; and in a quarter of an hour
I saw him come back again, though not so fast
as he went; and as he came nearer I found his
pace was slacker, because he had something in
his hand.

When he came up to me, I found he had been
quite home for an earthen jug, or pot, to bring
his father some fresh water, and that he had got
two more cakes or loaves of bread. The bread
he gave me, but the water he carried to his
father. However, as I was very thirsty too, I
took a little sup of it. This water revived his
father more than all the rum or spirits I had
given him, for he was just fainting with thirst.

When his father had drank, I called to him to
know if there was any water left. He said ‘Yes’;
and I bade him give it to the poor Spaniard,
who was in as much want of it as his father; and
I sent one of the cakes, that Friday brought, to
the Spaniard too, who was indeed very weak,
and was reposing himself upon a green place
under the shade of a tree; and whose limbs were
also very stiff, and very much swelled with the
rude bandage he had been tied with. When I
saw that upon Friday’s coming to him with the
water he sat up and drank, and took the bread,
and began to eat, I went to him, and gave him
a handful of raisins. He looked up in my face
with all the tokens of gratitude and thankfulness
that could appear in any countenance; but was
so weak, notwithstanding he had so exerted him-
self in the fight, that he could not stand up upon
his feet. He tried to do it two or three times, but
was really not able, his ankles were so swelled
ROBINSON CRUSOE 309

and so painful to him; so I bade him sit still, and
caused Friday to rub his ankles, and bathe them
with rum, as he had done his father’s.

I observed the poor affectionate creature,
every two minutes, or perhaps less, all the while
he was here, turned his head about to see if his
father was in the same place and posture as he
left him sitting; and at last he found he was not
to be seen; at which he started up, and without
speaking a word, flew with that swiftness to him,
that one could scarce perceive his feet to touch
the ground as he went. But when he came, he
only found he had laid himself down to ease his
limbs; so Friday came back to.me presently, and
I then spoke to the Spaniard to let Friday help
him up, if he could, and lead him to the boat,
and then he should carry him to our dwelling,
where I would take care of him. But Friday, a
lusty strong fellow, took the Spaniard quite up
upon his back, and carried him away to the
boat, and set him down softly upon the side or
gunnel of the canoe, with his feet in the inside
of it, and then lifted him quite in, and set him
close to his father; and presently stepping out
again, launched the boat off, and paddled it
along the shore faster than I could walk, though
the wind blew pretty hard too. So he brought
them both safe into our creek, and leaving them
in the boat, runs away to fetch the other canoe.
As he passed me, I spoke to him, and asked him
whither he went. He told me, ‘Go fetch more
boat.’ So away he went like the wind, for sure
never man or horse ran like him; and he had
the other canoe in the creek almost as soon as I
got to it by land; so he wafted me over, and then
310 THE ADVENTURES OF

went to help our new guests out of the boat,
which he did; but they were neither of them
able to walk, so that poor Friday knew not
what to do.

To remedy this I went to work in my thought,
and calling to Friday to bid them sit down on
the bank while he came to me, I soon made a
kind of hand-barrow to lay them on, and Friday
and I carried them up both together upon it
between us. But when we got them to the out-
side of our wall, or fortification, we were at a
worse loss than before, for it was impossible to
get them over, and I was resolved not to break
it down. So I set to work again; and Friday and
I, in about two hours’ time, made a very hand-
some tent, covered with old sails, and above that
with boughs of trees, being in the space without
our outward fence, and between that and the
grove of young wood which I had planted; and
here we made them two beds of such things as I
had, viz., of good rice-straw, with blankets laid
upon it to lie on, and another to cover them,
on each bed.

My island was now peopled, and I thought
myself very rich in subjects; and it was a merry
reflection, which I frequently made, how like a
king I looked. First of all, the whole country
was my own mere property, so that I had an
undoubted right of dominion. Secondly, my
people were perfectly subjected. I was absolute
lord and lawgiver; they all owed their lives to
me, and were ready to lay down their lives, if
there had been occasion of it, for me. It was
remarkable too, we had but three subjects, and
they were of three different religions. My
ROBINSON CRUSOE SII

man Friday was a Protestant, his father was-a
Pagan and a cannibal, and the Spaniard was a |
Papist. However, I allowed liberty of conscience |
throughout my dominions. But this is by the the /
way.

As soon as I had secured my two weak rescued
prisoners, and given them shelter and a place
to rest them upon, I began to think of making
some provision for them; and the first thing I
did, I ordered Friday to take a yearling goat,
betwixt a kid and a goat, out of my particular
flock, to be killed; when I cut off the hinder-
quarter, and chopping it into small pieces, I set
Friday to work to boiling and stewing, and made
them a very good dish, I assure you, of flesh and
broth, having put some barley and rice also into
the broth; and as I cooked it without doors, for
I made no fire within my inner wall, so I carried
it all into the new tent, and having set a table
there for them, I sat down and ate my own
dinner also with them, and as well as I could
cheered them, and encouraged them; Friday
being my interpreter, especially to his father,
and, indeed, to the Spaniard too; for the
Spaniard spoke the language of the savages
pretty well.

After we had dined, or rather supped, I
ordered Friday to take one of the canoes and
go and fetch our muskets and other firearms,
which, for want of time, we had left-upon the
place of battle; and the next day I ordered him
to go and bury the dead bodies of the savages,
which lay open to the sun, and would presently
be offensive; and I also ordered him to bury the
horrid remains of their barbarous feast, which
312 THE ADVENTURES OF

I knew were pretty much, and which I could
not think of doing myself; nay, I could not bear
to see them, if I went that way. All which he
punctually performed, and defaced the very
appearance of the savages being there; so that
when I went again I could scarce know where
it was, otherwise than by the corner of the wood
pointing to the place.

I then began to enter into a little conversation
with my two new subjects; and first, I set Friday
to inquire of his father what he thought of the
escape of the savages in that canoe, and whether
we might expect a return of them, with a power
too great for us to resist. His first opinion was,
that the savages in the boat never could live out
the storm which blew that night they went off,
but must, of necessity, be drowned, or driven
south to those other shores, where they were as
sure to be devoured as they were to be drowned
if they were cast away. But as to what they
would do if they came safe on shore, he said he
knew not; but it was his opinion that they were
so dreadfully frighted with the manner of their
being attacked, the noise, and the fire, that he
believed they would tell their people they were
all killed by thunder and lightning, not by the
hand of man; and that the two which appeared,
viz., Friday and me, were two heavenly spirits,
or furies, come down to destroy them, and not
men with weapons. This, he said, he knew,
because he heard them all cry out so in their
language to one another; for it was impossible
to them to conceive that a man could dart fire,
and speak thunder, and kill at a distance with-
out lifting up the hand, as was done now. And
ROBINSON CRUSOE 313

this old savage was in the right; for, as I under-
stood since by other hands, the savages never
attempted to go over to the island afterwards.
They were so terrified with the accounts given
by those four men (for, it seems, they did escape
the sea), that they believed whoever went to
that enchanted island would be destroyed with
fire from the gods.

This, however, I knew not, and therefore was
under continual apprehensions for a good while,
and kept always upon my guard, me and all my
army; for as we were now four of us, I would
have ventured upon a hundred of them, fairly in
the open field, at any time.

In a little time, however, no more canoes
appearing, the fear of their coming wore off,
and I began to take my former thoughts of a
voyage to the main into consideration; being
likewise assured, by Friday’s father, that I might
depend upon good usage from their nation, on
his account, if I would go.

But my thoughts were a little suspended when
I had a serious discourse with the Spaniard, and
when I understood that there were sixteen more
of his countrymen and Portuguese, who, having
been cast away, and made their escape to that
side, lived there at peace, indeed, with the
savages, but were very sore put to it for neces-
saries, and indeed for life. I asked him all the
particulars of their voyage, and found they were
a Spanish ship bound from the Rio de la Plata
to the Havana, being directed to leave their
loading there, which was chiefly hides and sil-
ver, and to bring back what European goods
they could meet with there; that they had five
314 THE ADVENTURES OF

Portuguese seamen on board, whom they took
out of another wreck; that five of their own men
were drowned when the first ship was lost, and
that these escaped, through infinite dangers and
hazards, and arrived, almost starved, on the
cannibal coast, where they expected to have
been devoured every moment.

He told me they had some arms with them,
but they were perfectly useless, for that they had
neither powder or ball, the washing of the sea
having spoiled all their powder but a little,
which they used, at their first landing, to provide
themselves some food.

I asked him what he thought would become of
them there, and if they had formed no design
of making any escape? He said they had many
consultations about it; but that having neither
vessel, or tools to build one, or provisions of any
kind, their councils always ended in tears and
despair.

I asked him how he thought they would receive
a proposal from me, which might tend towards
an escape; and whether, if they were all here, it
might not be done? I told him with freedom,
I feared mostly their treachery and ill usage of
me if I put my life in their hands; for that
gratitude was no inherent virtue in the nature
of man, nor did men always square their dealings
by the obligations they had received, so much as
they did by the advantages they expected. I
told him it would be very hard that I should be
the instrument of their deliverance, and that
they should afterwards make me their prisoner
in New Spain, where an Englishman was certain
to be made a sacrifice, what necessity or what
ROBINSON CRUSOE 315

accident soever brought him thither; and that
I had rather be delivered up to the savages, and
be devoured alive, than fall into the merciless
claws of the priests, and be carried into the
Inquisition. I added, that otherwise I was per-
suaded, if they were all here, we might, with so
many hands, build a bark large enough to carry
us all away, either to the Brazils, southward,
or to the islands, or Spanish coast, northward;
but that if, in requital, they should, when I had
put weapons into their hands, carry me by force
among their own people, I might be ill used for
my kindness to them, and make my case worse
than it was before.

He answered, with a great deal of candour
and ingenuity, that their condition was so miser-
able, and they were so sensible of it, that he
believed they would abhor the thought of using
any man unkindly that should contribute to
their deliverance; and that, if I pleased, he
would go to them with the old man, and dis-
course with them about it, and return again,
and bring me their answer; that he would make
conditions with them upon their solemn oath
that they should be absolutely under my leading,
as their commander and captain; and that they
should swear upon the holy sacraments and the
gospel to be true to me, and to go to such
Christian country as that I should agree to, and
no other, and to be directed wholly and abso-
lutely by my orders till they were landed safely
in such country as I intended; and that he
would bring a contract from them, under their
hands, for that purpose.

Then he told me he would first swear to me
316 THE ADVENTURES OF

himself, that he would never stir from me as long
as he lived till I gave him orders; and that he
would take my side to the last drop of his blood,
if there should happen the least breach of faith
among his countrymen.

He told me they were all of them very civil,
honest men, and they were under the greatest
distress imaginable, having neither weapons or
clothes, or any food, but at the mercy and
discretion of the savages; out of all hopes of ever
returning to their own country; and that he was
sure, if I would undertake their relief, they
would live and die by me.

Upon these assurances, I resolved to venture
to relieve them, if possible, and to send the old
savage and this Spaniard over to them to treat.
But when we had gotten all things in a readiness
to go, the Spaniard himself started an objection,
which had so much prudence in it on one hand,
and so much sincerity on the other hand, that I
could not but be very well satisfied in it, and by
his advice put off the deliverance of his comrades
for at least halfa year. The case was thus.

He had been with us now about a month,
during which time I had let him see in what
manner I had provided, with the assistance of
Providence, for my support; and he saw evi-
dently what stock of corn and rice I had laid up;
which, as it was more than sufficient for myself,
so it was not sufficient, at least without good
husbandry, for my family, now it was increased
to number four; but much less would it be
sufficient if his countrymen, who were, as he
said, fourteen, still alive, should come over; and
least of all would it be sufficient to victual our
ROBINSON CRUSOE 317

vessel, if we should build one, for a voyagéto
any of the Christian colonies of America. So he
told me he thought it would be more advisable
to let him and the two others dig and cultivate
some more land, as much as I could spare seed
to sow; and that we should wait another harvest,
that we might have a supply of corn for his
countrymen when they should come; for want
might be a temptation to them to disagree, or
not to think themselves delivered, otherwise than
out of one difficulty into another. “You know,’
says he, ‘the children of Israel, though they
rejoiced at first for their being delivered out of
Egypt, yet rebelled even against God Himself,
that delivered them, when “they came to want
bread in the wilderness.’ =

His caution was so seasonable, and his advice
so good, that I could not but be very well
pleased with his proposal, as well as I was satis-
fied with his fidelity. So we fell to digging all
four of us, as well as the wooden tools we were
furnished with permitted; and in about a
month’s time, by the end of which it was seed-
time, we had gotten as much land cured and
trimmed up as we sowed twenty-two bushels of
barley on, and sixteen jars of rice; which was,
in short, all the seed we had to spare; nor,
indeed, did we leave ourselves barley sufficient
for our own food for the six months that we had
to expect our crop; that is to say, reckoning from
the time we set our seed aside for sowing; for it
is not to be supposed it is six months in the
ground in that country.

Having now society enough, and our number
being sufficient to put us out of fear of the
318 THE ADVENTURES OF

savages, if they had come, unless their number
had been very great, we went freely all over the
island, wherever we found occasion; and as here
we had our escape or deliverance upon our
thoughts, it was impossible, at least for me, to
have the means of it out of mine. To this pur-
pose I marked out several trees which I thought
fit for our work, and I set Friday and his father
to cutting them down; and then I caused the
Spaniard, to whom I imparted my thought on
that affair, to oversee and direct their work. I
showed them with what indefatigable pains I
had hewed a large tree into single planks, and
I caused them to do the like, till they had made
about a dozen large planks of good oak, near
two feet broad, thirty-five feet long, and from
two inches to four inches thick. What prodi-
gious labour it took up, any one may imagine.

At the same time, I contrived to increase my
little flock of tame goats as much as I could; and
to this purpose I made Friday and the Spaniard
go out one day, and myself with Friday the
next day, for we took our turns, and by this
means we got above twenty young kids to breed
up with the rest; for whenever we shot the dam,
we saved the kids, and added them to our flock.
But above all, the season for curing the grapes
coming on, I caused such a prodigious quantity
to be hung up in the sun, that I believe, had we
been at Alicant, where the raisins of the sun are
cured, we could have filled sixty or eighty
barrels; and these, with our bread, was a great
part of our food, and very good living too, I
assure you; for it is an exceeding nourishing food.

It was now harvest, and our crop in good
ROBINSON CRUSOE 319

order. It was not the most plentiful increase
I had seen in the island, but, however, it was
enough to answer our end; for from our twenty-
two bushels of barley we brought in and
thrashed out above two hundred and twenty
bushels, and the like in proportion of the rice;
which was store enough for our food to the next
harvest, though all the sixteen Spaniards had
been on shore with me; or if we had been ready
for a voyage, it would very plentifully have
victualled our ship to have carried us to any
part of the world, that is to say, of America.

When we had thus housed and secured our
magazine of corn, we fell to work to make more
wicker-work, viz., great baskets, in which we
kept it; and the Spaniard was very handy and
dexterous at this part, and often blamed me
that I did not make some things for defence of
this kind of work; but I saw no need of it.

And now having a full supply of food for all
the guests I expected, I gave the Spaniard leave
to go over to the main, to see what he could do
with those he had left behind him there. I gave
him a strict charge in writing not to bring any
man with him who would not first swear, in the
presence of himself and of the old savage, that
he would no way injure, fight with, or attack
the person he should find in the island, who was
so kind to send for them in order to their deliver-
ance; but that they would stand by and defend
him against all such attempts, and wherever
they went would be entirely under and subjected
to his commands; and that this should be put
in writing, and signed with their hands. How
we were to have this done, when I knew they
320 THE ADVENTURES OF

had neither pen or ink, that indeed was a ques-
tion which we never asked.

Under these instructions, the Spaniard and
the old savage, the father of Friday, went away
in one of the canoes which they might be said
to come in, or rather were brought in, when
they came as prisoners to be devoured by the
savages.

I gave each of them:a musket, with a firelock
on it, and about eight charges of powder and
ball, charging them to be very good husbands
of both, and not to use either of them but upon
urgent occasion.

This was a cheerful work, being the first
measures used by me, in view of my deliverance,
for now twenty-seven years and some days. I
gave them provisions of bread and of dried
grapes sufficient for themselves for many days,
and sufficient for all their countrymen for about
eight days’ time; and wishing them a good
voyage, I see them go, agreeing with them about
a signal they should hang out at their return, by
which I should know them again, when they
came back, at a distance, before they came on
shore.

They went away with a fair gale on the day
that the moon was at full, by my account in the
month of October; but as for an exact reckoning
of days, after I had once lost it, I could never
recover it again; nor had I kept even the number
of years so punctually as to be sure that I was
right, though as it proved, when I afterwards
examined my account, I. found I had kept a true
reckoning of years.

It was no less than eight days I had waited
ROBINSON CRUSOE 321

for them, when a strange and unforeseen acci-
dent intervened, of which the like has not per-
haps been heard of in history. I was fast asleep
in my hutch one morning, when my man Friday
came running in to me, and called aloud,
‘Master, master, they are come, they are come!’

I jumped up, and, regardless of danger, I went
out as soon as I could get my clothes on, through
my little grove, which, by the way, was by this
time grown to be a very thick wood; I say,
regardless of danger, I went without my arms,
which was not my custom to do; but I was
surprised when, turning my eyes to the sea, I
presently saw a boat at about a league and half’s
distance standing in for the shore, with a
shoulder-of-mutton sail, as they call it, and the
wind blowing pretty fair to bring them in; also
I observed presently that they did not come
from that side which the shore lay on, but from
the southernmost end of the island. Upon this
I called Friday in, and bid him lie close, for
these were not the people we looked for, and
that we might not know yet whether they were
friends or enemies.

In the next place, I went in to fetch my per-
spective-glass, to see what I could make of them;
and having taken the ladder out, I climbed up
to the top of the hill, as I used to do when I was
apprehensive of anything, and to take my view
the plainer, without being discovered.

I had scarce set my foot on the hill, when my
eye plainly discovered a ship lying at an anchor
at about two leagues and a half’s distance from
me, south-south-east, but not above a league
and a half from the shore. By my observation,

17 M
322 THE ADVENTURES OF

it appeared plainly to be an English ship, and
the boat appeared to be an English longboat.

I cannot express the confusion I was in; though
the joy of seeing a ship, and one who I had reason
to believe was manned by my own countrymen,
and consequently friends, was such as I cannot
describe. But yet I had some secret doubts hung
about me, I cannot tell from whence they came,
bidding me keep upon my guard. In the first
place, it occurred to me to consider what busi-
ness an English ship could have in that part of
the world, since it was not the way to or from
any part of the world where the English had
any traffic; and I knew there had been no storms
to drive them in there as in distress; and that if
they were English really, it was most probable
that they were here upon no good design; and
that I had better continue as I was, than fall
into the hands of thieves and murderers.

Let no man despise the secret hints and notices
of danger which sometimes are given him when
he may think there is no possibility of its being
real. That such hints and notices are given us,
I believe few that have made any observations
of things can deny; that they are certain dis-
coveries of an invisible world, and a converse
of spirits, we cannot doubt; and if the tendency
of them seems to be to warn us of danger, why
should we not suppose they are from some
friendly agent, whether supreme, or inferior and
subordinate, is not the question, and that they
are given for our good?

The present question abundantly confirms me
in the justice of this reasoning; for had I not
been made cautious by this secret admonition,
ROBINSON CRUSOE 323

come it from whence it will, I had been undone
inevitably, and in a far worse condition than
before, as you will see presently.

I had not kept myself long in this posture, but
I saw the boat draw near the shore, as if they
looked for a créek to thrust in at, for the con-
venience of landing. However, as they did not
come quite far enough, they did not see the little
inlet where I formerly landed my rafts; but run
their boat on shore upon the beach, at about
half a mile from me, which was very happy for
me; for otherwise they would have landed just,
as I may say, at my door, and would soon have
beaten me out of my castle, and perhaps have
plundered me of all I had.

When they were on shore, I was fully satisfied
that they were Englishmen, at least most of
them; one or two I thought were Dutch, but it
did not prove so. There were in all eleven men,
whereof three of them I found were unarmed,
and, as I thought, bound; and when the first
four or five of them were jumped on shore, they
took those three out of the boat, as prisoners. One
of the three I could perceive using the most pas-
sionate gestures of entreaty, affliction, and des-
pair, even to a kind of extravagance; the other
two, I could perceive, lifted up their hands
sometimes, and appeared concerned indeed, but
not to such a degree as the first.

I was perfectly confounded at the sight, and
knew not what the meaning of it should be.
Friday called out to me in English as well as he
could, ‘O master! you see English mans eat
prisoner as well as savage mans.’ ‘Why,’ says I,
‘Friday, do you think they are agoing to eat
324 THE ADVENTURES OF

them then?’ ‘Yes,’ says Friday, ‘they will eat
them.’ ‘No, no,’ says I, ‘Friday, I am afraid
they will murder them indeed, but you may be
sure they will not eat them.’

All this while I had no thought of what the
matter really was, but stood trembling with the
horror of the sight, expecting every moment
when the three prisoners should be killed; nay,
once I saw one of the villains lift up his arm with
a great cutlass, as the seamen call it, or sword,
to strike one of the poor men; and I expected to
see him fall every moment, at which all the
blood in my body seemed to run chill in my
veins.

I wished heartily now for my Spaniard, and
the savage that was gone with him; or that I
had any way to have come undiscovered within
shot of them, that I might have rescued the three
men, for I saw no firearms they had among
them; but it fell out to my mind another way.

After I had observed the outrageous usage of
the three men by the insolent seamen, I observed
the fellows run scattering about the land, as
if they wanted to see the country. I observed
that the three other men had liberty to go also
where they pleased; but they sat down all three
upon the ground, very pensive, and looked like
men in despair.

This put me in mind of the first time when I
came on shore, and began to look about me;
how I gave myself over for lost; how wildly I
looked round me; what dreadful apprehensions
I had; and how I lodged in the tree all night,
for fear of being devoured by wild beasts.

As I knew nothing that night of the supply I
ROBINSON CRUSOE 325

was to receive by the providential driving of the
ship nearer the land by the storms and tide, by
which I have since been so long nourished and
supported; so these three poor desolate men
knew nothing how certain of deliverance and
supply they were, how near it was to them, and
how effectually and really they were in a condi-
tion of safety, at the same time that they thought
themselves lost, and their case desperate.

So little do we see before us in the world, and
so much reason have we to depend cheerfully
upon the great Maker of the world, that He
does not leave His creatures so absolutely desti-
tute, but that, in the worst circumstances, they
have always something to be thankful for, and
sometimes are nearer their deliverance than they
imagine; nay, are even brought to their deliver-
ance by the means by which they seem to be
brought to their destruction.

It was just at the top of high-water when these
people came on shore; and while partly they
stood parleying with the prisoners they brought,
and partly while they rambled about to see what
kind of a place they were in, they had carelessly
stayed till the tide was spent, and the water was
ebbed considerably away, leaving their boat
aground.

They had left two men in the boat, who, as I
found afterwards, having drank a little too much
brandy, fell asleep. However, one of them wak-
ing sooner than the other, and finding the boat
too fast aground for him to stir it, hallooed for
the rest, who were straggling about, upon which
they all soon came to the boat; but it was past
all their strength to launch her, the boat being
326 THE ADVENTURES OF

very heavy, and the shore on that side being
a soft oozy sand, almost like a quicksand.

In this condition, like true seamen, who are
perhaps the least of all mankind given to fore-
thought, they gave it over, and away they
strolled about the country again; and I heard
one of them say aloud to another, calling them
off from the boat, ‘Why, let her alone, Jack,
can’t ye? she will float next tide’; by which I was
fully confirmed in the main inquiry of what
countrymen they were.

All this while I kept myself very close, not
once daring to stir out of my castle, any farther
than to my place of observation near the top of
the hill; and very glad I was to think how well
it was fortified. I knew it was no less than ten
hours before the boat could be on float again,
and by that time it would be dark, and I might
be at more liberty to see their motions, and to
hear their discourse, if they had any.

In the meantime, I fitted myselfup for a battle,
as before, though with more caution, knowing
I had to do with another kind of enemy than I
had at first. I ordered Friday also, whom I had
made an excellent marksman with his gun, to
load himself with arms. I took myself two
fowling-pieces, and I gave him three muskets.
My figure, indeed, was very fierce. I had my
formidable goat-skin coat on, with the great cap
I have mentioned, a naked sword by my side,
two pistols in my belt, and a gun upon each
shoulder.

It was my design, as I said above, not to have
made any attempt till it was dark; but about
two o’clock, being the heat of the day, I found
ROBINSON CRUSOE 327

that, in short, they were all gone straggling into
the woods, and, as I thought, were laid down to
sleep. The three poor distressed men, too
anxious for their condition to get any sleep,
were, however, set down under the shelter of a
great tree, at about a quarter of a mile from me,
and, as I thought, out of sight of any of the rest.

Upon this I resolved to discover myself to
them, and learn something of their condition.
Immediately I marched in the figure as above,
my man Friday at a good distance behind me,
as formidable for his arms as I, but not making
quite so staring a spectre-like figure as I did.

I came as near them undiscovered as I could,
and then, before any of them saw me, I called
aloud to them in Spanish, ‘What are ye, gentle-
men?’

They started up at the noise, but were ten
times more confounded when they saw me, and
the uncouth figure that I made. They made no
answer at all, but I thought I perceived them
just going to fly from me, when I spoke to them
in English. ‘Gentlemen,’ said I, ‘do not be
surprised at me; perhaps you may have a friend
near you, when you did not expect it.’ ‘He
must be sent directly from heaven then,’ said
one of them very gravely to me, and pulling off
his hat at the same time to me, ‘for our condi-
tion is past the help of man.’ ‘AII help is from
heaven, sir,’ said I. ‘But can you put a stranger
in the way how to help you, for you seem to me
to be in some great distress? I saw you when
you landed; and when you seemed to make
applications to the brutes that came with you, I
saw one of them lift up his sword to kill you.’
328 THE ADVENTURES OF

The poor man, with tears running down his
face, and trembling, looking like one astonished,
returned, ‘Am I talking to God, or man? Is ita
real man, or an angel?’ ‘Be in no fear about
that, sir,’ said I. ‘If God had sent an angel to
relieve you, he would have come better clothed,
and armed after another manner than you see
me in. Pray lay aside your fears; I am a man,
an Englishman, and disposed to assist you, you
see. I have one servant only; we have arms and
ammunition; tell us freely, can we serve you?
What is your case?’

‘Our case,’ said he, ‘sir, is too long to tell you
while our murderers are so near; but in short,
sir, I was commander of that ship; my men have
mutinied against me, they have been hardly
prevailed on not to murder me; and at last have
set me on shore in this desolate place, with these
two men with me, one my mate, the other a
passenger, where we expected to perish, believ-
ing the place to be uninhabited, and know not
yet what to think of it.’

‘Where are those brutes, your enemies?’ said
I. ‘Do you know where they are gone?’ “There
they lie, sir,’ said he, pointing to a thicket of
trees. ‘My heart trembles for fear they have seen
us, and heard you speak. If they have, they will
certainly murder us all.’

‘Have they any firearms?’ said I. He an-
swered, they had only two pieces, and one which
they left in the boat. ‘Well then,’ said I, ‘leave
the rest to me, I see they are all asleep; it is an
easy thing to kill them all; but shall we rather
take them prisoners?’ He told me there were
two desperate villains among them that it was
ROBINSON CRUSOE 329

scarce safe to show any mercy to; but if they
were secured, he believed all the rest would
return to their duty. I asked him which they
were? He told me he could not at that distance
describe them, but he would obey my orders in
anything I would direct. ‘Well,’ says I, ‘let us
retreat out of their view or hearing, lest they
awake, and we will resolve further.’ So they
willingly went back with me, till the woods
covered us from them.

‘Look you, sir,’ said I, ‘if I venture upon your
deliverance, are you willing to make two condi-
tions with me?’ He anticipated my proposals,
by telling me that both he and the ship, if
recovered, should be wholly directed and com-
manded by me in everything; and if the ship
was not recovered, he would live and die with
me in what part of the world soever I would
send him; and the two other men said the same.

‘Well,’ says I, ‘my conditions are but two. 1.
That while you stay on this island with me, you
will not pretend to any authority here; and if I
put arms into your hands, you will, upon all
occasions, give them up to me, and do no preju-
dice to.me or mine upon this island; and in the
meantime, be governed by my orders. 2. That
if the ship is, or may be, recovered, you will
carry me and my man to England, passage free.’

He gave me all the assurances that the inven-
tion and faith of man could devise that he would
comply with these most reasonable demands;
and, besides, would owe his life to me, and
acknowledge it upon all occasions, as long as
he lived.

‘Well then,’ said I, ‘here are three muskets for
330 THE ADVENTURES OF

you, with powder and ball; tell me next what
you think is proper to be done.’ He showed all
the testimony of his gratitude that he was able,
but offered to be wholly guided by me. I told
him I thought it was hard venturing anything;
but the best method I could think of was to fire
upon them at once, as they lay; and if any was
not killed at the first volley, and offered to
submit, we might save them, and so put it wholly
upon God’s providence to direct the shot.

He said very modestly that he was loth to kill
them, if he could help it; but that those two
were incorrigible villains, and had been the
authors of all the mutiny in the ship, and if they
escaped, we should be undone still; for they
would go on board and bring the whole ship’s
company, and destroy us all. ‘Well then,’ says I,
‘necessity legitimates my advice, for it is the
only way to save our lives.’ However, seeing
him still cautious of shedding blood, I told him
they should go themselves, and manage as they
found convenient.

In the middle of this discourse we heard some
of them awake, and soon after we saw two of
them on their feet. I asked him if either of them
were of the men who he had said were the heads
of the mutiny? He said, ‘No.’ ‘Well then,’ said
I, ‘you may let them escape; and Providence
seems to have wakened them on purpose to save
themselves. Now,’ says I, ‘if the rest escape you,
it is your fault.’

Animated with this, he took the musket I had
given him in his hand, and a pistol in his belt,
and his two comrades with him, with each man
a piece in his hand. The two men who were
ROBINSON CRUSOE 331

with him going first made some noise, at which
one of the seamen who was awake turned about,
and seeing them coming cried out to the rest;
but it was too late then, for the moment he cried
out they fired; I mean the two men, the captain
wisely reserving his own piece. They had so well
aimed their shot at the men they knew, that one
of them was killed on the spot, and the other
very much wounded; but not being dead, he
started up upon his feet, and called eagerly for
help to the other. But the captain stepping to
him, told him ’twas too late to cry for help, he
should call upon God to forgive his villainy;
and with that word knocked him down with
the stock of his musket, so that he never spoke
more. There were three more in the company,
and one of them was also slightly wounded. By
this time I was come; and when they saw their
danger, and that it was in vain to resist, they
begged for mercy. The captain told them he
would spare their lives if they would give him any
assurance of their abhorrence of the treachery
they had been guilty of, and would swear to be
faithful to him in recovering the ship, and after-
wards in carrying her back to Jamaica, from
whence they came. They gave him all the
protestations of their sincerity that could be
desired, and he was willing to believe them,
and spare their lives, which I was not against,
only I obliged him to keep them bound hand
and foot while they were upon the island.
While this was doing, I sent Friday with the
captain’s mate to the boat, with orders to secure
her, and bring away the oars and sail, which
they did; and by and by three straggling men,
332 THE ADVENTURES OF

that were (happily for them) parted from the
rest, came back upon hearing the guns fired;
and seeing their captain, who before was their
prisoner, now their conqueror, they submitted
to be bound also, and so our victory was com-
plete.

It now remained that the captain and I should
inquire into one another’s circumstances. I
began first, and told him my whole history,
which he heard with an attention even to amaze-
ment; and particularly at the wonderful manner
of my being furnished with provisions and am-
munition; and, indeed, as my story is a whole
collection of wonders, it affected him deeply.
But when he reflected from thence upon himself,
and how I seemed to have been preserved there
on purpose to save his life, the tears ran down
his face, and he could not speak a word more.

After this communication was at an end, I
carried him and his two men into my apartment,
leading them in just where I came out, viz., at
the top of the house, where I refreshed them
with such provisions as I had, and showed them
all the contrivances I had made during my long,
long inhabiting that place.

All I showed them, all I said to them, was
perfectly amazing; but above all, the captain
admired my fortification, and how perfectly I
had concealed my retreat with a grove of trees,
which, having been now planted near twenty
years, and the trees growing much faster than
in England, was become a little wood, and so
thick, that it was unpassable in any part of it but
at that one side where I had reserved my little
winding passage into it. I told him this was my
ROBINSON CRUSOE 333

castle and my residence, but that I had a seat
in the country, as most princes have, whither I
could retreat upon occasion, and I would show
him that too another time; but at present, our
business was to consider how to recover the ship.
He agreed with me as to that, but told me he
was perfectly at a loss what measures to take, for
that there were still six and twenty hands on
board, who having entered into a cursed con-
spiracy, by which they had all forfeited their
lives to the law, would be hardened in it now
by desperation, and would carry it on, knowing
that if they were reduced, they should be brought
to the gallows as soon as they came to England,
or to any of the English colonies; and that there-
fore there would be no attacking them with so
small a number as we were.

I mused for some time upon what he said, and
found it was a very rational conclusion, and that
therefore something was to be resolved on very
speedily, as well to draw the men on board into
some snare for their surprise, as to prevent their
landing upon us, and destroying us. Upon this
it presently occurred to me that in a little while
the ship’s crew, wondering what was become of
their comrades, and of the boat, would certainly
come on shore in their other boat to see for them;
and that then, perhaps, they might come armed,
and be too strong for us. This he allowed was
rational.

Upon this, I told him the first thing we had to
do was to stave the boat, which lay upon the
beach, so that they might not carry her off; and
taking everything out of her, leave her so far
useless as not to be fit to swim. Accordingly we
334 THE ADVENTURES OF

went on board, took the arms which were left
on board out of her, and whatever else we found
there, which was a bottle of brandy, and another
of rum, a few biscuit-cakes, a horn of powder,
and a great lump of sugar in a piece of canvas—
the sugar was five or six pounds; all which was
very welcome to me, especially the brandy and
sugar, of which I had had none left for many
years.

When we had carried all these things on shore
(the oars, mast, sail, and rudder of the boat were
carried away before, as above), we knocked a
great hole in her bottom, that if they had come
strong enough to master us, yet they could not
carry off the boat.

Indeed, it was not much in my thoughts that
we could be able to recover the ship; but my
view was, that if they went away without the
boat, I did not much question to make her fit
again to carry us away to the Leeward Islands,
and call upon our friends the Spaniards in my
way; for I had them still in my thoughts.

While we were thus preparing our designs,
and had first, by main strength, heaved the boat
up upon the beach so high that the tide would
not fleet her off at high-water mark; and besides,
had broke a hole in her bottom too big to be
quickly stopped, and were sat down musing
what we should do, we heard the ship fire a gun,
and saw her make a waft with her ancient as a
signal for the boat to come on board. But no
boat stirred; and they fired several times,
making other signals for the boat.

At last, when all their signals and firings
proved fruitless, and they found the boat did not
- ROBINSON CRUSOE 335

stir, we saw them, by the help of my glasses,
hoist another boat out, and row towards the
shore; and we found, as they approached, that
there was no less than ten men in her, and that
they had firearms with them.

As the ship lay almost two leagues from the
shore, we had a full view of them as they came,
and a plain sight of the men, even of their faces;
because the tide having set them a little to the
east of the other boat, they rowed up under
shore, to come to the same place where the
other had landed, and where the boat lay.

By this means, I say, we had a full view of
them, and the captain knew the persons and
characters of all the men in the boat, of whom
he said that there were three very honest fellows,
who, he was sure, were led into this conspiracy
by the rest, being overpowered and frighted;
but that as for the boatswain, who, it seems, was
the chief officer among them, and all the rest,
they were as outrageous as any of the ship’s
crew, and were no doubt made desperate in
their new enterprise; and terribly apprehensive
he was that they would be too powerful for us.

I smiled at him, and told him that men in our
circumstances were past the operation of fear;
that seeing almost every condition that could be
was better than that which we were supposed to
be in, we ought to expect that the consequence,
whether death or life, would be sure to be a
deliverance. I asked him what he thought of
the circumstances of my life, and whether a
deliverance were not worth venturing for? ‘And
where, sir,’ said I, ‘is your belief of my being
preserved here on purpose to save your life,
336 . THE ADVENTURES OF ~-

which elevated you a little while ago? For my
part,’ said I, ‘there seems to be but one thing
amiss in all the prospect of it.” ‘What’s that?’
says he. ‘Why,’ said I, ‘’tis that, as you say,
there are three or four honest fellows among
them, which should be spared; had they been all
of the wicked part of the crew I should have
thought God’s providence had singled them out
to deliver them into your hands; for depend
upon it, every man of them that comes ashore
are our own, and shall die or live as they behave
to us.’

As I spoke this with a raised voice and cheerful
countenance, I found it greatly encouraged him;
so we set vigorously to our business. We had,
upon the first appearance of the boat’s coming
from the ship, considered of separating our
prisoners, and had, indeed, secured them effec-
tually.

Two of them, of whom the captain was less
assured than ordinary, I sent with Friday and
one of the three delivered men to my cave,
where they were remote enough, and out of
danger of being heard or discovered, or of find-
ing their way out of the woods if they could have
delivered themselves. Here they left them bound,
but gave them provisions, and promised them,
if they continued there quietly, to give them
their liberty in a day or two; but that if they
attempted their escape, they should be put to
death without mercy. They promised faithfully
to bear their confinement with patience, and
were very thankful that they had such good
usage as to have provisions and a light left them;
for Friday gave them candles (such as we made
ROBINSON CRUSOE 337

ourselves) for their comfort; and they did not
know but that he stood sentinel over them at the
entrance.

The other prisoners had better usage. Two
of them were kept pinioned, indeed, because
the captain was not free to trust them; but the
other two were taken into my service, upon
their captain’s recommendation, and upon their
solemnly engaging to live and die with us; so
with them and the three honest men we were
seven men well armed; and I made no doubt
we should be able to deal well enough with the
ten that were a-coming, considering that the
captain had said there were three or four honest
men among them also.

As soon as they got to the place where their
other boat lay, they ran their boat into the
beach, and came all on shore, hauling the boat
up after them, which-I was glad to see; for I was
afraid they would rather have left the boat at
an anchor some distance from the shore, with
some hands in her to guard her, and so we should
not be able to seize the boat.

Being on shore, the first thing they did they
ran all to their other boat; and it was easy to see
that they were under a great surprise to find
her stripped, as above, of all that was in her, and
a great hole in her bottom.

After they had mused a while upon this, they
set up two or three great shouts, hallooing with
all their might, to try if they could make their
companions hear; but all was to no purpose.
Then they came all close in a ring, and fired a
volley of their small arms, which, indeed, we
heard, and the echoes made the woods ring.
338 THE ADVENTURES OF

But it was all one; those in the cave we were
sure could not hear, and those in our keeping,
though they heard it well enough, yet durst give
no answer to them.

They were so astonished at the surprise of this,
that, as they told us afterwards, they resolved to
go all on board again, to their ship, and let
them know there that the men were all mur-
dered, and the longboat staved. Accordingly,
they immediately launched their boat again,
and gat all of them on board.

The captain was terribly amazed, and even
confounded at this, believing they would go on
board the ship again, and set sail, giving their
comrades for lost, and so he should still lose the
ship, which he was in hopes we should have
recovered; but he was quickly as much frighted
the other way.

They had not been long put off with the boat
but we perceived them all coming on shore
again; but with this new measure in their con-
duct, which it seems they consulted together
upon, viz., to leave three men in the boat, and
the rest to go on shore, and go up into the
country to look for their fellows.

This was a great disappointment to us, for
now we were at a loss what to do; for our seizing
those seven men on shore would be no advantage
to us if we let the boat escape, because they
would then row away to the ship, and then the
rest of them would be sure to weigh and set sail,
and so our recovering the ship would be lost.
However, we had no remedy but to wait and
see what the issue of things might present. The
seven men came on shore, and the three who
ROBINSON CRUSOE 339

remained in the boat put her off to a good
distance from the shore, and came to an anchor
to wait for them; so that it was impossible for
us to come at them in the boat.

Those that came on shore kept close together,
marching towards the top of the little hill under
which my habitation lay; and we could see them
plainly, though they could not perceive us. We
could have been very glad they would have
come nearer to us, so that we might have fired
at them, or that they would have gone farther
off, that we might have come abroad.

But when they were come to the brow of the
hill, where they could see a great way into the
valleys and woods which lay towards the north-
east part, and where the island lay lowest, they
shouted and hallooed till they were weary; and
not caring, it seems, to venture far from the
shore, nor far from one another, they sat down
together under a tree, to consider of it. Had
they thought fit to have gone to sleep there, as
the other party of them had done, they had
done the job for us; but they were too full of
apprehensions of danger to venture to go to
sleep, though they could not tell what the danger
was they had to fear neither.

The captain made a very just proposal to me
upon this consultation of theirs, viz., that perhaps
they would all fire a volley again, to endeavour
to make their fellows hear, and that we should
all sally upon them, just at the juncture when
their pieces were all discharged, and they would
certainly yield, and we should have them with-
out bloodshed. I liked the proposal, provided it
was done while we were near enough to come
340 THE ADVENTURES OF

up to them before they could load their pieces
again.

But this event did not happen, and we lay still
a long time, very irresolute what course to take.
At length I told them there would be nothing
to be done, in my opinion, till night; and then,
if they did not return to the boat, perhaps we
might find a way to get between them and the
shore, and so might use some stratagem with
them in the boat to get them on shore.

We waited a great while, though very impa-
tient for their removing; and were very uneasy
when, after long consultations, we saw them
start all up, and march down toward the sea.
It seems they had such dreadful apprehensions
upon them of the danger of the place, that they
resolved to go on board the ship again, give
their companions over for lost, and so go on
with their intended voyage with the ship.

As soon as I perceived them go towards the
shore, I imagined it to be, as it really was, that
they had given over their search, and were for
going back again; and the captain, as soon as I
told him my thoughts, was ready to sink at the
apprehensions of it; but I presently thought of
a stratagem to fetch them back again, and which
answered my end to a tittle.

I ordered Friday and the captain’s mate to
go over the little creek westward, towards the
place where the savages came on shore when
Friday was rescued, and as soon as they came
to a little rismg ground, at about half a mile
distance, I bade them halloo as loud as they
could, and wait till they found the seamen heard
them; that as soon as ever they heard the seamen
ROBINSON CRUSOE 341

answer them, they should return it again; and
then keeping out of sight, take a round, always
answering when the other hallooed, to draw
them as far into the island, and among the
woods, as possible, and then wheel about again
to me by such ways as I directed them.

They were just going into the boat when
Friday and the mate hallooed; and they pre-
sently heard them, and answering, ran along the
shore westward, towards the voice they heard,
when they were presently stopped by the creek,
where the water being up, they could not get
over, and called for the boat to come up and set
them over, as, indeed, I expected.

When: they had set themselves over, I ob-
served that the boat being gone up a good way
into the creek, and, as it were, in a harbour
within the land, they took one of the three men
out of her to go along with them, and left only
two in the boat, having fastened her to the
stump of a little tree on the shore.

That was what I wished for; and immediately,
leaving Friday and the captain’s mate to their
business, I took the rest with me, and crossing
the creek out of their sight, we surprised the two
men before they were aware; one of them lying
on shore, and the other being in the boat. The
fellow on shore was between sleeping and wak-
ing, and going to start up. The captain, who
was foremost, ran in upon him, and knocked
him down, and then called out to him in the
boat to yield, or he was a dead man.

There needed very few arguments to persuade
a single man to yield when he saw five men upon
him, and his comrade knocked down; besides,
342 THE ADVENTURES OF

this was, it seems, one of the three who were not
so hearty in the mutiny as the rest of the crew,
and therefore was easily persuaded not only to
yield, but afterwards to join very sincerely
with us.

In the meantime, Friday and the captain’s
mate so well managed their business with the
rest, that they drew them, by hallooing and
answering, from one hill to another, and from
one wood to another, till they not only heartily
tired them, but left them where they were very
sure they could not reach back to the boat
before it was dark; and, indeed, they were
heartily tired themselves also by the time they
came back to us.

We had nothing now to do but to watch for
them in the dark, and to fall upon them, so as to
make sure work with them.

It was several hours after Friday came back
to me before they came back to their boat; and
we could hear the foremost of them, long before
they came quite up, calling to those behind to
come along, and could also hear them answer
and complain how lame and tired they were,
and not able to come any faster; which was very
welcome news to us.

At length they came up to the boat; but ’tis
impossible to express their confusion when they
found the boat fast aground in the creek, the
tide ebbed out, and their two men gone. We
could hear them call to one another in a most
lamentable manner, telling one another they
were gotten into an enchanted island; that
either there were inhabitants in it, and they
should all be murdered, or else there were devils
ROBINSON CRUSOE 343

and spirits in it, and they should be all carried
away and devoured.

They hallooed again, and called their two
comrades by their names a great many times;
but no answer. After some time we could see
them, by the little light there was, run about,
wringing their hands like men in despair, and
that sometimes they would go and sit down in
the boat to rest themselves; then come ashore
again, and walk about again, and so the same
thing over again.

My men would fain have me give them leave
to fall upon them at once in the dark; but I was
willing to take them at some advantage, so to
spare them, and kill as few of them as I could;
and especially I was unwilling to hazard the
killing any of our own men, knowing the other
were very well armed. I resolved to wait, to see
if they did not separate; and, therefore, to make
sure of them, I drew my ambuscade nearer, and
ordered Friday and the captain to creep upon
their hands and feet, as close to the ground as
they could, that they might not be discovered,
and get as near them as they could possibly,
before they offered to fire.

They had not been long in that posture but
that the boatswain, who was the principal ring-
leader of the mutiny, and had now shown him-
self the most dejected and dispirited of all the
rest, came walking towards them, with two
more of their crew. The captain was so eager,
as having this principal rogue so much in his
power, that he could hardly have patience to
let him come so near as to be sure of him, for
they only heard his tongue before; but when
344 THE ADVENTURES OF

they came nearer, the captain and Friday, start-
ing up on their feet, let fly at them.

The boatswain was killed upon the spot; the
next man was shot into the body, and fell just
by him, though he did not die till an hour or
two after; and the third ran for it.

At the noise of the fire I immediately ad-
vanced with my whole army, which was now
eight men, viz., myself, generalissimo; Friday,
my lieutenant-general; the captain and his two
men, and the three prisoners of war, whom we
had trusted with arms.

We came upon them, indeed, in the dark, so
that they could not see our number; and I made
the man we had left in the boat, who was now
one of us, call to them by name, to try if I could
bring them to a parley, and so might perhaps
reduce them to terms, which fell out just as we
desired; for indeed it was easy to think, as their
condition then was, they would be very willing
to capitulate. So he calls out as loud as he could
to one of them, “Tom Smith! Tom Smith!’ Tom
Smith answered immediately, ‘Who’s that?
Robinson?’ For it seems he knew his voice.
The other answered, ‘Ay, ay; for God’s sake,
Tom Smith, throw down your arms and yield,
or you are all dead men this moment.’

‘Who must we yield to? Where are they?’
says Smith again. ‘Here they are,’ says he;
‘here’s our captain, and fifty men with him,
have been hunting you this two hours; the
boatswain is killed, Will Frye is wounded, and I
am a prisoner; and if you do not yield, you are
all lost.’

‘Will they give us quarter then,’ says Tom
ROBINSON CRUSOE 345
Smith, ‘and we will yield?’ ‘I’Il go and ask, if
you promise to yield,’ says Robinson. So he
asked the captain, and the captain then calls
himself out, ‘You, Smith, you know my voice,
if you lay down your arms immediately, and
submit, you shall have your lives, all but Will
Atkins.’

Upon this Will Atkins cried out, ‘For God’s
sake, captain, give me quarter; what have I
done? They have been all as bad as I’; which,
by the way, was not true neither; for, it seems,
this Will Atkins was the first man that laid hold
of the captain when they first mutinied, and
used him barbarously, in tying his hands, and
giving him injurious language. However, the
captain told him he must lay down his arms at
discretion, and trust to the governor’s mercy;
by which he meant me, for they all called me
governor.

In a word, they all laid down their arms, and
begged their lives; and I sent the man that had
parleyed with them and two more, who bound
them all; and then my great army of fifty men,
which, particularly with those three, were all
but eight, came up and seized upon them all,
and upon their boat; only that I kept myself and
one more out of sight for reasons of state.-

Our next work was to repair the boat, and
think of seizing the ship; and as for the captain,
now he had leisure to parley with them, he
expostulated with them upon the villainy of
their practices with htm, and at length upon
the farther wickedness of their design, and how
certainly it must bring them to misery and
distress in the end, and perhaps to the gallows.
346 THE ADVENTURES OF

They all appeared very penitent, and begged
hard for their lives. As for that, he told them
they were none of his prisoners, but the com-
mander of the island; that they thought they
had set him on shore in a barren, uninhabited
island; but it had pleased God so to direct them
that the island was inhabited, and that the
governor was an Englishman; that he might
hang them all there, if he pleased; but as he
had given them all quarter, he supposed he
would send them to England, to be dealt with
there as justice required, except Atkins, whom
he was commanded by the governor to advise
to prepare for death, for that he would be
hanged in the morning.

Though this was all a fiction of his own, yet it
had its desired effect. Atkins fell upon his knees,
to beg the captain to intercede with the governor
for his life; and all the rest begged of him, for
God’s sake, that they might not be sent to
England.

It now occurred to me that the time of our
deliverance was come, and that it would be a
most easy thing to bring these fellows in to be
hearty in getting possession of the ship; so I
retired in the dark from them, that they might
not see what kind of a governor they had, and
called the captain to me. When I called, as at
a good distance, one of the men was ordered to
speak again, and say to the captain, ‘Captain,
the commander calls for you.’ And presently
the captain replied, “Tell his excellency I am
just a-coming.’ This more perfectly amused
them, and they all believed that the commander
was just by with his fifty men.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 347

Upon the captain’s coming to me, I told him
my project for seizing the ship, which he liked
of wonderfully well, and resolved to put it in
execution the next morning. But in order to
execute it with more art, and secure of success,
I told him we must divide the prisoners, and
that he should go and take Atkins and two more
of the worst of them, and send them pinioned
to the cave where the others lay. This was
committed to Friday and the two men who came
on shore with the captain.

They conveyed them to the cave, as to a
prison. And it was, indeed, a dismal place,
especially to men in their condition. The others
I ordered to my bower, as I called it, of which
I have given a full description; and as it was
fenced in, and they pinioned, the place was
secure enough, considering they were upon their
behaviour.

To these in the morning I sent the captain,
who was to enter into a parley with them; in a
word, to try them, and tell me whether he
thought they might be trusted or no to go on
board and surprise the ship. He talked to them
of the injury done him, of the condition they
were brought to; and that though the governor
had given them quarter for their lives as to the
present action, yet that if they were sent to
England they would all be hanged in chains,
to be sure; but that if they would join in so just
an attempt as to recover the ship, he would have
the governor’s engagement for their pardon.

Any one may guess how readily such a pro-
posal would be accepted by men in their condi-
tion. They fell down on their knees to the
348 THE ADVENTURES OF

captain, and promised, with the deepest impre-
cations, that they would be faithful to him to
the last drop, and that they should owe their
lives to him, and would go with him all over the
world; that they would own him for a father to
them as long as they lived.

‘Well,’ says the captain, ‘I must go and tell
the governor what you say, and see what I can
do to bring him to consent to it.” So he brought
me an account of the temper he found them
in, and that he verily believed they would be
faithful.

However, that we might be very secure, I told
him he, should go back again and choose out five
of them, and tell them they might see that he
did not want men, that he would take out those
five to be his assistants, and that the governor
would keep the other two and the three that
were sent prisoners to the castle, my cave, as
hostages for the fidelity of those five; and that
if they proved unfaithful in the execution, the
five hostages should be hanged in chains alive
upon the shore.

This looked severe, and convinced them that
the governor was in earnest. However, they
had no way left them but to accept it; and it
was now the business of the prisoners, as much as
of the captain, to persuade the other five to do
their duty.

Our strength was now thus ordered for the
expedition. 1. The captain, his mate, and pas-
senger. 2. Then the two prisoners of the first
gang, to whom, having their characters from
the captain, I had given their liberty, and trusted
them with arms. 3. The other two whom I had
ROBINSON CRUSOE 349

kept till nowin my bower, pinioned, but upon
the captain’s motion had now released. 4. These
five released at last; so that they were twelve in
all, besides five we kept prisoners in the cave for
hostages.

I asked the captain if he was willing to venture
with these hands on board the ship; for as for me
and my man Friday, I did not think it was proper
for us to stir, having seven men left behind, and
it was employment enough for us to keep them
asunder and supply them with victuals. As to
the five in the cave, I resolved to keep them fast;
but Friday went in twice a day to them, to supply
them with necessaries, and I made the other two
carry provisions to a certain distance, where
Friday was to take it.

When I showed myself to the two hostages, it
was with the captain, who told them I was the
person the governor had ordered to look after
them, and that it was the governor’s pleasure
they should not stir anywhere but by my direc-
tion; that if they did, they should be fetched into
the castle, and be laid in irons; so that as we
never suffered them to see me as governor, so I
now appeared as another person, and spoke of
the governor, the garrison, the castle, and the
like, upon all occasions.

The captain now had no difficulty before him
but to furnish his two boats, stop the breach of
one, and man them. He made his passenger
captain of one, with four other men; and him-
self, and his mate, and five more went in the
other; and they contrived their business very
well, for they came up to the ship about mid-
night. As soon as they came within call of the
350 THE ADVENTURES OF

ship, he made Robinson hail them, and tell them
they had brought off the men and the boat, but
that it was a long time before they had found
them, and the like, holding them in a chat till
they came to the ship’s side; when the captain and
the mate entering first, with their arms, imme-
diately knocked down the second mate and car-
penter with the butt-end of their muskets, being
very faithfully seconded by their men. They
secured all the rest that were upon the main and
quarter-decks, and began to fasten the hatches
to keep them down who were below; when the
other boat and their men entering at the fore-
chains, secured the forecastle of the ship, and
the scuttle which went down into the cook-room,
making three men they found there prisoners.

When this was done, and all safe upon deck,
the captain ordered the mate, with three men,
to break into the round-house, where the new
rebel captain lay, and having taken the alarm
was gotten up, and with two men and a boy had
gotten firearms in their hands; and when the
mate with a crow split open the door, the new
captain and his men fired boldly among them,
and wounded the mate with a musket-ball, which
broke his arm, and wounded two more of the
men, but killed nobody.

The mate calling for help, rushed however
into the round-house wounded as he was, and
with his pistol shot the new captain through the
head, the bullet entering at his mouth and came
out again behind one of his ears, so that he never
spoke a word; upon which the rest yielded, and
the ship was taken effectually, without any more
lives lost.
f*

J ~~

ROBINSON CRUSOE fy

As soon as the ship was thus secured, the
tain ordered seven guns to be fired, which was
the signal agreed upon with me to give me notice
of his success, which you may be sure I was very
glad to hear, having sat watching upon the shore
for it till near two of the clock in the morning.

Having thus heard the signal plainly, I laid me
down; and it having been a day of great fatigue
to me, I slept very sound, till I was something
surprised with the noise of a gun; and presently
starting up, I heard a man call me by the name
of ‘Governor, Governor,’ and presently I knew
the captain’s voice; when climbing up to the top
of the hill, there he stood, and pointing to the
ship, he embraced me in his arms. ‘My dear
friend and deliverer,’ says he, ‘there’s your ship,
for she is all yours, and so are we, and all that
belong to her.’ I cast my eyes to the ship, and
there she rode within little more than half a mile
of the shore; for they had weighed her anchor
as soon as they were masters of her, and the
weather being fair, had brought her to an anchor
just against the mouth of the little creek, and the
tide being up, the captain had brought the pin-
nace in near the place where I at first landed my
rafts, and so landed just at my door.

I was at first ready to sink down with the sur-
prise; for I saw my deliverance, indeed, visibly
put into my hands, all things easy, and a large

|
|

|
}

ship just ready to carry me away whither I |

pleased to go. At first, for some time, I was not |
able to answer him one word; but as he had |
taken me in his arms, I held fast by him, or I°
should have fallen to the ground.

He perceived the surprise, and immediately
352 THE ADVENTURES OF

pulls a bottle out of his pocket, and gave me a
dram of cordial, which he had brought on pur-
pose for me. After I had drank it, I sat down
upon the ground; and though it brought me to
myself, yet it was a good while before I could
speak a word to him.

All this while the poor man was in as great an
ecstasy as I, only not under any surprise, as I
was; and he said a thousand kind tender things
to me, to compose me and bring me to myself.
But such was the flood of joy in my breast, that
it put all my spirits into confusion. At last it
broke out into tears, and in a little while after
I recovered my speech.

Then I took my turn, and embraced him as
my deliverer, and we rejoiced together. I told
him I looked upon him as a man sent from
heaven to deliver me, and that the whole trans-
action seemed to be a chain of wonders; that
such things as these were the testimonies we had
of a secret hand of Providence governing the
world, and an evidence that the eyes of an in-
finite Power could search into the remotest corner
of the world, and send help to the miserable
whenever He pleased.

I forgot not to lift up my heart in thankfulness
to heaven; and what heart could forbear to bless
Him, who had not only in a miraculous manner
provided for one in such a wilderness, and in
such a desolate condition, but from whom every
deliverance must always be acknowledged to
proceed?

When we had talked a while, the captain told
me he had brought me some little refreshment,
such as the ship afforded, and such as the
ROBINSON CRUSOE 353

wretches that had been so long his masters had
not plundered him of. Upon this he called aloud
to the boat, and bid his men bring the things
ashore that were for the governor; and, indeed,
it was a present as if I had been one, not that
was to be carried away along with them, but as
if I had been to dwell upon the island still, and
they were to go without me.

First, he had brought me a case of bottles full
of excellent cordial waters, six large bottles of
Madeira wine (the bottles held two quarts
apiece), two pounds of excellent good tobacco,
twelve good pieces of ship’s beef, and six pieces
of pork, with a bag of peas, and about a hundred-
weight of biscuit.

He brought me also a box of sugar, a box of
flour, a bag full of lemons, and two bottles of
lime-juice, and abundance of other things; but
besides these, and what was a thousand times
more useful to me, he brought me six clean new
shirts, six very good neck-cloths, two pair of
gloves, one pair of shoes, a hat, and one pair of
stockings, and a very good suit of clothes of his
own, which had been worn but very little; in a
word, he clothed me from head to foot.

It was a very kind and agreeable present, as
any one may imagine, to one in my circum-
stances; but never was anything in the world of
that kind so unpleasant, awkward, and uneasy,
as it was to me to wear such clothes at their first
putting on.

After these ceremonies passed, and after all his
good things were brought into my little apart-
ment, we began to consult what was to be done
with the prisoners we had; for it was worth

17 N
354 THE ADVENTURES OF

considering whether we might venture to take
them away with us or no, especially two of them,
whom we knew to be incorrigible and refractory
to the last degree; and the captain said he knew
they were such rogues, that there was no obliging
them; and if he did carry them away, it must be
in irons, as malefactors, to be delivered over to
justice at the first English colony he could come
at; and I found that the captain himself was very
anxious about it.

_ Upon this I told him that, if he desired it, I
durst undertake to bring the two men he spoke
of to make it their own request that he should
leave them upon the island. ‘I should be very
glad of that,’ says the captain, ‘with all my
heart.’

‘Well,’ says I, ‘I will send for them up, and
talk with them for you.’ So I caused Friday and
the two hostages, for they were now discharged,
their comrades having performed their promise;
I say, I caused them to go to the cave and bring
up the five men, pinioned as they were, to the
bower, and keep them there till I came.

After some time I came thither, dressed in my
new habit; and now I was called governor again.
Being all met, and the captain with me, I caused
the men to be brought before me, and I told
them I had had a full account of their villainous
behaviour to the captain, and how they had run
away with the ship, and were preparing to com-
mit farther robberies, but that Providence had
ensnared them in their own ways, and that they
were fallen into the pit which they had digged
for others.

I let them know that by my direction the ship
ROBINSON CRUSOE 355

had been seized, that she lay now in the road,
and they might see, by and by, that their new
captain had received the reward of his villainy,
for that they might see him hanging at the yard-
arm; that as to them, I wanted to know what
they had to say why I should not execute them
as pirates, taken in the fact, as by my commission
they could not doubt I had authority to do.

One of them answered in the name of the rest
that they had nothing to say but this, that when
they were taken the captain promised them their
lives, and they humbly implored my mercy. But
I told them I knew not what mercy to show
them; for as for myself, I had resolved to quit
the island with all my men, and had taken pas-
sage with the captain to go for England. And
as for the captain, he could not carry them to
England other than as prisoners in irons, to be
tried for mutiny, and running away with the
ship; the consequence of which, they must needs
know, would be the gallows; so that I could not
tell which was best for them, unless they had a
mind to take their fate in the island. If they
desired that, I did not care, as I had liberty to
leave it. I had some inclination to give them
their lives, if they thought they could shift on
shore.

They seemed very thankful for it, said they
would much rather venture to stay there than
to be carried to England to be hanged; so I left
it on that issue.

However, the captain seemed to make some
difficulty of it, as if he durst not leave them
there. Upon this I seemed a little angry with
the captain, and told him that they were my
356 THE ADVENTURES OF

prisoners, not his; and that seeing I had offered
them so much favour, I would be as good as my
word; and that if he did not think fit to consent
to it, I would set them at liberty, as I found
them; and if he did not like it, he might take
them again if he could catch them.

Upon this they appeared very thankful, and I
accordingly set them at liberty, and bade them
retire into the woods to the place whence they
came, and I would leave them some firearms,
some ammunition, and some directions how they
should live very well, if they thought fit.

Upon this I prepared to go on board the ship,
but told the captain that I would stay that night
to prepare my things, and desired him to go on
board in the meantime, and keep all right in the
ship, and send the boat on shore the next day for
me; ordering him, in the meantime, to cause the
new captain, who was killed, to be hanged at the
yard-arm, that these men might see him.

When the captain was gone, I sent for the men
up to me to my apartment, and entered seriously
into discourse with them of their circumstances.
I told them I thought they had made a right
choice; that if the captain carried them away,
they would certainly be hanged. I showed them
the new captain hanging at the yard-arm of the
ship, and told them they had nothing less to
expect.

When they had all declared their willingness
to stay, I then told them I would let them into
the story of my living there, and put them into
the way of making it easy to them. Accordingly
I gave them the whole history of the place, and
of my coming to it, showed them my fortifica-
ROBINSON CRUSOE 357

tions, the way I made my bread, planted my
corn, cured my grapes; and ina word, all that was
necessary to make them easy. I told them the
story also of the sixteen Spaniards that were to
be expected, for whom I left a letter, and made
them promise to treat them in common with
themselves.

I left them my firearms, viz., five muskets,
three fowling-pieces, and three swords. I had
above a barrel and half of powder left; for after
the first year or two I used but little, and wasted
none. I gave them a description of the way I
managed the goats, and directions to milk and
fatten them, and to make both butter and cheese.

In a word, I gave them every part of my own
story, and I told them I would prevail with the
captain to leave them two barrels of gunpowder
more, and some garden seeds, which I told them
I would have been very glad of. Also I gave them
the bag of peas which the captain had brought
me to eat, and bade them be sure to sow and
increase them.

Having done all this, I left them the next day,
and went on board the ship. We prepared im-
mediately to sail, but did not weigh that night.
The next morning early two of the five men came
swimming to the ship’s side, and making a most
lamentable complaint of the other three, begged
to be taken into the ship for God’s sake, for they
should be murdered, and begged the captain to
take them on board, though he hanged them
immediately.

Upon this the captain pretended to have no
power without me; but after some difficulty, and
after their solemn promises of amendment, they
358 THE ADVENTURES OF

were taken on board, and were some time after
soundly whipped and pickled, after which they
proved very honest and quiet fellows.

Some time after this the boat was ordered on
shore, the tide being up, with the things promised
to the men, to which the captain, at my inter-
cession, caused their chests and clothes to be
added, which they took, and were very thankful
for. I also encouraged them by telling them that
ifit lay in my way to send any vessel to take them
in, I would not forget them.

When I took leave of this island, I carried on
board, for relics, the great goat-skin cap I had
made, my umbrella, and my parrot; also I forgot
not to take the money I formerly mentioned,
which had lain by me so long useless that it was
grown rusty or tarnished, and could hardly pass
for silver till it had been a little rubbed and
handled; as also thé money I found in the wreck
of the Spanish ship.

And thus I left the island, the 19th of Decem-
ber, as I found by the ship’s account, in the year
1686, after I had been upon it eight and twenty
years, two months, and nineteen days, being
delivered from this second captivity the same
day of the month that I first made my escape
in the barco-longo, from among the Moors of
Sallee.

In this vessel, after a long voyage, I arrived in
England, the 11th of June, in the year 1687,
having been thirty and five years absent.

When I came to England, I was as perfect a
stranger to all the world as if I had never been
known there. My benefactor and faithful stew-
ard, whom I had left in trust with my money,
ROBINSON CRUSOE 359

was alive, but had had great misfortunes in the
world, was become a widow the second time,
and very low in the world. I made her easy as
to what she owed me, assuring her I would give
her no trouble; but on the contrary, in gratitude
to her former care and faithfulness to me, I re-
lieved her as my little stock would afford; which,
at that time, would indeed allow me to do but
little for her; but I assured her I would never
forget her former kindness to me, nor did I forget
her when I had sufficient to help her, as shall be
observed in its place.

I went down afterwards into Yorkshire; but
my father was dead, and my mother and all the
family extinct, except that I found two sisters,
and two of the children of one of my brothers;
and as I had been long ago given over for dead,
there had been no provision made for me; so
that, in a word, I found nothing to relieve or
assist me; and that little money I had would not
do much for me as to settling in the world.

I met with one piece of gratitude, indeed,
which I did not expect; and this was, that the
master of the ship whom I had so happily de-
livered, and by the same means saved the ship
and cargo, having given a very handsome ac-
count to the owners of the manner how I had
saved the lives of the men, and the ship, they
invited me to meet them, and some other mer-
chants concerned, and all together made me a
very handsome compliment upon the subject,
and a present of almost £200 sterling.

But after making several reflections upon the
circumstances of my life, and how little way this
would go towards settling me in the world, I
360 THE ADVENTURES OF

resolved to go to Lisbon, and see if I might not
come by some information of the state of my
plantation in the Brazils, and of what was be-
come of my partner, who I had reason to suppose
had some years now given me over for dead.

With this view I took shipping for Lisbon,
where I arrived in April following; my man
Friday accompanying me very honestly in all
these ramblings, and proving a most faithful
servant upon all occasions.

When I came to Lisbon, I found out, by in-
quiry, and to my particular satisfaction, my old
friend the captain of the ship who first took me
up at sea off of the shore of Africa. He was now
grown old, and had left off the sea, having put
his son, who was far from a young man, into his
ship, and who still used the Brazil trade. The
old man did not know me; and, indeed, I hardly
knew him; but I soon brought him to my re-
membrance, and as soon brought myself to his
remembrance when I told him who I was.

After some passionate expressions of the old
acquaintance, I inquired, you may be sure, after
my plantation and my partner. The old man
told me he had not been in the Brazils for about
nine years; but that he could assure me that,
when he came away, my partner was living; but
the trustees, whom I had joined with him to take
cognisance of my part, were both dead. That,
however, he believed that I would have a very
good account of the improvement of the planta-
tion; for that upon the general belief of my being
cast away and drowned, my trustees had given
in the account of the produce of my part of the
plantation to the procurator-fiscal, who had ap-
ROBINSON CRUSOE 361

propriated it, in case I never came to claim it,
one-third to the king, and two-thirds to the
monastery of St. Augustine, to be expended for
the benefit of the poor, and for the conversion
of the Indians to the Catholic faith; but that
if I appeared, or any one for me, to claim the in-
heritance, it should be restored; only that the
improvement, or annual production, being dis-
tributed to charitable uses, could not be restored.
But he assured me that the steward of the king’s
revenue from lands, and the provedidore, or stew-
ard of the monastery, had taken great care all
along that the incumbent, that is to say, my
partner, gave every year a faithful account of
the produce, of which they received duly my
moiety.

I asked him if he knew to what height of
improvement he had brought the plantation,
and whether he thought it might be worth look-
ing after; or whether, on my going thither, I
should meet with no obstruction to my possessing
my just right in the moiety.

He told me he could not tell exactly to what
degree the plantation was improved; but this he
knew, that my partner was growing exceeding
rich upon the enjoying but one-half of it; and
that, to the best of his remembrance, he had
heard that the king’s third of my part, which
was, it seems, granted away to some other
monastery or religious house, amounted to above
two hundred moidores a year. That as to my
being restored to a quiet possession of it, there
was no question to be made of that, my partner
being alive to witness my title, and my name
being also enrolled in the register of the country.
362 THE ADVENTURES OF

Also he told me that the survivors of my two
trustees were very fair, honest people, and very
wealthy; and he believed I would not only have
their assistance for putting me in possession, but
would find a very considerable sum‘of money in
their hands for my account, being the produce
of the farm while their fathers held the trust, and
before it was given up, as above; which, as he
remembered, was for about twelve years.

I showed myself a little concerned and uneasy
at this account, and inquired of the old captain
how it came to pass that the trustees should thus
dispose my effects, when he knew that I had
made my will, and had made him, the Portu-
guese captain, my universal heir, etc.

He told me that was true; but that as there was
no proof of my being dead, he could not act as
executor until some certain account should come
of my death; and that besides, he was not willing
to intermeddle with a thing so remote; that it
was true he had registered my will, and put in
his claim; and could he have given any account
of my being dead or alive, he would have acted
by procuration, and taken possession of the in-
genio, so they called the sugar-house, and had
given his son, who was now at the Brazils, order
to do it.

‘But,’ says the old man, ‘I have one piece of
news to tell you, which perhaps may not be so
acceptable to you as the rest; and that is, that
believing you were lost, and all the world believ-
ing so also, your partner and trustees did offer
to account to me, in your name, for six or eight
of the first years of profits, which I received; but
there being at that time,’ says he, ‘great dis-
ROBINSON CRUSOE 363

bursements for increasing the works, building an
ingenio, and buying slaves, it did not amount to
near so much as afterwards it produced. How-
ever,’ says the old man, ‘I shall give you a true
account of what I have received in all, and how
I have disposed of it.’

After a few days’ farther conference with this
ancient friend, he brought me an account of the
six first years’ income of my plantation, signed
by my partner and the merchant-trustees, being
always delivered in goods, viz., tobacco in roll,
and sugar in chests, besides rum, molasses, etc.,
which is the consequence of a sugar-work; and
I found, by this account, that every year the
income considerably increased; but, as above,
the disbursement being large, the sum at first
was small. However, the old man let me see
that he was debtor to me 470 moidores of gold,
besides 60 chests of sugar, and 15 double rolls of
tobacco, which were lost in his ship, he having
been shipwrecked coming home to Lisbon, about
eleven years after my leaving the place.

The good man then began to complain of his
misfortunes, and how he had been obliged to
make use of my money to recover his losses, and
buy him a share in a new ship. ‘However, my
old friend,’ says he, ‘you shall not want a supply
in your necessity; and as soon as my son returns,.
you shall be fully satisfied.’

Upon this he pulls out an old pouch, and gives
me 160 Portugal moidores in gold; and giving
me the writing of his title to the ship, which his
son was gone to the Brazils in, of which he was a
quarter-part owner, and his son another, he puts
them both into my hands for security of the rest.
364 THE ADVENTURES OF

I was too much moved with the honesty and
kindness of the’ poor man to be able to bear this;
and remembering what he had done for me, how
he had taken me up at sea, and how generously
he had used me on all occasions, and particularly
how sincere a friend he was now to me, I could
hardly refrain weeping at what he said to me;
therefore first I asked him if his circumstances
admitted him to spare so much money at that
time, and if it would not straiten him? He told
me he could not say but it might straiten him a
little; but, however, it was my money, and I
might want it more than he.

Everything the good man said was full of
affection, and I could hardly refrain from tears
while he spoke; in short, I took 100 of the
moidores, and called for a pen and ink to give
him a receipt for them. Then I returned him
the rest, and told him if ever I had possession
of the plantation, I would return the other to
him also, as, indeed, I afterwards did; and that
as to the bill of sale of his part in his son’s ship,
I would not take it by any means; but that if I
wanted the money, I found he was honest enough
to pay me; and if I did not, but came to receive
what he gave me reason to expect, I would never
have a penny more from him.

When this was passed, the old man began to
ask me if he should put me into a method to
make my claim to my plantation? I told him I
thought to go over to it myself. He said I might
do so if I pleased; but that if I did not, there
were ways enough to secure my right, and imme-
diately to appropriate the profits to my use; and
as there were ships in the river of Lisbon just
ROBINSON CRUSOE 365

ready to go away to Brazil, he made me enter
my name in a public register, with his affidavit,
affirming, upon oath, that I was alive, and that
I was the same person who took up the land for
the planting the said plantation at first.

This being regularly attested by a notary, and
a procuration affixed, he directed me to send it,
with a letter of his writing, to a merchant of his
acquaintance at the place, and then proposed
my staying with him till an account came of the
return.

Never anything was more honourable than the
proceedings upon this procuration; for in less
than seven months I received a large packet from
the survivors of my trustees, the merchants, for
whose account I went to sea, in which were the
following particular letters and papers enclosed.

First, there was the account-current of the
produce of my farm or plantation from the year
when their fathers had balanced with my old
Portugal captain, being for six years; the balance
appeared to be 1174 moidores in my favour.

Secondly, there was the account of four years
more, while they kept the effects in their hands,
before the government claimed the administra-
tion, as being the effects of a person not to be
found, which they called civil death; and the
balance of this, the value of the plantation in-
creasing, amounted to 38,892 crusadoes, which
made 3241 moidores.

Thirdly, there was the prior of the Augustines’
account, who had received the profits for above
fourteen years; but not being to account for what
was disposed to the hospital, very honestly de-
clared he had 872 moidores not distributed,
366 THE ADVENTURES OF

which he acknowledged to my account; as to the
king’s part, that refunded nothing.

There was a letter of my partner’s, congratu-
lating me very affectionately upon my being
alive, giving me an account how the estate was
improved, and what it produced a year, with a
particular of the number of squares or acres that
it contained; how planted, how many slaves
there were upon it, and making two and twenty
crosses for blessings, told me he had said so many
Ave Marias to thank the blessed Virgin that I was
alive; inviting me very passionately to come over
and take possession of my own; and in the mean-
time, to give him orders to whom he should
deliver my effects, if I did not come myself;
concluding with a hearty tender of his friend-
ship, and that of his family; and sent me as a
present seven fine leopards’ skins, which he had,
it seems, received from Africa by some other ship
which he had sent thither, and who, it seems,
had made a better voyage than I. He sent me
also five chests of excellent sweetmeats, and a
hundred pieces of gold uncoined, not quite so
large as moidores. By the same fleet, my two
merchant trustees shipped me 1200 chests of
sugar, 800 rolls of tobacco, and the rest of the
whole account in gold.

I might well say now, indeed, that the latter
end of Job was better than the beginning. It is
impossible to express the flutterings of my very
heart when I looked over these letters, and
especially when I found all my wealth about me;
for as the Brazil ships come all in fleets, the same
ships which brought my letters brought my
goods, and the effects were safe in the river
ROBINSON CRUSOE 367

before the letters came to my hand. In a word,
I turned pale, and grew sick; and had not the
old man run and fetched me a cordial, I believe
the sudden surprise of joy had overset Nature,
and I had died upon the spot.

Nay, after that I continued very ill, and was so
some hours, till a physician being sent for, and
something of the real cause of my illness being
known, he ordered me to be let blood, after
which I had relief, and grew well; but I verily
believe, if it had not been eased by a vent in that
manner to the spirits, I should have died.

I was now master, all on a sudden, of above
£5000 sterling in money, and had an estate, as
I might well call it, in the Brazils of above a
thousand pounds a year, as sure as an estate of
lands in England; and in a word, I was in a
condition which I scarce knew how to under-
stand, or how to compose myself for the enjoy-
ment of it.

The first thing I did was to recompense my
original benefactor, my good old captain, who
had been first charitable to me in my distress,
kind to me in my beginning, and honest to me
at the end. I showed him all that was sent me. I
told him that, next to the providence of Heaven,
which disposes all things, it was owing to him;
and that it now lay on me to reward him, which
I would do a hundredfold. So I first returned to
him the hundred moidores I had received of him;
then I sent for a notary, and caused him to draw
up a general release or discharge for the 470
moidores which he had acknowledged he owed
me in the fullest and firmest manner possible;
after which I caused a procuration to be drawn,
368 THE ADVENTURES OF

empowering him to be my receiver of the annual
profits of my plantation, and appointing my
partner to account to him, and make the returns
by the usual fleets to him in my name; and a
clause in the end, being a grant of 100 moidores
a year to him, during his life, out of the effects,
and 50 moidores a year to his son after him, for
his life; and thus I requited my old man.

I was now to consider which way to steer my
course next, and what to do with the estate that
Providence had thus put into my hands; and,
indeed, I had more care upon my head now than
I had in my silent state of life in the island, where
I wanted nothing but what I had, and had
nothing but what I wanted; whereas I had now
a great charge upon me, and my business was
how to secure it. I had ne’er a cave now to hide
my money in, or a place where it might lie with-
out lock or key till it grew mouldy and tarnished
before anybody would meddle with it. On the
contrary, I knew not where to put it, or whom to
trust with it. My old patron, the captain, indeed,
was honest, and that was the only refuge I had.

In the next place, my interest in the Brazils
seemed to summon me thither; but now I could
not tell how to think of going thither till I had
settled my affairs, and left my effects in some
safe hands behind me. At first I thought of my
old friend the widow, who I knew was honest,
and would be just to me; but then she was in
years, and but poor, and for aught I knew might
be in debt; so that, in a word, I had no way but
to go back to England myself, and take my effects
with me.

It was some months, however, before I re-
ROBINSON CRUSOE 369

solved upon this; and therefore, as I had_re-“
warded the old captain fully, and to his satis-
faction, who had been my former benefactor, so
I began to think of my poor widow, whose hus-
band had been my first benefactor, and she,
while it was in her power, my faithful steward
and instructor. So the first thing I did, I got a
merchant in Lisbon to write to his correspondent
in London, not only to pay a bill, but to go find
her out, and carry her in money an hundred
pounds from me, and to talk with her, and com-
fort her in her poverty, by telling her she should,
if I lived, have a further supply. At the same
time I sent my two sisters in the country each
of them an hundred pounds, they being, though
not in want, yet not in very good circumstances;
one having been married, and left a widow; and
the other having a husband not so kind to her as
he should be.

But among all my relations or acquaintances,
I could not yet pitch upon one to whom I durst
commit the gross of my stock, that I might go
away to the Brazils, and leave things safe behind
me; and this greatly perplexed me.

I had once a mind to have gone to the Brazil
and have settled myself there, for I was, as it
were, naturalised-to_the place. But I had some,
little "scruple i in my one about religion; which
insensibly drew me back, of which I shall say
more presently. However, it was not religion
that kept me from going there for the present;
and as I had made no scruple of being openly
of the religion of the country all the while I was
among them, so neither did I yet; only that, now
and then, having of late thought more of it than
370 THE ADVENTURES OF

formerly, when I began to think of living and
dying among them, I began to regret my having
professed myself a papist, and thought it meet
not _be the best-religion to die with. :

~ But, as I have said, this was not the main thing
ithat kept me from going to the Brazils, but that
ireally I did not know with whom to leave my
‘effects behind me; so I resolved, at last, to go to
England with it, where, if I arrived, I concluded
I should make some acquaintance, or find some
relations, that would be faithful to me; and
accordingly I prepared to go for England with
‘all my wealth.

n order to prepare things for my going home,
I first, the Brazil fleet being just going away,
resolved to give answers suitable to the just and
faithful account of things I had from thence.
And first, to the prior of St. Augustine I wrote
a letter full of thanks for their just dealings, and
the offer of the 872 moidores which was undis-
posed of, which I desired might be given, 500 to
the monastery, and 372 to the poor, as the prior
should direct, desiring the good padre’s prayers
for me, and the like.

I wrote next a letter of thanks to my two
trustees, with all the acknowledgment that so
much justice and honesty called for. As for
sending them any present, they were far above
having any occasion of it.

Lastly, I wrote to my partner, acknowledging
his industry in the improving the plantation, and
his integrity in increasing the stock of the works,
giving him instructions for his future government
of my part, according to the powers I had left
with my old patron, to whom I desired him to
ROBINSON CRUSOE 371

send whatever became due to me till he should
hear from me more particularly; assuring him
that it was my intention not only to come to him,
but to settle myself there for the remainder of my
life. To this I added a very handsome present of
some Italian silks for his wife and two daughters,
for such the captain’s son informed me he had,
with two pieces of fine English broadcloth, ‘the
best I could get in Lisbon, five pieces of black
baize, and some Flanders lace of a good value.

Having thus settled my affairs, sold my cargo,
and turned all my effects into good bills of ex-
change, my next difficulty was which way to go
to England. I had been accustomed enough to
the sea, and yet I had a strange aversion to going
to England by sea at that time; and though I
could give no reason for it, yet the difficulty
increased upon me so much, that though I had
once shipped my baggage in order to go, yet I
altered my mind, and that not once, but two or
three times.

It is true I had been very unfortunate by sea,
and this might be some of the reason; but let
no man slight the strong impulses of his own
thoughts in cases of such moment. Two of the
ships which I had singled out to go in, I mean
more particularly singled out than any other,
that is to say, so as in one of them to put my
things on board, and in the other to have agreed
with the captain; I say, two of these ships mis-
carried, viz., one was taken by the Algerines, and
the other was cast away on the Start, near Tor-
bay, and all the people drowned except three;
so that in either of those vessels I had been made
miserable; and in which most, it was hard to say
372 THE ADVENTURES OF

Having been thus harassed in my thoughts,
my old pilot, to whom I communicated every-
thing, pressed me earnestly not to go by sea, but
either to go by land to the Groyne, and cross
over the Bay of Biscay to Rochelle, from whence
it was but an easy and safe journey by land to
Paris, and so to Calais and Dover; or to go up to
Madrid, and so all the way by land through
France.

In a word, I was so prepossessed against my
going by sea at all, except from Calais to Dover,
that I resolved to travel all the way by land;
which, as I was not in haste, and did not value
the charge, was by much the pleasanter way.
And to make it more so, my old captain brought
an English gentleman, the son of a merchant in
Lisbon, who was willing to travel with me; after
which we picked up two more English merchants
also, and two young Portuguese gentlemen, the
last going to Paris only; so that we were in all
six of us, and five servants; the two merchants
and the two Portuguese contenting themselves
with one servant between two, to save the charge;
and as for me, I got an English sailor to travel
with me as a servant, besides my man Friday,
who was too much a stranger to be capable of
supplying the place of a servant on the road.

In this manner I set out from Lisbon; and our
company being all very well mounted and
armed, we made a little troop, whereof they did
me the honour to call me captain, as well be-
cause I was the oldest man, as because I had two
servants, and indeed was the original of the
whole journey.

As I have troubled you with none of my sea
ROBINSON CRUSOE 373

journals, so I shall trouble you now with none
of my land journal; but some adventures that
happened to us in this tedious and difficult
journey I must not omit.

When we came to Madrid, we being all of us
strangers to Spain, were willing to stay some time
to see the court of Spain, and to see what was
worth observing; but it being the latter part of
the summer we hastened away, and set out from
Madrid about the middle of October; but when
we came to the edge of Navarre, we were alarmed
at several towns on the way with an account
that so much snow was fallen on the French side
of the mountains, that several travellers were
obliged to come back to Pampeluna, after having
attempted, at an extreme hazard, to pass on.

When we came to Pampeluna itself, we found
it so indeed; and to me, that had been always
used to a hot climate, and indeed to countries
where we could scarce bear any clothes on, the
cold was insufferable; nor indeed was it more
painful than it was surprising to come but ten
days before out of the Old Castile, where the
weather was not only warm, but very hot, and
immediately to feel a wind from the Pyrenean
mountains so very keen, so severely cold, as to
be intolerable, and to endanger benumbing and
perishing of our fingers and toes.

Poor Friday was really frighted when he saw
the mountains all covered with snow, and felt
cold weather, which he had never seen or felt
before in his life.

To mend the matter, when we came to Pampe-
luna it continued snowing with so much violence,
and so long, that the people said winter was come
374 THE ADVENTURES OF

before its time; and the roads, which were diffi-
cult before, were now quite impassable; for, ina
word, the snow lay in some places too thick for
us to travel, and being not hard frozen, as is the
case in northern countries, there was no going
without being in danger of being buried alive
every step. We stayed no less than twenty days
at Pampeluna; when seeing the winter coming
on, and no likelihood of its being better, for it
was the severest winter all over Europe that had
been known in the memory of man, I proposed
that we should all go away to Fontarabia, and
there take shipping for Bordeaux, which was a
very little voyage.

But while we were considering this, there came
in four French gentlemen, who having been
stopped on the French side of the passes, as we
were on the Spanish, had found out a guide,
who, traversing the country near the head of
Languedoc, had brought them over the moun-
tains by such ways, that they were not much in-
commoded with the snow; and where they met
with snow in any quantity, they said it was
frozen hard enough to bear them and their horses.

We sent for this guide, who told us he would
undertake to carry us the same way with no
hazard from the snow, provided we were armed
sufficiently to protect us from wild beasts; for he
said, upon these great snows it was frequent for
some wolves to show themselves at the foot of the
mountains, being made ravenous for want of
food, the ground being covered with snow. We
told him we were well enough prepared for such
creatures as they were, if he would ensure us
from a kind of two-legged wolves, which, we
ROBINSON CRUSOE 375

were told, we were in most danger from, espe-
cially on the French side of the mountains.

He satisfied us there was no danger of that
kind in the way that we were to go; so we readily
agreed to follow him, as did also twelve other
gentlemen, with their servants, some French,
some Spanish, who, as I said, had attempted to
go, and were obliged to come back again.

Accordingly we all set out from Pampeluna,
with our guide, on the 15th of November; and,
indeed, I was surprised when, instead of going
forward, he came directly back with us on the
same road that we came from Madrid, above
twenty miles; when being passed two rivers, and
come into the plain country, we found ourselves
in a warm climate again, where the country was
pleasant, and no snow to be seen; but on a
sudden, turning to his left, he approached the
mountains another way; and though it is true the
hills and precipices looked dreadful, yet he made
so many tours, such meanders, and led us by such
winding ways, that we were insensibly passed
the height of the mountains without being much
encumbered with the snow; and all on a sudden
he showed us the pleasant fruitful provinces of
Languedoc and Gascoign, all green and flourish-
ing, though, indeed, it was at a great distance,
and we had some rough way to pass yet.

We were a little uneasy, however, when we
found it snowed one whole day and a night so
fast, that we could not travel; but he bid us be
easy, we should soon be past it all. We found,
indeed, that we began to descend every day, and
to come more north than before; and so, depend-
ing upon our guide, we went on.
376 THE ADVENTURES OF

It was about two hours before night when, our
guide being something before us, and not just in
sight, out rushed three monstrous wolves, and
after them a bear, out of a hollow way adjoining
to a thick wood. Two of the wolves flew upon
the guide, and had he been half a mile before us
he had been devoured indeed before we could
have helped him. One of them fastened upon his
horse, and the other attacked the man with that
violence, that he had not time, or not presence
of mind enough, to draw his pistol, but hallooed
and cried out to us most lustily. My man Friday
being next to me, I bid him ride up, and see what
was the matter. As soon as Friday came in sight
of the man, he hallooed as loud as t’other, ‘O
master! O master!’ but, like a bold fellow, rode
directly up to the poor man, and with his pistol
shot the wolf that attacked him into the head.

It was happy for the poor man that it was my
man Friday, for he having been used to that kind
of creature in his country, had no fear upon him,
but went close up to him and shot him, as above;
whereas any of us would have fired at a farther
distance, and have perhaps either missed the
wolf, or endangered shooting the man.

But it was enough.to have terrified a bolder
man than I; and, indeed, it alarmed all our com-
pany, when, with the noise of Friday’s pistol, we
heard on both sides the dismallest howling of
wolves; and the noise, redoubled by the echo of
the mountains, that it was to us as if there had
been a prodigious multitude of them; and per-
haps indeed there was not such a few as that we
had no cause of apprehensions.

However, as Friday had killed this wolf, the
ROBINSON CRUSOE 377

other that had fastened upon the horse left him
immediately and fled, having happily fastened
upon his head, where the bosses of the bridle had
stuck in his teeth, so that he had not done him
much hurt. The man indeed was most hurt; for
the raging creature had bit him twice, once on
the arm, and the other time a little above his
knee; and he was just as it were tumbling down
by the disorder of his horse, when Friday came
up and shot the wolf.

Itis easy to suppose that at the noise of Friday’s
pistol we all mended our pace, and rid up as fast
as the way, which was very difficult, would give
us leave, to see what was the matter. As soon as
we came clear of the trees, which blinded us
before, we saw clearly what had been the case,
and how Friday had disengaged the poor guide,
though we did not presently discern what kind
of creature it was he had killed.

But never was a fight managed so hardily, and
in such a surprising manner, as that which fol-
lowed between Friday and the bear, which gave
us all, though at first we were surprised and
afraid for him, the greatest diversion imaginable.
As the bear is a heavy, clumsy creature, and does
not gallop as the wolf does, who is swift and light,
so he has two particular qualities, which general-
ly are the rule of his actions: first, as to men, who
are not his proper prey; I say, not his proper
prey, because, though I cannot say what exces-
sive hunger might do, which was now their case,
the ground being all covered with snow; but as
to men, he does not usually attempt them, unless
they first attack him. On the contrary, if you
meet him in the woods, if you don’t meddle with
378 THE ADVENTURES OF

him, he won’t meddle with you; but then you
must take care to be very civil to him, and give
him the road, for he isa very nice gentleman. He
won’t go a step out of his way for a prince; nay,
if you are really afraid, your best way is to look
another way, and keep going on; for sometimes if
you stop, and stand still, and look steadily at
him, he takes it for an affront; but if you throw
or toss anything at him, and it hits him, though
it were but a bit ofa stick as big as your finger, he
takes it for an affront, and sets all his other busi-
ness aside to pursue his revenge; for he will have
satisfaction in point of honour. That is his first
quality; the next is, that if he be once affronted,
he will never leave you, night or day, till he has
his revenge, but follows, at a good round rate, till
he overtakes you.

My man Friday had delivered our guide, and
when we came up to him he was helping him off
from his horse; for the man was both hurt and
frighted, and indeed the last more than the first;
when, on the sudden, we spied the bear come out
of the wood, and a vast monstrous one it was, the
biggest by far that ever I saw. We were all a
little surprised when we saw him; but when
Friday saw him, it was easy to see joy and
courage in the fellow’s countenance. ‘O! O!
O! says Friday, three times pointing to him.
‘O master! you give me te leave; me shakee te
hand with him; me make you good laugh.’

I was surprised to see the fellow so pleased
“You fool you,’ says I, ‘he will eat you up.’
‘Eatee me up! eatee me up!’ says Friday, twice
over again; ‘me eatee him up; me make you
good laugh; you all stay here, me show you
ROBINSON CRUSOE 379

good laugh.’ So down he sits, and gets his boots
off in a moment, and put on a pair of pumps, as
we call the flat shoes they wear, and which he
had in his pocket, gives my other servant his
horse, and with his gun away he flew, swift like
the wind.

The bear was walking softly on, and offered to
meddle with nobody till Friday, coming pretty
near, calls to him, as if the bear could understand
him, ‘Hark ye, hark ye,’ says Friday, ‘me speakee
wit you.’ We followed at a distance; for now
being come down on the Gascoign side of the
mountains, we were entered a vast great forest,
where the country was plain and pretty open,
though many trees in it scattered here and
there.

Friday, who had, as we say, the heels of the
bear, came up with him quickly, and takes up a
great stone and throws at him, and hit him just
on the head, but did him no more harm than if
he had thrown it against a wall. But it answered
Friday’s end, for the rogue was so void of fear,
that he did it purely to make the bear follow him,
and show us some laugh, as he called it.

As soon as the bear felt the stone, and saw him,
he turns about, and comes after him, taking
devilish long strides, and shuffling along at a
strange rate, so as would have put a horse to a
middling gallop. Away runs Friday, and takes
his course as if he run towards us for help; so we
all resolved to fire at once upon the bear, and
deliver my man; though I was angry at him
heartily for bringing the bear back upon us,
when he was going about his own business
another way; and especially I was angry that he
380 THE ADVENTURES OF

had turned the bear upon us, and then run away;
and I called out, ‘You dog,’ said I, ‘is this your
making us laugh? Come away, and take your
horse, that we may shoot the creature.’ He hears
me, and cries out, ‘No shoot, no shoot; stand still,
you get much laugh.’ And as the nimble creature
run two feet for the beast’s one, he turned on a sud-
den, on one side of us, and seeing a great oak tree
fit for his purpose, he beckoned to us to follow; and
doubling his pace, he gets nimbly up the tree, lay-
ing his gun down upon the ground, at about five
or six yards from the bottom of the tree.

The bear soon came to the tree, and we fol-
lowed at a distance. The first thing he did, he
stopped at the gun, smelt to it, but let it lie, and
up he scrambles into the tree, climbing like a
cat, though so monstrously heavy. I was amazed
at the folly, as I thought it, of my man, and
could not for my life see anything to laugh at yet,
till seeing the bear get up the tree, we all rode
nearer to him.

When we came to the tree, there was Friday
got out to the small end of a large limb of the
tree, and the bear got about half way to him. As
soon as the bear got out to that part where the
limb of the tree was weaker, ‘Ha!’ says he to us,
‘now you see me teachee the bear dance.’ So he
falls a-jumping and shaking the bough, at which
the bear began to totter, but stood still, and
began to look behind him, to see how he should
get back. Then, indeed, we did laugh heartily.
But Friday had not done with him by a great
deal. When he sees him stand still, he calls out
to him again, as if he had supposed the bear
could speak English, ‘What, you no come farther?
ROBINSON CRUSOE 381

pray you come farther’; so he left jumping and
shaking the tree; and the bear, just as if he had
understood what he said, did come a little far-
ther; then he fell a-jumping again, and the bear
stopped again.

We thought now was a good time to knock
him on the head, and I called to Friday to stand
still, and we would shoot the bear; but he cried
out earnestly, ‘O pray! O pray! no shoot, me
shoot by and then’; he would have said by and
by. However, to shorten the story, Friday
danced so much, and the bear stood so ticklish,
that we had laughing enough indeed, but still
could not imagine what the fellow would do; for
first we thought he depended upon shaking the
bear off; and we found the bear was too cunning
for that too; for he would not go out far enough
to be thrown down, but clings fast with his great
broad claws and feet, so that we could not imagine
what would be the end of it, and where the jest
would be at last.

But Friday put us out of doubt quickly; for
seeing the bear cling fast to the bough, and that
he would not be persuaded to come any farther,
‘Well, well,’ says Friday, ‘you no come farther,
me go, me go; you no come to me, me go come
to you’; and upon this he goes out to the smallest
end of the bough, where it would bend with his
weight, and gently lets himself down by it,
sliding down the bough till he came near enough
to jump down on his feet, and away he ran to his
gun, takes it up, and stands still.

‘Well,’ said I to him, ‘Friday, what will you
do now? Why don’t you shoot him?’ ‘No shoot,’
says Friday, ‘no yet; me shoot now, me no kill;
382 THE ADVENTURES OF

me stay, give you one more laugh.’ And, indeed,
so he did, as you will see presently; for when the
bear sees his enemy gone, he comes back from
the bough where he stood, but did it mighty
leisurely, looking behind him every step, and
coming backward till he got into the body of the
tree; then with the same hinder end foremost he
comes down the tree, grasping it with his claws,
and moving one foot at a time, very leisurely.
At this juncture, and just before he could set his
hind feet upon the ground, Friday stepped up
close to him, clapped the muzzle of his piece
into his ear, and shot him dead as a stone.

Then the rogue turned about to see if we did
not laugh; and when he saw we were pleased by
our looks, he falls a-laughing himself very loud.
“So we kill bear in my country,’ says Friday. ‘So
you kill them?’ says I; ‘why, you have no guns.’
‘No,’ says he, ‘no gun, but shoot great much long
artow.’

This was indeed a good diversion to us; but we
were still in a wild place, and our guide very
much hurt, and what to do we hardly knew.
The howling of wolves ran much in my head;
and indeed, except the noise I once heard on
the shore of Africa, of which I have said some-
thing already, I never heard anything that filled
me with so much horror.

These things, and the approach ofnight, called
us off, or else, as Friday would have had us, we
should certainly have taken the skin of this mon-
strous creature off, which was worth saving; but
we had three leagues to go, and our guide
hastened us; so we left him, and went forward
on our journey.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 383

The ground was still covered with snow,
though not so deep and dangerous as on the
mountains; and the ravenous creatures, as we
heard afterwards, were come down into the
forest and plain country, pressed by hunger, to
seek for food, and had done a great deal of
mischief in the villages, where they surprised the
country people, killed a great many of their
sheep and horses, and some people too.

We had one dangerous place to pass, which
our guide told us if there were any more wolves
in the country we should find them there; and
this was in a small plain, surrounded with woods
on every side, and a long narrow defile, or lane,
which we were to pass to get through the wood,
and then we should come to the village where
we were to lodge.

It was within half an hour of sunset when we
entered the first wood, and a little after sunset
when we came into the plain. We met with
nothing in the first wood, except that, in a little
plain within the wood, which was not above two
furlongs over, we saw five great wolves cross the
road, full speed, one after another, as if they had
been in chase of some prey, and had it in view;
they took no notice of us, and were gone and
out of our sight in a few moments. Upon this
our guide, who, by the way, was a wretched
faint-hearted fellow, bid us keep in a ready
posture, for he believed there were more wolves
a-coming.

We kept our arms ready, and our eyes about
us; but we saw no more wolves till we came
through that wood, which was near halfa league,
and entered the plain. As soon as we came into
384. THE ADVENTURES OF

the plain, we had occasion enough to look about
us. The first object we met with was a dead
horse, that is to say, a poor horse which the
wolves had killed, and at least a dozen of them
at work; we could not say eating of him, but
picking of his bones rather, for they had eaten
up all the flesh before.

We did not think fit to disturb them at their
feast, neither did they take much notice of us.
Friday would have let fly at them, but I would
not suffer him by any means, for I found we
were like to have more business upon our hands
than we were aware of. We were not gone half
over the plain, but we began to hear the wolves
howl in the wood on our left in a frightful
manner, and presently after we saw about a
hundred coming on directly towards us, all in
a body, and most of them in a line, as regularly
as an army drawn up by experienced officers.
I scarce knew in what manner to receive them,
but found to draw ourselves in a close liné was
the only way; so we formed in a moment; but
that we might not have too much interval, I
ordered that only every other man should fire,
and that the others who had not fired should
stand ready to give them a second volley imme-
diately, if they continued to advance upon us;
and that then those who had fired at first should
not pretend to load their fusees again, but stand
ready with every one a pistol, for we were all
armed with a fusee and a pair of pistols each
man; so we were, by this method, able to fire
six volleys, half of us at a time. However, at
present we had no necessity; for upon firing the
first volley the enemy made a full stop, being
ROBINSON CRUSOE 385

terrified as well with the noise as with the fire.
Four of them being shot into the head, dropped;
several others were wounded, and went bleeding
off, as we could see by the snow. I found they
stopped, but did not immediately retreat; where-
upon, remembering that I had been told that
the fiercest creatures were terrified at the voice
of a man, I caused all our company to halloo
as loud as we could; and I found the notion not
altogether mistaken, for upon our shout they
began to retire and turn about. Then I ordered
a second volley to be fired in their rear, which
put them to the gallop, and away they went to
the woods.

This gave us leisure to charge our pieces again ;
and that we might lose no time, we kept going.
But we had but little more than loaded our fusees,
and put ourselves into a:readiness, when we
heard a terrible noise in the same wood, on our
left, only that it was farther onward, the same
way we were to go.

The night was coming on, and the light began
to be dusky, which made it worse on our side;
but the noise increasing, we could easily perceive
that it was the howling and yelling of those
hellish creatures; and on a sudden, we perceived
two or three troops of wolves, one on our left,
one behind us, and one on our front, so that we
seemed to be surrounded with them. However,
as they did not fall upon us, we kept our way
forward as fast as we could make our horses go,
which, the way being very rough, was only a
good large trot, and in this manner we came in
view of the entrance of a wood, through which
we were to pass, at the farther side of the plain;

17 Oo
386 THE ADVENTURES OF

but we were greatly surprised when, coming
nearer the lane, or pass, we saw a confused
number of wolves standing just at the entrance.

On a sudden, at another opening of the wood,
we heard the noise of a gun, and looking that
way, out rushed a horse, with a saddle and a
bridle on him, flying like the wind, and sixteen
or seventeen wolves after him, full speed; indeed,
the horse had the heels of them; but as we sup-
posed that he could not hold it at that rate, we
doubted not but they would get up with him =
last, and no question but they did.

But here we had a most horrible sight; for
riding up to the entrance where the horse came
out, we found the carcass of another horse and
of two men, devoured by the ravenous creatures;
and one of the men was no doubt the same whom
we heard fire the gun, for there lay a gun just by
him fired off; but as to the man, his head and
the upper part of his body was eaten up.

This filled us with horror, and we knew not
what course to take; but the creatures resolved
us soon, for they gathered about us presently in
hopes of prey, and I verily believe there were
three hundred of them. It happened very much
to our advantage that, at the entrance into the
wood, but a little way from it, there lay some
large timber-trees, which had been cut down the.
summer before, and I suppose lay there for car-
riage. I drew my little troop in among those
trees, and placing ourselves in a line behind one
long tree, I advised them all to light, and keep-
ing that tree before us for a breastwork, to stand
in a triangle, or three fronts, enclosing our horses
in the centre.
_ ROBINSON CRUSOE 387

We did so, and it was well we did; for never
was a more furious charge than the creatures
made upon us in the place. They came on us
with a growling kind of a noise, and mounted
the piece of timber, which, as I said, was our
breastwork, as if they were only rushing upon
their prey; and this fury of theirs, it seems, was
principally occasioned by their seeing our horses
behind us, which was the prey they aimed at. I
ordered our men to fire as before, every other
man; and they took their aim so sure, that in-
deed they killed several of the wolves at the first
volley; but there was a necessity to keep a con-
tinual firing, for they came on like devils, those
behind pushing on those before.

When we had fired our second volley of our
fusees, we thought they stopped a little, and I
hoped they would have gone off; but it was but
a moment, for others came forward again; so we
fired two volleys of our pistols; and I believe in
these four firings we had killed seventeen or
eighteen of them, and lamed twice as many, yet
they came on again.

I was loth to spend our last shot too hastily; so
I called my servant, not my man Friday, for he
was better employed, for with the greatest dex-
terity imaginable he had charged my fusee and
his own while we were engaged; but as I said, I
called my other man, and giving him a horn of
powder, I bade him lay a train all along the
piece of timber, and let it be a large train. He
did so, and had but just time to get away when
the wolves came up to it, and some were got up
upon it, when I, snapping an uncharged pistol
close to the powder, set it on fire. Those that
388 THE ADVENTURES OF

were upon the timber were scorched with it, and
six or seven of them fell, or rather jumped, in
among us with the force and fright of the fire.
We despatched these in an instant, and the rest
were so frighted with the light, which the night,
for it was now very near dark, made more ter-
rible, that they drew back a little; upon which I
ordered our last pistol to be fired off in one volley,
and after that we gave a shout. Upon this the
wolves turned tail, and we sallied immediately
upon near twenty lame ones, whom we found
struggling on the ground, and fell a-cutting them:
with our swords, which answered our expecta-
tion; for the crying and howling they made was
better understood by their fellows, so that they
all fled and left us.

We had, first and last, killed about threescore
of them, and had it been daylight we had killed ,
many more. -The field of battle being thus
cleared, we made forward again, for we had still
near a league to go. We heard the ravenous
creatures howl and yell in the woods as we went
several times, and sometimes we fancied we saw
some of them, but the snow dazzling our eyes,
we were not certain. So in about an hour more
we came to the town where we were to lodge,
which we found in a terrible fright, and all in
arms; for it seems that the night before the wolves :
and some bears had broke into the village in the
night, and put them ina terrible fright; and they
were obliged to keep guard night and day, but
especially in the night, to preserve their cattle,
and, indeed, their people.

The next morning our guide was so ill, and
his limbs swelled with the rankling of his two
ROBINSON CRUSOE 389

wounds, that he could go no farther; so we were
obliged to take a new guide there, and go to
Toulouse, where we found a warm climate, a
fruitful, pleasant country, and no snow, no
wolves, or anything like them. But when we
told our story at Toulouse, they told us it was
nothing but what was ordinary in the great
forest at the foot of the mountains, especially
when the snow lay on the ground; but they in-
quired much what kind of a guide we had gotten
that would venture to bring us that way in such
a severe season, and told us it was very much we
were not all devoured. When we told them how
we placed ourselves, and the horses in the middle,
they blamed us exceedingly, and told us it was
fifty to one but we had been all destroyed; for it
was the sight of the horses which made the
wolves so furious, seeing their prey; and that, at
other times, they are really afraid of a gun; but
the being excessive hungry, and raging on that
account, the eagerness to come at the horses had
made them senseless of danger; and that if we
had not, by the continued fire, and at last by the
stratagem of the train of powder, mastered them,
it had been great odds but that we had been torn
to pieces; whereas had we been content to have
sat still on horseback, and fired as horsemen,
they would not have taken the horses for so much
their own, when men were on their backs, as
otherwise; and withal they told us, that at last,
if we had stood all together, and left our horses,
they would have been so eager to have devoured
them, that we might have come off safe, espe-
cially having our firearms in our hands, and
being so many in number.
390 THE ADVENTURES OF

For my part, I was never so sensible of danger
in my life; for seeing above three hundred devils
come roaring and open-mouthed to devour us,
and having nothing to shelter us or retreat to, I
gave myself over for lost; and as it was, I believe
I shall never care to cross those mountains again.
I think I would much rather go a thousand
leagues by sea, though I were sure to meet with
a storm once a week.

I have nothing uncommon to take notice of in
my passage through France; nothing but what
other travellers have given an account of with
much more advantage than I can. I travelled
from Toulouse to Paris, and without any con-
siderable stay came to Calais, and landed safe at
Dover, the 14th of January, after having had a
severe cold season to travel in.

I was now come to the centre of my travels,
and had in a little time all my new-discovered
estate safe about me, the bills of exchange which
I brought with me having been very currently
paid.

My principal guide and privy councillor was
my good ancient widow; who, in gratitude for
the money I had sent her, thought no pains too
much, or care too great, to employ for me; and
I trusted her so entirely with everything, that I
was perfectly easy as to the security of my effects;
and indeed I was very happy from my beginning,
and now to the end, in the unspotted integrity of
this good gentlewoman.

And now I began to think of leaving my effects
with this woman and setting out for Lisbon, and
so to the Brazils. But now another scruple came
in my way, and that was religion; for as I had
ROBINSON CRUSOE 391

entertained some doubts about the Roman re-
ligion even while I was abroad, especially in my
state of solitude, so I knew there was no going to
the Brazils for me, much less going to settle there,
unless I resolved to embrace the Roman Catholic
religion without any reserve; unless on the other
hand I resolved to be a sacrifice to my principles,
be a martyr for religion, and die in the Inquisi-
tion. So I resolved to stay at home, and if I could
find means for it, to dispose of my plantation.

To this purpose I wrote to my old friend at
Lisbon, who in return gave me notice that he
could easily dispose of it there; but that if I
thought fit to give him leave to offer it in my
name to the two merchants, the survivors of my
trustees, who lived in the Brazils, who must fully
understand the value of it, who lived just upon
the spot, and whom I knew were very rich, so
that he believed they would be fond of buying
it, he did not doubt but I should make 4000 or
5000 pieces of eight the more of it.

Accordingly I agreed, gave him order to offer
it to them, and he did so; and in about eight
months more, the ship being then returned, he
sent me an account that they had accepted the
offer, and had remitted 33,000 pieces of eight to
a correspondent of theirs at Lisbon to pay for it.

In return, I signed the instrument of sale in
the form which they sent from Lisbon, and sent
it to my old man, who sent me bills of exchange
for 32,800 pieces of eight to me, for the estate;
reserving the payment of 100 moidores a year to
him, the old man, during his life, and 50 moidores
afterwards to his son for his life, which I had
promised them, which the plantation was to
392 THE ADVENTURES OF

make good as a rent-charge. And thus I have
given the first part of a life of fortune and adven-
ture, a life of Providence’s chequer-work, and of
a variety which the world will seldom be able to
show the like of; beginning foolishly, but closing
much more happily than any part of it ever gave
me leave so much as to hope for.

Any one would think that in this state of com-
plicated good fortune I was past running any
more hazards; and so indeed I had been, if other
circumstances had concurred. But I was inured
to a wandering life, had no family, not many
relations, nor, however rich, had I contracted
much acquaintance; and though I had sold my
estate in the Brazils, yet I could not keep the
country out of my head, and had a great mind
to be upon the wing again; especially I could not
resist the strong inclination I had to see my
island, and to know if the poor Spaniards were
in being there, and how the rogues I left there
had used them.

My true friend, the widow, earnestly dissuaded
me from it, and so far prevailed with me, that for
almost seven years she prevented my running
abroad, during which time I took my two
nephews, the children of one of my brothers, into
my care. The eldest having something of his
own, I bred up as a gentleman, and gave him a
settlement of some addition to his estate after my
decease. The other I put out to a captain of a
ship, and after five years, finding him a sensible,
bold, enterprising young fellow, I put him into
a good ship, and sent him to sea; and this young
fellow afterwards drew me in, as old as I was, to
farther adventures myself.
ROBINSON CRUSOE 393

In the meantime, I in part settled myself here;
for, first of all, I married, and that not either to
my disadvantage or dissatisfaction, and had three
children, two sons and one daughter; but my
wife dying, and my nephew coming home with
good success from a voyage to Spain, my inclina-
tion to go abroad, and his importunity, pre-
vailed, and engaged me to go in his ship as a
private trader to the East Indies. This was in
the year 1694.

In this voyage I visited my new colony in the
island, saw my successors the Spaniards, had the
whole story of their lives, and of the villains I left
there; how at first they insulted the poor Spani-
ards, how they afterwards agreed, disagreed,
united, separated, and how at last the Spaniards
were obliged to use violence with them; how they
were subjected to the Spaniards; how honestly
the Spaniards used them; a history, if it were
entered into, as full of variety and wonderful
accidents as my own part; particularly also
as to their battles with the Caribbeans, who
landed several times upon the island, and as to
the improvement they made upon the island
itself; and how five of them made an attempt
upon the mainland, and brought away eleven
men and five women prisoners, by which, at my
coming, I found about twenty young children
on the island.

Here I stayed about twenty days, left them
supplies of all necessary things, and particularly
of arms, powder, shot, clothes, tools, and two
workmen, which I brought from England with
me, viz., a carpenter and a smith.

Besides this, I shared the island into parts with
394 ROBINSON CRUSOE

them, reserved to myself the property of-the
whole, but gave them such parts respectively a:
they agreed on; and having settled all thing:
with them, and engaged them not to leave the
place, I left them there.
From thence I touched at the Brazils, from
‘whence I sent a bark, which I bought there, with
more people, to the island; and in it, besides
other supplies, I sent seven women, being such
as I found proper for service, or for wives to such
as would take them. As to the Englishmen, I
promised them to send them some women from
England, with a good cargo of necessaries, if they
. would apply themselves to planting; which I
afterwards performed; and. the fellows proved
very honest and diligent after they were mastered,
and had their properties set apart for them. I
sent them also from the Brazils five cows, three of
them being big with calf, some sheep, and some
hogs, which, when I came again, were consider-
ably increased.

But all these things, with an account how three
hundred Caribbees came and invaded them, and
ruined their plantations, and how they fought
with that whole number twice, and were at first
defeated and three of them killed; but at last a
storm destroying their enemies’ canoes, they
famished or destroyed almost all the rest, and
renewed and recovered the possession of their
plantation, and still lived upon the island ;—all
these things, with some very surprising incidents
in some new adventures of my own, for ten years
more, I may perhaps give a farther account of
hereafter.

THE END

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