Title Page
 Robinson's family, etc.
 First adventures at sea, and experience...
 Robinson's captivity at Sallee
 He settles in the Brazils as a...
 Robinson finds himself in a desolate...
 Carries all his riches, provisions,...
 Robinson's mode of reckoning...
 Robinson's journal
 Robinson obtains more articles...
 His recovery
 Robinson makes a tour to explore...
 He returns to his cave
 His manufacture of pottery, and...
 Meditates his escape from...
 He makes a smaller canoe, in which...
 He rears a flock of goats
 Unexpected alarm and cause for...
 Precautions against surprise
 Robinson discovers a cave, which...
 Another visit of the savages
 He visits the wreck and obtains...
 Robinson rescues one of their captives...
 Robinson instructs and civilizes...
 Robinson and Friday build a canoe...
 Robinson releases a Spaniard
 Robinson discovers himself to the...
 Atkins entreats the captain to...

Title: Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073632/00001
 Material Information
Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 246, 4 p., 28 leaves of plates : ill. ; 20 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Griset, Ernest Henry, 1844-1907 ( Illustrator )
Thomas, George Houseman, 1824-1868 ( Illustrator )
Wentworth, Frederick ( Engraver )
Laird & Lee ( Publisher )
Publisher: Laird & Lee
Place of Publication: Chicago
Publication Date: 1892
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1892   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1892   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Illinois -- Chicago
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel Defoe ; with 28 full-page illustrations.
General Note: Most ill. by Ernest Griset, some signed GHT; some engraved by F. Wentworth.
General Note: Part I of Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Includes publisher's advertisement (4 p.) at end.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073632
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 22044869

Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Robinson's family, etc.
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 6a
        Page 7
        Page 8
    First adventures at sea, and experience of a maritime life
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Robinson's captivity at Sallee
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 26a
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    He settles in the Brazils as a planter
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 34a
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 42a
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Robinson finds himself in a desolate island
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 46a
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Carries all his riches, provisions, etc., into his habitation
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Robinson's mode of reckoning time
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 60a
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 62a
        Page 63
    Robinson's journal
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 70a
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Robinson obtains more articles from the wreck
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 80a
        Page 81
        Page 82
    His recovery
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 84a
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
    Robinson makes a tour to explore his island
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 98a
        Page 99
    He returns to his cave
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
    His manufacture of pottery, and contrivance for baking bread
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 108a
        Page 109
        Page 110
    Meditates his escape from the island
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 120a
        Page 121
    He makes a smaller canoe, in which he attempts to cruise round the island
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
    He rears a flock of goats
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
    Unexpected alarm and cause for apprehension
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 138a
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
    Precautions against surprise
        Page 146
        Page 146a
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
    Robinson discovers a cave, which serves him as a retreat against the savages
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 158a
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 160a
        Page 161
    Another visit of the savages
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 164a
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
    He visits the wreck and obtains many stores from it
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
    Robinson rescues one of their captives from the the savages, whom he names Friday, and makes his servant
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 180a
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 186a
        Page 187
    Robinson instructs and civilizes his man Friday
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 192a
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
    Robinson and Friday build a canoe to carry them to Friday's country
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 200a
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 206a
        Page 207
    Robinson releases a Spaniard
        Page 208
        Page 208a
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 212a
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
    Robinson discovers himself to the English captain
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
    Atkins entreats the captain to spare his life
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 240a
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
Full Text

Robinson Crusoe's Habitation in the Island of Despair.








Robinson's Family, etc.-His Elopement from his Parents.
I WAs born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a
good family, though not of that country, my father being
a foreigner of Bremen, named Krcutznaer, who settled
first at Hull. He got a good estate by merchandise, and
leaving off his trade, lived afterward at York; from whence
he had married my mother, whose relations were named
Robinson, a very good family in that country, and after
whom I was so called, that is to say, Robinson Kreitznaer;
but, by the usual corruption of words in England, we are
now called, nay, we call ourselves, and write our name,
Crusoe; and so my companions always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whatw was lieutenant-
colonel to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, former-
ly commanded by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was
killed at the battle near Dunkirk against the Spaniards.
What became of my second brother, I never knew, any
more than my father and mother did know what was be-
come of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any
trade, my head began to be filled very early with rambling
thoughts. My father, who was very aged, had given me a
competent share of learning, as far as house education and
a country free school generally go, and designed me for the
law; but 1 would be satisfied with nothing but going to
sea; and my inclination to this led me so strongly against
the will, nay, the commands of my father, and against all
the entreaties and persuasion of my mother and other
friends, that there seemed to be something fatal in that
propension of nature, tending directly to the life of misery
.whioh was to ball me. .


My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and
excellent counsel against what he foresaw was my design.
He called me one morning into his chamber, where he was
confined by the g'out, and expostulatled very warmly with
me upon this :.. : he asked me what reasons, more
than a mere wandering inclination, I had for leaving his
house, and my native country, where I might be well in-
troduced, and had a i i 1. of raising my fortune, by ap-
plication and industry, with a life of ease and pleasure. He
told me it was men of desperate fortunes, on one hand, or
of superior fortunes, on the other, who went abroad upon
adventures, aspiring to rise by enterprise, and make them-
selves famous in undertakings of a nature out of the com-
mon road; that these things were all either too far above
me, or too far below me; that mine was the middle state,
or what might be called the upper station of low life,
which he had found, by long experience, was the best state
in the world, the most suited to human happiness; not ex-
posed to the miseries and hardships, the labor and suffer-
ings, of the mechanic part of mankind, and not embar-
rassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the
upper part of mankind: he told me, I might judge of the
happiness of this state by one !!.; viz., that this was the
state of life which all other people envied; that kings have
frequently lamented the miserable consequences of being
born to great things, and wished they had been placed in
the middle of two extremes, bivtween the mean and the
great; that the wise man gave his testimony to this as the
just standard of true felicity, when he prayed to have
" neither poverty nor riches."
He bade me observe it, and I should always find, that
the calamities of life were shared among the upper and
lower part of mankind; but that the middle station had
the fewest disasters, and was not exposed to so many vicis-
situdes as the higher or lower part of mankind: nay, they
were not subjected to so many distempers and uneasinesses,
either of '...1, or mind, as those were, who, by vicious liv-
ing, luxury, and extravigancies, o ne hand, or, by hard
labor, want of necessaries, and mean and insufficient diet,
on the other hand, bring distempers upon themselves by
the natural consequences of their vway of living; that the
middle station of life was calculated for all kind of virtues,
and all kind of ej'.. .It;.. that peace and plenty were


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Robinson Orusoe r(beives Advice from his Father.


~iI ~i


the handmaids of a middle fortune; that temperance,
moderation, quietness, health, society, all agreeable diver-
sions, and all desirable pleasures were the blessings attend-
ing the middle station of life; that this way men went
silently and smoothly through the world, and comfortably
out of it, not embarrassed with the labors of the hands or
of the head, not sold to the life of slavery for daily bread,
or harassed with perplexed circumstances, which rob the
soul of peace, and the body of rest; not enraged with the
passion of envy, or secret burning lust of ambition for
great things; but, in easy circumstances, sliding gently
through the world, and sensibly tasting the sweets of liv-
ing, without the bitter; feeling that they are happy, and
learning by every day's experience to know it more
After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most
affectionate manner, not to play the young man, nor to
precipitate myself into miseries which nature, and the
station of life I was born in, seemed to have provided
against; that I was under no necessity of seeking my bread;
that he would do well for me, and endeavor to enter me
fairly into the station of life which he had been just recom-
mending to me; and that if 1 was not very easy and happy
in the world, it must be my mere fate, or fault, that must
hinder it; and that he should have nothing to answer for,
having thus discharged his duty in warning me against
measures which he knew would be to my hurt; in a word,
that as he would do very kind things for me if I would stay
and settle at home as he directed, so he would not have so
much hand in my misfortunes as to give me any encour-
agement to go away; and, to close all, he told me 1 had
my elder brother for an example, to whom he had used the
same earnest persuasions to keep him from going into the
Low Country wars; but could not prevail, his young de-
sires prompting him to run into the army, where he was
killed; and though, he said, he would not cease to pray for
me, yet he would venture to say to me, that if I did take
this foolish step, God would not bless me; and I would
have leisure, hereafter, to reflect upon having neglected
his counsel, when there might be none to assist in my
I observed, in this last part of his discourse, which was
truly prophetic, though, I suppose, my father did not know


it to be so himself; I say, I observed the tears run down
his face very plentifully, especially when he spoke of my
brother who was killed; and that, when he spoke of my
having leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was so
moved, that he broke off tie discourse, and told me his
heart was so full he could say no more to me.
1 was sincerely atclcted with this discourse; as, indeed,
who could be otherwise? and I resolved not to think of go-
ing abroad any more, but to settle at home, according to
my father's desire. But alas! a few days wore it all off:
and, in short, to prevent any of my father's further im-
por: unities, in a few weeks after 1 resolved to run quite
away from him. However, 1 did not act so hastily, neither,
as my first heat of resolution prompted; but I took my
mother, at a time when I thought her a little pleasanter
than ordinary, and told her that my thoughts were so en-
tirely bent upon seeing the world, that I should never settle
to anything with resolution enoughth-!o go through with it,
and my father had better give me his consent, than force
me to go without it; that 1 was now eighteen years old,
wliih was too lalt to go appi)relic-c to a trade, or clerk to
an attorney; lhat 1 was sure, if 'I did, I should never serve
out my time, and I should certainly run away from my
master before mly time was out, and go to sea; aid if she
would speak to uim father to let me make but one voyage
abroad, i I camni: homne again, and did not, like it, I would
go no miure; and I would promise by a double diligence, to
recover t!hu tim- I bad lost.
This put my mother into a great passion; she told me
shI knt w it would be to no purpose to speak to my father
upon any such a subject; that he knew too well what was
my interest to give his consent to anything so much for my
hurt; and that she wondered how I could think of any
such tling, after such a discourse as I had from my father,
and such kind and tender expressions as she knew my
father had used to iie; and that, in short, if I would ruin
myself, there was no help for me; but 1 might depend I
should never have their consent to it; that for her part,
she would not have so inuch hand in my destruction; and
I should never have it to say that my mother was willing
whuo my father was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet,
as I have heard afterward, she reported all the discourse to


- --t .1 IC_ rc;-



him; and that my father, after showing a great concern at
it, said to her with a sigh, That boy might be happy if be
would stay at home; but if he goes abroad,she will be the
most miserable wretch that ever was born: I can give no
consent to it.
It was not till almost a year after this that 1 broke loose;
though in the meantime I continued obstinately deaf to all
proposals of settling to business, and frequently expostulat-
ing'with my father and mother about their being sp posi-
tively determined against what they knew my inclinations
prompted me to. But being one day at Hull, whither I
went casually, and without any purpose of making an
elopement at that time, and one of my companions then
going to London by sea in his father's ship, and prompting
me to go with them by the common allurement of seafar-
ing men, viz., that it should cat me nothing for my pass-
age, I consulted neither father nor brother any more, nor
so much as sent them word of it; butJeft them to hear of
it as they might, without asking God's blessing, or my
father's, without any consideration of circumstances or
consequences, and in an ill hour, God knows.

First Adventures at Sea, and Experience of a M aritime Life.-Voy-
age to Guinea.
ON the 1st of September, 1 ;51, I went on board a ship
bound for London. Never any young adventurer's mis-
fortunes, 1 believe, began younger, or continued longer,
than mine. The ship had no sooner got out of the Hum-
ber, than the wind began to blow, and the waves to rise,
in a most frightful manner; and as I had never been at sea
before, I was most inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified
in mind: I began now seriously to reflect upon what I had
done, and how justly I was overtaken by the judgment of
Heaven for wickedly leaving my father's house. All the
good counsels of my parents, my father's tears, and my
mother's entreaties, came now fresh into my mind; and
my conscience, which was not yet come to the pitch of.
hardness to which it has been since, reproached me with
the contempt of advice and the abandonment of my,duty.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea, which I

had never been upon before, went very high, though noth-
ing like what I have seen many times since; no, nor what
1 saw a few days after; but, such as it was, enough to
affect me then, who was but a young sailor, and had never
known anything of the matter. 1 expected every wave
would have swallowed us up, and that every time the ship
fell down, as I thought, in the trough or hollow of the sea,
we should never rise more; and in this agony of mind I
made many vows and resolutions, that if it would please
God to spare my life this voyage, if ever 1 got my foot once
on dry land, I would go directly home to my father, and
never set it into a ship again while 1 lived; that I would
take his advice, and never run myself into such miseries as
these any more. Now I saw plainly the goodness of his
observations about the middle station of life; how easy,
how comfortable, he had lived all his days, and never had
been exposed to teminsts at sea or troubles on shore; and
I resolved that I would, like a true repenting prodigal, go
home to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued during the
storm, and indeed s:)me time after; but the next day, as
the wind was abated, and the sea calmer, I began to be a
little inured to it. However, I was very grave that day,
being also a little sea-sick still; but toward night the
weather cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a charm-
ing fine evening followed; the sun went down perfectly
clear, and rose so the next morning; and having little or
no win and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the
sight was, as 1 thought, the most delightful that I ever
1 had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-
sick, but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea
that was so rough and terrible the day before, and could be
so calm and pleasant in a little time after.
And now, l-st my good resolutions should continue, my
companion, who had indeed enticed me away, came to me,
and said, Well, Bob, clapping me on the shoulder, how do
you do after it? I warrant you you were frightened,
wasn't you, last night, when it blew but a capful of wind?
-A capful, do you call it? said I; 'twas a terrible storm.
-A storm, you fool! replies he, do you call that a storm?
Why, it was nothing at all; give us but a good ship, and
sea-room, and we think nothing of such a squall of wind as


that: you are but a fresh-water sailor, Bob; come, let us
make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that. D'ye see
what charming weather 'tis now? To make short this sad
part of my story, we went the way of all sailors; the punch
was made, and I was made drunk with it; and in that one
night's wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my re-
flections upon my past conduct, and all my resolutions for
the future. In a word, as the sea was returned to its
smoothness of surface and settled calmness by the abate-
ment of the storm, so the hurry of my thoughts being
over, my fears and apprehensions of being swallowed up by
the sea forgotten, and the current of my former desires re-
turned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises 1 had made
in my distress. I found, indeed, some intervals of reflec-
tion; and serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavor to re-
turn again sometimes; but I shook them off and roused
myself from them, as it were from a distemper, and, ap-
plying myself to drink and company, soon mastered the
return of those fits-for so I called them; and 1 had in five
or six days got as complete a victory over conscience as any
young sinner, that resolved not to be troubled with it,.
could desire. But 1 was to have another trial for it still;
and Providence, as in such cases generally it does, resolved
to leave me entirely without excuse: for if I would not take
this for a deliverance, the next was to be such a one as the
worst and most hardened wretch among us would confess
both the danger and the mercy of. The sixth day of our
being at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads; the wind hav-
ing been contrary and the weather calm, we had made but
little way since the storm. Here we were obliged to come
to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing con-
trary, viz., at south-west, for seven or eight days, during
which time a great many ships from Newcastle came into
the same roads, as the common harbor where the ships
might wait for a wind for the River Thames. We had not,
however, rid here so long, but we should have tided up the
river, but that the wind blew too fresh; and, after we had
lain four or five days, blew very hard. However, the roads
being reckoned as good as a harbor, the anchorage good,
and our ground tackle very strong, our men were uncon-
cerned, and not in the least apprehensive of danger, but
spent the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the
sea. But the eighth day, in the morning, the wind in-


crea-il, and we hall all hanil at work to strike our top-
nia.ilts, an. uiakOe .crythi MniuLI andl close, that the Ehip
mi ht ride ai ea-y a. I ...-. il-. By niitr tlhe .nra weit very
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Ltb..1 to set? tb'-rp r iahl aiizi;tti-ir it iii ti, 'ii' -Ja s f e\e-n the
-*.ili *,I. tli iI.- T:-lc... TIi. I i i.lr W'a % \'i"ilal t in the IL.u i-
j,:S' O:f |I 'C rrt- i. thI O i' [: .,it, ;- lie v ..1t. in au,, out of
hliis >;alin iv hir... I ,-:'1!. u bt ,.isr him ..,Miv sa\' to lhim -'elf
sev-rr tl tLin : -. L ,'. L.e ine 'r. it l t ,:. iti! ite ll be ,ill lost;
we .-...ll I.:- i11 ri .nii,. i! iiii t l ii .-. iriii.o these first
liiri.. I .. .ti i,., lyii.. .qtill in in l v.,il.iin, % in:ch w ais in
the .t>-:- ;r t .. IIt i, r ii-l- lin.- lthe lira-t p.-n]ti-ii.i-. lh. i I Ii vi.i so) nal'Aire tly
train' il-lh.i upl n,. anl I [ lhlAr'-n, -.l inV-- It' r ii -t: 1 thlilu.'_.fit
tlih t. he bittcnrui-s of i 1-. iath i .i t aoil that this
w .ilia l Ie ni .i ine to:.. !11;.' tlie first: lillt whl u the mister
hiln elf i :lli,1.- ,. In .-. v;. 1 -:L.1 lij t I .: 1. liil -aid tiE' An,:tild
lit' all lo.st, I wiasi d'reia tif ll\y fl i.- It- -ii.. I .t uI) out of
im y (il:i ai ii I. l out : h l.it M -l Jiu i 1 '.li-I.l i .-;Tl I never
saw; the .'-a wtret hii%,Ciiihi l; i. llth Ir'ok e u|i:U n11
every' tlihr e o;' f.:.ur iiiiit.-. \\h.I i I i.....lil l .k al.uit. I
cou!la. see li tbiint Int il-tre-s ni h .l 1=: t' :-hips, that
ril lnear Iu, '-r f,.il h l it lh ir i i'n tt y lv tih lo.iard,
beil.' i.: I'ply lai. ail.' o r i- n l ri l nlit ll h t a sLip
-whl 'h rll ,l. allt i l iil nh- i i 'f t .S f..lnilll d. Two
i 1*'ii' cli l,( I,, ; ', li,_-II (t", IIi tp i l itI :,,'!, \ 1' 0 ]'liltI O L1t
.of the r'',l- Lt- F, ::. Jt nil a;l\,-. i iti '.-s. il Lth.t i Lli i.t a
u Sii-L stan.)lii-'. i'l.' l lit li; l."..l t ii I. -t. ;i ni t so
much laboring in the sea; but two or three of them drove,
and came close by us, running away, with only their sprit-
c sails out, before the wind. Toward evening, the mate and
I., LaitZwain begged the master of our ship to let them cut;
away the foremast, which he was very loath to do; but the
boatswain protesting to him, that if he did not, the ship
would founder, he consented; and when they had (uit away
the foremast, the mainmast stood so loose, .and sir,:,k the
shil, so much, they were obliged to cut it away also, and
malie a clear deck.

'->_, *'' f ^
.'-: ^ ., -' .. w

Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at all
this, who was but a young sailor, and who had been in such
a fright before at but a little. But if I can express, at this
distance, the thoughts 1 had about me at that time, I was
in tenfold more horror of mind upon account of my former
convictions, and the having returned from them to the res-
olutions I had wickedly taken at first, than I was at death
itself; and these, added to the terror of the storm, put me
into such a condition that I can by no words describe it.
But tha worst was not come yet; the storm continued with
such fury that the seamen themselves acknowledged they
had never known a worse. We had a good ship, but she
was deep laden, and so wallowed in the sea, that the sea-
men every now and then cried out she would founder. It
was my advantage, in one respect that 1 did not know what
they meant by founder, till I inquired. However, the
storm was so violent that 1 saw, what is not often seen, the
master, the boatswain, and some oLhers, more sensible than
the rest, at their prayers, and expecting every moment the
ship would go to the bottom. In the middle of the night,
and under all the rest of our distresses, one of the men,
that had been down on purpose to see, cried out, we had
sprung a leak; another said there was four feet of water in
the hold. Then all hands were called to the pump. At
that very wqrd my heart, as I thought, died within me,
and 1 fell backward upon the side of my bed, where I sat
in the cabin. However, the men roused me, and told me
that I, who was able to do nothing before, was as well able
to pump as another: at which 1 stirred up and went to the
pump, and worked very heartily. While this was doing,
the master seeing some light colliers, who, not able to ride
out the storm, were obliged to slip and run away to sea,
and would not come near us, ordered us to fire a gun, as a
signal of distress. I, who knew nothing what that meant,
was so surprised, that I thought the ship had broke, or
some dreadful thing had happened. In a word, I was so
surprised, that I fell down in a swoon. As this was a time
when everybody had his own life to think of, no one mind-
ed me, or what was become of me: but another man
stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me aside with his
foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead; and it was a
great while before I came to myself.
We worked on;- but the water increasing in the hold, it

was apparent that the ship would founder; and though the
storm began to abate a little, yet as it was not possible she
could swim till we might run into a port, the master
continued firing guns for help; and a light ship, who had
rid it out just ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help us.
It was with the utmost hazard the boat came near us, but
it was impossible for us to get on board, or for the boat to
lie near the ship's side; till at last the men rowing very
heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours, our men
cast them a rope over the stern with a buoy to it, and then
veered it out a great length, which they, after great labor
and hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them close under
our stern, and got all into their boat. It was to no pur-
pose for them or us, after we were in the boat, to think of
reaching their own ship; so all agreed to let her drive, and
only to pull her in toward shore as much as we could; and
our master promised them, that if the boat was staved
upon shore, he would make it good to their master; so,
partly rowing and partly driving, our boat went away to
the northward, sloping toward the shore almost as far as
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out
of our ship when we saw her sink; and then I understood,
for the first time, what was meant by a ship foundering in
the sea. 1 must acknowledge, 1 had hardly eyes to look
up when the seamen told me she was sinking; for, from
that moment, they rather put me into the boat, than that
1 might be said to go in. My heart was, as it were, dead
within me, partly with fright, partly with horror of mind,
and the thoughts of what was yet before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet laboring at
the oar to bring the boat near the shore, we could see
(when, our boat mounting the waves, we were able to see
the shore) a great many people running along the strand,
to assist us when we should come near; but we made slow
way toward the shore; nor were we able to reach it, till,
being past the light-house at Winterton, the shore falls off
to the westward, toward Cromer, and so the land broke off
a little the violence of the wind. Here we got in, and,
though not without much difficulty, got all safe on shore,
and walked afterward on foot to Yarmouth; where, as un-
fortunate men, we were used with great humanity, as well
by the magistrates of the town, who assigned us good

quarters, as by the particular merchants and owners of
ships: and had money given us sufficient to carry us either
to London or back to Hull, as we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and
have gone home, 1 had been happy: and my father, an
emblem of our blessed Saviour's parable, had even killed
the fatted calf for me; for, hearing the ship I went in was
cast away in Yarmouth Roads, it was a great while before
he had any assurance that I was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on with an obstinacy that
nothing could resist; and though I had several times loud
calls from my reason, and my more composed judgment,
to go home, yet I had no power to do it.-1 know not what
to call this, nor will I urge that it is a secret, overruling
decree, that hurries us on to be the instruments of our own
destruction, even though it be before us, and that we rush
upon it with our eyes open. Certainly, nothing but some
such decreed unavoidable misery attending, and which it
was impossible for me to escape, could have pushed me
forward against the calm reasoning and persuasions of my
most retired thoughts, and against two such visible instruc-
tions as I had met with in my first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and
who was the master's son, was now less forward than I;
the first time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth,
which was not till two or three days, for we were separated
in the town to several quarters; I say, the first time he saw
me, it appeared his tone was altered, and, looking very
melancholy, and shaking his head, he asked me how I did;
telling his father who I was, and how I had come this voy-
age only for a trial, in order to go further abroad. His
father, turning to me, with a grave and concerned tone,
Young man, says he, you ought never to go to sea any
more; you ought to take this for a plain and visible token,
that you are not to be a seafaring man.-Why, sir? said I;
will you go to sea no more?-That is another case, said he;
it is my calling, and therefore my duty; but as you made
this voyage for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has
given you of what you are to expect if you persist. Per-
haps this has all befallen us on your account, like Jonah in
the ship of Tarshish.-Pray, continues he, what are you,
and on what account did you go to sea? Upon that I told
him some of my story; at the end of which he burst out


with a strange kind of passion. What had I done, said he,
that such an unhappy wretch should come into my ship?
I would not set my foot in the same ship with thee again
for a thousand pounds. This indeed was, as 1 said, anl ex-
cursion of his spirits, which were yet agitated by the sense
of his loss, and was further than he could have authority
to go.-However, he afterward talked very gravely to me;
exhorted me to go back to my father, and not tempt Provi-
dence to my ruin; told me, I might see a visible hand of
Heaven against me; and, young man, said he, depend upon
it, if you do not go back, wherever you go, you will meet
with nothing but disasters and disappointments, till your
father's words are fulfilled upon you.
We parted soon after, for 1 made him little answer, and
I saw him no more; which way he went, I know not; as
for me, having some money in my pocket, I traveled to
London by land; and there, as well as on the road, had
many struggles with myself what course of life 1 should
take, and whether I should go home or go to sea. As to
going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered
to my thoughts; and it immediately occurred to me how I
should be laughed at among the neighbors, and should be
ashamed to see, not my father and mother only, but even
everybody else. From whence I have often since observed,
how incongruous and irrational the common temper of
mankind is, especially of youth, to that reason which ought
to guide them in such cases, viz., that they are not
ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; not
ashamed of the action, for which they ought justly to be
esteemed fools; but are ashamed of the returning, which
only can make them be esteemed wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some time, un-
certain what measures to take, and what course of life to
lead. An irresistible reluctance continued to going home;
and as I stayed awhile, the remembrance of the distress I
had been in wore off; and as that abated, the little motion
I had in my desires to a return wore off with it, till at last
I quite laid aside the thoughts of it, and looked out for a
voyage. That evil influence which carried me first away
from my father's house, that hurried me into the wild and
indigested notion of raising my fortune, and that impressed
those conceits so forcibly upon me as to make me deaf to
all good advice, and to the entreaties, and even the com-


mands of my father; I say, the same influence, whatever
it was, presented the most unfortunate of all enterprises to
my view, and I went on board a vessel bound to the coast
of Africa, or, as our sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage to
It was my great misfortune, that in all these adventures
1 did not ship myself as a sailor; whereby, though 1 might
indeed have worked a little harder than ordinary, yet, at
the same time, I had learned the duty and office of a fore-
mast-man, and in time might have qualified myself for a
mate or lieutenant, if not a master; but as it was always
my fate to choose for the worse, so I did here, for having
money in my pocket, and good clothes upon my back, I
would always go on board in the habit of a gentleman;
and so I neither had any business in the ship, nor learned
to do any. It was my lot, first of all, to fall into pretty
good company in London; which does not always happen
to such loose and misguided young fellows as I then was;
the devil, generally, not omitting to lay some snare for
them very early. But it was not so with me. 1 first fell
acquainted with the master of a ship, who had been on the
coast of Guinea, and who, having had very good success
there, was resolved to go again. He, taking a fancy to my
conversation, which was not at all disagreeable at that
time, and hearing me say I had a mind to see the world,
tol: me that if I would go the voyage with him, I should
be at no expense; 1 should be his messmate and his com-
panion; and if 1 could carry anything with me, 1 should
have all the advantage of it that the trade would admit,
and perhaps I might meet with some encouragement. I
embraced the offer, and entering into a strict friendship
with this captain, who was an honest and plain-dealing
man, 1 went the voyage with him and carried a small ad-
venture with me, which, by the disinterested honesty of
my friend the captain, 1 increased very considerably; for 1
carried about forty pounds in such toys and trifles as the
captain directed me to buy. This forty pounds I had mus-
tered together by the assistance of some of my relations
whom I corresponded with, and who, 1 believe, got my fa-
ther, or, at least, my mother, to contribute so much as that
to my first adventure. This was the only voyage which 1
may say was successful in all my adventures, and which 1
owe to the integrity and honesty of my friend the captain;


under whom also I got a competent knowledge of mathe-
matics and the rules of navigation, learned how to keep an
account of the ship's course, take an observation, and, in
short, to understand some things that were needful to be
understood by a sailor; for, as he took delight to instruct
me, 1 took delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage
made me both a sailor and a merchant; for I brought home
five pounds nine ounces of gold dust for my adventure,
which yielded me in London, at my return, almost three
hundred pounds, and this filled me with those aspiring
thoughts which have since so completed my ruin. Yet
even in this voyage 1 had my misfortunes too; particular-
ly, that I was continually sick, being thrown into a violent
calenture by the excessive heat of the climate; our princi-
pal trading being upon the coast, from the latitude of fif-
teen degrees north, even to the Line itself.

Robinson's Captivity at Sallee.-Escape with Xury.-Arrival at
the Brazils.
I WAS now set up for a Guinea trader, and my friend,
to my great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I re-
solved to go the same voyage again, and 1 embarked in the
same vessel with one who was his mate in the former voy-
age, and had now got the command of the ship. This was
the unhappiest voyage that ever man made; for though I
did not carry quite a hundred pounds of my new-gained
wealth, so that I had two hundred pounds left, and which
1 lodged with my friend's widow, who was very just to me,
yet I fell into terrible misfortunes in this voyage; and the
first was this, viz.-our ship, making her course toward
the Canary Islands, or rather between those islands and
the African shore, was surprised, in the gray of the morn-
ing, by a Turkish rover, of Sallee, who gave chase to us
with all the sail she could make. We crowded also as
much canvas as our yards would spread, or our masts
carry, to get clear; but finding the pirate gained upon us,
and would certainly come up with us in a few hours, we
prepared to fight, our ship having twelve guns and the
rover eighteen. About three in the afternoon he came up
with us, and bringing to, by mistake, just athwart our

quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as he intended, we
brought eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured
in a broadside upon him, which made him sheer off again,
after returning our fire, and pouring in also his small shot
from near two hundred men which he had on board. How-
ever, we had not a man touched, all our men keeping
close. He prepared to attack us again, and we to defend
ourselves; but laying us on board the next time upon our
other quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks, who
immediately fell to cutting and hacking the sails and rig-
ging. We plied them with small shot, half-pikes, powder-
chests, and such like, and cleared our deck of them twice.
However, to cut short this melancholy part of our story,
our ship being disabled, and three of our men killed and
eight wounded, we were obliged to yield, and were carried
all prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first 1
apprehended; nor was I carried up the country to the em-
peror's court, as the rest of our men were, but was kept by
the captain of the rover as his proper prize, and made his
slave, being young and nimble, and fit for his business. At
this surprising change of my circumstances, from a mer-
chant to a miserable slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed;
and now looked back upon my father's prophetic discourse
to me, that I should be miserable, and have none to relieve
me, which I thought was now so effectually brought to
pass that it could not be worse, that now the hand of
Heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone, without re-
demption. But, alas! this was but a taste of the misery 1
was to go through, as will appear in the sequel of this
As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his
house, so I was in hopes he would take me with him when
he went to sea again, believing that it would, some time or
other, be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portuguese
man-of-war, and that then I should be set at liberty. But
this hope of mine was soon taken away, for when he went
to sea he left me on shore to look after his little garden, and
do the common drudgery of slaves about his house, and when
he came home again fri)m his cruise, he ordered me to lie
in the cabin, to look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what
method 1 might take to effect it, but found no way that

K. ...** ,^ .'L;**.+.z, ;cis^ .^s .,.'i-*..v i & ti

had the least probability in it. Nothing presented to
make the supposition of it rational; for I had nobody to
communicate it to that would embark with me, no fellow-
slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or Scotchman there but
myself; so that for two years, though I often pleased my-
self with the imagination, yet I never had the least encour-
aging prospect of putting it in practice.
After about two years, an odd circumstance presented
itself, which put the old thought of making some attempt
for my liberty again in my head. My patron lying at
home longer than usual, without fitting out his ship,
which, as I heard, was for want of money, he used con-
stantly, once or twice a week, sometimes oftener, if the
weather was fair, to take the ship's pinnace, and go out
into the road a-fishing; and as he always took me and a
young Moresco with him to row the boat, we made him
very merry, and 1 proved very dexterous in catching fish,
insomuch that sometimes he would send me with a Moor,
one of his kinsmen, and the youth, the Moresco, as they
called him, to catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a stark
calm morning, a fog rose so thick, that though we were
not half a league from the shore, we lost sight of it; and
rowing, we knew not whither, or which way, we labored
all day and all the next night, and when the morning
came, we found we had pulled off to sea, instead of pull-
ing in for the shore, and that we were at least two leagues
from the shore; however, we got well in again, though
with a great deal of labor, and some danger, for the wind
began to blow pretty fresh in the morning; but particular-
ly we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take
more care of himself for the future; and having lying by
him the long-boat of our English ship he had taken, he re-
solved he would not go a-fishing any more without a com-
pass and some provision; so he ordered the carpenter of
the ship, who was an English slave, to build a little state-
room or cabin in the middle of the long-boat, like that of a
barge, with a place to stand behind it, to steer and haul
home the main sheet, and room before for a hand or two
to stand and work the sails. She sailed with what we
called a shoulder-of-mutton sail, and the boom jibed
over the top of the cabin, which lay very snug and low,


and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and
a table to eat on, with some small lockers to put in some
bottles of such liquor as he thought fit to drink, and par-
ticularly his bread, rice, and coffee.
We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing, and as
I was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went
without me. It happened that he had appointed to go out
in this boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two or
three Moors of some distinction in that place, and for
whom he had provided extraordinarily, and had therefore
sent on board the boat, overnight, a larger store of pro-
visions than ordinary, and had ordered me to get ready
three fusees, with powder and shot, which were on board
his ship, for that they designed some sport of fowling as
well as fishing.
I got all things ready as he directed, and waited the next
morning with the boat washed clean,her ensign and pennants
out, and everything to accommodate his guests; when, by
and by, my patron came on board alone, and told me his
guests had put off going, upon some business that fell out,
and ordered me with a man and boy, as usual, to go out
with the boat, and catch them some fish, for that his
friends were to sup at his house, and commanded that as
soon as I had got some fish I should bring it home to his
house; all which 1 prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance darted
into my thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a
little ship at my command; and my master being gone, 1
prepared to furnish myself, not for a fishing business, but
for a voyage; though I knew not, neither did I so much as
consider, whither 1 should steer, for anywhere, to get out
of that place, was my way.
My first contrivance was to make a pretense to speak to
this Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board;
for 1 told him we must not presume to eat of our patron's
bread, lie said that was true; so he brought a large
basket of rusk or biscuit, of their kind, and three jars with
fresh water, into the boat. 1 knew where my patron's
case of bottles stood, which, it was evident by the make,
were taken out of some English prize, and 1 conveyed
them into the boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they
had been there before our master. I conveyed also a great
lump of beeswax into the boat, which weighed above half

~' ~ 2

a hundredweight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a
hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all which were of great use
to us afterward, especially the wax, to make candles. An-
other trick I tried upon him, which he innocently came
into also; his name was Ismael, whom they call Muley, or
Moley; so 1 called to him. Moley, said I, our patron's gunr
are on board the boat; can you not get a little powder and
shot? it may be we may kill some alcamies (fowls like our
curlews) for ourselves, for 1 know he keeps the gunner'r
stores in the ship. Yes, says he, I will bring some; and
accordingly he brought a great leather pouch, which held
about a pound and a half of powder, or rather more, and
another with shot, that had five or six pounds, with some
bullets, and put all into the boat; at the same time 1 found
some powder of my master's in the great cabin, with which
I filled one of the large bottles in the case, which was
almost empty, pouring what was in it into another; and
thus furnished with everything needful, we sailed out of
the port to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of
the port, knew who we were, and took no notice of us;
and we were not above a mile out of the port before we
hauled in our sail, and set us down to fish. The wind
blew from NN.E., which was contrary to my desire; for,
had it blown southerly, I had been sure to have made the
coast of Spain, and at last reached to the Bay of Cadiz;
but my resolutions were, blow which way it would, 1 would
be gone from the horrid place where I was, and leave the
rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and catched nothing, for
when 1 had fish on my hook I would not pull them up,
that he might not see them, I said to the Moor: This will
not do; our master will not be thus served; we must stand
further off. He, thinking no harm, agreed, and being at
the head of the boat, set the sails; and as I had the helm,
1 run the boat near a league further, and then brought to,
as if 1 would fish. Then giving the boy the helm, 1
stepped forward to where the Moor was, and I took him
by surprise, with my arm under his waist, and tossed him
clear overboard into the sea. He rose immediately, for he
swam like a cork, and called to me, begged to be taken in,
and told me he would go all the world over with me. He
swam so strong after the boat, that he would have reached
me very quickly, there being but little wind; upon which


1 stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowling-
pieces, 1 presented it at him, and told him I had done him
no hurt, and if he would be quiet I would do him none.
But, said I, you swim well enough to reach the shore, and
the sea is calm; make the best of your way to shore, and 1
will do you no harm; but if you come near the boat I will
shoot you through the head; for I am resolved to have my
liberty. So he turned himself about, and swam for the
shore, and 1 make no doubt but he reached it with ease,
for he was an excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor with
me and have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing
to trust him. When he was gone I turned to the boy,
whom they called Xury, and said to him: Xury, if you
will be faithful to me I will make you a great man; but if
you will not stroke your face to be true to me (that is,
swear by Mahomet and his father's beard), 1 must throw
you into the sea too. The boy smiled in my face, and
spoke so innocently, that I could not mistrust him, and
swore to be faithful to me and go all over the world with
While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, 1
stood out directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching to
windward, that they might think me gone toward the
strait's mouth (as indeed any one that had been in their
wits must have been supposed to do); for who would have
supposed we were sailing on to the southward, to the truly
Barbarian coast, where whole nations of negroes were sure
to surround us with their canoes and destroy us; where we
could never once go on shore but we should be devoured
by savage beasts, or more merciless savages of human
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening I changed my
course, and steered directly south and by east, bending my
course a little toward the east, that I might keep in with
the shore; and having a fair, fresh gale of wind, and a
smooth, quiet sea, 1 made such sail that 1 believe by the
next day, at three o'clock in the afternoon, when 1 made
the land, I could not be less than one hundred and fifty
miles south of Sallee, quite beyond the Emperor of Moroc-
co's dominions, or indeed of any other king thereabout;
for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and

the dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands,
that 1 would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an an-
chor, the wind continuing fair, till I had sailed in that
manner five days; and then the wind shifting to the south-
ward, I concluded also that if any of our vessels were in
chase of me, they also would now give over; so 1 ventured
to make to the coast, and'came to an anchor in the mouth
of a little river; 1 knew not what or where, neither what
latitude, what country, what nation, or what river. I
neither saw, nor desired to see, any people; the principal
thing 1 wanted was fresh water. We came into this creek
in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was
dark, and discover the country; but as soon as it was quite
dark we heard such dreadful noises of the barking, roar-
ing, and howling of wild creatures, of we knew not what
kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and
begged of me not to go on shore till day. Well, Xury,
said I, then I will not; but it may be we may see men by
day, who will be as bad to us as those lions. Then we may
give them the shoot-gun, says Xury, laughing; make
them run away. Such English Xury spoke by conversing
among us slaves. However, 1 was glad to see the boy so
cheerful, and I gave him a dram out of our patron's case
of bottles to cheer him up. After all, Xury's advice was
good, and I took it. We dropped our little anchor, and
lay still all night; 1 say still, for we slept none; for in two
or three hours we saw vast creatures (we knew not what to
call them), of many sorts, come down to the sea-shore, and
run into the water, wallowing and washing themselves, for
the pleasure of cooling themselves, and they made such
hideous howlings and yelling, that I never indeed heard
the like.
Xury was dreadfully frightened, and indeed so was I too;
but we were both more frightened when we heard one of
these mighty creatures swimming toward our boat; we
could not see him, but we might hear him, by his blowing,
to be a monstrous, huge, and furious beast. Xury said it
was a lion, and it might be so, for aught I know; but poor
Xury cried to me to weigh the anchor and row away. No,
says 1, Xury; we can slip our cable with a buoy to it, and
go off to sea; they can not follow us far. 1 had no sooner
said so, but 1 perceived the creature (whatever it was)
within two oars' length, which something surprised me;


however, 1 immediately stepped to the cabin door, and
taking up my gun, fired at him; upon which he immedi-
ately turned about, and swam to the shore again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrible noises and
hideous cries and howlings that were raised, as well upon
the edge of the shore as higher within the country, upon
the noise or report of the gun; a thing, I believe, those
creatures had never heard' before. This convinced me
there was no going on shore for us in the night upon that
coast;' and how to venture on shore in the day, was another
question too; for to have fallen into the hands of any of
the savages, had been as bad as to have fallen into the
paws of lions and tigers; at least, we were equally appre-
ensive of the danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore
somewhere or other for water, for we had not a pint left in
the boat; when and where to get it was the point. Xury
said if I would let him go on shore with one of the jars, he
would find if there was any water, and bring some to me.
1 asked him why he would go, why I should not go, and he
stay in the boat. The boy answered with so much affec-
tion that he made me love him ever after. Says he, If
wild mans come, they eat me, you go away. Well, Xury,
said I, we will both go; and if the wild mans come, we
will kill them; they shall eat neither of us. So I gave
Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat and a dram out of our
patron's case of bottles, which 1 mentioned before; and we
hauled in the boat as near the shore as we thought was
proper, and so waded to shore, carrying nothing but our
arms, and two jars for water.
1 did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the
coming of canoes with savages down the river; but the
boy, seeing a low place about a mile up the country, ram-
bled to it; and by and by 1 saw him come running toward
me. 'I thought he was pursued by some savage, or fright-
ened by some wild beast, and 1 therefore ran forward to
help him; but when I came nearer to him, I saw some-
thing hanging over his shoulders, which was a creature
that he had shot, like a hare, but different in color, and
longer legs; however, we were very glad of it, and it was
very good meat; but the great joy that poor Xury came
with was to tell me he had found good water and seen no
wild mans.


But we found afterward that we need not take such pains
for water; for a little higher up the creek where we were,
we found the water fresh when the tide was out, which
flowed but a little way up; so we filled our jars, and hav-
ing a fire, feasted on the hare we had killed, and prepared
to go on our way, having seen no footsteps of any human
creature in that part of the country.
As 1 had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew
very well that the Islands of the Canaries and the Cape de
Verd Islands also, lay not far from the coast. But as 1
had no instruments to take an observation, to find what
latitude we were in, and did not exactly know, or at least
remember, what latitude they were in, I knew not where
to look for them, or when to stand off to sea toward them,
otherwise 1 might now have easily found some of these
islands. But my hope was that if I stood along this coast
till I came to the part where the English traded, 1 should
find some of their vessels upon their usual design of trade,
that would relieve and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, the place where I now
was, must be that country which, lying between the Em-
peror of Morocco's dominions and the Negroes, lies waste
and uninhabited, except by wild beasts; the Negroes hav-
ing abandoned it, and gone further south, for fear of the
Moors, and the Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting, by
reason of its barrenness; and, indeed both forsaking it be-
cause of the prodigious number of tigers, lions, leopards,
and other furious creatures which harbor there, so that the
Moors use it for their hunting only, where they go like an
army, two or three thousand men at a time; and, indeed,
for near a hundred miles together upon this coast, we saw
nothing but a waste, uninhabited country by day, and
heard nothing but howlings and roaring of wild beasts by
Once or twice, in the day-time, I thought I saw the Pico
of Teneriffe, being the top of the mountain of Teneriffe,
in the Canaries, and had a great mind to venture out, in
hopes of reaching thither; but having tried twice, I was
forced in again by contrary winds; the sea also going too
high for my little vessel; so I resolved to pursue my first
design, and keep along the shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after
we had left this place; and once, in particular, being early

Robinson Crusoe Discovers a Dreadful Monster.

in the morning, we came to an anchor under a little point
of land which was pretty high; and the tide beginning to
flow, we lay still, to go further in. Xury, whose eyes were
more about him than, it seems, mine were, calls softly to
me and tells me that we had best go further off the shore;
for, says he, Look, yonder lies a dreadful monster on the
side of that hillock, fast asleep. I looked where he
pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed, for it was a
terrible great lion, that lay on the side of the shore, under
the shade of a piece of the hill, that hung, as it were, over
him. Xury, says I, you shall go on shore and kill him.
Xury looked frightened, and said, Me kill! he eat me at
one mouth; one mouthful he meant. However, I said no
more to the boy, but bade him be still; and 1 took our
biggest gun, which was almost musket-bore, and loaded it
with a good charge of powder, and with two slugs, and laid
it down; then I loaded another gun with two bullets; and
a third, for we had three pieces, I loaded with five smaller
bullets. 1 took the best aim 1 could with the first piece,
to have shot him in the head; but he lay so, with his leg
raised a little above his nose, that the slugs hit his leg
about the knee, and broke the bone; he started up, growl-
ing at first, but finding his leg broke, fell down again, and
then got up upon three legs, and gave the most hideous
roar that ever I heard. I was a little surprised that I had
not hit him on the head; however, I took up the second
piece immediately, and though he began to move off, fired
again and shot him in the head, and had the pleasure to
see him drop, and make but little noise, but lie struggling
for life. Then Xury took heart, and would have me let
him go on shore. Well, go, said I; so the boy jumped
into the water, and taking a little gun in one hand, swam
to shore with the other hand, and coming close to the creat-
ure, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him in
the head again, which dispatched him quite.
This was game, indeed, to us, but it was no food; and 1
was very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot
upon a creature that was good for nothing to us. How-
ever, Xury said he'would have some of him; so he comes
on board, and asked me to give him the hatchet: For
what, Xury? said I. Me cut off his head, said he. How-
ever, Xury could not cut off his head; but he cut off a
foot, and brought it with him, and it was a monstrous

great one. I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the
skin of him might one way or other, be of some value to
us; and I resolved to take off his skin, if I could. So
Xury and 1 went to work with him: but Xury was much
the better workman at it, for 1 knew very ill how to do it.
Indeed, it took us both up the whole day; but at last we
got off the hide of him, and spreading it on the top of our
cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two days' time, and it
afterward served me to lie upon.
After this stop we made on to the southward continual-
ly, for ten or twelve days, living very sparingly on our
provisions, which began to abate very much, and going no
oftener into the shore than we were obliged to for fresh
water. My design in this, was to make the River Gambia,
or Senegal: that is to say, anywhere about the Cape de
Verd, where I was in hopes to meet with some European
ship; and if I did not, I knew not what course I had to
take, but to seek for thi islands or perish among the
Negroes. 1 knew that all the ships from Europe, which
sailed either to the coast of Guinea, or to Brazil, or to the
East lndies, made this Cape, or those islands: and in a
word I put the whole of my fortune upon this single
point, either that I must meet with some ship, or must
When 1 had pursued this resolution about ten days
longer, as I have said, 1 began to see that the land was in-
habited; and in two or three places, as we sailed by, we
saw people stand upon the shore to look at us: we could
also perceive they were quite black and stark naked. I was
once inclined to have gone on shore to them; but Xury
was my better counselor, and said to me: No go, no go.
However, I hauled in nearer the shore, that 1 might talk
to them; and 1 found they ran along the shore by me a
good way. I observed they had no weapons in their hands,
except one, who had a long slender stick, which Xury said
was a lance, and that they would throw them a great way
with good aim; so 1 kept at a distance, but talked to them
by signs, as well as 1 could, and particularly made signs
for something to eat. They beckoned to me to stop my
boat, and they would fetch me some meat: upon this I
lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and two of them
ran up into the country; and in less than half an hour
came back, and brought with them two pieces of dry flesh


and some corn, such as the produce of their country; but
we neither, knew what the one or the other was; however,
we were willing to accept it. But how to come at it was
our next dispute, for I was not for venturing on shore to
them, and they were as much afraid of us: but they took
a safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore, and
laid it down, and went and stood a great way off till we
fetched it on board, and then came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing
to make them amends; but an opportunity offered that
very instant to oblige them wonderfully; for while we were
lying by the shore, came two mighty creatures, one pursu-
ing the other (as we took it) with great fury, from the
mountains toward the sea; whether it was the male pursu-
ing the female, or whether they were in sport or in rage, we
could not tell, any more than we could tell whether it was
usual or strange; but I believe it was the latter, because,
in the first place, those ravenous creatures seldom appear
but in the night; and, in the second place we found the
people terribly frightened, especially the women. The
man that had the lance, or dart, did not fly from them,
but the rest did; however, as the two creatures ran directly
into the water, they did not seem to offer to fall upon any
of the Negroes, but plunged themselves into the sea, and
swam about, as if they had come for their diversion; at
last, one of them began to come nearer our boat than I at
first expected; but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded
my gun with all possible expedition, and bade Xury load
both the others. As soon as he came fairly within my
reach, I fired, and shot him directly in the head: immedi-
ately he sunk down into the water, but rose instantly, and
plunged up and down, as if he was struggling for life, and
so indeed he was: he immediately made to the shore, but
between the wound which was his mortal hurt, and the
strangling of the water, he died just before he reached the
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor
creatures, at the noise and fire of my gun; some of them
were even ready to die for fear, and fell down as dead with
the very terror; but when they saw the creature dead, and
sunk in the water, and that 1 made signs to them to come
to the shore, they took heart and came to the shore, and
began to search for the creature. I found him by his


blood staining the water: and by the help of a rope, which
I slung round him, and gave the Negroes to haul, they
dragged him on shore, and found that it was a most curi-
ous leopard, spotted, and fine to an admirable degree; and
the negroes held up their hands with admiration, to think
what it was I had killed him with.
The other creature, frightened with the flash of fire, and
the noise of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly
to the mountains from whence they came; nor could I, at
that distance, know what it was. I found quickly the
Negroes were for eating the flesh of this creature, so I was
willing to have them take it as a favor from me; which,
when I made signs to them that they might take him, they
were very thankful for. Immediately they fell to work
with him; and though they had no knife, yet with a sharp-
ened piece of wood, they took off his skin as readily, and
much more readily, than we could have done with a knife.
They offered me some of the flesh, which I declined, mak-
ing as if I would give it them, but made signs for the skin,
which they gave me very freely, and brought me a great
deal more of their provisions, which, though I did not un-
derstand, yet I accepted. I then made signs to them for
some water, and held out one of my jars to them, turning
it bottom upward, to show that it was empty, and that I
wanted to have it filled. They called immediately to some
of their friends, and there came two women, and brought
a great vessel made of earth, and burned, as I suppose, in
the sun; this they set down to me, as before, and 1 sent
Xury on shore with my jars, and filled them all three.
The women were as stark naked as the men.
1 was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was,
and water; and leaving my friendly Negroes, I made for-
ward for about eleven days more, without offering to go
near the shore, till I saw the land run out a great length
into the sea, at about the distance of four or five leagues
before me; and the sea being very calm, 1 kept a large
offing, to make this point. At length, doubling the point,
at about two leagues from the land, I saw plainly land on
the other side, to seaward: then I concluded, as it was
most certain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verd, and
those the islands, called, from thence, Cape de Verd
Islands. However, they were at a great distance, and I
could not well tell what I had best to do; for if 1 should

be taken with a gale of wind, 1 might neither reach one
nor the other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, 1 stepped into
the cabin, and sat me down, Xury having the helm; when,
on a sudden, the boy cried out, master, master, a ship with
a sail! and the foolish boy was frightened out of his wits,
thinking it must needs be some of his master's ships sent
to pursue us, when 1 knew we were got far enough out of
their reach. I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately
saw, not only the ship, but what she was, viz., that it was
a Portuguese ship, and, as 1 thought, was bound to the
coast of Guinea, for Negroes. But, when I observed the
course she steered, I was soon convinced they were bound
some other way, and did not design to come any nearer to
the shore; upon which, I stretched out to sea as much as I
could, resolving to speak with them, if possible.
With all the sail I could make, 1 found I should not be
able to come in their way, but that they would be gone by
before I could make any signal to them; but after 1 had
crowded to the utmost, and began to despair, they, it
seems, saw me, by the help of their perspective glasses,
and that it was some European boat, which, they sup-
posed, must belong to some ship that was lost: so they
shortened sail, to let me come up. I was encouraged with
this, and as 1 had my patron's ensign on board, I made a
waft of it to them, for a signal of distress, and fired a gun,
both which they saw; for they told me they saw the smoke,
though they did not hear the gun. Upon these signals,
they very kindly brought to, and lay by for me; and in
about three hours' time I came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in
Spanish, and in French, but I understood none of them;
but, at last, a Scotch sailor who was on board, called to
me, and I answered him, and told him I was an English-
man, that I had made my escape out of slavery from the
Moors, at Sallee: they then bade me come on board, and
very kindly took me in, and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will
believe, that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from
such a miserable, and almost hopeless, condition as 1 was
in; and I immediately offered all I had to the, captain of
the ship, as a return for my deliverance; but he generously
told me, he would take nothing from me, but that all


had should be delivered safe to me, when 1 came to the
Brazils. For, says he, I have saved your life on no other
terms than I would be glad to be saved myself; and it
may, one time or other, be my lot to be taken up in the
same condition. Besides, said he, when 1 carry you to the
Brazils, so great a way from your own country, if 1 should
take from you what you have, you will be starved there,
and then I only take away that life 1 had given. No, no,
Senhor Ingles (Mr. Englishman), says he, 1 will carry you
thither in charity, and these things will help to buy your
subsistence there, and your passage home again.

He settles in the Brazils as a Planter.-Makes another Voyage, and
is Shipwrecked.
As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in
the performance, to a tittle: for he ordered the seamen,
that none should offer to touch anything I had: then he
took everything into his own possession, and gave me back
an exact inventory of them, that I might have them, even
so much as my three earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw,
and told me he would buy it of me for the ship's use; and
asked me what 1 would have for it? I told him, he had
been so generous to me in everything, that 1 could not
offer to make any price of the boat, but left it entirely to
him: upon which, he told me he would give me a note of
hand to pay me eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil; and
when it came there, if any one offered to give more, he
would make it up. He offered me also sixty pieces of
eight more for my boy Xury, which 1 was loath to take;
not that 1 was not willing to let the captain have him, but
I was very loath to sell the poor boy's liberty, who had as-
sisted me so faithfully in procuring my own. However,
when I let him know my reason, he owned it to be just,
and offered me this medium, that he would give the boy an
obligation to set him free in ten years, if he turned Christ-
ian; upon this, and Xury saying he was willing to go to
him, I left the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and arrived
in the Bay de Todoa los Santos, or All Saints' Bay, in

C~ 1"~ In'~r" ~ 'T

about twenty-two days after. And now 1 was once more
delivered from the most miserable of all conditions of life;
and what to do next with myself, 1 was now to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me, 1 can never
enough remember: he would take nothing of me for my
passage, gave me twenty ducats for the leopard's skin, and
forty for the lion's skin, which I had in my boat, and
caused everything 1 had in the ship to be punctually de-
livered to me; and what 1 was willing to sell, he bought of
me; such as the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a
piece of the lump of bees-wax-for I had made candles of
the rest: in a word, 1 made about two hundred and twenty
pieces of eight of all my cargo; and with this stock, I went
on shore in the Brazils.
1 had not been long here, before I was recommended to
the house of a good honest man, like himself, who had an
ingenio as they call it (that is, a plantation and a sugar-
house). I lived with him some time, and acquainted my-
self, by that means, with the manner of planting and of
making sugar; and seeing how well the planters lived, and
how they got rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could get a
license to settle there, I would turn planter among them:
endeavoring, in the meantime, to find out some way to get
my money, which I had left in London, remitted to me.
To this purpose, getting a kind of letter of naturalization,
1 purchased as much land that was uncured as my money
would reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and
settlement; such a one as might, be suitable to the stock
which 1 proposed to myself to receive from England.
1 had a neighbor, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of
English parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such
circumstances as I was. I call him my neighbor, because
his plantation lay next to mine, and we went on very soci-
ably together. My stock was but low, as well as his; and
we rather planted for food than anything else, for about two
years. However, we began to increase, and our land be-
gan to come into order; so that the third year we planted
some tobacco, and made each of us a large piece of ground
ready for planting canes in the year to come; but we both
wanted help; and now 1 found more than before, I had
done wrong in parting with my boy Xury.
But, alas! for me to do wrong, that never did right, was
no great wonder. I had no remedy, but to go on: I had

^^^/ 5ae~iaaswWCPW-.y*^ '^^

got into an employment quite remote to my genius, and
directly contrary to the life I delighted in, and for which 1
forsook my father's house, and broke through all his good
advice: nay, I was coming into the very middle station, or
upper degree of lower life, which my father advised me to
before; and which, if I resolved to go on with, I might as
well have stayed at home, and never have fatigued myself
in the world, as I had done; and I used often to say to my-
self, I could have done this as well in England, among my
friends, as have gone five thousand miles off to do it among
strangers and savages, in a wilderness, and at such a dist-
ance as never to hear from any part of the world that had
the least knowledge of me.
In this manner, I used to look upon my condition with
the utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with, but
now and then this neighbor; no work to be done, but by
the labor of my hands: and 1 used to say, I lived just like
a man cast away upon some desolate island, that had no-
body there but himself. But how just has it been! and
how should all men reflect, that when they compare their
present conditions with others that are worse, Heaven may
oblige them to make the exchange, and be convinced of
their former felicity by their experience: 1 say, how just
has it been, that the truly solitary life I reflected on, in an
island of mere desolation, should be my lot, who had so
often unjustly compared it with the life which I then led,
in which, had 1 continued, I had, in all probability, been
exceeding prosperous and rich!
1 was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carry-
ing on the plantation, before my kind friend, the captain
of the ship that took me up at sea, went back; for the ship
remained there, in providing his lading, and preparing
for his voyage, near three months; when telling him what
little stock I had left behind me in London, he gave me
this friendly and sincere advice: Senhor Inglez, says he
(for so he always called me), if you will give me letters,
and a procuration here in form to me, with orders to the
person who has your money in London, to send your effects
to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct, and in such
goods as are proper for this country, 1 will bring you the
produce of them, God willing, at my return: but since hu-
man affairs are all subject to changes and disasters, I would
have you give orders for but one hundred pounds sterling,

Robinson Crusoe Shipwrecked.


which, you say, is half your stock, and let the hazard be
run for the first, so that if it come safe, you may order the
rest the same way; and, if it miscarry, you may have the
other half to have recourse to for your supply. This was
so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I could
not but be convinced it was the best course I could take;
so I accordingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman with
whom I left my money, and a procuration to the Portu-
guese captain, as he desired me.
1 wrote the English captain's widow a full account of
all my adventures; my slavery, escape, and how I had met
with the Portuguese captain at sea, the humanity of his be-
havior, and what condition 1 was now in, with all other
necessary directions for my supply; and when this honest
captain came to Lisbon, he found means, by some of the
English merchants there, to send over, not the order only,
but a full account of my story to a merchant at London,
who represented it effectually to her, whereupon she not
only delivered the money, but, out of her own pocket, sent
the Portuguese captain a very handsome present for his
humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds
in English goods, such as the captain had wrote for, sent
them directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all
safe to me at the Brazils among which, without my direc-
tion (for I was too young in my business to think of them),
he had taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron work, and
utensils, necessary for my plantation, and which were of
great use to me. When this cargo arrived, 1 thought my
fortune made, for I was surprised with the joy of it; and
my good steward, the captain, had laid out the five pounds,
which my friend had sent him as a present for himself, to
purchase and bring me over a servant, under bond for six
years' service, and would not accept of any consideration,
except a little tobacco, which I would have him accept, be-
ing of my own produce. Neither was this all: but my
goods being all English manufactures, such as cloths,
stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable and desirable
in the country, 1 found means to sell them to a very great
advantage; so that I might say, I had more than four
times the value of my first cargo, and was now infinitely
beyond my poor neighbor, I mean in the advancement of
my plantation: for the first thing I did, I bought me a

Negro slave, and a European servant also; I mean another
besides that which the captain brought me from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very
means of our adversity, so was it with me. I went on the
next year with great success in my plantation; I raised fifty
great rolls of tobacco on my own ground, more than 1 had
disposed of for necessaries among my neighbors: and these
fifty rolls, being each of above one hundred pounds weight,
were well cured, and laid by against the return of the fleet
from Lisbon: and now, increasing in business and in wealth,
my head began to be full of projects and undertakings be-
yond my reach; such as are, indeed, often the ruin of the
best heads in business. Had I continued in the station I
was now in, I had room for all the happy things to have
yet befallen me, for which my father so earnestly recom-
mended a quiet, retired life, and which he had so sensibly
described the middle station of life to be full of: but other
things attended me, and I was still be to be the willful
agent of all my own miseries; and, particularly, to increase
my fault, and double the reflections upon myself, which in
rny future sorrows I should have leisure to make, all these
miscarriages were procured by my apparent obstinate ad-
hering to my foolish inclination, of wandering about, and
pursuing that inclination, in contradiction to the clearest
views of doing myself good in a fair and plain pursuit of
those prospects, and those measures of life, which nature
and Providence concurred to present me with, and to make
my duty.
As I had once done thus in breaking away from my par-
ents, so I could not be content now, but I must go and
leave the happy view 1 had of being a rich and thriving
man in my new plantation, only to pursue a rash and im-
moderate desire of rising faster than the nature of the
thing admitted; and thus I cast myself down again into
the deepest gulf of human misery that ever man fell into,
or perhaps could be consistent with life, and a state of
health in the world.
To come then, by just degrees, to the particulars of this
part of my story-You may suppose, that having now
lived almost four years in Ihe Brazils, and beginning to
thrive and prosper very well upon my plantation, I had
not only learned the language, but had contracted an ac-
quaintance and friendship among my fellow-planters, as

well as among the merchants at St. Salvador, which was
our port: and that, in my discourses among them, 1 had
frequently given them an account of my two voyages to
the coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with the
Negroes there, and how easy it was to purchase on the
coast for trifles-such as beads, toys, knives, scissors,
hatchets, bits of glass, and the like-not only gold dust,
Guinea grains, elephants' teeth, etc., but Negroes, for the
service of the Brazils, in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my discourses
on these heads, but especially to that part which related to
the buying of Negroes; which was a trade, at that time, not
only not far entered into, but, as far as it was, had been
carried on by the assientos, or permission of the kings of
Spain and Portugal, and engrossed from the public; so
that few Negroes were bought, and those excessively dear.
It happened, being in company with some merchants
and planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those
things very earnestly, three of them came to me the next
morning, and told me they had been musing very much
upon what I had discoursed with them of the last night,
and they came to make a secret proposal to me: and, after
enjoining me to secrecy, they told me that they had a mind
to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that they had all planta-
tions as well as I, and were straitened for nothing so much
as servants; that as it was a trade that could not be carried
on, because they could not publicly sell the Negroes when
they came home, so they desired to make but one voyage
to bring the Negroes on shore privately, and divide them
among their own plantations; and, in a word, the question
was, whether I would go their supercargo in the ship, to
manage the trading part upon the coast of Guinea; and
they offered me that 1 should have an equal share of the
Negroes, without providing any part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it
been made to any one that had not a settlement and plan-
tation of his own to look after, which was in a fair way of
coming to be very considerable, and with a good stock
upon it. But for me, that was thus entered and estab-
lished, and had nothing to do but go on as I had begun,
for three or four years more, and to have sent for the other
hundred pounds from England; and who, in that time and
with that little addition, could scarce have failed of being

worth three or four thousand pounds sterling, and that In-
creasing too; for me to think of such a voyage, was the
most preposterous thing that ever man, in such circum-
stances, could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no
more resist the offer, than 1 could restrain my first ramb-
ling designs, when my father's good counsel was lost upon
me. In a word, I told them I would go with all my heart,
if they would undertake to look after my plantation in my
absence, and would dispose of it to such as I should direct,
if I miscarried. This they all engaged to do, and entered
into writings or covenants to do so: and I made a formal
will, disposing of my plantation and effects, in case of my
death; making the captain of the ship that had saved my
life, as before, my universal heir; but obliging him to dis-
pose of my effects as 1 had directed in my will; one-half of
the produce being to himself, and the other to be shipped
to England. In short, I took all possible caution to pre-
serve my effects, and to keep up my plantation: had I used
half as much prudence to have looked into my own inter-
est, and have made a judgment of what I ought to have
done and not to have done, I had certainly never gone away
from so prosperous an undertaking, leaving all the prob-
able views of a thriving circumstance, and gone a voyage
to sea, attended with all its common hazards, to say noth-
ing of the reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes
to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of
my fancy, rather thaq my reason: and accordingly, the
ship, being fitted out, and the cargo furnished, and all
things done as by agreement, by my partners in the voy-
age, I went on board in an evil hour again, the first of
S pteiber, 1659, being the same day eight years that I
v, lt from my parents at Hull, in order to act the rebel to
their authority, and the fool to my own interest.
Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons bur-
den, carried six guns and fourteen men, besides the master,
his boy, and myself; we had on board no large cargo of
goods, except of such toys as were fit for our trade with
the Negroes, such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd
trifies, especially little looking-glasses, knives, scissors,
hatchets, and the like.
The very same day I went on board we set sail, standing


away to the northward upon our own coast, with design to
stretch over for the African coast. When they came about
ten or twelve degrees of northern latitude, which, it seems,
was the manner of their course in those days, we had very
good weather, only excessively hot all the way upon our
own coast, till we came to the height of Cape St. August-
ino; from whence, keeping further off at sea, we lost sight
of land, and steered as if we were bound for the isle Fer-
nando de Noronha, holding our course N.E. by N. and
leaving those isles on the east. In this course we passed
the Line in about twelve days' time, and were, by our last
observation, in seven degrees twenty-two minutes northern
latitude, when a violent tornado, or hurricane, took us
quite out of our knowledge: it began from the south-east,
came about to the north-west, and then settled in the
north-east; from whence it blew in such a terrible manner,
that for twelve days together we could do nothing but
drive, and, scudding away before it, let it carry us whither-
soever fate and the fury of the winds directed; and, during
these twelve days, 1 need not say that I expected every day
to be swallowed up; nor, indeed, did any in the ship expect
to save their lives.
In this distress, we had, besides the terror of the storm,
one of our men dead of the calenture, and one man and a
boy washed overboard. About the twelfth day, the
weather abating a little, the master made an observation
as well as he could, and found that he was in about eleven
degrees north latitude, hut that he was twenty-two degrees
of longitude difference, west from Cape St. Augustino; so
that he found he was got upon the coast of Guiana, or the
north part of Brazil, beyond the river Amazon, toward
that of the river Oronoco, commonly called the Great
River; and began to consult with me what course he
should take, for the ship was leaky and very much dis-
abled, and he was for going directly back to the coast of
1 was positively against that; and looking over the charts
of the sea-coast of America with him, we concluded there
was no inhabited country for us to have recourse to, till
we came within the circle of the Carribee Islands, and
therefore resolved to stand away for Barbadoes; which by
keeping off to sea, to avoid the indraft of the Bay or Gulf
of Mexico, we might easily perform, as we hoped, in about


fifteen days' sail; whereas we could not possibly make our
voyage to the coast of Africa without sone assistance both
to our ship and ourselves.
With this design we changed our course and steered away
N.W. by W., in order to reach some of our English islands,
where 1 hoped for relief; but our voyage was otherwise de-
termined; for being in the latitude of twelve degrees eigh-
teen minutes, a second storm came upon us which carried
us away with the same impetuosity westward, and drove us
so out of the way of all human commerce, that had
all our lives been saved, as to the sea, we were rather in
danger of being devoured by savages than ever returning
to our own country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of
our men early in the morning, cried out, Land! and we
had no sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of
seeing whereabouts in the world we were, than the ship
struck upon a sand, and in a moment, her motion being
so stopped, the sea broke over her in such a manner that
we expected we should all have perished immediately; and
we were immediately driven into our close quarters, to
shelter us from the foam and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like
condition to describe or conceive the consternation of men
in such circumstances; we knew nothing where we were,
or upon what land it was we were driven, whether an island
or the main, whether inhabited or not inhabited; and as
the rage of the wind was still great, though rather less than
at first, we could not so much as hope to have the ship hold
many minutes without breaking in pieces, unless the wind,
by a kind of miracle, should immediately turn about. In
a word we sat looking upon one another, and expecting
death every moment, and every man acting accordingly, as
preparing for another world; for there was little or noth-
ing more for us to do in this. That which was our present
comfort, and all the comfort we had, was that, contrary to
our expectation, the ship did not break yet, and that the
master said the wind began to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate,
yet the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and stick-
ing too fast for us to expect her getting off, we were in a
dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing to do, but to
think of saving our lives as well as we soald. We had a


boat at our stern just before the storm, but she was first
staved by dashing against the ship's rudder, and, in the
next place, she broke away, and either sunk, or was driven
off to sea; so there was no hope from her; we had another
boat on board, but how to get her off into the sea was a
doubtful thing; however, thbre was no room to debate, for
we fancied the ship would break in pieces every minute,
.nd some told us she was actually broken already.
In this distress the mate of our vessel laid hold of the
boat, and with the help of the rest of the men they got her
flung over the ship's side; and getting all into her, we let
her eo and committed ourselves, being eleven in number,
to God's mercy, and the wild sea; for though the storm
was abated considerably, yet the sea went dreadfully high
upon the shore, and might be well called den wild zee, as
tha Dutch call the sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all saw
plainly, that the sea went so high, that the boat could not
live, and that we should be inevitably drowned. As to
making sail, we had none; nor, if we had, could we have
done anything with it; so we worked at the oar toward the
land, though with heavy hearts, like men going to execu-
tion; for we all knew that when the boat came nearer to
the shore, she would be dashed in a thousand pieces by the
breach of the sea. However, we committed our souls to
God in the most earnest manner; and the wind driving us
toward the shore, we hastened our destruction with our
own hand, pulling as well as we could toward land.
What the shore v :s-whether rock or sand, whether
steep or shoal-we knew not; the only hope that could
rationally give us the least shadow of expectation, was, if
we might happen into some bay or gulf, or the mouth of
some liver, where by great chance we might have run our
boat in, or got under the lee of the land, and perhaps made
smooth water. But nothing of this appeared; and as we
made nearer and nearer the shore, the land looked more
frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league
and a half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-
like, came rolling astern of us, and plainly bade us expect
the coup de grace. In a word, it took us with such fury,
that it overset the boat at onee; and separating us, as well

from the boat as from one another, gave us no time hardly
to say, Oh, God!" for we were all swallowed up in a mo-
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I
felt, when I sunk into the water; for though I swam very
well, yet I could not deliver myself from the waves so as
to draw my breath, till that wave having driven me, or
rather carried me, a vast way on toward the shore, and
having spent itself, went back, and left me upon the land
almost dry, but half dead with the water I took in. I had
so much presence of mind, as well as breath left, that see-
ing myself nearer the main land than I expected, 1 got
upon my feet and endeavored to make on toward the land
as fast as I could, before another wave should return and
take me up again; but I soon found it was impossible to
avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a great
hill, and as furious as an enemy which I had no means or
strength to contend with; my business was to hold my
breath and raise myself upon the water, if 1 could; and so,
by swimming, to preserve my breathing and pilot myself
toward the shore, if possible; my greatest concern now be-
ing that the wave, a- it would carry me a great way toward
the shore when it came on, might not carry me back again
with it when it gave back toward the sea.
The wave that came upon me again buried me at once
twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body, and I could feel
myself carried with a mighty force and swiftness toward
the shore, a very great way; but 1 held my breath, and
assisted myself to swim still forward with all my might.
I was ready to burst with holding my breath, when, as 1
felt myself rising up, so, to my immediate relief, 1 found
my head and hands shoot out above the surface of the
water; and though it was not two seconds of time that 1
could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave me
breath and new courage. 1 was covered again with water
a good while, but not so long but I held it out; and find-
ing the water had spent itself, and began to return, 1 struck
forward against the return of the waves, and felt ground
again with my feet. I stood still a few moments, to re-
cover breath, and till the water went from me, and then
took to my heels and ran with what strength I had further
toward the shore. But neither would this deliver me from
the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me again;

111-71- 1

Robinson Crusoe Cast upon the Barren Island.

and twice more 1 was lifted up by the waves and carried
forward as before, the shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well-nigh been fatal to
me; for the sea, having hurried me along, as before, landed
me, or rather dashed me, against a piece of rock, and
that with such force that it left me senseless, and indeed
helpless, as to my own deliverance; for the blow, taking
my side and breast, beat the breath, as it were, quite out
of my body; and had it returned again immediately, I must
have been strangled in the water; but I recovered a little
before the return of the waves, and, seeing I should again
be covered with the water, I resolved to hold fast by a
piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath, if possible, till
the wave went back. Now as the waves wore not so high
as the first, being nearer land, I held my hold till the wave
abated, and then fetched another run, which brought me
so near the shore that the next wave, though it went over
me, yet did not so swallow me up as to carry me away; and
the next run I took, I got to the mainland; where, to my
great comfort, 1 clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and
sat me down upon the grass, free from danger, and quite
out of the reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore; and began to look
up and thank God that my life was saved, in a case where-
in there were, some minutes before, scarcely any room to
hlpe. I believe it is impossible to express, to the life,
what the ecstasies and transports of the soul are, when it is
so saved, as I may say, out of the grave; and I did not
wonder now at the custom, viz., that when a malefactor,
who has the halter about his neck, is tied up, and just go-
ing to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought to him; 1
say, I do not wonder that they bring a surgeon with it, to
let him blood that very moment they tell him of it, that
the surprise may not drive the animal spirits from the
heart and overwhelm him.
For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first."
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and
my whole being, as I may say, wrapped up in the contem-
plation of my deliverance, making a thousand gestures and
motions, which I can not describe; reflecting upon my
comrades that were drowned, and that there should not be
one soul saved but myself; for, as for them, 1 never saw

them afterward, or any sign of them, except three of their
hats, one cap, and two shoes that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel-when the breach
and froth of the sea being so big 1 could hardly see it, it lay
so far off-and considered, Lord! how was it possible I
could get on shore?
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part
of my condition 1 began to look around me, to see what
kind of a place 1 was in, and what was next to be done;
and I soon found my comforts abate, and that, in a word,
I had a dreadful deliverance; for I was wet, had no clothes
to shift me, nor anything either to cat or drink, to com-
fort me; neither dil I see any prospect before me, but that
of perishing with hunger, or b-ing devoured by wild beasts;
and that which was particularly afflicting to me was that
I had no weapon either to hunt and kill any creature for
my sustenance, or to d,-fend myself against any other creat-
ure that might desire to kill me for theirs. In a word, I
had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a
little tobacco in a box. This was all my provision; and
this threw me into such terrible agonies of mind, that for
awhile 1 ran about like a madman. Night coming upon
me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider what would
be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that coun-
try, seeing at night they always come abroad for their
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that
time, was to get up into a thick, bushy tree, like a fir, but
thorny-which grew near me, and where I resolved to sit
all night-and consider the next day what death I should
die, for as yet I saw no prospect of life. I walked about a
furlong from the shore, to see if I could find any fresh
water to drink, which I did, to my great joy; and having
drunk, and put a little tobacco into my mouth to prevent
hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it, en-
deavored to place myself so as that, if I should fall asleep,
I might not fall; and having cut me a short stick, like a
truncheon, for my defense, I took up my lodging, and hav-
ing been excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep and slept as
comfortably as, 1 believe, few could have done in my con-
dition, and found myself the most refreshed with it that I
think I ever was on such an occasion.


Robinson finds Himself in a Desolate Island.-Procures a Stock of
Articles from the Wreck.-Constructs his Habitation.
WHEN I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and
the storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as
before; but that which surprised me most was that the
ship was lifted off in the night from the sand where she
lay, by the swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost
as far as the rock which I at first mentioned, where I had
been so bruised by the wave dashing against it. This be-
ing within about a mile from the shore where I was, and
the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished myself on
board, that at least I might save some necessary things for
my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, 1
looked about me again, and the first thing I found was the
boat, which lay, as the wind and the sea had tossed her up,
upon the land, about two miles on my right hand. I
walked as far as I could upon the shore to have got to her,
but found a neck or inlet of water between me and the
boat, which was about half a mile broad; so I came back
for the present, being more intent upon getting at the ship,
where I hoped to find something for my present subsist-
A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the
tide ebbed so far out that 1 could come within a quarter of
a mile of the ship; and here I found a fresh renewing of
my grief, for I saw evidently that if we had kept on board
we had been all safe; that is to say, we had all got safe on
shore, and I had not been so miserable as to be left entire-
ly destitute of all comfort and company as 1 now was.
This forced tears from my eyes again; but as there was lit-
tle relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship;
so I pulled off my clothes, for the weather was hot to ex-
tremity, and took the water; but when I came to the ship
my difficulty was still greater to know how to get on board,
for as she lay aground, and high out of the water, there
was nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round
her twice, and the second time I spied a small piece of
rope, which I wondered I did not see at first, hanging down

by the fore-chains so high that with great difficulty I got
hold of it, and by the help of that rope got into the fore-
castle of the ship. Here I found that the ship was bulged,
and had a great deal of water in her hold; but that she lay
so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that
her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head low,
almost to the water. By this means all her quarter was
free, and all that was in that part was dry; for you may
be sure my first work was to search and to see what was
spoil.-l and what was free; and, first, I found that all the
ship's provisions were dry and untouched by the water,
and, being very well disposed to eat, I went to the bread-
room and filled my pockets with biscuit, and eat it as 1
went about other things, for 1 had no time to lose. 1 also
found some rum in the great cabin, of which I took a large
dram, and which I had indeed need enough of to spirit me
for what was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a
boat to furnish myself with many things which I foresaw
woull be very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not-to
be had, and this extremity roused my application; we had
several spare yards, and two or three large spars of wood,
and a spare topmast or two in the ship; I resolved to fall
to work with these, and flung as many overboard as I could
manage for their weight, tying every one with a rope, that
they might not drive away. When this was done I went
down the ship's side, and pulling them to me, I tied four
of them fast together at both ends, as well as I could. in
the form of a raft, and laying two or three short pieces of
plank upon them crossways, 1 found I could walk upon it
very well, but that it was not able to bear any great weight,
the pieces being too light; so 1 went to work, and with the
carpenter's saw I cut a spare topmast into three lengths
and added them to my raft, with a great deal of labor and
pains. But the hope of furnishing myself with necessaries
encouraged me to go beyond what 1 should have been able
to have done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable
weight. My next care was what to load it with, and how
to preserve what I laid upon it from the surf of the sea;
but I was not long considering this. I first laid all the
planks or boards upon it that I could get, and having con-
sidered well what I most wanted, I got three of the sea-


CAU608 WAD mO U16 BMf


men's chests, which I had broken open and emptied and
lowered them down upon my raft; these 1 filled with pro-
visions, viz., bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of
dried goat's flesh (which we lived much upon), and a little
remainder of European corn, which had been laid by for
some fowls which we had brought to sea with us, but the
fowls were killed. There had been some barley and wheat
together, but, to my great disappointment, I found after-
ward that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As for
liquors, 1 found several cases of bottles belonging to our
skipper, in which were some cordial waters; and in all
about five or six gallons of rack. These I stowed by them-
selves, there being no need to put them into the chests, nor
any room for them. While I was doing this I found the
tide began to flow, though very calm; and I had the mor-
tification to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had
left on shore, upon the sand, swim away; as for my
breeches, which were only linen, and open-kneed, I swam
on board in them, and my stockings. However, this put
me upon rummaging for clothes, of which 1 fourid enough,
but took no more than I wanted for present use, for 1
had other things which my eye was more upon; as, first,
tools to work with on shore; and it was after long search-
ing that 1 found the carpenter's chest, which was indeed a
very useful prize to me, and much more valuable than a
ship-lading of gold would have been at that time. 1 got it
down to my raft, even whole as it was, without losing time
to look into it, for I knew in general what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms.
There were two very good fowling-pieces in the great
cabin, and two pistols; these I secured first, with some
powder-horns and a small bag of shot, and two old rusty
swords. I knew there were three barrels of powder in the
ship, but knew not where our gunner had stowed them;
but with much search I found them, two of them dry and
good, the third had taken water. Those two I got to my
raft, with the arms. And now I thought myself pretty
well freighted, and began to think how I should get to
shore with them, having neither sail, oar, nor rudder; and
the least capful of wind would have overset all my naviga-
I had three encouragements: 1st. A smooth, calm sea;
Idly. The tide rising, and setting in to the shore; 3dly.

What little wind there was blew me toward the land. And
thus, having found two or three broken oars belonging to
the boat, and besides the tools which were in the chest, I
found two saws, an ax, and a hammer; and with this cargo
1 put to sea. For a mile or thereabouts my raft went very
well, only that 1 found it drive a little distant from the
place where I had landed before; by which I perceived that
there was some indraft of the water, and consequently I
hoped to find some creek or river there, which I might
make use of as a port to get to land with my cargo.
As 1 imagined, so it was; there appeared before me a lit-
tle opening of the land, and 1 found a strong current of
the tide set into it; so 1 guided my raft as well as I could,
to get into the middle of the stream. But here I had like
to have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if I had, I
think it verily would have broken my heart; for, knowing
nothing of the coast, my raft ran aground at one end of it
upon a shoal, and not being aground at the other end, it
wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped off toward
that end that was afloat, and so fallen into the water. I
did my utmost, by setting my back against the chests, to
keep them in their places, but could not thrust off the
raft with all my strength; neither durst I stir from the
posture I was in, but holding up the chests with all my
might, I stood in that manner near half an hour, in which
time the rising of the water brought me a little more upon
a level; and a little after, the water still rising, my raft
floated again, and 1 thrust her off with the oar I had into
the channel, and then driving up higher, I at length found
myself in the mouth of a little river, with land on both sides,
and a strong current or tide running up. I looked on both
sides for a proper place to get to shore, for I was not will-
ing to be driven too high up the river, hoping in time to
see some ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place my-
self as near the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the
creek, to which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided
my raft, and at last got so near as that, reaching ground
with my oar, I could thrust her directly in; but here I had
like to have dipped all my cargo into the sea again, for
that shore lying pretty steep, that is to say, sloping, there
was no place to land but where one end of my float, if it
ran on shore, would lie so high, and the other sink lower,


as before, that it would endanger my cargo again. All
that 1 could do was to wait till the tile was at the highest,
keeping the raft with my oar like an anchor, to hold the
side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of ground,
which I expected the water would flow over; and so it did.
As soon as I found water enough, for my raft drew about
a foot of water, I thrust her upon that fiat piece of ground,
and there fastened or moored her by sticking my two
broken oars into the ground, one on one side near one end,
and one on the other side near the other end; and thus I
lay till the water ebbed away, and left my raft and all my
cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper
place for my habitation, and where to stow my goods, to
secure them from whatever might happen. Where I was 1
yet knew not; whether on the continent or on an island;
whether inhabited or not inhabited; whether in danger of
wild beasts or not. There was a hill, not above mile
from me, which rose up very steep and high, and which
seemed to overtop some other hills, which lay as in a ridge
from it, northward. I took out one of the fowling-pieces,
and one of the pistols, and a horn of powder, and thu,
armed I traveled for discovery up to the top of that hills
where, after I had, with great labor and difficulty, got up
to the top, saw my fate, to my great afliction, viz., that
I was in an island, environed every way with the sea, no
land to be seen, except some rocks which lay a great way
off, and two small islands, less than this, which lay about
three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as
I saw good reason to believe, uninhabited, except by wild
beasts, of whom, however, I saw none; yet 1 saw abund-
ance of fowls, but knew not their kinds; neither, when 1
killed them, could 1 tell what was fit for food and w-at
not. At my coming back I shot at a great bird, whiih I
saw sitting upon a tree, on the side of a great wood. 1 be-
lieve it was the first gun that had been fired there since
the creation of the world; I had no sooner fired, but from
all the parts of the wood there arose an innumerable num-
ber of fowls, of many sorts, making a confused screaming,
and crying, and every one according to his usual note; but
not one of them of any kind that I knew. As for the
creature I killed, I took it to be a kind of a hawk, its color

and beak resembling it, but it had no talons or claws more
than common. Its flesh was carrion and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft,
and fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took
me up the rest of that day; what to do with myself at
night 1 knew not, nor indeed where to rest, for I was
afraid to lie down on the ground, not knowing but some
wild beast might devour me; though, as I afterward found,
there was really no need for those fears. However, as well
as I could, I barricaded myself round with the chests and
boards that I had brought on shore, and made a kind of
hut for that night's lodging. As for food, I yet saw not
which way to supply myself, except that I had seen two or
three creatures, like hares, run out of the wood where 1
shot the fowl.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a great
many things out of the ship, which would be useful to me,
and particularly some of the rigging and sails, and such
other things as might come to land; and I resolved to
make another voyage on board the vessel, if possible. And
as 1 knew that the first storm that blew must necessarily
break her all in pieces, I resolved to set all other things
apart, till I got everything out of the ship that I could get.
Then I called a council, that is to say, in my thoughts,
whether 1 should take back the raft; but this appeared im-
practicable; so I resolved to go as before, when the tide was
down; and I did so, only that I stripped before I went
from my hut; having nothing on but a checked shirt, a
pair of linen drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second
raft; and having had experience of the first, I neither made
this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but yet 1 brought
away several things very useful to me; as, first, in the car-
penter's stores, I found two or three bags of nails and
spikes, a great screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and,
above all, that most useful thing called a grind-stone. All
these I secured together, with several things belonging to
the gunner; particularly two or three iron crows, and two
barrels of musket-bullets, seven muskets, and another
fowling-piece, with some small quantity of powder more; a
large bagful of small shot, and a great roll of sheet-lead;
but this last was so heavy I could not hoist it up to get it
over the ship's side. Besides these things, I took all the

men's clothes that I could find, and a spare fore-topsail, a
hammock, and some bedding; and with this I loaded my
second raft, and brought them all safe on shore, to my
very great comfort.
1 was under some apprehensions lest, during my absence
from the land, my provisions might be devoured on shore:
but when 1 came back, 1 found no sign of any visitor; only
there sat a creature like a wild cat, upon one of the chests,
which, when 1 came toward it, ran away a little distance,
and then stood still. She sat very composed and uncon-
cerned, and looked full in my face, as if she had a mind
to be acquainted with me. I presented my gun to her,
but, as she did not understand it, she was perfectly uncon-
cerned at it, nor did she offer to stir away; upon which I
tossed her a bit of biscuit, though, by the way, I was not
very free of it, for my store was not great; however, 1
spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled of it,
and eat it, and looked (as pleased) for more; but I thank-
ed her, and could spare no more; so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore-though I was fain
to open the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels,
for they were too heavy, being large casks-I went to work
to make me a little tent with the sail and some poles which
I cut for that purpose; and into this tent 1 brought every-
thing that I knew would spoil either with rain or sun, and
1 piled all the empty chests and casks up in a circle round
the tent, to fortify it from any sudden attempt either from
man or beast.
When I had done this I blocked up the door of the tent
with some boards within, and an empty chest set up on
end without, and spreading one of the beds upon the
ground, laying my two pistols just at my head, and my
gun at length by me, 1 went to bed for the first time, and
slept very quietly all night, for 1 was very weary and heavy;
for the night before 1 had slept little, and had labored very
hard all day, as well to fetch all those things from the ship
as to get them on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever
was laid up, 1 believe, for one man; but I was not -..-i'. d
still, for while the ship sat upright in that posi:t a I
thought I ought to get everything out of her that 1 coii.i;
so every day at low water I went on board and brought
away something or other; but particularly the third time I

went 1 brought away as much of the rigging as 1 could, as
also all the small ropes and rope-twine 1 could get, with a
piece of spare canvas, which was to mend the sails upon
occasion, and the barrel of wet gunpowder. In a word, I
brought away all the sails first and last; only that I was
fain to cut them in pieces and bring as much at a time as
1 could; for they were no more useful to be sails, but as
mere canvas only.
But that which comforted me still more was that, last of
all, after I had made five or six such voyages as these, and
thought I had nothing more to expect from the ship that
was worth my meddling with; I say, after all this, I found
a great hogshead of bread, and three large runlets of rum or
spirits, and a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine flour; this
was surprising to me, because I had given over expecting
any more provisions, except what was spoiled by the water.
1 soon emptied the hogshead of that bread, and wrapped
it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails which 1 cut
out; and, in a word, I got all this safe on shore also.
The next day I made another voyage, and now having
plundered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand
out, I began with the cables, and cutting the great cable
into pieces such as 1 could move, I got two cables and a
hawser on shore, with all the iron work 1 could get; and
having cut down the spritsail-yard, and the mizzen-yard,
and everything I could, to make a large raft, 1 loaded it
with all those heavy goods, and came away; but my good
luck began now to leave me, for this raft was so unwieldy
and so overladen that after I was entered the little cove,
where I had landed the rest of my goods, not being able to
guide it so handily as I did the other, it overset, and threw
me and all my cargo into the water; as for myself, it was
no great harm, for 1 was near the shore, but as to my
cargo, it was a great part of it lost, especially the iron,
which I expected would have been of great use to me; how-
ever, when the tide was out I got most of the pieces of cable
ashore, and some of the iron, though with infinite labor;
for I was fain to dip for it into the water, a work which
fatigued me very much. After this I went every day on
board, and brought away what 1 could get.
1 had now been thirteen days ashore, and had been
eleven times on board the ship, in which time I had
brought away all that one pair of hands could well be sup-


posed capable to bring; though I believe verily, had the
calm weather held, 1 should have brought away the whole
ship piece by piece, but preparing, the twelfth time, to go
on board, 1 found the wind began to rise; however, at low
water, I went on board, and though 1 thought 1 had rum-
maged the cabin so effectually as that nothing could be
found, yet 1 discovered a locker with drawers in it, in one
of which I found two or three razors, and one pair of large
scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good knives and forks;
in another I found about thirty-six pounds in money, some
European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some
gold, and some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. Oh, drug!
I exclaimed, what art thou good for? Thou art not worth
to me, no, not the taking off the ground; one of those
knives is worth all this heap. 1 have no manner of use for
thee; e'en remain where thou art, and go to the bottom, as
a creature whose life is not worth saving. However, upon
second thoughts, I took it away, and wrapping all this in a
piece of canvas, I began to think of making another raft;
but while 1 was preparing this I found the sky overcast,
and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it
blew a fresh gale from the shore. It presently occurred to
me that it was in vain to pretend to make a raft with the
wind off shore; and that it was my business to be gone be-
fore the tide of flood began, or otherwise 1 might not be
able to reach the shore at all. Accordingly 1 let myself
down into the water, and swam across the channel which
lay between the ship and the sands, and even that with
difficulty enough, partly with the weight of the things
I had about me, and partly the roughness of the water; f;r
the wind rose very hastily, and before it was quite high
water it blew a storm.
But I was got home to my little tent, where I lay, with
all my wealth about me very secure. It blew very hard all
that night, and in the morning when I looked out, behold,
no more ship was to be seen! 1 was a little surprised, but
recovered myself with the satisfactory reflection, viz., that
I had lost no time nor abated no diligence to get everything
out of her that could be useful to me, and that indeed
there was little left in her that I was able to bring away, if
I had had more time.
1 now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of


anything out of her, except what might drive on shore,
from her wreck; as, indeed, divers pieces of her afterward
did; but those things were of small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing
myself against either savages, if any should appear, or
wild beasts, if any were in the island; and I had many
thoughts of the method how to do this, and what kind of
dwelling to make, whether I should make me a cave in the
earth or a tent upon the earth; and, in short, 1 resolved
upon both; the manner and description of which it may
not be improper to give an account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not for my settle-
ment, particularly because it was upon a low, moorish
ground, near the sea, and I believed it would not be whole-
some; and more particularly because there was no fresh
water near it. So I resolved to find a more healthy and
more convenient spot of ground.
1 consulted several things in my situation, which I found
would be proper for me: First, air and fresh water, 1 just
now mentioned; secondly, shelter from the heat of the sun;
thirdly, security from ravenous creatures, whether men or
beasts; fourthly, a vijw to the sea, that if God sent any
ship in sight, I might not lose any advantage for my de-
liverance, of which I was not willing to banish all my ex-
pectation yet.
In search for a place proper for this, I found a little
plain on the side of a rising hill, whose front toward this
little plain was steep as a house-side, so that nothing could
come down upon me from the top. On the side of this
rook, there was a hollow place, worn a little way in, like
the entrance or door of a cave; but there was not really
any cave or way into the rock! at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, 1
resolved to pitch my tent. 'This plain was not above a
hundred yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay like
a green before my door; and, at the end of it, desceuded
irregularly every way down into the low ground by the sea-
side. It was on the N.N.W. side of the hill; so that it was
sheltered from the heat every day, till it came to a W. and
by S. sun, or thereabouts, which, in those countries, is
near the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the
hollow place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-


diameter from the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter,
from its beginning and ending.
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes,
driving them into the ground till they stood very firm like
piles, the biggest end being out of the ground, about five
feet and a half, and sharpened on the top. The two rows
did not stand above six inches from each other.
Then 1 took the pieces of cable which I cut in the ship,
and laid them in rows, one upon another, within the circle,
between these two rows of stakes, up to the top, placing
other stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two
feet and a half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence
was so strong that neither man nor beast could get into it
or over it. This cost me a great deal of time and labor,
especially to cut the piles in the woods, bring them to the
place, and drive them into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be not by a door,
but by a short ladder to go over the top; which ladder,
when I was in, 1 lifted over after me; and so 1 was com-
pletely fenced in and fortified, as 1 thought, from all the
world, and consequently slept secure in the night, which
otherwise 1 could not have done; though, as it appeared
afterward, there was no need of all this caution against the
enemies that 1 apprehended danger from.

Carries all his Riches,Provisions, etc., into his Habitation.-Dreari-
ness of Solitude.-Consolatory Reflections.
INTO this fence, or fortress, with infinite labor, I carried
all my riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores,
of which you have the account above; and I made a large
tent, which, to preserve me from the rains that in one part
of the year are very violent there, I made double, viz., one
smaller tent within and one larger tent above it, and cov-
ered the uppermost with a large tarpaulin, which I had
saved among the sails.
And now I lay no more for awhile in the bed which I
had brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed
a very good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and every-
thing that would spoil by the wet; and having thus inclosed


all my goods, I made up the entrance, which till now I had
left open, and so passed and repassed, as I said, by a short
When I had done this I began to work my way into the
rock, and bringing all the earth and stones that 1 dug
down out through my tent, 1 laid them up within my fence
in the nature of a terrace, so that it raised the ground
within about a foot and a half; and thus I made me a cave,
just behind my tent, which served me like a cellar to my
house. It cost me much labor and many days, before all
these things were brought to perfection; and therefore 1
must go back to some other things which took up some of
my thoughts. At the same time it happened, after I had
laid my scheme for the setting up my tent, and making
the cave, that a storm of rain falling from a thick, dark
cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened, and after that
a grt clap of thunder, as is naturally the t i.. t. of it. I
was s( much surprised with the lightning, as 1 was with a
thought which darted into my mind as swift as the light-
ning itself: Oh, my powder! My very heart sunk within
me when 1 thought, that at one blast, all my powder might
be destroyed; on which, not my defense only, but the pro-
viding me food, as 1 thought, entirely depended. 1 was
nothing near so anxious about my own danger, though,
had the powder taken fire, I should never have known who
had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that after the
storm was over 1 laid aside all my works, my building and
fortifying, and applied myself to make bags and boxes to
separate the powder, and to keep it a little and a little in a
parcel, in hope that whatever might come, it might not all
take fire at once; and to keep it so apart that it should not
be possible to make one part fire another. I finished this
work in about a fortnight, and 1 think my powder, which
in all was about two hundred and forty pounds weight,
was divided into not less than a hundred parcels. As to
the barrel that had been wet, 1 did not apprehend any dan-
ger from that; so 1 placed it in my new cave which, in my
fancy, I called my kitchen, and the rest I hid up and down
in holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it,
marking very carefully where 1 laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out
at least once every day with my gun, as well to divert my-

self as to see if I could kill anything fit for food; and, as
near as I could, to acquaint myself with what the island
produced. The first time I went out I presently discov-
ered that there were goats upon the island, which was a
great satisfaction to me; but then it was attended with this
misfortune to me, viz., that they were so shy, so subtle,
and so swift of foot, that it was the most difficult thing in
the world to come at them; but I was not discouraged at
this, not doubting but 1 might now and then shoot one,
as it soon happened; for after I had found their haunts a
little, 1 laid wait in this manner for them; I observed, if
they saw me in the valleys, though they were upon the
rocks, they would run away as in a terrible fright; but if
they were feeding in the valleys, and I was upon the rocks,
they took no notice of me, from whence I concluded that
by the position of their optics, their sight was so directed
downward that they did not readily see objects that were
above them; so afterward, I took this method-I always
climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and then had
frequently a fair mark. The first shot I made among
these creatures I killed a she-goat, which had a little kid
by her, which she gave suck to, which grieved me heartily;
but when the old one fell the kid stood stock-still by her
till I came and took her up; and not only so, but when I
carried the old one with me, upon my shoulders, the kid
followed me quite to my inclosure; upon which 1 laid down
the dam, and took the kid in my arms, and carried it
over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame; but it
would not eat, so I was forced to kill it and eat it myself.
These two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I eat
sparingly and preserved my provisions (my bread espe-
cially) as much as possibly I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely
necessary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to
burn; and what I did for that, as also how I enlarged my
cave, and what conveniences 1 made, I shall give a full ac-
count of it in its proper place; but 1 must first give some
little account of myself, and of my thoughts about living,
which, it may well be supposed, were not a few.*
I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for as I was
not cast away upon that island without being driven, as is
said, by a violent storm quite out of the course of our in-
tended voyage, and a great way, viz., some hundreds of


leagues, out of the ordinary course of the trade of man.
kind, 1 had great reason to consider it as a determination
of Heaven, that in this desolate place, and in this desolate
manner, I should end my life. The tears would run
plentifully down my face when I made these reflections;
and sometimes I would expostulate with myself why Provi-
dence should thus completely ruin its creatures, and render
them so absolutely miserable; so abandoned without help,
so entirely depressed, that it could hardly be rational to be
thankful for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me to check
these thoughts, and to reprove me; and particularly, one
day walking with my gun in my hand, by the sea-side, I
was very pensive upon the subject of my present condition,
when reason, as it were, expostulated with me the other
way, thus: Well, you are in a desolate condition, it is true;
but, pray remember, where are the rest of you? Did not
you come eleven of you into the boat? Where are the
ten? Why were not they saved, and you lost? Why were
you singled out? Is it better to be here or there? And
then I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be considered
with the good that is in them, and with what worse attends
Then it occurred to me again, how well 1 was furnished
for my subsistence, and what would have been my case if
it had not happened (which was a hundred thousand to
one) that the ship floated from the place where she first
struck, and was driven so near to the shore, that I had
time to get all these things out of her; what would have
been my case if I had been to have lived in the condition
in which I at first came on shore, without necessaries of
life, or necessaries to supply and procure them? Particu-
larly, said I aloud (though to myself), what should I have
done without a gun, without ammunition, without any tools
to make anything, or to work with, without clothes, bed-
ding, a tent, or any manner of covering? and that now I
had all these to a sufficient quantity and was in a fair way
to provide myself in such a manner as to live without my
gun, when' my ammunition was spent; so that 1 had a
tolerable view of subsisting, without any want, as long as I
lived; for 1 considered, from the beginning, how I would
provide for the accidents that might happen, and for the
time that was to come, not only after my ammunition


should be spent, but even after my health or strength
should decay.
I confess, 1 had not entertained any notion of my am-
munition being destroyed at one blast, I mean my powder
being blown up by lightning; and this made the thoughts
of it so surprising to me when it lightened and thundered,
as I observed just now.
And now being about to enter into a melancholy relation
of a scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of
in the world before, 1 shall take it from its beginning and
continue it in its order. It was, by my account, the 30th
of September, when, in the manner as above said, I first
set foot upon this horrid island, when the sun being to us
in its autumnal equinox, was almost just over my heard;
for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in the latitude
of nine degrees twenty-two minutes north of the Line.

Robinson's Mode of reckoning Time.-Difficulties arising from
Want of Tools.-He arranges his Habitation.
AFTER 1 had been there about ten or twelve days, it
came into my thoughts that 1 should lose my reckoning of
time for want of books and pen and ink, and should even
forget the Sabbath days from the working days; but, to
prevent this, I cut it with my knife upon a large post, in
capital letters; and making it into a great cross, I set it up
on the shore where 1 first landed, viz., 1 came on shore here
on the 30th of September, 1659." Upon the sides of this
square post 1 cut every day a notch with my knife, and
every seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and
every first day of the month as long again as that long one;
and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and
yearly reckoning of time.
But it happened that among the many things which I
brought out of the ship, in the several voyages which, as
above mentioned, 1 made to it, I got several things of less
value, but not at all less useful to me, which 1 found some-
time after in rummaging the chests; as, in particular,
pens, ink, and paper; several parcels in the captain's,

leagues, out of the ordinary course of the trade of man.
kind, 1 had great reason to consider it as a determination
of Heaven, that in this desolate place, and in this desolate
manner, I should end my life. The tears would run
plentifully down my face when I made these reflections;
and sometimes I would expostulate with myself why Provi-
dence should thus completely ruin its creatures, and render
them so absolutely miserable; so abandoned without help,
so entirely depressed, that it could hardly be rational to be
thankful for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me to check
these thoughts, and to reprove me; and particularly, one
day walking with my gun in my hand, by the sea-side, 1
was very pensive upon the subject of my present condition,
when reason, as it were, expostulated with me the other
way, thus: Well, you are in a desolate condition, it is true;
but, pray remember, where are the rest of you? Did not
you come eleven of you into the boat? Where are the
ten? Why were not they saved, and you lost? Why were
you singled out? Is it better to be here or there? And
then I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be considered
with the good that is in them, and with what worse attends
Then it occurred to me again, how well 1 was furnished
for my subsistence, and what would have been my case if
it had not happened (which was a hundred thousand to
one) that the ship floated from the place where she first
struck, and was driven so near to the shore, that I had
time to get all these things out of her; what would have
been my case if I had been to have lived in the condition
in which I at first came on shore, without necessaries of
life, or necessaries to supply and procure them? Particu-
larly, said 1 aloud (though to myself), what should I have
done without a gun, without ammunition, without any tools
to make anything, or to work with, without clothes, bed-
ding, a tent, or any manner of covering? and that now 1
had all these to a sufficient quantity and was in a fair way
to provide myself in such a manner as to live without my
gun, when* my ammunition was spent; so that 1 had a
tolerable view of subsisting, without any want, as long as I
lived; for 1 considered, from the beginning, how I would
provide for the accidents that might happen, and for the
time that was to come, not only after my ammunition

Robinson Crusoe Keeps his Calendas "

-wrG2u~~ l~n*Yr~* i;s~r i ; 7Ts~~-r~~- rq i~-.


foresee, except the ranging the island to seek for food,
which I did, more or less, every day.
1 now began to consider seriously my condition, and the
circumstance I was reduced to; and I drew up the state of
my affairs in writing, not so much to leave them to any
that were to come after me (for 1 was like to have but few
heirs), as to deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon
them, and afflicting my mind; and as my reason began
now to master my despondency, I began to comfort my-
self as well as 1 could, and to set the good against the evil,
that I might have something to distinguish my case from
worse; and 1 stated very impartially, like debtor and credi-
tor, the comforts 1 enjoyed against the miseries I suffered,

I am cast upon a horrible, des-
olate island, void of all hope of
I am singled out and separated,
as it were, from all the world, to
be miserable.

I am divided from mankind,
a solitaire; one banished from hu-
man society.
I have no clothes to cover me.

But I am alive; and not drown.
ed, as all my ship's company
But I am singled out too from all
the ship's crew, to be spared from
death; and He that miraculously
saved me from death, can deliver
me from this condition.
But I am not starved, and per-
ishing in a barren place, affording
no sustenance.
But I am in a hot climate,
where, if I had clothes, I could
hardly wear them.

I am without any defense, or But I am cast on an island
means to resist any violence of where I see no wild beast to hurt
man or beast, me, as I saw on tL, coast of
Africa; and what if I had been
shipwrecked there?
I have no soul to speak to, or But God wonderfully sent the
relieve me. ship in near enough to the shore,
that I have got out so many nec-
essary things, as will either supply
my wants, or enable me to supply
myself, even as long as I live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony, that
there was scarce any condition in the world so miserable,
but there was something negative, or something positive,
to be thankful for in it; and let this stand as a direction,

7WW Y. S-T- P

-~: ;~- : ..-.-- lc:~~--,.-T~gT~

from the experience of the most miserable of all conditions
in this world, that we may always find in it something to
comfort ourselves from, and to set, in the description of
good and evil on the credit side of the account.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condi-
tion, and given over looking out to sea, to see if I could
spy a ship; I say, given over these things, I began to apply
myself to accommodate my way of living, and to make
things as easy to me as 1 could.
I have already described my habitation, which was a
tent under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong
pale of posts and cables; but 1 might now rather call it a
wall, for 1 raised a kind of wall against it of turfs, about
two feet thick on the outside: and after some time (1 think
it was a year and a half) I raised rafters from it, leaning to
the rock, and thatched or covered it with boughs of trees,
and such things as I could get, to keep out the rain; which
I found, at some times of the year, very violent.
I have already observed how 1 brought all my goods into
this pale, and into the cave which 1 had made behind me.
But 1 must observe, too, that at first this was a confused
heap of goods which, as they lay in no order, so they took
up all my place; I had no room to turn myself: so 1 set
myself to enlarge my cave, and work further into the
earth; for it was a loose sandy rock, which yielded easily to
the labor I bestowed on it: and when I found 1 was pretty
safe as to the beasts of prey, I worked sideways, to the
right hand, into the rock, and then turning to the right
again, worked quite out, and made me a door to come out
in the outside of my pale or fortification.
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were, a
back way to my tent and to my storehouse, but gave me
room to stow my goods.
And now 1 began to apply myself to make such neces-
sary things as I found I most wanted, particularly a chair
and a table; for without these I was not able to enjoy the
few comforts I had in the world; I could not write, or eat,
or do several things with so much pleasure, without a
table: so I went to work. And here I must needs observe,
that as reason is the substance and original of the mathe-
matics, so by stating and squaring everything by reason,
and by making the most rational judgment of things, every

f i l 'I I

F/1I '

Robinson Crusoe Building Furniture,

man may be, in time, master of every mechanic art. 1
had never handled a tool in my life; and yet, in time, by
labor, application, and contrivance I found at last, that I
wanted nothing but I could have made, especially if I had
had tools. However, I made abundance of things, even
without tools; and some with no more tools that an adze
and a hatchet, which perhaps were never made that way
before, and that with infinite labor. For example, if I
wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down a
tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either
side with my ax, till I had brought it to be as thin as a
plank, and then dub it smooth with my adze. It is true,
by this method, I could make but one board of a whole
tree; but this I had no remedy for but patience, any more
than I had for a prodigious deal of time and labor which
it took meaup to make a plank or board: but my time or
labor was little worth, and so it was as well employed one
way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed
above, in the first place; and this I did out of the short
pieces of boards that 1 brought on my raft from the ship.
ut when I wrought out some boards, as above, I made
large shelves, of the breadth of a foot and a half, one over
another, all along one side of my cave, to lay all my tools,
nails, and iron work on; and, in a word, to separate every-
thing at large in their places, that I might easily come at
them. I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock, to hang
my guns, and all things that would hang up: so that had
my cave been seen, it looked like a general magazine of all
necessary things; and 1 had everything so ready at my
hand, that it was a great pleasure to me to see all my goods
in such order, and especially to find my stock of all neces-
saries so great.
And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every
day's employment; for, indeed, at first, I was in too much
hurry, and not only as to labor, but in much discomposure
of mind; and my journal would, too, have been full of
many dull things: for example, I must have said thus-
" Sept. 30th. After I had got to shore, and had escaped
drowning, instead of being thankful to God for my deliver-
ance, having first vomited, with the great quantity of salt
water which had got into my stomach, and recovering my-
pelf a little, I ran about the shore, wringing my hands, and


beating my head and face, exclaiming at my misery, and
crying out I was undone, undone! till, tired and faint, 1
was forced to lie down on the ground to repose; but durst
not sleep, for fear of being devoured."
Some days after this, and after I had been on board the
ship and got all that 1 could out of her, I could not forbear
getting up to the top of a little mountain, and looking out
to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship: then fancy that, at a vast
distance, I spied a sail, please myself with the hopes of it,
and, after looking steadily, till I was almost blind, lose it
quite, and sit down and weep like a child, and thus in-
crease my misery by my folly.
But, having got over these things in some measure, and
having settled my household stuff and habitation, made
me a table and a chair, and all as handsome about me as I
could, 1 began to keep my journal: of which I shall here
give you the copy (though in it will be told all these partic-
ulars over again) as long as it lasted; for, having no more
ink, 1 was forced to leave it off.

Robinson's Journal.-Details of his Domestic Economy and Con-
trivances.-Shock of an Earthquake.
SEPTEMBER 30th, 1659. I, poor miserable Robinson
Crusoe, being shipwvrecked, during a dreadful storm, in
the offing, came on shore on this dismal unfortunate island,
which I called the ISLAND OF DESPAIR; all the rest of the
ship's company being drowned, and myself almost dead.
All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting myself at the
dismal circumstances I was brought to, viz., 1 had neither
food, house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to: and, in
despair of any relief, saw nothing but death before me;
that I should either be devoured by wild beasts, murdered
by savages, or starved to death for want of food. At the
approach of night I slept in a tree, for fear of wild creat-
ures; but slept soundly, though it rained all night.
October 1. In the morning I saw, to my great surprise,
the ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven on
shore again much nearer the island; which, as it was some
comfort on one hand (for seeing her sit upright, and not

broken in pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I might get
on board, and get some food and necessaries out of her for
my relief,) so, on the other hand, it renewed my grief at
the loss of my comrades, who, I imagined, if we had all
stayed on board, might have saved the ship, or, at least,
that they would not have been all drowned, as they were:
and that, had the men been saved, we might perhaps have
built us a boat, out of the ruins of the ship, to have carried
us to some other part of the world. 1 spent great part of
this day in perplexing myself on these things; but, at
length, seeing the ship almost dry, 1 went upon the sand
as near as I could, and then swam on board. This day
also it continued raining, though with no wind at all.
From the 1st of October to the 24th. All these days
entirely spent in many several voyages to get all I could
out of the ship; which I brought on shore, every tide of
flood, upon rafts. Much rain also in these days, though
with some intervals of fair weather: but, it seems, this was
the rainy season.
Oct. 20. I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got
upon it; but being in shoal water, and the things being
chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them when the tide was
Oct. 25. It rained all night and all day, with some gusts
of wind; during which time the ship broke in pieces (the
wind blowing a little harder than before) and was no more
to be seen, except the wreck of her, and that only at low
water. I spent this day in covering and securing the goods
which I had saved, that the rain might not spoil them.
Oct. 26. I walked about the shore almost all day, to find
out a place to fix my habitation; greatly concerned to
secure myself from any attack in the night, either from
wild beasts or men. Toward night 1 fixed upon a proper
place, under a rock, and marked out a semicircle for my
encampment; which I resolved to strengthen with a work,
wall, or fortification, made of double piles lined within with
cables, and without with turf.
From the 26th to the 30th, I worked very hard in carry-
ing all my goods to my new habitation, though some part
of the time it rained exceedingly hard.
The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island
with my gun, to see for some food, and discover the coun-
try; when I killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me


home, which I afterward killed also, because it would not
November 1. I set up my tent under a rock, and lay
there for the first night; making it as large as I could,
with stakes driven in to swing my hammock upon.
Nov. 2. I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces
of timber which made my rafts; and with them formed a
fence round me, a little within the place I had marked out
for my fortification.
Nov. 3. I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls
like ducks, which were very good food. In the afternoon
I went to work to make me a table.
Nov. 4. This morning 1 began to order my times of
work, of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time
of diversion; viz., every morning I walked out with my gun
for two or three hours, if it did not rain; then employed
myself to work till about eleven o'clock; then eat what I
had to live on; and from twelve to two I lay down to sleep,
the weather being excessive hot; and then, in the evening,
to work again. The working part of this day and the next
was wholly employed in making my table, for I was yet
but a very sorry workman: though time and necessity
made me a complete natural mechanic soon after, as I be-
lieve they would any one else.
Nov. 5. This day went abroad with my gun and dog,
and killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh
good for nothing: of every creature that I killed I took off
the skins, and preserved them. Coming back by the sea-
shore, I saw many sorts of seafowl which I did not under-
stand: but was surprised, and almost frightened, with two
or three seals; which while I was gazing at them (not well
knowing what they were) got into the sea, and escaped me
for that time.
Nov. 6. After my morning walk, I went to work with
my table again, and finished it, though not to my liking:
nor was it long before I learned to mend it.
Nov. 7. Now it began to be settled fair weather. The
7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and part of the 12th (for the 11th was
Sunday, according to my reckoning), I took wholly up to
make me a chair, and with much ado brought it to a toler-
able shape, but never to please me; and, even in the mak-
ing, 1 pulled it in pieces several times.
Note. I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for, omit-

ting my mark for them on my post, 1 forgot which was
Nov. 13. This day it rained; which refreshed me exceed-
ingly, and cooled the earth: but it was accompanied with
terrible thunder and lightning, which frightened me dread-
fully, for fear of my powder. As soon as it was over, 1 re-
solved to separate my stock of powder into as many little
parcels as possible, that it might not be in danger.
Nov. 14, 15, 16. These three days I spent in making
little square chests or boxes, which might hold about a
pound, or two pounds at most, of powder: and so, putting
the powder in, I stowed it in places as secure and as re-
mote from one another as possible. On one of these three
days 1 killed a large bird that was good to eat; but 1 knew
not what to call it.
Nov. 17. This day 1 began to dig behind my tent, into
the rock, to make room for my further convenience.
Note. Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work,
viz., a pickax, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow, or basket; so
1 desisted from my work, and began to consider how to
supply these wants,'and make me some tools. As for a
pickax, I made use of the iron crows, which were proper
enough, though heavy: but the next thing was a shovel or
spade; this was so absolutely necessary, that, indeed, 1
could do nothing effectually without it; but what kind of
one to make I knew not.
Nov. 18. The next day, in searching the woods, 1 found
a tree of that wood, or like it, which, in the Brazils, they
call the iron-tree, from its exceeding hardness: of this,
with great labor, and almost spoiling my ax, I cut a piece;
and brought it home, too,, with difficulty enough, for it was
exceeding heavy. The excessive hardness of the wood,
and my having no other way, made me a long while upon
this machine: for I worked it effectually, by little and
little, into the form of a shovel or spade; the handle exact-
ly shaped like ours in England, only that the broad part
having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not last
me so long: however, it served well enough for the uses
which 1 had occasion to put it to; but never was a shovel,
1 believe, made after that fashion, or so long in making.
1 was still deficient; for I wanted a basket, or a wheel-
barrow. A basket I could not make by any means, hav-
ing no such things as twigs that would bend to make

d&D~;yTb:dr..~P- ~ -- -. I.. -


wicker ware; at least, none yet found out: and as to the
wheelbarrow, I fancied 1 could make all but the wheel, but
that I had no notion of; neither did I know how to go
about it: besides, I had no possible way to make iron gud-
geons for the spindle or axle of the wheel to run in; so I
gave it over: and, for carrying away the earth which 1 dug
out of the cave, I made me a thing like a hod, which the
laborers carry mortar in for the bricklayers. This was not
so difficult to me as the making the shovel: and yet this
and the shovel, and the attempt which 1 made in vain to
make a wheelbarrow, took me up no leas than four days; I
mean, always excepting my morning walk with my gun,
which I seldom omitted, and very seldom failed also bring-
ing home something fit to eat.
Nov. 23. My other work having now stood still, because
of my making these tools, when they were finished I went
on; and working every day, as my strength and time
allowed, I spent eighteen days entirely in widening and
deepening my cave, that it might hold my goods commodi-
Note. During all this time, I worked to make this room
or cave, spacious enough to accommodate me as a ware-
house, or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar.
As for a lodging, 1 kept to the tent: except that some-
times, in the wet season of the year, it rained so hard that
1 could not keep myself dry; which caused me afterward
to cover all my place within my pale with long poles, and
in the form of rafters, leaning against the rock, and load
them with flags and large leaves of trees, like a thatch.
December 10. I began now to think my cave or vault
finished; when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too
large) a great quantity of earth fell down from the top and
one side; so much, that, in short, it frightened me, and
not without reason too; for if I had been under it, I should
never have wanted a grave-digger. Upon this disaster, I
had a great deal of work to do over again, for 1 had the
loose earth to carry out; and, which was of more import-
ance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure
no more would come down.
Dec. 11. This day I went to work with it accordingly;
and got two shores or posts pitched upright to the top,
with two pieces of board across over each post: this I
finished the next day; and setting more posts up with


boards, in about a week more I had the roof secured; and
the posts, standing in rows, served me for partitions to
part off my house.
Dec. 17. From this day to the 30th, I placed shelves, and
knocked up nails on the posts, to hang everything up that
could be hung up: and now I began to be in some order
within doors.
Dec. 20. I carried everything into the cave, and began to
furnish my house, and set up some pieces of boards, like a
dresser, to order my victuals upon; but boards began to be
very scarce with me: also I made me another table.
Dec. 24. Much rain all night and all day: no stirring
Dec. 25. Rain all day.
Dec. 26. No rain; and the earth much cooler than be-
fore, and pleasanter.
Dec. 27. Killed a young goat; and lamed another, so
that 1 watched it, and led it home in a string: when I had
it home, 1 bound and splintered up its leg, which was
N. B. 1 took such care of it that it lived; and the leg
grew well, and as strong as ever: but, by nursing it so
long, it grew tame, and fed upon the little green at my
door, and would not go away. This was the first time that
I entertained a thought of breeding up some tame creat-
ures, that I might have food when my powder and shot was
all spent.
Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31. Great heats, and no breeze; so that
there was no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for
food; this time I spent in putting all my things in order
within doors.
January 1. Very hot still; but I went abroad early and
late with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day.
This evening, going further into the valleys which lay
toward the center of the island, I found there was plenty
of goats, though exceeding shy, and hard to come at; how-
ever, I resolved to try if I could not bring my dog to hunt
them down. Accordingly, the next day, I went out with
my dog, and set him upon the goats: but 1 was mistaken,
for they all faced about upon the dog: and he knew his
danger too well, for he would not come near them.
Jan. 3. 1 began my fence or wall; which, being still

jealous of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to
make very thick and strong.
N. This wall being described before, 1 purposely
omit what was said in the journal; it is sufficient to ob-
serve, that I was no less time than from the 3d of January
to the 14th of April, working, finishing, and perfecting
this wall; though it was no more than about twenty-five
yards in length, being a half circle, from one place in the
rock to another place, about twelve yards from it, the door
of the cave being in the center, behind it.
All this time 1 worked very hard; the rains hindering
me many days, nay, sometimes weeks together: but I
thought 1 should never be perfectly secure till this wall was
finished; and it is scarce credible what inexpressible labor
everything was done with, especially the bringing piles out
of the woods, and driving them into the ground; for 1
made them much bigger than I needed to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double
fenced, with a turf wall raised up close to it, 1 persuaded
myself that if any people were to come on shore there they
would not perceive anything like a habitation: and it was
very well I did so, as may be observed hereafter, upon a
very remarkable occasion.
During this time, I made my rounds in the woods for
game every day, when the rain permitted me, and made
frequent discoveries, in these walks, of something or other
to my advantage; particularly, I found a kind of wild
pigeons, who build, not as wood-pigeons, in a tree, but
rather as house-pigeons, in the holes of the rocks: and,
taking some young ones, I endeavored to breed them up
tame, and did so; but when they grew older, they flew all
away; which, perhaps, was, at first, for want of feeding
them, for 1 had nothing to give them; however, I fre-
quently found their nests, and got their young ones, which
were very good meat. And now, in the managing my
household affairs, I found myself wanting in many things,
which I thought at first it was impossible for me to make;
as indeed, as to some of them, it was: for instance, 1 could
never make a cask to be hooped. 1 had a small runlet or
two, as 1 observed before; but I could never arrive at the
capacity of making one by them, though 1 spent many
weeks about it: I could neither put in the heads, nor join
the staves so true to one another as to make them hold

- =*\

water; so I gave that also over. In the next place, I was
at a great loss for candle; so that as soon as it was dark,
which was generally by seven o'clock, I was obliged to go
to bed. I remember the lump of bees-wax with which I
made candles in my African adventure; but 1 had none of
that now: the only remedy I had was, that when I had
killed a goat, 1 saved the tallow; and with a little dish
made of clay, which I baked in the sun, to which 1 added
a wick of some oakum, I made me a lamp; and this gave
me light, though not a clear steady light like a candle. In
the middle of all my labors it happened, that in rummag-
ing my things, I found a little bag; which, as I hinted be-
fore, had been filled with corn, for the feeding of poultry;
not for this voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the ship
came from Lisbon. What little remainder of corn had
been in the bag was all devoured by the rats, and I saw
nothing in the bag but husks and dust; and being willing
to have the bag for some other use (1 think it was to put
powder in, when I divided it for fear of the lightning, or
some such use), I shook the husks of corn out of it, on one
side of my fortification, under the rock.
It was a little before the great rain just now mentioned,
that I threw this stuff away; taking no notice of anything,
and not so much as remembering that I had thrown any-
thing there, when, about a month after, 1 saw some few
blades of something green, shooting out of the ground,
which I fancied might be some plant 1 had not seen; but 1
was surprised, and perfectly astonished, when, after a little
longer time, I saw about ten or twelve ears come out,
which were perfect green barley, of the same kind as our
European, nay, as our English barley.
It is impossible to express the astonishment and confu-
sion of my thoughts on this occasion. 1 had hitherto acted
upon no religious foundation at all: indeed, I had very few
notions of religion in my head, nor had entertained any
sense of any things that had befallen me, otherwise than as
chance, or, as we lightly say, what pleases God; without so
much as inquiring into the end of Providence in these
things, or his order in governing events in the world. But
after I saw barley grow there, in a climate which 1 knew
was not proper for corn, and especially as I knew not how
it came there, it startled me strangely; and I began to sug-
gest, that God had miraculously caused this grain to grow

"i"-w~c~ ~~n~


without any help of seed sown, and that it was so directed
purely for my sustenance, on that wild miserable place.
This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of
my eyes; and I began to bless myself that such a prodigy
of nature should happen upon my account: and this was
the more strange to me, because 1 saw near it still, all
along by the side of the rock, some other straggling stalks,
which proved to be stalks of rice, and which I knew, be-
cause I had seen it grow in Africa, when I was ashore
1 not only thought these the pure productions of Provi-
dence for my support, but, not doubting that there was
more in the place, 1 went over all that part of the island
where I had been before, searching in every corner, and
under every rock, for more of it; but 1 could not find any.
At last it occurred to my thoughts, that I had shook out a
bag of chicken's-meat in that place, and then the wonder
began to cease; and 1 must confess, my religious thankful-
ness to God's providence began to abate too, upon the dis-
covering that all this was nothing but what was common;
though I ought to have been as thankful for so strange and
unforeseen a providence, as if it had been miraculous: for
it was really the work of Providence, as to me, that should
order or appoint that ten or twelve grains of corn should
remain unspoiled, when the rats had destroyed all the rest,
as if it had been dropped from heaven; as also, that I
should throw it out in that particular place, where, it be-
ing in the shade of a high rock, it sprung up immediately;
whereas, if 1 had thrown it anywhere else, at that time, it
would have been burned up and destroyed.
1 carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure,
in their season, which was about the end of June; and,
laying up every corn, 1 resolved to sow them all again;
hoping, in time, to have some quantity sufficient to supply
me with bread. But it was not till the fourth year that I
could allow myself the least grain of this corn to eat, and
even then but sparingly, as I shall show afterward in its
order: for I lost all that 1 sowed the first season, by no ob-
serving the proper time; as 1 sowed just before the dry
season, so that it never came up at all, at least not as it
would have done; of which in its place.
Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or
thirty stalks of rice, which I preserved with the same care;



and whose use was of the same kind, or to the same pur-
pose, viz., to make me bread, or rather food; for I found
ways to cook it up without baking, though I did that also
after some time. But to return to my journal.
I worked excessively hard these three or four months, to
get my wall done; and the 14th of April I closed it up;
contriving to get into it, not by a door, but over the wall,
by a ladder, that there might be no sign on the outside of
my habitation.
April 16. I finished the ladder; so I went up with the
ladder to the top, and then pulled it up after me, and let
it down in the inside: this was a complete enclosure to me;
for within I had room enough, and nothing could come at
me from without, unless it could first mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished, 1 had
almost all my labor overthrown at once, and myself killed;
the case was thus:-As I was busy in the inside of it, be-
hind my tent, just at the entrance into my cave, 1 was ter-
ribly frightened with a most dreadful surprising thing in-
deed; for, all on a sudden, I found the earth come crumb-
ling down from the roof of my cave, and from the edge of
the hill over my head, and two of the posts 1 had set up in
the cave cracked in a frightful manner. I was heartily
scared; but thought nothing of what really was the cause,
only thinking that the top of my cave was falling in, as
some of it had done before: and for fear 1 should be buried
in it, I ran forward to my ladder, and not thinking myself
safe there neither, I got over my wa:] for fear of the pieces
of the hill which I expected might roll town upon me. I
had no sooner stepped down upon the firm ground, than I
plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake: for the ground I
stood on shook three times at about eight minutes' dis-
tance, with three such shocks as would have overturned the
strongest building that could be supposed to have stood on
the earth; and a great piece of the top of a rock, which
stood about half a mile from me, next the sea, fell down
with such a terrible noise as 1 never heard in all my life.
1 perceived also that the very sea was put into a violent
motion by it; and I believe the shocks were stronger under
the water than on the island.
I was so much amazed with the thing itself (having
never felt the like, nor discoursed with any one that had)
that I was like one dead or stupefied; and the motion of


the earth made my stomach sick, like one that was tossed
at sea: but the noise of the falling of the rock awaked me,
as it were; and rousing me from the stupefied condition I
was in, filled me with horror, and 1 thought of nothing but
the hill falling upon my tent and my household goods, and
burying all at once; this sunk my very soul within me a
second time.
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for
some time, I began to take courage; yet I had not heart
enough to go over my wall again, for fear of being buried
alive; but sat still upon the ground greatly cast down, and
disconsolate, not knowing what to do. All this while I
had not the least serious religious thought; nothing but
the common Lord, have mercy upon me!" and when it
was over that went away too.
While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow
cloudy, as if it would rain; and soon after the wind rose by
little and little, so that in less than half an hour it blew a
most dreadful hurricane: the sea was, all on a sudden,
covered with foam and froth; the shore was covered with a
breach of the water; the trees were torn up by the roots;
and a terrible storm it was. This held about three hours,
and then began to abate; and in two hours more it was
quite calm, and began to rain very hard. All this while 1
s;:t upon the ground, very much terrified and dejected;
When, on a sudden, it came into my thoughts that these
winds and rain being the consequence of the earthquake,
the earthquake itself was spent and over, and I might vent-
ure into my cave again. With this thought my spirits be-
gan to revive; and the rain also helping to persuade me, 1
w-nt in, and sat down in my tent; but the rain was so vio-
lent, that my tent was ready to be beaten down with it;
&nd i was forced to get into my cave, though very much
afraid and uneasy, for fear it should fall on my head.
This violent rain forced me to a new work, viz., to cut a
hole through my new fortification, like a sink, to let the
water go out, which would else have drowned my cave.
After I had been in my cave for some time, and found no
more shocks of the earthquake follow, 1 began to be more
composed. And now, to support my spirits, which indeed
wanted it very much, I went to my little store, and took a
small cup of rum; which, however, I did then, and always,
very sparingly, knowing I could have no more when that

was gone. It continued raining all that night and great
part of the next day, so that I could not stir abroad: but
my mind being more composed, I began to think of what I
had best do; concluding, that if the island was subject to
these earthquakes, there would be no living for me in a
cave, but I must consider of building me some little hut in
an open place, which I might surround with a wall, as 1
had done here, and so make myself secure from wild beasts
or men: for if I stayed where I was, I should certainly,
one time or other, be buried alive.
With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent from
the place where it now stood, being just under the hanging
precipice of the hill, and which, if it should be shaken
again, would certainly fall upon my tent. I spent the next
two days, being the 19th and 20th of April, in contriving
where and how to remove my habitation. The fear of be-
ing swallowed alive affected me so that I never slept in
quiet; and yet the apprehension of lying abroad, without
any fence, was almost equal to it: but still, when I looked
about, and saw how everything was put in order, how
pleasantly 1 was concealed, and how safe from danger, it
made me very loath to remove. In the meantime, it
occurred to me that it would require a vast deal of time
for me to do this; and that I must be contented to run the
risk where I was, till I had formed a convenient camp,
and secured it so as to remove to it. With this conclusion
I composed myself for a time; and resolved that 1 would
go to work with all speed to build me a wall with piles and
cables, etc., in a circle as before, and set up my tent in it
when it was finished; but that I would venture to stay
where 1 was till it was ready. and fit to remove to. This
was the 21st.
April 22. The next morning I began to consider of
means to put this measure into execution; but 1 was at a
great loss about the tools. I had three large axes, and
abundance of hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for
traffic with the Indians); but with much chopping and
cutting knotty hard wood, they were all full of notches,
and dull: and though I had a grindstone, 1 could not turn
it and grind my tools too. This caused me as much
thought as a statesman would have bestowed upon a grand
point of politics, or a judge upon the life and death of a
man. At length I contrived a wheel with a string, to turn

it with my foot, that I might have both my hands at lib-
Note. I had never seen any such thing in England, or
at least not to take notice how it was done, though since 1
have observed it is very common there: besides that, my
grindstone was very large and heavy. This machine cost
me a full week's work to bring it to perfection.
April 28, 29. These two whole days 1 took up in grind-
ing my tools, my machine for turning my grindstone per-
forming very well.
April 30. Having perceived that my bread had been low
a great while, I now took a survey of it, and reduced my-
self to one biscuit-cake a day, which made my heart very

Robinson obtains more Articles from the Wreck.-His Illness and
MAY 1. In the morning, looking toward the sea-side,
the tide being low, 1 saw something lie on the shore bigger
than ordinary, and it looked like a cask; when I came to
it 1 found a small barrel, and two or three pieces of the
wreck of the ship, which were driven on shore by the late
hurricane; and looking toward the wreck itself, I thought
it seemed to lie higher out of the water than it used to do.
I examined the barrel that was driven on shore, and soon
found it was a barrel of gunpowder; but it had taken
water, and the powder was caked as hard as a stone; how-
ever, I rolled it further on the shore for the present, and
went on upon the sands, as near as I could to the wreck of
the ship, to look for more.
When 1 came down to the ship I found it strangely re-
moved. The forecastle, which lay before buried in the
sand, was heaved up at least six feet; and the stern (which
was broke to pieces, and parted from the rest, by the force
of the sea, soon after I had left rummaging of her) was
tossed, as it were, up, and cast on one side; and the sand
was thrown so high on that side next her stern, that I could
now walk quite up to her when the tide was out; whereas
there was a great piece of water before, so that I could not
come within a quarter of a mile of the wreck without swim-
ming. I was surprised with this at first, but soon con-

clouded it must be done by the earthquake; and as by this
violence the ship was more broken open than formerly, so
many things came daily on shore, which the sea had
loosened, and which the winds and water rolled by degrees
to the land.
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of re-
moving my habitation; and I busied myself mightily, that
day especially, in searching whether 1 could make any way
into the ship; but I found nothing was to be expected of
that kind, for all the inside of the ship was choked up with
sand. However, as I had learned not to despair of any-
thing, 1 resolved to pull everything to pieces that I could
of the ship, concluding that everything I could get from
her would be of some use or other to me.
May 3. 1 began with my saw, and cut a piece of a
beam through, which I thought held some of the upper
part or quarter-deck together; and when I had cut it
through,1 Icleared away the sand as well as 1 could from
the side which lay highest; but the tide coming in, I was
obliged to give over for that time.
May 4. 1 went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that
I durst eat of, till 1 was weary of my sport; when, just go-
ing to leave off, I caught a young dolphin. I had made
me a long line of some rope-yarn, but I had no hooks; yet
I frequently caught fish enough, as much as I cared to eat;
all which I dried in the sun and eat them dry.
May 5. Worked on the wreck; cut another beam
asunder, and brought three great fir planks off from the
decks, which I tied together, and made swim on shore
when the tide of flood came on.
May 6. Worked on the wreck; got several iron bolts
out of her, and other pieces of iron work; worked very
bard, and came home very much tired, and had thoughts
of giving it over.
May 7. Went to the wreck again, but not with an in-
tent to work; but found the weight of the wreck had broke
itself down, the beams being cut; that several pieces of the
ship seemed to lie loose; and the inside of the hold lay so
open that I could see into it; but almost full of water and
May 8. Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow
to wrench up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the
water and sand. I wrenched up two planks, and brought


them on shore also with the tide. I left the iron crow in
the wreck for next day.
May,9. Went to the wreck, and with the crow made
way into the body of the wreck, and felt several casks, and
loosened them with the crow, but could not break them
up. I felt also a roll of English lead, and could stir it;
but it was too heavy to remove.
May 10 to 14. Went every day to the wreck, and got
a great many pieces of timber, and boards, or plank, and
two or three hundredweight of iron.
May 15. I carried two hatchets, to try if 1 could not
cut a piece off the roll of lead, by placing the edge of one
hatchet, and driving it with the other; but as it lay about
a foot and a half in the water, I could not make any blow
to drive the hatchet.
May 16. It had blown hard in the night, and the
wreck appeared more broken by the force of the water;
but I stayed so long in the woods, to get pigeons for food,
that the tide prevented my going to the wreck that day.
May 17. I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on
shore, at a great distance, two miles off me, but resolved
to see what they were, and found it was a piece of the head,
but too heavy for me to bring away.
May 24. Every day, to this day, I worked on the
wreck; and with hard labor I loosened some things so
much, with the crow, that the first blowing tide several
casks floated out, and two of the seamen's chests; but the
wind blowing from the shore, nothing came to land that
day but pieces of timber, and a hogshead, which had some
Brazil pork in it; but the salt-water and the sand had
spoiled it. I continued this work every day to the 15th of
June, except the time necessary to get food; which 1 always
appointed, during this part of my employment, to be
when the tide was up, that I might be ready when it was
ebbed out; and by this time I had got timber, and plank,
and iron-work enough to have built a good boat, if I had
known how; and I also got, at several times, and in several
pieces, near one hundred-weight of the sheet-lead.
June 16. Going down to the sea-side, I found a large
tortoise, or turtle. This was the first I had seen, which,
it seems, was only my misfortune, not any defect of the
place, or scarcity; for had 1 happened to be on the other side
of the ioiUud, I might have had hundreds of them every


day, as I found afterward; but perhaps have paid dear
enough for them.
June 17. 1 spent in cooking the turtle. I fqund in
her three-score eggs, and her flesh was to me, at that time,
the most savory and pleasant that I ever tasted in my life,
having had no flesh but of goats and fowls since I landed
in this horrid place.
June 18. Rained all that day, and I stayed within. 1
thought, at this time, the rain felt cold, and I was some-
what chilly, which I knew was not usual in that latitude.
June 19. Very ill, and shivering, as iT the weather
had been cold.
June 20. No rest all night; violent pains in my head,
and feverish.
June 21. Very ill; frightened almost to death with
apprehensions of my sad condition, to be sick and no help;
prayed to God for the first time since the storm off Hull;
but scarce knew what I said, or why, my thoughts being
all confused.
June 22. A little better, but under dreadful appre-
hensions of sickness.
June 23. Very bad again; cold and shivering, and
then a violent headache.
June 24. Much better.
June 25. An ague very violent; the fit held me seven
hours; cold fit, and hot, with faint sweats after it.
June 26. Better; and having no victuals to eat, took
my gun, but found myself very weak; however, 1 killed a
she goat, and with much difficulty got it home, and broiled
some of it, and eat. I would fain have stewed it, and
made some broth, but had no pot.
June 27. The ague again so violent that I lay abed all
day and neither eat nor drank. 1 was ready to perish for
thirst; but so weak 1 had not strength to stand up or to
get myself any water to drink. Prayed to God again, but
was light-headed; and when I was not, 1 was so ignorant
that I knew not what to say, only lay and cried, Lord,
look upon me! Lord, pity- me! Lord, have mercy upon
. me! 1 suppose 1 did nothing else for two or three hours,
till the fit wearing off, 1 fell asleep, and did not wake till
far in the night. When 1 awoke, I found myself much re-
freshed, but weak and exceeding thirsty; however, as I
had no water in my whole habitation, I was forced to lie

till morning, and went to sleep again. In this second sleep
I had this terrible dream: I thought that 1 was sitting on
the ground, on the outside of my wall, where 1 sat when
the storm blew after the earthquake, and that I saw a man
descend from a great black cloud, in a bright flame of fire,
and light upon the ground; he was all over as bright as a
flame, so that 1 could but just bear to look toward him;
his countenance was most inexpressibly dreadful, impossi-
ble for words to describe; when he stepped upon the
ground with his feet, I thought the earth trembled, just as
it had done before in the earthquake; and all the air
looked, to my apprehension, as if it had been filled with
flashes of fire. lie had no sooner landed upon the earth,
but he moved forward toward me with a long spear or
weapon in his hand, to kill me; and when he came to a
rising ground, at some distance, he spoke to me, or I heard
a voice so terrible that it is impossible to express the ter-
ror of it; all that 1 can say I understood was this: Seeing
all these things have not brought thee to repentance, now
thou shalt die; at which words I thought he lifted up the
spear that was in his hand to kill me.
No one that shall ever read this account will expect that
I should be able to describe the horrors of my soul at this
terrible vision; 1 mean, that even while it was a dream, I
even dreamed of those horrors; nor is it any more possible
to describe the impression that remained upon my mind
when 1 awaked, and found it was but a dream.
I had, alas! no divine knowledge; what I had received
by the good instruction of my father was then worn out,
by an uninterrupted series, for eight years, of seafaring
wickedness, and a constant conversation with none but such
as were, like myself, wicked and profane to the last de-
gree. I do not remember that 1 had, in all that time, one
thought that so much as tended either to looking upward
toward God, or inward toward a reflection upon my own
ways; but a certain stupidity of soul, without desire of
good, or consciousness of evil, had entirely overwhelmed
me, and I was all that the most hardened, unthinking,
wicked creature among our common sailors can be sup-
posed to be; not having the least sense, either of the fear
of God, in danger, or of thankfulness to Him, in deliver-
In the relating what is already part of my story, this will

\~' :-;':';~g;c~yp~c:



be the more easily believed, when I shall add, that through
all the variety of miseries that had to this day befallen me,
I never had so much as one thought of its being the hand
of God, or that it was a just punishment for my sin;
either my rebellious behavior against my father, or my
present sins, which were great; or even as a punishment
for the general course of my wicked life. When 1 was on
the desperate expedition on the desert shores of Africa, I
never had so much as one thought of what would become
of me, or one wish to God to direct me whither I should
go, or to keep me from the danger which apparently sur-
rounded me, as well from voracious creatures as cruel sav-
ages; but I was quite thoughtless of a God or a Providence;
acted like a mere brute, from the principles of nature, and
by the dictates of common sense only, and indeed hardly
that. When 1 was delivered and taken up at sea by the
Portuguese captain, well used, and dealt with justly and
honorably, a3 well as charitably, 1 had not the least thank-
fulness in my thoughts. When, again, I was shipwrecked,
ruined, and in danger of drowning, on this island, 1 was as
far from remorse, or looking on it as a judgment; I only
said to myself often that I was an unfortunate dog, and
born to be always miserable.
It is true, when I first got on shore here, and found all
my ship's crew drowned, and myself spared, 1 was sur-
prised with a kind of ecstasy, and some transports of soul,
which, had the grace of God assisted, might have come up
to true thankfulness; but it ended where it began, in a;
more common flight of joy; or, as I may say, being glad I
was alive, without the least reflection upon the distin-
guished goodness of the hand which had preserved me, and
had singled me out to be preserved when all the rest were
destroyed, or any inquiry why Providence had been thus
merciful to me; just the same common sort of joy which
seamen generally have, after they are got safe ashore from
a shipwreck; which they drown all in the next bowl of
punch, and forget almost as soon as it is overhand all the
rest of my life was like it. Even when 1 was, afterward,
on due consideration, made sensible of my condition-how
1 was cast on this dreadful place, out of the reach of hu-
man kind, out of all hope of relief, or prospect of redemp-
tion-as soon as I saw but a prospect of living, and that 1
should not starve and perish for hunger, all the sense of

my affliction wore off, and I began to be very easy, applied
myself to the works proper for my preservation and supply,
and was far enough from being afflicted at my condition,
as a judgment from Heaven, or as the hand of God against
me; these were thoughts which very seldom entered into
my head.
The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my journal,
had at first some little influence upon me, and began to
affect me with seriousness, as long as I thought it had
something miraculous in it; but as soon as that part of the
thought was removed, all the impression which was raised
from it wore off also, as 1 have noted already. Even the
earthquake, though nothing could be more terrible in its
nature, or more immediately directing to the invisible
Power which alone directs such things, yet no sooner was
the fright over, but the impression it had made went off
also. I had no more sense of God or His judgments, much
less of the present affliction of my circumstances being
from His hand, than if I had been in the most prosperous
condition of life. But now, when I began to be sick, and
a leisure view of the miseries of death came to place itself
before me; when my spirits began to sink under the bur-
den of a strong distemper, and nature was exhausted with
the violence of the fever; conscience, that had slept so
long, began to awake, and 1 reproached myself with my
past life, in which 1 had so evidently, by uncommon
wickedness, provoked the justice of God to lay me under
uncommon strokes, and to deal with me in so vindictive a
manner. These reflections oppressed me for the second
or third day of my distemper; and, in the violence as well
of the fever as of the dreadful reproaches of my conscience,
extorted from me some words like praying to God; though
I can not say it was a prayer attended either with desires
or with hopes; it was rather the voice of mere fright and
distress. My thoughts were confused; the convictions great
upon my mind, and the horror of dying in such a miserable
condition, raised vapors in my head with the mere appre-
hension; and, in these hurries of my soul, I knew not what
my tongue might express; but it was rather exclamation,
such as, Lord, what a miserable creature am 1! If I should
be sick, I shall certainly die for want of help; and what
will become of me? Then the tears burst out of my eyes,
and I could say no more for a good while. In this interval

the good advice of my father came to my mind, and pres-
ently his prediction, which I mentioned at the beginning of
this story, viz., that if 1 did take this foolish step, God
would not bless me; and 1 should have leisure hereafter to
reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there might
be none to assist in my recovery. Now, said I, aloud, my
dear father's words are come to pass. God's justice has
overtaken me, and I have none to help or hear me. 1 re-
jected the voice of Providence, which had mercifully put
me in a station of life wherein I might have been happy
and easy; but 1 would neither see it myself nor learn from
my parents to know the blessing of it. I left them to
mourn over my folly; and now 1 am left to mourn under
the consequences of it. I refused their help and assistance,
who would have pushed me in the world, and would have
made everything easy to me; and now I have difficulties to
struggle with, too great for even nature itself to support;
and no assistance, no comfort, no advice. Then I cried
out, Lord, be my help, for I am in great distress. This
was the first prayer, if I may call it so, that 1 had made
for many years. But I return to my journal.

His Recovery.-His Comfort in Reading the Scriptures.-Makes an
Excursion into the Interior of the Island.-Forms his Bower."
JUNE 28. Having been somewhat refreshed with the
sleep I had had, and the fit being entirely off, I got up;
and though the fright and terror of my dream were very
great, yet I considered that the fit of the ague would re-
turn again the next day, and now was my time to get some-
thing to refresh and support myself when I should be ill.
The first thing 1 did was to fill a large square case-bottle
with water, and set it upon my table, in reach of my bed;
and to take off the chill or aguish disposition of the water,
I put about a quarter of a pint of rum into it, and mixed
them together. Then 1 got me a piece of the goat's flesh,
and broiled it on the coals, but could eat very little, I
walked about, but was very weak, and withal very sad and
heavy-hearted in the sense of my miserable condition,
dreading the return of my distemper the next day. At
night, I made my supper of three of the turtle's eggs,.

which I roasted in the ashes, and eat, as we call it, in the
shell; and this was the first bit of meat 1 had ever asked
God's blessing to, as I could remember, in my whole life.
After I had eaten I tried to walk; but found myself so
weak that I could hardly carry the gun (for 1 never went
out without that); so I went but a little way, and sat down
upon the ground, looking out upon the pea, which was just
before me, and very calm and smooth. As I sat here,
some such thoughts as these occurred to me: What is this
earth and sea, of which I have seen so much? Whence is
it produced? And what am I, and all the other creatures,
wild and tame, human and brutal? Whence are we?
Surely, we are all made by some secret power, who
f rmed the earth and sea, the air and sky. And who is
that? Then it followed most naturally, It is God that has
made all. Well, but then, it came on, if God has made all
these things, He guides and governs them all, and all
things that concern them, for the power that could make
all things must certainly have power to guide and direct
them; if so, nothing can happen in the great circuit of His
works, either without His knowledge or appointment.
And if nothing happens without His knowledge He
knows that I am here, and am in this dreadful condition;
and if nothing happens without His appointment, He has
appointed all this to befall me. Nothing occurred to my
thought to contradict any of these conclusions; and there-
fore it rested upon me with the greatest force that it must
needs be that God had appointed all this to befall me; that
I was brought to this miserable circumstance by His direc-
tion, He having the sole power, not of me only, but of
everything that happens in the world. Immediately it
followed, Why has God done this to me? What have I
done to be thus used? My conscience presently checked
me in that inquiry, as if 1 had blasphemed; and methought
it spoke to me like a voice! Wretch, dost thou ask what
thou hast done? Look back upon a dreadful misspent life,
and ask thyself what thou hast not done. Ask why is it
that thou wert not long ago destroyed? Why wert thou
not drowned in Yarmouth Roads; killed in the fight when
the ship was taken by the Sallee man-of-war; devoured by
the wild beasts on the coast of Africa, or drowned here,
when all the crew perished but thyself? Dost thon ask
what thou hast done? I was struck dumb with these e-

Robinson Crusee Reading the Soriptures.


flections, as one astonished, and had not a word to say; no,
not to answer to myself; and, rising up pensive and sad,
walked back to my retreat, and went over my wall, as if 1
had been going to bed; but my thoughts were sadly dis-
turbed, and I had no inclination to sleep; so I sat down in
the chair, and lighted my lamp, for it began to be dark.
Now, as the apprehension of the return of my distemper
terrified me very much, it occurred to my thought, that
the Brazilians take no physic but their tobacco for almost
all distempers; and 1 had a piece of a roll of tobacco in one
of the chests, which was quite cured; and some also that
was green, and not quite cured.
1 went, directed by Heaven, no doubt; for in this chest
I found a cure both for soul and body. 1 opened the chest,
and found what 1 looked for, viz., the tobacco; and as the
few books I had saved lay there too, 1 took out one of the
Bibles which 1 mentioned before, and which, to this time,
I had not found leisure, or so much as inclination, to look
into. I say I took it out, and brought both that and the
tobacco with me to the table. What use to make of the
tobacco I knew not, as to my distemper, nor whether it
was good for it or not; but 1 tried several experiments
with it, as if I was resolved it should hit one way or other.
I first took a piece of a leaf, and chewed it in my mouth,
which indeed at first almost stupefied my brain, the tobac-
co being green and strong, and such as I had not been
much used to. Then I took some and steeped it an hour
or two in some rum and resolved to take a dose of it when
I lay down; and lastly, I burned some upon a pan of coals,
and held my nose close over the smoke of it as long as 1
could bear it, as well for the heat as almost for suffocation.
In the interval of this operation I took up the Bible and
began to read; but my head was too much disturbed by
the tobacco to bear reading, at least at that time; only,
having opened the book casually, the first words that oc-
curred to me were these: Call on Me in the day of
trouble, and 1 will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify
Me." These words were very apt to my case, and made
some impression upon my thoughts at the time of reading
them, though not so much as they did afterward; for, as
for being delivered, the word had no sound, as I may say,
to me; the thing was so remote, so impossible in my appre-
hension of things, that, as the children of Israel said when


they were promised flesh to eat, Can God spread a table
in the wilderness?" so 1 began to say, Can even God him-
self deliver me from this place? And as it was not for
many years that any hopes appeared, this prevailed very
often upon my thoughts; but, however, the words made a
great impression upon me, and 1 mused upon them very
often. It now grew late, and the tobacco had, as I said,
dazed my head so much that I inclined to sleep; so 1 left
my lamp burning in tile cave, lest 1 should want anything
in the night, and went to bed. But before I lay down I
did what I never had done in all my life; I knelt down,
and prayed to God to fulfill the promise to me, that if 1
called upon Him in the day of trouble He would deliver
me. After my broken and imperfect prayer was over 1
drank the rum in which 1 had steeped the tobacco, which
was so strong and rank of the tobacco that indeed I could
scarce get it down; immediately upon this I went to bed.
I found presently the ruin flew up into my head violently,
but I fell into a sound sleep, and waked no more till, by
the sun, it must necessarily be near three o'clock in the
afternoon the next day; nay, to this hour, 1 am partly of
opinion that I slept all the next day and night, and till
almost three the day after; for otherwise I know not how
I should lose a day out of my reckoning in the days of the
week, as it appeared some years after 1 had done; for if I
had lost it by crossing and recrossmg the Line, I should
have lost nmre than one day; but certainly 1 lost a day in
my account, and never knew which way. Be that, how-
ever, one way or the other, when 1 awaked 1 found myself
exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively and cheerful;
when I got up 1 was stronger than 1 was the day before,
and my stomach better, for I was hungry; and, in short, 1
had no fit the next day, but continued much altered for
the better. This was the 29th.
The 30th was my well day, of course; and I went abroad
with my gun, but did not care to travel too far. I killed
a sea-fowl or two, something like a brand goose, and
brought them home; but was not very forward to eat them;
so 1 eat some more of the turtle's eggs, which were very
good. This evening I renewed the medicine, which I had
supposed did me good the day before, viz., the tobacco
steeped in rum: only I did not take so much as before, nor
did 1 chew any of the leaf, or hold my head over the smoke;


however, I was not so well the next day, which was the 1st
of July, as I hoped I should have been, for I had a little
of the cold fit, but it was not much.
July 2. I renewed the medicine all the three ways; anc
dosed myself with it as at first, and doubled the quantity
which I drank.
July 3. I missed the fit for good and all, though I did
not recover my full strength for some weeks after. While
I was thus gathering strength, my thoughts ran exceeding-
ly upon this Scripture, I will deliver thee;" and the im-
possibility of my deliverance lay much upon my mind, in
bar of my ever expecting it; but as I was discouraging my-
self with such thoughts, it occurred to my mind that I
pored so much upon my deliverance from the main afflic-
tion, that 1 disregarded the deliverance 1 had received; and
I was, as it were, made to ask myself such questions as
these, viz.: Have I not been delivered, and wonderfully,
too, from sickness, from the most distressed condition that
could be and that was so frightful to me? and what notice
have 1 taken of it? Have I done my part? God has de-
livered me, but I have not glorified Him; that is to say, I
have not owned and been thankful for that as a deliver-
ance; and how can I expect a greater deliverance? This
touched my heart very much, and immediately I knelt
down and gave God thanks aloud for my recovery from my
July 4. In the morning I took the Bible; and beginning
at the New Testament, 1 began seriously to read it; and
imposed upon myself to read awhile every morning and
every night; not binding myself to the number of chapters,
but as long as my thoughts should engage me. It was not
long after I set seriously to this work, that I found my
heart more deeply and sincerely affected with the wicked-
ness of my past life. The impression of my dream re-
vived; and the words, All these things have not brought
thee to repentance, ran seriously in my thoughts. 1 was
earnestly begging of God to give me repentance, when it
happened providentially, the very same day, that, reading
the Scripture, I came to these words, "He is exalted a
Prince and a Saviour; to give repentance and to give remis-
sion." 1 threw down the book; and with my heart as well
as my hands lifted up to heaven, in a kind of ecstasy of
joy, 1 cried out aloud, Jesus, thou son of David! Jesus,

thou exalted Prince and Saviour! give me repentanee! This
was the first time in all my life I could say, in the true
sense of the words, that I prayed; for now I prayed with a
sense of my condition, and with a true scripture view of
hope, founded on the encouragemast of the word of God:
and from this time, I may say, 1 began to have hope that
God would hear me.
Now 1 began to construe the words mentioned above,
" Call on Me, and 1 will deliver thee," in a different sense
from what I had ever done before; for then I had no notion
of anything being called deliverance, but my being deliv-
ered from the captivity I was in: for though I was indeed
at large in the place, yet the island was certainly a prison
to me, and that in the worst sense of the word. But now
I learned to take it in another sense: now I looked back
upon my past life with such horror, and my sins appeared
so dreadful, that my soul sought nothing of God but deliv-
erance from the load of guilt that bore down all my com-
fort. As for my solitary life, it was nothing; I did not so
much as pray to be delivered from it, or think of it; it was
all of no consideration, in comparison with this. And I
add this part here, to hint to whoever shall read it, that
whenever they come to a true sense of things, they will
find deliverance from sin a much greater blessing than de-
liverance from affliction.
My condition began now to be, though not less miserable
as to my way of living, yet much easier to my mind: and
my thoughts being directed, by constantly reading the
Scripture and praying to God, to things of a higher nature,
I had a great deal of comfort within, which, till now, I
knew nothing of; also, as my health and strength re-
turned, 1 bestirred me to furnish myself with everything
that I wanted, and make my way of living as regular as 1
From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly employed
in walking about with my gun in my hand, a little and a
little at a time, as a man that was gathering up his
strength after a fit of sickness: for it is hardly to be im-
agined how low I was, and to what weakness I was reduced.
The application which I made use of was perfectly new,
and perhaps what had never cured an ague before: neither
can I recommend it to any one to practice, by this experi-
ment: and though it did carry off the fit, yet it rather coa-

tribute to weakening me; for 1 had frequent convulsions
in my nerves and limbs for some time: I learned from it
also this, in particular; that being abroad in the rainy sea-
son was the most pernicious thing to my health that could
be, especially in those rains which came attended with
storms and hurricanes of wind; for as the rain which came
in the dry season was almost always accompanied with such
storms, so 1 found that this rain was much more dangerous
than the rain which fell in September and October.
1 had now been in this unhappy island above ten months:
tall possibility of deliverance from this condition seemed to
be entirely taken from me; and 1 firmly believed that no
human shape had ever set foot upon that place. Having
secured my habitation, as I thought, fully to my mind, 1
had a great desire to make a more perfect discovery of the
island, and to see what other productions 1 might find,
which I yet knew nothing of.
It was on the 15th of July that 1 began to take a more
particular survey of the island itself. 1 went up the creek
first, where, as I hinted, I brought my rafts on shore. I
found, after 1 came about two miles up, that the tide did
not flow any higher; and that it was no more than a little
brook fa running water, very fresh and good: but this be-
ing the dry season, there was hardly any water in some
parts of it; at least, not any stream. On the banks of this
brook 1 found many pleasant savannas or meadows, plain,
smooth: and covered with grass; and on the rising parts of
them, next to the higher grounds (where the water, as it
might be supposed, never overflowed), 1 found a great deal
of tobacco, green, and growing to a very great and strong
stalk: and there were divers other plants, which I had no
knowledge of, or understanding about, and that might,
perhaps, have virtues of their own, which I could not find
out. I searched for the cassava root, which the Indians,
in all that climate, make their bread of; but I could find
none. I saw large plants of aloes, but did not understand
them. I saw several sugar-canes, but wild; and, for want
of cultivation, imperfect. I contented myself with these
discoveries for this time; and came back, musing with my-
self what course I might take to know the virtue and good-
ness of any of the fruits or plants which I should discover;
but could bring it to no conclusion; for, in short, I had
made so little observation while I was in the Brazils, that 1

knew little of the plants in the field; at least, very little
that might serve me to any purpose now in my distress.
Tho next day, the l(th, I went up the same way again;
antl after going something further than I had gone the day
before, I found the brook and the savannas begin to
cease, and the country become more woody than before.
In this part I found different fruits; and particularly I
found melons upon the ground in great abundance, and
grapes upon the trees: the vines, indeed, had spread over
tho trees, and the clusters of grapes were now just in their
prime, very ripe and rich. This was a surprising discov-
crv, and I was exceedingly glad of them, but I was warned
by my experience to eat sparingly of them; remembering
that when I was ashore in Barbary, the eating of grapes
killed several of our Englishmen, who were slaves there,
by throwing them into fluxes and fevers. I found, how-
ever, an excellent use for these grapes; and that was to
cure or dry them in the sun, and keep them as dried grapes
or raisins are kept; which I thought would be (as indeed
they were) as wholesome and as agreeable to eat, when no
grapes were to be had.
I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my
habitation; which, by the way, was the first night, as I
might say, 1 had lain from home. At night, I took my
first contrivance, and got up into a tree, where 1 slept well;
and the next morning proceeded on my discovery, travel-
ing near four miles, as I might judge by the length of the
valley, keeping still due north, with a ridge of hills on the
south and north sides of me. At the end of this march I
came to an opening, where the country seemed to descend
to the west; and a little spring of fresh water, which issued
out at the side of the hill by me, ran the other way, that
is, due east; and the country appeared so fresh, so green,
so flourishing, everything being in a constant verdure, or
flourish of spring, that it looked like a planted garden. I
descended a little on the side of that delicious vale, survey-
ing it with a secret kind of pleasure (though mixed with
other afflicting thoughts), to think that this was all my
own; that 1 was king and lord of all this country indefeas-
ibly, and had a right of possession; and, if I could convey
it, 1 might have it in inheritance as completely as any lord
of a manor in England. I saw here abundance of cocoa-
trees, and orange, lemon, and citron-trees, but all wild,


and very few bearing any fruit; at least not then. How-
ever, the green limes that 1 gathered were not only pleas-
ant to eat, but very wholesome; and I mixed their juice
afterward with water, which made it very wholesome, and
very cool and refreshing. 1 found now 1 had business
enough, to gather and carry home; and I resolved to lay
up a store, as well of grapes as limes and lemons, to fur-
nish myself for the wet season, which I knew was approach-
ing. In order to do this, I gathered a great heap of grapes
in one place, a lesser heap in another place; and a great
parcel of limes and lemons in another place; and taking a
few of each with me, I traveled homeward; and resolved
to come again, and bring a bag or sack, or what I could
make, to carry the rest home. Accordingly, having spent
three days in this journey, I came home (so I must now
call my tent and my cave): but before I got thither, the
grapes were spoiled; the richness of the fruits, and the
weight of the juice, having broken and bruised them, they
were good for little or nothing: as to the limes, they were
good, but I could bring only a few.
The next day being the 19th, I went back, having made
me two small bags to bring home my harvest; but I was
surprised when coming to my heap of grapes, which were
so rich and fine when I gathered them, 1 found them all
spread about, trod to pieces, and dragged about, some
here, some there, and abundance eaten and devoured. By
this 1 concluded there were some wild creatures thereabouts
which had done this, but what they were I knew not.
However, as I found there was no laying them up in heaps
and no carrying them away in a sack; but that one way
they would be destroyed, and the other way they would be
crushed with their own weight; 1 took another course: 1
then gathered a large quantity of the grapes, and hung
them upon the out-branches of the trees, that they might
cure and dry in the sun; and as for the limes and lemons,
I carried as many back as 1 could well stand under.
When I came home from this journey, I contemplated
with great pleasure the fruitfulness of that valley, and the
pleasantness of the situation; the security from storms on
that side; the water and the wood; and concluded that 1
had pitched upon a place to fix my abode in, which was by
far the worst part of the country. Upon the whole, I be-
gan to consider of removing my habitation, and to look out

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