Citation
The Life and strange surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York, mariner

Material Information

Title:
The Life and strange surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York, mariner
Creator:
Defoe, Daniel 1661?-1731 ( Author, Primary )
Griset, Ernest Henry 1844-1907 ( Engraver )
William and Robert Chambers ( Publisher )
Place of Publication:
London
Edinburgh
Publisher:
W. & R. Chambers Ltd.
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1894
Language:
English
Physical Description:
vi, 273, 36 p. : ill. ; 19 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Baldwin -- 1894
Castaways -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1864 ( rbgenr )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1894 ( rbgenr )
Shipwrecks -- Fiction ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Survival skills -- Fiction ( lcsh )
Genre:
Publishers' catalogues ( rbgenr )
Imaginary voyages ( local )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
Scotland--Edinburgh

Notes

General Note:
Spine title: Adventures of Robinson Crusoe; cover title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note:
Date from bookplate which shows that the book was given as a prize for the 1893/94 school session and the publisher's catalog (36 p. at end)which has as the last entry the Chamber's journal for 1893. Both Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe (816) and NUC pre-1956 (0118709, v. 136, p. 612) have entries which match this volume and estimate the date as [190-?]
General Note:
Frontispiece by Ernest Griset.
General Note:
Includes a one page life of Alexander Selkirk and a sketch of Defoe's life.
General Note:
Part I of Robinson Crusoe.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
OCLC ( 24648298 )
001828067 ( aleph )

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Full Text






ROBINSON CRUSOE,



THE EYPe

AND
STRANGE SURPRISING ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE

OF YORK, MARINER

BY

DANIEL DE FOE



WwW. & R. CHAMBERS, LIMITED
LONDON AND EDINBURGH



ALEXANDER SELKIRK.

Ir is generally believed that the idea of Robinson Crusoe first presented
itself to De Foe on hearing of the adventures of Alexander Selkirk, who
for above four years lived all alone on the uninhabited island of Juan
Fernandez, in the Pacific (about 400 miles from the coast of Chili).
Selkirk was born at Largo in the county of Fife, Scotland, in 1676,
his father being a shoemaker. He early acquired a taste for the sea,
and being a wild boy, and constantly in trouble at home, he went
to London and engaged himself to Captain Dampier, upon a cruising
expedition in the South Sea. England was then at war with Spain,
and Dampier proposed to capture any of the Spanish vessels he
came across in either the South Atlantic or the Pacific.

Selkirk was appointed sailing-master of the Cizgue Ports, a small
vessel which accompanied the St George, commanded by Dampier.
They left England in 1703, and after various adventures, reached Juan
Fernandez early the next year. After staying some time for repairs,
water, &c., they set sail again, but a violent quarrel arising between
Selkirk and Stradling, the captain of the Cimgue Ports, he resolved to
leave the ship at the first opportunity. In September, the Cizgue Ports
was obliged to return to Juan Fernandez for repairs, and when they
were completed, Selkirk said good-bye to his friends, and remained
alone on the island. Here he lived for four years and four months,
his food consisting chiefly of the flesh of wild goats and shellfish.
Stradling left him a gun, some powder and shot, a kettle, an axe,
a knife, his nautical instruments, and some books. He erected two
huts with the wood of the pimento tree, and though he was not
so ingenious in supplying his wants as Crusoe was, he appears to have
been happy in his solitude.

In 1709 he was released by Captain Woodes Rogers, who had been
sent out by some merchants of Bristol to act against the French and
Spaniards in the South Seas. He engaged as mate on Rogers’s ship,
and after a long cruise he reached England in 1711.

Little is known of his later years. He died on board His Majesty’s
ship Weymouth in 1723.



SKETCH OF DE FOE’S LIFE.

DANIEL DE Fok, the author of Robinson Crusoe, was the son of
James Foe, a butcher of St Giles, Cripplegate, London. He was born
in 1661, and his father, being a Nonconformist, had him educated at a
dissenting academy, kept by a Mr Morton, at Stoke Newington. It
was at first intended that he should be a Presbyterian minister, and
with this view he was kept at school until he was nearly nineteen years
of age. He joined the Duke of Monmouth’s rising in 1685, but
fortunately escaped the fate that befell so many of his comrades.

After this he engaged in trade in London, especially in Spanish
and Portuguese goods, and it is certain that he visited Spain on
business. In 1692, he failed for £17,000, but afterwards paid up his
creditors their claims in full. His next enterprise was a tile-work at
Tilbury, but here he was again unsuccessful, and when the works were
brought to a standstill in 1703, he lost about £3000. From this time
till the end of his life he engaged in no settled business, though from
time to time he seems to have made several not unsuccessful ventures.
He became known to William III. about the middle of the reign,
and soon became an active pamphleteer in support of the govern-
ment. His Zssay on Projects appeared in 1698, and in 1701 he
published a poem called The True-born Englishman, in defence of the
king and the Dutch, in which he exposed the absurd cry of the time,
that the king was a foreigner, and that the English were of purer blood
than the rest of the world.

De Foe soon got into trouble after the accession of Queen Anne.
As a true dissenter, he thought it his duty to warn his party that they
were in danger, by pointing out to what conclusions the doctrines of the
High Church party necessarily led. This he did by publishing, in 1703,
his famous pamphlet, Zhe Shortest Way with the Dissenters. Its
meaning was misunderstood, and a warrant was at once issued for the
apprehension of the author. He soon surrendered himself, was
tried, and found guilty of a ‘seditious libel,’ put in the pillory, fined
and imprisoned; hence Pope’s malicious line, ‘earless on high stood
unabashed Defoe.’

He was released from prison in August 1704, by the influence of
Robert Harley, Earl of Oxford, who was Secretary of State. Lis



vi ROBINSON CRUSOE,

next enterprise was a newspaper called Zhe Review. This he success-
fully conducted for nearly nine years, writing the whole of it himself.
He was next engaged in several secret missions by Harley, and in
October 1706, was despatched to Scotland on a political mission for
the promotion of the Union. His History of the Union appeared
in 1709. He shared the fall of his patron Harley, who was im-
peached for treason in 1715, and soon found himself stripped of all his
friends, and attacked violently on all sides. In 1716, he published
his apology, entitled 4x Apfeal to Honour and Fustice, in which
he defends his conduct throughout his life. His political life was
supposed to have ended here; but evidence has recently been dis-
covered, proving that in 1718 he was employed by the government.
The first of his tales, Rodinson Crusoe, appeared April 25, 1719,
when he was fifty-eight years old. It was wonderfully successful,
immediately obtaining that high degree of public favour which it has
ever since maintained. Four editions of it were sold in as many
months, and in August of the same year the second part appeared.
Several other Zales, A History of the Great Plague of 1665, The
Memoirs of a Cavalier, and various other works, quickly followed.
Defoe was a patriot honest in his aims, if not very nice in his
choice of means. His writings amount to 210 works in prose and
verse. lis novels are remarkable for their air of veracity, due to
the skilful use he makes of minute and ordinary incidents. In his
style he uses the plainest and most direct language, and the colloquial
forms of speech, while he pays great attention to vivacity and consist-
ency of character. His immortal work, Robinson Crusoe, is as sure
of enduring fame as anything in English literature. Dr Johnson, who
speaks with admiration of De Foe’s writing ‘so variously and so well,’
puts it among the only three books that readers wish longer. Scott
observes that De Foe’s style ‘is the last which should be attempted by
a writer of inferior genius; for though it be possible to disguise
mediocrity by fine writing, it appears in all its naked inanity when it
assumes the garb of simplicity.’
He died in London in 1731, in circumstances of distress, about
which, however, almost nothing is known.







ROBINSON CRUSOE.



CHAPTER I.—EARLY LIFE.

WAS born in the year 1632, in the city
=| of York, of a good family, though not
| of that country, my father being a
foreigner of Bremen, who settled first
at Hull. He got a good estate by
merchandise, and, leaving off his
trade, lived afterwards at York, from
whence he had married my mother,
whose relations were named Robinson,
a very good family in that country,
and from whom I was called Robinson
Kreutznaer; but, by the usual corruption of words in Eng-
land, we are now called—nay, we call ourselves, and write
our name—Crusoe; and so my companions always called me.

I had two elder brothers, one of which was a lieutenant-
colonel to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly
commanded by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed
at the battle near Dunkirk against the Spaniards: what
became of my second brother, I never knew, any more than
my father or mother did know what was become of me.







b

ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any
trade, my head began to be filled very early with rambling
thoughts. My father, who was very ancient, had given mea
competent share of learning, as far as house education and a
country free school generally go, and designed me for the law.
But I would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and
my inclination to this led me so strongly against the will—nay,
the commands—of my father, and against all the entreaties
and persuasions of my mother and other friends, that there
seemed to be something fatal in that propensity of nature,
tending directly to the life of misery which was to befall me.

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and
excellent counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He
called me one morning into his chamber, where he was confined
by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with me upon this
subject. He asked me what reasons, more than a mere
wandering inclination, I had for leaving my father’s house and
my native country, where I might be well introduced, and had
a prospect of raising my fortunes by application and industry,
with a life of ease and pleasure.

He told me it was only men of desperate fortunes on one
hand, or of aspiring superior fortunes on the other, who went
abroad upon adventures, to rise - by enterprise, and make
themselves famous in undertakings of a nature out of the
common road ; that these things were all either too far above
me, or too far below me; that mine was the middle state, or
what might be called the upper station of low life, which he
had found, by long experience, was the best state in the world
—the most suited to human happiness, not exposed to the
miseries and hardships, the labour and sufferings of the
mechanic part of mankind, and not embarrassed with the pride,
luxury, ambition, and envy of the upper part of mankind.

He told me I might judge of the happiness of this state
by this one thing, namely, that this was the state of life which
all other people envied ; that kings have frequently lamented
the miserable consequences of being born to great things, and
wished they had been placed in the middle of the two extremes,
between the mean and the great; that the wise man gave his



HIS FATHER AGAINST HIS GOING TO SEA. 3

testimony to this, as the just standard of true felicity, when he
prayed to have neither poverty nor riches.

He bade me observe it, and I should always find, that the
calamities of life were shared among the upper and lower
part of mankind; but that the middle station had the fewest
disasters, and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes as the
higher or lower part of mankind. Nay, they were not subjected
to so many distempers and uneasinesses, either of body or
mind, as those were who, by vicious living, luxury, and extrava-
gances on one hand, or by hard labour, want of necessaries,
and mean or insufficient diet on the other hand, bring dis-
tempers upon themselves by the natural consequences of their
way of living. The middle station of life was calculated for
all kind of virtues, and all kind of enjoyments ; peace and
plenty were the handmaids of a middle fortune ; temperance,
moderation, quietness, health, society, all agreeable diversions,
and all desirable pleasures were the blessings attending the
middle station of life; that in this way men went silently and
smoothly through the world, and comfortably out of it; not
embarrassed with the labours of the hands or of the head; not
sold to a life of slavery for daily bread, or harassed with
perplexed circumstances, which rob the soul of peace and the
body of rest; not enraged with the passion of envy, or the
secret burning lust of ambition for great things—but, in easy
circumstances, sliding gently through the world, and sensibly
tasting the sweets of living without the bitter ; feeling that they
are happy, and learning, by every day’s experience, to know it
more sensibly. :

After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most
affectionate manner, not to play the young man, or to precipi-
tate myself into miseries, which nature, and the station of life
I was born in, seemed to have provided against—that I was
under no necessity of seeking my bread—that he would do well
for me, and endeavour to enter me fairly into the station of life
which he had been just recommending to me; and that, if I
was not very easy and happy in the world, it must be my mere
fate, or fault, that must hinder it; and+that he should have
nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his duty in



4 ROBINSON CRUSOR.

warning me against measures which he knew would be to my
hurt. In a word, that as he would do very kind things for me
if I would stay and settle at home as he directed, so he would
not have so much hand in my misfortunes as to give me any
encouragement to go away—and, to close all, he told me I had
my elder brother for my example, to whom he had used the
same earnest persuasions to keep him from going into the Low
Country wars, but could not prevail, his young desires prompt-
ing him to run into the army, where he was killed—and though
he said he would not cease to pray for me, yet he would venture
to say to me, that if I did take this foolish step, God would not
bless me—and I should have leisure hereafter to reflect upon
having neglected his counsel, when there might be none to
assist in my recovery.

I observed, in this last part of his discourse, which was
truly prophetic, though I suppose my father did not know it to
be so himself—I say, I observed the tears run down his face
very plentifully, especially when he spoke of my brother who
was killed ; and that when he spoke of my having leisure to
repent, and none to assist me, he was so moved, that he broke
off the discourse, and told me his heart was so full he could
say no more to me,

I was sincerely afflicted with this discourse—as, indeed,
who could be otherwise?—and I resolved not to think of going
abroad any more, but to settle at home according to my father’s
desire. But, alas! a few days wore it all off; and, in short, to
prevent any of my father’s further importunities, in a few weeks
after, I resolved to run quite away from him.

However, I did not act so hastily neither, as the first
heat of my resolution prompted, but I took my mother, at a
time when I thought her a little pleasanter than ordinary, and
told her, that my thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing
the world, that I should never settle to anything with resolution
enough to go through with it, and my father had better give me
his consent, than force me to go without it—that I was now
eighteen years old, which was too late to gO apprentice to a
trade, or clerk to an attorney—that I was sure, if I did, I should
never serve out my time, but I should certainly run away from



HIS MOTHER REFUSES ‘HER CONSENT. 5

my master before my time was out and go to sea—and if she
would speak to my father to let me go one voyage abroad, if I
came home again, and did not like it, I would go no more, and
I would promise, by a double diligence, to recover the time I
had lost.

This put my mother into a great passion. She told me she
knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any
such subject—that he knew too well what was my interest, to give
his consent to any such thing so much for my hurt—and that
she wondered how I could think of any such thing, after the
discourse I had had with my father, and such kind and tender
expressions as she knew my father had used to me. In short,
if I would ruin myself, there was no help for me ; but I might
depend I should never have their consent to it—that, for her
part, she would not have so much hand in my destruction—and
I should never have it to say, that my mother was willing when
my father was not. =

Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet
I heard afterwards, that she reported all the discourse to him ;
and that my father, after showing a great concern at it, said to
her, with a sigh, ‘That boy might be happy, if he would stay
at home ; but if he goes abroad, he will be the most miserable
wretch that ever was born—I can give no consent to it.’

CHAPTER II.—GOES TO SEA.

ie was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose,

though in the meantime I continued obstinately deaf to
all proposals of settling to business, and frequently expostu-
lating with my father and mother about their being so posi-
tively determined against what they knew my inclinations
prompted me to. But being one day at Hull, whither I went
casually, and without any purpose of making an elopement
that time—but, I say, being there, and one of my companions
being about to go by sea to London, in his father’s ship, and
prompting me to go with him, with the common allurement of



6 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

a seafaring man, that it should cost me nothing for my pas-
sage, I consulted neither father nor mother any more, nor so
much as sent them word of it ; but leaving them to hear of it
as they might, without asking God’s blessing or my father’s,
without any consideration of circumstances or consequences,
and in an ill hour, God knows, on the Ist of September 1651,
I went on board a ship bound for London.

Never any young adventurer’s misfortunes, I believe, began
sooner, or continued longer, than mine. The ship was no
sooner got out of the Humber, but the wind began to blow,
and the waves to rise in a most frightful manner. As I had
never been at sea before, 1 was most inexpressibly sick in
body, and terrified in mind.

I began now seriously to reflect upon what I had done,
and how justly I was overtaken by the judgment of Heaven
for my wicked leaving my father’s house, and abandoning my
duty. All the good counsel of my parents, my father’s tears
and my mother’s entreaties, came now fresh into my mind ;
and my conscience reproached me with the contempt of advice,
and the breach of my duty to God and my father.

All this while the storm increased, and the sea went very
high, though nothing like what I have seen many times since
—no, nor what I saw a few days after. I expected every wave
would have swallowed us up, and that every time the ship fell
down, as I thought it did, in the trough or hollow of the sea,
we should never rise more.

In this agony of mind, I made many vows and resolutions,
that if it would please God to spare my life in this one voyage,
if ever I got once my foot upon dry land again, I would go
directly home to my father, and never set it into a ship again
while I lived; that I would take his advice, and never run
myself into such miseries as these any more. In short, I
resolved that I would, like a true repenting prodigal, go home
to my father.

These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the
storm lasted, and indeed some time after: but the next day
the wind was abated, and the sea calmer, and I began to be
a little inured to it. However, I was very grave for all that



HE BEGINS TO BE REPENTANT. 7

day, being also a little sea-sick still; but towards night the
weather cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a charming
fine evening followed. The sun went down perfectly clear,
and rose so the next morning; and having little or no wind,
and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the sight was, as
I thought, the most delightful that ever I saw.

I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick,
but very cheerful—looking with wonder upon the sea, that was
so rough and terrible the day before, and could be so calm and
so pleasant in so little a time after.

And now, lest my good resolutions should continue, my
companion, who had indeed enticed me away, comes to me.
‘Well, Bob,’ says he, clapping me upon the shoulder, ‘how do
you do after it? I warrant you were frightened, weren’t you,
last night, when it blew but a capful of wind?’ ‘A capful d’ye
call it?’ said I; ‘’twas a terrible storm.’ ‘A storm, you fool
you!’ replies he; ‘do you call that a storm? why it was
nothing at all. Give us but a good ship and sea-room, and we
think nothing of such a squall of wind as that. But you’re but
a fresh-water sailor, Bob ; come, let us make a bowl of punch,
and we’ll forget all that: d’ ye see what charming weather ’tis
now ??

To make short this sad part of my story, we went the
way of all sailors ; the punch was made, and I was made half
drunk with it, and in that one night’s wickedness I drowned
all my repentance, all my reflections upon my past conduct,
all my resolutions for the future. In a word, as the sea was
returned to its smoothness of surface, and settled calmness, by
the abatement of that storm, so, the hurry of my thoughts
being over, my fears and apprehensions of being swallowed up
by the sea being forgotten, and the current of my former
desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises that
I made in my distress.

I found, indeed, some intervals of reflection; and the
serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavour to return again
sometimes ; but I shook them off, and roused myself from
them, as it were from a distemper. But I was to have another
trial for it still; and Providence, as in such cases generally



8 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

it does, resolved to leave me entirely without excuse ; for if
I would not take this for a deliverance, the next was to be
such an one, as the worst and most hardened wretch among
us would confess both the danger and the mercy of.

CHAPTER IIJ.—HIS FIRST GREAT STORM.

a= THE sixth day of our being

at sea, we came into Yar-
mouth Roads; the wind having
been contrary and the weather
calm, we had made but
little way since the storm.
Here we were obliged to
come to an anchor, and
here we lay, the wind con-
tinuing contrary, namely,
at south-west, for seven
or eight days; during
which time, a great many ships from
Newcastle came into the same roads,
as the common harbour where the
ships might wait for a wind for the
river.

We had not, however, rid here
_ SSS SS |_~=«50 long but we should have tided
it up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh; and after
we had lain four or five days, blew very hard. Heme the
roads being reckoned as good as a harbour, the anchorage
good, and our ground-tackle very strong, our men were
unconcerned, and not in the least apprehensive of danger,
but spent the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of
the sea.

On the eighth day, in the morning, the wind increased, and
we had all hands at work to strike our topmasts, and make
everything snug and close, that the ship might ride as easy
as possible. By noon, the sea went very high’ indeed, and our




















































































































































HIS FIRST GREAT STORM. 9

ship rode forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought
once or twice our anchor had come home; upon which our
master ordered out the sheet-anchor; so that we rode with
two anchors ahead, and the cables veered out to the better
end.

By this time, it blew a terrible storm indeed. And now I
began to see terror and amazement in the faces even of the
seamen themselves. The master, though vigilant in the busi-
ness of preserving the ship, yet as he went in and out of his
cabin by me, I could hear him, softly to himself, say several
times, ‘Lord be merciful to us! we shall be all lost—we shall
be all undone!’ and the like.

During these first hurries, I was stupid, lying still in my
cabin, which was in the steerage, and cannot describe my
temper. I could ill resume the first penitence which I had so
apparently trampled upon, and hardened myself against; I
thought the bitterness of death had been past; and that this
would be nothing, too, like the first. But when the master
himself came by me, as I said just now, and said we should
be all lost, I was dreadfully frighted.

I got up out of my cabin, and looked out; but such a
dismal sight I never saw. The sea went mountains high, and
broke upon us every three or four minutes ; when I could look
about, I could see nothing but distress round us. Two ships
that rode near us, we found, had cut their masts by the board,
being deep laden; and our men cried out, that a ship, which
rode about a mile ahead of us, was foundered. Two more
ships, being driven from their anchors, were run out of the
roads to sea, at all adventures, and that with not a mast
standing.

Towards the evening, the mate and boatswain begged the
master of our ship to let them cut away the foremast, which
he was very unwilling to do; but the boatswain protesting to
him, that if he did not the ship would founder, he consented.
When they had cut away the foremast, the mainmast stood
so loose, and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut
it away also, and make a clear deck.

Any one must judge what a condition I must be in at all



10 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

this, who was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a
fright before at but a little. But I was in tenfold more horror
of mind upon account of my former convictions, and the
having returned from them to the resolutions I had wickedly
taken at first, than I was at death itself; and these, added to

















































































The Ship in Yarmouth Roads.

the terror of the storm, put me into such a condition, that I
can by no words describe it.

But the worst was not come yet; the storm continued
with such fury, that the seamen themselves acknowledged
they had never known a worse. We had a good ship, but she
was deep laden, and wallowed in the sea, so that the seamen



A TERRIBLE STORM. II

every now and then cried out she would founder. It was
my advantage, in one respect, that I did not know what they
meant by founder, till I inquired. However, the storm was so
violent, that I saw, what is not often seen, the master, the
boatswain, and some others more sensible than the rest, at
their prayers, and expecting every moment when the ship
would go to the bottom.

In the middle of the night, and under all the rest of our
distresses, one of the men that had been down on purpose to
see, cried out we had sprung a leak; another said, there was
four feet.of water in the hold. Then all hands were called to
the pump. At that word, my heart, as I thought, died within
me; and I fell backwards upon the side of my bed where I
sat, into the cabin. However, the men roused me, and told
me that I, that was able to do nothing before, was as well able
to pump as another; at which I stirred up, and went to the
pump, and worked very heartily.

While this was doing, the master seeing some light
colliers, which, not able to ride out the storm, were obliged to
slip and run away to the sea, and would come near us, ordered
to fire a gun as a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing
what that meant, was so surprised, that I thought the ship _
had broken, or some dreadful thing had happened. In a
word, I was so surprised, that I fell down in a swoon. As this
was a time when everybody had his own life to think of,
nobody minded me, or what was become of me ; but another
man stepped up to the pump, and, thrusting me aside with his
foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead ; and it was a great
while before I came to myself.

We worked on, but the water increasing in the hold, it
was apparent that the ship would founder; and though the
storm began to abate a little, yet as it was not possible she
could float till we might run into a port, so the master con-
tinued firing guns for help; anda light ship, which had ridden
it out just ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help us.

It was with the utmost hazard the boat came near us;
but it was impossible for us to get on board, or for the boat to
lie rs the ship side, till at last, the men rowing very heartily,



12 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

and venturing their lives to save ours, our men cast them a
rope over the stern with a buoy to it, and then veered it out a
great length, which they, after great labour and hazard, took
hold of, and we hauled them close under our stern, and got all
into their boat.

It was to no purpose for them or us, after we were in
the boat, to think of reaching to their own ship; so all agreed
to let her drive, and only to pull her in towards shore as much
as we could, Our master promised them, that if the boat was
staved upon shore, he would make it good to their master : so,
partly rowing, and partly driving, our boat went away to the
northward, sloping towards the shore almost as far as Winter-
ton Ness.

We were not much more than a quarter of an hour
out of our ship but we saw her sink: and then I understood,
for the first time, what was meant by a ship foundering in the
sea. I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up, when
the seamen told me she was sinking; for, from that moment
they rather put me into the boat, than that I might be said
to go in, my heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly with
fright, partly with horror of mind, and the thoughts of what
was yet before me.

While we were in this condition—the men yet labouring
at the oar to bring the boat near the shore—we could see
(when, our boat mounting the waves, we were able to see the
shore) a great many people running along the strand to
assist us, when we should come near. We made but slow
way towards the shore, nor were we able to reach it, till being
past the lighthouse at Winterton, the shore falls off to the
westward towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a little
the violence of the wind. Here we got in, and; though not
without much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked after-
wards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we
were used with great humanity, as well by the magistrates
of the town, who assigned us good quarters, as by particular
merchants and owners of ships, and had money given us
sufficient to carry us either to London, or back to Hull, as we
thought fit.



13

CHAPTER IV.—BECOMES A GUINEA TRADER.

H*4? I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and

have gone home, I had been happy, and my father, an
emblem of our blessed Saviour’s parable, had even killed the
fatted calf for me; for, hearing the ship I went in was cast
away in Yarmouth Roads, it was-a great while before he had
any assurance that I was not drowned.

But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy
that nothing could resist: and though I had several times
loud calls from my reason and my more composed judgment
to go home, yet I had no power to doit. I know not what
to call this, nor will I urge that it is a secret, overruling
decree, that hurries us on to be the instruments of our own
destruction, even though it be before us, and that we rush
upon it with our eyes open. Certainly, nothing but some such
decreed unavoidable misery attending, and which it was
impossible for me to escape, could have pushed me forward
against the calm reasonings and persuasions of my most
retired thoughts, and against two such visible instructions
as I had met with in my first attempt.

My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and
who was the master’s son, was now less forward than I. The
first time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which
was not till two or three days, for we were separated in the
town to several quarters—I say, the first time he saw me, it
appeared his tone was altered; and, looking very melancholy,
and shaking his head, asked me how I did: and telling his
father who I was, and how I had come this voyage only for a
trial, in order to go farther abroad, his father, turning to me
with a very grave and concerned tone, ‘ Young man,’ says he,
‘you ought never to go to sea any more; you ought to take
this for a plain and visible token, that you are not to be a
seafaring man.’ ‘Why, sir, said I, ‘will you go to sea no
more?’ ‘That is another case,’ said he; ‘it is my calling, and
therefore my duty; but as you made this voyage for a trial,
you see what a taste Heaven has given you of what you are



14 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

to expect, if you persist: perhaps all this has befallen us on
your account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish.’ He talked
very gravely to me, exhorted me to go back to my father,
and not tempt Providence to my ruin; told me, I might see a
visible hand of Heaven against me: ‘And, young man,’ said
he, ‘depend upon it, if you do not go back, wherever you go,
you will meet with nothing but disasters and disappointments,
till your father’s words are fulfilled upon you.’

We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and
I saw him no more: which way he went I know not. As for
me, having some money in my pocket, I travelled to London
by land; and there, as well as on the road, had many struggles
with myself, what course of life I should take, and whether I
should go home or go to sea.

As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that
offered to my thoughts ; and it immediately occurred to me
how I should be laughed at among the neighbours, and should
be ashamed to see, not my father and mother only, but even
everybody else. I have since often observed, how incongruous
and irrational the common temper of mankind is, especially of
youth, to that reason which ought to guide them in such cases,
namely, that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed
to repent ; not ashamed of the action for which they ought
justly to be esteemed fools, but are ashamed of the returning,
which only can make them be esteemed wise men.

In this state of life, however, I remained some time,
uncertain what measures to take, and what course of life to
lead. An irresistible reluctance continued to going home; and
as 1 staid a while, the remembrance of the distress I had been
in wore off. As that abated, the little motion I had in my
desires to a return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid
aside the thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.

That evil influence which carried me first away from my
father’s house, that hurried me into the wild and indigested
notion of raising my fortune, and that impressed those conceits
so forcibly upon me, as to make me deaf to all good advice,
and to the entreaties and even the command of my father—
I say, the same influence, whatever it was, presented the most



A VOYAGE TO THE GUINEA COAST. 15

unfortunate of all enterprises to my view; and I went on
board a vessel bound to the coast of Africa ; or, as our sailors
vulgarly call it, a voyage to Guinea.

It was my great misfortune, that in all these adventures
I did not ship myself as a sailor; whereby, though I might
indeed have worked a little harder than ordinary, yet, at the
same time, I had learned the duty and office of a foremast-man,
and in time might have qualified myself for a mate or
lieutenant, if not for a master. But as it was always my
fate to choose for the worse, so I did here ; for, having money
in my pocket, and good clothes upon my back, I would always
go on-board in the habit of a gentleman ; and so I neither had
any business in the ship, nor learned to do any.

It was my lot, first of all, to fall into pretty good company
in London, which does not always happen to such loose and
unguided young fellows as I then was, the devil generally not
omitting to lay some snare for them very early ; but it was not
so with me. I first fell acquainted with the master of a ship
who had been on the coast of Guinea; and who, having had
very good success there, was resolved to go again ; and who,
taking a fancy to my conversation, which was not at all
disagreeable at that time, hearing me say I had a mind to see
the world, told me, if I would go the voyage with him I should
be at no expense—I should be his messmate and his com-
panion; and, if I could carry anything with me, I should
have all the advantage of it that the trade would admit ; and,
perhaps, I might meet with some encouragement.

I embraced the offer; and, entering into a strict friend-
ship with this captain, who was an honest and plain-dealing
man, I went the voyage with him, and carried a small
adventure with me, which, by the disinterested honesty of my
friend, the captain, I increased very considerably; for I carried
about forty pounds in such toys and trifles as the captain
directed me to buy. This forty pounds I had mustered to-
gether by the assistance of some of my relations whom I
corresponded with, and who, I believe, got my father, or at
least my mother, to contribute so much as that to my first
adventure.



16 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

This was the only voyage which I may say was success-
ful in all my adventures, and which I owe to the integrity and
honesty of my friend, the captain ; under whom also I got a
competent knowledge of the mathematics, and the rules of
navigation—learned how to keep an account of the ship’s
course, take an observation, and, in short, to understand some
things that were needful to be understood by a sailor. For, as
he took delight to instruct me, I took delight to learn ; and, in
a word, this voyage made me both a sailor anda merchant. I
brought home five pounds nine ounces of gold-dust for my
adventure, which yielded me in London, at my return, almost
three hundred pounds; and this filled me with those aspiring
thoughts which have since so completed my ruin.

Yet, even in this voyage, I had my misfortunes too;
particularly that I was continually sick, being thrown into a
violent calenture by the excessive heat of the climate—our
principal trading being upon the coast, from the latitude of
fifteen degrees north, even to the Line itself.

CHAPTER V.—ATTACKED BY PIRATES AND MADE A SLAVE.

I WAS now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my

great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved
to go the same voyage again; and I embarked in the same
vessel with one who was his mate in the former voyage, and
had now got the command of the ship. This was the
unhappiest voyage that ever man made ; for though I did not
carry quite £100 of my new gained wealth, so that I had £200
left, and which I lodged with my friend’s widow, who was very
just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes in this voyage.
The first was this—our ship, making her course towards the
Canary Islands, or rather between those islands and the
African shore, was surprised, in the gray of the morning, by
a Moorish rover of Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the
sail she could make. We crowded also as much canvas as
our yards would spread or our masts carry, to get clear; but
finding the pirate gained upon us, and would certainly come up



HE BECOMES A SLAVE. 17

with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight ; our ship having
twelve guns, and the rover eighteen.

About three in the afternoon he came up with us, and
bringing to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter, instead of
athwart our stern, as he intended, we brought eight of our guns
to bear on that side, and poured in a broadside upon him,
which made him sheer off again, after returning our fire, and
pouring in also his small shot, from near two hundred men
which he had on board. However, we had not a man touched,
all our men keeping close. He prepared to attack us again,
and we to defend ourselves; but laying us on board the next
time upon our other quarter, he entered sixty men upon our
decks, who immediately fell to cutting and hacking the decks
and rigging. We plied them with small shot, half-pikes,
powder-chests, and such like, and cleared our deck of them
twice. However, to cut short this melancholy part of our story,
our ship being disabled, and three of our men killed, and eight
wounded, we were obliged to yield, and were carried all
prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first
1 apprehended: nor was I carried up the country to the
emperor’s court, as the rest of our men were, but was kept by
the captain of the rover, as his proper prize, and made his
slave, being young and nimble, and fit for his business. At this
surprising change of my circumstances from a merchant to a
miserable slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed; and now I
looked back upon my father’s prophetic discourse to me, that I
should be miserable, and have none to relieve me; which I
thought was now so effectually brought to pass, that I could
not be worse—that now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me,
and I was undone without redemption. But, alas! this was
but a taste of the misery I was to go through, as will appear in
the sequel of this story.

As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his
house, so I was in hopes that he would take me with him when
he went to sea again, believing that it would be some time or
other his fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portuguese man-
of-war, and that then I should be set at liberty. Lut this



18 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

hope of mine was soon taken away ; for when he went to sea,
he left me on shore to look after his little garden and do the
common drudgery of slaves about his house; and when he
came home again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie in the
cabin, to look after the ship.

Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method
I might take to effect it; but found no way that had the least
probability in it. Nothing presented to make the supposition
of it rational; for I had nobody to communicate it to that would
embark with me—no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or
Scotsman there but myself; so that for two years, though I often
pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had the least
encouraging prospect of putting it in practice.

After about two years, an odd circumstance presented
itself, which put the old thought of making some attempt for
my liberty again in my head. My patron lying at home longer
than usual, without fitting out his ship, which, as I heard, was
for want of money, he used constantly, once or twice a week,
sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship’s
pinnace, and go out into the road a-fishing. Ashe always took
me and a young Moresco with him to row the boat, we made
him very merry, and I proved very dexterous in catching fish ;
insomuch that sometimes he would send me with a Moor, one
of his kinsmen, and the youth—the Moresco, as they called
him—to catch a dish of fish for him.

It happened one time that, going a-fishing with him in a
calm morning, a fog rose so thick, that though we were not
half a league from the shore, we lost sight of it; and rowing we
knew not whither, or which way, we laboured all day, and all the
next night; and when the morning came, we found we had
pulled off to sea, instead of pulling in for the shore, and that we
were at least two leagues from the land ; however, we got well
in again, though with a great deal of labour, and some danger,
for the wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morning ; but,
particularly, we were all very hungry.

But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take
more care of himself for the future; and having lying by him
the long-boat of our English ship which he had taken, he



HIS MASTER FITS UP A BOAT. 19

resolved he would not go a-fishing any more without a compass
and some provision ; so he ordered the carpenter of his ship,
who also was an English slave, to build a little state-room, or
cabin, in the middle of the long-boat, like that of a barge, with
a place to stand behind it to steer and haul home the mainsheet ;
and room before for a hand or two to stand and work the sails.
She sailed with what we call a shoulder-of-mutton sail; and
the boom jibbed over the top of the cabin, which lay very snug
and low, and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two,
and a table to eat on, with some small lockers to put in some
bottles of such liquor as he thought fit to drink, as well as his
bread, rice, and coffee.

We were frequently out with this boat a-fishing; and as I
was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without
me. It happened one day, that he had appointed to go out in
this boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors
of some distinction in that place, and for whom he had provided
extraordinarily. He had therefore sent on board the boat over
night a larger store of provisions than usual, and had ordered
me to get ready three fusils with powder and shot, which were
on board his ship ; for that they designed some sport of fowling,
as well as fishing.

I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the
next morning with the boat washed clean, her ancient and
pendants out, and everything to accommodate his guests ; when
by and by my patron came on board alone, and told me his
guests had put off going, upon some business that fell out, and
ordered me, with the man and boy, as usual, to go out with
the boat, and catch them some fish, for that his friends were to
sup at his house. He commanded me, too, that as soon as I
had got some fish, I should bring it home to his house: all
which I prepared to do.

This moment my former notions of deliverance darted
into my thoughts, for now I found I was like to havea little
ship at my command ; and my master being gone, I prepared
to furnish myself, not for fishing business, but for a voyage ;
though I knew not, neither did I so much as consider, whither I
should steer ; for anywhere to get out of that place was my way



20 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to
this Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board ; for
I told him we must not presume to eat of our patron’s bread.
He said that was true; so he brought a large basket of rusk, or
biscuit, and three jars of fresh water, into the boat. I knew
where my patron’s case of bottles stood, which it was evident
by the make were taken out of some English prize, and I
conveyed them into the boat while the Moor was on shore,
as if they had been there before for our master. I con-
veyed also a great lump of bees’-wax into the boat, which
weighed above half a hundredweight, with a parcel of twine
or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all which were
of great use to us afterwards, especially the wax to make
candles.

Another trick I tried upon him, which he innocently
came into also. His name was Ismael, whom they called
Muly, or Moley; so I called to him: ‘Moley,’ said I, ‘our
patron’s guns are on board the boat ; can you not get a little
powder and shot? It may be we may kill some alcamies (a
fowl like our curlews) for ourselves, for I know he keeps the
gunner’s stores in the ship.’ ‘ Yes,’ says he, ‘1’ll bring some ;’
and accordingly he brought a great leather pouch, which held
about a pound and a half of powder, or rather more, and
another with shot, that had five or six pounds, with some
bullets, and put all into the boat. At the same time I had
found some powder of my master’s in the great cabin, with
which I filled one of the large bottles in the case, which was
almost empty, pouring what was in it into another.

Thus furnished with everything needful, we sailed out of
the port to fish. The castle which is at the entrance of the port
knew who we were, and took no notice of us ; and we were not
above a mile out of the port before we hauled in our sail, and
set us down to fish. The wind blew from the north-north-east,
which was contrary to my desire ; for had it blown southerly
I had been sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at least
reached to the bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow
which way it would, I would be gone from that horrid place
where I was, and leave the rest to fate.



21

CHAPTER VI.—EFFECTS HIS ESCAPE.

ATES we had fished some time, and caught nothing—for

when J had fish on my hook I would not pull them up, that
he might not see them—I said to the Moor, ‘ This will not do;
our master will not be thus served ; we must stand farther off.’
He, thinking no harm, agreed, and being in the head of the
boat, set the sails ; and as I had the helm, I ran the boat out
near a league farther, and then brought her to as if I would
fish ; when, giving the boy the helm, I stepped forward to
where the Moor was, and making as if I stooped for some-
thing behind him, I took him by surprise with my arm under
his waist, and tossed him clear overboard into the sea. He rose
immediately, for he swam like a cork, and calling to me, begged
to be taken in, and told me he would go all over the world
with me. He swam so strong after the boat, that he would
have reached me very quickly, there being but little wind;
upon which I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the
fowling-pieces, I presented it at him, and told him, I had done
him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I would do him none.
‘But,’ said I, ‘you swim well enough to reach to the shore, and
the sea is calm ; make the best of your way to shore, and I will
do you no harm ; but if you come near the boat, I'll shoot you
through the head, for I am resolved to have my liberty.’ So he
turned himself about, and swam for the shore, and I make no
doubt but he reached it with ease, for he was an excellent
swimmer.

I could have been content to have taken this Moor with
me, and have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to
trust him. When he was gone, I turned to the boy, whom they
called Xury, and said to him, ‘ Xury, if you will be faithful to
me, I’ll make you a great man ; but if you will not stroke your
face to be true to me (that is, swear by Mahomet and his
father’s beard), I must throw you into the sea too.’ The boy
smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently, that I could not
mistrust him ; and swore to be faithful to me, and go all over
the world with me.



22 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I
stood out directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching to
windward, that they might think me gone towards the Straits’
mouth (as indeed any one that had been in their wits must
have been supposed to do); for who would have supposed we
were sailed on to the southward to the truly barbarian coast,









































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Cnusoe escapes with Xury.

where whole nations of negroes were sure to surround us with
their canoes, and destroy us; where we could never once go on
shore, but we should be devoured by savage beasts, or more
merciless savages of human kind?

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my
«course, and steered directly south and by east, bending my
course a little toward the east, that I might keep in with the
shore; and having a fair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth,
quiet sea, I made such sail, that I believe, by the next day at



ALARMED BY WILD BEASTS. 23

three o’clock in the afternoon, when I first made the land, I
could not be less than one hundred and fifty miles south of
Sallee, quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions, or,
indeed, of any other king thereabouts, for we saw no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the
dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that
I would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an anchor, the
wind continuing fair, till I had sailed in that manner five days;
and then the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also
that if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would
now give over. So 1 ventured to make to the coast, and come
to an anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew not what or
where—neither what latitude, what country, what nation, nor
what river. I neither saw, nor desired to see, any people—
the principal thing I wanted was fresh water.

We came into this creek in the evening, resolving to swim
on shore as soon as it was dark, and discover the country ; but
as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful noises of the
barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures, of we knew not
what kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and
begged of me not to go on shore till day. ‘Well, Xury,’ said I,
‘then I won’t; but, it may be, we may see men by day, who
will be as bad to us as those lions.’ ‘Then we give them the
shoot gun, says Xury, laughing, ‘make them run way.’ Such
English Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves. However,
I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dram
(out of our patron’s case of bottles) to cheer him up.

After all, Xury’s advice was good, and I took it. We
dropped our little anchor, and lay still all night—I say still, for
we slept none—for in two or three hours we saw vast great
creatures (we knew not what to call them) of many sorts, come
down to the sea-shore, and run into the water, wallowing and
washing themselves for the pleasure of cooling themselves ;
and they made such hideous howlings and yellings, that I never
indeed heard the like.

Xury was dreadfully frightened, and indeed so was I too;
but we were both more frightened when we heard one of these
mighty creatures come swimming towards our boat. We



24 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

could not see him, but we might hear him by his blowing, to be
a monstrous, huge, and furious beast; Xury said it was a lion,
and it might be so for aught I know. Poor Xury cried to me
to weigh the anchor, and row away. ‘No,’ says I, ‘Xury, we
can slip our cable with a buoy to it, and go to sea; they cannot
follow us far.’ I had no sooner said so, but I perceived the
creature (whatever it was) within two oars’ length, which some-
what surprised me. However, I immediately stepped to the
cabin door, and taking up my gun, fired at him; upon which
he immediately turned about, and swam to the shore again.

But it was not possible to describe the horrible noises, and
hideous cries and howlings, that were raised, as well upon the
edge of the shore, as higher within the country, upon the noise
or report of a gun ; a thing I have some reason to believe those
creatures had never heard before. This convinced me, that
there was no going on shore for us in the night upon that coast;
and how to venture on shore in the day, was another question
too; for to have fallen into the hands of any of the savages,
had been as bad as to have fallen into the paws of lions and
tigers ; at least, we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.

Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore some-
where or other for water, for we had not a pint left in the
boat. When or where to get it was the point. Xury said if I
would let him go on shore with one of the jars, he would find
if there was any water, and bring some to me. I asked him
why he would go? why I should not go, and he stay in the
boat? The boy answered with so much affection, that made
me love him ever after. Says he, ‘If wild mans come, they eat
me, you go way.’ ‘Well, Xury,’ said I, ‘we will both go, and
if the wild mans come, we will kill them ; they shall eat neither
of us” So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a dram
out of our patron’s case of bottles, which I mentioned before :
and we hauled the boat in as near the shore as we thought was
proper, and so waded on shore, carrying nothing but our arms,
and two jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the
coming of canoes with savages down the river: but the boy,
seeing a low place about a mile up the country, rambled to it;



ON AN UNKNOWN COAST, 25

and by and by I sawhim come running towards me. I thought
he was pursued by some savage, or frightened with some wild
beast, and I ran forward towards him to help him; but when
I came nearer to him, I saw something hanging over his
shoulders, which was a creature that he had shot, like a hare,
but different in colour, and longer legs. However, we were very
glad of it, and it was very good meat; but the great joy that
poor Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good water,
and seen ‘no wild mans.’

But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains
for water, for a little higher up the creek where we were, we
found the water fresh when the tide was out, which flows but a
little way up; so we filled our jars, and feasted on the hare we
had killed, and prepared to go on our way, having seen no
footsteps of any human creature in that part of the country,

CHAPTER VII.—ADVENTURES WITH WILD BEASTS
AND SAVAGES.

ues I had been one voyage to the

coast before, I knew very well
that the islands of the Canaries, and
the Cape de Verd Islands
also, lay not far off from the
coast. But as I had no instru-
ments to take an observation
o know what latitude we were
in, and did not exactly know,
3) or at least not remember, what
atitude they were in, and knew
not where to look for them, or
when to stand off to sea to-
wards them ; otherwise I might
now easily have found some of these ‘clandde But my hope
was, that if I stood along this coast till I came to that part
where the English traded, I should find some of their vessels















26 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

upon their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take
us in,

By the best of my calculation, that place where I now
was must be that country which, lying between the Emperor
of Morocco’s dominions and the negroes, lies waste and unin-
habited, except by wild beasts ; the negroes having abandoned
it, and gone farther south for fear of the Moors; and the
Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its barren-
ness. Indeed, for near a hundred miles together upon this
coast, we saw nothing but a waste uninhabited country by
day, and heard nothing but howlings and roaring of wild
beasts by night.

Once or twice in the daytime I thought I saw the Pico
of Teneriffe, being the high top of the mountain Teneriffe in
the Canaries, and had a great mind to venture out, in hopes of
reaching thither ; but having tried twice, I was forced in again
by contrary winds, the sea also going too high for my little
vessel. So I resolved to pursue my first design, and keep
along the shore.

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after
we had left this place; and once, in particular, being early in
the morning, we came to an anchor under a little point of
land which was pretty high; and the tide beginning to flow,
we lay still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more
about him than it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and
tells me, that we had best go farther off the shore: ‘ For,’
says he, ‘look—yonder lies a dreadful monster, on the side
of that hillock, fast asleep.’ I looked where he pointed, and
saw a dreadful monster indeed, for it was a terrible great
lion that lay on the side of the shore, under the shade of a
piece of the hill that hung, as it were, a little over him.
‘Xury, says I, ‘you shall go on shore and kill him.’ Xury
looked frightened, and said, ‘Me kill! he eat me at one
mouth !’—one mouthful he meant.

I said no more to the boy, but bade him lie still, and I
took our biggest gun, which was almost musket-bore, and
loaded it with a good charge of powder, and with two slugs,
and laid it down. Then I loaded another gun with two bullets ;





HE KILLS A LION. 27

and the third—for we had three pieces—I loaded with five
smaller bullets. I took the best aim 1 could with the first
piece to have shot him into the head, but he lay so with his
leg raised a little above his nose, that the slugs hit his leg
about the knee and broke the bone. He started up, growling
at first, but finding his leg broken, fell down again, and then
got up upon three legs, and gave the most hideous roar that
ever I heard. I was a little surprised that I had not hit him
on the head; however, I took up the second piece imme-
diately, and, though he began to move off, fired again, and
shot him in the head, and had the pleasure to see him drop,
and make but little noise, but lie struggling for life.

Xury then took heart, and would have me let him go on
shore. ‘ Well, go,’ said I; so the boy jumped into the water,
and, taking a little gun in one hand, swam to shore with the
other hand, and coming close to the creature, put the muzzle
of the piece to his ear, and shot him in the head again, which
despatched him quite.

This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I
was very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon
a creature that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury
said he would have some of him; so he comes on board,
and asked me to give him the hatchet. ‘For what, Xury?’
said I. ‘Me cut off his head, said he. However, Xury could
not cut off his head, but he cut off a foot, and brought it with
him, and it was a monstrous great one.

I bethought. myself, however, that perhaps the skin of
him might, one way or other, be of some value to us; and I
resolved to take off his skin if I could. So Xury and I went
to work with him; but Xury was much the better workman at
it, for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us both
the whole day, but at last we got off the hide, and, spreading
it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two
days’ time, and it afterwards served me to lie upon.

After this stop, we made on to the southward continually
for ten or twelve days, living very sparingly on our provisions,
which began to abate very much, and going no oftener to the

shore than we were obliged to do for fresh water. My design
¢



28 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

in this was, to make either the river Gambia or the Senegal,
that is to say, anywhere about the Cape de Verd, where I was
in hopes to meet with some European ship; and if I did not,
I knew not what course I had to take, but to seek for the
islands, or perish there among the negroes. I knew that all
the ships from Europe, which sailed either to the coast of
Guinea, or to Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this Cape, or
those islands ; and, in a word, I put the whole of my fortune
upon this single point, either that I must meet with some ship,
or must perish.

When I had pursued this resolution about ten days
longer, as I have said, I began to see that the land was
inhabited ; and in two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw
people stand upon the shore to look at us: we could also
perceive they were quite black, and stark naked. I was once
inclined to go on shore to them; but Xury was my better
counsellor, and said to me, ‘No go, no go.’ However, I
hauled in nearer the shore that I might talk to them, and
I found they ran along the shore by me a good way. I
observed they had no weapons in their hands, except one, who
had a long slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and
that they would throw them a great way with good aim; so I
kept at a distance, but talked with them by signs as well as I
could, and particularly made signs for something to eat.

They beckoned to me to stop my boat, and they would
fetch me some meat. Upon this, I lowered the top of my sail,
and lay by, and two of them ran up into the country, and in
less than half an hour came back, and brought with them two
pieces of dry flesh and some corn, such as is the produce of
their cquntry ; but we neither knew what the one nor the other
was : however, we were willing to accept it. But how to come
at it was our next dispute, for I was not for venturing on shore
to them, and they were as much afraid of us. But they took
a safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore and laid
it down, and went and stood a great way off till we fetched it
on board, and then came close to us again.

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing
to make them amends; but an opportunity offered that very



HE KILLS A LEOPARD. 29

instant to oblige them wonderfully. For while we were lying
by the shore, came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the
other (as we took it) with great fury from the mountains
towards the sea. Whether it was the male pursuing the female,
or whether they were in sport or in rage, we could not tell, any
more than we could tell whether it was usual or strange, but I
believe it was the latter; because, in the first place, those
ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night; and, in
the second place, we found the people terribly frightened,
especially the women. The man that had the lance, or dart,
did not fly from them, but the rest did. However, as the two
creatures ran directly into the water, they did not seem to
offer to fall upon any of the negroes, but plunged themselves
into the sea, and swam about as if they had come for their
diversion. At last one of them began to come nearer our
boat than at first I expected; but I lay ready for him, for I
had loaded my gun with all possible expedition, and bade
Xury load both the others. As soon as he came fairly within
my reach, I fired, and shot him directly in the head. Imme-
diately he sank down into the water, but rose instantly, and
plunged up and down as if he was struggling for life, and
so indeed he was. He immediately made to the shore; but
between the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and the strang-
ling of the water, he died just before he reached the shore.

It is impossible to express the astonishment of these
poor creatures at the noise and the fire of my gun; some of
them were even ready to die for fear, and fell down as dead
with the very terror. But when they saw the creature dead,
and sunk in the water, and that I made signs to them to come
to the shore, they took heart, and came, and began to search
for the creature. I found him by his blood staining the water,
and by the help of a rope, which I slung round him, and gave
the negroes to haul, they dragged him on shore, and found
that it was a most curious leopard, spotted and fine to an
admirable degree, and the negroes held up their hands with
admiration to think what it was I had killed him with.

The other creature, frightened with the flash of fire and
the noise of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to



30 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the mountains from whence they came, nor could I at that
distance know what it was. I found quickly the negroes were
for eating the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to have
them take it as a favour from me, which, when I made signs to
them that they might take him, they were very thankful for.
Immediately they fell to work with him, and though they had
no knife, yet, with a sharpened piece of wood, they took off
his skin as readily, and much more readily, than we could have
done with a knife. They offered me some of the flesh, which
I declined, making as if I would give it them, but made signs
for the skin, which they gave me very freely, and brought me
a great deal more of their provision, which, though I did not
understand, yet I accepted. Then I made signs to them for
some water, and held out one of my jars to them, turning it
bottom upward, to show that it was empty, and that I wanted
to have it filled. They called immediateiy to some of their
friends, and there came two women, and brought a great vessel
made of earth, and burned, as I suppose in the sun ; this they
set down for me, as before, and I sent Xury on shore with my
jars, and filled them all three.

CHAPTER VIII.—RESCUED BY A PORTUGUESE SHIP.

WAS now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and
water ; and, leaving my friendly negroes, I made forward
for about eleven days more, without offering to go near the
shore, till I saw the land run out a great length into the sea,
at about the distance of four or five leagues before me; and
the sea being very calm, I kept a large offing to make this
point. At length, doubling the point, at about two leagues
from the land, I saw plainly land on the other side to sea-
ward ; then I concluded, as it was most certain indeed, that this
was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands, called from thence
Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at a great distance,
and I could not well tell what I had best to do; for, if I should
be taken with a fresh of wind, I might neither reach one nor
the other.



RESCUED BY A PORTUGUESE SHIP. 31

In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into
the cabin and sat me down, Xury having the helm. Ona
sudden, the boy cried out, ‘ Master, master, a ship with a sail!’
and the foolish boy was frightened out of his wits, thinking it
must needs be some of his master’s ships sent to pursue us,
but I knew we were far enough out of their reach. I jumped
out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only the ship, but
what she was, namely, that it was a Portuguese ship, and,
as I thought, was bound to the coast of Guinea for negroes.
But when I observed the course she steered, I was soon
convinced they were bound some other way, and did not
design to come any nearer to the shore; upon which I
stretched out to sea as much as I could, resolving to speak
with them if possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be
able to come in their way, but that they would be gone by
before I could make any signal to them; but after I had
crowded to the utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems,
saw by the help of their perspective glasses, that it was some
European boat, which, as they supposed, must belong to some
ship that was lost; so they shortened sail to let me come up.
I was encouraged with this ; and as I had my patron’s ancient
on board, I made a waft of it to them for a signal of distress,
and fired a gun, both which they saw, for they told me they
saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon
these signals they very kindly brought to, and lay by for me,
and, in about three hours’ time, I came up with them.

They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish,
and in French; but I understood none of them. At last, a
Scotch sailor who was on board called to me, and I answered
him, and told him I was an Englishman—that I had made my
escape out of slavery from the Moors at Sallee. They bade
me come on board, and very kindly took me in, and all my
goods.

It was an inexpressible joy to me, as any one would
believe, that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such
a miserable and almost hopeless condition as I was in, and
immediately offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a



32 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

return for my deliverance; but he generously told me he
would take nothing from me, but that all I had should be
delivered safe to me when I came to the Brazils. ‘For,’ says
he, ‘I have saved your life on no other terms than I would be
glad to be saved myself; and it may one time or other be my
lot to be taken up in the same condition: besides,’ said he,
‘when I carry you to the Brazils, so great a way from your
own country, 1f I should take from you what you have, you will
be starved there, and then I only take away that life I have
given. No, no, Seégvor Jiglese,) says he,‘Mr Englishman, I
will carry you thither in charity, and those things will help
you to buy your subsistence there, and your passage home
again.’

As he was charitable in his proposal, so he was just in
the performance to a tittle; for he ordered the seamen, that
none should offer to touch anything Ihad. Then he took every-
thing into his own possession, and gave me back an exact
inventory of them, that I might have them; even so much as
my three earthen jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one, and that he saw,
and told me he would buy it of me for the ship’s use, and
asked me what I would have for it? I told him he had been so
generous in everything, that I could not offer to make any
price of the boat, but left it entirely to him; upon which he
told me, he would give me a note of his hand to pay me eighty
pieces of eight for it at Brazil ; and when it came there, if any
one offered to give more, he would make it up. He offered me
also sixty pieces of eight more for my boy Xury, which I was
loath to take ; not that I was unwilling to let the captain have
him, but I was very loath to sell the poor boy’s liberty, who
had assisted me so faithfully in procuring my own. However,
when I let him know my reason, he owned it to be just, and
offered me this medium, that he would give the boy an obliga-
tion to set him free in ten years, if he turned Christian. Upon
this, and Xury saying he was willing to go to him, I let the
captain have him.

We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and arrived in
the bay of Todos los Santos, or All Saints’ Bay, in about



THE CAPTAIN 1S GENEROUS. 33

twenty-two days after. And now I was once more delivered
from the most miserable of all conditions of life ; and what to
do next with myself I was now to consider.

CHAPTER IX.—BECOMES A PLANTER.

Se generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never

enough remember. He would take nothing of me for my
passage—gave me twenty ducats for the leopard’s skin, and
forty for the lion’s skin, which I had in my boat, and caused
everything I had in the ship to be punctually delivered me ;
and what I was willing to sell he bought, such as the case of
bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees’-wax,
for I had made candles of the rest—in a word, I made about
two hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo; and
with this stock I went on shore in the Brazils.

I had not been long here, but being recommended to the
house of a good honest man like himself, who had an zxgezno,
as they call it—that is, a plantation and a sugar-house—I lived
with him some time, and acquainted myself by that means
with the manner of their planting and making of sugar. See-
ing how well the planters lived, and how they grew rich
suddenly, I resolved, if I could get license to settle there, I
would turn planter among them ; resolving, in the meantime,
to find out some way to get my money, which I had left in
London, remitted to me. To this purpose, getting a kind of
letter of naturalisation, I purchased as much land that was
uncured as my money would reach, and formed a plan for my
plantation and settlement, and such a one as might be suitable
to the stock which I proposed to myself to receive from
England.

I had a neighbour—a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of
English parents—whose name was Wells, and in much such
circumstances as I was. I call him neighbour, because his
plantation lay next to mine, and we went on very sociably
together. My stock was but low, as well as his ; and we rather
planted for food, than anything else, for about two years.



34 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

However, we began to increase, and our land began to come
into order ; so that the third year we planted some tobacco,
and made each of us a large piece of ground ready for plant-
ing canes in the year to come; but we both wanted help: and
now I found, more than before, I had done wrong in parting
with my boy Xury.

I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying
on the plantation, before my kind friend, the captain of the
ship that took me up at sea, went back ; for the ship remained
there, in providing his loading, and preparing for his voyage,
near three months ; when, telling him what little stock I had
left behind me in London, he gave me this friendly and sincere
advice : ‘ Seignor Inglese, says he (for so he always called me),
‘if you will give me letters, and a procuration here in form to
me, with orders to the person who has your money in London,
to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct,
and in such goods as are proper for this country, I will bring
you the produce of them, God willing, at my return; but
since human affairs are all subject to changes and disasters,
I would have you give orders but for one hundred pounds
sterling, which, you say, is half your stock, and let the hazard
be run for the first ; so that, if it come safe, you may order the
rest the same way, and, if it miscarry, you may have the other
half to have recourse to for your supply.’

This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly,
that I could not but be convinced it was the best course
I could take; so I accordingly prepared letters to the gentle-
woman with whom I had left my money, and a procuration to
the Portuguese captain, as he desired.

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full account of all
my adventures, my slavery, escape, and how I had met with
the Portuguese captain at sea, the humanity of his behaviour,
and what condition I was now in, with all other necessary
directions for my supply. When this honest captain came to
Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English merchants
there, to send over, not the order only, but a full account of
my story, to a merchant at London, who represented it
effectually to her. Whereupon she not only delivered the



A GOOD INVESTMENT. 35

money, but, out of her own pocket, sent the Portuguese captain
a very handsome present for his humanity and charity to me.

The merchant in London vesting this hundred pounds in
English goods, such as the captain had written for, sent them
directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me
to the Brazils ; among which, without my direction (for I was
too young in my business to think of them) he had taken care
to have all sort of tools, ironwork, and utensils, necessary for
my plantation, and which were of great use to me.

When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made,
for I was surprised with joy of it; and my good steward, the
captain, had laid out the five pounds, which my friend had
sent him for a present for himself, to purchase, and bring me
over a servant, under bond for six years’ service, and would
not accept of any consideration, except a little tobacco, which
I would have him accept, being of my own produce.

Neither was this all; but my goods being all English
manufactures, such as cloth, stuffs, baize, and things particularly
valuable and desirable in the country, I found means to sell
them to a very great advantage; so that 1, may say I had
more than four times the value of my first cargo, and was now
infinitely beyond my poor neighbour, I mean in the advance-
ment of my plantation; for the first thing I did, I bought me
a negro slave, and a European servant also—I mean another
besides that which the captain brought me from Lisbon.

Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had
room for all the happy things to have yet befallen me, for
which my father so earnestly recommended a quiet retired life,
and of which he had so sensibly described the middle station
of life to be full; but other things attended me, and I was
still to be the wilful agent of all my own miseries.

For I could not be content now, but I must go and leave
the happy view I had of being a rich and thriving man in my
new plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire
of rising faster than the nature of the thing admitted; and
thus I cast myself down again into the deepest gulf of human
misery that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consisten
with life and a state of health in the world.



36 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

To come, then, by just degrees, to the particulars of this
part of my story: you may suppose, that, having now lived
almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive and
prosper very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned
the language, but had contracted acquaintance and friendship
among my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants at
St Salvadore, which was our port; and that in my discourse
among them, I had frequently given them an account of my
two voyages to the coast of Guinea, the manner of trading
with the negroes there, and how easy it was to purchase upon
the coast, for trifles—such as beads, toys, knives, scissors,
hatchets, bits of glass, and the like—not only gold-dust, Guinea
grains, elephants’ teeth, &c., but negroes for the service of the
Brazils in great numbers.

They listened always very attentively to my discourses on
these heads, but especially to that part which related to buy-
ing negroes, which was a trade at that time not only not far
entered into, but, as far as it was, had been carried on by the
assiento, or permission, of the kings of Spain and Portugal, and
engrossed in thg public, so that few negroes were bought, and
those excessively dear.

It happened, being in company with some merchants
and planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things
very earnestly, three of them came to me the next morning,
and told me they had been musing very much upon what I
had discoursed with them of the last night, and they came to
make a secret proposal to me. After enjoining me to secrecy,
they told me that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to
Guinea ; that they had all plantations as well as I, and were
straitened for nothing so much as servants. As it was a trade
that could not be carried on, because they could not publicly
sell the negroes when they came home, so they desired
to make but one voyage, to bring the negroes on shore
privately, and divide them among their own plantations. In
a word, the question was, whether I would go their supercargo
in the ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast of
Guinea? and they offered me that I should have my equal
share of the negroes, without providing any part of the stock.



TRADE ON THE GUINEA COAST, 37

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it
been made to any one that had not had a settlement and
plantation of his own to look after, which was in a fair way of
coming to be very considerable, and with a good stock upon
it. But for me, that was thus entered and established, and
had nothing to do but go on as I had begun, for three or
four years more, and to have sent for the other hundred pounds
from England, and who, in that time and with that little
addition, could scarce have failed of being worth three or four
thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing too—for me to
think of such a voyage, was the most preposterous thing that
ever man in such circumstances could be guilty of.

But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no
more resist the offer than I could restrain my first rambling
designs, when my father’s good counsel was lost upon me.
In a word, I told them I would go with all my heart, if they
would undertake to look after my plantation in my absence,
and would dispose of it to such as I should direct, if I mis-
carried. This they all engaged to do, and entered into writings,
or covenants, to do so. I made a formal will, disposing of my
plantation and effects in case of my death, making the captain
of the ship that had saved my life, as before, my universal heir,
but obliging him to dispose of my effects as I had directed in
my will—one half of the produce being to himself, and the
other to be shipped to England.

In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects,
and keep up my plantation. Had I used half as much
prudence to have looked into my own interest, and have made
a judgment of what I ought to have done, and not to have
done, I had certainly never gone away from so prosperous an
undertaking, leaving all the probable views of a thriving cir-
cumstance, and gone upon a voyage to sea, attended with all
its common hazards; to say nothing of the reasons I had to
expect particular misfortunes to myself. But I was hurried on,
and obeyed blindly the dictates of my fancy, rather than my
reason.



38 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

CHAPTER X.—SUFFERS SHIPWRECK AGAIN.

i. | ee ship being fitted out, and
the cargo furnished, and all
ei things done as by agreement by
~| my partners in the voyage, I
= went on board in an evil hour
again, the Ist of September
1659, being the same day eight
years that I went from my
father and mother at Hull, in
order to act the rebel to their
authority, and the fool to my
own interest.

Our ship was about one
hundred and twenty tons bur-
den, carried six guns, and four-
teen men, besides the master, his boy, and myself ; we had on
board no large cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit
for our trade with the negroes, such as beads, bits of glass,
shells, and odd trifles, especially little looking-glasses, knives,
scissors, hatchets, and the like.

The same day I went on board we set sail, standing
away to the northward upon our own coast, with design to
stretch over for the African coast, when we came about ten or
twelve degrees of northern latitude, which, it seems, was the
manner of their course in those days. We had very good
weather, only excessively hot, all the way upon our own coast,
till we came to the height of Cape St Augustino, from whence,
keeping farther off at sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as
if we were bound for the isle Fernand de Noronha, holding our
course north-east by north, and leaving those isles on the east.

In this course we passed the Line in about twelve days
time, and were, by our last observation, in seven degrees
twenty-two minutes northern latitude, when a violent tornado,
or hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge. It began
from the south-east, came about to the north-west, and then







NEAR THE BRAZIL COAST. 39

settled into the north-east; from whence it blew in such a
terrible manner, that for twelve days together we could do
nothing but drive, and, scudding away before it, let it carry
us whithersoever fate and the fury of the winds directed. And
during those twelve days, I need not say that I expected every
day to be swallowed up, nor, indeed, did any in the ship
expect to save their lives.

In this distress, we had, besides the terror of the storm,
one of our men dead of the calenture, and one man and the
boy washed overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather
abating a little, the master made an observation as well as he
could, and found that he was in about eleven degrees north
latitude, but that he was twenty-two degrees of longitude
difference west from Cape St Augustino; so that he found he
was gotten upon the coast of Guiana, or the north part of
Brazil, beyond the river Amazon, toward that of the river
Orinoco, commonly called the Great River, and began to
consult with me what course he should take ; for the ship was
leaky, and very much disabled, and he was going directly back
to the coast of Brazil.

I was positively against that ; and, looking over the charts
of the sea-coasts of America with him, we concluded there
was no inhabited country for us to have recourse to, till we
came within the circle of the Caribbean Islands; and there-
fore resolved to stand away for Barbadoes, which, by keeping
off at sea, to avoid the indraft of the Bay or Gulf of Mexico,
we might easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days’
sail: whereas we could not possibly make our voyage to the
coast of Africa, without some assistance, both to our ship and
ourselves.

With this design we changed our course, and steered
away north-west by west, in order to reach some of our
English islands, where I hoped for relief. But our voyage was
otherwise determined; for, being in the latitude of twelve
degrees, eighteen minutes, a second storm came upon us,
which carried us away with the same impetuosity westward,
and drove us so out of the very way of all human commerce,
that, had all our lives been saved as to the sea, we were rather



40 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

in danger of being devoured by savages than ever returning
to our own country.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of
our men, early in the morning, cried out, ‘Land!’ and we had
no sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing
whereabouts in the world we were, but-the ship struck upon
a sandbank, and, in a moment, her motion being so stopped,
the sea broke over her in such a manner that we expected
we should all have perished immediately; and we were
immediately driven into our close quarters, to shelter us from
the very foam and spray of the sea.

It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like
condition, to describe or conceive the consternation of men in
such circumstances. We knew nothing where we were, or
upon what land it was we were driven—whether an island or
the main, whether inhabited or not inhabited ; and as the rage
of the wind was still great, though rather less than at first,
we could not so much as hope to have the ship hold many
minutes without breaking in pieces, unless the winds, by a
kind of miracle, should turn immediately about. In a word,
we sat looking one upon another, and expecting death every
moment, and every man acting accordingly, preparing for
another world ; for there was little or nothing more for us to
do inthis. That which was our present comfort, and all the
comfort we had, was, that, contrary to our expectation, the
ship did not break yet, and that the master said the wind
began to abate.

Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate,
yet, the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking
too fast for us to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful
condition indeed, and had nothing to do but to think of saving
our lives as well as we could. We hada boat at our stern
just before the storm; but she was first staved by dashing
against the ship’s rudder, and, in the next place, she broke
away, and either sunk or was driven off to sea; so there was
no hope from her. We had another boat on board, but how
to get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing. However,
there was no room to debate, for we fancied the ship would



THE BOAT IS SWAMPED. 41

break in pieces every minute, and some told us she was
actually broken already.

In this distress, the mate of our vessel laid hold of the
boat, and, with the help of the rest of the men, got her slung
over the ship’s side, and getting all into her, let go, and
committed ourselves—being eleven in number—to God’s
mercy and the wild sea; for, though the storm was abated
considerably, yet the sea went dreadfully high upon the shore,
and might well be called den weld zee, as the Dutch call the
sea in a storm.

And now our case was very dismal indeed ; for we all saw
plainly, that the sea went so high that the boat could not
live, and that we should be inevitably drowned. As to making
sail, we had none, nor, if we had, could we have done anything
with it; so we worked at the oar towards the land, though
with heavy hearts, like men going to execution ; for we all
knew, that when the boat came nearer the shore, she would
be dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach of the sea.
However, we committed our souls to God in the most earnest
manner; and the wind driving us towards the shore, we
hastened our destruction with our own hands, pulling as well
as we could towards land.

What the shore was—whether rock or sand, whether
steep or shoal—we knew not; the only hope that could
rationally give us the least shadow of expectation was, if we
might find some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river,
where, by great chance, we might run our boat in, or get under
the lee of the land, and perhaps make smooth water. There
was nothing of this appeared; but, as we made nearer and
nearer the shore, the land looked more frightful than the
sea.

After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league
and a half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like,
came rolling astern of us, and plainly bade us expect the coup
de grace. In a word, it took us with such a fury, that it over-
set the boat at once; and, separating us as well from the
boat as from one another, gave us not time hardly to say
‘Oh God !’ for we were all swallowed up in a moment.



42 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I
felt when I sank into the water ; for though I swam very well,
yet I could not deliver myself from the waves so as to draw
breath, till that a wave, having driven me, or rather carried me,
a vast way on towards the shore, and, having spent itself, went
back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but half dead with
the water I took in. I had so much presence of mind, as well
as breath left, that, seeing myself nearer the mainland than I
expected, I got upon my feet, and endeavoured to make on
towards the land as fast as I could, before another wave
should return and take me up again. But I soon found it was
impossible to avoid it ; for I saw the sea come after me as high
as a great hill, and as furious as an enemy, which I had no
means or strength to contend with. My business was to hold
my breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I could; and
so, by swimming, to preserve my breathing, and pilot myself
towards the shore, if possible—my greatest concern now being,
that the sea, as it would carry mea great way towards the shore
when it came on, might not carry me back again with it when
it gave back towards the sea.

The wave that came upon me again, buried me at once
twenty or thirty fect deep in its own body; and I could feel
myself carried with a mighty force and swiftness towards the
shore a very great way; but I held my breath and assisted
myself to swim still forward with all my might. I was ready
to burst with holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising
up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my head and hands
shoot out above the surface of the water; and though it was
not two seconds of time that I could keep myself so, yet it
relieved me greatly, gave me breath, and new courage.

I was covered again with water a good while, but not so
long but I held it out; and, finding the water had spent itself,
and began to return, I struck forward against the return of the
waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I stood still a few
moments to recover breath, and till the water went from me,
and then took to my heels and ran with what strength I had
farther towards the shore. But neither would this deliver me
from the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me again ;



SAVED FROM THE SEA. 43

and twice more I was lifted up by the waves, and carried
forward as before, the shore being very flat.

The last time of these two had well near been fatal to me;
for the sea, having hurried me along as before, landed me, or
rather dashed me, against a piece of a rock, and that with such
force as it left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own
deliverance; for the blow, taking my side and breast, beat the
breath, as it were, quite out of my body, and, had it returned
again immediately, I must have been strangled in the water ;
but I recovered a little before the return of the waves, and,
seeing I should be covered again with the water, I resolved to
hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath, if
possible, till the wave went back. Now, as the waves were not
so high as at first, being near land, I held my hold till the
wave abated, and then fetched another run, which brought me
so near the shore, that the next wave, though it went over me,
yet did not so swallow me up as to carry me away; and the
next run I took I got to the mainland, where, to my great
comfort, I clambered up the clifts of the shore, and sat me down
upon the grass, free from danger, and quite out of the reach of
the water.

I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look
up and thank God that my life was saved, in a case wherein
there was, some minutes before, scarcely any room to hope. I
believe it is impossible to express to the life what the ecstasies
and transports of the soul are when it is so saved, as I may say,
out of the very grave; and I do not wonder now at that custom,
namely, that when a malefactor, who has the halter about his
neck, is tied up, and just going to be turned off, and has a
reprieve brought to him—I say, I do not wonder that they bring
| 4 Surgeon with it, to let him blood that very moment they tell
him of it, that the surprise may not drive the animal spirits from
the heart, and overwhelm him:

For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.

I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and
my whole being, as I may say, WpePt up in the contemplation
of my deliverance, making a thousand gestures and motions

@



44 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

which I cannot describe—reflecting upon all my comrades that
were drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved but
myself—for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any
sign of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes
that were not fellows.

I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach
and froth of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so
far off, and considered, Lord! how was it possible I could get
on shore?

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part
of my condition, I began to look round me, to see what kind of
place I was in, and what was next to be done; and I soon
found my comforts abate, and that, in a word, I had a dreadful
deliverance. For I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor
anything either to eat or drink to comfort me; neither did I
see any prospect before me but that of perishing with hunger,
or being devoured by wild beasts. And that which was particu-
larly afflicting to me was, that I had no weapon either to hunt and
kill any creature for my sustenance, or to defend myself against
any other creature that might desire to kill me for theirs. In
a word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe,
and a little tobacco in a box. This was all my provision, and
this threw me into terrible agonies of mind, that, for a while, I
ran about like a madman. Night coming upon me, I began,
with a heavy heart, to consider what would be my lot if there
were any ravenous beasts in that country, seeing at night they
always come abroad for their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time
was, to get up into a thick pushy tree like a fir, but thorny,
which grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all night, and
consider the next day what death I should die, for as yet I saw
no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong from the shore,
to see if I could find any fresh water to drink, which I did, to
my great joy ; and having drunk, and put a little tobacco in my
mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into
it, endeavoured to place myself so as that if I should sleep I
might not fall; and having cut me a short stick, like a
truncheon, for my defence, I took up my lodging ; and, having



THE DESERT ISLAND. 45

been excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as
comfortably as, I believe, few could have done in my condition,
and found myself the most refreshed with it that I think I ever
was on such an occasion.

CHAPTER XI.—THE DESERT ISLAND.

yo I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the

storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as
before ; but that which surprised me most was, that the ship
was lifted off in the night from the sand where she lay, by the
swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost as far as the
rock which I first mentioned, where I had been so bruised by
the waves dashing me against it. This being within about a
mile from the shore where I was, and the ship seeming to
stand upright still, I wished myself on board, that at least I
might save some necessary things for my use.

When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I
looked about me again, and the first thing I found was the
boat, which lay as the wind and the sea had tossed her up
upon the land, about two miles on my right hand. I walked
as far as I could upon the shore to have got to her, but found
a neck, or inlet of water, between me and the boat, which was
about half a mile broad. So I came back for the present, being
more intent upon getting at the ship, where I hoped to find
something for my present subsistence.

A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the tide
ebbed so far out, that I could come within a quarter of a mile
of the ship. And here I found a fresh renewing of my grief;
for I saw evidently, that if we had kept on board, we had been
all safe-—that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had
not been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all
comfort and company, as I now was. This forced tears from
my eyes again ; but as there was little relief in that, I resolved
if possible to get to the ship; soI pulled off my clothes, for
the weather was hot to extremity, and took the water. But
when I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know



46 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

how to get on board ; for as she lay aground and high out of
the water, there was nothing within my reach to lay hold of.

I swam round her twice, and the second time I spied a
small piece of rope, which I wondered I did not see at first,
hang down by the fore-chains, so low that with great difficulty
I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope, got up into the
forecastle of the ship. Here I found that the ship was bulged,
and had a great deal of water in her hold, but that she lay so on
the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth, and her stern
lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head low almost to the
water. By this means all her quarter was free, and all that
was in that part was dry; for you may be sure my first work
was to search and to see what was spoiled, and what was free.
And first I found that all the ship’s provisions were dry and
untouched by the water ; and being very well disposed to eat,
I went to the bread-room and filled my pockets with biscuit,
and ate it as I went about other things, for I had no time to
lose. I also found some rum in the great cabin, of which I
took a large dram, and which I had indeed need enough of to
spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted nothing
but a boat to furnish myself with many things which I foresaw
would be very necessary to me.

It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be
had; and this extremity roused my application. We had
several spare yards, and two or three large spars of wood, and
a spare topmast or two in the ship. I resolved to fall to work
with these, and flung as many of them overboard as I could
manage for their weight, tying every one with a rope, that they
might not drive away. When this was done, I went down to
the ship’s side, and pulling them to me, I tied four of them
fast together at both ends as well as I could, in the form of a
raft, and laying two or three short pieces of plank upon them
crossways, I found I could walk upon it very well, but that it
was not able to bear any great weight, the pieces being too
light. So I went to work, and with the carpenter’s saw, I cut
a spare topmast into three lengths, and added them to
my raft, with a great deal of labour and pains. But hope
of furnishing myself with necessaries encouraged me to go



HE LOADS HIS RAFT. 47

beyond what I should have been able to have done upon
another occasion.

My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable
weight. My next care was what to load it with, and how to

fol
en

Ht



Crusoe loading his Raft.

preserve what I laid upon it from the surf of the sea; but I was
not long considering this. I first laid all the planks or boards
upon it that I could get, and having considered well what I



48 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

most wanted, I first got three of the seamen’s chests, which I
had broken open and emptied, and lowered them down upon
my raft. The first of these I filled with provisions, namely,
bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goat’s
flesh, which we lived much upon, and a little remainder of
European corn, which had been laid by for some fowls which
we brought to sea with us, but the fowls were killed. There
had been some barley and wheat together, but, to my great
disappointment, I found afterwards that the rats had eaten or
spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found several cases of bottles
belonging to our skipper, in which were some cordial waters,
and in all above five or six gallons of rack: these I stowed by
themselves, there being no need to put them into the chest, nor
no room for them.

While I was doing this, I found the tide began to flow,
though very calm, and I had the mortification to see my coat,
shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on shore upon the sand,
swim away. As for my breeches, which were only linen, and
open-kneed, I swam on board in them and my stockings. How-
ever, this put me upon rummaging for clothes, of which I found
enough, but took no more than I wanted for present use, for I
had other things which my eye was more upon—as, first, tools
to work with on shore. It was after long searching that I
found out the carpenter’s chest, which was indeed a very useful
prize to me, and much more valuable than a ship-load of gold
would have been at that time. I got it down to my raft, even
whole as it was, without losing time to look into it, for I knew
in general what it contained.

My next care was for some ammunition and arms, There
were two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two
pistols: these I secured first, with some powder-horns, and a
small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there
were three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where
our gunner had stowed them ; but with much search I
found them, two of them dry and good, the third had taken
water ; those two I got to my raft, with the arms. And now I
thought myself pretty well freighted, and began to think how I
should get to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, nor



HE STEERS HIS RAFT TO LAND. 49

rudder, and the least capful of wind would have overset all my
navigation.

I had three encouragements: jirs¢, A smooth, calm sea;
secondly, The tide rising, and setting into the shore; ¢hirdly,
What little wind there was blew me toward the land. And
thus, having found two or three broken oars belonging to the
boat, and, besides the tools which were in the chest, I found
two saws, an axe, and a hammer; with this cargo I put to sea.
For a mile or thereabouts my raft went very well, only that I
found it drive a little distant from the place where I had landed
before ; by which I perceived that there was some indraft of
the water, and, consequently, I hoped to find some creek or
river there, which I might make use of as a port to get to land
with my cargo.

As I imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a
little opening of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide
set into it, so I guided my raft as well as I could to keep in the
middle of the stream. But here I had like to have suffered a
second shipwreck, which, if I had, I think verily would have
broken my heart; for, knowing nothing of the coast, my raft
ran aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and not being
aground at the other end, it wanted but a little that all my
cargo had slipped off towards that end that was afloat, and so
fallen into the water.

I did my utmost, by setting my back against the chests,
to keep them in their places, but could not thrust off the raft
with all my strength ; neither durst I stir from the posture I
was in, but, holding up the chests with all my might, stood in
that manner near half an hour, in which time the rising of
the water brought me a little more upon a level; and a little
after, the water still rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust
her off with the oar I had into the channel; and then, driving
up higher, I at length found myself in the mouth of a little
river, with land on both sides, and a strong current, or tide,
running up. I looked on both sides for a proper place to get
to shore; for I was not willing to be driven too high up the
river, hoping in time to see some ship at sea, and therefore
resolved to place myself as near the coast as I could.



5° ROBINSON CRUSOE.

At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the
creek, to which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my
raft, and at last got so near as that, reaching ground with my
oar, I could thrust her directly in, But here I had like to have
dipped all my cargo in the sea again ; for that shore lying
pretty steep—that is to say, sloping—there was no place to land
but where one end of the float, if it ran on shore, would lie so
high, and the other sink lower as before, that it would endanger
my cargo again.

All that I could do was to wait till the tide was at the
highest, keeping the raft, with my oar like an anchor to hold
the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of ground,
which I expected the water would flow over ; and so it did. As
soon as I found water enough—for my raft drew about a foot of
water—I thrust her on upon that flat piece of ground, and there
fastened, or moored her, by sticking my two broken oars into
the ground—one on one side, near one end, and one on the
other side, near the other end; and thus I lay till the water
ebbed away, and left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.

My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper
place for my habitation, and where to stow my goods, to secure
them from whatever might happen. Where I was, I yet knew
not; whether on the continent or on an island—whether
inhabited or not inhabited—whether in danger of wild beasts or
not. There was a hill, not above a mile from me, which rose
up very steep and high, and which seemed to overtop some
other hills which lay as in a ridge from it northward. I took
out one of the fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn
of powder ; and thus armed, I travelled for discovery up to the
top of that hill, where, after I had with great labour and
difficulty got to the top, I saw my fate to my great affliction,
namely, that I was in an island environed every way with the
sea. No land was to be seen, except some rocks which lay a
great way off, and two small islands, less than this, which lay
about three leagues to the west.

I found also, that the island I was in was barren, and, as
I saw good reason to believe, uninhabited, except by wild beasts,
of which, however, I saw none. Yet I saw abundance of fowls,



HE BRINGS HIS CARGO SAFELY ASHORE. 51

but knew not their kinds ; neither, when I killed them, could I
tell what was fit for food, and what not. At my coming back, I
shot at a great bird, which I saw sitting upon a tree on the side
of a great wood. I believe it was the first gun that had been
fired there since the creation of the world. I had no sooner
fired, but from all parts of the wood there arose an innumerable
number of fowls of many sorts, making a confused screaming,
and crying every one according to his usual note; but not one
of them of any kind that I knew. As for the creature I killed,
I took it to be a kind of a hawk, its colour and beak resembling
it, but it had no talons, or claws, more than common. Its flesh
was carrion, and fit for nothing.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft,
and fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up
the rest of that day. What to do with myself at night I knew
not, nor indeed where to rest; for I was afraid to lie down on
the ground, not knowing but some wild beast might devour me ;
though, as I afterwards found, there was really no need for
those fears.

However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round
with the chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and
made a kind of a hut for that night’s lodging. As for food, I yet
saw not which way to supply myself, except that I had seen
two or three creatures like hares run out of the wood where I
shot the fowl.

CHAPTER XII.—VISITS THE WRECK.

] NOW began to consider that I might yet get a great many

things out of the ship, which would be useful to me, and
particularly some of the rigging and sails, and such other things
as might come to land, and I resolved to make another voyage
on board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that the first
storm that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I
resolved to set all other things apart, till I got everything out
of the ship that I could get. Then I called a council (that is
to say, in my thoughts), whether I should take back the raft ;



52 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

but this appeared impracticable. So I resolved to go as before,
when the tide was down; and I did so, only that I stripped
before I went from my hut, having nothing on but a checkered
shirt, a pair of linen trousers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.

I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second
raft; and having had experience of the first, I neither made
this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought away
several things very useful to me. First, in the carpenter's stores,
I found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great
screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and above all, that most
useful thing called a grindstone. All these I secured, together
with several things belonging to the gunner, particularly two
or three iron crows, and two barrels of musket-bullets, seven
muskets, and another fowling-piece, with some small quantity
of powder more; a large bag full of small shot, and a great
roll of sheet lead ; but this last was so heavy, I could not hoist
it up to get it over the ship’s side.

Besides these things, I took all the men’s clothes that I
could find, and a spare foretop-sail, hammock, and some bed-
ding ; and with this I loaded my second raft and brought them
all safe on shore, to my very great comfort.

I was under some apprehensions during my absence from
the land, that at least my provisions might be devoured on
shore; but when I came back I found no sign of any visitor,
only there sat a creature, like a wild cat, upon one of the chests,
which, when I came towards it, ran away a little distance, and
then stood still, She sat very composed and unconcerned, and
looked full in my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted
with me. I presented my gun at her, but as she did not under-
stand it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer
to stir away ; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit, though,
by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store was not
great. However, I spared her a bit, I say, and she went
to it, smelled at it, and ate it, and looked, as if pleased, for
more. But I thanked her, and could spare no more—so she
marched off.

Having got my second cargo on shore, though I was fain
to open the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels—for



HIS VISITS TO THE WRECK. 53

they were too heavy, being large casks—I went to work to
make me a little tent, with the sail and some poles which I cut
for that purpose ; and into this tent I brought everything that
I knew would spoil, either with rain or sun; and I piled all
the empty chests and casks up in a circle round the tent,
to fortify it from any sudden attempt, either from ‘man or
beast.

When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent
with some boards within, and an empty chest set up on end
without ; and, spreading one of the beds upon the ground,
laying my two pistols just at my head, and my gun at length
by me, I went to bed for the first time, and slept very quietly
all night, for I was very weary and heavy, since the night
before I had slept little, and had laboured very hard all day,
as well to fetch all those things from the ship as to get them
on shore.

I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was
laid up, I believe, for one man, but I was not satisfied still;
for, while the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought I
ought to get everything out of her that I could; so every day,
at low water, I went on board, and brought away something or
other. But particularly the third time I went, I brought away
as much of the rigging as I could, as also all the small ropes
and rope-twine I could get, with a piece of spare canvas, which
was to mend the sails upon occasion, and the barrel of wet
gunpowder. In a word, I brought away all the sails first and
last; only that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and bring as
much at a time as I could; for they were no more useful to be
sails, but as mere canvas only,

But that which comforted me more still was, that last of
all, after I had made five or six such voyages as these, and
thought I had nothing more to expect from the ship that was
worth my meddling with—I say, after all this, I found a great
hogshead of bread, and three large runlets of rum or spirits,
and a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine flour. This was sur-
prising to me, because I had given over expecting any more
provisions, except what was spoiled by the water. I soon
emptied the hogshead of the bread, and wrapped it up, parcel



54 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut out: and, in a
word, I got all this safe on shore also.

The next day I made another voyage; and now, having
plundered the ship of what was portable and fit te hand out,
I began with the cables. Cutting the great cable into pieces,
such as I could move, I got two cables and a hawser on shore,
with all the ironwork I could get ; and having cut down the
spritsail-yard, and the mizzen-yard, and everything I could, to
make a large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods, and
came away.

But my good luck began now to leave me; for this raft
was so unwieldy and overladen, that, after I had entered the
little cove, where I had landed the rest of my goods, not being
able to guide it so handily as I did the others, it overset, and
threw me and all my cargo into the water. As for myself, it
was no great harm, for I was near the shore; but as to my
cargo, it was, great part of it, lost, especially the iron, which I
expected would have been of great use to me. However, when
the tide was out, I got most of the pieces of cable ashore, and
some of the iron, though with infinite labour ; for I had to dive
for it into the water, a work which fatigued me very much.
After this, I went every day on board, and brought away what
I could get.

I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been
eleven times on board the ship; in which time I had brought
away all that one pair of hands could-well be supposed capable
to bring; though I believe verily, had the calm held, I should
have brought away the whole ship piece by piece. But, prepar-
ing the twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind began to
rise. However, at low water, I went on board, and though !
thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectually as that
nothing more could be found, yet I discovered a locker with
drawers in it, in one of which I found two or three razors, and
one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good
knives and forks. In another I found about thirty-six pounds
value in money, some European coin, some Brazil, some pieces
of eight, some gold, some silver.

I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. ‘O drug!’



HE FINDS MONEY IN THE WRECK. 55

said I, aloud, ‘what art thou good for? Thou art not worth to
me—no, not the taking off the ground; one of those knives is
worth all this heap. I have no manner of use for thee; even
remain where thou art, and go to the bottom as a creature
whose life is not worth saving.’

However, upon second thoughts, I took it away, and
wrapping all of it in a piece of canvas, I began to think of
making another raft. But, while I was preparing this, I found
the sky overcast, and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter
of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore. It presently
occurred to me, that it was in vain to pretend to make a raft with
the wind off shore, and that it was my business to be gone
before the tide of flood began, otherwise I might not be able to
reach the shore at all. Accordingly, I let myself down into the
water, and swam across the channel which lay between the ship
and the sands, and even that with difficulty enough, partly with
the weight of things I had about me, and partly the roughness
of the water ; for the wind rose very hastily, and before it was
quite high water it blew a storm.

But I was got home to my little tent, where I lay with all
my wealth about me, very secure. It blew very hard all that
night, and in the morning when I looked out, behold, no more
ship was to be seen! I was a little surprised, but recovered
myself with this satisfactory reflection, namely, that I had lost
no time, nor abated no diligence, to get everything out of her
that could be useful to me, and that indeed there was little left
in her that I was able to bring away, if I had had more time.

I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of
anything out of her, except what might drive on shore from her
wreck, as, indeed, divers pieces of her afterwards did; but those
things were of small use to me.

CHAPTER XIII.—CONSTRUCTS A FORTRESS.

MY thoughts were now wholly employed about securing my-
self against either savages, if any should appear, or wild
beasts, if any were in the island ; and I had many thoughts of



56 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the method how to do this, and what kind of dwelling to make
—whether I should make me a cave in the earth, or a tent
upon the earth. In short, I resolved upon both, the manner
and description of which it may not be improper to give an
account of.

I soon found the place I was in was not fit for my settle-
ment, particularly because it was upon a low marshy ground
near the sea, and I believed would not be wholesome, and
more particularly because there was no fresh water near it 3 so
I resolved to find a more healthy and more convenient spot of
ground.

I consulted several things in my situation which I found
would be proper for me: jst, Health and fresh water, I just
now mentioned ; secondly, Shelter from the heat of the sun ;
thirdly, Security from ravenous creatures, whether man or
beast ; fourthly, A view to the sea, that if God sent any ship
in sight, I might not lose any advantage for my deliverance,
of which I was not willing to banish all my expectation yet.

In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain
on the side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain
~was steep as a house-side, so that nothing could come down
upon me from the top. On the side of this rock there was a
hollow place worn a little way in, like the entrance or door of
a cave; but there was not really any cave or way into the rock
at all.

On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I
resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above a
hundred yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a
green before my door, and, at the end of it, descended irregu-
larly every way down into the low grounds by the sea-side. It
was on the north-north-west side of the hill, so that I was
sheltered from the heat every day, till it came to a west-and-
by-south sun, or thereabouts, which in those countries is near
the setting.

Before I set up my tent, I drew a half circle before the
hollow place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter
from the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter, from its be-
ginning and ending.



CONSTRUCTS A FORIRESS. 57

In this half circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes,
driving them into the ground till they stood very firm, like
piles, the biggest end being out of the ground about five feet
and a half, and sharpened on the top. The two rows did not
stand above six inches from one another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the
ship and laid them in rows, one upon another, within the
circle between these two rows of stakes up to the top, placing
other stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two
feet and a half high, like a spur toa post. This fence was so
strong, that neither man nor beast could get into it, or over it.

_It cost me a great deal of time and labour, especially to cut
the piles in the woods, bring them to the place, and drive them
into the earth.

The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door,
but by a short ladder, to go over the top; which ladder, when
I was in, I lifted over after me. And so I was completely
fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and
consequently slept secure in the night, which otherwise I could
not have done; though, as it appeared afterward, there was no
need of all this caution from the enemies that I apprehended
danger from.

Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour I carried
all my riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of
which you have the account above ; and I made a large tent,
which, to preserve me from the rains that in one part of the
year are very violent there, I made double, namely, one smaller
tent within, and one larger tent above it, and covered the
uppermost with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among
the sails.

And now I lay no more, for a while, in the bed which
T had brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was, indeed,
a very good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.

Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and every-
thing that would spoil by the wet; and having thus inclosed
all my goods, I made up the entrance, which till now I had
left open, and so passed and repassed, as I said, by a short
ladder.



58 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

When I had done this, I began to work my way into the
rock, and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down
out through my tent, I laid them up within my fence in the
nature of a terrace, that so it raised the ground within about a
foot and a half; and thus I made me a cave just behind my
tent, which served me like a cellar to my house.

It cost me much labour and many days before all these
things were brought to perfection ; and therefore I must go
back to some other things which took up some of my thoughts.
At the same time, it happened, after I had laid my scheme for
the setting up my tent and making the cave, that a storm of
rain falling from a thick dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning
happened, and after that a great clap of thunder, as is naturally
the effect of it. I was not so much surprised with the lightning
as I was with a thought which darted into my mind, as swift
as the lightning itself: Oh, my powder! My very heart sank
within me, when I thought that, at one blast, all my powder
might be destroyed, on which, not my defence only, but the
providing me food, as I thought, entirely depended. I was
nothing near so anxious about my own danger, though, had
the powder taken fire, I had never known who had hurt me.

Such impression did this make upon me, that after the
storm was over I laid aside all my works, my building and
fortifying, and applied myself to make bags and boxes to
separate the powder, and to keep it a little and a little in a
parcel, in hope that, whatever might come, it might not all
take fire at once, and to keep it so apart that it should not be
possible to make one part fire another. I finished this work
in about a fortnight; and I think my powder, which, in all,
was about two hundred and forty pounds weight, was divided
in not less than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel that had
been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from that, so I
placed it in my new cave, which, in my fancy, I called my
kitchen ; and the rest I hid up and down in holes among the
rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking very carefully
where I laid it.

In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out
once at least every day with my gun, as well to divert myself



HE SHOOTS A GOAT. 59

as to see if T could kill anything fit for food, and, as near as I
could, to acquaint myself with what the island produced.

The first time I went out, I presently discovered that
there were goats in the island, which was a great satisfaction
to me; but then, it was attended with this misfortune to me,
namely, that they were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot,
that it was the most difficult thing in the world to come at
them. But I was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I
might now and then shoot one, as it soon happened ; for, after
I had found their haunts a little, I laid wait in this manner for
them.

I observed if they saw me in the valleys, though they
were upon the rocks, they would run away as in a terrible
fright ; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and I was upon
the rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence I con-
cluded, that, by the position of their optics, their sight was so
directed downward, that they did not readily see objects that
were above them. Soafterwards I took this method; I always
climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and then had
frequently a fair mark.

The first shot I made among these creatures I killed a
she-goat, which had a little kid by her which she gave suck to,
which grieved me heartily. But when the old one fell, the kid
stood stock still by her till I came and took her up; and not
only so, but when I carried the old one with me upon my
shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my inclosure; upon
which I laid down the dam, and took the kid in my arms, and
carried it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame; but
it would not eat, so I was forced to kill it, and eat it myself.
These two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I ate spar-
ingly, and saved my provisions (my bread especially) as much
as possibly I could.

CHAPTER XIV.—REFLECTS ON HIS CONDITION.

H AVING now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely
necessary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to

burn; and what I did for that, as also how I enlarged my
e



60 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a full
account of in its place; but I must first give some little
account of myself, and of my thoughts about living, which, it
may well be supposed, were not a few.

I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for, as I was
not cast away upon that island without being driven, as is
said, by a violent storm, quite out of the course of our
intended voyage, and a great way, namely, some hundreds of
leagues, out of the ordinary course of the trade of mankind, I
had great reason to consider it as a determination of Heaven,
that in this desolate place, and in this desolate manner, I
should end my life. The tears would run plentifully down
my face when I made these reflections; and sometimes I
would expostulate with myself why Providence should thus
completely ruin His creatures, and render them so absolutely
miserable—so without help, abandoned, so entirely depressed,
that it could hardly be rational to be thankful for such a life.

But something always returned swift upon me to check
these thoughts, and to reprove me; and, particularly, one day,
walking with my gun in my hand by the sea-side, I was very
pensive upon the subject of my present condition, when
reason, as it were, expostulated with me the other way, thus:
“Well, you are in a desolate condition, it is true; but pray,
remember, where are the rest of you? Did not you come
eleven of you into the boat? Where are the ten? Why were
they not saved, and you lost? Why were you singled out?
Is it better to be here or there?’ And then I pointed to the
sea. All evils are to be considered with the good that is in
them, and with what worse attends them.

Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished
for my subsistence, and what would have been my case if it
had not happened, which was a hundred thousand to one,
that the ship floated from the place where she first struck, and
was driven so near the shore that I had time to get all things
out of her. What would have been my case, if I had been
obliged to have lived in the condition in which I at first came
on shore, without necessaries of life, or necessaries to supply
and procure them? ‘Particularly, said I, loud (though to



HIS CALENDAR. 61

myself), ‘what should 1 have done without a gun, without
ammunition, without any tools to make anything or to work
with, without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any manner of
covering?’ and that now I had all these to a sufficient
quantity, and was in a fair way to provide myself in such a
manner as to live without my gun when my ammunition was
spent; so that I had a tolerable view of subsisting without
any want, as long as I lived. For I considered, from the
beginning, how I should provide for the accidents that might
happen, and for the time that was to come, not only after my
ammunition should be spent, but even after my health or
strength should decay.

I confess I had not entertained any notion of my am-
munition being destroyed at one blast, I mean, my powder
being blown up by lightning; and this made the thoughts of
it so surprising to me when it lightened and thundered, as I
observed just now.

And now, being about to enter into a melancholy relation
of a scene of silent life—such, perhaps, as was never heard
of in the world before—I shall take it from its beginning, and
continue it in its order. It was, by my account, the 3oth of
September, when, in the manner as above said, I first set foot
upon this horrid island, when the sun, being to us in its
autumnal equinox, was almost just over my head; for I
reckoned myself, by observation, to be in the latitude of nine
degrees twenty-two minutes north of the Line.

After I had been there about ten or twelve days, if came
into my thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time for
want of books, and pen and ink, and should even forget the
Sabbath days from the working days. To prevent this, I cut
with my knife upon a large post, in capital letters, and making
it into a great cross, I set it up on the shore where I first
landed, namely,

‘] CAME ON SHORE HERE ON THE 30TH OF SEPTEMBER 1659.’

Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a
notch with my knife, and every seventh notch was as long
again as the rest, and every first day of the month as long



62 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

again as that long one; and thus I kept my calendar, or
weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.

In the next place, we are to observe that, among the
many things which I brought out of the ship in the different
voyages which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got
several things of less value, but not at all less useful to me,
which I omitted setting down before; as, in particular, pens,
ink, and paper, several parcels in the captain’s, mate’s,
gunner’s, and carpenters keeping, three or four compasses,
some mathematical instruments, dials, perspectives, charts,
and books of navigation, all which I huddled together,
whether I might want them or no. Also, I found three very
good Bibles, which came to me in my cargo from England,
and which I had packed up among my things; some Portu-
guese books also, and among them two or three Popish prayer-
books, and several other books ; all which I carefully secured.

I must not forget that we had in the ship a dog and two
cats, of whose eminent history I may have occasion to say
something in its place; for I carried both the cats with me.
As for the dog, he jumped out of the ship of himself, and
swam on shore to me the day after I went on shore with my
first cargo, and was a trusty servant to me many years. I
wanted nothing that he could fetch me, nor any company that
he could make up to me—I only wanted to have him talk to
me; but that he could not do. As I observed before, I found
pen, ink, and paper, and I husbanded them to the utmost; and
I shall show, that while my ink lasted, I kept things very exact ;
but after that was gone I could not keep my account, for I was
not able to make any ink by any means that I could devise.

And this put me in mind that I wanted many things,
notwithstanding all that I had amassed together; and of
these, this of ink was one, as also spade, pick-axe, and shovel,
to dig or remove the earth; needles, pins, and thread. As
for linen, I soon learned to want that without much difficulty.

This want of tools made every work I did go on
heavily ; and it was nearly a whole year before I had entirely
finished my little pale, or surrounded habitation. The piles,
or stakes, which were as heavy as I could well lift, were a long



HE REFLECTS ON HIS CONDITION. 63

time in cutting and preparing in the woods, and more by far
in bringing home; so that I spent sometimes two days in
cutting and bringing home one of those posts, and a third
day in driving it into the ground; for which purpose I got a
heavy piece of wood at first, but at last bethought myself of
one of the iron crows, which, however, though I found it, yet
it made driving those posts or piles very laborious and tedious
work.

But what need I have been concerned at the tediousness
of anything I had to do, seeing I had time enough to do it
in? Nor had I any other employment, if that had been over,
at least that I could foresee, except the ranging the island to
seek for food, which I did more or less every day.

I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the
circumstances I was reduced to, and I drew up the state of
my affairs in writing, not so much to leave them to any that
were to come after me (for I was like to have but few heirs),
as to deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon them, and
afflicting my mind. And as my reason began now to master
my despondency, I began to comfort myself as well as I could
and to set the good against the evil, that I might have some-
thing to distinguish my case from worse; and I stated it very
impartially, like debtor and creditor—the comforts I enjoyed
against the mercies I suffered, thus :-—

EVIL. GOOD.

I am cast upon a horrible deso-
late island, void of all hope of
recovery.

1 am singled out and separated,
as it were, from all the world, to
be miserable.

I am divided from mankind, a
solitaire, one banished from human
society.

T have no clothes to cover me.

I am without any defence, or
means to resist any violence of
man or beast,

But I am alive, and not drowned, as all my
ship’s company was.

But I am singled out, too, from all the ship's
crew to be spared from death; and He that
miraculously saved me from death, can deliver
me from this condition.

But I am not starved and perishing on a
barren place, affording no sustenance.

But I am in a hot climate, where, if I had
clothes, I could hardly wear them.

But I am cast on an island, where I see no
wild beasts to hurt me, as I saw on the coast
of Africa; and what if I had been shipwrecked
there?



64 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I have no soul to speak to, or But God wonderfully sent the ship in near
relieve me. enough to the shore, that I have gotten out so
many necessary things as will either supply my
wants, or enable me to supply myself, even as

long as I live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony, that
there was scarcely any condition in the world so miserable,
but there was something zegative or something Positive to be
thankful for in it. And let this stand as a direction from the
experience of the most miserable of all conditions in this
world, that we may always find in it something to comfort
ourselves from, and to set, in the description of good and evil,
on the credit side of the account.

CHAPTER XV.—ARRANGES HIS HABITATION.

AVING now brought my mind a little to relish my condi-

tion, and given over looking out to sea, to see if I could

spy a ship—I say, giving over these things, I began to apply

myself to accommodate my way of living, and to make things
as easy to me as I could.

I have already described my habitation, which was a tent,
under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts
and cables; but I might now rather call it a wall, for I raised
a kind of wall up against it of turfs, about two feet thick on the
outside ; and after some time (I think it was a year and a half),
I raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched or
covered it with boughs of trees, and such things as I could get
to keep out the rain, which I found at some times of the year
very violent.

I have already observed how I brought all my goods into
this pale, and into the cave which I had made behind me: but
I must observe, too, that at first this was a confused heap of
goods, which, as they lay in no order, so they took up all my
place. I had no room to turn myself, so I set myself to
enlarge my cave and works farther into the earth ; for it was
a loose sandy rock, which yielded easily to the labour I bestowed
on it—and so, when I found I was pretty safe as to beasts of

.



HE ARRANGES HIS HABITATION. 65

prey, I worked sideways to the right hand into the rock; and
then, turning to the right again, worked quite out, and made
me a door to come out, on the outside of my pale, or fortifi-
cation.

This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were a
back way to my tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room
to stow my goods,

And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary
things as I found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a
table ; for without these I was not able to enjoy the few com-
forts I had in the world—I could not write or eat, or do several
things, with so much pleasure without a table.

So I went to work ; and here I must needs observe, that as
reason is the substance and origin of the mathematics, so, by
stating and squaring everything by reason, and by making the
most rational judgment of things, every man may be in time
master of every mechanical art. I had never handled a tool in
my life, and yet in time, by labour, application, and contrivance,
I found at last that I wanted nothing but I could have made
it, especially if I had had tools. However, I made abundance of
things even without tools, and some with no more tools than
an adze and a hatchet, which, perhaps, were never made that
way before, and that with infinite labour. For example, if I
wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree,
set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either side with
my axe, till I had brought it to be as thin as a plank, and then
dub it smooth with my adze. It is true, by this method I could
make but one board out of a whole tree; but this I had no
remedy for but patience, any more than I had for the pro-
digious deal of time and labour which it took me up to make a
plank or board. But my time and labour were little worth,
and so they were as well employed one way as another.

However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed
above, in the first place ; and this I did out of the short pieces
of boards that I brought on my raft from the ship. But when
I had wrought out some boards, as above, I made large shelves
of the breadth of a foot and a half one over another, all along
one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and ironwork



66 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

on, and, in a word, to separate everything at large into their
places, that I might come easily at them. I knocked pieces
into the wall of the rock to hang my guns, and all things that
would hang up.

So that, had my cave been to be seen, it looked like
a general magazine of all necessary things; and I had every-
thing so ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me
to see all my goods in such order, and especially to find my
stock of all necessaries so great.

And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every
day’s employment; for indeed at first I was in too much a
hurry ; and not only hurry as to labour, but in too much dis-
composure of mind, and my journal would have been full of
many dull things. For example, I must have said thus:
‘September the 30th, after I got to shore, and had escaped
drowning, instead of being thankful to God for my deliverance
(having first vomited with the great quantity of salt water which
had got into my stomach, and recovering myself a little), I ran
about the shore, wringing my hands, and beating my head and
face, exclaiming at my misery, and crying out, I was undone,
undone! till, tired and faint, I was forced to lie down on the
ground to repose, but durst not sleep for fear of being
devoured.’

Some days after this, and after I had been on board the
ship, and got all that I could out of her, yet I could not
forbear getting up to the top of a little mountain, and looking
out to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship; then fancy at a vast
distance I spied a sail—please myself with the hopes of it—
and then, after looking steadily till I was almost blind, lose it
quite, and sit down and weep like a child, and thus increase
my misery by my folly.

But having gotten over these things in some measure,
and having settled my household stuff and habitation, made
me a table and a chair, and all as handsome about meas I
could, I began to keep my journal, of which I shall here give
you the copy (though in it will be told all these particulars over
again) as long as it lasted; for, having no more ink, I was
forced to leave it off.



HIS JOURNAL. 67

CHAPTER XVI.—THE JOURNAL.

September 30, 1659.
| POOR, miserable Robinson Crusoe, being shipwrecked

9 during a dreadful storm in the offing, came on shore on
this dismal unfortunate island, which I called, ‘The Island of
Despair ;’ all the rest of the ship’s company being drowned, and
myself almost dead.

All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting myself at the
dismal circumstances I-was brought to, namely, I had neither
food, house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to, and in despair
of any relief, saw nothing but death before me, either that I
should be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or
starved to death for want of food. At the approach of night,
I slept in a tree for fear of wild creatures; but slept soundly,
though it rained all night.

October 1.—In the morning I saw, to my great surprise,
the ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven on
shore again much nearer the island; which, as it was some
comfort on one hand, for seeing her sit upright, and not broken
to pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, 1 might get on board,
and get some food and necessaries out of her for my relief ;
so, on the other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my
comrades, who, I imagined, if we had all stayed on board,
might have saved the ship, or at least that they would not have
been all drowned as they were; and that had the men been
saved, we might perhaps have built us a boat out of the ruins
of the ship, to have carried us to some other part of the world.
I spent great part of this day in perplexing myself on these
things ; but at length, seeing the ship almost dry, I went upon
the sand as near as I could, and then swam on board. This
day also it continued raining, though with no wind at all.

From the 1st of Octoder to the 24th.—All these days entirely
spent in many separate voyages to get all I could out of the
ship, which I brought on shore, every tide of flood, upon rafts.
Much rain also in these days, though with some intervals of
fair weather; but it seems this was the rainy season.



68 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Oct. 20.—I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got
upon it; but being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly
heavy, I recovered many of them when the tide was out.



Crusoe navigating his Raft.

Oct. 25.—It rained all night and all day, with some gusts
of wind; during which time the ship broke in pieces, the wind
blowing a little harder than before, and was no more to be seen
except the wreck of her, and that only at low water. I spent
this day in covering and securing the goods which I had saved,
that rain might not spoil them.

Oct. 26.—I walked about the shore almost all day, to find
out a place to fix my habitation, greatly concerned to secure
myself from any attack in the night, either from wild beasts or



HIS JOURNAL CONTINUED. 69

men. Towards night I fixed upon a proper place under a rock,
and marked out a semicircle for my encampment, which I
resolved to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification, made
of double piles, lined within with cable, and without with
turf.

From the 26th to the 30th I worked very hard in carrying
all my goods to my new habitation, though some part of the
time it rained exceedingly hard.

The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the. island with
my gun, to seek for some food, and discover the country ; when
I killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me home, which I
afterwards killed also, because it would not feed.

November 1.—1 sct up my tent under a rock, and lay
there for the first night, making it as large as I could, with
stakes driven in to swing my hammock upon.

Nov. 2.—I set up all my chests and boards, and the
pieces of timber which made my rafts, and with them formed
a fence round me, a little within the place I had marked out
for my fortification.

Nov. 3.—I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls
like ducks, which were very good food. In the afternoon went
to work to make me a table.

Nov. 4—This morning I began to order my times of
work—of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of
diversion. Namely, every morning I walked out with my gun
for two or three hours, if it did not rain, then employed myself
to work till about eleven o’clock, then ate what I had to live on,
and from twelve to two I lay down to sleep, the weather being
excessively hot, and then in the evening to work again. The
working part of this day and of the next were wholly employed
in making my table; for I was yet but a very sorry workman,
though time and necessity made me a complete natural
mechanic soon after, as I believe it would do any one else.

Nov. 5.—This day went abroad with my gun and my dog,
and killed a wild cat ; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good
for nothing. Every creature I killed I took off the skins, and
preserved them. Coming back by the sea-shore, I saw many
sorts of sea-fowls, which I did not understand; but was



7O ROBINSON CRUSOE,

surprised, and almost frighted, with two or three seals, which,
while I was gazing at, not well knowing what they were, got
into the sea, and escaped me for that time.

Nov. 6.—After my morning walk, I went to work with
my table again, and finished it, though not to my liking; nor
was it long before I learned to mend it.

Nov. 7.—Now it began to be scttled fair weather. The
7th, 8th, gth, roth, and part of the 12th (for the 11th was
Sunday), I took wholly up to make me a chair, and, with much
ado, brought it to a tolerable shape, but never to please me;
and even in the making, I pulled it in pieces several times.—
Note. 1 soon neglected keeping Sundays; for omitting my
mark for them on my post, I forgot which was which.

Nov. 13.—This day it rained, which refreshed me exceed-
ingly, and cooled the earth; but it was accompanied with
terrible thunder and lightning, which frighted me dreadfully
for fear of my powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved
to separate my stock of powder into as many little parcels as
possible, that it might not be in danger.

Nov. 14, 15, 16.—These three days I spent in making
little square chests or boxes, which might hold about a pound,
or two pound at most, of powder ; and so putting the powder
in, I stowed it in places as secure and remote from one
another as possible. On one of these three days I killed a
large bird that was good to eat, but I knew not what to
call it.

Nov. 17.—This day I began to dig behind my tent into
the rock, to make room for my further conveniency.—/Voce.
Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work, namely, a
pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow or basket ; so | desisted
from my work, and began to consider how to supply that want,
and make me some tools. As for a pickaxe, I made use of
the iron crows, which were proper enough, though heavy ; but
the next thing was a shovel or spade; this was so absolutely
necessary, that indeed I could do nothing effectually without it,
but what kind of one to make I knew not.

Nov. 18.—The next day, in searching the woods, I found
a tree of that wood, or like it, which in the Brazils they call the



HIS JOURNAL CONTINUED. 71

iron tree, for its exceeding hardness. Of this, with great
labour, and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece, and
brought it home, too, with difficulty enough, for it was exceed-
ingly heavy.

The excessive hardness of the wood, and having no other
way, made me a long while upon this machine ; for I worked
it effectually by little and little into the form of a shovel or
spade, the handle exactly shaped like ours in England, only
that the broad part having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it
would not last me so long. However, it served well enough for
the uses which I had occasion to put it to; but never wasa
shovel, I believe, made after that fashion, or so long a-making.

I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket or a wheel-
barrow. A basket I could not make by any means, having no
such things as twigs that would bend to make wicker-ware, at
least none yet found out. As to a wheelbarrow, I fancied I
could make all but the wheel, but that I had no notion of,
neither did I know how to go about it; besides, I had no
possible way to make the iron gudgeons for the spindle, or
axis, of the wheel, to run in, so I gave it over. And so, for
carrying away the earth which I dug out of the cave, I made
me a thing like a hod, which the labourers carry mortar in
when they serve the bricklayers.

This was not so difficult to me as the making the shovel;
and yet this, and the shovel, and the attempt which I made in
vain to make a wheelbarrow, took me up no less than four
days—I mean always excepting my morning walk with my gun,
which I seldom failed; and very seldom failed also bringing
home something fit to eat.

Nov. 23—My other work having now stood still, because
of my making these tools, when they were finished I went on,
and working every day, as my strength and time allowed, I
spent eighteen days entirely in widening and deepening my
cave, that it might hold my goods commodiously.

Note.—During all this time I worked to make this room,
or cave, spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse,
or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar. As for
my lodging, I kept to the tent, except that sometimes, in the



72 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

wet season of the year, it rained so hard that I could not keep
myself dry, which caused me afterwards to cover all my place
within my pale with long poles in the form of rafters, leaning
against the rock, and load them with flags and large leaves of
trees like a thatch.

December 10.—I began now to think my cave, or vault,
finished, when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large)
a great quantity of earth fell down from the top and one side,
so much that, in short, it frighted me, and not without reason
too; for if I had been under it, I had never wanted a grave-
digger. Upon this disaster I had a great deal of work to do
over again ; for I had the loose earth to carry out, and, which
was of more importance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that
I might be sure no more would come down.

Dec. 11.—This day I went to work with it accordingly,
and got two shores, or posts, pitched upright to the top, with
two pieces of boards across over each post ; this I finished the
next day ; and setting more posts up with boards, in about a
week more I had the roof secured ; and the posts, standing in
rows, served me for partitions to part off my house.

Dec. 17-—From this day to the 20th I placed shelves, and
knocked up nails on the posts to hang everything up that
could be hung up: and now I began to be in some order
within doors.

Dec. 20.—Now I carried everything into the cave, and
began to furnish my house, and set up some pieces of boards
like a dresser, to order my victuals upon; but boards began to
be very scarce with me: also, I made me another table.

Dec. 24.—Much rain all night and all day ; no stirring out.

Dec. 25.—Rain all day.

Dec. 26.—No rain, and the earth much cooler than before,
and pleasanter.

Dec. 27.—Killed a young goat, and lamed another, so
that I caught it, and led it home in a string : when I had it
home, I bound and splintered up its leg, which was broken.—
N.B. I took such care of it, that it lived, and the leg grew well
and as strong as ever ; but by nursing it so long it grew tame,
and fed upon the little green at my door, and would not go



HE MAKES A FENCE ROUND HIS HOUSE. 73

away. This was the first time that I entertained a thought of
breeding up some tame creatures, that I might have food when
my powder and shot was all spent.

Dec. 28, 29, 30.—Great heats, and no breeze ; so that there
was no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food. This
time I spent in putting all my things in order within doors.

CHAPTER XVII.—THE JOURNAL (continued).

ANUARY 1.—Very hot still; but I went abroad early and
late with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day.
This evening, going farther into the valleys which lay towards
the centre of the island, I found there was plenty of goats,
though exceedingly shy and hard to come at; however, I
resolved to try if I could not bring my dog to hunt them
down.

Yan. 2.—Accordingly, the next day I went out with my dog,
and set him upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for they
all faced about upon the dog; and he knew his danger too
well, for he would not come near them.

Fan. 3.—I1 began my fence, or wall, which, being still
jealous of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make
very thick and strong.

N.B.—This wall being described before, I purposely omit
what was said in the journal; it is sufficient to observe, that
I was no less time than from the 3d of January to the 14th of
April, working, finishing, and perfecting this wall, though it was
no more than about twenty-four yards in length, being a half
circle from one place in the rock to another place about eight
yards from it, the door of the cave being in the centre behind it.

All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me
many days, nay, sometimes weeks together; but I thought I
should never be perfectly secure until this wall was finished.
It is scarcely credible what inexpressible labour everything
was done with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods,
and driving them into the ground; for I made them much
bigger than I need to have done.



74 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

When this wall was finished, and the outside double fenced
with a turf wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that
if any people were to come on shore there, they would not
perceive anything like a habitation. And it was very well I
did so, as may be observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable
occasion.

During this time, I made my rounds in the woods for game
every day, when the rain permitted me, and made frequent
discoveries, in these walks, of something or other to my
advantage. Particularly, I found a kind of wild pigeons, who
built, not as wood pigeons, in a tree, but rather as house pigeons,
in the holes of the rocks; and taking some young ones, I
endeavoured to breed them up tame, and did so. But when
they grew older they flew away, which, perhaps, was at first for
want of feeding them ; for I had nothing to give them. How-
ever, I frequently found their nests, and got their young ones,
which were very good meat.

And now, in the managing my household affairs, I found
myself wanting in many things, which I thought at first it was
impossible for me to make, as indeed, as to some of them, it
was—for instance, I could never make a cask to be hooped.
I had a small runlet or two, as I observed before, but I could
never arrive to the capacity of making one by them, though I
spent many weeks about it ; I could neither put in the heads,
nor joint the staves so true to one another as to make them
hold water. So I gave that also over.

In the next place, I was at great loss for candle, so that
as soon as ever it was dark, which was generally by seven
o’clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I remembered the lump
of bees’-wax with which I made candles in my African
adventure, but I had none of that now. The only remedy I
had was, that when I had killed a goat I saved the tallow, and
with a little dish made of clay, which I baked in the sun, to
which I added a wick of some oakum, I made me a lamp; and
this gave me a light, though not a clear steady light like a
candle.

In the middle of all my labours, it happened that, rum-
maging my things, I found a little bag, which, as I hinted



HE DISCOVERS BARLEY GROWING. 75

before, had been filled with corn for the feeding of poultry, not
for this voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the ship came
from Lisbon. What little remainder of corn had been in the
bag was all devoured with the rats, and I saw nothing in the
bag but husks and dust ; and being willing to have the bag for
some other use—I think it was to put powder in, when I divided
it for fear of the lightning, or some such use—I shook the
husks of corn out of it, on one side of my fortification, under
the rock.

It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned
that I threw this stuff away, taking no notice of anything, and
not so much as remembering that I had thrown anything there ;
when about a month after, or thereabout, I saw some few stalks
of something green shooting out of the ground, which I fancied
might be some plant I had not seen. But I was surprised and
perfectly astonished, when, after a little longer time, I saw
about ten or twelve ears come out, which were perfectly green
barley, of the same kind as our European—nay, as our English
barley.

It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion
of my thoughts on this occasion. I had hitherto acted upon
no religious foundation at all. Indeed, I had very few notions
of religion in my head, or had entertained any sense of any-
thing that had befallen me, otherwise than as a chance, or, as
we lightly say, what pleases God; without so much as inquir-
ing into the end of Providence in these things, or His order in
governing events in the world. But after I saw barley grow
there, in a climate which I knew was not proper for corn, and
especially, that I knew not how it came there, it startled me
strangely, and I began to suggest, that God had miraculously
caused this grain to grow, without any help of seed sown;
and that it was so directed purely for my sustenance on that
wild miserable place.

This touched my heart a little, and brought tears into
my eyes, and I began to bless myself that such a prodigy. of
nature should happen upon my account. And this was the
more strange to me, because I saw near it still, all along by
the side of the rock, some other straggling stalks, which proved

iL



76 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

to be stalks of rice, and which I knew, because I had seen it
grow in Africa, when I was ashore there.

I not only thought these the pure productions of Pro-
vidence for my support, but, not doubting but that there was
more in the place, I went all over that part of the island where
I had been before, peering in every corner, and under every
rock, to see for more of it; but I could not find any.

At last, it occurred to my thoughts, that 1 had shaken
a bag of chicken’s meat out in that place, and then the wonder
began to cease ; and | must confess, my religious thankfulness
to God’s providence began to abate too, upon discovering that
all this was nothing but what was common, though I ought to
have been as thankful for so strangeand unforeseen a providence,
as if it had been miraculous. For it was really the work of
Providence as to me, that should order or appoint ten or
twelve grains of corn to remain unspoiled (when the rats had
destroyed all the rest), as if it had been dropped from heaven
—as also, that I should throw it out in that particular
place, where, it being in the shade of a high rock, it sprang up
immediately ; whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere else at
that time, it had been burned up and destroyed.

I carefully saved the ears of corn, you may be sure, in
their season, which was about the end of June, and laying up
every corn, I resolved to sow them all again, hoping in time
to have some quantity sufficient to supply me with bread ; but
it was not till the fourth year that I could allow myself the
least grain of this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly, as
I shall say afterwards in its order—for I lost all that I sowed
the first season, by not observing the proper time—for I sowed
it just before the dry season, so that it never came up at all,
at least not as it would have done—of which in its place.

Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty
stalks of rice, which I preserved with the same care, and
whose use was of the same kind, or to the same purpose,
namely, to make me bread, or rather food ; for I found ways
to cook it up without baking, though I did that also after some
time. But to return to my journal.

I worked excessively hard these three or four months to



THE FARTHQUAKE. 77

get my wall done; and the fourteenth of April I closed it up,
contriving to go into it, not by a door, but over the wall by a
ladder, that there might be no sign in the outside of my
habitation.

CHAPTER XVIII.—THE EARTHQUAKE,

Are 16.—I finished the ladder; so I went up with the

ladder to ‘the top, and then pulled it up after me, and
let it down on the inside. This was a complete inclosure to
me ; for within I had room enough, and nothing could come
at me from without, unless it could first mount my wall.

The very next day after this wall was finished, I had
almost had all my labour overthrown at once, and myself
killed. The case was thus: As I was busy in the inside of it,
behind my tent, just in the entrance into my cave, I was terribly
frighted with a most dreadful surprising thing indeed ; for on a
sudden I found the earth come crumbling down from the roof
of my cave, and from the edge of the hill, over my head, and
two of the posts I had set up in the cave cracked in a frightful
manner.

I was heartily scared, but thought nothing of what was
really the cause; only thinking that the top of my cave was
falling in, as some of it had done before. And, for fear I
should be buried in it, I ran forward to my ladder, and not
thinking myself safe there either, I got over my wall for fear
of the pieces of the hill, which I expected might roll down upon
me. I was no sooner stepped down upon the firm ground, but I
plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake, for the ground I stood
on shook three times at about eight minutes’ distance, with
three such shocks, as would have overturned the strongest
building that could be supposed to have stood on the earth;
and a great piece of the top of a rock, which stood about half
a mile from me, next the sea, fell down with such a terrible
noise as I never heard in all my life. I perceived also the
very sea was put into violent motion by it; and I believe the
shocks were stronger under the water than on the island.



78 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I was so amazed with the thing itself—having never felt
the like, or discoursed with any one that had—that I was like
one dead or stupefied ; and the motion of the earth made my
stomach sick, like one that was tossed at sea. But the noise
of the falling of the rock awaked me, as it were, and, rousing
me from the stupefied condition I was in, filled me with
horror, and I thought of nothing then but the hill falling
upon my tent and all my household goods, and burying all
at once; and thus sunk my very soul within me a second
time.

After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for
some time, I began to take courage; and yet I had not heart
enough to get over my wall again, for fear of being buried
alive, but sat still upon the ground, greatly cast down and dis-
consolate, not knowing what to do. All this while I had not
the least serious religious thought, nothing but the common
‘Lord, have mercy upon me!’ and when it was over, that went
away too.

While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow cloudy,
as if it would rain. Soon after that, the wind rose by little
and little, so that in less than half an hour it blew a most
dreadful hurricane. The sea was all on a sudden covered over
with foam and froth, the shore was covered with the breach of
the water, the trees were torn up by the roots, and a terrible
storm it was ; and this held about three hours, and then began
to abate, and in two hours more it was quite calm, and began
to rain very hard.

All this while I sat upon the ground, very much terrified
and dejected, when on a sudden it came into my thoughts,
that these winds and rain being the consequence of the earth-
quake, the earthquake itself was spent and over, and I might
venture into my cave again. With this thought my spirits
began to revive, and the rain also helping to persuade me, I
went in and sat down in my tent. But the rain was so violent,
that my tent was ready to be beaten down with it; and I was
forced to go into my cave, though very much afraid and
uneasy, for fear it should fall on my head.

This violent rain forced me to a new work, namely, to cut



CONTINUED RAIN, 79

a hole through my new fortification like a sink, to let water go
out, which would else have drowned my cave. After I had
been in my cave some time, and found still no more shocks of
the earthquake follow, 1 began to be more composed. And
now, to support my spirits, which indeed wanted it very much,
I went to my little store, and took a small sup of rum, which,
however, I did then, and always very sparingly, knowing I
could have no more when that was gone.

It continued raining all that night, and great part of the
next day, so that I could not stir abroad ; but, my mind being
more composed, I began to think of what I had best do, con-
cluding, that if the island was subject to these earthquakes,
there would be no living for me in a cave, but I must consider
of building me some little hut in an open place, which I might
surround with a wall as I had done here, and so make myself
secure from wild beasts or men. For I concluded, if I stayed
where I was, I should certainly, one time or other, be buried
alive.

With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent from
the place where it stood, which was just under the hanging
precipice of the hill, and which, if it should be shaken again,
would certainly fall upon my tent. And I spent the two next
days, being the 19th and 2oth of April, in contriving where and
how to remove my habitation.

The fear of being swallowed up alive made me that I
never slept in quiet, and yet the apprehension of lying abroad
without any fence was almost equal to it; but still, when I
looked about, and saw how everything was put in order, how
pleasantly concealed I was, and how safe from danger, it made
me very loath to remove.

In the meantime, it occurred to me, that it would require
a vast deal of time for me to do this, and that I must be con-
tented to run the venture where I was, till I had formed a
camp for myself, and had secured it so as to remove to it. So,
with this resolution, I composed myself for a time, and resolved
that I would go to work with all speed, to build me a wall with
piles and cables, &c., in a circle, as before, and set my tent up
in it when it was finished; but that I would venture to stay



80 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

where I was till it was finished, and fit to remove to. This
was the 21st.

April 22.—The next morning I began to consider of
means to put this resolve in execution, but I was at a great
loss about my tools. I had three large axes, and abundance of
hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for traffic with the
Indians) ; but, with much chopping and cutting knotty hard
wood, they were all full of notches and dull; and, though I had
a grindstone, I could not turn it, and grind my tools too. This
cost me as much thought as a statesman would have bestowed
upon a grand point of politics, or a judge upon the life and
death of a man. At length I contrived a wheel with a string,
to turn it with my foot, that I might have both my hands at
liberty.—/Vo¢e, I had never seen any such thing in England,
or at least not to take notice how it was done, though since I
have observed it is very common there; besides that, my
grindstone was very large and heavy. This machine cost me
a full week’s work to bring it to perfection.

April 28, 29.—These two whole days I took up in grind-
ing my tools, my machine for turning my grindstone perform-
ing very well.

April 30.—Having perceived my bread had been low a
great while, now I took a survey of it, and reduced myself
to one biscuit-cake a day, which made my heart very heavy.

CHAPTER XIX.—THE WRECK DRIVEN ON SHORE—
A Fir oF AGUE.

AY 1.—In the morning, looking towards the seaside, the
tide being low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger

than ordinary, and it looked like a cask. When I came to it,
I found a small barrel, and two or three pieces of the wreck of
the ship, which were driven on shore by the late hurricane ;
and, looking towards the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to
lie higher out of the water than it used todo. I examined the
barrel which was driven on shore, and soon found it was a
barrel of gunpowder, but it had taken water, and the powder



THE WRECK DRIVEN ON SHORE. 81

was caked as hard asa stone. However, I rolled it farther on
shore for the present, and went on upon the sands as near as I
could to the wreck of the ship, to look for more.

When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely
removed. The forecastle, which lay before buried in sand, was
heaved up at least six feet ; and the stern (which was broken
to pieces, and parted from the rest by the force of the sea, soon
after I had left rummaging her) was tossed up, as it were, and
cast on one side. The sand was thrown so high on that side
next her stern, that whereas there was a great piece of water
before, so that I could not come within a quarter of a mile of
the wreck without swimming, I could now walk quite up to her
when the tide was out.

I was surprised with this at first, but soon concluded it
must have been done by the earthquake. And, as by this
violence the ship was more broken open than formerly, so
many things came daily on shore, which the sea had loosened,
and which the winds and water rolled by degrees to the land.

This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of
removing my habitation; and I busied myself mightily, that
day especially, in searching whether I could make any way
into the ship; but I found nothing was to be expected of that
kind, for that all the inside of the ship was choked up with
sand. However, as I had learned not to despair of anything,
I resolved to pull everything to pieces that I could of the ship,
concluding, that everything I could get from her would be of
some use or other to me.

May 3.—I began with my saw and cut a piece of a beam
through, which I thought held some of the upper part or quarter-
deck together, and when I had cut it through, I cleared away
the sand as well as I could from the side which lay highest ;
but the tide coming in, I was obliged to give over for that time.

May 4.—1 went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I
durst eat of, till I was weary of my sport, when, just going to
leave off, I caught a young dolphin. I had made me a long
line of some rope yarn, but I had no hooks, yet I frequently
caught fish enough, as much as I cared to eat ; all which I dried
in the sun, and ate them dry.



82 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

May 5.—Worked on the wreck—cut another beam asunder,
and brought three great fir planks off from the decks, which I
tied together, and made to float on shore when the tide of
flood came on.

May 6.—Worked on the wreck—got several iron bolts out
of her, and other pieces of ironwork ; worked very hard, and
came home very much tired, and had thoughts of giving it over.

May 7.—Went to the wreck again, but with an intent not
to work ; but found the weight of the wreck had broken itself
down, the beams being cut, that several pieces of the ship
seemed to lie loose, and the inside of the hold lay so open that
I could see into it, but almost full of water and sand.

May 8—Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to
wrench up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the water
or sand; I wrenched open two planks, and brought them on
shore also with the tide. I left the iron crow in the wreck for
next day.

May 9.—Went to the wreck, and with the crow made
way into the body of the wreck, and felt several casks,
and loosened them with the crow, but could not break them
up. I felt also the roll of English lead, and could stir it, but it
was too heavy to remove.

May 10 to 14.—Went every day to the wreck, and got a
great many pieces of timber, and boards, or planks, and two or
three hundredweight of iron.

May 15.—I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut
a piece off the roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet,
and driving it with the other, but as it lay about a foot and a
half in the water, I could not make any blow to drive the
hatchet.

May 16.—It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck
appeared more broken by the force of the water. I stayed so
long in the woods to get pigeons for food, that the tide pre-
vented me going to the wreck that day.

May 17.—1 saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore,
at a great distance, near two miles off me, but resolved to see
what they were, and found it was a piece of the head, but too.
heavy for me to bring away.



HE FINDS A TURTLE. 83

May 24.—Every day to this day I worked on the wreck,
and with hard labour I loosened some things so much with the
crow, that the first flowing tide several casks floated out, and
two of the seamen’s chests. But the wind blowing from the
shore, nothing came to land that day but pieces of timber, and
a hogshead, which had some Brazil pork in it; but the salt
water and the sand had spoiled it.

I continued this work every day to the 15th of June, except
the time necessary to get food, which I always appointed during
this part of my employment to be when the tide was up, that I
might be ready when it was ebbed out. By this time I had
gotten timber, and plank, and ironwork enough to have built
a good boat, if 1 had known how; and also I got at several
times, and in several pieces, near one hundredweight of the
sheet-lead.

une 16.—Going down to the seaside, I found a large tor-
toise or turtle. This was the first that I had seen, which it
seems was only my misfortune, not any defect of the place, or
scarcity ; for had I happened to be on the other side of the
island, I might have had hundreds of them every day, as I
found afterwards, but perhaps had paid dear enough for them.

une 17th I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her
three-score eggs; and her flesh was to me, at that time, the
most savoury and pleasant that ever I tasted in my life, having
had no flesh but of goats and fowls, since I landed in this
horrid place.

Fune 18.—Rained all day, and I stayed within. I thought
at this time the rain felt cold, and I was something chilly,
which I knew was not usual in that latitude.

Yune 19.—Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had
been cold. :

Fune 20.—No rest all night, violent pains in my head,
and feverish.

Fune 21.—Very ill, frightened almost to death with the
apprehensions of my sad condition—to be sick, and no help.
Prayed to God, for the first time since the storm off Hull; but
scarce knew what I said, or why, my thoughts being all
confused.



84 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Fune 22.—A little better, but under dreadful apprehensions
of sickness.

Sune 23.—Very bad again, cold and shivering, and then a
violent headache.

Fune 24.—Much better.

Fune 25—An ague very violent. The fit held me seven
hours, cold fit and hot, with faint sweats after it.

¥une 26.—Better ; and, having no victuals to eat, took my
gun, but found myself very weak. However, I killed a she-
goat, and with much difficulty got it home, and broiled some
of it, and ate. I would fain have stewed it, and made some
broth, but had no pot.

Fune 27.—The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all
day, and neither ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for
thirst, but so weak I had not strength to stand up, or to get
myself any water to drink. Prayed to God again, but was
light-headed ; and when I was not, I was so ignorant, that I knew
not what to say, only I lay, and cried, ‘ Lord, look upon me!
Lord, pity me! Lord, have mercy upon me!’ I suppose.tI did
nothing else for two or three hours, till, the fit wearing off, I
fell asleep, and did not wake till far in the night. When I
waked, I found myself much refreshed, but weak, and exceed-
ingly thirsty. However, as I had no water in my whole habi-
tation; I was forced to lie till morning, and went to sleep again.
In this second sleep I had this terrible dream :

I thought that I was sitting on the ground, on the out-
side of my wall, where I sat when the storm blew after the
earthquake, and that I saw a man descend from a great black
cloud, in a bright flame of fire, and light upon the ground. He
was all over as bright as a flame, so that I could but just bear
to look towards him. His countenance was most inexpressibly
dreadful, impossible for words to describe. When he stepped
upon the ground with his feet, I thought the earth trembled,
just as it had done before in the earthquake, and all the air
looked, to my apprehension, as if it had been filled with flashes
of fire.

He was no sooner landed upon the earth but he moved
forward towards me, with a long spear, or weapon, in his



A TERRIBLE DREAM. 85

hand to kill me. When he came to a rising ground, at some
distance, he spoke to me, or I heard a voice so terrible, that
it is impossible to express the terror of it. All that I can
say I understood, was this—‘ Seeing all these things have
not brought thee to repentance, now thou shalt die!’ At
which words, I thought he lifted up the spear that was in his
hand to kill me.

No one who shall ever read this account, will expect that
I should be able to describe the horrors of my soul at this
terrible vision—I mean, that even while it was a dream, I even
dreamed of those horrors. Nor is it any more possible to
describe the impression that remained upon my mind when
I awoke and found it was but a dream.

I had, alas! no divine knowledge. What I had received
by the good instruction of my father was then worn out by an
uninterrupted series, for eight years, of seafaring wickedness,
and a constant conversation with none but such as were, like
myself, wicked and profane to the last degree. I do not
remember that I had, in all that time, one thought that so
much as tended either to looking upwards towards God, or
inwards towards a reflection upon my own ways. Buta certain
stupidity of soul, without desire of good, or conscience of evil,
had entirely overwhelmed me, and I was all that the most
hardened, unthinking, wicked creature, among our common
sailors, can be supposed to be, not having the least sense, either
of the fear of God in danger, or of thankfulness to God in
deliverances.

But now, when I began to be sick, and a leisurely view
of the miseries of death came to place itself before me—when
my spirits began to sink under the burden of a strong dis-
temper, and nature was exhausted with the violence of the fever
—conscience, that had slept so long, began to awake, and I
began to reproach myself with my past life, in which I had so
evidently, by uncommon wickedness, provoked the justice of
God to lay me under uncommon strokes, and to deal with me
in so vindictive a manner.

These reflections oppressed me from the second or third
day of my distemper ; and in the violence, as well of the fever as



86 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

of the dreadful reproaches of my conscience, extorted some words
from me like praying to God, though I cannot say they were either
a prayer attended with desires or with hopes ; it was rather the
voice of mere fright and distress. My thoughts were confused,
the convictions great upon my mind, and the horror of dying
in such a miserable condition raised vapours into my head with
the mere apprehensions ; and, in these hurries of my soul, I
knew not what my tongue might express. But it was rather
exclamation, such as, ‘Lord, what a miserable creature am I!
If I should be sick, I shall certainly die for want of help, and
what will become of me?’ Then the tears burst out of my
eyes, and I could say no more for a good while. I thought,
‘Now I have difficulties to struggle with, too great for even
nature itself to support, and no assistance, no help, no com-
fort, no advice.’ Then I cried out, ‘Lord, be my help; for I
am in great distress !’

This was the first prayer, if I might call it so, that I had
made for many years. But I return to my journal,

CHAPTER XX.—SERIOUS REFLECTIONS—READS HIS BIBLE.

UNE 28.—Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep

I had had, and the fit being entirely off, I got up;
and though the fright and terror of my dream was very great,
yet I considered that the fit of the ague would return again
the next day, and now was my time to get something to
refresh and support myself, when I should be ill. The first
thing I did, I filled a large square case-bottle with water, and
set it upon my table in reach of my bed; and to take off the
chill or aguish disposition of the water, I put about a quarter
of a pint of rum into it, and mixed them together. Then I got
me a piece of the goat’s flesh, and broiled it on the coals,
but could eat very little. I walked about, but was very weak,
and withal very sad and heavy-hearted, under a sense of my
miserable condition, dreading the return of my distemper the
next day. At night, I made my supper of three of the turtle’s
eggs, which I roasted in the ashes, and ate, as we call it, in the



SERIOUS REFLECTIONS. 87

shell; and this was the first bit of meat I had ever asked
God’s blessing to, even, as I could remember, in my whole
life.

After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself so
weak that I could hardly carry the gun (for I never went out
without that) ; so I went but a little way, and sat down upon
the ground, looking out upon the sea, which was just before
me, and very calm and smooth. As I sat here, some such
thoughts as these occurred to me :

What is this earth and sea, of which I have seen so much?
Whence is it produced? And what am I, and all the other
creatures, wild and tame, human and brutal—whence are
we?

Sure we are all made by some secret Power, who formed
the earth and sea, the air and sky—and who is that?

Then it followed most naturally: It is God that has
made it all. Well, but then—it came on strangely—if God
has made all these things, He guides and governs them all,
and all things that concern them; for the Being that could
make all things, must certainly have power to guide and direct
them.

If so, nothing can happen in the great circuit of his works,
either without his knowledge or appointment.

And if nothing happens without his knowledge, He knows
that I am here, and am in a dreadful condition : and if nothing
happens without his appointment, He has appointed all this to
befall me.

Nothing occurred to my thoughts to contradict any of these
conclusions; and, therefore, it rested upon me with the
greater force, that it must needs be that God had appointed
all this to befall me.—That I was brought to this miserable
circumstance by his direction, He having the sole power, not
of me only, but of everything that happened in the world.
Immediately it followed—

Why has God done this to me? What have I done to be
thus used?

My conscience presently checked me in that inquiry, as
if I had blasphemed; and methought it spoke to me like a



88 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

voice: ‘Wretch! dost thou ask what thou hast done? Look
back upon a dreadful misspent life, and ask thyself what thou
hast not done? Ask why is it that thou wert not long ago
destroyed? Why wert thou not drowned in Yarmouth Roads?
killed in the fight, when the ship was taken by the Sallee man-
of-war? devoured by the wild beasts on the coast of Africa?
or drowned HERE, when all the crew perished but thyself?
Dost thou ask, What have I done?’

I was struck with these reflections, as one astonished, and
had not a word to say—no, not to answer to myself; but rose
up, pensive and sad, walked back to my retreat, and went
up over my wall, as if I had been going to bed. But my
thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I had no inclination to
sleep, so I sat down in my chair, and lighted my lamp, for it
began to be dark, Now, as the apprehensions of the return of
my distemper terrified me very much, it occurred to my
thought, that the Brazilians take no physic but their tobacco
for almost all distempers; and I had a piece of a roll of
tobacco in one of the chests, which was quite cured, and some
also that was green, and not quite cured.

I went, directed by Heaven, no doubt; for in this chest
I found a cure both for soul and body. I opened the chest,
and found what I looked for, namely, the tobacco ; and as the
few books I had saved lay there, too, I took out one of the
Bibles, which I mentioned before, and which, to this time, I
had not found leisure, or so much as inclination, to look into
—I say, I took it out, and brought both that and the tobacco
with me to the table.

What use to make of the tobacco I knew not, as to my
distemper, or whether it was good for it or not; but I tried
several experiments with it, as if I was resolved it should hit
one way or other. I first took a piece of a leaf, and chewed it
in my mouth, which, indeed, at first almost stupefied my brain,
the tobacco being green and strong, and I had not been much
used to it. Then I took some, and steeped it an hour or
two in some rum, and resolved to take a dose of it when I lay
down ; and, lastly, I burned some upon a pan of coals, and held
my nose close over the smoke of it, as long as I could bear it,



HE BEGINS TO READ THE BIBLE. 89

as well for the heat as the virtue of it, and I held almost to
suffocation.

In the interval of this operation, I took up the Bible, and
began to read ; but my head was too much disturbed with the
tobacco to bear reading, at least at that time. Only, having
opened the book casually, the first words that occurred to me
were these: ‘Call upon me in the day of trouble, and I will
deliver thee ; and thou shalt glorify me’

The words were very apt to my case, and made some
impression upon my thoughts at the time of reading them,
though not so much as they did afterwards ; for, as for being
delivered, the word had no sound, as I may say, tome. The
thing was so remote, so impossible, in my apprehension of
things, that I began to say, as the children of Israel did, when
they were promised flesh to eat, ‘Can God spread a table in the
wilderness?’ So I began to say, ‘Can God himself deliver me
from this place?’ And as it was not for many years that any
hope appeared, this prevailed very often upon my thoughts.
But, however, the words made a very great impression upon
me, and I mused upon them very often.

It grew now late, and the tobacco had, as I said, dozed
my head so much, that I inclined to sleep, so that I left my
lamp burning in the cave, lest I should want anything in the
night, and went to bed. But before I lay down, I did what I
never had done in all my life—I kneeled down, and prayed to
God to fulfil the promise to me, that, if I called upon him in
the day of trouble, He would deliver me.

After my broken and imperfect prayer was over, I drank
the rum, in which I had steeped the tobacco, which was so
strong and rank of the tobacco, that indeed I could scarce get
it down. Immediately upon this I went to bed, and found
presently it flew up into my head violently ; but I fell into a
sound sleep, and waked no more, till, by the sun, it must
necessarily be near three o'clock in the afternoon the next day
Nay, to this hour, I am partly of the opinion, that I slept all the
next day and night, and till almost three the day after; for,
otherwise, I know not how I should lose a day of my reckoning,
in the days of the week, as it appeared, some years after, I had



go ROBINSON CRUSOE.

done. For if I had lost it by crossing and recrossing the Line,
I should have lost more than one day; but in my account it
was lost, and I never knew which way.

Be that, however, one way or other; when I awaked, I
found myself exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively and
cheerful. When I got up, I was stronger than I was the day
before, and my stomach better, for I was hungry; and, in
short, I had no fit the next day, but continued much altered
for the better: this was the 29th.

The 30th was my well day of course, and I went abroad
with my gun, but did not care to travel too far. I killed a sea-
fowl or two, something like a brand-goose, and brought them
home, but was not very forward to eat them; so I ate some
more of the turtle’s eggs, which were very good. This evening
I renewed the medicine, which I had supposed did me good the
day before, namely the tobacco steeped in rum; only, I did
not take so much as before, nor did I chew any of the leaf, or
hold my head over the smoke. However, I was not so well
the next day, which was the first of July, as I hoped I should
have been ; for I had a little spice of the cold fit, but it was
not much.

Fuly 2.—I renewed the medicine all the three ways, and
dosed myself with it as at first, and doubled the quantity
which I drank.

Fuly 3.—I missed the fit for good and all, though I did
not recover my full strength for some weeks after. While I
was thus gathering strength, my thoughts ran exceedingly
upon this Scripture, ‘I will deliver thee;’ and the impossibility
of my deliverance lay much upon my mind, in bar of my ever
expecting it. But as I was discouraging myself with such
thoughts, it occurred to my mind, that I pored so much upon
my deliverance from the main affliction, that I disregarded the
deliverance I had received; and I was, as it were, made to
ask myself such questions as these; namely: Have I not been
delivered, and wonderfully, too, from sickness—from the most
distressing condition that could be, and that was so frightful
to me? and what notice had I taken of it? Had I done my
part? God had delivered me, but I had not glorified him—



HE RECOVERS. 9g!

that is to say, I had not owned and been thankful for that as a
deliverance ; and how could I expect greater deliverance ?

This touched my heart very much, and immediately I
kneeled down, and gave God thanks aloud, for my recovery
from my sickness.

Fuly 4.—In the morning I took the Bible; and, begin-
ning at the New Testament, I began seriously to read it, and
imposed upon myself to read a while every morning and
every night ; not tying myself to the number of chapters, but
as long as my thoughts should engage me. It was not long
after I set seriously to this work, but I found my heart more
deeply and sincerely affected with the wickedness of my past
life. The impression of my dream revived; and the words,
‘All these things have not brought thee to repentance,’ ran
seriously in my thoughts. I was earnestly begging of God to
give me repentance, when it happened providentially that very
day, that, reading the Scripture, I came to these words: ‘He
is exalted a Prince and a Saviour, to give repentance, and to
give remission.’ I threw down the book, and, with my heart
as well as my hand lifted up to heaven, in a kind of ecstasy of
joy, I cried out aloud, ‘Jesus, thou Son of David! Jesus, thou
exalted Prince and Saviour, give me repentance!’

This was the first time that I could say, in the true
sense of the words, that I prayed in all my life; for now I
prayed with a sense of my condition, and with a true Scripture
view of hope, founded on the encouragement of the Word of
God; and from this time, I may say, I began to have hope
that God would hear me.

Now I began to construe the words mentioned above, ‘ Call
upon me, and I will deliver thee,’ in a different sense from
what I had ever done before; for then I had no notion of any-
thing being called deliverance, but my being delivered from
the captivity I was in. For, though I was indeed at large in
the place, yet the island was certainly a prison to me, and that
in the worst sense of the word ; but now I learned to take it in
another sense. Now I looked back on my past life with such
horror, and my sins appeared so dreadful, that my soul sought
nothing of God but deliverance from the load of guilt that bore

&



92 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

down all my comfort. As for my solitary life, it was nothing. I
did not so much as pray to be delivered from it, or think of it ;
it was all of no consideration in comparison to this, and I add
this part here, to hint to whoever shall read it, that whenever
they come to a true sense of things, they will find deliverance
from sin a much greater blessing than deliverance from affliction.

But, leaving this part, I return to my journal.

My condition began now to be, though not less miserable
as to my way of living, yet much easier to my mind; and
my thoughts being directed, by a constant reading the Scrip-
ture and praying: to God, to things of a higher nature, I had a
great deal of comfort within, which till now I knew nothing of.
Also, as my health and strength returned, I bestirred myself
to furnish myself with everything that I wanted, and make
my way of living as regular as I could.

CHAPTER XXI.—SURVEYS THE ISLAND.

ao the 4th of July to
the 14th, I was chiefly
employed in walking about
eu) With my gun in my
hand, a little and a
little at a time, as a

‘| man that was gathering
up his strength after a
fit of sickness ; for it is
hardly to be imagined
how low I was, and to
what weakness I was
| reduced. The applica-
{ tion which I made use
of was perfectly new,
and perhaps what had
never cured an ague
before; neither can I
recommend any one to practise this experiment. And though






HE BEGINS TO SURVEY THE ISLAND. 93

it did carry off the fit, yet it rather contributed to weaken me,
for I had frequent convulsions in my nerves and limbs for
some time.

I learned from it also this, in particular, that being abroad
in the rainy season was the most pernicious thing to my health
that could be, especially in those rains which came attended
with storms and hurricanes of wind. For, as the rain which
came in a dry season was always most accompanied with such
storms, so I found that rain was much more dangerous than the
rain which fell in September and October.

I had been now in this unhappy island above ten months.
All possibility of deliverance from this condition seemed to be
entirely taken from me; and I firmly believed, that no human
shape had ever set foot upon that place. Having now secured
my habitation, as I thought, fully to my mind, I had a great
desire to make a more perfect discovery of the island, and to
see what other productions I might find, which yet I knew
nothing of.

It was on the 15th of July that I began to take a more
particular survey of the island itself. I went up the creek
first, where, as I hinted, I brought my rafts on shore. I found,
after I came about two miles up, that the tide did not flow any
higher, and that it was no more than a little brook of running
water, very fresh and good; but this being the dry season,
there was hardly any water in some parts of it, at least not
enough to run in any stream, so as it could be perceived.

On the banks of this brook I found many pleasant savannas
or meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with grass; and, on
the rising parts of them, next to the higher grounds (where
the water, as it might be supposed, never overflowed), I found
a great deal of tobacco, green, and growing to a great and
very strong stalk. There were divers other plants, which I
had no notion of, or understanding about, and might perhaps
have virtues of their own, which I could not find out.

I searched for the cassava-root, which the Indians in all
that climate make their bread of, but I could find none. I saw
large plants of aloes, but did not then understand them. I
saw several sugar-canes, but wild, and, for want of cultiva-



94 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

tion, imperfect. I contented myself with these discoveries for
this time, and came back musing with myself what course I
might take to know the virtue and goodness of any of the
fruits or plants which I should discover, but could bring it to
no conclusion. In short, I had made so little observation
while I was in the Brazils, that I. knew little of the plants of
the field; at least, very little that might serve me to any
purpose now in my distress.

The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again;
and, after going something farther than I had done the day
before, I found the brook and the savannas began to cease,
and the country became more woody than before. In this
part I found different fruits, and particularly I found melons
upon the ground in great abundance, and grapes upon the
trees. The vines had spread indeed over the trees, and the
clusters of grapes were now just in their prime, very ripe and
rich.

This was a surprising discovery, and I was exceedingly
glad of them. But I was warned by my experience to eat
sparingly of them, remembering that when I was ashore in
Barbary, the eating of grapes killed several of our Englishmen
who were slaves there, by throwing them into fluxes and
fevers. But I found an excellent use for these grapes, and
that was to cure or dry them in the sun, and keep them as
dried grapes or raisins are kept, which I thought would be,
as indeed they were, both wholesome and agreeable to eat,
when no grapes might be had.

I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my
habitation ; which, by the way, was the first night, as I might
say, I had lain from home. In the night I took my first con-
trivance, and got up into a tree, where I slept well, and the
next morning proceeded upon my discovery, travelling nearly
four miles, as I might judge by the length of the valley, keep-
ing still due north, with a ridge of hills on the south and northt
side of me.

At the end of this march I came to an opening, where
the country seemed to descend to the west; and a little spring
of fresh water, which issued out of the side of the hill by me,



HE FINDS ABUNDANCE OF FRUIT. 95

ran the other way, that is, due east ; and the country appeared
so fresh, so green, so flourishing, everything being in a constant
verdure, or flourish of spring, that it looked like a planted
garden.

I descended a little on the side of that delicious valley,
surveying it with a secret kind of pleasure (though mixed with
other afflicting thoughts), to think that this was all my own,
that I was king and lord of all this country indefeasibly, and
had a right of possession ; and, if I could convey it, I might
have it in inheritance, as completely as any lord of a manor
in Kngland. I saw here abundance of cocoa trees, orange,
and lemon, and citron trees, but all wild, and few bearing any
fruit; at least, not then. However, the green limes that I
gathered were not only pleasant to eat, but very wholesome ;
and I mixed their juice afterwards with water, which made it
very wholesome, and very cool and refreshing.

I found now I had business enough to gather and carry
home; and I resolved to lay up a store, as well of grapes as
limes and lemons, to furnish myself for the wet season, which
I knew was approaching.

In order to do this, I gathered a great heap of grapes in
one place, and a lesser heap in another place, and a great
parcel of limes and lemons in another place; and taking a
few of each with me, I travelled homeward, and resolved to
come again and bring a bag or sack, or what I could make, to
carry the rest home.

Accordingly, having spent three days in this journey, I
came home (so I must now call my tent and my cave). But
before I got thither, the grapes were spoiled—the richness of
the fruit and the weight of the juice having broken them and
bruised them, they were good for little or nothing. As to the
limes, they were good, but I could bring but a few.

The next day, being the r9th, I went back, having made
me two small bags to bring home my harvest. But I was
surprised, when, coming to my heap of grapes which were so
rich and fine when I gathered them, I found them all spread
abroad, trod to pieces, and dragged about, some here, some
there, and abundance eaten and devoured. By this I con-



Full Text








ROBINSON CRUSOE,
THE EYPe

AND
STRANGE SURPRISING ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE

OF YORK, MARINER

BY

DANIEL DE FOE



WwW. & R. CHAMBERS, LIMITED
LONDON AND EDINBURGH
ALEXANDER SELKIRK.

Ir is generally believed that the idea of Robinson Crusoe first presented
itself to De Foe on hearing of the adventures of Alexander Selkirk, who
for above four years lived all alone on the uninhabited island of Juan
Fernandez, in the Pacific (about 400 miles from the coast of Chili).
Selkirk was born at Largo in the county of Fife, Scotland, in 1676,
his father being a shoemaker. He early acquired a taste for the sea,
and being a wild boy, and constantly in trouble at home, he went
to London and engaged himself to Captain Dampier, upon a cruising
expedition in the South Sea. England was then at war with Spain,
and Dampier proposed to capture any of the Spanish vessels he
came across in either the South Atlantic or the Pacific.

Selkirk was appointed sailing-master of the Cizgue Ports, a small
vessel which accompanied the St George, commanded by Dampier.
They left England in 1703, and after various adventures, reached Juan
Fernandez early the next year. After staying some time for repairs,
water, &c., they set sail again, but a violent quarrel arising between
Selkirk and Stradling, the captain of the Cimgue Ports, he resolved to
leave the ship at the first opportunity. In September, the Cizgue Ports
was obliged to return to Juan Fernandez for repairs, and when they
were completed, Selkirk said good-bye to his friends, and remained
alone on the island. Here he lived for four years and four months,
his food consisting chiefly of the flesh of wild goats and shellfish.
Stradling left him a gun, some powder and shot, a kettle, an axe,
a knife, his nautical instruments, and some books. He erected two
huts with the wood of the pimento tree, and though he was not
so ingenious in supplying his wants as Crusoe was, he appears to have
been happy in his solitude.

In 1709 he was released by Captain Woodes Rogers, who had been
sent out by some merchants of Bristol to act against the French and
Spaniards in the South Seas. He engaged as mate on Rogers’s ship,
and after a long cruise he reached England in 1711.

Little is known of his later years. He died on board His Majesty’s
ship Weymouth in 1723.
SKETCH OF DE FOE’S LIFE.

DANIEL DE Fok, the author of Robinson Crusoe, was the son of
James Foe, a butcher of St Giles, Cripplegate, London. He was born
in 1661, and his father, being a Nonconformist, had him educated at a
dissenting academy, kept by a Mr Morton, at Stoke Newington. It
was at first intended that he should be a Presbyterian minister, and
with this view he was kept at school until he was nearly nineteen years
of age. He joined the Duke of Monmouth’s rising in 1685, but
fortunately escaped the fate that befell so many of his comrades.

After this he engaged in trade in London, especially in Spanish
and Portuguese goods, and it is certain that he visited Spain on
business. In 1692, he failed for £17,000, but afterwards paid up his
creditors their claims in full. His next enterprise was a tile-work at
Tilbury, but here he was again unsuccessful, and when the works were
brought to a standstill in 1703, he lost about £3000. From this time
till the end of his life he engaged in no settled business, though from
time to time he seems to have made several not unsuccessful ventures.
He became known to William III. about the middle of the reign,
and soon became an active pamphleteer in support of the govern-
ment. His Zssay on Projects appeared in 1698, and in 1701 he
published a poem called The True-born Englishman, in defence of the
king and the Dutch, in which he exposed the absurd cry of the time,
that the king was a foreigner, and that the English were of purer blood
than the rest of the world.

De Foe soon got into trouble after the accession of Queen Anne.
As a true dissenter, he thought it his duty to warn his party that they
were in danger, by pointing out to what conclusions the doctrines of the
High Church party necessarily led. This he did by publishing, in 1703,
his famous pamphlet, Zhe Shortest Way with the Dissenters. Its
meaning was misunderstood, and a warrant was at once issued for the
apprehension of the author. He soon surrendered himself, was
tried, and found guilty of a ‘seditious libel,’ put in the pillory, fined
and imprisoned; hence Pope’s malicious line, ‘earless on high stood
unabashed Defoe.’

He was released from prison in August 1704, by the influence of
Robert Harley, Earl of Oxford, who was Secretary of State. Lis
vi ROBINSON CRUSOE,

next enterprise was a newspaper called Zhe Review. This he success-
fully conducted for nearly nine years, writing the whole of it himself.
He was next engaged in several secret missions by Harley, and in
October 1706, was despatched to Scotland on a political mission for
the promotion of the Union. His History of the Union appeared
in 1709. He shared the fall of his patron Harley, who was im-
peached for treason in 1715, and soon found himself stripped of all his
friends, and attacked violently on all sides. In 1716, he published
his apology, entitled 4x Apfeal to Honour and Fustice, in which
he defends his conduct throughout his life. His political life was
supposed to have ended here; but evidence has recently been dis-
covered, proving that in 1718 he was employed by the government.
The first of his tales, Rodinson Crusoe, appeared April 25, 1719,
when he was fifty-eight years old. It was wonderfully successful,
immediately obtaining that high degree of public favour which it has
ever since maintained. Four editions of it were sold in as many
months, and in August of the same year the second part appeared.
Several other Zales, A History of the Great Plague of 1665, The
Memoirs of a Cavalier, and various other works, quickly followed.
Defoe was a patriot honest in his aims, if not very nice in his
choice of means. His writings amount to 210 works in prose and
verse. lis novels are remarkable for their air of veracity, due to
the skilful use he makes of minute and ordinary incidents. In his
style he uses the plainest and most direct language, and the colloquial
forms of speech, while he pays great attention to vivacity and consist-
ency of character. His immortal work, Robinson Crusoe, is as sure
of enduring fame as anything in English literature. Dr Johnson, who
speaks with admiration of De Foe’s writing ‘so variously and so well,’
puts it among the only three books that readers wish longer. Scott
observes that De Foe’s style ‘is the last which should be attempted by
a writer of inferior genius; for though it be possible to disguise
mediocrity by fine writing, it appears in all its naked inanity when it
assumes the garb of simplicity.’
He died in London in 1731, in circumstances of distress, about
which, however, almost nothing is known.




ROBINSON CRUSOE.



CHAPTER I.—EARLY LIFE.

WAS born in the year 1632, in the city
=| of York, of a good family, though not
| of that country, my father being a
foreigner of Bremen, who settled first
at Hull. He got a good estate by
merchandise, and, leaving off his
trade, lived afterwards at York, from
whence he had married my mother,
whose relations were named Robinson,
a very good family in that country,
and from whom I was called Robinson
Kreutznaer; but, by the usual corruption of words in Eng-
land, we are now called—nay, we call ourselves, and write
our name—Crusoe; and so my companions always called me.

I had two elder brothers, one of which was a lieutenant-
colonel to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly
commanded by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed
at the battle near Dunkirk against the Spaniards: what
became of my second brother, I never knew, any more than
my father or mother did know what was become of me.




b

ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any
trade, my head began to be filled very early with rambling
thoughts. My father, who was very ancient, had given mea
competent share of learning, as far as house education and a
country free school generally go, and designed me for the law.
But I would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and
my inclination to this led me so strongly against the will—nay,
the commands—of my father, and against all the entreaties
and persuasions of my mother and other friends, that there
seemed to be something fatal in that propensity of nature,
tending directly to the life of misery which was to befall me.

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and
excellent counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He
called me one morning into his chamber, where he was confined
by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with me upon this
subject. He asked me what reasons, more than a mere
wandering inclination, I had for leaving my father’s house and
my native country, where I might be well introduced, and had
a prospect of raising my fortunes by application and industry,
with a life of ease and pleasure.

He told me it was only men of desperate fortunes on one
hand, or of aspiring superior fortunes on the other, who went
abroad upon adventures, to rise - by enterprise, and make
themselves famous in undertakings of a nature out of the
common road ; that these things were all either too far above
me, or too far below me; that mine was the middle state, or
what might be called the upper station of low life, which he
had found, by long experience, was the best state in the world
—the most suited to human happiness, not exposed to the
miseries and hardships, the labour and sufferings of the
mechanic part of mankind, and not embarrassed with the pride,
luxury, ambition, and envy of the upper part of mankind.

He told me I might judge of the happiness of this state
by this one thing, namely, that this was the state of life which
all other people envied ; that kings have frequently lamented
the miserable consequences of being born to great things, and
wished they had been placed in the middle of the two extremes,
between the mean and the great; that the wise man gave his
HIS FATHER AGAINST HIS GOING TO SEA. 3

testimony to this, as the just standard of true felicity, when he
prayed to have neither poverty nor riches.

He bade me observe it, and I should always find, that the
calamities of life were shared among the upper and lower
part of mankind; but that the middle station had the fewest
disasters, and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes as the
higher or lower part of mankind. Nay, they were not subjected
to so many distempers and uneasinesses, either of body or
mind, as those were who, by vicious living, luxury, and extrava-
gances on one hand, or by hard labour, want of necessaries,
and mean or insufficient diet on the other hand, bring dis-
tempers upon themselves by the natural consequences of their
way of living. The middle station of life was calculated for
all kind of virtues, and all kind of enjoyments ; peace and
plenty were the handmaids of a middle fortune ; temperance,
moderation, quietness, health, society, all agreeable diversions,
and all desirable pleasures were the blessings attending the
middle station of life; that in this way men went silently and
smoothly through the world, and comfortably out of it; not
embarrassed with the labours of the hands or of the head; not
sold to a life of slavery for daily bread, or harassed with
perplexed circumstances, which rob the soul of peace and the
body of rest; not enraged with the passion of envy, or the
secret burning lust of ambition for great things—but, in easy
circumstances, sliding gently through the world, and sensibly
tasting the sweets of living without the bitter ; feeling that they
are happy, and learning, by every day’s experience, to know it
more sensibly. :

After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most
affectionate manner, not to play the young man, or to precipi-
tate myself into miseries, which nature, and the station of life
I was born in, seemed to have provided against—that I was
under no necessity of seeking my bread—that he would do well
for me, and endeavour to enter me fairly into the station of life
which he had been just recommending to me; and that, if I
was not very easy and happy in the world, it must be my mere
fate, or fault, that must hinder it; and+that he should have
nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his duty in
4 ROBINSON CRUSOR.

warning me against measures which he knew would be to my
hurt. In a word, that as he would do very kind things for me
if I would stay and settle at home as he directed, so he would
not have so much hand in my misfortunes as to give me any
encouragement to go away—and, to close all, he told me I had
my elder brother for my example, to whom he had used the
same earnest persuasions to keep him from going into the Low
Country wars, but could not prevail, his young desires prompt-
ing him to run into the army, where he was killed—and though
he said he would not cease to pray for me, yet he would venture
to say to me, that if I did take this foolish step, God would not
bless me—and I should have leisure hereafter to reflect upon
having neglected his counsel, when there might be none to
assist in my recovery.

I observed, in this last part of his discourse, which was
truly prophetic, though I suppose my father did not know it to
be so himself—I say, I observed the tears run down his face
very plentifully, especially when he spoke of my brother who
was killed ; and that when he spoke of my having leisure to
repent, and none to assist me, he was so moved, that he broke
off the discourse, and told me his heart was so full he could
say no more to me,

I was sincerely afflicted with this discourse—as, indeed,
who could be otherwise?—and I resolved not to think of going
abroad any more, but to settle at home according to my father’s
desire. But, alas! a few days wore it all off; and, in short, to
prevent any of my father’s further importunities, in a few weeks
after, I resolved to run quite away from him.

However, I did not act so hastily neither, as the first
heat of my resolution prompted, but I took my mother, at a
time when I thought her a little pleasanter than ordinary, and
told her, that my thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing
the world, that I should never settle to anything with resolution
enough to go through with it, and my father had better give me
his consent, than force me to go without it—that I was now
eighteen years old, which was too late to gO apprentice to a
trade, or clerk to an attorney—that I was sure, if I did, I should
never serve out my time, but I should certainly run away from
HIS MOTHER REFUSES ‘HER CONSENT. 5

my master before my time was out and go to sea—and if she
would speak to my father to let me go one voyage abroad, if I
came home again, and did not like it, I would go no more, and
I would promise, by a double diligence, to recover the time I
had lost.

This put my mother into a great passion. She told me she
knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any
such subject—that he knew too well what was my interest, to give
his consent to any such thing so much for my hurt—and that
she wondered how I could think of any such thing, after the
discourse I had had with my father, and such kind and tender
expressions as she knew my father had used to me. In short,
if I would ruin myself, there was no help for me ; but I might
depend I should never have their consent to it—that, for her
part, she would not have so much hand in my destruction—and
I should never have it to say, that my mother was willing when
my father was not. =

Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet
I heard afterwards, that she reported all the discourse to him ;
and that my father, after showing a great concern at it, said to
her, with a sigh, ‘That boy might be happy, if he would stay
at home ; but if he goes abroad, he will be the most miserable
wretch that ever was born—I can give no consent to it.’

CHAPTER II.—GOES TO SEA.

ie was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose,

though in the meantime I continued obstinately deaf to
all proposals of settling to business, and frequently expostu-
lating with my father and mother about their being so posi-
tively determined against what they knew my inclinations
prompted me to. But being one day at Hull, whither I went
casually, and without any purpose of making an elopement
that time—but, I say, being there, and one of my companions
being about to go by sea to London, in his father’s ship, and
prompting me to go with him, with the common allurement of
6 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

a seafaring man, that it should cost me nothing for my pas-
sage, I consulted neither father nor mother any more, nor so
much as sent them word of it ; but leaving them to hear of it
as they might, without asking God’s blessing or my father’s,
without any consideration of circumstances or consequences,
and in an ill hour, God knows, on the Ist of September 1651,
I went on board a ship bound for London.

Never any young adventurer’s misfortunes, I believe, began
sooner, or continued longer, than mine. The ship was no
sooner got out of the Humber, but the wind began to blow,
and the waves to rise in a most frightful manner. As I had
never been at sea before, 1 was most inexpressibly sick in
body, and terrified in mind.

I began now seriously to reflect upon what I had done,
and how justly I was overtaken by the judgment of Heaven
for my wicked leaving my father’s house, and abandoning my
duty. All the good counsel of my parents, my father’s tears
and my mother’s entreaties, came now fresh into my mind ;
and my conscience reproached me with the contempt of advice,
and the breach of my duty to God and my father.

All this while the storm increased, and the sea went very
high, though nothing like what I have seen many times since
—no, nor what I saw a few days after. I expected every wave
would have swallowed us up, and that every time the ship fell
down, as I thought it did, in the trough or hollow of the sea,
we should never rise more.

In this agony of mind, I made many vows and resolutions,
that if it would please God to spare my life in this one voyage,
if ever I got once my foot upon dry land again, I would go
directly home to my father, and never set it into a ship again
while I lived; that I would take his advice, and never run
myself into such miseries as these any more. In short, I
resolved that I would, like a true repenting prodigal, go home
to my father.

These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the
storm lasted, and indeed some time after: but the next day
the wind was abated, and the sea calmer, and I began to be
a little inured to it. However, I was very grave for all that
HE BEGINS TO BE REPENTANT. 7

day, being also a little sea-sick still; but towards night the
weather cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a charming
fine evening followed. The sun went down perfectly clear,
and rose so the next morning; and having little or no wind,
and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the sight was, as
I thought, the most delightful that ever I saw.

I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick,
but very cheerful—looking with wonder upon the sea, that was
so rough and terrible the day before, and could be so calm and
so pleasant in so little a time after.

And now, lest my good resolutions should continue, my
companion, who had indeed enticed me away, comes to me.
‘Well, Bob,’ says he, clapping me upon the shoulder, ‘how do
you do after it? I warrant you were frightened, weren’t you,
last night, when it blew but a capful of wind?’ ‘A capful d’ye
call it?’ said I; ‘’twas a terrible storm.’ ‘A storm, you fool
you!’ replies he; ‘do you call that a storm? why it was
nothing at all. Give us but a good ship and sea-room, and we
think nothing of such a squall of wind as that. But you’re but
a fresh-water sailor, Bob ; come, let us make a bowl of punch,
and we’ll forget all that: d’ ye see what charming weather ’tis
now ??

To make short this sad part of my story, we went the
way of all sailors ; the punch was made, and I was made half
drunk with it, and in that one night’s wickedness I drowned
all my repentance, all my reflections upon my past conduct,
all my resolutions for the future. In a word, as the sea was
returned to its smoothness of surface, and settled calmness, by
the abatement of that storm, so, the hurry of my thoughts
being over, my fears and apprehensions of being swallowed up
by the sea being forgotten, and the current of my former
desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises that
I made in my distress.

I found, indeed, some intervals of reflection; and the
serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavour to return again
sometimes ; but I shook them off, and roused myself from
them, as it were from a distemper. But I was to have another
trial for it still; and Providence, as in such cases generally
8 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

it does, resolved to leave me entirely without excuse ; for if
I would not take this for a deliverance, the next was to be
such an one, as the worst and most hardened wretch among
us would confess both the danger and the mercy of.

CHAPTER IIJ.—HIS FIRST GREAT STORM.

a= THE sixth day of our being

at sea, we came into Yar-
mouth Roads; the wind having
been contrary and the weather
calm, we had made but
little way since the storm.
Here we were obliged to
come to an anchor, and
here we lay, the wind con-
tinuing contrary, namely,
at south-west, for seven
or eight days; during
which time, a great many ships from
Newcastle came into the same roads,
as the common harbour where the
ships might wait for a wind for the
river.

We had not, however, rid here
_ SSS SS |_~=«50 long but we should have tided
it up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh; and after
we had lain four or five days, blew very hard. Heme the
roads being reckoned as good as a harbour, the anchorage
good, and our ground-tackle very strong, our men were
unconcerned, and not in the least apprehensive of danger,
but spent the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of
the sea.

On the eighth day, in the morning, the wind increased, and
we had all hands at work to strike our topmasts, and make
everything snug and close, that the ship might ride as easy
as possible. By noon, the sea went very high’ indeed, and our

















































































































































HIS FIRST GREAT STORM. 9

ship rode forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought
once or twice our anchor had come home; upon which our
master ordered out the sheet-anchor; so that we rode with
two anchors ahead, and the cables veered out to the better
end.

By this time, it blew a terrible storm indeed. And now I
began to see terror and amazement in the faces even of the
seamen themselves. The master, though vigilant in the busi-
ness of preserving the ship, yet as he went in and out of his
cabin by me, I could hear him, softly to himself, say several
times, ‘Lord be merciful to us! we shall be all lost—we shall
be all undone!’ and the like.

During these first hurries, I was stupid, lying still in my
cabin, which was in the steerage, and cannot describe my
temper. I could ill resume the first penitence which I had so
apparently trampled upon, and hardened myself against; I
thought the bitterness of death had been past; and that this
would be nothing, too, like the first. But when the master
himself came by me, as I said just now, and said we should
be all lost, I was dreadfully frighted.

I got up out of my cabin, and looked out; but such a
dismal sight I never saw. The sea went mountains high, and
broke upon us every three or four minutes ; when I could look
about, I could see nothing but distress round us. Two ships
that rode near us, we found, had cut their masts by the board,
being deep laden; and our men cried out, that a ship, which
rode about a mile ahead of us, was foundered. Two more
ships, being driven from their anchors, were run out of the
roads to sea, at all adventures, and that with not a mast
standing.

Towards the evening, the mate and boatswain begged the
master of our ship to let them cut away the foremast, which
he was very unwilling to do; but the boatswain protesting to
him, that if he did not the ship would founder, he consented.
When they had cut away the foremast, the mainmast stood
so loose, and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut
it away also, and make a clear deck.

Any one must judge what a condition I must be in at all
10 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

this, who was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a
fright before at but a little. But I was in tenfold more horror
of mind upon account of my former convictions, and the
having returned from them to the resolutions I had wickedly
taken at first, than I was at death itself; and these, added to

















































































The Ship in Yarmouth Roads.

the terror of the storm, put me into such a condition, that I
can by no words describe it.

But the worst was not come yet; the storm continued
with such fury, that the seamen themselves acknowledged
they had never known a worse. We had a good ship, but she
was deep laden, and wallowed in the sea, so that the seamen
A TERRIBLE STORM. II

every now and then cried out she would founder. It was
my advantage, in one respect, that I did not know what they
meant by founder, till I inquired. However, the storm was so
violent, that I saw, what is not often seen, the master, the
boatswain, and some others more sensible than the rest, at
their prayers, and expecting every moment when the ship
would go to the bottom.

In the middle of the night, and under all the rest of our
distresses, one of the men that had been down on purpose to
see, cried out we had sprung a leak; another said, there was
four feet.of water in the hold. Then all hands were called to
the pump. At that word, my heart, as I thought, died within
me; and I fell backwards upon the side of my bed where I
sat, into the cabin. However, the men roused me, and told
me that I, that was able to do nothing before, was as well able
to pump as another; at which I stirred up, and went to the
pump, and worked very heartily.

While this was doing, the master seeing some light
colliers, which, not able to ride out the storm, were obliged to
slip and run away to the sea, and would come near us, ordered
to fire a gun as a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing
what that meant, was so surprised, that I thought the ship _
had broken, or some dreadful thing had happened. In a
word, I was so surprised, that I fell down in a swoon. As this
was a time when everybody had his own life to think of,
nobody minded me, or what was become of me ; but another
man stepped up to the pump, and, thrusting me aside with his
foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead ; and it was a great
while before I came to myself.

We worked on, but the water increasing in the hold, it
was apparent that the ship would founder; and though the
storm began to abate a little, yet as it was not possible she
could float till we might run into a port, so the master con-
tinued firing guns for help; anda light ship, which had ridden
it out just ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help us.

It was with the utmost hazard the boat came near us;
but it was impossible for us to get on board, or for the boat to
lie rs the ship side, till at last, the men rowing very heartily,
12 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

and venturing their lives to save ours, our men cast them a
rope over the stern with a buoy to it, and then veered it out a
great length, which they, after great labour and hazard, took
hold of, and we hauled them close under our stern, and got all
into their boat.

It was to no purpose for them or us, after we were in
the boat, to think of reaching to their own ship; so all agreed
to let her drive, and only to pull her in towards shore as much
as we could, Our master promised them, that if the boat was
staved upon shore, he would make it good to their master : so,
partly rowing, and partly driving, our boat went away to the
northward, sloping towards the shore almost as far as Winter-
ton Ness.

We were not much more than a quarter of an hour
out of our ship but we saw her sink: and then I understood,
for the first time, what was meant by a ship foundering in the
sea. I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up, when
the seamen told me she was sinking; for, from that moment
they rather put me into the boat, than that I might be said
to go in, my heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly with
fright, partly with horror of mind, and the thoughts of what
was yet before me.

While we were in this condition—the men yet labouring
at the oar to bring the boat near the shore—we could see
(when, our boat mounting the waves, we were able to see the
shore) a great many people running along the strand to
assist us, when we should come near. We made but slow
way towards the shore, nor were we able to reach it, till being
past the lighthouse at Winterton, the shore falls off to the
westward towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a little
the violence of the wind. Here we got in, and; though not
without much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked after-
wards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we
were used with great humanity, as well by the magistrates
of the town, who assigned us good quarters, as by particular
merchants and owners of ships, and had money given us
sufficient to carry us either to London, or back to Hull, as we
thought fit.
13

CHAPTER IV.—BECOMES A GUINEA TRADER.

H*4? I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and

have gone home, I had been happy, and my father, an
emblem of our blessed Saviour’s parable, had even killed the
fatted calf for me; for, hearing the ship I went in was cast
away in Yarmouth Roads, it was-a great while before he had
any assurance that I was not drowned.

But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy
that nothing could resist: and though I had several times
loud calls from my reason and my more composed judgment
to go home, yet I had no power to doit. I know not what
to call this, nor will I urge that it is a secret, overruling
decree, that hurries us on to be the instruments of our own
destruction, even though it be before us, and that we rush
upon it with our eyes open. Certainly, nothing but some such
decreed unavoidable misery attending, and which it was
impossible for me to escape, could have pushed me forward
against the calm reasonings and persuasions of my most
retired thoughts, and against two such visible instructions
as I had met with in my first attempt.

My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and
who was the master’s son, was now less forward than I. The
first time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which
was not till two or three days, for we were separated in the
town to several quarters—I say, the first time he saw me, it
appeared his tone was altered; and, looking very melancholy,
and shaking his head, asked me how I did: and telling his
father who I was, and how I had come this voyage only for a
trial, in order to go farther abroad, his father, turning to me
with a very grave and concerned tone, ‘ Young man,’ says he,
‘you ought never to go to sea any more; you ought to take
this for a plain and visible token, that you are not to be a
seafaring man.’ ‘Why, sir, said I, ‘will you go to sea no
more?’ ‘That is another case,’ said he; ‘it is my calling, and
therefore my duty; but as you made this voyage for a trial,
you see what a taste Heaven has given you of what you are
14 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

to expect, if you persist: perhaps all this has befallen us on
your account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish.’ He talked
very gravely to me, exhorted me to go back to my father,
and not tempt Providence to my ruin; told me, I might see a
visible hand of Heaven against me: ‘And, young man,’ said
he, ‘depend upon it, if you do not go back, wherever you go,
you will meet with nothing but disasters and disappointments,
till your father’s words are fulfilled upon you.’

We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and
I saw him no more: which way he went I know not. As for
me, having some money in my pocket, I travelled to London
by land; and there, as well as on the road, had many struggles
with myself, what course of life I should take, and whether I
should go home or go to sea.

As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that
offered to my thoughts ; and it immediately occurred to me
how I should be laughed at among the neighbours, and should
be ashamed to see, not my father and mother only, but even
everybody else. I have since often observed, how incongruous
and irrational the common temper of mankind is, especially of
youth, to that reason which ought to guide them in such cases,
namely, that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed
to repent ; not ashamed of the action for which they ought
justly to be esteemed fools, but are ashamed of the returning,
which only can make them be esteemed wise men.

In this state of life, however, I remained some time,
uncertain what measures to take, and what course of life to
lead. An irresistible reluctance continued to going home; and
as 1 staid a while, the remembrance of the distress I had been
in wore off. As that abated, the little motion I had in my
desires to a return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid
aside the thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.

That evil influence which carried me first away from my
father’s house, that hurried me into the wild and indigested
notion of raising my fortune, and that impressed those conceits
so forcibly upon me, as to make me deaf to all good advice,
and to the entreaties and even the command of my father—
I say, the same influence, whatever it was, presented the most
A VOYAGE TO THE GUINEA COAST. 15

unfortunate of all enterprises to my view; and I went on
board a vessel bound to the coast of Africa ; or, as our sailors
vulgarly call it, a voyage to Guinea.

It was my great misfortune, that in all these adventures
I did not ship myself as a sailor; whereby, though I might
indeed have worked a little harder than ordinary, yet, at the
same time, I had learned the duty and office of a foremast-man,
and in time might have qualified myself for a mate or
lieutenant, if not for a master. But as it was always my
fate to choose for the worse, so I did here ; for, having money
in my pocket, and good clothes upon my back, I would always
go on-board in the habit of a gentleman ; and so I neither had
any business in the ship, nor learned to do any.

It was my lot, first of all, to fall into pretty good company
in London, which does not always happen to such loose and
unguided young fellows as I then was, the devil generally not
omitting to lay some snare for them very early ; but it was not
so with me. I first fell acquainted with the master of a ship
who had been on the coast of Guinea; and who, having had
very good success there, was resolved to go again ; and who,
taking a fancy to my conversation, which was not at all
disagreeable at that time, hearing me say I had a mind to see
the world, told me, if I would go the voyage with him I should
be at no expense—I should be his messmate and his com-
panion; and, if I could carry anything with me, I should
have all the advantage of it that the trade would admit ; and,
perhaps, I might meet with some encouragement.

I embraced the offer; and, entering into a strict friend-
ship with this captain, who was an honest and plain-dealing
man, I went the voyage with him, and carried a small
adventure with me, which, by the disinterested honesty of my
friend, the captain, I increased very considerably; for I carried
about forty pounds in such toys and trifles as the captain
directed me to buy. This forty pounds I had mustered to-
gether by the assistance of some of my relations whom I
corresponded with, and who, I believe, got my father, or at
least my mother, to contribute so much as that to my first
adventure.
16 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

This was the only voyage which I may say was success-
ful in all my adventures, and which I owe to the integrity and
honesty of my friend, the captain ; under whom also I got a
competent knowledge of the mathematics, and the rules of
navigation—learned how to keep an account of the ship’s
course, take an observation, and, in short, to understand some
things that were needful to be understood by a sailor. For, as
he took delight to instruct me, I took delight to learn ; and, in
a word, this voyage made me both a sailor anda merchant. I
brought home five pounds nine ounces of gold-dust for my
adventure, which yielded me in London, at my return, almost
three hundred pounds; and this filled me with those aspiring
thoughts which have since so completed my ruin.

Yet, even in this voyage, I had my misfortunes too;
particularly that I was continually sick, being thrown into a
violent calenture by the excessive heat of the climate—our
principal trading being upon the coast, from the latitude of
fifteen degrees north, even to the Line itself.

CHAPTER V.—ATTACKED BY PIRATES AND MADE A SLAVE.

I WAS now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my

great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved
to go the same voyage again; and I embarked in the same
vessel with one who was his mate in the former voyage, and
had now got the command of the ship. This was the
unhappiest voyage that ever man made ; for though I did not
carry quite £100 of my new gained wealth, so that I had £200
left, and which I lodged with my friend’s widow, who was very
just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes in this voyage.
The first was this—our ship, making her course towards the
Canary Islands, or rather between those islands and the
African shore, was surprised, in the gray of the morning, by
a Moorish rover of Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the
sail she could make. We crowded also as much canvas as
our yards would spread or our masts carry, to get clear; but
finding the pirate gained upon us, and would certainly come up
HE BECOMES A SLAVE. 17

with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight ; our ship having
twelve guns, and the rover eighteen.

About three in the afternoon he came up with us, and
bringing to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter, instead of
athwart our stern, as he intended, we brought eight of our guns
to bear on that side, and poured in a broadside upon him,
which made him sheer off again, after returning our fire, and
pouring in also his small shot, from near two hundred men
which he had on board. However, we had not a man touched,
all our men keeping close. He prepared to attack us again,
and we to defend ourselves; but laying us on board the next
time upon our other quarter, he entered sixty men upon our
decks, who immediately fell to cutting and hacking the decks
and rigging. We plied them with small shot, half-pikes,
powder-chests, and such like, and cleared our deck of them
twice. However, to cut short this melancholy part of our story,
our ship being disabled, and three of our men killed, and eight
wounded, we were obliged to yield, and were carried all
prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first
1 apprehended: nor was I carried up the country to the
emperor’s court, as the rest of our men were, but was kept by
the captain of the rover, as his proper prize, and made his
slave, being young and nimble, and fit for his business. At this
surprising change of my circumstances from a merchant to a
miserable slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed; and now I
looked back upon my father’s prophetic discourse to me, that I
should be miserable, and have none to relieve me; which I
thought was now so effectually brought to pass, that I could
not be worse—that now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me,
and I was undone without redemption. But, alas! this was
but a taste of the misery I was to go through, as will appear in
the sequel of this story.

As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his
house, so I was in hopes that he would take me with him when
he went to sea again, believing that it would be some time or
other his fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portuguese man-
of-war, and that then I should be set at liberty. Lut this
18 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

hope of mine was soon taken away ; for when he went to sea,
he left me on shore to look after his little garden and do the
common drudgery of slaves about his house; and when he
came home again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie in the
cabin, to look after the ship.

Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method
I might take to effect it; but found no way that had the least
probability in it. Nothing presented to make the supposition
of it rational; for I had nobody to communicate it to that would
embark with me—no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or
Scotsman there but myself; so that for two years, though I often
pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had the least
encouraging prospect of putting it in practice.

After about two years, an odd circumstance presented
itself, which put the old thought of making some attempt for
my liberty again in my head. My patron lying at home longer
than usual, without fitting out his ship, which, as I heard, was
for want of money, he used constantly, once or twice a week,
sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship’s
pinnace, and go out into the road a-fishing. Ashe always took
me and a young Moresco with him to row the boat, we made
him very merry, and I proved very dexterous in catching fish ;
insomuch that sometimes he would send me with a Moor, one
of his kinsmen, and the youth—the Moresco, as they called
him—to catch a dish of fish for him.

It happened one time that, going a-fishing with him in a
calm morning, a fog rose so thick, that though we were not
half a league from the shore, we lost sight of it; and rowing we
knew not whither, or which way, we laboured all day, and all the
next night; and when the morning came, we found we had
pulled off to sea, instead of pulling in for the shore, and that we
were at least two leagues from the land ; however, we got well
in again, though with a great deal of labour, and some danger,
for the wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morning ; but,
particularly, we were all very hungry.

But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take
more care of himself for the future; and having lying by him
the long-boat of our English ship which he had taken, he
HIS MASTER FITS UP A BOAT. 19

resolved he would not go a-fishing any more without a compass
and some provision ; so he ordered the carpenter of his ship,
who also was an English slave, to build a little state-room, or
cabin, in the middle of the long-boat, like that of a barge, with
a place to stand behind it to steer and haul home the mainsheet ;
and room before for a hand or two to stand and work the sails.
She sailed with what we call a shoulder-of-mutton sail; and
the boom jibbed over the top of the cabin, which lay very snug
and low, and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two,
and a table to eat on, with some small lockers to put in some
bottles of such liquor as he thought fit to drink, as well as his
bread, rice, and coffee.

We were frequently out with this boat a-fishing; and as I
was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without
me. It happened one day, that he had appointed to go out in
this boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors
of some distinction in that place, and for whom he had provided
extraordinarily. He had therefore sent on board the boat over
night a larger store of provisions than usual, and had ordered
me to get ready three fusils with powder and shot, which were
on board his ship ; for that they designed some sport of fowling,
as well as fishing.

I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the
next morning with the boat washed clean, her ancient and
pendants out, and everything to accommodate his guests ; when
by and by my patron came on board alone, and told me his
guests had put off going, upon some business that fell out, and
ordered me, with the man and boy, as usual, to go out with
the boat, and catch them some fish, for that his friends were to
sup at his house. He commanded me, too, that as soon as I
had got some fish, I should bring it home to his house: all
which I prepared to do.

This moment my former notions of deliverance darted
into my thoughts, for now I found I was like to havea little
ship at my command ; and my master being gone, I prepared
to furnish myself, not for fishing business, but for a voyage ;
though I knew not, neither did I so much as consider, whither I
should steer ; for anywhere to get out of that place was my way
20 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to
this Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board ; for
I told him we must not presume to eat of our patron’s bread.
He said that was true; so he brought a large basket of rusk, or
biscuit, and three jars of fresh water, into the boat. I knew
where my patron’s case of bottles stood, which it was evident
by the make were taken out of some English prize, and I
conveyed them into the boat while the Moor was on shore,
as if they had been there before for our master. I con-
veyed also a great lump of bees’-wax into the boat, which
weighed above half a hundredweight, with a parcel of twine
or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all which were
of great use to us afterwards, especially the wax to make
candles.

Another trick I tried upon him, which he innocently
came into also. His name was Ismael, whom they called
Muly, or Moley; so I called to him: ‘Moley,’ said I, ‘our
patron’s guns are on board the boat ; can you not get a little
powder and shot? It may be we may kill some alcamies (a
fowl like our curlews) for ourselves, for I know he keeps the
gunner’s stores in the ship.’ ‘ Yes,’ says he, ‘1’ll bring some ;’
and accordingly he brought a great leather pouch, which held
about a pound and a half of powder, or rather more, and
another with shot, that had five or six pounds, with some
bullets, and put all into the boat. At the same time I had
found some powder of my master’s in the great cabin, with
which I filled one of the large bottles in the case, which was
almost empty, pouring what was in it into another.

Thus furnished with everything needful, we sailed out of
the port to fish. The castle which is at the entrance of the port
knew who we were, and took no notice of us ; and we were not
above a mile out of the port before we hauled in our sail, and
set us down to fish. The wind blew from the north-north-east,
which was contrary to my desire ; for had it blown southerly
I had been sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at least
reached to the bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow
which way it would, I would be gone from that horrid place
where I was, and leave the rest to fate.
21

CHAPTER VI.—EFFECTS HIS ESCAPE.

ATES we had fished some time, and caught nothing—for

when J had fish on my hook I would not pull them up, that
he might not see them—I said to the Moor, ‘ This will not do;
our master will not be thus served ; we must stand farther off.’
He, thinking no harm, agreed, and being in the head of the
boat, set the sails ; and as I had the helm, I ran the boat out
near a league farther, and then brought her to as if I would
fish ; when, giving the boy the helm, I stepped forward to
where the Moor was, and making as if I stooped for some-
thing behind him, I took him by surprise with my arm under
his waist, and tossed him clear overboard into the sea. He rose
immediately, for he swam like a cork, and calling to me, begged
to be taken in, and told me he would go all over the world
with me. He swam so strong after the boat, that he would
have reached me very quickly, there being but little wind;
upon which I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the
fowling-pieces, I presented it at him, and told him, I had done
him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I would do him none.
‘But,’ said I, ‘you swim well enough to reach to the shore, and
the sea is calm ; make the best of your way to shore, and I will
do you no harm ; but if you come near the boat, I'll shoot you
through the head, for I am resolved to have my liberty.’ So he
turned himself about, and swam for the shore, and I make no
doubt but he reached it with ease, for he was an excellent
swimmer.

I could have been content to have taken this Moor with
me, and have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to
trust him. When he was gone, I turned to the boy, whom they
called Xury, and said to him, ‘ Xury, if you will be faithful to
me, I’ll make you a great man ; but if you will not stroke your
face to be true to me (that is, swear by Mahomet and his
father’s beard), I must throw you into the sea too.’ The boy
smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently, that I could not
mistrust him ; and swore to be faithful to me, and go all over
the world with me.
22 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I
stood out directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching to
windward, that they might think me gone towards the Straits’
mouth (as indeed any one that had been in their wits must
have been supposed to do); for who would have supposed we
were sailed on to the southward to the truly barbarian coast,









































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Cnusoe escapes with Xury.

where whole nations of negroes were sure to surround us with
their canoes, and destroy us; where we could never once go on
shore, but we should be devoured by savage beasts, or more
merciless savages of human kind?

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my
«course, and steered directly south and by east, bending my
course a little toward the east, that I might keep in with the
shore; and having a fair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth,
quiet sea, I made such sail, that I believe, by the next day at
ALARMED BY WILD BEASTS. 23

three o’clock in the afternoon, when I first made the land, I
could not be less than one hundred and fifty miles south of
Sallee, quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions, or,
indeed, of any other king thereabouts, for we saw no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the
dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that
I would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an anchor, the
wind continuing fair, till I had sailed in that manner five days;
and then the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also
that if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would
now give over. So 1 ventured to make to the coast, and come
to an anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew not what or
where—neither what latitude, what country, what nation, nor
what river. I neither saw, nor desired to see, any people—
the principal thing I wanted was fresh water.

We came into this creek in the evening, resolving to swim
on shore as soon as it was dark, and discover the country ; but
as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful noises of the
barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures, of we knew not
what kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and
begged of me not to go on shore till day. ‘Well, Xury,’ said I,
‘then I won’t; but, it may be, we may see men by day, who
will be as bad to us as those lions.’ ‘Then we give them the
shoot gun, says Xury, laughing, ‘make them run way.’ Such
English Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves. However,
I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dram
(out of our patron’s case of bottles) to cheer him up.

After all, Xury’s advice was good, and I took it. We
dropped our little anchor, and lay still all night—I say still, for
we slept none—for in two or three hours we saw vast great
creatures (we knew not what to call them) of many sorts, come
down to the sea-shore, and run into the water, wallowing and
washing themselves for the pleasure of cooling themselves ;
and they made such hideous howlings and yellings, that I never
indeed heard the like.

Xury was dreadfully frightened, and indeed so was I too;
but we were both more frightened when we heard one of these
mighty creatures come swimming towards our boat. We
24 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

could not see him, but we might hear him by his blowing, to be
a monstrous, huge, and furious beast; Xury said it was a lion,
and it might be so for aught I know. Poor Xury cried to me
to weigh the anchor, and row away. ‘No,’ says I, ‘Xury, we
can slip our cable with a buoy to it, and go to sea; they cannot
follow us far.’ I had no sooner said so, but I perceived the
creature (whatever it was) within two oars’ length, which some-
what surprised me. However, I immediately stepped to the
cabin door, and taking up my gun, fired at him; upon which
he immediately turned about, and swam to the shore again.

But it was not possible to describe the horrible noises, and
hideous cries and howlings, that were raised, as well upon the
edge of the shore, as higher within the country, upon the noise
or report of a gun ; a thing I have some reason to believe those
creatures had never heard before. This convinced me, that
there was no going on shore for us in the night upon that coast;
and how to venture on shore in the day, was another question
too; for to have fallen into the hands of any of the savages,
had been as bad as to have fallen into the paws of lions and
tigers ; at least, we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.

Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore some-
where or other for water, for we had not a pint left in the
boat. When or where to get it was the point. Xury said if I
would let him go on shore with one of the jars, he would find
if there was any water, and bring some to me. I asked him
why he would go? why I should not go, and he stay in the
boat? The boy answered with so much affection, that made
me love him ever after. Says he, ‘If wild mans come, they eat
me, you go way.’ ‘Well, Xury,’ said I, ‘we will both go, and
if the wild mans come, we will kill them ; they shall eat neither
of us” So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a dram
out of our patron’s case of bottles, which I mentioned before :
and we hauled the boat in as near the shore as we thought was
proper, and so waded on shore, carrying nothing but our arms,
and two jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the
coming of canoes with savages down the river: but the boy,
seeing a low place about a mile up the country, rambled to it;
ON AN UNKNOWN COAST, 25

and by and by I sawhim come running towards me. I thought
he was pursued by some savage, or frightened with some wild
beast, and I ran forward towards him to help him; but when
I came nearer to him, I saw something hanging over his
shoulders, which was a creature that he had shot, like a hare,
but different in colour, and longer legs. However, we were very
glad of it, and it was very good meat; but the great joy that
poor Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good water,
and seen ‘no wild mans.’

But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains
for water, for a little higher up the creek where we were, we
found the water fresh when the tide was out, which flows but a
little way up; so we filled our jars, and feasted on the hare we
had killed, and prepared to go on our way, having seen no
footsteps of any human creature in that part of the country,

CHAPTER VII.—ADVENTURES WITH WILD BEASTS
AND SAVAGES.

ues I had been one voyage to the

coast before, I knew very well
that the islands of the Canaries, and
the Cape de Verd Islands
also, lay not far off from the
coast. But as I had no instru-
ments to take an observation
o know what latitude we were
in, and did not exactly know,
3) or at least not remember, what
atitude they were in, and knew
not where to look for them, or
when to stand off to sea to-
wards them ; otherwise I might
now easily have found some of these ‘clandde But my hope
was, that if I stood along this coast till I came to that part
where the English traded, I should find some of their vessels












26 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

upon their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take
us in,

By the best of my calculation, that place where I now
was must be that country which, lying between the Emperor
of Morocco’s dominions and the negroes, lies waste and unin-
habited, except by wild beasts ; the negroes having abandoned
it, and gone farther south for fear of the Moors; and the
Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its barren-
ness. Indeed, for near a hundred miles together upon this
coast, we saw nothing but a waste uninhabited country by
day, and heard nothing but howlings and roaring of wild
beasts by night.

Once or twice in the daytime I thought I saw the Pico
of Teneriffe, being the high top of the mountain Teneriffe in
the Canaries, and had a great mind to venture out, in hopes of
reaching thither ; but having tried twice, I was forced in again
by contrary winds, the sea also going too high for my little
vessel. So I resolved to pursue my first design, and keep
along the shore.

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after
we had left this place; and once, in particular, being early in
the morning, we came to an anchor under a little point of
land which was pretty high; and the tide beginning to flow,
we lay still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more
about him than it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and
tells me, that we had best go farther off the shore: ‘ For,’
says he, ‘look—yonder lies a dreadful monster, on the side
of that hillock, fast asleep.’ I looked where he pointed, and
saw a dreadful monster indeed, for it was a terrible great
lion that lay on the side of the shore, under the shade of a
piece of the hill that hung, as it were, a little over him.
‘Xury, says I, ‘you shall go on shore and kill him.’ Xury
looked frightened, and said, ‘Me kill! he eat me at one
mouth !’—one mouthful he meant.

I said no more to the boy, but bade him lie still, and I
took our biggest gun, which was almost musket-bore, and
loaded it with a good charge of powder, and with two slugs,
and laid it down. Then I loaded another gun with two bullets ;


HE KILLS A LION. 27

and the third—for we had three pieces—I loaded with five
smaller bullets. I took the best aim 1 could with the first
piece to have shot him into the head, but he lay so with his
leg raised a little above his nose, that the slugs hit his leg
about the knee and broke the bone. He started up, growling
at first, but finding his leg broken, fell down again, and then
got up upon three legs, and gave the most hideous roar that
ever I heard. I was a little surprised that I had not hit him
on the head; however, I took up the second piece imme-
diately, and, though he began to move off, fired again, and
shot him in the head, and had the pleasure to see him drop,
and make but little noise, but lie struggling for life.

Xury then took heart, and would have me let him go on
shore. ‘ Well, go,’ said I; so the boy jumped into the water,
and, taking a little gun in one hand, swam to shore with the
other hand, and coming close to the creature, put the muzzle
of the piece to his ear, and shot him in the head again, which
despatched him quite.

This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I
was very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon
a creature that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury
said he would have some of him; so he comes on board,
and asked me to give him the hatchet. ‘For what, Xury?’
said I. ‘Me cut off his head, said he. However, Xury could
not cut off his head, but he cut off a foot, and brought it with
him, and it was a monstrous great one.

I bethought. myself, however, that perhaps the skin of
him might, one way or other, be of some value to us; and I
resolved to take off his skin if I could. So Xury and I went
to work with him; but Xury was much the better workman at
it, for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us both
the whole day, but at last we got off the hide, and, spreading
it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two
days’ time, and it afterwards served me to lie upon.

After this stop, we made on to the southward continually
for ten or twelve days, living very sparingly on our provisions,
which began to abate very much, and going no oftener to the

shore than we were obliged to do for fresh water. My design
¢
28 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

in this was, to make either the river Gambia or the Senegal,
that is to say, anywhere about the Cape de Verd, where I was
in hopes to meet with some European ship; and if I did not,
I knew not what course I had to take, but to seek for the
islands, or perish there among the negroes. I knew that all
the ships from Europe, which sailed either to the coast of
Guinea, or to Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this Cape, or
those islands ; and, in a word, I put the whole of my fortune
upon this single point, either that I must meet with some ship,
or must perish.

When I had pursued this resolution about ten days
longer, as I have said, I began to see that the land was
inhabited ; and in two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw
people stand upon the shore to look at us: we could also
perceive they were quite black, and stark naked. I was once
inclined to go on shore to them; but Xury was my better
counsellor, and said to me, ‘No go, no go.’ However, I
hauled in nearer the shore that I might talk to them, and
I found they ran along the shore by me a good way. I
observed they had no weapons in their hands, except one, who
had a long slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and
that they would throw them a great way with good aim; so I
kept at a distance, but talked with them by signs as well as I
could, and particularly made signs for something to eat.

They beckoned to me to stop my boat, and they would
fetch me some meat. Upon this, I lowered the top of my sail,
and lay by, and two of them ran up into the country, and in
less than half an hour came back, and brought with them two
pieces of dry flesh and some corn, such as is the produce of
their cquntry ; but we neither knew what the one nor the other
was : however, we were willing to accept it. But how to come
at it was our next dispute, for I was not for venturing on shore
to them, and they were as much afraid of us. But they took
a safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore and laid
it down, and went and stood a great way off till we fetched it
on board, and then came close to us again.

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing
to make them amends; but an opportunity offered that very
HE KILLS A LEOPARD. 29

instant to oblige them wonderfully. For while we were lying
by the shore, came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the
other (as we took it) with great fury from the mountains
towards the sea. Whether it was the male pursuing the female,
or whether they were in sport or in rage, we could not tell, any
more than we could tell whether it was usual or strange, but I
believe it was the latter; because, in the first place, those
ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night; and, in
the second place, we found the people terribly frightened,
especially the women. The man that had the lance, or dart,
did not fly from them, but the rest did. However, as the two
creatures ran directly into the water, they did not seem to
offer to fall upon any of the negroes, but plunged themselves
into the sea, and swam about as if they had come for their
diversion. At last one of them began to come nearer our
boat than at first I expected; but I lay ready for him, for I
had loaded my gun with all possible expedition, and bade
Xury load both the others. As soon as he came fairly within
my reach, I fired, and shot him directly in the head. Imme-
diately he sank down into the water, but rose instantly, and
plunged up and down as if he was struggling for life, and
so indeed he was. He immediately made to the shore; but
between the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and the strang-
ling of the water, he died just before he reached the shore.

It is impossible to express the astonishment of these
poor creatures at the noise and the fire of my gun; some of
them were even ready to die for fear, and fell down as dead
with the very terror. But when they saw the creature dead,
and sunk in the water, and that I made signs to them to come
to the shore, they took heart, and came, and began to search
for the creature. I found him by his blood staining the water,
and by the help of a rope, which I slung round him, and gave
the negroes to haul, they dragged him on shore, and found
that it was a most curious leopard, spotted and fine to an
admirable degree, and the negroes held up their hands with
admiration to think what it was I had killed him with.

The other creature, frightened with the flash of fire and
the noise of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to
30 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the mountains from whence they came, nor could I at that
distance know what it was. I found quickly the negroes were
for eating the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to have
them take it as a favour from me, which, when I made signs to
them that they might take him, they were very thankful for.
Immediately they fell to work with him, and though they had
no knife, yet, with a sharpened piece of wood, they took off
his skin as readily, and much more readily, than we could have
done with a knife. They offered me some of the flesh, which
I declined, making as if I would give it them, but made signs
for the skin, which they gave me very freely, and brought me
a great deal more of their provision, which, though I did not
understand, yet I accepted. Then I made signs to them for
some water, and held out one of my jars to them, turning it
bottom upward, to show that it was empty, and that I wanted
to have it filled. They called immediateiy to some of their
friends, and there came two women, and brought a great vessel
made of earth, and burned, as I suppose in the sun ; this they
set down for me, as before, and I sent Xury on shore with my
jars, and filled them all three.

CHAPTER VIII.—RESCUED BY A PORTUGUESE SHIP.

WAS now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and
water ; and, leaving my friendly negroes, I made forward
for about eleven days more, without offering to go near the
shore, till I saw the land run out a great length into the sea,
at about the distance of four or five leagues before me; and
the sea being very calm, I kept a large offing to make this
point. At length, doubling the point, at about two leagues
from the land, I saw plainly land on the other side to sea-
ward ; then I concluded, as it was most certain indeed, that this
was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands, called from thence
Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at a great distance,
and I could not well tell what I had best to do; for, if I should
be taken with a fresh of wind, I might neither reach one nor
the other.
RESCUED BY A PORTUGUESE SHIP. 31

In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into
the cabin and sat me down, Xury having the helm. Ona
sudden, the boy cried out, ‘ Master, master, a ship with a sail!’
and the foolish boy was frightened out of his wits, thinking it
must needs be some of his master’s ships sent to pursue us,
but I knew we were far enough out of their reach. I jumped
out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only the ship, but
what she was, namely, that it was a Portuguese ship, and,
as I thought, was bound to the coast of Guinea for negroes.
But when I observed the course she steered, I was soon
convinced they were bound some other way, and did not
design to come any nearer to the shore; upon which I
stretched out to sea as much as I could, resolving to speak
with them if possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be
able to come in their way, but that they would be gone by
before I could make any signal to them; but after I had
crowded to the utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems,
saw by the help of their perspective glasses, that it was some
European boat, which, as they supposed, must belong to some
ship that was lost; so they shortened sail to let me come up.
I was encouraged with this ; and as I had my patron’s ancient
on board, I made a waft of it to them for a signal of distress,
and fired a gun, both which they saw, for they told me they
saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon
these signals they very kindly brought to, and lay by for me,
and, in about three hours’ time, I came up with them.

They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish,
and in French; but I understood none of them. At last, a
Scotch sailor who was on board called to me, and I answered
him, and told him I was an Englishman—that I had made my
escape out of slavery from the Moors at Sallee. They bade
me come on board, and very kindly took me in, and all my
goods.

It was an inexpressible joy to me, as any one would
believe, that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such
a miserable and almost hopeless condition as I was in, and
immediately offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a
32 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

return for my deliverance; but he generously told me he
would take nothing from me, but that all I had should be
delivered safe to me when I came to the Brazils. ‘For,’ says
he, ‘I have saved your life on no other terms than I would be
glad to be saved myself; and it may one time or other be my
lot to be taken up in the same condition: besides,’ said he,
‘when I carry you to the Brazils, so great a way from your
own country, 1f I should take from you what you have, you will
be starved there, and then I only take away that life I have
given. No, no, Seégvor Jiglese,) says he,‘Mr Englishman, I
will carry you thither in charity, and those things will help
you to buy your subsistence there, and your passage home
again.’

As he was charitable in his proposal, so he was just in
the performance to a tittle; for he ordered the seamen, that
none should offer to touch anything Ihad. Then he took every-
thing into his own possession, and gave me back an exact
inventory of them, that I might have them; even so much as
my three earthen jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one, and that he saw,
and told me he would buy it of me for the ship’s use, and
asked me what I would have for it? I told him he had been so
generous in everything, that I could not offer to make any
price of the boat, but left it entirely to him; upon which he
told me, he would give me a note of his hand to pay me eighty
pieces of eight for it at Brazil ; and when it came there, if any
one offered to give more, he would make it up. He offered me
also sixty pieces of eight more for my boy Xury, which I was
loath to take ; not that I was unwilling to let the captain have
him, but I was very loath to sell the poor boy’s liberty, who
had assisted me so faithfully in procuring my own. However,
when I let him know my reason, he owned it to be just, and
offered me this medium, that he would give the boy an obliga-
tion to set him free in ten years, if he turned Christian. Upon
this, and Xury saying he was willing to go to him, I let the
captain have him.

We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and arrived in
the bay of Todos los Santos, or All Saints’ Bay, in about
THE CAPTAIN 1S GENEROUS. 33

twenty-two days after. And now I was once more delivered
from the most miserable of all conditions of life ; and what to
do next with myself I was now to consider.

CHAPTER IX.—BECOMES A PLANTER.

Se generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never

enough remember. He would take nothing of me for my
passage—gave me twenty ducats for the leopard’s skin, and
forty for the lion’s skin, which I had in my boat, and caused
everything I had in the ship to be punctually delivered me ;
and what I was willing to sell he bought, such as the case of
bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees’-wax,
for I had made candles of the rest—in a word, I made about
two hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo; and
with this stock I went on shore in the Brazils.

I had not been long here, but being recommended to the
house of a good honest man like himself, who had an zxgezno,
as they call it—that is, a plantation and a sugar-house—I lived
with him some time, and acquainted myself by that means
with the manner of their planting and making of sugar. See-
ing how well the planters lived, and how they grew rich
suddenly, I resolved, if I could get license to settle there, I
would turn planter among them ; resolving, in the meantime,
to find out some way to get my money, which I had left in
London, remitted to me. To this purpose, getting a kind of
letter of naturalisation, I purchased as much land that was
uncured as my money would reach, and formed a plan for my
plantation and settlement, and such a one as might be suitable
to the stock which I proposed to myself to receive from
England.

I had a neighbour—a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of
English parents—whose name was Wells, and in much such
circumstances as I was. I call him neighbour, because his
plantation lay next to mine, and we went on very sociably
together. My stock was but low, as well as his ; and we rather
planted for food, than anything else, for about two years.
34 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

However, we began to increase, and our land began to come
into order ; so that the third year we planted some tobacco,
and made each of us a large piece of ground ready for plant-
ing canes in the year to come; but we both wanted help: and
now I found, more than before, I had done wrong in parting
with my boy Xury.

I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying
on the plantation, before my kind friend, the captain of the
ship that took me up at sea, went back ; for the ship remained
there, in providing his loading, and preparing for his voyage,
near three months ; when, telling him what little stock I had
left behind me in London, he gave me this friendly and sincere
advice : ‘ Seignor Inglese, says he (for so he always called me),
‘if you will give me letters, and a procuration here in form to
me, with orders to the person who has your money in London,
to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct,
and in such goods as are proper for this country, I will bring
you the produce of them, God willing, at my return; but
since human affairs are all subject to changes and disasters,
I would have you give orders but for one hundred pounds
sterling, which, you say, is half your stock, and let the hazard
be run for the first ; so that, if it come safe, you may order the
rest the same way, and, if it miscarry, you may have the other
half to have recourse to for your supply.’

This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly,
that I could not but be convinced it was the best course
I could take; so I accordingly prepared letters to the gentle-
woman with whom I had left my money, and a procuration to
the Portuguese captain, as he desired.

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full account of all
my adventures, my slavery, escape, and how I had met with
the Portuguese captain at sea, the humanity of his behaviour,
and what condition I was now in, with all other necessary
directions for my supply. When this honest captain came to
Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English merchants
there, to send over, not the order only, but a full account of
my story, to a merchant at London, who represented it
effectually to her. Whereupon she not only delivered the
A GOOD INVESTMENT. 35

money, but, out of her own pocket, sent the Portuguese captain
a very handsome present for his humanity and charity to me.

The merchant in London vesting this hundred pounds in
English goods, such as the captain had written for, sent them
directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me
to the Brazils ; among which, without my direction (for I was
too young in my business to think of them) he had taken care
to have all sort of tools, ironwork, and utensils, necessary for
my plantation, and which were of great use to me.

When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made,
for I was surprised with joy of it; and my good steward, the
captain, had laid out the five pounds, which my friend had
sent him for a present for himself, to purchase, and bring me
over a servant, under bond for six years’ service, and would
not accept of any consideration, except a little tobacco, which
I would have him accept, being of my own produce.

Neither was this all; but my goods being all English
manufactures, such as cloth, stuffs, baize, and things particularly
valuable and desirable in the country, I found means to sell
them to a very great advantage; so that 1, may say I had
more than four times the value of my first cargo, and was now
infinitely beyond my poor neighbour, I mean in the advance-
ment of my plantation; for the first thing I did, I bought me
a negro slave, and a European servant also—I mean another
besides that which the captain brought me from Lisbon.

Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had
room for all the happy things to have yet befallen me, for
which my father so earnestly recommended a quiet retired life,
and of which he had so sensibly described the middle station
of life to be full; but other things attended me, and I was
still to be the wilful agent of all my own miseries.

For I could not be content now, but I must go and leave
the happy view I had of being a rich and thriving man in my
new plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire
of rising faster than the nature of the thing admitted; and
thus I cast myself down again into the deepest gulf of human
misery that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consisten
with life and a state of health in the world.
36 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

To come, then, by just degrees, to the particulars of this
part of my story: you may suppose, that, having now lived
almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive and
prosper very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned
the language, but had contracted acquaintance and friendship
among my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants at
St Salvadore, which was our port; and that in my discourse
among them, I had frequently given them an account of my
two voyages to the coast of Guinea, the manner of trading
with the negroes there, and how easy it was to purchase upon
the coast, for trifles—such as beads, toys, knives, scissors,
hatchets, bits of glass, and the like—not only gold-dust, Guinea
grains, elephants’ teeth, &c., but negroes for the service of the
Brazils in great numbers.

They listened always very attentively to my discourses on
these heads, but especially to that part which related to buy-
ing negroes, which was a trade at that time not only not far
entered into, but, as far as it was, had been carried on by the
assiento, or permission, of the kings of Spain and Portugal, and
engrossed in thg public, so that few negroes were bought, and
those excessively dear.

It happened, being in company with some merchants
and planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things
very earnestly, three of them came to me the next morning,
and told me they had been musing very much upon what I
had discoursed with them of the last night, and they came to
make a secret proposal to me. After enjoining me to secrecy,
they told me that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to
Guinea ; that they had all plantations as well as I, and were
straitened for nothing so much as servants. As it was a trade
that could not be carried on, because they could not publicly
sell the negroes when they came home, so they desired
to make but one voyage, to bring the negroes on shore
privately, and divide them among their own plantations. In
a word, the question was, whether I would go their supercargo
in the ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast of
Guinea? and they offered me that I should have my equal
share of the negroes, without providing any part of the stock.
TRADE ON THE GUINEA COAST, 37

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it
been made to any one that had not had a settlement and
plantation of his own to look after, which was in a fair way of
coming to be very considerable, and with a good stock upon
it. But for me, that was thus entered and established, and
had nothing to do but go on as I had begun, for three or
four years more, and to have sent for the other hundred pounds
from England, and who, in that time and with that little
addition, could scarce have failed of being worth three or four
thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing too—for me to
think of such a voyage, was the most preposterous thing that
ever man in such circumstances could be guilty of.

But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no
more resist the offer than I could restrain my first rambling
designs, when my father’s good counsel was lost upon me.
In a word, I told them I would go with all my heart, if they
would undertake to look after my plantation in my absence,
and would dispose of it to such as I should direct, if I mis-
carried. This they all engaged to do, and entered into writings,
or covenants, to do so. I made a formal will, disposing of my
plantation and effects in case of my death, making the captain
of the ship that had saved my life, as before, my universal heir,
but obliging him to dispose of my effects as I had directed in
my will—one half of the produce being to himself, and the
other to be shipped to England.

In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects,
and keep up my plantation. Had I used half as much
prudence to have looked into my own interest, and have made
a judgment of what I ought to have done, and not to have
done, I had certainly never gone away from so prosperous an
undertaking, leaving all the probable views of a thriving cir-
cumstance, and gone upon a voyage to sea, attended with all
its common hazards; to say nothing of the reasons I had to
expect particular misfortunes to myself. But I was hurried on,
and obeyed blindly the dictates of my fancy, rather than my
reason.
38 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

CHAPTER X.—SUFFERS SHIPWRECK AGAIN.

i. | ee ship being fitted out, and
the cargo furnished, and all
ei things done as by agreement by
~| my partners in the voyage, I
= went on board in an evil hour
again, the Ist of September
1659, being the same day eight
years that I went from my
father and mother at Hull, in
order to act the rebel to their
authority, and the fool to my
own interest.

Our ship was about one
hundred and twenty tons bur-
den, carried six guns, and four-
teen men, besides the master, his boy, and myself ; we had on
board no large cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit
for our trade with the negroes, such as beads, bits of glass,
shells, and odd trifles, especially little looking-glasses, knives,
scissors, hatchets, and the like.

The same day I went on board we set sail, standing
away to the northward upon our own coast, with design to
stretch over for the African coast, when we came about ten or
twelve degrees of northern latitude, which, it seems, was the
manner of their course in those days. We had very good
weather, only excessively hot, all the way upon our own coast,
till we came to the height of Cape St Augustino, from whence,
keeping farther off at sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as
if we were bound for the isle Fernand de Noronha, holding our
course north-east by north, and leaving those isles on the east.

In this course we passed the Line in about twelve days
time, and were, by our last observation, in seven degrees
twenty-two minutes northern latitude, when a violent tornado,
or hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge. It began
from the south-east, came about to the north-west, and then




NEAR THE BRAZIL COAST. 39

settled into the north-east; from whence it blew in such a
terrible manner, that for twelve days together we could do
nothing but drive, and, scudding away before it, let it carry
us whithersoever fate and the fury of the winds directed. And
during those twelve days, I need not say that I expected every
day to be swallowed up, nor, indeed, did any in the ship
expect to save their lives.

In this distress, we had, besides the terror of the storm,
one of our men dead of the calenture, and one man and the
boy washed overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather
abating a little, the master made an observation as well as he
could, and found that he was in about eleven degrees north
latitude, but that he was twenty-two degrees of longitude
difference west from Cape St Augustino; so that he found he
was gotten upon the coast of Guiana, or the north part of
Brazil, beyond the river Amazon, toward that of the river
Orinoco, commonly called the Great River, and began to
consult with me what course he should take ; for the ship was
leaky, and very much disabled, and he was going directly back
to the coast of Brazil.

I was positively against that ; and, looking over the charts
of the sea-coasts of America with him, we concluded there
was no inhabited country for us to have recourse to, till we
came within the circle of the Caribbean Islands; and there-
fore resolved to stand away for Barbadoes, which, by keeping
off at sea, to avoid the indraft of the Bay or Gulf of Mexico,
we might easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days’
sail: whereas we could not possibly make our voyage to the
coast of Africa, without some assistance, both to our ship and
ourselves.

With this design we changed our course, and steered
away north-west by west, in order to reach some of our
English islands, where I hoped for relief. But our voyage was
otherwise determined; for, being in the latitude of twelve
degrees, eighteen minutes, a second storm came upon us,
which carried us away with the same impetuosity westward,
and drove us so out of the very way of all human commerce,
that, had all our lives been saved as to the sea, we were rather
40 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

in danger of being devoured by savages than ever returning
to our own country.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of
our men, early in the morning, cried out, ‘Land!’ and we had
no sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing
whereabouts in the world we were, but-the ship struck upon
a sandbank, and, in a moment, her motion being so stopped,
the sea broke over her in such a manner that we expected
we should all have perished immediately; and we were
immediately driven into our close quarters, to shelter us from
the very foam and spray of the sea.

It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like
condition, to describe or conceive the consternation of men in
such circumstances. We knew nothing where we were, or
upon what land it was we were driven—whether an island or
the main, whether inhabited or not inhabited ; and as the rage
of the wind was still great, though rather less than at first,
we could not so much as hope to have the ship hold many
minutes without breaking in pieces, unless the winds, by a
kind of miracle, should turn immediately about. In a word,
we sat looking one upon another, and expecting death every
moment, and every man acting accordingly, preparing for
another world ; for there was little or nothing more for us to
do inthis. That which was our present comfort, and all the
comfort we had, was, that, contrary to our expectation, the
ship did not break yet, and that the master said the wind
began to abate.

Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate,
yet, the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking
too fast for us to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful
condition indeed, and had nothing to do but to think of saving
our lives as well as we could. We hada boat at our stern
just before the storm; but she was first staved by dashing
against the ship’s rudder, and, in the next place, she broke
away, and either sunk or was driven off to sea; so there was
no hope from her. We had another boat on board, but how
to get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing. However,
there was no room to debate, for we fancied the ship would
THE BOAT IS SWAMPED. 41

break in pieces every minute, and some told us she was
actually broken already.

In this distress, the mate of our vessel laid hold of the
boat, and, with the help of the rest of the men, got her slung
over the ship’s side, and getting all into her, let go, and
committed ourselves—being eleven in number—to God’s
mercy and the wild sea; for, though the storm was abated
considerably, yet the sea went dreadfully high upon the shore,
and might well be called den weld zee, as the Dutch call the
sea in a storm.

And now our case was very dismal indeed ; for we all saw
plainly, that the sea went so high that the boat could not
live, and that we should be inevitably drowned. As to making
sail, we had none, nor, if we had, could we have done anything
with it; so we worked at the oar towards the land, though
with heavy hearts, like men going to execution ; for we all
knew, that when the boat came nearer the shore, she would
be dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach of the sea.
However, we committed our souls to God in the most earnest
manner; and the wind driving us towards the shore, we
hastened our destruction with our own hands, pulling as well
as we could towards land.

What the shore was—whether rock or sand, whether
steep or shoal—we knew not; the only hope that could
rationally give us the least shadow of expectation was, if we
might find some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river,
where, by great chance, we might run our boat in, or get under
the lee of the land, and perhaps make smooth water. There
was nothing of this appeared; but, as we made nearer and
nearer the shore, the land looked more frightful than the
sea.

After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league
and a half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like,
came rolling astern of us, and plainly bade us expect the coup
de grace. In a word, it took us with such a fury, that it over-
set the boat at once; and, separating us as well from the
boat as from one another, gave us not time hardly to say
‘Oh God !’ for we were all swallowed up in a moment.
42 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I
felt when I sank into the water ; for though I swam very well,
yet I could not deliver myself from the waves so as to draw
breath, till that a wave, having driven me, or rather carried me,
a vast way on towards the shore, and, having spent itself, went
back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but half dead with
the water I took in. I had so much presence of mind, as well
as breath left, that, seeing myself nearer the mainland than I
expected, I got upon my feet, and endeavoured to make on
towards the land as fast as I could, before another wave
should return and take me up again. But I soon found it was
impossible to avoid it ; for I saw the sea come after me as high
as a great hill, and as furious as an enemy, which I had no
means or strength to contend with. My business was to hold
my breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I could; and
so, by swimming, to preserve my breathing, and pilot myself
towards the shore, if possible—my greatest concern now being,
that the sea, as it would carry mea great way towards the shore
when it came on, might not carry me back again with it when
it gave back towards the sea.

The wave that came upon me again, buried me at once
twenty or thirty fect deep in its own body; and I could feel
myself carried with a mighty force and swiftness towards the
shore a very great way; but I held my breath and assisted
myself to swim still forward with all my might. I was ready
to burst with holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising
up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my head and hands
shoot out above the surface of the water; and though it was
not two seconds of time that I could keep myself so, yet it
relieved me greatly, gave me breath, and new courage.

I was covered again with water a good while, but not so
long but I held it out; and, finding the water had spent itself,
and began to return, I struck forward against the return of the
waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I stood still a few
moments to recover breath, and till the water went from me,
and then took to my heels and ran with what strength I had
farther towards the shore. But neither would this deliver me
from the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me again ;
SAVED FROM THE SEA. 43

and twice more I was lifted up by the waves, and carried
forward as before, the shore being very flat.

The last time of these two had well near been fatal to me;
for the sea, having hurried me along as before, landed me, or
rather dashed me, against a piece of a rock, and that with such
force as it left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own
deliverance; for the blow, taking my side and breast, beat the
breath, as it were, quite out of my body, and, had it returned
again immediately, I must have been strangled in the water ;
but I recovered a little before the return of the waves, and,
seeing I should be covered again with the water, I resolved to
hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath, if
possible, till the wave went back. Now, as the waves were not
so high as at first, being near land, I held my hold till the
wave abated, and then fetched another run, which brought me
so near the shore, that the next wave, though it went over me,
yet did not so swallow me up as to carry me away; and the
next run I took I got to the mainland, where, to my great
comfort, I clambered up the clifts of the shore, and sat me down
upon the grass, free from danger, and quite out of the reach of
the water.

I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look
up and thank God that my life was saved, in a case wherein
there was, some minutes before, scarcely any room to hope. I
believe it is impossible to express to the life what the ecstasies
and transports of the soul are when it is so saved, as I may say,
out of the very grave; and I do not wonder now at that custom,
namely, that when a malefactor, who has the halter about his
neck, is tied up, and just going to be turned off, and has a
reprieve brought to him—I say, I do not wonder that they bring
| 4 Surgeon with it, to let him blood that very moment they tell
him of it, that the surprise may not drive the animal spirits from
the heart, and overwhelm him:

For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.

I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and
my whole being, as I may say, WpePt up in the contemplation
of my deliverance, making a thousand gestures and motions

@
44 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

which I cannot describe—reflecting upon all my comrades that
were drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved but
myself—for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any
sign of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes
that were not fellows.

I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach
and froth of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so
far off, and considered, Lord! how was it possible I could get
on shore?

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part
of my condition, I began to look round me, to see what kind of
place I was in, and what was next to be done; and I soon
found my comforts abate, and that, in a word, I had a dreadful
deliverance. For I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor
anything either to eat or drink to comfort me; neither did I
see any prospect before me but that of perishing with hunger,
or being devoured by wild beasts. And that which was particu-
larly afflicting to me was, that I had no weapon either to hunt and
kill any creature for my sustenance, or to defend myself against
any other creature that might desire to kill me for theirs. In
a word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe,
and a little tobacco in a box. This was all my provision, and
this threw me into terrible agonies of mind, that, for a while, I
ran about like a madman. Night coming upon me, I began,
with a heavy heart, to consider what would be my lot if there
were any ravenous beasts in that country, seeing at night they
always come abroad for their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time
was, to get up into a thick pushy tree like a fir, but thorny,
which grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all night, and
consider the next day what death I should die, for as yet I saw
no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong from the shore,
to see if I could find any fresh water to drink, which I did, to
my great joy ; and having drunk, and put a little tobacco in my
mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into
it, endeavoured to place myself so as that if I should sleep I
might not fall; and having cut me a short stick, like a
truncheon, for my defence, I took up my lodging ; and, having
THE DESERT ISLAND. 45

been excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as
comfortably as, I believe, few could have done in my condition,
and found myself the most refreshed with it that I think I ever
was on such an occasion.

CHAPTER XI.—THE DESERT ISLAND.

yo I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the

storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as
before ; but that which surprised me most was, that the ship
was lifted off in the night from the sand where she lay, by the
swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost as far as the
rock which I first mentioned, where I had been so bruised by
the waves dashing me against it. This being within about a
mile from the shore where I was, and the ship seeming to
stand upright still, I wished myself on board, that at least I
might save some necessary things for my use.

When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I
looked about me again, and the first thing I found was the
boat, which lay as the wind and the sea had tossed her up
upon the land, about two miles on my right hand. I walked
as far as I could upon the shore to have got to her, but found
a neck, or inlet of water, between me and the boat, which was
about half a mile broad. So I came back for the present, being
more intent upon getting at the ship, where I hoped to find
something for my present subsistence.

A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the tide
ebbed so far out, that I could come within a quarter of a mile
of the ship. And here I found a fresh renewing of my grief;
for I saw evidently, that if we had kept on board, we had been
all safe-—that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had
not been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all
comfort and company, as I now was. This forced tears from
my eyes again ; but as there was little relief in that, I resolved
if possible to get to the ship; soI pulled off my clothes, for
the weather was hot to extremity, and took the water. But
when I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know
46 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

how to get on board ; for as she lay aground and high out of
the water, there was nothing within my reach to lay hold of.

I swam round her twice, and the second time I spied a
small piece of rope, which I wondered I did not see at first,
hang down by the fore-chains, so low that with great difficulty
I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope, got up into the
forecastle of the ship. Here I found that the ship was bulged,
and had a great deal of water in her hold, but that she lay so on
the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth, and her stern
lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head low almost to the
water. By this means all her quarter was free, and all that
was in that part was dry; for you may be sure my first work
was to search and to see what was spoiled, and what was free.
And first I found that all the ship’s provisions were dry and
untouched by the water ; and being very well disposed to eat,
I went to the bread-room and filled my pockets with biscuit,
and ate it as I went about other things, for I had no time to
lose. I also found some rum in the great cabin, of which I
took a large dram, and which I had indeed need enough of to
spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted nothing
but a boat to furnish myself with many things which I foresaw
would be very necessary to me.

It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be
had; and this extremity roused my application. We had
several spare yards, and two or three large spars of wood, and
a spare topmast or two in the ship. I resolved to fall to work
with these, and flung as many of them overboard as I could
manage for their weight, tying every one with a rope, that they
might not drive away. When this was done, I went down to
the ship’s side, and pulling them to me, I tied four of them
fast together at both ends as well as I could, in the form of a
raft, and laying two or three short pieces of plank upon them
crossways, I found I could walk upon it very well, but that it
was not able to bear any great weight, the pieces being too
light. So I went to work, and with the carpenter’s saw, I cut
a spare topmast into three lengths, and added them to
my raft, with a great deal of labour and pains. But hope
of furnishing myself with necessaries encouraged me to go
HE LOADS HIS RAFT. 47

beyond what I should have been able to have done upon
another occasion.

My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable
weight. My next care was what to load it with, and how to

fol
en

Ht



Crusoe loading his Raft.

preserve what I laid upon it from the surf of the sea; but I was
not long considering this. I first laid all the planks or boards
upon it that I could get, and having considered well what I
48 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

most wanted, I first got three of the seamen’s chests, which I
had broken open and emptied, and lowered them down upon
my raft. The first of these I filled with provisions, namely,
bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goat’s
flesh, which we lived much upon, and a little remainder of
European corn, which had been laid by for some fowls which
we brought to sea with us, but the fowls were killed. There
had been some barley and wheat together, but, to my great
disappointment, I found afterwards that the rats had eaten or
spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found several cases of bottles
belonging to our skipper, in which were some cordial waters,
and in all above five or six gallons of rack: these I stowed by
themselves, there being no need to put them into the chest, nor
no room for them.

While I was doing this, I found the tide began to flow,
though very calm, and I had the mortification to see my coat,
shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on shore upon the sand,
swim away. As for my breeches, which were only linen, and
open-kneed, I swam on board in them and my stockings. How-
ever, this put me upon rummaging for clothes, of which I found
enough, but took no more than I wanted for present use, for I
had other things which my eye was more upon—as, first, tools
to work with on shore. It was after long searching that I
found out the carpenter’s chest, which was indeed a very useful
prize to me, and much more valuable than a ship-load of gold
would have been at that time. I got it down to my raft, even
whole as it was, without losing time to look into it, for I knew
in general what it contained.

My next care was for some ammunition and arms, There
were two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two
pistols: these I secured first, with some powder-horns, and a
small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there
were three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where
our gunner had stowed them ; but with much search I
found them, two of them dry and good, the third had taken
water ; those two I got to my raft, with the arms. And now I
thought myself pretty well freighted, and began to think how I
should get to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, nor
HE STEERS HIS RAFT TO LAND. 49

rudder, and the least capful of wind would have overset all my
navigation.

I had three encouragements: jirs¢, A smooth, calm sea;
secondly, The tide rising, and setting into the shore; ¢hirdly,
What little wind there was blew me toward the land. And
thus, having found two or three broken oars belonging to the
boat, and, besides the tools which were in the chest, I found
two saws, an axe, and a hammer; with this cargo I put to sea.
For a mile or thereabouts my raft went very well, only that I
found it drive a little distant from the place where I had landed
before ; by which I perceived that there was some indraft of
the water, and, consequently, I hoped to find some creek or
river there, which I might make use of as a port to get to land
with my cargo.

As I imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a
little opening of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide
set into it, so I guided my raft as well as I could to keep in the
middle of the stream. But here I had like to have suffered a
second shipwreck, which, if I had, I think verily would have
broken my heart; for, knowing nothing of the coast, my raft
ran aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and not being
aground at the other end, it wanted but a little that all my
cargo had slipped off towards that end that was afloat, and so
fallen into the water.

I did my utmost, by setting my back against the chests,
to keep them in their places, but could not thrust off the raft
with all my strength ; neither durst I stir from the posture I
was in, but, holding up the chests with all my might, stood in
that manner near half an hour, in which time the rising of
the water brought me a little more upon a level; and a little
after, the water still rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust
her off with the oar I had into the channel; and then, driving
up higher, I at length found myself in the mouth of a little
river, with land on both sides, and a strong current, or tide,
running up. I looked on both sides for a proper place to get
to shore; for I was not willing to be driven too high up the
river, hoping in time to see some ship at sea, and therefore
resolved to place myself as near the coast as I could.
5° ROBINSON CRUSOE.

At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the
creek, to which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my
raft, and at last got so near as that, reaching ground with my
oar, I could thrust her directly in, But here I had like to have
dipped all my cargo in the sea again ; for that shore lying
pretty steep—that is to say, sloping—there was no place to land
but where one end of the float, if it ran on shore, would lie so
high, and the other sink lower as before, that it would endanger
my cargo again.

All that I could do was to wait till the tide was at the
highest, keeping the raft, with my oar like an anchor to hold
the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of ground,
which I expected the water would flow over ; and so it did. As
soon as I found water enough—for my raft drew about a foot of
water—I thrust her on upon that flat piece of ground, and there
fastened, or moored her, by sticking my two broken oars into
the ground—one on one side, near one end, and one on the
other side, near the other end; and thus I lay till the water
ebbed away, and left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.

My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper
place for my habitation, and where to stow my goods, to secure
them from whatever might happen. Where I was, I yet knew
not; whether on the continent or on an island—whether
inhabited or not inhabited—whether in danger of wild beasts or
not. There was a hill, not above a mile from me, which rose
up very steep and high, and which seemed to overtop some
other hills which lay as in a ridge from it northward. I took
out one of the fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn
of powder ; and thus armed, I travelled for discovery up to the
top of that hill, where, after I had with great labour and
difficulty got to the top, I saw my fate to my great affliction,
namely, that I was in an island environed every way with the
sea. No land was to be seen, except some rocks which lay a
great way off, and two small islands, less than this, which lay
about three leagues to the west.

I found also, that the island I was in was barren, and, as
I saw good reason to believe, uninhabited, except by wild beasts,
of which, however, I saw none. Yet I saw abundance of fowls,
HE BRINGS HIS CARGO SAFELY ASHORE. 51

but knew not their kinds ; neither, when I killed them, could I
tell what was fit for food, and what not. At my coming back, I
shot at a great bird, which I saw sitting upon a tree on the side
of a great wood. I believe it was the first gun that had been
fired there since the creation of the world. I had no sooner
fired, but from all parts of the wood there arose an innumerable
number of fowls of many sorts, making a confused screaming,
and crying every one according to his usual note; but not one
of them of any kind that I knew. As for the creature I killed,
I took it to be a kind of a hawk, its colour and beak resembling
it, but it had no talons, or claws, more than common. Its flesh
was carrion, and fit for nothing.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft,
and fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up
the rest of that day. What to do with myself at night I knew
not, nor indeed where to rest; for I was afraid to lie down on
the ground, not knowing but some wild beast might devour me ;
though, as I afterwards found, there was really no need for
those fears.

However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round
with the chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and
made a kind of a hut for that night’s lodging. As for food, I yet
saw not which way to supply myself, except that I had seen
two or three creatures like hares run out of the wood where I
shot the fowl.

CHAPTER XII.—VISITS THE WRECK.

] NOW began to consider that I might yet get a great many

things out of the ship, which would be useful to me, and
particularly some of the rigging and sails, and such other things
as might come to land, and I resolved to make another voyage
on board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that the first
storm that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I
resolved to set all other things apart, till I got everything out
of the ship that I could get. Then I called a council (that is
to say, in my thoughts), whether I should take back the raft ;
52 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

but this appeared impracticable. So I resolved to go as before,
when the tide was down; and I did so, only that I stripped
before I went from my hut, having nothing on but a checkered
shirt, a pair of linen trousers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.

I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second
raft; and having had experience of the first, I neither made
this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought away
several things very useful to me. First, in the carpenter's stores,
I found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great
screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and above all, that most
useful thing called a grindstone. All these I secured, together
with several things belonging to the gunner, particularly two
or three iron crows, and two barrels of musket-bullets, seven
muskets, and another fowling-piece, with some small quantity
of powder more; a large bag full of small shot, and a great
roll of sheet lead ; but this last was so heavy, I could not hoist
it up to get it over the ship’s side.

Besides these things, I took all the men’s clothes that I
could find, and a spare foretop-sail, hammock, and some bed-
ding ; and with this I loaded my second raft and brought them
all safe on shore, to my very great comfort.

I was under some apprehensions during my absence from
the land, that at least my provisions might be devoured on
shore; but when I came back I found no sign of any visitor,
only there sat a creature, like a wild cat, upon one of the chests,
which, when I came towards it, ran away a little distance, and
then stood still, She sat very composed and unconcerned, and
looked full in my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted
with me. I presented my gun at her, but as she did not under-
stand it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer
to stir away ; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit, though,
by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store was not
great. However, I spared her a bit, I say, and she went
to it, smelled at it, and ate it, and looked, as if pleased, for
more. But I thanked her, and could spare no more—so she
marched off.

Having got my second cargo on shore, though I was fain
to open the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels—for
HIS VISITS TO THE WRECK. 53

they were too heavy, being large casks—I went to work to
make me a little tent, with the sail and some poles which I cut
for that purpose ; and into this tent I brought everything that
I knew would spoil, either with rain or sun; and I piled all
the empty chests and casks up in a circle round the tent,
to fortify it from any sudden attempt, either from ‘man or
beast.

When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent
with some boards within, and an empty chest set up on end
without ; and, spreading one of the beds upon the ground,
laying my two pistols just at my head, and my gun at length
by me, I went to bed for the first time, and slept very quietly
all night, for I was very weary and heavy, since the night
before I had slept little, and had laboured very hard all day,
as well to fetch all those things from the ship as to get them
on shore.

I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was
laid up, I believe, for one man, but I was not satisfied still;
for, while the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought I
ought to get everything out of her that I could; so every day,
at low water, I went on board, and brought away something or
other. But particularly the third time I went, I brought away
as much of the rigging as I could, as also all the small ropes
and rope-twine I could get, with a piece of spare canvas, which
was to mend the sails upon occasion, and the barrel of wet
gunpowder. In a word, I brought away all the sails first and
last; only that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and bring as
much at a time as I could; for they were no more useful to be
sails, but as mere canvas only,

But that which comforted me more still was, that last of
all, after I had made five or six such voyages as these, and
thought I had nothing more to expect from the ship that was
worth my meddling with—I say, after all this, I found a great
hogshead of bread, and three large runlets of rum or spirits,
and a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine flour. This was sur-
prising to me, because I had given over expecting any more
provisions, except what was spoiled by the water. I soon
emptied the hogshead of the bread, and wrapped it up, parcel
54 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut out: and, in a
word, I got all this safe on shore also.

The next day I made another voyage; and now, having
plundered the ship of what was portable and fit te hand out,
I began with the cables. Cutting the great cable into pieces,
such as I could move, I got two cables and a hawser on shore,
with all the ironwork I could get ; and having cut down the
spritsail-yard, and the mizzen-yard, and everything I could, to
make a large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods, and
came away.

But my good luck began now to leave me; for this raft
was so unwieldy and overladen, that, after I had entered the
little cove, where I had landed the rest of my goods, not being
able to guide it so handily as I did the others, it overset, and
threw me and all my cargo into the water. As for myself, it
was no great harm, for I was near the shore; but as to my
cargo, it was, great part of it, lost, especially the iron, which I
expected would have been of great use to me. However, when
the tide was out, I got most of the pieces of cable ashore, and
some of the iron, though with infinite labour ; for I had to dive
for it into the water, a work which fatigued me very much.
After this, I went every day on board, and brought away what
I could get.

I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been
eleven times on board the ship; in which time I had brought
away all that one pair of hands could-well be supposed capable
to bring; though I believe verily, had the calm held, I should
have brought away the whole ship piece by piece. But, prepar-
ing the twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind began to
rise. However, at low water, I went on board, and though !
thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectually as that
nothing more could be found, yet I discovered a locker with
drawers in it, in one of which I found two or three razors, and
one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good
knives and forks. In another I found about thirty-six pounds
value in money, some European coin, some Brazil, some pieces
of eight, some gold, some silver.

I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. ‘O drug!’
HE FINDS MONEY IN THE WRECK. 55

said I, aloud, ‘what art thou good for? Thou art not worth to
me—no, not the taking off the ground; one of those knives is
worth all this heap. I have no manner of use for thee; even
remain where thou art, and go to the bottom as a creature
whose life is not worth saving.’

However, upon second thoughts, I took it away, and
wrapping all of it in a piece of canvas, I began to think of
making another raft. But, while I was preparing this, I found
the sky overcast, and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter
of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore. It presently
occurred to me, that it was in vain to pretend to make a raft with
the wind off shore, and that it was my business to be gone
before the tide of flood began, otherwise I might not be able to
reach the shore at all. Accordingly, I let myself down into the
water, and swam across the channel which lay between the ship
and the sands, and even that with difficulty enough, partly with
the weight of things I had about me, and partly the roughness
of the water ; for the wind rose very hastily, and before it was
quite high water it blew a storm.

But I was got home to my little tent, where I lay with all
my wealth about me, very secure. It blew very hard all that
night, and in the morning when I looked out, behold, no more
ship was to be seen! I was a little surprised, but recovered
myself with this satisfactory reflection, namely, that I had lost
no time, nor abated no diligence, to get everything out of her
that could be useful to me, and that indeed there was little left
in her that I was able to bring away, if I had had more time.

I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of
anything out of her, except what might drive on shore from her
wreck, as, indeed, divers pieces of her afterwards did; but those
things were of small use to me.

CHAPTER XIII.—CONSTRUCTS A FORTRESS.

MY thoughts were now wholly employed about securing my-
self against either savages, if any should appear, or wild
beasts, if any were in the island ; and I had many thoughts of
56 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the method how to do this, and what kind of dwelling to make
—whether I should make me a cave in the earth, or a tent
upon the earth. In short, I resolved upon both, the manner
and description of which it may not be improper to give an
account of.

I soon found the place I was in was not fit for my settle-
ment, particularly because it was upon a low marshy ground
near the sea, and I believed would not be wholesome, and
more particularly because there was no fresh water near it 3 so
I resolved to find a more healthy and more convenient spot of
ground.

I consulted several things in my situation which I found
would be proper for me: jst, Health and fresh water, I just
now mentioned ; secondly, Shelter from the heat of the sun ;
thirdly, Security from ravenous creatures, whether man or
beast ; fourthly, A view to the sea, that if God sent any ship
in sight, I might not lose any advantage for my deliverance,
of which I was not willing to banish all my expectation yet.

In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain
on the side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain
~was steep as a house-side, so that nothing could come down
upon me from the top. On the side of this rock there was a
hollow place worn a little way in, like the entrance or door of
a cave; but there was not really any cave or way into the rock
at all.

On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I
resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above a
hundred yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a
green before my door, and, at the end of it, descended irregu-
larly every way down into the low grounds by the sea-side. It
was on the north-north-west side of the hill, so that I was
sheltered from the heat every day, till it came to a west-and-
by-south sun, or thereabouts, which in those countries is near
the setting.

Before I set up my tent, I drew a half circle before the
hollow place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter
from the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter, from its be-
ginning and ending.
CONSTRUCTS A FORIRESS. 57

In this half circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes,
driving them into the ground till they stood very firm, like
piles, the biggest end being out of the ground about five feet
and a half, and sharpened on the top. The two rows did not
stand above six inches from one another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the
ship and laid them in rows, one upon another, within the
circle between these two rows of stakes up to the top, placing
other stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two
feet and a half high, like a spur toa post. This fence was so
strong, that neither man nor beast could get into it, or over it.

_It cost me a great deal of time and labour, especially to cut
the piles in the woods, bring them to the place, and drive them
into the earth.

The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door,
but by a short ladder, to go over the top; which ladder, when
I was in, I lifted over after me. And so I was completely
fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and
consequently slept secure in the night, which otherwise I could
not have done; though, as it appeared afterward, there was no
need of all this caution from the enemies that I apprehended
danger from.

Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour I carried
all my riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of
which you have the account above ; and I made a large tent,
which, to preserve me from the rains that in one part of the
year are very violent there, I made double, namely, one smaller
tent within, and one larger tent above it, and covered the
uppermost with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among
the sails.

And now I lay no more, for a while, in the bed which
T had brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was, indeed,
a very good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.

Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and every-
thing that would spoil by the wet; and having thus inclosed
all my goods, I made up the entrance, which till now I had
left open, and so passed and repassed, as I said, by a short
ladder.
58 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

When I had done this, I began to work my way into the
rock, and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down
out through my tent, I laid them up within my fence in the
nature of a terrace, that so it raised the ground within about a
foot and a half; and thus I made me a cave just behind my
tent, which served me like a cellar to my house.

It cost me much labour and many days before all these
things were brought to perfection ; and therefore I must go
back to some other things which took up some of my thoughts.
At the same time, it happened, after I had laid my scheme for
the setting up my tent and making the cave, that a storm of
rain falling from a thick dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning
happened, and after that a great clap of thunder, as is naturally
the effect of it. I was not so much surprised with the lightning
as I was with a thought which darted into my mind, as swift
as the lightning itself: Oh, my powder! My very heart sank
within me, when I thought that, at one blast, all my powder
might be destroyed, on which, not my defence only, but the
providing me food, as I thought, entirely depended. I was
nothing near so anxious about my own danger, though, had
the powder taken fire, I had never known who had hurt me.

Such impression did this make upon me, that after the
storm was over I laid aside all my works, my building and
fortifying, and applied myself to make bags and boxes to
separate the powder, and to keep it a little and a little in a
parcel, in hope that, whatever might come, it might not all
take fire at once, and to keep it so apart that it should not be
possible to make one part fire another. I finished this work
in about a fortnight; and I think my powder, which, in all,
was about two hundred and forty pounds weight, was divided
in not less than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel that had
been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from that, so I
placed it in my new cave, which, in my fancy, I called my
kitchen ; and the rest I hid up and down in holes among the
rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking very carefully
where I laid it.

In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out
once at least every day with my gun, as well to divert myself
HE SHOOTS A GOAT. 59

as to see if T could kill anything fit for food, and, as near as I
could, to acquaint myself with what the island produced.

The first time I went out, I presently discovered that
there were goats in the island, which was a great satisfaction
to me; but then, it was attended with this misfortune to me,
namely, that they were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot,
that it was the most difficult thing in the world to come at
them. But I was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I
might now and then shoot one, as it soon happened ; for, after
I had found their haunts a little, I laid wait in this manner for
them.

I observed if they saw me in the valleys, though they
were upon the rocks, they would run away as in a terrible
fright ; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and I was upon
the rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence I con-
cluded, that, by the position of their optics, their sight was so
directed downward, that they did not readily see objects that
were above them. Soafterwards I took this method; I always
climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and then had
frequently a fair mark.

The first shot I made among these creatures I killed a
she-goat, which had a little kid by her which she gave suck to,
which grieved me heartily. But when the old one fell, the kid
stood stock still by her till I came and took her up; and not
only so, but when I carried the old one with me upon my
shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my inclosure; upon
which I laid down the dam, and took the kid in my arms, and
carried it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame; but
it would not eat, so I was forced to kill it, and eat it myself.
These two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I ate spar-
ingly, and saved my provisions (my bread especially) as much
as possibly I could.

CHAPTER XIV.—REFLECTS ON HIS CONDITION.

H AVING now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely
necessary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to

burn; and what I did for that, as also how I enlarged my
e
60 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a full
account of in its place; but I must first give some little
account of myself, and of my thoughts about living, which, it
may well be supposed, were not a few.

I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for, as I was
not cast away upon that island without being driven, as is
said, by a violent storm, quite out of the course of our
intended voyage, and a great way, namely, some hundreds of
leagues, out of the ordinary course of the trade of mankind, I
had great reason to consider it as a determination of Heaven,
that in this desolate place, and in this desolate manner, I
should end my life. The tears would run plentifully down
my face when I made these reflections; and sometimes I
would expostulate with myself why Providence should thus
completely ruin His creatures, and render them so absolutely
miserable—so without help, abandoned, so entirely depressed,
that it could hardly be rational to be thankful for such a life.

But something always returned swift upon me to check
these thoughts, and to reprove me; and, particularly, one day,
walking with my gun in my hand by the sea-side, I was very
pensive upon the subject of my present condition, when
reason, as it were, expostulated with me the other way, thus:
“Well, you are in a desolate condition, it is true; but pray,
remember, where are the rest of you? Did not you come
eleven of you into the boat? Where are the ten? Why were
they not saved, and you lost? Why were you singled out?
Is it better to be here or there?’ And then I pointed to the
sea. All evils are to be considered with the good that is in
them, and with what worse attends them.

Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished
for my subsistence, and what would have been my case if it
had not happened, which was a hundred thousand to one,
that the ship floated from the place where she first struck, and
was driven so near the shore that I had time to get all things
out of her. What would have been my case, if I had been
obliged to have lived in the condition in which I at first came
on shore, without necessaries of life, or necessaries to supply
and procure them? ‘Particularly, said I, loud (though to
HIS CALENDAR. 61

myself), ‘what should 1 have done without a gun, without
ammunition, without any tools to make anything or to work
with, without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any manner of
covering?’ and that now I had all these to a sufficient
quantity, and was in a fair way to provide myself in such a
manner as to live without my gun when my ammunition was
spent; so that I had a tolerable view of subsisting without
any want, as long as I lived. For I considered, from the
beginning, how I should provide for the accidents that might
happen, and for the time that was to come, not only after my
ammunition should be spent, but even after my health or
strength should decay.

I confess I had not entertained any notion of my am-
munition being destroyed at one blast, I mean, my powder
being blown up by lightning; and this made the thoughts of
it so surprising to me when it lightened and thundered, as I
observed just now.

And now, being about to enter into a melancholy relation
of a scene of silent life—such, perhaps, as was never heard
of in the world before—I shall take it from its beginning, and
continue it in its order. It was, by my account, the 3oth of
September, when, in the manner as above said, I first set foot
upon this horrid island, when the sun, being to us in its
autumnal equinox, was almost just over my head; for I
reckoned myself, by observation, to be in the latitude of nine
degrees twenty-two minutes north of the Line.

After I had been there about ten or twelve days, if came
into my thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time for
want of books, and pen and ink, and should even forget the
Sabbath days from the working days. To prevent this, I cut
with my knife upon a large post, in capital letters, and making
it into a great cross, I set it up on the shore where I first
landed, namely,

‘] CAME ON SHORE HERE ON THE 30TH OF SEPTEMBER 1659.’

Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a
notch with my knife, and every seventh notch was as long
again as the rest, and every first day of the month as long
62 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

again as that long one; and thus I kept my calendar, or
weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.

In the next place, we are to observe that, among the
many things which I brought out of the ship in the different
voyages which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got
several things of less value, but not at all less useful to me,
which I omitted setting down before; as, in particular, pens,
ink, and paper, several parcels in the captain’s, mate’s,
gunner’s, and carpenters keeping, three or four compasses,
some mathematical instruments, dials, perspectives, charts,
and books of navigation, all which I huddled together,
whether I might want them or no. Also, I found three very
good Bibles, which came to me in my cargo from England,
and which I had packed up among my things; some Portu-
guese books also, and among them two or three Popish prayer-
books, and several other books ; all which I carefully secured.

I must not forget that we had in the ship a dog and two
cats, of whose eminent history I may have occasion to say
something in its place; for I carried both the cats with me.
As for the dog, he jumped out of the ship of himself, and
swam on shore to me the day after I went on shore with my
first cargo, and was a trusty servant to me many years. I
wanted nothing that he could fetch me, nor any company that
he could make up to me—I only wanted to have him talk to
me; but that he could not do. As I observed before, I found
pen, ink, and paper, and I husbanded them to the utmost; and
I shall show, that while my ink lasted, I kept things very exact ;
but after that was gone I could not keep my account, for I was
not able to make any ink by any means that I could devise.

And this put me in mind that I wanted many things,
notwithstanding all that I had amassed together; and of
these, this of ink was one, as also spade, pick-axe, and shovel,
to dig or remove the earth; needles, pins, and thread. As
for linen, I soon learned to want that without much difficulty.

This want of tools made every work I did go on
heavily ; and it was nearly a whole year before I had entirely
finished my little pale, or surrounded habitation. The piles,
or stakes, which were as heavy as I could well lift, were a long
HE REFLECTS ON HIS CONDITION. 63

time in cutting and preparing in the woods, and more by far
in bringing home; so that I spent sometimes two days in
cutting and bringing home one of those posts, and a third
day in driving it into the ground; for which purpose I got a
heavy piece of wood at first, but at last bethought myself of
one of the iron crows, which, however, though I found it, yet
it made driving those posts or piles very laborious and tedious
work.

But what need I have been concerned at the tediousness
of anything I had to do, seeing I had time enough to do it
in? Nor had I any other employment, if that had been over,
at least that I could foresee, except the ranging the island to
seek for food, which I did more or less every day.

I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the
circumstances I was reduced to, and I drew up the state of
my affairs in writing, not so much to leave them to any that
were to come after me (for I was like to have but few heirs),
as to deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon them, and
afflicting my mind. And as my reason began now to master
my despondency, I began to comfort myself as well as I could
and to set the good against the evil, that I might have some-
thing to distinguish my case from worse; and I stated it very
impartially, like debtor and creditor—the comforts I enjoyed
against the mercies I suffered, thus :-—

EVIL. GOOD.

I am cast upon a horrible deso-
late island, void of all hope of
recovery.

1 am singled out and separated,
as it were, from all the world, to
be miserable.

I am divided from mankind, a
solitaire, one banished from human
society.

T have no clothes to cover me.

I am without any defence, or
means to resist any violence of
man or beast,

But I am alive, and not drowned, as all my
ship’s company was.

But I am singled out, too, from all the ship's
crew to be spared from death; and He that
miraculously saved me from death, can deliver
me from this condition.

But I am not starved and perishing on a
barren place, affording no sustenance.

But I am in a hot climate, where, if I had
clothes, I could hardly wear them.

But I am cast on an island, where I see no
wild beasts to hurt me, as I saw on the coast
of Africa; and what if I had been shipwrecked
there?
64 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I have no soul to speak to, or But God wonderfully sent the ship in near
relieve me. enough to the shore, that I have gotten out so
many necessary things as will either supply my
wants, or enable me to supply myself, even as

long as I live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony, that
there was scarcely any condition in the world so miserable,
but there was something zegative or something Positive to be
thankful for in it. And let this stand as a direction from the
experience of the most miserable of all conditions in this
world, that we may always find in it something to comfort
ourselves from, and to set, in the description of good and evil,
on the credit side of the account.

CHAPTER XV.—ARRANGES HIS HABITATION.

AVING now brought my mind a little to relish my condi-

tion, and given over looking out to sea, to see if I could

spy a ship—I say, giving over these things, I began to apply

myself to accommodate my way of living, and to make things
as easy to me as I could.

I have already described my habitation, which was a tent,
under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts
and cables; but I might now rather call it a wall, for I raised
a kind of wall up against it of turfs, about two feet thick on the
outside ; and after some time (I think it was a year and a half),
I raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched or
covered it with boughs of trees, and such things as I could get
to keep out the rain, which I found at some times of the year
very violent.

I have already observed how I brought all my goods into
this pale, and into the cave which I had made behind me: but
I must observe, too, that at first this was a confused heap of
goods, which, as they lay in no order, so they took up all my
place. I had no room to turn myself, so I set myself to
enlarge my cave and works farther into the earth ; for it was
a loose sandy rock, which yielded easily to the labour I bestowed
on it—and so, when I found I was pretty safe as to beasts of

.
HE ARRANGES HIS HABITATION. 65

prey, I worked sideways to the right hand into the rock; and
then, turning to the right again, worked quite out, and made
me a door to come out, on the outside of my pale, or fortifi-
cation.

This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were a
back way to my tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room
to stow my goods,

And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary
things as I found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a
table ; for without these I was not able to enjoy the few com-
forts I had in the world—I could not write or eat, or do several
things, with so much pleasure without a table.

So I went to work ; and here I must needs observe, that as
reason is the substance and origin of the mathematics, so, by
stating and squaring everything by reason, and by making the
most rational judgment of things, every man may be in time
master of every mechanical art. I had never handled a tool in
my life, and yet in time, by labour, application, and contrivance,
I found at last that I wanted nothing but I could have made
it, especially if I had had tools. However, I made abundance of
things even without tools, and some with no more tools than
an adze and a hatchet, which, perhaps, were never made that
way before, and that with infinite labour. For example, if I
wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree,
set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either side with
my axe, till I had brought it to be as thin as a plank, and then
dub it smooth with my adze. It is true, by this method I could
make but one board out of a whole tree; but this I had no
remedy for but patience, any more than I had for the pro-
digious deal of time and labour which it took me up to make a
plank or board. But my time and labour were little worth,
and so they were as well employed one way as another.

However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed
above, in the first place ; and this I did out of the short pieces
of boards that I brought on my raft from the ship. But when
I had wrought out some boards, as above, I made large shelves
of the breadth of a foot and a half one over another, all along
one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and ironwork
66 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

on, and, in a word, to separate everything at large into their
places, that I might come easily at them. I knocked pieces
into the wall of the rock to hang my guns, and all things that
would hang up.

So that, had my cave been to be seen, it looked like
a general magazine of all necessary things; and I had every-
thing so ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me
to see all my goods in such order, and especially to find my
stock of all necessaries so great.

And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every
day’s employment; for indeed at first I was in too much a
hurry ; and not only hurry as to labour, but in too much dis-
composure of mind, and my journal would have been full of
many dull things. For example, I must have said thus:
‘September the 30th, after I got to shore, and had escaped
drowning, instead of being thankful to God for my deliverance
(having first vomited with the great quantity of salt water which
had got into my stomach, and recovering myself a little), I ran
about the shore, wringing my hands, and beating my head and
face, exclaiming at my misery, and crying out, I was undone,
undone! till, tired and faint, I was forced to lie down on the
ground to repose, but durst not sleep for fear of being
devoured.’

Some days after this, and after I had been on board the
ship, and got all that I could out of her, yet I could not
forbear getting up to the top of a little mountain, and looking
out to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship; then fancy at a vast
distance I spied a sail—please myself with the hopes of it—
and then, after looking steadily till I was almost blind, lose it
quite, and sit down and weep like a child, and thus increase
my misery by my folly.

But having gotten over these things in some measure,
and having settled my household stuff and habitation, made
me a table and a chair, and all as handsome about meas I
could, I began to keep my journal, of which I shall here give
you the copy (though in it will be told all these particulars over
again) as long as it lasted; for, having no more ink, I was
forced to leave it off.
HIS JOURNAL. 67

CHAPTER XVI.—THE JOURNAL.

September 30, 1659.
| POOR, miserable Robinson Crusoe, being shipwrecked

9 during a dreadful storm in the offing, came on shore on
this dismal unfortunate island, which I called, ‘The Island of
Despair ;’ all the rest of the ship’s company being drowned, and
myself almost dead.

All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting myself at the
dismal circumstances I-was brought to, namely, I had neither
food, house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to, and in despair
of any relief, saw nothing but death before me, either that I
should be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or
starved to death for want of food. At the approach of night,
I slept in a tree for fear of wild creatures; but slept soundly,
though it rained all night.

October 1.—In the morning I saw, to my great surprise,
the ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven on
shore again much nearer the island; which, as it was some
comfort on one hand, for seeing her sit upright, and not broken
to pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, 1 might get on board,
and get some food and necessaries out of her for my relief ;
so, on the other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my
comrades, who, I imagined, if we had all stayed on board,
might have saved the ship, or at least that they would not have
been all drowned as they were; and that had the men been
saved, we might perhaps have built us a boat out of the ruins
of the ship, to have carried us to some other part of the world.
I spent great part of this day in perplexing myself on these
things ; but at length, seeing the ship almost dry, I went upon
the sand as near as I could, and then swam on board. This
day also it continued raining, though with no wind at all.

From the 1st of Octoder to the 24th.—All these days entirely
spent in many separate voyages to get all I could out of the
ship, which I brought on shore, every tide of flood, upon rafts.
Much rain also in these days, though with some intervals of
fair weather; but it seems this was the rainy season.
68 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Oct. 20.—I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got
upon it; but being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly
heavy, I recovered many of them when the tide was out.



Crusoe navigating his Raft.

Oct. 25.—It rained all night and all day, with some gusts
of wind; during which time the ship broke in pieces, the wind
blowing a little harder than before, and was no more to be seen
except the wreck of her, and that only at low water. I spent
this day in covering and securing the goods which I had saved,
that rain might not spoil them.

Oct. 26.—I walked about the shore almost all day, to find
out a place to fix my habitation, greatly concerned to secure
myself from any attack in the night, either from wild beasts or
HIS JOURNAL CONTINUED. 69

men. Towards night I fixed upon a proper place under a rock,
and marked out a semicircle for my encampment, which I
resolved to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification, made
of double piles, lined within with cable, and without with
turf.

From the 26th to the 30th I worked very hard in carrying
all my goods to my new habitation, though some part of the
time it rained exceedingly hard.

The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the. island with
my gun, to seek for some food, and discover the country ; when
I killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me home, which I
afterwards killed also, because it would not feed.

November 1.—1 sct up my tent under a rock, and lay
there for the first night, making it as large as I could, with
stakes driven in to swing my hammock upon.

Nov. 2.—I set up all my chests and boards, and the
pieces of timber which made my rafts, and with them formed
a fence round me, a little within the place I had marked out
for my fortification.

Nov. 3.—I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls
like ducks, which were very good food. In the afternoon went
to work to make me a table.

Nov. 4—This morning I began to order my times of
work—of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of
diversion. Namely, every morning I walked out with my gun
for two or three hours, if it did not rain, then employed myself
to work till about eleven o’clock, then ate what I had to live on,
and from twelve to two I lay down to sleep, the weather being
excessively hot, and then in the evening to work again. The
working part of this day and of the next were wholly employed
in making my table; for I was yet but a very sorry workman,
though time and necessity made me a complete natural
mechanic soon after, as I believe it would do any one else.

Nov. 5.—This day went abroad with my gun and my dog,
and killed a wild cat ; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good
for nothing. Every creature I killed I took off the skins, and
preserved them. Coming back by the sea-shore, I saw many
sorts of sea-fowls, which I did not understand; but was
7O ROBINSON CRUSOE,

surprised, and almost frighted, with two or three seals, which,
while I was gazing at, not well knowing what they were, got
into the sea, and escaped me for that time.

Nov. 6.—After my morning walk, I went to work with
my table again, and finished it, though not to my liking; nor
was it long before I learned to mend it.

Nov. 7.—Now it began to be scttled fair weather. The
7th, 8th, gth, roth, and part of the 12th (for the 11th was
Sunday), I took wholly up to make me a chair, and, with much
ado, brought it to a tolerable shape, but never to please me;
and even in the making, I pulled it in pieces several times.—
Note. 1 soon neglected keeping Sundays; for omitting my
mark for them on my post, I forgot which was which.

Nov. 13.—This day it rained, which refreshed me exceed-
ingly, and cooled the earth; but it was accompanied with
terrible thunder and lightning, which frighted me dreadfully
for fear of my powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved
to separate my stock of powder into as many little parcels as
possible, that it might not be in danger.

Nov. 14, 15, 16.—These three days I spent in making
little square chests or boxes, which might hold about a pound,
or two pound at most, of powder ; and so putting the powder
in, I stowed it in places as secure and remote from one
another as possible. On one of these three days I killed a
large bird that was good to eat, but I knew not what to
call it.

Nov. 17.—This day I began to dig behind my tent into
the rock, to make room for my further conveniency.—/Voce.
Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work, namely, a
pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow or basket ; so | desisted
from my work, and began to consider how to supply that want,
and make me some tools. As for a pickaxe, I made use of
the iron crows, which were proper enough, though heavy ; but
the next thing was a shovel or spade; this was so absolutely
necessary, that indeed I could do nothing effectually without it,
but what kind of one to make I knew not.

Nov. 18.—The next day, in searching the woods, I found
a tree of that wood, or like it, which in the Brazils they call the
HIS JOURNAL CONTINUED. 71

iron tree, for its exceeding hardness. Of this, with great
labour, and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece, and
brought it home, too, with difficulty enough, for it was exceed-
ingly heavy.

The excessive hardness of the wood, and having no other
way, made me a long while upon this machine ; for I worked
it effectually by little and little into the form of a shovel or
spade, the handle exactly shaped like ours in England, only
that the broad part having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it
would not last me so long. However, it served well enough for
the uses which I had occasion to put it to; but never wasa
shovel, I believe, made after that fashion, or so long a-making.

I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket or a wheel-
barrow. A basket I could not make by any means, having no
such things as twigs that would bend to make wicker-ware, at
least none yet found out. As to a wheelbarrow, I fancied I
could make all but the wheel, but that I had no notion of,
neither did I know how to go about it; besides, I had no
possible way to make the iron gudgeons for the spindle, or
axis, of the wheel, to run in, so I gave it over. And so, for
carrying away the earth which I dug out of the cave, I made
me a thing like a hod, which the labourers carry mortar in
when they serve the bricklayers.

This was not so difficult to me as the making the shovel;
and yet this, and the shovel, and the attempt which I made in
vain to make a wheelbarrow, took me up no less than four
days—I mean always excepting my morning walk with my gun,
which I seldom failed; and very seldom failed also bringing
home something fit to eat.

Nov. 23—My other work having now stood still, because
of my making these tools, when they were finished I went on,
and working every day, as my strength and time allowed, I
spent eighteen days entirely in widening and deepening my
cave, that it might hold my goods commodiously.

Note.—During all this time I worked to make this room,
or cave, spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse,
or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar. As for
my lodging, I kept to the tent, except that sometimes, in the
72 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

wet season of the year, it rained so hard that I could not keep
myself dry, which caused me afterwards to cover all my place
within my pale with long poles in the form of rafters, leaning
against the rock, and load them with flags and large leaves of
trees like a thatch.

December 10.—I began now to think my cave, or vault,
finished, when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large)
a great quantity of earth fell down from the top and one side,
so much that, in short, it frighted me, and not without reason
too; for if I had been under it, I had never wanted a grave-
digger. Upon this disaster I had a great deal of work to do
over again ; for I had the loose earth to carry out, and, which
was of more importance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that
I might be sure no more would come down.

Dec. 11.—This day I went to work with it accordingly,
and got two shores, or posts, pitched upright to the top, with
two pieces of boards across over each post ; this I finished the
next day ; and setting more posts up with boards, in about a
week more I had the roof secured ; and the posts, standing in
rows, served me for partitions to part off my house.

Dec. 17-—From this day to the 20th I placed shelves, and
knocked up nails on the posts to hang everything up that
could be hung up: and now I began to be in some order
within doors.

Dec. 20.—Now I carried everything into the cave, and
began to furnish my house, and set up some pieces of boards
like a dresser, to order my victuals upon; but boards began to
be very scarce with me: also, I made me another table.

Dec. 24.—Much rain all night and all day ; no stirring out.

Dec. 25.—Rain all day.

Dec. 26.—No rain, and the earth much cooler than before,
and pleasanter.

Dec. 27.—Killed a young goat, and lamed another, so
that I caught it, and led it home in a string : when I had it
home, I bound and splintered up its leg, which was broken.—
N.B. I took such care of it, that it lived, and the leg grew well
and as strong as ever ; but by nursing it so long it grew tame,
and fed upon the little green at my door, and would not go
HE MAKES A FENCE ROUND HIS HOUSE. 73

away. This was the first time that I entertained a thought of
breeding up some tame creatures, that I might have food when
my powder and shot was all spent.

Dec. 28, 29, 30.—Great heats, and no breeze ; so that there
was no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food. This
time I spent in putting all my things in order within doors.

CHAPTER XVII.—THE JOURNAL (continued).

ANUARY 1.—Very hot still; but I went abroad early and
late with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day.
This evening, going farther into the valleys which lay towards
the centre of the island, I found there was plenty of goats,
though exceedingly shy and hard to come at; however, I
resolved to try if I could not bring my dog to hunt them
down.

Yan. 2.—Accordingly, the next day I went out with my dog,
and set him upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for they
all faced about upon the dog; and he knew his danger too
well, for he would not come near them.

Fan. 3.—I1 began my fence, or wall, which, being still
jealous of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make
very thick and strong.

N.B.—This wall being described before, I purposely omit
what was said in the journal; it is sufficient to observe, that
I was no less time than from the 3d of January to the 14th of
April, working, finishing, and perfecting this wall, though it was
no more than about twenty-four yards in length, being a half
circle from one place in the rock to another place about eight
yards from it, the door of the cave being in the centre behind it.

All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me
many days, nay, sometimes weeks together; but I thought I
should never be perfectly secure until this wall was finished.
It is scarcely credible what inexpressible labour everything
was done with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods,
and driving them into the ground; for I made them much
bigger than I need to have done.
74 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

When this wall was finished, and the outside double fenced
with a turf wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that
if any people were to come on shore there, they would not
perceive anything like a habitation. And it was very well I
did so, as may be observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable
occasion.

During this time, I made my rounds in the woods for game
every day, when the rain permitted me, and made frequent
discoveries, in these walks, of something or other to my
advantage. Particularly, I found a kind of wild pigeons, who
built, not as wood pigeons, in a tree, but rather as house pigeons,
in the holes of the rocks; and taking some young ones, I
endeavoured to breed them up tame, and did so. But when
they grew older they flew away, which, perhaps, was at first for
want of feeding them ; for I had nothing to give them. How-
ever, I frequently found their nests, and got their young ones,
which were very good meat.

And now, in the managing my household affairs, I found
myself wanting in many things, which I thought at first it was
impossible for me to make, as indeed, as to some of them, it
was—for instance, I could never make a cask to be hooped.
I had a small runlet or two, as I observed before, but I could
never arrive to the capacity of making one by them, though I
spent many weeks about it ; I could neither put in the heads,
nor joint the staves so true to one another as to make them
hold water. So I gave that also over.

In the next place, I was at great loss for candle, so that
as soon as ever it was dark, which was generally by seven
o’clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I remembered the lump
of bees’-wax with which I made candles in my African
adventure, but I had none of that now. The only remedy I
had was, that when I had killed a goat I saved the tallow, and
with a little dish made of clay, which I baked in the sun, to
which I added a wick of some oakum, I made me a lamp; and
this gave me a light, though not a clear steady light like a
candle.

In the middle of all my labours, it happened that, rum-
maging my things, I found a little bag, which, as I hinted
HE DISCOVERS BARLEY GROWING. 75

before, had been filled with corn for the feeding of poultry, not
for this voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the ship came
from Lisbon. What little remainder of corn had been in the
bag was all devoured with the rats, and I saw nothing in the
bag but husks and dust ; and being willing to have the bag for
some other use—I think it was to put powder in, when I divided
it for fear of the lightning, or some such use—I shook the
husks of corn out of it, on one side of my fortification, under
the rock.

It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned
that I threw this stuff away, taking no notice of anything, and
not so much as remembering that I had thrown anything there ;
when about a month after, or thereabout, I saw some few stalks
of something green shooting out of the ground, which I fancied
might be some plant I had not seen. But I was surprised and
perfectly astonished, when, after a little longer time, I saw
about ten or twelve ears come out, which were perfectly green
barley, of the same kind as our European—nay, as our English
barley.

It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion
of my thoughts on this occasion. I had hitherto acted upon
no religious foundation at all. Indeed, I had very few notions
of religion in my head, or had entertained any sense of any-
thing that had befallen me, otherwise than as a chance, or, as
we lightly say, what pleases God; without so much as inquir-
ing into the end of Providence in these things, or His order in
governing events in the world. But after I saw barley grow
there, in a climate which I knew was not proper for corn, and
especially, that I knew not how it came there, it startled me
strangely, and I began to suggest, that God had miraculously
caused this grain to grow, without any help of seed sown;
and that it was so directed purely for my sustenance on that
wild miserable place.

This touched my heart a little, and brought tears into
my eyes, and I began to bless myself that such a prodigy. of
nature should happen upon my account. And this was the
more strange to me, because I saw near it still, all along by
the side of the rock, some other straggling stalks, which proved

iL
76 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

to be stalks of rice, and which I knew, because I had seen it
grow in Africa, when I was ashore there.

I not only thought these the pure productions of Pro-
vidence for my support, but, not doubting but that there was
more in the place, I went all over that part of the island where
I had been before, peering in every corner, and under every
rock, to see for more of it; but I could not find any.

At last, it occurred to my thoughts, that 1 had shaken
a bag of chicken’s meat out in that place, and then the wonder
began to cease ; and | must confess, my religious thankfulness
to God’s providence began to abate too, upon discovering that
all this was nothing but what was common, though I ought to
have been as thankful for so strangeand unforeseen a providence,
as if it had been miraculous. For it was really the work of
Providence as to me, that should order or appoint ten or
twelve grains of corn to remain unspoiled (when the rats had
destroyed all the rest), as if it had been dropped from heaven
—as also, that I should throw it out in that particular
place, where, it being in the shade of a high rock, it sprang up
immediately ; whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere else at
that time, it had been burned up and destroyed.

I carefully saved the ears of corn, you may be sure, in
their season, which was about the end of June, and laying up
every corn, I resolved to sow them all again, hoping in time
to have some quantity sufficient to supply me with bread ; but
it was not till the fourth year that I could allow myself the
least grain of this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly, as
I shall say afterwards in its order—for I lost all that I sowed
the first season, by not observing the proper time—for I sowed
it just before the dry season, so that it never came up at all,
at least not as it would have done—of which in its place.

Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty
stalks of rice, which I preserved with the same care, and
whose use was of the same kind, or to the same purpose,
namely, to make me bread, or rather food ; for I found ways
to cook it up without baking, though I did that also after some
time. But to return to my journal.

I worked excessively hard these three or four months to
THE FARTHQUAKE. 77

get my wall done; and the fourteenth of April I closed it up,
contriving to go into it, not by a door, but over the wall by a
ladder, that there might be no sign in the outside of my
habitation.

CHAPTER XVIII.—THE EARTHQUAKE,

Are 16.—I finished the ladder; so I went up with the

ladder to ‘the top, and then pulled it up after me, and
let it down on the inside. This was a complete inclosure to
me ; for within I had room enough, and nothing could come
at me from without, unless it could first mount my wall.

The very next day after this wall was finished, I had
almost had all my labour overthrown at once, and myself
killed. The case was thus: As I was busy in the inside of it,
behind my tent, just in the entrance into my cave, I was terribly
frighted with a most dreadful surprising thing indeed ; for on a
sudden I found the earth come crumbling down from the roof
of my cave, and from the edge of the hill, over my head, and
two of the posts I had set up in the cave cracked in a frightful
manner.

I was heartily scared, but thought nothing of what was
really the cause; only thinking that the top of my cave was
falling in, as some of it had done before. And, for fear I
should be buried in it, I ran forward to my ladder, and not
thinking myself safe there either, I got over my wall for fear
of the pieces of the hill, which I expected might roll down upon
me. I was no sooner stepped down upon the firm ground, but I
plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake, for the ground I stood
on shook three times at about eight minutes’ distance, with
three such shocks, as would have overturned the strongest
building that could be supposed to have stood on the earth;
and a great piece of the top of a rock, which stood about half
a mile from me, next the sea, fell down with such a terrible
noise as I never heard in all my life. I perceived also the
very sea was put into violent motion by it; and I believe the
shocks were stronger under the water than on the island.
78 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I was so amazed with the thing itself—having never felt
the like, or discoursed with any one that had—that I was like
one dead or stupefied ; and the motion of the earth made my
stomach sick, like one that was tossed at sea. But the noise
of the falling of the rock awaked me, as it were, and, rousing
me from the stupefied condition I was in, filled me with
horror, and I thought of nothing then but the hill falling
upon my tent and all my household goods, and burying all
at once; and thus sunk my very soul within me a second
time.

After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for
some time, I began to take courage; and yet I had not heart
enough to get over my wall again, for fear of being buried
alive, but sat still upon the ground, greatly cast down and dis-
consolate, not knowing what to do. All this while I had not
the least serious religious thought, nothing but the common
‘Lord, have mercy upon me!’ and when it was over, that went
away too.

While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow cloudy,
as if it would rain. Soon after that, the wind rose by little
and little, so that in less than half an hour it blew a most
dreadful hurricane. The sea was all on a sudden covered over
with foam and froth, the shore was covered with the breach of
the water, the trees were torn up by the roots, and a terrible
storm it was ; and this held about three hours, and then began
to abate, and in two hours more it was quite calm, and began
to rain very hard.

All this while I sat upon the ground, very much terrified
and dejected, when on a sudden it came into my thoughts,
that these winds and rain being the consequence of the earth-
quake, the earthquake itself was spent and over, and I might
venture into my cave again. With this thought my spirits
began to revive, and the rain also helping to persuade me, I
went in and sat down in my tent. But the rain was so violent,
that my tent was ready to be beaten down with it; and I was
forced to go into my cave, though very much afraid and
uneasy, for fear it should fall on my head.

This violent rain forced me to a new work, namely, to cut
CONTINUED RAIN, 79

a hole through my new fortification like a sink, to let water go
out, which would else have drowned my cave. After I had
been in my cave some time, and found still no more shocks of
the earthquake follow, 1 began to be more composed. And
now, to support my spirits, which indeed wanted it very much,
I went to my little store, and took a small sup of rum, which,
however, I did then, and always very sparingly, knowing I
could have no more when that was gone.

It continued raining all that night, and great part of the
next day, so that I could not stir abroad ; but, my mind being
more composed, I began to think of what I had best do, con-
cluding, that if the island was subject to these earthquakes,
there would be no living for me in a cave, but I must consider
of building me some little hut in an open place, which I might
surround with a wall as I had done here, and so make myself
secure from wild beasts or men. For I concluded, if I stayed
where I was, I should certainly, one time or other, be buried
alive.

With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent from
the place where it stood, which was just under the hanging
precipice of the hill, and which, if it should be shaken again,
would certainly fall upon my tent. And I spent the two next
days, being the 19th and 2oth of April, in contriving where and
how to remove my habitation.

The fear of being swallowed up alive made me that I
never slept in quiet, and yet the apprehension of lying abroad
without any fence was almost equal to it; but still, when I
looked about, and saw how everything was put in order, how
pleasantly concealed I was, and how safe from danger, it made
me very loath to remove.

In the meantime, it occurred to me, that it would require
a vast deal of time for me to do this, and that I must be con-
tented to run the venture where I was, till I had formed a
camp for myself, and had secured it so as to remove to it. So,
with this resolution, I composed myself for a time, and resolved
that I would go to work with all speed, to build me a wall with
piles and cables, &c., in a circle, as before, and set my tent up
in it when it was finished; but that I would venture to stay
80 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

where I was till it was finished, and fit to remove to. This
was the 21st.

April 22.—The next morning I began to consider of
means to put this resolve in execution, but I was at a great
loss about my tools. I had three large axes, and abundance of
hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for traffic with the
Indians) ; but, with much chopping and cutting knotty hard
wood, they were all full of notches and dull; and, though I had
a grindstone, I could not turn it, and grind my tools too. This
cost me as much thought as a statesman would have bestowed
upon a grand point of politics, or a judge upon the life and
death of a man. At length I contrived a wheel with a string,
to turn it with my foot, that I might have both my hands at
liberty.—/Vo¢e, I had never seen any such thing in England,
or at least not to take notice how it was done, though since I
have observed it is very common there; besides that, my
grindstone was very large and heavy. This machine cost me
a full week’s work to bring it to perfection.

April 28, 29.—These two whole days I took up in grind-
ing my tools, my machine for turning my grindstone perform-
ing very well.

April 30.—Having perceived my bread had been low a
great while, now I took a survey of it, and reduced myself
to one biscuit-cake a day, which made my heart very heavy.

CHAPTER XIX.—THE WRECK DRIVEN ON SHORE—
A Fir oF AGUE.

AY 1.—In the morning, looking towards the seaside, the
tide being low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger

than ordinary, and it looked like a cask. When I came to it,
I found a small barrel, and two or three pieces of the wreck of
the ship, which were driven on shore by the late hurricane ;
and, looking towards the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to
lie higher out of the water than it used todo. I examined the
barrel which was driven on shore, and soon found it was a
barrel of gunpowder, but it had taken water, and the powder
THE WRECK DRIVEN ON SHORE. 81

was caked as hard asa stone. However, I rolled it farther on
shore for the present, and went on upon the sands as near as I
could to the wreck of the ship, to look for more.

When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely
removed. The forecastle, which lay before buried in sand, was
heaved up at least six feet ; and the stern (which was broken
to pieces, and parted from the rest by the force of the sea, soon
after I had left rummaging her) was tossed up, as it were, and
cast on one side. The sand was thrown so high on that side
next her stern, that whereas there was a great piece of water
before, so that I could not come within a quarter of a mile of
the wreck without swimming, I could now walk quite up to her
when the tide was out.

I was surprised with this at first, but soon concluded it
must have been done by the earthquake. And, as by this
violence the ship was more broken open than formerly, so
many things came daily on shore, which the sea had loosened,
and which the winds and water rolled by degrees to the land.

This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of
removing my habitation; and I busied myself mightily, that
day especially, in searching whether I could make any way
into the ship; but I found nothing was to be expected of that
kind, for that all the inside of the ship was choked up with
sand. However, as I had learned not to despair of anything,
I resolved to pull everything to pieces that I could of the ship,
concluding, that everything I could get from her would be of
some use or other to me.

May 3.—I began with my saw and cut a piece of a beam
through, which I thought held some of the upper part or quarter-
deck together, and when I had cut it through, I cleared away
the sand as well as I could from the side which lay highest ;
but the tide coming in, I was obliged to give over for that time.

May 4.—1 went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I
durst eat of, till I was weary of my sport, when, just going to
leave off, I caught a young dolphin. I had made me a long
line of some rope yarn, but I had no hooks, yet I frequently
caught fish enough, as much as I cared to eat ; all which I dried
in the sun, and ate them dry.
82 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

May 5.—Worked on the wreck—cut another beam asunder,
and brought three great fir planks off from the decks, which I
tied together, and made to float on shore when the tide of
flood came on.

May 6.—Worked on the wreck—got several iron bolts out
of her, and other pieces of ironwork ; worked very hard, and
came home very much tired, and had thoughts of giving it over.

May 7.—Went to the wreck again, but with an intent not
to work ; but found the weight of the wreck had broken itself
down, the beams being cut, that several pieces of the ship
seemed to lie loose, and the inside of the hold lay so open that
I could see into it, but almost full of water and sand.

May 8—Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to
wrench up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the water
or sand; I wrenched open two planks, and brought them on
shore also with the tide. I left the iron crow in the wreck for
next day.

May 9.—Went to the wreck, and with the crow made
way into the body of the wreck, and felt several casks,
and loosened them with the crow, but could not break them
up. I felt also the roll of English lead, and could stir it, but it
was too heavy to remove.

May 10 to 14.—Went every day to the wreck, and got a
great many pieces of timber, and boards, or planks, and two or
three hundredweight of iron.

May 15.—I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut
a piece off the roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet,
and driving it with the other, but as it lay about a foot and a
half in the water, I could not make any blow to drive the
hatchet.

May 16.—It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck
appeared more broken by the force of the water. I stayed so
long in the woods to get pigeons for food, that the tide pre-
vented me going to the wreck that day.

May 17.—1 saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore,
at a great distance, near two miles off me, but resolved to see
what they were, and found it was a piece of the head, but too.
heavy for me to bring away.
HE FINDS A TURTLE. 83

May 24.—Every day to this day I worked on the wreck,
and with hard labour I loosened some things so much with the
crow, that the first flowing tide several casks floated out, and
two of the seamen’s chests. But the wind blowing from the
shore, nothing came to land that day but pieces of timber, and
a hogshead, which had some Brazil pork in it; but the salt
water and the sand had spoiled it.

I continued this work every day to the 15th of June, except
the time necessary to get food, which I always appointed during
this part of my employment to be when the tide was up, that I
might be ready when it was ebbed out. By this time I had
gotten timber, and plank, and ironwork enough to have built
a good boat, if 1 had known how; and also I got at several
times, and in several pieces, near one hundredweight of the
sheet-lead.

une 16.—Going down to the seaside, I found a large tor-
toise or turtle. This was the first that I had seen, which it
seems was only my misfortune, not any defect of the place, or
scarcity ; for had I happened to be on the other side of the
island, I might have had hundreds of them every day, as I
found afterwards, but perhaps had paid dear enough for them.

une 17th I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her
three-score eggs; and her flesh was to me, at that time, the
most savoury and pleasant that ever I tasted in my life, having
had no flesh but of goats and fowls, since I landed in this
horrid place.

Fune 18.—Rained all day, and I stayed within. I thought
at this time the rain felt cold, and I was something chilly,
which I knew was not usual in that latitude.

Yune 19.—Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had
been cold. :

Fune 20.—No rest all night, violent pains in my head,
and feverish.

Fune 21.—Very ill, frightened almost to death with the
apprehensions of my sad condition—to be sick, and no help.
Prayed to God, for the first time since the storm off Hull; but
scarce knew what I said, or why, my thoughts being all
confused.
84 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Fune 22.—A little better, but under dreadful apprehensions
of sickness.

Sune 23.—Very bad again, cold and shivering, and then a
violent headache.

Fune 24.—Much better.

Fune 25—An ague very violent. The fit held me seven
hours, cold fit and hot, with faint sweats after it.

¥une 26.—Better ; and, having no victuals to eat, took my
gun, but found myself very weak. However, I killed a she-
goat, and with much difficulty got it home, and broiled some
of it, and ate. I would fain have stewed it, and made some
broth, but had no pot.

Fune 27.—The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all
day, and neither ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for
thirst, but so weak I had not strength to stand up, or to get
myself any water to drink. Prayed to God again, but was
light-headed ; and when I was not, I was so ignorant, that I knew
not what to say, only I lay, and cried, ‘ Lord, look upon me!
Lord, pity me! Lord, have mercy upon me!’ I suppose.tI did
nothing else for two or three hours, till, the fit wearing off, I
fell asleep, and did not wake till far in the night. When I
waked, I found myself much refreshed, but weak, and exceed-
ingly thirsty. However, as I had no water in my whole habi-
tation; I was forced to lie till morning, and went to sleep again.
In this second sleep I had this terrible dream :

I thought that I was sitting on the ground, on the out-
side of my wall, where I sat when the storm blew after the
earthquake, and that I saw a man descend from a great black
cloud, in a bright flame of fire, and light upon the ground. He
was all over as bright as a flame, so that I could but just bear
to look towards him. His countenance was most inexpressibly
dreadful, impossible for words to describe. When he stepped
upon the ground with his feet, I thought the earth trembled,
just as it had done before in the earthquake, and all the air
looked, to my apprehension, as if it had been filled with flashes
of fire.

He was no sooner landed upon the earth but he moved
forward towards me, with a long spear, or weapon, in his
A TERRIBLE DREAM. 85

hand to kill me. When he came to a rising ground, at some
distance, he spoke to me, or I heard a voice so terrible, that
it is impossible to express the terror of it. All that I can
say I understood, was this—‘ Seeing all these things have
not brought thee to repentance, now thou shalt die!’ At
which words, I thought he lifted up the spear that was in his
hand to kill me.

No one who shall ever read this account, will expect that
I should be able to describe the horrors of my soul at this
terrible vision—I mean, that even while it was a dream, I even
dreamed of those horrors. Nor is it any more possible to
describe the impression that remained upon my mind when
I awoke and found it was but a dream.

I had, alas! no divine knowledge. What I had received
by the good instruction of my father was then worn out by an
uninterrupted series, for eight years, of seafaring wickedness,
and a constant conversation with none but such as were, like
myself, wicked and profane to the last degree. I do not
remember that I had, in all that time, one thought that so
much as tended either to looking upwards towards God, or
inwards towards a reflection upon my own ways. Buta certain
stupidity of soul, without desire of good, or conscience of evil,
had entirely overwhelmed me, and I was all that the most
hardened, unthinking, wicked creature, among our common
sailors, can be supposed to be, not having the least sense, either
of the fear of God in danger, or of thankfulness to God in
deliverances.

But now, when I began to be sick, and a leisurely view
of the miseries of death came to place itself before me—when
my spirits began to sink under the burden of a strong dis-
temper, and nature was exhausted with the violence of the fever
—conscience, that had slept so long, began to awake, and I
began to reproach myself with my past life, in which I had so
evidently, by uncommon wickedness, provoked the justice of
God to lay me under uncommon strokes, and to deal with me
in so vindictive a manner.

These reflections oppressed me from the second or third
day of my distemper ; and in the violence, as well of the fever as
86 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

of the dreadful reproaches of my conscience, extorted some words
from me like praying to God, though I cannot say they were either
a prayer attended with desires or with hopes ; it was rather the
voice of mere fright and distress. My thoughts were confused,
the convictions great upon my mind, and the horror of dying
in such a miserable condition raised vapours into my head with
the mere apprehensions ; and, in these hurries of my soul, I
knew not what my tongue might express. But it was rather
exclamation, such as, ‘Lord, what a miserable creature am I!
If I should be sick, I shall certainly die for want of help, and
what will become of me?’ Then the tears burst out of my
eyes, and I could say no more for a good while. I thought,
‘Now I have difficulties to struggle with, too great for even
nature itself to support, and no assistance, no help, no com-
fort, no advice.’ Then I cried out, ‘Lord, be my help; for I
am in great distress !’

This was the first prayer, if I might call it so, that I had
made for many years. But I return to my journal,

CHAPTER XX.—SERIOUS REFLECTIONS—READS HIS BIBLE.

UNE 28.—Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep

I had had, and the fit being entirely off, I got up;
and though the fright and terror of my dream was very great,
yet I considered that the fit of the ague would return again
the next day, and now was my time to get something to
refresh and support myself, when I should be ill. The first
thing I did, I filled a large square case-bottle with water, and
set it upon my table in reach of my bed; and to take off the
chill or aguish disposition of the water, I put about a quarter
of a pint of rum into it, and mixed them together. Then I got
me a piece of the goat’s flesh, and broiled it on the coals,
but could eat very little. I walked about, but was very weak,
and withal very sad and heavy-hearted, under a sense of my
miserable condition, dreading the return of my distemper the
next day. At night, I made my supper of three of the turtle’s
eggs, which I roasted in the ashes, and ate, as we call it, in the
SERIOUS REFLECTIONS. 87

shell; and this was the first bit of meat I had ever asked
God’s blessing to, even, as I could remember, in my whole
life.

After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself so
weak that I could hardly carry the gun (for I never went out
without that) ; so I went but a little way, and sat down upon
the ground, looking out upon the sea, which was just before
me, and very calm and smooth. As I sat here, some such
thoughts as these occurred to me :

What is this earth and sea, of which I have seen so much?
Whence is it produced? And what am I, and all the other
creatures, wild and tame, human and brutal—whence are
we?

Sure we are all made by some secret Power, who formed
the earth and sea, the air and sky—and who is that?

Then it followed most naturally: It is God that has
made it all. Well, but then—it came on strangely—if God
has made all these things, He guides and governs them all,
and all things that concern them; for the Being that could
make all things, must certainly have power to guide and direct
them.

If so, nothing can happen in the great circuit of his works,
either without his knowledge or appointment.

And if nothing happens without his knowledge, He knows
that I am here, and am in a dreadful condition : and if nothing
happens without his appointment, He has appointed all this to
befall me.

Nothing occurred to my thoughts to contradict any of these
conclusions; and, therefore, it rested upon me with the
greater force, that it must needs be that God had appointed
all this to befall me.—That I was brought to this miserable
circumstance by his direction, He having the sole power, not
of me only, but of everything that happened in the world.
Immediately it followed—

Why has God done this to me? What have I done to be
thus used?

My conscience presently checked me in that inquiry, as
if I had blasphemed; and methought it spoke to me like a
88 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

voice: ‘Wretch! dost thou ask what thou hast done? Look
back upon a dreadful misspent life, and ask thyself what thou
hast not done? Ask why is it that thou wert not long ago
destroyed? Why wert thou not drowned in Yarmouth Roads?
killed in the fight, when the ship was taken by the Sallee man-
of-war? devoured by the wild beasts on the coast of Africa?
or drowned HERE, when all the crew perished but thyself?
Dost thou ask, What have I done?’

I was struck with these reflections, as one astonished, and
had not a word to say—no, not to answer to myself; but rose
up, pensive and sad, walked back to my retreat, and went
up over my wall, as if I had been going to bed. But my
thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I had no inclination to
sleep, so I sat down in my chair, and lighted my lamp, for it
began to be dark, Now, as the apprehensions of the return of
my distemper terrified me very much, it occurred to my
thought, that the Brazilians take no physic but their tobacco
for almost all distempers; and I had a piece of a roll of
tobacco in one of the chests, which was quite cured, and some
also that was green, and not quite cured.

I went, directed by Heaven, no doubt; for in this chest
I found a cure both for soul and body. I opened the chest,
and found what I looked for, namely, the tobacco ; and as the
few books I had saved lay there, too, I took out one of the
Bibles, which I mentioned before, and which, to this time, I
had not found leisure, or so much as inclination, to look into
—I say, I took it out, and brought both that and the tobacco
with me to the table.

What use to make of the tobacco I knew not, as to my
distemper, or whether it was good for it or not; but I tried
several experiments with it, as if I was resolved it should hit
one way or other. I first took a piece of a leaf, and chewed it
in my mouth, which, indeed, at first almost stupefied my brain,
the tobacco being green and strong, and I had not been much
used to it. Then I took some, and steeped it an hour or
two in some rum, and resolved to take a dose of it when I lay
down ; and, lastly, I burned some upon a pan of coals, and held
my nose close over the smoke of it, as long as I could bear it,
HE BEGINS TO READ THE BIBLE. 89

as well for the heat as the virtue of it, and I held almost to
suffocation.

In the interval of this operation, I took up the Bible, and
began to read ; but my head was too much disturbed with the
tobacco to bear reading, at least at that time. Only, having
opened the book casually, the first words that occurred to me
were these: ‘Call upon me in the day of trouble, and I will
deliver thee ; and thou shalt glorify me’

The words were very apt to my case, and made some
impression upon my thoughts at the time of reading them,
though not so much as they did afterwards ; for, as for being
delivered, the word had no sound, as I may say, tome. The
thing was so remote, so impossible, in my apprehension of
things, that I began to say, as the children of Israel did, when
they were promised flesh to eat, ‘Can God spread a table in the
wilderness?’ So I began to say, ‘Can God himself deliver me
from this place?’ And as it was not for many years that any
hope appeared, this prevailed very often upon my thoughts.
But, however, the words made a very great impression upon
me, and I mused upon them very often.

It grew now late, and the tobacco had, as I said, dozed
my head so much, that I inclined to sleep, so that I left my
lamp burning in the cave, lest I should want anything in the
night, and went to bed. But before I lay down, I did what I
never had done in all my life—I kneeled down, and prayed to
God to fulfil the promise to me, that, if I called upon him in
the day of trouble, He would deliver me.

After my broken and imperfect prayer was over, I drank
the rum, in which I had steeped the tobacco, which was so
strong and rank of the tobacco, that indeed I could scarce get
it down. Immediately upon this I went to bed, and found
presently it flew up into my head violently ; but I fell into a
sound sleep, and waked no more, till, by the sun, it must
necessarily be near three o'clock in the afternoon the next day
Nay, to this hour, I am partly of the opinion, that I slept all the
next day and night, and till almost three the day after; for,
otherwise, I know not how I should lose a day of my reckoning,
in the days of the week, as it appeared, some years after, I had
go ROBINSON CRUSOE.

done. For if I had lost it by crossing and recrossing the Line,
I should have lost more than one day; but in my account it
was lost, and I never knew which way.

Be that, however, one way or other; when I awaked, I
found myself exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively and
cheerful. When I got up, I was stronger than I was the day
before, and my stomach better, for I was hungry; and, in
short, I had no fit the next day, but continued much altered
for the better: this was the 29th.

The 30th was my well day of course, and I went abroad
with my gun, but did not care to travel too far. I killed a sea-
fowl or two, something like a brand-goose, and brought them
home, but was not very forward to eat them; so I ate some
more of the turtle’s eggs, which were very good. This evening
I renewed the medicine, which I had supposed did me good the
day before, namely the tobacco steeped in rum; only, I did
not take so much as before, nor did I chew any of the leaf, or
hold my head over the smoke. However, I was not so well
the next day, which was the first of July, as I hoped I should
have been ; for I had a little spice of the cold fit, but it was
not much.

Fuly 2.—I renewed the medicine all the three ways, and
dosed myself with it as at first, and doubled the quantity
which I drank.

Fuly 3.—I missed the fit for good and all, though I did
not recover my full strength for some weeks after. While I
was thus gathering strength, my thoughts ran exceedingly
upon this Scripture, ‘I will deliver thee;’ and the impossibility
of my deliverance lay much upon my mind, in bar of my ever
expecting it. But as I was discouraging myself with such
thoughts, it occurred to my mind, that I pored so much upon
my deliverance from the main affliction, that I disregarded the
deliverance I had received; and I was, as it were, made to
ask myself such questions as these; namely: Have I not been
delivered, and wonderfully, too, from sickness—from the most
distressing condition that could be, and that was so frightful
to me? and what notice had I taken of it? Had I done my
part? God had delivered me, but I had not glorified him—
HE RECOVERS. 9g!

that is to say, I had not owned and been thankful for that as a
deliverance ; and how could I expect greater deliverance ?

This touched my heart very much, and immediately I
kneeled down, and gave God thanks aloud, for my recovery
from my sickness.

Fuly 4.—In the morning I took the Bible; and, begin-
ning at the New Testament, I began seriously to read it, and
imposed upon myself to read a while every morning and
every night ; not tying myself to the number of chapters, but
as long as my thoughts should engage me. It was not long
after I set seriously to this work, but I found my heart more
deeply and sincerely affected with the wickedness of my past
life. The impression of my dream revived; and the words,
‘All these things have not brought thee to repentance,’ ran
seriously in my thoughts. I was earnestly begging of God to
give me repentance, when it happened providentially that very
day, that, reading the Scripture, I came to these words: ‘He
is exalted a Prince and a Saviour, to give repentance, and to
give remission.’ I threw down the book, and, with my heart
as well as my hand lifted up to heaven, in a kind of ecstasy of
joy, I cried out aloud, ‘Jesus, thou Son of David! Jesus, thou
exalted Prince and Saviour, give me repentance!’

This was the first time that I could say, in the true
sense of the words, that I prayed in all my life; for now I
prayed with a sense of my condition, and with a true Scripture
view of hope, founded on the encouragement of the Word of
God; and from this time, I may say, I began to have hope
that God would hear me.

Now I began to construe the words mentioned above, ‘ Call
upon me, and I will deliver thee,’ in a different sense from
what I had ever done before; for then I had no notion of any-
thing being called deliverance, but my being delivered from
the captivity I was in. For, though I was indeed at large in
the place, yet the island was certainly a prison to me, and that
in the worst sense of the word ; but now I learned to take it in
another sense. Now I looked back on my past life with such
horror, and my sins appeared so dreadful, that my soul sought
nothing of God but deliverance from the load of guilt that bore

&
92 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

down all my comfort. As for my solitary life, it was nothing. I
did not so much as pray to be delivered from it, or think of it ;
it was all of no consideration in comparison to this, and I add
this part here, to hint to whoever shall read it, that whenever
they come to a true sense of things, they will find deliverance
from sin a much greater blessing than deliverance from affliction.

But, leaving this part, I return to my journal.

My condition began now to be, though not less miserable
as to my way of living, yet much easier to my mind; and
my thoughts being directed, by a constant reading the Scrip-
ture and praying: to God, to things of a higher nature, I had a
great deal of comfort within, which till now I knew nothing of.
Also, as my health and strength returned, I bestirred myself
to furnish myself with everything that I wanted, and make
my way of living as regular as I could.

CHAPTER XXI.—SURVEYS THE ISLAND.

ao the 4th of July to
the 14th, I was chiefly
employed in walking about
eu) With my gun in my
hand, a little and a
little at a time, as a

‘| man that was gathering
up his strength after a
fit of sickness ; for it is
hardly to be imagined
how low I was, and to
what weakness I was
| reduced. The applica-
{ tion which I made use
of was perfectly new,
and perhaps what had
never cured an ague
before; neither can I
recommend any one to practise this experiment. And though



HE BEGINS TO SURVEY THE ISLAND. 93

it did carry off the fit, yet it rather contributed to weaken me,
for I had frequent convulsions in my nerves and limbs for
some time.

I learned from it also this, in particular, that being abroad
in the rainy season was the most pernicious thing to my health
that could be, especially in those rains which came attended
with storms and hurricanes of wind. For, as the rain which
came in a dry season was always most accompanied with such
storms, so I found that rain was much more dangerous than the
rain which fell in September and October.

I had been now in this unhappy island above ten months.
All possibility of deliverance from this condition seemed to be
entirely taken from me; and I firmly believed, that no human
shape had ever set foot upon that place. Having now secured
my habitation, as I thought, fully to my mind, I had a great
desire to make a more perfect discovery of the island, and to
see what other productions I might find, which yet I knew
nothing of.

It was on the 15th of July that I began to take a more
particular survey of the island itself. I went up the creek
first, where, as I hinted, I brought my rafts on shore. I found,
after I came about two miles up, that the tide did not flow any
higher, and that it was no more than a little brook of running
water, very fresh and good; but this being the dry season,
there was hardly any water in some parts of it, at least not
enough to run in any stream, so as it could be perceived.

On the banks of this brook I found many pleasant savannas
or meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with grass; and, on
the rising parts of them, next to the higher grounds (where
the water, as it might be supposed, never overflowed), I found
a great deal of tobacco, green, and growing to a great and
very strong stalk. There were divers other plants, which I
had no notion of, or understanding about, and might perhaps
have virtues of their own, which I could not find out.

I searched for the cassava-root, which the Indians in all
that climate make their bread of, but I could find none. I saw
large plants of aloes, but did not then understand them. I
saw several sugar-canes, but wild, and, for want of cultiva-
94 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

tion, imperfect. I contented myself with these discoveries for
this time, and came back musing with myself what course I
might take to know the virtue and goodness of any of the
fruits or plants which I should discover, but could bring it to
no conclusion. In short, I had made so little observation
while I was in the Brazils, that I. knew little of the plants of
the field; at least, very little that might serve me to any
purpose now in my distress.

The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again;
and, after going something farther than I had done the day
before, I found the brook and the savannas began to cease,
and the country became more woody than before. In this
part I found different fruits, and particularly I found melons
upon the ground in great abundance, and grapes upon the
trees. The vines had spread indeed over the trees, and the
clusters of grapes were now just in their prime, very ripe and
rich.

This was a surprising discovery, and I was exceedingly
glad of them. But I was warned by my experience to eat
sparingly of them, remembering that when I was ashore in
Barbary, the eating of grapes killed several of our Englishmen
who were slaves there, by throwing them into fluxes and
fevers. But I found an excellent use for these grapes, and
that was to cure or dry them in the sun, and keep them as
dried grapes or raisins are kept, which I thought would be,
as indeed they were, both wholesome and agreeable to eat,
when no grapes might be had.

I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my
habitation ; which, by the way, was the first night, as I might
say, I had lain from home. In the night I took my first con-
trivance, and got up into a tree, where I slept well, and the
next morning proceeded upon my discovery, travelling nearly
four miles, as I might judge by the length of the valley, keep-
ing still due north, with a ridge of hills on the south and northt
side of me.

At the end of this march I came to an opening, where
the country seemed to descend to the west; and a little spring
of fresh water, which issued out of the side of the hill by me,
HE FINDS ABUNDANCE OF FRUIT. 95

ran the other way, that is, due east ; and the country appeared
so fresh, so green, so flourishing, everything being in a constant
verdure, or flourish of spring, that it looked like a planted
garden.

I descended a little on the side of that delicious valley,
surveying it with a secret kind of pleasure (though mixed with
other afflicting thoughts), to think that this was all my own,
that I was king and lord of all this country indefeasibly, and
had a right of possession ; and, if I could convey it, I might
have it in inheritance, as completely as any lord of a manor
in Kngland. I saw here abundance of cocoa trees, orange,
and lemon, and citron trees, but all wild, and few bearing any
fruit; at least, not then. However, the green limes that I
gathered were not only pleasant to eat, but very wholesome ;
and I mixed their juice afterwards with water, which made it
very wholesome, and very cool and refreshing.

I found now I had business enough to gather and carry
home; and I resolved to lay up a store, as well of grapes as
limes and lemons, to furnish myself for the wet season, which
I knew was approaching.

In order to do this, I gathered a great heap of grapes in
one place, and a lesser heap in another place, and a great
parcel of limes and lemons in another place; and taking a
few of each with me, I travelled homeward, and resolved to
come again and bring a bag or sack, or what I could make, to
carry the rest home.

Accordingly, having spent three days in this journey, I
came home (so I must now call my tent and my cave). But
before I got thither, the grapes were spoiled—the richness of
the fruit and the weight of the juice having broken them and
bruised them, they were good for little or nothing. As to the
limes, they were good, but I could bring but a few.

The next day, being the r9th, I went back, having made
me two small bags to bring home my harvest. But I was
surprised, when, coming to my heap of grapes which were so
rich and fine when I gathered them, I found them all spread
abroad, trod to pieces, and dragged about, some here, some
there, and abundance eaten and devoured. By this I con-
96 ROBINSON CRUSOF.

cluded there were some wild creatures thereabouts, which had
done this ; but what they were I knew not.

However, as I found there was no laying them up on
heaps, and no carrying them away in a sack, but that one way
they would be destroyed, and the other way they would be
crushed with their own weight, I took another course. I
gathered a large quantity of the grapes, and hung them upon
the outer branches of the trees, that they might cure and dry
in the sun; and as for the limes and lemons, I carried as many
back as I could well stand under.

When I came home from this journey, I contemplated
with great pleasure the fruitfulness of that valley and the
pleasantness of the situation, the security from storms on that
side of the water, and the wood, and concluded that I had
pitched upon a place to fix my abode, which was by far the
worst part of the country. Upon the whole, I began to consider
of removing my habitation, and to look out for a place, equally
safe as where I now was situated, if possible, in that pleasant,
fruitful part of the island.

This thought ran long in my head, and I was exceed-
ingly fond of it for some time, the pleasantness of the place
tempting me. But when I came to a nearer view of it, and to
consider that I was now by the seaside, where it was at least
possible that something might happen to my advantage, and
that the same ill fate that brought me hither, might bring some
other unhappy wretches to the same place ; and though it was
scarcely probable that any such thing should ever happen, yet,
to inclose myself among the hills and woods, in the centre of
the island, was to anticipate my bondage, and to render such
an affair not only improbable, but impossible; and that, there-
fore, I ought not by any means to remove.

However, I was so enamoured of this place that I spent
much of my time there for the whole remaining part of the
month of July ; and though, upon second thoughts, I resolved,
as above, not to remove, yet I built me a little kind of a bower,
and surrounded it at a distance with a strong fence, being a
double hedge, as high as I could reach, well staked, and filled
between with brushwood. Here I lay very secure, sometimes
INCESSANT RAIN. 97

two or three nights together, always going over it with a
ladder, as before; so that I fancied now I had my country
house and my sea-coast house. This work took me up to
the beginning of August.

I had but newly finished my fence, and begun to enjoy
my labour, when the rains came on, and made me stick close
to my first habitation. For, though I had made me a tent
like the other, with a piece of sail, and spread it very well, yet
I had not the shelter of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a
cave behind me to retreat into when the rains were extra-
ordinary.

About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished
my bower, and begun to enjoy myself. The 3d of August I
found the grapes I had hung up were perfectly dried, and,
indeed, were excellent good raisins of the sun; so I began to
take them down from the trees. And it was very happy that I
did so, for the rains which followed would have spoiled them,
and I had lost the best part of my winter food ; for I had
above two hundred large bunches of them. No sooner had I
taken them all down, and carried most of them home to my
cave, but it began to rain; and from thence, which was the
14th of August, it rained more or less every day till the middle
of October, and sometimes so violently that I could not stir
out of my cave for several days.

In this season I was much surprised with the increase of
my family. I had been concerned for the loss of one of my
cats, which ran away from me, or, as I thought, had been dead ;
and I heard no more tale or tidings of her, till, to my astonish-
ment, she came home, about the end of August, with three
kittens! This was the more strange to me, because, though I
had killed a wild cat, as I called it, with my gun, yet I thought
it was quite a different kind from our European ones ; yet the
young cats were the same kind of house breed like the old
one ; and both my cats being females, I thought it very strange.
But from these three cats, I afterwards came to be so pestered
with cats, that I was forced to kill them like vermin, or wild
beasts, and to drive them from my house as much as possible.

From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain,
98 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

so that I could not stir, and was now very careful not to be
much wet. In this confinement I began to be straitened for
food; but venturing out twice, I one day killed a goat; and
the last day, which was the 26th, found a very large tortoise,
which was a treat to me. My food was regulated thus: I ate
a bunch of raisins for my breakfast, a piece of the goat’s
flesh, or of the turtle, for my dinner broiled (for, to my great
misfortune, I had no vessel to boil or stew anything), and two
or three of the turtle’s eggs for supper.

During this confinement in my cover by the rain, I worked
daily two or three hours at enlarging my cave, and, by
degrees, worked it on towards one side, till 1 came to the out-
side of the hill, and made a door or way out, which came
beyond my fence, or wall; and so I came in and out this way.
But I was not perfectly easy at lying so open; for, as I had
managed myself before, I was in a perfect inclosure, whereas
now I thought I lay exposed and open for anything to come in
upon me. And yet I could not perceive that there was any
living thing to fear, the biggest creature that I had ever seen
upon the island being a goat.

CHAPTER XXII.—EXPERIENCE IN FARMING.

oe the 30th._I was now come to the unhappy

anniversary of my landing—I cast up the notches on my
post, and found I had been on shore three hundred and sixty-
five days. I kept this day as a solemn fast, setting it apart to
‘a religious exercise. And not having tasted the least refresh-
ment for twelve hours, even till the going down of the sun, I
then ate a biscuit-cake, and a bunch of grapes, and went to
bed, finishing the day as I began it.

I had all this time observed no Sabbath day, for as at
first I had no sense of religion upon my mind, I had, after some
time, omitted to distinguish the weeks, by making a longer
notch than ordinary for the Sabbath day, and so did not really
know what any of the days were ; but now, having cast up the
days as above, I found I had been there a year; so I divided
EXPERIENCE IN FARMING. 99

it into weeks, and set apart every seventh day for a Sabbath;
though I found, at the end of my account, I had lost a day or
two of my reckoning.

A little after this my ink began to fail me, and so I con-
tented myself to use it more sparingly, and to write down only
the most remarkable events of my life, without continuing a
daily memorandum of other things.

The rainy season and the dry season began now to appear
regular to me, and I learned to divide them so as to provide
for them accordingly. But I bought all my experience before
I had it; and this I am going to relate was one of the most
discouraging experiments that I made at all. I have mentioned
that I had saved the few ears of barley and rice which I had
so surprisingly found spring up, as I thought, of themselves,
and believe there were about thirty stalks of rice, and about
twenty of barley. And now I thought it a proper time to sow
it after the rains, the sun being in its southern position going
from me.

Accordingly, I dug up a piece of ground, as well as I could,
with my wooden spade, and, dividing it into two parts, I
sowed my grain. But as I was sowing, it casually occurred
to my thought, that I would not sow it all at first, because I
did not know when was the proper time for it. So I sowed
about two-thirds of the seeds, leaving about a handful of each.

It was a great comfort to me afterwards that I did so, for
not one grain of that I sowed this time came to anything. For
the dry months following, the earth having had no rain after
the seed was sown, it had no moisture to assist its growth, and
never came up at all, till the wet season had come again, and
then it grew as if it had been newly sown.

Finding my first seed did not grow, which I easily imagined
was by the drought, I sought for a moister piece of ground
to make another trial in; and I dug up a piece of ground
near my new bower, and sowed the rest of my seed in
February, a little before the vernal equinox ; and this, having
the rainy months of March and April to water it, sprung up
very pleasantly, and yielded a very good crop. But having
part of the seed left onlv, and not daring to sow all that I had,
100 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

I had but a small quantity at last, my whole crop not amount-
ing to above half a peck of each kind.

But by this experience I was made master of my business,
and knew exactly when the proper season was to sow ; and
that I might expect two seed-times and two harvests every
year.

While this corn was growing, I made a little discovery,
which was of use to me afterwards. As soon as the rains were
over, and the weather began to settle, which was about the
month of November, I made a visit up the country to my
bower, where, though I had not been some months, yet I
found all things just as I left them.

The circle or double hedge that I had made, was not only
firm and entire, but the stakes which I had cut out of some
trees that grew thereabouts, were all shot out, and grown with
long branches, as much as a willow-tree usually shoots the first
year after lopping its head. I could not tell what tree to call it
that these stakes were cut from. I was surprised, and yet
very well pleased, to see the young trees grow; and I pruned
them and led them up to grow as much alike as I could; and
it is scarcely credible how beautiful a figure they grew into in
three years. So that though the hedge made a circle of about
twenty-five yards in diameter, yet the trees (for such I might
now call them) soon covered it; and it was a complete shade,
sufficient to lodge under all the dry season.

This made me resolve to cut some more stakes, and make
me a hedge like this in a semicircle round my wall (I mean
that of my first dwelling), which I did; and placing the trees,
or stakes, in a double row, at above eight yards’ distance from
my first fence, they grew presently, and were at first a fine
cover to my habitation, and afterwards served for a defence
also, as I shall observe in its order.

I found now, that the seasons of the year might generally
be divided, not into summer and winter, as in Europe, but
into the rainy seasons and the dry seasons, which were
generally thus :

The half of February, the whole of March, and the half of
April—rainy ; the sun being then on or near the equinox.
THE DIVISION OF SEASONS ON THE ISLAND. IOI

The half of April, the whole of May, June, and July, and
the half of August—dry ; the sun being then to the north of
the Line.

The half of August, the whole of September, and the half of
October—rainy ; the sun being then come back to the Line.

The half of October, the whole of November, December,
and January, and the half of February—dry; the sun being
then to the south of the Line.

The rainy season sometimes held longer or shorter, as the
winds happened to blow; but this was the general observa-
tion I made. After I had found, by experience, the ill conse-
quence of being abroad in the rain, I took care to furnish
myself with provision beforehand, that I might not be obliged
to go out ; and I sat within doors as much as possible during
the wet months. j

In this time I found much employment (and very suitable
also to the time), for I found great occasion of many things
which I had no way to furnish myself with, but by hard labour
and constant application. Particularly, I tried many ways to
make myself a basket; but all the twigs I could get for the
purpose proved so brittle that they would do nothing.

It proved of excellent advantage to me now, that when I
was a boy I used to take great delight in standing at a basket-
maker’s in the town where my father lived, to see them make
their wicker-ware; and being, as boys usually are, very officious
to help, and a great observer of the manner how they worked
those things, and sometimes lending a hand, I had by this
means so full knowledge of the methods of it, that I wanted
nothing but the materials. At last it came into my mind, that
the twigs of that tree from whence I cut my stakes that grew,
might possibly be as tough as the sallows, willows, and osiers
in England ; and I resolved to try.

Accordingly, the next day I went to my country-house,
as I called it, and, cutting some of the smaller twigs, I found
them to my purpose as much as I could desire; whereupon I
came the next time prepared with a hatchet to cut downa
quantity, which I soon found, for there was great plenty of
them. These I set up to dry within my circle, or hedge, and
102 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

when they were fit for use, 1 carried them to my cave; and
here, during the next season, I employed myself in making (as
well as I could) a great many baskets, both to carry earth, or
to carry or lay up anything, as I had occasion. Though I did



eS
Crusoe making Baskets.

serviceable for my purpose; and thus afterwards I took care
never to be without them. As my wicker-ware decayed, I
made more ; especially I made strong deep baskets to place
my corn in, instead of sacks, when I should come to have any
quantity of it.

Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world ot
time about it, I bestirred myself to see, if possible, how to
supply two wants. I had no vessels to hold anything that was
liquid, except two runlets, which were almost full of rum, and
some glass bottles, some of the common size, and others, which
A SECOND TOUR ROUND THE ISLAND. 103

were case-bottles, square, for the holding of waters, spirits, &c.
I had not so much as a pot to boil anything in, except a great
kettle, which I saved out of the ship, and which was too big
for such uses as I desired it for, namely, to make broth, and
stew a bit of meat by itself. The second thing I would fain
have had, was a tobacco-pipe, but it was impossible for me
to make one. However, I found a contrivance for that, too,
at last.

I employed myself in planting my second rows of stakes of
piles, and in this wicker-work, all the summer, or dry season,
when another business took me up more time than it could
be imagined I could spare.

CHAPTER XXIII.—MakKES A SECOND TOUR ROUND
THE ISLAND.

MENTIONED before, that I had a great mind to see the
whole island, and that I had travelled up the brook, and
so on, to where I built my bower, and where I had an opening
quite to the sea, on the other side of the island. I now resolved
to travel quite across to the sea-shore on that side. So, taking
my gun and hatchet, and my dog, and a larger quantity of
powder and shot than usual, with two biscuit-cakes, and a
great bunch of raisins in my pouch, for my store, I began my
journey.

When I had passed the vale where my bower stood, as
above, I came within view of the sea to the west ; and it being
a very clear day, I fairly descried land, whether an island
or continent I could not tell; but it lay very high, extending
from the west to the west-south-west, at a very great dis-
tance ; by my guess it could not be less than fifteen or twenty
leagues off.

I could not tell what part of the world this might be, other-
wise than that I knew it must be part of America; and,
as I concluded by all my observations, must be near the
Spanish dominions, and perhaps was all inhabited by savages,
where, if I should have landed, I had been in a worse condition
104 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

than I was now; and therefore I acquiesced in the dispositions
of Providence, which I began now to own, and to believe
ordered everything for the best—I say, I quieted my mind with
this, and left off afflicting myself
with fruitless wishes of being there.
Besides, after some pause upon
this affair, I considered, that if this
land was the Spanish coast, I should
certainly, one time or other, see
some vessels pass or repass one
way or other; but if not, then it
was the savage coast between the
Spanish country and Brazil, the in-
habitants of which were indeed the
worst of savages ; for they are can-
nibals, or men-eaters, and fail not
to murder and devour all the human
bodies that fall into their hands.





































HE FINDS MANY TURTLES. 105

With these considerations I walked very leisurely forward
I found that side of the island where I now was, much
pleasanter than mine—the open or savanna fields sweet,
adorned with flowers and grass, and full of very fine woods, I
saw abundance of parrots, and I would fain have caught one,
if possible, to have kept it to be tame, and taught it to speak
to me. I did, after some painstaking, catch a young parrot ;
for I knocked it down with a stick, and having recovered it,
I brought it home, but it was some years before I could make
him speak. However, at last I taught him to call me by my
name very familiarly : but the accident that followed, though
it be a trifle, will be very diverting in its place.

I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found in
the low grounds, hares, as I thought them to be, and foxes,
but they differed greatly from all the other kinds I had met
with ; nor could I satisfy myself to eat them, though I killed
several. But I had no need to be venturous; for I had no
want of food, and of that which was very good too ; especially
these three sorts, namely, goats, pigeons, and turtle, or tortoise,
which, added to my grapes, Leadenhall Market could not have
furnished a better table than I, in proportion to the company.
And though my case was deplorable enough, yet I had great
cause for thankfulness, that I was not driven to any extremities
for food; but rather had plenty, even to dainties.

I never travelled in this journey above two miles outright
in a day, or thereabouts. But I took so many turns and
returns to see what discoveries I could make, that I came
wearied enough to the place where I resolved to sit down for
all night; and then I either reposed myself in a tree, or sur-
rounded myself with a row of stakes set upright in the ground,
either from one tree to another, or so as no wild creature could
come at me without waking me.

As soon as I came to the sea-shore, I was surprised to see
that I had taken up my lot on the worst side of the island;
for here, indeed, the shore was covered with innumerable
turtles, whereas, on the other side, I had found but three in a
year and a half. Here was also an infinite number of fowls of
many kinds, some of which I had not seen before, and many of
106 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

them very good meat; but such as I knew not the names of,
except those called penguins.

I could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very spar-
ing of my powder and shot; and therefore had more mind to
kill a she-goat, if I could, which I could better feed on, And
though there were many goats here (more than on the other
side of the island), yet it was with much more difficulty that
I could come near them—the country being flat and even, and
they saw me much sooner than when I was on the hills.

I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter
than mine; but yet I had not the least inclination to remove ;
for, as I was fixed in my habitation, it became natural to me,
and I seemed, all the while I was here, to be, as it were, upon
a journey and from home. However, I travelled along the
shore of the sea towards the east, I suppose about twelve miles ;
and then, setting up a great pole upon the shore for a mark, I
concluded I would go home again, and that the next journey
I took should be on the other side of the island, east from my
dwelling, and so round, till I came to my post again—of which
in its place.

I took another way to come back than that I went, thinking
I could easily keep all the island so much in my view,
that I could not miss finding my first dwelling by viewing
the country. But I found myself mistaken ; for, being come
about two or three miles, I found myself descended into
a very large valley, but so surrounded with hills, and those
hills covered with woods, that I could not see which was my
way by any direction but that of the sun, nor even then, unless
I knew very well the position of the sun at that time of the
day.

It happened, to my further misfortune, that the weather
proved hazy for three or four days, while I was in this valley ;
and not being able to see the sun, I wandered about very un-
comfortably, and at last was obliged to find out the seaside,
look for my post, and come back the same way I went. Then,
by easy journeys, I turned homeward, the weather being exceed-
ingly hot, and my gun, ammunition, hatchet, and other things
very heavy.
HE TAMES A KID. 107

In this journey, my dog surprised a young kid, and seized
upon it; and I running in to take hold of it, caught it, and
saved it alive from the dog. I had a great mind to bring it
home, if I could; for I had often been musing whether it
might not be possible to get a kid or two, and so raise a breed
of tame goats, which might supply me when my powder and
shot should be spent.

I made a collar for this little creature, and, with a string
which I made of some rope-yarn, which I always carried about
me, I led him along, though with some difficulty, till I came to
my bower; and there I inclosed him, and left him, for I was
very impatient to be at home, from whence I had been absent
above a month.

I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come
into my old hutch, and lie down in my hammock-bed. This
little wandering journey, without a settled place of abode, had
been so unpleasant to me, that my own house, as I called it to
myself, was a perfect settlement to me compared to that; and
it rendered everything about me so comfortable, that I resolved
I would never go a great way from it again, while it should be
my lot to stay on the island.

I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale myself
after my long journey ; during which most of the time was
taken up in the weighty affair of making a cage for my poll,
who began now to be a mere domestic, and to be mighty well
acquainted with me. Then I began to think of the poor kid
which I had penned in within my little circle, and resolved to
goand fetch it home, and give it some food. Accordingly I
went, and found it where I left it ; for, indeed, it could not get
out, but was almost starved for want of food. I went and cut
boughs of trees, and branches of such shrubs as I could find,
and threw it over, and having fed it, I tied it as I did before,
to lead it away. But it was so tame with being hungry, that
I had no need to have tied it, for it followed me like a dog ;
and, as I continually fed it, the creature became so loving, so
gentle, and so fond, that it became from that time one of my
domestics also, and would never leave me afterwards.

The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come,
h
108 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

and I kept the 30th of September in the same solemn manner
as before, being the anniversary of my landing on the island,
having now been there two years, and no more prospect of
being delivered than the first day I came there.

I spent the whole day in humble and thankful acknow-
ledgments of the many wonderful mercies which my solitary
condition was attended with, and without which it might have
been infinitely more miserable. I gave humble and hearty
thanks, that God had been pleased to discover to me even
that it was possible I might be more happy in this solitary
condition than I should have been in the liberty of society,
and in all the pleasures of the world—that He could fully make
up to me the deficiencies of my solitary state, and the want of
human society, by his presence and the communication of his
grace to my soul, supporting, comforting, and encouraging me
to depend upon his providence here, and hope for his eternal
presence hereafter.

It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much more
happy the life I now led was, with all its miserable circum-
stances, than the wicked, cursed, abominable life I led all the
past part of my days. And now I changed both my sorrows
and my joys, my very desires altered, my affections changed
their gust, and my delights were perfectly new from what
they were at my first coming, or, indeed, for the two years
past.

Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting, or for
viewing the country, the anguish of my soul at my condition
would break out upon me on a sudden, and my very heart
would die within me to think of the woods, the mountains,
the deserts I was in; and how I was a prisoner, locked up
with the eternal bars and bolts of the ocean, in an uninhabited
wilderness, without redemption.

But I began to exercise myself with new thoughts. I daily
read the Word of God, and applied all the comforts of it
to my present state. One morning, being very sad, I opened
the Bible upon these words, ‘I will never leave thee, nor for-
sake thee!’ Immediately it occurred that these words were
to me. Why else should they be directed in such a manner,
BEGINS HIS THIRD YEAR. 109

just at the moment when I was mourning over my condition,
as one forsaken of God and man? ‘Well then,’ said I, ‘if God
does not forsake me, of what ill consequence can it be, or what
matters it though the world should all forsake me; seeing, on
the other hand, if I had all the world, and should lose the
favour and blessing of God, there would be no comparison in
the loss?’

I never opened the Bible, or shut it, but my very soul within
me blessed God for directing my friend in England, without
any order of mine, to pack it up among my goods, and
for assisting me afterwards to save it out of the wreck of the
ship.

CHAPTER XXIV.—HARVEST OPERATIONS.

I* this disposition of mind, I began my third year. And

though I have not given the reader the trouble of so parti-
cular an account of my works this year as at the first, yet in
general it may be observed, that I was very seldom idle, having
regularly divided my time according to the several daily
employments that were before me—such as, firs¢, my duty to
God, and reading the Scriptures, which I constantly set apart
some time for, thrice every day. Secondly, the going abroad
with my gun for food, which generally took me up three hours
every morning when it did not rain. Thirdly, the ordering,
curing, preserving, and cooking what I had killed or caught
for my supply—these took up great part of the day. Also
it is to be considered, that in the middle of the day, when the
sun was in its zenith, the violence of the heat was too great
to stir out; so that about four hours in the evening was all
the time I could be supposed to work in; with this exception,
that sometimes I changed my hours of hunting and working,
and went to work in the morning, and abroad with my gun
in the afternoon.

To this short time allowed for labour, I desire may be
added the exceeding laboriousness of my work; the many
hours which, for want of tools, want of help, and want of skill,
everything that I did took up out of my time. For example,
Ilo ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I was full two-and-forty days making me a board for a long
shelf, which I wanted in my cave; whereas, two sawyers, with
their tools and sawpit, would have cut six of them out of the
same tree in half a day.

My case was this: it was to be a large tree which was
to be cut down, because my board was to be a broad one.
This tree I was three days in cutting down, and two more
cutting off the boughs, and reducing it to a log, or piece of
timber. With inexpressible hacking and hewing, I reduced
both the sides of it into chips, till it began to be light enough
to move; then I turned it, and made one side of it smooth
and flat, as a board, from end to end; then, turning that side
downward, cut the other side till I brought the plank to be
about three inches thick, and smooth on both sides. Any one
may judge the labour of my hands in such a piece of work ;
but labour and patience carried me through that and many
other things. I only observe this in particular, to show the
reason why so much of my time went away with so little work,
namely, that what might be a little to be done with help and
tools was a vast labour, and required a prodigious time, to
do alone, and by hand.

But notwithstanding this, with patience and labour I went
through many things, and indeed everything that my circum-
stances made necessary for me to do, as will appear by what
follows.

I was now in the months of November and December,
and expecting my crop of barley and rice. The ground I had
manured or dug up for them was not great ; for, as I observed,
my seed of each was not above the quantity of half a peck,
for I had lost one whole crop by sowing in the dry season.
But now my crop promised very well, when on a sudden I
found I was in danger of losing it all again by enemies of
several sorts, which it was scarcely possible to keep from it:
as first, the goats, and wild creatures which I called hares,
which, tasting the sweetness of the blade, lay in it night and
day, as soon as it came up, and ate it so close that it could
get no time to shoot up into stalks.

This I saw no remedy for, but by making an inclosure
HE MAKES A HEDGE ROUND HIS CORN. II!

about it with a hedge, which I did with a great deal of toil;
and the more, because it required a great deal of speed, the
creatures daily spoiling my corn. However, as my arable
land was but small, suited to my crop, I got it totally well
fenced round in about three weeks’ time, and shooting some
of the creatures in the daytime, I set my dog to guard it in the
night, tying him up to a stake at the gate, where he would
stand and bark all night long. So in a little time the enemies
forsook the place, and the corn grew very strong and well, and
began to ripen apace.

But as the beasts ruined me before, while my corn was
in the blade, so the birds were as likely to ruin me now, when
it was in the ear; for, going along by the place to see how it
throve, I saw my little crop surrounded with fowls of I know
not how many sorts, which stood as it were watching till I
should be gone. I immediately fired among them (for I always
had my gun with me). I had no sooner shot, but there arose
up a little cloud of fowls, which I had not seen at all, from
among the corn itself.

This touched me sensibly; for I foresaw that, in a few
days, they would devour all my hopes; that I should be
starved, and never be able to raise a crop at all—and what
to do I could not tell; however, I resolved not to lose my
corn, if possible, though I should watch it night and day. In
the first place, I went among it to see what damage was
already done, and found they had spoiled a good deal of it;
but that, as it was yet too green for them, the loss was not so
great, but the remainder was like to be a good crop, if it could
be saved.

I stayed by it to load my gun, and then coming away,
I could easily see the thieves sitting upon all the trees about
me, as if they only waited till I was gone away. And the
event proved it to be so; for, as I walked off as if I was gone,
I was no sooner out of their sight, than they dropped down
one by one into the corn again. I was so provoked, that I
could not have patience to stay till more came on, knowing
that every grain that they ate now was, as it might be said,
a peck-loaf to me in the consequence; but, coming up to the
112 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

hedge, I fired again, and killed three of them. This was what
I wished for ; so I took them up, and served them as we serve
notorious thieves in England, namely, hanged them in chains
for a terror to others. It is almost impossible to imagine that
this should have such an effect as it had; for the fowls would
not only not come at the corn, but, in short, they forsook all
that part of the island, and I could never see a bird near the
place as long as my scarecrows hung there.

This I was very glad of, you may be sure; and about the
latter end of December, which was our second harvest of the
year, I reaped my corn.

I was sadly put to it for a scythe or a sickle to cut it
down, and all I could do was to make one as well as I could,
out of one of the broadswords or cutlasses, which I saved
among the arms out of the ship. However, as my crop was
but small, I had no great difficulty to cut it down. In short,
I reaped it my way, for I cut nothing off but the ears, and
carried it away in a great basket which I had made, and so
rubbed it out with my hands. At the end of all my harvesting,
I found that out of my half-peck of seed I had nearly two
bushels of rice, and above two bushels and a half of barley,
that is to say, by my guess, for I had no measure at that
time.

However, this was a great encouragement to me; and I
foresaw that in time it would please God to supply me with
bread. And yet here I was perplexed again, for I neither
knew how to grind nor make meal of my corn, nor, indeed,
how to clean it and part it; nor, if made into meal, how to make
bread of it ; and if how to make it, yet I knew not how to bake
it. These things being added to my desire of having a good
quantity for store, and to secure a constant supply, I resolved
not to taste any of this crop, but to preserve it all for seed
against the next season, and, in the meantime, to employ all
my study and hours of working to accomplish this great work
of providing myself with corn and bread.

It might be truly said, that I now worked for my bread.
It is a little wonderful, and what I believe few people have
thought much upon, namely, the strange multitude of little
HE SAVES HIS FIRST CROP FOR SEED. 113

things necessary in the providing, producing, curing, dressing,
making, and finishing this one article of bread.

I, who was reduced to a mere state of nature, found this to
be my daily discouragement, and was made more and more
sensible of it every hour, even after I got the first handful of
seed-corn, which, as I have said, came up unexpectedly, and
indeed to a surprise.

First, I had no plough to turn up the earth, no spade or
shovel to dig it. Well, this I conquered by making a wooden
spade, as I observed before. But this did my work only in a
wooden manner ; and though it cost me a great many days to
make it, yet, for want of iron, it not only wore out the sooner,
but made my work the harder, and made it be performed much
worse,

However, this I bore with too, and was content to work
it out with patience, and bear with the badness of the per-
formance. When the corn was sowed, I had no harrow, but
was forced to go over it myself, and drag a great heavy bough
of a tree over it, to scratch the earth, as it may be called, rather
than rake or harrow it.

When it was growing, or grown, I have observed already
how many things I wanted, to fence it, secure it, mow or reap
it, cure and carry it home, thrash, part it from the chaff, and
save it. Then I wanted a mill to grind it, sieves to dress it,
yeast and salt to make it into bread, and an oven to bake it in ;
and all these things I did without, as shall be observed ; and
yet the corn was an inestimable comfort and advantage to me
too. All this, as I said, made everything laborious and tedious
to me, but that there was no help for. Neither was my time so
much loss to me, because, as I had divided it, a certain part of
it was every day appointed to these works ; and as I resolved
to use none of the corn for bread till I had a greater quantity
by me, I had the next six months to apply myself wholly,
by labour and invention, to furnish myself with utensils proper
for the performing all the operations necessary for making the
corn (when I had it) fit for my use.

But first I was to prepare more land, for I had now seed
enough to sow above an acre of ground. Before I did this, I had
114 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

a week’s work at least to make me a spade, which, when it was
done, was a very sorry one indeed, and very heavy, and required
double labour to work with it. However, I went through that,
and sowed my seeds in two large flat pieces of ground, as near
my house as | could find them to my mind, and fenced them in
with a good hedge, the stakes of which were all cut off that
wood which I had set before, which I knew would grow; so
that in one year’s time I knew I should have a quick or living
hedge, that would want but little repair. This work took me
up not less than three months ; because great part of that time
was the wet season, when I could not go abroad.

Within doors, that is, when it rained and I could not go
out, I found employment in the following occupations, always
observing, that all the while I was at work, I diverted myself
with talking to my parrot, and teaching him to speak. I
quickly taught him to know his own name, and at last to speak
it out pretty loud, ‘POLL, which was the first word I ever
heard spoken in the island by any mouth but my own. This,
therefore, was not my work, but an assistance to my work ; for
now, as I said, I had a great employment upon my hands, as
follows—namely, I had long studied, by some means or other,
to make myself some earthen vessels, which indeed I wanted
sorely, but knew not where to come at them. However, con-
sidering the heat of the climate, I did not doubt but, if I could
find out any suitable clay, I might make some such pot as
might, being dried by the sun, be hard enough and strong
enough to bear handling, and to hold anything that was dry,
and required to be kept so. And as this was necessary in pre-
paring corn, meal, &c., which was the thing I was now going to
be busy with, I resolved to make some as large as I could, and
fit only to stand like jars to hold what should be put into them.

CHAPTER XXV.—BECOMES A POTTER, MILLER, AND
BAKER.
i would make the reader pity me, or rather laugh at me, to
tell how many awkward ways I took to raise this paste ;
what odd, misshapen, ugly things I made; how many of
RESOLVES TO MAKE POTS. m5

them fell in, and how many fell out, the clay not being stiff
enough to bear its own weight; how many cracked by the
over-violent heat of the sun, being set out too hastily; and
how many fell to pieces with only removing, as well before as
after they were dried. In a word, how, after having laboured
hard to find the clay, to dig it, to temper it, to bring it home,
and work it, I could not make above two large earthen ugly
things—I cannot call them jars—in about two months’
labour.

However, as the sun baked these two very dry and hard,
I lifted them very gently up, and set them down again in two
great wicker-baskets, which I had made on purpose for them,
that they might not break; and, as between the pot and the
basket there was a little room to spare, I stuffed it full of the
rice and barley straw. These two pots being to stand always
dry, I thought would hold my dry corn, and perhaps the meal
when the corn was bruised.

Though I miscarried so much in my design for large pots,
yet I made several smaller things with better success—such
as little round pots, flat dishes, pitchers, and pipkins, and
anything my hand turned to; and the heat of the sun baked
them strangely hard.

But all this would not answer my end, which was to get
an earthen pot to hold what was liquid, and bear the fire,
which none of these could do. It happened after some time,
making a pretty large fire for cooking my meat, when I went
to put it out, after I had done with it, I found a broken piece
of one of my earthenware vessels in the fire, burned as hard as
a stone, and red as atile. I was agreeably surprised to see it,
and said to myself, that certainly they might be made to burn
whole, if they would burn broken.

This set me to study how to order my fire, so as to make
it burn me some pots. I had no notion of a kiln such as the
potters burn in, or of glazing them with lead, though I had
some lead to do it with ; but I placed three large pipkins, and
two or three pots, in a pile, one upon another, and placed my
firewood all round it, with a great heap of embers under
them. I plied the fire with fresh fuel round the outside, and
116 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

upon the top, till I saw the pots in the inside red-hot quite
through, and observed that they did not crack at all.

When I saw them clear red, I let them stand in that heat
about five or six hours, till I found one of them, though it did
not crack, did melt, or run; for the sand which was mixed with
the clay melted by the violence of the heat, and would have
run into glass, if I had gone on. So I slacked my fire gradu-
ally, till the pots began to abate of the red colour; and watch-
ing them all night that I might not let the fire abate too fast,
in the morning I had three very good (I will not say hand-
some) pipkins, and two other earthen pots, as hard burned as
could be desired, and one of them perfectly glazed with the
running of the sand.

After this experiment, I need not say that I wanted no sort
of earthenware for my use. But I must needs say, as to the
shapes of them, they were very indifferent, as any one may
suppose, when I had no way of making them but as the
children make dirt pies, or as a woman would make pies, that
never learned to raise paste.

No joy at a thing of so mean a nature was ever equal to
mine, when I found I had made an earthen pot that would
bear the fire. I had hardly patience to stay till they were cold,
before I set one upon the fire again with some water in it, to
boil me some meat, which it did admirably well ; and with a
piece of kid, I made some very good broth, though I wanted
oatmeal, and several other ingredients requisite to make it so
good as I would like to have had it.

My next concern was to get me a stone mortar to stamp
or beat some corn in; for as to the mill, there was no thought
of arriving to that perfection of art with one pair of hands.
To supply this want, I was at a great loss ; for, of all trades in
the world, I was as perfectly unqualified for a stone-cutter as
for any whatever ; neither had I any tools to go about it with.
I spent many a day to find out a great stone big enough to cut
hollow, and make fit for a mortar, and could find none at all,
except what was in the solid rock, and which I had no way to
dig, or cut out. Nor indeed were the rocks in the island of
hardness sufficient, but were all of a sandy crumbling stone,
HE MAKES A MORTAR. 117

which would neither bear the weight of a heavy pestle, nor
would break the corn without filling it with sand.

After a great deal of time lost in searching for a stone, I
gave it over, and resolved to look out a great block of hard
wood, which I found indeed much easier. Getting one as big
as I had strength to stir, I rounded it, and formed it on the
outside with my axe and hatchet; and then, with the help of
fire and infinite labour, made a hollow place in it, as the
Indians in Brazil make their canoes. After this I made a
great heavy pestle, or beater, of the wood called the ironwood,
and this I prepared and laid by against I had my next crop of
corn, when I proposed to myself to grind, or rather ‘pound, my
corn into meal, to make my bread.

My next difficulty was to make a sieve to dress my meal,
and part it from the bran and the husk, without which I
did not see it possible I could have any bread. This was a
most difficult task, for I had nothing like the necessary things
to make it with—I mean fine thin canvas, or stuff, to sift the
meal through. And here I was at a full stop for many months;
nor did I really know what to do. Linen I had none left but
what was mere rags. I had goat’s hair, but neither knew how
to weave or spin it ; and had I known how, here were no tools
to work it with. All the remedy that I found for this was, that
at last I did remember I had among the seamen’s clothes
which were saved out of the ship, some neckcloths of calico, or
muslin; and with some pieces of these I made three small
sieves, but proper enough for the work; and thus I made shift
for some years. How I did afterwards, I shall show in its
place.

The baking part was the next thing to be considered, and
how I should make bread when I came to have corn; for,
first, I had no yeast. As to that part, there was no supplying
the want, so I did not concern myself much about it. But for
an oven, I was, indeed, in great pain. At length I found out
an expedient for that also, which was this—I made some
earthen vessels very broad, but not deep; that is to say, about
two feet diameter, and not above nine inches deep ; these I
burned in the fire, as I had done the others, and laid them
118 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

by. When I wanted to bake, I made a great fire upon my
hearth, which I had paved with some square tiles of my own
making and burning also—but I should not call them
square. :

When the firewood was burned pretty much into embers,
or live coals, I drew them forward upon this hearth, so as to
cover it all over, and there I let them lie, till the hearth was
very hot; then, sweeping away all the embers, I set down my
loaf, or loaves, and whelming down the earthen pot upon
them, drew the embers all round the outside of the pot, to keep
in, and add to the heat. And thus, as well as in the best oven
in the world, I baked my barley-loaves, and became in a little
time a good pastry-cook into the bargain ; for I made myself
several cakes of the rice, and puddings. Indeed, I made no
pies, neither had I anything to put into them, supposing I had,
except the flesh either of fowls or goats.

It need not be wondered at, if all these things took me up
most part of the third year of my abode here; for it is to be
observed, that in the intervals of these things I had my new
harvest and husbandry to manage. For I reaped my corn in
its season, and carried it home as well as I could, and laid it
up in the ear, in my large baskets, till I had time to rub it out ;
for I had no floor to thrash it on, or instrument to thrash it
with.

And now, indeed, my stock of corn increasing, I really
wanted to build my barns bigger. I wanted a place to lay it
up in; for the increase of the corn now yielded me so much,
that I had of the barley about twenty bushels, and of the rice
as much, or more; insomuch, that I now resolved to begin to
use it freely, for my bread had been quite gone a great while.
I also resolved to see what quantity would be sufficient for me
for a whole year, and to sow but once a year.

Upon the whole, 1 found that the forty bushels of barley
and rice were much more than I could consume in a year; so
I resolved to sow just the same quantity every year that I
sowed the last.
119

CHAPTER XXVI.—MAKES A CANOE, &C.

aes the while these things were doing, you may be sure my

thoughts ran many times upon the prospect of land which
I had seen from the other side of the island. I was not with-
out secret wishes that I was on shore there, fancying that,
seeing the mainland and an inhabited country, I might find
some way or other to convey myself farther, and perhaps at
last find some means of escape.

Now I wished for my boy Xury, and the long-boat with
the shoulder-of-mutton sail, with which I sailed above a thou-
sand miles on the coast of Africa; but this was in vain. Then
I thought I would go and look at our ship’s boat, which, as I
have said, was blown up upon the shore a great way in the
storm, when we were first cast away. She lay almost where
she did at first, but not quite, and was turned by the force of
the waves and the winds almost bottom upwards, against the
high ridge of a beachy rough sand, but no water about her as
before.

If I had had hands to have refitted her, and have
launched her into the water, the boat would have done very
well, and I might have gone back into the Brazils with her
easy enough. But I might have easily foreseen, that I could
no more turn her, and set her upright upon her bottom, than
I could remove the island. However, I went to the wood, and
cut levers and rollers, and brought them to the boat, resolving
to try what I could do, suggesting to myself, that if I could
but turn her down, I might easily repair the damage she had
received, and she would be a very good boat, and I might go
to sea in her very easily.

I spared no pains, indeed, in this piece of fruitless toil,
and spent, I think, three or four weeks about it. At last,
finding it impossible to heave it up with my little strength, I
fell to digging away the sand to undermine it, and so to make
it fall down, setting pieces of wood to thrust and guide it right
in the fall.

But when I had done this, I was unable to stir it up again,
120 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

or to pet under it, much less to move it forwards towards the
water; so 1 was forced to give it over. And yet, though I
gave over the hopes of the boat, my desire to venture over
for the main increased, rather than decreased, as the means
for it seemed impossible.

This at length set me upon thinking whether it was not pos-
sible to make myself a canoe, or periagua, such as the natives
of those climates make, even without tools, or, as IT might
say, without hands, namely, of the trunk of a great tree. ‘This
I not only thought possible, but easy; and pleased myself
extremely with the thoughts of making it, and with my having
much more convenience for it than any of the negroes or
Indians.

But L did not at all consider the particular inconveniences
which IT lay under more than the Indians did, namely, want of
hands to move it into the water when it was made—a difficulty
much harder for me to surmount than all the consequences of
want of tools could be to them. For what was it to me that,
when | had chosen a vast tree in the woods, I might with
great trouble cut it down, if after Lmight be able with my tools
to hew and dub the outside into the proper shape of a boat,
and burn or cut out the inside to make it hollow, so as to
make a boat of it if, after all this, I must leave it just there
where 1 found it, and was not able to launch it into the
Water?

One would have thought, I could not have had the least
reflection upon my mind of my circumstances, while I was
making this boat, but I should have immediately thought how
I should get it into the sea. But my thoughts were so intent
upon my voyage over the sea in it, that I never once con-
sidered how | should get it off the land. And it was really,
in its own nature, more easy for me to guide it over forty-tive
miles of sea, than about forty-five fathoms of land, where it
lay, to set it afloat in the water.

l went to work upon this boat the most like a fool that
ever man did who had any of his senses awake. 1 pleased
myself with the design, without determining whether I was
ever able to undertake it. Not but that the difliculty of
HIS CANOE, 121

launching my boat came often into my head; but I put a
stop to my own inquiries into it by this foolish answer which
I gave myself: Let me first make it, Ill warrant I’ll find some
way or other to get it along when it is done.

This was a most preposterous method; but the eager-
ness of my fancy prevailed, and to work I went, and felled a



Crusoe makes a Boat.

cedar tree. I question much whether Solomon ever had such
aone for the building the temple at Jerusalem. It was five
feet ten inches diameter at the lower part next the stump, and
four feet eleven inches diameter at the end of twenty-two feet,
122 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

after which it lessened for a while, and then parted into
branches.

It was not without infinite labour that I felled this tree
IT was twenty days hacking and hewing at it at the bottom; I
was fourteen more getting the branches and limbs, and the
vast spreading head of it, cut off, which I hacked and hewed
through with my axe and hatchet with inexpressible labour.
After this it cost me a month to shape it, and dub it to a
proportion, and to something like the bottom of a boat, that
iamight swim upright as it ought todo. It cost me nearly three
months more to clear the inside, and work it out so as to
make an exact boat of it. This I did indeed without fire, by
mere mallet and chisel, and by the dint of hard labour, till I had
brought it to be a very handsome periagua, and big enough to
have carried six-and-twenty men, and consequently big enough
to have carried me and all my cargo.

When I had gone through this work, I was extremely
delighted with it. The boat was really much bigger than |
ever saw a canoe or periagua, that was made of one tree, in my
life. Many a weary stroke it had cost, you may be sure, and
there remained nothing now but to get it into the water. Had
I gotten it into the water, I make no question but I should
have begun the maddest voyage, and the most unlikely to be
performed, that ever was undertaken.

But all my devices to get it into the water failed me,
though they cost infinite labour too. It lay about one hundred
yards from the water, not more; but the first inconvenience
was, it was uphill towards the creek. Well, to take away this
discouragement, I resolved to dig into the surface of the earth,
and so make a declivity: this I began, and it cost me a
prodigious deal of pains; but who grudge pains that have
their deliverance in view? When this was worked through,
I could no more stir the canoe than I could the other boat.

Then I measured the distance of ground, and resolved
to cut a dock, or canal, to bring the water up to the canoe,
seeing I could not bring the canoe down to the water. Well,
1 began this work, and when I began to enter into it, and
calculated how deep it was to be dug, how broad, how the
COMFORTING REFLECTIONS. 123

stuff was to be thrown out, I found that, by the number of
hands I had, being none but my own, it must have been ten
or twelve years before I should have gone through with it; for
the shore lay high, so that at the upper end it must have been
at least twenty feet deep: so at length, though with great
reluctance, I gave this attempt over also.

This grieved me heartily ; and now I saw, though too late,
the folly of beginning a work before we count the cost, and
before we judge rightly of our own strength to go through
with it.

In the middle of this work I finished my fourth year in
this place, and kept my anniversary with the same devotion,
and with as much comfort as before. I entertained different
notions of things; I looked now upon the world as a thing
remote, which I had nothing to do with, no expectation from,
and indeed no desires about : in a word, I had nothing indeed
to do with it, nor was ever likely to have.

In the first place, I was removed from all the wickedness
of the world here. I had nothing to covet, for I had all I was
now capable of enjoying; I was lord of the whole manor, or, if
I pleased, I might call myself king or emperor over the whole
country which I had possession of.

I might have raised ship-loadings of corn, but I had no
use for it, so I let as little grow as I thought enough for my
occasion. I had tortoises or turtles enough, but now and
then one was as much as I could put to any use. I had
timber enough to have built a fleet of ships. I had grapes
enough to have made wine, or to have cured into raisins,
to have loaded that fleet when they had been built.

But all I could make use of was that which was valu-
able to me. I had enough to eat and to supply my wants,
and what was all the rest? If I killed more flesh than I could
eat, the dog must eat it, or the vermin ; if I sowed more corn
than I could eat, it must be spoiled. The trees that I cut
down were lying to rot on the ground, I could make no more
use of them than for fuel—and that I had no occasion for but
to dress my food.

In a word, the nature and experience of things dictated
if
124 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

to me, upon just reflection, that all the good things of this
world are no further good to us than as they are for our use ;
and that, whatever we may heap up to give others, we enjoy
only as much as we can use, and no more.

CHAPTER XXVII.— REFLECTIONS ON THE GOODNESS
or GoD.

HAD now brought my state of life to be much easier in
itself than it was at first, and much easier to my mind as
well as to my body. I frequently sat down to my meat with
thankfulness, and admired the hand of God’s providence, which
had thus spread my table in the wilderness. I learned to look
more upon the bright side of my condition, and less upon the
dark side, and to consider what I enjoyed rather than what I
wanted; and this gave me sometimes such secret comforts,
that I cannot express them, and which | take notice of here,
to put those discontented people in mind of it, who cannot
enjoy comfortably what God hath given them, because they
see and covet something that He has not given them. All
our discontents about what we want appeared to me to spring
from the want of thankfulness for what we have.

Another reflection was of great use to me, and, doubt-
less, would be so to any one that should fall into such
distress as mine was; and this was, to compare my present
condition with that what I at first expected it should be—nay,
with what it would certainly have been—if the good providence
of God had not wonderfully ordered the ship to be cast up near
to the shore, where I not only could come at her, but could
bring what I got out of her to the shore for my relief and
comfort ; without which I had wanted tools to work, weapons
for defence, or gunpowder and shot for getting my food.

I spent whole hours, I may say whole days, in repre-
senting to myself, in the most lively colours, how I must
have acted, if I had got nothing out of the ship; how I
could not have so much as got any food, except fish and
turtles ; and that, as it was long before I found any of them,
CURIOUS COINCIDENCES IN HIS LIFE. 125

I must have perished first—that I should have lived, if I had
not perished, like a mere savage—that if I had killed a goat
or a fowl by any contrivance, I had no way to flay or open it,
or part the flesh from the skin and the bowels, or to cut it up ;
but must gnaw it with my teeth, and pull it with my claws, like
a beast.

These reflections made me very sensible of the goodness of
Providence to me, and very thankful for my present condition,
with all its hardships and misfortunes.

I had now been here so long, that many things which I
brought on shore for my help were either quite gone or very
much wasted, and near spent.

My ink, as I observed, had been gone for some time, all
but a very little, which I eked out with water, a little and a
little, till it was so pale it scarcely left any appearance of black
upon the paper. As long as it lasted, I made use of it to minute
down the days of the month on which any remarkable thing
happened to me. And first, by casting up times past, I remem-
ber that there was a strange concurrence of days, in the
various providences which befell me, and which, if I had been
superstitiously inclined to observe days as fatal or fortunate, I
might have had reason to have looked upon with a great deal
of curiosity.

First, I had observed that the same day that I broke away
from my father and my friends, and ran away to Hull in
order to go to sea, the same day afterwards I was taken by
the Sallee man-of-war, and made a slave.

The same day of the year that I escaped out of the wreck
of the ship in Yarmouth Roads, that same day of the year
afterwards I made my escape from Sallee in the boat.

The same day of the year I was born on, namely, the 2oth
of September, the same day I had my life so miraculously
saved twenty-six years after, when I was cast on shore in this
island ; so that my wicked life and solitary life both began on
the same day.

The next thing to my ink being wasted was that of my
bread, I mean the biscuit which I brought out of the ship.
This I had husbanded to the last degree, allowing myself but
125 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

one cake of bread a day, for above a year. And yet I was
quite without bread for a year before I got any corn of my
own: and great reason I had to be thankful that T had any at
all, the getting it being, as it has been already observed, next
to miraculous.

My clothes, too, began to decay. As to linen, I had none
for a good while, except some checkered shirts which I found
in the chests of the other seamen, and which I carefully pre-
served, because many times | could bear no other clothes on
but a shirt ; and it was a very great help to me that I had,
among all the men’s clothes of the ship, almost three dozen of
shirts. There were also several thick watch-coats of the sea-
men, which were left behind, but they were too hot to wear,
Though it is true that the weather was so violently hot that
there was no need of clothes, yet 1 could not go quite naked—
no, though [had been inclined to it, which T was not—nor
could I abide the thought of it, though I was all alone.

One reason why I could not go quite naked was, T could
not bear the heat of the sun so well when quite naked, as with
some clothes on—nay, the very heat frequently blistered my
skin ; whereas, with a shirt on, the air itself made some motion,
and, whistling under the shirt, was twofold cooler than without
it. No more could I ever bring myself to go out in the heat of
the sun without a cap or a hat; the heat of the sun, beating
with such violence as it does in that place, would give me the
headache presently, by darting so directly on my head, without
acapor hat on, so that 1 could not bear it; whereas, if 1 put
on my hat, it would presently go away.

Upon these views L began to consider about putting the
few rags I had, which I called clothes, into some order. T had
worn out all the waistcoats I had, and my business was now to
try if I could not make jackets out of the great watch-coats
which I had by me, and with such other materials as I had.
So I set to work tailoring, or rather, indeed, botching—for I
made most piteous work of it. However, | made shift to
make two or three waistcoats, which I hoped would serve mea
great while. As for breeches or drawers, | made but very sorry
shift indeed till afterwards.
HE MAKES HIMSELF CLOTHES, 127

I have mentioned that I saved the skins of all the creatures
that I killed —I mean four-footed ones—and I had hung them
up stretched out with sticks in the sun; by which means
some of them were so dry and hard that they were fit for
little ; but others, it seems, were very useful.

The first thing I made of these was a great cap for my
head, with the hair on the outside to shoot off the rain. ‘This I
performed so well, that afterwards I made a suit of clothes
wholly of those skins—that is to say, a waistcoat and breeches
open at the knees, and both loose ; for they were rather wanted
to keep me cool, than to keep me warm. I must not omit to
acknowledge that they were wretchedly made ; for if I was a
bad carpenter, | was a worse tailor. Tlowever, they were such
as | made a very good shift with ; and when I was abroad, if
it happened to rain, the hair of the waistcoat and cap being
outmost, | was kept very dry.

After this, I spent a deal of time and pains to make me
an umbrella. I was indeed in great want of one, and had a
great mind to make one. I had seen them made in the Brazils,
where they are very useful in the great heats which are there ;
and I felt the heats every jot as great here, and greater too,
being nearer the equator. Besides, as I was obliged to be
much abroad, it was a most useful thing to me, as well for the
rains as the heats. I took a world of pains with it, and was a
great while before I could make anything likely to hold. Nay,
after I thought I had hit the way, 1 spoiled two or three before
I made one to my mind; but at last 1 made one that answered
indifferently well.

The main difficulty I found was to make it to let down.
T could make it to spread ; but if it did not let down too, and
draw in, it would not be portable for me any way, but just over
my head, which would not do. However, at last, as I said, I
made one to answer. I covered it with skins, the hair upwards,
so that it cast off the rain like a penthouse, and kept off the sun
so effectually, that I could walk out in the hottest weather, with
greater advantage than I could before in the coolest ; and,
when I had no need of it, I could close it, and carry it under
my arm.
128 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

CnuaAPprer XXVIII.—ATTEMPTS TO SAIL ROUND THE
ISLAND.

CANNOT say that after this, for five years, any extraordi-

nary thing happened to me; but I lived on in the same
course, in the same posture and place, just as before. The
chief thing IT was employed in, besides my yearly labour ot
planting my barley and rice, and curing my raisins, of both
which I always kept up just enough to have a sutticient stock
of the year’s provisions beforehand —I say, besides this yearly
labour, and my daily task of going out with my gun, I had one
labour to make me a canoe, which at last I tinished. So that
by digging a canal to it of six feet wide, and four fect deep,
I brought it into the creek which was almost half a mile
distant.

As tor the first, which was so vastly big,

bo

I had made it
without considering beforehand, as IT ought to have done, how
1 should be able to launch it; and, never being able to bring it
to the water, or bring the water to it, I was obliged to let it lie
where it was, as a memorandum to teach me to be wiser next
time. Indeed, the next time, though IT could not get a tree
proper for it, and was in a place where I could not get the
water to it, at any less distance than, as IT have said, of near
half a mile; yet, as I saw it was practicable at last, I never
gave it over; and, though I was nearly two years about it, yet
L never grudged my labour, in hopes of having a boat to go off
to sea at last.

However, though my little canoe was finished, yet the size
of it was not at all answerable to the design which I had in
view when I made the tirst—I mean of venturing over to the
verra firma, where the sea was above forty miles) broad.
Accordingly, the smallness of the boat assisted to put an end
to that design, and now | thought no more of it. But as I had
a boat, my next design was to make a tour round the island.
For, as I had been on the other side, in one place, crossing, as
I have already described it, over the land, so the discoveries I
made in that journey made me very eager to see the other parts
HE FINISHES HIS CANOE. 129

of the coast ; and now I had a boat, I thought of nothing but
sailing round the island.

lor this purpose, and that I might do everything with
discretion and consideration, I fitted up a little mast to my
boat, and made a sail to it out of some of the pieces of the







Crusoe tries his Boat.
ship’s sails, which lay in my store, and of which I had a great
stock by me.

Having fitted my mast and sail, and tried the boat, I found
she would sail very well. I then made little lockers and boxes
at each end of my boat, to put provisions, necessaries, and
ammunition, &c. into, to be kept dry, either from rain, or the
130 ROBINSON CRUSOE. |

spray of the sea; and a little long hollow place I cut in the
inside of the boat, where I could lay my gun, making a flap
to hang down over it to keep it dry.

I fixed my umbrella also in a step at the stern, like a
mast, to stand over my head, and keep the heat of the sun
off me, like an awning; and thus I every now and then took
a little voyage upon the sea, but never went far out, nor far
from the little creck. But at last, being eager to view the
circumference of my little kingdom, I resolved upon my tour,
and accordingly 1 victualled my ship for the voyage—putting
in two dozen of my loaves (cakes I should rather call them) of
barley-bread, an earthen pot full of parched rice (a food I ate
a great deal of), a little bottle of rum, half a goat, and powder
and shot, for killing more, and two large watch-coats, of those
which, as I mentioned before, I had saved out of the seamen’s
chests. ‘These I took, one to lie upon, and the other to cover
me in the night.

It was the sixth of November, in the sixth year of my reign,
or my captivity, which you please, that I set out on this
voyage, and I found it much longer than I expected. For
though the island itself was not very large, yet when I came to
the east side of it, I found a great ledge of rocks lie out about
two leagues into the sea, some above water, some under it ;
and beyond that a shoal of sand, lying dry half a league more.
So that I was obliged to go a great way out to sea to double the
point.



When I first discovered them, I was going to give over
my enterprise, and come back again, not knowing how far it
might oblige me to go out to sea, and, above all, doubting how
I should get back again. So I came to an anchor—for | had
made me a kind of an anchor with a piece of broken grappling
which I got out of the ship.

Tlaving secured my boat, I took my gun, and went on shore,
climbing up a hill, which seemed to overlook that point, where
I saw the full extent of it, and resolved to venture.

In my viewing the sea from that hill where I stood, I per-
ceived a strong, and indeed a most furious current, which ran
to the east, and even came close to the point. I took the
HE ANCHORS HIS BOAT AND GOES ASHORE 131

more notice of it, because 1 saw there might be some danger,
that when I came into it, 1 might be carried out to sea by the
strength of it, and not be able to make the island again, And
indeed, had I not got first upon this hill, I believe it would
have been so; for there was the same current on the other
side of the island, only that it set off at a farther distance. I
saw also there was a strong eddy under the shore—so | had
nothing to do but to get out of the first current, and I should
presently be in an eddy.

1 lay here, however, two days; because the wind blow-
ing pretty fresh (at east-south-east, and that being just con-
trary to the current), made a great breach of the sea upon the
point ; so that it was not safe for me to keep too close to the
shore for the breach, nor to go too far off because of the
stream.

The third day in the morning, the wind having abated
overnight, the sea was calm, and | ventured. But I ama
warning to all rash and ignorant pilots ; for no sooner was ]
come to the point, when I was not even my boat’s length from
the shore, but I found myself in a great depth of water, and
a current like the sluice of a mill, It carried my boat along
with it with such a violence, that all 1 could do could not
keep her so much as on the edge of it; but I found it hurried
ine farther and farther out from the eddy, which was on the
left hand. There was no wind stirring to help me, and all
that I could do with my paddles signified nothing. And now
I began to give myself over for lost ; for, as the current was
on both sides of the island, I knew in a few leagues’ distance
they must join again, and then I was irrecoverably gone. Nor
did 1 see any possibility of avoiding it; so that I had no
prospect before me but of perishing—not by the sca, for that
was calm enough, but of starving for hunger. I had, indeed,
{ound a tortoise on the shore, as big almost as I could lift, and
had tossed it into the boat; and I had a great jar of fresh
water, that is to say, one of my earthen pots; but what was
all this to being driven into the vast ocean, where, to be sure,
there was no shore, no mainland or island, for a thousand
leagues at least?
132 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

And now I saw how easy it was for the providence of God
to make the most miserable condition that mankind could
be in, worse. Now I looked back upon my desolate solitary
island as the most pleasant place in the world, and all the
happiness my heart could wish for was to be there again. I
stretched out my hands to it with eager wishes. ‘ Oh, happy
desert !’ said I, ‘I shall never see thee more! Oh, miserable
creature !’ said I, ‘whither am I going?’ Then I reproached
myself with my unthankful temper, and how I had repined at
my solitary condition; and now, what would I give to be on
shore there again? Thus we never see the true state of our
condition, till it is illustrated to us by its contraries ; nor know
how to value what we enjoy, but by the want of it.

It is scarcely possible to imagine the consternation I was
in, being driven from my beloved island (for so it appeared to
me now to be) into the wide ocean, almost two leagues, and
in the utmost despair of ever recovering it again. However,
I worked hard, till indeed my strength was almost exhausted,
and kept my boat as much to the northward, that is, towards
the side of the current which the eddy lay on, as I possibly
could ; when about noon, as the sun passed the meridian, I
thought I felt a little breeze of wind in my face, springing up
from the south-south-east. This cheered my heart a little, and
especially when, in about half an hour more, it blew a pretty
small gentle gale.

By this time I was gotten at a frightful distance from
the island; and, had the least cloud or hazy weather inter-
vened, I had been undone another way too; for I had no
compass on board, and should never have known how to have
steered towards the island, if I had but once lost sight of it.
Hut the weather continuing clear, I applied myself to get up
my mast again, and spread my sail, standing away to the
north as much as possible, to get out of the current.

Just as I had set my mast and sail, and the boat began
to stretch away, I saw, even by the clearness of the water,
some alteration of the current was near. For where the cur-
rent was so strong, the water was foul: but perceiving the
water clear, I found the current abate, and presently I found,
CONTRARY CURRENTS. 133

to the east, at about half a mile, a breach of the sea upon some
rocks, and a strong eddy, which ran back again to the north-
west with a very sharp stream. I put my boat into the stream
of this eddy ; and the wind also freshening, I spread my sail to
it, running cheerfully before the wind, and with a strong tide
under foot. This eddy carried me about a league in my way
back again directly towards the island.

When I had made rather more than a league of way, by the
help of this heavy current, 1 found it was spent, and served
me no farther. However, I found, that being between the two
great currents, namely, that on the south side which had
hurried me away, and that on the north, which lay about two
leagues on the other side—I say, between these two, in the
wake of the island, I found the water at least still, and running
no way; and having still a breeze of wind fair for me, I kept
on steering directly for the island, though not making such
fresh way as I did before.

About four o’clock in the evening, being then within
about a league of the island, I found the point of the rocks
which occasioned this disaster stretching out, as is described
before, to the southward, and, casting off the current more
southwardly, of course, made another eddy to the north.
This I found very strong, but not directly setting the way my
course lay, which was due west, but almost full north. How-
ever, having a fresh gale, I stretched across this eddy, slanting
north-west, and, in about an hour, came within about a mile
of the shore, where, it being smooth water, I soon got to
land.

When I was on shore, I fell on my knees, and gave God
thanks for my deliverance, resolving to lay aside all thoughts of
my deliverance by my boat ; and, refreshing myself with such
things as I had, I brought my boat close to the shore, in a little
cove that I had spied under some trees, and laid me down to
sleep, being quite spent with the labour and fatigue of the
voyage.
134 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

CHAPTER XXIX.—BECOMES A GOATHERD.

WAS now at a great loss which way to get home with my
boat. I had run so much hazard, and knew too much the
cause, to think of attempting it by the way I went out; and
what might be at the other side of the island (I mean the west
side) 1 knew not, nor had I any mind to run any more ventures.
So I only resolved in the morning to make my way westward
along the shore, and to see if there was no creck where I might
lay up my frigate in safety, so as to have her again if I wanted
her. In about three miles, or thereabouts, coasting the shore,
I came to a very good inlet, or bay, about a mile over, which
narrowed till it came to a very little rivulet, or brook, where I
found a convenient harbour for my boat, and where she lay
as if she had been in a little dock made on purpose for her.
Here I put in, and having stowed my boat very safe, I went
on shore to look about me, and see where I was.

I soon found I had but a little passed by the place where
I had been before when I travelled on foot to that shore. So,
taking nothing out of my boat but my gun and my umbrella,
for it was exceedingly hot, I began my march. The way was
comfortable enough, after such a voyage as I had been upon,
and I reached my old bower in the evening, where I found
everything standing as I left it; for I always kept it in good
order, being, as I said before, my country house.

I got over the fence, and laid me down in the shade to rest
my limbs, for I was very weary, and fell asleep. But judge
if you can, you that read my story, what a surprise I must be
in, when I was awaked out of my sleep by a voice calling me
by my name several times, ‘ Robin, Robin, Robin Crusoe, poor
Robin Crusoe! Where are you, Robin Crusoe? Where are
you? Where have you been?’

I was so dead asleep at first, being fatigued with rowing
the first part of the day, and walking the latter part, that I did
not awake thoroughly; and, dozing between sleeping and
waking, thought I dreamed that somebody spoke to me. But
as the voice continued to repeat, ‘Robin Crusoe, Robin
HE IS WELCOMED BY HIS PARROT. 135

Crusoe!’ at last I began to awake more perfectly, and was first
dreadfully frighted, and started up in the utmost consternation.
No sooner were my eyes open, but I saw my Poll sitting on the
top of the hedge, and immediately knew that this was he that
spoke to me. For just in such bemoaning language I had
used to talk to him, and teach him; and he had learned it
so perfectly, that he would sit upon my finger, and lay his bill
close to my face, and cry, ‘Poor Robin Crusoe, where are you?
Where have you been? How came you here?’ and such things
as I had taught him.

However, even though I knew it was the parrot, and that
indeed it could be nobody else, it was a good while before I
could compose myself. First, I was amazed how the creature
got thither, and then how he should just keep about the place,
and nowhere else. But as I was well satisfied it could be
nobody but honest Poll, I got it over; and, holding out my
hand, and calling him by his name, ‘Poll!’ the sociable
creature came to me, and sat upon my thumb, as he used to
do, and continued talking to me—‘ Poor Robin Crusoe!’ and
‘How did I come here?’ and ‘Where had I been?’ just as if
he had been overjoyed to see me again; and so I carried him
home along with me.

I had now had enough of rambling to sea for some time,
and had enough to do for many days to sit still and reflect
upon the danger I had been in. I would have been very glad
to have had my boat again on my side of the island, but I
knew not how it was practicable to get it about.

As to the east side of the island, which I had gone round,
I knew well enough there was no venturing that way. My
very heart would shrink, and my very blood run chill, but
to think of it. As to the other side of the island, I did
not know how it might be there; but supposing the current
ran with the same force against the shore at the east, as it
passed by it on the other, I might run the same risk of
being driven down the stream, and carried by the island,
as I had been before of being carried away from it. So
with these thoughts I contented myself to be without any
boat, though it had been the product of so many months’
136 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

labour to make it, and of so.-many more to get it into the
sea.

In this government of my temper I remained nearly a
year, and lived a very sedate retired life, as you may well
suppose; and my thoughts being very much composed as
to my condition, and fully comforted in resigning myself to the
dispositions of Providence, I thought I lived really very happily
in all things, except that of society.

I improved myself in this time in all the mechanic exercises
which my necessities put me upon applying myself to; and I
believe could, upon occasion, have made a very good carpenter,
especially considering how few tools I had.

Besides this, I arrived at an unexpected perfection in
my earthenware, and contrived well enough to make them
with a wheel, which I found infinitely easier and better ;
because I made things round and shapely, which before were
filthy things indeed to look on. But I think I never was
more vain of my own performance, or more joyful for anything
I found out, than for my being able to make a tobacco-pipe.
Though it was a very ugly clumsy thing when it was done, and
only burned red like other earthenware, yet as it was hard and
firm, and would draw the smoke, I was exceedingly comforted
with it—for I had been always used to smoke, and there were
pipes in the ship, but I forgot them at first, not knowing there
was tobacco in the island. Afterwards, when I searched the
ship again, I could not come at any pipes at all.

In my wicker-ware I also improved much, and made abun-
dance of necessary baskets, as well as my invention showed
me, though not very handsome, yet convenient for my laying
things up in, or fetching things home in. For example, if I
killed a goat abroad, I could hang it up in a tree, flay it, and
dress it, and cut it in pieces, and bring it home in a basket.
And the like by a turtle ; I could cut it up, take out the eggs,
and a piece or two of the flesh, which was enough for me, and
bring them home in a basket, and leave the rest behind me.
Also large deep baskets were my receivers for my corn, which
I always rubbed out as soon as it was dry, and cured, and kept
it in great baskets instead of a granary.
HE ENTRAPS WILD GOATS. 137

I began now to perceive my powder abated considerably ;
and as this was a want which it was impossible for me to
supply, I began seriously to consider what I must do when I
should have no more powder—that is to say, how I should do
to kill any goats. I had, as I observed, in the third year of
my being here, kept a young kid, and bred her tame ; I was in
hopes of getting a he-kid, but I could not by any means bring
it to pass, till my kid grew an old goat; and as I could never
find in my heart to kill her, she died at last of mere age.

But being now in the eleventh year of my residence, and,
as I have said, my ammunition growing low, I set myself to
study some art to trap and snare the goats, to see whether I
could not catch some of them alive ; and, particularly, I wished
to possess a she-goat great with young.

To this purpose, I made snares to hamper them, and
believe they were more than once taken in them; but my
tackle was not good, for I had no wire, and always found
them broken, and my bait devoured.

At length I resolved to try a pitfall, So I dug several
large pits in the earth, in places where I had observed the
goats used to feed, and over these pits I placed hurdles, of my
own making too, with a great weight upon them ; and several
times I put ears of barley, and dry rice, without setting the
trap. I could easily perceive that the goats had gone in, and
eaten up the corn, for I could see the marks of their feet. At
length I set three traps in one night, and, going the next
morning, I found them all standing, and yet the bait eaten and
gone. This was very discouraging. However, I altered my
trap; and, not to trouble you with particulars, going one
morning to see my traps, I found in one of them a large old
he-goat ; and in one of the others three kids, a male and two
females.

As to the old one, I knew not what to do with him ; he was
so fierce, I durst not go into the pit to him—that is to say, to
go about to bring him away alive, which was what I wanted.
I could have killed him, but that was not my business, nor
would it answer my end. So I let him out, and he ran away as
if he had been frightened out of his wits; but I did not then
138 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

know what I afterwards learned, that hunger would tame a
lion. If I had let him stay there three or tour days without
food, and then have carried him some water to drink, and
then a little corn, he would have been as tame as one of the
kids; for they are mighty sagacious and tractable creatures,
where they are well used.

However, for the present I let him go, knowing no better
at that time. Then I went to the three kids, and taking them
one by one, I tied them with strings together, and with con-
siderable difficulty brought them all home.

It was a good while before they would feed; but throwing
them some sweet corn, it tempted them, and they began to be
tame. And now I found that if I expected to supply myself
with goat’s flesh, when I had no powder or shot left, breeding
some up tame was my only way, when, perhaps, | might have
them about my house like a flock of sheep.

But then it presently occurred to me, that I must keep
the tame from the wild, or else they would always run wild
when they grew up; and the only way for this was to have
some inclosed piece of ground, well fenced, either with hedge
or pale, to keep them in so effectually, that those within might
not break out, or those without break in.

This was a great undertaking for one pair of hands ; yet
as I saw there was an absolute necessity for doing it, my first
piece of work was to find out a proper piece of ground, namely,
where there was likely to be herbage for them to eat, water for
them to drink, and cover to keep them from the sun.

Those who understand such inclosures will think I had
very little contrivance, when I pitched upon a place very
proper for all these (being a plain open piece of meadowland,
or savanna, as our people call it in the western colonies),
which had two or three little rills of fresh water in it; and at
one end was very woody. I say, they will smile at my forecast,
when I shall tell them I began by inclosing of this piece of
ground in such a manner, that my hedge or pale must have
been at least two miles about. Nor was the madness of it so
great as to the compass; for if it was ten miles about, I was
likely to have time enough to do it in; but I did not consider
CONTENTMENT. 139

that my goats would be as wild in so much space as if they
had had the whole island ; and I should have so much room
to chase them in, that I should never catch them.

My hedge was begun and carried on, I believe, about
fifty yards, when this thought occurred to me; so I presently
stopped short, and for the first beginning I resolved to inctose
a piece of about a hundred and fifty yards in length, and a
hundred yards in breadth, which, as it would maintain as many
as I should have in any reasonable time, so, as my flock
increased, I could add more ground to my inclosure.

This was acting with some prudence, and I went to work
with courage. I was about three months hedging in the first
piece; and till I had done it, I tethered the three kids in the
best part of it, and used them to feed as near me as possible,
to make them familiar. Very often I would go and carry them
some ears of barley, or a handful of rice, and feed them out of
my hand; so that after my inclosure was finished, and I let
them loose, they would follow me up and down, bleating after
me for a handful of corn.

This answered my end, and in about a year and a half I
had a flock of about twelve goats, kids and all; and in two
years more I had three-and-forty, besides several that I took
and killed for my food. After that I inclosed five several
pieces of ground to feed them in, with little pens to drive
them into, to take them as I wanted them, and gates out of
one piece of ground into another.

3ut this was not all; for now I not only had got goat’s
flesh to feed on when I pleased, but milk too, a thing which
indeed in my beginning I did not so much as think of, and
which, when it came into my thoughts, was really an agreeable
surprise ; for now I set up my dairy, and had sometimes a
gallon or two of milk in a day. And as nature, who gives
supplies of food to every creature, dictates even naturally how
to make use of it, so I, that never milked a cow, much less a
goat, or seen butter or cheese made, very readily and handily,
though after a great many essays and miscarriages, made
both butter and cheese at last, and never wanted it afterwards.
How mercifully can our great Creator treat his creatures, even

ey
140 : ROBINSON CRUSOE,

in those conditions in which they seem to be overwhelmed in
destruction! How can He sweeten the bitterest providences,
and give us cause to praise him for dungeons and prisons !
What a table was here spread for me in a wilderness, where I
saw nothing at first but to perish for hunger !

CHAPTER XXX.—CRUSOE’S PORTRAIT.

eS would have made a Stoic smile, to have seen me and my

little family sit down to dinner. There was my majesty,
the prince and lord of the whole island. I had the lives of all
my subjects at absolute command; I could hang, draw, give
life and liberty, and take it away, and no rebels among all my
subjects.

Then to see how like a king I dined too, all alone,
attended by my servants! Poll, as if he had Leen my
favourite, was the only person permitted to talk to me. My
dog, which was now grown very old and crazy, sat always at
my right hand; and two cats, one on one side the table, and
one on the other, expecting now and then a bit from my hand,
as a mark of special favour.

But these were not the two cats which I brought on shore
at first; for they were both of them dead; and had been
interred near my habitation by my own hands; but one of
them having kittened, these were two which I preserved tame,
whereas the rest ran wild into the woods, and became, indeed,
troublesome to me, till I was obliged to shoot them, and did
killa great many. At length they left me. With this attend-
ance, and in this plentiful manner, I lived; neither could I
be said to want anything but society, and of that, in some time
after this I was likely to have too much. .

I was something impatient, as I had observed, to have
the use of my boat, though very loath to run any more
hazard ; and therefore sometimes I sat contriving ways to get
her about the island, and at other times I sat myself down
contented enough without her. But I had a strange uneasiness
in my mind to go down to the point of the island, where, as I
HE DESCRIBES HIS APPEARANCE. 141

have said in my last ramble, I went up the hill to see how the
shore lay, and how the current set, that I might see what I had
to do.

This inclination increased upon me every day, and at
length I resolved to travel thither by land, and, following the

Vir

RU







Crusoe dines with his Family,

edge of the shore, I did so. But had any one in England met
such a man as I was, it must either have frightened him, or
raised a great deal of laughter. And as I frequently stood still
to look at myself, I could not but smile at the notion of my
travelling through Yorkshire with such an equipage, and in
142 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

such a dress. Be pleased to take a sketch of my figure as
follows.

Thad a great high shapeless cap, made of goat's skin,
with a flap hanging down behind, as well to keep the sun from
me as to shoot the rain off from running into my neck ; nothing
being so hurtful in these climates as the rain upon the tlesh
under the clothes.

To had a short jacket of goat's skin, the



skirts) coming
down to about the middle of my thighs ; and a pair of open
knee’d breeches of the same. “Phe breeches were made of the
skin of an old he-goat, whose hair hung down such a lenpth on
either side, that, like pantaloons, it reached to the middle of
my legs. Stockings and shoes | had none ; but TP had made

me a pair of something, | scarcely knew what to call them, like





buskins, to wrap over my legs, and lace on either side like




spatter-dashes, but of a most barbarous shape, as indeed
were all the rest of my clothes.

IT had on a broad belt of goat's skin dried, which I drew
together with two thongs of the same, instead of buckles ; and

in a kind of a frog on cither side of this, instead of a sword



and dagger, hung a little saw and a hatchet one on one side,
one on the other. | had another belt not so broad, and
fastened in the same manner, which hung over my shoulder ;
and at the end of it, under my left arm, hung two pouches,
both made of goat’s skin too, in one of which hung my powder,
in the other my shot. At my back IT carried my basket, on
my shoulder my gun, and over my head a great clumsy ugly
soat’s skin umbrella, but which, after all, was the most
necessary thing Thad about me, next to my gun,

As for my tace, the colour of it was really not so mulatto-
like as one might expect from a man not at all careful of it, and
living within nine or ten degrees of the equator, My beard 1
had once suffered to grow tilbit was about a quarter of a yard
long ; but as Thad both scissors and razors suthicient, | had cut
it pretty short, except what grew on my upper lip, which Thad
trimmed into a large pair of Mahometan whiskers, such as 1
had seen worn by some ‘Curks whom I saw at Sallee; for the
Moors did not wear such, though the ‘Turks did. Of these
HE STUDIES ‘THE CURRENTS, 143

mustaches, or whiskers, [ will not say they were long enouyh
to hang my hat upon them; but they were of length and shape
monstrous chough, and such as in England would have passed
for frightful.

But all this is by the by ; for, as to my figure, I had so few
ty observe me, that it was of no manner of consequence —so
Tsay no more to that part. In this kind of figure | went my
hew journey, and was out five or six days. 1 travelled first
along the seasshore directly to the place where I first brought
my boat to an anchor, to yet upon the rocks ; and, having no
boat now to take care of, | went over the kind a nearer way, to
the same height that Lwas upon before, Looking forward to
the point of the rock which lay out, and which [was to double
with my boat, as L said above, I was surprised to see the sea
all smooth and quiet; no rippling, no motion, no current, any
more there than in other places.

Twas at a strange loss to understand this, and resolved ta
spend some time in the observing: of it, to see if nothing from
the sets of the tide had occasioned it. But Twas presently
convinced how it was; namely, that the tide of ebb setting
from the west, and joining with the current of waters from some
great river on the shore, must be the occasion of this current,
and that according as the wind blew more forcibly from the
west, or from the north, this current came near or went
farther from the shore. Waiting thereabouts till evening, I
went up to the rock again, and then, the tide of ebb being
made, 1 plainly saw the current :
ran farther off, being near’ halt



in as before, only that it



a league from the shore ;
whereas, in my case, it set close upon the shore, and hurried
me in my canoe along with it, which at another time it would
hot have done.

This observation convinced me that I had nothing to do
but to observe the ebbing and the flowing of the tide, and I
might very easily bring my boat about the island again. But
when I began to think of putting it into practice, I had such a
terror upon my spirits at the remembrance of the danger Thad
been in, that I could not think of it again with any patience ;
but, on the contrary, I took up another resolution, which was
144 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

more safe, though more laborious. This was, that I would
build, or rather make me another canoe; and so have one for
one side of the island, and one for the other.

You are to understand, that now I had, as I may call it,
two plantations in the island—one, my little fortification or
tent, with the wall about it under the rock, with the cave
behind me, which by this time I had enlarged into several
apartments or caves, one within another. One of these, which
was the driest and largest, and had a door out beyond my wall
or fortification—that is to say, beyond where my wall joined to
the rock—was all filled up with large earthen pots, of which I
have given an account, and with fourteen or fifteen great
baskets, which would hold five or six bushels each, where I
laid up my stores of provision, especially my corn, some in the
ear cut off short from the straw, and the other rubbed out
with my hands.

As for my wall, made as before with long stakes or piles,
those piles grew all like trees, and were by this time grown so
big, and spread so very much, that there was not the least
appearance, to any one’s view, of any habitation behind
them.

Near this dwelling of mine, but a little farther within the
land, and upon lower ground, lay my two pieces of corn
ground, which I kept duly cultivated and sowed, and which
duly yielded me their harvest in its season. And whenever I
had occasion for more corn, I had more land adjoining, as fit
as that.

Besides this, I had my country seat, and I had now a
tolerable plantation there also ; for first, I had my little bower,
as I called it, which I kept in repair—that is to say, I kept the
hedge which circled it in constantly fitted up to its usual
height, the ladder standing always in the inside. I kept the
trees, which at first were no more than stakes, but were now
grown very firm and tall—I kept them always so cut, that they
might spread, and grow thick and wild, and make the more
agreeable shade, which they did effectually to my mind. In
the middle of this I had my tent always standing, being a
piece of sail spread over poles set up for that purpose, and
HE IMPROVES HIS FENCES. 145

which never wanted any repair or renewing. Under this I had
made me a squab, or couch, with the skins of the creatures I
had killed, and with other soft things, and a blanket laid on
them, such as belonged to our sea-bedding, which I had saved,
and a great watch-coat to cover me; and here, whenever I had
occasion to be absent from my chief seat, I took up my country
habitation.

Adjoining to this, I had my inclosures for my cattle, that
is to say, my goats. As I had taken an inconceivable deal
of pains to fence and inclose this ground, I was so uneasy
to see it kept entire, lest the goats should break through, that
I never left off till, with infinite labour, I had stuck the outside
of the hedge so full of small stakes, and so near to one another,
that it was rather a pale than a hedge, and there was scarcely
room to put a hand through between them. Afterwards, when
those stakes grew, as they all did in the next rainy season, they
made the inclosure strong like a wall, indeed, stronger than
any wall.

This will testify for me that I was not idle, and that I
spared no pains to bring to pass whatever appeared necessary
for my comfortable support. I considered the keeping up a
breed of tame creatures thus at my hand would be a living
magazine of flesh, milk, butter, and cheese for me, as long as I
lived in the place, if it were to be forty years. The keeping
them in my reach depended entirely upon my perfecting my
inclosures to such a degree, that I might be sure of keeping
them together. By this method, indeed, I so effectually
secured them, that when these little stakes began to grow, I
had planted them so very thick I was forced to pull some of
them up again. ,

In this place also I had my grapes growing, which I
principally depended on for my winter store of raisins, and
which I never failed to preserve very carefully, as the best and
most agreeable dainty of my whole diet. Indeed, they were
not agreeable only, but wholesome, nourishing, and refreshing,
to the last degree.

As this was also about half-way between my other
habitation and the place where I had laid up my boat, |
146 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

generally stayed and lay here on my way thither; for I used
frequently to visit my boat, and I kept all things about or
belonging to her in very good order. Sometimes I went out
in her to divert myself ; but no more hazardous voyages would
I go, nor scarcely ever above a stone’s cast or two from the
shore, I was so apprehensive of being hurried out of my
knowledge again by the currents, or winds, or any other
accident. But now I come to a new scene of my life.

CHAPTER NNNXI.—DISCOVERS A FOOTPRINT IN THE SAND.

Pe happened one day about noon, going towards my boat, I

was exceedingly surprised with the print of a man’s naked
foot on the shore, which was very plain to be seen in the sand.
1 stood like one thunderstruck, or as if I had seen an appari-
tion. I listened, I looked round me—I could hear nothing,
nor seeanything. I went up to a rising ground to look farther.
I went up the shore and down the shore, but it was all one, I
could see no other impression but that one. I went to it again
to see if there were any more, and to observe if it might not be
my fancy; but there was no room for that, for there was
exactly the very print of a foot, toes, heel, and every part of a
foot ; how it came thither I knew not, nor could in the least
imagine. But after innumerable fluttering thoughts, like a man
perfectly confused, and out of myself, 1 came home to my
fortification, not feeling, as we say, the ground I went on, but
terrified to the last degree, looking behind me at every two or
three steps, mistaking every bush and tree, and fancying every
stump at a distance to be a man.

When I came to my castle, for so I think I called it ever
after this, I fled into it like one pursued. Whether I went
over by the ladder, at first contrived, or went in at the hole in
the rock, which I called a door, I cannot remember ; no, nor
could I remember the next morning; for never frighted hare
fled to cover, or fox to earth, with more terror of mind than I]
to this retreat.
THE FOOTPRINT. 147

1 had no sleep that night. The farther I was from the
occasion of my fright, the greater my apprehensions were ;
which is something contrary to the nature of such things, and
especially to the usual practice of all creatures in fear, But I
was so embarrassed with my own frightful ideas of the thing,
that I formed nothing but dismal imaginations to myself, even
though I was now a great way off it.







Crusoe sees a Footprint.

I presently concluded, however, that it must be some
dangerous creature—namely, that it must be some of the
savages of the mainland over against me, who had wandered
out to sea in their canoes, and, either driven by the currents, or
by contrary winds, had made the island, and had been on shore,
but were gone away again to sea, being as loath, perhaps, to


148 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

have stayed in this desolate island, as I would have been to
have had them.

Then terrible thoughts racked my imagination, about their
having found my boat, and that there were people here ; and
that if so, I should certainly have them come again in greater
numbers, and devour me. That if it should happen so that
they should not find me, yet they would find my inclosure,
destroy all my corn, carry away all my flock of tame goats, and
I should perish at last for merc want.

How strange a checker-work of Providence is the life of
man! And by what secret differing springs are the affections
hurried about, as differing circumstances present! To-day we
love what to-morrow we hate—to-day we seek what to-morrow
we shun—to-day we desire what to-morrow we fear, nay, even
tremble at the apprehensions of.

This was exemplified in me at this time in the most
lively manner imaginable; for I now trembled at the very
apprehensions of seeing a man, and was ready to sink into
the ground at but the shadow, or silent appearance, of a
man’s having set his foot on the island.

These thoughts took me up many hours, days—nay, I may
say weeks and months. One particular effect of my cogita-
tions on this occasion I cannot omit; namely, one morning
early, lying in my bed, and filled with thoughts about my danger
from the appearance of savages, I found it discomposed me
very much ; upon which those words of the Scripture came into
my thoughts, ‘Call upon me in the day of trouble, and I will
deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me.’

Upon this, rising cheerfully out of my bed, my heart was
not only comforted, but I was guided and encouraged to pray
earnestly to God for deliverance. When I had done praying,
I took up my Bible, and opening it to read, the first words that
presented to me were, ‘Wait on the Lord, and be of good
courage, and he shall strengthen thine heart: wait, I say, on
the Lord’ It is impossible to express the comfort this gave
me; and in return, I thankfully laid down the book, and was
no more sad, at least, not on that occasion.

In the midst of these cogitations, apprehensions, and retlec-
HE GETS COMFORT FROM THE BIBLE, 149

tions, it came into my thoughts one day, that all this might
be a mere chimera of my own, and that this foot might be
the print of my own foot, when I came on shore from my boat.
This cheered me up a little too, and I began to persuade
myself it was all a delusion—that it was nothing else but my
own foot; and why might not I come that way from the
boat, as well as I was going that way to the boat? Again, I
considered, also, that I could by no means tell for certain where
I had trod, and where I had not ; and that if at last this was
only the print of my own foot, I had played the part of those
fools who strive to make stories of spectres and apparitions,
and then are themselves frighted at them more than anybody
else.

Now I began to take courage, and to peep abroad again—
for I had not stirred out of my castle for three days and nights,
so that I began to starve for provision; for I had little or
nothing within doors, but some barley-cakes and water, Then
I knew that my goats wanted to be milked, too, which usually
was my evening diversion—and the poor creatures were in
great pain and inconvenience for want of it. Indeed, it almost
spoiled some of them, and almost dried up their milk.

Heartening myself, therefore, with the belief that this was
nothing but the print of one of my own feet (and so I might
be truly said to start at my own shadow), I began to go
abroad again, and went to my country house to milk my flock.
But to see with what fear I went forward, how often I looked
behind me, how I was ready, every now and then, to lay down
my basket and run for my life, it would have made any one
have thought I was haunted with an evil conscience, or that
I had been lately most terribly frighted ; and so, indeed, I had.

However, as I went down thus two or three days, and having
seen nothing, I began. to be a little bolder, and to think there
was really nothing in it but my own imagination. But I could
not persuade myself fully of this, till I should go down to the
shore again and see this print of a foot, and measure it by my
own, and see if there was any similitude or fitness, that I might
be assured it was my own foot.

But when I came to the place, it appeared evidently to me,
150 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

First, that when I laid up my boat, I could not possibly be
on shore anywhere thereabouts. .Secoud/y, when I came to
measure the mark with my own foot, I found my foot not so
large by a great deal. Both these things filled my head with
new imaginations, and I went home again, filled with the belief
that some man or men had been on shore there ; or, in short,
that the island was inhabited, and I might be surprised before
I was aware; and what course to take for my security I knew
not.

CHAPTER XXXII.—FURTHER MEASURES FOR HIS SAFETY.

Gye what ridiculous resolutions men take when possessed
with fear! It deprives them of the use of those means
which reason offers for their relief. The first thing I proposed
to myself was, to throw down my inclosures, and turn all my
tame cattle wild into the woods, that the enemy might not find
thein, and then frequent the island in prospect of the same, or
the like booty. Then to the simple thing of digging up my
two corn-fields, that they might not find such a grain there,
and still be prompted to frequent the island. Then to demolish
my bower and tent, that they might not see any vestiges of my
habitation, and be prompted to look farther, in order to find
out the persons inhabiting.
These were the subjects of the first night’s cogitation after
I was come home again, and this confusion of my thoughts
kept me waking all night. But in the morning I fell asleep,
and having, by the amusement of my mind, been, as it were,
tired, and my spirits exhausted, I slept very soundly, and
waked much better composed than I had ever been before.
And now I began to think sedately; and, upon the utmost
debate with myself, I concluded that this island, which was so
exceeding pleasant, fruitful, and no farther from the mainland
than as I had seen, was not so entirely abandoned as I might
imagine. Although there were no stated inhabitants who
lived on the spot, yet there might sometimes come boats off
from the shore, who, either with design, or perhaps never but
when they were driven by cross winds, might come to this place.
HE IS POSSESSED WITH NEW FEARS, 151

I had lived here fifteen years now, and had not met with the
least shadow or figure of any people, and the most I could
suggest any danger from, was from any such casual accidental
landing of straggling people from the main, who, as it was
likely, if they were driven hither, were here against their wills ;
so they made no stay here, but went off again with all possible
speed, seldom staying one night on shore, lest they should
not have the help of the tides and daylight back again. There-
fore I had nothing to do but to consider of some safe retreat,
in case I should see any savages land upon the spot.

Now I began sorely to repent that I had dug my cave so
large as to bring a door through again, which door, as I said,
came out beyond where my fortification joined to the rock.
Upon maturely considering this, therefore, I resolved to draw
me a second fortification, in the manner of a semicircle, at a
distance from my wall, just where I had planted a double row
of trees about twelve years before, of which I made mention.
These trees having been planted so thick before, there wanted
but a few piles to be driven between them, that they should be
thicker and stronger, and my wall would be soon finished.

I had now a double wall, and my outer wall was thickened
with pieces of timber, old cables, and everything I could think
of to make it strong; having in it seven little holes, about as
big as I might put my arm out at. In the inside of this 1
thickened my wall to about ten feet thick, continually bringing
earth out of my cave, and laying it at the foot of the wall, and
walking upon it ; and through the seven holes I contrived to
plant the muskets, of which I took notice that I had got
seven on shore out of the ship. These, I say, I planted like
cannon, and fitted them into frames that held them like a
carriage, that so I could fire all the seven guns in two minutes’
time. This wall I was many a weary month in finishing, and
yet never thought myself safe till it was done.

When this was done, I stuck all the ground without my
wall, for a great length every way, as full with stakes or sticks
of the osier-like wood, which I found so apt to grow, as they
could well stand ; insomuch, that I believe I might set in near
twenty thousand of them, leaving a pretty large space between
1§2 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

them and my wall, that I might have room to see an enemy,
and they might have no shelter from the young trees, if they
attempted to approach my outer wall.

Thus in two years’ time I had a thick grove ; and in five
or six years’ time I had a wood before my dwelling, grown so
monstrously thick and strong, that it was, indeed, perfectly
impassable ; and no man, of what kind soever, would ever
imagine that there was anything beyond it, much less a habita-
tion. As tor the way I proposed myself to go in and out (for
I left no avenue), it was by setting two ladders ; one to a part
of the rock which was low,and then broke in, and left room to
place another ladder upon that ; so when the two ladders were
taken down, no man living could come down to me without
doing himself mischief; and if they had come down, they were
still on the outside of my outer wall.

Thus | took all the measures human prudence could suggest
for my own preservation ; and it will be seen at length, that
they were not altogether without just reason—though I fore-
saw nothing at that time more than my mere fear suggested.

While this was doing, | was not altogether careless of my
other affairs, for 1 had a great concern upon me for my little
herd of goats. ‘They were not only a present supply to me
upon every other occasion, and to be sufficient for me without
the expense of powder and shot, but also abated the fatigue
of my hunting after the wild ones ; and I was loath to lose the
advantage of them, and to have them all to nurse up over again,

For this purpose, after long consideration, | could think but
of two ways to preserve them. One was to tind another con-
venient place to dig a cave under ground, and to drive them
into it every night; the other was to inclose two or three little
bits of land, remote from one another, and as much con-
cealed as I could, where | might keep about half-a-dozen young
goats in each place, so that if any disaster happened to the
flock in general, | might be able to raise them again with little
trouble and time, ‘This, though it would require a great deal
of time and labour, I thought was the most rational design,

Accordingly, | spent some time to find out the most. re-
tired parts of the island; and I pitched upon one which was
HE COMPLETES HIS DEFENCES, 153

as private, indeed, as my heart could wish for. It was a little
damp piece of ground in the middle of the hollow and thick
woods, where, as is observed, I almost lost myself once before
endeavouring to come back that way from the eastern part of
the island. Here I found a clear piece of land, near three acres,
so surrounded with woods that it was almost an inclosure by







Crusoe builds a Fence for his Goats.

nature ; at least, 1t did not want near so much labour to make
it so as the other pieces of ground I had worked so hard at.

I immediately went to work with this piece of ground, and
in less than a month’s time I had so fenced it round that my
flock, or herd, call it which you please, which were not so wild
now as at first they might be supposed to be, were well enough
154 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

secured in it. So, without any further delay, I removed ten
she-goats and two he-goats to this piece; and when there, I
continued to perfect the fence, till I had made it as secure as
the other, which, however, I did at more leisure, and it took me
up more time by a great deal.

All this labour I was at the expense of, purely from my
apprehensions on the account of the print of a man’s foot
which I had seen ; for as yet I never saw any human creature
come near the island, and [ had now lived two years under
this uneasiness, which, indeed, made my life much less com-
fortable than it was before, as may well be imagined by any who
know what it is to live in the constant snare of the fear of man.

CHAPTER XXNXITI.—RELICS OF THE CANNIBALS.

oe to go on. After I had thus secured one part of my

little living stock, [ went about the whole island searching
for another private place to make such another deposit. When
wandering more to the west point of the island than I had ever
done yet, and looking out to sea, I thought I saw a boat upon
the sea at a great distance. I had found a perspective glass or
two in one of the seamen’s chests which I saved out of our
ship; but I had it not about me, and this was so remote, that
I could not tell what to make of it, though I looked at it till
my eyes were not able to look any longer. Whether it was a
boat or not, I did not know ; but as I descended from the hill,
1 could sce no more of it, so I gave it over; only I resolved to
go no more without a perspective glass in my pocket.

When I was come down the hill to the end of the island,
where indeed I had never been before, I was presently con-
vinced that the seeing the print of a man’s foot was not such a
strange thing in the island as I imagined. And, but that it
was a special providence that I was cast upon the side of the
island where the savages never came, I should easily have
known, that nothing was more frequent than for the canoes
from the main, when they happened to be a little too far out
at sea, to shoot over to that side of the island for harbour.
HE FEELS SURE OF HIS SAFETY, 155

Likewise, as they often met, and fought in their canoes, the
victors, having taken any prisoners, would bring them over
to this shore, where, according to their dreadful customs,
being all cannibals, they would kill and cat them—of which
hereafter.

When I was come down the hill to the shore, as I said
above, being the south-west point of the island, I was per-
fectly confounded and amazed ; nor is it possible for me to
express the horror of my mind, at sceing the shore spread with
skulls, hands, feet, and other bones of human bodies. And,
particularly, I observed a place where there had been a fire
made, and a circle dug in the earth, like a cockpit, where I
supposed the savage wretches had sat down to their inhuman
feastings upon the bodies of their fellow-creatures.

I was so astonished with the sight of these things, that I
cntertained no notions of any danger to myself from it for a
long while. All my apprehensions were buried in the thoughts
of such a pitch of inhuman brutality, and the horror of the
degeneracy of human nature ; which, though I had heard of
often, yet I never had so near a view of before. In short, I turned
away my face from the horrid spectacle ; my stomach grew*
sick, and I was just at the point of fainting. I could not bear
to stay in the place a moment longer ; so I got me up the hill
again with all the speed I could, and walked on towards my
own habitation.

When I came a little out of that part of the island, I stood
a while as amazed; and then recovering myself, I looked up
with the utmost affection of my soul, and, with a flood of tears
in my eyes, gave God thanks, that had cast my first lot in
a part of the world where I was distinguished from such
dreadful creatures as these. And that, though I had esteemed
my present condition very miserable, He had yet given me so
many comforts in it, that I had still more to give thanks for
than to complain of.

In this frame of thankfulness I went home to my castle,
and began to be much easier now, as to the safety of my
circumstances, than ever I was before—for I observed, that

these wretches never came to this island in search of what they
b
156 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

could get—perhaps not seeking, not wanting, or not expecting,
anything here, and having often, no doubt, been up in the
covered woody part of it, without finding anything to their
purpose.

I knew I had been here now almost eighteen years, and
never saw the least footsteps of a human creature there before ;
and might be here eighteen more as entirely concealed as I
was now, if I did not discover myself to them, which I had
no manner of occasion to do, it being my only business to
keep myself entirely concealed where I was, unless I found a
better sort of creatures than cannibals to make myself known to.

Yet I entertained such an abhorrence of the savage wretches
that I have been speaking of, and of the wretched inhuman
custom of their devouring and eating one another up, that I
continued pensive and sad, and kept close within my own
circle for almost two years after this. When I say my own
circle, I mean by it my three plantations, namely, my castle,
my country seat, which I called my bower, and my inclosure
in the woods. Nor did I look after this for any other use than
as an inclosure for my goats; for the aversion which nature
gave me to these wretches was such, that I was as fearful
of seeing them as of seeing the devil himself; nor did I so
much as go to look after my boat in all this time, but began
rather to think of making me another. I could not think of
ever making any more attempts to bring the other boat round
the island to me, lest I should meet with some of those
creatures at sea, in which, if I had happened to have fallen into
their hands, I knew what would have been my lot.

Time, however, and the satisfaction I had that I was in no
danger of being discovered by these people, began to wear
off my uneasiness about them, and I began to live just in the
same composed manner as before ; only with this difference,
that I used more caution, and kept my eyes more about me
than I did before, lest I should happen to be seen by any of
them. And, particularly, I was more cautious of firing my
gun, lest any of them on the island should happen to hear it.
It was therefore a very good providence to me, that I had
furnished myself with a tame breed of goats, that I had no
HIS PLANS FOR DESTROYING THE CANNIBALS, 157

need to hunt any more about the woods, or shoot at them; and
if I did catch any more of them after this, it was by traps and
snares, as I had done before. So that for two years after this,
I believe I never fired my gun once off, though I never went
out without it; and, which was more, as I had saved three
pistols out of the ship, I always carried them out with me, or at
least two of them, sticking them in my goat-skin belt. I like-
wise furbished up one of the great cutlasses that I had out of
the ship, and made me a belt to put it in also. So that I was
now a most formidable fellow to look at when I went abroad,
if you add to the former description of myself, the particular of
two pistols, and a great broadsword hanging at my side in a
helt, but without a scabbard.

Things going on thus, as I have said, for some time, I
seemed, excepting these cautions, to be reduced to my former
calm sedate way of living. All these things tended to show me
more and more how far my condition was from being miserable,
compared to some others—nay, to many other particulars of
life, which it might have pleased God to have made my lot. It
put me upon reflecting, how little repining there would be
among mankind, at any condition of life, if people would rather
compare their condition with those that are worse, in order to
be thankful, than be always comparing them with those which
are better, to assist their murmurings and complainings.

Night and day I could now think of nothing, but how I
might destroy some of these monsters in their cruel bloody
entertainment, and, if possible, save the victim they should
bring hither to destroy. It would take up a larger volume than
this whole work is intended to be, to set down all the contriv-
ances I hatched, or rather brooded upon in my thoughts, for
the destroying these creatures, or at least frightening them, so
as to prevent their coming hither any more. But all was abor-
tive—nothing could be possible to take effect, unless I was to
be there to do it myself; and what could one man do among
them, when perhaps there might be twenty or thirty of them
together, with their darts, or their bows and arrows, with which
they could shoot as true to a mark as I could with my gun?

Sometimes I thought of digging a hole under the place
158 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

where they made their fire, and putting in five or six pounds of
gunpowder, which, when they kindled their fire, would conse-
quently take fire, and blow up all that was near it. But as, in
the first place, I should be very loath to waste so much powder
upon them, my store now being within the quantity of a barrel,
so neither could I be sure of its going off at any certain time,
when it might surprise them; and, at best, that it would little
more than just blow the fire about their ears, and frighten
them, but not sufficient to make them forsake the place. So
I laid it aside, and then proposed, that I would place myself
in ambush, in some convenient place, with my three guns all
double loaded, and in the middle of their cruel ceremony, let
fly at them, when | should be sure to kill or wound perhaps
two or three at every shot ; and then falling in upon them with
my three pistols, and my sword, I made no doubt but that, if
there were twenty, I should kill them all. This fancy pleased
my thoughts for some weeks, and I was so full of it that I often
dreamed of it ; and sometimes, that I was just going to let fly
at them in my sleep. |

I went so far with it in my imagination, that I employed
myself several days to find out proper places to put myself
in ambuscade, as I said, to watch for them; and I went
frequently to the place itself, which was now grown more
familiar to me; and especially while my mind was thus filled
with thoughts of revenge, and of a putting twenty or thirty of
them to the sword, as I may call it; but the horror I had at
the place, and at the signals of the barbarous wretches devour-
ing one another, abetted my malice.

Well, at length I found a place in the side of the hill,
where I was satistied I might securely wait till I saw any of
the boats coming, and might then, even before they would be
ready to come on shore, convey myself unseen into thickets of
trees, in one of which there was a hollow large enough to con-
ceal me entirely, and where I might sit, and observe all their
cruel doings, and take my full aim at their heads, when they
were so close together as that it would be next to impossible
that I should miss my shot, or that I could fail wounding three
or four of them at the first shot.
HE ASCENDS THE HILL EVERY MORNING, 159

In this place, then, | resolved to fix my design; and
accordingly, I prepared two muskets and my ordinary fowling-
piece. The two muskets I loaded with a brace of slugs each,
and four or five smaller bullets, about the size of pistol bullets,
and the fowling-piece I loaded with near a handful of swan-
shot, of the largest size. I also loaded my pistols with about
four bullets each: and in this posture, well provided with
ammunition for a second and third charge, I prepared myself
for my expedition.

CHAPTER XXXIV.—RESOLVES NOT TO HARM THE
CANNIBALS—DISCOVERS A CAVE,

AyPTER I had thus laid the scheme of my design, and in

my imagination put it in practice, I continually made my
tour every morning up to the top of the hill, which was from
my castle, as I called it, about three miles or more, to see if I
could observe any boats upon the sea, coming near the island,
or standing over towards it, But I began to tire of this hard
duty, after I had for two or three months constantly kept my
watch, but came always back without any discovery, there
having not in all that time been the least appearance, not only
on or near the shore, but not on the whole ocean, so far as my
eyes or glasses could reach every way.

As long as I kept up my daily tour to the hill to look out,
so long also I kept up the vigour of my design, and my spirits
seemed to be all the while in a suitable frame for so outrageous
an execution as the killing twenty or thirty naked savages for
an offence which I had not at all entered into a discussion of
in my thoughts, any further than my passions were at first
fired by the horror I conceived at the unnatural custom of
the people of that country.

But now, when, as I have said, I began to be weary of the
fruitless excursion which I had made so long and so far every
morning in vain, so my opinion of the action itself began to
alter, and I began, with cooler and calmer thoughts, to con-
sider what it was ] was going to engage in. What authority
or call had I to pretend to be judge and executioner upon
160 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

these men as criminals, whom Heaven had thought fit for so
many ages to suffer unpunished to go on, and to be, as it were,
the executioners of his judgments upon one another? Also,
how far were these people offenders against me, and what right

}





Crusoe on the lookout on the Hill.

had I to engage in the quarrel of that blood which they shed
promiscuously one upon another?

In the next place, it occurred to me, that although the
usage they gave one another was thus brutish and inhuman,
yet it was really nothing to me. These people had done me
no injury—that if they attempted me, or I saw it necessary,
for my immediate preservation, to fall upon them, something
might be said for it. But 1 was yet out of their power, and
they had really no knowledge of me, and consequently no
HE RESOLVES NOT TO HARM TIIE CANNIBALS. 161

design upon me, and therefore it could not be just for me to
fall upon them.

These considerations really put me to a pause, and to a
kind of a full stop; and I began by little and little to be off
my design, and to conclude I had taken a wrong measure in
my resolutions to attack the savages. That it was not my
business to meddle with them, unless they first attacked me,
and this it was my business, if possible, to prevent; but that,
if I were discovered and attacked, then I knew my duty.

In this disposition I continued for nearly a year after this.
And so far was I from desiring an occasion for falling upon
these wretches, that in all that time I never once went up the
hill to see whether there were any of them in sight, or to know
whether any of them had been on shore there or not, that I
might not be tempted to renew any of my contrivances against
them, or be provoked, by any advantage which might present
itself, to fall upon them. Only this I did—I went and removed
my boat, which I had on the other side of the island, and
carried it down to the east end of the whole island, where I
ran it into a little cove which I found under some high rocks,
and where I knew, by reason of the currents, the savages durst
not, at least would not, come with their boats, upon any account
whatsoever.

With my boat I carried away everything that I had left
there belonging to her, though not necessary for the bare going
thither—namely, a mast and sail, which I had made for her,
and a thing like an anchor, but indeed, which could not be
called either anchor or grappling—however, it was the best I
could make of its kind. All these I removed, that there might
not be the least shadow of any discovery, or any appearance of
any boat, or of any habitation upon the island.

Besides this, I kept myself, as I said, more retired than
ever, and seldom went from my cell, other than upon my con-
stant employment—namely, to milk my she-goats, and manage
my little flock in the wood, which, as it was quite on the other
part of the island, was out of all danger. For certain it is,
that these savage people, who sometimes haunted this island,
never came with any thoughts of finding anything here, and


162 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

consequently never wandered off from the coast ; and I doubt
not but they might have been several times on shore, after
my apprehensions of them had made me cautious, as well as
before. And, indeed, 1 looked back with some horror upon
the thoughts of what my condition would have been, if I
had chopped upon them, and been discovered before that,
when naked and unarmed, except with one gun, and that
loaded often only with small shot. I walked everywhere, peep-
ing and peering about the island, to see what I could get—
what a surprise should I have been in, if, when I discovered
the print of a man’s foot, I had instead of that seen fifteen or
twenty savages, and found them pursuing me, and, by the
swiftness of their running, no possibility of my escaping
them.

The thoughts of this sometimes sunk my very soul within
me, and distressed my mind so much that I could not soon
recover it, to think what I should have done, and how I should
not only have been unable to resist them, but ever should
not have had presence of mind enough to do what I might have
done; much less what now, after so much consideration and
preparation, I might be able to do.

1 believe the reader of this will not think it strange, if I
confess that these anxieties, these constant dangers I lived in,
and the concern that was now upon me, put an end to all
invention, and to all the contrivances that I had laid for my
future accommodations and conveniences. I had the care of
my safety more now upon my hands than that of my food. I
cared not to drive a nail, or chop a stick of wood now, for fear
the noise I should make should be heard—much less would I
fire a gun, for the same reason.

Above all, 1 was very uneasy at making any fire, lest the
smoke, which is visible at a great distance in the day, should
betray me. For this reason, I removed that part of my busi-
ness which required fire, such as burning of pots and pipes,
&c., into my new apartment in the wood, where, after I had
been some time, I found, to my unspeakable consolation, a
mere natural cave in the earth, which went in a vast way, and
where, I daresay, no savage, had he been at the mouth of it,
HE DISCOVERS A CAVE, 163

would be so hardy as to venture in, nor indeed would any
man else, but one who, like me, wanted nothing so much as a
safe retreat.

The mouth of this hollow was at the bottom of a great
rock, where, by mere accident (I would say, if I did not see an
abundant reason to ascribe ali such things now to Providence),
I was cutting down some thick branches of trees to make char-
coal. But before I go on, I must observe the reason of my
making this charcoal, which was thus: I was afraid of making
a smoke about my habitation, as I said before; and yet I
could not live there without baking my bread, cooking my
meat, &c.; so I contrived to burn some wood here, as I had
seen done in England, under turf, till it became chark, or
dry coal. Then putting the fire out, I preserved the coal to
carry home, and perform the other services which fire was
wanting for at home, without danger or smoke.

But this by the bye. While I was cutting down some wood
here, I perceived that, behind a very thick branch of low
brushwood or underwood, there was a kind of hollow place.
I was curious to look into it, and getting with difficulty into
the mouth of it, I found it was pretty large, that is to say,
sufficient for me to stand upright in it, and perhaps another
with me. But I must confess to you, I made more haste out
than I did in, when, looking farther into the place, which was
perfectly dark, I saw two broad shining eyes of some creature,
which twinkled like two stars—the dim light from the cave’s
mouth shining directly in and making the reflection.

However, after some pause, I recovered myself, and began
to call myself a thousand fools, and tell myself, that he that
was thus afraid was not fit to live twenty years on an island
all alone, and that I might well believe there was nothing
in this cave that was more frightful than myself. Upon this,
plucking up my courage, I took up a large firebrand, and
in I rushed again, with the stick flaming in my hand. I had
not gone three steps in, but I was almost as much frightened
as I was before, for I heard a very loud sigh, like that of a man
in some pain, and it was followed by a broken noise, as of words
half expressed, and then a deep sigh again.
164 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

I stepped back, and was indeed struck with such a sur-
prise that it put me into a cold sweat; and if I had had a hat
on my head, I will not answer for it that my hair might not
have lifted it off. But still plucking up my spirits as well as I
could, and encouraging myself a little with considering that the
power and presence of God was everywhere, and was able to
protect me; upon this I stepped forward again, and by the
light of the firebrand, holding it up a little over my head, I saw
lying on the ground a most monstrous frightful old he-goat, just
making his will, as we say, gasping for life, and dying, indeed,
of mere old age.

I stirred him a little, to see if I could get him out, and
he essayed to get up, but was not able to raise himself; and
I thought with myself, he might even lie there, for if he had
frightened me so, he would certainly frighten any of the savages,
if any of them should be so hardy as to come in there, while he
had any life in him. i

I was now recovered from my surprise, and began to
look round me, when I found the cave was but very small;
that is to say, it might be about twelve feet over, but in no
manner of shape, either round or square, no hands having ever
been employed in making it but those of mere nature. I
observed also, that there was a place at the far side of it
that went in farther, but so low, that it required me to creep
upon my hands and knees to get into it, and whither it went I
knew not. So, having no candle, I gave it over for some time,
but resolved to come again the next day, provided with candles
and a tinder-box, which I had made of the lock of one of the
muskets, with some wildfire in the pan.

Accordingly, the next day I came provided with six large
candles of my own making (for I made very good candles now
of goats’ tallow); and, going into this low place, I was obliged
to creep upon all-fours, as I have said, almost ten yards ; which,
by the way, I thought was a venture bold enough, considering
that I knew not how far it might go, or what was beyond it.
When I was got through the strait, I found the roof rose higher
up, I believe near twenty feet. But never was such a glorious
sight seen in the island, I daresay, as it was to look round the
HE STORES HIS POWDER IN THE CAVE. 165

sides and roof of this vault or cave. The walls reflected a
hundred thousand lights to me from my two candles. What
it was in the rock, whether diamonds or any other precious
stones, or gold, which I rather supposed it to be, I knew not.

The place I was in was a most delightful cavity, or grotto,
of its kind, as could be expected, though perfectly dark. The
. floor was dry and level, and had a sort of small loose gravel
upon it, so that there was no nauseous, or venomous creature
to be seen; neither was there any damp or wet on the sides of
the roof. The only difficulty in it was the entrance, which,
however, as it was a place of security, and such a retreat as I
wanted, I thought that was a convenience, so that I was really
rejoiced at the discovery, and resolved, without any delay, to
bring some of those things which I was most anxious about to
this place. Particularly, I resolved to bring hither my maga-
zine of powder, and all my spare arms, namely, two fowling-
pieces (for I had three in all), and three muskets (for of them I
had eight in all). So I kept at my castle only five, which stood
ready mounted, like pieces of cannon, on my outmost fence,
and were ready also to take out upon any expedition.

Upon this occasion of removing my ammunition, I was
obliged to open the barrel of powder which I took up out of
the sea, and which had been wet. I found that the water had
penetrated about three or four inches into the powder on every
side, which, caking and growing hard, had preserved the inside
like a kernel in a shell, so that I had nearly sixty pounds of
very good powder in the centre of the cask; and this was an
agreeable discovery to me at that time. So I carried all away
thither, never keeping above two or three pounds of powder
with me in my castle, for fear of a surprise of any kind. I also
carried thither all the lead I had left for bullets.

I fancied myself now like one of the ancient giants,
who were said to live in caves and holes in the rocks, where
none could come at them ; for I persuaded myself while I was
here, if five hundred savages were to hunt me, they could
never find me out; or if they did, they would not venture to
attack me here.

The old goat which I found expiring, died in the mouth
166 ROBINSON CRUSOF.

of the cave the next day after I made this discovery; and I
found it much easier to dig a great hole there, and throw him
in and cover him with earth, than to drag him out; so I
interred him there, to prevent offence to my nose.

CHAPTER XXNXV.—-THE SAVAGES AGAIN VISIT THE
ISLAND.

WAS now in my twenty-third year of residence in this

island, and was so naturalised to the place and to the
manner of living, that could I have but enjoyed the certainty
that no savages would come to the place to disturb me, I
could have been content to have capitulated for spending the
rest of my time there, even to the last moment, till I had
laid me down and died, like the old goat in the cave.

I had also arrived at some little diversions and amuse-
ments, which made the time pass more pleasantly with me a
great deal than it did before. First, I had taught my Poll, as
1 noted before, to speak; and he did it so familiarly, and
talked so articulately and plainly, that it was very pleasant to
me, and he lived with me no less than six-and-twenty years,
How long he might live afterwards I knew not, though I know
they have a notion in the Brazils, that they live a hundred
years.

My dog was a very pleasant and loving companion to me
for no less than sixteen years of my time, and then died of
mere old age. As for my cats, they multiplied, as I have
observed, to that degree, that I was obliged to shoot several of
them at first, to keep them from devouring me and all I had.
But at length, when the two old ones I brought with me were
gone, and after some time continually driving them from me,
and letting them have no provision with me, they all ran wild
into the woods, except two or three favourites, which I kept
tame, and whose young, when they had any, I always drowned ;
and these were part of my family.

Besides these, I always kept two or three household kids
about me, which I taught to feed out of my hand; and I had
HIS PETS. 167

also more parrots, which talked pretty well, and would all call
Robin Crusoe, but none like my first; nor, indeed, did I take
the pains with any of them that I had done with him. I had
also several tame sea-fowls, whose names I know not, which I
caught upon the shore, and cut their wings; and the little
stakes which I had planted before my castle wall being now
grown up to a good thick grove, these fowls all lived among
these low trees, and bred there, which was very agreeable to
me. So that, as I said above, I began to be very well con-
tented with the life I led, if it might but have been secured
from the dread of savages.

But it was otherwise directed; and it might not be amiss
for all people, who shall meet with my story, to make this just
observation from it, namely, how frequently, in the course of
our lives, the evil which in itself we seek most to shun, and
which, when we are fallen into, is the most dreadful to us, is
oftentimes the very means or door of our deliverance, by which
alone we can be raised again from the affliction we are fallen
into. I could give many examples of this in the course of my
unaccountable life; but in nothing was it more particularly
remarkable, than in the circumstances of my last years of
solitary residence in this island.

It was now the month of December, as I said above, in
my twenty-third year; and this being the southern solstice—
for winter I cannot call it—was the particular time of my
harvest, and required my being pretty much abroad in the
ticlds. Going out pretty early in the morning, even before it
was thorough daylight, I was surprised with seeing a light of
some fire upon the shore, at a distance from me of about two
miles, towards the end of the island where I had observed some
savages had been, as before—not on the other side, but, to my
great affliction, it was on my side ef the island.

I was, indeed, terribly surprised at the sight, and stopped
short within my grove, not daring to go out, lest I might be
surprised. And yet I had no more peace within, from the
apprehensions I had, that if these savages, in rambling over
the island, should find my corn standing, or cut, or any of my
works and improvements, they would immediately conclude
168 ROBINSON CRUSOK.

that there were people in the place, and would then never give
over till they found me out. In this extremity I went back
directly to my castle, pulled up the ladder after me, having
made all things without look as wild and natural as I
could.

Then I prepared myself within, putting myself in a_pos-
ture of defence. I loaded all my cannon, as I called them

that is to say, my muskets—which were mounted upon my
fortification, and all my pistols, and resolved to defend my-
self to the last gasp; not forgetting seriously to recommend
myself to the divine protection, and earnestly to pray to God
to deliver me out of the hands of the barbarians. In this
posture I continued about two hours, but began to be mighty
impatient for intelligence abroad, for I had no spies to
send out.

After sitting a while longer, and musing what I should
do in this case, I was not able to bear sitting in ignorance
longer ; so, setting up my ladder to the side of the hill where
there was a flat place, as I observed before, and then pulling
the ladder up after me, I set it up again, and mounted to the
top of the hill; and pulling out my perspective glass, which I
had taken on purpose, I laid me down flat on my belly on the
ground, and began to look for the place. I presently found
there were no less than nine naked savages sitting round a
small fire they had made; not to warm them—for they had no
need of that, the weather being extremely hot—but, as I sup-
posed, to dress some of their barbarous diet of human flesh
which they had brought with them, whether alive or dead I
could not know.

They had two canoes with them, which they had hauled
up upon the shore; and as it was then ebb of tide, they
scemed to me to wait the return of the flood to go away again.
It is not easy to imagine what confusion this sight put me
into, especially seeing them come on my side the island, and
so near me too. But when I observed their coming must be
always with the current of the tide, I began afterwards to be
more sedate in my mind, being satisfied that I might go abroad
with safety all the time of flood-tide, if they were not on shore
HE SEES NINE SAVAGES ON THE SHORE, 169

before. Having made this observation, I went abroad about
my harvest work with the more composure.

As I expected, so it proved; for as soon as the tide
made to the westward, I saw them all take boat, and row (or
paddle, as we call it) all away. I should have observed, that
for an hour and more before they went off, they began dancing,
and I could easily discern their postures and gestures by my
glasses. I could only perceive, by my nicest observation,
that they were stark naked, and had not the least covering
upon them; but whether they were men or women, that I
could not distinguish.

As soon as I saw them shipped and gone, I took two guns
upon my shoulders, and two pistols at my girdle, and my
great sword by my side, without a scabbard ; and with all the
speed I was able to make, I went away to the hill, where I had
discovered the first appearance of all. As soon as I got thither,
which was not less than two hours (for I could not go apace,
being so loaded with arms as I was), I perceived there had
been three canoes more of savages on that place ; and looking
out farther, I saw they were all at sea together, making over
for the main.

This was a dreadful sight to me, especially when, going
to the shore, I could see the marks of horror which the dismal
work they had been about had left behind it, namely, the blood,
the bones, and part of the flesh of human bodies, eaten and
devoured by those wretches with merriment and sport. I was
so filled with indignation at the sight, that I began now to pre-
meditate the destruction of the next that I saw there, let them
be who or how many soever.

It seemed evident to me, that the visits which they thus
made to this island were not very frequent ; for it was above
fifteen months before any more of them came on shore there
again—that is to say, I never saw them, or any footsteps or
signals of them, in all that time; for as to the rainy seasons,
then they are sure not to come abroad, at least not so far
Yet all this while I lived uncomfortably, by reason of constant
apprehensions I was in of their coming upon me by surprise—
from whence I observe, that the expectation of evil is more
170 ROBINSON CRUSOR.

bitter than the sutfering, especially if there is no room to shake
off that expectation, or those apprehensions.

During all this time, I was in the murdering humour, and
took up most of my hours, which should have been better
employed, in contriving how to circumvent and fall upon
them the very next time [ should see them, especially if they
should be divided, as they were the last time, into two parties.
Nor did I consider at all, that if 1 killed one party, suppose
ten or a dozen, I was still the next day, or week, or month, to
kill another, and so another, even ad tafiaitian, till T should
be at length no less a murderer than they were in being men-
eaters, and perhaps much more so.

I spent my days now in great perplexity and anxicty ot
mind, expecting that T should one day or other fall into the
hands of those merciless creatures. If I did at any time
venture abroad, it was not without looking round me with the
greatest care and caution imaginable ; and now [ found, to my
great comfort, how happy it was that [ had provided a tame
flock or herd of goats ; for [ durst not, upon any account, fire
my gun, especially near that side of the island where they
usually came, lest L should alarm the savages. And if they
had tled from me now, | was sure to have them come back
again, with perhaps two or three hundred canoes with them, in
a few days, and then [ knew what to expect.





However, I wore out a year and three months more
before I ever saw any more of the savages, and then I found
them again, as [ shall soon observe. — It is true, they might
have been there once or twice, but cither they made no stay,
or at least I did not hear them; but in the month of May, as
near as I could calculate, and in my four-and-twentieth year,
I had a very strange encounter with them, of which in its
place.


[* was in the middle of
May, on the. sixteenth



day, | think, as well as my
poor wooden calendar
would reckon, for I
marked all upon the
post still —T say, it was
on the sixteenth of
May that it blew a
great) storm of wind
all day, with a great
deal of Tightning and
thunder, and a_ very
foul night) was after
it. IT know not what
was the paruicular occasion of it; but as Twas reading in the
Bible, and taken up with serious thoughts about my present
condition, [ was surprised with the noise of a gun, as I
thought, fired at sea.

This was, to be sure, a surprise quite of a different nature
from any T had met with before ; for the notions this put into
my thoughts were quite of another kind. I started up in the
greatest haste imaginable; and, in a trice, clapped up my
ladder to the middle place of the rock, and pulled it after me,
and, mounting it the second time, got to the top of the hill.
That very moment a flash of fire bade me listen for a second
gun, which, accordingly, in about halfa moment, T heard, and,
by the sound, knew that it was from that part of the sea where
1 was driven out with the current in my boat.

I immediately considered that this must be some ship in
distress, and that they had some comrade, or some other ship
in company, and fired these guns for signals of distress, and to
obtain help. I had this presence of mind that minute as to
think that though I could not help them, it might be they
might help me. So | brought together all the dry wood I could
172 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

get at hand, and, making a good handsome pile, I set it on
fire upon the hill.

The wood was dry, and blazed freely, and though the wind
blew very hard, yet it burned fairly out, so that I was certain,
if there was any such thing as a ship, they must needs sce it.
And no doubt they did, for as soon as ever my fire blazed up,
I heard another gun, and after that several others, all from the
same quarter. I plied my fire all night long till day broke ;
and when it was broad day, and the air cleared up, I saw
something at a great distance at sea, full east of the island,
whether a sail or a hull I could not distinguish, no, not with my
glasses, the distance was so great, and the weather still some-
thing hazy also: at least it was so out at sea.

I looked frequently at it all that day, and soon perceived
that it did not move, so I presently concluded that it was a
ship at anchor. Being eager, you may be sure, to be satisfied,
I took my gun in my hand, and ran towards the south-east
side of the island, to the rocks, where I had been formerly
carried away with the current. Getting up there, the weather
by this time being perfectly clear, I could plainly see, to my
ereat sorrow, the wreck of a ship cast away in the night upon
those concealed rocks which I found when I was out in my
boat ; and which rocks, as they checked the violence of the
stream and made a counter stream, or eddy, were the occasion
of my recovering then from the most desperate hopeless con-
dition that ever I had been in all my life.

Thus, what is one man’s safety is another man’s destruction ;
for it seems these men, whoever they were, being out of their
knowledge, and the rocks being wholly under water, had been
driven upon them in the night, the wind blowing hard at east
and east-north-east. Had they seen the island, as I must
necessarily suppose they did not, they must, as I thought, have
endeavoured to have saved themselves on shore by the help of
their boat; but the firing of their guns for help, especially
when they saw, as I imagined, my fire, filled me with many
thoughts.

First, I imagined that, upon seeing my light, they might
have put themselves into their boat. and have endeavoured to
HIS LONGING FOR HUMAN INTERCOURSE, 173

make the shore, but that the sea going very high, they might
have been cast away. Other times I imagined, that they might
have lost their boat before, as might be the case many ways ;
as particularly, by the breaking of the sea upon their ship.
Again, I imagined they had some other ship or ships in com-
pany, who, upon the signals of distress they had made, had
taken them up and carried them off. Other whiles I fancied
they were all gone off to sea in their boat, and being hurried
away by the current that I had been formerly in, were carried
out into the great ocean, where there was nothing but misery
and perishing; and that perhaps they might, by this time, be
starving, and in a condition to eat one another.

As all these were but conjectures at best; so, in the con-
dition I was in, I could do no more than look upon the misery
of the poor men, and pity them; which had still this good
effect upon my side, that it gave me more and more cause to
give thanks to God, who had so happily and comfortably pro-
vided for me in my desolate condition, and that, of two ships’
companies who were now cast away upon this part of the
world, not one life should be spared but mine. I learned here
again, to observe, that it is very rare that the providence of
God casts us into any condition of life so low, or any misery
so great, but we may see something or other to be thankful
for, and may see others in worse circumstances than our
own.

I cannot explain, by any possible energy of words, what
a strange longing I felt in my soul upon this sight—breaking
out sometimes thus : ‘ Oh that there had been but one or two,
nay, but one soul saved out of the ship, to have escaped to me ;
that I might but have had one companion, one fellow-creature,
to have spoken to me, and to have conversed with !? In all
the time of my solitary life, I never felt so earnest, so strong a
desire after the society of my fellow-creatures, or so deep a
regret at the want of it.

There are some secret moving springs in the affections,
which, when they are set a-going by some object in view, or
be it some object though not in view, yet rendered present to
the mind by the power of imagination, that motion carries out
174 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the soul by its impetuosity to such violent eager embracings
of the object, that the absence of it is insupportable,

Such were these earnest wishings that but one man had
been saved! Oh that it had been but one! I believe I repeated
the words, ‘Oh that it had been but one!’ a thousand times ;
and my desires were so moved by it, that when I spoke the
words, my hands would clench together, and my fingers press
the palms of my hands, that if I had had any soft thing in my
hand, it would have crushed it involuntarily ; and my teeth in
my head would strike together, and set against one another so
strong, that for some time I could not part them again.

But it was not to be. Either their fate, or mine, or both,
forbade it; for till the last year of my being on this island,
I never knew whether any were saved out of that ship or no;
and had only the affliction, some days after, to see the corpse
of a drowned boy come on shore, at the end of the island
which was next the shipwreck. He had no clothes on but a sea-
man’s waistcoat, a pair of open-knee’d linen drawers, and a blue
linen shirt; but nothing to direct me so much as to guess
what nation he was of. He had nothing in his pocket but two
pieces of eight, and a tobacco pipe—the last was to me of ten
times more value than the first.





It was now calm, and I had a great mind to venture out
in my boat to this wreck, not doubting but I might find some-
thing on board that might be useful to me. But that did not
altogether press me so much, as the possibility that there
might be yet some living creature on board, whose life T might
not only save, but might, by saving that life, comfort my own
to the last degree. This thought clung so to my heart, that
1 could not be quiet night nor day, but I must venture out in
my boat on board this wreck.

Under the power of this impression, I hastened back to my
castle, prepared everything for my voyage, took a quantity
of bread, a great pot for fresh water, a compass to steer by, a
bottle of rum (for I had still a great deal of that left), and a
basket full of raisins. Thus loading myself with everything
necessary, I went down to my boat, got the water out of her,
and got her afloat, loaded all my cargo in her, and then went
HE DISCOVERS THE COURSE OF THE CURRENTS. 175

home again for more. My second cargo was a great bagful of
rice, the umbrella to set up over my head for shade, another
large potful of fresh water, and about two dozen of my small
loaves, or barley-cakes, more than before, with a bottle of
goat’s milk, and a cheese. All these things, with great labour
and sweat, 1 brought to my boat; and, praying to God to
direct my voyage, I put out, and, rowing or paddling the
canoe along the shore, I came at last to the utmost point of
the island, on that side, namely, north-east.

I was to launch out into the ocean, and either to venture
or not to venture. I looked on the rapid currents which ran
constantly on both sides of the island, at a distance, and which
were very terrible to me, from the remembrance of the hazard
I had been in before, and my heart began to fail me; for I
foresaw, that if I was driven into either of those currents, I
should be carried a vast way out to sea, and perhaps out of
reach or sight of the island again; and that then, as my boat
was but small, if any little gale of wind should rise, I should
be inevitably lost.

These thoughts so oppressed my mind, that I began to
give over my enterprise; and having hauled my boat into a
little creek on the shore, I stepped out, and sat down upon
a little spot of rising ground, very pensive and anxious,
between fear and desire, about my voyage; when, as I was
musing, I could perceive that the tide was turned, and the
flood came on, upon which my going was for so many hours
impracticable.

Upon this it presently occurred to me, that I should go
up to the highest piece of ground I could find, and observe,
if I could, how the sets of the tide or currents lay, when the
flood came in, that I might judge whether, if I was driven one
way out, I might not expect to be driven another way home,
with the same rapidity of the currents. This thought was no
sooner in my head, but I cast my eye upon a little hill which
sufficiently overlooked the sea both ways, and from whence I
had a clear view of the currents, or sets of the tide, and which
way I was to guide myself in my return; here I found, that
as the current of the ebb set out close by the south point of
176 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the island, so the current of the flood set in close by the shore
of the north side; and that I had nothing to do but to keep
to the north side of the island in my return, and I should do
well enough.

CHAPTER XXXVII.—VIsITS THE WRECK.

FNCOURAGED with this observation, I resolved the next

~ morning to set out with the first of the tide ; and, repos-
ing myself for that night in the canoe, under the great watch-
coat I mentioned, I launched out. J made first a little out to
sea full north, till I began to feel the benefit of the current,
which set eastward, and which carried me at a great rate, and
yet did not so hurry me as the southern side current had done
before, and so as to take from me all government of the boat.
But, having a strong steerage with my paddle, I went, I say,
at a great rate, directly for the wreck, and in less than two
hours I came up to it.

It was a dismal sight to look at. ‘The ship, which by its
building was Spanish, stuck fast, jammed in between two
rocks. All the stern and quarter of her was beaten to pieces
with the sea; and as her forecastle, which stuck in the rocks,
had run on with great violence, her mainmast and foremast
were brought by the board, that is to say, broken short off;
but her boltsprit was sound, and the head and bow appeared
firm. When I came close to her, a dog appeared upon her,
which, seeing me coming, yelped and cried, and as soon as |
called him, jumped into the sea to come to me, and I took
him into the boat, but found him almost dead for hunger
and thirst. 1 gave him a cake of my bread, and he ate it
like a ravenous wolf that had been starving a fortnight in
the snow. I then gave the poor creature some fresh water,
with which, if 1 would have let him, he would have burst
himself.

After this ] went on board. The first sight I met with
was two men drowned in the cook-room, or forecastle of the
ship, with their arms fast about one another. I concluded,
as is indeed probable, that when the ship struck, it being in a
HE CARRIES SOME ARTICLES ASHORE, 177

storm, the sea broke so high and so continually over her, that
the men were not able to bear it, and were strangled with
the constant rushing in of the water, as much as if they
had been under water. Besides the dog, there was nothing
left in the ship that had life, nor any goods that I could
see, but what were spoiled by the water. There were
some casks of liquor, whether wine or brandy L knew not,
which lay lower in the hold, and which, the water being ebbed
out, I could see; but they were too big to meddle with. I
saw several chests, which I believed belonged to some of the
seamen, and I got two of them into the boat without examin-
ing what was in them.

Had the stern of the ship been fixed, and the fore part
broken off, Iam persuaded I might have made a good voyage.
For, by what I found in these two chests, I had room to
suppose the ship had a great deal of wealth on board ; and
if I may guess by the course she steered, she must have been
bound from Buenos Ayres, or the Rio de la Plata, in the
south part of America, beyond the Brazils, to the Havannah,
in the Gulf of Mexico, and so, perhaps to Spain. She had, no
doubt, a great treasure in her, but of no use at that time to
anybody ; and what became of the rest of her people I then
knew not.

I found, besides these chests, a little cask full of liquor,
of about twenty gallons, which I got into my boat with much
difficulty. There were several muskets in the cabin, and a
ereat powder-horn, with about four pounds of powder in it.
As for the muskets, I had no occasion for them, so I left
them, but took the powder-horn. I took a fire-shovel and
tongs, which I wanted extremely, as also two little brass
kettles, a copper pot to make chocolate, and a gridiron. With
this cargo, and the dog, I came away, the tide beginning to
make home again; and the same evening, about an hour
within night, I reached the island again, weary and fatigued to
the last degree.

I reposed that night in the boat, and in the morning I
resolved to harbour what I had got in my new cave, not to
carry it home to my castle. After refreshing myself, I got all
178 ROBINSON CRUSOR.

my cargo on shore, and began to examine the particulars,
The cask of liquor I found to bea kind of rum, but not such
as we had at the Brazils; and, in a word, not at all good.
But, when I came to open the chests, I found several things
which I wanted. For example, I found in one a fine case of



Crusoe asleep in his Boat.

bottles, of an extraordinary kind, and filled with cordial waters,
fine, and very good; the bottles held about three pints each,
and were tipped with silver. I found two pots of very good
succades, or swectmeats, so fastened also on the top, that the
salt water had not hurt them, and two more of the same,
which the water had spoiled.

I found also some very good shirts, which were very
welcome to me, and about a dozen and a half of white linen
HE FINDS MONEY IN THE SHIP. 179

handkerchiefs and coloured neckcloths. The former were
also very welcome, being exceedingly refreshing to wipe my
face in a hot day. Besides this, when I came to the till in
the chests, I found there three great bags of pieces of eight,
which held about eleven hundred pieces in all; and in one
of them, wrapt up in a paper, six doubloons of gold, and
some small bars or wedges of gold. I suppose they might all
weigh nearly a pound.

The other chest I found had some clothes in it, but of
little value ; but, by the circumstances, it must have belonged
to the gunner’s mate, though there was no powder in it but
about two pounds of glazed powder in the three flasks, kept,
I suppose, for charging their fowling-pieces on occasion.

Upon the whole, I got very little by this voyage that was
of much use to me; for, as to the money, I had no manner of
occasion for it—it was to meas the dirt under my feet ; and
I would have given it all for three or four pair of English
shoes and stockings, which were things I greatly wanted, but
had not had on my feet now for many years. I had, indeed,
got two pair of shoes now, which I took off the feet of the
two drowned men whom I saw in the wreck ; and I found two
pair more in one of the chests, which were very welcome to
me; but they were not like our English shoes, either for ease
or service, being rather what we call pumps than shoes.
I found in the seaman’s chest about fifty pieces of eight in
rials, but no gold. I suppose this belonged to a poorer man
than the other, which seemed to belong to some officer.

Well, however, I lugged the money home to my cave, and
laid it up, as I had done that before which I brought from
our own ship. But it was great pity, as I said, that the other
part of the ship had not come to my share, for I am satisfied
I might have loaded my canoe several times over with money,
which, if I had ever escaped to England, would have lain
here safe enough till I might have come again and fetched
it.

Having now brought all my things on shore, and secured
them, I went back to my boat, and rowed or paddled her
along the shore to her old harbour, where I laid her up, and
180 ROBINSON CRUSOR.

made the best of my way to my old habitation, where I found
everything safe and quiet. So I began to repose myself, live
after my old fashion, and take care of my family affairs. For
a while I lived easy enough, only that I was more vigilant
than I used to be, looked out oftener, and did not go abroad
so much, If at any time I did stir with any freedom, it was
always to the east part of the island, where I was pretty well
satisfied the savages never came, and where I could go with-
out so many precautions, and such a load of arms and ammu-
nition as I always carried with me, if I went the other way.

CHAPTER XXXVIITI.—A DREAM.

LIVED in this condition nearly two years more; but my
unlucky head, that was always to let me know it was born
to make my body miserable, was all these two years filled
with projects and designs how, if it were possible, I might
get away from this island. For sometimes I was for making
another voyage to the wreck, though my reason told me, that
there was nothing left there worth the hazard of my voyage—
sometimes for a ramble one way, sometimes another—and |
believe verily, if I had had the boat that I went from Sallee in
I should have ventured to sea, bound anywhere, 1 knew not
whither.

I have been, in all my circumstances, a memento to those
who are touched with that general plague of mankind, whence,
for aught I know, one half of their miseries flow—I mean, that
of not being satisfied with the station wherein God and nature
hath placed them.

But as this is ordinarily the fate of young heads, so reflec-
tion upon the folly of it is also ordinarily the exercise of
more years, or of the dearly bought experience of time—and
so it was with me now. And yet, so deep had the mistake
taken root in my temper, that I could not satisfy myself in my
station, but was continually poring upon the means and pos-
sibility of my escape from this place. And that I may, with
the greater pleasure to the reader, bring on the remaining part
A DREAM. 181

of my story, it may not be improper to give some account of
my first conceptions on the subject of this foolish scheme for
my escape ; and how, and upon what foundation, I acted.

I am now to be supposed to be retired into my castle,
after my late voyage to the wreck, my frigate laid up, and
secured under water as usual, and my condition restored to
what it was before. I had more wealth, indeed, than I had
before, but was not at all the richer; for I had no more use
for it than the Indians of Peru had before the Spaniards came
thither.

It was one of the nights in the rainy season in March,
the four-and-twentieth year of my first setting foot on this
island of solitariness. I was lying in my bed, or hammock,
awake, and very well in health; had no pain, no distemper,
no uneasiness of body, no, nor any uneasiness of mind more
than ordinary ; but could by no means close my eyes, that is,
so as to sleep; no, not a wink all night long.

It is as impossible as needless to set down the innumerable
crowd of thoughts that whirled through that great thoroughfare
of the brain, the memory, in this night’s time. I ran over
the whole history of my life in miniature, or by abridgment,
as I may call it, to my coming to this island; and also of that
part of my life since I came to this island. In my reflections
upon the state of my case, since I came on shore on this island,
l was comparing the happy posture of my affairs, in the first
years of my habitation here, to that course of anxiety, fear, and
care, which I had lived in ever since I had seen the print of a
foot in the sand.

When this had agitated my thoughts for two hours or
more, I fell into a sound sleep. I dreamed, that as I was
going out in the morning, as usual, from my castle, I saw upon
the shore two canoes and eleven savages coming to land, and
that they brought with them another savage, whom they were
going to kill, im order to eat him, when on a sudden this savage
that they were going to kill jumped away, and ran for his life.
Then I thought in my sleep that he came running into my
little thick grove, before my fortification, to hide himself; and
that I, seeing him alone, and not perceiving that the others
182 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

sought him that way, showed myself to him, and smiling upon
him, encouraged him. That he kneeled down to me, seeming
to pray me to assist him; upon which I showed my ladder,
made him go up it, and carried him into my cave, and he
became my servant. ‘That as soon as I got this man, I said
to myself, ‘ Now I may certainly venture to the mainland ; for
this fellow will serve me as a pilot, and will tell me what to
do, and whither to go for provisions, and whither not to go for
fear of being devoured ; what places to venture into, and what
to escape.’

I waked with this thought, and was under such inexpres-
sible impressions of joy at the prospect of my escape in my
dream, that the disappointments which I felt upon coming to
myself, and finding that it was no more than a dream, were
equally extravagant the other way, and threw me into a very
vreat dejection of spirit.

Upon this, however, I made this conclusion, that my only
way to go about an attempt for an escape was, if possible, to
get a savage in my possession ; and, if possible, it should be
one of their prisoners whom they had condemned to be eaten,
and should bring hitherto kill. But these thoughts still were
attended with this difficulty, that it was impossible to effect
this, without attacking a whole caravan of them, and killing
them all; and this was not only a very desperate attempt, and
might miscarry, but, on the other hand, I had greatly scrupled
the lawfulness of it to myself, and my heart trembled at the
thought of shedding so much blood, though it was for my
deliverance.

However, at last after many secret disputes with myself,
and after great perplexities about it (for all these arguments,
one way and another, struggled in my head a long time), the
eager prevailing desire of deliverance at length mastered all
the rest, and I resolved, if possible, to get one of these savages
into my hands, cost what it would.

The next thing, then, was to contrive how to do it; and
this indeed was very difficult to resolve on. But as I could
pitch upon no probable means for it, so I resolved to put
myself upon the watch to see them when they came on shore,
HE DETERMINES TO CAPTURE A SAVAGE. 183

and leave the rest to the event, taking such measures as the
opportunity should present, let it be what it would.

With these resolutions in my thoughts, I set myself upon
the scout as often as possible, and indeed so often, till I was
heartily tired of it; for it was above a year and a half that
I waited, and for a great part of that time went out to the
west end and to the south-west corner of the island, almost
every day, to see the canoes, but none appeared. This was
very discouraging, and began to trouble me much; though I
cannot say that it did in this case, as it had done some time
before that, namely, wear off the edge of my desire to the thing ;
but the longer it seemed to be delayed, the more eager I was
for it. In a word, I was not at first more careful to shun the
sight of these savages, and avoid being seen by them, than I
was now eager to be upon them.

Besides, I fancied myself able to manage one, nay, two or
three savages, if I had them, so as to make them entirely
slaves to me, to do whatever I should direct them, and to
prevent their being able, at any time, to do me any hurt. It
was a great while that I pleased myself with this affair, but
nothing still presented ; and all my fancies and schemes came
to nothing, for no savages came near me for a great while.

CHAPTER XXXIX.—CRUSOE RESCUES A YOUNG
SAVAGE.

BOUT a year and a half after I had entertained these
notions, and by long musing had, as it were, resolved

them all into nothing, for want of an occasion to put them in
execution, I was surprised one morning early with seeing no
less than five canoes all on shore together, on my side the
island, and the people who belonged to them all landed, and
out of my sight. The number of them broke all my measures ;
for seeing so many, and knowing that they always came four,
or six, or sometimes more, in a boat, I could not tell what to
think of it, or how to take any measures to attack twenty or
thirty men single-handed; so I lay still in my castle, per-
184 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

plexed and discomforted. However, I put myself into all
the same postures for an attack that I had formerly provided,
and was just ready for action if anything had presented.

Having waited a good while, listening to hear if they made
any noise, at length, being very impatient, I set my guns
at the foot of my ladder, and clambered up to the top of the
hill by my two stages, as usual, standing so, however, that my
head did not appear above the hill, so that they could not
perceive me by any means. Here I observed, by the help of
my perspective glass, that they were no less than thirty in
number ; that they had a fire kindled, and that they had meat
dressed. How they cooked it, that I knew not, or what it was ;
but they were all dancing in I know not how many barbarous
gestures and figures, their own way, round the fire.

When I was thus looking on them, I perceived, by my
perspective, two miserable wretches dragged from the boats,
where, it seems, they were laid by, and were now brought out
for the slaughter. I perceived one of them immediately fall,
being knocked down, I suppose, with a club or wooden sword,
for that was their way ; and two or three others were at work
immediately, cutting him open for their cookery, while the
other victim was left standing by himself, till they should
be ready for him. At that very moment, this poor wretch,
seeing himself a little at liberty, nature inspired him with
hopes of life, and he started away from them, and ran with
incredible swiftness along the sands, directly towards me—I
mean towards the part of the coast where my habitation was.

I was dreadfully frightened (that I must acknowledge)
when I perceived him to run my way, and especially when, as
I thought, I saw him pursued by the whole body. And now I
expected that part of my dream was coming to pass, and that
he would certainly take shelter in my grove; but I could not
depend, by any means, upon my dream for the rest of it,
namely, that the other savages would not pursue him thither,
and find him there. However, I kept my station, and my
spirits began to recover, when I found that there were not
above three men that followed him; and still more was I
encouraged when I found that he outstripped them exceed-
ONE OF THE CAPTIVES ESCAPES. 185

ingly in running, and gained ground of them—so that if he
could but hold it for half an hour, I saw easily he would fairly
get away from them all.

There was between them and my castle the creek, which I
mentioned often at the first part of my story, when I landed
my cargoes out of the ship, and this I knew he must neces-
sarily swim over, or the poor wretch would be taken there.
But when the savage escaping came thither, he made nothing
of it, though the tide was then up; but plunging in, swam
through in about thirty strokes, or thereabouts, landed, and
ran on with exceeding strength and swiftness. When the three
pursuers came to the creek, I found that two of them could
swim, but the third could not, and that he, standing on the
other side, looked at the other, but went no farther; and soon
after went softly back again, which, as it happened, was very
well for him in the main.

I observed that the two who swam were yet more than
twice as long swimming over the creek as the fellow was that
fled from them. It came now very warmly upon my thoughts,
and indeed irresistibly, that now was my time to get a servant,
and perhaps a companion or assistant, and that I was called
plainly by Providence to save this poor creature’s life.

I immediately got down the ladders with all possible
expedition, fetched my two guns, for they were both at the
foot of the ladder, as I observed above; and getting up again
with the same haste to the top of the hill, I crossed towards
the sea; and having a very short cut, and all down hill,
clapped myself in the way between the pursuers and the
pursued, hallooing aloud to him that fled, who, looking back,
was at first perhaps as much frightened at me as at them.
But I beckoned with my hand to him to come back—and in
the meantime I slowly advanced towards the two that followed
—then, rushing at once upon the foremost, I knocked him
down with the stock of my piece. I was loath to fire, because
I would not have the rest hear, though at that distance it
would not have been easily heard—and being out of sight of
the smoke too, they would not have easily known what to make
of it.
186 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Having knocked this fellow down, the other who pursued
him stopped, as if he had been frightened, and I advanced
apace towards him. But as I came nearer, I perceived pre-



Crusoe and the young Savage.

sently he had a bow and arrow, and was fitting it to shoot at
me; so I was then necessitated to shoot at him first, which I
did, and killed him at the first shot.
THE CAPTIVE KILLS THE SECOND PURSUER. 187

The poor savage who fled, but'had stopped, though he
saw both his enemies fallen, and killed (as he thought), yet
was so frightened with the fire and noise of my piece, that he
stood stock-still, and neither came forward nor went backward,
though he seemed rather inclined to fly still than to come on.
I hallooed again to him, and made signs to come forward,
which he easily understood, and came a little way, then stopped
again, and then a little farther, and stopped again; and I
could then perceive that he stood trembling, as if he had been
taken prisoner, and was just going to be killed, as his two
enemies were.

I beckoned him again to come to me, and gave him all
the signs of encouragement that I could think of; and he
came nearer and nearer, kneeling down every ten or twelve
steps, in token of acknowledgment for saving his life. I
smiled at him, and looked pleasantly, and beckoned to him to
come still nearer. At length he came close to me, and then he
kneeled down again, kissed the ground, and laid his head upon
the ground, and, taking me by the foot, set my foot upon his
head. This, it seems, was in token of swearing to be my
slave for ever. I took him up, and made much of him,
and encouraged him all I could.

But there was more work to do yet; for I perceived the
savage whom I knocked down was not killed, but stunned
with the blow, and began to come to himself. So I pointed to
him, and showed him the savage, that he was not dead. Upon
this he spoke some words to me, and though I could not
understand them, yet I thought they were pleasant to hear, for
they were the first sound of a man’s voice that I had heard, my
own excepted, for above five-and-twenty years.

But there was no time for such reflections now. The
savage, who was knocked down, recovered himself so far as to
sit up upon the ground; and I perceived that my savage began
to be afraid ; but when I saw that, I presented my other piece at
the man, as if I would shoot him. Upon this my savage, for so
I called him now, made a motion to me to lend him my sword,
which hung naked in a belt by my side; so I did. Heno

sooner had it, but he runs to his enemy, and at one blow cuts
We
188 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

off his head so cleverly, no executioner in Germany could
have done it sooner or better, which I thought very strange for
one who, I had reason to believe, never saw a sword in his life
before, except their own wooden swords, However, it seems,
as I learned afterwards, they made their wooden swords so
sharp, so heavy, and the wood is so hard, that they will cut off
heads even with them—ay, and arms, and that at one blow
too. When he had done this, he comes laughing to me in sign
of triumph, and brought me the sword again, and, with abund-
ance of gestures, which I did not understand, laid it down,
with the head of the savage that he had killed, just before me.

But that which astonished him most was, to know how I
had killed the other Indian so far off; so, pointing to him, he
made signs to me to let him go to him; so I bade him go, as
well as I could. When he came to him, he stood like one
amazed, looking at him—turned him first on one side, then on
the other—looked at the wound the bullet had made, which, it
seems, was just in his breast, where it had made a hole, and
no great quantity of blood had followed; but he had bled
inwardly, for he was quite dead. Then he took up his bow
and arrows, and came back. So I turned to go away, and
beckoned him to follow me, making signs to him that more
might come after them.

Upon this he made signs to me that he should bury them
with sand, that they might not be seen by the rest, if they
followed; and so I made signs again to him to do so. He
fell to work, and in an instant he had scraped a hole in the
sand with his hands, big enough to bury the first in, and then
dragged him into it, and covered him, and did so also by the
other. I believe he had buried them both in a quarter of an
hour. Then calling him away, I carried him not to my
castle, but quite away to my cave, on the farther part of the
island; so I did not let my dream come to pass in that part,
namely, that he came into my grove for shelter.

Here I gave him bread and a bunch of raisins to eat, and
a draught of water, which I found he was, indeed, in great
distress for, by his running; and, having refreshed him, I
made signs for him to go lie down and sleep, pointing to a
FRIDAY BECOMES CRUSOE’S SERVANT. 189

place where I had laid a great parcel of rice-straw, and a
blanket upon it, which I used to sleep upon myself sometimes.
So the poor creature lay down, and went to sleep.

He was a comely handsome fellow, perfectly well made,
with straight long limbs, not too large, tall, and well shaped,
and, as I reckon, about twenty-six years of age. He had a
very good countenance, not a fierce and surly aspect, but
seemed to have something very manly in his face, and yet he had
all the sweetness and softness of a European in his countenance
too, especially when he smiled.

His hair was long and black, not curly like wool; his
forehead very high and large, and a great vivacity and spark-
ling sharpness in his eyes. The colour of his skin was not
quite black, but very tawny, and yet not of an ugly yellow
nauseous tawny, as the Brazilians and Virginians, and other
natives of America are, but of a bright kind of a dun olive
colour, that had in it something very agreeable, though not
very easy to describe. His face was round and plump, his
nose small, not flat like the negroes, a very good mouth, thin
lips, and his teeth fine, well set, and white as ivory.

CHAPTER XL.—FRIDAY BECOMES CRUSOE’S SERVANT.

ae he had slumbered, rather than slept, above half an
hour, he waked again, and comes out of the cave to me,
for I had been milking my goats, which I had in the inclosure
just by. When he espied me, he came running to me, laying
himself down again upon the ground, with all the possible
signs of a humble thankful disposition, making many antic
gestures to show it. At last he lays his head flat upon the
ground, close to my foot, and sets my other foot upon his head,
as he had done before; and, after this, made all the signs to
me of subjection, servitude, and submission imaginable, to
let me know how'much he would serve me as long as he lived.
I understood him in many things, and let him know I was very
well pleased with him.
In a little time I began to speak to him, and teach him
190 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

to speak to me. And first, ] made him know his name should
be Friday, which was the day | saved his life, and I called him
so for the memory of the time. I likewise taught him to say
Master, and then let him know that was to be my name. I
likewise taught him to say Yes and No, and to know the mean-
ing of them. I gave him some milk in an earthen pot, and let
him see me drink it before him, and sop my bread in it; and I
gave him a cake of bread to do the like, which he quickly
complied with, and made signs that it was very good for him.

1 kept there with him all that night; but as soon as it
was day, | beckoned him to come with me, and let him know
1 would give him some clothes, at which he seemed very glad,
for he was stark naked. As we went by the place where he
had buried the two men, he pointed exactly to the spot, and
showed me the marks that he had made to find them again,
making signs to me that we should dig them up again and eat
them. At this | appeared very angry, expressed my abhorrence
of it, made as if I would vomit at the thoughts of it, and
beckoned with my hand to him to come away, which he did
immediately, with great submission.

I then led him up to the top of the hill, to see if his
enemies were gone, and, pulling out my glass, I looked, and
saw plainly the place where they had been, but no appearance
of them or of their canoes ; so that it was plain that they were
gone, and had left their two comrades behind them, without
any search after them.

But I was not content with this discovery. Having now
more courage, and, consequently, more curiosity, I took my
man Friday with me, giving him the sword in his hand, with
the bow and arrows at his back, which I found he could use
very dexterously, making him carry one gun for me, and I two
for myself, and away we marched to the place where these
creatures had been ; for I had a mind now to get some fuller
intelligence of them.

When I came to the place, my very blood ran chill in my
veins, and my heart sank within me, at the horror of the
spectacle. Indeed, it was a dreadful sight, at least it was so
to me, though Friday made nothing of it. The place was
HE MAKES CLOTHES FOR FRIDAY. 1g!

covered with human bones, the ground dyed with the blood,
great pieces of flesh left here and there, half eaten, mangled,
and scorched ; and, in short, all the tokens of the triumphant
feast they had been making there, after a victory over their
enemies.

Friday, by his signs, made me understand, that they brought
over four prisoners to feast upon; that three of them were
eaten up, and that he, pointing to himsclf, was the fourth.
‘That there had been a great battle between them and their
next king, whose subjects, it seems, he had been one of; and
that they had taken a great number of prisoners, all of whom
were carried to several places by those that had taken them in
the flight, in order to feast upon them, as was done here by
these wretches upon those they brought hither.

I caused Friday to gather all the skulls, bones, flesh, and
whatever remained, and lay them together on a heap, and
make a great fire upon it, and burn them all to ashes. I found
Friday had still a hankering stomach after some of the flesh,
and was still a cannibal in his nature; but I discovered so
much abhorrence at the very thoughts of it, and at the least
appearance of it, that he durst not discover it; for I had, by
some means, let him know that I would kill him if he offered it.

When we had done this, we came back to our castle, and
there I fell to work for my man Friday. And first of all, I gave
him a pair of linen drawers, which I had out of the poor
gunner’s chest I mentioned, which I found in the wreck ; and
which, with a little alteration, fitted him very well. Then I
made him a jerkin of goat’s skin, as well as my skill would
allow, and I was now grown a tolerably good tailor; and I
gave him a cap, which I had made of a hare’s skin, very con-
venient and fashionable enough. Thus he was dressed, for the
present, tolerably well, and mighty well was he pleased to see
himself almost as well clothed as his master. It is true, he
went awkwardly in these things at first. Wearing the drawers
was very awkward to him, and the sleeves of the waistcoat
galled his shoulders and the inside of his arms; but by a
little easing them where he complained they hurt him, and
using himself to them, at length he took to them very well.
192 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

The next day after I came home to my hutch with him,
I began to consider where I should lodge him. That I might
do well for him, and yet be perfectly easy myself, 1 made a
little tent for him in the vacant place between my two fortifica-
tions, in the inside of the last, and in the outside of the first.
As there was a door or entrance there into my cave, I madea
formal framed door-case, and a door to it of boards, and set
it up in the passage, a little within the entrance; and causing the
door to open on the inside, I barred it up in the night, taking
in my ladders too; so that Friday could no way come at me
in the inside of my innermost wall, without making so much
noise in getting over, that it must needs awaken me. My first
wall had now a complete roof over it of long poles, covering
all my tent, and leaning up to the side of the hill, which was
again laid cross with small sticks instead of laths, and then
thatched over a great thickness with the rice straw, which was
strong like reeds. At the hole or place which was left to go in
or out by the ladder, I had placed a kind of trap-door, which,
if it had been attempted on the outside, would not have opened
at all, but would have fallen down, and made a great noise.
As to weapons, I took them all into my side every night.

But 1 needed none of all this precaution; for never man
had a more faithful, loving, sincere servant, than Friday was
to me. Without passions, sullenness, or designs; perfectly
obliged and engaged; his very affections were tied to me
like those of a child to a father ; and I daresay, he would have
sacrificed his life for the saving mine, upon any occasion what-
soever. The many testimonies he gave me of this put it out
of doubt, and soon convinced me, that I needed to use no
precautions as to my safety on his account.

I was greatly delighted with my new companion, and
made it my business to teach him everything that was proper
to make him useful, handy, and helpful, but especially to
make him speak, and understand me when I spoke. And he
was the aptest scholar that ever was; and particularly was so
merry, so constantly diligent, and so pleased when he could
but understand me, or make me understand him, that it was
very pleasant to me to talk to him. And now my life began
CONVERSATIONS WITH FRIDAY. 193

to be so easy, that I began to say to myself, that could I but
have been safe from more savages, I cared not if 1 was never
to remove from the place where I lived.

CHAPTER XLI.—CONVERSATIONS WITH FRIDAY.

ete I had been two or three days returned to my castle,

I thought, that in order to bring Friday off from his
horrid way of feeding, and from the relish of a cannibal’s
stomach, I ought to let him taste other flesh ; so I took him
out with me one morning to the woods. I went, indeed,
intending to kill a kid out of my own flock, and bring it home
and dress it ; but as I was going, I saw a she-goat lying down
in the shade, and two young kids sitting by her. I caught
hold of Friday : ‘Hold, said 1, ‘stand still ;’? and made signs
to him not to stir. Immediately I presented my piece, shot,
and killed one of the kids. :

The poor creature, who had at a distance indeed seen me
kill the savage his enemy, but did not know, or could imagine
how it was done, was sensibly surprised, trembled, and shook,
and looked so amazed, that I thought he would have sunk
down. He did not see the kid I had shot at, or perceive I
had killed it, but opened his waistcoat to feel if he was not
wounded ; and, as I found, presently thought I was resolved
to kill him, for he came and kneeled down to me, and embrac-
ing my knees, said a great many things I did not understand ;
but I could easily see that his meaning was to pray me not to
kill him.

I soon found a way to convince him that I would do
him no harm; and taking him up by the hand, laughed at
him, and pointing to the kid which I had killed, beckoned to
him to run and fetch it, which he did. While he was wonder-
ing and looking to see how the creature was killed, I loaded
my gun again, and by-and-by I saw a great fowl, like a hawk,
sit upon a tree within shot. So to let Friday understand a
little what I would do, I called him to me again, pointing to
the fowl, which was indeed a parrot, though I thought it had
194 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

been a hawk—I say, pointing to the parrot, and to my gun,
and to the ground under the parrot, to let him see I would
make him fall, I made him understand that I would shoot and
kill that bird. Accordingly, I fired, and bid him look, and
immediately he saw the parrot fall.

He stood like one frightened again, notwithstanding all that
I had said to him; and I found he was the more amazed,
because he did not see me put anything into the gun, but
thought there must be some wonderful fund of death and
destruction in that thing, able to kill man, beast, bird, or any-
thing, near or far off; for the astonishment this created in him
was such as could not wear off for a long time. I believe, if I
would have let him, he would have worshipped me and my
gun. As for the gun itself, he would not so much as touch it
for several days after, but would speak to it, and talk to it, as
if it had answered him, when he was by himself; which, as
I afterwards learned of him, was to desire it not to kill him.

Well, after his astonishment was a little over at this, I
pointed to him to run and fetch the bird I had shot, which he
did, but stayed some time; for the parrot, not being quite
dead, had fluttered a good way off from the place where she
fell. However, he found her, took her up, and brought her to
me. As I had perceived his ignorance about the gun before, I
took this advantage to charge the gun again, and not let him
see me do it, that I might be ready for any other mark that
might present ; but nothing else offered at that time.

I brought home the kid; and the same evening I took the
skin off, and cut it up as well as I could, and having a pot
for that purpose, I boiled or stewed some of the flesh, and
made some very good broth. After I had begun to eat some,
1 gave some to my man, who seemed very glad of it, and liked
it very well; but that which was strangest to him was, to see
me eat salt with it. He made a sign to me that the salt was
not good to eat; and putting a little into his own mouth, he
seemed to nauseate it, and would spit and sputter at it, wash-
ing his mouth with fresh water after it. On the other hand, I
took some meat in my mouth without salt, and I pretended to
spit and sputter for want of salt, as fast as he had done at the
FRIDAY HELPS HIS MASTER. 195

salt. But it would not do, he would never care for salt with
meat, or in his broth ; at least not a great while, and then but
a very little.

Having thus fed him with boiled meat and broth, I was
resolved to feast him the next day with roasting a piece of the
kid. This I did by hanging it before the fire in a string, as I
had seen many people do in England, setting two poles up,
one on each side of a fire, and one cross on the top, and tying
the string to the cross stick, letting the meat turn continually.
This Friday admired very much; but when he came to taste
the flesh, he took so many ways to tell me how well he liked
it, that I could not but understand him ; and at last he told
me he would never eat man’s flesh any more, which I was very
glad to hear.

The next day I set him to work at beating some corn out,
and sifting it in the manner I used to do, as I observed
before. He soon understood how to do it as well as I, espe-
cially after he had seen what the meaning of it was, and that
it was to make bread of; for after that I let him see me make
my bread, and bake it too; and in a little time Friday was
able to do all the work for me, as well as I could do it
myself.

I began now to consider, that, having two mouths to feed
instead of one, I must provide more ground for my harvest,
and plant a larger quantity of corn than I used to do; so I
marked out a larger piece of land, and began the fence in the
same manner as before, in which Friday not only worked very
willingly and very hard, but did it very cheerfully. I told him
what it was for, that it was for corn to make more bread,
because he was now with me, and that I might have enough
for him and myself too. He appeared very sensible of that
part, and let me know that he thought I had much more
labour upon me on his account than I had for myself, and that
he would work the harder for me, if I would tell him what
to do.

This was the pleasantest year of all the life I led in this
place. Friday began to talk pretty well, and understand the
names of almost everything I had occasion to call for, and of
196 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

every place I had to send him to, and talked a great deal to
me; so that, in short, I began now to have some use for my
tongue again, which indeed I had very little occasion for
before—that is to say, for speech. Besides the pleasure of
talking to him, I had a singular satisfaction in the fellow him-
self: his simple unfeigned honesty appeared to me more and
more every day, and I began really to love the creature ; and
on his side, I believe, he loved me more than it was possible
for him ever to love anything before.

I had a mind once to try if he had any hankering inclina-
tion to his own country again; and having taught him English
so well, that he could answer me almost any questions, I asked
him whether the nation that he belonged to never conquered
in battle? At which he smiled, and said:

‘Yes, yes, we always fight the better’—that is, he meant,
always get the better in fight—and so we began the following
discourse : ‘You always fight the better!’ said 1: ‘how came
you to be taken prisoner then, Friday ?’

Friday. My nation beat much for all that.

Master. How beat? If your nation beat them, how came
you to be taken ?

Friday. They more than my nation in the place where me
was; they take one, two, three,and me. My nation over-beat
them in the yonder place where me no was; there my nation
take one, two great thousand.

Master. But why did not your side recover you from the
hands of your enemies then ?

Friday. They run one, two, three, and me, and make go in
the canoe ; my nation have no canoe that time.

Master. Well, Friday, and what does your nation do with
the men they take? Do they carry them away, and eat them
as these did?

Friday. Yes, my nation eat mans too, eat all up.

Master. Where do they carry them?

Friday. Go to other place where they think.

Master. Do they come hither ?

Friday. Yes, yes, they come hither ; come other else place.

Master. Have you been here with them?
CONVERSATION WITH FRIDAY. 197

Friday. Yes, 1 have been here (pointing to the north-west
side of the island, which, it seems, was their side).

By this I understood, that my man Friday had formerly
been among the savages who used to come on shore on the
farther part of the island, on the same man-eating occasions
that he was now brought for. And some time after, when I
took the courage to carry him to that side (being the same
I formerly mentioned), he presently knew the place, and told
me he was there once, when they ate up twenty men, two
women, and one child. He could not tell twenty in English,
but he numbered them by laying so many stones in a row,
and pointing to me to tell them over.

I have told this passage because it introduces what follows.
After I had had this discourse with him, I asked him how
far it was from our island to the shore, and whether the
canoes were not often lost. He told me there was no danger,
no canoes ever lost ; but that after a little way out to sea, there
was a current and a wind always one way in the morning, the
other in the afternoon.

This I understood to be no more than the sets of the tide,
as going out, or coming in. But I afterwards understood it
was occasioned by the great draught and reflux of the mighty
river Orinoco, in the mouth of which river, as I thought after-
wards, our island lay ; and that this land which I perceived to
the west and north-west, was the great island Trinidad, on the
north point of the mouth of the river.

I asked Friday a thousand questions about the country, the
inhabitants, the sea, the coast, and what nations were near.
He told me all he knew, with the greatest openness imagin-
able. I asked him the names of the several nations of his
sort of people, but could get no other name than Caribs; from
whence I easily understood, that these were the Caribbees,
which our maps place on that part of America which reaches
from the mouth of the river Orinoco to Guiana, and onwards
to St Martha. He told me, that up a great way beyond the
moon—that was, beyond the setting of the moon, which ust
be west from their country—there dwelt white-bearded men,
like me, and pointed to my great whiskers (which I mentioned
198 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

before) ; and that they had killed ‘much mans’—that was his
word—by which I understood he meant the Spaniards, whose
cruelties in America had been spread over whole countries,
and were remembered by all the nations from father to
son.

I inquired if he could tell me how I might come from
this island, and get among those white men ; he told me.

‘Yes, yes, I might go into two canoe.’

I could not understand what he meant by ‘two canoe;’ till
at last, with great difficulty, I found he meant, that it must be
in a large boat as big as two canoes.

This part of Friday’s discourse I began to relish very
well; and from this time I entertained some hopes, that one
time or other, I might find an opportunity to make my
escape from this place, and that this poor savage might be
a means to help me to do it.

CHAPTER XLII.—CRUSOE INSTRUCTS FRIDAY.

URING the long time that Friday had now been with me,

and that he began to speak to me, and understand me, [

was not wanting to lay a foundation of religious knowledge in
his mind.

. I began to instruct him in the knowledge of the true God.
I told him that the great Maker of all things lived there, point-
ing up towards heaven; that He governs the world by the same
power and providence by which He made it; that He was
omnipotent, could do everything for us, give everything to us,
take everything from us; and thus, by degrees, I opened his
eyes. He listened with great attention, and received with
pleasure the notion of Jesus Christ being sent to redeem us,
and of the manner of making our prayers to God, and his
being able to hear us, even in heaven. He told me one day,
that if our God could hear us up beyond the sun, he must
needs be a greater God than theirs, who lived but a little way
off, and yet could not hear, till they went up to the great
mountains, where he dwelt, to speak to him.
CRUSOE INSTRUCTS FRIDAY. 199

I had, God knows, more sincerity than knowledge in all
the methods I took for this poor creature’s instruction. But
whether this poor wild wretch was the better for me or no, I
had great reason to be thankful that ever he came to me. My
grief sat lighter upon me, my habitation grew comfortable to
me beyond measure ; a secret joy ran through every part of
my soul, and I frequently rejoiced that ever I was brought to
this place, which I had often thought the most dreadful of all
afflictions that could possibly have befallen me.

In this thankful frame I continued all the remainder of
my time; and the conversation which employed the hours
between Friday and me was such as made the three years
which we lived there together perfectly and completely happy,
if any such thing as complete happiness can be found in a
sublunary state.

I always applied myself to reading the Scripture, and to
let him know as well as I could the meaning of what I read ;
and he again, by his serious inquiries and questions, made
me a much better scholar in the Scripture knowledge than I
should ever have been by my own private reading.

After Friday and I became more intimately acquainted,
and that he could understand almost all I said to him,
and speak fluently, though in broken English, to me, I
acquainted him with my own story, or at least so much of it
as related to my coming into the place, how I had lived there,
and how long. JI let him into the mystery (for such it was to
him) of gunpowder and bullets, and taught him how to shoot.
I gave him a knife, which he was wonderfully delighted with ;
and I made him a belt with a frog hanging to it, such as in
England we wear hangers in; and in the frog, instead of a
hanger, I gave him a hatchet, which was not only as good a
weapon in some cases, but much more useful upon other
occasions.

I described to him the countries of Europe, and particu-
larly England, which I came from. ° How we lived, how we
worshipped God, how we behaved to one another, and how we
traded in ships to all the parts of the world. I gave him an
account of the wreck which I had been on board of, and
200 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

showed him, as near as I could, the place where she lay. But
she was all beaten in pieces long before, and quite gone.

I showed him the ruins of our boat, which we lost when
we escaped, and which I could not stir with my whole strength
then, but was now fallen almost all to pieces. Upon seeing
this boat, Friday stood musing a great while, and said nothing.
I asked him what it was he studied upon ?

At last, says he: ‘Me see such boat like come to place at
my nation.’

I did not understand him a good while; but at last,
when I had examined further into it, I understood by him
that a boat, such as that had been, came on shore upon the
country where he lived—that is, as he explained it, was driven
thither by stress of weather. I presently imagined that some
European ship must have been cast away upon their coast,
and the boat might have got loose, and been driven ashore ;
but was so dull, that I never once thought of men making
their escape from a wreck thither, much less whence they
might come—so I only inquired after a description of the
boat.

Friday described the boat to me well enough ; but brought
me better to understand him, when he added, with some
warmth :

‘We save the white mans from drown.’

Then I presently asked him, if there were any white mans,
as he called them, in the boat.

‘Yes,’ he said, ‘the boat full of white mans,’

I asked him how many. He told upon his fingers seven-
teen.

I asked him what became of them. He told me, ‘ They live,
they dwell at my nation.’

This put new thoughts into my head again; for I presently
imagined, that these might be the men belonging to the ship
that was cast away in sight of my island, as I now called
it; and who, after the ship was struck on the rock, and
they saw her to be inevitably lost, had saved themselves in
their boat, and were landed upon that wild shore among the
savages. :
FRIDAY SEES HIS COUNTRY AFAR OFF. 201

Upon this I inquired of him more critically, what was be-
come of them. He assured me they lived still there, that they
had been there about four years, that the savages let them
alone, and gave them victuals to live. I asked him how it
came to pass they did not kill them, and eat them? He said :

‘No, they make brother with them’—that is, as I under-
stood him, a truce; and then he added, ‘They eat no mans
but when make the war fight ’—that is to say, they never eat
any men, but such as come to fight with them, and are taken
in battle.

CHAPTER XLIII.—BUILDS ANOTHER CANOE.

}* was after this some considerable time, that being on the

top of the hill, at the east side of the island, from whence,
as I have said, I had in a clear day discovered the main or
continent of America, Friday, the weather being very serene,
looks very earnestly towards the mainland, and, in a kind of
surprise, falls a-jumping and dancing, and calls out to me, for
I was at some distance from him. I asked him what was the
matter.

‘Oh, joy!’ says he. ‘Oh, glad! there see my country, there
my nation !’

I observed an extraordinary sense of pleasure appeared
in his face, and his eyes sparkled, and his countenance dis-
covered a strange eagerness, as if he had a mind to be in his
own country again. This observation of mine put a great
many thoughts into me, which made me at first not so easy
about my new man Friday as I was before; and I made no
doubt but that if Friday could get back to his own nation, he
would not only forget all his religion, but all his obligations
to me; and would be forward enough to give his countrymen
an account of me, and come back, perhaps, with a hundred
or two of them, and make a feast upon me, at which he might
be as merry as he used to be with those of his enemies, when
they were taken in war.

But I wronged the poor honest creature very much, for
which I was very sorry afterwards. However, as my jealousy
202 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

increased, and held me some weeks, 1 was a little more cir-
cumspect, and not so familiar and kind to him as before ; in
which I was certainly in the wrong too, the honest grateful
creature having no thought about it, but what consisted with
the best principles, both as a religious Christian and as a
grateful friend, as appeared afterwards to my full satisfaction.

Whilst my jealousy of him lasted, you may be sure I was
every day pumping him, to see if he would discover any of
the new thoughts which | suspected were in him. But I found
everything he said was so honest and so innocent, that I could
find nothing to nourish my suspicion ; and in spite of all my
uneasiness, he made me at last entirely his own again—nor
did he in the least perceive that I was uneasy—and theretore
I could not suspect him of deceit.

One day, walking up the same hill, but the weather being
hazy at sea, so that we could not see the continent, I called
to him, and said :

‘Friday, do not you wish yourself in your own country, your
own nation ?’

‘Yes,’ he said, ‘I be much oh glad to be at my own nation.’

‘What would you do there?’ said 1; ‘would you turn wild
again, eat men’s flesh again, and be a savage as you were
before ?’

He looked full of concern, and, shaking his head, said: ‘ No,
no! Friday tell them to live good, tell them to pray God, tell
them to eat corn bread, cattle flesh, milk, no eat man again.’

‘Why, then,’ said I to him, ‘they will kill you!’

He looked grave at that, and then said, ‘ No, they no kill
me; they willing love learn’=-he meant by this, they would
be willing to learn. He added, they learned much of the
bearded mans that came in the boat.

Then I asked him if he would go back to them. He smiled
at that, and told me he could not swim so far. I told him I
would make a canoe for him. He told me he would go, if
1 would go with him.

*I go!’ said I, ‘why, they will eat me if I come there !’

*No, no!’ says he, ‘me make them no eat you, me make
they much love you’—he meant he would tell them how I had
HE OFFERS FRIDAY A BOAT TO GO HOME. 203

killed his enemies and saved his life, and so he would make
them love me. Then he told me how kind they were to seven-
teen white men, or bearded men, as he called them, who came
on shore in distress.

From this time, I confess, I had a mind to venture over,
and see if I could possibly join with these bearded men, who,
I made no doubt, were Spaniards or Portuguese; not doubting
but, if I could, we might find some method to escape from
thence, being upon the continent, and a good company
together, better than I could from an island forty miles off
the shore, and alone without help. So, after some days, I
took Friday to work again, by way of discourse, and told
him I would give him a boat to go back to his own nation.
Accordingly, I carried him to my frigate, which lay on the
other side of the island; and having cleared it of water (for
l always kept it sunk in the water), I brought it out, showed
it him, and we both went into it.

I found he was a most dexterous fellow at managing it,
and could make it go almost as swift and fast again as I could.
So when he was in, I said to him, ‘Well, now, Friday, shall
we go to your nation?’ He looked very dull at my saying so,
which it seems was because he thought the boat too small to
go so far. I told him then I had a bigger one; so the next
day I went to the place where the first boat lay which I had
made, but which I could not get into the water. He said that
was big enough; but then, as I had taken no care of it, and
it had lain two or three and twenty years there, the sun had
so split and dried it, that it was ina manner rotten. Friday
told me such a boat would do very well, and would carry
‘much enough vittle, drink, bread’—that was his way of
talking.

Upon the whole, I was by this time so fixed upon my
design of going over with him to the continent, that I told
him we would go and make one as big as that, and he should
go home init. He answered not one word, but looked very
grave and sad. I asked him, what was the matter with him.
He asked me again, thus :

‘Why you angry mad with Friday? what me done?’ I

n
204 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

asked him what he meant. I told him I was not angry with
him at all.

“No angry ! no angry!’ says he, repeating the words several
times ; ‘why send Friday home away to my nation?’

‘Why,’ said I, ‘ Friday, did you not say you wished you were
there ?’

“Yes, yes,” says he, ‘wish be both there; no wish Friday
there, no master there.’

In a word, he would not think of going there without me.

“I go there, Friday!’ said I; ‘what should I do there?’
He turned very quick upon me at this.

‘You do great deal much good, says he; ‘you teach wild
mans be good, sober, tame mans; you tell them know God,
pray God, and live new life.’

‘Alas, Friday, said I, ‘thou knowest not what thou sayest ;
I am but an ignorant man myself’

“Yes, yes,’ says he, ‘you teechee me good, you teechee them
good.’

‘No, no, Friday,’ said I, ‘you shall go without me; leave
me here to live by myself, as I did before.’

He looked confused again at that word, and running to
one of the hatchets which he used to wear, he takes it up
hastily, and gives it me.

‘What must I do with this?’ said I to him.

‘You take kill Friday,’ says he.

‘What must I kill you for?’ said I again. He returns very
quick :

“What you send Friday away for? Take kill Friday, no
send Friday away.’ This he spoke so earnestly, that I saw
tears stand in his eyes. In a word, I so plainly discovered
the utmost affection in him to me, and a firm resolution in
him, that I told him then, and often after, that I would not
send him away from me, if he was willing to stay with me.

Upon the whole, as I found by all his discourse a settled
affection to me, and that nothing should part him from me,
so I found all the foundation of his desire to go to his own
country was laid in his ardent affection to the people, and his
hopes of my doing them good—a thing which, as I had no
HE MAKES A LARGE BOAT. 205

notion of myself, so I had not the least thought, or intention,
or desire of undertaking it.

But still I found a strong inclination to my attempting an
escape, as above, founded on the supposition gathered from
the former discourse—namely, that there were seventeen
bearded men there; and therefore, without delay, I went to
work with Friday, to find out a great tree proper to fell, and
make a large canoe, to undertake the voyage. There were
trees enough in the island to have built a little fleet, not of
canoes only, but of good large vessels; but the main thing I
looked at, was to get one so near the water that we might
launch it when it was made, to avoid the mistake I committed
at first.

At last Friday pitched upon a tree, for I found he knew
much better than I what kind of wood was fittest for it; nor
can I tell to this day what wood to call the tree we cut down,
except that it was very like the tree we call fustic, or between
that and the Nicaragua wood, for it was much of the same
colour and smell. Friday was for burning the hollow or cavity
of this tree out, to make it into a boat; but I showed him how
rather to cut it out with tools, which, after I showed him how
to use, he did very handily. In about a month’s hard labour
we finished it, and made it very handsome, especially when,
with our axes, which I showed him how to handle, we cut
and hewed the outside into the true shape of a boat. After
this, however, it cost us nearly a fortnight’s time to get her
along, as it were, inch by inch, upon great rollers, into the
water ; but when she was in, she would have carried twenty
men with great ease.

When she was in the water, though she was so big, it
amazed me to see with what dexterity, and how swiftly, my
man Friday could manage her, turn her, and paddle her along;
so I asked him if he would, and if we might, venture over in
her? ‘Yes,’ he said, ‘we venture over in her very well, though
great blow wind.’ However, I had a farther design which he
knew nothing of, and that was, to make a mast and sail, and to
fit her with an anchor and cable. As to a mast, that was easy
enough to get. So I pitched upon a straight young cedar tree,
206 ROBINSON CRUSOF.

which I found near the place, and of which there was a great
plenty in the island. I set Friday to work to cut it down, and
gave him directions how to shape and order it.

But as to the sail, that was my particular care. I knew
I had old sails, or rather pieces of old sails, enough ; but, as I
had had them now twenty-six years by me, and had not been
very careful to preserve them, not imagining that I should ever
have this kind of use for them, I did not doubt but that they
were all rotten—and, indeed, most of them were so. However,
I found two pieces which appeared pretty good, and with thesc
1 went to work, and with a great deal of pains, and awkward
tedious stitching (you may be sure) for want of needles, I at
length made a three-cornered ugly thing, like what we call in
England a shoulder-of-mutton sail, to go with a boom at
bottom, and a little short sprit at the top, such as usually our
ships’ long-boats sail with; and such as I best knew how to
manage, because it was such a one as I used in the boat in
which I made my escape from Barbary, as related in the first
part of my story.

I was nearly two months performing this last work, namely,
rigging and fitting my mast and sails; for I finished them
very complete, making a small stay, and a sail or foresail to
it, to assist if we should turn to windward ; and, which was
more than all, I fixed a rudder to the stern of her, to steer with.
But though I was only a bungling shipwright, yet as I knew
the usefulness, and even necessity, of such a thing, I applied
myself with so much pains to do it, that at last I brought it to
pass, though, considering the many dull contrivances I had
for it that failed, 1 think it cost me almost as much labour as
making the boat.

After all this was done, I had my man Friday to teach as
to what belonged to the navigation of my boat. For though
he knew very well how to paddle the canoe, he knew nothing
of what belonged to a sail and a rudder, and was the more
amazed when he saw me work the boat to and again in the
sea by the rudder, and how the sail gibbed and filled this way
or that way, as the course we sailed changed—I say, when he
saw this, he stood like one astonished and amazed. However,
CRUSOE AND FRIDAY PREPARE FOR BATTLE, 207

with a little use, I made all these things familiar to him, and
he became an expert sailor, except that as to the compass I
could make him understand very little of that. On the other
hand, as there was very little cloudy weather, and seldom or
never any fogs, in those parts, there was the less occasion for a
compass, seeing the stars were always to be seen by night, and
the shore by day, except in the rainy seasons ; and then nobody
cared to stir abroad, either by land or sea.

CHAPTER XLIV.—CRUSOE AND FRIDAY PREPARE TO FIGHT
A BATTLE,

WAS now entered on the seven-and-twenticth year of my

captivity in this place ; though the three last years that I
had this creature with me ought rather to be left out of the
account, my habitation being quite of another kind than in all
the rest of my time. I kept the anniversary of my landing
here with the same thankfulness to God for his mercies as at
first; and if I had such cause of acknowledgment at first, I
had much more so now, having such additional testimonies
of the care of Providence over me, and the great hopes I had
of being effectually and speedily delivered. I had an invinc-
ible impression upon my thoughts that my deliverance was at
hand, and that I should not be another year in this place.
However, I went on with my husbandry—digging, planting,
and fencing, as usual. I gathered and cured my grapes, and
did every necessary thing, as before.

The rainy season was in the meantime upon me, when I
kept more within doors than at other times. I had our new
vessel stowed as secure as we could, bringing her up into the
creek, where, as I said in the beginning, I landed my rafts
from the ship; and, hauling her up to the shore, at high-water
mark, I made my man Friday dig a little dock, just big enough
for her to float in; and then, when the tide was out, we made
a strong dam across the end of it, to keep the water out ; and
so she lay dry, as to the tide, from the sea. To keep the rain
off, we laid a great many boughs of trees so thick, that she was
208 ROBINSON CRUSOF.

as well thatched as a house; and thus we waited for the
months of November and December, in which I designed to
make my adventure.

When the settled season began to come in, as the thought
of my design returned with the fair weather, I was preparing
daily for the voyage. And the first thing I did was to lay up
a certain quantity of provision, being the store for the voyage ;
and intended, in a week or a fortnight’s time, to open the dock
and launch out our boat. I was busy one morning upon some-
thing of this kind, when I called to Friday, and bade him go
to the sea-shore and sec if he could find a turtle, or tortoise, a
thing which we generally got once a weck, for the sake of the
rs as well as the flesh.



Friday had not been long gone when he came running
back, and flew over my outer wall, or fence, like one that felt
not the ground or the steps he set his fect on ; and before |
had time to speak to him, he cried out to me, ‘Oh, master !
Oh, master ! Oh, sorrow! Oh, bad !’

*What’s the matter, Friday?’ said I.

©Oh, yonder there,’ says he, ‘one, two, three canoe ! one, two,
three !’

By this way of speaking, I concluded there were six ; but, on
inquiry, | found there were but three. ‘Well, Friday,’ said I,
“do not be frightened ;’ so I heartened him up as well as 1
could.

However, I saw the poor fellow was most terribly scared ;
for nothing ran in his head but that they were come to look for
him, and would cut him in pieces and cat him. The poor
fellow trembled so, that I scarcely knew what to do with him.
1 comforted him as well as I could, and told him I was in as
much danger as he, and that they would eat me as well as him.

‘But, said 1, ‘Friday, we must resolve to fight them: can
you fight, Friday ?’

‘Me shoot,’ says he, ‘but there come many great number.’

‘No matter for that, said I again; ‘our guns will fright
them that we do not kill’ So I asked him, whether, if |
resolved to defend him, he would defend me, and stand by
me, and do just as 1 bade him?
CRUSOE AND FRIDAY PREPARE FOR BATTLE, 209

He said, ‘ Me die when you bid die, master.’

I made him take the two fowling-pieces, which we always
carried, and load them with large swan-shot as big as small
pistol-bullets. Then I took four muskets, and loaded them
with two slugs and five small bullets each ; and my two pistols



























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































seal
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Crusoe sees the Savages.

I loaded with a brace of bullets each—I hung my great sword,
as usual, naked by my side, and gave Friday his hatchet.
When I had thus prepared myself, I took my perspective
glass, and went up to the side of the hill to see what I could
discover. I found quickly, by my glass, that there were one-
and-twenty savages, three prisoners, and three canoes ; and that
their whole business seemed to be the triumphant banquet
upon these three human bodies—a barbarous feast, indeed,
210 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

but nothing more than, as I had observed, was usual with
them.

I observed also that they were landed, not where they had
done when Friday made his escape, but nearer to my creek,
where the shore was low, and where a thick wood came close
almost down to the sea. This, with the abhorrence of the
inhuman errand these wretches came about, so filled me with
indignation, that I came down again to Friday, and told him I
was resolved to go down to them and kill them all, and asked
him if he would stand by me. He had now got over his fright,
and his spirits being a little raised, he was very cheerful, and
told me, as before, he would die when I ‘bid die.’

In this fit of fury, I divided the arms, which I had charged,
as before, between us. I gave Friday one pistol to stick in
his girdle, and three guns upon his shoulder, and I took
one pistol and the other three myself; and in this posture
we marched out. I took a small bottle of rum in my pocket,
and gave Friday a large bag with more powder and _ bullets.
As to orders, I charged him to keep close behind me, and not
to stir, shoot, or do anything till I bade him; and, in the
meantime, not to speak a word. In this posture I fetched a
compass to my right hand of nearly a mile, as well to get
over the creek as to get into the wood; so that I might come
within shot of them before I could be discovered, which I had
seen by my glass it was easy to do.

While I was making this march, my former thoughts
returning, I began to abate my resolution, I do not mean
that I entertained any fear of their number; for as they were
naked unarmed wretches, it is certain I was superior to
them, nay, though I had been alone; but it occurred to my
thoughts, what call, what occasion, much less what necessity,
I was in to go and dip my hands in blood—to attack people
who had neither done nor intended me any wrong. These
things were so warmly pressed upon my thoughts all the way
as I went, that I resolved I would only go and place myself
near them, that I might observe their barbarous feast; but
that, unless something offered that was more a call to me than
yet I knew of, I would not meddle with them.
THEY APPROACH THE SAVAGES, 211

With this resolution I entered the wood, and, with all
possible wariness and silence (Friday following close at my
heels), I marched till I came to the skirt of the wood, on: the
side which was next to them, only that one corner of the wood
lay between me and them. Here I called softly to Friday, and
showing him a great tree, which was just at the corner of the
wood, I bade him go to the tree, and bring me word if he could
sce there plainly what they were doing.

He did so, and came immediately back to me, and told
me they might be plainly viewed there; that they were all
about the fire, eating the flesh of one of their prisoners ; and
that another lay bound upon the sand, a little from them, whom
he said they would kill next; and this fired the very soul
within me. He told me it was not one of their nation, but one
of the bearded men whom he had told me of, who came to
their country in the boat. I was filled with horror at the very
naming the white-bearded man, and, going to the tree, I saw
plainly by my glass, a white man, who lay upon the beach of
the sea, with his hands and his feet tied with flags, or things
like rushes, and that he was a European, and had clothes on.

There was another tree, and a little thicket beyond it,
about fifty yards nearer to them than the place where I was,
which, by going a little way about, I saw I might come at
undiscovered, and that then I should be within half a shot
of them. So I withheld my passion, though I was indeed
enraged to the highest degree, and going back about twenty
paces, I got behind some bushes, which held all the way till I
came to the other tree, and then I came to a little rising
ground, which gave me a full view of them, at the distance of
about eighty yards,

CHAPTER XLV.—FRIDAY RESCUES HIS FATHER.

] HAD now not a moment to lose, for nineteen of the

dreadful wretches sat upon the ground all close huddled
together, and had just sent the other two to butcher the poor
Christian, and bring him, perhaps limb by limb, to their fire ;
212 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

and they were stooped down to untie the bands at his feet. I
turned to Friday: ‘ Now, Friday,’ said I, ‘do as I bid thee.’
Friday said he would. ‘Then, Friday,’ said I, ‘do exactly as
you see me do; fail in nothing.’ So I set down one of the
muskets and the fowling-piece upon the ground, and Friday

a
~





did the like by his; and with the other musket I took my aim
at the savages, bidding him do the like. Then, asking him if
he was ready, he said, ‘Yes.’ ‘Then fire at them,’ said I ; and
the same moment I fired also.

Friday took his aim so much better than I, that on the
side that he shot he killed two of them, and wounded three
more; and on my side, I killed one and wounded two, They
CRUSOE RESCUES A SPANIARD. 213

were, you may be sure, in a dreadful consternation ; and all
of them who were not hurt, jumped up upon their feet imme-
diately, but did not know which way to run, or which way to
look ; for they knew not from whence their destruction came.

Friday kept his eyes close upon me, that, as I had bid him,
he might observe what I did: so as soon as the first shot
was made, I threw down the piece, and took up the fowling-
piece, and Friday did the like. He saw me cock and present ;
and he did the same again. ‘Are you ready, Friday?’ said I.
‘Yes, says he. ‘Let fly, then,’ said I, and with that I fired
again among the amazed wretches, and so did Friday. As our
pieces were now loaded with what I called swan shot, or small
pistol bullets, we found only two drop; but so many were
wounded, that they ran about yelling and screaming like mad
creatures, all bloody, and miserably wounded most of them ,
whereof three more fell quickly after, though not quite dead.

‘Now, Friday, said I, laying down the discharged pieces,
and taking up the musket which was yet loaded, ‘follow me ;’
which he did with a deal of courage; upon which I rushed out
of the wood, and showed myself, and Friday close at my foot.
As soon as I perceived they saw me, I shouted as loud as I
could, and bade Friday do so too; and running as fast as I
could (which by the way was not very fast, being loaded with
arms as I was), I made directly towards the poor victim, who
was, as I said, lying upon the beach or shore, between the
place where they sat and the sea.

The two butchers who were just going to work with him,
had left him at the surprise of our first fire, and fled in a
terrible fright to the seaside, and had jumped into a canoe,
and three more of the rest made the same way. I turned to
Friday, and bade him step forwards, and fire at them. He
understood me immediately, and running about forty yards to
be near them, he shot at them, and I thought he had killed
them all; for I saw them all fall on a heap into the boat ;
though I saw two of them up again quickly. However, he
killed two of them and wounded the third, so that he lay down
in the bottom of the boat, as if he had been dead.

While my man Friday fired at them, I pulled out my
214 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

knife, and cut the flags that bound the poor victim; and,
loosing his hands and feet, I lifted him up, and asked him, in
the Portuguese tongue, what he was? He answered in Latin,
Christianus,; but was so weak and faint, that he could
scarcely stand or speak. I took my bottle out of my pocket,
and gave it him, making signs that he should drink, which he
did; and I gave him a piece of bread, which he ate.

Then I asked him what countryman he was? and he said,
‘Espagniole ;’ and, being a little recovered, let me know, by
all the signs he could possibly make, how much he was in my
debt for his deliverance.

‘Seignor,’ said I, with as much Spanish as I could make
up, ‘we will talk afterwards, but we must fight now. If you
have any strength left, take this pistol and sword, and lay
about you.’

He took them very thankfully, and no sooner had he the
arms in his hands, but, as if they had put new vigour into him, he
flew upon his murderers like a fury, and had cut two of them
in pieces in an instant. For the truth is, as the whole was a
surprise to them, so the poor creatures were so much frightened
with the noise of our pieces, that they fell down from mere
amazement and fear, and had no more power to attempt their
own escape, than their flesh had to resist our shot. And that
was the case of those five that Friday shot in the boat; for as
three of them fell with the hurt they received, so the other two
fell with the fright.

I kept my piece in my hand still, without firing, being
willing to keep my charge ready, because I had given the
Spaniard my pistol and sword. So I called to Friday, and
bade him run up to the tree from whence we first fired, and
fetch the arms which lay there, that had been discharged,
which he did with great swiftness; and then, giving him my
musket, I sat down myself to load all the rest again, and bade
them come to me when they wanted.

While I was loading these pieces, there happened a
fierce engagement between the Spaniard and one of the
savages, who made at him with one of their great wooden
swords, the same weapon that was to have killed him before, if
FRIDAY DISCOVERS HIS FATHER. 215

I had not prevented it. The Spaniard, who was as bold and
as brave as could be imagined, though weak, had fought this
Indian a good while, and had cut him two great wounds on his
head; but the savage, being a stout lusty fellow, closing in
with him, had thrown him down (being faint), and was
wringing my sword out of his hand, when the Spaniard, though
undermost, wisely quitting his sword, drew the pistol from his
girdle, shot the savage through the body, and killed him upon
the spot, before I, who was running to help, could come near
him.

Friday being now left at his liberty, pursued the flying
wretches with no weapon in his hand but his hatchet; and
with that he despatched those three, who, as I said before,
were wounded at first, and fallen, and all the rest he could
come up with. And the Spaniard, coming to me for a gun, |
gave him one of the fowling-pieces, with which he pursued two
of the savages, and wounded them both; but, as he was not
able to run, they both got from him into the wood, where
Friday pursued them, and killed one of them. But the other
was too nimble for him, and, though he was wounded, yet he
plunged into the sea, and swam with all his might off to those
who were left in the canoe ; which three in the canoe, with one
wounded, whom we knew not whether he died or no, were all
that escaped our hands of one-and-twenty.

Those that were in the canoe worked hard to get out of
gun-shot ; and, though Friday made two or three shots at
them, I did not find that he hit any of them. Friday would
fain have had me take one of their canoes, and pursue them ;
and, indeed, I was very anxious about their escape, lest,
carrying the news home to their people, they should come back
perhaps, with two or three hundred of their canoes, and devour
us by mere multitudes. So I consented to pursue them by
sea; and, running to one of their canoes, I jumped in, and
bade Friday follow me.

But when I was in the canoe, I was surprised to find
another poor creature lie there alive, bound hand and foot, as
the Spaniard was, for the slaughter, and almost dead with fear,
not knowing what the matter was; for he had not been able to
216 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

look up over the side of the boat. He was tied so hard, neck
and heels, and had been tied so long, that he had really little
life in him.

I immediately cut the twisted flags, or rushes, which they
had bound him with, and would have helped him up; but
he could not stand or speak, but groaned most piteously,
believing, it seems still, that he was only unbound in order to
be killed.

When Friday came to him, I bade him speak to him,
and tell him of his deliverance; and, pulling out my bottle,
made him give the poor wretch a dram, which, with the news
of his being delivered, revived him, and he sat up in the boat.
But, when Friday came to hear him speak, and looked in his
face, it would have moved any one to tears to have seen how
Friday kissed him, embraced him, hugged him, cried, laughed,
hallooed, jumped about, danced, sung, then cried again, wrung
his hands, beat his own face and head, and then sung and
jumped about again like a distracted creature. It was a good
while before I could make him speak to me, or tell me what
was the matter; but when he came a little to himself, he told
me that it was his father.

It was not easy for me to express how it moved me, to
see what ecstasy and filial affection had worked in this poor
savage, at the sight of his father, and of his being delivered
from death. Nor indeed can I describe half the extravagances
of his affection after this ; for he went into the boat and out of
the boat a great many times. When he went in to him, he
would sit down by him, open his breast, and hold his father’s
head close to his bosom, half an hour together, to nourish it ;
then he took his arms and ankles, which were numbed and
stiff with the binding, and chafed and rubbed them with his
hands; and I, perceiving what the case was, gave him some
rum out of my bottle to rub them with, which did them a great
deal of good.

This action put an end to our pursuit of the canoe with
the other savages, who had now got almost out of sight. And
it was happy for us that we did not ; for it blew so hard within
two hours after, and before they could be got a quarter of their
CRUSOE AND HIS TWO NEW SUBJECTS. 217

way, and continued blowing so hard all night, and that from
the north-west, which was against them, that I could not
suppose their boat could live, or that they ever reached their
own Coast.

CHAPTER XLVI.—CRUSOE AND HIS TWO NEW SUBJECTS.

But to return to Friday. He was so busy about his father,

that I could not find in my heart to take him off for some
time ; but after I thought he could leave him a little, I called
him to me, and he came jumping and laughing, and pleased to
the highest extreme. Then I asked him if he had given his
father any bread? He shook his head, and said: ‘None:
ugly dog eat all up self.’ So I gave him a cake of bread out of
a little pouch I carried on purpose; I also gave him a dram
for himself, but he would not taste it, but carried it to his
father. I had in my pocket, also, two or three bunches of my
raisins, so I gave him a handful of them for his father.

He had no sooner given his father these raisins, but I saw
him come out of the boat, and run away as if he had been:
bewitched. He ran at such a rate—for he was the swiftest
fellow on his feet that ever I saw—I say, he ran at such a rate,
that he was out of sight, as it were, in an instant ; and though
I called, and hallooed too, after him, it was all one, away he
went, and in a quarter of an hour I saw him come back again,
though not so fast as he went; and as he came nearer, I
found his pace was slacker, because he had something in his
hand.

When he came up to me, I found he had been quite home
for an earthen jug, or pot, to bring his father some fresh water ;
and that he had got two more cakes, or loaves of bread. The
bread he gave me, but the water he carried to his father.
However, as I was very thirsty too, I took a little sup of it.
This water revived his father more than all the rum or spirits
I had given him ; for he was nearly fainting with thirst.

When his father had drank, I called him, to know if there
was any water left. He ‘said, ‘Yes ;’ and I bade him give it
to the poor Spaniard, who was in as much want of it as his
218 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

father ; and I sent one of the cakes that Friday brought to the
Spaniard too, who was indeed very weak, and was reposing
himself upon a green place, under the shade of a tree, and
whose limbs were also very stiff, and very much swelled with
the rude bandage he had been tied with. When I saw that
upon Friday’s coming to him with the water, he sat up and
drank, and took the bread, and began to eat, I went to him,
and gave him a handful of raisins. He looked up in my face
with all the tokens of gratitude and thankfulness that could
appear in any countenance; but was so weak, notwith-
standing he had so exerted himself in the fight, that he could
not stand upon his feet. He tried to do it two or three times,
but really was not able, his ankles were so swelled and
so painful to him; so I bade him sit still, and caused Friday
to rub his ankles, and bathe them with rum, as he had done
his father’s.

I observed the poor affectionate creature, every two
minutes, or perhaps less, all the while he was here, turned his
head about, to see if his father was in the same place and
posture as he left him sitting ; and at last he found he was not
to be seen ; at which he started up, and, without speaking a
word, flew with such swiftness to him, that one could scarcely
perceive his feet to touch the ground as he went; but when he
came, he only found he had laid himself down to ease his
limbs ; so Friday came back to me presently.

I then spoke to the Spaniard to let Friday help him up, if
he could, and lead him to the boat, and then he should carry
him to our dwelling, where I would take care of him. But
Friday, a lusty young fellow, took the Spaniard quite up upon
his back, and carried him away to the boat, and set him down
softly upon the side or gunnel of the canoe, with his feet
in the inside of it, and then lifted them quite in, and sect him
close to his father, and presently stepping out again, launched
the boat off, and paddled it along the shore faster than I could
walk, though the wind blew pretty hard too. So he brought
them safe into our creck ; and leaving them in the boat, runs
away to fetch the other canoe. As he passed me, I spoke to
him, and asked him whither he went? He told me, ‘ Go fetch
THEIR RETURN HOME, 219

more boat.’ So away he went, like the wind; for sure never
man or horse ran like him, and he had the other canoe in the
creek almost as soon as I got to it by land; so he wafted me
over, and then went to help our new guests out of the boat,
which he did, but they were neither of them able to walk ; so
that poor Friday knew not what to do.

To remedy this, I went to work in my thought, and calling
to Friday to bid them sit down on the bank while he came to
me, I soon made a kind of hand-barrow to lay them on, and
Friday and I carried them up both together upon it between us.

But when we got them to the outside of our wall or
fortification, we were at a worse loss than before ; for it was
impossible to get them over, and I was resolved not to break it
down. So I set to work again; and Friday and I, in about
two hours’ time, made a very handsome tent, covered with old
sails, and above that with boughs of trees, being in the space
without our outward fence, and between that and the grove
of young wood which I had planted. Here we made two beds
of such things as I had; namely, of good rice-straw, with
blankets laid upon it to lie on, and another to cover them on
each bed.

As soon as I had secured my two weak rescued prisoners,
and given them shelter, and a place to rest them upon, I began
to think of making some provision for them; and the first
thing I did, I ordered Friday to take a yearling goat, betwixt
a kid and a goat, out of my particular flock, to be killed.
Then I cut off the hind quarter, and chopping it into small
pieces, I set Friday to work to boiling and stewing, and made
them a very good dish, I assure you, of flesh and broth, having
put some barley and rice also into the broth. And as I cooked
it without-doors (for I made no fire within my inner wall), 1
carried it all into the new tent; and having set a table there
for them, I sat down and ate my dinner also with them. As
well as I could, I cheered them and encouraged them, Friday
being my interpreter, especially to his father, and indeed
to the Spaniard too; for the Spaniard spoke the language
of the savages pretty well.

After we had dined, or rather supped, I ordered Friday

0
220 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

to take one of the canoes, and go and fetch our muskets and
other firearms, which, for want of time, we had left upon the
place of battle; and the next day I ordered him to go
and bury the dead bodies of the savages, which lay open
to the sun, and would presently be offensive.

I then began to enter into a little conversation with my
two new subjects; and first, I set Friday to inquire of his
father, what he thought of the escape of the savages in that
canoe? and whether we might expect a return of them with a
power too great for us to resist? Tis first opinion was, that
the savages in the boat never could live out the storm which
blew that night they went off, but must of necessity be drowned
or driven south to those other shores, where they were as sure
to be devoured as they were to be drowned if they were cast
away. But as to what they would do if they came safe on
shore, he said he knew not; but it was his opinion, that they
were so dreadfully frightened with the manner of being attacked,
the noise and the fire, that he believed they would tell their
people they were all killed by thunder and lightning, and not
by the hand of man; and that the two which appeared
(namely, Friday and I) were two heavenly spirits or furies
come down to destroy them, and not men with weapons,

This, he said, he knew, because he heard them all cry out
so in their language to one another; for it was impossible
for them to conceive that a man should dart fire, and speak
thunder, and kill at a distance, without lifting up the hand, as
was done now. And this old savage was in the right; for, as
1 understood since, by other hands, the savages of that part
never attempted to go over to the island afterwards. They
were so terrified with the accounts given by these four men
(for it seems they did escape the sea), that they believed,
whoever went to that enchanted island, would be destroyed
with fire from the gods.

This, however, I knew not, and therefore was under con-
tinual apprehensions for a good while, and kept always upon
my guard, I and all my army; for, as there were now four of
us, I would have ventured upon a hundred of them fairly
in the open field at any time.
A CONFIDENTIAL TALK, 221

In a little time, however, no more canoes appearing, the
fear of their coming wore off ; and I began to take my former
thoughts of a voyage to the main into consideration, being
likewise assured by Friday’s father that I might depend upon
good usage from their nation, on his account, if I would go.

CHAPTER XLVII.—A CONFIDENTIAL TALK WITH THE
SPANIARD.

| UT my thoughts were a little suspended when I had a

serious discourse with the Spaniard, and when I under-
stood that there were sixteen more of his countrymen and
Portuguese, who, having been cast away and made their
escape to that side, lived there at peace indeed with the
savages, but were very sore put to it for necessaries, and
indeed for life.

I asked him all the particulars of their voyage, and
found they were a Spanish ship, bound from the Rio de la
Plata to Havannah, being directed to leave their loading there,
which was chiefly hides and silver, and to bring back what
European goods they could meet with there. They had five
Portuguese seamen on board, whom they took out of another
wreck. Five of their own men were drowned when first the
ship was lost ; and those who escaped, through infinite dan-
gers and hazards, arrived almost starved on the cannibal coast,
where they expected to have been devoured every moment.

He told me they had some arms with them, but they
were perfectly useless ; for that they had neither powder nor
ball, the washing of the sea having spoiled all their powder,
but a little which they used at their first landing to provide
themselves some food.

i asked him what he thought would become of them
there; and if they had formed no design of making any
escape? He said they had many consultations about it ; but
that, having neither vessel nor tools to build one, nor pro-
visions of any kind, their counsels always ended in tears and
despair.
222 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I asked him how he thought they would receive a pro-
posal from me, which might tend towards an escape; and
whether, if they were all here, it might not be done. I told
him with freedom I feared mostly their treachery and ill-usage
of me, if I put my life in their hands; for that gratitude was
no inherent virtue in the nature of man; nor did men always
square their dealings by the obligations they had received,
so much as they did by the advantages they expected. I told
him it would be very hard, that I should be the instrument
of their deliverance, and that they should afterwards make me
their prisoner in New Spain, where an Englishman was
certain to be made a sacrifice, what necessity, or what
accident soever, brought him thither.

I added, that otherwise I was persuaded, if they were all
here, we might, with so many hands, build a barque large
enough to carry us all away, either to the Brazils southward,
or to the islands or Spanish coast northward: but that if in
requital they should, when I had put weapons into their
hands, carry me by force among their own people, I might be
ill-used for my kindness to them, and make my case worse
than it was before.

He answered, with a great deal of candour and ingenuous-
ness, that their condition was so miserable, and that they
were so sensible of it, that he believed they would abhor the
thought of using any man unkindly that should contribute to
‘their deliverance. That if I pleased, he would go to them
with the old man, and discourse with them about it, and return
again, and bring me their answer. That he would make con-
ditions with them upon their solemn oath, that they would be
absolutely under my leading, as their commander and captain,
and be directed wholly and absolutely by my orders, till they
were landed safely in such country as I intended; and that
he would bring a contract from them under their hands for
that purpose.

Upon these assurances, I resolved to venture to relieve them,
if possible, and to send the old savage and this Spaniard
over to them to treat. But when we had got all things in
readiness to go, the Spaniard himself started an objection,
THE SPANIARD’S ADVICE, 223

and, by his advice, I put off the deliverance of his comrades for
at least half a year. The case was thus:

He had been with us now about a month, during which
time I had let him see in what manner I had provided, with
the assistance of Providence, for my support. He saw evi-
dently what stock of corn and rice I had laid up, which, as
it was more than sufficient for myself, so it was not sufficient,
at least without good husbandry, for my family, now it was
increased to four. But much less would it be sufficient if his
countrymen, who were, as he said, fourteen still alive, should
come over; and least of all would it be sufficient to victual
our vessel, if we should build one, for a voyage to any one of
the Christian colonies of America. So he told me, he thought
it would be more advisable to let him and the other two dig
and cultivate some more land, as much as I could spare seed
to sow; and that we should wait another harvest, that we
might have a supply of corn for his countrymen when they
should come; for want might be a temptation to them to
disagree, or not to think themselves delivered, otherwise than
out of one difficulty into another.

His caution was so seasonable, and his advice so good,
that I could not but be very well pleased with his proposal,
as well as I was satisfied with his fidelity. So we fell to
digging, all four of us, as well as the wooden tools we were
furnished with permitted. In about a month’s time, by the
end of which it was seedtime, we had got as much land cured
and trimmed up as we sowed twenty-two bushels of barley
on, and sixteen jars of rice, which was, in short, all the seed
we had to spare.

At the same time, I contrived to increase my little flock
of tame goats as much asI could. To this purpose I made
Friday and the Spaniard to go out one day, and myself with
Friday the next day (for we took our turns), and by this means
we got about twenty young kids to breed up with the rest ;
for, whenever we shot the dam, we saved the kids, and added
them to our flock. But, above all, the season for curing the
grapes coming on, I caused such a prodigious quantity to be
hung up in the sun, that I believe, had we been at Alicante.
224 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

where the raisins of the sun are cured, we should have filled
sixty or eighty barrels; and these, with our bread, were a
great part of our food, and very good living too, I assure you ;
for it is an exceedingly nourishing food.

It was now harvest, and our crop in good order. It was
not the most plentiful increase I had seen in the island;
but, however, it was enough to answer our end, for from
twenty-two bushels of barley, we brought in and thrashed out
above two hundred and twenty bushels, and the like in pro-
portion of the rice, which was store enough for our food till the
next harvest, though all the sixteen Spaniards had been on
shore with me. Or, if we had been ready for a voyage, it
would very plentifully have victualled our ship, to have carried
us to any part of the world, that is to say, of America. When
we had thus housed and secured our magazine of corn, we
fell to work to make more wickerwork, namely, great baskets,
in which we kept it; and the Spaniard was very handy and
dexterous at this part, and often blamed me that I did not
make some things for defence of this kind of work ; but I saw
no need of it.

CHAPTER XLVIII.—Wuo Comes HERE?

ae now, having a full supply of food for all the guests
expected, I gave the Spaniard leave to go over to the
main, to see what he could do with those he left behind him
there. I gave him a strict charge in writing not to bring any
man with him, who would not first swear, in the presence of
himself and of the old savage, that he would no way injure,
fight with, or attack the person he should find in the island,
who was so kind as to send for them, in order to their deliver-
ance; but that they would stand by and defend him against
all such attempts ; and, wherever they went, would be entirely
under, and subjected to his commands ; and that this should
be put in writing, and signed with their hands. How they
were to have this done, when I knew they had neither pen nor
ink, that, indeed, was a question which we never asked.
Under these instructions, the Spaniard and the old savage
A NEW ARRIVAL. 225

(the father of Friday) went away in one of the canoes,
which they might be said to come in, or rather were brought
in, when they came as prisoners to be devoured by the
savages.

I gave each of them a musket with a firelock on it, and
about eight charges of powder and ball, charging them to be
very good husbands of both, and not to use either of them
but upon urgent occasions.

This was a cheerful work, being the first measures used
by me in view of my deliverance for now twenty-seven years
and some days. I gave them provisions of bread, and of dried
grapes, sufficient for themselves for many days, and sufficient
for their countrymen for about eight days’ time; and wishing
them a good voyage, I let them go, agreeing with them about
a signal they should hang out at their return, by which I
should know them again, when they came back, at a distance,
before they came on shore.

It was no less than eight days I waited for them, when a
strange and unforeseen accident intervened, of which the like
has not, perhaps, been heard of in history. I was fast asleep
in my hutch one morning, when my man Friday came
running in to me, and called aloud, ‘ Master, master, they are
come, they are come!’

I jumped up, and, regardless of danger, I went out as
soon as I could get my clothes on, without my arms, which
was not my custom todo. But I was surprised, when turning
my eyes to the sea, I presently saw a boat at about a league
and a half’s distance, standing in for shore, with a shoulder-
of-mutton sail, as they call it, and the wind blowing pretty fair
to bring them in. Also I observed presently, that they did not
come from that side which the shore lay on, but from the
southermost end of the island. Upon this I called Friday in,
and bade him lie close, for these were not the people we
looked for, and that we did not know yet whether they were
friends or enemies.

In the rfext place, I went in to fetch my perspective glass,
to see what I could make of them; and, having taken the
ladder out, I climbed up to the top of the hill, as I used to do
226 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

when I was apprehensive of anything, and to take my view
the plainer without being discovered.

I had scarcely set my foot on the hill, when my eye
plainly discovered a ship lying at an anchor, at about two













































































































































































Crusoe sees an English Ship.

leagues and a half’s distance from me, south-south-east, but not
above a league and a half from the shore. By my observation
it appeared plainly to be an English ship, and the boat
appeared to be an English long-boat.

I cannot express the confusion I was in, though the joy of
seeing a ship, and one which I had reason to believe was
manned by my own countrymen, and consequently friends,
ENGLISH MUTINEERS. 227

was such as I cannot describe. But yet I had some secret
doubts hung about me, I cannot tell from whence they came,
bidding me keep upon my guard. In the first place it occurred
to me to consider what business an English ship could have in
that part of the world ; since it was not the way to or from any
part of the world where the English had any traffic, and
| knew there had been no storms to drive them in there, as in
distress. If they were English really, it was most probable
that they were here upon no good design; and that I had
better continue as I was, than fall into the hands of thieves and
murderers.

Let no man despise the secret hints and notices of
danger which sometimes are given him, when he may think
there is no possibility of its being real. That such hints and
notices are given us, I believe few that have made any
observation of things can deny; and had I not been made
cautious by this secret admonition, I had been in a far worse
condition than before, as you will see presently.

I had not kept myself long in this posture, but I saw the
boat draw near the shore, as if they looked for a creek to
thrust in at for the convenience of landing. However, as they
did not come quite far enough, they did not see the little inlet
where I formerly landed my rafts, but ran their boat on shore
upon the beach, at about half a mile from me, which was very
happy for me ; for otherwise they would have landed just, as I
may say, at my door, and would have soon beaten me out of
my castle, and, perhaps, have plundered me of all I had.

When they were on shore, I was fully satisfied they were
Englishmen, at least most of them ; one or two I thought were
Dutch, but it did not prove so. There were in all eleven men,
whereof three of them I found were unarmed, and (as I
thought) bound; and when the first four or five of them had
jumped on shore, they took those three out of the boat as
prisoners. One of the three I could perceive using the most
passionate gestures of entreaty, affliction, and despair, even
to a kind of extravagance. The other two, I could perceive,
lifted up their hands sometimes, and appeared concerned
indeed, but not to such a degree as the first.
228 ; ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I was perfectly confounded at the sight, and knew not what
the meaning of it should be. Friday called out to me in Eng-
lish, as well as he could, ‘Oh, master! you see [english mans
eat prisoners as well as savage mans.

‘Why,’ said I, ‘Friday, do you think they are going to
eat them then?’

‘Yes,’ says Friday, ‘they will eat them.’

‘No, no,’ said 1,‘ Friday ; I am afraid they will murder them
indeed ; but you may be sure they will not eat them,

All this while I had no thought of what the matter really
was, but stood trembling with the horror of the sight, ex-
pecting every moment the three prisoners would be killed.
Nay, once I saw one of the villains lift up his arm with
a great cutlass (as the seamen call it) or sword, to strike
one of the poor men; and I expected to see him fall every
moment, at which all the blood in my body seemed to run
chill in my veins.

1 wished heartily now for our Spaniard, and the savage
that was gone with him ; or that I had any way to have come
undiscovered within shot of them, that I might have rescued
the three men ; for I saw no firearms they had among them.
But it fell out to my mind another way.

After I had observed the outrageous usage of the three
men by the insolent scamen, I observed the fellows run
scattering about the land, as if they wanted to see the country.
I observed also, that the three other men had liberty to
go where they pleased ; but they sat down all three upon the
ground very pensive, and looked like men in despair.

This put me in mind of the first time when I came on
shore, and began to look about me ; how I gave myself over for
lost, how wildly I looked” round me, what dreadful apprehen-
sions I had, and how I lodged in the tree all night, for fear of
being devoured by wild beasts.

As I knew nothing that night of the supply I was to
receive by the providential driving of the ship nearer the
land; so these three poor desolate men knew nothing how
certain of deliverance and supply they were, how near it was to
them, and how effectually and really they were in a condition
HE BEFRIENDS THE UNFORTUNATE, 229

of safety, at the same time they thought themselves lost, and
their case desperate.

So little do we see before us in the world, and so much
reason have we to depend cheerfully upon the great Maker of
the world, that He does not leave his creatures so absolutely
destitute, but that in the worst circumstances they have always
something to be thankful for, and sometimes are nearer their
deliverance than they imagine—nay, are even brought to their
deliverance by the means by which they seem to be brought to
their destruction.

CHAPTER XLIX.—CRUSOE BEFRIENDS THE UNFORTUNATE.

[- was just high water when these people came on shore, and

while partly they stood parleying with the prisoners they
brought, and partly while they rambled about to see what kind
of place they were in, they had carelessly stayed till the tide
was spent, and the water was ebbed considerably away, leaving
their boat aground,

They had left two men in the boat, who, as I found after-
wards, having drunk a little too much brandy, fell asleep.
However, one of them waking sooner than the other, and
finding the boat too fast aground for him to stir it, hallooed
for the rest who were straggling about, upon which they all
soon came to the boat. But it was past all their strength to
launch her, the boat being very heavy, and the shore on that
side being a soft oozy sand, almost like a quicksand.

In this condition, like true seamen, who are, perhaps, the
least of all mankind given to forethought, they gave it over,
and away they strolled about the country again ; and I heard
one of them say aloud to another (calling them off from the
boat), ‘Why, let her alone, Jack, can’t ye? she'll float next
tide’ By which I was fully confirmed in the main inquiry of
what countrymen they were.

All this while I kept myself close, not once daring to stir
out of my castle, any further than to my place of observation,
near the top of the hill; and very glad I was to think how well
it was fortified. I knew it was no less than ten hours hefore
230 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the boat could be afloat again, and by that time it would be
dark, and I might be more at liberty to see their motions, and
to hear their discourse, if they had any.

In the meantime, I fitted myself up for a battle, as before,
though with more caution, knowing I had to do with another
kind of enemy than I had at first. I ordered Friday also,
whom I had made an excellent marksman with his gun, to
load himself with arms. I took myself two fowling-pieces, and
I gave him three muskets. My figure, indeed, was very fierce :
I had my formidable goat-skin coat on, with the great cap I
mentioned, a naked sword, two pistols in my belt, and a gun
upon each shoulder.

It was my design, as I said above, not to have made any
attempt till it was dark ; but about two o’clock, being the heat
of the day, I found that in short they were all gone straggling
into the woods, and, as I thought, were all laid down to sleep.
The three poor distressed men, too anxious for their condition
to get any sleep, were, however, sat down under the shelter of
a great tree, at about a quarter of a mile from me, and, as I
thought, out of sight of any of the rest.

Upon this I resolved to discover myself to them, and
learn something of their condition. I came as near them
undiscovered as I could, and then, before any of them saw me,
I called aloud to them in Spanish, ‘ What are ye, gentlemen?’

They started up at the noise, but were ten times more
confounded when they saw me, and the uncouth figure that I
made—they made no answer at all, but I thought I perceived
them just going to fly from me, when I spoke to them in
English : ‘Gentlemen,’ said I, ‘do not be surprised at me;
perhaps you may have a friend near you, when you did not
expect it.’

‘He must be sent directly from Heaven, then,’ said one of
them very gravely to me, pulling off his hat at the same time,
‘for our condition is past the help of man.’

‘All help is from Heaven, sir!’ said I: ‘but can you put a
stranger in the way how to help you, for you seem to me to
be in great distress?’

The poor man, with tears running down his face, and trem-
A CONVERSATION WITH THE CAPTAIN, 231

bling, looking like one astonished, returned, ‘Am I talking to
God or man? Is it a real man or an angel ?’

‘Be in no fear about that, sir,’ said 1; ‘if God had sent an
angel to relieve you, he would have come better clothed, and
armed after another manner than you see me in. Pray,
lay aside your fears: I am a man—an Englishman, and dis-
posed to assist you. You see I have one servant only, and
we have arms and ammunition; tell us freely, can we serve
you? What is your case?’

‘Our case,’ said he, ‘sir, is too long to tell you while our
murderers are so near. But, in short, sir, 1 was commander of
that ship. My men having mutinied against me, they have
been hardly prevailed on not to murder me, and at last have
set me on shore in this desolate place, with these two men with
me, one my mate, the other a passenger, where we expected to
perish, believing the place to be uninhabited, and know not
yet what to think of it.’

‘Where are those brutes, your enemies?’ said I; ‘do you
know where they are gone?’

‘There they are, sir,’ said he, pointing to a thicket of trees ;
‘my heart trembles for fear they have seen us, and heard you
speak ; if they have, they will certainly murder us all.’

‘Have they any firearms?’ said I.

He answered, ‘They had only two pieces, and one which
they left in the boat.’

‘Well, then,’ said I, ‘leave the rest to me. I see they are
asleep. It is an easy thing to kill them all, but shall we rather
take them prisoners ?’

He told me there were two desperate villains among them
that it was scarcely safe to show any mercy to ; but if they
were secured, he believed all the rest would return to their
duty.

‘Look you, sir, said I, ‘if I venture upon your deliver-
ance, are you willing to make two conditions with me?’ He
anticipated my proposals by telling me that both he and the
ship, if recovered, should be wholly directed and commanded
by me in everything; and if the ship was not recovered,
he would live and die with me in what part of the world
232 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

soever I would send him; and the two other men said
the same.

‘Well, said I, ‘my, conditions are but two: First, That
while you stay on this island with me, you will not pretend to
any authority here ; and if I put arms into your hands, you will
upon all occasions give them up to me, and do no prejudice
to me or mine upon this island, and in the meantime be
governed by orders. Second, That if the ship is, or may be,
recovered, you will carry me and my man to England passage
free.

He gave me all the assurance that the invention or faith of
a man could devise, that he would comply with these most
reasonable demands; and besides, would owe his life to me,
and acknowledge it upon all occasions as long as he lived, and
offered to be wholly guided by me. I told him I thought
it was hard venturing anything, but the best method I could
think of was, to fire upon them at once as they lay; and if any
were not killed at the first volley and offered to submit, we
might save them.

He said, very modestly, that he was loath to kill them if
he could help it ; but that those two were incorrigible villains,
and had been the authors of all the mutiny in the ship, and, if
they escaped, we should be undone still; for they would go
on board, and bring the whole ship’s company, and destroy us
all. ‘Well, then, said I, ‘necessity legitimates my advice ;
for it is the only way to save our lives.’ However, seeing him
still cautious of shedding blood, I told him they should go
themselves, and manage as they found convenient.

In the middle of this discourse we heard some of them
awake, and soon after we saw two of them on their feet. I
asked him if either of them were the heads of the mutiny ?
He said ‘No.’

‘Well, then, said I, ‘you may let them escape, and
Providence seems to have wakened them on purpose to save
themselves. Now,’ said I, ‘if the rest escape you, it is your
fault.’

Animated with this, he took the musket I had given him
in his hand, and a pistol in his belt, and his two comrades
CRUSOE OVERCOMES THE MUTINEERS,. 233

with him, with each man a piece in his hand. The two men
who were with him going first, made some noise, at which one
of the seamen, who was awake, turned about, and, seeing them
coming, cried out to the rest. But it was too late then, for the
moment he cried out they fired, I mean the two men, the
captain wisely reserving his own piece. They had so well
aimed their shot at the men they knew, that one of them was
killed on the spot, and the other very much wounded ; but not
being dead, he started up on his feet and called eagerly for
help to the other. But the captain, stepping to him, told him
it was too late to cry for help, he should call upon God to
forgive his villainy ; and with that word knocked him down
with the stock of his musket, so that he never spoke more.
There were three more in the company, and one of them was
also slightly wounded.

By this time I was come, and when they saw their danger,
and that it was in vain to resist, they begged for mercy.
The captain told them he would spare their lives, if they
would give him any assurance of their abhorrence of the
treachery they had been guilty of, and would swear to be
faithful to him in recovering the ship, and afterwards in
carrying her back to Jamaica, from whence they came. They
gave him all the protestations of their sincerity that could
be desired, and he was willing to believe them, and spare
their lives, which I was not against, only I obliged him to
keep them bound, hand and foot, while they were upon the
island.

While this was doing, I sent Friday with the captain’s
mate to the boat, with orders to secure her, and bring away
the oars and sail, which they did. And by-and-by three
straggling men, that were (happily for them) parted from
the rest, came back upon hearing the guns fire, and seeing
their captain, who before was their prisoner, now their con-
queror, they submitted to be bound also—and so our victory
was complete.
234 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

CHAPTER L.—ANOTHER BOAT’S CREW LANDS.

T now remained that the captain and I should inquire into
one another’s circumstances, I began first, and told him
my whole history, which he heard with an attention even to
amazement, and particularly at the wonderful manner of my
being furnished with provisions andammunition. And, indeed,
as my whole story is a collection of wonders, it affected him
deeply ; but when he reflected from thence upon himself, and
how I seemed to have been preserved there on purpose to save
his life, the tears ran down his face, and he could not speak a
word more.

After this communication was at an end, I carried him
and his two men into my apartments, leading them in just
where I came out, namely, at the top of the house; where I
refreshed them with such provisions as I had, and showed them
all the contrivances I had made during my long, long inhabit-
ing that place.

All I showed them, all I said to them, was perfectly
amazing ; but, above all, the captain admired my fortification ;
and how perfectly I had concealed my retreat with a grove of
trees, which having now been planted nearly twenty years, and
the trees growing much faster than in England, was become a
little wood, and so thick, that it was impassable in any part of
it, but at that one side where I had reserved my little winding
passage into it. This I told him was my castle, and my resi-
dence, but that I had a seat in the country, as most princes
have, whither I could retreat upon occasion, and I would show
him that too another time; but at present our business was to
consider how to recover the ship.

He agreed with me as to that, but told me he was perfectly
at a loss what measures to take; for that there were still six-
and-twenty hands on board, who, having entered into a
conspiracy, by which they had all forfeited their lives to the
law, would be hardened in it now by desperation ; and would
carry it on, knowing that, if they were reduced, they should be
brought to the gallows as soon as they came to England, or to
THEY STAVE THE BOAT. 235

any of the English colonies; and that therefore there would be
no attacking them with so small a number as we were.

I mused for some time upon what he had said, and found
it was a very rational conclusion, and that therefore something
was to be resolved on very speedily, as well to draw the men
on board into some snare for their surprise, as to prevent their
landing upon us, and destroying us. Upon this, it presently
occurred to me that in a little while the ship’s crew, wondering
what was become of their comrades, and of the boat, would
certainly come on shore in their other boat to seek for them ;
and that then perhaps they might come armed, and be too
strong for us. This he allowed was rational.

Upon this, I told him the first thing we had to do was to
stave the boat which lay upon the beach, so that they might
not carry her off; and taking everything out of her, leave her
so far useless as not to be fit to swim. Accordingly, we went
on board, took the arms which were left on board out of her,
and whatever else we found there.

When we had carried all these things on shore (the oars,
mast, sail, and rudder of the boat were carried before as above),
we knocked a great hole in her bottom, that if they had come
strong enough to master us, yet they could not carry off the
boat. Indeed, it was not much in my thoughts, that we could
be capable to recover the ship; but my view was, that if they
went away without the boat, I did not much question to make
her fit again to carry us away to the Leeward Islands, and call
upon our friends the Spaniards in my way, for I had them still
in my thoughts.

While we were thus preparing our designs, and had first
by main strength heaved the boat up upon the beach, so high
that the tide would not float her off at high-water mark, and,
besides, had broken a hole in her bottom too big to be quickly
stopped, and were sat down musing what we should do, we
heard the ship fire a gun, and saw her make a waft with her
ancient, as a signal for the boat to come on board ; but no
boat stirred ; and they fired several times, making other signals
for the boat.

At last we saw them (by the help of our glasses) hoist
b
230 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

another boat out, and row towards the shore; and we found,
as they approached, that there were no less than ten men in
her, and that they had firearms with them.

We had a full view of them, and the captain knew the
persons and characters of all the men in the boat ; of whom
he said that there were three very honest fellows, who he was
sure were led into this conspiracy by the rest, being over-
powered and frightened. But that for the boatswain, who, it
seems, was the chief officer among them, and all the rest,
they were as outrageous as any of the ship’s crew; and were,
no doubt, made desperate in their new enterprise; and
terribly apprehensive he was that they would be too powerful
for us.

I smiled at him, and told him that men in our circum-
stances were past the operations of fear: that seeing almost
every condition that could be was better than that we were
supposed to be in, we ought to expect that the consequence,
whether death or life, would be sure to be a deliverance.

As I spoke with a raised voice and cheerful countenance,
I found it greatly encouraged him ; so we set vigorously to our
business. We had, upon the first appearance of the boat’s
coming from the ship, considered of separating our prisoners,
and had indeed secured them effectually.

Two of them, of whom the captain was less assured
than ordinary, I sent with Friday, and one of the three
(delivered men) to my cave, where they were remote enough,
and out of danger of being heard or discovered, or of finding
their way out of the woods, if they could have delivered them-
selves. Here they left them bound, but gave them provisions,
and promised them, if they continued there quietly, to give
them their liberty in a day or two; but that if they attempted
their escape, they should be put to death without mercy. They
promised faithfully to bear their confinement with patience,
and were very thankful that they had such good usage as to
have provisions and a light left them.

The other prisoners had better usage. Two of them were
kept pinioned indeed, because the captain was not free to trust
them ; but the other two were taken into my service upon their
ANOTHER BOATS CREW LANDS. 237

captain’s recommendation, and upon their solemnly engaging
to live and die with us. So, with them and the three honest
men, we were seven men well armed; and I made no doubt
we should be able to deal well enough with the ten that were
coming, considering that the captain had said there were three
or four honest men amongst them also.

As soon as they got to the place where their other boat
lay, they ran their boat into the beach, and came all on shore,
hauling the boat up after them, which I was glad to see; for I
was afraid they would rather have left the boat at an anchor,
some distance from the shore, with some hands in her to guard
her ; and so we should not be able to seize the boat.

Being on shore, the first thing they did, they ran all to
the other boat ; and it was easy to see they were under a great
surprise to find her stripped as above, of all that was in her,
and a great hole in her bottom.

After they had mused awhile upon this, they set up two or
three great shouts, hallooing with all their might, to try if they
could make their companions hear ; but all was to no purpose.
Then they came all close in a ring, and fired a volley of their
small-arms which, indeed, we heard, and the echoes made the
woods ring; but it was all one. Those in the cave, we were
sure, could not hear; and those in our keeping, though they
heard it well enough, yet durst give no answer to them.

They were so astonished at this, that, as they told us
afterwards, they resolved to go all on board again to their ship,
and let them know there that the men were all murdered, and
the long-boat staved. Accordingly, they immediately launched
the boat again, and got all of them on board.

CHAPTER LI.—STRATAGEMS TO SECURE THE MUTINEERS.

ope captain was terribly amazed, and even confounded at

this, believing they would go on board the ship again,
and set sail, giving their comrades up for lost, and so he should
still lose the ship, which he was in hopes we should have
238 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

recovered, But he was quickly as much frightened the other
way.

They had not been long put off with the boat, but we
perceived them all coming on shore again ; but, with this new
measure in their conduct, which, it seems, they consulted
together upon—namely, to leave three men in the boat, and
the rest to go on shore, and go up into the country to look for
their fellows.

This was a great disappointment to us; for now we were
at a loss what to do; for our seizing those seven men on shore
would be no advantage to us if we let the boat escape, because
they would then row away to the ship; and then the rest of
them would be sure to weigh, and set sail, and so our recover-
ing the ship would be lost.

However, we had no remedy but to wait and see what the
issue of things might present. The seven men came on shore,
and the three who remained in the boat put her off to a good
distance from the shore, and came to an anchor to wait
for them ; so that it was impossible for us to come at them in
the boat.

Those that came on shore kept close together, marching
towards the top of the little hill, under which my habitation
lay ; and we could see them plainly, though they could not
perceive us. We should have been very glad if they would
have come nearer to us, so that we might have fired at them ;
or that they would have gone farther off, that we might have
come abroad.

But when they were come to the brow of the hill, where
they could see a great way in the valley and woods, which lay
towards the north-east part, and where the island lay lowest,
they shouted and hallooed till they were weary ; and not caring,
it seems, to venture far from the shore, nor far from one
another, they sat down together under a tree to consider of it.
Had they thought fit to have gone to sleep there, as the other
party of them had done, they had done the job for us;
but they were too full of apprehensions of danger to venture
to go to sleep, though they could not tell what the danger
was they had to fear neither.
WATCHING THE ENEMY. 239

The captain made a very just proposal to me upon this
consultation of theirs, namely, that perhaps they would all fire
a volley again to endeavour to make their fellows hear, and
that we should all sally upon them just at the juncture when
their pieces were all discharged, and they would certainly yield,
and we should have them without bloodshed. I liked the
proposal, provided it was done while we were near enough to
come up to them before they could load their pieces again.

But this event did not happen, and we lay still a long time
very irresolute what course to take. At length I told them
there would be nothing to be done, in my opinion, till night ;
and then, if they did not return to the boat, perhaps we might
find a way to get between them and the shore, and so might
use some stratagem with them in the boat to get them
on shore.

We waited a great while, though very impatient for their
removing, and were very uneasy; when, after long consulta-
tions, we saw them start all up and march down toward the
sea. It seems they had such dreadful apprehensions upon
them of the danger of the place, that they resolved to go on
board the ship again, give their companions over for lost, and
so go on with their intended voyage with the ship.

As soon as I perceived them go towards the shore, I
imagined it to be, as it really was, that they had given over
their search, and were for going back again; and the captain,
as soon as I had told him my thoughts, was ready to sink
at the apprehensions of it; but I presently thought of a
stratagem to fetch them back again, and which answered my
end to a tittle.

I ordered Friday and the captain’s mate to go over the
little creek westward, towards the place where the savages
came on shore when Friday was rescued; and as soon as they
came to a little rising ground, at about half a mile’s distance, I
bade them halloo as loud as they could, and wait till they found
the seamen heard them; that as soon as ever they heard the
seamen answer them, they should return it again, and then
keeping out of sight, take a round, always answering when the
others hallooed, to draw them as far into the island, and among
240 RORINSON CRUSOF.

the woods, as possible, and then wheel about again to me, by
such ways as I directed.

They were just going into the boat, when Friday and the
mate hallooed, and they presently heard them, and answering,
ran along the shore westward, towards the voice they heard,
when they were presently stopped by the creck, where the
water being up, they could not get over, and called for the
boat to come up and set them over, as indeed I expected.

When they had set themselves over, I observed that the
boat being gone up a good way into the creek, and, as it were,
in a harbour within the land, they took one of the three men
out of her to go along with them, and left only two in the
boat, having fastened her to the stump of a little tree on the
shore.

This was what I wished for, and immediately leaving Friday
and the captain’s mate to their business, I took the rest with
me, and, crossing the creck out of their sight, we surprised
the two men before they were aware, one of them lying on
shore, and the other being in the boat. ‘The fellow on shore
was between sleeping and waking, and, going to start up, the
captain, who was foremost, ran in upon him and knocked him
down, and then called out to him in the boat to yield, or he
was a dead man.

There needed very few arguments to persuade a single
man to yield, when he saw five men upon him, and _ his
comrade knocked down. Besides, this was, it seems, one of
the three who were not so hearty in the mutiny as the rest of
the crew, and therefore was easily persuaded not only to yield,
but afterwards to join very sincerely with us.

In the meantime, Friday and the captain’s mate so well
managed their business with the rest, that they drew them, by
hallooing and answering, from one hill to another, and from
one wood to another, till they not only heartily tired them, but
left them where they were very sure they could not reach
back to the boat before it was dark; and, indeed, they were
heartily tired themselves also by the time they came back
to us.

We had nothing now to do but to watch for them in the
THE ROAT CAPTURED. 241

dark, and to fall upon them, so as to make sure work with
them. It was several hours after Friday came back to me
before they came back to their boat; and we could hear the
foremost of them, long before they came quite up, calling to
those behind to come along; and could also hear them answer,
and complain how lame and tired they were, and not being
able to come any faster—which was very welcome news to us.

At length they came up to the boat; but it is impossible
to express their confusion, when they found the boat fast
aground in the creek, the tide ebbed out, and their two men
gone. We could hear them call to one another in a most
lamentable manner. - They hallooed again, and called their
two comrades by their names a great many times, but no
answer. After some time, we could see them, by the little
light there was, run about wringing their hands, like men in
despair; and that sometimes they would go and sit down in
the boat to rest themselves, then come ashore, and walk about
again, and so the same thing over again.

My men would fain have had me give them leave to fall
upon them at once in the dark ; but I was willing to take them
at some advantage, so to spare them, and kill as few of them
as I could; and especially I was unwilling to hazard the killing
any of our men, knowing the other men were very well armed.
I resolved to wait to see if they did not separate ; and therefore,
to make sure of them, I drew my ambuscade nearer, and
ordered Friday and the captain to creep upon their hands and
feet as close to the ground as they could, that they might not
be discovered, and get as near them as they could possibly,
before they offered to fire.

CHAPTER LII.—THE MUTINEERS CAPTURED.

HEY had not been long in that posture, when the boat-
swain, who was the principal ringleader of the mutiny,

and had now shown himself the most dejected and dispirited
of all the rest, came walking towards them with two more of
the crew. The captain was so eager, at having the principal
242 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

rogue so much in his power, that he could hardly have patience
to let him come so near as to be sure of him; for they only
heard his tongue before. But when they came nearer, the
captain and Friday, starting up on their feet, let fly at them.

The boatswain was killed upon the spot; the next man
was shot in the body, and fell just by him, though he did not
die till an hour or two after; and the third ran for it.

At the noise of the fire, I immediately advanced with my
whole army, which was now eight men; namely, myself,
generalissimo; Friday, my lieutenant-general; the captain
and his two men, and the three prisoners of war, whom we had
trusted with arms.

We came upon them indeed in the dark, so that they could
not see our number; and I made the man they had left in the
boat, who was now one of us, to call them by name, to try if I
could bring them to a parley, and so might perhaps reduce
them to terms, which fell out just as we desired. For, indeed,
it was easy to think, as their condition then was, they would be
very willing to capitulate. So he calls out as loud as he could
to one of them, ‘Tom Smith! Tom Smith!’

Tom Smith answered immediately, ‘Who’s that? Robinson ?’
For it seems he knew his voice.

The other answered, ‘Ay, ay ; for God’s sake, Tom Smith,
throw down your arms, and yield, or you are all dead men this
moment.’

‘Who must we yield to? where are they?’ says Smith
again.

‘Here they are,’ says he; ‘here is our captain and fifty
men with him, have been hunting you this two hours; the
boatswain is killed, Will Fry is wounded, and I am a prisoner ;
and if you do not yield, you are all lost.

‘Will they give us quarter, then?’ says Tom Smith, ‘and
we will yield.’

‘T’ll go and ask, if you promise to yield, says Robinson.

So he asked the captain, and the captain himself then calls
out, ‘You, Smith, you know my voice; if you lay down your
arms immediately and submit, you shall have your lives, all
but Will Atkins.’
THE PRISONERS BEG FOR THEIR LIVES. 243

Upon this Will Atkins cried out, ‘ For God’s sake, captain,
give me quarter! what have I done? they have all been as bad
as I’ (which, by the way, was not true either; for it seems
this Will Atkins was the first man that laid hold of the captain
when they first mutinied, and used him barbarously, tying his
hands and giving him injurious language). However, the
captain told him he must lay down his arms at discretion, and
trust to the governor’s mercy, by which he meant me; for they
all called me governor.

In a word, they all laid down their arms, and begged their
lives; and I sent the man that had parleyed with them, and
two more, who bound them all. And then my great army of
fifty men, which, particularly with those three, were in a but
eight, came up and seized upon them all, and upon their boat ;
only that I kept myself and one more out of sight, for reasons
of state.

Our next work was to repair the boat, and to think of
seizing the ship. As for the captain, now he had leisure to
parley with them, he expostulated with them upon the villainy
of their practices with him, and at length, upon the further
wickedness of their design; and how certainly it must bring
them to misery and distress in the end, and perhaps to the
gallows.

They all appeared very penitent, and begged hard for
their lives. As for that, he told them they were none of his
prisoners, but the commanders of the island; and he
supposed he would send them to England, to be dealt with
there as justice required, except Atkins, whom he was com-
manded by the governor to advise to prepare for death ; for
that he would be hanged in the morning.

Though this was all a fiction of his own, yet it had its
desired effect. Atkins fell upon his knees to beg the captain to
intercede with the governor for his life; and all the rest
begged of him that they might not be sent to England.

It now occurred to me, that the time of our deliverance
was come, and that it would be a most easy thing to bring these
fellows in to be hearty in getting possession of the ship. So I
retired in the dark from them, that they might not see what
244 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

kind of a governor they had, and called the captain to me.
When I called as if at a good distance, one of the men was
ordered to speak again, and say to the captain, ‘ Captain, the
commander calls for you ;? and presently the captain replied,
‘Tell his Excellency I am just coming.’ This more perfectly
amused them ; and they all believed that the commander was
just by with his fifty men.

Upon the captain’s coming to me, I told him my project
for seizing the ship, which he liked wonderfully well, and
resolved to put it in execution the next morning.

But in order to execute it with more art, and to be
secure of success, I told him we must divide the prisoners,
and that he should go and take Atkins, and two more of the
worst of them, and send them pinioned to the cave where the
others lay. This was committed to Friday, and the two men
who came on shore with the captain.

They conveyed them to the cave, as to a prison; and it
was indeed a dismal place, especially to men in their con-
dition.

The others I ordered to my bower, as J called it, of which
I have given a full description; and as it was fenced in, and
they pinioned, the place was secure enough, considering they
were upon their behaviour.

To these in the morning I sent the captain, who was to
enter into a parley with them ; in a word, to try them, and tell
me whether he thought they might be trusted or no to go on
board and surprise the ship. He talked to them of the injury
done him, of the condition they were brought to; and that
though the governor had given them quarter for their lives,
as to the present action, yet that if they were sent to Eng-
land, they would be all hanged in chains, to be sure; but
that if they would join in so just an attempt as to recover
the ship, he would have the governor's engagement for their
pardon.

Any one may guess how readily such a proposal would
be accepted by men in their condition. They fell down on
their knees to the captain, and promised, with the deepest
imprecations, that they would be faithful to him to the
THE ORDER OF THE EXPEDITION, 245

last drop. So he brought me an account of the temper he
found them in; and that he verily believed they would be
faithful.

However, that we might be very secure, I told him he
should go back again, and choose out five of them, and tell
them that they should see that he did not want men; but he
would take out those five to be his assistants, and that the
governor would keep the other two, and the three that were
sent prisoners to the castle (my cave), as hostages for the
fidelity of those five; and that, if they proved unfaithful in the
execution, the five hostages should be hanged in chains alive
upon the shore.

This looked severe, and convinced them that the governor
was in earnest. However, they had no way left but to accept
it; and it was now the business of the prisoners, as much as

’

of the captain, to persuade the other five to do their duty.

CHAPTER LIII.—THE SHIP SECURED.

UR strength was now thus ordered for the expedition :
First, The captain, his mate, and passenger ; second, then
the two prisoners of the first gang, to whom, having their
characters from the captain, I had given their liberty, and
trusted them with arms; ¢/z7d, the other two whom I kept till
now in my bower pinioned, but, upon the captain’s motion,
had now been released ; fourth, these five released at last ; so
that they were twelve in all, besides five we kept prisoners in
the cave for hostages.

I asked the captain if he was willing to venture with these
hands on board the ship. As for me and my man Friday, I
did not think it was proper for us to stir, having seven men left
behind ; and it was employment enough for us to keep them
asunder, and supply them with victuals.

As to the five in the cave, I resolved to keep them fast;
but Friday went twice a day to them, to supply them with
necessaries ; and I made the other two carry provisions to a
certain distance, where Friday was to take it.
246 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

When I showed myself to the two hostages, it was with
the captain, who told them I was the person the governor had
ordered to look after them, and that it was the governor's
pleasure that they should not stir anywhere but by my direc-
tion; that if they did, they should be fetched into the castle,
and be laid in irons. So that as we never suffered them to
see me as governor, so I now appeared as another person, and
spoke of the governor, the garrison, the castle, and the like,
upon all occasions.

The captain now had no difficulty before him, but to
furnish his two boats, stop the breach of one, and man them.
He made his passenger the captain of one, with four other
men, and himself and his mate, and five more, went in the
other; and they contrived their business very well, for they
came up to the ship about midnight.

As soon as they came within call of the ship, he made
Robinson hail them, and tell them he had brought off the men
and the boat, but that it was a long time before they had found
them, and the like, holding them in a chat till they came to the
ship’s side; when the captain and the mate, entering first with
their arms, immediately knocked down the second mate and
carpenter with the butt end of their muskets. Being very faith-
fully seconded by their men, they secured all the rest that
were upon the main and quarter decks, and began to fasten
the hatches to keep those down who were below; when the
other boat and their men, entering at the forechains, secured
the forecastle of the ship, and the scuttle, which went down
into the cookroom, making three men they found there
prisoners.

When this was done, and all safe upon the deck, the
captain ordered the mate, with three men, to break into the
round-house, where the new rebel captain lay. Having taken
the alarm, he had got up, and, with two men and a boy
had got firearms in their hands; and when the mate with a
crow split open the door, the new captain and his men fired
boldly among them, and wounded the mate with a musket-ball,
which broke his arm, and wounded two more of the men, but
killed nobody.
a

THE SHIP IS TAKEN. 247

The mate, calling for help, rushed, however, into the round-
house, wounded as he was, and with his pistol shot the new
captain through the head, so that he never spoke a word; upon
which the rest yielded, and the ship was taken effectually with-
out any more lives being lost.

As soon as the ship was thus secured, the captain ordered
seven guns to be fired, which was the signal agreed upon with
me, to give me notice of his success ; which, you may be sure,
I was very glad to hear, having sat watching upon the shore
for it till near two of the clock in the morning.

Having thus heard the signal plainly, I laid me down;
and it having been a day of great fatigue to me, I slept very
sound, till I was something surprised with the noise of a gun ;
and presently starting up, I heard a man call me by the name
of ‘Governor, governor!’ and presently I knew the captain’s
voice ; when, climbing up to the top of the hill, there he stood,
and pointing to the ship, he embraced me in his arms. ‘My
dear friend and deliverer !’ says he, ‘there’s your ship, for she
is all yours, and so are we, and all that belong to her.’ I cast
my eyes to the ship, and there she rode within a little more
than half a mile of the shore—for they had weighed her
anchor as soon as they were masters of her—and the weather
being fair, had brought her to an anchor just against the
mouth of a little creek. The tide being up, the captain had
brought the pinnace in near the place where I first landed my
rafts, and so landed just at my door.

I was at first ready to sink down with the surprise ; for
I saw my deliverance indeed visibly put into my hands, all
things easy, and a large ship just ready to carry me away
whither I pleased to go. At first, for some time, I was not able
to answer one word ; but as he had taken me in his arms, I
held fast by him, or I should have fallen to the ground.

He perceived the surprise, and immediately pulled a
bottle out of his pocket, and gave me a dram of cordial,
which he had brought on purpose for me. After I drank
it, I sat down upon the ground, and though it brought me
to myself, yet it was a good while before I could speak a
word to him.
248 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

All this while the poor man was in as great an ecstasy
as I, only not under any surprise, as I was; and he said a
thousand kind, tender things to me, to compose and bring
me to myself; but such was the flood of joy in my breast, that
it put all my spirits into confusion, At last it broke into tears,
and in a little while after I recovered my speech.

Then I took my turn, and embraced him as my deliverer ;
and we rejoiced together. I told him I looked upon him as
a man sent from Heaven to deliver me, and that the whole
transaction seemed to be a chain of wonders; that such
things as these were the testimonies we had ofa secret hand
of Providence governing the world, and an evidence that the
eyes of an infinite power could search into the remotest
corner of the world, and send help to the miserable whenever
He pleased.

I forgot not to lift up my heart in thankfulness to Heaven;
and what heart could forbear to bless Him, who had not only
in a miraculous manner provided for one in such a wilderness,
and in such a desolate condition, but from whom every deliver-
ance must always be acknowledged to proceed ?

CHAPTER LIV.—LEAVES THE ISLAND.

HEN we had talked a while, the captain told me he had
brought me some little refreshments, such as the ship
afforded. But what was a thousand times more useful to me,
he brought me six clean new shirts, six very good neckcloths,
two pair of gloves, one pair of shoes, a hat, and one pair of
stockings, and a very good suit of clothes of his own, which
had been worn but very little. In a word, he clothed me from
head to foot. i
It was a very kind and agreeable present, as any one may
imagine, to one in my circumstances; but never was any-
thing in the world of that kind so unpleasant, awkward,
and uneasy, as it was to me to wear such clothes on their
first putting on.
We now began to consult what was to be done with the
A CONSULTATION WITH THE CAPTAIN. 249

prisoners we had; for it was worth considering whether we
might venture to take them away with us or no, especially two
of them, whom we knew to be incorrigible and refractory to
the last degree ; and the captain said, he knew they were such
rogues, that there was no obliging them; and if he did carry
them away, it must be in irons, as malefactors, to be delivered
over to justice at the first English colony he could come
at. And I found that the captain himself was very anxious
about it.

Upon this I told him, that if he desired it, I durst under-
take to bring the two men he spoke of to make it their own
request that he should leave them upon the island. ‘I should
be very glad of that,’ says the captain, ‘ with all my heart.’

‘Well,’ said I, ‘I will send for them, and talk with them
for you ;’ so I caused Friday and the two hostages—for they
were now discharged, their comrades having performed their
promise—I say, I caused them to go to the cave, and bring up
the five men, pinioned as they were, to the bower, and keep
them there till I came.

After some time, I came thither dressed in my new habit,
and now I was called governor again. Being all met, and the
captain with me, I caused the men to be brought before me,
and I told them, I had had a full account of their*villainous
behaviour to the captain, and how they had run away with the
ship, and were preparing to commit further robberies; but
that Providence had ensnared them in their own ways, and
that they were fallen into the pit which they had digged for
others.

I let them know, that by my direction the ship had been
seized, that she lay now in the road, and they might see by-
and-by, that their new captain had received the reward of his
villainy ; for that they might:see him hanging at the yard-
arm. That as to them, I wanted to know what they had
to say, why I should not execute them as pirates taken in
the fact, as by my commission they could not doubt I had
authority to do.

One of them answered in the name of the rest, that they
had nothing to say but this, that when they were taken, the
250 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

captain promised them their lives, and they humbly implored
my mercy. But I told them I knew not what mercy to show
them ; for, as for myself, I had resolved to quit the island with
all my men, and had taken passage with the captain to go for
England. As for the captain, he could not carry them to
England, other than as prisoners in irons to be tried for
mutiny, and running away with the ship, the consequence of
which, they must needs know, would be the gallows ; so that I
could not tell what was the best for them, unless they had a
mind to take their fate in the island. Ifthey desired that, as I
had liberty to leave the island, I had some inclination to give
them their lives, if they thought they could shift on shore.
They seemed very thankful for it; said they would much
rather venture to stay there, than to be carried to England to-
be hanged. So I left it on that issue.

However, the captain seemed to make some difficulty o.
it, asif he durst not leave them there. Upon this, I seemed
to be a little angry with the captain, and told him that they
were my prisoners, not his; and that, seeing I had offered them
so much favour, I would be as good as my word. If he did
not think fit to consent to it, I would set them at liberty as I
found them ; and, if he did not like that, he might take them
again if he could catch them.

Upon this, they appeared very thankful, and I accordingly
set them at liberty, and bade them retire into the woods, to the
place whence they came, and I would leave them some fire-
arms, Some ammunition, and some directions how they should
live very well, if they thought fit.

Upon this, I prepared to go on board the ship, but told
the captain that I would stay that night to prepare my things ;
and desired him to go on board in the meantime, and keep all
right in the ship, and send the boat on shore the next day for
me ; ordering him, in the meantime, to cause the new captain,
who was killed, to be hanged at the yard-arm, that these men
might see him.

When the captain was gone, I sent for the men up to me
to my apartment, and entered seriously into discourse with
them of their circumstances. I told them, I thought they had
THE PRISONERS AGREE TO REMAIN. 251

made a right choice; that, if the captain carried them away,
they would certainly be hanged. I showed them their new
captain hanging at the yard-arm of the ship, and told them
they had nothing less to expect.

When they all declared their willingness to stay, I then
told them I would let them into the story of my living there,
and put them into the way of making it easyto them. Accord-
ingly, I gave them the whole history of the place, and of my
coming to it; showed them my fortifications, the way I made
my bread, planted my corn, cured my grapes ; and, in a word,
all that was necessary to make them easy. I told them the
story of the sixteen Spaniards that were to be expected ; for
whom I left a letter, and made them promise to treat them in
common with themselves.

Having done all this, I left them the next day, and went
on board the ship. We prepared immediately to sail, but did
not weigh that night. The next morning early, two of the five
men came swimming to the ship’s side, and, making a most
lamentable complaint of the other three, begged to be taken
into the ship for God’s sake, for they should be murdered ; and
begged the captain to take them on board, though he hanged
them immediately.

Upon this, the captain pretended to have no power without
me; but, after some difficulty, and after their solemn promises
of amendment, they were taken on board, and were some time
after soundly whipped and pickled; after which they proved
very honest and quiet fellows.

Some time after this, I went with the boat on shore, the
tide being up, with the things promised to the men, to which
the captain, at my intercession, caused their chests and clothes
to be added, which they took, and were very thankful for. I
also encouraged them, by tellirig them, that if it lay in my way
to send a vessel to take them in, I would not forget them.

When I took leave of this island, I carried on board for
relics the great goat-skin cap I had made, my umbrella, and
one of my parrots. Also, I forgot not to take the money I
formerly mentioned, which had lain by me so long useless that
it was grown rusty, or tarnished, and could hardly pass for

g
252 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

silver, till it had been a little rubbed and handled; and also
the money I found in the wreck of the Spanish ship.

And thus I left the island the 19th day of December, as
I found by the ship’s account, in the year 1686, after I had been
upon it eight-and-twenty years, two months, and nineteen days ;
being delivered from the second captivity the same day of the
month that I first made my escape in the long-boat from
among the Moors of Sallee.

In this vessel, after a long voyage, I arrived in England
on the 11th of June, in the year 1687, having been thirty and
five years absent.

CHAPTER LV.—ARRIVES IN ENGLAND. A VISIT TO
LISBON.

ye I came to England I was a perfect stranger to all

the world, as if I had never been known there. My
benefactor and faithful steward, whom I had left in trust with
my money, was alive, but had had great misfortunes in the
world, was become a widow the second time, and very low in
the world. I made her easy as to what she owed me, assuring
her I would give her no trouble. But, on the contrary,
in gratitude for her former care and faithfulness to me, I
relieved her as my little stock would afford, which at that
time would, indeed, allow me to do but little for her; but I
assured her I would never forget her former kindness to me:
nor did I forget her when I had sufficient to help her.

I went down afterwards into Yorkshire, but my father was
dead, and my mother and all the family extinct, except that I
found two sisters, and two of the children of one of my
brothers. And as I had been long ago given over for dead,
there had been no provision made for me; so that, in a
word, I found nothing to relieve or assist me; and what
little money I had would not do much for me as to settling
in the world.

I met with one piece of gratitude, indeed, which I did not
expect ; and this was, that the master of the ship whom I had
so happily delivered, and by the same means saved the ship
HE VISITS AN OLD FRIEND. 253

and cargo, having given a very handsome account to the
owners of the manner how I had saved the lives of the men,
and the ship, they invited me to meet them and some other
merchants concerned, and all together made me a very hand-
some compliment upon that subject, and a present of almost
two hundred pounds sterling.

But after making several reflections upon the circumstances
of my life, and how little way this would go towards settling
me in the world, I resolved to go to Lisbon, and see if
I might not come at some information of the state of my
plantation in the Brazils, and what was become of my partner,
who, I had reason to suppose, had some years now given me
over for dead.

With this view I took ship for Lisbon, where I arrived in
April following, my man Friday accompanying me very
honestly in all these ramblings, and proving a most faithful
servant upon all occasions.

When I came to Lisbon, I found out, by inquiry, and to
my particular satisfaction, my old friend the captain of the
ship, who first took me up at sea off the shore of Africa. He
was now grown old, and had left off the sea, having put his
son, who was far from a young man, into his ship, and who
still used the Brazil trade. The old man did not know me,
and, indeed, I hardly knew him ; but I soon brought myself to
his remembrance when I told him who I was,

After some passionate expressions of our old acquaintance,
I inquired, you may be sure, after my plantation and my
partner. The old man told me he had not been in the Brazils
for about nine years; but that he could assure me that, when
he came away, my partner was living, but the trustees, whom I
had joined with him to take cognisance of my part, were both
dead. However, he believed that I would have a very good
account of the improvement of the plantation, for that, upon
the general belief of my being cast away and drowned,
my trustees had given in the account of the produce of my
part of the plantation to the procurator-fiscal, who had appro-
priated it, in case I never came to claim it, one-third to the
king, and two-thirds to the monastery of St Augustine, to be
254 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

expended for the benefit of the poor, and for the conversion of
the Indians to the Catholic faith; but that if I appeared, or any
one for me, to claim the inieritance, it would be restored,

I asked him if he knew whether, on my going thither, I
should meet with any obstruction to my possessing my just
right in the moiety.

He told me he could not tell exactly, but this he knew,
that as to my being restored to a quiet possession of it, there
was no question, my partner being alive to witness my title,
and my name being also enrolled in the register of the
country,

‘But,’ says the old man, ‘I have one piece of news to tell
you, which perhaps may not be so acceptable to you as the
rest, and that is, that believing you were lost, and all the world
believing so also, your partner and trustees did offer to account
to me, in your name, for six or eight of the first years of profit,
which I received ; but there being at that time,’ says he, ‘great
disbursements for increasing the works, building an zngenio
(so they call the sugar-house), and buying slaves, it did not
amount to near so much as afterwards it produced ; however,’
says the old man, ‘I shall give you a true account of what I
have received in all, and how I have disposed of it.’

After a few days’ further conference with this ancient friend,
he brought me an account of the first six years’ income of
my plantation, and I found by this account, that every year
the income considerably increased. The old man let me see
that he was debtor to me four hundred and seventy moidores
of gold, besides sixty chests of sugar, and fifteen double rolls of
tobacco, which were lost in his ship, he having been ship-
wrecked coming home to Lisbon, about eleven years after my
leaving the place.

The good man then began to complain of his misfortunes,
and how he had been obliged to make use of my money
to recover his losses, and buy him a share in a new ship.
‘However, my old friend,’ says he, ‘you shall not want a supply
in your necessity, and as soon as my son returns, you shall be
fully satisfied.’

Upon this, he pulls out an old pouch, and gives me two
HE AFFIRMS HIS RIGHT TO HIS ESTATE, 255

hundred Portugal moidores in gold; and giving me the
writings of his title to the ship which his son was gone to the
Brazils in, of which he was a quarter-part owner, and his son
another, he puts them both in my hands for security of the
rest.

I was too much moved with the honesty and kindness of
the poor man, to be able to bear this ; and, remembering what
he had done for me, how he had taken me up at sea, and how
generously he had used me on all occasions, and particularly
how sincere a friend he was now to me, I could hardly refrain
from weeping at what he said tome. Therefore, first, I asked
him if his circumstances admitted him to spare so much money
at that time, and if it would not straiten him? He told me,
he could not say but it might straiten him a little; but,
however, it was my money, and I might want it more than he.

Everything the good man said was full of affection, and I
could hardly refrain from tears while he spoke. In short, I
took one hundred of the moidores, and called for a pen and ink
to give him a receipt for them; then I returned him the rest.

When this was past, the old man began to ask me if he
should put me on a method to make my claim to my plantation.
I told him, I thought to go over to it myself. He said, I might
do so if I pleased; but that if I did not, there were ways
enough to secure my right, and immediately to appropriate the
profits to my use. As there were ships in the river of Lisbon,
just ready to go away to Brazil, he made me enter my name in
a public register, with this affidavit, affirming upon oath that
I was alive, and that I was the same person who took up the
land for the planting the said plantation at first.

This being regularly attested by notary, and a procura-
tion affixed, he directed me to send it with a letter of his
writing, to a merchant of his acquaintance at the place ; and
then proposed my staying with him till an account came of the
return,

Never anything was more honourable than the proceed-
ings upon this procuration; for in less than seven months, I
received a large packet of papers from the survivors of my
trustees, with money and other effects.
256 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I was now master, all on a sudden, of above fifty thousand
pounds sterling in money, and had an estate, as I might well
call it, in the Brazils, of above a thousand pounds a year, as
sure as an estate of lands in England. In a word, I was in a
condition which I scarcely knew how to understand, or how to
compose myself for the enjoyment of.

The first thing I did was to recompense my original bene-
factor, my good old captain, who had been first charitable to
me in my distress, kind to me in the beginning, and honest
to me at the end.

CHAPTER LVI.—TRAVELS THROUGH SPAIN.

I WAS now to consider which way to steer my course next,

and what to do with the estate that Providence had thus
put into my hands. Indeed, I had more care upon my head
now than I had in my silent state of life in the island, where I
wanted nothing but what I had, and had nothing but what I
wanted ; whereas I had now a great charge upon me, and my
business was how to secure it. I had not a cave to hide my
money in, or a place where it might lie without lock or key,
till it grew mouldy and tarnished before anybody would meddle
with it. On the contrary, I knew not where to put it, or whom
to trust with it ; my old patron, the captain, indeed, was honest,
and that was the only refuge I had.

In the next place, my interest in the Brazils seemed to
summon me thither ; but now I could not tell how to think of
going there till I had settled my affairs, and left my effects
in some hands behind me; but really I did not know with whom
to leave them, so I resolved at last to go to England. Accord-
ingly, I prepared to go there with all my wealth.

Having at last settled my affairs, sold my cargo, and turned
all my effects into good bills of exchange, my next difficulty
was, which way to go to England. I had been accustomed
enough to the sea, and yet I had a strange aversion to go to
England by sea at that time. And though I could give no
reason for it, yet the difficulty increased upon me so much, that
HE RESOLVES TO GO TO ENGLAND. 257

though I had once shipped my baggage in order to go, yet
I altered my mind, and that not once, but two or three
times.

It is true, I had been very unfortunate by sea, and this
might be one of the reasons. But let no man slight the strong
impulses of his own thoughts in cases of such moment.

I was so prepossessed against going by sea at all, except
from Calais to Dover, that I resolved to travel all the way by
land; which, as I was not in haste, and did not value the
charge, was by much the pleasanter way. And to make it
more so, my old captain brought an English gentleman, the
son of a merchant in Lisbon, who was willing to travel with
me; after which, we picked up two who were English, and
merchants also, and two young Portuguese gentlemen, the last
going to Paris only. So that we were in all six of us, and five
servants, the two merchants and the two Portuguese contenting
themselves with one servant between two, to save the charge;
and as for me, I got an English sailor to travel with me as a
servant, besides my man Friday, who was too much a stranger
to be capable of supplying the place of a servant upon the
road,

In this manner I set out from Lisbon; and our company
being all very well mounted and armed, we made a little troop,
whereof they did me the honour to call me captain, as well
because I was the oldest man, as because I had two servants,
and indeed was the origin of the whole journey.

As I have troubled you with none of my sea journals, so
shall I trouble you with none of my land journal. But some
adventures that happened to us in this tedious and difficult
journey, I must not omit.

When we came to Madrid, we being all of us strangers to
Spain, were willing to stay some time to see the court of Spain,
and what was worth observing ; but it being the latter part of
the summer, we hastened away, and set out from Madrid about
the middle of October. But when we came to the edge of
Navarre, we were alarmed, at several towns on the way, with
an account that so much snow was fallen on the French side of
the mountains, that several travellers were obliged to come back
258 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

to Pampeluna, after having attempted, at an extreme hazard,
to pass on.

When we came to Pampeluna itself, we found it so indeed;
and to me, that had been always used to a hot climate, and
indeed to countries where we could scarcely bear any clothes
on, the cold was insufferable. Nor, indeed, was it more painful
than it was surprising, to come but ten days before out of Old
Castile, where the weather was not only warm, but very hot,
and immediately to feel a wind from the Pyrenean mountains,
so very keen, so severely cold, as to be intolerable, and to
endanger benumbing and perishing of our fingers and toes,
was very strange.

Poor Friday was really frighted when he saw the moun-
tains all covered with snow, and felt cold weather, which he
had never seen or felt before in his life.

To mend the matter, after we came to Pampeluna, it
continued snowing with so much violence, and so long, that
the people said winter was come before its time; and the
roads, which were difficult before, were now quite impassable.
In a word, the snow lay in some places too thick for us to
travel ; and not being hard frozen, as is the case in northern
countries, there was no going without being in danger of being
buried alive every step. We stayed no less than twenty
days at Pampeluna: when (seeing the winter coming on, and
no likelihood of its being better, for it was the severest winter
all over Europe that had been known for many years) I pro-
posed that we should all go away to Fontarabia, and there
take ship for Bordeaux, which was a very little voyage.

But while we were considering this, there came in four
French gentlemen, who, having been stopped on the French
side of the passes, as we were on the Spanish, had found out a
guide, who, traversing the country near the head of Languedoc,
had brought them over the mountains by such ways, that they
were not much incommoded with the snow; and where they
met with snow in any quantity, they said it was frozen hard
enough to bear them and their horses.

We sent for this guide, who told us he would undertake
to carry us the same way with no hazard from the snow, pro-
HE CROSSES THE PYRENEES, 259

vided we were armed sufficiently to protect us from wild beasts;
for, he said, upon these great snows, it was frequent for some
wolves to show themselves at the foot of the mountains, being
made ravenous for want of food, the ground being covered
with snow. We told him we were well enough prepared for
such creatures as they were, if he would insure us from a kind
of two-legged wolves, which we were told we were in most
danger from, especially on the French side of the mountains.

He satisfied us there was no danger of that kind in the
way that we were to go; so we readily agreed to follow him;
as did also twelve other gentlemen, with their servants, some
French, some Spanish, who, as I said, had attempted to go,
and were obliged to come back again.

Accordingly, we all set out from Pampeluna, with our guide,
on the 15th of November, and approached the mountains.
It is true, the hills and the precipices looked dreadful, yet
he made so many tours, such meanders, and led us by such
winding ways, we insensibly passed the height of the moun-
tains, without being much encumbered with the snow; and all
on a sudden he showed us the pleasant fruitful provinces of
Languedoc and Gascony, all green and flourishing ; though
indeed they were at a great distance, and we had some rough
way to pass yet.

We were a little uneasy, however, when we found it snowed
one whole day and a night so fast that we could not travel;
but he bade us be easy, we should soon be past it all. We
found, indeed, that we began to descend every day, and to
come more north than before; and so, depending upon our
guide, we went on.

CHAPTER LVII.—FRIDAY AND THE WOLF. A BEAR’S
CHARACTER.

{It was about two hours before night when, our guide being

something before us, and not just in sight, out rushed
three monstrous wolves, and after them a bear, out of a hollow
way, adjoining to a thick wood. Two of the wolves flew upon
260 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

the guide, and had he been half a mile before us, he would
have been devoured indeed, before we could have helped him.
One of them fastened upon his horse, and the other attacked
the man with that violence that he had not time, nor presence
of mind enough, to draw his pistol, but hallooed and cried out
to us most lustily. My man Friday being next to me, I bade
him ride up, and see what was the matter. As soon as Friday
came in sight of the man, he hallooed as loud as the other,
*O master! O master !’—but, like a bold fellow, rode directly
up to the man, and with his pistol shot the wolf that attacked
him in the head.

It was happy for the poor man that it was my man Friday;
for he, having been used to that kind of creature in his country,
had no fear upon him, but went close up to him, and shot him
as above; whereas any of us would have fired at a farther
distance, and perhaps either missed the wolf, or endangered
shooting the man.

But it was enough to have terrified a 1 bolder man than I,
and indeed it alarmed all our company, when, with the noise
of Friday’s pistol, we heard on both sides the dismalest howlings
of wolves, and the noise redoubled by the echo of the moun-
tains, that it was to us as if there had been a prodigious
multitude of them ; and perhaps, indeed, there was not sucha
few as that we had no cause of apprehension.

However, as Friday had killed this wolf, the other, that had
fastened upon the horse, left him immediately, and fled, having
happily fastened upon his head, where the bosses of the bridle
had stuck in his teeth, so that he had not done him much hurt.
The man, indeed, was most hurt; for the raging creature had
bit him twice, once on the arm, and the other time a little
above his knee ; and he was just as it were tumbling down by
the disorder of his horse, when Friday came up and wo the
wolf.

It is easy to suppose, that at the noise of Friday’s tsi
we all mended our pace, and rode up as fast as the way (which
was very difficult) would give us leave, to see what was the
matter. As soon as we came clear of the trees which blinded
us before, we saw plainly what had been the case, and how
FRIDAY AND THE BEAR. 261

Friday had disengaged the poor guide; though we did not
presently discern what kind of creature it was he had
killed.

But never was a fight managed so hardily, and in such a
surprising manner, as that which followed between Friday and
the bear, which gave us all (though at first we were surprised
and afraid for him) the greatest diversion imaginable. As the
bear is a heavy, clumsy creature, and does not gallop as the
wolf does, which is swift and light, so he has two particular
qualities, which generally are the rule of his actions. First, as
to men, who are not his proper prey; I say, not his proper prey,
because, though I can’t say what excessive hunger might do,
which was now their case, the ground being all covered with
snow ; yet as to men, he does not usually attempt them, unless
they first attack him. On the contrary, if you meet him in the
woods, if you don’t meddle with him, he won’t meddle with
you. But then you must take care to be very civil to him, and
give him the road, for he is a very nice gentleman ; he won’t
go a step out of the way for a prince. Nay, if you are really
afraid, your best way is to look another way, and keep going
on; for sometimes, if you stop, and stand still, and look stead-
fastly at him, he takes it for an affront. And if you throw or
toss anything at him, and it hits him, though it were but a bit
of stick as big as your finger, he takes it for an affront also, and
sets all other business aside to pursue his revenge ; for he will
have satisfaction in point of honour, and this is his first
quality. The next is, that if he be once affronted, he will never
leave you, night or day, till he has his revenge, but follow at a
good round rate till he overtakes you.

My man Friday had delivered our guide, and when we
came up to him, he was helping him off from his horse; for
the man was both hurt and frighted, and indeed the last more
than the first; when, on a sudden, we espied the bear come
out of the wood, and a very monstrous one it was, the biggest
by far that ever I saw. We were all a little surprised when we
saw him; but when Friday saw him, it was easy to see joy and
courage in the fellow’s countenance: ‘Oh! Oh! Oh!” says
Friday, three times, pointing to him, ‘O master! you give me
262 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

te leave, me shakee te hand with him, me makee you good
laugh.

I was surprised to see the fellow so pleased: ‘You fool
you,’ said I, ‘he will eat you up!’ ‘Eatee me up! eatee me
up!’ says Friday twice over again; ‘me eatee him up; me
make you good laugh; you all stay here, me show you good
laugh.’ So down he sits, and gets his boots off in a moment,
and puts on a pair of pumps (as we call the flat shoes they
wear, and which he had in his pocket), and gives my other
servant his horse, and with his gun away he flew, swift like the
wind.

The bear was walking softly on, and offered to meddle with
nobody, till Friday, coming pretty near, calls to him, as if
the bear could understand him : ‘Hark ye! hark ye!’ says
Friday, ‘me speakee wit you.’ We followed at a distance ; for
now being come down to the Gascony side of the mountains,
we were entered a vast forest, where the country was a plain,
and pretty open, though many trees in it scattered here and
there.

Friday, who had, as we say, the heels of the bear, came
up with him quickly, and takes up a great stone, and throws at
him, and hit him just on the head, but did him no more harm
than if he had thrown it against a wall. But it answered Friday’s
end; for the rogue was so void of fear, that he did it purely
to make the bear follow him, and show us some laugh, as he
called it.

As soon as the bear felt the stone, and saw him, he turns
about, and comes after him, taking very long strides, and shuf-
fling along at a strange rate, so as he would put a horse to
a middling gallop. Away runs Friday, and takes his course
as if he ran towards us for help; so we all resolved to fire at
once upon the bear, and deliver my man, though I was heartily
angry at him for bringing the bear back upon us, when he was
going about his business another way. And especially I was
angry that he had turned the bear upon us, and then run away;
and I called out, ‘You dog,’ said I, ‘is this your making us
laugh? Come away, and take your horse, that we may shoot
the creature.’
THE DANCING BEAR. 263

He hears me, and cries out, ‘No shoot, no shoot, stand
still, you get much laugh ;’ and as the nimble creature ran
two feet for the beast’s one, he turned on a sudden on one side
of us, and seeing a great oak tree fit for his purpose, he
beckoned us to follow, and doubling his pace, he gets nimbly
up the tree, laying his gun down upon the ground, at about five
or six yards from the bottom of the tree.

The bear soon came to the tree, and we followed at a
distance. The first thing he did, he stopped at the gun, smelt
it, but let it lie, and up he scrambles into the tree, climbing
like a cat, though so monstrous heavy. I was amazed at the
folly, as I thought it, of my man, and could not for my life see
anything to laugh at yet, till, seeing the bear get up the tree,
we all rode nearer to him.

CHAPTER LVIII.—THE DANCING BEAR,

WA BEN we came to the tree, there was Friday got out to

the small end of a large branch of the tree, and the
bear got about half-way to him. As soon as the bear got out
to that part where the limb of the tree was weaker, ‘ Ha,’ says
he to us, ‘now you see me teachee the bear dance;’ so he
began jumping and shaking the bough, at which the bear began
to totter, but stood still, and began to look behind him to see
how he should get back; then, indeed, we did laugh heartily.
But Friday had not done with him by a great deal. When he
sees him stand still, he calls out to him again, as if he had
supposed the bear could speak English, ‘What! you come no
farther? Pray you come farther.’ So he left jumping and
shaking the bough; and the bear, just as if he understood
what he said, did come a little farther; then he began
jumping again, and the bear stopped again.

We thought now was a good time to knock him on the
head, and called to Friday to stand still, and we would shoot
the bear; but he cried out earnestly, ‘Oh, pray! Oh, pray! no
shoot, me shoot by and then’—he would have said by-and-by.
However, to shorten the story, Friday danced so much, and
264 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the bear stood so ticklish, that we had laughing enough,
indeed, but still could not imagine what the fellow would do.
First we thought he depended upon shaking the bear off, and
we found the bear was too cunning for that too, for he would
not get out far enough to be thrown down, but clings fast with
his great broad claws and feet, so that we could not imagine
what would be the end of it, and where the jest would be
at last.

But Friday put us out of doubt quickly; for, seeing the
bear cling fast to the bough, and that he would not be per-
suaded to come any farther, ‘Well, well, said Friday, ‘you no
come farther, me go, me go; you no come to me, me come to
you;’ and upon this he goes out to the smallest end of the
bough, where it would bend with his weight, and gently lets
himself down by it, sliding down the bough till he came near
enough to jump down on his feet ; and away he ran to his gun,
takes it up, and stands still.

‘Well,’ said I to him, ‘Friday, what will you do now?) Why
don’t you shoot him ?’

“No shoot,’ says Friday, ‘no yet ; me shoot now me no kill ;
me stay, give you one more laugh?

And, indeed, so he did, as you will see presently ; for when
the bear saw his enemy gone, he comes back from the bough
where he stood, but did it mighty Icisurely, looking behind
him every step, and coming backward till he got into the body
of the tree ; then, with the same hinder end foremost, he came
down the tree, grasping it with his claws, and moving one foot
at a time, very Icisurely. At this juncture, and just before he
could put his hind feet upon the ground, Friday stepped close
to him, clapped the muzzle of his piece into his ear, and shot
him as dead as a stone.

Then the rogue turned about to see if we did not laugh ;
and when he saw we were pleased by our looks, he began
laughing himself very loud.

©So we kill bear in my country,’ says Friday.

‘So you kill them?’ said 1; ‘why, you have no guns.’

‘No,’ says he, ‘no guns, but shoot great much long
arrow.’
WOLVES IN THE PLAINS. 265

This was, indeed, a good diversion to us; but we were still
in a wild place, and our guide very much hurt, and what to do
we hardly knew. The howling of wolves ran much in my
head ; and, indeed, except the noise I once heard on the shore
of Africa, of which I have said something already, I never
heard anything that filled me with so much horror.

These things, and the approach of night, called us off, or
else, as Friday would have had us, we should certainly have
taken the skin of this monstrous creature off, which was worth
saving ; but we had three leagues to go, and our guide hastened
us ; so we left it, and went forward on our journey.

The ground was still covered with snow, though not so
deep and dangerous as on the mountains; and the ravenous
creatures, as we heard afterwards, were come down into the
forest and plain country, pressed by hunger, to seek for food,
and had done a great deal of mischief in the villages, where
they surprised the country people, killed a great many of their
sheep and horses, and some people too.

We had one dangerous place to pass, of which our guide
told us, if there were any more wolves in the country, we should
find them there ; and this was a small plain, surrounded with
woods on every side, and a long narrow defile or lane, which
we were to pass to get through the wood, and then we should
come to the village where we were to lodge.

It was within half an hour of sunset when we entered the
first wood, and a little after sunset when we came into the
plain. We met with nothing in the first wood, except that in
a little plain within the wood, which was not above two furlongs
over, we saw five great wolves cross the road, full speed one
after another, as if they had been in chase of some prey, and
had it in view. They took no notice of us, and were gone and
out of sight in a few moments.

Upon this our guide, who, by the way, was a wretched,
faint-hearted fellow, bade us keep in a ready posture; for he
believed there were more wolves coming.

We kept our arms ready, and our eyes about us; but we
saw no more wolves till we came through that wood, which was
near half a league, and entered the plain. As soon as we came
266 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

into the plain, we had occasion enough to look about us. The
first object we met with was a dead horse, that is to say, a poor
horse which the wolves had killed, and at least a dozen of them
at work ; we could not say, eating him, but picking his bones
rather ; for they had eaten up all the flesh before.























We did not think fit to disturb them at their feast, neither
did they take much notice of us. Friday would have let fly at
them, but I would not suffer him by any means; for I found
we were like to have more business upon our hands than we
were aware of. We were not half gone over the plain, but we
ATTACKED BY WOLVES, 267

began to hear the wolves howl in the woods on our left in a
frightful manner ; and presently after, we saw about a hundred
coming on directly towards us, all in a body, and most of them
in a line, as regularly as an army drawn up by experienced
officers.

I scarcely knew in what manner to receive them; but
found the only way was to draw ourselves in a close line; so
we formed in a moment. But that we might not have too
much interval, I ordered, that only every other man should
fire ; and that the others, who had not fired, should stand ready
to give them a second volley immediately, if they continued to
advance upon us; and that then those who had fired at first,
should not pretend to load their fusees again, but stand ready,
with every one a pistol, for we were all armed with a fusil
and a pair of pistols each man; so we were, by this method,
able to fire six volleys, half of us at a time. However, at
present we had no necessity, for upon firing the first volley, the
enemy made a full stop, being terrified, as well with the noise
as with the fire.

Four of them being shot in the head, dropped; several
others were wounded, and went bleeding off, as we could see
by the snow. I found they stopped, but did not immediately
retreat ; whereupon, remembering that I had been told that
the fiercest creatures were terrified at the voice of a man, I
caused all our company to halloo as loud as we could, and I
found the notion not altogether mistaken ; for upon our shout,
they began to retire and turn about. Then I ordered a second
volley to be fired in their rear, which put them to the gallop,
and away they went to the woods.

This gave us leisure to charge our pieces again, and that
we might lose no time, we kept going. But we had but little
more than loaded our fusils, and put ourselves into a readiness,
when we heard a terrible noise in the same wood on our left ;
only that it was farther onward the same way we were to go,
268 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

CHAPTER LIX.—A FIGHT WITH WOLVES.

ee night was coming on, and the light began to be dusky,

which made it the worse on our side; but the noise
increasing, we could easily perceive that it was the howling and
yelling of those fierce creatures ; and on a sudden, we perceived
two or three troops of wolves on our left, one behind us,
and one on our front, so that we seemed to be surrounded
with them. However, as they did not fall upon us, we kept
our way forward, as fast as we could make our horses go,
which, the way being very rough, was only a good large trot;
and in this manner we only came in view of the entrance of the
wood through which we were to pass, at the farther side of the
plain; but we were greatly surprised, when, coming near the
lane, or pass, we saw a confused number of wolves standing
just at the entrance.

On a sudden, at another opening of the wood, we heard
the noise of a gun; and looking that way, out rushed a horse,
with a saddle and a bridle on him, flying like the wind, and
sixteen or seventeen wolves after him full speed. Indeed,
the horse had the heels of them; but as we supposed that he
could not hold it at that rate, we doubted not but they would
get up with him at last—and no question but they did.

But here we had a most horrible sight; for, riding up to
the entrance where the horse came out, we found the carcass
of another horse, and of two men, devoured by these ravenous
creatures. One of them was no doubt the same whom we heard
fire a gun, for there lay a gun just by him fired off; but as to the
man, his head and the upper part of his body were eaten up.

This filled us with horror, and we knew not what course
to take. But the creatures resolved us soon, for they gathered
about us presently, in hopes of prey ; and I verily believe there
were three hundred of them. It happened very much to our
advantage, that at the entrance into the wood, but a little way
from it, there lay some large timber trees, which had been cut
down the summer before, and I suppose lay there for carriage.
I drew my little troop in among these trees, and placing ourselves


THE WOLVES DEFEATED. 269

in a line behind one long tree, I advised them all to alight,
and, keeping that tree before us for a breastwork, to stand in
a triangle, or three fronts, inclosing our horses in the centre.

We did so, and it was well we did; for never was a more
furious charge than the creatures made upon us in this place.
They came on us with a growling kind of a noise, and mounted
the piece of timber (which, as I said, was our breastwork), as
if they were only rushing upon their prey; and this fury of
theirs, it seems, was principally occasioned by their seeing our
horses behind us, which were the prey they aimed at. I ordered
our men to fire as before, every man ; and they took their aim
so sure, that indeed they killed several of the wolves at the first
volley ; but there was a necessity to keep a continual firing, for
they rushed towards us, those behind pushing on those before.

When we had fired our second volley of fusils, we thought
they stopped a little, and I hoped they would have gone off;
but it was but a moment, for others came forward again. So
we fired our volleys of pistols ; and I believe in these four
firings we killed seventeen or eighteen of them, and lamed
twice as many, yet they came on again.

I was loath to spend our last shot too hastily; so I called
my servant, not my man Friday, for he was better employed—
for, with the greatest dexterity imaginable, he charged my fusil
and his own while we were engaged—but, as I said, I called
my other man, and, giving him a horn of powder, I bade him
lay a train all along the piece of timber, and let it be a large
train. He did so, and had but time to get away, when the
wolves came up to it, and some were got up upon it ; when I,
snapping an uncharged pistol close to the powder, set it on fire,

Those that were upon the timber were scorched with it,
and six or seven of them fell, or rather jumped in among us,
with the force and fright of the fire. We despatched these in
an instant, and the rest were so frightened with the light, which
the night, for now it was very dark, made more terrible, that
they drew back a little.

Upon which I ordered our last pistols to be fired off in one
volley, and after that we gave a shout. Upon this, the wolves
turned tail, and we sallied immediately upon near twenty lame
270 ROBINSON CRUSOE.

ones, which we found struggling on the ground, and began
cutting them with our swords, which answered our expectation ;
for the crying and howling they made were better understood
by their fellows, so that they fled and left us.

We had, first and last, killed about three score of them ;
and had it been daylight, we had killed many more. The field
of battle being thus cleared, we made forward again; for we
had still nearly a league to go. We heard the ravenous
creatures howl and yell in the woods, as we went, several times,
and sometimes we fancied we saw some of them, but the snow
dazzling our eyes, we were not certain. So in about an hour
more, we came to the town where we were to lodge, which we
found in a terrible fright, and all in arms. It seems that the
night before, the wolves and some bears had broken into that
village, and put them in a terrible fright ; and they were obliged
to keep guard night and day, but especially in the night, to
preserve their cattle, and indeed their people.

The next morning our guide was so ill, and his limbs so
swelled with the rankling of his two wounds, that he could go
no farther ; so we were obliged to take a new guide there and
go to Toulouse, where we found a warm climate, a fruitful,
pleasant country, and no snow, no wolves, or anything like them.

I have nothing uncommon to take notice of in my passage
through France, nothing but what other travellers have given
an account of with much more advantage than I can. I
travelled from Toulouse to Paris, and without any considerable
stay came to Calais, and landed safe at Dover the 14th of
January, after having had a severely cold season to travel in.

CHAPTER LX.—SETTLES IN ENGLAND. REVISITS HIS
ISLAND,

I WAS now come to the centre of my travels, and had in a

little time all my new-discovered estate safe about me,

the bills of exchange which I brought with me having been
very currently paid.

My principal guide and privy-councillor was my good
HIS OLD FRIEND, THE WIDOW. 271

ancient widow, who thought no pains too much, or care too
great, to employ for me; and I trusted her so entirely with
everything, that I was perfectly easy as to the security of my
effects.

And now I began to think of leaving my effects with this
woman, and setting out for Lisbon, and so to the Brazils. To
this purpose I wrote to my old friend at Lisbon, who in return
gave me notice that he could easily dispose of it there; but
that if I thought fit to give him leave to offer it, in my name,
to the two merchants, the survivors of my trustees, who lived
in the Brazils, he did not doubt but I should make four or five
thousand pieces of eight the more of it.

Accordingly, I agreed, gave him orders to offer it to them,
and he did so; and in about eight months more, the ship being
then returned, he sent me an account, that they had accepted
the offer, and had remitted thirty-three thousand pieces ot
eight to a correspondent of theirs at Lisbon to pay for it.

And thus I have given the first part of a life of fortune
and adventure, a life of Providence’s checker-work, and of a
variety which the world will seldom be able to show the like
of; beginning foolishly, but closing much more happily than
any part of it ever gave me leave so much as to hope for.

Any one would think that in this state of complicated
good-fortune I was past running any more hazards, and so
indeed I had been, if other circumstances had concurred.
But I was: inured to a wandering life, had no family, nor many
relations, nor, however rich, had I contracted much acquaint-
ance. Though I had sold my estate in the Brazils, yet I could
not keep that country out of my head, and had a great mind to
be upon the wing again. Especially I could not resist the
strong inclination I had to see my island, and to know if the
poor Spaniards were in being there; and how the rogues I left
there had used them.

My true friend, the widow, earnestly dissuaded me from
it, and so far prevailed with me, that for almost seven years
she prevented my running abroad, during which time I took
my two nephews, the children of one of my brothers, into my
care. The eldest having something of his own, I bred upas a
272 ROBINSON CRUSOE,

gentleman, and gave him a settlement of some addition to his
estate, after my decease ; the other I put out to a captain of a
ship. After five years, finding him a sensible, bold, enter-
prising young fellow, I put him into a good ship, and sent him
to sea; and this young fellow afterwards drew me in, as old as
I was, to further adventures myself.

In the meantime, I in part settled myself here; for, first
of all, I married, and that not either to my disadvantage or
dissatisfaction; and had three children, two sons and one
daughter. But my wife dying, and my nephew coming home
with good success from a voyage to Spain, my inclination to
go abroad and his importunity prevailed, and engaged me to
go in his ship as a private trader to the East Indies. This
was in the year 1694.

In this voyage I visited my new colony in the island, saw
my successors the Spaniards, had the whole story of their
lives, and of the villains I left there ; how at first they insulted
the poor Spaniards ; how they afterwards agreed, disagreed,
united, separated ; and how at last the Spaniards were obliged
to use violence with them; how they were subjected to the
Spaniards ; how honestly the Spaniards used them ; a history,
if it were entered into, as full of variety and wonderful
accidents as my own part—particularly also as to their battles
with the Caribbees, who landed several times upon the island
—as to the improvement they made upon the island itself; and
how five of them made an attempt upon the mainland, and
brought away eleven men and five women prisoners.

Here I stayed about twenty days, left them supplies of
all necessary things, and particularly of arms, powder, shot,
clothes, tools, and two workmen, which I brought from
England with me ; namely, a carpenter and a smith.

From thence I touched at the Brazils, from whence I
sent a barque, which I bought there, with more people to the
island. As to the Englishmen, I promised to send them a good
cargo of necessaries, if they would apply themselves to
planting—which I afterwards performed. And the fellows
proved very honest and diligent after they were mastered, and
had their properties set apart for them. I sent them also from
HE SENDS SUPPLIES TO HIS ISLAND. 273

the Brazils five cows, some sheep, and some hogs ; which, when ©
I came again, were considerably increased.

But all these things, with an account how three hundred
Caribbees came and invaded them, and ruined their planta-
tions, and how they fought with that whole number twice, and
were at first defeated and three of them killed; but at last a
storm destroying their enemy’s canoes, they famished or
destroyed almost all the rest, and renewed and recovered the
possession of their plantation, and still lived upon the island.

All these things, with some very surprising incidents in
some new adventures of my own, for ten years more, I may
perhaps give a further account of hereafter.

THE END.

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Morley, Sir James Y. Simpson, Dr Arnold of Rugby, &c. By
R. Cocurang. Numerous IJlustrations. 2/6

‘We heartily commend the book as full of the richest lessons of
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‘Highly interesting and exceedingly attractive. It is a really
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‘Nothing could be better than the author’s selection of facts
setting forth the beneficent lives of those generous men in the
narrow compass which the capacity of the volume allows.’—School
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GREAT THINKERS AND WORKERS, being the Lives of Thomas
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James Nasmyth, Charles Kingsley, Builders of the Forth
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‘The volume is worthy of a place in every boy’s library in the
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‘Within the limits assigned to them, his sketches could scarcely be
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out, and indeed nothing seems to have been omitted that could help
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thinkers and workers.’—Glasgow Herald.

RECENT TRAVEL AND ADVENTURE. Comprising Stanley and
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GREAT HISTORIC EVENTS. The Conquest of India, Indian
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Mexico, Napoleon’s Russian Campaign. Illustrated. 2/6
SONGS OF SCOTLAND prior to Burns, with the Tunes, edited by
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This volume embodies the whole of the pre-Burnsian songs of
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LITERARY CELEBRITIES. 2/6
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HISTORICAL CELEBRITIES. Comprising lives of Oliver Crom-
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‘The story of their life-work is told in such a way as to teach
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STORIES OF REMARKABLE PERSONS. The Herschels, Mary
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Embraces about two dozen lives, and the biographical sketches
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TALES FOR TRAVELLERS. Selected from Chambers’s Papers for

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THE REMARKABLE ADVENTURES OF WALTER TRELAWNEY,
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THROUGH STORM AND STRESS. By J. 8S. Furrcuer. With
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‘Full of excitement and incident.—Dundee Advertiser.

FIVE VICTIMS: a School-room Story. By M. Bramsron, author
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SOME BRAVE BOYS AND GIRLS. By Epirn C. Kenyon, author

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ELIZABETH, or Cloud and Sunshine. By Henuey I. Anpen,
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HEROES OF ROMANTIC ADVENTURE, being biographical sketches
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eee

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LIFE OF BENJAMIN FRANKLIN. Illustrated. 2/

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TALES FROM CHAMBERS’S JOURNAL. 4 vols. 2/

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CiOGRAPHY, EXEMPLARY AND INSTRUCTIVE, Edited by W.
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who, while exemplary in their private lives, became the benefactors
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AILIE GILROY. By W. Cuampgrs, LL.D. 2/

‘The life of a poor Scotch lassie . . . a book that will be highly
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ESSAYS, FAMILIAR AND HUMOROUS. By Rosert CHamsers,
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Comprises some of the finest essays, tales, and social sketches of
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SKETCHES, LIGHT AND DESCRIPTIVE. By W. Cuambzrs, LL.D.

2/
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MARITIME DISCOVERY AND ADVENTURE. Illustrated. 2/

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MISCELLANY OF INSTRUCTIVE AND ENTERTAINING TRACTS. 2/

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“As reliable as it is interesting.’—Glasgow Herald.

“In a clear, readable, and interesting style, we are told in brief
space all that the intelligent general reader need care to know
about the functional duties of each official on the railway.’—A berdeen
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SKETCHES OF ANIMAL LIFE AND HABITS. By ANDREW
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A popular natural history text-book, and a guide to the use of
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EXPERIENCES OF A BARRISTER. 1/6
Eleven tales embracing experiences of a barrister and attorney.

BEGUMBAGH, a Tale of the Indian Mutiny. 1/6
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THE BUFFALO HUNTERS, and other Tales. 1/6

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THE DETECTIVE OFFICER, by ‘Waters ;’ and other Tales. 1/6

Nine entertaining detective stories, with three others.

FIRESIDE TALES AND SKETCHES. 1/6

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THE GOLD-SEEKERS, and other Tales. 1/6

Seventeen interesting tales from Chamébers’s Journal.

THE HOPE OF LEASCOMBE, and other Stories. 1/6

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THE ITALIAN’S CHILD, and other Tales. 1/6
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JURY-ROOM TALES. 1/6
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KINDNESS TO ANIMALS. By W. Cuampers, LL.D. 1/6

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THE MIDNIGHT JOURNEY. By Leircn Rircuiz; and other
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Sixteen short stories from Chambers’s Journal.

OLDEN STORIES. 1/6

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THE RIVAL CLERKS, and other Tales, 1/6

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ROBINSON CRUSOE. By Danigr Deror. 1/6
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TALES FOR HOME READING. 1/6

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TALES OF ADVENTURE. 1/6

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TALES AND STORIES TO SHORTEN THE WAY. 1/6

Fifteen interesting tales from Chambers’s Journal.

TALES FOR TOWN AND COUNTRY. 1/6
Twenty-two tales and sketches, by R. Chambers, LL.D., and
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nnn nee EIIEtEIIIEIEISI SES

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HOME-NURSING. By Racin A. Numan. 1/6

A work intended to help the inexperienced and those who in a
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A book of practical utility, showing how tasteful and nutritious
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NEW SERIES OF CHAMBERS’S LIBRARY
FOR YOUNG PEOPLE.

Tlustrated.

Price ls.

THE STORY OF THE LIFE OF SIR WALTER SCOTT. Ly Rosrrr
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BIOGRAPHY. — Illustrated. 1/

Besides the AUTOBIOGRAPHY, many interesting and characteristic
aneedotes of the boyhood of Scott, which challenge the attention of
the young reader, have been added; while the whole has been
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THE STORY OF HOWARD AND OBERLIN. 1/

The book is equally divided between the lives of Howard the
prison reformer, and Oberlin the pastor and philanthropist, whu
worked such a wonderful reformation amongst the dwellers in a
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THE STORY OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE. Illustrated. 1)

A brief and graphic life of the first Napoleon set in a history of
his own times. The battle of Waterloo, as being of special interest
to English readers, has been pretty fully narrated.

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BABY JOHN. By the author of Laddie, Tip Cat, Rose and

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‘A beautifully pathetic and touching story, full of human nature

and genuine feeling.’—School Board Chronicle.

THE GREEN CASKET; LEO’S POST-OFFICE; BRAVE LITTLE
DENIS. By Mrs Mo.esworrn. 1/

Three charming stories by the author of the Cuckoo Clock, each
teaching an important moral lesson.

THE STORY OF WATT AND STEPHENSON. | Illustrated. 1/
©As a gift book for boys this is simply first-rate.’—Schoolmaster.

*A concise and well-written account of the labours of these
inventors.’—Glasgow Herald.
©An excellent book to put into the hands of a boy.’—Spectator.

THE STORY OF NELSON AND WELLINGTON. Illustrated. 1/
‘This book is cheap, artistic, and instructive. It should be in
the library of every home and school.’—Schoolmaster.

JOHN’S ADVENTURES: a Tale of Old England. By Tuomas
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THE BEWITCHED LAMP. J}y Mrs Moieswortu. With Frontis-

piece by Robert Barnes. 1/

‘Mrs Molesworth has written many charming stories for children,

but nothing better, we think, than the above little volume.’—New-
castle Chronicle.

ERNEST’S GOLDEN THREAD. 1/
‘The story of a very little boy who tries to do right under trying
circumstances... The moral of the tale is excellent, and little

boys and girls will follow Ernest’s trials and struggles with interest.’
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LITTLE MARY, and other Stories. By L. T. Muapz. 1/
THE LITTLE KNIGHT. By Enpira C. Kenyon. 1/

‘Has an admirable moral . . . natural, amusing, pathetic.’—Man-
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a | |

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WILFRID CLIFFORD, or The Little Knight Again. By Eprrn C.
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ZOE. By the author of Tip Cat, Laddie, &e. 1/

“A charming and touching study of child life.’—Scotsman.

THEIR HAPPIEST CHRISTMAS. By Epna Lyatr, author of
Donovan, &e. 1/
‘Tt is said that the Queen thinks Donovan the best novel she ever
read, and children will have good reason for saying that this little
story of the way in which a brother and sister, whose mother was ill,
spent a certain Christmas day, is very delightful.’— Western Morning
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“A delightful story for children, simple, interesting, and conveying

a useful lesson.’—School Board Chronicle.

FIRESIDE AMUSEMENTS; a Book of Indoor Games, 1/

©A thoroughly useful work, whieh shonld be weleomed by all who
have the organisation of children’s parties.’—Rewiew of Reviews.

THE STEADFAST GABRIEL; a Tale of Wichnor Wood. By

Mary How. 1/
UNCLE SAM’S MONEY-BOX. [By Mrs S. C. Hann. 1/
GRANDMAMMA’S POCKETS. [By Mrs 8. C. att. 1/
THE SWAN’S EGG. By Mrs 8. C. Hann. 1/

MUTINY OF THE BOUNTY, AND LIFE OF A SAILOR BOY. 1
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DUTY AND AFFECTION, or the Drummer-boy. 1/

A thrilling narrative of the wars of the first Napoleon.

STORY OF A LONG AND BUSY LIFE. By W. Cramprrs, LL.D.
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Price 9d.

Cloth, Illustrated.
CLEVER BOYS. ALICE ERROL, and other Tales.
THE LITTLE ROBINSON. THE WHISPERER. By Mrs8.C. Hann,
MIDSUMMER HOLIDAY. TRUE HEROISM, and other Stories.
MY BIRTHDAY BOOK. PICCIOLA, and other Tales,

Price 6d.

Cloth, with Tlustrations.

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GERALD AND DOT. By Mrs FArTRBATRN.

KITTY AND HARRY. By EMMA GELLIBRAND, author of J. Cole.
DICKORY DOCK. By L. T. Mrane, author of Scamp and I, &e.
FRED STAMFORD’S START IN LIFE. By Mrs FAtrBairn.

NESTA; or Fragments of a Little Life. By Mrs MOLESWoRTH, author
of Tell me a Story, Carrots, &e.

NIGHT-HAWKS. By the Hon. EvA KNATCHBULL-HUGESSEN.

A FARTHINGFUL. By L. T. MEADE.

POOR MISS CAROLINA. By L. T. Mrapg.

THE GOLDEN LADY. By L. T. MEADkE.

MALCOLM AND DORIS; or, Learning to Help. By DAVINA WATERSON.
WILLIE NICHOLLS; or, False Shame and True Shame.
SELF-DENIAL. By Miss EpGeworrn.

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PICTORIAL BIBLE. With Numerous Notes by Jonny Kirro, D.D.,
F.S.A. It also contains Notes regarding the Discoveries of Mr
Layard and others. Illustrated with Steel Engravings, Wood-
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BOOK OF DAYS: A Repertory of Popular Antiquities, Folklore,
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illustrated with Engravings. Edited by Ropert Cuampgrs, LI..1).

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CYCLOPADIA OF ENGLISH LITERATURE: being a History,
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to the Present Times; with Specimens of their Writings.
Edited by Rosert Caampers, LL.D. Fourth Edition, revised
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INFORMATION FOR THE PEOPLE. Containing Treatises on
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LIFE AND WORKS OF BURNS. Edited by Rosert CHAMBERS,

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‘Has a value of its own which nothing can supersede, and must

‘ ever retain its place among standard books on the life and works of

our national poet. In this issue the original four volumes are bound

in two. They are handsome and in every respect admirably got up.’
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ST GILES’, EDINBURGH: CHURCH, COLLEGE, AND CATHEDRAL.
By J. Camuron Lens, D.D., LL.D., Minister of St Giles’. In
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and another by Sir NoEL Paron, R.S.A., specially designed for this
work ; and numerous other Illustrations.

PAPERS FOR THE PEOPLE. This series embraces History,
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ETYMOLOGICAL DICTIONARY of the English Language, contain-
ing Etymology, Pronunciation, and Meanings: Etymology of
Names of Places; Words and Phrases from the Latin, the
Greek, and Modern Foreign Languages; Abbreviations ; List
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cloth. 3,6
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CHAMBERS’S JOURNAL
VOLUME FOR 1892,
CONTAINING
THE IVORY GATE, by. Waurer Brsant;

BLOOD ROYAL, by Grant ALLEN ;

and numerous Short Stories and Essays by eminent writers,

papers on Modern Travel, Popular Science, and other topics of
current interest. 9)

CHAMBERS’S JOURNAL
VOLUME FOR 1893,
CONTAINING
THE BURDEN OF ISABEL, by J. Macraren Copan ;
POMONA, by the author of Rose and Lavender, Laddie,

Miss Toosey’s Mission, &e ;

and numerous Short Stories and Essays by eminent writers,
papers on Modern Travel, Popular Science, and other topics of
current interest. 9/

Edinburgh : ‘
Printed by W. & R, Chambers, Limited. q



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REPORT xsi:schemaLocation 'http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitss2Report.xsd' xmlns:xsi 'http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance' xmlns 'http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss'
DISSEMINATION IEID 'E20091009_AAAAAK' PACKAGE 'UF00073633_00001' INGEST_TIME '2009-10-09T01:53:40-04:00'
AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT 'UF' PROJECT 'UFDC'
DISSEMINATION_REQUEST NAME 'disseminate request placed' TIME '2013-12-09T18:06:21-05:00' NOTE 'request id: 300204; Dissemination from Lois and also Judy Russel see RT# 21871' AGENT 'Stephen'
finished' '2013-12-11T08:20:52-05:00' '' 'SYSTEM'
FILES
FILE SIZE '326717' DFID 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGGI' ORIGIN 'DEPOSITOR' PATH 'sip-files00003.jp2'
MESSAGE_DIGEST ALGORITHM 'MD5' bbe29b478b0b29307ced1cf94a184995
'SHA-1' fab2cb2c8d0e473601e9172037e4982b97d26dc7
EVENT '2012-04-14T14:25:15-04:00' OUTCOME 'success'
PROCEDURE describe
'280519' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGGJ' 'sip-files00003.jpg'
262dccdd42de3ecd301dda422faca246
db46fb6ffac7d09b8c05b79d39e5d77b74ef25c1
'2012-04-14T14:25:08-04:00'
describe
'83850' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGGK' 'sip-files00003.QC.jpg'
0b9e49ef860d4526abbb5c15b450ea31
45d5f0915591711ccb1a7b2dd44f5db12acff4a5
'2012-04-14T14:24:59-04:00'
describe
'2637096' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGGL' 'sip-files00003.tif'
2bc4122d504390ec1f90fec035a719fc
0cd5c758f4b1b5c8cfb21cd689ff5c1cfe256c23
'2012-04-14T14:27:58-04:00'
describe
'37588' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGGM' 'sip-files00003thm.jpg'
8c7908f29f6501fc70d88ca9d517edb4
ce4546e4b1ff50a039c7deb89cb3433ae4a00c2f
'2012-04-14T14:15:19-04:00'
describe
'299422' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGGN' 'sip-files00004.jp2'
3cd8eef87d147853ff0b1e59e3a86775
726e1c13b443e912f279530e750b8f9e8e5db174
'2012-04-14T14:16:36-04:00'
describe
'126389' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGGO' 'sip-files00004.jpg'
4bd5a3516adae2b2f499a6e49d80b072
8f6dd6a7fe275050ff93472698719b23f30e5d6d
'2012-04-14T14:15:34-04:00'
describe
'45689' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGGP' 'sip-files00004.QC.jpg'
353322156579723eae4b05eec5a0d986
5b023d10bffe45ffd43e205ac4a971b9b3d63edb
'2012-04-14T14:10:45-04:00'
describe
'2415512' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGGQ' 'sip-files00004.tif'
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8699a1568b51a6907411a672401f773610904c99
'2012-04-14T14:27:36-04:00'
describe
'24479' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGGR' 'sip-files00004thm.jpg'
44ccf704edad7c6b47f7d0be4b6b2488
5ac51f47ebe263229ae2162bc94f0c23d0cff26f
'2012-04-14T14:22:15-04:00'
describe
'299835' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGGS' 'sip-files00005.jp2'
fafbe9c2b9de7818e446f6c9a2dc1eb4
89ceaaa712ead896d817fcaf466d1de7c88ab7de
'2012-04-14T14:24:13-04:00'
describe
'223750' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGGT' 'sip-files00005.jpg'
249130633298020dcaa3109e810c6f46
7d3e60187ea27d71a8bfb1852d9a43db07b3dc7e
'2012-04-14T14:17:13-04:00'
describe
'75059' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGGU' 'sip-files00005.QC.jpg'
cdfbec0be3c0e78c7f688e99c55828db
9ee08cfe5ae482abc2c9bbb1cde41dcbd13626c9
'2012-04-14T14:11:58-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGGV' 'sip-files00005.tif'
6774352cf560d5a5cec6fe514885f296
9010a5117efbba734bf063ea1bc30105ee5542ab
'2012-04-14T14:25:37-04:00'
describe
'30010' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGGW' 'sip-files00005thm.jpg'
008f7b9b729f632b0a6c27723e1d4163
06fac1ad63086344d73f34a7b3fc1f4d5bbf68b3
'2012-04-14T14:27:42-04:00'
describe
'251016' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGGX' 'sip-files00006.jpg'
5ff25fd34ed55b0d8215e1a2ecad403e
9eb8bf642112e70bdbb6d751a24b6dab78e26118
'2012-04-14T14:14:43-04:00'
describe
'82782' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGGY' 'sip-files00006.QC.jpg'
5a744965bfa7e3e88a022c106da3f20d
1657999795e111c02934f238bd718313e9806677
'2012-04-14T14:15:12-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGGZ' 'sip-files00006.tif'
dac6a1d4fcc0fd2e40fdb698a9f06482
161004b92e80c9686773e4fcc1eb1245bce50a48
'2012-04-14T14:11:00-04:00'
describe
'32203' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGHA' 'sip-files00006thm.jpg'
a9382b113aa361aa95c19cb826fd05e7
0dd0a605fce2bf021abd91744113b262f7918656
'2012-04-14T14:13:38-04:00'
describe
'299842' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGHB' 'sip-files00007.jp2'
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'2012-04-14T14:17:38-04:00'
describe
'225883' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGHC' 'sip-files00007.jpg'
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'2012-04-14T14:14:05-04:00'
describe
'76408' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGHD' 'sip-files00007.QC.jpg'
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'2012-04-14T14:19:11-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGHE' 'sip-files00007.tif'
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'2012-04-14T14:11:40-04:00'
describe
'30710' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGHF' 'sip-files00007thm.jpg'
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'2012-04-14T14:26:04-04:00'
describe
'299846' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGHG' 'sip-files00008.jp2'
5278ac4837823029f1cc4f0dca33fdf9
f474684c34fc03e619d7a0f2c30aaf42227ba2f6
'2012-04-14T14:19:33-04:00'
describe
'224002' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGHH' 'sip-files00008.jpg'
ed2f4354b6c24435da053ddb4a88a935
051951548d425cfc5c334913abe16b333c9e9e80
'2012-04-14T14:20:43-04:00'
describe
'79859' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGHI' 'sip-files00008.QC.jpg'
8ab78d372f502ff7c96d99ed0fb3b869
cdfcf3f72ce6bd32604a5c1aaf588589a2e422ac
'2012-04-14T14:18:07-04:00'
describe
'2421164' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGHJ' 'sip-files00008.tif'
a3fc393cfceea5c421b6d81455d0d12c
cc6369bcaadafd661147f4e16364925c2a9d730a
'2012-04-14T14:25:16-04:00'
describe
'37048' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGHK' 'sip-files00008thm.jpg'
797d7c61e72927ce30e7f2cd695c1417
5f61ef85e31d6e9ebb2db6ee222596fe9dab68f5
'2012-04-14T14:24:37-04:00'
describe
'299790' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGHL' 'sip-files00009.jp2'
44e3bf3d90bca8f222d6f8e75f05baab
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'2012-04-14T14:19:48-04:00'
describe
'86986' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGHM' 'sip-files00009.QC.jpg'
8b83e570a8e12ba9d88162528db3737d
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'2012-04-14T14:27:05-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGHN' 'sip-files00009.tif'
a4ca03e643fef952e26f392cf5e9a5dc
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'2012-04-14T14:24:46-04:00'
describe
'32428' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGHO' 'sip-files00009thm.jpg'
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'2012-04-14T14:15:43-04:00'
describe
'299836' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGHP' 'sip-files00010.jp2'
f0a58d69bc507770a08c398537966f0a
669b147b6141d400b7e4b72966fd7258c76cbb68
'2012-04-14T14:26:35-04:00'
describe
'263518' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGHQ' 'sip-files00010.jpg'
bc1befe8fa05eb6decf5d8be2d5f479b
45cae68e3ed4df62b9a9ad7cf0570b55ae91cead
'2012-04-14T14:27:34-04:00'
describe
'89997' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGHR' 'sip-files00010.QC.jpg'
df0d8e866d15263aec267d95030dfd14
b8c5fa5fb483db93f893a22e7c5cfed018f040d5
'2012-04-14T14:11:33-04:00'
describe
'2415504' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGHS' 'sip-files00010.tif'
c0b95c364b89b836961b02456fd0d416
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'2012-04-14T14:26:01-04:00'
describe
'33480' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGHT' 'sip-files00010thm.jpg'
adf404a657a179cfb5d3f4f39d9672cf
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'2012-04-14T14:18:53-04:00'
describe
'299768' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGHU' 'sip-files00011.jp2'
08625afdc1e502b1e4f63e3dfb48ea95
b38768866362eca8788ffb9a0f592f1a57cc59b7
'2012-04-14T14:12:56-04:00'
describe
'248768' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGHV' 'sip-files00011.jpg'
6def893638c65bd36f514367b51be207
2d086be66affc6229c8f85cb27a8e9cdd70b6825
'2012-04-14T14:26:34-04:00'
describe
'86725' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGHW' 'sip-files00011.QC.jpg'
2f8b303b85f62e88c8ae35d349dabf59
3bac8c01c5816f3b82021c443f08e5b1e3425870
'2012-04-14T14:23:59-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGHX' 'sip-files00011.tif'
b929c5b4cbd320c578c902835e08c6a3
bdd42ced341044b0cbce4155c295c9c42641354e
'2012-04-14T14:13:07-04:00'
describe
'32891' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGHY' 'sip-files00011thm.jpg'
7a48a51af3ccf4115500bbc45480b5d4
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'2012-04-14T14:14:02-04:00'
describe
'299854' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGHZ' 'sip-files00012.jp2'
1bd88c8c9c941e0366a52cda75e94758
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'2012-04-14T14:20:01-04:00'
describe
'240090' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGIA' 'sip-files00012.jpg'
8697fd5f87b0873e4dc45c21a5c75c99
66410e1b7a3cf6a71c49fb8d0d6844daf65b06c2
'2012-04-14T14:17:57-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGIB' 'sip-files00012.tif'
aeb18c6a66e9348eef4b7a43ef5ccf65
790a0677b16c1667242a0f63949fb8564e35df42
'2012-04-14T14:20:58-04:00'
describe
'32699' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGIC' 'sip-files00012thm.jpg'
76b5c1e1b5043d19de9e3356f32d9f07
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'2012-04-14T14:25:13-04:00'
describe
'299787' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGID' 'sip-files00013.jp2'
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'2012-04-14T14:26:10-04:00'
describe
'235137' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGIE' 'sip-files00013.jpg'
7db3d33366f1352b079645e5df1e6c31
4942227a23a22388ed02cacc7fe14f6a03b15ad6
'2012-04-14T14:21:18-04:00'
describe
'83946' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGIF' 'sip-files00013.QC.jpg'
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345c5cd4d42b116a07fac858d14f9f3871bff012
'2012-04-14T14:13:30-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGIG' 'sip-files00013.tif'
690830313f5893ace1227fc1d1f43b7d
c3b351f53a9310787f8bd9081097b3bb8bea3af0
'2012-04-14T14:18:57-04:00'
describe
'32492' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGIH' 'sip-files00013thm.jpg'
b9b90904dc6ca3230063412c24b9a947
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'2012-04-14T14:18:00-04:00'
describe
'299847' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGII' 'sip-files00014.jp2'
ab2027f76bc78ce1ad5031dc44840a7c
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'2012-04-14T14:17:11-04:00'
describe
'252699' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGIJ' 'sip-files00014.jpg'
3c91ec6c23e9c57c23e5cced87fdd663
a0519e4dcdd18a3092e2dad0a7f295e520a5873c
'2012-04-14T14:16:02-04:00'
describe
'88080' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGIK' 'sip-files00014.QC.jpg'
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'2012-04-14T14:26:23-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGIL' 'sip-files00014.tif'
59f4fc0619174756a0ecf91d2846a5b0
5cf2ea0113b9f37deea35a6238ab15393ab0596a
'2012-04-14T14:12:53-04:00'
describe
'33417' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGIM' 'sip-files00014thm.jpg'
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'2012-04-14T14:26:09-04:00'
describe
'344127' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGIN' 'sip-files00015.jp2'
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'2012-04-14T14:14:56-04:00'
describe
'227133' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGIO' 'sip-files00015.jpg'
8f1e20ffbf4e2300e203b495771c8141
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'2012-04-14T14:27:22-04:00'
describe
'79277' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGIP' 'sip-files00015.QC.jpg'
7deeb3adafa8e7e70c9c2745fc6ff581
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'2012-04-14T14:16:33-04:00'
describe
'35240' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGIQ' 'sip-files00015thm.jpg'
23f32864400c9989f121300b80a92041
719929158e747be9617e77fbe4ff932b1255669b
'2012-04-14T14:12:16-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGIR' 'sip-files00016.jp2'
04db0e354b1cb5dfd95d12f95e8d63ae
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'2012-04-14T14:27:31-04:00'
describe
'247726' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGIS' 'sip-files00016.jpg'
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'2012-04-14T14:19:00-04:00'
describe
'87112' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGIT' 'sip-files00016.QC.jpg'
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'2012-04-14T14:25:23-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGIU' 'sip-files00016.tif'
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'2012-04-14T14:20:36-04:00'
describe
'33740' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGIV' 'sip-files00016thm.jpg'
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'2012-04-14T14:14:34-04:00'
describe
'299757' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGIW' 'sip-files00017.jp2'
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describe
'242343' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGIX' 'sip-files00017.jpg'
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describe
'77507' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGIY' 'sip-files00017.QC.jpg'
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'2012-04-14T14:21:50-04:00'
describe
'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGIZ' 'sip-files00017.tif'
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'2012-04-14T14:18:24-04:00'
describe
'31935' 'info:fdaE20091009_AAAAAKfileF20091009_AAAGJA' 'sip-files00017thm.jpg'
7b07a2e2cd88a5