Citation
The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe

Material Information

Title:
The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title:
Robinson Crusoe
Creator:
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Watson, John Dawson, 1832-1892 ( Illustrator )
Dalziel Brothers ( Engravers )
Place of Publication:
London
Glasgow
Manchester
Publisher:
George Routledge and Sons
Manufacturer:
Dalziel Bros. Camden Press
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xii, 497, 1 p., 12 leaves of plates : ill. (12 col.) ; 22 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Castaways -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1891 ( rbgenr )
Genre:
Children's literature ( fast )
Imaginary voyages ( rbgenr )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
Scotland -- Glasgow
England -- Manchester
United States -- New York -- New York
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
NUC Pre-1956
General Note:
Col. cover and spine ills., stamped, with gilt title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note:
Probably a variant of Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe, 728.
General Note:
Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe. Part II originally published under title: Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Daniel Defoe ; with a portrait, and one hundred illustrations by J.D. Watson ; engraved on wood by the Brothers Dalziel.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
26966691 ( oclc )

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Full Text
eer



Be



THE

LIFE AND ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE

BY

DANIEL DEFOE



WITH A PORTRAIT, AND ONE HUNDRED ILLUSTRATIONS
BY J. D. WATSON

ENGRAVED ON WOOD BY THE BROTHERS DALZIEL

LONDON
GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SONS, LIMITED
BROADWAY, LUDGATE HILL
GLASGOW, MANCHESTER, AND NEW YORK
1891







MEMOIR OF DE FOLK, |

Danrex Fos, or, as‘he subsequently styled himself (though at what time and
on what occasion is not known), De Foe, was born in the year 1661, in the parish
of St. Giles, Cripplegate, London, where his father, James Foe, followed the
trade of butcher: and these few barren facts constitute all that is now authenti-
cally known oftthe origin of the author of Roprsox Crusoz. Mr. Wilson, in his
“Life and Times of Daniel De Foe,”—a work abounding with curious. and
minute information on the period of. which it treats, says :—‘He had some
collateral relatives, to whom he alludes occasionally in his writings, but with too
much brevity to ascertain the degree of kindred.”

At an early age, De Foe is said to have shown that vivacity of humour, and
that indomitable spirit of independence, that remained with him through after life :
“making a sunshine in the shady place” of a prison, and arming him as the
champion of truth and humanity in the most perilous times. The parents of De Foe
were nonconformists, and his education was consonant to the practice of their faith.
Family religion formed an essential part of its discipline ; and it was made matter
of conscience to instruct the children of a family and its dependents in their social,
moral, and religious duties.

The enemies of De Foe vainly endeavoured to sink his reputation by repre-
senting him as having been bred a tradesman; we have, however, his own assurance
that he was educated for the ministry, although he does not state why his desti-
nation was altered. He was at all events placed by his father at a Dissenting
academy at Newington Green, under the direction of the Reverend Charles Morton,
aman of learning and a judicious teacher, who was subsequently defended by his
pupil, from some aspersions that had been cast upon his character by an ungrateful
scholar who had deserted to the Church.

Of De Foe’s progress under Mr. Morton, it is impossible now to speak with any
certainty. He tells us in one of his “ Reviews” that he had been master of five
and that he had studied the mathematics, natural philosophy, logic,
geography, and history. De Foe was, moreover, one of the few who, in those days,
studied politics as a science. He went through a complete course’ of theology, and
his knowledge of ecclesiastical history was also considerable. N evertheless, he was
attacked by. party malice as: “an illiterate person without education.” To this he

calmly makes answer :—‘ Those gentlemen who reproach my learning to applaua
their own, shall have it proved that I have more learning than either of them—,
because I have more manners.” He adds, “I think I owe this justice to my

Vv



MEMOIR OF DE FOE.

excellent father still living (1705), and in whose behalf I fully testify, that if I
am a blockhead, it is nobody’s fault but my own.”

At one-and-twenty, De Foe commenced the vocation—most perilous in his day
—of author ; at which he laboured through good and through evil report, with
great honour to himself, and enduring benefit to mankind, for half a century. His
first publication was a lampooning answer to L’Estrange’s “ Guide to the Inferior
Clergy,” and was intended to satirize the prevalent High Church notions of the
day.

7 When the Duke of Monmouth landed at Lyme, in the year 1685, De Foe was
among those who joined the standard of that hapless nobleman. At the age of
four-and-twenty, we see De Foe a soldier, as ready with his sword as prompt with
his pen, in the cause of rational liberty. Of Monmouth, De Foe scems to have
had some previous knowledge, having often seen him at Aylesbury races, where
the duke rode his own horses, a circumstance alluded to by our author in his
“Tour.” De Foe had the good fortune to escape the vengeance visited upon so
many of the duke’s supporters, and returned in safety to London ; where, leaving
the stormy region of polities, he now directed his attention to trade. The nature
of his business, according to his own account, was that of a hose-factor,. or
the middle-man between the manufacturer ‘and the retail hosier. This concern he
carried on for some years, in Freeman’s-court, Cornhill 3 Mr. Chalmers says, from
1685 to 1695. On the 26th of January, 1687-8, having claimed his freedom by
birth, he was admitted a liveryman of London. In the Chamberlain’s book, his
name was written “ Daniel Foe.”

When the Revolution took place, De Foe was a resident in Tooting, where he
was the first person who attempted to form the Dissenters in the neighbourhood
into a regular congregation. He was an ardent worshipper of the Revolution,
and annually commemorated the 4th of November as a day of deliverance.

The commercial speculations of De Foe, though at first prosperous, were
ultimately unsuccessful. That they were of a varied character, is evident from the
fact of his having engaged with partners in the Spanish and Portuguese trade. It
is very clear, from a passage in his “ Review,” that he had been a merchant-adven-
turer. In the number for January 27, 1711, he alludes to an old Spanish proverb,
“which,” says he, “I learnt when I was in that country.” It further appears,
that while residing there, he made himself master of the language. De Foe’s
losses by shipwreck it is supposed must have been very considerable. In allusion
to his misfortunes, Mr. Chalmers observes :—“ With the usual imprudence of
genius, he was carried into companies who were gratified by his wit. He spent
those hours with a small society for the cultivation of polite learning, which he
ought to have employed in the calculations of the counting-house; and, being
obliged to abscond from his creditors in 1692, he naturally attributed those mis-
fortunes to the war, which were probably owing to his own misconduct, An angry
creditor took out a commission of bankruptcy, which was soon superseded, on the
petition of those to whom he was most indebted, who accepted a composition
on his single bond. This he punctually paid, by the efforts of unwearied dili-
gence; but some of these creditors, who had been thus satisfied, falling afterwards
into distress themselves, De Foe voluntarily paid them their whole claim, being
then in rising circumstances, in consequence of King William’s favour.” On being
subsequently reproached by Lord Haversham for mercenary conduct, De Foe tells.

vi



MEMOIR OF DE FOE.

him, in 1705, that, “with a numerous family, and no help but his own industry,
he had forced his way, with undiscouraged diligence, through @ set of misfortunes,
and reduced his debts, exclusive of composition, from seventeen thousand to less
than five thousand pounds.” It should be remembered that, in those days, our
laws against bankrupts were as cruelly oppressive as they were foolish.

It is certain that De Foe, whilst under apprehension from his creditors, resided
some time in Bristol. “A friend of mine in that city,” says Mr. Wilson, ‘‘informs
me that one of his ancestors remembered De Foe, and sometimes saw him walking
in the streets of Bristol, accoutred in the fashion of the times, with a fine flowing
wig, lace ruffles, and a sword by his side: also, that he there obtained the name of
‘the Sunday gentleman,’ because, through fear of the bailiffs, he did not dare to
appear in public upon any other day.”

It appears that at this time De Foe was invited, by some merchants of his
acquaintance residing in Cadiz, to settle in Spain, with the offer of a good com-
mission. “But,” says our author, “Providence, which had other work for me
to do, placed a secret aversion in my mind to quitting England upon any account,
and made me refuse the best offer of that kind, to be concerned with some eminent
persoris at home, in proposing ways and means to the government for raising:
money to supply the occasion of the war, then newly begun.” De Foe suggested
a general assessment of personal property, the amount to be settled by composition,
under the inspection of commissioners appointed by the king. It was, doubtless,
owing to these services, that he was appointed to thé office of accountant to
the commissioners of ‘the glass duty, in 1695: which commission ceased in 1699.
It was probably about this time that De Foe became secretary to the tile-kiln
and brick-kiln works at Tilbury, in Essex. Pantiles had been hitherto a Dutch
manufacture, and were brought in large quantities to England. To supersede the
necessity of their importation, these works were erected. The speculation ulti-
mately proved unsuccessful,

Towards the close of the war, in 1696-7, De Foe gave to the world his “ Essay
upon Projects :” a work alike admirable for the novelty of the subject, and the
clearness and ingenuity with which it is treated. The projects of our author may
be classed under the heads of politics, commerce, and benevolence; all having
reference to the public improvement. The first relates to banks in general,
and to the royal or national bank in particular, which he wishes to be rendered _
subservient to the relief of the merchant, and the interests of commerce, as well
as to the purposes of the state; his next project relates to highways; a third,
to the improvement of the bankrupt laws; a fourth; to the plan of friendly
societies, formed by mutual assurance, for the relief of the members in seasons
of distress; a fifth, for thé establishment of an asylum for “fools,” or, more
properly, “naturals,” whom he describes as “a particular rent-charge on the great
family of mankind ;” he next urges the formation of academies, to supply some
neglected brariches of education: one of these was for the improvement of the
English tongue, “to polish and refine it 7’ and this project combined a reforma-
tion of that “foolish vice,” swearing: another part of the project was an academy
pedi at studies ; and he also suggests an institution for the education of

es,
‘In January, 1700-1, appeared De Foe’s celebrated poem of “The Trueborn
Englishman.” It was composed in answer to “a vile, abhorred pamphlet, in very

vu



MEMOIR OF DE FOE,

il verse, written by one Mr. Tutchin, and called “The Foreigners,” in which the
author—who he then was I knew not,” says De Foe—“ fell personally upon the
king and the Dutch nation.”

“When I see the town full of lampoons and invectives against Dutchmen,”
says De Foe, in his “Explanatory Preface,” « only because they are foreigners,
and the king reproached and insulted by insolent pedants and ballad-making
poets, for employing foreigners, and being a foreigner himself, I confess myself
moved by it to remind our nation of their own original, thereby to let them see
what a banter they put upon themselves ; since, speaking of Englishmen ab origine,
we are really all foreigners ourselves.” It is to this poem that De Foe was indebted
for a personal introduction to King William. He was sent for ta the palace by his
Majesty, conversed with him, and had repeated interviews with him afterwards,
The abilities and sentiments of De Foe appeared to have made such a favourable
impression on the king, that he ever after regarded him with kindness; and
conceiving that his talents might be turned to a beneficial account, he employed

im in many secret services, to which our author alludes occasionally in his
writings. The effect produced upon the country by the satire was most beneficial.
De Foe himself, nearly thirty years afterwards, writes, “ National mistakes, vulgar
errors, and even a general practice, have been reformed by a just satire.”

In 1700-1, on the meeting of the fifth parliament of William IIL, we find
De Foe strenuously engaged in advocating the necessity of settling the succession
in the Protestant line; an important object with William, as the only means of
perpetuating the benefits which the nation had reaped from the Revolution. To
this great end, De Foe devoted all his energies, labouring with unwearied zeal in
the cause. His conduct on the imprisonment of the Kentish gentlemen, whose
names are historically associated with the presentation of the famous Kentish
petition, was marked with all the intrepidity of his character. The Commons had
imprisoned the petitioners, who had prayed the house for the settlement of the
Protestant Succession, for having presented a petition “ scandalous, insolent, and
seditious.” On this, De Foe drew up his celebrated “ Legion Paper.” In what
manner it was communicated to the house does not appear upon the journals. It
was reported at the time that De Foe, disguised as a woman, presented it to the
Speaker as he entered the House of Commons, The “ Legion” petition rang
like a tocsin throughout the kingdom. As, however, the author remained con-
cealed, the Commons did not think fit to Pass any particular censure upon it. The
Kentish petitioners were discharged by the prorogation of parliament on the 24th
of June ; they were subsequently feasted at Mercers’ Hall, on which occasion De
Foe attended. . .

By the death of King William our author lost a kind friend and powerful
protector. Toward the latter part of this reign, De Foe took up his abode at
Hackney, and resided there many years. Here some of “his children were born
and buried. In the parish register is the following entry :—“ Sophia, daughter to
Daniel De Foe, by Mary his wife, was baptized, December 24, 1701.”

His next important work—a work that exercised greut influence on his
fortunes—was the “Shortest Way with the Dissenters 3 or, Proposals for the
Establishment of the Church 3 1702.” In this, the author, assuming the character
of an Ultra High Churchman, advocates in an artful veil of irony the adoption of
the severest measures against the Dissenters The arguments he put forth found

vill



MEMOIR OF 'DE FOE.

high favour with both the Universities. The High Church Party never suspected
the sincerity of their partizan, and charmed and won by the fierce doctrines of their
champion, were unsuspicious of the satire of their extravagance. It was, however,
De Foe’s hard fate to be misunderstood by both parties. Whilst the High Chureh-
men congratulated themselves on the addition of another advocate, the Dissenters
treated him as a real enemy. The Church Party, however, fell into the trap laid
for them by De Foe: for, by expressing their delight at the fiery sentiments of
the writer, they avowed them as their own true feelings on the question. The
first detection of our author is said to have been owing to the industry ofthe
Earl of Nottingham, one of the secretaries of state. When his name was actually
known, people were at no loss to decipher his object; and those who had
committed themselves by launching forth in his praises were stung with madness
at their own folly. It was at once resolved by the party in power to crush De Foe
by a state prosecution. In the height of the storm, our author sought concealment ;
when a proclamation was issued by the Government, offering £50 for the discovery
of his retreat ; and in the House of Commons, it was resolved that the book “be
burnt by the hands of the common hangman in Palace Yard.” On the printer of
the work and the bookseller being taken into custody, De Foe issued forth from
his retirement, resolved, as he expresses it, “to throw himself upon the favour of _
government, rather than that others should be ruined by his mistake.” He was
indicted at the Old Bailey Sessions, the 24th of February, 1703, and proceeded to
trial in the following July. It may be gathered from his own account of the
prosecution, that when his enemies had him in their power, they were at a loss to
know what to do with him. He was therefore advised to throw himself on the,
mercy of the Queen, with a promise of protection: which induced him to quit his
defence, and acknowledge himself the author of the offensive work. On this,
he was sentenced to pay a fine of 200 marks to the Queen ; to stand three times in
the pillory; to be imprisoned during the Queen’s pleasure, and to find sureties for
his good behaviour for seven years. The people, however, were with De Foe.
Hence, he. was guarded to the pillory by the populace; and descended from it
with the triumphant acclamations of the surrounding multitude. He has himself
related, that “the people, who were expected to treat him very ill, on the contrary,
pitied him, and wished those who set him there were placed in his room, and
expressed their affections by loud shouts and acclamations when he was taken
down.” Thus, the odium intended for De Foe recoiled on his persecutors, and the
pillory became to him a place of honour. i

A triumphant evidence of the high spirit of De Foe is manifested by the fact,
that on the very day of his exhibition to the people, he published “ A Hymn to:
the Pillory !” ;

De Foe’s fortunes were now at their lowest ebb: being a prisoner, moreover,
he could no longer attend to his pantile works, his only remaining source of
revenue, and they were consequently given up. By this affair he lost, as he
himself informs us, £3,500 ; and he had now a wife and six children dependent
upon him, with no other resource for their support than the product of his pen.
Hence the leisure of De Foe, whilst in Newgate, was not that of idleness or
dissipation. It was then he stored his mind with those facts relative to the habits
and pursuits of the prisoners, which he has detailed with so much truth to nature,
as well as interest. A great part of his time was also devoted to the compo-

ix



MEMOIR OF DE FOE.

sition of various minor political works. It was likewise whilst in Newgate that
he projected his “Review,” a periodical work of four quarto pages, which was
published for nine successive years without intermission, and during the greater
part of the time, three times a week, without his having received any assistance
whatever in its production. Throughout this work, he carried on an unsparing
warfare against folly and vice in all their disguises: it pointed the way to the
“Tatlers,” “Spectators,” and “Guardians,” and may be referred to as' containing
a great mass of interesting and valuable matter, written with all the author's
characteristic spirit and vigour. .

The Tories vainly endeavoured to buy up De Foe: but Newgate had no terrors
for him, and he continued at once their prisoner and their assailant. Upon the
accession of Mr. Harley to office, his own politics not being dissimilar to those of
our author, the minister made a private communication to him, with the view
of obtaining his support. No immediate arrangement, however, took place between
them, as De Foe remained a prisoner some months afterwards. Notwithstanding,
it is most likely that the Queen became acquainted with De Foe’s real merits
through the medium of the minister, and was made conscious of the injustice of
our author’s sufferings, which she now appeared desirous to mitigate. For this
purpose, she sent money to his wife and family, at the same time transmitting to
him a sufficient sum for the payment of his fine, and the expenses attending his
discharge from prison.

On his release from Newgate, De Foe retired to Bury St. Edmunds. Party
clamour, and party-malice, however, pursued him there. On the miserable libels
issued at this time against him, he says, “I tried retirement, and banished myself
from the town: but neither a country recess, any more than a stone doublet, can
secure a man from the clamour of the pen.”

In 1705 De Foe was employed by Harley and Godolphin on various missions
of a secret and, it is said, of even a dangerous nature, one of which required his
presence upor the Continent. Harley seems to have been so well satisfied, that
upon De Foe’s return, he rewarded him with an appointment at home. In 1706,
De Foe wrote voluminously on the subject of the union with Scotland, which
measure he strenuously advocated. This advocacy obtained for him a confidentia.
mission to Scotland, where he was received with great consideration. While in
Edinburgh, he published his “Caledonia,” &c. a poem in honour of Scotland
and the Scots nation. In 1708, De Foe was rewarded with an appointment and
a fixed salary. When the Union was completed, he published “The Union
of Great Britain.” In 1710, he went to live at Stoke Newington, where he
resided for some years, and appears to have been comfortable in his circumstances.
In 1712 was closed the last volume of the “Review.” In a long preface to this
volume, De Foe has a most eloquent defence of this work, and of the mode in
which he had conducted it. Nothing can be finer, more manly, or more conclusive.
In allusion to his sufferings during the progress of the work, he says, “I have
gone through a life of wonders, and am the subject of a vast variety of pro-
vidences ; I have been fed more by miracle than Elijah when the ravens were
his purveyors. I have some time ago summed up my life in this distich :-—

“No man has tasted differing fortunes more,
And thirteen times I have been rich and poor.”
This preface may be considered as a review,—a summing up of the events. of

x



MEMOIR OF DE FOE.

De Foe’s political life, and as such it possesses high value for the noble spirit of
conscious truth that animates every line of it, As a piece of English, it is remark-
able for its innate strength, as well as for the simplicity of its diction.

Our author was again unlucky enough to be committed to Newgate, on the
absurd charge of writing libels in favour of the Pretender. After the death of Queex.
Anne, De Foe, who had been a political writer for thirty years, retired from the
thorny field to the more pleasant paths of literature. Whilst writing “ An
Appeal to Honour and Justice,” he was struck with apoplexy; he however re-
covered, and in the early part of 1715, committed to the press one of his most
useful treatises, “The Family Instructor.” The success of this subsequently induced
him to write his “Religious Courtship,” which, on its appearance in 1722, met
with equal favour. :

In 1719 appeared the immortal “ Robinson Crusoe.” Nearly the whole circle
of’ booksellers had in vain been canvassed for a publisher. William Taylor, the
fortunate speculator, is said to have cleared a thousand pounds by the book, which
rose into immediate popularity. There can be no doubt that the idea of the work
was first suggested to the author by the story of Alexander Selkirk, which had
been given to the public seven years before, “It has been thought by some,”
says Mr. John Ballantyne, in his biographical sketch prefixed to the Edinburgh
edition of De Foe’s novels, “ to detract from the merit of De Foe, that the idea
was not originally his own; but really the story of Selkirk, which had been -
published a few years before, in Woodes Rogers’ Voyage rownd the World, appears
to have furnished our author with so little beyond the bare idea of a man living
upon an uninhabited island, that it appears quite immaterial whether he took
his hint from that or from any other similar story. of which many were then
current.” In a number of “The Englishman,” Steele gave the true and par-
ticular history of Selkirk. The place in which ‘‘ Robinson Crusoe” was composed
has been variously contested. It seems most probable (says Mr. Wilson) that De
Foe wrote it in his retirement in Stoke Newington, in a large white house, rebuilt
by himself, and still standing in Church-street. The work has been printed in
almost every written language, and has been the delight of men of all creeds and
all distinctions.

“Robinson Crusoe” was speedily followed by the “ Account of Dickory Crooke ;”
the “ Life and Piracies of Captain Singleton ;” the “History oftDuncan Campbell ;”
the “ Fortunes and Misfortunes of Moll Flanders;” the “ Life of: Colonel Jack ;”
ae “ Memoirs of.a Cavalier ;” and that extraordinary work, the “Account of the

ague.”

The latter years of De Foe’s life must have been those of competence, insured
to him by the success of-his works. But this period of his life was embittered by
the cruelty and undutifulness of-his son, who, to quote the words of De Foe, from
a letter written in his anguish: “has both ruined my family and broken my heart.”

For some years before his death, De Foe suffered greatly from both the gout and
the stone, which diseases were occasioned, in part, most probably by his close
application to study, whilst accumulating stores of knowledge for the benefit of
his fellow-men. He expired on the 24th of April, 1731, when he was about
seventy years of age. The parish of St. Giles, Cripplegate, in which he drew his
first breath, was also destined to receive his last. He was buried from thence, on
the 26th of April, in Tindall’s burial-ground, now most known by the name a

xi



MEMOIR OF DE FOE.

Bunhill Fields. He left six children, two sons and four daughters. His wife died
at the latter end of the following year. A great-grandson of De Foe was living
in 1856, in a state of poverty, at the age of seventy-eight, for whose benefit a small
fand had not long before been raised.

The character of De Foe was but the practical example of his best writings.
As a citizen of the world, his love of truth, and the patience, the cheerfulness, with
which he endured the obloquy and persecution of his enemies, endear him to us as a
great working benefactor to hisrace. His memory is enshrined with the memories of
those who make steadfast our faith in the nobility and goodness of human nature,
As a writer, De Foe has bequeathed to us imperishable stores of wisdom. If he
paint vice, it is to show its hideousness ; whilst virtue itself receives a new attrac-
tion at his hands. He was not a poet, but he could write vigorous verse, and hir
satire was bold and trenchant, as well as convincing by its terseness, and by the
unadorned eloquence of its truth. De Foe’s prose, though occasionally careless,
is remarkable for its simplicity and strength. What he has to say, he says in the
plainest manner, and in the simplest style. _He does not—as is the vice of our
day—hide his thoughts under a glittering phraseology, but uses words as the
pictures of things. It is owing to this happy faculty, this unforced power, that
De Foe occasionally rises, as in many instances in the golden volume now offered
to the reader, almost to the sublime. In h’s picture of the despair of Crusoe, we
have, in words intelligible even to infancy, a wondrous delineation of the soul of
man in a most trying and most terrible hour. But the crowning merit of De Foe
is, that he was, in the right sense of the term, both in his personal conduct, and
the spirit of his writi

A Trve-bory Enciisanan

xn





THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE.

eS





Nw 5-7 WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a
2G Ca) good family, though not of that country, my father being a
aoe & foreigner of Bremen, who settled first at Hull: ‘he got a good
<4 es estate by merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived after-






ANNO wards a York; from whence he had married my mother,
whose relations were named Robinson, a very good family in that country, ~
and from whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but, by the usual
corruption of words in England, we .are now called—nay we call our-
selves, and write our name, Crusoe ; ome so my eae always
called me.

I had two elder brothers, one of whom: was Seewtendnt Sloe to an
English regiment on foot in Flanders,formerly commanded by the famous
Colonel Lockhart, and was killed ‘at the :battle near. Dunkirk against the:
Spaniards. What became of my second brother I never Bue any more
than my father or mother knew what became of me.

Being the third ‘son of the family, and not bred to any: imae. my!
head began to. be filled very early with rambling thoughts: my -fatler, -
who was very ancient, had given me. a competent share of learning,’ as
far as house-education and. country:free-school generally go, and designed :
me for the law; but I would! be satisfied: with nothing but going. to
sea: and my itclination. to this: led me: so: strongly against: the: will,
ney, the commands of. my father, and, against all the entreaties’.and*

i

B



ROBINSON CRUSOE.

persuasions of my mother and other friends, that there seemed to be
something fatal in that propensity of nature, tending directly to the life
of misery which was to befal me.

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent
counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He called me one
morning into his chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and
expostulated very warmly with me upon this subject: he asked me what
reasons, more than a mere wandering inclination, I had for leaving my
father’s house and my native country, where I might be well introduced,
and had a prospect of raising my fortune by application and industry,
with a life of ease and pleasure. He told me it was men of desperate
fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring, superior fortunes on the other, who
went abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise, and make themselves
famous in undertakings of a nature out of the common road; and these
things were all either too far above me, or too far below me; that
mine was the middle state, or what might be called the upper station
of low life, which he had found, by long experience, was the best state
in the world, the most suited to human happiness, not expoged to the
miseries and hardships, the labour and sufferings of the mechanic part
of mankind, and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and
envy of the upper part of mankind. He told me, I might judge of the
happiness of this state by this one thing, viz. that this was the state
of life which all other people envied; that kings have frequently lamented
the miserable consequence of being born to great things, and wished they
had been placed in the middle of the two extremes, between the mean and
the great; that the wise man gave his testimony to this, as the standard
of felicity, when he prayed to have neither poverty nor riches.

He bade me observe it, and I should always find, that the calamities
of life were shared among the upper and lower part of mankind; but
that the middle station had the fewest disasters, and was not exposed
to so many vicissitudes as the higher or lower part of mankind; nay,
they were not subjected to so many distempers, and uneasiness, either
of body or mind, as those were who, by vicious living, luxury, and
extravagances on one hand, or by hard labour, want of necessaries, and
mean or insufficient diet on the other hand, bring distemper upon
themselves by the natural consequences of their way of living ; that the
middle station of life was calculated for all kind of virtues and all kind

of enjoyments ; that peace and plenty were the handmaids of a middle
2





























































































































































CRUSOE’S FATHER ENTREATS HIM TO STAY ar HOME.

fortune; that temperance, moderation, quietness, health, society, all agreeable
diversions, and all desirable pleasures, were the blessings attending the
middle station of life; that this way men went silently and smoothly
through the world, and comfortably out of it, not embarrassed with the
labours of the hands or of the head, not sold to a life of slavery for
daily bread, nor harassed with perplexed circumstances, which rob the

soul of peace, and the body of rest; nor enraged with the passion of
3



ROBINSON CRUSOE.

envy, or the secret burning lust of ambition for great things; but, in
easy circumstances, sliding gently through the world, and sensibly tasting
the sweets of living, without the bitter; feeling that they are happy,
and learning by every day’s experience to know it more sensibly,

After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate
manner, not to play the young man, nor to precipitate myself inte
miseries which nature, and the station of life I was born in, seemed
to have provided against; that I was under no necessity of seeking my
bread; that he would do well for me, and endeavour to enter me fairly
into the station of life which he had just been recommending to me;
and that if I was not very easy and happy in the world, it must be
my mere fate or fault that must hinder it; and that he should have
nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his duty in warning me
against measures which he knew would be to my hurt; in a word, that
as he would..do;very kind things for me if I would stay and settle at
home as he,.ditected, so he would not have so much hand in my mis-
fortunes, as ve me any encouragement to go away; and to close
all, he told ‘me:I had my elder brother for an example, to whom he
had used the same earnest persuasions to keep him from going into the
Low Country wars, but could not prevail, his young desires prompting
him to run into the army, where he was killed; and though -he said
he would not cease to pray for me, yet he would venture to say to
me, that if I did take this foolish step God would not bless me, and
I should have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neglected his
counsel, when there might be none to assist in my recovery.

I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly pro-
phetic, though I suppose my father did not know it to be so himself;
I say, I observed the tears run down his face very plentifully, especially
when he spoke of my brother who was killed; and that when he spoke
of my having leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was so moved
that he broke off the discourse, and told me his heart was so full he
could say no more to me.

I was sincerely affected with this discourse, and, indeed, who could
be otherwise? and I resolved not to think of going abroad any more,
but to settle at home according to my father’s desire. But alas! a few,
days wore it all off; and, in short, to prevent any of my father’s farther
importunities, in a few weeks after, I resolved to run quite away from

him. However, I did not act quite so hastily as the first heat of my
4






















































































































































































CRUSOE’S MOTHER REFUSES HER ASSISTANCE.

resolution prompted, but I took my mother at a time when I thought
her a little more pleasant than ordinary, and told her that my thoughts
were so entirely bent upon seeing the world, that I should never settle
to anything with resolution enough to go through with it, and my father
had better give me his consent than force me to go without it; that I was
now eighteen years old, which was too late to go apprentice to a trade,
or clerk to an attorney; that I was sure if I did I should never serve
out my time, but I should certainly run away from my master before
my time was out, and go to sea; and if she would speak to my father

§



LIFE AND ADVENTURES

to let me go one voyage abroad, if I came home again, and did not like
it, I would go no more; and I would promise, by a double diligence, to
recover the time that I had lost.

This put my mother into a great passion; she told me she knew it
would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any such subject ;
that he knew too well what was my interest to give his consent to any-
thing so much for my hurt; and that she wondered how I could think
of any such thing after the discourse I had had with my father, and such
kind and tender expressions as she knew my father had used to me;
and that, in short, if I would ruin myself, there was no help for me;
but I might depend I should never have their consent to it; that for
her part, she would not have so much hand in my destruction; and I
should never have it to say that my mother was willing when my
father was not.

Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet I heard
afterwards that she reported all the discourse to him, and that my father,
after showing a great concern at it, said to her, with a sigh: “That
boy might be happy if he would stay at home; but if he goes abroad,
he will be the most miserable wretch that ever was born: I can give
no consent to it.”

It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose, though, in
the mean time, I continued obstinately deaf to all proposals of settling
to business, and frequently expostulated with my father and mother
about their being so positively determined against what they knew my
inclinations prompted me to. But being one day at Hull, where I went
casually, and without any purpose of making an elopement at that time;
but, I say, being there, and one of my companions being about to sail
to London in his father’s ship, and prompting me to go with them
with the common allurement of seafaring men, that it should cost me
nothing for my passage, I consulted-neither father nor mother any more,
nor so much as sent them word of it; but leaving them to hear of it
as they might, without asking God’s blessing or my father’s, without
any consideration of circumstances or consequences, and in an ill hour
God knows, on the Ist of September, 1651, I went on board a ship
bound for London. Never any young adventurer’s misfortunes, I believe,
began. sooner, or continued longer, than mine. The ship was no sooner
out of the Humber, than the wind began to blow and the sea-to rise *

in a most frightful manner; and, as I had never heen at sea before, I
‘ 6



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

was most inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified in mind. I began
now seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and how justly I was
overtaken by the judgment of Heaven for my wicked leaving my father’s
house, and abandoning my duty. All the good counsels of my parents,
my father’s tears and my mother’s entreaties, came now fresh into my
mind; and my conscience, which was not yet come to the pitch of
hardness to which it has since, reproached me with the contempt of
advice, and the breach of my duty to God and my father.

All this while the storm increased, and the sea went very high,
though nothing like what I have seen many times since; no, nor what
Isaw a few days after; but it was enough to affect me then, who was
but a young sailor, and had never known anything of the matter. I
expected every wave would have swallowed us up, and that every time
the ship fell down, as I thought it did, in the trough or hollow of the
sea, we should never rise more: in this.agony of mind, I made many
vows and resolutions, that if it would please God to spare my life in
this one voyage, if ever I got once my foot upon dry land again, I would
go directly home to my father, and never set it into a ship again while
T lived; that I would take his advice, and never run myself into such
miseries as these any more. Now I saw plainly the. goodness of his
observations about the middle station of life, how easy, how comfortably
he had lived all his days, and never had been exposed to tempests at
sea, or troubles on shore; and I resolved that I would, like a true
repenting prodigal, go home to my father.

These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm
lasted, and indeed some time after; but the-next day the wind was abated,
and the sea calmer, and I began to be a little inured to it: however,
I was very grave for all that day, being also a little sea-sick still; -but
towards night the weather cleared up, the wind was. quite over, and a
charming fine evening followed; the sun went down perfectly clear,
and rose so the next morning; and having little or no wind, and-a
smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the
most delightful: that ever I saw.

I had slept well in the night, and’ was now no more sea-sick, but
very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough
and terrible the day “before, ‘and could be so calm. and so pleasant in
so little a time after. And now, lest my good resolutions should continue,
my companion, who had enticed me away, comes to me: “ Well; Bob,”

7



LIFE AND ADVENTURES

says he, clapping me upon the shoulder, “how do you do after it? I
warrant you were frighted, wer'n’t you, last night, when it blew but a
capful of wind?”—* A capful.d’you call it?” said I; “’twas a terrible
storm.”—“ A storm, you fool you,” replies he; “ do you call that a
storm? why, it was nothing at all; give us but a good ship and sea-
room, and we think nothing of sucha squall of wind as that; but
yowre but a fresh-water sailor, Bob. .Come, let us make a bowl of
punch, and we'll forget all that; d’ye see what charming weather ’tis
now?” To make short this end part of my story, we went the way —
of all sailors; the punch was made, and I was made half-drunk with
it; and in that one night’s wickedness I drowned all my repentance,
all my reflections upon my past conduct, all my resolutions for the
future. In a word, as the sea was returned to its smoothness of surface
and settled calmness by, the.abatement of that storm, so the hurry of
my thoughts being over, my fears and apprehensions of being swallowed
up by the sea being forgotten, and the current of my former desires
returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises that I made in my
distress. I found, indeed, some intervals of reflection; and the serious
thoughts did, as it were, endeavour to return again sometimes; but I
shook them off, and roused myself from them as it were from a distemper,
and applying myself to drinking and company, soon mastered the
return of those fits—for so I called them; and I had in five or six
days got as complete a victory over conscience as any young fellow
that resolved not to be troubled with it could desire. But I was to
have another trial for it still; and Providence, as in such cases generally
it does, resolved to leave me entirely without excuse; for if I would not
take this for a deliverance, the next was to be such a one as the worst
and most hardened wretch among us would confess both the danger
and the mercy of.

The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads;
the wind having been contrary, and the weather calm, we had med
-but little way since the storm. Here we were obliged to come to an
anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing contrary, viz., at south-
west, for seven or eight days, during which time a great many ships
from: Newcastle came into the same roads, as the common harbour. where
the ships might wait for a wind for the river.

We had not, however, rid here so long, but we should have tided it up
the river, but that the wind blew too fresh, and, after we had lain four or

8



OF ROBINSON: CRUSOE.

five days, blew very hard. However, the Roads being reckoned as good as
a harbour, the anchorage good, and our ground-tackle very strong, our men
were unconcerned, and not in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent
the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the sea; but the eighth day,
in the morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands at work to strike











CRUSOK IS BANTERED BY HIS FRIEND AFTER THE STORM.

vur top-masts, and make everything snug and close, that the ship might
ride as easy as possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our
ship rod¢ forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought once or twice
our auchor had come home; upon which our master ordered out the sheet-
anchor, so that we rode with two anchors ahead, and the cables veered
out to the better end.

vo)



LIFE AND ADVENTURES

By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began to see
terror and amazement in the faces even of the seamen themselves. The
master, though vigilant in the business of preserving the ship, yet as he
went in and out of his cabin by me, I could hear him softly to himself say,
several times, “ Lord, be merciful to us! we shall be all lost; we shall be
all undone!” and the like. During these first hurries I was stupid, lying
still in my cabin, which was in the steerage, and cannot describe my
temper: I could ill resume the first penitence which I had so apparently
trampled upon, and hardened myself against: I thought the bitterness of
death had been past; and that this would be nothing like the first; but
when the master himself came by me, as I said just now, and said we
should be all lost, I was dreadfully frighted. I got up out of my cabin,
and looked out; but such a dismal sight I never saw: the sea ran
mountains high, and broke upon us every three or four minutes ; when I
could look about, I could see nothing but distress round us ; two ships that
rode near us, we found, had cut their masts by the board, being deep laden;
and our men cried out, that a ship which rode about a mile ahead of
us was foundered. Two more ships, being driven from their anchors, were
run out of the Roads to sea, at all adventures, and that not with a mast
standing. The light ships fared the best, as not so much labouring in the
sea; but two or three of them drove, and came close by us, running away
with only their spritsail out before the wind.

Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master of our ship
to let them cut away the fore-mast, which he was very unwilling to do;
but the boatswain protesting to him, that if he did not, the ship would
founder, he consented; and when they had cut away the fore-mast, the
main-mast stood so loose, and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to
cut that away also, and make a clear deck.

And one must judge what a condition I must be in at all this, who was
but a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright before at but a little.
But if I can express at this distance the thoughts I had about me at that
time, I was in tenfold more horror of mind upon account of my former
convictions, and the having returned from them to the resolutions I had
wickedly taken at first, than I wag at death itself! and these, added to the
terror of the storm, put me into such a condition, that I can by no words
describe it. But the worst was not come yet; the storm continued with
such fury, that the seamen themselves acknowledged they had never seen a

worse. We had a good ship, but she was deep laden, and wallowed in the
10



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

zea, 80 that the seamen every now and then cried out she would founder.
It was my advantage in one respect that I did not know what they meant
by founder, till I inquired. However the storm was so violent, that I saw,
what is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some others more
sensible than the rest, at their prayers, and expecting every moment when

Ute”
iy {

























CRUSOE IS IN GREAT FEAR DURING THE SECUND STORM,

the ship would go to the bottom. In the middle of the night, and under
all the rest of our distresses, one of the men that had been down to see,
cried out we had sprung a leak ; another said, there was four feet water in
the hold. Then all hands were called to the pump. At that word, my

heart, as I thought, died within me: and I fell backwards upon the side of
11



ROBINSON CRUSOE.

my bed where I sat, into the cabin. However, the men roused me, and
told me, that I, that was able to do nothing before, was as well able to
pump as another; at which I stirred up, and went to the pump, and
worked very heartily. While this was doing, the master seeing some light
colliers, who, not able to ride out the storm, were obliged to slip, and run
away to the sea, and would come near us, ordered to fire a gun as a signal
of distress. I, who knew nothing what they meant, thought the ship had
broken, or some dreadful thing happened. In a word, I was so surprised
that I fell down in a swoon. As this was a time when everybody had his
own life to think of, nobody minded me, or what was become of me; but
another man stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot,
let me lie, thinking I had been dead; and it was a great while before
I came to myself.

We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it was apparent
that the ship would founder; and though the storm began to abate a
little, yet it was not possible she could swim till we might run into
any port; so the master continued firing guns for help; and a light ship,
who had rid it out just ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help us.
It was with the utmost hazard the boat came near us; but it was
impossible for us to get on board, or for the boat to lie near the ship's
side, till at last the men rowing very heartily, and venturing their lives
to save ours, our men cast them a rope over the stern with a buoy to it,
and then veered it out a great length, which they, after much labour
and hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them close under our stern, and
cot all into their boat. It was to no purpose for them or us, after we were
in the boat, to think of reaching their own ship; so all agreed to let her
drive, and only to pull her in towards shore as much as we could; and our
master promised them, that if the boat was staved upon shore, he would
make it good to their master: so partly rowing, and partly driving, our
boat went away to the northward, sloping towards the shore almost as far
as Winterton Ness.

We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our ship till
we saw her sink, and then I understood for the first time what was meant
by a ship foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes
to look up when the seamen told me she was sinking ; for from the moment
that they rather put me into the boat, than that I might be said to go in,
my heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly with fright, partly with
horror of mind, and the thoughts of what was yet before me.

12





CRUSOE FAINTS AT THE PUMP.

While we were in this condition—the men yet labouring at tlic oar te
bring the boat near the shore—we could see (when, our boat mounting the
waves, we were able to see the shore) a great many people running along
the strand, to assist us when we should come near; but we made but slow
way towards the shore ; nor were we able to reach the shore, till, being past
the lighthouse at Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward towards

Cromer, and so the land broke off a little the violence of the wind. Here
13



ROBINSON CRUSOE.

we got in, and, though not without much difficulty, got all safe on shore,
and walked afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we
were used with great humanity, as well by the magistrates of the town, who
assigned us good quarters, as by particular merchants and owners of ships,
and had money given us sufficient to carry us either to London or back to
Hull, as we thought fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and have gone
home, I had been happy, and my father, as in our blessed Saviour’s parable,
had even killed the fatted calf for me; for hearing the ship I went away in
was cast away in Yarmouth Roads, it was a great while before he had any
assurances that I was not drowned.

But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that nothing could
resist ; and though I had several times loud calls from my reason, and my
more composed judgment, to go home, yet I had no power to do it. I know
not what to call this, nor will I urge that it is a secret overruling decree,
that hurries us on to be the instruments of our own destruction, even
though it be before us, and that we rush upon it with our eyes open.
Certainly, nothing but some such decreed unavoidable misery, which it was
impossible for me to escape, could have pushed me forward against the
calm reasonings and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and against
two such visible instructions as J had met with in my first attempt.

My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who was the
master’s son, was now less forward than I. The first time he spoke to me
after we were at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days, for we
were separated in the town to several quarters ; I say, the first time he saw
me, it appeared his tone was altered; and, looking very melancholy, and
shaking his head, he asked me how I did, and telling his father who I was,
and how I had come this voyage only for a trial, in order to go farther
abroad: his father, turning to me with a very grave and concerned tone,
“Young man,” says he, “you ought never to go to sea any more; you ought
to take this for a plain and visible token that you are not to be a seafaring
man.” “Why, sir,” said I, “will you go to sea no more?” “That is another
case,” said he; “it is my calling, and therefore my duty; but as you made
this voyage for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given you of what
you are to expect if you persist. Perhaps this has all befallen us on your
escount, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray,” continues he, “what are
you; and on what account did you go to sea?” Upon that I told him some
of my story ; at the end of which he burst out into a strange kind of passion:

14







CRUSOE RECEIVES A REPROOF FROM HIS FRIEND'S FATHER.

“What had I done,” says he, “that such an unhappy wretch should come
into my ship? I would not set my foot in the same ship with thee ogain
for a thousand pounds.” This indeed was, as I said, an excursion of his
spirits, which were yet agitated by the sense of his loss, and was farther
than he could have authority to go. However, he afterwards talked very
gravely to me, exhorting me to go back to my father, and not tempt Provi-
dence to my ruin, telling me I might see a visible hand of Heaven against
me, “And, young man,” said he, “depend upon it, if you do not go back,
wherever you go, you will meet with nothing but disasters and disappoint-
ments, till your father’s words are fulfilled upon you.”
15



LIFE AND ADVENTURES

We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I saw him ne
more; which way he went I knew not. As for me, having some money in
my pocket, I travelled to London by land; and there, as well as on the
road, had many struggles with myself, what course of life I should take,
and whether I should go home or go to sea.

As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered to my
thoughts ; and it immediately occurred to me how I should be laughed at _
among the neighbours, and should be ashamed to see, not my father and
mother only, but even everybody else; from whence I have since often
observed, how incongruous and irrational the common temper of mankind
is, especially of youth, to that reason which ought to guide them in such
cases, viz., that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent;
not ashamed of the action for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools,
but are ashamed of the returning, which only can make them be esteemed
wise men.

In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain what
measures to take, and what course of life to lead. An irresistible reluc-
tance continued to going home; and as I stayed awhile, the remembrance of
the distress I had been in wore off ; and as that abated, the little motion I
had in my desires to return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside
the thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.

That evil influence which carried me first away from my father’s house,—
which hurried me into the wild and indigested notion of raising my
fortune ; and that impressed those conceits so forcibly upon me, as to make
me deaf to all good advice, and to the entreaties and even the commands of
my father ;—I say, the same influence, whatever it was, presented the most
unfortunate of all enterprises to my view ; and I went on board a vessel
bound to the coast of Africa; or, as our sailors vulgarly called it, a
voyage to Guinea. ;

It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I did not ship
myself as a sailor; when, though I might indeed have worked a little
harder than ordinary, yet at the same time I should have learnt the duty
and office of a fore-mast man, and in time might have qualitied myself for
a mate or lieutenant, if not fora master. But as it was always my fate to
choose for the worse, so I did here; for having money in my pocket and
good clothes upon my back, I would always go on board in the habit of. a
gentleman; and so I neither had any business in the ship, nor learned

to do any.
16:



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in London,
which does not always happen to such loose and misguided young fellows
as I then was ; the devil generally not omitting to lay some snare for them
very early; but it was not so with me. I first got acquainted with the
master of a ship who had been on the coast of Guinea; and who, having
had very good success there, was resolved to go again. This captain taking
a fancy to my conversation, which was not at all disagreeable at that time,
hearing me say I had a mind to see the world, told me if I would go the
voyage with him I should be at no expense ; I should be his messmate and
his companion ; and if I could carry anything with me, I should have all
the advantage of it that the trade would admit ; and perhaps I might meet
with some encouragement. i

I embraced the offer; and entering into a strict friendship with this
captain, who was an honest, plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with him,
and carried a small adventure with me, which, by the disinterested honesty
of my friend the captain, I increased very considerably ; for I carried about
£40 in such toys and trifles as the captain directed me to buy. These £40
I had mustered together by the assistance of some of my relations whom
I corresponded with; and who, I believe, got my father, or at least my
mother, to contribute so much as that to my first adventure.

This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in all my
ventures, which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my friend the
ptain; under whom also I got a competent knowledge of the mathematics
d the rules of navigation, learned how to keep an account of the ship’s
course, take an observation, and, in short, to understand some things that
were needful to be understood by a sailor; for, as he took delight to
instruct me, I took delight to learn ; and, in a word, this voyage made me
both a sailor and a merchant ; for I brought home five pounds nine ounces
of gold-dust for my adventure, which yielded me in London, at my return,
ost £300 ; and this filled me with those aspiring thoughts which have
ince so completed my ruin. ©
Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too ; particularly, that. I
as continually sick, being thrown into a violent calenture by the excessive
eat of the climate ; our principal trading being upon the coast, from the
titude of fifteen degrees north even to the line itself.

I was now set up for a Guinea trader ; and my friend, to my great mis-
rtune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage again,
id I embarked in the same vessel with one who was his mate in the

17. c





















LIFE AND ADVENTURES

former voyage, and had now got the command of the ship. This was the
unhappiest voyage that ever man made; for though I did not carry quite
£100 of my new-gained wealth, so that I had £200 left, which I had lodged
with my friend’s widow. who was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible



CRUSOE LEARNS SOMETHING OF NAVIGATION.

misfortunes: the first was this—our ship making her course towards the

Canary Islands, or rather between those Islands and the African shore, was

surprised in the grey of the morning by a Turkish rover of Sallee, who gave

chase to us with all the sail she could make. We crowded also as much
1s



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

canvas as our yards would spread, or our masts carry to get clear; but find-
ing the pirate gained upon us, and would certainly come up with us in a few
hours, we prepared to fight; our ship having twelve guns, and the rogue
eighteen. About three in the afternoon he came up with us, and bringing
to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as he
intended, we brought eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured in
a broadside upon him, which made him sheer off again, after returning our
fire, and pouring in also his small shot from near two hundred men which
he had on board. However, we had not a man touched, all our men
keeping close. He prepared to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves.
But laying us on board the next time upon our other quarter, he entered





CRUSOE’S SHIPMATES ARE TAKEN UP THE COUNTRY BY THE MOORS.






sixty men upon our decks, who immediately fell to cutting and hacking the
sails and rigging. We plied them with small shot, half-pikes, powder-
hests, and such like, and cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut
short this melancholy part of our story, our ship being disabled, and three
of our men killed, and eight wounded, we were obliged to yield, and were
carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I apprehended ;
or was I carried up the country to the emperor’s court, as the rest of our
men were, but was kept by the captain of the rover as his proper prize,

and made his slave, being young and nimble, and fit for his business. At
19



ROBINSON CRUSOE.

this surprising change of my circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable
slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed; and now I looked back upon my
father’s prophetic discourse to me, that I should be miserable and have none
to relieve me, which I thought was now so effectually brought to pass, that
T could not be worse ; for now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and
I was undone without redemption ; but, alas! this was but a taste of the
misery I was to go through, as will appear in the sequel of this story.

As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house, so I was
in hopes that he would take me with him when he went to sea again, believ-
ing that it would some time or other be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or
Portugal man-of-war ; and that then I should be set at liberty. But this
hope of mine was soon taken away ; for when he went to sea, he left me on
shore to look after his little garden, and do the common drudgery of slaves
about his house ; and when he came home again from his cruise, he ordered
me to lie in the cabin to look after the ship.

Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I might take
to effect it, but found no way that had the least probability in it; nothing
presented to make the supposition of it rational; for I had nobody to com-
municate it to that would embark with me—no fellow-slave, no Englishman,
Irishman, or Scotchman, there but myself; so that for two years, though I
often pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had the least encourag-
ing prospect of putting it in practice.

After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself, which put
the old thought of making some attempt for my liberty again in my head.
My patron lying at home longer than usual without fitting out his ship,
which, as I heard, was for want of money, he used, constantly, once or twice
a week, sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship’s pinnace,
and go out into the road a-fishing; and, as he always took me and young
Maresco with him to row the boat, we made him very merry, and I proved
very dexterous in catching fish ; insomuch that sometimes he would send me
with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth—the Maresco, as they called
him—to catch a dish of fish for him.

It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a calm morning, a fog rose
so thick that, though we were not half a league from the shore, we lost sight
of it; and rowing we knew not whither or which way, we laboured all day,
and all the next night; and when the morning came, we found we had
pulled off to sea instead of pulling in for the shore; and that we were at
least two leagues from the shore. However, we got well in again, though with

20













cS

CRUSOE MEDITATES HIS ESCAPE.



a great deal of labour and some danger ; for the wind began to blow pretty
fresh in the morning ; but we were all very hungry.

But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more care
of himself for the future; and having lying by him the long-boat of our
English ship that he had taken, he resolved he would not go a-fishing any
more without a compass and some provision; so he ordered the carpenter
of his ship, who also was an English slave, to build a little state-room, or
cabin, in the middle of the long-boat, like that of a barge, with a place
to stand behind it to steer, and haul home the main-sheet; and room
before for a hand or two to stand and work the sails. She sailed with what
we call a shoulder-of-mutton sail; and the boom gibed over the top of the
cabin, which lay very snug and low, and had in it room for him to lie,
with a slave or two, and a table to eat on, with some small lockers to put
in some bottles of such liquor as he thought fit to drink ; and his bread.
rice. and coffee.

oy



LIFE AND ADVENTURES

We went frequently out with his boat a-fishing; and as I was most
dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without me. It happened
that he had appointed to go out in this boat, either for pleasure or for fish,
with two or three Moors of some distinction in that place, and for whom
he had provided extraordinarily, and had therefore sent on board the boat
over-night a larger store of provisions than ordinary ; and had ordered me
to get ready three fusees with powder and shot, which were on board his
ship, for that they designed some sport of fowling as well as fishing.

I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the next morning
with the boat washed clean, her ancient and pendants out, and everything
to accommodate his guests; when by-and-by my patron came on board
alone, and told me his guests had put off going, from some business that
fell out, and ordered me, with the man and boy, as usual, to go out with
the boat and catch them some fish, for that his friends were to sup at his
house; and commanded that as soon as I got some fish I should bring it
home to his house ; all which I prepared to do.

This moment, my former notions of deliverance darted into my thoughts,
for now I found I was likely to have a little ship at my command;
and my master being gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not for fishing
business, but for a voyage; though I knew not, neither did I so much
as consider, whither I should steer,—anywhere to get out of that place
was my desire.

My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this Moor,
to get something for our subsistence on board; for I told him we must
not presume to eat of our patron’s bread. He said that was true; so
he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit, and three jars of fresh
water, into the boat. I knew where my patron’s case of bottles stood,
which it was evident, by the make, were taken out of some English
prize, and I conveyed them into the boat while the Moor was on shore, as
if they had been there before for our master. I conveyed also a great
lump of bees-wax into the boat, which weighed above half a hundred-
weight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer,
all of which were of great use to us afterwards, especially the wax to
make candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which he innocently
came into also: his name was Ismael, which they call Muley, or Moely;

so I called to him :—“Moely,” said I, “our patron’s guns are on board .

the boat; can you not get a little powder and shot? It may be we
may kill some alcamies (a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves, for I

22



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

know he keeps the gunner’s stores in the ship.” “Yes,” says he, “Il
bring some;” and accordingly he brought a great leather pouch, which
held a pound and a half of powder, or rather more; and another with
shot, that had five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put all into
the boat. At the same time, I had found some powder of my master’s
in the great cabin, with which I filled one of the large bottles in the
case, which was almost empty, pouring what was in it into another;
and thus furnished with everything needful, we sailed out of the port to
fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of the port, knew who we
were, and took no notice of us; and we were not above a mile out of
the port before we hauled in our sail, and set us down to fish. The
wind blew from the N.N.E., which was contrary to my desire, for had
it blown southerly, I had been sure to have made the coast of Spain,
and at least reached to the bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions were,
blow which way it would, I would be gone’ from that horrid place
where I was, and leave the rest to fate.

After we had fished some time and caught nothing, for when I had
fish on my hook, I would not pull them up, that he might not see them,
I said to the Moor, “This will not do; our master will not be thus

_ served ; we must stand farther off.” He, thinking no harm, agreed, and,
being in the head of the boat, set the sails; and, as I had the helm,
I run the boat out near a league farther, and then brought her to,
as if I would fish; when, giving the boy the helm, I stepped forward
to where the Moor was, and making as if I stooped for something
behind him, I took him by surprise with my arm under his waist, and
tossed him clear overboard into the sea. He rose immediately, for he
swam like a cork, and called to me, begged to be taken in, told me
he would go all over the world with me. He swam so strong after the
boat, that he would have reached me very quickly, there being but little
wind; upon which I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the
fowling-pieces, I presented it at him, and told him I had done him no
hurt, and if he would be quiet I would do him none: “But,” said
T, “you swim well enough to reach to the shore, and the sea is calm ;
make the best of your way to shore, and I will do you no harm; but
if you come near the boat, Ill shoot you through the head, for I am
resolved to have my liberty:” so he turned himself about, and swam for
the shore, and I make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for he was
an excellent swimmer.
23



ROBINSON CRUSUE.

I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me, and
have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust him. When
he was gone, I turned to the boy, whom they called Xury, and said to
him, “ Xury, if you will be faithful to me, Il make you a great man;
but if you will not stroke your face to be true to me,” that is, swear
by Mahomet and his father's beard, “I must throw you into the sea
too.” The boy smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently, that I could
not distrust him, and swore to be faithful to me, and go all over the
world with me.

While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood out
directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching to windward, that they
might think me gone towards the Straits’ mouth (as indeed any one
that had been in their wits must have been supposed to do): for who
would have supposed we were sailed on to the southward, to the truly
Barbarian coast, where whole nations of Negroes were sure to surround
us with their canoes, and destroy us; where we could not go on shore ©
but we should be devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless savages
of human kind.

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my course,
and steered directly south and by east, bending my course a little towards
the east, that I might keep in with the shore: and having a fair, fresh
gale of wind, and a smooth, quiet sea, I made such sail tuat I believe
by the next day at three o’clock in the afternoon, when I first made
the land, I could not be less than one hundred and fifty miles south
of Sallee: quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions, or indeed
of any other king thereabouts, for we saw no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken of the Moors, and the dreadful
apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, .that I would not stop,
or go on shore, or come to an anchor; the wind continuing fair till I
had sailed in that manner five days; and then the wind shifting to
the southward, I concluded also that if any of our vessels were in chase
of me, they also would now give over; so I ventured to make to the
coast, and came to an anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew
not what, nor where; neither what latitude, what country, what nation,
or what river. J neither saw, nor desired to see any people; the principal
thing I wanted was fresh water. We came into this creek in the evening,
resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and discover the

country; but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadfu2
24 i

















XURY SWEARS TO BE FAITHFUL,

noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures, of we knew
not what kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and
begged of me not to go on shore till day. “ Well, Xury,” said I, “then
I won't; but it may be that we may see men by day, who will be as
bad to us as those lions”—“Then we give them the shoot gun,” says
Xury, laughing, “make them run wey.” Such English Xury spoke by
conversing among us slaves. However, I was glad to see the boy so
cheerful, and I gave him a dram (out of our patron’s case of bottles)
to cheer him up. After all, Xury’s advice was good, and I took it: we
dropped our little anchor, and lay still all night; I say still, for we slept
none; for in two or three hours we saw vast great creatures (we knew
not what to call them) of many sorts, come down to the sea-shore, and
run into the water, wallowing and washing themselves for the pleasure
of cooling themselves ; and they made such hideous howlings and yellings,
that I never indeed heard the like.

Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but we were

both more frighted when we heard one of these mighty creatures come
25



LIFE AND ADVENTURES

swimming towards our boat; we could not see him, but we might hear
him by his blowing to be a monstrous huge and furious beast. Xury
said it was a lion, and it might be so for aught I know; but poor Xury
cried to me to weigh the anchor and row away: “ No,” says I, “Xury; we
can slip our cable, with the buoy to it, and go off to sea; they cannot
follow us far.” I had no sooner said so, but I perceived the creature
(whatever it was) within two oars’ length, which something surprised me ;
however, I immediately stepped to the cabin-door, and taking up my gun,
fired at him; upon which he immediately turned about, and swam towards
the shore again.

But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises, and hideous cries
and howlings, that were raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as
higher within the country, upon the noise or report of the gun, a thing I
have some reason to believe those creatures had never heard before : this
convinced me that there was no going on shore for us in the night on
that coast, and how to venture on shore in the day was another question
too; for to have fallen into the hands of any of the savages, had been
as bad as to have fallen into the hands of the lions and tigers; at least
we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.

Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere or
other for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat ; when and where
to get to it was the point. Xury said, if I would let him go on shore
with one of the jars, he would find if there was any water, and bring
some to me. I asked him why he would go? why I should not go,
and he stay in the boat? The boy answered with so much affection,
as made me love him ever after. Says he, “If wild mans come, they
eat me, you go wey.”—“ Well, Xury,” said I, “we will both go, and if
the wild mans come, we will kill them, they shall eat neither of us.’
So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a dram out of our
patron’s ease of bottles which I mentioned before ; and we hauled the
boat in as near the shore as we thought was proper, and so waded on
shore ; carrying nothing but our arms, and two jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming of
canoes with savages down the river; but the boy seeing a low place
about a mile up the country, rambled to it, and by-and-by I saw him
come running towards me. I thought he was pursued by some savage,
or frighted with some wild beast, and I ran forwards towards him to
help him; but when I came nearer to him, I saw something hanging

26



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

over his shoulders, which was a creature that he had shot, like a hare, but
different in colour, and longer legs: however, we were very glad of it, and
it was very good meat ; but the great joy that poor Xury came with, was to
tell me he had found good water, and seen no wild mans.

But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for water,
for a little higher up the creek where we were we found the water fresh
when the tide was out, which flowed but a little way up; so we filled our
jars, and feasted on the hare we had killed, and prepared to go on our way,
having seen no footsteps of any human creature in that part of the country.



TUE MOORS GO A HUNTING IN AN ARMY.

As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very well that
the islands of the Canaries and the Cape de Verd Islands also, lay not far
off from the coast. But as I had no instruments to take an observation to
know what latitude we were in, and not exactly knowing, or at least
remembering, what latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for
them, or when to stand off to sea towards them; otherwise I might now
easily have found some of these islands. But my hope was, that if I stood
along this coast till I came to that purt where the English traded, I should
find some of their vessels upon their usual design of trade, that would
relieve and take us in.

By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was must be that
country which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions and the

o7
al



LIFE AND ADVENTURES

Negroes, lies waste and uninhabited, except by wild beasts; the Negroes
having abandoned it, and gone farther south, for fear of the Moors; and the
Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness ; and,
indeed, both forsaking it because of the prodigious numbers of tigers, lions,
leopards, and other furious creatures which harbour there; so that the
Moors use it for their hunting only, where they go like an army, two or
three thousand men at a time: and, indeed, for near a hundred miles to-
gether upon this coast, we saw nothing but a waste uninhabited country by
day, and heard nothing but howlings and roaring of wild beasts by night.

Once or twice in the day-time, I thought I saw the Pico of Teneriffe,
being the high top of the Mountain Teneriffe in the Canaries; and had a
great mind to venture out, in hopes of reaching thither; but having tried
twice, I was forced in again by contrary winds, the sea also going too high
for my little vessel ; so I resolved to pursue my first design, and keep along
the shore.

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we had left
this place; and once in particular, being early in the morning, we came to
an anchor under a little point of land, which was pretty high; and the tide
beginning to flow, we lay still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more
about him than it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me that we
had best go farther off the shore; “for,” says he, “look, yonder lies a
dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fast asleep.” I looked where *
he pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed, for it was a terrible great
lion that lay on the side of the shore, wader the shade of a piece of the hill
that hung as it were a little over him. “Xury,” says I, “you shall go on
shore and kill him.” Xury looked frighted, and said, “Me kill! he eat me
at one mouth ;” one mouthful he meant. However, I said no more to the
boy, but bade him lie still, and I took our biggest gun, which was almost
musket bore, and loaded it with a good charge of powder, and with two
slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded another gun with two bullets; and
the third (for we had three pieces) I loaded with five smaller bullets. I
took the best aim I could with the first piece to have shot him in the head,
but he lay so with his leg raised a little above his nose that the slugs hit
his leg about the knee, and broke the bone. He started up, growling at
first, but finding his leg broken, fell down again; and then got up upon
three legs, and gave the most hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a little
surprised that I had not hit him on the head; however, I took up the
second piece immediately, and though he began to move off, fired again, and

28



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

shot him in the head, and had the pleasure to see him drop and make but
little noise, but lie struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and would
have me let him go onshore. “ Well, go,” said 1: so the boy jumped into
the water, and taking a little gun in one hand, swam to shore with the
other hand, and coming close to the creature, put the muzzle of the piece to
his ear, and shot him in the head again, which despatched him quite. -

; his was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I was very
sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a creature that was good
for nothing to us. However, Xury said he would have some of him; so he
comes on board, and asked me to give him the hatchet. “For what, Xury?”
said I. “Me cut off his head,” said he. However, Xury could not cut
off his head, but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him, and it was a
monstrous great one.

I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him might, one
way or other, be of some value to us; and I resolved to take off his skin if
Icould. So Xury and I went to work with him ; but Xury was much the
better workman at it, for I knew very ill how to do “it. Indeed, it took us
both up the whole day, but at last we got off the hide of him, and spreading
it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two days’ time,
and it afterwards served me to lie upon.

After this stop, we made on to the southward continually for ten or twelve
days, living very sparingly on our provisions, which began to abate very
much, and going no oftener to the shore than we were obliged to for fresh
water. My design in this was, to make the River Gambia or Senegal, that
is to say, anywhere about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to meet
with some European ship; and if I did not, I knew not what course I had
to take, but to seek for the islands, or perish there among the Negroes. I.
knew that all the ships from Europe, which sailed either to the coast of
Guinea or to Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this Cape, or those islands ;
and, in a word, I put the whole of my fortune upon this single point, either
that I must meet with some ship, or must perish.

When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I have
said, I began to see that the land was inhabited; and in two or three
places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore to look at us;
we could also perceive they were quite black, and naked. I was once
inclined to have gone on shore to them; but Xury was my better coun-
sellor, and said to me, “No go, no go.” However, I hauled in nearer the
shore that I might talk to them, and I found they ran along the shore by

29



LIFE AND ADVENTURES

me a good way: I observed they had no weapons in their hands, except
one, who had a long slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that
they could throw them a great way with good aim; so I kept at a distance,
but talked with them by signs as well as I could; and particularly made
signs for something to eat; they beckoned to me to stop my boat, and they
would fetch me some meat. Upon this, I lowered the top of my sail, and lay
by, and two of them ran up into the country, and in less than half an hour
came back, and brought with them two pieces of dried flesh and some corn,
such as is the produce of their country ; but we neither knew what the one
or the other was: however, we were willing to accept it, but how to come
at it was our next dispute, for I would not venture on shore to them, and
they were as much afraid of us: but they took a safe way for us all,
for they brought it to the shore and laid it down, and went and stood a
great way off till we fetched it on board, and then came close to us again.

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make them
amends; but an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige them won-
derfully : for while we were lying by the shore, came two mighty creatures,
one pursuing the other (as we took it) with great fury from the mountains
towards the sea; whether it was the male pursuing the female, or whether
they were in sport or in rage, we could not tell, any more than we could
tell whether it was usual or strange, but I believe it was the latter; because,
in the first place, those ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night;
and, in the second place, we found the people terribly frighted, especially
the women. The man that had the lance or dart did not fly from them,
but the rest did; however, as the two creatures ran directly into the water,
they did not offer to fall upon any of the Negroes, but plunged themselves
into the sea, and swam about, as if they had come for their diversion: at
last one of them began to come nearer our boat than at first I expected ;
but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with all possible expe-
dition, and bade Xury load both the others. As soon as he came fairly
within my reach, I fired, and shot him directly in the head: immediately
he sank down into the water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and down,
as if he was struggling for life, and so indeed he was: he immediately made
to the shore; but between the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and the
strangling of the water, he died just before he reached the shore.

It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor creatures at
the noise and fire of my gun; some of them were even ready to die for
fear, and fell down as dead with the very terror; but when they saw the

30



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

creature dead, and sunk in the water, and that I made signs to them to
come to the shore, they took heart and came, and began to search for the
creature. I found him by his blood staining the water: and by the help
of a rope, which I slung round him, and gave the Negroes to haul, they
dragged him on shore, and found that it was a most curious leopard, spotted,
and fine to an admirable degree ; and the Negroes held up their hands with
admiration, to think what it was I had killed him with.

The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the noise of the
gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to the mountains from whence
they came; nor could I, at that distance, know what it was. I found
quickly the Negroes wished to eat the flesh of this creature, so I was
willing to have them take it as a favour from me; which, when I made
signs to them that they might take him, they were very thankful for.
Immediately they fell to work with him; and though they had no knife,
yet, with a sharpened piece of wood, they took off his skin as readily, and
rauch more readily, than we could have done with a knife. They offered
me some of the flesh, which I declined, pointing out that I would give it
them; but made signs for the skin, which they gave me very freely, and
brought me a great deal more of their provisions, which, though I did not
understand, yet I accepted. I then made signs to them for some water,
and held out one of my jars to them, turning it bottom upward, to show
that it was empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They called imme-
diately to some of their friends, and there came two women, and brought a
great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I supposed, in the sun; this they
set down to me, as before, and I sent Xury on shore with my jars, and filled
them all three. The women were as naked as the men.

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and water;
and leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward for about eleven days
more, without offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land run out a
great length into the sea, at about the distance of four or five leagues before
me; and the sea being very calm, I kept a large offing to make this point.
At length, doubling the point, at about two leagues from the land, I saw
plainly land on the other side, to seaward: then I concluded, as it was-
most certain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands
called, from thence, Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were'at a great
distance, and I could not well tell what I had best to do; for if I should be
taken with a fresh of wind, I might neither reach one or other.

Tn this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the cabin, and
31 :



ROBINSON CRUSOE.

sat down, Xury having the helm; when, on a sudden, the boy cried out,
“ Master, master, a ship with a sail!” and the foolish boy was frighted out
of his wits, thinking it must needs be some of his master’s ships sent 10
pursue us, but I knew we were far enough out of their reach. I jumped
out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only the ship, but that it was a
Portuguese ship ; and, as I thought, was bound to the coast of Guinea, for
Negroes. But, when I observed the course she steered, I was soon con-
vinced they were bound some other way, and did not design to come any
nearer to the shore: upon which I stretched out to sea as much as I could,
resolving to speak with them if possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to come in
their way, but that they would be gone by before I could make any signal
to them: but after I had crowded to the utmost, and began to despair, they,
it seems, saw, by the help of their glasses, that it was some European boat,
which they supposed must belong to some ship that was lost; so they
shortened sail to let me come up. I was encouraged with this, and as I
had my patron’s ancient on board, I made a waft of it to them, for a signal
of distress, and fired a gun, both which they saw; for they told me they
saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon these signals they
very kindly brought to, and lay by for me; and in about three hours time
I came up with them.

They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and in
French, but I understood none of them; but, at last, a Scotch sailor, who
was on board, called to me: and I answered him, and told him I was an
Englishman, that I had made my escape out of slavery from the Moors, at
Sallee ; they then bade me come on board, and very kindly took me in,
and all my goods.

It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will believe, that I was
thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable and almost hopeless
condition as I was in; and I immediately offered all I had to the captain
of the ship, as a return for my deliverance; but he generously told me,
he would take nothing from me, but that all I had should be delivered
safe to me, when I came to the Brazils. “For,” says he, “I have saved
your life on no other terms than I would be glad to be saved myself; and
it may, one time or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same condition.
Besides,” said he, “when I carry you to the Brazils, so great a way from
your own country, if I should take from you what you have, you will be
starved there, and then I only take away that life I have given, No, no,”

32



YN)



CRUSOE 1S TAKEN UP BY A PORTUGUESE VESSEL.

says he: “Seignor Inglese” (Mr. Englishman), “I will carry you thither in
charity, and those things will help to buy your subsistence there, and your
passage home again.”

As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the performance
to a tittle; for he ordered the seamen, that none should touch anything
that I had: then he took everything into his own possession, and gave me
back an exact inventory of them, that I might have them, even to my three
earthen jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw, and told me
he would buy it of me for his ship’s use; and asked me what I would have
for it? I told him, he had been so generous to me in everything, that I

could not offer to make any price of the boat, but left it entirely to him:
33 D



LIFE AND ADVENTURES

upon which, he told me he would give me a note of hand to pay me eighty
pieces of eight for it at Brazil; and when it came there, if any one offered
to give more, he would make it up. He offered me also sixty pieces of
eight more for my boy Xury, which I was loath to take; not that I was
unwilling to let the captain have him, but I was very loath to sell the poor
boy’s liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in procuring my own.
However, when I let him know my reason, he owned it to be just, and
offered me this medium, that he would give the boy an obligation to set him
free in ten years, if he turned Christian: upon this, and Xury saying he
was willing to go to him, I let the captain have him.

We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived in the Bay de
Todos los Santos, or All Saints’ Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And
now I was once more delivered from the most miserable of all conditions of
life; and what to do next with myself I was to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never enough
remember: he would take nothing of me for my passage, gave me twenty
ducats for the leopard’s skin, and forty for the lion’s skin, which I had in
my boat, and caused everything I had in the ship to be punctually delivered
to me; and what I was willing to sell, he bought of me, such as the case
of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees-wax—for I had
made candles of the rest: in a word, I made about two hundred and twenty
pieces of eight of all my cargo; and with this stock, I went on shore
in the Brazils.

I had not been long here, before I was recommended to the house of a
good, honest man, like himself, who had an ingenio, as they call it (that is,
a plantation and a sugar-house). I lived with him some time, and
acquainted myself, by that means, with the manner of planting and making
of sugar; and seeing how well the planters lived, and how they got rich
suddenly, I resolved, if I could get a licence to settle there, I would turn
planter among them ; resolving, in the mean time, to find out some way to
get my money, which I had left in London, remitted to me. To this
purpose, getting a kind of letter of naturalization, I purchased as much
land that was uncured as my money would reach, and formed a plan for
my plantation and settlement; such a one as might be suitable to the stock
which I proposed to myself to receive from England.

I had a neighbour, a Portuguese, of Lisbon, but born of English eta
whose name was Wells, and in much such circumstances as I was. I call
him my neighbour, because his plantation lay next to mine, and we went

34



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

on very sociably together. My stock was but low, as well as his; and we
rather planted for food than anything else, for about two years. However,
we began to increase, and our land began to come into order; so that the
third year we planted some tobacco, and made each of usa large piece of
ground ready for planting canes in the year to come. But we both wanted
help; and now I found, more than before, I had done wrong in parting
with my boy Xury.

But, alas! for me to do wrong that never did right, was no great wonder.
T had no remedy but to go on: I had got into an employment quite remote
to my genius, and directly contrary to the life I delighted in, and for which
I forsook my father’s house, and broke through all his good advice. Nay, I
was coming into the very middle station, or upper degree of low life, which
my father advised me to before, and which, if I resolved to go on with, I
might as well have stayed at home, and never have fatigued myself in the
world, as I had done; and I used often to say to myself, I could have done
this as well in England, among my friends, as have gone five thousand
miles off to do it among strangers and savages, in a wilderness, and at such
a distance as never to hear from any part of the world that had the least
knowledge of me.

In this manner I used to look upon my condition with the utmost
regret. I had nobody to converse with, but now and then this neighbour ;
no work to be done, but by the labour of my hands; and I used to say, I
lived just like a man cast away upon some desolate island, that had nobody
there but himself, But how just has it been—and how should all men
reflect, that when they compare their present conditions with others that
are worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the exchange, and be convinced
of their former felicity by their experience—I say, how just has it been, that
the truly solitary life I reflected on, in an island of mere desolation, should
be my lot, who had so often unjustly compared it with the life which I then
led, in which, had I continued, I had, in all probability, been exceeding
prosperous and rich.

I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying on the
plantation, before my kind friend, the captain of the ship that took me up
at sea, went back—for the ship remained there, in providing his lading, and
Preparing for his voyage, nearly three months ; when, telling him what little
stock I had left behind me in London, he gave me this friendly and sincere
advice :—« Seignor Inglese,” says he (for so he always called me), “if you
will give me letters, and a procuration ‘in form to me, with orders to tha

35



LIFE AND ADVENTURES

person who has your money in London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to
such persons as I shall direct, and in such goods as are proper for this
country, I will bring you the produce of them, God willing, at my return;
but, since human affairs are all subject to changes and disasters, I would
have you give orders but for one hundred pounds sterling, which, you say,
is half your stock, and let the hazard be run for the first ; so that, if it come
safe, you may order the rest the same way ; and, if it miscarry, you may
have the other half to have recourse to for your supply.”

This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I could not
but be convinced it was the best course I could take; so I accordingly
prepared letters to the gentlewoman with whom I had left my money, and
a procuration to the Portuguese captain, as he desired.

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full account of all my adventures
—my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the Portuguese captain at sea,
the humanity of his behaviour, and what condition I was now in, with all
other necessary directions for my supply; and when this honest captain
came to Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English merchants there,
to send over, not the order only, but a full account of my story to a
merchant at London, who represented it effectually to her; whereupon she
not only delivered the money, but, out of her own pocket, sent the Portugal
captain a very handsome present for his humanity and charity to me.

The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in English goods,
such as the captain had written for, sent them directly to him at Lisbon,
and he brought them all safe to me to the Brazils; among which, without
my direction (for I was too young in my business to think of them), he had
taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron work, and utensils, necessary for
my plantation, and which were of great use to me.

When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortunes made, for I was
surprised with the joy of it; and my good steward, the captain, had laid out
the five pounds, which my friend had sent him for a present for himself, to
purchase and bring me over a, servant, under bond for six years’ service, and
would not accept of any consideration, except a little tobacco, which I
would have him accept, being of my own produce.

Neither was this all ;.for my goods being all English manufacture, such
as cloths, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable and desirable in the
country, I found means to sell them to a very great advantage; so that I
might say, I had more than four times the value of my first cargo, and was
now infinitely beyond my poor neighbour—I mean in the advancement of

36



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

my plantation ; for the first thing I did, I bought me a negro slave, and an
European servant also—I mean another besides that which the captain
brought me from Lisbon.

But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means of our
greatest adversity, so was it with me. I went on the next year with great
success in my plantation: I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on my own
ground, more than I had disposed of for necessaries among my neighbours ;
and these fifty rolls, being each of above a hundred-weight, were well cured,
and laid by against the return of the fleet from Lisbon: and now increasing
in business and in wealth, my head began to be full of projects and under-
takings beyond my reach; such as are, indeed, often the ruin of the best
heads in business. Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had
room for all the happy things to have yet befallen me, for which my father
so earnestly recommended a quiet, retired life, and of which he had so
sensibly described the middle station of life to be full of; but other things
attended me, and I was still to be the wilful agent of all my own miseries ;
and particularly, to increase my fault, and double the reflections upon
myself, which in my future sorrows I should have leisure to make, all these
miscarriages were procured by my apparent obstinate adhering to my foolish
inclination of wandering abroad, and pursuing that inclination, in contradic-
tion to the clearest views of doing myself good in a fair and plain pursuit of
those prospects, and those measures of life, which nature and Providence
concurred to present me with, and to make my duty.

As I had once done thus in my breaking away from my parents, so I
could not be content now, but I must go and leave the happy view I had of
being a rich and thriving man in my new plantation, only to pursue a rash
and immoderate desire of rising faster than the nature of the thing
admitted; and thus I cast myself down again into the deepest gulf of
human misery that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent with
life, and a state of health in the world.

To come, then, by the just degrees, to the particulars of this part of my
story :—You may suppose, that having now lived almost four years in the
Brazils, and beginning to thrive and prosper very well upon my plantation,
T had not only learned the language, but had contracted acquaintance and
friendship among my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants at
St. Salvador, which was our port; and that, in my discourses among them,
Thad frequently given them an account of my two voyages to the coast of
Guinea ; the manner of trading with the Negroes there, and how easy it was

37



ROBINSON CRUSOE.

to purchase upon the coast for trifles—such as beads, toys, knives, scissors,
hatchets, bits of glass, and the like—not only gold dust, Guinea grains,
elephants’ teeth, &c., but Negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great
numbers.

They listened always very attentively to my discourses on these heads,
but especially to that part which related to the buying Negroes, which was
a trade, at that time, not only not far entered into, but, as far as it was, had
been carried on by assientos, or permission of the kings of Spain and
Portugal, and engrossed in the public stock; so that few Negroes were
bought, and those excessively dear.

It happened, being in company with some merchants and planters of my
acquaintance, and talking of those things very earnestly, three of them
came to me next morning, and told me they had been musing very much
upon what I had discoursed with them of the last night, and they came to
make a secret proposal to me ; and, after enjoining me secrecy, they told me
that they had a mind to fit cut a ship to go to Guinea; that they had all
plantations as well as I, and were straitened for nothing so much as
servants ; that as it was a trade that could not be carried on, because they
could not publicly sell the Negroes when they came home, so they desired
to make but one voyage, to bring the Negroes on shore privately, and divide
them among their own plantations; and, in a word, the question was,
whether I would go their supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading part
upon the coast of Guinea; and they offered me that I should have my
equal share of the Negroes, without providing any part of the stock.

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made to any
one that had not had a settlement and a plantation of his own to look after,
which was in a fair way of coming to be very considerable, and with a good
stock upon it; but for me, that was thus entered and established, and had
nothing to do but to go on as I had begun, for three or four years more, and
to have sent for the other hundred pounds from England; and who in that
time, and with that little addition, could scarce have failed of being worth
three or four thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing too—for me to
think of such a voyage was the most preposterous thing that ever man in
such circumstances could be guilty of.

But J, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more resist the
offer than I could restrain my first rambling designs when my father’s good
counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I told them I would go with all my

heart, if they would undertake to look after my plantation in my absence,
38







THE PLANTERS MAKE A PROPOSAL TO CRUSOE.

and would dispose of it to such as I should direct, if I miscarried. This
they all engaged to do, and entered into writings or covenants to do so; and
I made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and effects in case of my
death, making the captain of the ship that had saved my life, as before, my
universal heir, but obliging him to dispose of my effects as I had directed in
my will; one-half of the produce being to himself, and the other to be
shipped in England.

In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects, and to keep
up my plantation. Had I used half as much prudence to have looked into
my own interest, and have made a judgment of what I ought to have done
and not to have done, I had certainly never gone away from so prosperous
an undertaking, leaving all the probable views of a thriving circumstance,

and gone upon a voyage to sea, attended with all its common hazards,
39



ROBINSON CRUSOE.

to say nothing of the reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes to
myself.

But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my fancy
rather than my reason ; and, accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and the
cargo furnisked, and all things done, as by agreement, by my partners in the
voyage, I went on board in an evil hour, the Ist of September, 1659, being
the same day eight years that I went from my father and mother at Hull, in
order to act the rebel to their authority, and the fool to my own interests.

Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden, carried six
guns, and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy, and myself. We had on
board no large cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit for our trade
with the Negroes, such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and other trifles, espe-
cially little looking-classes, knives, scissors, hatchets and the like.

The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to the north-
ward upon our own coast, with design to stretch over for the African coast
when we came about ten or twelve degrees of northern latitude, which, it
seems, was the manner of course in those days. We had very good weather,
only excessively hot, all the way upon our own coast, till we came to the
height of Cape St. Augustino; from whence, keeping further off at sea, we
lost sight of land, and steered as if we were bound for the isle Fernando de
Noronha, holding our course N.E. by N., and leaving those isles on the east.
In this course we passed the line in about twelve days’ time, and were, by
our last observation, in seven degrees twenty-two minutes northern latitude,
when a violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge.
It began from the south-east, came about to the north-west, and then settled
in the north-east ; from whence it blew in such a terrible manner, that for
twelve days together we could do nothing but drive, and, scudding away before
it, let it carry us whither ever fate and the fury of the winds directed ; and,
during these twelve days, I need not say that I expected every day to be
swallowed up; nor, indeed, did any in the ship expect to save their lives.

In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of our men
die of the calenture, and one man and the boy washed overboard. About
the twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the master made an observation
as well as he could, and found that he was in about eleven degrees north
latitude, but that he was twenty-two degrees of longitude difference west
from Cape St. Augustino; so that he found he was upon the coast of
Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river Amazons, towards that

of the river Oroonoque, commonly called the Great River; and began to
40





‘



















CRUSOE AND THE MASTER EXAMINE YHE CHARTS

consult with me what course he should take, for the ship was leaky, and
very much disabled, and he was going directly back to the coast of Brazil.

I was positively against that; and looking over the charts of the sea-
coast of America with him, we concluded there was no inhabited country
for us to have recourse to, till we came within the circle of the Caribbee
Islands, and therefore resolved to stand away for Barbadoes; which, by
keeping off at sea, to avoid the indraft of the Bay or Gulf of Mexico, we
might easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days’ sail; whereas we
could not possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa without some
assistance both to our ship and to ourselves.

With this design we changed our course, and steered away N.W. by W.,
in order to reach some of our English islands, where I hoped for relief. But
our voyage was otherwise determined ; for, being in the latitude of twelve
degrees eighteen minutes, a second storm came upon us, which carried us

away with the same impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of the way
Al



LIFE AND ADVENTURES

of all human commerce, that, had all our lives beén saved as to the sea, we
’ were rather in danger of being devoured by savages than ever returning to
our own country.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our men early
in the morning cried out, “Land!” and we had no sooner run out of the
cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we were,
than the ship struck upon a sand, and in a moment, her motion being so
stopped, the sea broke over her in such a manner, that we expected we
should all have perished immediately ; and we were immediately driven
into our close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam and spray of the
sea.

It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like condition to
describe or conceive the consternation of men in such circumstances. We
knew nothing where we were, or upon what land-it was we were driven—
whether an island or the main, whether inhabited or not inhabited. As the
rage of the wind was still great, though rather less than at first, we could
not so much as hope to have the ship hold many minutes without breaking
into pieces, unless the winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn immediately
about. In a word, we sat looking upon one another, and expecting death
every moment, and every man, accordingly, preparing for another world ;
for there was little or nothing more for us to do in this. That which was our
present comfort, and all the comfort we had, was that, contrary to our
expectation, the ship did not break yet, and that the master said the wind
began to abate.

Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet the ship
having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us to expect her
getting off, we were in a dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing to do
but to think of saving our lives as well as we could. We had a boat at our
stern just before the storm, but she was first staved by dashing against the
ship’s rudder, and in the next place, she broke away, and either sunk, or
was driven off to sea; so there was no hope from her. We had another
boat on board, but how to get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing.
However, there was no time to debate, for we fancied the ship would break
in pieces every minute, and some told us she was actually broken already.

In this distress, the mate of our vessel laid hold of the boat, and with
the help of the rest of the men, got her slung over the ship's side; and
getting all into her, let go, and committed ourselves, being eleven in

number, to God’s mercy and the wild sea; for though the storm was abated
42



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

considerably, yet the sea ran dreadfully high upon the shore, and might be
well called den wild zee, as the Dutch call the sea in a storm. :

And now our case was very dismal indeed ; for we all saw plainly, that
the sea went so high that the boat could not live, and that we should be
inevitably drowned. As to making sail, we had none, nor, if we had, could
we have done anything with it; so we worked at the oar towards the land,
though with heavy hearts, like men going to execution; for we all knew
that when the boat came nearer the shore, she would be dashed in a
thousand pieces by the breach of the sea. However, we committed our
souls to God in the most earnest manner ; and the wind driving us towards
the shore, we hastened our destruction with our own hands, pulling as well ,
as we could towards land.

What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep or shoal, we
knew not. The only hope that could rationally give us the least shadow of
expectation, was, if we might find some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some
river, where by great chance we might have run our boat in, or got under
the lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth water. But there was nothing
like this appeared; but as we made nearer and nearer the shore, the land
looked more frightful than the sea.

After we had rowed or rather driven about a league and a half, as we
reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling astern of us, and
plainly bade us expect the coup de grace. In a word, it took us with such
a fury, that it overset the boat at once; and separating us, as well from the
boat as from one another, gave us not time to say, “O God!” for we were
all swallowed up in a moment.

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which T felt, when I sunk
into the water; for though I swam very well, yet I could not deliver myself —
from the waves so as to draw breath, till that wave having driven me, or
rather carried me, a vast way on towards the shore, and having spent itself,
went back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but half dead with the
water I took in. I had so much presence of mind, as well as breath left,
that, seeing myself nearer the main land than I expected, I got upon my
feet, and endeavoured to make on towards the land as fast as I could, before
another wave should return and take me up again; but I soon found it was
impossible to avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a great
hill, and as furious as an enemy, which I had no means or strength to
contend with: my business was to hold my breath, and raise myself upon
the water, if I could; and so, by swimming, to preserve my breathing and

43



ROBINSON CRUSOE,

pilot myself towards the shore, if possible, my greatest concern now being,
that the sea, as it would carry me a great way towards the shore when it
came on, might not carry me back again with it when it gave back
towards the sea.

The wave that came upon me again, buried me at once twenty or thirty
feet deep in its own body, and I could feel myself carried with a mighty
force and swiftness towards the shore a very great way; but I held my
breath, and assisted myself to swim still forward with all my might. I was
ready to burst with holding my breath, when as I felt myself raising up, so,
to my immediate relief, I found my head and hands shoot out above the
surface of the water; and though it was not two seconds of time that I
could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave me breath and new
courage. I was covered again with water a good while, but not so long but
T held it out; and, finding the water had spent itself and began to return, I
struck forward against the return of the waves, and felt ground again with
my feet. I stood still a few moments to recover breath and till the waters
went from me, and then took to my heels and ran, with what strength I
had, further towards the shore. But neither would this deliver me from the
fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me again; and twice more I
was lifted up by the waves and carried forwards as before, the shore
being very flat.

The last time of these two had well-nigh been fatal to me, for the sea
having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather dashed me, against
a piece of a rock, and that with such force, that it left me senseless, and
indeed helpless, as to my own deliverance; for the blow taking my side
and breast, beat the breath, as it were, quite out of my body; and had it
returned again immediately, I must have been strangled in the water; but
I recovered a, little before the return of the waves, and seeing I should be
covered again with the water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock,
and so to hold my breath, if possible, till the wave went back. Now, as the
waves were not so high as at first, being nearer land, I held my hold till the
wave abated, and then fetched another run, which brought me so near the
shore, that the next wave, though it went over me, yet did not so swallow
me up as to carry me away; and the next run I took, I got to the main
land, where, to my great comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the shore,
and sat me down upon the grass, free from danger and quite out of the
reach of the water.

I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up and thank
44









CHUSOE HOLDS FAST TO A PIZCE OF ROCK.

God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there was, some minutes
before, scarce any room to hope. I believe it is impossible to express, to
the life, what the ecstasies and transports of the soul are, when it is so
saved, as I may say, out of the very grave: and I do not wonder now at
the custom, when a malefactor, who has the halter about his neck, is tied
up, and just going to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought to him—I
say, I do not wonder that they bring a surgeon with it, to let him blood
that very moment they tell him of it, that the surprise may not drive the
animal spirits from the heart, and overwhelm him.

For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.

I walked about on the shore lifting up my hands, and my whole being,
as I may say, wrapt up in a contemplation of my deliverance ; making a
thousand gestures and motions, which I cannot describe; reflecting upon all
my comrades that were drowned, and that there should not be one soul
saved but myself; for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any
sign of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that were
not fellows.

I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the preach and froth of the
sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far off; and considered,

Lord! how was it possible I could get on shore?
45



LIFE AND ADVENTURES

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my condition,
I began to look round me, to see what kind of place I was in, and what was
next to be done: and I soon found my comforts abate, and that, in a word,
I had a dreadful deliverance: for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor
anything either to eat or drink to comfort me; neither did I see any



CRUSOE IS OVERWHELMED BY ASTOY/80MENT AT HIS DELIVERANCE

prospect before me, but that of perishing with hunger, or being devoured by
wild beasts; and that which was particularly afflicting to me was, that I
had no weapon, either to hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance, or
to defend myself against any other creature that might desire to kill me for

theirs. In a word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and
46



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE,

a little tobacco in a box. This was all my provisions; and this threw me
into terrible agonies of mind, that for a while, I ran about like a madman.
Night coming upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider what would
be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that country, as at night
they always come abroad for their prey.



CRUSOE GETS INTO A TREE TO SLEEP.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time, was to get up
into a thick bushy tree like a fir, but thorny, which grew near me, and
where I resolved to sit all night, and consider the next day what death I
should die, for as yet I saw no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong

from the shore, to see if I could find any fresh water to drink, which I did,
47



ROBINSON CRUSOE.

to my great joy; and having drank, and put a little tobacco in my mouth
to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured to
place myself so that if I should sleep I might not fall. And having cut me
a short stick, like a truncheon, for my defence, I took up my lodging; and
having been excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably
as, I believe, few could have done in my condition, and found myself more
refreshed with it than, I think, I ever was on such an occasion.

When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the storm
abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as before. But that which
surprised me most was, that the ship was lifted off in the night from the
sand where she lay, by the swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost
as far as the rock which I at first mentioned, where I had been so bruised
by the wave dashing me against it. This being within about a mile from
the shore where I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished
myself on board, that at least I might save some necessary things for
my use.

When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked about me
again, and the first thing I found was the boat, which lay, as the wind and
the sea had tossed her up, upon the land, about two miles on my right
hand. I walked as far as I could upon the shore to have got to her; but
found a neck or inlet of water between me and the boat which was about
half a mile broad; so I came back for the present, being more intent upon
getting at the ship, where I hoped to find something for my present sub-
sistence.

A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed so far
out that I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship. And here I
found a fresh renewing of my grief; for I saw evidently, that if we had
kept on board, we had been all safe—that is to say, we had all got safe on
shore, and I had not been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all
comfort and company as I now was. This forced tears to my eyes again ;

‘but as there was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get to the
ship ; so I pulled off my clothes, for the weather was hot to extremity, and
took the water. But when I came to the ship, my difficulty was still
greater to know how to get on board; for, as she lay aground, and high out
of the water, there was nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam
round her twice, and the second time I spied a small piece of rope, which
I wondered I did not see at first, hung down by the fore-chains so low, as
that with great difficulty I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope I got

48



Of ROBINSON CRUSOE.

up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that the ship was bulged,
and had a great deal of water in her hold; but that she lay so on the side
of abank of hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern lay lifted up upon
the bank, and her head low, almost to the water. By this means all her
quarter was free, and all that was in that part was dry; for you may be



CRUSOE CLIMBS INTO TILE WRECK BY THE FORECHAINS,

sure my first work was to search, and to see what was spoiled and what
was free. And, first, I found that all the ship’s provisions were dry and
untouched by the water, and being very well disposed to eat, I went to the
bread-room, and filled my pockets with biscuit, and eat it as I went about
other things, for I had no time to lose, I also found some rum in the great

cabin, of which I took a large dram, and which I had, indeed, need enough
49 E





LIFE ANI) ADVENTURES

of to spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a
boat to furnish myself with many things which I foresaw would be very
necessary to me.

It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had 3 and
this extremity roused my application. We had several spare yards, and
two or three large spars of wood, and a spare top-mast or two in the ship :
T resolved to fall to work with these, and I flung as many of them over-
board as I could manage for their weight, tying every one with a rope, that
they might not drive away. When this was done, I went down the ship’s
side, and pulling them to me, I tied four of them together at both ends,
as well as I could, in the form of a raft, and laying two or three short pieces
of plank upon them cross-ways, I found I could walk upon it very well,
but that it was not able to bear any great weight, the pieces being too light.
So I went to work, and with a carpenter’s saw I cut a spare top-mast into
three lengths, and added them to my raft, with a great deal of labour and
pains. But the hope of furnishing myself with necessaries, encouraged me
to go beyond what I should have been able to have done upon another
occasion.

My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight. My
next care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what I laid upon
it from the surf of the sea: but I was not long considering this. I first
laid all the plank or boards upon it that I could get, and having considered
well what I most wanted, I first got three of the seamen’s chests, which I
had broken open and emptied, and lowered them down upon my raft; the
first of these I filled with provisions, viz. bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses,
five pieces of dried goat’s flesh (which we lived much upon), and a little
remainder of European corn, which had been laid by for some fowls which
we brought to sea with us, but the fowls were killed. There had been
some barley and wheat together; but, to my great disappointment, I found
afterwards that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found
several cases of bottles belonging to our skipper, in which were some cordial
waters; and, in all, about five or six gallons of rack, These I stowed by
themselves, there being no need to put them into the chest, nor any room for
them. While I was doing this, I found the tide began to flow, though very
calm; and I had the mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which
Thad left on the shore, upon the sand, swim away. As for my breeches,
which were only linen, and open-knee’d, I swam on board in them and my
stockings. However, this set me on rummaging for clothes, of which I

50







OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

found enough, but took no more than I wanted for present use, for I had
other things which my eye was more upon—as, first, tools to work with
on shore. And it was after long searching that I found out the carpenter’s
chest, which was, indeed, a very useful prize to me, and much more valuable
than a ship-load of gold would have been at that time. I got it down to my



CRUSOE GETS INTO THE FORECASTLE.

raft, whole as it was, without losing time to look into it, for I knew in
general what it contained.

My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were two
very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols. These I
secured first, with some powder-horns and a small bag of shot, and two old
rusty swords. I knew there were three barrels of powder in the ship, but

knew not where our gunner had stowed them; but with much search I
51



LIFE AND ADVENTURES

found them, two of them dry and good, the third had taken water. Those
two I got to my raft, with the arms. And now I thought myself pretty
well freighted, and began to think how I should get to shore with them,
having neither sail, oar, nor rudder; and the least cap-full of wind would
have overset all my navigation.





\ \ ye NK
\—\ \
\ ‘ \y
\ \ \
ON \
ye ON

Bs aA



CRUSOE LOADS HIS RAFT.

I had three encouragements: 1st, a smooth, calm sea; 2ndly, the tide
rising, and setting in to the shore; 3rdly, what little wind there was blew
me towards the land. And thus, having found two or three broken oars
belonging to the boat-—and, besides the tools which were in the chest, I
found two saws, an axe, and a hammer: with this cargo I put to sea. For
a mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that I found it drive

a little distant from the place where I had landed before; by which I
52



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

perceived that there was some indraft of the water, and consequently, I
hoped to find some creek or river there, which I might make use of as a
port to get to land with my cargo. ~

As I imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a little opening of
the land, and I found a strong current of the tide set into it; so I guided
my raft, as well as I could, to keep in the middle of the stream.



CRUSOE’S RAFT IS NEARLY UPSET.

But here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if I had,
I think, verily, would have broken my heart; for, knowing nothing of the
coast, my raft ran aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and not being
aground at the other end, it wanted but a little that all my cargo had
slipped off towards the end that was afloat, and so fallen into the water. I

did my utmost, by setting my back against the chests, to keep them in their
53



LIFE AND ADVENTURES

places, but could not thrust off the raft with all my strength ; neither durst
I stir from the posture I was in; but holding up the chests with all my
might, I stood in that manner near half an hour, in which time the rising
of the water brought me a little more upon a level; and, a little after, the
water still rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off with the oar I
had into the channel, and then driving up higher, I at length found myself
in the mouth of a little river, with land on both sides, and a strong current
of tide running up. I looked on both sides for a proper place to get to
shore, for I was not willing to be driven too high up the river: hoping, in,
time, to see some ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place myself as near
the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek, to
which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last got
so near, that, reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust her directly
in. But here I had like to have dipped all my cargo into the sea again ;
for that shore lying pretty steep—that is to say, sloping—there was no
place to land, but where one end of my float, if it ran on shore, would
lie so high, and the other sink lower, as before, that it would endanger
my cargo again. All that I could do, was to wait till the tide was at
the highest, keeping the raft with my oar like an anchor, to hold the
side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of ground, which I expected
the water would flow over; and so it did. As soon as I found water
enough—for my raft drew about a foot of water—I thrust her on upon
that flat piece of ground, and there fastened or moored her, by sticking
my two broken oars into the ground, one on one side, near one end,
and one on the other side, near the other end; and thus I lay till the
water ebbed away, and left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper place
for my habitation, and where to stow my goods to secure them from
whatever might happen. Where I was, I yet knew not; whether on the
continent or on an island; whether inhabited or not inhabited ; whether
in danger of wild beasts or not. There was a hill not above a mile
from me, which rose up very steep and high, and which seemed to
overtop some other hills, which lay as in a ridge from it, northward.
I took out one of the fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn
of powder; and thus armed, I travelled for discovery up to the top of
that hill, where, after I had with great labour and difficulty got to the
top. I saw my fate, to my great affliction, viz. that I was in an island
54



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

environed every way with the sea: no land to be seen except some rocks, ’
which lay a great way off; and two small islands, less than this, which
lay about three leagues to the west.

I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw
good reason to believe, uninhabited except by wild beasts, of whore.
however, I saw none. Yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not
their kinds; neither when I killed them could I tell what was fit for
food, and what not. At my coming back, I shot at a great bird which
I saw sitting upon a tree on the side of a great. wood. I believe it
was the first gun that had been fired there since the creation of the world.
I had no sooner fired, than from all parts of. the wood there arose an
innumerable number of fowls, of many sorts, making a confused screaming
and crying, and every one according to his usual note, but not one of
them of any kind that I knew. As for the creature I killed, I took
it to be a kind of hawk, its colour and beak resembling it, hut it had
no talons or claws more than common. Its flesh was carrion, and fit for
nothing.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and fell to
work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the rest of that -
day. What to do with myself at night I knew not, nor indeed where to
rest, for I was afraid to lie down on the ground, not knowing but some
wild beast might devour me, though, as I afterwards found, there was
really no need for those fears. :

However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round with the
chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and made a kind of
hut for that night’s lodging. As for food, I yet saw not which way te
supply myself, except that I had seen two or three creatures, like hares,
run out of the wood where I shot the fowl.

I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many things
out of the ship which would be useful to me, and. particularly some
of the rigging and sails, and such other things as might come to land;
and I resolved to make another voyage on board the vessel, if possible.
And as I knew that the first storm that blew must necessarily break
her all in pieces, I resolved to set all other things apart till I had got
everything out of the ship that I could get.. Then I called a council—
that is to say, in my thoughts—whether I should take back the. raft;
but this appeared impracticable: so I resolved to go as before, when the
tide was down; and I did so, only that I stripped before I went from

55



LIFE AND ADVENTURES

my hut, having nothing on but a chequered shirt, a pair of linen drawers,
and a pair of pumps on my feet.

I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft; and,
having had experience of the first, I neither made this so unwieldy, ner
loaded it so hard, but yet I brought away several things very useful
to me; as, first, in the carpenter’s stores, I found two or three bags full
of nails and spikes, a great screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and,
above all, that most useful thing called a grindstone. All these I secured,
together with several things belonging to the gunner, particularly two
or three iron crows, and two barrels of musket bullets, seven muskets,
another fowling-piece, with some small quantity of powder more; a large
bagful of small shot, and a great roll of sheet-lead ; but this last was so
heavy, I could not hoist it up to get it over the ship’s side.

Besides these things, I took all the men’s clothes that I could find,
and a spare fore-top sail, a hammock, and some bedding ; and with this I
loaded my second raft, and brought them all safe on shore, to my very
great comfort.

I was under some apprehension, during my absence from the land,
that at least my provisions might be devoured on shore: but when I
came back, I found no sign of any visitor; only there sat a creature
like a wild cat, upon one of the chests, which, when I came towards
it, ran away a little distance, and then stood still. She sat very com-
posed and unconcerned, and looked full in my face, as if she had a
mind to be acquainted with me. I presented my gun at her, but, as
she did not understand it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did
she offer to stir away; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit, though,
by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store was not great : however,
I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled at it, and ate it,
and looked (as if pleased) for more; but I thanked her, and could spare no
more: so she marched off.

Having got my second cargo on shore,—though I was fain to
open the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for they were
too heavy, being large casks,—I went to work to make me a little
tent, with the sail, and some poles which I cut for that purpose: and
into this tent I brought everything that I knew would spoil either with
rain or sun; and I piled all the empty chests and casks up in a circle
round the tent, to fortify it from any sudden attempt, either from man

or beast.
56



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with some
boards within, and an empty chest set up on end without; and spreading
one of the beds upon the ground, laying my two pistols just at my head,
and my gun at length by me, I went to bed for the first time, and slept
very quietly all night, for I was very weary and heavy ; for the night
before I had slept little, and had laboured very hard all day, to fetch all those
things from the ship, and to get them on shore.

























































































CRUSOE BARRICADES HIS TENT FOR THE NIGHT.

I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid up, I
believe, for one man: but I was not satisfied still, for while the ship sat
upright in that posture, I thought I ought to get everything out of her that
Teould: so every day at low water I went on board, and brought away
something or other; but particularly the third time I went, I brought away
as much of the rigging as I could, as also all the small ropes and rope-twine
Tcould get, with a piece of spare canvas, which was to mend the sails upon
occasion, and the barrel of wet gunpowder. In a word, I brought away
all the sails first and last ; only that I was fain to evt them in pieces, and
bring as much at a time as I could, for they were no more useful to be sails,
but as mere canvas only.

But that which comforted me more still, was, that last of all, after I had

made five or six such voyages as these, and thought I had nothing more to
57



ROBINSON CRUSOE.

expect from the ship that was worth my meddling with ;—I say, after all
this, I found a great hogshead of bread, three large runlets of rum, or
spirits, and a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine flour: this was surprising
to me, because I had given over expecting any more provisions, except
what was spoiled by the water. I soon emptied the hogshead of the bread,
and wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut out ;
and, in a word, I got all this safe on shore also.

The next day I made another voyage, and now, having plundered the
ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I began with the cables.
Cutting the great cable into pieces, such as I could move, I got two cables
and a hawser on shore, with all the iron-work I could get; and having cut
down the spritsail-yard, and the mizen-yard, and everything I could, to
make a large raft, I loaded it with all these heavy goods, and came away.
3ut my good luck began now to leave me; for this raft was so unwieldy,
and so overladen, that, after I had entered the little cove where I had
landed the rest of my goods, not being able to guide it so handily as I did
the other, it overset, and threw me and all my cargo into the water. As for
myself, it was no great harm, for I was near the shore; but as to my cargo,
it was a great part of it lost, especially the iron, which I expected would
have been of great use to me: however, when the tide was out, I got most
of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with infinite
labour ; for I was fain to dip for it into the water, a work which fatigued
me very much. After this, I went every day on board, and brought away
what I could get.

I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven times on
board the ship, in which time I had brought away all that one pair of
hands could well be supposed capable to bring; though I believe verily,
had the calm weather held, I should have brought away the whole ship,
piece by piece. But preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I found the
wind began to rise: however, at low water I went on board, and though I
thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectually, that nothing more could
be found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers in it, in one of which 1
found two or three razors, and one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a
dozen of good knives and forks: in another I found about thirty-six pounds
value in money—some European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight,
some gold, and some silver.

I smiled to myself at the sight of this money: “O drug!” said I, aloud,
“what art thou good for? Thou art not worth to me—no, not the taking

58





CRUSOE GETS DOWN TO THE CABLE.

off the ground: one of those knives is worth all this heap: I have no
manner of use for thee—e’en remain where thou art, and go to the bottom,
as a creature whose life is not worth saving.” However, upon second
thoughts, I took it away; and, wrapping all this in a piece of canvas, |
began to think of making another raft; but while I was preparing this, J

found the sky overcast, and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter of au
59



LIFE AND ADVENTURES

hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore. It presently occurred to me, that
it was in vain to pretend to make a raft with the wind off shore; and that
it was my business to be gone before the tide of flood began, otherwise I
might not be able to reach the shore at all. Accordingly, I let myself
down into the water, and swam across the channel which lay between the
ship and the sands, and even that with difficulty enough, partly with the
weight of the things I had about me, and partly the roughness of the
water; for the wind rose very hastily, and before it was quite high water
it blew a storm.

But I had got home to my little tent, where I lay, with all my wealth
about me, very secure. It blew very hard all night, and in the morning,
when I looked out, behold no more ship was to be seen! I was a little
surprised, but recovered myself with the satisfactory reflection, that I had
lost no time, nor abated any diligence, to get everything out of her that
could be useful to me; and that, indeed, there was little left in her that I
was able to bring away, if I had had more time.

I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of anything out
of her, except what might drive on shore from her wreck; as, indeed,
divers pieces of her afterwards did; but those things were of small
use to me.

My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself against
either savages, if any should appear, or wild beasts, if any were in the
island; and I had many thoughts of the method how to do this, and
what kind of dwelling to make—whether I should make me a cave
in the earth, or a tent upon the earth; and, in short, I resolved upon
both ; the manner and description of which, it may not be improper to
give an account of.

I soon found the place I was in was not fit for my settlement,
because it was upon a low, moorish ground, near the sea, and I believed
it would not be wholesome, and more particularly because there was
no fresh water near it; so I resolved to find a more healthy and more
convenient spot of ground.

I consulted several things in my situation, which I found would
be proper for me: Ist, health and fresh water, I just now mentioned ;
Qndly, shelter from the heat of the sun; 3rdly, security from ravenous
creatures, whether man or beast; 4thly, a view to the sea, that if God
sent any ship in sight, I might not lose any advantage for my deliver-
ance, of which I was not willing to banish all my expectation yet.

60

i
'



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on the
side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was steep as
a house-side, so that nothing could come down upon me from the top.
On the side of the rock there was a hollow place, worn a little way

































































CRUSOE FINDS SOME MONEY IN THE WRECK.

in, like the entrance or door of a cave; but there was not really any
cave, or way into the rock at all.

On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I resolved to

- pitch my tent. This plain was not above a hundred yards broad, and about

twice as long, and lay like a green before my door ; and, at the end of it,

descended irregularly every way down into the low ground by the sea-side.

It was on the N.N.W. side of the hill; so that it was sheltered from the

61



LIFE AND ADVENTURES

heat every day, till it came to a W. and by S. sun, or thereabouts, which,
in those countries, is near the setting.

Before I set up my tent I drew a half-circle before the hollow place,
which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter, from the tock, and
twenty yards in its diameter, from its beginning and ending,

In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving them into
the ground till they stood very firm like piles, the biggest end being out of
the ground above five feet and a half, and sharpened on the top. The two
rows did not stand above six inches from one another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship, and laid
them in rows, one upon another, within the circle, between these two rows
of stakes, up to the top, placing other stakes in the inside, leaning against
them, about two feet and a half high, like a spur to a post ; and this fence
was so strong, that neither man nor beast could get into it or over it. This
cost me a great deal of time and labour, especially to cut the piles in the
woods, bring them to the place, and drive them into the earth.

The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but by a short
ladder to go over the top ; which ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after
me ; and so I was completely fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from all
the world, and consequently slept secure in the night, which otherwise I
could not have done; though, as it appeared afterwards, there was no need
of all this caution from the enemies that I apprehended danger from.

Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all my riches,
all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you have the account
above ; and I made a large tent, which, to preserve me from the rains, that
in one part of the year are very violent there, I made double, one smaller
tent within, and one larger tent above it ; and covered the uppermost with
a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among the sails,

And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had brought on
shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very good one, and belonged
to the mate of the ship. ;

Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that would
spoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed all my goods, I made up the
entrance, which till now I had left open, and so passed and repassed, as I
said, by a short ladder.

‘When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock, and
bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down out through my tent, I

laid them up within my fence, in the nature of terrace, so that it raised
62



OF ROBINSON CKUSOE.

the ground within abouta foot and a half; and thus I made me a cave, just
behind my tent, which served me like a cellar to my house.

Tt cost me much labour and many days before all these things were
brought to perfection ; and, therefore, I must go back to some other things
which took up some of my thoughts. At the same time it happened, after
I had laid my scheme for the setting up my tent, and making the cave, that
a storm of rain falling from a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning
happened, and after that, a great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect
of it. I was not so much surprised with the lightning, as I was with a
thought which darted into my mind as swift as the lightning itselfi—O my
powder! My very heart sank within me when I thought that, at one blast,
all my powder might be destroyed ; on which, not my defence only, but the
providing my food, as I thought, entirely depended. I was nothing near so
anxious about my own danger, though, had the powder took fire, 1 should
never have known who had hurt me.

Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm was over,
I laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying, and applied myself to
make bags and boxes, to separate the powder, and to keep it a little and a
little in a parcel, in the hope that whatever might come, it might not all
take fire at once ; and to keep it so apart, that it should not be possible to
make one part fire another. I finished this work in about a fortnight ; and
I think my powder, which in all was about two hundred and forty pounds
weight, was divided in not less than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel
that had been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from that; so I placed
it in my new cave, which, in my fancy, I called my kitchen ; and the rest I
hid up and down in holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it,
marking very carefully where I laid it.

In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out once at least
every day with my gun, as well to divert myself, as to see if I could kill
anything fit for food ; and, as near as I could, to acquaint myself with what
the island produced. The first time I went out, I presently discovered thar
there were goats in the island, which was a great satisfaction to me ; but
then it was attended with this misfortune to me, viz. that they were so shy,
so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the most difficult thing in the
world to come at them ; but I was not discouraged at this, not doubting but
I might now and then shoot one, as it soon happened ; for after I had found
their haunts a little, I laid wait in this manner for them : I observed if they
saw me in the valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would run

63



ROBINSON CRUSOE.

away, as in a terrible fright; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and 1
was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence I concluded,
that by the position of their optics, their sight was so directed downward,
that they did not readily see objects that were above them; so afterwards,
I took this method—I always climbed the rocks first, to get above them,
and then had frequently a fair mark.

The first shot I made among these creatures, I killed a she-goat, which
had a little kid by her, which she gave suck to, which grieved me heartily ;
for, when the old one fell, the kid stood stock still by her, till I came and
took her up ; and not only so, but when I carried the old one with me, upon
my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my enclosure; upon which, i
laid down the dam, and took the kid in my arms, and carried it over my
pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame; but it would not eat; so I was
forced to kill it, and eat it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great
while, for I ate sparingly, and saved my provisions, my bread especially, as
much as possibly I could.

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary to
provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn; and what I did for that,
and also how I enlarged my cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall
give a full account of in its place; but I must now give some little account
of myself, and of my thoughts about living, which, it may well be supposed,
were not a few.

I had a dismal prospect of my condition ; for, as I was not cast away
upon that island without being driven, as is said, by a violent storm, quite
out of the course of our intended voyage, and a great. way, viz. some
hundreds of leagues, out of the ordinary course of the trade of mankind, I
had great reason to consider it as a determination of Heaven, that in this
desolate place, and in this desolate manner, I should end my life. The tears
would run plentifully down my face when I made these reflections ; and
sometimes I would expostulate with myself why Providence should thus
completely ruin His creatures, and render them so absolutely miserable ;
so without help, abandoned, so entirely depressed, that it could hardly
be rational to be thankful for such a life.

But something always returned swift upon me to check these thoughts,
and to reprove me ; and particularly one day, walking with my gun in my
hand by the sea-side, I was very pensive upon the subject of my present
condition, when reason, as it were, expostulated with me the other way,
thus : “ Well, you are in a desolate condition, it is true ; but, pray remember,

64







CRUSOE WALKS BY THE SEA-SIDE IN GREAT DEJECTION

where are the rest of you? Did not you come eleven of you in the boat ?
Where are the ten? Why were not they saved, and you lost ? Why were
you singled out? Is it better to be here or there 2” And then I pointed to
the sea. All evils are to be considered with the good that is in them, and
with what worse attends them.

Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished for my subsist-
ence, and what would have been my case if it had not happened (which was
a hundred thousand to one) that the ship floated from the place where she
first struck, and was driven so near to the shore, that I had time to get all
these things out ofher ; what would have been my case, if I had been forced to
have lived in the condition in which I at first came on shore, without neces-

saries of life, or necessaries to supply and procure them? ~ Particularly,”
65 F



LIFE AND ADVENTURES

said I aloud (though to myself), “what should I have done without a gun,
without ammunition, without any tools to make anything, or to work with,
without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any manner of covering?” and that now
I had all these to sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to provide
myself in such a manner as to live without my gun, when my ammunition
was spent: so that I had a tolerable view of subsisting, without any want,
as long as I lived ; for I considered from the beginning, how I would
provide for the accidents that might happen, and for the time that was to
come, even not only after my ammunition should be spent, but even after
my health and strength should decay.

I confess, I had not entertained any notion of my ammunition being
destroyed at one blast—I mean my powder being blown up by lightning ;
and this made the thoughts of it so surprising to me, when it lightened and
thundered, as I observed just now.

And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene of silent
life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world before, I shall take it
from its beginning, and continue it in its order. It was, by my account,
the 30th of September, when, in the manner as above said, I first set foot
upon this horrid island ; when the sun, being to us in its autumnal equinox,
was almost just over my head: for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be
in the latitude of nine degrees twenty-two minutes north of the line.

After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into my
thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time for want of books, and
pen and ink, and should even forget the Sabbath days; but to prevent this,
I cut with my knife upon a large post, in capital letters, and making it into
a great cross, I set up on the shore where I first landed, “I came on shore
here on the 30th of September, 1659.”

Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a notch with my
knife, and every seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and every first
day of the month, as long again as that long one; and thus I kept my
calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.

In the next place, we are to observe that among the many things which
I brought out of the ship, in the several voyages which, as above mentioned,
I made to it, I got several things of less value, but not at all less useful to
me, which I omitted setting down before; as, in particular, pens, ink, and
paper; several parcels in the captain’s, mate’s, gunner’s, and carpenter’s
‘keeping ; three or four compasses, some mathematical instruments, dials,
perspectives, charts, and books of navigation ; all which I huddled together,

66



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE

whether I might want them or no: also, I found three very good Bibles,
which came to me in my cargo from England, and which I had packed up
among my things; some Portuguese books also; and, among them, two or
three Popish prayer-books, and several other books, all which I carefully
secured, And I must not forget, that we had in the ship a dog, and two
cats, of whose eminent history I may have occasion to say something in its
place; for I carried both the cats with me; and as for the dog, he jumped
out of the ship of himself, and swam on shore to me the day after I went
on shore with my first cargo, and was a trusty servant to me many years ;
I wanted nothing that he could fetch me, nor any company that he could





































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































CRUSOE SETS UP A POST.

make up to me; 1 only wanted to have him talk to me, but that would not
do. As I observed before, I found pens, ink, and paper, and I husbanded
them to the utmost; and I shall show that while my ink lasted, I kept
things very exact, but after that was gone I could not, for I could not make
any ink by any means that I could devise.

And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwithstanding
all that I had amassed together ; and of these, ink was one; as also a spade,
Pick-axe, and shovel, to dig or remove the earth; needles, pins, and thread:
48 for linen, I soon learned to want that without much difficulty.

This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily; and it was
Hear a whole year before I had entirely finished my little pale, or surrounded

67



LIFE AND ADVENTURES

my habitation. The piles or stakes, which were as heavy as I could well
lift, were a long time in cutting and preparing in the woods, and more, by
far, in bringing home; so that I spent sometimes two days in cutting and
bringing home one of those posts, and a third day in driving it into the
ground; for which purpose, I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last
bethought myself of one of the iron crows ; which, however, though I found
it, made driving those posts or piles very laborious and tedious work. But
what need I have been concerned at the tediousness of anything I had te
do, seeing I had time enough to do it in? nor had I any other employment,
if that had been over, at least that I could foresee, except the ranging the
island to seek for food, which I did, more or less, every day.

T now began to consider seriously my condition, and the circumstances
I was reduced to; and I drew up the state of my affairs in writing, not so
much to leave them to any that were to come after me—for I was likely te
have but few heirs—as to deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon
them, and afflicting my mind: and as my reason began now to master my
despondency, I began to comfort myself as well as I could, and to set
the good against the evil, that I might have something to distinguish my
case from worse; and I stated very impartially, like debtor and creditor,
the comforts I enjoyed against the miseries I suffered, thus :—

EVIL.

I am cast upon a horrible, deso-
late island, void of all hope of re-
covery.

I am singled out and separated,
as it were, from all the world, to be
miserable.

I am divided from mankind—a
solitaire; one banished from human
society.

I have not clothes to cover me.

GooD.

But I am alive ; and not drowned,
as all my ship’s company were.

But I am singled out, too, from
all the ship’s crew, to be spared from
death; and He that miraculously
saved me from death, can deliver me
from this condition.

But I am nat starved, and perish-
ing on a barren place, affording no

sustenance.

But I am ina hot climate, where, .
if I had clothes, I could hardly wear
them.



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

EVIL. GOOD.

I am without any defence, or But I am cast on an island where
means to resist: any violence of man I see no wild beasts to hurt me, as I
or beast. saw on the coast of Africa : and what

if I had been shipwrecked there?

I have no soul to speak to or But God wonderfully sent the
relieve me. ship in near enough to the shore,

that I have got out as many neces-
sary things as will either supply my
wants or enable me to supply myself,
even as long as I live. .

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony, that there was scarce
any condition in the world so miserable but there was something negative or
something positive to be thankful for in it ; and let this stand as a direction,
from the experience of the most miserable of all conditions in this world:
that we may always find in it something to comfort ourselves from, and to
set, in the description of good and evil, on the credit side of the account.

Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition, and given
over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a ship—I say, giving over
these things, I began to apply myself to arrange my way of living, and to
make things as easy to me as I could.

I have already described my habitation, which was a tent under the side
of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts and cables; but I might
now rather call it a wall, for I raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs,
about two feet thick on the outside; and after some time (I think it was a
year and a half) I raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched
or covered it with boughs of trees, and such things as I could get, to keep
out the rain; which I found at some times of the year very violent.

T have already observed how I brought all my goods into this pale, and
into the cave which I had made.behind me. But I must observe, too, that
at first this was a confused heap of goods, which, as they lay in no order,-so
they took up all my place ; I had no room to turn myself: so I set myself
to enlarge my cave, and work farther into the earth ; for it was a loose sandy
rock, which yielded easily to the labour I bestowed on it: and so when I
found I was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways, to the right
hand, into the rock ; and then, turning to the right again, worked quite out,

and made me a door to come out on the outside of-my pale or fortification.
- 69



ROBINSON CRUSOE.

This gave me not only egress and regress, as it was a back way to my tent
and to my storehouse, but gave me room to store my goods.

And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary things as I
found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a table ; for without these I
was not able to enjoy the few comforts I had in the world ; I could not
write or eat, or do several things, with so much pleasure without a table : so
I went to work. And here I must needs observe, that as reason is the sub-
stance and origin of the mathematics, so by stating and squaring everything
by reason, and by making the most rational judgment of things, every man
may be, in time, master of every mechanic art. I had never handled a tool
in my life; and yet, in time, by labour, application, and contrivance, I found,
at last, that I wanted nothing but I could have made it, especially if I had
had tools. However, I made abundance of things, even without tools ; and
some with no more tools than an adze and a hatchet, which perhaps were
never made that way before, and that with infinite labour. For example, if I
wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree, set it on an edge
before me, and hew it flat on either side with my axe, till I had brought it
to be thin as a plank, and then dub it smooth with my adze. It is true, by
this method I could make but one board out of a whole tree ; but this I had
no remedy for but patience, any more than I had for the prodigious deal of time
and labour which it took me up to make a plank or board: but my time or
labour was little worth, and so it was as well employed one way as another.

However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above, in the first
place ; and this I did out of the short pieces of boards that I brought on
my raft from the ship. But when I had wrought out some boards as above,
I made large shelves, of the breadth of a foot and a half, one over another
all along one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work on;
and, in a word, to separate everything at large into their places, that I might
come easily at them. I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock to hang
my guns and all things that would hang up: so that, had my cave been
to be seen, it looked like a general magazine of all necessary things ; and I
had everything so ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me to
see all my goods in such order, and especially to find my stock of all neces-
saries so great.

And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every day's
employment ; for, indeed, at first, I was in too much hurry, and not only
hurry as to labour, but in too much discomposure of mind; and my

‘journal would have been full of many dull things ; for example, I must
70





Tee

CRUSOF LOOKS OUT TO SEA Fak A SAIL

have said thus: “ Sept. 30¢h.—After I had got to shore, and had escaped
drowning, instead of being thankful to God for my deliverance, having first
vomited, with the great quantity of salt water which had got into my
stomach, and recovering myself a little, I ran about the shore wringing my
hands and beating my head and face, exclaiming at my misery, and crying
out, ‘I was undone, undone!’ till, tired and faint, I was forced to lie down
on the ground to repose, but durst not sleep, for fear of being devoured.”

Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship, and got all
that I could out of her, yet I could not forbear getting up to the top of a
little mountain, and looked out to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship; then fancy,
at a vast distance, I spied a sail, please myself with the hopes of it, and then
after looking steadily, till I was almost blind, lose it quite, and sit down and
weep like a child, and thus increase my misery by my folly.

But having gotten over these things in some measure, and having settled
my household stuff and habitation, made me a table and a chair, and all as

a1



LIFE AND ADVENTURES

handsome about me as I could, I began to keep my journal; of which I shalt
here give you the copy (though in it will be told all these particulars over
again) as long as it lasted ; for having no more ink, I was forced to leave
it off.

THE JOURNAL.

September 30, 1659.—I, poor, miserable Robinson Crusoe, being ship-
wrecked, during a dreadful storm, in the offing, came on shore on this
dismal, unfortunate island, which I called “The Island of Despair ;” all
the rest of the ship’s company being drowned, and myself almost dead.

All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at the dismal circum-
stances I was brought to; viz. I had neither food, house, clothes, weapon,
nor place to fly to; and, in despair of any relief, saw nothing but death
before me—either that I should be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by
savages, or starved to death for want of food. At the approach of night I
slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures ; but slept soundly, though it rained
all night.

October 1—In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the ship had floated
with the high tide, and was driven on shore again much nearer the island ;
which, as it was some comfort, on one hand—for, seeing her set upright,
and not broken to pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board,
and get some food and necessaries out of her for my relief—so, on the other
hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades, who, I imagined, if
we had all stayed on board, might have saved the ship, or, at least, that they
would not have been all drowned, as they were; and that, had the men
been saved,*we might perhaps have built us a boat, out of the ruins of the
ship, to have carried us to some other part of the world. I spent great part
of this day in perplexing myself on these things; but, at length, seeing the
ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as near as I could, and then swam on
board. This day also it continued raining, though with no wind at all.

From the 1st of October to the 24th—All these days entirely spent in
many several voyages to get all I could out of the ship, which I brought on
shore every tide of flood upon rafts. Much rain also in the days, though
with some intervals of fair weather ; but it seems this was the rainy season.

Oct. 20.—I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got upon it; but,
being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly heavy, I recovered many
of them when the tide was out.

Oct. 25—It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of wind;
during which time the ship broke in pieces, the wind blowing a little harder

72 ;



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

than before, and was no more to be seen, except the wreck of her, and that
only at low water. I spent this day in covering and securing the goods
which I had saved, that the rain might not spoil them.

Oct, 26.—I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out a place to
fix my habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself from any attack in the
night, either from wild beasts or men. Towards night, I fixed upon a proper
place, under a rock, and marked out a semicircle for my encampment ; which
I resolved to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification, made of double
piles, lined within with cables, and without with turf.

From the 26th to 30th, I worked very hard in carrying all my goods to
my new habitation, though some part of the time it rained exceedingly hard.

The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with my gun, to
see for some food, and discover the country ; when I killed a she-goat, and
her kid followed me home, which I afterwards killed also, because it would
not feed.

November 1.—I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there for the first
night ; making it as large as I could, with stakes driven in to swing my
hammock upon.

Nov. 2—I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces of timber
which made my rafts, and with them formed a fence round me, a little
within the place I had marked out for ny fortification.

Nov. 3.—I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like ducks, which
were very good food. In the afternoon went to work to make me a table.

Nov. 4—This morning I began to order my times of work, of going out
with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion ; viz. every morning J
walked out with my gun for two or three hours, if it did not rain; then
employed myself to work till about eleven o’clock ; then eat what I had to
live on; and from twelve till two I lay down to sleep, the weather being
oxcessively hot; and then, in the evening, to work again.. The working
part of this day and of the next were wholly employed in making my table,
tor I was yet but a very sorry workman, though time and necessity made
me a complete natural mechanic soon after, as I believe they would do any
one else, < ;

Nov. 5.—This day, went abroad with my gun and my dog, and killed a
wild cat ; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for nothing ; every creature
that I killed I took off the skins and preserved them. Coming back by the
sea-shore, I saw many sorts of sea-fowls, which I did not understand ; but
was surprised, and almost frightened, with two or three seals, which, while

73



aIFE AND ADVENTURES

I was gazing at, not well knowing what they were, got into the sea, and
escaped me for that time.

Nov. 6.—After my morning walk, I went to work with my table again,
and finished it, though not to my liking; nor was it long before I learned
to mend it.

Nov. 7—Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th, 8th, 9th,
10th, and part of the 12th (for the 11th was Sunday), I took wholly up to
make me a chair, and with much ado brought it to a tolerable shape, but
never to please me; and even in the making I pulled it in pieces several
times.

Note.—I soon neglected my keeping Sundays ; for, omitting my mark
for them on my post, I forgot which was which.

Nov. 13.—This day it rained, which refreshed me exceedingly, and cooled
the earth ; but it was accompanied with terrible thunder and lightning,
which frightened me dreadfully, for fear of my powder. As soon as it was
over, I resolved to separate my stock of powder into as many little parcels
as possible, that it might not be in danger.

Nov. 14, 15, 16—These three days I spent in making little square
chests, or boxes, which might hold about a pound, or two pounds at most,
of powder ; and so, putting the powder in, I stowed it in places as secure
and remote from one another as possible. On one of these three days, I
killed a large bird that was good to eat, but I knew not what to call it.

Nov. 17.—This day I began to dig behind my tent into the rock, to
make room for my further conveniency.

Note.——Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work ; viz. a pickaxe,
a shovel, and a wheelbarrow, or basket; so I desisted from my work, and
began to consider how to supply that want, and make me some tools. As
for the pickaxe, I made use of the iron crows, which were proper enough,
though heavy; but the next thing was a shovel, or spade; this was so
absolutely necessary, that, indeed, I could do nothing effectually without it ;
but what kind of one to make I knew not.

Nov. 18—The next day, in searching the woods, I found a tree of that
wood, or like it, which, in the Brazils, they call the iron-tree, for its ex-
ceeding hardness. Of this, with great labour, and almost spoiling my axe, I
cut a piece, and brought it home, too, with difficulty enough, for it was
exceeding heavy. The excessive hardness of the wood, and my having no
other way, made me a long while upon this machine, for I worked it

effectually by little and little into the form of a shovel or spade; the handle
74



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.



exactly shaped like ours in England, only that the board part having no
iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not last me so long; however, . it
served well enough for the uses which I had occasion to put it to; but
never was a shovel, I believe, made after that fashion, or so long in making.

I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket, or a wheelbarrow. A baskete
I could not make by any means, having no such things as twigs that would
bend to make wicker-ware—at least, none yet found out; and as to a wheel-
barrow, I fancied I could make all but the wheel ; but that I had no notion
of; neither did I know how to go about it; besides I had no possible way
to make the iron gudgeons for the spindle or axis of the wheel to run in;
so I gave it over, and so, for carrying away the earth which I dug out of
the cave, I made me a thing like a hod which the labourers carry mortar
in when they serve the bricklayers. This was not so difficult to me as the
making the shovel; and yet this and the shovel, and the attempt which I
made in vain to make a wheelbarrow, took me up no less than four days—I
mean always excepting my morning walk with my gun, which I seldom
failed, and very seldom failed also bringing home something fit to eat.

Nov. 23.—My other work having now stood still, because of my making
these tools, when they were finished I went on, and working every day, as
my strength and time allowed, I spent eighteen days enuntyd in widening
and deepening my cave, that it might hold my goods commodiously.

Note—During all this time, I worked to make this room or cave
spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse, or magazine, a kitchen,
a dining-room, and a cellar. As for my lodging, I kept to the tent; except
that sometimes, in the wet season of the year, it rained so hard that I could
not keep myself dry, which caused me afterwards to cover all my place
within my pale with long poles, in the form of rafters, leaning against the
rock, and load them with flags and large leaves of trees, like a thatch.

December 10.—I began now to think my cave or vault finished, when on
a sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great quantity of earth fell
down from the top and one side; so much that, in short, it frighted me—
and not without reason, too, for if I had been under it, I had never wanted
a grave-digger: I had now.a great deal of work to do over again, for I had
the loose earth to carry out; and, which was of more importance, I had
the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no more would come
down.

Dec. 11.—This day I went to work with it accordingly, and got two
shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with two pieces of boards across

. 75





ROBINSON CRUSOE.

over each post; this I finished the next day; and setting more posts up
with boards, in about a week more I had the roof secured, and the posts,
standing in rows, served me for partitions to part off the house.

Dee. 17.—From this day to the 20th I placed shelves, and knocked up
nails on the posts, to hang everything up that could be hung up; and now
I began to be in some order within doors.

Dec. 20.—Now I carried everything into the cave, and began to furnish
my house, and set up some pieces of boards like a dresser, to order my
victuals upon; but boards began to be very scarce with me; also, I made
me another table.

Dec, 24.—Much rain all night and all day. No stirring out.

Dec, 25.—Rain all day.

Dec, 26.—No rain, and the earth much cooler than before and pleasanter.

Dec. 27—Killed a young goat, and lamed another so that I caught it
and led it home in a string ; when I had it at home, I bound and splintered
up its leg, which was broke. :

N.B.—I took such care of it that it lived, and the leg grew well and as
strong as ever; but, by my nursing it so long, it grew tame, and fed upon
the little green at my door, and would not go away. This was the first
time that I entertained a thought of breeding up some tame creatures, that
I might have food when my powder and shot was all spent.

Dec, 28, 29, 30, 31.—Great heats, and no breeze, so that there was no
stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food; this time I spent in putting
all my things in order within doors.

January 1.—Very hot still: but I went abroad early and late with my
gun, and lay still in the middle of the day. This evening, going farther
into the valleys which lay towards the centre of: the island, I found there
were plenty of goats, though exceedingly shy, and hard to come at; how-
ever, I resolved to try if I could not bring my dog to hunt them down.

Jan. 2.—Accordingly, the next day I went out with my dog, and set
him upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for they all faced about upon the
dog, and he knew his danger too well, for he would not come near them.

Jan. 3.—I began my fence, or wall; which, being still jealous of my
being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very thick and strong.

N.B.—This wall being described before, I purposely omit what was said
in the journal ; it is sufficient to observe, that I was no less time than from
the 8rd of January to the 14th of April working, finishing, and perfecting
this wall, though it was no more than about twenty-four yards in length,

76





CRUSOE SPLINTERS THE KID’S LEG.

being a half-circle, from one place in the rock to another place, about eight
yards from it, the door of the cave being in the centre behind it.

All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me many days,
nay, sometimes weeks together; but I thought I should never be perfectly
secure till this wall was finished; and it is scarce credible what inex-
pressible labour everything was done with, especially the bringing piles out
of the woods, and driving them into the ground; for I made them much
bigger than I needed to have done.

When this wall was finished, and the outside double-fenced, with a turf
wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that if any people were to
come on shore there, they would not perceive anything like a habitation ;
and it was very well I did so, as may be observed hereafter, upon a very
remarkable occasion.

During this time I made my rounds in the woods for game every day

when the rain permitted me, and made frequent discoveries in these walks
77



ROBINSON CRUSOE.

of something or other to my advantage ; particularly, I found a kind of wild
pigeons, which build, not as wood-pigeons in a tree, but rather as house-
pigeons, in the holes of the rocks; and taking some young ones, I endeavoured
to breed them up tame, and did so; but when they grew older they flew
away, which perhaps was at first for want of feeding them, for I had nothing
to give them ; however, I frequently found their nests, and got their young
ones, which were very good meat. And now, in the managing my house-
hold affairs, I found myself wanting in many things, which I thought at
first it was impossible for me to make; as, indeed, with some of them it
was: for instance, I could never make a cask to be hooped. I had a small
runlet or two, as I observed before ; but I could never arrive at the capacity
of making one by them, though I spent many weeks about it; I could
neither put in the heads, or join the staves so true to one another as to make
them hold-water; so I gave that also over. In the next place, I was at a
great loss for candles; so that as soon as ever it was dark, which was
generally by seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I remembered the
lump of bees-wax with which I made candles in my African adventure ;
but I had none of that now; the only remedy I had was, that when I had
killed a goat I saved the tallow, and with a little dish made of clay, which
I baked in the sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum, I made me a
lamp ; and this gave me light, though not a clear steady light like a candle.
In the middle of all my labours it happened that, rummaging my things, I
found a little bag, which, as I hinted before, had been filled with corn for
the feeding of poultry—not for this voyage, but before, as I suppose, when
the ship came from Lisbon. The little remainder of corn that had been in
the bag was all devoured by the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but
husks and dust; and being willing to have the bag for some other use
(I think it was to put powder in, when I divided it for fear of the lightning,
or some such use), I shook the husks of corn out of it on one side of
my fortification, under the rock.

It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned that I threw
this stuff away, taking no notice, and not so much as remembering that I
had thrown anything there, when, about a month after, or thereabouts, I
saw some few stalks of something green shooting out of the ground, which
I fancied might be some plant I had not seen; but I was surprised, and
perfectly astonished, when, after a little longer time, I saw about ten or
twelve ears come out, which were perfect green barley, of the same kind as
our European—nay, as our English barley.

78





CRUSOE [3 ASTONISHED AT THE GROWTH OF BARLEY.

It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of my
thoughts on thts occasion. I had hitherto acted upon no religious foun-
dation at all; indeed, I had very few notions of religion in my head, nor had
entertained any sense of anything that had befallen me, otherwise than as
chance, or, as we lightly say, what pleases God, without so much as in-
quiring into the end of Providence in these things, or His order in governing
events for the world. But after I saw barley grow there, in a climate
which I knew was not proper for corn, and especially that I knew not how
it came there, it startled me strangely, and I began to suggest that God had
miraculously caused His grain to grow without any help of seed sown, and

that it was so directed purely for my sustenance on that wild, miserable
place,

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES

This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my eyes, and I
began to bless myself that such a prodigy of nature should happen upon
my account; and this was the more strange to me, because I saw near it
still, all along by the side of the rock, some other straggling stalks, which
proved to be stalks of rice, and which I knew, because I had seen it grow
in Africa, when I was ashore there.

I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence for my
support, but, not doubting that there was more in the place, I went all over
that part of the island where I had been before, peering in every corner, and
under every rock, to see for more of it, but I could not find any. At last it
occurred to my thoughts, that I shook a bag of chickens’ meat out in that
place; and then the wonder began to cease; and I must confess, my
religious thankfulness to God’s providence began to abate, too, upon the
discovering that all this was nothing but what was common; though I
ought to have been as thankful for so strange and unforeseen a providence,
as if it had been miraculous; for it was really the work of Providence to
me, that should order or appoint that ten or twelve grains of corn should
remain unspoiled, when the rats had destroyed all the rest, as if it had been
dropped from heaven ; as also, that I should throw it out in that particular
place, where, it being in the shade of a high rock, it sprang up immediately ;
whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere else, at that time, it had been burnt
up and destroyed.

I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in their season,
which was about the end of June; and, laying up every corn, I resolved to
sow them all again, hoping, in time, to have some quantity, sufficient to
supply me with bread. But tt was not till the fourth year that I could
allow myself the least grain of this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly,
as I shall say afterwards, in its order; for I lost all that I sowed the first
season, by not observing the proper time; for I sowed it just before the dry
season, so that it never came up at all, at least not as it would have done;
of which in its place.

Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks of rice,
which I preserved with the same care and for the same use, or to the same
purpose—to make me bread, or rather food; for I found ways to cook it
without baking, though I did that also after some time.

- But to return to my Journal :—

i worked excessive hard these three or four months, to get my wall

done ; and the 14th of April, I closed it vp, contriving to go-into it, not by ©
80



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

a door, but over the wall, by a ladder, that there might be no sign on the
outside of my habitation.

April 16.—I finished the ladder; so I went up the ladder to the top,
and then pulled it up after me, and let it down in the inside. This wasa
complete enclosure to me; for within I had room enough, and nothing could
come at me from without, unless it could first mount my wall.

The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost had all my
labour overthrown at once, and myself killed. The case was thus :—As I
was busy in the inside, behind my tent, just at the entrance into my cave,
I was terribly frighted with a most dreadful surprising thing indeed ; for,
all on a sudden, I found the earth come crumbling down from the roof of
my cave, and from the edge of the hill over my head, and two of the posts
Thad set up in the cave cracked in a frightful manner. I was heartily
scared; but thought nothing of what was really the cause, only thinking
that the top of my cave was fallen in, as some of it had done before: and
for fear I should be buried in it, I ran forward to my ladder, and not
thinking myself safe there neither, I got over my wall for fear of the pieces
of the hill, which I expected might roll down upon me. I had no sooner
stepped down upon the firm ground, than I plainly saw it was a terrible
earthquake ; for the ground I stood on shook three times at about eight
minutes’ distance, with three such shocks as would have overturned the
strongest building that could be supposed to have stood on the earth; and a
great piece of the top of a rock which stood about half a mile from me
next the sea fell down, with such a terrible noise as I never heard in all
my life. I perceived also the very sea was put into violent motion by it;
and I believe the shocks were stronger under the water than on the island.

I was so much amazed with the thing itself, having never-felt the like,
nor discoursed with any one that had, that I was like one dead or stupified ;
and the motion of the earth made my stomach sick, like one that was tossed
at sea; but the noise of the falling of the rock awaked me, as .it were, and
rousing me from the stupified condition I was in, filled me with horror; and
I thought of nothing then but the hill falling upon my tent and all my
household goods, and burying all at once; and this sunk my very soul
within me a second time.

After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some time, I began
to take courage; and yet I had not heart enough to go over my wall again,
for fear of being buried alive, but sat still upon the ground greatly cast
down and disconsolate, not knowing what to do. All this while; I had not

81 G



ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the least serious religious thought; nothing but the common “Lord have
mercy upon me!” and when it was over, that went away too.

While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow cloudy, as if it
would rain. Soon after that, the wind arose by little and little, so that in
less than half an hour it blew a most dreadful hurricane, the sea was all on
a sudden covered over with foam and froth; the shore was covered with
the breach of the water; the trees were torn up by the roots; and a terrible
storm it was, This held about three hours, and then began to abate; and
in two hours more it was quite calm, and began to rain very hard. All this
while I sat upon the ground, very much terrified and dejected; when on a
sudden it came into my thoughts, that these winds and rain being the con-
sequences of the earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent and over, and
I might venture into my cave again. With this thought, my spirits began
to revive; and the rain also helping to persuade me, I went in and sat down
in my tent, But the rain was so violent, that my tent was ready to be beaten
down with it; and I was forced to go into my cave, though very much
afraid and uneasy, for fear it should fall on my head. This violent rain
forced me to a new work, viz. to cut a hole through my new fortification,
like a sink, to let the water go out, which would else have flooded my cave.
After I had been in my cave for some time, and found still no more shocks
of the earthquake follow, I began to be more composed. And now, to support
my spirits, which indeed wanted it very much, I went to my little store, and
took a small sup of rum; which, however, I did then and always very spar-
ingly, knowing I could have no more when that was gone. It continued
yaining all that night, and great part of the next day, so that I could not
stir abroad; but my mind being more composed, I began to think of what I
had best do; concluding, that if the island was subject to these earthquakes,
there would be no living for me in a cave, but I must consider of building a
little hut in an open place, which I might surround with a wall, as I had
done here, and so make myself secure froin wild beasts or men; for I con-
cluded if I stayed where I was, I should certainly, one time or other, be |
buried alive.

With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent from the place where
it stood, which was just under the hanging precipice of the hill ; and which,
if it should be shaken again, would certainly fall upon my tent; and I
spent the two next days, being the 19th and 20th of April, in contriving
where and how to remove my habitation. The fear of being swallowed up

alive made me that I never slept in quiet; and yet the apprehension of
82





THE CAVE FALLING IN, CRUSOE MAKES HIS ESCAPE.

lying abroad without any fence was almost equal to it; but stjll, when !
looked about, and saw how everything was put in order, how pleasantly
concealed I was, and how safe from danger, it made me very loath to remove.
In the mean time, it occurred to me that it would require a vast deal of time
for me to do this, and that I must be contented to venture where I was, till
I had formed a camp for myself, and had secured it so as to remove to it.
So with this resolution I composed myself for a time, and resolved that I
would go to work with all speed to build me a wall with piles and cables,
&e. in a circle, as before, and set my tent up in it, when it was finished ;
but that I would venture to stay where I was till it was finished, and fit to
Temove. This was the 21st.

April 22.—The next morning I began to consider of means to put this
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LIFE AND ADVENTURES

resolve into execution; but I was at a great loss about my tools. I had
three large axes, and abundance of hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for
traffic with the Indians) ; but with much chopping and cutting knotty hard
wood, they were all full of notches, and dull; and though I had a grind-
stone, I could not turn it and grind my tools too. This cost me as much
thought as a statesman would have bestowed upon a grand point of politics,
or a judge upon the life and death of a man. At length, I contrived a
wheel with a string, to turn it with my foot, that I might have both my
hands at liberty.

Note.—I had never seen any such thing in England, or at least not to
take notice how it was done, though since I have observed it is very
common there; besides that, my grindstone was very large and heavy.
This machine cost me a full week’s work to bring it to perfection.

April 28, 29—These two whole days I took up in grinding my tools,
my machine for turning my grindstone performing very well.

April 30.—Having perceived my bread had been low a great while, now
I took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one biscuit-cake a day, which
made my heart very heavy. :

May 1.—In the morning, looking towards the sea-side, the tide being
low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary, and it looked
like a cask; when I came to it, I found a small barrel, and two or three
pieces of the wreck of the ship, which were driven on shore by the late
hurricane; and looking towards the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie
higher out of the water than it used to do. I examined the barrel which
was driven on shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder ; but it
had taken water, and the powder was caked as hard as a stone: however, I
rolled it farther on shore for the present, and went on upon the sands, as
near as I could to the wreck of the ship, to look for more.

When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely removed. The
forecastle, which lay before buried in sand, was heaved up at least six feet,
and the stern, which was broke in pieces and parted from the rest by the
force of the sea, soon after I had left rummaging her, was tossed, as it were,
up, and cast on one side; and the sand was thrown so high on that side
next her.stern, that whereas there was a great place of water before, so that
T could not come within a quarter of a mile of the wreck without swimming,
I could now walk quite up to her when the tide was out. I was surprised
with this at first, but soon concluded it must be done by the earthquake ;

and as by this violence the ship was more broke open than formerly, so
84



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

many things came daily on shore, which the sea had loosened, and which
the winds and water rolled by degrees to the land.

This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of removing my
habitation, and I busied myself mightily, that day especially, in searching
whether I could make any way into the ship; but I found nothing was to
be expected of that kind, for all the inside of the ship was choked up with
sand. However, as I had learned not to despair of anything, I resolved to
pull everything to pieces that I could of the ship, concluding that everything
I could get from her would be of some use or other to me. .

May 8—I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam through,
which I thought held some of the upper part or quarter-deck together, and
when I had cut it through, I cleared away the sand as well as I could from
the side which lay highest; but the tide coming in, I was obliged to give
over for that time. :

May 4,—I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst eat of, till
I was weary of my sport; when, just going to leave off, I caught a young
dolphin. I had made mea long line of some rope-yarn, but I had no hooks ;
yet I frequently caught fish enough, as much as I cared to eat; all which I
dried in the sun, and ate them dry.

May 5.—Worked on the wreck ; cut another beam asunder, and brought
three great fir planks off from the decks, which I tied together, and made to
float on shore when the tide of flood came on.

May 6.—Worked on the wreck; got several iron bolts out of her, and
other pieces of iron-work. Worked very hard, and came home very much
tired, and had thoughts of giving it over.

May 7.—Went to the wreck again, not with an intent to work, but
found the weight of the wreck had broke itself down, the beams being cut ;
that several pieces of the ship seemed to lie loose, and the inside of the hold
lay so open that I could see into it; but it was almost full of water
and sand.

May 8.—Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to wrench up the
deck, which lay now quite clear of the water or sand. I wrenched open two
planks, and brought them on shore also with the tide. I left the iron crow
in the wreck for next day. 2

May 9.—Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way into the body
of the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened them with the crow, but
could not break them up. I felt also a roll of English lead, and could stir
it, but it was too heavy to remove.

85



ROBINSON CRUSUE.

May 10—14.—Went every day to the wreck; and got a great many
pieces of timber, and boards, or plank, and two or three hundredweight
of iron.

May 15.—I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a piece off
the roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet, and driving it with the
other; but as it lay about a foot and a half in the water, I could not make
any blow to drive the hatchet.

May 16.—It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck appeared more
broken by the force of the water ; but I stayed so long in the woods, to get
pigeons for food, that the tide prevented my going to the wreck that day.

May 17.—I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore, at a great
distance, near two miles off me, but resolved to see what they were, and
found it was a piece of the head, but too heavy for me to bring away.

May 24.—Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck; and with
hard labour I loosened some things so much with the crow, that the first
blowing tide several casks floated out, and two of the seamen’s chests; but
the wind blowing from the shore, nothing came to land that day but pieces
of timber, and a hogshead, which had some Brazil pork in it; but the salt
water and the sand had spoiled it. I continued this work every day to the
15th of June, except the time necessary to get food, which I always
appointed, during this part of my employment, to be when the tide was up,
that I might be ready when it was ebbed out; and by this time I had got
timber and plank and iron-work enough to have built a good boat, if I
had known how; and also I got, at several times and in several pieces,
near one hundredweight of the sheet-lead.

June 16.—Going down to the sea-side, I found a large tortoise, or turtle.
This was the first I had seen, which, it seems, was only my misfortune, not
any defect of the place, or scarcity ; for had I happened to be on the other
side of the island, I might have had hundreds of them every day, as I found
afterwards; but perhaps had paid dear enough for them.

June 17.—I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her threescore eggs ;
and her flesh was to me, at that time, the most savoury and pleasant that
ever I tasted in my life, having had no flesh, but of goats and fowls, since I
landed in this horrid place.

June 18.—Rained all day, and I stayed within. I thought, at this time,
the rain felt cold, and I was something chilly ; which I knew was not usual
in that latitude.

June 19.—Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been cold.

86



Full Text
eer



Be
THE

LIFE AND ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE

BY

DANIEL DEFOE



WITH A PORTRAIT, AND ONE HUNDRED ILLUSTRATIONS
BY J. D. WATSON

ENGRAVED ON WOOD BY THE BROTHERS DALZIEL

LONDON
GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SONS, LIMITED
BROADWAY, LUDGATE HILL
GLASGOW, MANCHESTER, AND NEW YORK
1891

MEMOIR OF DE FOLK, |

Danrex Fos, or, as‘he subsequently styled himself (though at what time and
on what occasion is not known), De Foe, was born in the year 1661, in the parish
of St. Giles, Cripplegate, London, where his father, James Foe, followed the
trade of butcher: and these few barren facts constitute all that is now authenti-
cally known oftthe origin of the author of Roprsox Crusoz. Mr. Wilson, in his
“Life and Times of Daniel De Foe,”—a work abounding with curious. and
minute information on the period of. which it treats, says :—‘He had some
collateral relatives, to whom he alludes occasionally in his writings, but with too
much brevity to ascertain the degree of kindred.”

At an early age, De Foe is said to have shown that vivacity of humour, and
that indomitable spirit of independence, that remained with him through after life :
“making a sunshine in the shady place” of a prison, and arming him as the
champion of truth and humanity in the most perilous times. The parents of De Foe
were nonconformists, and his education was consonant to the practice of their faith.
Family religion formed an essential part of its discipline ; and it was made matter
of conscience to instruct the children of a family and its dependents in their social,
moral, and religious duties.

The enemies of De Foe vainly endeavoured to sink his reputation by repre-
senting him as having been bred a tradesman; we have, however, his own assurance
that he was educated for the ministry, although he does not state why his desti-
nation was altered. He was at all events placed by his father at a Dissenting
academy at Newington Green, under the direction of the Reverend Charles Morton,
aman of learning and a judicious teacher, who was subsequently defended by his
pupil, from some aspersions that had been cast upon his character by an ungrateful
scholar who had deserted to the Church.

Of De Foe’s progress under Mr. Morton, it is impossible now to speak with any
certainty. He tells us in one of his “ Reviews” that he had been master of five
and that he had studied the mathematics, natural philosophy, logic,
geography, and history. De Foe was, moreover, one of the few who, in those days,
studied politics as a science. He went through a complete course’ of theology, and
his knowledge of ecclesiastical history was also considerable. N evertheless, he was
attacked by. party malice as: “an illiterate person without education.” To this he

calmly makes answer :—‘ Those gentlemen who reproach my learning to applaua
their own, shall have it proved that I have more learning than either of them—,
because I have more manners.” He adds, “I think I owe this justice to my

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MEMOIR OF DE FOE.

excellent father still living (1705), and in whose behalf I fully testify, that if I
am a blockhead, it is nobody’s fault but my own.”

At one-and-twenty, De Foe commenced the vocation—most perilous in his day
—of author ; at which he laboured through good and through evil report, with
great honour to himself, and enduring benefit to mankind, for half a century. His
first publication was a lampooning answer to L’Estrange’s “ Guide to the Inferior
Clergy,” and was intended to satirize the prevalent High Church notions of the
day.

7 When the Duke of Monmouth landed at Lyme, in the year 1685, De Foe was
among those who joined the standard of that hapless nobleman. At the age of
four-and-twenty, we see De Foe a soldier, as ready with his sword as prompt with
his pen, in the cause of rational liberty. Of Monmouth, De Foe scems to have
had some previous knowledge, having often seen him at Aylesbury races, where
the duke rode his own horses, a circumstance alluded to by our author in his
“Tour.” De Foe had the good fortune to escape the vengeance visited upon so
many of the duke’s supporters, and returned in safety to London ; where, leaving
the stormy region of polities, he now directed his attention to trade. The nature
of his business, according to his own account, was that of a hose-factor,. or
the middle-man between the manufacturer ‘and the retail hosier. This concern he
carried on for some years, in Freeman’s-court, Cornhill 3 Mr. Chalmers says, from
1685 to 1695. On the 26th of January, 1687-8, having claimed his freedom by
birth, he was admitted a liveryman of London. In the Chamberlain’s book, his
name was written “ Daniel Foe.”

When the Revolution took place, De Foe was a resident in Tooting, where he
was the first person who attempted to form the Dissenters in the neighbourhood
into a regular congregation. He was an ardent worshipper of the Revolution,
and annually commemorated the 4th of November as a day of deliverance.

The commercial speculations of De Foe, though at first prosperous, were
ultimately unsuccessful. That they were of a varied character, is evident from the
fact of his having engaged with partners in the Spanish and Portuguese trade. It
is very clear, from a passage in his “ Review,” that he had been a merchant-adven-
turer. In the number for January 27, 1711, he alludes to an old Spanish proverb,
“which,” says he, “I learnt when I was in that country.” It further appears,
that while residing there, he made himself master of the language. De Foe’s
losses by shipwreck it is supposed must have been very considerable. In allusion
to his misfortunes, Mr. Chalmers observes :—“ With the usual imprudence of
genius, he was carried into companies who were gratified by his wit. He spent
those hours with a small society for the cultivation of polite learning, which he
ought to have employed in the calculations of the counting-house; and, being
obliged to abscond from his creditors in 1692, he naturally attributed those mis-
fortunes to the war, which were probably owing to his own misconduct, An angry
creditor took out a commission of bankruptcy, which was soon superseded, on the
petition of those to whom he was most indebted, who accepted a composition
on his single bond. This he punctually paid, by the efforts of unwearied dili-
gence; but some of these creditors, who had been thus satisfied, falling afterwards
into distress themselves, De Foe voluntarily paid them their whole claim, being
then in rising circumstances, in consequence of King William’s favour.” On being
subsequently reproached by Lord Haversham for mercenary conduct, De Foe tells.

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MEMOIR OF DE FOE.

him, in 1705, that, “with a numerous family, and no help but his own industry,
he had forced his way, with undiscouraged diligence, through @ set of misfortunes,
and reduced his debts, exclusive of composition, from seventeen thousand to less
than five thousand pounds.” It should be remembered that, in those days, our
laws against bankrupts were as cruelly oppressive as they were foolish.

It is certain that De Foe, whilst under apprehension from his creditors, resided
some time in Bristol. “A friend of mine in that city,” says Mr. Wilson, ‘‘informs
me that one of his ancestors remembered De Foe, and sometimes saw him walking
in the streets of Bristol, accoutred in the fashion of the times, with a fine flowing
wig, lace ruffles, and a sword by his side: also, that he there obtained the name of
‘the Sunday gentleman,’ because, through fear of the bailiffs, he did not dare to
appear in public upon any other day.”

It appears that at this time De Foe was invited, by some merchants of his
acquaintance residing in Cadiz, to settle in Spain, with the offer of a good com-
mission. “But,” says our author, “Providence, which had other work for me
to do, placed a secret aversion in my mind to quitting England upon any account,
and made me refuse the best offer of that kind, to be concerned with some eminent
persoris at home, in proposing ways and means to the government for raising:
money to supply the occasion of the war, then newly begun.” De Foe suggested
a general assessment of personal property, the amount to be settled by composition,
under the inspection of commissioners appointed by the king. It was, doubtless,
owing to these services, that he was appointed to thé office of accountant to
the commissioners of ‘the glass duty, in 1695: which commission ceased in 1699.
It was probably about this time that De Foe became secretary to the tile-kiln
and brick-kiln works at Tilbury, in Essex. Pantiles had been hitherto a Dutch
manufacture, and were brought in large quantities to England. To supersede the
necessity of their importation, these works were erected. The speculation ulti-
mately proved unsuccessful,

Towards the close of the war, in 1696-7, De Foe gave to the world his “ Essay
upon Projects :” a work alike admirable for the novelty of the subject, and the
clearness and ingenuity with which it is treated. The projects of our author may
be classed under the heads of politics, commerce, and benevolence; all having
reference to the public improvement. The first relates to banks in general,
and to the royal or national bank in particular, which he wishes to be rendered _
subservient to the relief of the merchant, and the interests of commerce, as well
as to the purposes of the state; his next project relates to highways; a third,
to the improvement of the bankrupt laws; a fourth; to the plan of friendly
societies, formed by mutual assurance, for the relief of the members in seasons
of distress; a fifth, for thé establishment of an asylum for “fools,” or, more
properly, “naturals,” whom he describes as “a particular rent-charge on the great
family of mankind ;” he next urges the formation of academies, to supply some
neglected brariches of education: one of these was for the improvement of the
English tongue, “to polish and refine it 7’ and this project combined a reforma-
tion of that “foolish vice,” swearing: another part of the project was an academy
pedi at studies ; and he also suggests an institution for the education of

es,
‘In January, 1700-1, appeared De Foe’s celebrated poem of “The Trueborn
Englishman.” It was composed in answer to “a vile, abhorred pamphlet, in very

vu
MEMOIR OF DE FOE,

il verse, written by one Mr. Tutchin, and called “The Foreigners,” in which the
author—who he then was I knew not,” says De Foe—“ fell personally upon the
king and the Dutch nation.”

“When I see the town full of lampoons and invectives against Dutchmen,”
says De Foe, in his “Explanatory Preface,” « only because they are foreigners,
and the king reproached and insulted by insolent pedants and ballad-making
poets, for employing foreigners, and being a foreigner himself, I confess myself
moved by it to remind our nation of their own original, thereby to let them see
what a banter they put upon themselves ; since, speaking of Englishmen ab origine,
we are really all foreigners ourselves.” It is to this poem that De Foe was indebted
for a personal introduction to King William. He was sent for ta the palace by his
Majesty, conversed with him, and had repeated interviews with him afterwards,
The abilities and sentiments of De Foe appeared to have made such a favourable
impression on the king, that he ever after regarded him with kindness; and
conceiving that his talents might be turned to a beneficial account, he employed

im in many secret services, to which our author alludes occasionally in his
writings. The effect produced upon the country by the satire was most beneficial.
De Foe himself, nearly thirty years afterwards, writes, “ National mistakes, vulgar
errors, and even a general practice, have been reformed by a just satire.”

In 1700-1, on the meeting of the fifth parliament of William IIL, we find
De Foe strenuously engaged in advocating the necessity of settling the succession
in the Protestant line; an important object with William, as the only means of
perpetuating the benefits which the nation had reaped from the Revolution. To
this great end, De Foe devoted all his energies, labouring with unwearied zeal in
the cause. His conduct on the imprisonment of the Kentish gentlemen, whose
names are historically associated with the presentation of the famous Kentish
petition, was marked with all the intrepidity of his character. The Commons had
imprisoned the petitioners, who had prayed the house for the settlement of the
Protestant Succession, for having presented a petition “ scandalous, insolent, and
seditious.” On this, De Foe drew up his celebrated “ Legion Paper.” In what
manner it was communicated to the house does not appear upon the journals. It
was reported at the time that De Foe, disguised as a woman, presented it to the
Speaker as he entered the House of Commons, The “ Legion” petition rang
like a tocsin throughout the kingdom. As, however, the author remained con-
cealed, the Commons did not think fit to Pass any particular censure upon it. The
Kentish petitioners were discharged by the prorogation of parliament on the 24th
of June ; they were subsequently feasted at Mercers’ Hall, on which occasion De
Foe attended. . .

By the death of King William our author lost a kind friend and powerful
protector. Toward the latter part of this reign, De Foe took up his abode at
Hackney, and resided there many years. Here some of “his children were born
and buried. In the parish register is the following entry :—“ Sophia, daughter to
Daniel De Foe, by Mary his wife, was baptized, December 24, 1701.”

His next important work—a work that exercised greut influence on his
fortunes—was the “Shortest Way with the Dissenters 3 or, Proposals for the
Establishment of the Church 3 1702.” In this, the author, assuming the character
of an Ultra High Churchman, advocates in an artful veil of irony the adoption of
the severest measures against the Dissenters The arguments he put forth found

vill
MEMOIR OF 'DE FOE.

high favour with both the Universities. The High Church Party never suspected
the sincerity of their partizan, and charmed and won by the fierce doctrines of their
champion, were unsuspicious of the satire of their extravagance. It was, however,
De Foe’s hard fate to be misunderstood by both parties. Whilst the High Chureh-
men congratulated themselves on the addition of another advocate, the Dissenters
treated him as a real enemy. The Church Party, however, fell into the trap laid
for them by De Foe: for, by expressing their delight at the fiery sentiments of
the writer, they avowed them as their own true feelings on the question. The
first detection of our author is said to have been owing to the industry ofthe
Earl of Nottingham, one of the secretaries of state. When his name was actually
known, people were at no loss to decipher his object; and those who had
committed themselves by launching forth in his praises were stung with madness
at their own folly. It was at once resolved by the party in power to crush De Foe
by a state prosecution. In the height of the storm, our author sought concealment ;
when a proclamation was issued by the Government, offering £50 for the discovery
of his retreat ; and in the House of Commons, it was resolved that the book “be
burnt by the hands of the common hangman in Palace Yard.” On the printer of
the work and the bookseller being taken into custody, De Foe issued forth from
his retirement, resolved, as he expresses it, “to throw himself upon the favour of _
government, rather than that others should be ruined by his mistake.” He was
indicted at the Old Bailey Sessions, the 24th of February, 1703, and proceeded to
trial in the following July. It may be gathered from his own account of the
prosecution, that when his enemies had him in their power, they were at a loss to
know what to do with him. He was therefore advised to throw himself on the,
mercy of the Queen, with a promise of protection: which induced him to quit his
defence, and acknowledge himself the author of the offensive work. On this,
he was sentenced to pay a fine of 200 marks to the Queen ; to stand three times in
the pillory; to be imprisoned during the Queen’s pleasure, and to find sureties for
his good behaviour for seven years. The people, however, were with De Foe.
Hence, he. was guarded to the pillory by the populace; and descended from it
with the triumphant acclamations of the surrounding multitude. He has himself
related, that “the people, who were expected to treat him very ill, on the contrary,
pitied him, and wished those who set him there were placed in his room, and
expressed their affections by loud shouts and acclamations when he was taken
down.” Thus, the odium intended for De Foe recoiled on his persecutors, and the
pillory became to him a place of honour. i

A triumphant evidence of the high spirit of De Foe is manifested by the fact,
that on the very day of his exhibition to the people, he published “ A Hymn to:
the Pillory !” ;

De Foe’s fortunes were now at their lowest ebb: being a prisoner, moreover,
he could no longer attend to his pantile works, his only remaining source of
revenue, and they were consequently given up. By this affair he lost, as he
himself informs us, £3,500 ; and he had now a wife and six children dependent
upon him, with no other resource for their support than the product of his pen.
Hence the leisure of De Foe, whilst in Newgate, was not that of idleness or
dissipation. It was then he stored his mind with those facts relative to the habits
and pursuits of the prisoners, which he has detailed with so much truth to nature,
as well as interest. A great part of his time was also devoted to the compo-

ix
MEMOIR OF DE FOE.

sition of various minor political works. It was likewise whilst in Newgate that
he projected his “Review,” a periodical work of four quarto pages, which was
published for nine successive years without intermission, and during the greater
part of the time, three times a week, without his having received any assistance
whatever in its production. Throughout this work, he carried on an unsparing
warfare against folly and vice in all their disguises: it pointed the way to the
“Tatlers,” “Spectators,” and “Guardians,” and may be referred to as' containing
a great mass of interesting and valuable matter, written with all the author's
characteristic spirit and vigour. .

The Tories vainly endeavoured to buy up De Foe: but Newgate had no terrors
for him, and he continued at once their prisoner and their assailant. Upon the
accession of Mr. Harley to office, his own politics not being dissimilar to those of
our author, the minister made a private communication to him, with the view
of obtaining his support. No immediate arrangement, however, took place between
them, as De Foe remained a prisoner some months afterwards. Notwithstanding,
it is most likely that the Queen became acquainted with De Foe’s real merits
through the medium of the minister, and was made conscious of the injustice of
our author’s sufferings, which she now appeared desirous to mitigate. For this
purpose, she sent money to his wife and family, at the same time transmitting to
him a sufficient sum for the payment of his fine, and the expenses attending his
discharge from prison.

On his release from Newgate, De Foe retired to Bury St. Edmunds. Party
clamour, and party-malice, however, pursued him there. On the miserable libels
issued at this time against him, he says, “I tried retirement, and banished myself
from the town: but neither a country recess, any more than a stone doublet, can
secure a man from the clamour of the pen.”

In 1705 De Foe was employed by Harley and Godolphin on various missions
of a secret and, it is said, of even a dangerous nature, one of which required his
presence upor the Continent. Harley seems to have been so well satisfied, that
upon De Foe’s return, he rewarded him with an appointment at home. In 1706,
De Foe wrote voluminously on the subject of the union with Scotland, which
measure he strenuously advocated. This advocacy obtained for him a confidentia.
mission to Scotland, where he was received with great consideration. While in
Edinburgh, he published his “Caledonia,” &c. a poem in honour of Scotland
and the Scots nation. In 1708, De Foe was rewarded with an appointment and
a fixed salary. When the Union was completed, he published “The Union
of Great Britain.” In 1710, he went to live at Stoke Newington, where he
resided for some years, and appears to have been comfortable in his circumstances.
In 1712 was closed the last volume of the “Review.” In a long preface to this
volume, De Foe has a most eloquent defence of this work, and of the mode in
which he had conducted it. Nothing can be finer, more manly, or more conclusive.
In allusion to his sufferings during the progress of the work, he says, “I have
gone through a life of wonders, and am the subject of a vast variety of pro-
vidences ; I have been fed more by miracle than Elijah when the ravens were
his purveyors. I have some time ago summed up my life in this distich :-—

“No man has tasted differing fortunes more,
And thirteen times I have been rich and poor.”
This preface may be considered as a review,—a summing up of the events. of

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MEMOIR OF DE FOE.

De Foe’s political life, and as such it possesses high value for the noble spirit of
conscious truth that animates every line of it, As a piece of English, it is remark-
able for its innate strength, as well as for the simplicity of its diction.

Our author was again unlucky enough to be committed to Newgate, on the
absurd charge of writing libels in favour of the Pretender. After the death of Queex.
Anne, De Foe, who had been a political writer for thirty years, retired from the
thorny field to the more pleasant paths of literature. Whilst writing “ An
Appeal to Honour and Justice,” he was struck with apoplexy; he however re-
covered, and in the early part of 1715, committed to the press one of his most
useful treatises, “The Family Instructor.” The success of this subsequently induced
him to write his “Religious Courtship,” which, on its appearance in 1722, met
with equal favour. :

In 1719 appeared the immortal “ Robinson Crusoe.” Nearly the whole circle
of’ booksellers had in vain been canvassed for a publisher. William Taylor, the
fortunate speculator, is said to have cleared a thousand pounds by the book, which
rose into immediate popularity. There can be no doubt that the idea of the work
was first suggested to the author by the story of Alexander Selkirk, which had
been given to the public seven years before, “It has been thought by some,”
says Mr. John Ballantyne, in his biographical sketch prefixed to the Edinburgh
edition of De Foe’s novels, “ to detract from the merit of De Foe, that the idea
was not originally his own; but really the story of Selkirk, which had been -
published a few years before, in Woodes Rogers’ Voyage rownd the World, appears
to have furnished our author with so little beyond the bare idea of a man living
upon an uninhabited island, that it appears quite immaterial whether he took
his hint from that or from any other similar story. of which many were then
current.” In a number of “The Englishman,” Steele gave the true and par-
ticular history of Selkirk. The place in which ‘‘ Robinson Crusoe” was composed
has been variously contested. It seems most probable (says Mr. Wilson) that De
Foe wrote it in his retirement in Stoke Newington, in a large white house, rebuilt
by himself, and still standing in Church-street. The work has been printed in
almost every written language, and has been the delight of men of all creeds and
all distinctions.

“Robinson Crusoe” was speedily followed by the “ Account of Dickory Crooke ;”
the “ Life and Piracies of Captain Singleton ;” the “History oftDuncan Campbell ;”
the “ Fortunes and Misfortunes of Moll Flanders;” the “ Life of: Colonel Jack ;”
ae “ Memoirs of.a Cavalier ;” and that extraordinary work, the “Account of the

ague.”

The latter years of De Foe’s life must have been those of competence, insured
to him by the success of-his works. But this period of his life was embittered by
the cruelty and undutifulness of-his son, who, to quote the words of De Foe, from
a letter written in his anguish: “has both ruined my family and broken my heart.”

For some years before his death, De Foe suffered greatly from both the gout and
the stone, which diseases were occasioned, in part, most probably by his close
application to study, whilst accumulating stores of knowledge for the benefit of
his fellow-men. He expired on the 24th of April, 1731, when he was about
seventy years of age. The parish of St. Giles, Cripplegate, in which he drew his
first breath, was also destined to receive his last. He was buried from thence, on
the 26th of April, in Tindall’s burial-ground, now most known by the name a

xi
MEMOIR OF DE FOE.

Bunhill Fields. He left six children, two sons and four daughters. His wife died
at the latter end of the following year. A great-grandson of De Foe was living
in 1856, in a state of poverty, at the age of seventy-eight, for whose benefit a small
fand had not long before been raised.

The character of De Foe was but the practical example of his best writings.
As a citizen of the world, his love of truth, and the patience, the cheerfulness, with
which he endured the obloquy and persecution of his enemies, endear him to us as a
great working benefactor to hisrace. His memory is enshrined with the memories of
those who make steadfast our faith in the nobility and goodness of human nature,
As a writer, De Foe has bequeathed to us imperishable stores of wisdom. If he
paint vice, it is to show its hideousness ; whilst virtue itself receives a new attrac-
tion at his hands. He was not a poet, but he could write vigorous verse, and hir
satire was bold and trenchant, as well as convincing by its terseness, and by the
unadorned eloquence of its truth. De Foe’s prose, though occasionally careless,
is remarkable for its simplicity and strength. What he has to say, he says in the
plainest manner, and in the simplest style. _He does not—as is the vice of our
day—hide his thoughts under a glittering phraseology, but uses words as the
pictures of things. It is owing to this happy faculty, this unforced power, that
De Foe occasionally rises, as in many instances in the golden volume now offered
to the reader, almost to the sublime. In h’s picture of the despair of Crusoe, we
have, in words intelligible even to infancy, a wondrous delineation of the soul of
man in a most trying and most terrible hour. But the crowning merit of De Foe
is, that he was, in the right sense of the term, both in his personal conduct, and
the spirit of his writi

A Trve-bory Enciisanan

xn


THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE.

eS





Nw 5-7 WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a
2G Ca) good family, though not of that country, my father being a
aoe & foreigner of Bremen, who settled first at Hull: ‘he got a good
<4 es estate by merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived after-






ANNO wards a York; from whence he had married my mother,
whose relations were named Robinson, a very good family in that country, ~
and from whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but, by the usual
corruption of words in England, we .are now called—nay we call our-
selves, and write our name, Crusoe ; ome so my eae always
called me.

I had two elder brothers, one of whom: was Seewtendnt Sloe to an
English regiment on foot in Flanders,formerly commanded by the famous
Colonel Lockhart, and was killed ‘at the :battle near. Dunkirk against the:
Spaniards. What became of my second brother I never Bue any more
than my father or mother knew what became of me.

Being the third ‘son of the family, and not bred to any: imae. my!
head began to. be filled very early with rambling thoughts: my -fatler, -
who was very ancient, had given me. a competent share of learning,’ as
far as house-education and. country:free-school generally go, and designed :
me for the law; but I would! be satisfied: with nothing but going. to
sea: and my itclination. to this: led me: so: strongly against: the: will,
ney, the commands of. my father, and, against all the entreaties’.and*

i

B
ROBINSON CRUSOE.

persuasions of my mother and other friends, that there seemed to be
something fatal in that propensity of nature, tending directly to the life
of misery which was to befal me.

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent
counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He called me one
morning into his chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and
expostulated very warmly with me upon this subject: he asked me what
reasons, more than a mere wandering inclination, I had for leaving my
father’s house and my native country, where I might be well introduced,
and had a prospect of raising my fortune by application and industry,
with a life of ease and pleasure. He told me it was men of desperate
fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring, superior fortunes on the other, who
went abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise, and make themselves
famous in undertakings of a nature out of the common road; and these
things were all either too far above me, or too far below me; that
mine was the middle state, or what might be called the upper station
of low life, which he had found, by long experience, was the best state
in the world, the most suited to human happiness, not expoged to the
miseries and hardships, the labour and sufferings of the mechanic part
of mankind, and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and
envy of the upper part of mankind. He told me, I might judge of the
happiness of this state by this one thing, viz. that this was the state
of life which all other people envied; that kings have frequently lamented
the miserable consequence of being born to great things, and wished they
had been placed in the middle of the two extremes, between the mean and
the great; that the wise man gave his testimony to this, as the standard
of felicity, when he prayed to have neither poverty nor riches.

He bade me observe it, and I should always find, that the calamities
of life were shared among the upper and lower part of mankind; but
that the middle station had the fewest disasters, and was not exposed
to so many vicissitudes as the higher or lower part of mankind; nay,
they were not subjected to so many distempers, and uneasiness, either
of body or mind, as those were who, by vicious living, luxury, and
extravagances on one hand, or by hard labour, want of necessaries, and
mean or insufficient diet on the other hand, bring distemper upon
themselves by the natural consequences of their way of living ; that the
middle station of life was calculated for all kind of virtues and all kind

of enjoyments ; that peace and plenty were the handmaids of a middle
2























































































































































CRUSOE’S FATHER ENTREATS HIM TO STAY ar HOME.

fortune; that temperance, moderation, quietness, health, society, all agreeable
diversions, and all desirable pleasures, were the blessings attending the
middle station of life; that this way men went silently and smoothly
through the world, and comfortably out of it, not embarrassed with the
labours of the hands or of the head, not sold to a life of slavery for
daily bread, nor harassed with perplexed circumstances, which rob the

soul of peace, and the body of rest; nor enraged with the passion of
3
ROBINSON CRUSOE.

envy, or the secret burning lust of ambition for great things; but, in
easy circumstances, sliding gently through the world, and sensibly tasting
the sweets of living, without the bitter; feeling that they are happy,
and learning by every day’s experience to know it more sensibly,

After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate
manner, not to play the young man, nor to precipitate myself inte
miseries which nature, and the station of life I was born in, seemed
to have provided against; that I was under no necessity of seeking my
bread; that he would do well for me, and endeavour to enter me fairly
into the station of life which he had just been recommending to me;
and that if I was not very easy and happy in the world, it must be
my mere fate or fault that must hinder it; and that he should have
nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his duty in warning me
against measures which he knew would be to my hurt; in a word, that
as he would..do;very kind things for me if I would stay and settle at
home as he,.ditected, so he would not have so much hand in my mis-
fortunes, as ve me any encouragement to go away; and to close
all, he told ‘me:I had my elder brother for an example, to whom he
had used the same earnest persuasions to keep him from going into the
Low Country wars, but could not prevail, his young desires prompting
him to run into the army, where he was killed; and though -he said
he would not cease to pray for me, yet he would venture to say to
me, that if I did take this foolish step God would not bless me, and
I should have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neglected his
counsel, when there might be none to assist in my recovery.

I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly pro-
phetic, though I suppose my father did not know it to be so himself;
I say, I observed the tears run down his face very plentifully, especially
when he spoke of my brother who was killed; and that when he spoke
of my having leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was so moved
that he broke off the discourse, and told me his heart was so full he
could say no more to me.

I was sincerely affected with this discourse, and, indeed, who could
be otherwise? and I resolved not to think of going abroad any more,
but to settle at home according to my father’s desire. But alas! a few,
days wore it all off; and, in short, to prevent any of my father’s farther
importunities, in a few weeks after, I resolved to run quite away from

him. However, I did not act quite so hastily as the first heat of my
4



















































































































































































CRUSOE’S MOTHER REFUSES HER ASSISTANCE.

resolution prompted, but I took my mother at a time when I thought
her a little more pleasant than ordinary, and told her that my thoughts
were so entirely bent upon seeing the world, that I should never settle
to anything with resolution enough to go through with it, and my father
had better give me his consent than force me to go without it; that I was
now eighteen years old, which was too late to go apprentice to a trade,
or clerk to an attorney; that I was sure if I did I should never serve
out my time, but I should certainly run away from my master before
my time was out, and go to sea; and if she would speak to my father

§
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

to let me go one voyage abroad, if I came home again, and did not like
it, I would go no more; and I would promise, by a double diligence, to
recover the time that I had lost.

This put my mother into a great passion; she told me she knew it
would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any such subject ;
that he knew too well what was my interest to give his consent to any-
thing so much for my hurt; and that she wondered how I could think
of any such thing after the discourse I had had with my father, and such
kind and tender expressions as she knew my father had used to me;
and that, in short, if I would ruin myself, there was no help for me;
but I might depend I should never have their consent to it; that for
her part, she would not have so much hand in my destruction; and I
should never have it to say that my mother was willing when my
father was not.

Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet I heard
afterwards that she reported all the discourse to him, and that my father,
after showing a great concern at it, said to her, with a sigh: “That
boy might be happy if he would stay at home; but if he goes abroad,
he will be the most miserable wretch that ever was born: I can give
no consent to it.”

It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose, though, in
the mean time, I continued obstinately deaf to all proposals of settling
to business, and frequently expostulated with my father and mother
about their being so positively determined against what they knew my
inclinations prompted me to. But being one day at Hull, where I went
casually, and without any purpose of making an elopement at that time;
but, I say, being there, and one of my companions being about to sail
to London in his father’s ship, and prompting me to go with them
with the common allurement of seafaring men, that it should cost me
nothing for my passage, I consulted-neither father nor mother any more,
nor so much as sent them word of it; but leaving them to hear of it
as they might, without asking God’s blessing or my father’s, without
any consideration of circumstances or consequences, and in an ill hour
God knows, on the Ist of September, 1651, I went on board a ship
bound for London. Never any young adventurer’s misfortunes, I believe,
began. sooner, or continued longer, than mine. The ship was no sooner
out of the Humber, than the wind began to blow and the sea-to rise *

in a most frightful manner; and, as I had never heen at sea before, I
‘ 6
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

was most inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified in mind. I began
now seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and how justly I was
overtaken by the judgment of Heaven for my wicked leaving my father’s
house, and abandoning my duty. All the good counsels of my parents,
my father’s tears and my mother’s entreaties, came now fresh into my
mind; and my conscience, which was not yet come to the pitch of
hardness to which it has since, reproached me with the contempt of
advice, and the breach of my duty to God and my father.

All this while the storm increased, and the sea went very high,
though nothing like what I have seen many times since; no, nor what
Isaw a few days after; but it was enough to affect me then, who was
but a young sailor, and had never known anything of the matter. I
expected every wave would have swallowed us up, and that every time
the ship fell down, as I thought it did, in the trough or hollow of the
sea, we should never rise more: in this.agony of mind, I made many
vows and resolutions, that if it would please God to spare my life in
this one voyage, if ever I got once my foot upon dry land again, I would
go directly home to my father, and never set it into a ship again while
T lived; that I would take his advice, and never run myself into such
miseries as these any more. Now I saw plainly the. goodness of his
observations about the middle station of life, how easy, how comfortably
he had lived all his days, and never had been exposed to tempests at
sea, or troubles on shore; and I resolved that I would, like a true
repenting prodigal, go home to my father.

These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm
lasted, and indeed some time after; but the-next day the wind was abated,
and the sea calmer, and I began to be a little inured to it: however,
I was very grave for all that day, being also a little sea-sick still; -but
towards night the weather cleared up, the wind was. quite over, and a
charming fine evening followed; the sun went down perfectly clear,
and rose so the next morning; and having little or no wind, and-a
smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the
most delightful: that ever I saw.

I had slept well in the night, and’ was now no more sea-sick, but
very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough
and terrible the day “before, ‘and could be so calm. and so pleasant in
so little a time after. And now, lest my good resolutions should continue,
my companion, who had enticed me away, comes to me: “ Well; Bob,”

7
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

says he, clapping me upon the shoulder, “how do you do after it? I
warrant you were frighted, wer'n’t you, last night, when it blew but a
capful of wind?”—* A capful.d’you call it?” said I; “’twas a terrible
storm.”—“ A storm, you fool you,” replies he; “ do you call that a
storm? why, it was nothing at all; give us but a good ship and sea-
room, and we think nothing of sucha squall of wind as that; but
yowre but a fresh-water sailor, Bob. .Come, let us make a bowl of
punch, and we'll forget all that; d’ye see what charming weather ’tis
now?” To make short this end part of my story, we went the way —
of all sailors; the punch was made, and I was made half-drunk with
it; and in that one night’s wickedness I drowned all my repentance,
all my reflections upon my past conduct, all my resolutions for the
future. In a word, as the sea was returned to its smoothness of surface
and settled calmness by, the.abatement of that storm, so the hurry of
my thoughts being over, my fears and apprehensions of being swallowed
up by the sea being forgotten, and the current of my former desires
returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises that I made in my
distress. I found, indeed, some intervals of reflection; and the serious
thoughts did, as it were, endeavour to return again sometimes; but I
shook them off, and roused myself from them as it were from a distemper,
and applying myself to drinking and company, soon mastered the
return of those fits—for so I called them; and I had in five or six
days got as complete a victory over conscience as any young fellow
that resolved not to be troubled with it could desire. But I was to
have another trial for it still; and Providence, as in such cases generally
it does, resolved to leave me entirely without excuse; for if I would not
take this for a deliverance, the next was to be such a one as the worst
and most hardened wretch among us would confess both the danger
and the mercy of.

The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads;
the wind having been contrary, and the weather calm, we had med
-but little way since the storm. Here we were obliged to come to an
anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing contrary, viz., at south-
west, for seven or eight days, during which time a great many ships
from: Newcastle came into the same roads, as the common harbour. where
the ships might wait for a wind for the river.

We had not, however, rid here so long, but we should have tided it up
the river, but that the wind blew too fresh, and, after we had lain four or

8
OF ROBINSON: CRUSOE.

five days, blew very hard. However, the Roads being reckoned as good as
a harbour, the anchorage good, and our ground-tackle very strong, our men
were unconcerned, and not in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent
the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the sea; but the eighth day,
in the morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands at work to strike











CRUSOK IS BANTERED BY HIS FRIEND AFTER THE STORM.

vur top-masts, and make everything snug and close, that the ship might
ride as easy as possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our
ship rod¢ forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought once or twice
our auchor had come home; upon which our master ordered out the sheet-
anchor, so that we rode with two anchors ahead, and the cables veered
out to the better end.

vo)
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began to see
terror and amazement in the faces even of the seamen themselves. The
master, though vigilant in the business of preserving the ship, yet as he
went in and out of his cabin by me, I could hear him softly to himself say,
several times, “ Lord, be merciful to us! we shall be all lost; we shall be
all undone!” and the like. During these first hurries I was stupid, lying
still in my cabin, which was in the steerage, and cannot describe my
temper: I could ill resume the first penitence which I had so apparently
trampled upon, and hardened myself against: I thought the bitterness of
death had been past; and that this would be nothing like the first; but
when the master himself came by me, as I said just now, and said we
should be all lost, I was dreadfully frighted. I got up out of my cabin,
and looked out; but such a dismal sight I never saw: the sea ran
mountains high, and broke upon us every three or four minutes ; when I
could look about, I could see nothing but distress round us ; two ships that
rode near us, we found, had cut their masts by the board, being deep laden;
and our men cried out, that a ship which rode about a mile ahead of
us was foundered. Two more ships, being driven from their anchors, were
run out of the Roads to sea, at all adventures, and that not with a mast
standing. The light ships fared the best, as not so much labouring in the
sea; but two or three of them drove, and came close by us, running away
with only their spritsail out before the wind.

Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master of our ship
to let them cut away the fore-mast, which he was very unwilling to do;
but the boatswain protesting to him, that if he did not, the ship would
founder, he consented; and when they had cut away the fore-mast, the
main-mast stood so loose, and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to
cut that away also, and make a clear deck.

And one must judge what a condition I must be in at all this, who was
but a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright before at but a little.
But if I can express at this distance the thoughts I had about me at that
time, I was in tenfold more horror of mind upon account of my former
convictions, and the having returned from them to the resolutions I had
wickedly taken at first, than I wag at death itself! and these, added to the
terror of the storm, put me into such a condition, that I can by no words
describe it. But the worst was not come yet; the storm continued with
such fury, that the seamen themselves acknowledged they had never seen a

worse. We had a good ship, but she was deep laden, and wallowed in the
10
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

zea, 80 that the seamen every now and then cried out she would founder.
It was my advantage in one respect that I did not know what they meant
by founder, till I inquired. However the storm was so violent, that I saw,
what is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some others more
sensible than the rest, at their prayers, and expecting every moment when

Ute”
iy {

























CRUSOE IS IN GREAT FEAR DURING THE SECUND STORM,

the ship would go to the bottom. In the middle of the night, and under
all the rest of our distresses, one of the men that had been down to see,
cried out we had sprung a leak ; another said, there was four feet water in
the hold. Then all hands were called to the pump. At that word, my

heart, as I thought, died within me: and I fell backwards upon the side of
11
ROBINSON CRUSOE.

my bed where I sat, into the cabin. However, the men roused me, and
told me, that I, that was able to do nothing before, was as well able to
pump as another; at which I stirred up, and went to the pump, and
worked very heartily. While this was doing, the master seeing some light
colliers, who, not able to ride out the storm, were obliged to slip, and run
away to the sea, and would come near us, ordered to fire a gun as a signal
of distress. I, who knew nothing what they meant, thought the ship had
broken, or some dreadful thing happened. In a word, I was so surprised
that I fell down in a swoon. As this was a time when everybody had his
own life to think of, nobody minded me, or what was become of me; but
another man stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot,
let me lie, thinking I had been dead; and it was a great while before
I came to myself.

We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it was apparent
that the ship would founder; and though the storm began to abate a
little, yet it was not possible she could swim till we might run into
any port; so the master continued firing guns for help; and a light ship,
who had rid it out just ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help us.
It was with the utmost hazard the boat came near us; but it was
impossible for us to get on board, or for the boat to lie near the ship's
side, till at last the men rowing very heartily, and venturing their lives
to save ours, our men cast them a rope over the stern with a buoy to it,
and then veered it out a great length, which they, after much labour
and hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them close under our stern, and
cot all into their boat. It was to no purpose for them or us, after we were
in the boat, to think of reaching their own ship; so all agreed to let her
drive, and only to pull her in towards shore as much as we could; and our
master promised them, that if the boat was staved upon shore, he would
make it good to their master: so partly rowing, and partly driving, our
boat went away to the northward, sloping towards the shore almost as far
as Winterton Ness.

We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our ship till
we saw her sink, and then I understood for the first time what was meant
by a ship foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes
to look up when the seamen told me she was sinking ; for from the moment
that they rather put me into the boat, than that I might be said to go in,
my heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly with fright, partly with
horror of mind, and the thoughts of what was yet before me.

12


CRUSOE FAINTS AT THE PUMP.

While we were in this condition—the men yet labouring at tlic oar te
bring the boat near the shore—we could see (when, our boat mounting the
waves, we were able to see the shore) a great many people running along
the strand, to assist us when we should come near; but we made but slow
way towards the shore ; nor were we able to reach the shore, till, being past
the lighthouse at Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward towards

Cromer, and so the land broke off a little the violence of the wind. Here
13
ROBINSON CRUSOE.

we got in, and, though not without much difficulty, got all safe on shore,
and walked afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we
were used with great humanity, as well by the magistrates of the town, who
assigned us good quarters, as by particular merchants and owners of ships,
and had money given us sufficient to carry us either to London or back to
Hull, as we thought fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and have gone
home, I had been happy, and my father, as in our blessed Saviour’s parable,
had even killed the fatted calf for me; for hearing the ship I went away in
was cast away in Yarmouth Roads, it was a great while before he had any
assurances that I was not drowned.

But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that nothing could
resist ; and though I had several times loud calls from my reason, and my
more composed judgment, to go home, yet I had no power to do it. I know
not what to call this, nor will I urge that it is a secret overruling decree,
that hurries us on to be the instruments of our own destruction, even
though it be before us, and that we rush upon it with our eyes open.
Certainly, nothing but some such decreed unavoidable misery, which it was
impossible for me to escape, could have pushed me forward against the
calm reasonings and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and against
two such visible instructions as J had met with in my first attempt.

My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who was the
master’s son, was now less forward than I. The first time he spoke to me
after we were at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days, for we
were separated in the town to several quarters ; I say, the first time he saw
me, it appeared his tone was altered; and, looking very melancholy, and
shaking his head, he asked me how I did, and telling his father who I was,
and how I had come this voyage only for a trial, in order to go farther
abroad: his father, turning to me with a very grave and concerned tone,
“Young man,” says he, “you ought never to go to sea any more; you ought
to take this for a plain and visible token that you are not to be a seafaring
man.” “Why, sir,” said I, “will you go to sea no more?” “That is another
case,” said he; “it is my calling, and therefore my duty; but as you made
this voyage for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given you of what
you are to expect if you persist. Perhaps this has all befallen us on your
escount, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray,” continues he, “what are
you; and on what account did you go to sea?” Upon that I told him some
of my story ; at the end of which he burst out into a strange kind of passion:

14




CRUSOE RECEIVES A REPROOF FROM HIS FRIEND'S FATHER.

“What had I done,” says he, “that such an unhappy wretch should come
into my ship? I would not set my foot in the same ship with thee ogain
for a thousand pounds.” This indeed was, as I said, an excursion of his
spirits, which were yet agitated by the sense of his loss, and was farther
than he could have authority to go. However, he afterwards talked very
gravely to me, exhorting me to go back to my father, and not tempt Provi-
dence to my ruin, telling me I might see a visible hand of Heaven against
me, “And, young man,” said he, “depend upon it, if you do not go back,
wherever you go, you will meet with nothing but disasters and disappoint-
ments, till your father’s words are fulfilled upon you.”
15
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I saw him ne
more; which way he went I knew not. As for me, having some money in
my pocket, I travelled to London by land; and there, as well as on the
road, had many struggles with myself, what course of life I should take,
and whether I should go home or go to sea.

As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered to my
thoughts ; and it immediately occurred to me how I should be laughed at _
among the neighbours, and should be ashamed to see, not my father and
mother only, but even everybody else; from whence I have since often
observed, how incongruous and irrational the common temper of mankind
is, especially of youth, to that reason which ought to guide them in such
cases, viz., that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent;
not ashamed of the action for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools,
but are ashamed of the returning, which only can make them be esteemed
wise men.

In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain what
measures to take, and what course of life to lead. An irresistible reluc-
tance continued to going home; and as I stayed awhile, the remembrance of
the distress I had been in wore off ; and as that abated, the little motion I
had in my desires to return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside
the thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.

That evil influence which carried me first away from my father’s house,—
which hurried me into the wild and indigested notion of raising my
fortune ; and that impressed those conceits so forcibly upon me, as to make
me deaf to all good advice, and to the entreaties and even the commands of
my father ;—I say, the same influence, whatever it was, presented the most
unfortunate of all enterprises to my view ; and I went on board a vessel
bound to the coast of Africa; or, as our sailors vulgarly called it, a
voyage to Guinea. ;

It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I did not ship
myself as a sailor; when, though I might indeed have worked a little
harder than ordinary, yet at the same time I should have learnt the duty
and office of a fore-mast man, and in time might have qualitied myself for
a mate or lieutenant, if not fora master. But as it was always my fate to
choose for the worse, so I did here; for having money in my pocket and
good clothes upon my back, I would always go on board in the habit of. a
gentleman; and so I neither had any business in the ship, nor learned

to do any.
16:
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in London,
which does not always happen to such loose and misguided young fellows
as I then was ; the devil generally not omitting to lay some snare for them
very early; but it was not so with me. I first got acquainted with the
master of a ship who had been on the coast of Guinea; and who, having
had very good success there, was resolved to go again. This captain taking
a fancy to my conversation, which was not at all disagreeable at that time,
hearing me say I had a mind to see the world, told me if I would go the
voyage with him I should be at no expense ; I should be his messmate and
his companion ; and if I could carry anything with me, I should have all
the advantage of it that the trade would admit ; and perhaps I might meet
with some encouragement. i

I embraced the offer; and entering into a strict friendship with this
captain, who was an honest, plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with him,
and carried a small adventure with me, which, by the disinterested honesty
of my friend the captain, I increased very considerably ; for I carried about
£40 in such toys and trifles as the captain directed me to buy. These £40
I had mustered together by the assistance of some of my relations whom
I corresponded with; and who, I believe, got my father, or at least my
mother, to contribute so much as that to my first adventure.

This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in all my
ventures, which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my friend the
ptain; under whom also I got a competent knowledge of the mathematics
d the rules of navigation, learned how to keep an account of the ship’s
course, take an observation, and, in short, to understand some things that
were needful to be understood by a sailor; for, as he took delight to
instruct me, I took delight to learn ; and, in a word, this voyage made me
both a sailor and a merchant ; for I brought home five pounds nine ounces
of gold-dust for my adventure, which yielded me in London, at my return,
ost £300 ; and this filled me with those aspiring thoughts which have
ince so completed my ruin. ©
Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too ; particularly, that. I
as continually sick, being thrown into a violent calenture by the excessive
eat of the climate ; our principal trading being upon the coast, from the
titude of fifteen degrees north even to the line itself.

I was now set up for a Guinea trader ; and my friend, to my great mis-
rtune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage again,
id I embarked in the same vessel with one who was his mate in the

17. c


















LIFE AND ADVENTURES

former voyage, and had now got the command of the ship. This was the
unhappiest voyage that ever man made; for though I did not carry quite
£100 of my new-gained wealth, so that I had £200 left, which I had lodged
with my friend’s widow. who was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible



CRUSOE LEARNS SOMETHING OF NAVIGATION.

misfortunes: the first was this—our ship making her course towards the

Canary Islands, or rather between those Islands and the African shore, was

surprised in the grey of the morning by a Turkish rover of Sallee, who gave

chase to us with all the sail she could make. We crowded also as much
1s
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

canvas as our yards would spread, or our masts carry to get clear; but find-
ing the pirate gained upon us, and would certainly come up with us in a few
hours, we prepared to fight; our ship having twelve guns, and the rogue
eighteen. About three in the afternoon he came up with us, and bringing
to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as he
intended, we brought eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured in
a broadside upon him, which made him sheer off again, after returning our
fire, and pouring in also his small shot from near two hundred men which
he had on board. However, we had not a man touched, all our men
keeping close. He prepared to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves.
But laying us on board the next time upon our other quarter, he entered





CRUSOE’S SHIPMATES ARE TAKEN UP THE COUNTRY BY THE MOORS.






sixty men upon our decks, who immediately fell to cutting and hacking the
sails and rigging. We plied them with small shot, half-pikes, powder-
hests, and such like, and cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut
short this melancholy part of our story, our ship being disabled, and three
of our men killed, and eight wounded, we were obliged to yield, and were
carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I apprehended ;
or was I carried up the country to the emperor’s court, as the rest of our
men were, but was kept by the captain of the rover as his proper prize,

and made his slave, being young and nimble, and fit for his business. At
19
ROBINSON CRUSOE.

this surprising change of my circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable
slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed; and now I looked back upon my
father’s prophetic discourse to me, that I should be miserable and have none
to relieve me, which I thought was now so effectually brought to pass, that
T could not be worse ; for now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and
I was undone without redemption ; but, alas! this was but a taste of the
misery I was to go through, as will appear in the sequel of this story.

As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house, so I was
in hopes that he would take me with him when he went to sea again, believ-
ing that it would some time or other be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or
Portugal man-of-war ; and that then I should be set at liberty. But this
hope of mine was soon taken away ; for when he went to sea, he left me on
shore to look after his little garden, and do the common drudgery of slaves
about his house ; and when he came home again from his cruise, he ordered
me to lie in the cabin to look after the ship.

Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I might take
to effect it, but found no way that had the least probability in it; nothing
presented to make the supposition of it rational; for I had nobody to com-
municate it to that would embark with me—no fellow-slave, no Englishman,
Irishman, or Scotchman, there but myself; so that for two years, though I
often pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had the least encourag-
ing prospect of putting it in practice.

After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself, which put
the old thought of making some attempt for my liberty again in my head.
My patron lying at home longer than usual without fitting out his ship,
which, as I heard, was for want of money, he used, constantly, once or twice
a week, sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship’s pinnace,
and go out into the road a-fishing; and, as he always took me and young
Maresco with him to row the boat, we made him very merry, and I proved
very dexterous in catching fish ; insomuch that sometimes he would send me
with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth—the Maresco, as they called
him—to catch a dish of fish for him.

It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a calm morning, a fog rose
so thick that, though we were not half a league from the shore, we lost sight
of it; and rowing we knew not whither or which way, we laboured all day,
and all the next night; and when the morning came, we found we had
pulled off to sea instead of pulling in for the shore; and that we were at
least two leagues from the shore. However, we got well in again, though with

20










cS

CRUSOE MEDITATES HIS ESCAPE.



a great deal of labour and some danger ; for the wind began to blow pretty
fresh in the morning ; but we were all very hungry.

But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more care
of himself for the future; and having lying by him the long-boat of our
English ship that he had taken, he resolved he would not go a-fishing any
more without a compass and some provision; so he ordered the carpenter
of his ship, who also was an English slave, to build a little state-room, or
cabin, in the middle of the long-boat, like that of a barge, with a place
to stand behind it to steer, and haul home the main-sheet; and room
before for a hand or two to stand and work the sails. She sailed with what
we call a shoulder-of-mutton sail; and the boom gibed over the top of the
cabin, which lay very snug and low, and had in it room for him to lie,
with a slave or two, and a table to eat on, with some small lockers to put
in some bottles of such liquor as he thought fit to drink ; and his bread.
rice. and coffee.

oy
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

We went frequently out with his boat a-fishing; and as I was most
dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without me. It happened
that he had appointed to go out in this boat, either for pleasure or for fish,
with two or three Moors of some distinction in that place, and for whom
he had provided extraordinarily, and had therefore sent on board the boat
over-night a larger store of provisions than ordinary ; and had ordered me
to get ready three fusees with powder and shot, which were on board his
ship, for that they designed some sport of fowling as well as fishing.

I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the next morning
with the boat washed clean, her ancient and pendants out, and everything
to accommodate his guests; when by-and-by my patron came on board
alone, and told me his guests had put off going, from some business that
fell out, and ordered me, with the man and boy, as usual, to go out with
the boat and catch them some fish, for that his friends were to sup at his
house; and commanded that as soon as I got some fish I should bring it
home to his house ; all which I prepared to do.

This moment, my former notions of deliverance darted into my thoughts,
for now I found I was likely to have a little ship at my command;
and my master being gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not for fishing
business, but for a voyage; though I knew not, neither did I so much
as consider, whither I should steer,—anywhere to get out of that place
was my desire.

My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this Moor,
to get something for our subsistence on board; for I told him we must
not presume to eat of our patron’s bread. He said that was true; so
he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit, and three jars of fresh
water, into the boat. I knew where my patron’s case of bottles stood,
which it was evident, by the make, were taken out of some English
prize, and I conveyed them into the boat while the Moor was on shore, as
if they had been there before for our master. I conveyed also a great
lump of bees-wax into the boat, which weighed above half a hundred-
weight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer,
all of which were of great use to us afterwards, especially the wax to
make candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which he innocently
came into also: his name was Ismael, which they call Muley, or Moely;

so I called to him :—“Moely,” said I, “our patron’s guns are on board .

the boat; can you not get a little powder and shot? It may be we
may kill some alcamies (a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves, for I

22
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

know he keeps the gunner’s stores in the ship.” “Yes,” says he, “Il
bring some;” and accordingly he brought a great leather pouch, which
held a pound and a half of powder, or rather more; and another with
shot, that had five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put all into
the boat. At the same time, I had found some powder of my master’s
in the great cabin, with which I filled one of the large bottles in the
case, which was almost empty, pouring what was in it into another;
and thus furnished with everything needful, we sailed out of the port to
fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of the port, knew who we
were, and took no notice of us; and we were not above a mile out of
the port before we hauled in our sail, and set us down to fish. The
wind blew from the N.N.E., which was contrary to my desire, for had
it blown southerly, I had been sure to have made the coast of Spain,
and at least reached to the bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions were,
blow which way it would, I would be gone’ from that horrid place
where I was, and leave the rest to fate.

After we had fished some time and caught nothing, for when I had
fish on my hook, I would not pull them up, that he might not see them,
I said to the Moor, “This will not do; our master will not be thus

_ served ; we must stand farther off.” He, thinking no harm, agreed, and,
being in the head of the boat, set the sails; and, as I had the helm,
I run the boat out near a league farther, and then brought her to,
as if I would fish; when, giving the boy the helm, I stepped forward
to where the Moor was, and making as if I stooped for something
behind him, I took him by surprise with my arm under his waist, and
tossed him clear overboard into the sea. He rose immediately, for he
swam like a cork, and called to me, begged to be taken in, told me
he would go all over the world with me. He swam so strong after the
boat, that he would have reached me very quickly, there being but little
wind; upon which I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the
fowling-pieces, I presented it at him, and told him I had done him no
hurt, and if he would be quiet I would do him none: “But,” said
T, “you swim well enough to reach to the shore, and the sea is calm ;
make the best of your way to shore, and I will do you no harm; but
if you come near the boat, Ill shoot you through the head, for I am
resolved to have my liberty:” so he turned himself about, and swam for
the shore, and I make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for he was
an excellent swimmer.
23
ROBINSON CRUSUE.

I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me, and
have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust him. When
he was gone, I turned to the boy, whom they called Xury, and said to
him, “ Xury, if you will be faithful to me, Il make you a great man;
but if you will not stroke your face to be true to me,” that is, swear
by Mahomet and his father's beard, “I must throw you into the sea
too.” The boy smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently, that I could
not distrust him, and swore to be faithful to me, and go all over the
world with me.

While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood out
directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching to windward, that they
might think me gone towards the Straits’ mouth (as indeed any one
that had been in their wits must have been supposed to do): for who
would have supposed we were sailed on to the southward, to the truly
Barbarian coast, where whole nations of Negroes were sure to surround
us with their canoes, and destroy us; where we could not go on shore ©
but we should be devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless savages
of human kind.

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my course,
and steered directly south and by east, bending my course a little towards
the east, that I might keep in with the shore: and having a fair, fresh
gale of wind, and a smooth, quiet sea, I made such sail tuat I believe
by the next day at three o’clock in the afternoon, when I first made
the land, I could not be less than one hundred and fifty miles south
of Sallee: quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions, or indeed
of any other king thereabouts, for we saw no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken of the Moors, and the dreadful
apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, .that I would not stop,
or go on shore, or come to an anchor; the wind continuing fair till I
had sailed in that manner five days; and then the wind shifting to
the southward, I concluded also that if any of our vessels were in chase
of me, they also would now give over; so I ventured to make to the
coast, and came to an anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew
not what, nor where; neither what latitude, what country, what nation,
or what river. J neither saw, nor desired to see any people; the principal
thing I wanted was fresh water. We came into this creek in the evening,
resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and discover the

country; but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadfu2
24 i














XURY SWEARS TO BE FAITHFUL,

noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures, of we knew
not what kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and
begged of me not to go on shore till day. “ Well, Xury,” said I, “then
I won't; but it may be that we may see men by day, who will be as
bad to us as those lions”—“Then we give them the shoot gun,” says
Xury, laughing, “make them run wey.” Such English Xury spoke by
conversing among us slaves. However, I was glad to see the boy so
cheerful, and I gave him a dram (out of our patron’s case of bottles)
to cheer him up. After all, Xury’s advice was good, and I took it: we
dropped our little anchor, and lay still all night; I say still, for we slept
none; for in two or three hours we saw vast great creatures (we knew
not what to call them) of many sorts, come down to the sea-shore, and
run into the water, wallowing and washing themselves for the pleasure
of cooling themselves ; and they made such hideous howlings and yellings,
that I never indeed heard the like.

Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but we were

both more frighted when we heard one of these mighty creatures come
25
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

swimming towards our boat; we could not see him, but we might hear
him by his blowing to be a monstrous huge and furious beast. Xury
said it was a lion, and it might be so for aught I know; but poor Xury
cried to me to weigh the anchor and row away: “ No,” says I, “Xury; we
can slip our cable, with the buoy to it, and go off to sea; they cannot
follow us far.” I had no sooner said so, but I perceived the creature
(whatever it was) within two oars’ length, which something surprised me ;
however, I immediately stepped to the cabin-door, and taking up my gun,
fired at him; upon which he immediately turned about, and swam towards
the shore again.

But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises, and hideous cries
and howlings, that were raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as
higher within the country, upon the noise or report of the gun, a thing I
have some reason to believe those creatures had never heard before : this
convinced me that there was no going on shore for us in the night on
that coast, and how to venture on shore in the day was another question
too; for to have fallen into the hands of any of the savages, had been
as bad as to have fallen into the hands of the lions and tigers; at least
we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.

Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere or
other for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat ; when and where
to get to it was the point. Xury said, if I would let him go on shore
with one of the jars, he would find if there was any water, and bring
some to me. I asked him why he would go? why I should not go,
and he stay in the boat? The boy answered with so much affection,
as made me love him ever after. Says he, “If wild mans come, they
eat me, you go wey.”—“ Well, Xury,” said I, “we will both go, and if
the wild mans come, we will kill them, they shall eat neither of us.’
So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a dram out of our
patron’s ease of bottles which I mentioned before ; and we hauled the
boat in as near the shore as we thought was proper, and so waded on
shore ; carrying nothing but our arms, and two jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming of
canoes with savages down the river; but the boy seeing a low place
about a mile up the country, rambled to it, and by-and-by I saw him
come running towards me. I thought he was pursued by some savage,
or frighted with some wild beast, and I ran forwards towards him to
help him; but when I came nearer to him, I saw something hanging

26
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

over his shoulders, which was a creature that he had shot, like a hare, but
different in colour, and longer legs: however, we were very glad of it, and
it was very good meat ; but the great joy that poor Xury came with, was to
tell me he had found good water, and seen no wild mans.

But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for water,
for a little higher up the creek where we were we found the water fresh
when the tide was out, which flowed but a little way up; so we filled our
jars, and feasted on the hare we had killed, and prepared to go on our way,
having seen no footsteps of any human creature in that part of the country.



TUE MOORS GO A HUNTING IN AN ARMY.

As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very well that
the islands of the Canaries and the Cape de Verd Islands also, lay not far
off from the coast. But as I had no instruments to take an observation to
know what latitude we were in, and not exactly knowing, or at least
remembering, what latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for
them, or when to stand off to sea towards them; otherwise I might now
easily have found some of these islands. But my hope was, that if I stood
along this coast till I came to that purt where the English traded, I should
find some of their vessels upon their usual design of trade, that would
relieve and take us in.

By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was must be that
country which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions and the

o7
al
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

Negroes, lies waste and uninhabited, except by wild beasts; the Negroes
having abandoned it, and gone farther south, for fear of the Moors; and the
Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness ; and,
indeed, both forsaking it because of the prodigious numbers of tigers, lions,
leopards, and other furious creatures which harbour there; so that the
Moors use it for their hunting only, where they go like an army, two or
three thousand men at a time: and, indeed, for near a hundred miles to-
gether upon this coast, we saw nothing but a waste uninhabited country by
day, and heard nothing but howlings and roaring of wild beasts by night.

Once or twice in the day-time, I thought I saw the Pico of Teneriffe,
being the high top of the Mountain Teneriffe in the Canaries; and had a
great mind to venture out, in hopes of reaching thither; but having tried
twice, I was forced in again by contrary winds, the sea also going too high
for my little vessel ; so I resolved to pursue my first design, and keep along
the shore.

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we had left
this place; and once in particular, being early in the morning, we came to
an anchor under a little point of land, which was pretty high; and the tide
beginning to flow, we lay still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more
about him than it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me that we
had best go farther off the shore; “for,” says he, “look, yonder lies a
dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fast asleep.” I looked where *
he pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed, for it was a terrible great
lion that lay on the side of the shore, wader the shade of a piece of the hill
that hung as it were a little over him. “Xury,” says I, “you shall go on
shore and kill him.” Xury looked frighted, and said, “Me kill! he eat me
at one mouth ;” one mouthful he meant. However, I said no more to the
boy, but bade him lie still, and I took our biggest gun, which was almost
musket bore, and loaded it with a good charge of powder, and with two
slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded another gun with two bullets; and
the third (for we had three pieces) I loaded with five smaller bullets. I
took the best aim I could with the first piece to have shot him in the head,
but he lay so with his leg raised a little above his nose that the slugs hit
his leg about the knee, and broke the bone. He started up, growling at
first, but finding his leg broken, fell down again; and then got up upon
three legs, and gave the most hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a little
surprised that I had not hit him on the head; however, I took up the
second piece immediately, and though he began to move off, fired again, and

28
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

shot him in the head, and had the pleasure to see him drop and make but
little noise, but lie struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and would
have me let him go onshore. “ Well, go,” said 1: so the boy jumped into
the water, and taking a little gun in one hand, swam to shore with the
other hand, and coming close to the creature, put the muzzle of the piece to
his ear, and shot him in the head again, which despatched him quite. -

; his was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I was very
sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a creature that was good
for nothing to us. However, Xury said he would have some of him; so he
comes on board, and asked me to give him the hatchet. “For what, Xury?”
said I. “Me cut off his head,” said he. However, Xury could not cut
off his head, but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him, and it was a
monstrous great one.

I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him might, one
way or other, be of some value to us; and I resolved to take off his skin if
Icould. So Xury and I went to work with him ; but Xury was much the
better workman at it, for I knew very ill how to do “it. Indeed, it took us
both up the whole day, but at last we got off the hide of him, and spreading
it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two days’ time,
and it afterwards served me to lie upon.

After this stop, we made on to the southward continually for ten or twelve
days, living very sparingly on our provisions, which began to abate very
much, and going no oftener to the shore than we were obliged to for fresh
water. My design in this was, to make the River Gambia or Senegal, that
is to say, anywhere about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to meet
with some European ship; and if I did not, I knew not what course I had
to take, but to seek for the islands, or perish there among the Negroes. I.
knew that all the ships from Europe, which sailed either to the coast of
Guinea or to Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this Cape, or those islands ;
and, in a word, I put the whole of my fortune upon this single point, either
that I must meet with some ship, or must perish.

When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I have
said, I began to see that the land was inhabited; and in two or three
places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore to look at us;
we could also perceive they were quite black, and naked. I was once
inclined to have gone on shore to them; but Xury was my better coun-
sellor, and said to me, “No go, no go.” However, I hauled in nearer the
shore that I might talk to them, and I found they ran along the shore by

29
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

me a good way: I observed they had no weapons in their hands, except
one, who had a long slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that
they could throw them a great way with good aim; so I kept at a distance,
but talked with them by signs as well as I could; and particularly made
signs for something to eat; they beckoned to me to stop my boat, and they
would fetch me some meat. Upon this, I lowered the top of my sail, and lay
by, and two of them ran up into the country, and in less than half an hour
came back, and brought with them two pieces of dried flesh and some corn,
such as is the produce of their country ; but we neither knew what the one
or the other was: however, we were willing to accept it, but how to come
at it was our next dispute, for I would not venture on shore to them, and
they were as much afraid of us: but they took a safe way for us all,
for they brought it to the shore and laid it down, and went and stood a
great way off till we fetched it on board, and then came close to us again.

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make them
amends; but an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige them won-
derfully : for while we were lying by the shore, came two mighty creatures,
one pursuing the other (as we took it) with great fury from the mountains
towards the sea; whether it was the male pursuing the female, or whether
they were in sport or in rage, we could not tell, any more than we could
tell whether it was usual or strange, but I believe it was the latter; because,
in the first place, those ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night;
and, in the second place, we found the people terribly frighted, especially
the women. The man that had the lance or dart did not fly from them,
but the rest did; however, as the two creatures ran directly into the water,
they did not offer to fall upon any of the Negroes, but plunged themselves
into the sea, and swam about, as if they had come for their diversion: at
last one of them began to come nearer our boat than at first I expected ;
but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with all possible expe-
dition, and bade Xury load both the others. As soon as he came fairly
within my reach, I fired, and shot him directly in the head: immediately
he sank down into the water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and down,
as if he was struggling for life, and so indeed he was: he immediately made
to the shore; but between the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and the
strangling of the water, he died just before he reached the shore.

It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor creatures at
the noise and fire of my gun; some of them were even ready to die for
fear, and fell down as dead with the very terror; but when they saw the

30
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

creature dead, and sunk in the water, and that I made signs to them to
come to the shore, they took heart and came, and began to search for the
creature. I found him by his blood staining the water: and by the help
of a rope, which I slung round him, and gave the Negroes to haul, they
dragged him on shore, and found that it was a most curious leopard, spotted,
and fine to an admirable degree ; and the Negroes held up their hands with
admiration, to think what it was I had killed him with.

The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the noise of the
gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to the mountains from whence
they came; nor could I, at that distance, know what it was. I found
quickly the Negroes wished to eat the flesh of this creature, so I was
willing to have them take it as a favour from me; which, when I made
signs to them that they might take him, they were very thankful for.
Immediately they fell to work with him; and though they had no knife,
yet, with a sharpened piece of wood, they took off his skin as readily, and
rauch more readily, than we could have done with a knife. They offered
me some of the flesh, which I declined, pointing out that I would give it
them; but made signs for the skin, which they gave me very freely, and
brought me a great deal more of their provisions, which, though I did not
understand, yet I accepted. I then made signs to them for some water,
and held out one of my jars to them, turning it bottom upward, to show
that it was empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They called imme-
diately to some of their friends, and there came two women, and brought a
great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I supposed, in the sun; this they
set down to me, as before, and I sent Xury on shore with my jars, and filled
them all three. The women were as naked as the men.

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and water;
and leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward for about eleven days
more, without offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land run out a
great length into the sea, at about the distance of four or five leagues before
me; and the sea being very calm, I kept a large offing to make this point.
At length, doubling the point, at about two leagues from the land, I saw
plainly land on the other side, to seaward: then I concluded, as it was-
most certain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands
called, from thence, Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were'at a great
distance, and I could not well tell what I had best to do; for if I should be
taken with a fresh of wind, I might neither reach one or other.

Tn this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the cabin, and
31 :
ROBINSON CRUSOE.

sat down, Xury having the helm; when, on a sudden, the boy cried out,
“ Master, master, a ship with a sail!” and the foolish boy was frighted out
of his wits, thinking it must needs be some of his master’s ships sent 10
pursue us, but I knew we were far enough out of their reach. I jumped
out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only the ship, but that it was a
Portuguese ship ; and, as I thought, was bound to the coast of Guinea, for
Negroes. But, when I observed the course she steered, I was soon con-
vinced they were bound some other way, and did not design to come any
nearer to the shore: upon which I stretched out to sea as much as I could,
resolving to speak with them if possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to come in
their way, but that they would be gone by before I could make any signal
to them: but after I had crowded to the utmost, and began to despair, they,
it seems, saw, by the help of their glasses, that it was some European boat,
which they supposed must belong to some ship that was lost; so they
shortened sail to let me come up. I was encouraged with this, and as I
had my patron’s ancient on board, I made a waft of it to them, for a signal
of distress, and fired a gun, both which they saw; for they told me they
saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon these signals they
very kindly brought to, and lay by for me; and in about three hours time
I came up with them.

They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and in
French, but I understood none of them; but, at last, a Scotch sailor, who
was on board, called to me: and I answered him, and told him I was an
Englishman, that I had made my escape out of slavery from the Moors, at
Sallee ; they then bade me come on board, and very kindly took me in,
and all my goods.

It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will believe, that I was
thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable and almost hopeless
condition as I was in; and I immediately offered all I had to the captain
of the ship, as a return for my deliverance; but he generously told me,
he would take nothing from me, but that all I had should be delivered
safe to me, when I came to the Brazils. “For,” says he, “I have saved
your life on no other terms than I would be glad to be saved myself; and
it may, one time or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same condition.
Besides,” said he, “when I carry you to the Brazils, so great a way from
your own country, if I should take from you what you have, you will be
starved there, and then I only take away that life I have given, No, no,”

32
YN)



CRUSOE 1S TAKEN UP BY A PORTUGUESE VESSEL.

says he: “Seignor Inglese” (Mr. Englishman), “I will carry you thither in
charity, and those things will help to buy your subsistence there, and your
passage home again.”

As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the performance
to a tittle; for he ordered the seamen, that none should touch anything
that I had: then he took everything into his own possession, and gave me
back an exact inventory of them, that I might have them, even to my three
earthen jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw, and told me
he would buy it of me for his ship’s use; and asked me what I would have
for it? I told him, he had been so generous to me in everything, that I

could not offer to make any price of the boat, but left it entirely to him:
33 D
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

upon which, he told me he would give me a note of hand to pay me eighty
pieces of eight for it at Brazil; and when it came there, if any one offered
to give more, he would make it up. He offered me also sixty pieces of
eight more for my boy Xury, which I was loath to take; not that I was
unwilling to let the captain have him, but I was very loath to sell the poor
boy’s liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in procuring my own.
However, when I let him know my reason, he owned it to be just, and
offered me this medium, that he would give the boy an obligation to set him
free in ten years, if he turned Christian: upon this, and Xury saying he
was willing to go to him, I let the captain have him.

We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived in the Bay de
Todos los Santos, or All Saints’ Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And
now I was once more delivered from the most miserable of all conditions of
life; and what to do next with myself I was to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never enough
remember: he would take nothing of me for my passage, gave me twenty
ducats for the leopard’s skin, and forty for the lion’s skin, which I had in
my boat, and caused everything I had in the ship to be punctually delivered
to me; and what I was willing to sell, he bought of me, such as the case
of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees-wax—for I had
made candles of the rest: in a word, I made about two hundred and twenty
pieces of eight of all my cargo; and with this stock, I went on shore
in the Brazils.

I had not been long here, before I was recommended to the house of a
good, honest man, like himself, who had an ingenio, as they call it (that is,
a plantation and a sugar-house). I lived with him some time, and
acquainted myself, by that means, with the manner of planting and making
of sugar; and seeing how well the planters lived, and how they got rich
suddenly, I resolved, if I could get a licence to settle there, I would turn
planter among them ; resolving, in the mean time, to find out some way to
get my money, which I had left in London, remitted to me. To this
purpose, getting a kind of letter of naturalization, I purchased as much
land that was uncured as my money would reach, and formed a plan for
my plantation and settlement; such a one as might be suitable to the stock
which I proposed to myself to receive from England.

I had a neighbour, a Portuguese, of Lisbon, but born of English eta
whose name was Wells, and in much such circumstances as I was. I call
him my neighbour, because his plantation lay next to mine, and we went

34
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

on very sociably together. My stock was but low, as well as his; and we
rather planted for food than anything else, for about two years. However,
we began to increase, and our land began to come into order; so that the
third year we planted some tobacco, and made each of usa large piece of
ground ready for planting canes in the year to come. But we both wanted
help; and now I found, more than before, I had done wrong in parting
with my boy Xury.

But, alas! for me to do wrong that never did right, was no great wonder.
T had no remedy but to go on: I had got into an employment quite remote
to my genius, and directly contrary to the life I delighted in, and for which
I forsook my father’s house, and broke through all his good advice. Nay, I
was coming into the very middle station, or upper degree of low life, which
my father advised me to before, and which, if I resolved to go on with, I
might as well have stayed at home, and never have fatigued myself in the
world, as I had done; and I used often to say to myself, I could have done
this as well in England, among my friends, as have gone five thousand
miles off to do it among strangers and savages, in a wilderness, and at such
a distance as never to hear from any part of the world that had the least
knowledge of me.

In this manner I used to look upon my condition with the utmost
regret. I had nobody to converse with, but now and then this neighbour ;
no work to be done, but by the labour of my hands; and I used to say, I
lived just like a man cast away upon some desolate island, that had nobody
there but himself, But how just has it been—and how should all men
reflect, that when they compare their present conditions with others that
are worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the exchange, and be convinced
of their former felicity by their experience—I say, how just has it been, that
the truly solitary life I reflected on, in an island of mere desolation, should
be my lot, who had so often unjustly compared it with the life which I then
led, in which, had I continued, I had, in all probability, been exceeding
prosperous and rich.

I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying on the
plantation, before my kind friend, the captain of the ship that took me up
at sea, went back—for the ship remained there, in providing his lading, and
Preparing for his voyage, nearly three months ; when, telling him what little
stock I had left behind me in London, he gave me this friendly and sincere
advice :—« Seignor Inglese,” says he (for so he always called me), “if you
will give me letters, and a procuration ‘in form to me, with orders to tha

35
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

person who has your money in London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to
such persons as I shall direct, and in such goods as are proper for this
country, I will bring you the produce of them, God willing, at my return;
but, since human affairs are all subject to changes and disasters, I would
have you give orders but for one hundred pounds sterling, which, you say,
is half your stock, and let the hazard be run for the first ; so that, if it come
safe, you may order the rest the same way ; and, if it miscarry, you may
have the other half to have recourse to for your supply.”

This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I could not
but be convinced it was the best course I could take; so I accordingly
prepared letters to the gentlewoman with whom I had left my money, and
a procuration to the Portuguese captain, as he desired.

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full account of all my adventures
—my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the Portuguese captain at sea,
the humanity of his behaviour, and what condition I was now in, with all
other necessary directions for my supply; and when this honest captain
came to Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English merchants there,
to send over, not the order only, but a full account of my story to a
merchant at London, who represented it effectually to her; whereupon she
not only delivered the money, but, out of her own pocket, sent the Portugal
captain a very handsome present for his humanity and charity to me.

The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in English goods,
such as the captain had written for, sent them directly to him at Lisbon,
and he brought them all safe to me to the Brazils; among which, without
my direction (for I was too young in my business to think of them), he had
taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron work, and utensils, necessary for
my plantation, and which were of great use to me.

When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortunes made, for I was
surprised with the joy of it; and my good steward, the captain, had laid out
the five pounds, which my friend had sent him for a present for himself, to
purchase and bring me over a, servant, under bond for six years’ service, and
would not accept of any consideration, except a little tobacco, which I
would have him accept, being of my own produce.

Neither was this all ;.for my goods being all English manufacture, such
as cloths, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable and desirable in the
country, I found means to sell them to a very great advantage; so that I
might say, I had more than four times the value of my first cargo, and was
now infinitely beyond my poor neighbour—I mean in the advancement of

36
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

my plantation ; for the first thing I did, I bought me a negro slave, and an
European servant also—I mean another besides that which the captain
brought me from Lisbon.

But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means of our
greatest adversity, so was it with me. I went on the next year with great
success in my plantation: I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on my own
ground, more than I had disposed of for necessaries among my neighbours ;
and these fifty rolls, being each of above a hundred-weight, were well cured,
and laid by against the return of the fleet from Lisbon: and now increasing
in business and in wealth, my head began to be full of projects and under-
takings beyond my reach; such as are, indeed, often the ruin of the best
heads in business. Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had
room for all the happy things to have yet befallen me, for which my father
so earnestly recommended a quiet, retired life, and of which he had so
sensibly described the middle station of life to be full of; but other things
attended me, and I was still to be the wilful agent of all my own miseries ;
and particularly, to increase my fault, and double the reflections upon
myself, which in my future sorrows I should have leisure to make, all these
miscarriages were procured by my apparent obstinate adhering to my foolish
inclination of wandering abroad, and pursuing that inclination, in contradic-
tion to the clearest views of doing myself good in a fair and plain pursuit of
those prospects, and those measures of life, which nature and Providence
concurred to present me with, and to make my duty.

As I had once done thus in my breaking away from my parents, so I
could not be content now, but I must go and leave the happy view I had of
being a rich and thriving man in my new plantation, only to pursue a rash
and immoderate desire of rising faster than the nature of the thing
admitted; and thus I cast myself down again into the deepest gulf of
human misery that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent with
life, and a state of health in the world.

To come, then, by the just degrees, to the particulars of this part of my
story :—You may suppose, that having now lived almost four years in the
Brazils, and beginning to thrive and prosper very well upon my plantation,
T had not only learned the language, but had contracted acquaintance and
friendship among my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants at
St. Salvador, which was our port; and that, in my discourses among them,
Thad frequently given them an account of my two voyages to the coast of
Guinea ; the manner of trading with the Negroes there, and how easy it was

37
ROBINSON CRUSOE.

to purchase upon the coast for trifles—such as beads, toys, knives, scissors,
hatchets, bits of glass, and the like—not only gold dust, Guinea grains,
elephants’ teeth, &c., but Negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great
numbers.

They listened always very attentively to my discourses on these heads,
but especially to that part which related to the buying Negroes, which was
a trade, at that time, not only not far entered into, but, as far as it was, had
been carried on by assientos, or permission of the kings of Spain and
Portugal, and engrossed in the public stock; so that few Negroes were
bought, and those excessively dear.

It happened, being in company with some merchants and planters of my
acquaintance, and talking of those things very earnestly, three of them
came to me next morning, and told me they had been musing very much
upon what I had discoursed with them of the last night, and they came to
make a secret proposal to me ; and, after enjoining me secrecy, they told me
that they had a mind to fit cut a ship to go to Guinea; that they had all
plantations as well as I, and were straitened for nothing so much as
servants ; that as it was a trade that could not be carried on, because they
could not publicly sell the Negroes when they came home, so they desired
to make but one voyage, to bring the Negroes on shore privately, and divide
them among their own plantations; and, in a word, the question was,
whether I would go their supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading part
upon the coast of Guinea; and they offered me that I should have my
equal share of the Negroes, without providing any part of the stock.

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made to any
one that had not had a settlement and a plantation of his own to look after,
which was in a fair way of coming to be very considerable, and with a good
stock upon it; but for me, that was thus entered and established, and had
nothing to do but to go on as I had begun, for three or four years more, and
to have sent for the other hundred pounds from England; and who in that
time, and with that little addition, could scarce have failed of being worth
three or four thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing too—for me to
think of such a voyage was the most preposterous thing that ever man in
such circumstances could be guilty of.

But J, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more resist the
offer than I could restrain my first rambling designs when my father’s good
counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I told them I would go with all my

heart, if they would undertake to look after my plantation in my absence,
38




THE PLANTERS MAKE A PROPOSAL TO CRUSOE.

and would dispose of it to such as I should direct, if I miscarried. This
they all engaged to do, and entered into writings or covenants to do so; and
I made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and effects in case of my
death, making the captain of the ship that had saved my life, as before, my
universal heir, but obliging him to dispose of my effects as I had directed in
my will; one-half of the produce being to himself, and the other to be
shipped in England.

In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects, and to keep
up my plantation. Had I used half as much prudence to have looked into
my own interest, and have made a judgment of what I ought to have done
and not to have done, I had certainly never gone away from so prosperous
an undertaking, leaving all the probable views of a thriving circumstance,

and gone upon a voyage to sea, attended with all its common hazards,
39
ROBINSON CRUSOE.

to say nothing of the reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes to
myself.

But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my fancy
rather than my reason ; and, accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and the
cargo furnisked, and all things done, as by agreement, by my partners in the
voyage, I went on board in an evil hour, the Ist of September, 1659, being
the same day eight years that I went from my father and mother at Hull, in
order to act the rebel to their authority, and the fool to my own interests.

Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden, carried six
guns, and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy, and myself. We had on
board no large cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit for our trade
with the Negroes, such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and other trifles, espe-
cially little looking-classes, knives, scissors, hatchets and the like.

The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to the north-
ward upon our own coast, with design to stretch over for the African coast
when we came about ten or twelve degrees of northern latitude, which, it
seems, was the manner of course in those days. We had very good weather,
only excessively hot, all the way upon our own coast, till we came to the
height of Cape St. Augustino; from whence, keeping further off at sea, we
lost sight of land, and steered as if we were bound for the isle Fernando de
Noronha, holding our course N.E. by N., and leaving those isles on the east.
In this course we passed the line in about twelve days’ time, and were, by
our last observation, in seven degrees twenty-two minutes northern latitude,
when a violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge.
It began from the south-east, came about to the north-west, and then settled
in the north-east ; from whence it blew in such a terrible manner, that for
twelve days together we could do nothing but drive, and, scudding away before
it, let it carry us whither ever fate and the fury of the winds directed ; and,
during these twelve days, I need not say that I expected every day to be
swallowed up; nor, indeed, did any in the ship expect to save their lives.

In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of our men
die of the calenture, and one man and the boy washed overboard. About
the twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the master made an observation
as well as he could, and found that he was in about eleven degrees north
latitude, but that he was twenty-two degrees of longitude difference west
from Cape St. Augustino; so that he found he was upon the coast of
Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river Amazons, towards that

of the river Oroonoque, commonly called the Great River; and began to
40


‘



















CRUSOE AND THE MASTER EXAMINE YHE CHARTS

consult with me what course he should take, for the ship was leaky, and
very much disabled, and he was going directly back to the coast of Brazil.

I was positively against that; and looking over the charts of the sea-
coast of America with him, we concluded there was no inhabited country
for us to have recourse to, till we came within the circle of the Caribbee
Islands, and therefore resolved to stand away for Barbadoes; which, by
keeping off at sea, to avoid the indraft of the Bay or Gulf of Mexico, we
might easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days’ sail; whereas we
could not possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa without some
assistance both to our ship and to ourselves.

With this design we changed our course, and steered away N.W. by W.,
in order to reach some of our English islands, where I hoped for relief. But
our voyage was otherwise determined ; for, being in the latitude of twelve
degrees eighteen minutes, a second storm came upon us, which carried us

away with the same impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of the way
Al
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

of all human commerce, that, had all our lives beén saved as to the sea, we
’ were rather in danger of being devoured by savages than ever returning to
our own country.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our men early
in the morning cried out, “Land!” and we had no sooner run out of the
cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we were,
than the ship struck upon a sand, and in a moment, her motion being so
stopped, the sea broke over her in such a manner, that we expected we
should all have perished immediately ; and we were immediately driven
into our close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam and spray of the
sea.

It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like condition to
describe or conceive the consternation of men in such circumstances. We
knew nothing where we were, or upon what land-it was we were driven—
whether an island or the main, whether inhabited or not inhabited. As the
rage of the wind was still great, though rather less than at first, we could
not so much as hope to have the ship hold many minutes without breaking
into pieces, unless the winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn immediately
about. In a word, we sat looking upon one another, and expecting death
every moment, and every man, accordingly, preparing for another world ;
for there was little or nothing more for us to do in this. That which was our
present comfort, and all the comfort we had, was that, contrary to our
expectation, the ship did not break yet, and that the master said the wind
began to abate.

Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet the ship
having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us to expect her
getting off, we were in a dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing to do
but to think of saving our lives as well as we could. We had a boat at our
stern just before the storm, but she was first staved by dashing against the
ship’s rudder, and in the next place, she broke away, and either sunk, or
was driven off to sea; so there was no hope from her. We had another
boat on board, but how to get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing.
However, there was no time to debate, for we fancied the ship would break
in pieces every minute, and some told us she was actually broken already.

In this distress, the mate of our vessel laid hold of the boat, and with
the help of the rest of the men, got her slung over the ship's side; and
getting all into her, let go, and committed ourselves, being eleven in

number, to God’s mercy and the wild sea; for though the storm was abated
42
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

considerably, yet the sea ran dreadfully high upon the shore, and might be
well called den wild zee, as the Dutch call the sea in a storm. :

And now our case was very dismal indeed ; for we all saw plainly, that
the sea went so high that the boat could not live, and that we should be
inevitably drowned. As to making sail, we had none, nor, if we had, could
we have done anything with it; so we worked at the oar towards the land,
though with heavy hearts, like men going to execution; for we all knew
that when the boat came nearer the shore, she would be dashed in a
thousand pieces by the breach of the sea. However, we committed our
souls to God in the most earnest manner ; and the wind driving us towards
the shore, we hastened our destruction with our own hands, pulling as well ,
as we could towards land.

What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep or shoal, we
knew not. The only hope that could rationally give us the least shadow of
expectation, was, if we might find some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some
river, where by great chance we might have run our boat in, or got under
the lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth water. But there was nothing
like this appeared; but as we made nearer and nearer the shore, the land
looked more frightful than the sea.

After we had rowed or rather driven about a league and a half, as we
reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling astern of us, and
plainly bade us expect the coup de grace. In a word, it took us with such
a fury, that it overset the boat at once; and separating us, as well from the
boat as from one another, gave us not time to say, “O God!” for we were
all swallowed up in a moment.

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which T felt, when I sunk
into the water; for though I swam very well, yet I could not deliver myself —
from the waves so as to draw breath, till that wave having driven me, or
rather carried me, a vast way on towards the shore, and having spent itself,
went back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but half dead with the
water I took in. I had so much presence of mind, as well as breath left,
that, seeing myself nearer the main land than I expected, I got upon my
feet, and endeavoured to make on towards the land as fast as I could, before
another wave should return and take me up again; but I soon found it was
impossible to avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a great
hill, and as furious as an enemy, which I had no means or strength to
contend with: my business was to hold my breath, and raise myself upon
the water, if I could; and so, by swimming, to preserve my breathing and

43
ROBINSON CRUSOE,

pilot myself towards the shore, if possible, my greatest concern now being,
that the sea, as it would carry me a great way towards the shore when it
came on, might not carry me back again with it when it gave back
towards the sea.

The wave that came upon me again, buried me at once twenty or thirty
feet deep in its own body, and I could feel myself carried with a mighty
force and swiftness towards the shore a very great way; but I held my
breath, and assisted myself to swim still forward with all my might. I was
ready to burst with holding my breath, when as I felt myself raising up, so,
to my immediate relief, I found my head and hands shoot out above the
surface of the water; and though it was not two seconds of time that I
could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave me breath and new
courage. I was covered again with water a good while, but not so long but
T held it out; and, finding the water had spent itself and began to return, I
struck forward against the return of the waves, and felt ground again with
my feet. I stood still a few moments to recover breath and till the waters
went from me, and then took to my heels and ran, with what strength I
had, further towards the shore. But neither would this deliver me from the
fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me again; and twice more I
was lifted up by the waves and carried forwards as before, the shore
being very flat.

The last time of these two had well-nigh been fatal to me, for the sea
having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather dashed me, against
a piece of a rock, and that with such force, that it left me senseless, and
indeed helpless, as to my own deliverance; for the blow taking my side
and breast, beat the breath, as it were, quite out of my body; and had it
returned again immediately, I must have been strangled in the water; but
I recovered a, little before the return of the waves, and seeing I should be
covered again with the water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock,
and so to hold my breath, if possible, till the wave went back. Now, as the
waves were not so high as at first, being nearer land, I held my hold till the
wave abated, and then fetched another run, which brought me so near the
shore, that the next wave, though it went over me, yet did not so swallow
me up as to carry me away; and the next run I took, I got to the main
land, where, to my great comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the shore,
and sat me down upon the grass, free from danger and quite out of the
reach of the water.

I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up and thank
44



CHUSOE HOLDS FAST TO A PIZCE OF ROCK.

God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there was, some minutes
before, scarce any room to hope. I believe it is impossible to express, to
the life, what the ecstasies and transports of the soul are, when it is so
saved, as I may say, out of the very grave: and I do not wonder now at
the custom, when a malefactor, who has the halter about his neck, is tied
up, and just going to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought to him—I
say, I do not wonder that they bring a surgeon with it, to let him blood
that very moment they tell him of it, that the surprise may not drive the
animal spirits from the heart, and overwhelm him.

For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.

I walked about on the shore lifting up my hands, and my whole being,
as I may say, wrapt up in a contemplation of my deliverance ; making a
thousand gestures and motions, which I cannot describe; reflecting upon all
my comrades that were drowned, and that there should not be one soul
saved but myself; for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any
sign of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that were
not fellows.

I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the preach and froth of the
sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far off; and considered,

Lord! how was it possible I could get on shore?
45
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my condition,
I began to look round me, to see what kind of place I was in, and what was
next to be done: and I soon found my comforts abate, and that, in a word,
I had a dreadful deliverance: for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor
anything either to eat or drink to comfort me; neither did I see any



CRUSOE IS OVERWHELMED BY ASTOY/80MENT AT HIS DELIVERANCE

prospect before me, but that of perishing with hunger, or being devoured by
wild beasts; and that which was particularly afflicting to me was, that I
had no weapon, either to hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance, or
to defend myself against any other creature that might desire to kill me for

theirs. In a word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and
46
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE,

a little tobacco in a box. This was all my provisions; and this threw me
into terrible agonies of mind, that for a while, I ran about like a madman.
Night coming upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider what would
be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that country, as at night
they always come abroad for their prey.



CRUSOE GETS INTO A TREE TO SLEEP.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time, was to get up
into a thick bushy tree like a fir, but thorny, which grew near me, and
where I resolved to sit all night, and consider the next day what death I
should die, for as yet I saw no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong

from the shore, to see if I could find any fresh water to drink, which I did,
47
ROBINSON CRUSOE.

to my great joy; and having drank, and put a little tobacco in my mouth
to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured to
place myself so that if I should sleep I might not fall. And having cut me
a short stick, like a truncheon, for my defence, I took up my lodging; and
having been excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably
as, I believe, few could have done in my condition, and found myself more
refreshed with it than, I think, I ever was on such an occasion.

When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the storm
abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as before. But that which
surprised me most was, that the ship was lifted off in the night from the
sand where she lay, by the swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost
as far as the rock which I at first mentioned, where I had been so bruised
by the wave dashing me against it. This being within about a mile from
the shore where I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished
myself on board, that at least I might save some necessary things for
my use.

When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked about me
again, and the first thing I found was the boat, which lay, as the wind and
the sea had tossed her up, upon the land, about two miles on my right
hand. I walked as far as I could upon the shore to have got to her; but
found a neck or inlet of water between me and the boat which was about
half a mile broad; so I came back for the present, being more intent upon
getting at the ship, where I hoped to find something for my present sub-
sistence.

A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed so far
out that I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship. And here I
found a fresh renewing of my grief; for I saw evidently, that if we had
kept on board, we had been all safe—that is to say, we had all got safe on
shore, and I had not been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all
comfort and company as I now was. This forced tears to my eyes again ;

‘but as there was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get to the
ship ; so I pulled off my clothes, for the weather was hot to extremity, and
took the water. But when I came to the ship, my difficulty was still
greater to know how to get on board; for, as she lay aground, and high out
of the water, there was nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam
round her twice, and the second time I spied a small piece of rope, which
I wondered I did not see at first, hung down by the fore-chains so low, as
that with great difficulty I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope I got

48
Of ROBINSON CRUSOE.

up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that the ship was bulged,
and had a great deal of water in her hold; but that she lay so on the side
of abank of hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern lay lifted up upon
the bank, and her head low, almost to the water. By this means all her
quarter was free, and all that was in that part was dry; for you may be



CRUSOE CLIMBS INTO TILE WRECK BY THE FORECHAINS,

sure my first work was to search, and to see what was spoiled and what
was free. And, first, I found that all the ship’s provisions were dry and
untouched by the water, and being very well disposed to eat, I went to the
bread-room, and filled my pockets with biscuit, and eat it as I went about
other things, for I had no time to lose, I also found some rum in the great

cabin, of which I took a large dram, and which I had, indeed, need enough
49 E


LIFE ANI) ADVENTURES

of to spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a
boat to furnish myself with many things which I foresaw would be very
necessary to me.

It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had 3 and
this extremity roused my application. We had several spare yards, and
two or three large spars of wood, and a spare top-mast or two in the ship :
T resolved to fall to work with these, and I flung as many of them over-
board as I could manage for their weight, tying every one with a rope, that
they might not drive away. When this was done, I went down the ship’s
side, and pulling them to me, I tied four of them together at both ends,
as well as I could, in the form of a raft, and laying two or three short pieces
of plank upon them cross-ways, I found I could walk upon it very well,
but that it was not able to bear any great weight, the pieces being too light.
So I went to work, and with a carpenter’s saw I cut a spare top-mast into
three lengths, and added them to my raft, with a great deal of labour and
pains. But the hope of furnishing myself with necessaries, encouraged me
to go beyond what I should have been able to have done upon another
occasion.

My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight. My
next care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what I laid upon
it from the surf of the sea: but I was not long considering this. I first
laid all the plank or boards upon it that I could get, and having considered
well what I most wanted, I first got three of the seamen’s chests, which I
had broken open and emptied, and lowered them down upon my raft; the
first of these I filled with provisions, viz. bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses,
five pieces of dried goat’s flesh (which we lived much upon), and a little
remainder of European corn, which had been laid by for some fowls which
we brought to sea with us, but the fowls were killed. There had been
some barley and wheat together; but, to my great disappointment, I found
afterwards that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found
several cases of bottles belonging to our skipper, in which were some cordial
waters; and, in all, about five or six gallons of rack, These I stowed by
themselves, there being no need to put them into the chest, nor any room for
them. While I was doing this, I found the tide began to flow, though very
calm; and I had the mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which
Thad left on the shore, upon the sand, swim away. As for my breeches,
which were only linen, and open-knee’d, I swam on board in them and my
stockings. However, this set me on rummaging for clothes, of which I

50

OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

found enough, but took no more than I wanted for present use, for I had
other things which my eye was more upon—as, first, tools to work with
on shore. And it was after long searching that I found out the carpenter’s
chest, which was, indeed, a very useful prize to me, and much more valuable
than a ship-load of gold would have been at that time. I got it down to my



CRUSOE GETS INTO THE FORECASTLE.

raft, whole as it was, without losing time to look into it, for I knew in
general what it contained.

My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were two
very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols. These I
secured first, with some powder-horns and a small bag of shot, and two old
rusty swords. I knew there were three barrels of powder in the ship, but

knew not where our gunner had stowed them; but with much search I
51
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

found them, two of them dry and good, the third had taken water. Those
two I got to my raft, with the arms. And now I thought myself pretty
well freighted, and began to think how I should get to shore with them,
having neither sail, oar, nor rudder; and the least cap-full of wind would
have overset all my navigation.





\ \ ye NK
\—\ \
\ ‘ \y
\ \ \
ON \
ye ON

Bs aA



CRUSOE LOADS HIS RAFT.

I had three encouragements: 1st, a smooth, calm sea; 2ndly, the tide
rising, and setting in to the shore; 3rdly, what little wind there was blew
me towards the land. And thus, having found two or three broken oars
belonging to the boat-—and, besides the tools which were in the chest, I
found two saws, an axe, and a hammer: with this cargo I put to sea. For
a mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that I found it drive

a little distant from the place where I had landed before; by which I
52
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

perceived that there was some indraft of the water, and consequently, I
hoped to find some creek or river there, which I might make use of as a
port to get to land with my cargo. ~

As I imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a little opening of
the land, and I found a strong current of the tide set into it; so I guided
my raft, as well as I could, to keep in the middle of the stream.



CRUSOE’S RAFT IS NEARLY UPSET.

But here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if I had,
I think, verily, would have broken my heart; for, knowing nothing of the
coast, my raft ran aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and not being
aground at the other end, it wanted but a little that all my cargo had
slipped off towards the end that was afloat, and so fallen into the water. I

did my utmost, by setting my back against the chests, to keep them in their
53
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

places, but could not thrust off the raft with all my strength ; neither durst
I stir from the posture I was in; but holding up the chests with all my
might, I stood in that manner near half an hour, in which time the rising
of the water brought me a little more upon a level; and, a little after, the
water still rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off with the oar I
had into the channel, and then driving up higher, I at length found myself
in the mouth of a little river, with land on both sides, and a strong current
of tide running up. I looked on both sides for a proper place to get to
shore, for I was not willing to be driven too high up the river: hoping, in,
time, to see some ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place myself as near
the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek, to
which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last got
so near, that, reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust her directly
in. But here I had like to have dipped all my cargo into the sea again ;
for that shore lying pretty steep—that is to say, sloping—there was no
place to land, but where one end of my float, if it ran on shore, would
lie so high, and the other sink lower, as before, that it would endanger
my cargo again. All that I could do, was to wait till the tide was at
the highest, keeping the raft with my oar like an anchor, to hold the
side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of ground, which I expected
the water would flow over; and so it did. As soon as I found water
enough—for my raft drew about a foot of water—I thrust her on upon
that flat piece of ground, and there fastened or moored her, by sticking
my two broken oars into the ground, one on one side, near one end,
and one on the other side, near the other end; and thus I lay till the
water ebbed away, and left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper place
for my habitation, and where to stow my goods to secure them from
whatever might happen. Where I was, I yet knew not; whether on the
continent or on an island; whether inhabited or not inhabited ; whether
in danger of wild beasts or not. There was a hill not above a mile
from me, which rose up very steep and high, and which seemed to
overtop some other hills, which lay as in a ridge from it, northward.
I took out one of the fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn
of powder; and thus armed, I travelled for discovery up to the top of
that hill, where, after I had with great labour and difficulty got to the
top. I saw my fate, to my great affliction, viz. that I was in an island
54
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

environed every way with the sea: no land to be seen except some rocks, ’
which lay a great way off; and two small islands, less than this, which
lay about three leagues to the west.

I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw
good reason to believe, uninhabited except by wild beasts, of whore.
however, I saw none. Yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not
their kinds; neither when I killed them could I tell what was fit for
food, and what not. At my coming back, I shot at a great bird which
I saw sitting upon a tree on the side of a great. wood. I believe it
was the first gun that had been fired there since the creation of the world.
I had no sooner fired, than from all parts of. the wood there arose an
innumerable number of fowls, of many sorts, making a confused screaming
and crying, and every one according to his usual note, but not one of
them of any kind that I knew. As for the creature I killed, I took
it to be a kind of hawk, its colour and beak resembling it, hut it had
no talons or claws more than common. Its flesh was carrion, and fit for
nothing.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and fell to
work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the rest of that -
day. What to do with myself at night I knew not, nor indeed where to
rest, for I was afraid to lie down on the ground, not knowing but some
wild beast might devour me, though, as I afterwards found, there was
really no need for those fears. :

However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round with the
chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and made a kind of
hut for that night’s lodging. As for food, I yet saw not which way te
supply myself, except that I had seen two or three creatures, like hares,
run out of the wood where I shot the fowl.

I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many things
out of the ship which would be useful to me, and. particularly some
of the rigging and sails, and such other things as might come to land;
and I resolved to make another voyage on board the vessel, if possible.
And as I knew that the first storm that blew must necessarily break
her all in pieces, I resolved to set all other things apart till I had got
everything out of the ship that I could get.. Then I called a council—
that is to say, in my thoughts—whether I should take back the. raft;
but this appeared impracticable: so I resolved to go as before, when the
tide was down; and I did so, only that I stripped before I went from

55
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

my hut, having nothing on but a chequered shirt, a pair of linen drawers,
and a pair of pumps on my feet.

I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft; and,
having had experience of the first, I neither made this so unwieldy, ner
loaded it so hard, but yet I brought away several things very useful
to me; as, first, in the carpenter’s stores, I found two or three bags full
of nails and spikes, a great screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and,
above all, that most useful thing called a grindstone. All these I secured,
together with several things belonging to the gunner, particularly two
or three iron crows, and two barrels of musket bullets, seven muskets,
another fowling-piece, with some small quantity of powder more; a large
bagful of small shot, and a great roll of sheet-lead ; but this last was so
heavy, I could not hoist it up to get it over the ship’s side.

Besides these things, I took all the men’s clothes that I could find,
and a spare fore-top sail, a hammock, and some bedding ; and with this I
loaded my second raft, and brought them all safe on shore, to my very
great comfort.

I was under some apprehension, during my absence from the land,
that at least my provisions might be devoured on shore: but when I
came back, I found no sign of any visitor; only there sat a creature
like a wild cat, upon one of the chests, which, when I came towards
it, ran away a little distance, and then stood still. She sat very com-
posed and unconcerned, and looked full in my face, as if she had a
mind to be acquainted with me. I presented my gun at her, but, as
she did not understand it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did
she offer to stir away; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit, though,
by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store was not great : however,
I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled at it, and ate it,
and looked (as if pleased) for more; but I thanked her, and could spare no
more: so she marched off.

Having got my second cargo on shore,—though I was fain to
open the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for they were
too heavy, being large casks,—I went to work to make me a little
tent, with the sail, and some poles which I cut for that purpose: and
into this tent I brought everything that I knew would spoil either with
rain or sun; and I piled all the empty chests and casks up in a circle
round the tent, to fortify it from any sudden attempt, either from man

or beast.
56
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with some
boards within, and an empty chest set up on end without; and spreading
one of the beds upon the ground, laying my two pistols just at my head,
and my gun at length by me, I went to bed for the first time, and slept
very quietly all night, for I was very weary and heavy ; for the night
before I had slept little, and had laboured very hard all day, to fetch all those
things from the ship, and to get them on shore.

























































































CRUSOE BARRICADES HIS TENT FOR THE NIGHT.

I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid up, I
believe, for one man: but I was not satisfied still, for while the ship sat
upright in that posture, I thought I ought to get everything out of her that
Teould: so every day at low water I went on board, and brought away
something or other; but particularly the third time I went, I brought away
as much of the rigging as I could, as also all the small ropes and rope-twine
Tcould get, with a piece of spare canvas, which was to mend the sails upon
occasion, and the barrel of wet gunpowder. In a word, I brought away
all the sails first and last ; only that I was fain to evt them in pieces, and
bring as much at a time as I could, for they were no more useful to be sails,
but as mere canvas only.

But that which comforted me more still, was, that last of all, after I had

made five or six such voyages as these, and thought I had nothing more to
57
ROBINSON CRUSOE.

expect from the ship that was worth my meddling with ;—I say, after all
this, I found a great hogshead of bread, three large runlets of rum, or
spirits, and a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine flour: this was surprising
to me, because I had given over expecting any more provisions, except
what was spoiled by the water. I soon emptied the hogshead of the bread,
and wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut out ;
and, in a word, I got all this safe on shore also.

The next day I made another voyage, and now, having plundered the
ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I began with the cables.
Cutting the great cable into pieces, such as I could move, I got two cables
and a hawser on shore, with all the iron-work I could get; and having cut
down the spritsail-yard, and the mizen-yard, and everything I could, to
make a large raft, I loaded it with all these heavy goods, and came away.
3ut my good luck began now to leave me; for this raft was so unwieldy,
and so overladen, that, after I had entered the little cove where I had
landed the rest of my goods, not being able to guide it so handily as I did
the other, it overset, and threw me and all my cargo into the water. As for
myself, it was no great harm, for I was near the shore; but as to my cargo,
it was a great part of it lost, especially the iron, which I expected would
have been of great use to me: however, when the tide was out, I got most
of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with infinite
labour ; for I was fain to dip for it into the water, a work which fatigued
me very much. After this, I went every day on board, and brought away
what I could get.

I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven times on
board the ship, in which time I had brought away all that one pair of
hands could well be supposed capable to bring; though I believe verily,
had the calm weather held, I should have brought away the whole ship,
piece by piece. But preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I found the
wind began to rise: however, at low water I went on board, and though I
thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectually, that nothing more could
be found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers in it, in one of which 1
found two or three razors, and one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a
dozen of good knives and forks: in another I found about thirty-six pounds
value in money—some European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight,
some gold, and some silver.

I smiled to myself at the sight of this money: “O drug!” said I, aloud,
“what art thou good for? Thou art not worth to me—no, not the taking

58


CRUSOE GETS DOWN TO THE CABLE.

off the ground: one of those knives is worth all this heap: I have no
manner of use for thee—e’en remain where thou art, and go to the bottom,
as a creature whose life is not worth saving.” However, upon second
thoughts, I took it away; and, wrapping all this in a piece of canvas, |
began to think of making another raft; but while I was preparing this, J

found the sky overcast, and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter of au
59
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore. It presently occurred to me, that
it was in vain to pretend to make a raft with the wind off shore; and that
it was my business to be gone before the tide of flood began, otherwise I
might not be able to reach the shore at all. Accordingly, I let myself
down into the water, and swam across the channel which lay between the
ship and the sands, and even that with difficulty enough, partly with the
weight of the things I had about me, and partly the roughness of the
water; for the wind rose very hastily, and before it was quite high water
it blew a storm.

But I had got home to my little tent, where I lay, with all my wealth
about me, very secure. It blew very hard all night, and in the morning,
when I looked out, behold no more ship was to be seen! I was a little
surprised, but recovered myself with the satisfactory reflection, that I had
lost no time, nor abated any diligence, to get everything out of her that
could be useful to me; and that, indeed, there was little left in her that I
was able to bring away, if I had had more time.

I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of anything out
of her, except what might drive on shore from her wreck; as, indeed,
divers pieces of her afterwards did; but those things were of small
use to me.

My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself against
either savages, if any should appear, or wild beasts, if any were in the
island; and I had many thoughts of the method how to do this, and
what kind of dwelling to make—whether I should make me a cave
in the earth, or a tent upon the earth; and, in short, I resolved upon
both ; the manner and description of which, it may not be improper to
give an account of.

I soon found the place I was in was not fit for my settlement,
because it was upon a low, moorish ground, near the sea, and I believed
it would not be wholesome, and more particularly because there was
no fresh water near it; so I resolved to find a more healthy and more
convenient spot of ground.

I consulted several things in my situation, which I found would
be proper for me: Ist, health and fresh water, I just now mentioned ;
Qndly, shelter from the heat of the sun; 3rdly, security from ravenous
creatures, whether man or beast; 4thly, a view to the sea, that if God
sent any ship in sight, I might not lose any advantage for my deliver-
ance, of which I was not willing to banish all my expectation yet.

60

i
'
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on the
side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was steep as
a house-side, so that nothing could come down upon me from the top.
On the side of the rock there was a hollow place, worn a little way

































































CRUSOE FINDS SOME MONEY IN THE WRECK.

in, like the entrance or door of a cave; but there was not really any
cave, or way into the rock at all.

On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I resolved to

- pitch my tent. This plain was not above a hundred yards broad, and about

twice as long, and lay like a green before my door ; and, at the end of it,

descended irregularly every way down into the low ground by the sea-side.

It was on the N.N.W. side of the hill; so that it was sheltered from the

61
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

heat every day, till it came to a W. and by S. sun, or thereabouts, which,
in those countries, is near the setting.

Before I set up my tent I drew a half-circle before the hollow place,
which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter, from the tock, and
twenty yards in its diameter, from its beginning and ending,

In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving them into
the ground till they stood very firm like piles, the biggest end being out of
the ground above five feet and a half, and sharpened on the top. The two
rows did not stand above six inches from one another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship, and laid
them in rows, one upon another, within the circle, between these two rows
of stakes, up to the top, placing other stakes in the inside, leaning against
them, about two feet and a half high, like a spur to a post ; and this fence
was so strong, that neither man nor beast could get into it or over it. This
cost me a great deal of time and labour, especially to cut the piles in the
woods, bring them to the place, and drive them into the earth.

The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but by a short
ladder to go over the top ; which ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after
me ; and so I was completely fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from all
the world, and consequently slept secure in the night, which otherwise I
could not have done; though, as it appeared afterwards, there was no need
of all this caution from the enemies that I apprehended danger from.

Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all my riches,
all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you have the account
above ; and I made a large tent, which, to preserve me from the rains, that
in one part of the year are very violent there, I made double, one smaller
tent within, and one larger tent above it ; and covered the uppermost with
a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among the sails,

And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had brought on
shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very good one, and belonged
to the mate of the ship. ;

Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that would
spoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed all my goods, I made up the
entrance, which till now I had left open, and so passed and repassed, as I
said, by a short ladder.

‘When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock, and
bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down out through my tent, I

laid them up within my fence, in the nature of terrace, so that it raised
62
OF ROBINSON CKUSOE.

the ground within abouta foot and a half; and thus I made me a cave, just
behind my tent, which served me like a cellar to my house.

Tt cost me much labour and many days before all these things were
brought to perfection ; and, therefore, I must go back to some other things
which took up some of my thoughts. At the same time it happened, after
I had laid my scheme for the setting up my tent, and making the cave, that
a storm of rain falling from a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning
happened, and after that, a great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect
of it. I was not so much surprised with the lightning, as I was with a
thought which darted into my mind as swift as the lightning itselfi—O my
powder! My very heart sank within me when I thought that, at one blast,
all my powder might be destroyed ; on which, not my defence only, but the
providing my food, as I thought, entirely depended. I was nothing near so
anxious about my own danger, though, had the powder took fire, 1 should
never have known who had hurt me.

Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm was over,
I laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying, and applied myself to
make bags and boxes, to separate the powder, and to keep it a little and a
little in a parcel, in the hope that whatever might come, it might not all
take fire at once ; and to keep it so apart, that it should not be possible to
make one part fire another. I finished this work in about a fortnight ; and
I think my powder, which in all was about two hundred and forty pounds
weight, was divided in not less than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel
that had been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from that; so I placed
it in my new cave, which, in my fancy, I called my kitchen ; and the rest I
hid up and down in holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it,
marking very carefully where I laid it.

In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out once at least
every day with my gun, as well to divert myself, as to see if I could kill
anything fit for food ; and, as near as I could, to acquaint myself with what
the island produced. The first time I went out, I presently discovered thar
there were goats in the island, which was a great satisfaction to me ; but
then it was attended with this misfortune to me, viz. that they were so shy,
so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the most difficult thing in the
world to come at them ; but I was not discouraged at this, not doubting but
I might now and then shoot one, as it soon happened ; for after I had found
their haunts a little, I laid wait in this manner for them : I observed if they
saw me in the valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would run

63
ROBINSON CRUSOE.

away, as in a terrible fright; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and 1
was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence I concluded,
that by the position of their optics, their sight was so directed downward,
that they did not readily see objects that were above them; so afterwards,
I took this method—I always climbed the rocks first, to get above them,
and then had frequently a fair mark.

The first shot I made among these creatures, I killed a she-goat, which
had a little kid by her, which she gave suck to, which grieved me heartily ;
for, when the old one fell, the kid stood stock still by her, till I came and
took her up ; and not only so, but when I carried the old one with me, upon
my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my enclosure; upon which, i
laid down the dam, and took the kid in my arms, and carried it over my
pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame; but it would not eat; so I was
forced to kill it, and eat it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great
while, for I ate sparingly, and saved my provisions, my bread especially, as
much as possibly I could.

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary to
provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn; and what I did for that,
and also how I enlarged my cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall
give a full account of in its place; but I must now give some little account
of myself, and of my thoughts about living, which, it may well be supposed,
were not a few.

I had a dismal prospect of my condition ; for, as I was not cast away
upon that island without being driven, as is said, by a violent storm, quite
out of the course of our intended voyage, and a great. way, viz. some
hundreds of leagues, out of the ordinary course of the trade of mankind, I
had great reason to consider it as a determination of Heaven, that in this
desolate place, and in this desolate manner, I should end my life. The tears
would run plentifully down my face when I made these reflections ; and
sometimes I would expostulate with myself why Providence should thus
completely ruin His creatures, and render them so absolutely miserable ;
so without help, abandoned, so entirely depressed, that it could hardly
be rational to be thankful for such a life.

But something always returned swift upon me to check these thoughts,
and to reprove me ; and particularly one day, walking with my gun in my
hand by the sea-side, I was very pensive upon the subject of my present
condition, when reason, as it were, expostulated with me the other way,
thus : “ Well, you are in a desolate condition, it is true ; but, pray remember,

64




CRUSOE WALKS BY THE SEA-SIDE IN GREAT DEJECTION

where are the rest of you? Did not you come eleven of you in the boat ?
Where are the ten? Why were not they saved, and you lost ? Why were
you singled out? Is it better to be here or there 2” And then I pointed to
the sea. All evils are to be considered with the good that is in them, and
with what worse attends them.

Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished for my subsist-
ence, and what would have been my case if it had not happened (which was
a hundred thousand to one) that the ship floated from the place where she
first struck, and was driven so near to the shore, that I had time to get all
these things out ofher ; what would have been my case, if I had been forced to
have lived in the condition in which I at first came on shore, without neces-

saries of life, or necessaries to supply and procure them? ~ Particularly,”
65 F
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

said I aloud (though to myself), “what should I have done without a gun,
without ammunition, without any tools to make anything, or to work with,
without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any manner of covering?” and that now
I had all these to sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to provide
myself in such a manner as to live without my gun, when my ammunition
was spent: so that I had a tolerable view of subsisting, without any want,
as long as I lived ; for I considered from the beginning, how I would
provide for the accidents that might happen, and for the time that was to
come, even not only after my ammunition should be spent, but even after
my health and strength should decay.

I confess, I had not entertained any notion of my ammunition being
destroyed at one blast—I mean my powder being blown up by lightning ;
and this made the thoughts of it so surprising to me, when it lightened and
thundered, as I observed just now.

And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene of silent
life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world before, I shall take it
from its beginning, and continue it in its order. It was, by my account,
the 30th of September, when, in the manner as above said, I first set foot
upon this horrid island ; when the sun, being to us in its autumnal equinox,
was almost just over my head: for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be
in the latitude of nine degrees twenty-two minutes north of the line.

After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into my
thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time for want of books, and
pen and ink, and should even forget the Sabbath days; but to prevent this,
I cut with my knife upon a large post, in capital letters, and making it into
a great cross, I set up on the shore where I first landed, “I came on shore
here on the 30th of September, 1659.”

Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a notch with my
knife, and every seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and every first
day of the month, as long again as that long one; and thus I kept my
calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.

In the next place, we are to observe that among the many things which
I brought out of the ship, in the several voyages which, as above mentioned,
I made to it, I got several things of less value, but not at all less useful to
me, which I omitted setting down before; as, in particular, pens, ink, and
paper; several parcels in the captain’s, mate’s, gunner’s, and carpenter’s
‘keeping ; three or four compasses, some mathematical instruments, dials,
perspectives, charts, and books of navigation ; all which I huddled together,

66
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE

whether I might want them or no: also, I found three very good Bibles,
which came to me in my cargo from England, and which I had packed up
among my things; some Portuguese books also; and, among them, two or
three Popish prayer-books, and several other books, all which I carefully
secured, And I must not forget, that we had in the ship a dog, and two
cats, of whose eminent history I may have occasion to say something in its
place; for I carried both the cats with me; and as for the dog, he jumped
out of the ship of himself, and swam on shore to me the day after I went
on shore with my first cargo, and was a trusty servant to me many years ;
I wanted nothing that he could fetch me, nor any company that he could





































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































CRUSOE SETS UP A POST.

make up to me; 1 only wanted to have him talk to me, but that would not
do. As I observed before, I found pens, ink, and paper, and I husbanded
them to the utmost; and I shall show that while my ink lasted, I kept
things very exact, but after that was gone I could not, for I could not make
any ink by any means that I could devise.

And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwithstanding
all that I had amassed together ; and of these, ink was one; as also a spade,
Pick-axe, and shovel, to dig or remove the earth; needles, pins, and thread:
48 for linen, I soon learned to want that without much difficulty.

This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily; and it was
Hear a whole year before I had entirely finished my little pale, or surrounded

67
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

my habitation. The piles or stakes, which were as heavy as I could well
lift, were a long time in cutting and preparing in the woods, and more, by
far, in bringing home; so that I spent sometimes two days in cutting and
bringing home one of those posts, and a third day in driving it into the
ground; for which purpose, I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last
bethought myself of one of the iron crows ; which, however, though I found
it, made driving those posts or piles very laborious and tedious work. But
what need I have been concerned at the tediousness of anything I had te
do, seeing I had time enough to do it in? nor had I any other employment,
if that had been over, at least that I could foresee, except the ranging the
island to seek for food, which I did, more or less, every day.

T now began to consider seriously my condition, and the circumstances
I was reduced to; and I drew up the state of my affairs in writing, not so
much to leave them to any that were to come after me—for I was likely te
have but few heirs—as to deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon
them, and afflicting my mind: and as my reason began now to master my
despondency, I began to comfort myself as well as I could, and to set
the good against the evil, that I might have something to distinguish my
case from worse; and I stated very impartially, like debtor and creditor,
the comforts I enjoyed against the miseries I suffered, thus :—

EVIL.

I am cast upon a horrible, deso-
late island, void of all hope of re-
covery.

I am singled out and separated,
as it were, from all the world, to be
miserable.

I am divided from mankind—a
solitaire; one banished from human
society.

I have not clothes to cover me.

GooD.

But I am alive ; and not drowned,
as all my ship’s company were.

But I am singled out, too, from
all the ship’s crew, to be spared from
death; and He that miraculously
saved me from death, can deliver me
from this condition.

But I am nat starved, and perish-
ing on a barren place, affording no

sustenance.

But I am ina hot climate, where, .
if I had clothes, I could hardly wear
them.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

EVIL. GOOD.

I am without any defence, or But I am cast on an island where
means to resist: any violence of man I see no wild beasts to hurt me, as I
or beast. saw on the coast of Africa : and what

if I had been shipwrecked there?

I have no soul to speak to or But God wonderfully sent the
relieve me. ship in near enough to the shore,

that I have got out as many neces-
sary things as will either supply my
wants or enable me to supply myself,
even as long as I live. .

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony, that there was scarce
any condition in the world so miserable but there was something negative or
something positive to be thankful for in it ; and let this stand as a direction,
from the experience of the most miserable of all conditions in this world:
that we may always find in it something to comfort ourselves from, and to
set, in the description of good and evil, on the credit side of the account.

Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition, and given
over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a ship—I say, giving over
these things, I began to apply myself to arrange my way of living, and to
make things as easy to me as I could.

I have already described my habitation, which was a tent under the side
of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts and cables; but I might
now rather call it a wall, for I raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs,
about two feet thick on the outside; and after some time (I think it was a
year and a half) I raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched
or covered it with boughs of trees, and such things as I could get, to keep
out the rain; which I found at some times of the year very violent.

T have already observed how I brought all my goods into this pale, and
into the cave which I had made.behind me. But I must observe, too, that
at first this was a confused heap of goods, which, as they lay in no order,-so
they took up all my place ; I had no room to turn myself: so I set myself
to enlarge my cave, and work farther into the earth ; for it was a loose sandy
rock, which yielded easily to the labour I bestowed on it: and so when I
found I was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways, to the right
hand, into the rock ; and then, turning to the right again, worked quite out,

and made me a door to come out on the outside of-my pale or fortification.
- 69
ROBINSON CRUSOE.

This gave me not only egress and regress, as it was a back way to my tent
and to my storehouse, but gave me room to store my goods.

And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary things as I
found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a table ; for without these I
was not able to enjoy the few comforts I had in the world ; I could not
write or eat, or do several things, with so much pleasure without a table : so
I went to work. And here I must needs observe, that as reason is the sub-
stance and origin of the mathematics, so by stating and squaring everything
by reason, and by making the most rational judgment of things, every man
may be, in time, master of every mechanic art. I had never handled a tool
in my life; and yet, in time, by labour, application, and contrivance, I found,
at last, that I wanted nothing but I could have made it, especially if I had
had tools. However, I made abundance of things, even without tools ; and
some with no more tools than an adze and a hatchet, which perhaps were
never made that way before, and that with infinite labour. For example, if I
wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree, set it on an edge
before me, and hew it flat on either side with my axe, till I had brought it
to be thin as a plank, and then dub it smooth with my adze. It is true, by
this method I could make but one board out of a whole tree ; but this I had
no remedy for but patience, any more than I had for the prodigious deal of time
and labour which it took me up to make a plank or board: but my time or
labour was little worth, and so it was as well employed one way as another.

However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above, in the first
place ; and this I did out of the short pieces of boards that I brought on
my raft from the ship. But when I had wrought out some boards as above,
I made large shelves, of the breadth of a foot and a half, one over another
all along one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work on;
and, in a word, to separate everything at large into their places, that I might
come easily at them. I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock to hang
my guns and all things that would hang up: so that, had my cave been
to be seen, it looked like a general magazine of all necessary things ; and I
had everything so ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me to
see all my goods in such order, and especially to find my stock of all neces-
saries so great.

And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every day's
employment ; for, indeed, at first, I was in too much hurry, and not only
hurry as to labour, but in too much discomposure of mind; and my

‘journal would have been full of many dull things ; for example, I must
70


Tee

CRUSOF LOOKS OUT TO SEA Fak A SAIL

have said thus: “ Sept. 30¢h.—After I had got to shore, and had escaped
drowning, instead of being thankful to God for my deliverance, having first
vomited, with the great quantity of salt water which had got into my
stomach, and recovering myself a little, I ran about the shore wringing my
hands and beating my head and face, exclaiming at my misery, and crying
out, ‘I was undone, undone!’ till, tired and faint, I was forced to lie down
on the ground to repose, but durst not sleep, for fear of being devoured.”

Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship, and got all
that I could out of her, yet I could not forbear getting up to the top of a
little mountain, and looked out to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship; then fancy,
at a vast distance, I spied a sail, please myself with the hopes of it, and then
after looking steadily, till I was almost blind, lose it quite, and sit down and
weep like a child, and thus increase my misery by my folly.

But having gotten over these things in some measure, and having settled
my household stuff and habitation, made me a table and a chair, and all as

a1
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

handsome about me as I could, I began to keep my journal; of which I shalt
here give you the copy (though in it will be told all these particulars over
again) as long as it lasted ; for having no more ink, I was forced to leave
it off.

THE JOURNAL.

September 30, 1659.—I, poor, miserable Robinson Crusoe, being ship-
wrecked, during a dreadful storm, in the offing, came on shore on this
dismal, unfortunate island, which I called “The Island of Despair ;” all
the rest of the ship’s company being drowned, and myself almost dead.

All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at the dismal circum-
stances I was brought to; viz. I had neither food, house, clothes, weapon,
nor place to fly to; and, in despair of any relief, saw nothing but death
before me—either that I should be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by
savages, or starved to death for want of food. At the approach of night I
slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures ; but slept soundly, though it rained
all night.

October 1—In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the ship had floated
with the high tide, and was driven on shore again much nearer the island ;
which, as it was some comfort, on one hand—for, seeing her set upright,
and not broken to pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board,
and get some food and necessaries out of her for my relief—so, on the other
hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades, who, I imagined, if
we had all stayed on board, might have saved the ship, or, at least, that they
would not have been all drowned, as they were; and that, had the men
been saved,*we might perhaps have built us a boat, out of the ruins of the
ship, to have carried us to some other part of the world. I spent great part
of this day in perplexing myself on these things; but, at length, seeing the
ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as near as I could, and then swam on
board. This day also it continued raining, though with no wind at all.

From the 1st of October to the 24th—All these days entirely spent in
many several voyages to get all I could out of the ship, which I brought on
shore every tide of flood upon rafts. Much rain also in the days, though
with some intervals of fair weather ; but it seems this was the rainy season.

Oct. 20.—I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got upon it; but,
being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly heavy, I recovered many
of them when the tide was out.

Oct. 25—It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of wind;
during which time the ship broke in pieces, the wind blowing a little harder

72 ;
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

than before, and was no more to be seen, except the wreck of her, and that
only at low water. I spent this day in covering and securing the goods
which I had saved, that the rain might not spoil them.

Oct, 26.—I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out a place to
fix my habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself from any attack in the
night, either from wild beasts or men. Towards night, I fixed upon a proper
place, under a rock, and marked out a semicircle for my encampment ; which
I resolved to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification, made of double
piles, lined within with cables, and without with turf.

From the 26th to 30th, I worked very hard in carrying all my goods to
my new habitation, though some part of the time it rained exceedingly hard.

The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with my gun, to
see for some food, and discover the country ; when I killed a she-goat, and
her kid followed me home, which I afterwards killed also, because it would
not feed.

November 1.—I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there for the first
night ; making it as large as I could, with stakes driven in to swing my
hammock upon.

Nov. 2—I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces of timber
which made my rafts, and with them formed a fence round me, a little
within the place I had marked out for ny fortification.

Nov. 3.—I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like ducks, which
were very good food. In the afternoon went to work to make me a table.

Nov. 4—This morning I began to order my times of work, of going out
with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion ; viz. every morning J
walked out with my gun for two or three hours, if it did not rain; then
employed myself to work till about eleven o’clock ; then eat what I had to
live on; and from twelve till two I lay down to sleep, the weather being
oxcessively hot; and then, in the evening, to work again.. The working
part of this day and of the next were wholly employed in making my table,
tor I was yet but a very sorry workman, though time and necessity made
me a complete natural mechanic soon after, as I believe they would do any
one else, < ;

Nov. 5.—This day, went abroad with my gun and my dog, and killed a
wild cat ; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for nothing ; every creature
that I killed I took off the skins and preserved them. Coming back by the
sea-shore, I saw many sorts of sea-fowls, which I did not understand ; but
was surprised, and almost frightened, with two or three seals, which, while

73
aIFE AND ADVENTURES

I was gazing at, not well knowing what they were, got into the sea, and
escaped me for that time.

Nov. 6.—After my morning walk, I went to work with my table again,
and finished it, though not to my liking; nor was it long before I learned
to mend it.

Nov. 7—Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th, 8th, 9th,
10th, and part of the 12th (for the 11th was Sunday), I took wholly up to
make me a chair, and with much ado brought it to a tolerable shape, but
never to please me; and even in the making I pulled it in pieces several
times.

Note.—I soon neglected my keeping Sundays ; for, omitting my mark
for them on my post, I forgot which was which.

Nov. 13.—This day it rained, which refreshed me exceedingly, and cooled
the earth ; but it was accompanied with terrible thunder and lightning,
which frightened me dreadfully, for fear of my powder. As soon as it was
over, I resolved to separate my stock of powder into as many little parcels
as possible, that it might not be in danger.

Nov. 14, 15, 16—These three days I spent in making little square
chests, or boxes, which might hold about a pound, or two pounds at most,
of powder ; and so, putting the powder in, I stowed it in places as secure
and remote from one another as possible. On one of these three days, I
killed a large bird that was good to eat, but I knew not what to call it.

Nov. 17.—This day I began to dig behind my tent into the rock, to
make room for my further conveniency.

Note.——Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work ; viz. a pickaxe,
a shovel, and a wheelbarrow, or basket; so I desisted from my work, and
began to consider how to supply that want, and make me some tools. As
for the pickaxe, I made use of the iron crows, which were proper enough,
though heavy; but the next thing was a shovel, or spade; this was so
absolutely necessary, that, indeed, I could do nothing effectually without it ;
but what kind of one to make I knew not.

Nov. 18—The next day, in searching the woods, I found a tree of that
wood, or like it, which, in the Brazils, they call the iron-tree, for its ex-
ceeding hardness. Of this, with great labour, and almost spoiling my axe, I
cut a piece, and brought it home, too, with difficulty enough, for it was
exceeding heavy. The excessive hardness of the wood, and my having no
other way, made me a long while upon this machine, for I worked it

effectually by little and little into the form of a shovel or spade; the handle
74
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.



exactly shaped like ours in England, only that the board part having no
iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not last me so long; however, . it
served well enough for the uses which I had occasion to put it to; but
never was a shovel, I believe, made after that fashion, or so long in making.

I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket, or a wheelbarrow. A baskete
I could not make by any means, having no such things as twigs that would
bend to make wicker-ware—at least, none yet found out; and as to a wheel-
barrow, I fancied I could make all but the wheel ; but that I had no notion
of; neither did I know how to go about it; besides I had no possible way
to make the iron gudgeons for the spindle or axis of the wheel to run in;
so I gave it over, and so, for carrying away the earth which I dug out of
the cave, I made me a thing like a hod which the labourers carry mortar
in when they serve the bricklayers. This was not so difficult to me as the
making the shovel; and yet this and the shovel, and the attempt which I
made in vain to make a wheelbarrow, took me up no less than four days—I
mean always excepting my morning walk with my gun, which I seldom
failed, and very seldom failed also bringing home something fit to eat.

Nov. 23.—My other work having now stood still, because of my making
these tools, when they were finished I went on, and working every day, as
my strength and time allowed, I spent eighteen days enuntyd in widening
and deepening my cave, that it might hold my goods commodiously.

Note—During all this time, I worked to make this room or cave
spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse, or magazine, a kitchen,
a dining-room, and a cellar. As for my lodging, I kept to the tent; except
that sometimes, in the wet season of the year, it rained so hard that I could
not keep myself dry, which caused me afterwards to cover all my place
within my pale with long poles, in the form of rafters, leaning against the
rock, and load them with flags and large leaves of trees, like a thatch.

December 10.—I began now to think my cave or vault finished, when on
a sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great quantity of earth fell
down from the top and one side; so much that, in short, it frighted me—
and not without reason, too, for if I had been under it, I had never wanted
a grave-digger: I had now.a great deal of work to do over again, for I had
the loose earth to carry out; and, which was of more importance, I had
the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no more would come
down.

Dec. 11.—This day I went to work with it accordingly, and got two
shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with two pieces of boards across

. 75


ROBINSON CRUSOE.

over each post; this I finished the next day; and setting more posts up
with boards, in about a week more I had the roof secured, and the posts,
standing in rows, served me for partitions to part off the house.

Dee. 17.—From this day to the 20th I placed shelves, and knocked up
nails on the posts, to hang everything up that could be hung up; and now
I began to be in some order within doors.

Dec. 20.—Now I carried everything into the cave, and began to furnish
my house, and set up some pieces of boards like a dresser, to order my
victuals upon; but boards began to be very scarce with me; also, I made
me another table.

Dec, 24.—Much rain all night and all day. No stirring out.

Dec, 25.—Rain all day.

Dec, 26.—No rain, and the earth much cooler than before and pleasanter.

Dec. 27—Killed a young goat, and lamed another so that I caught it
and led it home in a string ; when I had it at home, I bound and splintered
up its leg, which was broke. :

N.B.—I took such care of it that it lived, and the leg grew well and as
strong as ever; but, by my nursing it so long, it grew tame, and fed upon
the little green at my door, and would not go away. This was the first
time that I entertained a thought of breeding up some tame creatures, that
I might have food when my powder and shot was all spent.

Dec, 28, 29, 30, 31.—Great heats, and no breeze, so that there was no
stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food; this time I spent in putting
all my things in order within doors.

January 1.—Very hot still: but I went abroad early and late with my
gun, and lay still in the middle of the day. This evening, going farther
into the valleys which lay towards the centre of: the island, I found there
were plenty of goats, though exceedingly shy, and hard to come at; how-
ever, I resolved to try if I could not bring my dog to hunt them down.

Jan. 2.—Accordingly, the next day I went out with my dog, and set
him upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for they all faced about upon the
dog, and he knew his danger too well, for he would not come near them.

Jan. 3.—I began my fence, or wall; which, being still jealous of my
being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very thick and strong.

N.B.—This wall being described before, I purposely omit what was said
in the journal ; it is sufficient to observe, that I was no less time than from
the 8rd of January to the 14th of April working, finishing, and perfecting
this wall, though it was no more than about twenty-four yards in length,

76


CRUSOE SPLINTERS THE KID’S LEG.

being a half-circle, from one place in the rock to another place, about eight
yards from it, the door of the cave being in the centre behind it.

All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me many days,
nay, sometimes weeks together; but I thought I should never be perfectly
secure till this wall was finished; and it is scarce credible what inex-
pressible labour everything was done with, especially the bringing piles out
of the woods, and driving them into the ground; for I made them much
bigger than I needed to have done.

When this wall was finished, and the outside double-fenced, with a turf
wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that if any people were to
come on shore there, they would not perceive anything like a habitation ;
and it was very well I did so, as may be observed hereafter, upon a very
remarkable occasion.

During this time I made my rounds in the woods for game every day

when the rain permitted me, and made frequent discoveries in these walks
77
ROBINSON CRUSOE.

of something or other to my advantage ; particularly, I found a kind of wild
pigeons, which build, not as wood-pigeons in a tree, but rather as house-
pigeons, in the holes of the rocks; and taking some young ones, I endeavoured
to breed them up tame, and did so; but when they grew older they flew
away, which perhaps was at first for want of feeding them, for I had nothing
to give them ; however, I frequently found their nests, and got their young
ones, which were very good meat. And now, in the managing my house-
hold affairs, I found myself wanting in many things, which I thought at
first it was impossible for me to make; as, indeed, with some of them it
was: for instance, I could never make a cask to be hooped. I had a small
runlet or two, as I observed before ; but I could never arrive at the capacity
of making one by them, though I spent many weeks about it; I could
neither put in the heads, or join the staves so true to one another as to make
them hold-water; so I gave that also over. In the next place, I was at a
great loss for candles; so that as soon as ever it was dark, which was
generally by seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I remembered the
lump of bees-wax with which I made candles in my African adventure ;
but I had none of that now; the only remedy I had was, that when I had
killed a goat I saved the tallow, and with a little dish made of clay, which
I baked in the sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum, I made me a
lamp ; and this gave me light, though not a clear steady light like a candle.
In the middle of all my labours it happened that, rummaging my things, I
found a little bag, which, as I hinted before, had been filled with corn for
the feeding of poultry—not for this voyage, but before, as I suppose, when
the ship came from Lisbon. The little remainder of corn that had been in
the bag was all devoured by the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but
husks and dust; and being willing to have the bag for some other use
(I think it was to put powder in, when I divided it for fear of the lightning,
or some such use), I shook the husks of corn out of it on one side of
my fortification, under the rock.

It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned that I threw
this stuff away, taking no notice, and not so much as remembering that I
had thrown anything there, when, about a month after, or thereabouts, I
saw some few stalks of something green shooting out of the ground, which
I fancied might be some plant I had not seen; but I was surprised, and
perfectly astonished, when, after a little longer time, I saw about ten or
twelve ears come out, which were perfect green barley, of the same kind as
our European—nay, as our English barley.

78


CRUSOE [3 ASTONISHED AT THE GROWTH OF BARLEY.

It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of my
thoughts on thts occasion. I had hitherto acted upon no religious foun-
dation at all; indeed, I had very few notions of religion in my head, nor had
entertained any sense of anything that had befallen me, otherwise than as
chance, or, as we lightly say, what pleases God, without so much as in-
quiring into the end of Providence in these things, or His order in governing
events for the world. But after I saw barley grow there, in a climate
which I knew was not proper for corn, and especially that I knew not how
it came there, it startled me strangely, and I began to suggest that God had
miraculously caused His grain to grow without any help of seed sown, and

that it was so directed purely for my sustenance on that wild, miserable
place,

79
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my eyes, and I
began to bless myself that such a prodigy of nature should happen upon
my account; and this was the more strange to me, because I saw near it
still, all along by the side of the rock, some other straggling stalks, which
proved to be stalks of rice, and which I knew, because I had seen it grow
in Africa, when I was ashore there.

I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence for my
support, but, not doubting that there was more in the place, I went all over
that part of the island where I had been before, peering in every corner, and
under every rock, to see for more of it, but I could not find any. At last it
occurred to my thoughts, that I shook a bag of chickens’ meat out in that
place; and then the wonder began to cease; and I must confess, my
religious thankfulness to God’s providence began to abate, too, upon the
discovering that all this was nothing but what was common; though I
ought to have been as thankful for so strange and unforeseen a providence,
as if it had been miraculous; for it was really the work of Providence to
me, that should order or appoint that ten or twelve grains of corn should
remain unspoiled, when the rats had destroyed all the rest, as if it had been
dropped from heaven ; as also, that I should throw it out in that particular
place, where, it being in the shade of a high rock, it sprang up immediately ;
whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere else, at that time, it had been burnt
up and destroyed.

I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in their season,
which was about the end of June; and, laying up every corn, I resolved to
sow them all again, hoping, in time, to have some quantity, sufficient to
supply me with bread. But tt was not till the fourth year that I could
allow myself the least grain of this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly,
as I shall say afterwards, in its order; for I lost all that I sowed the first
season, by not observing the proper time; for I sowed it just before the dry
season, so that it never came up at all, at least not as it would have done;
of which in its place.

Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks of rice,
which I preserved with the same care and for the same use, or to the same
purpose—to make me bread, or rather food; for I found ways to cook it
without baking, though I did that also after some time.

- But to return to my Journal :—

i worked excessive hard these three or four months, to get my wall

done ; and the 14th of April, I closed it vp, contriving to go-into it, not by ©
80
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

a door, but over the wall, by a ladder, that there might be no sign on the
outside of my habitation.

April 16.—I finished the ladder; so I went up the ladder to the top,
and then pulled it up after me, and let it down in the inside. This wasa
complete enclosure to me; for within I had room enough, and nothing could
come at me from without, unless it could first mount my wall.

The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost had all my
labour overthrown at once, and myself killed. The case was thus :—As I
was busy in the inside, behind my tent, just at the entrance into my cave,
I was terribly frighted with a most dreadful surprising thing indeed ; for,
all on a sudden, I found the earth come crumbling down from the roof of
my cave, and from the edge of the hill over my head, and two of the posts
Thad set up in the cave cracked in a frightful manner. I was heartily
scared; but thought nothing of what was really the cause, only thinking
that the top of my cave was fallen in, as some of it had done before: and
for fear I should be buried in it, I ran forward to my ladder, and not
thinking myself safe there neither, I got over my wall for fear of the pieces
of the hill, which I expected might roll down upon me. I had no sooner
stepped down upon the firm ground, than I plainly saw it was a terrible
earthquake ; for the ground I stood on shook three times at about eight
minutes’ distance, with three such shocks as would have overturned the
strongest building that could be supposed to have stood on the earth; and a
great piece of the top of a rock which stood about half a mile from me
next the sea fell down, with such a terrible noise as I never heard in all
my life. I perceived also the very sea was put into violent motion by it;
and I believe the shocks were stronger under the water than on the island.

I was so much amazed with the thing itself, having never-felt the like,
nor discoursed with any one that had, that I was like one dead or stupified ;
and the motion of the earth made my stomach sick, like one that was tossed
at sea; but the noise of the falling of the rock awaked me, as .it were, and
rousing me from the stupified condition I was in, filled me with horror; and
I thought of nothing then but the hill falling upon my tent and all my
household goods, and burying all at once; and this sunk my very soul
within me a second time.

After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some time, I began
to take courage; and yet I had not heart enough to go over my wall again,
for fear of being buried alive, but sat still upon the ground greatly cast
down and disconsolate, not knowing what to do. All this while; I had not

81 G
ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the least serious religious thought; nothing but the common “Lord have
mercy upon me!” and when it was over, that went away too.

While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow cloudy, as if it
would rain. Soon after that, the wind arose by little and little, so that in
less than half an hour it blew a most dreadful hurricane, the sea was all on
a sudden covered over with foam and froth; the shore was covered with
the breach of the water; the trees were torn up by the roots; and a terrible
storm it was, This held about three hours, and then began to abate; and
in two hours more it was quite calm, and began to rain very hard. All this
while I sat upon the ground, very much terrified and dejected; when on a
sudden it came into my thoughts, that these winds and rain being the con-
sequences of the earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent and over, and
I might venture into my cave again. With this thought, my spirits began
to revive; and the rain also helping to persuade me, I went in and sat down
in my tent, But the rain was so violent, that my tent was ready to be beaten
down with it; and I was forced to go into my cave, though very much
afraid and uneasy, for fear it should fall on my head. This violent rain
forced me to a new work, viz. to cut a hole through my new fortification,
like a sink, to let the water go out, which would else have flooded my cave.
After I had been in my cave for some time, and found still no more shocks
of the earthquake follow, I began to be more composed. And now, to support
my spirits, which indeed wanted it very much, I went to my little store, and
took a small sup of rum; which, however, I did then and always very spar-
ingly, knowing I could have no more when that was gone. It continued
yaining all that night, and great part of the next day, so that I could not
stir abroad; but my mind being more composed, I began to think of what I
had best do; concluding, that if the island was subject to these earthquakes,
there would be no living for me in a cave, but I must consider of building a
little hut in an open place, which I might surround with a wall, as I had
done here, and so make myself secure froin wild beasts or men; for I con-
cluded if I stayed where I was, I should certainly, one time or other, be |
buried alive.

With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent from the place where
it stood, which was just under the hanging precipice of the hill ; and which,
if it should be shaken again, would certainly fall upon my tent; and I
spent the two next days, being the 19th and 20th of April, in contriving
where and how to remove my habitation. The fear of being swallowed up

alive made me that I never slept in quiet; and yet the apprehension of
82


THE CAVE FALLING IN, CRUSOE MAKES HIS ESCAPE.

lying abroad without any fence was almost equal to it; but stjll, when !
looked about, and saw how everything was put in order, how pleasantly
concealed I was, and how safe from danger, it made me very loath to remove.
In the mean time, it occurred to me that it would require a vast deal of time
for me to do this, and that I must be contented to venture where I was, till
I had formed a camp for myself, and had secured it so as to remove to it.
So with this resolution I composed myself for a time, and resolved that I
would go to work with all speed to build me a wall with piles and cables,
&e. in a circle, as before, and set my tent up in it, when it was finished ;
but that I would venture to stay where I was till it was finished, and fit to
Temove. This was the 21st.

April 22.—The next morning I began to consider of means to put this
83
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

resolve into execution; but I was at a great loss about my tools. I had
three large axes, and abundance of hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for
traffic with the Indians) ; but with much chopping and cutting knotty hard
wood, they were all full of notches, and dull; and though I had a grind-
stone, I could not turn it and grind my tools too. This cost me as much
thought as a statesman would have bestowed upon a grand point of politics,
or a judge upon the life and death of a man. At length, I contrived a
wheel with a string, to turn it with my foot, that I might have both my
hands at liberty.

Note.—I had never seen any such thing in England, or at least not to
take notice how it was done, though since I have observed it is very
common there; besides that, my grindstone was very large and heavy.
This machine cost me a full week’s work to bring it to perfection.

April 28, 29—These two whole days I took up in grinding my tools,
my machine for turning my grindstone performing very well.

April 30.—Having perceived my bread had been low a great while, now
I took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one biscuit-cake a day, which
made my heart very heavy. :

May 1.—In the morning, looking towards the sea-side, the tide being
low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary, and it looked
like a cask; when I came to it, I found a small barrel, and two or three
pieces of the wreck of the ship, which were driven on shore by the late
hurricane; and looking towards the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie
higher out of the water than it used to do. I examined the barrel which
was driven on shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder ; but it
had taken water, and the powder was caked as hard as a stone: however, I
rolled it farther on shore for the present, and went on upon the sands, as
near as I could to the wreck of the ship, to look for more.

When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely removed. The
forecastle, which lay before buried in sand, was heaved up at least six feet,
and the stern, which was broke in pieces and parted from the rest by the
force of the sea, soon after I had left rummaging her, was tossed, as it were,
up, and cast on one side; and the sand was thrown so high on that side
next her.stern, that whereas there was a great place of water before, so that
T could not come within a quarter of a mile of the wreck without swimming,
I could now walk quite up to her when the tide was out. I was surprised
with this at first, but soon concluded it must be done by the earthquake ;

and as by this violence the ship was more broke open than formerly, so
84
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

many things came daily on shore, which the sea had loosened, and which
the winds and water rolled by degrees to the land.

This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of removing my
habitation, and I busied myself mightily, that day especially, in searching
whether I could make any way into the ship; but I found nothing was to
be expected of that kind, for all the inside of the ship was choked up with
sand. However, as I had learned not to despair of anything, I resolved to
pull everything to pieces that I could of the ship, concluding that everything
I could get from her would be of some use or other to me. .

May 8—I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam through,
which I thought held some of the upper part or quarter-deck together, and
when I had cut it through, I cleared away the sand as well as I could from
the side which lay highest; but the tide coming in, I was obliged to give
over for that time. :

May 4,—I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst eat of, till
I was weary of my sport; when, just going to leave off, I caught a young
dolphin. I had made mea long line of some rope-yarn, but I had no hooks ;
yet I frequently caught fish enough, as much as I cared to eat; all which I
dried in the sun, and ate them dry.

May 5.—Worked on the wreck ; cut another beam asunder, and brought
three great fir planks off from the decks, which I tied together, and made to
float on shore when the tide of flood came on.

May 6.—Worked on the wreck; got several iron bolts out of her, and
other pieces of iron-work. Worked very hard, and came home very much
tired, and had thoughts of giving it over.

May 7.—Went to the wreck again, not with an intent to work, but
found the weight of the wreck had broke itself down, the beams being cut ;
that several pieces of the ship seemed to lie loose, and the inside of the hold
lay so open that I could see into it; but it was almost full of water
and sand.

May 8.—Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to wrench up the
deck, which lay now quite clear of the water or sand. I wrenched open two
planks, and brought them on shore also with the tide. I left the iron crow
in the wreck for next day. 2

May 9.—Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way into the body
of the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened them with the crow, but
could not break them up. I felt also a roll of English lead, and could stir
it, but it was too heavy to remove.

85
ROBINSON CRUSUE.

May 10—14.—Went every day to the wreck; and got a great many
pieces of timber, and boards, or plank, and two or three hundredweight
of iron.

May 15.—I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a piece off
the roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet, and driving it with the
other; but as it lay about a foot and a half in the water, I could not make
any blow to drive the hatchet.

May 16.—It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck appeared more
broken by the force of the water ; but I stayed so long in the woods, to get
pigeons for food, that the tide prevented my going to the wreck that day.

May 17.—I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore, at a great
distance, near two miles off me, but resolved to see what they were, and
found it was a piece of the head, but too heavy for me to bring away.

May 24.—Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck; and with
hard labour I loosened some things so much with the crow, that the first
blowing tide several casks floated out, and two of the seamen’s chests; but
the wind blowing from the shore, nothing came to land that day but pieces
of timber, and a hogshead, which had some Brazil pork in it; but the salt
water and the sand had spoiled it. I continued this work every day to the
15th of June, except the time necessary to get food, which I always
appointed, during this part of my employment, to be when the tide was up,
that I might be ready when it was ebbed out; and by this time I had got
timber and plank and iron-work enough to have built a good boat, if I
had known how; and also I got, at several times and in several pieces,
near one hundredweight of the sheet-lead.

June 16.—Going down to the sea-side, I found a large tortoise, or turtle.
This was the first I had seen, which, it seems, was only my misfortune, not
any defect of the place, or scarcity ; for had I happened to be on the other
side of the island, I might have had hundreds of them every day, as I found
afterwards; but perhaps had paid dear enough for them.

June 17.—I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her threescore eggs ;
and her flesh was to me, at that time, the most savoury and pleasant that
ever I tasted in my life, having had no flesh, but of goats and fowls, since I
landed in this horrid place.

June 18.—Rained all day, and I stayed within. I thought, at this time,
the rain felt cold, and I was something chilly ; which I knew was not usual
in that latitude.

June 19.—Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been cold.

86


PAPAL, a



CRUSOE BEGINS TO BF ILL,

June 20.—No rest all night; violent pains in my head, and feverish.

June 21.—Very ill; frighted almost to death with the apprehensions of
my sad condition—to be sick, and no help. Prayed to God, for the first
time since the storm off Hull, but scarce knew what I said, or why, my
thoughts being all confused.

June 22.—A little better ; but under dreadful apprehensions of sickness.

June 23.—Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a violent
headache.

June 24,—Much better.

June 25.—An ague very violent: the fit held me seven hours; cold fit
and hot, with faint sweats after it.

June 26.—Better; and having no victuals to eat, took my gun, but

found myself very weak. However, I killed a she-goat, and with much
87
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

difficulty got it home, and broiled some of it, and ate. I would fain have
stewed it, and made some broth, but had no pot.

June 27.—The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all day, and
neither ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for thirst ; but so weak, I had
not streneth to stand up, or to get myself any water to drink. Prayed to
God again, but was light-headed; and when I was not, I was so ignorant
that I knew not what to say; only I lay and cried, “Lord, look upon me!
Lord, pity me! Lord, have mercy upon me!” I suppose I did nothing else
for two or three hours; till, the fit wearing off, I fell asleep, and did not
wake till far in the night. When I awoke, I found myself much refreshed,
but weak, and exceeding thirsty. However, as I had no water in my habita-
tion, I was forced to lie till morning, and went to sleep again. In this
second sleep, I had this terrible dream :—I thought that I was sitting on the
ground, on the outside of my wall, where I sat when the storm blew after
the earthquake, and that I saw a man descend from a great black cloud, in
a bright flame of fire, and light upon the ground. He was all over as bright
as a flame, so that I could but just bear to look towards him ; his counte-
nance was most inexpressibly dreadful, impossible for words to describe.
When he stepped upon the ground with his fect, I thought the earth trembled,
just as it had done before in the earthquake, and all the air looked, to my
apprehension, as if it had been filled with flashes of fire. He was no sooner
landed upon the earth, but he moved forward towards me, with a long spear
or weapon in his hand, to kill me; and when he came to a rising ground,
at_some distance, he spoke to me—or I heard a voice so terrible that it is
impossible to express the terror of it. All that I can say I understood, was
this :—“ Seeing all these things have not brought thee to repentance, now
thou shalt die ;”—at which words, I thought he lifted up the spear that was
in his hand to kill me.

No one that shall ever read this account will expect that I should be
able to describe the horrors of my soul at this terrible vision. I mean, that
even while it was a dream, I even dreamed of those horrors. Nor is it any
more possible to describe the impression that remained upon my mind when
I awaked, and found it was but a dream.

I had, alas! no divine knowledge. What I had received by the good
instruction of my father was then worn out by an uninterrupted series, for
eight years, of seafaring wickedness, and a constant conversation with none
but such as were, like myself, wicked and profane to the last degree. I do

not remember that I had, in all that time, one thought that so much as
88



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

tended either to looking upwards towards God, or inwards towards a reflec-
tion upon my own ways; but a certain stupidity of soul, without desire of
good, or conscience of evil, had entirely overwhelmed me; and I was all
that the most hardened, unthinking, wicked creature among our common
sailors can be supposed to be; not having the least sense, either of the fear
of God, in danger, or of thankfulness to God, in deliverance.

In the relating what is already past of my story, this will be the more
easily believed, when I shall add, that through all the variety of miseries
that had to this day befallen me, I never had so much as one thought of it
being the hand of God, or that it was a just punishment for my sin. My
rebellious behaviour against my father—or my present sins, which were
great,—or so much as a punishment for the general course of my wicked
life, When I was on the desperate expedition on the desert shores of Africa,
T never had so much as one thought of what would become of me, or one
wish to God to direct me whither I should go, or to keep me from the
danger which apparently surrounded me, as well from voracious creatures
as cruel savages. But I was merely thoughtless of a God ora Providence,
acted like a mere brute, from the principles of nature, and by the dictates of
common sense only, and, indeed, hardly that. When I was delivered and
taken up at sea by the Portugal captain, well used, and dealt justly and
honourably with, as well as charitably, I had not the least thankfulness in
my thoughts. When, again, I was shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger of!
drowning, on this island, I was as far from remorse, or looking on it as a
judgment. I only said to myself often, that I was an unfortunate dog, and
born to be always miserable.

It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found all my ship’s crew
drowned, and myself spared, I was surprised with a kind of ecstasy, and
some transports of soul, which, had the grace of God assisted, might have
come up to true thankfulness ; but it ended where it began, in a mere com-
mon flight of joy, or, as I may say, being glad I was alive, without the least
reflection upon the distinguished goodness of the hand which had preserved
me, and had singled me out to be preserved when all the rest were destroyed,
or an inquiry why Providence had been thus merciful unto me. Even just
the same common sort of joy which seamen generally have, after they are
got safe ashore from a shipwreck, which they drown all in the next bowl of
punch, and forget almost as soon as it is over; and all the rest of my life
was like it. Even when I was afterwards, on due consideration, made
sensible of my condition, how I was cast on this dreadful place, ~t of the

89
ROBINSON CRUSOE.

reach of human kind, out of all hope of relief, or prospect of redemption, as
soon as I saw but a prospect of living, and that I should not starve and
perish for hunger, all the sense of my affliction wore off; and I began to be
very easy, applied myself to the works proper for my preservation and
supply, and was far enough from being afflicted at my condition, as a
judgment from Heaven, or as the hand of God against me: these were
thoughts which very seldom entered my head.

The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my Journal, had, at first,
some little influence upon me, and began to affect me with seriousness, as
long as I thought it had something miraculous in it; but as soon as ever
that part of the thought was removed, all the impression that was raised
from it wore off also, as I have noted already. Even the earthquake, though
nothing could be more terrible in its nature, or more immediately directing
to the invisible power which alone directs such things, yet no sooner was
the first fright over, but the impression it had made went off also. Ihad no
more sense of God, or His judgments—much less of the present affliction of
my circumstances being from His hand—than if I had been in the most
prosperous condition of life. But now, when I began to be sick, and a
leisurely view of the miseries of death came to place itself before me ; when
my spirits began to sink under the burden of a strong distemper, and nature
was exhausted with the violence of the fever; conscience, that had slept so
long, began to awake, and I began to reproach myself with my past life, in
which I had so evidently, by uncommon wickedness, provoked the justice
of God to lay me under uncommon strokes, and to deal with me in so
vindictive a manner. These reflections oppressed me for the second or
third day of my distemper; and in the violence, as well of the fever as of
the dreadful reproaches of my conscience, extorted some words from me
like praying to God, though I cannot say they were either a prayer attended
with desires or with hopes: it was rather the voice of mere fright and
distress. My thoughts were confused, the convictions great upon my mind,
- and the horror of dying in such a miserable condition raised vapours into
my head with the mere apprehension; and in these hurries of my soul, I
knew not what my tongue might express. But it was rather exclamation,
such as, “Lord, what a miserable creature am I! If I should be sick, I
shall certainly die for want of help ; and what will become of me?” Then
the tears burst out of my eyes, and I could say no more fora good while.
In this interval, the good advice of my father came to my mind, and

presently his prediction, which I mentioned at the beginning of this story,
90


CRUSOE IS FILLED WITH REMORSE FOR HIS PAST LIFE.

viz. that if I did take this foolish step, God would not bless me, and I
would have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neglected his counsel,
when there might be none to assist in my recovery. “Now,” said I, aloud,
“my dear father’s words are come to pass; God’s justice has overtaken me,
and I have none to help or hear me. I rejected the voice of Providence,
which had mercifully put me in a posture or station cf life wherein I might
have been happy and easy; but I would neither see it myself, nor learn to
know the blessing of it from my parents. I left them to mourn over my
folly, and now I am left to mourn under the consequences of it. I refused
their help and assistance, who would have lifted me in the world, and would
have made everything easy to me; and now I have difficulties to struggle
with, too great for even nature itself to support, and no assistance, no help,
no comfort, no advice.” Then I cried out, “Lord, be my help, for I am in
creat distress.” This was the first prayer, if I may call it so, that I had

made for many years.
91
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

But to return to my Journal :—

June 28.—Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I had had,
and the fit being entirely off, I got up; and though the fright and terror of
my dream was very great, yet I considered that the fit of the ague would
return again the next day, and now was my time to get something to refresh
and support myself when I should be ill; and the first thing I did, I filled
a large square case-bottle with water, and set it upon my table, in reach of
my bed; and to take off the chill or aguish disposition of the water, I put
about a quarter of a pint of rum into it, and mixed them together. Then I
got me a piece of the goat’s flesh, and broiled it on the coals, but could eat
very little. I walked about, but was very weak, and withal very sad and
heavy-hearted under a sense of my miserable condition, dreading the return
of my distemper the next day. At night, I made my supper of three of the
turtle’s eggs, which I roasted in the ashes, and eat, as we call it, in the shell,
and this was the first bit of meat I had ever asked God’s blessing to, that I
could remember, in my whole life. After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but
found myself so weak, that I could hardly carry a gun, for I never went out
without that; so I went but a little way, and sat down upon the ground,
looking out upon the sea, which was just before me, and very calm and
smooth. As I sat here, some such thoughts as these occurred to me :— What
is this earth and sea, of which I have seen so much? Whence is it pro-
duced? And what am J, and all the other creatures, wild and tame, human
and brutal? Whence are we? Sure we are all made by some secret power,
who formed the earth and sea, the airand sky. And who is that? Then it
followed most naturally, it is God that has made all. Well, but then, it
came on strangely, if God has made all these things, He guides and governs
them all, and all things that concern them ; for the power that could make
all things must certainly have power to guide and direct them. If so, nothing
can happen in the great circuit of His works, either without His knowledge
or appointment.

‘And if nothing happens without His knowledge, He knows that I am
here, and am in this dreadful condition; and if nothing happens without
His appointment, He has appointed all this to befal me. Nothing occurred
to my thought to contradict any of these conclusions, and therefore it rested
upon me with the greater force, that it must needs be that God had
appointed all this to befal me; that I was brought into this miserable
circumstance by His direction, He having the sole power, not of me only,
but of everything that happened in the world. Immediately it followed,—

92
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE,

Why has God done this to me? What have I done to be thus used? My
conscience presently checked me in that inquiry, as if I had blasphemed,
and methought it spoke to me like a voice—“ Wretch! dost thow ask what
thou hast done? Look back upon a dreadful misspent life, and ask thyself,
what thou hast not done? Ask, why is it that thou wert not long ago de.
stroyed? Why wert thou not drowned in Yarmouth Roads; killed in the
fight when the ship was taken by the Sallee man-of-war ; devoured by the
wild beasts on the coast of Africa; or drowned here, when all the crew
perished but thyself? Dost thow ask, What have I done?” I was struck
dumb with these reflections, as one astonished, and had not a word to say,
—no, not to answer to myself, but rose up pensive and sad, walked back to
my retreat, and went up over my wall, as if I had been going to bed; but
my thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I had no inclination to sleep; so I
sat down in my chair, and lighted my lamp, for it began to be dark. Now,
as the apprehension of the return of my distemper terrified me very much,
it occurred to my thought, that the Brazilians take no physic but their
tobacco for almost all distempers, and I had a piece of a roll of tobacco in
one of the chests, which was quite cured, and some also that was green, and
not quite cured. ;

I went, directed by Heaven no doubt; for in this chest I found a cure
both for soul and body. I opened the chest, and found what I looked for,
the tobacco ; and as the few books I had saved lay there too, I took out one
of the Bibles which 1 mentioned before, and which to this time I had not
found leisure or inclination to look into. I say, I took it out, and brought
both that and the tobacco with me to the table. What use to make of the
tobacco I knew not, in my distemper, or whether it was good for it or no;
but I tried several experiments with it, as if I was resolved it should hit
one way or other. I first took a piece of leaf, and chewed it in my mouth,
which, indeed, at first almost stupified my brain, the tobacco being green
and strong, and that I had not been much used to. Then I took some and
steeped it an hour or two in some rum, and resolved to take a dose of it
when I lay down; and, lastly, I burnt some upon a pan of coals, and held
my nose close over the smoke of it as long as I could bear it, as well for the
heat, as almost for suffocation. In the interval of this operation, I took up
the Bible, and began to read; but my head was too much disturbed with
the tobacco to bear reading, at least at that time; only, having opened the
book casually, the first words that occurred to me were these, “Call on me

in the day of trouble, and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me.”
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LIFE AND ADVENTURES

These words were very apt to my case, and made some impression upon my
thoughts at the time of reading them, though not so much as they did after-
wards ; for, as for being delivered, the word had.no sound, as I may say, to
me; the thing was so remote, so impossible in my apprehension of things,
that I began to say, as the children of Israel did when they were promised
flesh to eat, “Can God spread a table in the wilderness?” so I began to say,
“Can God himself deliver me from this place?” And as it was not for



CRUSUE FINDS A BIBLE,

many years that any hopes appeared, this prevailed very often upon my
thoughts ; but, however, the words made a great impression upon me, and I
mused upon them very often. It grew now late, and the tobacco had, as I
said, dozed my head so much that I inclined to sleep; so I left my lamp
burning in the cave, lest I should want anything in the night, and went to
bed. But before I lay down, I did what I never had done in all my life—-I
kneeled down, and prayed to God to fulfil the promise to me, that if I called

upon him in the day of trouble, he would deliver me. After my broken and
94
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

imperfect prayer was over, I drank the rum in which I had steeped the
tobacco, which wasso strong and rank of the tobacco that I could scarcely
get it down ; immediately upon this I went to bed. I found presently it flew
up into my head violently; but I fell into a sound sleep, and waked nc
more till, by the sun, it must necessarily be near three o'clock in the
afternoon the next day—nay, to this hour I am partly of opinion that I slept
all the next day and night, and till almost three the day after ; for other-
wise, I know not how I should lose a day out of my reckoning in the days
of the week, as it appeared some years after I had done; for if I had lost
it by crossing and recrossing the Line, I should have lost more than one
day; but certainly I lost a day in my account, and never knew which way,
Be that, however, one way or the other, when I awaked I found myself
exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively and cheerful; when I got up
I was stronger than I was the day before, and my stomach better, for I was
hungry; and, in short, I had no fit the next day, but continued much altered
for the better. This was the 29th.

The 30th was my well day, of course, and I went abroad with my gun,
but did not care to travel too far. I killed a sea-fowl or two, something like
a brand goose, and brought them home; but was not very forward to cat
them; so I eat some more of the turtle’s eggs, which were very good. This
evening I renewed the medicine, which I had supposed did me good the day
before—the tobacco steeped in rum; only I did not take so much as before,
nor did I chew any of the leaf, or hold my head over the smoke ; however,
I was not so well the next day, which was the first of July, as I hoped I
should have been; for I had a little spice of the cold fit, but it was not
much, :

July 2—I renewed the medicine all the three ways ; and dosed myself
with it as at first, and doubled the quantity which I drank.

July 3.—I missed the fit for good and ail, though I did not recover my
full strength for some weeks after. While I was thus gathering strength my
thoughts ran exceedingly upon this scripture, “I will deliver thee ;” and the
impossibility of my deliverance lay much upon my mind, in bar of my ever
expecting it; but as I was: discouraging myself with such thoughts, it
occurred to my mind that I pored so much upon my deliverance from the
main affliction, that I disregarded the deliverance I had received, and I was
as it were made to ask myself such questions as these; viz: Have I not
been delivered, and wonderfully too, from sickness—from the most distressed
condition that could be, and that was so frightful to me? and what notice

95
ROBINSON CRUSOE.

had I taken of it? Had I done my part? God had delivered me, but I had
not glorified Him—that is to say, I had not owned and been thankful for
that as a deliverance ; and how could I expect greater deliverance? This
touched my heart very much ; and immediately I knelt down, and gave God
thanks aloud for my recovery from my sickness.

July 4.—In the morning, I took the Bible ; and, beginning at the New
Testament, I began seriously to read it, and imposed upon myself to read a
while every morning and every night; not tying myself to the number of
chapters, but long as my thoughts should engage me. It was not long after
I set seriously to this work, till I found my heart more deeply and sincerely
affected with the wickedness of my past life. The impression of my dream
revived; and the words, “All these things have not brought thee to
repentance,” ran seriously in my thoughts. I was earnestly begging of God
to give me repentance, when it happened providentially, the very day, that,
reading the Scripture, I came to these words: “He is exalted a Prince and
a Saviour, to give repentance and to give remission.” I threw down the
book ; and with my heart as well as my hands lifted up to heaven, in a kind
of exstasy of joy, I cried out aloud, “Jesus, thou son of David! Jesus, thou
exalted Prince and Saviour! give me repentance!” This was the first time
I could say, in the true sense of the words, that I prayed in all my life;
for now I prayed with a sense of my condition, and a true scripture view of
hope, founded on the encouragement of the Word of God; and from this
time, I may say, I began to have hope that God would hear me.

Now I began to construe the words mentioned above, “Call on me, and
I will deliver thee,” in a different sense from what I had ever done before ;
for then I had no notion of anything being called deliverance, but my being
delivered from the captivity I was in ; for though I was indeed at large in
the place, yet the island was certainly a prison to me, and that in the worse
sense in the world. But now I learned to take it in another sense: now I
looked back upon my past life with such horror, and my sins appeared so
dreadful, that my soul sought nothing of God but deliverance from the load
of guilt that bore down all my comfort. As for my solitary life, it was
nothing ; I did not so much as pray to be delivered from it, or think of it ;
it was all of no consideration, in comparison to this. And I add this part
here, to hint to whoever shall read it, that whenever they come to a true
sense of things, they will find deliverance from sin a much greater blessing
than deliverance from affliction.

But, leaving this part, I return to my Journal :—

96


CRUSOE PRAYS,

My condition pegan now to be, though not less miserable as to my way
of living, yet much easier to my mind: and my thoughts being directed, by
a constant reading the Scripture and praying to God, to things of a higher
nature, Thad a great deal of comfort within, which, till now, 1 knew nothing
of; also, my health and strength returned, I bestirred myself to furnish
myself with everything that I wanted, and make my way of living as
reenlar as T could.

97 H
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly employed in walking
about with my gun in my hand, a little and a little at a time, as a man that
was gathering up his strength after a fit of sickness ; for it is hardly to be
imagined how low I was, and to what weakness I was reduced. The appli-
cation which I made use of was perfectly new, and perhaps which had never
cured an ague before ; neither can I recommend it to any to practise, by this
experiment: and though it did carry off the fit, yet it rather contributed to
weakening me ; for I had frequent convulsions in my nerves and limbs for
some time. I learned from it also this, in particular, that being abroad
in the rainy season was the most pernicious thing to my health that could
be, especially in those rains which came attended with storms and hurri-
canes of wind; for as the rain which came in the dry season was almost
always accompanied with such storms, so I found that rain was much more
dangerous than the rain which fell in September and October.

T had now been in this unhappy island above ten months. All possibility
of deliverance from this condition seemed to be entirely taken from me;
_ and I firmly believe that no human shape had ever set foot upon that place.
Having now secured my habitation, as I thought, fully to my mind, I had
a great desire to make a more perfect discovery of the island, and to see
what other productions I might find, which I yet knew nothing of.

It was on the 15th of July that I began to take a more particular survey
of the island itself. I went up the creek first, where, as I hinted, I brought
my rafts on shore. I found, after I came about two miles up, that the tide
did not flow any higher, and that it was no more than a little brook of
running water, very fresh and good; but this being the dry season, there
was hardly any water in some parts of it—at least, not enough to run in any
stream, so as it could be perceived. On the banks of this brook, I foun
many pleasant savannahs or meadows, plain, smooth, and covered wi
grass ; and on the rising parts of them, next to the higher grounds, where
the water, as might be supposed, never overflowed, I found a great deal of
sobacco, green, and growing to a great and very strong stalk. There were
divers other plants, which I had no notion of or understanding about, that
might, perhaps, have virtues of their own, which I could not find out. I
searched for the cassava root, which the Indians, in all that climate, make
their bread of, but I could find none. I saw large plants of aloes, but did
not understand them. I saw several sugar-canes, but wild, and, for want of
cultivation, imperfect. I contented myself with these discoveries for this

time, and came back, musing with myself what course I might take to know
98
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the virtue and goodness of any of the fruits or plants which 1 should
discover, but could bring it to no conclusion ; for, in short, I had made so
little observation while I was in the Brazils, that I knew little of the plants
in the field; at least, very little that might serve me to any purpose now in
my distress.

The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again; and, after going
something further than I had gone: the day before, I found the brook and
savannahs cease, and the country become more woody than before. In this
part, I found different fruits, and particularly I found melons upon the
ground; in great abundance, and grapes upon the trees. The vines had
spread, indeed, over the trees, and the clusters of grapes were just now in
their prime, very ripe and rich. This was a surprising discovery, and I
was exceeding glad of them; but I was warned by my experience to eat
sparingly of them, remembering that when I was ashore in Barbary, the
eating of grapes killed several of our Englishmen, who were slaves there,
by throwing them into fluxes and fevers. But I found an excellent use for
these grapes ; and that was, to cure or dry them in the sun, and keep them
as dried grapes or raisins are kept, which I thought would be, as indeed they
were, wholesome and agreeable to eat when no grapes could be had.

I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my habitation ;
which, by the way, was the first night, as I might say, I had lain from home.
In the night, I took my first contrivance, and got up in a tree, where I
slept well; and the next morning proceeded upon my discovery, travelling
nearly four miles, as I might judge by the length of the valley, keeping still
due north, with a ridge of hills on the south and north side of me. At the
end of this march, I came to an opening, where the country seemed to

@escend to the west; anda little spring of fresh water, which issued out of
the side of the hill by me, ran the other way, that is, due east; and the
country appeared so fresh, so green, so flourishing, everything being in a
constant verdure or flourish of spring, that it looked like a planted garden.
T descended a little on the side of that delicious vale surveying it with a
secret kind of pleasure, though mixed with my other afflicting thoughts, to
think that this was all my own; that I was king and lord of all this
country indefeasibly, and had a right of possession ; and, if I could convey
it, I might have it in inheritance as completely as any lord of a manor in
England. I saw here abundance of cocoa-trees, orange, and lemon, and
citron-trees ; but all wild, and very few bearing any fruit, at least not then.
However, the green limes that I gathered were not only pleasant.to eat, but

99 3
ROBINSON CRUSOE.

very wholesome ; and I mixed their juice afterwards with water, which
made it very wholesome, and very cool and refreshing. I found now I had
business enough, to gather and carry home ; and I resolved to lay up a store
as well of grapes as limes and lemons, to furnish myself for the wet season,
which I knew was approaching. In order to do this, I gathered a great heap
of grapes in one place, a lesser heap in another place, and a great parcel of
limes and lemons in another place; and taking a few of each with me, I
travelled homewards ; resolving to come again, and bring a bag or sack,
or what I could make, to carry the rest home. Accordingly, having spent
three days in this journey, I came home (so I must now cali my tent and
my cave); but before 1 got thither the grapes were spoiled ; the richness of
the fruit and the weight of the juice having broken them and_ bruised
them, they were good for little or nothing : as to the lines, they were good,
but I could bring but a few.

The next day, being the 19th, I went back, having made me two small
bags to bring home my harvest ; but I was surprised, when coming to my
heap of grapes, which were so rich and fine when I gathered them, to find
them all spread about, trod to pieces, and dragged about, some here, some
there, and abundance eaten and devoured. By this, T concluded there were
some wild creatures thereabouts, which had done this ; but what they were
L knew not. ILowever, as I found there was no laying them up on heaps,
and no carrying them away in a sack, but that one way they would be
destroyed, and the other way they would be crushed with their own weight,
I took another course ; for I gathered a large quantity of the grapes, and
hung them upon the out branches of the trees, that they might cure and dry
in the sun; and as for the limes and lemons, I carried as many back as
T could well stand under.

When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with great
pleasure the fruitfulness of that valley, and the pleasantness of the situa-
tion; the security from storms on that side the water, and the wood: and
coneluded that I had pitched upon a place to fix my abode, which was by
far the worst part of the country. Upon the whole, I began to consider of
removing my habitation, and looking out for a place equally safe as where
now I was situate, if possible, in that pleasant, fruitful part of the island.

This thought ran long in my head, and I was exceeding fond of it for
some time, the pleasantness of the place tempting me; but when I came to
a nearer view of it, I considered that I was now by the sea-side, where it

was at least possible that something might happen to my advantage ; and,
100































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































CRUSOR TAKES A MORE PARTICULAR SURVEY OF THE ISLANI,

by the. same ill fate that brought me hither, might bring some other
unhappy wretches to the same place ; and though it was scarce probable that
any such thing should ever happen, yet to inclose myself among the hills

and woods in the centre of the island, was to anticipate my bondage, and to
101
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

render such an affair not only improbable, but impossible; and that there.
fore I ought not by any means to remove. However, I was so enamoured
of this place, that I spent much of my time there for the whole of the
remaining part of the month of July; and though, upon second thoughts,
T resolved not to remove, yet I built me a little kind of a bower, and sur-
rounded it at a distance with a strong fence, being a double hedge, as high
as I could reach, well staked, and filled between with brushwood ; and here
I lay very secure, sometimes two or three nights together; always going
over it with a ladder; so that I fancied now I had my country house and
my sea-coast house ; and this work took me up to the beginning of August.

I had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy my labour, when
the rains came on, and made me stick close to my first habitation ; for
though I had made me a tent like the other, with a piece of a sail, and
spread it very well, yet I had not the shelter of a hill to keep me from
storms, nor a cave behind me to retreat into when the rains were extra-
ordinary.

About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my bower, and
began to enjoy myself. The 3rd of August, I found the grapes I had hung
up perfectly dried, and indeed were excellent good raisins of the sun; so
T began to take them down from the trees, and it was very happy that I did
so, for the rains which followed would have spoiled them, and I had lost
the best part of my winter food; for I had above two hundred large
bunches of them. No sooner had I taken them all down, and carried most
of them home to my cave, than it began to rain ; and from hence, which
was the 14th of August, it rained, more or less, every day till the middle of
October ; and sometimes so violently, that I.could not stir out of my cave
for several days.

In this season, I was much surprised with the increase of my family ;
I had been concerned for the loss of one of my cats, who ran away from me,
or, as I thought, had been dead, and I heard no more tidings of her, till,
to my astonishment, she came home about the end of August, with three
kittens. This was the more strange to me, because, though I had killed a
wild cat, as I called it, with my gun, yet I thought it was quite a different
kind from our European cats; but the young cats were the same kind of
house-breed as the old one; and both my cats being females, I thought
it very strange. But from these three cats, I afterwards came to be s0
pestered with cats, that I was forced to kill them like vermin, or wild
beasts, and to drive them from my house as much as possible. .

102
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain, su that I could nov
stir, and was now very careful not to be much wet. In this confinement,

I began to be straitened for food: but venturing out twice, I one day killed
a goat; and the last day, which was the 26th, found a very large tortoise,
hie was a treat to me, and my food was regulated thus :—I ate a bunch
of raisins for my breakfast ; a piece of the goat’s flesh, or of the turtle, for
my dinner, broiled ; for, to my great misfortune, I had no vessel to boil or
stew anything ; and two or three of the turtle’s eggs for my supper.

During this confinement in my cover by the rain, I worked daily two or
three hours at enlarging my cave, and by degrees worked it on towards one
side, till I came to the outside of the hill, and made a door or way out,
which came beyond my fence or wall; and so I came in and out this way.
But Iwas not perfectly easy at lying so open; for, as I had managed
myself before, I was in a perfect inclosure; whereas now, I thought I lay
exposed, and open for anything to come in upon me; and yet I could not
perceive that there was any living thing to fear, the biggest creature that I
had yet seen upon the island being a goat.

Sept. 30.—I was now come to ae unhappy anniversary of my landing.
I cast up the notches on my post, and found I had been on shore three
hundred and sixty-five days. I kept this day as a solemn fast, setting it
apart for religious exercise, prostrating myself on the ground with the most
serious humiliation, confessing my sins to God, acknowledging his righteous
judgments upon me, and praying to him to have mercy on me through Jesus
Christ ; and not having tasted the least refreshment for twelve hours, even
till the going down of the sun, I then eat a biscuit-cake and a bunch of
grapes, and went to bed, finishing the day as I began it. I had all this
time observed no Sabbath-day ; for as at first I had no sense of religion
upon my mind, I had, after some time, omitted to distinguish the weeks, by
making a longer notch than ordinary for the Sabbath-day, and so did not
really know what any of the days were; but now, having cast up the days
as above, I found I had been there a year; so I divided it into weeks, and
set apart every seventh day for a Sabbath; though I found at the end of
my account, I had lost a day or two in my reckoning. A little after this,
my ink began to fail me, and so I contented myself to use it more sparingly,
and to write down only the most remarkable events of my life, without
continuing a daily memorandum of other things.

The rainy season and the dry season began now to appear regular to

me, and I learned to a them so.as to Pee for them accordingly; .
103
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

but I bought all my experience before I had it, and this I am going tc
relate was one of the most discouraging experiments that I made.

I have mentioned that I had saved the few ears of barley and rice,
which I had so surprisingly found spring up, as I thought, of themselves,
and I believe there were about thirty stalks of rice, and about twenty of
barley ; and now I thought it a proper time to sow it, after the rains, the
sun being in its southern position, going from me. Accordingly, I dug up
a piece of ground as well as I could with my wooden spade, and dividing it
into two parts, I sowed my grain ; but as I was sowing, it casually occurred
to my thoughts that I would not sow it all at first, because I did not know
when was the proper time for it, so I sowed about two-thirds of the seed,
leaving about a handful of each. It was a great comfort to me afterwards
that I did so, for not one grain of what I sowed this time came to anything:
for the dry months following, the earth having had no rain after the seed
was sown, it had no moisture to assist its growth, and never came up at all
till the wet season had come again, and then it grew as if it had been but
newly sown. Finding my first seed did not grow, which I easily imagined
was by the drought, I sought for a moister piece of ground to make-another
trial in, and I dug up a piece of ground near my new bower, and sowed the
rest of my seed in February, a little before the vernal equinox ; and this
having the rainy months of March and April to water it, sprung up very
pleasantly, and yielded a very good crop; but having part of the seed left
only, and not daring to sow all that I had, I had but a small quantity at
last, my whole crop not amounting to above half a peck of each kind. But’
by this experiment I was made master of my business, and knew exactly’
when the proper season was to sow, and that I might expect.two seed, oe
and two harvests every year.

While this corn was growing, I made a little’ discovery; “cies of
use to me afterwards. As soon’ as the rains weré over, and ‘the “weather
began to settle, which was about the month of November, I made a visit up:
the country to my bower, where, though I had not been some months, yet I
found all things just as I left them. The circle or double hedge that I had
made was not only firm and entire, but the stakes which I had cut out of
some trees that grew thereabouts, were all shot out and grown with long
branches, as much as a willow-tree, usually shoots the: first year ‘after
lopping its head. I could not tell what tree-to call it that these stakes
were cut from. I was surprised, and yet very well pleased, to see the young

trees grow: and I pruned them, and led them upto grow as.much alike‘as
104
OF ROBINSON. CRUSOE.

I could; and it is scarce credible how beautiful a figure they grew into in
three years ; so that though the hedge made a circle of about twenty-five

yards in diameter, yet the trees, for such I might now call them, soon
covered it, and it was a complete shade, sufficient.to lodge under all the
dry season. This made me resolve to cut some more stakes, and make
me a hedge like this, in a semi-circle round my wall (I mean that of
my first dwelling), which I did; and placing the trees or stakes in a
double row, at about eight yards Gstauce from. my first fence, they grew
presently, and were at first a fine cover to my habitation, and afterwards
served for a defence also, as I shall observe in its order.

I found now that the seasons of the year might generally be divided,
not into summer and winter, as in Europe, but into the rainy seasons and
the dry seasons, which were generally thus :—

The half of February, the whole of March, and the half of April—rainy,
the sun being then on or near the equinox.

The half of April, the whole of May, June, and July, and the half of
August—dry, the sun being then to the north of the Line.

The half of August, the whole of September, and the half of October—
rainy, the sun being then come back.

The half of Ooaber the whole of November, December, and January.
and the half of February—dry, the sun being then to the south of
the Line.

The rainy seasons sometimes held longer or shorter as the winds
happened to blow, but this was the general observation I made. After
I had found, by experience, the ill consequences of being abroad in the
rain, I took care to furnish myself with provisions beforehand, that I might
not be obliged to: go out, and I sat within doors as much as possible
during the wet months. This time I found much employment, and very
suitable also to the time, for I found great occasion for many things which
I had no way to furnish myself with but by hard labour and constant
application ; particularly I tried many ways to make myself a basket, ‘but
all the twigs I could get for the purpose proved so brittle that they would
do nothing. “It proved of excellent advantage to me now, that when I
was a boy, I used to take great delight in standing at a basket-maker's, in
the town where my father lived, to:see them make their wicker-ware; and
being, as boys. usually are, very officious to help, and a great observer
of the manner in which they worked those things, and sometimes lending

a hand, I had by these means full knowledge of the methods of it, and
105°
ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I wanted nothing but the materials, when it came into my mind that the
twigs of that tree from whence I cut my stakes that grew might possibly
be as tough as the sallows, willows, and osiers in England, and I resolved
to try. Accordingly, the next day I went to my country house, as I
called it, and cutting some of the smaller twigs, I found them to my
purpose as much as I could desire; whereupon I came the next time
prepared with a hatchet to cut down a quantity, which I soon found, for
there was great plenty of them. These I set up to dry within my circle or
hedge, and when they were fit for use, I carried them to my cave; and here,
during the next season, I employed myself in making, as well as I could,
a great many baskets, both to carry earth or to carry or Jay up anything,
as I had occasion; and though I did not finish.them very handsomely,
yet I made them sufficiently serviceable for my purpose; and thus,
afterwards, I took care never to be without them; and as my wicker-ware
decayed, I made more, especially strong deep baskets to place my corn in,
instead of sacks, when I should come to have any quantity of it.

Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of time about it,
I bestirred myself to see, if possible, how to supply two wants. I had no
vessels to hold anything that was liquid, except two runlets, which were
almost full of rum, and some glass bottles—some of the common size, and
others which were case-bottles, square, for the holding of water, spirits, &c.
IT had not so much as a pot to boil anything, except a great kettle, which I
saved out of the ship, and which was too big for such as I desired it, viz.
to make broth, and stew a bit of meat by itself. The second thing I fain
would have had was a tobacco-pipe, but it was impossible to me to make
one; however, I found a contrivance for that, too, at last. I employed
myself in planting my second rows of stakes or piles, and in this wicker-
working all the summer or dry season, when another business took me up
more time than it could be imagined I could spare.

I mentioned before that I had a great mind to see the whole island, and
that I had travelled up the brook, and so on to where I built my bower, and
where I had an opening quite to the sea, on the other side of the island. I
now resolved to travel quite across to the sea-shore on that side; so, taking
my gun, a hatchet, and my dog, and a larger quantity of powder and shot
than usual, with two biscuit cakes and a great bunch of raisins in my pouch
for my store, I began my journey. When I had passed the vale where my
bower stood, as above. I came within view of the sea to the west, and it
being a very clear day, I fairly descried land—whether an island or a

106


CRUSOE WHEN A BOY WATCHES THE BASKET-MAKERS AT WORK.

continent I could not tell; but it lay very high, extending from the W
to the W.S.W. at a very great distance; by my guess, it could not be
less than fifteen or twenty leagues off.

I could not tell what part of the world this might be, otherwise than
that I knew it must be part of America, and, as I concluded, by all my
observations, must be near the Spanish dominions, and perhaps was all
inhabited by savages, where, if I had landed, I had been in a worse con-
dition than I was now; and therefore I acquiesced in the dispositions of
Providence, which I began now to own and to believe ordered everything
for the best; I say I quieted my mind with this, and left off afflicting
myself with fruitless wishes of being there.

Besides, after some thought upon this affair, I considered that if this
107
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

land was the Spanish coast, I should certainly, one time or other, see some
vessel pass or repass one way or other; but if not, then it was the savage
coast between the Spanish country and Brazils, where are found the worst
of savages; for they are cannibals, or men-eaters, and fail not to murder
and devour all the human bodies that fall into their hands.

With these considerations, I walked very leisurely forward. I found
that side of the island where I now was much pleasanter than mine—the
open or savannah fields sweet, adorned with flowers and grass, and full of
very fine woods. I saw abundance of parrots, and fain I would have caught
one, if possible, to have kept it to be tame, and taught it to speak tome. I
did, after some painstaking, catch a young parrot, for I knocked it down
with a stick, and having recovered it, I brought it home; but it was some
years before I could make him speak ; however, at last, I taught him to call
me by name very familiarly. But the accident that followed, though it be
a trifle, will be very diverting in its place.

Iwas exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found in the low
grounds hares (as I thought them to be) and foxes; but they differed
greatly from all the other kinds I had met with, nor could I satisfy
myself to eat them, though I killed several. But I had no need to be
venturous, for I had no want of food, and of that which was very good, too,
especially these three sorts, viz. goats, pigeons, and turtle, or tortoise,
which, added to my grapes, Leadenhall-market could not have furnished
a table better than I, in proportion to the company; and though my
case was deplorable enough, yet I had great cause for thankfulness that I
was not driven to any extremities for food, but had rather plenty, even
to dainties.

I never travelled in this journey above two miles outright in a day, or
thereabouts ; but I took so many turns and returns to see what discoveries
I could make, that I came weary enough to the place where I resolved
to sit down all night; and then I either reposed myself in a tree, or
surrounded myself with a row of stakes set upright in the ground, either
from one tree to another, or so as no wild creature could come at me
without waking me.

As soon as I came to the sea-shore, I was surprised to see that I had
taken up my lot on the worst side of the island, for here, indeed, the shore
was covered with innumerable turtles, whereas on. the other side I had
found but three in a year and a half. Here was also an infinite number of
fowls of many kinds, some which I had seen, and some which I: had not

108
-OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

seen before, and many of them very good. — ‘but such as I- knew not the
names of, except those called penguins.

I could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very sparing of my
powder and shot, and therefore had more mind to kill a she-goat, if 1 could,
which I could better feed on; and though there were many goats here, more
than on my side the island, yet it was with much more difficulty that I
could come near them, the country being flat and even, and they saw me
much sooner than when I was on the hills.

I confess this side of the.country was much pleasanter than aaah but
yet I had not the least inclination to remove, for as I was fixed in my
habitation it became natural to me, and I seemed all the while I was here
to be as it were upon a journey, and from home. However, I travelled
along the shore of the sea towards the east, I-suppose about twelve miles,
and then setting up a great pole upon the shore for a mark, I concluded
I would go home again, and that the next journey I took should be on the
other side of the island east from my dwelling, and so round till I came to
my post again.

I took another way to come back than that I went, thinking I could
easily keep all the island so much in my view, that I could not miss finding
my first dwelling by viewing the country; but I found myself mistaken,
for, being come about two or three ‘miles, I found myself descended into a
very large valley, but so surrounded with hills, and those hills covered with
wood, that I could not see which was my way by any direction but that
of the sun, nor even then, unless I knew very well the position of the sun
at that time of the day. It happened, to my further misfortune, that the
weather proved hazy for three or four days while I was in the valley, and
not being able to see the sun, I wandered about very uncomfortably, and at
last was obliged to find the sea-side, look for my post,‘and come back the
same way I went: and then, by easy journeys, I turned homeward, the
weather being exceeding hot, and my gun, EIST hatchet, and other
things, very heavy.

In this journey my dog surprised a young kid, and seized upon it; and
I, running in to take hold of it, caught it, and saved it alive from the dog.
I had a great mind to bring it home if I could, for I had often been musing
whether it might not be possible to get a kid or two, and so raise a breed of
tame goats, which might supply me when my powder and shot should be
all spent. I made a collar for this little creature, and with a ‘string, which

T made of some rope-yarn, which I always carried about me, I led him
109
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

along, though with some difficulty, till I eame to my bower, and there I
inclosed him and left him, for I was very impatient to be at home, from
whence I had been absent above a month.

I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come into my old
hutch, and lie down in my hammock-bed. This little wandering journey,
without settled place of abode, had been so, unpleasant to me, that my own
house, as I called it to myself, was a perfect settlement to me compared to
that; and it rendered everything about me so comfortable, that I resolved I
would never go a great way from it again, while it should be my lot to stay
on the island.

I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale myself aftcr my long
journey ; during which, most of the time was taken up in the weighty affair
of making a cage for my Poll, who began now to be a mere domestic, and to
be well acquainted with me. Then I began to think of the:poor kid which
I had penned in within my little circle, and resolved to go and fetch it
home, or give it some food; accordingly I went, and found it where I left
it, for indeed it could not get out, but was almost starved for want of food.
I went and cut boughs of trees, and branches of such shrubs as I could find,
and threw it over, and having fed it, I tied it as I did before, to lead it
away ; but it was so tame with being hungry, that I had no need to have
tied it, for it followed me like a dog; and as I continually fed it, the
creature became so loving, so gentle, and so fond, that it became from that
time one of my domestics also, and would never leave me afterwards.

The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come, and I kept
the 30th of September in the same solemn manner as before, being the
anniversary of my landing on the island, having now been there two years,
and no more prospect of being delivered than the first day I came there. I
spent the whole day in humble and thankful acknowledgments of the many
wonderful mercies which my solitary condition was attended with, and
without which it might have been infinitely more miserable. I gave humble
and hearty thanks that God had been pleased to discover to me that it was
possible I might be more happy in this solitary condition than I should
have been in the liberty of society and in all the pleasures of the world ;
that He could fully make up to me the deficiencies of my solitary state, and
the want of human society, by His presence and the communications of His
grace to my soul; supporting, comforting, and encouraging me to depend
upon His providence here, and hope for His eternal presence hereafter.

It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much more happy this

Mo -
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

life I now led was, with all its miserable circumstances, than the wicked,
cursed, abominable life I led all the past part of my days; and now I
changed both my sorrows and my joys; my very desires altered, my affec-
tions changed their gusts, and my delights were perfectly new from what
they were at my first coming, or, indeed, for the two years past.

Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting, or for viewing the
country, the anguish of my soul at my condition would break out upon me
on a sudden, and my very heart would die within me, to-think of the woods,
the mountains, the deserts I was in, and how I was a prisoner, locked up
with the eternal bars and bolts of the ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness,
without redemption. In the midst of the greatest composure of my mind,
this would break out upon me like a storm, and make me wring my hands
and weep like a child. Sometimes it would take me in the middle of my
work, and I would immediately sit down and sigh, and look upon “the
ground for an hour or two together ; and this was still worse to me, for if I
could burst out into tears, or vent myself by words, it would go off, and the
grief, having exhausted itself, would abate.

But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts: I daily read
the word of God, and applied all the comforts of it to my present state.
One morning, being very sad, I opened the Bible upon these words, “I wild
never, never leave thee, nor forsake thee.” Immediately it occurred that
these words were to me; why else should they be directed in such a
manner, just at the moment when I was mourning over my condition, as
one forsaken of God and man? “Well, then,” said I, “if God does not
forsake me, of what ill consequence can it be, or what matters it, though
the world should all forsake me, seeing on the other hand, if I had all the
world, and should lose the favour and blessing of God, there would be no
comparison in the loss?” 2

From this moment, I began to conclude in my mind, that it was
possible for me to be more happy in this forsaken, solitary condition, than
it was probable I should ever have been in any other particular state in
the world; and with this thought I was going to give thanks to God for
bringing me to this place. I know not what it was, but something shocked
my mind at that thought, and I durst not speak the words. “How canst
thou become such a hypocrite,” said I, even audibly, “to pretend to be
thankful for a condition, which, however. thou mayest epdeavour to be
contented with, thou wouldst rather pray heartily to be delivered from?”
So I stopped there, but though I could not say I thanked God for being -

111
ROBINSON CRUSOE.

there, yet I sincerely gave thanks to God for opening my eyes, by whatever
afflicting providences, to see the former condition of my life, and to mourn
for my wickedness, and repent. I never opened the Bible, or shut it, but
my very soul within me blessed God for directing my friend in England,
without any. order of mine, to pack it up among my goods, and for assisting
me afterwards to save it out of the wreck of the ship.

Thus, and in this disposition of mind, I began my third year; and
though I have not given the reader the trouble of so particular an account
of my works this year as the first; yet in general it may be observed, that
I was very seldom idle, but having regularly divided my time according to
the several daily employments that were before me, such as, first, my duty
to God, and the reading the Scriptures, which I constantly set apart some
time for, thrice every day; secondly, the going abroad with my gun for
food, which generally took me up three hours in every morning, when it did
not rain ; thirdly, the ordering, cutting, preserving, and cooking, what I had
killed or caught for my supply: these took up great part of the day. Also,
it is to be considered, that in the middle of the day, when the sun was in
the zenith, the violence of the heat was too great to stir out; so that about
four hours in the evening was all the time I could be supposed to work in,
with this exception, that sometimes I changed my hours of hunting and
working, and went to work in the morning, and abroad with my gun
in the afternoon.

To this short time allowed for labour, I desire may be added the
exceeding laboriousness of my work; the many hours which for want of
tools, want of help, and want of skill, everything I did took up out of my
time. For example, I was full two and forty days in making a board for a
long shelf, which I wanted in my cave ; whereas, two sawyers, with their
tools and a saw-pit, would have cut six of them out of the same tree
in half a day.

My case was this: it was to be a large tree which was to be cut down,
because my board was to be a broad one. This tree I was three days in
cutting down, and two more cutting off the boughs, and reducing it to a log,
or piece of timber. With inexpressible hacking and hewing, I reduceé
both the sides of it into chips till it began to be light enough to move;
then I turned it, and made one side of it smooth and flat as a board from
end to end; then, turning that side downward, cut the other side till I
brought the plank to be about three inches thick, and smooth on both

sides. Any one may judgé the labour of my hands in such a piece of
112






CRUSOE IS COMFORTED BY HIS BIBLE,

work; but labour and patience carried me through that, and many other
things. I only observe this in particular, to show the reason why so much
of my time went away with so little work, viz. that what might be a little
to be done with help and tools, was a vast labour and required a prodigious
time to do alone, and by hand. But notwithstanding this, with patience
and labour I got through everything that my circumstances made necessary
to me to do, as will appear by what follows.

I was now, in the months of November and December, expecting my
Crop of barley and rice. The ground I had manured and dug up for them
was not great; for, as.I observed, my seed of each was not above the
quantity of half a peck, for I had lost one whole crop by sowing in the dry
season. But now my crop promised very well, when on a sudden I found

I was in danger of losing it all again by enemies of several sorts, which it.
113 I
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

was scarcely possible to keep from it; as, first the goats, and wild creatures
which I called hares, who, tasting the sweetness of the blade, lay in it night
and day, as soon as it came up, and eat it so close, that it could get no time
to shoot up into stalk.

This I saw no remedy for but by making an inclosure about it with a
hedge; which I did with a great deal of toil, and the more, because it
required speed. However, as my arable land was but small, suited to my
crop, I got it totally well fenced in about three weeks’ time ; and shooting
some of the creatures in the day time, I set my dog to guard it in the night,
tying him up to a stake at the gate, where he would stand and bark all
night long ; so in a little time, the enemies forsook the place, and the corn
grew very strong and well, and began to ripen apace.

But as the beasts ruined me before, while my corn was in the blade, so
the birds were as likely to ruin me now, when it was in the ear; for, going
along by the place to see how it throve, I saw my little crop surrounded
with fowls, of I know not how many sorts, who stood, as it were, watching
till I should be gone. I immediately let fly among them, for I always had
my gun with me. I had no sooner shot, but there rose up a little cloud of
fowls, which I had not seen at all, from among the corn itself.

This touched me sensibly, for I foresaw that in a few days they would
devour all my hopes; that I should be starved, and never be able to raise a
crop at all; and what to do I could not tell: however, I resolved not to
lose my corn, if possible, though I should watch it night and day. ‘In the
first place, I went among it, to see what damage was already done, and
found they had spoiled a good deal of it; but that as it was yet too green
for them, the loss was not so great but that the remainder was likely to
be a good crop, if it could be saved.

I stayed by it to load my gun, and then coming away, I could easily see
the thieves sitting upon all the trees about me, as if they only waited till
I was gone away, and the event proved it to be so; for as I walked off, as
if I was gone, I was no sooner out of their sight, than they dropped down
one by one into the corn again. I was so provoked, that I could not have
patience to stay till more came on, knowing that every grain that they eat
now was, as it might be said, a peck-loaf to me in the consequence; but
coming up to the hedge, I fired again, and killed three of them. This was
what I wished for; so I took them up, and served them as we serve
notorious thieves in England—hanged them in chains, for a terror to others.

It is impossible to imagine that this should have such an effect as it had
14
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

for the fowls would not only not come at the corn, but, in short, they forsook
all that part of the island, and I could never see a bird near the place as
long as my scarecrows hung there. This I was very glad of, you may be
sure, and about the latter end of December, which was our second harvest
of the year, I reaped my corn.

I was sadly put to it for a scythe or sickle to cut it down, and all
I could do was to make one, as well as I could, out of one of the broad-
swords, or cutlasses, which I saved among the arms out of the ship
However, as my first crop was but small, I had no great difficulty to cut it
down ; in short, I reaped it in my way, for I cut nothing off but the ears,
and carried it away in a great basket which I had made, and so rubbed it
out with my hands; and at the end of all my harvesting, I found that out
of my half-peck of seed I had near two bushels of rice, and about two
bushels and a half of barley; that is to say, by my guess, for I had no
measure at that time.

However, this was a great encouragement to me, and I foresaw ‘that, in
time, it would please God to supply me with bread. And yet here I was
perplexed again, for I neither knew how to grind, or make meal of my corn,
or indeed, how to clean it and part it; nor, if made into meal, how to make
bread of it; and if how to make it, yet I knew not how to bake it. These
things being added to my desire of having a good quantity for store, and to
secure a constant supply, I resolved not to taste any of this crop, but to
preserve it all for seed against the next season; and, in the mean time, to
employ all my study and hours of working to accomplish this great work of
providing myself with corn and bread. :

It might be truly said, that now I worked for my bread. I believe few
people have thought much upon the strange multitude of little things
necessary in the providing, producing, curing, dressing, making, and
finishing this one article of bread.

I, that was reduced to a mere state of nature, found this to my daily
discouragement ; and was made more sensible of it every hour, even after
I had got the first handful of seed-corn, which, as I have said, came up
unexpectedly, and indeed to a surprise.

First, I had no plough to turn up the earth—no spade or shovel to.dig
it. Well, this I conquered by making me a wooden spade, as I observed
before ; but this did my work but in a wooden manner; and though it cost
me a great many days to make it, yet for want of iron, it not only wore out
soon, but made my work the harder, and made it be performed much worse.

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES

However, this I bore with, and was content to work it out with patience,
and bear with the badness of the performance. When the corn was sown,
I had no harrow, but was forced to go over it myself, and drag a great
heavy bough of a tree over it, to scratch it, as it may be called, rather than
rake or harrow it. When it was growing, and grown, I have observed
already how many things I wanted to fence it, secure it, mow or reap it,
cure and carry it home, thrash, part it from the chaff, and save it. Then
I wanted a mill to grind it, sieves to dress it, yeast and salt to make it into
bread, and an oven to bake it; but all these things I did without,:as shall
be observed ; and yet the corn was an inestimable comfort and advantage to
me too. All this, as I said, made everything laborious and tedious to me;
but that there was no help for. Neither was my time so much loss to me,
because, as I had divided it, a certain part of it was every day appointed to
these works; and as I had resolved to use none of the corn for bread till
I had a greater quantity by me, I had the next six months to apply myself
wholly, by labour and invention, to furnish myself with utensils proper for
the performing all the operations necessary for making the corn, when I had
it, fit for my use.

But first I was to prepare more land, for I had now seed euough to sow
above an acre of ground. Before I did this, I had a week’s work at least to
make me a spade, which, when it was done, was but a sorry one indeed, and
very heavy, and required double labour to work with it. However, I got
through that, and sowed my seed in two large flat pieces of ground, as near
my house as I could find them to my mind, and fenced them in with a good
hedge, the stakes of which were all cut off that wood which I had set before,
and knew it would grow; so that, in a year’s time, I knew I should have a
quick or living hedge, that would want but little repair. This work did
not take me up less than three months, because a great part of that time
was the wet season, when I could not go abroad. Within-doors, that is
when it rained, and I could not go out, I found employment in the
following occupations—always observing, that all the while I was at work,
I diverted myself with talking to my parrot, and teaching him to speak ;
and I quickly taught him to know his own name, and at last to speak it out
pretty loud, “Poll,” which was the first word I ever heard spoken in the
island by any mouth but my own. This, therefore, was not my work, but
an assistance to my work; for now, as I said, I had a great employment
upon my hands, as follows: I had long studied to make, by some means or
other, some earthen vessels, which, indeed, I wanted sorely, but knew not

116
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

where to come at them. However, considering the heat of the climate,
I did not doubt but if I could find out any clay, I might make some pots
that might, being dried in the sun, be hard enough and strong enough to
bear handling, and to hold anything that was dry, and required to be kept
so; and as this was necessary in the preparing corn, meal, &c. which was



CRUSOE ATTEMPTS TO MAKE EARTHENWARE.

the thing I was doing, I resolved to make some as large as I could, and fit
only to stand like jars, to hold what should be put into them.

It would make the reader pity me, or rather laugh at me, to tell how
many awkward ways I took to raise this paste ; what odd, mis-shapen, ugly
things I made; how many of them fell in, and how many fell out, the clay
not being stiff enough to bear its own weight; how many cracked by the

117
LIFE. AND ADVENTURES

over-violent heat of the sun, being set out too hastily ; and how many fell
in pieces with only removing, as well before as after they were dried ; and,
in a word, how, after having laboured hard to find the clay—to dig it, to
temper it, to bring it home, and work it—I could not make above two large
earthen ugly things (I cannot call them jars) in about two months’ labour.

However, as the sun baked these two very dry and hard, I lifted them
very gently up, and set them down again in two great wicker baskets,
which I had made on purpose for them, that they might not break; and as
between the pot and the basket there was a little room to spare, I stuffed it
full of the rice and barley straw ; and these two pots being to stand always
dry, I thought would hold my dry corn, and perhaps the meal, when the
corn was bruised.

Though I miscarried so much in my design for large pots, yet I made
several smaller things with better success; such as little round pots, flat
dishes, pitchers, and pipkins, and any things my hand turned to; and the
heat of the sun baked them quite hard.

But all this would not answer my end, which was to get an earthen pot
to hold what was liquid, and bear the fire—which none of these could do.
It happened after some time, making a pretty large fire for cooking my
meat, when I went to put it out after I had done with it, I found a broken
piece of one of my earthenware vessels in the fire, burnt as hard as a stone,
and red as 2 tile. I was agreeably surprised to see it, and said to myself,
that certainly they might be made to burn whole, if they would burn
broken. 5

This set me to study how to order my fire, so as to make it burn some
pots. I had no notion of a kiln, such as the potters burn in, or of glazing
them with lead, though I had some lead to do it with; but I placed three
large pipkins, and two or three pots, in a pile, one upon another, and
placed my firewood all round it with a great heap of embers under them.
I plied the fire with fresh fuel round the outside, and upon the top, till
I saw the pots in the inside red-hot quite through, and observed that they
did not crack at all. When I saw them clear red, I let them stand in that
heat about five or six hours, till I found one of them, though it did not
crack, did melt or run; for the sand which was mixed with the clay melted
by the violence of the heat, and would have run into glass if I had gone on;
so I slacked my fire gradually till the pots began to abate of the red colour;
and, watching them all night, that I might not let the fire abate too fast,
in the morning I had three very good (I will not say handsome) pipkins,

118
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

and two other earthen pots, as hard burnt as could be desired, and one of
them perfectly glazed with the running of the sand. :

After this experiment, I need not say that I wanted no sort of earthen
ware for my use; but I must needs say as to the shapes of them, they were
very indifferent, as any one may suppose, when I had no way of making
them but as the children make dirt pies, or as a woman would make pies
that never learned to raise paste.

No joy at a thing of so mean a nature was ever equal to mine, when I
found I had made an earthen pot that would bear the fire; and I had
hardly patience to stay till they were cold, before I set one on the fire
again, with some water in it, to boil me some meat, which it did admirably
well; and with a piece of a kid I made some very good broth, though I
wanted oatmeal, and several other ingredients requisite to make it as good
as I would have had it been. ~

My next concern was to get me a stone mortar to stamp or beat some
corn in; for as to the mill, there was no thought of arriving at that perfec-
tion of art with one pair of hands. To supply this want, I was ata great
loss; for, of all the trades in the world, I was as perfectly unqualified for a
stone-cutter, as for any whatever; neither had I any tools to go about it
with. I spent many a day to find out a great stone big enough to cut
hollow, and make fit for a mortar, and could find none at all, except what
was in the solid rock, and which I had no way to dig or cut out; nor
indeed were the rocks in the island of hardness sufficient, but were all of a
sandy crumbling stone, which neither would bear the weight of a heavy
pestle, nor would break the corn without filling it with sand. So, after a
great deal of time lost in searching for a stone, I gave it over, and resolved
to look out for a great block of hard wood, which I found indeed much
easier; and getting one as big as I had strength to stir, I rounded it, and
formed it on the outside with my axe and hatchet, and then, with the help
of fire, and infinite labour, made a hollow place in it, as the Indians in
Brazil make their canoes. After this, I made a great heavy pestle, or beater,
of the wood called the iron-wood ; and this I prepared and laid by against
I had my next crop of corn, which I proposed to myself to grind, or rather
pound, into meal, to make bread.

My next difficulty was to make a, sieve, or searce, to dress my meal, and
to part ‘it from the bran and the husk; without which I did not see it
‘possible I could have any bread. This was a most difficult thing, even to

think on, for to be sure I had nothing like the necessary thing to make it—
119
ROBINSON CRUSOL.

I mean fine thin canvas or stuff to searce the meal through. And here J
was at a full stop for many months; nor did I really know what to do.
Linen I had none left but what was mere rags; I had goats’-hair, but
neither knew how to weave it or spin it; and had I known how, here were
no tools to work it with. All the remedy that I found for this was, that at
last I did remember I had, among the seamen’s clothes which were saved
out of the ship, some neckcloths of calico or muslin ; and with some pieces
of these I made three small sieves proper enough for the work; and thus I
made shift for some years: how I did afterwards, I shall show in its place.

The baking part was the next thing to be considered, and how I should
make bread when I came to have corn; for, first, I had no yeast. As to that
part, there was no supplying the want, so I did not concern myself much
about it. But for an oven, I was indeed in great. pain. At length I found
out an experiment for that also, which was this:—I made some carthen
vessels very broad, but not deep, that is to say, about two feet diameter,
and not above nine inches deep. These I burned in the fire, as I had done
the other, and laid them by; and when I wanted to bake, I made a great
fire upon my hearth, which I had paved with some square tiles, of my own
baking and burning also; but I should not call them square.

When the firewood was burned pretty much into embers, or live coals,
I drew them forward upon this hearth, so as to cover it all over, and there
I let them lie till the hearth was very hot. Then, sweeping away all the
embers, I set down my loaf or loaves, and whelming down the earthen pot
upon them, drew the embers all round the outside of the pot, to keep in and
add to the heat; and thus, as well as in the best oven in the world, I baked
my barley-loaves, and became, in little time, a good pastrycook into the
bargain ; for I made myself several cakes and puddings of the rice; but I
made no pies, neither had I anything to put into them, supposing I had,
except the flesh either of fowls or goats.

It need not be wondered at if all these things took me up most part of
the third year of my abode here; for, it is to be observed, that in the
intervals of these things I had my new harvest and husbandry to manage ;
for I reaped my corn in its season, and carried it home as well as I could,
and laid it up in the ear, in my large baskets, till I had time to rub it out,
for I had no floor to thrash it on, or instrument to thrash it with.

And now, indeed, my stock of corn increasing, I really wanted to build
my barns bigger; I wanted a place to lay it up in, for the increase of the
corn now yielded me so much, that I had of the barley about twenty

120


CRUSOE REAPS HIS BARLEY.

bushels, and of the rice as much, or more; insomuch that now I resolved to
begin to use it freely; for my bread had been quite gone a great while ;
also I resolved to see what quantity would be sufficient for me a whole
year, and to sow but once a year.

Upon the whole, I found that the forty bushels of barley and rice were
much more than I could consume in a year; so I resolved to sow just the
same quantity every year that I sowed the last, in hopes that such a
quantity would fully provide me with bread, &e.

All the while these things were doing, you may be sure my thoughts
ran many times upon the prospect of land which I had seen from the other
side of the island; and I was not without secret wishes that I were on
shore there, fancying that, seeing the main-land, and an inhabited country,
I might find some way or other to convey myself farther, and perhaps at
last find some means of escape.

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES

But all this while I made no allowance for the dangers of such an
undertaking, and how I might fall into the hands of savages, and perhaps
such as I might have reason to think far worse than the lions and tigers of
Africa ; that if I once came in their power, I should run a hazard of more
than a thousand to one of being killed, and perhaps of being eaten; for I
had heard that the people of the Caribbean coast were cannibals, or man-
eaters, and I knew by the latitude that I could not be far from that shore.
Then, supposing they were not cannibals, yet they might kill me, as many
Europeans who had fallen into their hands had been served, even when
they had been ten or twenty together—much more IJ, that was but one, and
could make little or no defence; all these things, I say, which I ought to
have considered well, and did come into my thoughts afterwards, yet gave
me no apprehensions at first, and my head ran mightily upon the thought
of getting over to the shore.

Now I wished for my boy Xury, and the long-boat with the shoulder-
of-mutton sail, with which I sailed above a thousand miles on the coast of
Africa ; but this was in vain: then I thought I would go and look at our
ship’s boat, which, as I have said, was blown up upon the shore a great way,
in the storm, when we were first cast away. She lay almost where she did
at first, but not quite ; and was turned, by the force of the waves and the
winds, almost bottom upward, against a high ridge of beachy, rough sand,
but no water about her. If I had had hands to have refitted her, and to
have launched her into the water, the boat would have done well enough,
and I might have gone back into the Brazils with her easily enough ; but I
might have foreseen that I could no more turn her and set her upright upon
her bottom, than I could remove the island ; however, I went to the woods,
and cut levers and rollers, and brought them to the boat, resolving to try
what I could do; suggesting to myself, that if I could but turn her down, I
might repair the damage she had received, and she would be a very good
boat, and I might go to sea in her very easily.

I spared no pains, indeed, in this piece of fruitless toil, and spent, I think,
three or four weeks about it; at last, finding it impossible to heave it up
with my little strength, I fell to digging away the sand, to undermine it, and
so to make it fall down, setting pieces of wood to thrust and guide it right
in the fall.

But when I had done this, I was unable to stir it up again, or to get
under it, much less to move it forward towards the water ; so I was forced
to give it over; and yet, though I gave over the hopes of the boat, my

122
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

desire to venture over for the main increased, rather than decreased, as the
means for it seemed impossible.

This at length put'me upon thinking whether it was not possible to
make myself a canoe, or periagua, such as the natives of those climates make,
even without tools, or, as I might say, without hands, of the trunk of a great
tree. This I not only thought possible, but easy, and pleased myself
extremely with the thoughts of making it, and with my having much more
convenience for it than any of the Negroes or Indians ; but not at all con-
sidering the particular inconveniences which I lay under more than the
Indians did, viz. want of hands to move it, when it was made, into the
water—a, difficulty much harder for me to surmount than all the conse-
quences of want of tools could be to them; for what was it to me, if when
I had chosen a vast tree in the woods, and with much trouble cut it down,
if I had been able with my tools to hew and dub the outside into the proper
shape of a boat, and burn or cut out the inside to make it hollow, so as to
make a boat of it—if, after all this, I must leave it just there where I found
it, and not be able to launch it into the water?

One would have thought I could not have had the least reflection upon
my mind of my circumstances while I was making this boat, ‘but I should
have immediately thought how I should get it into the sea ; but my thoughts
were so intent upon my voyage over the sea in it, that I never once con-
sidered how I should get it off the land: and it was really, in its own
nature, more easy for me to guide it over forty-five miles in sea, than about -
forty-five fathoms of land, where it lay, to set it afloat in the water.

I went to work upon this boat the most like a fool that ever man did,
who had any of his senses awake. I pleased myself with the design,
without determining whether I was ever able to undertake it; not but that _
the difficulty of launching my boat came often into my head ; but I put a
stop to my inquiries into it, by this foolish answer, which I gave myself:
“Let me first make it; I warrant I will find some way or other to get it
along when it is done.”

This was a most preposterous method ; but the eagerness of my fancy
prevailed, and to work I went. I felled a cedar-tree, and I question much
whether Solomon ever had such a one for the building of the Temple of
Jerusalem; it was five feet ten inches diameter at the lower part next the
stump, and four feet eleven inches diameter at the end of twenty two feet:
after which it lessened for a while, and then parted into branches. It was

not without infinite labour that I felled this tree; I was twenty daye
128
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

hacking and hewing at it at the bottom; I was fourteen more getting the
pranches and limbs, and the vast spreading head cut off, which I hacked
and hewed through with axe and hatchet, and inexpressible labour: after
this, it cost me a month to shape it and dub it to a proportion, and to
something like the-bottom of a boat, that it might swim upright as it
ought to do. It cost me near three months more to clear the inside, and
work it out so as to make an exact boat of it; this I did, indeed, without
fire, by mere mallet and chisel, and by the dint of hard labour, till I had
brought it to be a very handsome periagua, and big enough to have carried
six and twenty men, and consequently big enough to have carried me and
all my cargo.

When I had gone through this work, I was extremely delighted with it.
The boat was really much bigger than ever I saw a canoe or periagua, that
was made of one tree, in my life. Many a weary stroke it had cost, you
may be sure; and had I gotten it into the water, I make no question but
I should have begun the maddest voyage, and the most unlikely to be per-
formed, that ever was undertaken.

But all my devices to get it into the water failed me; though they cost
me infinite labour too. Tt lay about one hundred yards from the water,
and not more; but the first inconvenience was, it was up hill towards the
creek. Well, to take away this discouragement, I resolved to dig into the
surface of the earth, and so make a declivity: this I began, and it cost
me a prodigious deal of pains (but who grudge pains that have their
deliverance in view?); but when this was worked through, and this
difficulty managed, it was still much the same, for I could no more stir
the canoe than I could the other boat. Then I measured the distance of
ground, and resolved to cut a dock or canal, to bring the water up to the
canoe, seeing I could not bring the canoe down to the water. Well, I
began this work; and when I began to enter upon it, and calculate how
deep it was to be dug, how broad, how the stuff was to be thrown out,
I found that, by the number of hands I had, being none but my own, it
must have been ten or twelve years before I could have gone through with
it; for the shore lay so high, that at the upper end it must have been at
least twenty feet deep; so at length, though with great reluctancy, I gave
this attempt over also.

This grieved me heartily ; and now I saw, though too late, the folly of
beginning a work before we count the cost, and before we judge rightly of
our own strength to go through with it.

124
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

In the middle of this work, I finished my fourth year in this place,
and kept my anniversary with the same devotion, and with as much
comfort as ever before; for, by a constant study and serious application to
the Word of God, and by the assistance of His grace, I gained a different
knowledge from what I had before. I entertained different notions of
things. I looked now upon the world as a thing remote, which I had
nothing to do with, no expectation from, and, indeed, no desires about:
in a word, I had nothing indeed to do with it, nor was ever likely to have ;
so I thought it looked, as we may perhaps look upon it hereafter, viz. as a
place I had lived in, but was come out of it; and well might I say, as
Father Abraham to Dives, “Between me and thee is a great gulf fixed.”



CRUSOE IS UNABLE TO MOVE HIS BOAT.

In the first place, I was removed from all the wickedness of the world
here; I had neither the lusts of the flesh, the lusts of the eye, or the pride
of life. I had nothing to covet, for I had all that I was now capable of
enjoying ; I was lord of the whole manor; or, if I pleased, I might call
myself king or emperor over the whole country which I had possession of :
there were no rivals; I had no competitor, none to dispute sovereignty or
command with me: I might have raised ship-loadings of corn, but I had
no use for it; so I let as little grow as I thought enough for my occasion.

I had tortoise or turtle enough, but now and then one was as much as
125
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

I could put to any use: I had timber enough to have built a fleet of ships;
and I had grapes enough to have made wine, or to have cured into raisins,
to have loaded that fleet when it had been built.

But all I could make use of was all that was valuable: I had enough
to eat and supply my wants, and what was all the rest tome? If I killed
more flesh than I could eat, the dog must eat it, or vermin; if I sowed
more corn than I could eat, it must be spoiled; the trees that I cut down
were lying to rot on the ground; I could make no more use of them but
for fuel, and that I had no occasion for but to dress my food.

In a word, the nature and experience of things dictated to me, upon
just reflection, that all the good things of this world are no farther good
to us than they are for our use; and that, whatever we may heap up to
give others, we enjoy just as much as we can use, and no more. The most
covetous, griping miser in the world would have been cured of the vice of
covetousness, if he had: been in my case; for I possessed infinitely more
than I knew what to do with. I had no room for desire, except it was
of things which I had not, and they were but trifles, though, indeed, of
great use to me. I had, as I hinted. before, a parcel of money, as well
gold as silver, about thirty-six pounds sterling. Alas! there the sorry,
useless stuff lay; I had no manner of business for it; and often thought
with myself, that I would have given a handful of it for a gross of
tobacco-pipes ; or for a hand-mill to grind my corn; nay, I would have
given it all for a sixpenny-worth of turnip and carrot seed out of England,
or for a handful of peas and beans, and a bottle of ink. As it was, I had
not the least advantage by it or benefit from it; but there it lay in a
drawer, and grew mouldy with the damp of the cave in the wet seasons;
and if I had had the drawer full of diamonds, it had been the same case,
they had been of no manner of value to me, because of no use.

I had now brought my state of life to be much easier in itself than
it was at first, and much easier to my mind, as well as to my body. I
frequently sat down to meat with thankfulness, and admired the hand of'
God’s providence, which had thus spread my table in the wilderness. I
learned to look more upon the bright side of my condition, and less upon the
dark side, and to consider what I enjoyed rather than what I wanted; and
this gave me sometimes such secret comforts, that I cannot express them;
and which I take notice of here, to put those discontented people in
mind of it, who cannot enjoy comfortably what God has given them,

because they see and covet something that he has not given them. Al
126


OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

our discontents about what we want appeared to me to spring from the
want of thankfulness for what we have.

Another reflection was of great use to me, and doubtless would be so
to any one that should fall into such distress as mine was; and this was,
to compare my present condition with what I at first expected it would
be; nay, with what it would certainly have been, if the good providence
of God had not wonderfully ordered the ship to be cast up nearer to the
shore, where I not only could come at her, but could bring what I got
out of her to the shore, for my relief and comfort; without which, I had
wanted for tools to work, weapons for defence, and gunpowder and shot —
for getting my: food.

I spent whole hours, I may say whole days, in representing to myself,
in the most lively colours, how I must have acted if I had got nothing out
of the ship. How I could not have so much as got any food, except fish
and turtles; and that, as it was long before I found any of them, I must
have perished first ; that I should have lived, if I had not perished, like a
mere savage ; that if I had killed a goat or a fowl, by any contrivance,
I had no way to flay or open it, or part the flesh from the skin and the
bowels, or to cut it up; but must gnaw it with my teeth, and pull it with
my claws, like a beast.

These reflections made me very sensible of the goodness of Providence
to me, and very thankful for my present condition, with all its hardships
and misfortunes: and this part also I cannot but recommend to the
reflection of those who are apt, in their misery, to say, “Is any affliction
like mine?” ‘Let them consider how much worse the cases of some people
are, and their case might have been, if Providence had thought fit.

I had another reflection, which assisted me also to comfort my mind
with hopes ; and this was comparing my present situation with what I had '
deserved, and had theréfore reason to expect from the hand of Providence.
I had lived a dreadful life, perfectly destitute of the knowledge and fear of
God. I had been well instructed by father and mother ; neither had they
been wanting to me, in their early endeavours to infuse a religious awe
of God into my mind, a sense of my duty, and what the nature and end .
of my being required of me. But, alas! falling early into the seafaring _
life, which, of all lives, is the most destitute of the fear of God, though His
terrors are always before them; I say, falling early into the seafaring life, —
and into seafaring company, all that little sense of religion which I had
entertained was laughed out of me by my messmates; by a hardened

127
ROBINSON CRUSOE.

despising of dangers, and the views of death, which grew habitual to me -
by my long absence from all manner of opportunities to converse witk
anything but what was like myself, or to hear anything that was good
or tended towards it.

So void was I of everything that was good, or the least sense of what
I was, or was to be; that, in the greatest deliverances I enjoyed—such as
my escape from Sallee ; my being taken up by the Portuguese master of the
ship ; my being planted so well in the Brazils ; my receiving the cargo from
England, and the like—I never had once the words, “Thank God,” so much
as on my mind, or in my mouth ; nor in the greatest distress had I so much
as a thought to pray to him, or so much as to say, “ Lord, have mercy upon
me!” no, nor to mention the r name of God, unless it was to swear by, and
blaspheme it.

TI had terrible reflections upon my mind for many months, as I have
already observed, on account of my wicked and hardened life past; and
when I looked about me, and considered what particular providences had
attended me since my coming into this place, and how God had dealt boun-
tifully with me—had not only punished me less than my iniquity had
deserved, but had so plentifilly provided for me—this gave me great hopes
that my repentance was accepted, and that God had yet mercy in store
for me.

With these selections I worked my mind up, not only to a resignation to
the will of God in the present disposition of my circumstances, but even to a
sincere thankfulness for my condition ; and that I, who was yet a living man,
ought not to complain, seeing I had not the due punishment of my sins;
that I enjoyed so many mercies which I had no reason to have expected in
that place; that I ought never more to repine at my condition, but to rejoice,
and to give daily thanks for that daily bread, which nothing but a crowd of
wonders could have brought; that I ought to consider I had been fed even
by a miracle, even as great as that of feeding Elijah by ravens; nay, by @
long series of miracles: and that I could hardly have named a place in the
uninhabitable part of the world where I could have been cast more to my

. advantage; a place where, as I had no society, which was my affliction on
one hand, so I found no ravenous beasts, no furious wolves or tigers, to
threaten my life ; no venomous creatures, or poisons, which I might feed on
to my hurt; no savages to murder and devour me. In a word, as my life
was a life of sorrow one way, so it was a life of mercy another ; and I wanted
nothing to make it a life of comfort, but to be able to make my sense of

128


CRUEOL'S MESSMATES LAUGH HIS SENSE OF RELIGION OUT OF HIM,

God's goodness to me, and care over me in this condition, be my daily con-
solation; and after I did make a just improvement on these things, I went
avay, and was no more sad. I had now been here so long, that many things
which I had brought on shore for my help were either quite gone, or very
much wasted and near spent.

My ink, as I observed, had been gone some time, all but a very little,
which I eked out with water, a little and a little, till it was so pale, it scarce
loft any appearance of black upon the paper. As long as it lasted I made
use of it to minute down the days of the month on which any remarkable
‘hing happened to me; and first, by casting up times past, I remembered
‘hat there was a strange concurrence of days in the various providences
which befell me, and which, if I had been superstitiously inclined to observe
(ays as fatal or fortunate, I might have had reason to have looked upon
with a great deal of curiosity.

129 K
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

First, I had observed, that the same day that I broke away from iny
father and friends, and ran away to Hull, in order to go to sea, the same day
afterwards I was taken by the Sallee man-of-war, and made a slave; the
same day of the year that I escaped out of the wreck of that ship in Yar-
mouth Roads, that same day year afterwards I made my escape from Sallee
in a boat; the same day of the year I was born on, viz. the 30th of Septem-
ver, that same day I had my life so miraculously saved twenty-six years
after, when I was cast on shore in this island ; so that my wicked life and
my solitary life began both on a day.

The next thing to my ink being wasted, was that of my bread, I mean
the biscuit which I brought out of the ship; this I had husbanded to the
last degree, allowing myself but one cake of bread a day for above a year;
and yet I was quite without bread for near a year before I got any corn of
my own; and great reason I had to be thankful that I had any at all, the
getting it being, as has been already observed, next to miraculous.

My clothes, too, began to decay; as to linen, I had had none a good

. while, except some chequered shirts which I found in the chests of the other
seamen, and which I carefully preserved ; because many times I could bear
no other clothes on but a shirt; and it was a very great help to me that I
had, among all the men’s clothes of the ship, almost three dozen of shirts.
There were also, indeed, several thick watch-coats of the seamen’s which
were left, but they were too hot to wear; and though it is true that the
weather was so violently hot that there was no need of clothes, yet I could
not go quite naked—no, though I had been inclined to it, which I was not;
—nor could I abide the thought of it, though I was alone. The reason why
I could not go naked was, I could not bear the heat of the sun so well when
quite naked as with some clothes on ; nay, the very heat frequently blistered
my skin; whereas, with a shirt on, the air itself made some motion, and
whistling under the shirt, was twofold cocter than without it. No more
could I ever bring myself to go out in the heat of the sun without a cap or
a hat; the heat of the sun, beating with such violence as it.does in that
place, would give me the head-ache presently, by darting so directly on my
head, without a cap or hat on, so that I could not bear it; whereas, if I put
on my hat, it would presently go away.

Upon these views I began to consider about putting the few rags I had,
which I called clothes, into some order; I had worn out all the waistcoats
I had, and my business was now to try if I could not make jackets out of
the great watch-coats which I had by me, and with such other materials a3

130
1
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I had; so I set to work, tailoring, or rather, indeed, botching, for I made
most piteous work of it. However, I made shift to make two or thrve
new waistcoats, which I hoped would serve me a great while; as for breeches
or drawers, I made but a very sorry shift indeed till afterwards.

I have mentioned that I saved the skins of all the creatures that I
killed, I’ mean four-footed ones, and I had them hung up, stretched out
with sticks in the sun, by which means some of them were so dry and hard
that they were fit for little, but others were very useful. The first thing
I made of these was a great cap for my head, with the hair on the outside,
to shoot off the rain; and this I performed so well, that after, I made me a
suit of clothes wholly of these skins—that is to say, a waistcoat, and
breeches open at the knees, and both loose, for they were rather wanting to
keep me cool than to keep me warm. I must not omit to acknowledge that
they were wretchedly made; for if I was a bad carpenter, I was a worse
tailor. However, they were such as I made very good shift with, and when
I was out, if it happened to rain, the hair of my waistcoat and cap being
outermost, I was kept very dry.

After this, I spent a great deal of time and pains to make an umbrella ;
l was indeed in great want of one, and had a great mind to make one: I had
seen them made in the Brazils, where they are very useful in the great heats
there, and I felt the heats every jot as great here, and greater too, being
nearer the equinox ; besides, as I was obliged to be much abroad, it was a
most useful thing to me, as well for the rains as the heats. I took a world
of pains with it, and was a great while before I could make anything likely
"to hold: nay, after I thought I had hit the way, I spoiled two or three
before I made one to my mind: but at last I made one that answered
indifferently well ; the main difficulty I found was to make it let down
I could make it spread, but if it did not let down too, and draw in, it was
not portable for me any way but just over my head, which would not de. -
However, at last, as I said, I made one to answer, and covered it with sking,
the hair upwards, so that it cast off the rain like a pent-house, and kept off
the sun so effectually, that I could walk out in the hottest of the weather
with greater advantage than I could before in the coolest, and when I had
no need of it, could close it, and carry it under my arm.

Thus I lived mighty comfortably, my mind being entirely composed by
resigning myself to the will of God, and throwing myself wholly upon the
disposal of His providence. This made my life better than sociable, for
when I began to regret the want of conversation, I would ask myself,

181
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

whether thus conversing mutually with my own thoughts, and (as I hope I
may say) with even God Himself, by ejaculations, was not better than the
utmost enjoyment of human society in the world?

I cannot say that, after this, for five years, any extraordinary thing hap-
pened to me, but I lived on in the same course, in the same posture and
place, as before ; the chief things I was employed in, besides my yearly
labour of planting my barley and rice, and curing my raisins, of both which
I always kept up just enough to have sufficient stock of one year’s provision
beforehand ; I say, besides this yearly labour, and my daily pursuit of going
out with my gun, I had one labour, to make a canoe, which at last I finished :
so that, by digging a canal to it of six feet wide and four feet deep, I brought
it into the creek, almost half a mile. As for the first, which was so vastly
big, for I made it without considering beforehand, as I ought to have done,
how I should be able to launch it, so, never being able to bring it into the
water, or bring the water to it, I was obliged to let it lie where it was as a
memorandum to teach me to be wiser the next time: indeed, the next
time, though I could not get a tree proper for it, and was in a place where I
could not get the water to it at any less distance than, as I have said, near
half a mile, yet, as I saw it was practicable at last, I never gave it over;
and though I was near two years about it, yet I never grudged my labour,
in hopes of having a boat to go off to sea at last.

However, though my little periagua was finished, yet the size of it was
not at all answerable to the design which I had in view when I made the
first ; I mean of venturing over to the terra firma, where it was above forty
miles broad; accordingly, the smallness of my boat assisted to put an end
to that design, and now I thought no more of it. As I had a boat, my next
design was to make a cruise round the island; for as I had been on the
other side in one place, crossing, as I have already described it, over the
land, so the discoveries I made in that little journey made me very eager to
see other parts of the coast; and now I had a boat, I thought of nothing
put sailing round the island.

For this purpose, that I might do everything with discretion and consi-
deration, I fitted up a little mast in my boat, and made a sail too out of
some of the pieces of the ship’s sails which lay in store, and of which I had
a great stock by me. Having fitted my mast and sail, and tried the boat, I
found she would sail very well: then I made little lockers, or boxes, at each
end of my boat, to put provisions, necessaries, ammunition, &c. into, to be
kept dry, either from rain or the spray of the sea; and a little, long, hollow

182
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

place I cut in the inside of the boat, where I could lay my gun, making a
flap to hang down over it, to keep it dry.

I fixed my umbrella also in a step at the stern, like a aon to stand
over my head, and keep the heat of the sun off me, like an awning ; and
thus I every now and then took a little voyage upon the sea: but never
went far out, nor far from the little creek. At last, being eager to view
the circumference of my little kingdom, I resolved upon my cruise ;'and
accordingly I victualled my ship for the voyage, putting in two doxen of
loaves (cakes I should rather call them) of barley bread, an earthen pot fall
of parched rice (a food I ate a great deal of), a little bottle of rum, half a
goat, and powder and shot for killing more, and two large watch-coats, of
those which, as I mentioned before, I had saved out of the seamen’s chests;
these I took, one to lie upon, and the other to cover me in the night.

Tt was the 6th of November, in the sixth year of my reign, or my cap-
tivity, which you please, that I set out on this voyage, and I found it much
longer than I expected ; for though the island itself was not very large, yet
when I came to the east side of it, I found a great ledge of rocks lie out
about two leagues into the sea, some above water, some under it; and
beyond that a shoal of sand, lying dry half a league more, so that I was
obliged to go a great way out to sea to double the point.

When first I discovered them, I'was going to give over my enterprise,
and come back again, not knowing how far it might oblige me to go out to
sea: and, above all, doubting how I should get back again: so I came to
an anchor; for I had made a kind of an anchor with a piece of a broken
grappling which I got out of the ship.

Having secured my boat, I took my gun and went on shore, cite eoe
up a hill, which seemed to overlook that point where I saw the full extent
of it, and resolved to venture.

In my viewing the sea from that hill where I stood, I perceived a strong
and, indeed, a most furious current, which ran to the east, and even came
close to the point ; and I took the more notice of it, because I saw: there
might be some danger, that when I came into it, I might be carried out to
sea by the strength of it, and not be able to make the island again: and,
indeed, had I not got first upon this hill, I believe it would have been ‘so;
for there was the same current on the other side the island, only that it set:
off at a farther distance, and I saw there was a strong eddy under the
shore ; so I had nothing to do but to get out of the ‘first pieigrs and. ~
should presently be in an eddy.

188
LIFE AND, ADVENTURES

I lay here, however, two days, because the wiud blowing pretty fresh at
E.S.E,, and that being just contrary to the current, made a great breach of
the sea upon the point; so that it was not safe for me to keep too close to
the shore for the breach, nor to go too far off, because of the stream.

The third day, in the morning, the wind having abated overnight, the
sea was calm, and I ventured: but I am a warning to all rash and ignorant
pilots ; for no sooner was I come to the point, when I was not even my
boat’s length from the shore, but I found myself in a great depth of water,
and a current like the sluice of a mill: it carried my boat along with it
with such violence that all I could do could not keep her so much as on
the edge of it; but I found it hurried me farther and farther out from the
eddy, which was on my left hand. There was no wind stirring to help me,
and all I could do with my paddles signified nothing: and now I began to
give myself over for lost ; for as the current was on both sides of the island,
I knew in a few leagues’ distance they must join again, and then I was
irrecoverably gone ; nor did I see any possibility of avoiding it ; so that I
had no prospect before me but of perishing, not by the sea, for that was
calm enough, but of starving from hunger. I had, indeed, found a tortoise
on the shore, as big almost as I could lift, and had tossed it into the boat ;
and I had a great jar of fresh water, that is to say, one of my earthen
pots ; but what was all this to being driven into the vast ocean, where, to
be sure, there was no shore, no main land or island, for a thousand leagues
at least ?

And now I saw how easy it was for the providence of God to make
even the most miserable condition of mankind worse. Now I looked back
upon my desolate, solitary island, as the most pleasant place in the world,
and all the happiness my heart could wish for was to be but there again.
I stretched out my hands to it, with eager wishes : “O happy desert!” said
I, “I shall never see thee more. O miserable creature! whither am I
going?” Then I reproached myself with my unthankful temper, and that
I had repined at my solitary condition ; and now what would I give to be
on shore there again! Thus, we never see the true state of our condition
till it is illustrated to us by its contraries, nor know how to value what we
enjoy, but by the want of it. It is scarcely possible to imagine the con-
sternation I was now in, being driven from my beloved island (for so it
appeared to me now to be) into the wide ocean, almost two leagues, and in
the utmost despair of ever recovering it again. However, I worked hard
till indeed my strength was almost exhausted, and kept my boat as much

184
OF. ROBINSON. CRUSOE.

to the northward, that is, towards the side of the current which the eddy
lay on, as possibly I could; when about noon, as the sun passed. the
meridian, I thought I felt a little breeze of wind in my face, springing up
from S.S.E. This cheered my heart a little, and especially when, in about
half an hour more, it blew a pretty gentle gale. By this time, I had got at -
a frightful distance from the island, and had the least cloudy or hazy weather ”
intervened, I had been undone another way, too; for I had no compass on
board, and should never have known how to have steered towards the
island, if I had but once lost sight of it; but the weather continuing clear,
I applied myself to get up my mast again, and spread my sail, standing
away to the north as much as possible, to get out of the current,

Just as I had set my mast and sail, and the boat began to stretch away,
I saw even by the clearness of the water some alteration of the current
was near; for where the current was so strong the water was foul; but
perceiving the water clear, I found the current abate; and presently I
found to the east, at about half a mile, a breach of the sea upon some
rocks: these rocks I found caused the current to part again, and as the
main stress of it ran away more southerly, leaving the rocks to the
north-east, so the other returned by the repulse of the rocks, and made
a strong eddy, which ran back again to the north-west, with a very sharp
stream.

They who know what it is to have a reprieve brought to them upon the
ladder, or to be rescued from thieves just going to murder them, or who
have been in such extremities, may guess what my present surprise of joy
was, and how gladly I put my boat into the stream of this eddy; and the
wind also freshening, how gladly I spread my sail to it, running cheerfully
before the wind, and with a strong tide or eddy under foot.

This eddy carried me about a league in my way back again, directly
towards the island, but about two leagues more to the northward than the
current which carried me away at first; so that when I came near the
island, I found myself open to the northern shore of it, that is to say, the
other end of the island, opposite to that which I went out from.

When I had made something more than a league of way by the. help
of this current or eddy, I found it was spent, and served me no farther.
However, I found that being between two great currents, viz. that on the
south side, which had hurried me away, and that on the north, which lay
about a league on the other side ;' I say, between these two, in the wake
of the island, I found the water at least still, and running no way ; and

185 .
ROBINSON CRUSOE.

having still a breeze of wind fair for me, I kept on steering directly for the
island, though not making such fresh way as I did before.

About four o’clock in the evening, being then within a league of
the island, I found the point of the rocks which occasioned this disaster,
stretching out, as is described before, to the southward, and casting off the
current more southerly, had, of course, made another eddy to the north ;
and this I found very strong, but not directly setting the way my course
lay, which was due west, but almost full north. However, having a fresh
gale, I stretched across this eddy, slanting north-west ; and in about an
hour came within about a mile of the shore, where, it being smooth water,
I soon got to land.

When I was on shore, I fell on my knees, and gave God thanks for my
deliverance, resolving to lay aside all thoughts of my deliverance by my
boat ; and refreshing myself with such things as I had, I brought my boat
close to the shore, in a little cove that I had spied under some trees, and
laid me down to sleep, being quite spent with the labour and fatigue of
the voyage.

I was now at a great loss which way to get home with my boat! I had
run so much hazard, and knew too much of the case, to think of attempting
it by the way I went out; and what might be at the other side (I mean the
west side) I knew not, nor had I any mind to run any more ventures: so I
resolved on the next morning to make my way westward along the shore,
and to see if there was no creek where I might lay up my frigate in safety,
so as to have her again, if I wanted her. In about three miles, or there-
abouts, coasting the shore, I came to a very good inlet or bay, about a mile
over, which narrowed till it came to a very little rivulet or brook, where I
found a very convenient harbour for my boat, and where she lay as if she
had been in a little dock made on purpose for her. Here I put in, and
having stowed my boat very safe, I went on shore to look about me, and
see where I was.

I soon found I had but a little passed by the place where I had been
before, when I travelled on foot to that shore; so taking nothing out of
my boat but my gun and umbrella, for it was exceedingly hot, I began my
march. The way was comfortable enough after such a voyage as I had
been upon, and I reached my old bower in the evening, where I found
every thing standing as I left it ; for I always kept it in good order, being,
as I said before, my country-house.

I got over the fence, and laid me down in the shade to rest my limbs,
136




CRUSOE RETURNS THANKS FOR HIS DELIVERANCE,

for I was very weary, and fell asleep ; but judge you, if you can, that read
my story, what a surprise I must be in when I was awaked out of my sleep
by a voice, calling me by my name several times, “Robin, Robin, Robin
Crusoe : poor Robin Crusoe! Where are you, Robin Crusoe? Where are
you? Where have you been?”

I was so dead asleep at first, being fatigued with rowing, or paddling as
: 137
ROBINSON CRUSOE.

it is called, the first part of the day, and with walking the latter part, that
I did not wake thoroughly ; but dozing between sleeping and waking,
thought I dreamed that somebody spoke to me ; but as the voice continued
to repeat, “Robin Crusoe, Robin Crusoe,” at last I began to wake more
perfectly, and was at first dreadfully frightened, and started up in the
utmost consternation; but no sooner were my eyes open, but I saw my
Poll sitting on the top of the hedge ; and immediately knew that it was he
that spoke to me ; for just in such bemoaning language I had used to talk to
him, and teach him ; and he had learned it so perfectly that he would sit
upon my finger, and lay his bill close to my face, and cry, “ Poor Robin
Crusoe! Where are you? Where have you been? How came you here?”
and such things as I had taught him.

However, even though I knew it was the parrot, and that indeed it
could be nobody else, it was a good while before I could compose myself.
First, I was amazed how the creature got thither ; and then, how he should
just keep about the place, and nowhere else ; but as I was well satisfied it
could be nobody but honest Poll, I got over it ; and holding out my hand,
and calling him by his name, “ Poll,” the sociable creature came to me, and
sat upon my thumb, as he used to do, and continued talking to me, “ Poor
Robin Crusoe! and how did I come here? and where had I been?” just
as if he had been overjoyed to see me again ; and so I carried him home
along with me.

T had now had enough of rambling to sea for some time, and had enough
to do for many days, to sit still, and reflect upon the danger I had been in.
I would have been very glad to have had my boat again on my side of the
island; but I knew not how it was practicable to get it about. As to the
east side of the island, which I had gone round, I knew well enough there
was no venturing that way; my very heart would shrink, and my very
blood run chill, but to think of it ; and as to the other side of the island, I
did not know how it might be there; but supposing the current ran with
the same force against the shore at the east as it passed by it on the other, I
might run the same risk of being driven down the stream, and carried by
the island, as I had been before of being carried away from it: so with
these thoughts, I contented myself to be without any boat, though it had
been the product of so many months’ labour to make it, and of so many
more to get it into the sea.

In this government of my temper, I remained near a year ; and lived a
very sedate, retired life, as you may well suppose ; and my thoughts being

188


CRUSOE IS DELIGHTED WITU HIS CLAY PIPE.

very much composed, as to my condition, and fully comforted in resigning
myself to the dispositions of Providence, I thought I lived really very
happily in all things, except that of society.

I improved myself in this time in all the mechanic exercises which my
hecessities put me upon applying myself to; and I believe I should, upon
occasion, have made a very good carpenter, especially considering how few
tools I had.

Besides this, I arrived at an unexpected perfection in my earthenware,
and contrived well enough to make them with a wheel, which I found
infinitely easier and better; because I made things round and shaped, which
before were filthy things indeed to look on. But I think I was never more
vain of my own performance, or more joyful for anything I found out, than
for my being able to make a tobacco-pipe ; and though it was a very ugly,
clumsy thing when it was done, and only burned red, like other earthenware,
yet as it was hard and firm, and would draw the smoke, I was exceedingly

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES

comforted with it, for I had been always used to smoke ; and there were
pipes in the ship, but I forgot them at first, not thinking that there was
tobacco in the island; and afterwards, when I searched the ship again, I
could not come at any pipes.

In my wickerware, also, I improved much, and made abundance vt
necessary baskets, as well as my invention showed me; though not very
handsome, yet they were such as were very handy and convenient for laying
things up in, or fetching things home. For example, if I killed a goat
abroad, I could hang it up in a tree, flay it, dress it, and cut it in pieces, and
bring it home in a basket ; and the like by a turtle: I could cut it up, take
out the eggs, and a piece or two of the flesh, which was enough for me, and
bring them home in a basket, and leave the rest behind me. Also, large
deep baskets were the receivers of my corn, which I always rubbed out as
soon as it was dry, and cured, and kept it in great baskets.

I began now to perceive my powder abated considerably ; this was a
want which it was impossible for me to supply, and I began seriously to
consider what I must do when I should have no more powder ; that is to
say, how I should kill any goats. I had, as is observed, in the third year of
my being here, kept a young kid, and bred her up tame, and I was in hopes
of getting a he-goat: but I could not by any means bring it to pass, till my
kid grew an old goat ; and as I could never find in my heart to kill her, she
died at last of mere age.

But being now in the eleventh year of my residence, and, as I have said,
my ammunition growing low, I set myself to study some art to trap and
snare the goats, to see whether I vould not catch some of them alive; and
particularly, I wanted a she-goat great with young. For this purpose
I made snares to hamper them; and I do believe they were more than
once taken in them; but my tackle was not good, for I had no wire, and
I always found them broken, and my bait devoured. At length, I
resolved to try a pitfall: so I dug several large pits in the earth, in places
where I had observed the goats used to feed, and over those pits I placed
hurdles, of my own making too, with a great weight upon them; and
several times I put ears of barley and dry rice, without setting the trap ;
and I could easily perceive that the goats had gone in and eaten up the corn,
for I could see the marks of their feet. At length, I set three traps in one
night, and going the next morning, I found them all standing, and yet the
bait eaten and gone: this was very discouraging. However, I altered
my traps; and, not to trouble you with particulars, going one morning to

140
OF ROBINSON ' CRUSOE.

see my traps, I found in one of them a large old he-goat; and in one of the
others, three kids, a male and two females. \

‘As to the old one, I knew not what to do with him ; he was so fierce, I
durst not go into the pit to him; that is to say, to bring him away alive,
which was what I wanted. I could have killed him, but that was not my
business, nor would it answer my end; so I even let him out, and he ran
away as if he had been frightened out of his wits. But I did not then
know what I afterwards learned, that hunger will tame a lion. If TI had let
him stay there three or four days without food, and then have carried him
some water to drink, and then a little corn, he would have been as tame as
one of the kids; for they are mighty sagacious, tractable creatures, where
they are well used.

However, for the present I let him go, knowing no better at that time:
then I went to the three kids, and, taking them one by one, I tied them with
strings together, and with some difficulty brought them all home.

It was a good while before they would feed; but throwing them some
sweet corn, it tempted them, and they began to be tame. And now I found
that if I expected to supply myself with goats’ flesh, when I had no powder
or shot left, breeding some up tame was my only way, when, perhaps, I
might have them about my house like a flock of sheep. But, then, it
occurred to me that I must keep the tame from the wild, or else they would
always run wild when they grew up; and the only way for this was to have
some inclosed piece of ground, well fenced either with hedge or pale, to
keep them in so effectually, that those within might not break out, or those
without break in. :

This was a great undertaking for one pair of hands ; yet, as I saw there
was an absolute necessity for doing it, my first work was to find out a
proper piece of ground, where there was likely to be herbage for them to
eat, water for them to drink, and cover to keep them from the sun.

Those who understand such inclosures will think I had very little con-
trivance, when I pitched upon a place very proper for all these (being a
plain open piece of meadow land, or savannah, as our people call it in the
western colonies), which had two or three little drills of fresh water in it,
and at one end was very woody,—I say, they will smile at my forecast,
when I shall tell them I began by inclosing this piece of ground in such a
manner, that my hedge or pale must have been at least two miles about.
Nor was the madness of it so great as to the compass, for if it was ten miles.
about, I was like to have time enough to do it in; but I did not consider

141
ROBINSON CRUSOE.

that my goats would be as wild in so much compass as if they had had the
whole island, and I should have so much room to chase them in that I
should never catch them.

My hedge was begun and carried on, I believe, about fifty yards when
this thought occurred to me; so I presently stopped short, and, for the
beginning, I resolved to inclose a piece of about one hundred and fifty
yards in length, and one hundred yards in breadth, which, as it would
maintain as many as I should have in any reasonable time, so, as my stock
increased, I could add more ground to my inclosure.

This was acting with some prudence, and I went to work with courage.
I was about three months hedging in the first piece ; and, till I had done 1t,
I tethered the three kids in the best part of it, and used them to feed as
near me as possible, to make them familiar ; and very often I would go and
carry them some ears of barley, or a handful of rice, and feed them out of
my hand; so that, after my inclosure was finished, and I let them loose,
they would follow me up and down, bleating after me for a handful of corn.

This answered my end, and in about a year and a half I had a flock of
about twelve goats, kids and all; and in two years more I had three-and-
forty, besides several that I took and killed for my food. After that, I
inclosed five several pieces of ground to feed them in, with little pens to
drive them into, to take them as I wanted, and gates out of one piece of
ground into another.

But this was not all; for now I not only had goats’ flesh to feed on
when I pleased, but milk too—a thing which, indeed, in the beginning, I
did not so much as think of, and which, when it came into my thoughts,
was really an agreeable surprise, for now I set up my dairy, and had
sometimes a gallon or two of milk in a day, And as Nature, who gives
supplies of food to every creature, dictates even naturally how to make use
of it, so I, that had never milked a cow, much less a goat, or seen butter
or cheese made only when I was a boy, after a great many essays and
miscarriages, made both butter and cheese at last, also salt (though I
found it partly made to my hand by the heat of the sun upon some of
the rocks of the sea), and never wanted it afterwards. How mercifully can
our Creator treat His creatures, even in those conditions in which they
seemed to be overwhelmed in destruction! How can He sweeten the
bitterest providences. and give us cause to praise Him for dungeons and
prisons! What a table was here spread for me in the wilderness, where
I saw nothing at first but to perish for hunger.

142




CRUSOE DINES WITH HIS FAMILY.

Tt would have made a Stoic smile to have seen me and my little family
sit down to dinner. There was my majesty, the prince and lord of the
whole island ; I had the lives of all my subjects at my absolute command ;
Tcould hang, draw, give liberty, and take it away, and no rebels among all
my subjects. Then, to see how like a king I dined, too, all alone, attended
by my servants! Poll, as if he had been my favourite, was the only person
permitted to talk to me. My dog, who was now grown old and crazy,
and had found no species to multiply his kind upon, sat always at my right
hand; and two cats, one on one side of the table, and one on the other,
expecting now and then a bit from my hand, as a mark of especial favour.

But these were not the two cats which I brought on shore at first, for
they were both of them dead, and had been interred near my habitation by
my own hand; but one of them having multiplied by I know not what
kind of creature, these were two which I had preserved tame; whereas the
rest run wild in the woods, and became indeed troublesome to me at last,
for they would often come into my house, and plunder me, too, till at last I
was obliged to shoot them, and did kill a great many; at length they left

me. With this attendance and in this plentiful manner I lived; neither
143
ROBINSON CRUSOE.

could I be said to want anything but society ; and of that, some time after
this, I was likely to have much.

I was something impatient, as I have observed, to have the use of my
boat, though very loath to run any more hazards; and therefore sometimes
I sat contriving ways to get her about the island, and at other times I sat
myself down contented enough without her. But I had a strange uneasiness
in my mind to go down to the point of the island, where, as I have said in
my last ramble, I went up the hill to see how the shore lay, and how the
current sect, that I might see what I had to do: this inclination increased
upon ime every day, and at length I resolved to travel thither by land,
following the edge of the shore. I did so; but had any one in England
met such a man as I was, it must either have frightened him, or raised a
great deal of laughter; and as I frequently stood still to look at myself, I
could not but smile at the notion of my travelling through Yorkshire with
such an equipage, and in such adress. Be pleased to take a sketch of my
figure, as follows :—

I had a great high shapeless cap, made of a goat's skin, with a flap
hanging down behind, as well to keep the sun from me as to shoot the rain
off from running into my neck, nothing being so hurtful in these climates
as the rain upon the flesh under the clothes.

I had a short jacket of goat’s skin, the skirts coming down to about the
middle of the thighs, and a pair of open-kneed breeches of the same; the
breeches were made of the skin of an old he-goat, whose hair hung down
such a length on either side, that, like pantaloons, it reached to the middle
of my legs; stockings and shoes I had none, but had made me a pair of
somethings, I scarce know what to call them, like buskins, to flap over my
legs, and lace on either side like spatter-dashes, but of a most barbarous
shape, as indeed were all the rest of my clothes.

T had on a broad belt of goat’s skin dried, which I drew together with
two thongs of the same instead of buckles, and in a kind of a frog on
either side of this, instead of a sword and dagger, hung a little saw and a
hatchet, one on one side, and one on the other. I had another belt not so
broad, and fastened in the same manner, which hung over my shoulder, and
at the end of it, under my left arm, hung two pouches, both made of goat’s
skin too, in one of which hung my powder, in the other my shot. At my
back I carried my basket, and on my shoulder, my gun, and over my head
a great clumsy, ugly, goat’s-skin umbrella, but which, after all, was the most

necessary thing I had about me next to my gun. As for my face, the colour
144


=
‘ MEZA ZL,

CRUSOE EQUIPS HIMSELF FOR HIS JOURNEY,

obit was really not so mulatto-like as one might expect from a man not at
all careful of it, and living within nine or ten degrees of the equinox. My
beard I had once suffered to grow till it was about a quarter of a yard long ;
but as I had both scissors and razors sufficient, I had cut it pretty short,

‘xcept what grew on my upper lip, which I had trimmed into a large pair

145 vi
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

of Mahometan whiskers, such as I had seen worn by some Turks at Sallee,
for the Moors did not wear-such, though the Turks did; of these moustachios,
or whiskers, I will not say they were long enough to hang my hat upon
them, but they were of a length and shape monstrous enough, and such as
in England would have passed for frightful.

But all this is by the bye; for, as to my figure, I had so few to observe
me, that it was of no manner of consequence, so I say no more of that. In
this kind of dress I went my new journey, and was out five or six days. I
travelled first along the sea-shore, directly to the place where I first brought
my boat to an anchor to get upon the rocks; and having no boat now to
take care of, I went over the land a nearer way to the same height that I
was upon before, when, looking forward to the points of the rocks which lay
out, and which I was obliged to double with my boat, as is said above, I
was surprised to see the sea all smooth and quiet—no rippling, no motion,
no current, any more there than in any other plates. I was at a strange loss
to understand this, and resolved to spend some time in the observing it,
to see if nothing from the sets of the tide had occasioned it; but I was
presently convinced how it was, viz. that the tide of ebb setting from the
west, and joining with the current of waters from some great river on the
shore, must be the occasion of this current, and that, aceording as the wind
blew more forcibly from the west or from the north, this current came nearer,
or went farther from the shore ; for, waiting thereabouts till evening, I went
up to the rock again, and then the tide of ebb being made, I plainly saw
the current again as before, only that it ran farther off, being near half a
league from the shore, whereas in my case it set close upon the shore, and
hurried me and my canoe along with it, which at another time it would not
have done.

This observation convinced me that I had nothing to do but to observe
the ebbing and the flowing of the tide, and I might very easily bring my
boat about the island again ; but when I began to think of putting it in
practice, I had such terror upon my spirits at the remembrance of the
danger I had been in, that I could not think of it again with any patience,
but, on the contrary, I took up another resolution, which was more safe,
though more laborious—and this was, that I would build, or rather make,
me another periagua or canoe, and so have one for one side of the island, and
one for the other.

.~ You are to understand, that now I had, as I may call it, two plantations
- in the island,—one my ‘little fortification or tent, with the wall about it,
146

’
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

under the rock, with the cave behind me, which by this time I had enlarged
into several apartments, or caves, one within another. One of these, which
was the driest and largest, and had a door out beyond my wall or fortification,
—that is to say, beyond where my wall joined to the rock, was all filled up
with the large earthen pots, of which I have given an account, and with
fourteen or fifteen great baskets, which would hold five or six bushels each,
where I laid up my stores of provisions, especially my corn, some in the ear,
cut off short from the straw, and the other rubbed out with my hand.

As for my wall, made, as before, with long stakes or piles, those piles
grew all like trees, and were by this time grown so big, and spread so very
much, that there was not the least appearance, to any one’s view, of any
habitation behind them. ;

Near this dwelling of mine, but a little farther within the land, and upon
lower ground, lay my two pieces of corn Jand, which I kept duly cultivated
and sowed, and which duly yielded me their harvest’ in its season; and
whenever I had occasion for more corn, I had more land adjoining as fit
as that.

Besides this, I had my country seat, and I had now a tolerable planta-
tion there also ; for, first, I had my little bower, as I called it, which I kept
in repair—that is to say, I kept the hedge, which encircled it in, constantly
fitted up to its usual height, the ladder standing ‘always in the inside. I
kept the trees, which at first were no more than stakes, but were now grown
very firm and tall, always cut, so that they might spread and grow thick
and wild, and make the more agreeable shade, which they did effectually to
my mind. In the middle of this I had my tent always standing, being a
piece of a sail spread over poles, set up for that purpose, and which never
wanted any repair or renewing; and under this I had made me a squab
or couch, with the skins of the creatures I had killed, and with other soft
things, and a blanket laid on them, such as belonged to our sea-bedding,
which I had saved ; and a great watch-coat to cover me. And here, when-
ever I had occasion to be absent from my chief seat, I took up my country
habitation.

Adjoining to this, I had my inclosures for my cattle, that is to say, my °
goats, and I had taken an inconceivable deal of pains to fence and inclose
this ground. I was so anxious to see it kept entire, lest the goats should
break through, that I never left off till, with infinite labour, I had stuck the
outside of the hedge so full of small stakes, and so near to one another, that‘
it was rather a pale than a hedge, and there was scarce room to put a hand

147
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

through between them ; which afterwards, when those stakes grew, as they
all did in the next rainy season, made the inclosure strong like a wall,’
indeed stronger than any wall.

This will testify for me that I was not idle, and that I spared no pains
to bring to pass whatever appeared necessary for my comfortable support,
for I considered the keeping up a breed of tame creatures thus at my hand
would be a living magazine of flesh, milk, butter, and cheese for me as long
as I lived in the place, if it were to be forty years; and that keeping them
in my reach depended entirely upon my perfecting my inclosures to such
a degree, that I might be sure of keeping them together; which, by this
method, indeed, I so effectually secured, that when these little stakes began
to grow, I had planted them so very thick, that I was forced to pull some of
them up again.

In this place also I had my grapes growing, which I principally depend-
ed on for my winter store of raisins, and which J never failed to preserve
very carefully, as the best and most agreeable dainty of my whole diet; and
indeed they were not only agreeable, but medicinal, wholesome, nourishing,
and refreshing to the last degree.

As this was also about half-way between my other habitation and the
place where I had laid up my boat, I generally staid and lay here in my
way thither, for I used frequently to visit my boat; and I kept all things
about, or belonging to her, in very good order. Sometimes I went out in
her to divert myself, but no more hazardous voyages would I go, scarcely
ever above a stone’s cast or two from the shore, I was so apprehensive of
being hurried out of my knowledge again by the currents or winds, or any
other accident. But now I come to a new scene of my life.

It happened one day, about noon, going towards my boat, I was exceed-
ingly surprised with the print of a man’s naked foot on the shore, which
was very plain to be seen on the sand. I stood like one thunderstruck,
or as if I had seen an apparition. I listened, I looked round me, but I
could hear nothing, nor see anything ; I went up to a rising ground, to look
farther; I went up the shore, and down the shore, but it was all one: I
could see no other impression but that one. I went to it again to see if
there were any more, and to observe if it might not be my fancy ; but there
was no room for that, for there was exactly the print of a foot—toes, heel,
and every part of a foot. How it came thither I knew not, nor could I in
the least imagine; but after innumerable fluttering thoughts, like a man
perfectly confused and out of myself, I came home to my fortification, not

148
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

feeling, as we say, the ground I went on, but terrified to the last degree,
looking behind. me at every two or three steps, mistaking every bush and
tree, and fancying every stump at a distance to beaman. Nor is it possible
to describe how many various shapes my affrighted imagination represented
things to me in, how many wild ideas were found every moment in my:
fancy, and what strange, unaccountable whimseys came into my thoughts
by the way.

When I came to my castle (for so I think I called it ever after this), I
fled into it like one pursued. Whethér I went over by the ladder, as first



CRUSOE FLEES fO HIS FORTIFICATION

contrived, or went in at the hole in the rock, which I had called’a door, I
cannot remember ; no, nor could I remember the next morning, for never
frightened hare fled to cover, or fox to earth, with more terror of mind than
I to this retreat,

I slept none that night; the farther I was from the occasion of my
fright, the greater ray apprehensions were, which is something contrary
to the nature of such things, and especially to the usual practice of all
creatures in fear; but I was so embarrassed with my own frightful ideas of
the thing, that I formed nothing but dismal imaginations to myself, even
though I was now a great way off. Sometimes I fancied it must be the
devil, and reason joined in with me in this supposition, for how should any

149
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

other thing in human shape come into the place? Where was the vessel
that brought them? What marks were there of any other footstep? And
how was it possible a man should come there? But then, to think that
Satan should take human shape upon him in such a place, where there
could be no manner of occasion for it, but to leave the print of his foot
behind him, and that even for no purpose too, for he could not be sure I
should see it,—this was an amusement the other way. I considered that
the devil might have found out abundance of other ways to have terrified
me than this of the single print of a foot; that as I lived quite on the other
side of the island, he would never have been so simple as to leave a mark
in a place where it was ten thousand to one whether I should ever see it
or not, and in the sand too, which the first surge of the sea, upon a high
wind, would have defaced entirely. All this seemed inconsistent with the
thing itself, and with all the notions we usually entertain of the subtilty
of the devil.

Abundance of such things as these assisted to argue me out of all
apprehensions of its being the devil ; and I presently concluded then, that
it must be some more dangerous creature, viz. that it must be some of the
savages of the main land opposite, who had wandered out to sea in their
canoes, and either driven by the currents or by contrary winds, had made
the island, and had been-on shore, but were gone away again to sea; being
as loath, perhaps, to have stayed in this desolate island as I would have
been to have had them.

While these reflections were rolling in my mind, I was very thankful
in my thoughts, that I was so happy as not to be thereabouts at that time,
or that they did not see my boat, by which they would have concluded that
some inhabitants had been in the place, and perhaps have searched farther
forme. Then terrible thoughts racked my imagination about their having
found out my boat, and that there were people here; and that, if so, I
should certainly have them come again in greater numbers, and devour me;
that if it should happen that they should not find me, yet they would find
my inclosure, destroy all my corn, and carry away all my flock of tame
goats, and I should perish at last for mere want.

Thus my fear banished all my religious hope, all that former confidence
in God, which was founded upon such wonderful experience as I had had
of His goodness ; as if He that had fed me by miracle hitherto could not
preserve, by His power, the provision which He had made for me by His
goodness. I reproached myself with my laziness, that would not sow any

150
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

more corn one year than would just serve me till the next season, as if no
accident could intervene to prevent my enjoying the crop that was upon
the ground; and this I thought so just a reproof, that I resolved for the
future to have two or three years’ corn beforehand ; so that, whatever might
come, I might not perish for want of bread.

How strange a chequer-work of Providence is the life of man! and by
what secret different springs are the affections hurried about, as different.
circumstances present! To-day we love what to-morrow we hate; to-day
we seek what to-morrow we shun; to-day we desire what to-morrow we
fear, nay, even tremble at the apprehensions of This was exemplified in
me, at this time, in the most lively manner imaginable, for I, whose only
affliction was that I seemed banished from human society, that I was alone,
circumscribed by the boundless ocean, cut off from mankind, and con-
demned to what I call silent life; that I was as one whom Heaven thought
not worthy to be numbered among the living, or to appear among the rest
of His creatures; that to have seen oné of my own species would have’
seemed to me a raising me from death to life, and the greatest blessing that
Heaven itself, next to the supreme blessing of salvation, could bestow. I
say, that I should now tremble at the very apprehensions of seeing a man,
and was ready to sink into the ground at but the shadow or silent appear- —
ance of a man having set his foot in the island.

Such is the uneven state of human life; and it afforded me a great
many curious speculations afterwards, when I had a little recovered my
first surprise. I considered that this was the station of life the infinitely
wise and good providence of God had determined for me; that as I could
not foresee what the ends of Divine wisdom might be in all this, so I
was not to dispute His sovereignty ; who, as I was His creature, had an
undoubted right, by ereation, to govern and dispose of me absolutely as He
thought fit; and who, as I was a creature that: had offended Him, had
likewise a judicial right to condemn me to what punishment He thought fit ;
and that it was my part to submit to bear His indignation, because I had
sinned against Him. I then reflected, that as God, who was not only
righteous, but omnipotent, had thought fit thus to punish and afflict me,
so He was able to deliver me: that if He did not think fit to: do so, it
was my unquestioned duty to resign myself absolutely and entirely to
His will; and, on the other hand, it was my duty also to hope in Him,
pray to Fan. and quietly to attend to the dictates and directions of His

daily providence.
151
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

These thoughts took me up many hours, days, nay, I may say weeks
and months: and one particular effect of my cogitations on this occasion
I cannot omit. One morning early, lying in my bed, and filled with
thoughts about my danger from the appearances of savages, I found it
discomposed me very much; upon which these words of the Scripture
came into my thoughts: “Call upon Me in the day of trouble, and I will
deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify Me.” Upon this, rising cheerfully out of
my bed, my heart was not only comforted, but I was guided and encouraged
to pray earnestly to God for deliverance: when I had done praying, I took
up my Bible, and opening it to read, the first words that presented to me
were, “Wait on the Lord, and be of good cheer, and He shall strengthen
thy heart; wait, I say, on the Lord.” It is impossible to express the
comfort this gave me. In answer, I thankfully laid down the book, and
was no more sad, at least on that occasion. :

In the middle of these cogitations, apprehensions, and reflections, it
came into my thoughts one day, that all this might be a mere chimera of
my own, and that this foot might be the print of my own foot, when I came
on shore from my boat: this cheered me up @ little, too, and I began to
persuade myself it was all a delusion ; that it was nothing else but my own
foot; and why might I not come that way from the boat, as well as I was
going that way to the boat? Again I considered also, that I could by no
means tell, for certain, where I had trod, and where I had not; and that if,
at last, this was only the print of my own foot, I had played the part of
those fools who try to make stories of spectres and apparitions, and then
are frightened at them more than anybody.

Now I began to take courage, and to peep abroad again, for I had not
stirred out of my castle for three days and nights, so that I began to starve
for provisions ; for I had little or nothing within doors but some barley-
cakes and water; then I knew that my goats wanted to be milked too,
which usually was my evening diversion; and the poor creatures were in
great pain and inconvenience for want of it; and, indeed, it almost spoiled
some of them, and almost dried up their milk. Encouraging. myself,
therefore, with the belief that this was nothing but the print of one of my
own feet, and that I might be truly said: to start at my own shadow, I
began to go abroad again, and went to my country: house to milk.my flock:
but to see with what fear I went forward, how often I looked behind me,
how I was ready, every now and then, to lay. down my basket, and run for
my life, it would have made any one have thought I was haunted with an

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OF ROBINSON CRUSOL.

evil conscience, or that I had been lately most terribly figniensa and s0,
indeed, I had. However, I went down thus two or three days, and having:
seen nothing, I began to be a little bolder, and to think there was really
nothing in it but my own imagination ; but I could not persuade myself
fully of this till I should go down to the shore again, and see this print of
a foot, and measure it by my own, and see if there was any similitude or
fitness, that I might be assured it was my own foot: but when I came to
the place—first, it appeared evidently to me, that when I laid up my boat,
I could not possibly be on shore anywhere thereabouts: secondly, when
I came to measure the mark with my own foot, I found my foot not so
large by a great-deal. Both these things filled my head with new imagina-
tions, and gave me the vapours again to the highest degree, so that I shook
with cold like one in an ague; and I went home again, filled with the
belief that some man or men had béen on shore there ; or, in short, that
the island. was inhabited, and I might be surprised. before I was aware ;
and what course to take for my security I knew not.

O what ridiculous resolutions men take when possessed with fear! It
deprives them of the use of those means which reason offers for their relief.
The first thing I ‘proposed to myself was, to throw down my inclosures, and
turn all my tame cattle wild into the woods, lest the enemy should find
them, and then frequent the island in prospect of the same or the like
booty: then the simple thing of digging up miy'two corn-fields, lest ‘they
should find such a grain there, and: still be prompted to frequent the island:
then to demolish my bower and tent, that they might not see any vestiges
of habitation, and ‘be prompted to look farther, in order to find out. the
persons inhabiting.

These were the subject of the first night’s cogitations after I was come
home again, while the apprehensions which' had so overrun my mind were
fresh upon me, and my head was full of vapours. Thus, fear of danger is —
ten thousand times more terrifying than danger itself, when apparent to the
eyes; and we find the burden of anxiety greater, by much, than the evil
which we are anxious about: and what was worse than all this, I-had not
that relief in this trouble that, from the resignation I used to’ practise, I
hoped to have. I looked, I thought, like Saul, who complained not only
that the Philistines were upon him, but that God had forsaken him; for I’
did not now take due ways to compose my mind, by crying to God in my
distress, and resting upon His providence, as I had done before, for my
defence and ——> which, if I ‘had done, I had at least been more

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cheerfully supported under this new surprise, and perhaps carried through
it with more resolution.

This confusion of my thoughts kept me awake all night; but in the
morning I fell asleep; and having, by the amusement of my mind, been, as
it were, tired, and my spirits exhausted, I slept very soundly, and waked
much better composed than I had ever been before. And now I began to
think sedately ; and, upon debate with myself, I concluded that this island
(which was so exceedingly pleasant, fruitful, and no farther from the main
land than as I had seen) was not so entirely abandoned as I might imagine ;
that although there were no stated inhabitants who lived on the spot, yet
that there might sometimes come boats off from the shore, who, either with
design, or perhaps never but when they were driven by cross winds, might
come to this place; that I had lived here fifteen years now, and had not
mot with the least shadow or figure of any people yet; and that, ‘if at any
time they should be driven here, it was probable they went away again as
soon as ever they could, seeing they had never thought fit to fix here upon
any occasion ; that the most I could suggest any danger from was, from any
casual accidental landing of straggling people from the main, who, as it was
likely, if they were driven hither, were here against their wills, so they
made no stay here, but went off again with all possible speed; seldom
staying one night on shore, lest they should not have the help of the tides
and daylight back again; and that, therefore, I had nothing to do but to
consider of some safe retreat, in case I should see any savages land upon
the spot.

Now I began sorely to repent that I had dug my cave so large as to
bring a door through again, which door, as I said, came out beyond where
my fortification joined to the rock : upon maturely considering this, there-
fore, I resolved to draw me a second fortification, in the manner of a
semicircle, at a distance from my wall, just where I had planted a double
row of trees about twelve years before, of which I made mention: these
trees having been planted so thick before, they wanted but few piles to be
driven between them, that they might be thicker and stronger, and my
wall would be soon finished. So that I had now a double wall; and my
outer wall was thickened with pieces of timber, old cables, and everything
I could think of, to make it strong ; having in it seven little holes, about as
big as I might put my arm out at. In the inside of this, I thickened my
wall to about ten feet thick, with continually bringing earth out of my

cave, and laying it at the foot of the wall, and walking upon it; and
154
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

through the seven holes I contrived to plant the muskets, of which I took
notice that I had got seven on shore out of the ship; these I planted like
my cannon, and fitted them into frames, that held them like a carriage, so
that I could fire all the seven guns in two minutes’ time ; this wall I was
many @ weary month in finishing, and yet never thought myself safe till
it was done.

When this was done, I stuck all the ground without my wall, for a
great length every way, as full with stakes or sticks of the osier-like wood,
which I found so apt to grow, as they could well stand; insomuch, that I
believe I might set in near twenty thousand of them, leaving a pretty large
space between them and my wall, that I might have room to see an enemy,
and they might have no shelter from the young trees, if they attempted to
approach my outer wall.

Thus, in two years’ time, I had a thick grove ; and in five or six years’
time I had a wood before my dwelling, growing so monstrously thick and
strong that it was indeed perfectly impassable: and no men, of what kind —
soever, could ever imagine that there was anything beyond it, much less a
habitation. As for the way which I proposed to myself to go in and out
(for I left no avenue), it was by setting two ladders, one to a part of the
rock which was low, and then broke in, and left room to place another
ladder upon that; so when the two ladders were taken down, no man living
could come down to me without doing himself mischief; and if they had
come down, they were still on the outside of my outer wall.

Thus I took all the measures human prudence could suggest for my own
preservation:; and it will be seen, at length, that they were not altogether
without just reason.; though I foresaw nothing at that time more than my
mere fear suggested to me.

While this was doing, I was not altogether careless of ‘my other affairs ;
for I had a great concern upon me for my little herd of goats: they were
not only a ready supply to me on every occasion, and began to be sufficient
for me, without the expense of powder and shot, but also without the ©
fatigue of hunting after the wild ones; and I was loath to lose the advan-
tage of them, and to have them all to nurse up over again.

For this purpose, after long consideration, I could think of but two ways
to preserve them : one was, to find another convenient place to dig a cave
under ground, and to drive them into it every night; and the other was to
enclose two or three little bits of land, remote from one another, and as
much concealed as I could, where I might keep about half a dozen young

155
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goats in each place; so that if any disaster happened to the tlock in general,
I might be able to raise them again with little trouble and time: and this,
though it would require a good deal of time and labour, I thought was the
most rational design.

Accordingly, I spent some time to find out the most retired parts of the
island ; and I pitched upon one, which was as private, indeed, as my heart
could wish: it was a little damp piece of ground, in the middle of the
hollow and thick woods, where, as is observed, I almost lost myself once
before, endeavouring to come back that way from the eastern part of the
island. Here I found a clear piece of land, near three acres, so surrounded
with woods, that it was almost an inclosure by nature; at least, it did not
want near so much labour to make it so, as the other piece of ground I had
worked so hard at.

I immediately went to work with this piece of ground; and, in less
than a month’s time, I had so fenced it round that my flock, or herd, call it
which you please, which were not so wild now as at first they might be
supposed to be, were well enough secured in it: so, without any further
delay, I removed ten young she-goats, and two he-goats, to this piece ; and,
when they were there, I continued to perfect the fence, till I had made it as
secure as the other; which, however, I did at more leisure, and it took me
up more time by a great deal. All this labour I was at the expense of;
purely from my apprehensions on account of the print of a man’s foot ,
for, as yet, I had never seen any human creature come near the island; and
I had now lived two years under this uneasiness, which, indeed, made my
life much less comfortable than it was before, as may be well imagined
by any who know what it is to live in the constant snare of the fear
of man, And this I must observe, with grief, too, that the discomposure
of my mind had great impression also upon the religious part of my
thoughts ; for the dread and terror of falling into the hands of savages and
cannibals lay so upon my spirits, that I seldom found myself in a due
temper for application to my Maker ; at least, not with the sedate calmness
and resignation of soul which I was wont to do: I rather prayed to God as
under great affliction and pressure of mind, surrounded with danger, and in
expectation every night of being murdered and devoured before morning ;
and I must testify, from my experience, that a temper of peace, thank-
fulness, love, and affection, is much the more proper frame for prayer than
that of terror and discomposure; and that under the dread of mischief

impending, a man is no more fit for a comforting performance of the duty
186
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

of praying to God, than he is for a repentance on a sick bed; for these dis-
composures affect the mind, as.the others do the body; and the discom-
posure of the mind must necessarily be as great a disability as that of the
body, and much greater; praying to God being properly an act of the
mind, not of the body.

But to go on: after I had thus secured one part of my little living
stock, I went about the whole island, searching for another private place to
make such another deposit ; when, wandering more to the west point of the
island than I had ever done yet, and looking out to sea, I thought I saw a
boat upon the sea, at a great distance. I had found a perspective glass or
two in one of the seamen’s chests, which I saved out of our ship, but I had
it not about me; and this was so remote that I could not tell what to make
of it, though I looked at it till my eyes were not able to hold to look any
longer: whether it was a boat or not, I do not know, but as I descended
from the hill I could see no more of it, so I gave it over; only I resolved to »
go no more out without a perspective glass in my pocket. When I was
come down the hill to the end of the island, where, indeed, I had never
been before, I was presently convinced that the seeing the print of a man’s
foot was not such a strange thing in the island as I imagined; and but that
it was a special providence that I was cast upon the side of the island
where the savages never came, I should easily have known that nothing
was more frequent than for the canoes from the main, when they happened
to be a little too far out at sea, to shoot over to that side of the island for
harbour: likewise, as they often met and fought in their canoes, the victors,
having taken any prisoners, would bring them over to this shore, where,
according to their dreadful customs, being all cannibals, they would kill
and eat them; of which hereafter.

When I was come down the hill to the shore, as I said above, being the
S.W. point of the island, I was perfectly confounded and amazed ; nor is it
possible for me to express the horror of my mind, at seeing the shore .
spread with skulls, hands, feet, and other bones of human bodies; and
particularly, I observed a place where there had been a fire made, and a
circle dug ‘in the earth, like a cockpit, where I supposed the savage
wretches had sat down to their inhuman feastings upon the bodies of their
fellow-creatures.

I was so astonished with the sight of these things, that I entertained no
notions of any danger to myself from it for a long while: all my appre-
hensions were buried in the thoughts of such a pitch of inhuman, hellish

. 157 ; :
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

brutality, and the horror of the degeneracy of human nature, which, though
I had heard of it often, yet I never had so near a view of before ; in short,
I turned away my face from the horrid spectacle ; my stomach grew sick,
and I was just at the point of fainting, when nature discharged the disorder
from my stomach ; and having vomited with uncommon violence, I was a
little relieved, but could not bear to stay in the place a moment; so I got
up the hill again with all the speed I could, and walked on towards my
own habitation.

When I came a little out of that part of the island, I stood still awhile,
as amazed, and then, recovering myself, I looked up with the utmost
affection of my soul, and, with a flood of tears in my eyes, gave God thanks,
that had cast my first lot in a part of the world where I was distinguished
from such dreadful creatures as these; and that, though I had esteemed my
present condition very miserable, had yet given me so many comforts in it
that I had still more to give thanks for than to complain of: and this,
above all, that I had, even in this miserable condition, been comforted with
the knowledge of Himself, and the hope of His blessing: which was a
felicity more than sufficiently equivalent to all the misery which I had
suffered, or could suffer.

In this frame of thankfulness, I went home to my castle, and began to
be much easier now, as to the safety of my circumstances, than ever I was
before: for I observed that these wretches never came to this island in
search of what they could get; perhaps not seeking, not wanting, or not
expecting, anything here ; and having often, no doubt, been up the covered,
woody part of it, without finding anything to their purpose. I knew I had
been here now almost eighteen years, and never saw the least footsteps of
human creature there before; and I might be eighteen years more as
entirely concealed as I was now, if I did not discover myself to them, which
I had no manner of occasion to do; it being my only business to keep
myself entirely concealed where I was, unless I found a better sort of
creatures than cannibals to make myself known to. Yet I entertained such
an abhorrence of the savage wretches that I have been speaking of, and of
the wretched inhuman custom of their devouring and eating one another
up, that I continued pensive and sad, and kept close within my own circle,
for almost two years after this: when I say my own circle, I mean by it my
three plantations, viz. my castle, my country-seat (which I called my
bower), and my inclosure in the woods: nor did I look after this for any
other use than as an inclosure for my goats; for the aversion which nature

158
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

gave me to these hellish wretches was such, that I was as fearful of seeing
them as of seeing the devil himself. I did not so much as go to look after
may boat all this time, but began rather to think of making another ; for I
could not think of ever making any more attempts to bring the other boat
round the island to me, lest I should meet with some of these creatures at
sea; in which case if I had happened to have fallen into their hands, I
knew what would have been my lot.

Time, however, and the satisfaction I had that I was in no danger of
being discovered by these people, began to wear off my uneasiness about
them ; and I began to live just in the same composed manner as before,
only with this difference, that I used more caution, and kept my eyes more
about me than I did before, lest I should happen to be seen by any of
them ; and particularly, I was more cautious of firing my gun, lest any of
them, being on the island, should happen to hear it. It was, therefore, a
very good providence to me that I had furnished myself with a tame breed
of goats, and that I had no need to hunt any more about the woods, or
shoot at them; and if I did catch any of them after this, it was by traps
and snares, as I had done before ; so that for two years after this, I believe
I never fired my gun once off, though I never went out without it; and
what was more, as I had saved three pistols out of the ship, I always carried
them out with me, or at least two of them, sticking them in my goat-skin
belt. I also furbished up one of the great cutlasses that I had out of the
ship, and made me a belt to hang it on also; so that I was now a most
formidable fellow to look at when I went abroad, if you add to the former
description of myself, the particular of two pistols, and a great broad-
sword hanging at my side in a belt, but without a scabbard.

“Things going on thus, as I have said, for some time, I seemed, excepting
these cautions, to be reduced to my former calm, sedate way of living. All
these things tended to show me, more and more, how far my condition
was from being miserable, compared to some others; nay, to,many other
particulars of life, which it might have pleased God to have made my lot.
It put me upon reflecting how little repining there would be among
mankind at any condition of life, if people would rather compare their
condition with those that were worse, in order to be thankful, than be
always comparing them with those which are better, to assist their mur-
murings and complainings.

As in my present condition there were not really many things wil

I wanted, so, indeed, I thought that the frights I had been in about =
159
ROBINSON CRUSOE.

savage wretches, and the concern I had been in for my own preservation,
had taken off the edge of my invention for my own conveniences ; and 1
had dropped a good design, which I had once bent my thoughts upon,
and that was to try if I could not make some of my barley into malt, and
then try to brew myself some beer. This was really a whimsical thought,
and I reproved myself often for the simplicity of it: for I presently saw
there would be the want of several things necessary to the making my becr,
that it would be impossible for me to supply ; as, first, casks to preserve
it in, which was a thing that, as I have observed already, I could never
compass: no, though I spent not only many days, but weeks, nay months,
in attempting it, but to no purpose. In the next place, I had no hops to
make it keep, no yeast to make it work, no copper or kettle to make it
boil; and yet with all these things wanting, I verily believe, had not the
frights and terrors I was in about the savages intervened, I had undertaken
it, and perhaps brought it to pass too; for I seldom gave anything over
without accomplishing it, when once I had it in my head to begin it.
But my invention now ran quite another way ; for, night and day, I could
think of nothing but how I might destroy some of these monsters in their
cruel, bloody entertainment ; and, if possible, save the victim they should
bring hither to destroy. It would take up a larger volume than this whole
work is intended to be, to set down all the contrivances I hatched, or
rather brooded upon, in my thoughts, for the destroying these creatures,
or at least frightening them so as to prevent their coming hither any more:
but all this was abortive; nothing could be possible to take effect, unless
I was to be there to do it myself: and what could one man do among
them, when perhaps there might be twenty or thirty of them together
with their darts, or their bows and arrows, with which they could shoot
as true to a mark as I could with my gun?

Sometimes I thought of digging a hole under the place where they
made their fire, and putting in five or six pounds of gunpowder, which,
when they kindled their fire, would consequently take fire, and blow up all
that was near it: but as, in the first place, I should be unwilling to waste
so much powder upon them, my store being now within the quantity of one
barrel, so neither could I be sure of its going off at any certain time, when
it might surprise them ; and, at best, that it would do little more than just
blow the fire about their ears and fright them, but not sufficient to make
them forsake the place: so I laid it aside; and then proposed that I would
place myself in ambush in some convenient place, with my three guns all

160


PUA eg SOM

CRUSOE PLOTS THE DESTRUCTION OF TITE CANNIBALS.

double loaded, and in the middle of their bloody ceremony let fly at them,
when I should be sure to kill or wound perhaps two or three at every shot ;
and then falling in upon them with my three pistols and my sword, I made
no doubt but that, if there were twenty, I should kill them all. This fancy
pleased my thoughts for some weeks, and I was so full of it, that I often
dreamed of it, and sometimes, that I was just going to let fly at them in
iy sleep. I went so far with it in my imagination, that I employed myself
several days to find out proper places to put myself in ambuscade, as I
sud, to watch for them, and I went frequently to the place itself, which
161 M
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

was now grown more familiar to me; but while my mind was thus filled
_ with thoughts of revenge and a bloody putting twenty or thirty of them to
the sword, as I may call it, the horror I had at the place, and at the signals
of the barbarous wretches devouring one another, abetted my malice. Well,
at length I found a place in the side of the hill, where I was satisfied I might
securely wait till I saw any of their boats coming; and might then, even
before they would be ready to come on shore, convey myself unseen into
some thickets of trees, in one of which there was a hollow large enough to
conceal me entirely; and there I might sit and observe all their bloody
doings, and take my full aim at their heads, when they were so close
together as that it would be next to impossible that I should miss my shot,
or that I could fail wounding three or four of them at the first shot. In
this place, then, I resolved to fulfil my design; and accordingly, I prepared
two muskets and my ordinary fowling-piece. The two muskets I loaded
with a brace of slugs each, and four or five smaller bullets, about the size
of pistol bullets; and the fowling-piece I loaded with near a handful of
swan-shot of the largest size; I also loaded my pistols with about four
bullets each; and, in this posture, well provided with ammunition for a
second and third charge, I prepared myself for my expedition.

After I had thus laid the scheme of my design, and in my imagination
put it in practice, I continually made my tour every morning to the top of
the hill, which was from my castle, as I called it, about three miles, or
more, to see if I could observe any boats upon the sea, coming near the
island, or standing over towards it; but I began to tire of this hard duty,
after I had for two or three months constantly kept my watch, but came
always back without any discovery; .there having not, in all that time,
been the least appearance, not only on or near the shore, but on the whole
ocean, so far as my eyes or glass could reach every way.

As long as I kept my daily tour to the hill to look out, so long also I
kept up the vigour of my design, and my spirits seemed to be all the while
in a suitable frame for so outrageous an execution as the killing twenty or
thirty naked savages, for an offence which I had not at all entered into any
discussion of in my thoughts, any farther than my passions were at first
fired by the horror I conceived at the unnatural custom of the people of
that country ; who, it seems, had been suffered by Providence, in His wise
disposition of the world, to have no other guide than that of their own
abominable and vitiated passions ; and, consequently, were left, and perhaps
had been so for some ages, to act such horrid things, and receive such

162
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

dreadful customs, as nothing but nature, entirely abandoned by Heaven,

and actuated by some hellish degeneracy, could have run them into. .

But now, when, as I have said, I began to be weary of the fruitless
excursion which I had made so long and so far every morning in vain,
so my opinion of the action itself began to alter; and I began, with cooler
and calmer thoughts, to consider what I was going to engage in; what
authority or call I had to pretend to be judge and executioner upon these
men as criminals, whom Heaven had thought fit, for so many ages, to
suffer, unpunished, to go on, and to be, as it were, the executioners of His
judgments one upon another; how far these people were offenders against
me, and what right I had to engage in the quarrel of that blood which they
shed promiscuously upon one another. I debated this very often with
myself thus: “How do I know what God himself judges in this particular
case? It is certain these people do not commit this as a crime; it is not
against their own consciences reproving, or their light reproaching them ;
they do not know it to be an offence, and then commit it in defiance of
divine justice, as we do in almost all the sins we commit, They think it
no more a crime to kill a captive taken in war, than we do to all an Ox;
or to eat human flesh, than we do to eat mutton.”

When I considered this a little, it followed necessarily that I was
certainly in the wrong; that these people were not murderers, in the
sense that I had before condemned them in my thoughts, any more than
those Christians were murderers who often put to death the prisoners taken
in battle; or more frequently, upon many occasions, put whole troops of
men to the sword, without giving quarter, though they threw down their
arms, and submitted. In the next place, it occurred to me, that although
the usage they gave one another was thus brutish and inhuman, yet it was
really nothing to me: these people had done me no injury: that if they
attemapted, or I saw it necessary, for my immediate preservation, to fall
upon them, something might be said for it: but that I was yet out of their
power, and they really had no knowledge of me, and consequently no
design upon me; and, therefore it could not be just for me to fall upon
them; that this would justify the conduct of the Spaniards in all their
barbarities practised in America, where they destroyed millions of these
people; who, however they were idolaters and barbarians, and had several
bloody and barbarous rites in their customs, such as sacrificing human
bodies to their idols, were.yet, as to the Spaniards, very innocent: people ;
and that the rooting them out of the country is — of with the utmost

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abhorrence and detestation by even the Spaniards themselves, at this time,
and by all other Christian nations of Europe, as a mere butchery, a bloody
and unnatural piece of cruelty, unjustifiable either to God or man; and for
which the very name of a Spaniard is reckoned to be frightful and terrible
to all people of humanity or of Christian compassion ; as if the kingdom of
Spain were particularly eminent for the produce of a race of men, who were
without principles of tenderness, or the common bowels of pity to the
miserable, which is reckoned to be a mark of generous temper in the mind.

These considerations really put me to a pause, and to a kind of a full
stop ; and I began, by little and little, to be off my design, and to conclude
I had taken wrong measures in my resolution to attack the savages; and
that it was not my business to meddle with them, unless they first attacked
me; and this it was my business, if possible, to prevent: but that, if I were
discovered and attacked by them, I knew my duty. On the other hand, I
argued with myself, that this really was the way not to deliver myself, but
entirely to ruin and destroy myself; for, unless I was sure to kill every
one that not only should be on shore at that time, but that should ever
come on shore afterwards, if but one of them escaped to tell their country-
people what had happened, they would come over again by thousands to
revenge the death of their fellows, and I should only bring upon myself a
certain destruction, which, at present, I had no manner of occasion for.
Upon the whole, I concluded that I ought, neither in principle nor in
policy, one way or other, to concern myself in this affair: that my business
was, by all possible means, to conceal myself from them, and not to leave
the least sign for them to guess by that there were any living creatures
upon the island—I mean of human shape. Religion joined in with this
prudential resolution; and I was convinced now, many ways, that I was
perfectly out of my duty when I was laying all my bloody schemes for the
destruction of innocent creatures—I mean innocent as to me. As to the
crimes they were guilty of towards one another, I had nothing to do with
them ; they were national, and I ought to leave them to the justice of God,
who is the Governor of nations, and knows how, by national punishments,
to make a just retribution for national offences, and to bring public judg-
ments upon those who offend in a public manner, by such ways as best
please Him. This appeared so clear to me now, that nothing was a greater
satisfaction to me than that I had not been suffered to do a thing which I
now saw so much reason to believe would have been no less a sin than
that of wilful murder, if I had committed it; and I gave most humble

164
OF ROBINSON ORUSOE.

thanks, on my knees, to God, that He had thus delivered me from bloode
guiltiness ; beseeching Him to grant me the protection of His providence,
that I might not fall into the hands of the barbarians, or that I might not
lay my hands upon them, unless I had a more clear call from Heaven to do
it, in defence of my own life,

In this disposition I continued for near a year after this; and so far
was I from desiring an occasion for falling upon these wretches, that in all
that time I never once went up the hill to see whether there were any of
them in sight, or to know whether any of them had been on shore there, or
not, that I might not be tempted to renew any of my contrivances against
them, or be provoked by any advantage that might present itself, to fall
upon them: only this I did; I went and removed my boat, which I had
on the other side of the island, and carried it down to the east end of the
whole island, where I ran it into a little cove, which I found under some
high rocks, and where I knew, by reason of the currents, the savages durst
not, at least would not, come with their boats upon any account whatever.
With my boat I carried away everything that I had left there belonging to
her, though not necessary for the bare going thither, viz. a mast and sail
which I had made for her, and a thing like an anchor, but which indeed
could not be called either anchor or grapnel; however, it was the best I
could make of its kind: all these I removed, that there might not be the
least shadow for discovery, or appearance of any boat, or of any human
habitation upon the island. Besides this, I kept myself,.as I said, more
retired than ever, and seldom went from my cell except upon my constant
employment, to milk my she-goats, and manage my little flock in the wood,
which, as it was quite on the other part of the island, was out of danger;
for certain it is that these savage people, who sometimes haunted this
island, never came with any thoughts of finding anything here, and con-
sequently never wandered off from the coast, and I doubt not but they
might have been several times on shore after my apprehensions of them
had made me cautious, as well as before. Indeed, I looked back with. :
some horror upon the thoughts of what my condition would have been;
if I had chopped upon them and been discovered before that; when, naked,
and unarmed, except with one gun, and that loaded often only with small
shot, I walked everywhere, peeping and peering about the island to see
what I could get; what a surprise should I have been in, if, when I
discovered the print of a man’s foot, I had, instead of that, seen fifteen or
twenty savages, and found them pursuing me, and, by the swiftness of their

165
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

running, no possibility of my escaping them! The thoughts of this some-
‘times sunk my very sou! within me, and distressed my mind so much that
I could not soon recover it, to think what I should have done, and how I
should not only have been unable to resist them, but even should not have
had presence of mind enough to do what I might have done; much less
what now, after so much consideration and preparation, I might be able
to do. Indeed, after serious thinking of these things, I would be very
melancholy, and, sometimes, it would last a great while; but I resolved it
all, at last, into thankfulness to that Providence which had delivered me
from so many unseen dangers, and had kept me from those mischiefs which
I could have no way been the agent in delivering myself from, because I
had not the least notion of any such thing depending, or the least supposi-
tion of its being possible. This renewed a contemplation which often had
come into my thoughts in former times, when first I began to see the
merciful dispositions of Heaven, in the dangers we run through in this
life; how wonderfully we are delivered when we know nothing of it; how,
when we are in a quandary (as we call it), a doubt or hesitation whether to
go this way or that way, a secret hint shall direct us this way, when we
intended to go that way: nay, when sense, our own inclination, and
perhaps business, has called us to go the other way, yet a strange impres-
sion upon the mind, from we know not what springs, and by we know not
what power, shall overrule us to go this way; and it shall afterwards
appear, that had we gone that way which we should have gone, and even to
our imagination ought to have gone, we should have been ruined and lost.
Upon these, and many like reflections, I afterwards made it a certain rule
with me, that whenever I found those secret hints or pressings of mind, to
doing or not doing anything that presented, or going this way or that way,
I never failed to obey the secret dictate ; though I knew no other reason
for it than such a pressure, or such a hint, hung upon my mind. I could
give many examples of the success of this conduct in the course of my life,
but more especially in the latter part of my inhabiting this unhappy island;
besides many occasions which it is very likely I might have taken notice
of, if I had seen with the same eyes then that I see with now. But it is
never too late to be wise; and I cannot but advise all considering men,
whose lives are attended with such extraordinary incidents as mine, oF
even though not so extraordinary, not to slight such secret intimations of
Providence, let them come from what invisible intelligence they will. That
T shall not discuss, and perhaps cannot account for; but certainly they are
166
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

a proof of the converse of spirits, and a secret communication between
those embodied and those unembodied, and such a proof as can never be
withstood ; of which I shall have occasion to give some very remarkable
instances in the remainder of my solitary residence in this dismal place.

I believe the reader of this will not think it strange, if I confess that
these anxieties, these constant dangers I lived in, and the concern that was
now upon me, put an end to all invention, and to all the contrivances that
I had laid for my future accommodations and conveniences. I had the care
of my safety more now upon my hands than that of my food. I cared not
to drive a nail, or chop a stick of wood now, for fear the noise I might
make should be heard : much less would I fire a gun for the same reason :
and, above all, I was intolerably uneasy at making any fire, lest' the smoke,
which is visible at a great distance in the day, should betray me. For this
reason, I removed that part of my business which required fire, such as
burning of pots and pipes, &c. into my new apartment in the woods; where,
after I had been some time, I found to my unspeakable consolation a mere
natural cave in the earth, which went in a vast way, and where, I dare say,
no savage, had he been at the mouth of it, would be so hardy as to venture
in; nor, indeed, would any man else, but one who, like me, wanted nothing
so much as a safe retreat.

The mouth of this hollow was at the bottom of a great rock, where, by
mere accident (I would say, if I did not see abundant reason to ascribe all
such things now to Providence), I was cutting down some thick branches
of trees to make charcoal ; and before I go on I must observe the reason of
my making this charcoal, which was thus: I was afraid of making a smoke
about my habitation, as I said before; and yet I could not live there
without baking my bread, cooking my meat, &.; so I contrived to burn
some wood here, as I had seen done in England, under turf, till it became
chark or dry coal: and then putting the fire out, I preserved the coal to
carry home, and perform the other services for which fire was wanting,
without danger of smoke. But this is by the bye. While I was cutting
down some wood here, I perceived that, behind a very thick branch of low
brushwood or underwood, there was a kind of hollow place: I was curious
to look in it; and getting with difficulty into the mouth of it, I found it
was pretty large, that is to say, sufficient for me to stand upright in it, and
perhaps another with me: but I must confess to you that I made more
laste out than I did in, when looking farther into the place, and which was
perfectly dark, I saw two broad shining eyes of some creature, whether

167
ROBINSON CRUSOE.

devil or man I knew not, which twinkled like two stars; the dim light
from the cave’s mouth shining directly in, and making the reflection.
However, after some pause, I recovered myself, and began to call myself a
thousand fools, and to think that he that was afraid to see the devil, was
not fit to live twenty years in an island all alone; and that I might well
think there was nothing in this cave that was more frightful than myself.
Upon this, plucking up my courage, I took up a firebrand, and in I rushed
again, with the stick flaming in my hand: I had not gone three steps in,
before I was almost as much frightened as before ; for I heard a very loud
sigh, like that of a man in some pain, and it was followed by a broken
noise, as of words half expressed, and then a deep sigh again. I stepped
‘ack, and was indeed struck with such a surprise that it put me into a cold
sweat, and if I had had a hat on my head, I will not answer for it that my
hair might not have lifted it off. But still plucking up my spirits as well
as I could, and encouraging myself a little with considering that the power
and presence of God was everywhere, and was able to protect me, I stepped
forward again, and by the light of the firebrand, holding it up a little over
my head, I saw lying on the ground a monstrous, frightful, old he-goat, just
making his will, as we say, and gasping for life, and dying, indeed, of mere
old age. I stirred him a little to see if I could get him out, and he essayed
to get up, but was not able to raise himself; and I thought with myself he
might even lie there,—for if he had frightened me, so he would certainly
fright any of the savages, if any of them should be so hardy as to come in
there while he had any life in him.

I was now recovered from my surprise, and began to look round me,
when I found the cave was but very small, that is to say, it might be about
twelve feet over, but in no manner of shape, neither round nor square, no
hands having ever been employed in making it but those of mere Nature.
I observed also that there was a place at the farther side of it that went in
further, but was so low that it required me to creep upon my hands and
knees to go into it, and whither it went I knew not; so, having no candle,
I gave it over for that time, but resolved to go again the next day provided
with candles and a tinder-box, which I had made of the lock of one of the
muskets, with some wildfire in the pan.

Accordingly, the next day I came provided with six large candles of
my own making (for I made very good candles now of goat’s tallow, but
was hard set for candlewick, using sometimes rags or rope-yarn, and some-

times the dried rind of a weed-like nettles) ; and going into this low place
168


CRUSOE FINDS A DYING HE-GOAT IN THE CAVE.

I was obliged to creep upon all-fours, as I have said, almost ten yards—
which, by the way, I thought was a venture bold enough, considering that
I knew not how far it might go, nor what was beyond it. When I had got
through the strait, I found the roof rose higher up, I believe near twenty
feet; but never was such a glorious sight seen in the island, I dare say, as
it was to look round the sides and roof of this vault or cave—the wall
reflected a hundred thousand lights to me from my two candles. What it.
was in the rock—whether diamonds or any other precious stones, or gold—
which I rather supposed it to be—I knew not. The place I was in was a
most delightful cavity, or grotto, though perfectly dark ; the floor was dry
and level, and had a sort of a small loose gravel upon it, so that there was
no nauseous or venomous creature to be seen, neither was there any damp
or wet on the sides or roof. The cnly difficulty in it was the entrance—
which, however, as it was a place of security, and such a retreat as I
wanted, I thought was a convenience ; so that I was really rejoiced at the
discovery, and resolved, without any delay, to bring some of those things
which I was most anxious about to this place ; particularly, I resolved to
bring hither my magazine of powder, and all my spare arms, viz. two
fowling-pieces—for I had three in all—and three muskets—~for of them J
169
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

had eight in all; so I kept in my castle only five, which stood ready
mounted like pieces of cannon on my outmost fence, and were ready also
to take out upon any expedition. Upon this occasion of removing my
ammunition I happened to open the barrel of powder which I took up out
of the sea, and which had been wet, and I found that the water had pene-
trated about three or four inches into the powder on every side, which





CRUSOE TEACHES HIS PARROT TO TALK.

caking and growing hard, had preserved the inside like a kernel in the
shell, so that I had near sixty pounds of very good powder in the centre of
the cask. This was a very agreeable discovery to me at that time; so J
carried all away thither, never keeping above two or three pounds of
powder with me in my castle, for fear of a surprise of any kind; I also

carried thither all the lead I had left for bullets,
170

OF RLOLLNSON CRUSOE.

I fancied myself now like one of the ancient giants who were said to
live in caves and holes in the rocks, where none could come at them ; for I
persuaded myself, while I was here, that if five hundred savages were to
hunt me, they could never find me out—or if they did, they would not
venture to attack me here. The old goat whom I found expiring died in
the mouth of the cave the next day after I made this discovery; and I
found it much easier to dig a great hole there, and throw him in and cover
him with earth, than to drag him out; so I interred him there, to prevent
offence to my nose.

I was now in the twenty-third year of my residence in this island, and
was so naturalized to the place and the manner of living, that, could I but
have enjoyed the certainty that no savages would come to the place to dis-
turb me, I could have been content to have capitulated for spending the
rest of my time there, even to the last moment, till I had laid me down and
died, like the old goat in the cave. I had also arrived to some little diver-
sions and amusements, which made the time pass a great deal more plea-
santly with me than it did before ;—first, I had taught my Poll, as I named
before, to speak ; and he did it so familiarly, and talked so articulately and
plain, that it was very pleasant to me; and he lived with me no less than
six-and-twenty years. How long he might have lived afterwards I know
not, though I know they have a notion in the Brazils that they live a
hundred years. My dog was a pleasant and loving companion to me for no
less than sixteen years of my time, and then died of mere old age. As for
my cats, they multiplied, as I have observed, to that degree, that I was
obliged to shoot several of them at first, to keep them from devouring me
and all I had; but, at length, when the two old ones I brought with me
were gone, and after some time continually driving them from me, and
letting them have no provision with me, they all ran wild into the woods,
except two or three favourites, which I kept tame, and whose young, when
they had any, I always drowned; and.these were part of my family.
Besides these I always kept two or three household kids about me, whom
I taught to feed out of my hand; and I had two more parrots, which
talked pretty-well, and would all call “Robin Crusoe,” but none like my
first ; nor, indeed, did I take the pains with any of them that I had done
with him. I had also several tame sea-fowls, whose name I knew not, that
I caught upon the shore, and cut their wings ; and the little stakes which I
had planted before my castle-wall being now grown up to a good thick
grove, these fowls all lived among these low trees, and bred there, which

171


CRUSOF BURIES HIS LOG,

was very agreeable to me; so that, as I said above, I began to be very well
contented with the life I led, if I could have been secured from the dread
of the savages. But it was otherwise directed; and it may not be amiss

for all people who shall meet with my story to make this just observation
172 :












CRUSOE FLXLS CONTENTED WITH HIS LOT.

from it:—How frequently, in the course of our lives, the evil which in
itself we seek most to shun, and which, when we are fallen into, is the most
dreadful to us, is oftentimes the very means or door of our deliverance, by
which alone we can be raised again from the affliction we are fallen into.
I could give many examples of this in the course of my unaccountable life ;
but in nothing was it more particularly remarkable than in the circum-
stances of my last years of solitary residence in this island.

It was now the month of December, as I said above, in my twenty-
third year; and this, being the southern solstice (for winter I cannot call
it), was the particular time of my harvest, and required me to be pretty
much abroad in the fields, when, going out early in the morning, even

before it was thorough daylight, I was surprised with seeing a light of some
173
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

fire upon the shore, at a distance from me of about two miles, toward that
part of the island where I had observed some savages had been, as before,
and not on the other side,—but, to my great affliction, it was on my side of
the island.

I was indeed terribly surprised at the sight, and stopped short within
my grove, not daring to go out, lest I might be surprised; and yet I had no
more peace within, from the apprehensions I had that if these savages, in
rambling over the island, should find my corn standing or cut, or any of my
works or improvements, they would immediately conclude that there were
people in the place, and would then never rest till they had found me out,
In this extremity I went back directly to my castle, pulled up the ladder



CRUSOE SEES A LIGHT ON THE SHORE IN THE EARLY MORNING.

after me, and made all things without look as wild and natural as I could.
Then I prepared myself within, putting myself in a posture of defence.
I loaded all my cannon, as I called them—that is to say, my muskets,
which were mounted upon my new fortification, and all my pistols, and
resolved to defend myself to the last gasp,—not forgetting seriously to
commend myself to the Divine protection, and earnestly to pray to God to
deliver me out of the hands of the barbarians. I continued in this posture
about two hours, and began to be impatient for intelligence abroad, for I
had no spies to send out. After sitting awhile longer, and musing what I

should do in this case, I was not able to bear sitting in ignorance longer;
174
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

so setting up my ladder to the side of the hill, where there was a flat place,
as I observed before, and then pulling the ladder after me, I set it up again
and mounted the top of the hill, and pulling out my perspective glass,
which I had taken on purpose, I laid me down flat on my belly on the
ground, and began to look for the place. I presently found there were no
less than nine naked savages, sitting round a small fire they had made, not
to warm them, for they had no need of that, the weather being extremely
hot, but, as I supposed, to dress some of their barbarous. diet of human
flesh which they had brought with them, whether alive or dead I could
not tell.

They had two canoes with them, which they had hauled up upon the
shore ; and as it was then ebb of tide, they seemed to me to wait for the
return of the flood to go away again. It is not easy to imagine what
confusion this sight put me into, especially seeing them come on my side of
the island, and so near to me; but when I considered their coming must be
always with the current of the ebb, I began afterwards to be more sedate
in my mind, being satisfied that I might go abroad with safety all the time
of the flood of tide, if they were not on shore before; and having made
this observation, I went abroad about my harvest work with the more
composure.

As I expected, so it proved; for, as soon as the tide made to the. west-
ward, I saw them all take boat and row (or paddle as we call it) away. I
should have observed, that for an hour or more before they went off they
were dancing, and I could easily discern their postures and gestures by my
glass. I could not perceive, by my nicest observation, but that they were
stark naked, and had not the least covering upon them; but whether hee
were men or women I could not distinguish.

As soon as I saw them shipped ne gone, I took two guns upon my
shoulders, and two pistols in my girdle, and my great sword by my side
without a scabbard, and with all the speed I was able to make went away
to the hill where I had discovered the first appearance of all; and as soon
as I got thither, which was not in less than two hours (for I could not go
quickly, beirig so loaded with arms as I was), I perceived there had been
three canoes more of the savages at that place; and looking out farther, I
saw they were all at sea together, making over for the main. This was a
dreadful sight to me, especially as, going down to the shore, I could see the
marks of horror which the dismal work they had been about had left
behind it, viz. the blood, the bones, and part of the flesh of human bodies

175 é


LIFE AND ADVENTURES

eaten and devoured by those wretches with merriment and sport. I was so
filled with indignation at the sight, that I now began to premeditate the
destruction of the next that I saw there, let them be whom or how many
soever. It seemed evident to me that the visits which they made thus to
this island were not very frequent, for it was above fifteen months before
any more of them came on shore there again,—that is to say, I neither saw
them nor any footsteps or signals of them in all that time; for as to the
rainy seasons, then they are sure not to come abroad, at least not so far.
Yet all this while I lived uncomfortably, by reason of the constant appre-
hensions of their coming upon me by surprise: from whence I observe,
that the expectation of evil is more bitter than the suffering, especially if
there is no room to shake off that expectation, or those apprehensions.

During all this time I was in the murdering humour, and spent most of
my hours, which should have been better employed, in contriving how
to circumvent and fall upon them the very next time I should see them,—
especially if they should be divided, as they were the last time, into two
parties ; nor did I consider at all that if I killed one party—suppose ten or
a dozen—I was still the next day, or week, or month, to kill another, and
so another, even ad infinitum, till I should be, at length, no less a murderer
than they were in being man-eaters—and perhaps much more so. I spent
my days now in great perplexity and anxiety of mind, expecting that I
should one day or other fall into the hands of these merciless creatures; and
if I did at any time venture abroad, it was not without looking around me
with the greatest care and caution imaginable. And now I found, to my
great comfort, how happy it was that I had provided a tame flock or herd
of goats, for I durst not upon any account fire my gun, especially near that
side of the island where they usually came, lest I should alarm the
savages; and if they had fled from me now, I was sure to have them come
again with perhaps two or three hundred canoes with them in a few days,
and then I knew what to expect. However, I wore out a year and three
months more before I ever saw any more of the savages, and then I found
them again, as I shall soon observe. It is true they might have been there
once or twice; but either they made no stay, or at least I did not see
them; but in the month of May, as near as I could calculate, and in my
four-and-twentieth year, I had a very strange encounter with them; of
which in its place.

‘The perturbation of my mind, during this fifteen or sixteen months’

interval was very great; I slept unquictly, dreamed always frightful
176
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

dreams, and often started out of my sleep in the night. In the day,
great troubles overwhelmed my mind; and in the night, I dreamed often
of killing the savages, and of the reasons why I might justify doing it.

But to wave all this for a while—It was in the middle of May,’on the
sixteenth day, I think, as well as my poor wooden calendar would reckon,
for I marked all upon the post still; I say, it was on the sixteenth of May





CRUBUE HEARS A GUN FIRED AT SEA.

that it blew a very great storm of wind all day, with a great deal of

lightning and thunder, and a very foul night it was after it. I knew

Het what was the particular occasion of it; but as I was reading in the

Bible, and taken up with very serious thoughts about my present condi-

tion, I was surprised with the noise of a gun, as I thought, fired at sea.

This was, to be sure, a surprise quite of a different nature from any I had
177 * N
ROBINSON CRUSOE.

met with before; for the notions this put into my thoughts were quite of
another kind. I started up in the greatest haste imaginable; and, in a
trice, clapped my ladder to the middle place of the rock, and pulled it after
me; and mounting it the second time, got to the top of the hill the very
moment that a flash of fire bid me listen for a second gun, which, accord-
ingly, in about half a minute, T heard; and by the sound, knew that it was
from that part of the sea where T was driven down the current in my boat.
{ immediately considered that this must be some ship in distress, and that
they had some comrade, or some other ship in company, and fired these for
signals of distress, and to obtain help. I had the presence of mind, at that
minute, to think, that though I could not help them, it might be they
might help me; so I brought together all the dry wood I could get at
hand, and, making a good handsome pile, I set it on fire upon the hill
The wood was dry, and blazed freely; and, though the wind blew very
hard, yet it burned fairly out; so that I was certain, if there was any such
thing as a ship, they must need see it. And no doubt they did; for as soon
as ever my fire blazed up, I heard another gun, and after that several
others, all from the same quarter. I plied my fire all night long, till
daybreak: and when it was broad day, and the air cleared up, I saw
something at a great distance at sea, full east of the island, whether a sail
or a hull T could not distinguish—no, not with my glass ; the distance was
so great, and the weather still something hazy also; at least, it was so
out at sea,

T looked frequently at it all that day, and soon perceived that it did not
move ; so I presently concluded that it was a ship at anchor; and being
eager, you may be sure, to be satisfied, I took my gun in my hand, and ran
towards the south side of the island, to the rocks where I had formerly
been carried away by the current; and getting up there, the weather by
this time being perfectly clear, I could plainly see, to my great sorrow, the
wreck of a ship, cast away in the night upon those concealed rocks which I
found when I was out in my boat; and which rocks, as they checked the
violence of the stream, and made a kind of counter-stream, or eddy, were
the occasion of my recovering from the most desperate, hopeless condition
that ever I had been in in all my life. Thus, what is one man’s safety is
another man’s destruction; for it seems these men, whoever they were,
being out of their knowledge, and the rocks being wholly under water, had
been driven upon them in the night, the wind blowing hard at ENE

Had they seen the island, as I must necessarily suppose they did not, they
178



CRUSOE GETS A VIEW OF THE WRECK.

must, as I thought, have endeavoured to have saved themselves on shore
by the help of their boat; but their firing off guns for help, especially when
they saw, as I imagined, my fire, filled me with many thoughts. First, I
imagined that upon seeing my light, they might have put themselves into
their boat, and endeavoured to make the shore; but that the sea running
very high, they might have been cast away. Other times, I imagined that
they might have lost their boat before, as might be the case many ways ;
particularly, by the breaking of the sea upon their ship, which many times
obliged men to stave, or-take in pieces, their boat, and sometimes to throw
it overboard with their own hands. Other times, I imagined they had
some other ship or ships in company, who, upon the signals of distress they

made, had taken them up, and carried them off. Other times, I fancied
179
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

they were all gone off to sea in their boat, and being hurried away by the
current that I had been formerly in, were carried out into the great ocean,
where there was nothing but misery and perishing: and that, perhaps, they
might by this time think of starving, and of being in a condition to eat
one another.
As all these were but conjectures at best, so, in the condition I was in,
I could do no more than look on upon the misery of the poor men, and pity
them ; which had still this good effect upon my side, that it gave me more
and more cause to give thanks to God, who had so happily and comfortably
provided for me in my desolate condition ; and that of two ships’ companies,
who were now cast away upon this part of the world, not one life should be
spared but mine. I learned here again to observe, that it is very rare that
the providence of God casts us into any condition so low, or any misery so
great, but we may see something or other to be thankful for, and may see
others in worse circumstances than our own. Such certainly was the case
of these men, of whom I could not so much as see room to suppose any
were saved ; nothing could make it rational so much as to wish or expect
that they did not all perish there, except the possibility only of their
being taken up by another ship in company ; and this was but mere pos
sibility indeed, for I saw not the least sign or appearance of any such thing
I cannot explain, by any possible energy of words, what a strange longing I
felt in my soul upon this sight, breaking out sometimes thus :—“O that
there had been but one or two, nay, or but one soul, saved out of this ship,
to have escaped to me, that I might but have had one companion, one
fellow-creature, to have spoken to me and to have conversed with!” In all
the time of my solitary life, I never felt so earnest, so strong a desire: after
the society of my fellow-creatures, or so deep a regret at the want of it.
There are some secret springs in the affections, which, when they are set
a-going by some object in view, or, though not in view, yet rendered present
to the mind by the power of imagination, that motion carries out the soul,
by its impetuosity, to such violent, eager embracings of the object, that the
absence of it is insupportable. Such were these earnest wishings that but
one man had been saved. I believe I repeated the words, “O that it had
been but one!” a thousand times; and my desires were so moved by it, that
when I spoke the words my hands would clinch together, and my fingers
. would press the palms of my hands, so that if I had had any soft thing in
my hand, I should have crushed it involuntarily ; and the teeth in my head

would strike together, and set against one another so strong, that for some
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OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

time I could not part them again. Let the naturalists explain these things,
and the reason and manner of them. All I can do is, to describe the fact,
which was even surprising to me when I found it, though I knew not from
whence it proceeded ; it was doubtless the effect of ardent wishes, and of
strong ideas formed in my mind, realizing the comfort which the conversa-
tion of one of my fellow Christians would have been to me. But it was not
to be; either their fate or mine, or both, forbade it; for till the last year of
my being on this island, I never knew whether any were saved out of that
ship or no; and had only the affliction, some days after, to see the corpse of
a drowned boy come on shore at the end of the island which was next the
shipwreck. He had no clothes on but a seaman’s waistcoat, a pair of open-
kneed linen drawers, and a blue linen shirt; but nothing to direct me so
much as to guess what nation he was of. He had nothing in his poekets
but two pieces of eight and a tobacco-pipe—the last was to me of ten times
more value than the first.

It was now calm, and I had a great mind to venture out in my boat to
this wreck, not doubting but I might find something on board that might be
useful to me. But that did not altogether press me so much as the possi-
bility that there might be yet some living creature on board, whose life I
might not only save, but might, by saving that life, comfort my own to
the last degree; and this thought clung so to my heart that I could not
be quiet night or day, but I must venture out in my boat on board
this wreck ; and committing the rest to God’s -providence, I thought the
impression was so strong upon my mind that it could not be resisted—that
it must come from some invisible direction, and that I should: be wanting
to myself if I did not go.

Under the power of this impression, I hastened back to my castle, pre-
pared everything for my voyage, took a quantity of bread, a great pot of
fresh water, a compass to steer by, a bottle of rum (for I had still a great
deal of that left), and a basket of raisins; and thus, loading myself with
everything necessary, I went down to my boat, got the water out of her, got
her afloat, loaded all my cargo in her, and then went home again for more.
My second cargo was a great bag of rice, the umbrella to set up over my head
for a shade, another large pot of fresh water, and about two dozen of small
loaves, or, barley cakes, more than before, with a bottle of goat’s-milk, and a
cheese: all which with great labour and sweat I carried to my boat; and
praying to God to direct my voyage, I put out, and rowing or paddling the
canoe along the shore, came at last to the utmost point of the island on the |

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north-east side. And now I was to launch out into the ocean, and either
to venture or not to venture. I looked on the rapid currents which ran
constantly on both sides of the island at a distance, and which were very
terrible to me, from the remembrance of the hazard I had been in before,
and my heart began to fail me; for I foresaw that if I was driven into
either of those currents, I should be carried a great way out to sea, and
perhaps out of my reach, or sight of the island again; and that then, as
my boat was but small, if any little gale of wind should rise, I should be
inevitably lost.

These thoughts so oppressed my mind, that I began to give over my
enterprise ; and having hauled my boat into a little creek on the shore, I
stepped out, and sat down upon a rising bit of ground, very pensive and
anxious, between fear and desire, about my voyage; when, as I was musing,
I could perceive that the tide was turned, and the flood come on; upon
which, my going was impracticable for so many hours. Upon this, presently
it occurred to me, that I should go up to the highest piece of ground I could
find, and observe, if I could, how the sets of the tide or currents lay when
the flood came in, that I might judge whether, if I was driven one way out,
I might not expect to be driven another way home, with the same rapidity
of the currents, This thought was no sooner in my head than I cast my eye
upon a little hill, which sufficiently overlooked the sea both ways, and from
whence I had a clear view of the currents or sets of the tide, and which
way I was to guide myself in my return. Here I found, that as the current
of ebb set out close by the south point of the island, so the current of the
flood set in close by the shore of the north side ; and that I had nothing to
do but to keep to the north side of the island in my return, and I should do
well enough.

Encouraged by this observation, I resolved, the next morning. to set out
with the first of the tide; and, reposing myself for the night in my canoe,
under the watch-coat I mentioned, I launched out. I first made a little out
to sea, full north, till I began to feel the benefit of the current, which set
eastward, and which carried me at a great rate; and yet did not so hurry
me as the current on the south side had done before, so as to take from me
all government of the boat ; but having a strong steerage with my paddle, I
went, at a great rate, directly for the wreck, and in less than two hours I
came up to it. It was a dismal sight to look at: the ship, which, by its
building, was Spanish, stuck fast, jammed in between two rocks. All the
stern and quarter of her were beaten to pieces by the sea; and as her fore-

182
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE,

castle, which stuck jn the rocks, had run on with great violence, her main-
mast and foremast were brought by the board—that i is to say, broken short
off; but her bowsprit was sound, and the head and bow appeared firm.

When I came close to her, a dog appeared upon her, who, seeing me
coming, yelped and cried; and, as soon as I called him, jumped into the sea
to come tome. I took him into the boat, but found him almost dead with
hunger and thirst. I gave him a cake of my bread, and he devoured it like
a ravenous wolf that had been starving a fortnight in the snow; I then
gave the poor creature some fresh water, with which, if I would have let
him, he would have burst himself. After this I went on board; but the
first sight I met with was two men drowned in the cook-room, or forecastle
of the ship, with their arms fast about one another. I concluded, as is
indeed probable, that when the ship struck, it being in a storm, the sea
broke so high, and so continually over her, that the men were nor able to
bear it, and were strangled with the constant rushing in of the water, as
much as if they had been under water. Besides the dog, there was nothing
left in the ship that had life; nor any goods, that I could see, but what
were spoiled by the water. There were some casks of liquor, whether wine
or brandy I knew not, which lay lower in the hold, and which, the water
being ebbed out, I could see; but they were too big to meddle with. I saw
several chests, which, I believe, belonged to some of the seamen; and I got
two of them into the boat, without examining what was in them. Had the
stern of the ship been fixed, and the forepart broken off, I am persuaded I
might have made a good voyage ; for, by what I found in these two chests,
I had room to suppose the ship had a great deal of wealth on board ; and, if
I may guess from the course she steered, she must have been bound from
Buenos Ayres, or the Rio de la Plata, in the south part of America, beyond
the Brazils to the Havannah, in the Gulf of Mexico, and so perhaps to
Spain. She had, no doubt, a great treasure in her, but of no use, at that
time, to anybody ; but what became of the crew I then knew not.

I found, besides these chests, a little cask full of liquor, of about twenty
gallons, which I got into my boat with much difficulty. There were several
muskets in the cabin, and a great powder-horn, with about four pounds
of powder in it: as for the muskets, I had no occasion for them, so I left
them, but took the powder-horn. I took a fire-shovel and tongs, which I
‘wanted extremely ; as also two little brass kettles, a copper pot to make
chocolate, and a gridiron; and with this cargo, and the dog, I came away,
the tide beginning to make home again: and the same evening, about an

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hour within night, I reached the island again, weary and fatigued to the last
degree. I reposed that night in the boat; and in the morning I resolved to
harbour what I had got in my new cave, and not carry it home to my
castle, After refreshing myself, I got all my cargo on shore, and began to
examine the particulars. The cask of liquor I found to be a kind of rum,
but not such as we had at the Brazils; and, in a word, not at all good ; but
when I came to open the chests, I found several things of great use to me:
for example, I found in one a fine case of bottles, of an extraordinary kind,
and filled with cordial waters, fine and very good; the bottles held about
three pints each, and were tipped with silver. I found two pots of very
good succades, or sweetmeats, so fastened also on the top that the salt-water
had not hurt them ; and two more of the same, which the water had spoiled.
I found some very good shirts, which were very welcome to me; and about a
dozen and a half of white linen handkerchiefs and coloured neckcloths ; the
former were also very welcome, being exceedingly refreshing to wipe my
face ina hot day. Besides this, when I came to the till in the chest, I found
there three great bags of pieces of eight, which held about eleven hundred
pieces in all; and in one of them, wrapped up in a paper, six doubloons of
gold, and some small bars or wedges of gold; I suppose they might all
weigh near a pound. In the other chest were some clothes, but of little
value; but, by the circumstances, it must have belonged to the gunner’s
mate; though there was no powder in it, except two pounds of fine glazed
powder, in three flasks, kept, I suppose, for charging their fowling-pieces on
occasion. Upon the whole, I got very little by this voyage that was of any
use to me; for, as to the money, I had no manner of occasion for it; it was
to me as the dirt under my feet, and I would have given it all for three
or four pair of English shoes and stockings, which were things I greatly
wanted, but had had none on my feet for many years. I had, indeed, got two
pair of shoes now, which I took off the feet of the two drowned:men whom
I saw in the wreck, and I found two pair more in one of the chests, which
were very welcome to me; but they were not like our English shoes, either
for ease or service, being rather what we call pumps than shoes. I found
in this seaman’s chest about fifty pieces of eight, in rials, but no gold: I
suppose this belonged to a poorer man than the other, which seemed to
belong to some officer. Well, however, I lugged this money home to my
cave, and laid it up, as I had done that before which I had brought from our
own ship; but it was a great pity, as I said, that the other part of this ship
had not come to my share ; for I am satisfied I might have loaded my canoe
184
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

several times over with money ; and, thought I, if I ever escape to England,
it might lie here safe enough till I come again and fetch it.

Having now brought all my things on shore, and secured them, I went
back to my boat, and rowed or paddled her along the shore to her old
harbour, where I laid her up, and made the best of my way to my old
habitation, where I found everything safe and quiet. I began now to
repose myself, live after my old fashion, and take care of my family affairs ;
and for a while I lived easy enough, only that I was more vigilant than I
used to be, looked out oftener, and did not go abroad so much; and if at
any time I did stir with any freedom, it was always to the east part of the
island, where I was pretty well satisfied the savages never came, and where
I could go without so many precautions, and such a load of arms and am-
munition as I always catried with me if I went the other way. I lived in
this condition near two years more ; but my unlucky head, that was always
to let me know it was born to make my body miserable, was all these two
years filled with projects and designs, how, if it were possible, I might get
away from this island: for, sometimes I was for making another voyage to
the wreck, though my reason told me that there was nothing left there
worth the hazard of my voyage ; sometimes for a ramble one way, sometimes
another: and I believe verily, if I had had the boat that I went from Sallee
in, I should have ventured to sea, bound anywhere, I knew not whither. I
have been, in all my circumstances, a memento to those who are touched
with the general plague of mankind, whence, for aught I know, one-half of
their miseries flow; I mean that of not being satisfied ‘with the statioz
wherein God and Nature hath placed them: for, not to look back upon my
primitive condition, and the excellent advice of my father, the opposition to
which was, as I may call it, my original sin, my subsequent mistakes of the
same kind had been the means of my coming into this miserable condition;
for had that Providence which so happily seated me at the Brazils as a
planter blessed me with confined desires, and I could have been contented
to have gone on gradually, I might have been by this time—I mean in the
time of my being in this island—one of the most considerable planters in the .
Brazils : nay, I am persuaded, that by the improvements I had made in that
little time I lived there, and the increase I should probably have made if I
had remained, I might have been worth a hundred thousand moidores: and
what business had I to leave a settled fortune, a well-stocked plantation,
improving and increasing, to turn supercargo to Guinea to fetch negroes.
when patience and time would have so increased our stock at home, that we

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could have bought them at our own door from those whose business it was
to fetch them ? and though it had cost us something more, yet the difference
of that price was by no means worth saving at so great a hazard. But as
this is usually the fate of young heads, so reflection upon the folly of it is as
commonly the exercise of more years, or of the dear-hought experience of
time: so it was with me now; and yet so deep had the mistake taken root
in my temper, that I could not satisfy myself in my station, but was con-
tinually poring upon the means and possibility of my escape from this
place: and that I may, with the greater pleasure to the reader, bring on the
remaining part of my story, it may not be improper to give some account of
my first conceptions on the subject of this foolish scheme for my escape, and
how, and upon what foundation I acted.

I am now to be supposed retired in my castle, after my late voyage to
the wreck, my frigate laid up and secured under water, as usual, and my
condition restored to what it was before: I had more wealth, indeed, than I
had before, but was not at all the richer ; for I had no more use for it than
the Indians of Peru had before the Spaniards came there.

It was one of the nights in the rainy season in March, the four-and-
twentieth year of my first setting foot in this island of solitude, I was lying
in my bed or hammock, awake, very well in health, had no pain, no dis-
temper, no uneasiness of body, nor any uneasiness of mind more than
ordinary, but could by no means close my eyes, that is, so as to sleep ; no,
not a wink all night long, otherwise than as follows :—It is impossible to
set down the innumerable crowd of thoughts that whirled through that great
thoroughfare of the brain, the memory, in this night’s time: I ran over the
whole history of my life in miniature, or by abridgment, as I may call it, to
my coming to this island, and also of that part of my life since I came to
this island. In my reflections upon the state of my case since I came on
shore on this island, I was comparing the happy posture of my affairs in the
first years of my habitation here, with the life of anxiety, fear, and care,
which I had lived in ever since I had seen the print of a foot in the sand.

, Not that I did not believe the savages had frequented the island even all the
while, and might have been several hundreds of them at times on shore
there; but I had never known it, and was incapable of any apprehensions
about it; my satisfaction was perfect, though my danger was the same, and
I was as happy in not knowing my danger as if I had never really been
exposed to it. This furnished my thoughts with many very profitable reflec-
tions, and particularly this one: How infinitely good that Providence is

186” ;
OF ROBINSON ORUSOE.

which has provided, in its government of mankind, such narrow bounds to
his sight and knowledge of things; and though he walks in the midst of so
many thousand dangers, the sight of which, if discovered to him, would
distract his mind and sink his spirits, he is kept serene and calm, by having
the events of things hid from his eyes, and knowing nothing of the dangers
which surround him.

After these thoughts had for some time entertained me, I came % reflect
seriously upon the real danger I had been in for so many years in this very
island, and how I had alked about in the greatest security, and with all
possible tranquillity, even when perhaps nothing but the brow of a hill, a
great tree, or the casual approach of night, had been between me and the
worst kind of destruction, viz. that of falling into the hands of cannibals and
savages, whe would have seized on me with the same view as I would ona
goat or turtle; and have thought it no more crime to kill and devour me,
than I did of a pigeon or a curlew. I would unjustly slander myself, if I
should say I was not sincerely thankful to my great Preserver, to whose
singular protection I acknowledged, with great humility, all these unknown
deliverances were due, and without which I must inevitably have fallen, into
their merciless hands.

‘When these thoughts were over, my head was for some time taken up in
considering the nature of these wretched creatures, I mean the savages, and
how it came to pass in the world, that the wise Governor of all things
should give up any of his creatures to such inhumanity—nay, to something
so much below even brutality itself—as to devour its own kind: but as this
ended in some (at that time) fruitless speculations, it occurred to me to
inquire, what part of the world these wretches lived in? how far off the
coast was from whence they came? what they ventured over so far from
home for? what kind of boats they had? and why I might not order myself
and my business so, that I might be able to go over thither, as they were to
come to me?

I never so much as troubled myself to consider what I should do with
myself when I went thither; what would become of me if I fell into the
hands of these savages; or how I should escape them if they attacked me ;
no, nor so much as how it was possible for me to reach the coast, and not be
attacked by some or other of them, without any possibility of delivering
myself: and if I should not fall into their hands, what I should do for
provision, or whither I should bend my course : none of these thqughts, I
say, so much as came in my way; but my mind was wholly bent upon the

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notion of my passing over in my boat to the main land. I looked upon my
present condition as the most miserable that could possibly be; that I was
not able to throw myself into anything but death, that could be called
worse ; and if I reached the shore of the main, I might perhaps meet with
relief, or I might coast along, as I did on the African shore, till I came to.
some inhabited country, and where I might find some relief; and, after all,
perhaps I might fall in with some Christian ship that might take me in;
and if the worst came to the worst, I could but die, which would put an end
to all these miseries at once. Pray note, all this was the fruit of a disturbed
mind, an impatient temper, made desperate, as it were, by the long continu
ance of my troubles, and the disappointments I had met in the wreck I had
been on board of, and where I had been so near obtaining what I so
earnestly longed for—somebody to speak to, and to learn some knowledge
from them of the place where I was, and of the probable means of my
deliverance. I was agitated wholly by these thoughts; all my calm of
mind, in my resignation to Providence, and waiting the issue of the dispo-
sitions of Heaven, seemed to be suspended ; and I had, as it were, no power
to turn my thoughts to anything but to the project of a voyage to the main,
which came upon me with such force, and such an impetuosity of desire,
that it was not to be resisted.

‘When this had agitated my thoughts for two hours or more, with such
violence that it set my very blood into a ferment, and my pulse beat as
if I had been in a fever, merely with the extraordinary fervour of my
mind about it, Nature—as if I had been fatigued and exhausted with the
very thoughts of it—threw me into a sound sleep. One would have
thought I should have dreamed of it, but I did not, nor of anything
relating to it: but I dreamed that as I was going out in the morning as
usual, from my castle, I saw upon the shore two canoes and eleven savages,
coming to land, and that they brought with them another savage, whom
they were going to kill, in order to eat him; when, on a sudden, the savage
that they were going to kill jumped away, and ran for his life; and I
thought, in my sleep, that he came running into my little thick grove before
my fortification, to hide himself; and that I, seeing him alone, and not
perceiving that the others sought him that way, showed myself to him, and
smiling upon him, encouraged him: that he kneeled down to me, seeming
to pray me to assist him; upon which I showed him my ladder, made him
go up, and carried him into my cave, and he became my servant: and that
as soon as I had got this man, I said to myself, “Now I may certainly

188
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

venture to the main land, for this fellow will serve me as a pilot, and will
tell me what to do, and whither to go for provisions, and whither not to go
for fear of being devoured ; what places to venture into, and what to shun.”
I waked with this thought; and was under such inexpressible impressions
of joy at the prospect’ of my escape in my dream, that the disappointments
which I felt upon coming to myself, and finding that it was no more than a
dream, were equally extravagant the other way, and threw me into a very
great dejection of spirits.

Upon this, however, I made this conclusion: that my only way to go
about to attempt an escape was, to endeavour to get a savage into my pos-
session ; and, if possible, it should be one of their prisoners, whom they had
condemned to be eaten, and should bring hither to kill. But these thoughts
still were attended with this difficulty : that it was impossible to effect this
without attacking a whole caravan of them, and killing them all; and this
was not only a very desperate attempt, and might miscarry; but, on the
other hand, I had greatly scrupled the lawfulness of it to myself; and my
heart trembled at the thoughts of shedding so much blood, though it was for
my deliverance. I need not repeat the arguments which occurred to me
against this, they being the same mentioned before ; but though I had other
reasons to offer now, viz. that those men were enemies to my life, and would
devour me if they could ; that it was self-preservation, in the highest degree.
to deliver myself from this death of a life, and was acting in my own defence
as much as if they were actually assaulting me, and the like; I say, though
these things argued for it, yet the thoughts of shedding human blood for my
deliverance were very terrible to me, and such as I could by no means
reconcile myself to for a great while. However, at last, after many secret
disputes with myself, and after great perplexities about it (for all these
arguments, one way and another, struggled in my head a long time), the
eager prevailing desire of deliverance at length mastered all the rest; and
I resolved, if possible, to get one of these savages into my hands, cost what
it would. My next thing was to contrive how to do it, and this indeed was
very difficult to resolve on; but as I could pitch upon no probable means
for it, so I resolved to put myself upon the watch, to see them when they
came on shore, and leave the rest to the event ; taking such measures as the
opportunity should present, let what would be.

With these resolutions in my thoughts, I set myself upon the scout as
often as possible, and indeed so often, that I was heartily tired of it; for it
was above a year and a half that I waited ; and for great part of that time

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went out to the west end, and to the south-west corner of the island almost
every day, to look for canoes, but none appeared. This was very discouraging,
and began to trouble me much, though I cannot say that it did in this case
(as it had done some time before) wear off the edge of my desire to the
thing; but the longer it seemed to be delayed, the more eager I was for it:
in a word, I was not at first so careful to shun the sight of these savages,
and avoid being seen by them, as I was now eager to be upon them.
Besides, I fancied myself able to manage one, nay, two or three savages, if
I had them, so as to make them entirely slaves to me, to do whatever I
should direct them, and to prevent their being able at any time to do me
any hurt. It was a great while that I pleased myself with this affair; but
nothing still presented itself; all my fancies and schemes came to nothing,
for no savages came near me for a great while.

About a year and a half after I entertained these notions (and by long
musing had, as it were, resolved them all into nothing, for want of an
occasion to put them into execution), I was surprised one morning by
seeing no less than five canoes all on shore together on my side the island,
and the people who belonged to them all landed and out of my sight. The
number of them broke all my measures; for seeing so many, and knowing
that they always came four or six, or sometimes more in a boat, I could not
tell what to think of it, or how to take my measures to attack twenty or
thirty men single-handed ; so lay still in my castle, perplexed and discom-
forted. However, I put myself into the same position for an attack that I
had formerly provided, and was just ready for action, if anything had
presented. Having waited a good while, listening to hear if they made any
noise, at length, being very impatient, I set my guns at the foot of my
ladder, and clambered up to the top of the hill, by my two stages, as usual ;
standing so, however, that my head did not appear above the hill, so that
they could not perceive me by any means. Here I observed, by the help
of my perspective glass, that they were no less than thirty in number ; that
they had a fire kindled, and that they had meat dressed. How they had
cooked it, I knew not, or what it was; but they were all dancing, in I know
not how many barbarous gestures and figures, their own way, round the fire.

While I was thus looking on them, I perceived, by my perspective, two
miserable wretches dragged from the boats, where, it seems, they were laid
by, and were now brought out for the slaughter. I perceived one of them
immediately fall; being knocked down, I suppose, with a club, or wooden
sword, for that was their way; and two or three others were at work

190
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

immediately, cutting him open for their cookery, while the other victim
was left standing by himself, till they should be ready for him. In that
yery moment, this poor wretch, seeing himself a little at liberty, and
anbound, Nature inspired him with hopes of life, and he started away
from them, and ran with incredible swiftness along the sands, directly
towards me; I mean, towards that part of the coast where my habitation
was. I was dreadfully frightened, I must acknowledge, when I perceived
him run my way; and especially when, as I thought, I saw him pursued
by the whole body; and now I expected that part of my dream was
coming to pass, and that he would certainly take shelter in my grove: but
T could not depend, by any means, upon my dream, that the other savages
would not pursue him thither, and find him there. However, I kept my
station, and my spirits began to recover when I found that there was not *
above three men that followed him ; and still more was I encouraged, when
I found that he outstripped them exceedingly in running, and gained
ground on them; so that, if he could but hold out for half an hour, I saw
easily he would fairly get away from them all.

There was between them and my castle, the creek, which I mentioned
often in the first part of my story, where I landed my cargoes out of the
ship; and this I saw plainly he must necessarily swim over, or the poor
wretch would be taken there; but when the savage escaping came thither,
he made nothing of it, though the tide was then up; but, plunging in,
swam through in about thirty strokes, or thereabouts, landed, and ran with
exceeding strength and swiftness. When the three persons came to the
creek, I found that two of them could swim, but the third could not, and
that, standing on the other side, he looked at the others, but went no
farther, and soon after went softly back again; which, as it happened, was
very well for him in the end. I observed that the two who swam were yet -
more than twice as long swimming over the creek as the fellow was that
fled from them. It came very warmly upon my thoughts, and indeed
irresistibly, that now was. the time to get me a servant, and perhaps a
companion or assistant; and that I was plainly called by Providence to
save this poor creature’s life. I immediately ran down the ladders with all
possible expedition, fetched my two guns, for they were both at the foot of
the ladders, as I observed before, and getting up again with the same haste
to the top of the hill, I crossed towards the sea; and having a very short
cut, and all down hill, placed myself in the way between the pursuers and

the pursued, hallooing aloud to him that fied. who, looking back, was at
191
ROBINSON CRUSOE.

first perhaps as much frightened at me as at them; but I beckoned with
my hand to him to come back ; and, in the mean time, I slowly advanced
towards the two that followed; then rushing at once upon the foremost, I
knocked him down with the stock of my piece. I was loath to fire, because
I would not have the rest hear; though, at that distance, it would not have
been easily heard, and being out of sight of the smoke, too, they would not
have known what to make of it. Having knocked this fellow down, the
other who pursued him stopped, as if he had been frightened, and I
advanced towards him: but as I came nearer, I perceived presently he had
a bow and arrow, and was fitting it to shoot at me: so I was then obliged
to shoot at lim first, which T did, and killed him at the first shot. The
poor savage who fled, but had stopped, though he saw both his enemies
fallen and killed, as he thought, yet was so frightened with the fire and
noise of my piece, that he stood stock still, and neither came forward, nor
went backward, though he seemed rather inclined still to fly than to come
on. T hallooed again to him, and made signs to come forward, which he
easily understood, and came a little way; then stopped again, and then a
little farther, and stopped again; and I could then perceive that he stood
trembling, as if he had been taken prisoner, and had just been to be killed,
as his two enemies were. I beckoned to him again to come to me, and
gave him all the signs of encouragement that T could think of; and he
came nearer and nearer, kneeling down every ten or twelve steps, in token
of acknowledgment for saving his life. I smiled at him, and looked
pleasantly, and beckoned to him to come still nearer; at length, he came
close to me; and then he kneeled down again, kissed the ground, and laid
his head upon the ground, and, taking me by the foot, set my foot upon his
head; this, it seems, was in token of swearing to be my slave for ever. 1
took him up and made much of him, and encouraged him all I could. But
there was more work to do yet; for I perceived the savage whom T had
knocked down was not killed, but stunned with the blow, and began to
come to himself: so I pointed to him, and showed him the savage, that he
was not dead; upon this he spoke some words to me, and though I could
not understand them, yet I thought they were pleasant to hear; for they
were the first sound of a man’s voice that I had heard, my own excepted,
for above twenty-five years. But there was no time for such reflections
now ; the savage who was knocked down recovered himself so far as to sit
up upon the ground, and I perceived that my savage began to be afraid;

but when I saw that, J presented my other piece at the man, as if I would
192















— Se ae s
Sige = JBM.

. CRUSOE DELIVERS FRIDAY

shoot him: upon this, my savage, for so I call him now, made a motion to
me to lend him my sword, which hung naked in a belt by my side, which I
did. He no sooner had it, but he runs to his enemy, and at one blow, cut

off his head so cleverly, no executioner in Germany could have done it
- 198 o
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

sooner or better; which I thought very strange for one who, I had reason
to believe, never saw a sword in his life before, except their own wooden
swords: however, it seems, as I learned afterwards, they make their wooden
swords so sharp, so heavy, and the wood is so hard, that they will even cut
off heads with them, ay, and arms, and that at one blow too. When he had
fone this, he comes laughing to me in sign of triumph, and brought me the
sword again, and with abundance of gestures which I did not understand,
laid it down, with the head of the savage that he had killed, just before me.
But that which astonished him most, was to know how I killed the other
Indian so far off; so, pointing to him, he made signs to me to let him go to
him; and I bade him go, as well as I could. When he came to him, he
stood like one amazed, looking at him, turning him first on one side, then
on the other; looked at the wound the bullet had made, which it seems was
just in his breast, where it had made a hole, and no great quantity of blood
had followed; but he had bled inwardly, for he was quite dead. He took
up his bow and arrows, and came back; so I turned to go away, and
beckoned him to follow me, making signs to him that more might come
after them. Upon this he made signs to me that he should bury them
with sand, that they might not be seen by the rest, if they followed; and
so I made signs to him again to do so. He fell to work; and in an instant
he had scraped a hole in the sand with his hands, big enough to bury the
first in, and then dragged him into it, and covered him; and did so by the
other also; I believe he had buried them both in a quarter of an hour.
Then, calling him away, I carried him, not to my castle, but quite away to
my cave, on the farther part of the island: so I did not let my dream come
to pass in that part, that he came into my grove for shelter. Here I gave
him bread and a bunch of raisins to eat, and a draught of water, which I
found he was indeed in great distress for, from his running: and having
zefreshed him, I made signs for him to go and lie down to sleep, showing
him a place where I had laid some rice-straw, and a blanket upon it, which
T used to sleep upon myself sometimes ; so the poor creature lay down, and
went to sleep.

He was a comely, handsome fellow, perfectly well made, with straight
strong limbs, not too large, tall and well shaped; and, as I reckon, about
twenty-six years of age. He had a very good countenance, not a fierce
and surly aspect, but seemed to have something very manly in his face;
and yet he had all the sweetness and softness of a European in his
countenance too, especially when he smiled. His hair was long and blacs,

194
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

not curled like wool; his forehead very high and large; and a great vivacity
and sparkling sharpness in his eyes. The colour of his skin was not quite
black, but very tawny; and yet not an ugly, yellow, nauseous tawny, as
the Brazilians and Virginians, and other natives of America are, but of a
bright kind of a dun olive-colour, that had in it something very agreeable,
though not very easy to describe. His face was round and plump ; his
nose small, not flat like the Negroes; a very good mouth, thin lips, and his
fine teeth well set, and as white as ivory.

After he had slumbered, rather than slept, about half an hour, he awoke
again, and came out of the cave to me; for I had been milking my goats,
which I had in the inclosure just by: when he espied me, he came running
to me, laying himself down again upon the ground, with all the possible
signs of an humble, thankful disposition, making a great many antic gestures
to show it. At last he lays his head flat upon the ground, close to my foot,
and sets my other foot upon his head, as he had done before; and after this,
ade all the signs to me of subjection, servitude, and submission, imagin-
able, to let me know how he would serve me so long as he lived. I under-
stood him in many things, and let him know T was very well pleased with
him. In a little time I began to speak to him, and teach him to speak to
me; and, first, I let him know his name should be Frmpay, which was the
day I saved his life: I called him so for the memory of the time. I like-
wise taught him to say Master ; and then let him know that was to be my
name: I likewise taught him to say Yes and No, and to know the meaning
of them. I gave him some milk in an earthen pot, and let him see me
drink it before him, and sop my bread in it; and gave him a cake of bread
to do the like, which he quickly complied with, and made signs that it was
very good for him. I kept there with him all that night; but, as soon as
it was day, I beckoned to him to come with me, and let him know I would
give him some clothes; at which he seemed very glad, for he was stark
naked. As we went by the place where he had buried the two men, he
pointed exactly to the place, and showed me the marks that he had made
to find them again, making signs to me that we should dig them up again
and eat them, At this, I appeared very angry, expressed my abhorrence of
it, made as if I would vomit at the thoughts of it, and beckoned with my
hand to him to come away, which he did immediately, with great sub-
mission. I then led him up to the top of the hill, to see if his enemies
Were gone; and pulling out my glass, I looked, and saw plainly the place
where they had been, but no appearance of them or their canoes; so that ‘

195 :
ROBINSON CRUSOE.

it was plain they were gone, and had left their two comrades behind them,
without any search after them.

But I was not content with this discovery; but having now more
courage, and consequently more curiosity, I took my man Friday with me,
giving him the sword in his hand, with the bow and arrows at his back,
which I found he could use very dexterously, making him carry one gun
for me, and I two for myself; and away we marched to the place where
these creatures had been; for I had a mind now to get some fuller in-
telligence of them. When I came to the place, my very blood ran chill in
my veins, and my heart sunk within me, at the horror of the spectacle ;
indeed, it was a dreadful sight, at least it was so to me, though Friday made
nothing of it. The place was covered with human bones, the ground dyed
with their blood, and great pieces of flesh left here and there, half-eaten,
mangled, and scorched; and, in short, all the tokens of the triumphant
feast they had been making there, after a victory over their enemies. I saw
three skulls, five hands, and the bones of three or four legs and feet, and
abundance of other parts of the bodies; and Friday, by his signs, made me
understand that they brought over four prisoners to feast upon ; that three
of them were eaten up, and that he, pointing to himself, was the fourth;
that there had been a great battle between them and their next king, of
whose subjects, it seems, he had been one, and that they had taken a great
number of prisoners ; all which were carried to several places, by those
who had taken them in the fight, in order to feast upon them, as was done
here by these wretches upon those they brought hither.

I caused Friday to gather all the skulls, bones, flesh, and whatever
remained, and lay them together in a heap, and make a great fire upon it,
and burn them all to ashes. I found Friday had still a hankering stomach
after some of the flesh, and was still a cannibal in his nature; but I showed
so much abhorrence at the very thoughts of it, and at the least appearance
of it, that he durst not discover it: for I had, by some means, let him know
that I would kill him if he offered it.

When he had done this, we came back to our castle; and there I fell to
work for my man Friday; and first of all, I gave him a pair of linen
drawers, which I had out of the poor gunner’s chest I mentioned, which ]
found in the wreck, and which, with a little alteration, fitted him very well;
and then I made him a jerkin of goat’s skin, as well as my skill would
allow (for I was now grown a tolerably good tailor); and I gave him a cap
which I made of hare’s skin, very convenient, and fashionable enough; and

196


CRUSOE DRESSES FRIDAY.

ths be was clothed, for the present, tolerably well, and was mighty well
a: pleased to see himself almost as well clothed as his master. It is true, he
went awkwardly in these clothes at first: wearing the drawers was very
awkward to him, and the sleeves of the waistcoat galled his shoulders and
the inside of his arms; but a little easing them where he complained ther
hurt him, and using himself to them, he took to them at length very well.
197
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

The next day, after I came home to my hutch with him, I began to con-
sider where I should lodge him; and, that I might do well for him and yet
be perfectly easy myself, I made a little tent for him in the vacant place
between my two fortifications, in the inside of the last, and in the outside
of the first. As there was a door or entrance there into my cave, I made a
formal framed door-case, and a door to it, of boards, and set it up in the
passage, a little within the entrance; and, causing the door to open in the
inside, I barred it up in the night, taking in my ladders, too; so that
Friday could no way come at me in the inside of my innermost wall,
without making so much noise in getting over that it must needs awaken
me ; for my first wall had now a complete roof over it of long poles, cover-
ing all my tent, and leaning up to the side of the hill ; which was again
laid across with smaller sticks, instead of laths, and then thatched over a
great thickness with the rice-straw, which was strong, like reeds; and at
the hole or place which was left to go in or out by the ladder, I had placed
a kind of trap-door, which, if it had been attempted on the outside, would
not have opened at all, but would have fallen down and made a great
noise: as to weapons, I took them all into my side every night. But I
needed none of all this precaution ; for never man had a more faithful,
loving, sincere servant than Friday was to me; without passions, sullenness,
or designs, perfectly obliged and engaged; his very affections were tied
to me, like those of a child to a father; and I dare say he would have

’ sacrificed his life to save mine, upon any occasion whatsoever: the many
testimonies he gave me of this put it out of doubt, and soon convinced me
that I needed to tse no precautions for my safety on his account.

This frequently gave me occasion to observe, and that with wonder, that
however it had pleased God in His providence, and in the government of
the works of His hands, to take from so great a part of the world of His
creatures the best uses to which their faculties and the powers of their
souls are adapted, yet that He has bestowed upon ‘them the same powers,
the same reason, the same affections; the same sentiments of kindness and
obligation ; the same passions, and resentments of wrongs, the same sense
of gratitude, sincerity, fidelity, and all the capacities of doing good, and
receiving good, that He has given to us; and that when He pleases to offer
them occasions of exerting these, they are as ready, nay, more ready, to
apply them to the right uses for which they were bestowed, than we are.
This made me very melancholy sometimes, in reflecting, as the several
occasions presented, how mean a use we make of all these, even though we

198
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

have these powers enlightened by the great lamp of instruction, the Spirit
of God, and by the knowledge of His word added to our understanding ;
and why it has pleased God to hide the like saving knowledge from so
many millions of souls, who, if I might judge by this poor savage, would
make a much better use of it than we did. From hence, I sometimes was
led too far, to invade the sovereignty of Providence, and, as it were, arraign
the justice of so arbitrary a disposition of things, that should hide that
sight from some, and reveal it others, and yet expect a like duty from both;
but I shut it up, and checked my thoughts with this conclusion: first, That
we did not know by what light and law these should be condemned; but
that as God was necessarily, and, by the nature of His being, infinitely
holy and just, so it could not be, but if these creatures were all sentenced
to absence from Himself, it was on account of sinning against that light,
which, as the Scripture says, was a law to themselves, and by such rules as
their consciences would acknowledge to be just, though the foundation was
not discovered to us; and, secondly, That still, as we all are the clay in the
hand of the potter, no vessel could say to him, “ Why hast thou formed
me thus?” :

But to return to my new companion :—I was greatly delighted with
him, and made it my business to teach him everything that was proper to
make him useful, handy, and helpful ; but especially to make him speak.
and understand me when I spoke ; and he was the aptest scholar that ever
was ; and particularly was so merry, so constantly diligent, and so pleased
when he could but understand me, or make me understand him, that it was
very pleasant to me to talk to him. Now my life began to be so easy that
I began to say to myself, that could I but have been safe from more savages,
I cared not if I was never to remove from the place where I lived. é

After I had been two or three days returned to my castle, I thought
that, in order to bring Friday off from his horrid way of feeding, and from
the relish of a cannibal’s stomach, I ought to let him taste other flesh; so I
took him out with me one morning to the woods. I went, indeed, intending
to kill a kid out of my own flock, and bring it home and dress it; but as i
was going, I saw a she-goat lying down in the shade, and two young kids
sitting by her. I catched hold of Friday ;—“ Hold,” said I, “ stand still ;”
and made signs to him not to stir: immediately, I presented my piece, shot, -
and killed one of the kids. The poor creature, who had, at a distance
indeed, seen me kill the savage, his enemy, but did not know, nor could
imagine how it was done, was sensibly surprised ; trembled, and shook; ana

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES

looked so amazed that I thought he would have sunk down. He did not
see the kid I shot at, or perceive I had killed it, but ripped up his waistcoat,
to feel whether he was not wounded ; and, as I found presently, thought
I was resolved to kill him: for he came and kneeled down to me, and
embracing my knees, said a great many things I did not understand ;
but I could easily see the meaning was, to pray me not to kill him.

I soon found a way to convince him that I would do him no harm ; and
taking him up by the hand, laughed at him, and pointing to the kid which
I had killed, beckoned to him to run and fetch it, which he did: and while
he was wondering, and looking to see how the creature was killed, I loaded
my gun again. By-and-by, I saw a great fowl, like a hawk, sitting upon a
tree within shot; so, to let Friday understand a little what I would do, I
called him to me again, pointed at the fowl, which was indeed a parrot,
though I thought it had been a hawk ; I say, pointing to the parrot, and to
my gun, and to the ground under the parrot, to let him see I would. make
it fall, I made him understand that I would shoot- and kill that bird ;
accordingly, I fired, and bade him look, and immediately he saw the parrot
fall He stood like one frightened again, notwithstanding all I had said to
him ; and I found he was the more amazed, because he did not see me put
anything into the gun, but thought that there must be some wonderful
fund of death and destruction in that thing, able to kill man, beast, bird, or
anything near or far off; and the astonishment this created in him was
such as could not wear off for a long time; and, I believe, if I would have
let him, he would have worshipped me and my gun. As for the gun itself,
he would not so much as touch it for several days after; but he would
speak to it and talk to it, as if it had answered him, when he was by
himself; which, as I afterwards learned of him, was to desire it not to kill
him. Well, after his astonishment was_a little over at this, I pointed to
him to run and fetch the bird I had shot, which he did, but stayed some
time; for the parrot, not being quite dead, had fluttered away a good
listance from the place where she fell: however, he found her, took her up,
and brought her to me; ard as I had perceived his ignorance about the
gun before, I took this advantage to charge the gun again, and not to let
him see me do it, that I might be ready for any other mark that might
present; but nothing more offered at that time: so I brought home the
kid, and the same evening I took the skin off, and cut it out as well as I
could; and having a pot fit for that purpose, I boiled or stewed some of the

-flesh, and made some very good broth. After I had begun to eat some, I
200
OF ROBINSON JRUSOE.

gave some to my man, who seemed very glad of it, and liked it very well ;
but that which was strangest.to him was to see me eat salt with it. He
made a sign to me that the salt was not good to eat; and putting a little
into his own mouth, he seemed’ to nauseate it, and would spit and sputter
at it, washing his mouth with fresh water after it: on the other hand, ]
took some meat into my mouth without salt, and I pretended to spit and
sputter for want of salt, as much as he had.done at the salt; but it would
not do; he would never care 'for salt with meat.or in his broth; at least,
not for a great while, and then but a very little.

Having thus fed him with boiled meat and broth, I was resolved to
feast him the next day by roasting a piece of the kid: this I did by
hanging it before the fire on a string, as I had seen many people do in
England, setting two poles up, one on each side of the fire, and one across
the top, and tying the string to the cross stick, letting the meat turn
continually. This Friday admired -very much; but when he came to taste
the flesh, he took so many ways to tell me how well he liked it, that 1
could not but understand him: and at last he told me, as well as he could,
he would never eat man’s flesh any more, which I was very glad to hear.

The next day, I set him to work to beating some corn out, and sifting it
in the manner I used to do, as,I observed before; and he soon understood
how to do it as well as I, especially after he had seen what the meaning of
it was, and that it was to make bread of; for after that, I let him see me
make my bread, and bake it too;.and in a little time, Friday was able to
do all the work for me, as well as I could do it myself.

_I-began now to consider, that having two mouths to feed instead of one,
I must provide more ground for my harvest, and plant a larger quantity of
corn than I used to do; so I marked out a larger piece of land, and began
the fence in the same manner as before, in which Friday worked not only
very willingly and very hard, but did it very cheerfully: and I told him
what it was for; that it was for corn to make. more bread, because he was
now with me, ae that I might: have enough for him and myself too. He
appeared very sensible of that part, and let me know that he thought I had
much more labour upon me on his account, than I-had for myself; and that
he would work the harder for me, if I would tell him what to do.

This was the pleasantest year of all the life I led in this place, Friday
begah to talk pretty well, and understand the names of almost everything I
had occasion to call for, and of every place I had to send him to, and talked
a great deal to me; so that, in short, I began now to have some use for my

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES

tongue again, which, indeed, I had very little occasion for before. Besides
the pleasure of talking to him, I had a singular satisfaction in the fellow
himself: his simple, unfeigned honesty appeared to me more and more
every day, and I began really to love the creature; and on his side, I
believe he loved me more than it was possible for him ever to love
anything before.

I had a mind once to try if he had any inclination for his own country
again; and having taught him English so well that he could answer me
almost any question, I asked him whether the nation that he belonged to
never conquered in battle? At which he smiled, and said, “Yes, yes, we
always fight the better ;” that is, he meant, always get the es in fight ;
and so we began the following discourse :—

Master—You always fight the better; how came you to be taken
prisoner then, Friday ?

Friday.—My uation beat much for all that.

Master.—How beat? If your nation beat them, how came you to be
taken ?

Friday—They more many than my nation, in the place where me was;
they take one, two, three, and me: my nation over-beat them in the yonder
place, where me no was; there my nation take one, two, great thousand.

Master—But why did not your side recover you from the hands of your
enemies then ?

Friday.—They run, one, two, three, and me, and make go in the canoe;
my nation have no canoe that time.

Master—Well, Friday, and what does your nation do with the men
they take? ‘Do they carry them away and eat them, as these did?

Friday—Yes, my nation eat mans too: eat all up.

Master—Where do they carry them?

Friday.—Go to other place, where they think.

Master.—Do they come hither?

Friday.—Yes, yes, they come hither ; come other ese place.

Master—Have you been here with them?

Friday.—Yes, I have been here (points to the N.W. side of the island,
which, it.seems, was their side).

By this, I understood that my man Friday had formerly been among the
savages who used to come on shore on the farther part of the island, on the
same man-eating occasions he was now brought for: and, some time after,
when I took the courage to carry him to that side, being the same I

202 :
OF, ROBINSON CRUSOE.

formerly mentioned, he presently knew the place, and told me he was there
once, when they eat up twenty men, two women, and one child; he could
not tell twenty in English, but he numbered them, by laying so many stones
in a row, and pointing to me to tell them over.

I have told this passage, because it introduces what follows ; that after
this discourse I had with him, I asked him how far it was from our island
to the shore, and whether the canoes were not often lost. He told me there
was no danger, no canoes ever lost; but that. after a little way out to sea,
there was a current and wind, always one way in the morning, the other in
the afternoon. This I understood to be no more than the sets of the tide,
as going out or coming in; but I afterwards understood it was occasioned
by the great draft and reflux of the mighty river Oroonoko, in the mouth or
gulph of which river, as I found afterwards, our island lay; and that this -
land which I perceived to be W. and N.W. was the great island Trinidad,
on the north point of the mouth of the river. I asked Friday a thousand
questions about the country, the inhabitants, the sea, the coast, and what
nations were near: he told me all he knew, with the greatest openness
imaginable, I asked him the names of the several nations of his sort of
people, but could get no other name than Caribs: from whence I easily
understood that these were the Caribbees, which our maps place on the
part of America which reaches from the mouth of the river Oroonoko to,
Guiana, and onwards to St. Martha. He told me, that up a great way
beyond the moon, that was, beyond the setting of the moon, which must be
west from their country, there dwelt whité bearded men, like me, and
pointed to my great whiskers, which I mentioned before ; and that they
had killed much mans, that was his word: by all which I understood he
meant the Spaniards, whose cruelties in America had been spread over the
whole country, and were remembered by all the nations from father to son.,

I inquired if he could tell me how I might go from this island, and get
among those white men: he told me, “ Yes, yes, you may go in two canoe.”
I could not understand what he meant, or make him describe to me what
he meant by two canoe, till at last, with great difficulty, I found he meant
it must be in a large boat, as big as two canoes. This part of Friday’s
discourse I began to relish very well; and from this time I entertained
some hopes that, one time or other, I might find an opportunity to make
my escape from this place, and that this poor savage might be a means to
help me.

_. During the long tinie that Friday had now been with me, and ‘that he
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

began to speak to me, and understand me, I was not wanting to lay a
foundation of religious knowledge in his mind; particularly I asked him
one time, who made him. The poor creature did not understand me at all,
but thought I had asked who was his father: but I took it up by another
handle, and asked him, who made the ‘sea, the ground we walked on, and
the hills and woods. He told me, “It was one Benamuckee, that lived
beyond all ;” he could describe nothing of this great person, but that he was
very old, “much older,” he said, “than the sea or the land, than the moon
or the stars.” I asked him then, if this old person had made all things,
why did not all things worship him? He looked very grave, and, with a
perfect look of innocence, said, “All things say O to him.” I asked him, if
the people who die in his country went away anywhere? He said, “ Yes ;
they all went to Benamuckee.” Then I asked him whether those they eat
up went thither too? He said, “ Yes.”

From these things, I began to instruct him in the knowledge of the true
God: I told him that the great Maker of all things lived up there, pointing
up towards heaven; that He governed the world by the same power and
providence by which He made it; that He was omnipotent, and could do
everything for us, give everything to us—take everything from us; and
thus, by degrees, I opened his eyes. He listened with great attention, and
received with pleasure the notion of Jesus Christ being sent to redeem us,
and of the manner of making our prayers to God, and His being able to
hear us, even in heaven. -He told me one day, that if our God could hear
us, up beyond the sun, he must needs be a greater God than their Bena-
muckee, who lived but a little way off, and yet could not hear till they went
up to the great mountains where he dwelt to speak to him. I asked him if
ever he went thither to speak to him? He said, “No; they never went
that were young men ; none went thither but the old men,” whom he called
their Oowokakee ; that is, as I made him explain it to me, their religious,
or clergy ; and that they went to say O (so he called saying prayers), and
then came back and told them what Benamuckee said. By this I observed,
that there is priestcraft even among the most blinded, ignorant pagans in
the world ; and the policy of making a secret of religion, in order to preserve
the veneration of the people to the clergy, is not only to be found in the
Roman, but, perhaps, among all religions in the world, even among the most
brutish and barbarous savages.

T endeavoured to clear up this fraud to my man Friday; and told him

that the pretence of their old men going up to the mountains to say O to
204
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

their god Benamuckee was a cheat; and their bringing word from thence
what he said was much more so; that if they met with any answer, or spake
with any one there, it must be with an evil spirit: and then I entered into
a, long discourse with him about the devil, the origin of him, his rebellion
against God, his enmity to man, the reason of it, his setting himself up in
the dark parts of the world to be worshipped instead ‘of God, and as God,
and the many stratagems he made use of to delude mankind to their ruin ;
how he had a secret access to our passions and to our affections, and to
adapt his snares to our inclinations, so as to. cause us even to be our own
tempters, and run upon our destruction by our own choice.

I found it was not so easy to imprint right notions in his mind about the
devil as it was about the being of a God: nature assisted all my arguments
to evidence to him even the necessity of a great First Cause—an overruling,
governing Power—a secret directing Providence; and of the equity and

_ justice of paying homage to Him that made us, and the like; but there ap-
peared nothing of this kind in the notion of an evil spirit; of his origin, his
being, his nature; and, above all, of his inclination to do evil, and to draw
us in to do so too: and the poor creature puzzled me once in such a manner,
by a question merely natural and innocent, that I scarce knew what to say
to him. JI had been talking a great deal to him of the power of God, His
omnipotence, His aversion to sin, His being a consuming fire to the workers
of iniquity ; how, as He had made us all, He could destroy us and all the
world in a moment; and he listened with great seriousness to me all the
while. After this, I had been telling him how the devil was God’s enemy
in the hearts of men, and used all his malice and skill to defeat the good
designs of Providence, and to ruin the kingdom of Christ in the world, and
the like. “Well,” says Friday, “but you say God is so strong, so great ; is
he not much strong, much might as the devil?” “Yes, yes,” says IL
“Friday ; God is stronger than the devil: God is above the devil, and
therefore we pray to God to tread him down under our feet, and enable us
to resist his temptations and quench his fiery darts.” “ But,” says he again,
“if God much stronger, much might as the wicked devil, why God no kill
the devil, so make him no more do wicked?” I was strangely surprised at
this quéstion ; and, after all, though I was now an old man, yet I was but
a young doctor, and ill qualified for a casuist, or a solver of difficulties ;
and at first I could not tell what to say ; so I pretended not to hear him,
and asked him what he said: but he was too earnest for an answer to

forget his question, so that he repeated it in the very same broken words as
205

t
KOBINSON CRUSOE,

above. By this time I had recovered myself a little, and I said, “ God will
at last punish him severely ; he is reserved for the judgment, and is to be
cast into the bottomless pit, to dwell with everlasting fire.” This did not
satisfy Friday ; but he returns upon me, repeating my words, “‘ Reserve at
lust !” me no understand : but why not kill the devil now; not kill great
ago?” “You may as well ask me,” said I, “why God does not kill you or
me, when we do wicked things here that offend him: we are preserved to
repent and be pardoned.” He mused some time on this: “Well, well,”
says he, mightily affectionately, “that well: so you, I, devil, all wicked, all
preserve, repent, God pardon all.” Here I was run down again by him to
the last degree: and it was a testimony to me, how the mere notions of
nature, though they will guide reasonable creatures to the knowledge of a
God, and of a worship or homage due to the supreme being of God, as the
consequence of our nature, yet nothing but divine revelation can form the
knowledge of Jesus Christ, and of redemption purchased for us; of a
Mediator of the new covenant, and of an Intercessor at the footstool of
God's throne ; I say, nothing but a revelation from leaven can form these
in the soul ; and that, therefore, the gospel of our Lord and Saviour Jesus
Christ, I mean the Word of God, and the Spirit of God, promised for the
guide and sanctifier of his people, are the absolutely necessary instructors
of the souls of mex in the saving knowledge of God, and the means of
salvation.

I therefore diverted the present discourse between me and my man,
rising up hastily, as upon some sudden occasion of going out ; then sending
him for something a good way off, I seriously prayed to God that He would
enable me to instruct savingly this poor savage ; assisting, by His Spirit,
the heart of the poor ignorant creature to receive the light of the know-
ledge of God in Christ reconciling him to Himself, and would guide me to
speak so to him from the Word of God, that his conscience might be con-
vinced, his eyes opened, and his soul saved. When he came again to me,
T entered into a long discourse with him upon the subject of the redemption
of man by the Saviour of the world, and of the doctrine of the gospel
preached from heaven, viz. of repentance towards God, and faith in our
blessed Lord Jesus. I then explained to him as well as I could why our
blessed Redeemer took not on him the nature of angels, but the seed of
Abraham ; and how, for that reason, the fallen angels had no share in the
redemption ; that he came only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel,
and the like.

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ORUSOE INSTRUCTS FRIDAY IN RELIGION

1 haa, God knows, more sincerity than knowledge in ail the methods 1
took for. this poor creature’s instruction, and must acknowledge, what I
believe all that act upon the same principle will find, that in laying things
open to him, I really informed and instructed myself in many things that
either I did not know, or had not fully considered before, but which
occurred naturally to my mind upon searching into them, for the inform-
ation of this poor savage; and I had more affection in my inquiry after
things upon this occasion than ever I felt before: so that, whether this
poor wild wretch was the better for me or no, I had great reason to be
thankful that ever he came to me; my grief sat lighter upon me; my
habitation grew comfortable to me beyond measure: and when I reflected
that in this solitary life which I have been confined to, I had not only been

‘noved to look up to heaven myself, and to seek the hand that had brought
207
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

me here, but was now to be made an instrument, under Providence, to save
the life, and, for aught I knew, the soul of a poor savage, and bring him to
the true knowledge of religion, and of the Christian doctrine, that he might
know Christ Jesus, in whom is life eternal; I say, when I reflected upon
all these things, a secret joy ran through every part of my soul, and I
frequently rejoiced that ever I was brought to this place, which I had so
often thought the most dreadful of all afflictions that could possibly have
befallen me.

I continued in this thankful frame all the remainder of my time; and
the conversation which employed the hours between Friday and me was
such as made the three years which we lived there together perfectly and
completely happy, if any such thing as complete happiness can be formed
in a sublunary state. This savage was now a good Christian, a much better
than I; though I have reason to hope, and bless God for it, that we were
equally penitent, and comforted, restored penitents. We had here the
Word of God to read, and no farther off from His Spirit to instruct, than if
we had been in England. I always applied myself, in reading the Scrip-
ture, to let him know, as well as I could, the meaning of what I read; and
he again, by his serious inquiries and questionings, made me, as I said
before, a much better scholar in the Scripture knowledge than I should ever
have been by my own mere private reading. Another thing I cannot refrain
from observing here also, from experience in this retired part of my life,
viz. how infinite and inexpressible a blessing it is that the knowledge of
God, and of the doctrine of salvation by Christ Jesus, is so plainly laid
down in the Word of God, so easy to be received and understood, that, as
the bare reading the Scripture made me capable of understanding enough
of my duty to carry me directly on to the great work of sincere repent-
ance for my sins, and laying hold of a Saviour for life and salvation, to a
stated reformation in practice, and obedience to all God’s commands, and
this without any teacher or instructor, I mean human; so the same plain
instruction sufficiently served to the enlightening this savage creature,
and bringing him to be such a Christian as I have known few equal to him
in my life.

As to all the disputes, wrangling, strife, and contention which have
happened in the world about religion, whether niceties in doctrines, or
schemes of Church government, they were all perfectly useless to us, and,
for aught I can yet see, they have been so to the rest of the world. We had
the sure guide to heaven, viz. the Word of God; and we hed, blessed be

208
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

God, comfortable views of the Spirit of God teaching and instructing by
His word, leading us into all truth, and making us both willing and.
obedient to the instruction of His word. And I cannot see the least use
that the greatest knowledge of the disputed points of religion, which have
made such confusion in the world, would have been to us, if we could have
obtained it. But I must go on with the historical part of things, and take
every part in its order.

After Friday and I became more intimately acquainted, and that he
could understand almost all I said to him, and speak pretty fluently, though —
in broken English, to me, I acquainted him with my own history, or at
least so much of it as related to my coming to this place ; how I had lived
there, and how long ; I let him into the mystery, for such it was to him, of
gunpowder and bullet, and taught him how to shoot. I gave him a knife
which he was wonderfully delighted with ; and I made him a belt, with a
frog hanging to it, such as in England we wear hangers in; and in the frog,
instead of a hanger, I gave him a hatchet, which was not only as good a
weapon in some cases, but much more useful upon other occasions.

I described to him the country of Europe, particularly England, which
I came from ; ‘how we lived, how we worshipped God, how we behaved to
one another, and how we traded in ships to all parts of the world. I gave
him an account of the wreck which I had been on board of, and showed
him, as near as I could, the place where she lay ; but she was all beaten in
pieces before, and gone. I showed him the ruins of our boat, which we lost
when we escaped, and which I could not stir with my whole strength then ;
but was now fallen almost all to pieces. Upon seeing this boat, Friday
stood musing a great while, and said nothing. I asked him what it was he
studied upon. -At last says he, “Me see such boat like come to place at
my nation.” I did-not understand him a good while; but, at last, when
I had examined further into it, I understood by him, that a boat, such as
that had been, came on shore upon the country where he lived: that is,
as he explained it, was driven thither by stress of weather. I presently
imagined that some European ship must have been cast away upon their
coast, and the boat might get loose and drive ashore ; but was so dull that
I never once thought of men making their escape from a wreck thither,
much less whence they might come: so I only inquired after a description
of the boat.

Friday described the boat to me well: enough ; but brought me better to
understand him when he added with some warmth, “We save the white

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mans from drown.” Then I presently asked if there were any white mans,
as he called them, in the boat. “Yes,” he said; “the boat full of white
mans.” I asked him how many. He told upon his fingers seventeen. I
asked him then what became of them. He told me, “They live, they
dwell at my nation.”

This put new thoughts into my head; for I presently imagined that
these might be the men belonging to the ship that was cast away in the
sight of my island, as I now called it; and who after the ship was struck
on the rock and they saw her inevitably lost, had saved themselves in their
boat, and were landed upon that wild shore among the savages. Upon this
I inquired of him more critically what was become of them. He assured
me they lived still there; that they had been there about four years; that
‘the savages left them alone, and gave them victuals to live on. I asked
him how it came to pass they did not kill them and eat them. He said,
«No, they make brother with them ;” that is, as I understood him, a truce;
and then he added, “They no eat mans but when make the war fight ;”
that is to say, they never eat any men but such as come to fight with them,
and are taken in battle.

It was after this some considerable time, that being upon the top of the
hill, at the east side of the island, from whence, as I have said, I had, in a
clear day, discovered the main or continent of America, Friday, the weather
being very serene, looks very earnestly towards the main land, and, in a
kind of surprise, falls a jumping and dancing, and calls out to me, for I
was at some distance from him. I asked him what was the matter. “O
joy!” says he; “O glad! there see my country, there my nation!” I
observed an extraordinary sense of pleasure appeared in his face, and his
eyes sparkled, and his countenance discovered a strange eagerness, as if he
had a mind to be in his own country again. This observation of mine put
a great many thoughts into me, which made me, at first, not so easy about
my new man Friday as I was before; and I made no doubt but that, if
Friday could get back to his own nation again, he would not only forget all
his religion, but all his obligation to me, and would be forward enough to
give his countrymen an account of me, and come back, perhaps, with a
hundred or two of them, and make a feast upon me, at which he might be
as merry us he used to be with those of his enemies, when they were taken
in war. But I wronged the poor honest creature very much, for which I
was very sorry afterwards. However, as my jealousy increased, and held

me some weeks, I was a little more circumspect, and not so familiar and
210


OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

kind to him as before: in which I was certainly wrong too; the honest,
grateful creature having no thought about it, but what consisted with the .
best principles, both as a religious Christian, and as a grateful friend; as -
appeared afterwards to my full satisfaction.

While my jealousy of, him lasted, you may be sure I- was every day
pumping him, to see if he would discover any of the new thoughts which I
suspected were in him; but I found everything he said was so honest and
so innocent, that I could find nothing to.nourish my suspicion; and, in
spite of all my uneasiness, he made me at last entirely his own again; nor
did he in the least perceive that I was uneasy, and therefore I could not
suspect him of deceit.

One day, walking up the same hill, but the weather being hazy at sea,
so that we could not see the continent, I called to him, and said, “ Friday,
do not you wish yourself in your own country, your own nation?” “Yes,”
he said, “I be much O glad to be at my own nation.” “What would you
do there?” said I: “would you turn wild again, eat men’s’ flesh again, and
be a savage, as you were before?” He looked full of concern, and shaking
his head, said, “No, no, Friday tell them to live good ; tell them to pray
God ; tell them to eat corn-bread, cattle-flesh, milk; no eat man again.”—
“Why, then,” said I to him, “they will kill you.” He looked grave at that,
and then said, “No, no, they no kill me, they willing love learn.” He
meant by this, they would be willing to learn. He added, they learned
much of the bearded mans that came in the boat. Then I asked him if he
would go back to them. He smiled at that, and told me that he could not
swim so far. I told him, I would make a canoe for him. He told me he
would go, if I would go with him. “Igo!” saysI; “why they will eat
me if I come’ there.” “No, no,” says he, “me make they no eat you; me
make they much love you.” He meant, he would tell them how I had ~
killed his enemies, and saved his life, and so he would make them love me
Then he told me, as well as he could, how kind they were to seventeen
white men, or bearded men, as he called them, who came on shore the:
in distress. Asia

From this time, I confess, I had a mind to venture over, and see if I
could possibly join with those bearded men, who I made no doubt were
Spaniards and Portuguese; not doubting but, if I could, we might find
some method to escape from thence, being upon the continent, and a good
company together, better than I could from an island forty miles off the
shore, alone, and without help. So, after some days, I took Friday to work.

211
ROBINSON CRUSOE.

again, by way of discourse, and told him I would give him a boat to ge
back to his own nation; and, accordingly, I carried him to my frigate,
which lay on the other side of the island, and having cleared it of water
(for I always kept it sunk in water), I brought it out, showed it him, and
we both went into it. I found he was most dexterous fellow at managing
it, and would make it go almost as swift again as I could. So when he was
in, I said to him, “ Well, now, Friday, shall we go to your nation?” He
looked very dull at my saying so; which it seems was because he thought
the boat was too small to go so far. I then told him I had a bigger; so the
next day I went to the place where the first boat lay which I had made,
but which I could not get into the water. He said that was big enough ;
but then, as I had taken no care of it, and it had lain two or three-and-
twenty years there, the sun had split and dried it, that it was rotten.
Friday told me such a boat would do very well, and would carry “ much
enough vittle, drink, bread ;”—this was his way of talking.

Upon the whole, I was by this time so fixed upon my design of going
over with him to the continent, that I told him we would go and make one
as big as that, and he should go home init. He answered not one word,
but looked very grave and sad. I asked him what was the matter with
him. He asked me again, “ Why you angry mad with Friday ?—what me
done?” I asked him what he meant. I told him I was not angry with
him at all. “No angry!” says he, repeating the words several times ;
‘‘why send Friday home away to my nation?” “ Why,” says I, “ Friday,
did not you say you wished you were there?” “ Yes, yes,” says he, “ wish
we both there; no wish Friday there, no master there.” In a@ word, he
would not think of going there without me. “TI go there, Friday? ” says I,
“what shall I do there?” He turned very quick upon me at this. “You
do great deal much good,” says he; “you teach wild mans be good, sober,
tame mans; you tell them know God, pray God, and live new life.” “Alas,
Friday!” says I, “thou knowest not what thou sayest ; I am but an
ignorant man myself.” “Yes, yes,” says he, “you teachee me good, you
teachee them good.” “No, no, Friday,” says I, “you shall go without me ;
’ eave me here to live by myself, as I did before.” He looked confused
again at that word; and running to one of the hatchets which he used to
wear, he takes it up hastily, and gives it to me. “What must I do with
this?” says I tohim. “You take kill Friday,” says he. “What must J
kill you for?” said I again. He returns very quick—“ What you send
Friday away for? Take kill Friday, no send Friday away.” This he spoke

212







3 —
WIE > >Re

~ 2G

——

~ =



SST

FRIDAY SHOWS HIS SETTLED AFFECTION TO CRUSOE.

so earnestly that I saw tears stand in his eyes. Ina word, I so plainly
discovered the utmost affection in him to me, and a firm resolution in him,
that I told him then, and often after, that I would never send him away
from me, if he was willing to stay with me.

Upon the whole, as I found by all his discourse a settled affection te
me, and that nothing could part him from me, so I found all the foundation
of his desire to go to his own country was Jaid in his ardent affection to
the people, and his hopes of my doing them good; a thing which, as I had
no notion of myself, so I had not the least thought or intention, or desire

of undertaking it. But still I found a strong inclination to attempting my
218
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

escape, founded on the supposition gathered from the discourse, that there
were seventeen bearded men there ; and therefore, without any more delay,
I went to work with Friday to find out a great tree proper to fell, and
make a large periagua, or canoe, to undertake the voyage. There were
trees enough in the island to have built a little fleet, not of periaguas or
canoes, but even of good large vessels; but the main thing I looked at
was, to get one so near the water that we might launch it when it was
made, to avoid the mistake I committed at first. At last, Friday pitched
upon a tree; for I found he knew much better than I what kind of wood
was fittest for it; nor can I tell, to this day, what wood to call the tree
we cut down, except that it was very like the tree we call fustic, or between
that and the Nicaragua wood, for it was much of the same colour and
smell. Friday wished to burn the hollow or cavity of this tree out, to
make it for a boat, but I showed him how to cut it with tools ; which,
after I had showed him how to use, he did very handily; and in about
a month’s hard labour, we finished it and made it very handsome ;
especially, when, with our axes, which I showed him how to handle, we
eut and hewed the outside into the true shape of a boat. After this,
however, it cost us near a fortnight’s time to get her along, as it were
inch by inch, upon great rollers into the water: but when she was in,
she would have carried twenty men with great ease.

When she was in the water, though she was so big, it amazed me to
see with what dexterity and how swift my man Friday could manage her,
turn her, and paddle her along. So I asked him if he would, and if we
might venture over in her. “ Yes,” he said, “we venture over in her very
well, though great blow wind.” However, I had a farther design that he
knew nothing of, and that was, to make a mast and a sail, and to fit her
with an anchor and cable. As to a mast, that was easy enough to get; so
I pitched upon a straight young cedar-tree, which I found near the place,
and which there were great plenty of in the island, and I set Friday to
work to cut it down, and gave him directions how to shape and order it.'
But as to the gail, that was my particular care. I knew I had old sails,
or rather pieces of old sails, enough; but as I had had them now six-and-
twenty years by me, and had not been very careful to preserve them, not
imagining that I should ever have this kind of use for them, I did not
doubt but they were all rotten ; and, indeed, most of them were so, How-
ever, I found two pieces, which appeared pretty good, und with these I
went to work; and with a great deal of pains, and awkward stitching, you

214
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

may be sure, for want of needles, I at length made a three-cornered ugly
thing, like what we call in England a shoulder-of-mutton sail, to go with
a boom at bottom, and a little short sprit at the top, such as usually our
ships’ long-boats sail with, and such as I best knew how to manage, as it
was such a one as I had to the boat in which I made my escape from
* Barbary, as related in the first part of my story.

I was near two months performing this last work, viz. rigging and
fitting my mast and sails; for I finished them very complete, making a
small stay, and a sail, or foresail to it, to assist if we should turn to wind-
ward; and, what was more than_all, I fixed a rudder to the stern of her to
steer with. I was but a bungling shipwright, yet as I knew the usefulness,
and even necessity of such a thing, I applied myself with so much pains to
do it, that at last I brought it to pass; though, considering the many dull
contrivances I had for it that failed, I think it cost me almost as much
labour as making the boat.

After all this was done, I had my man Friday to teach as to what-
belonged to the navigation of my boat; for, though he knew very well
how to paddle a canoe, he knew nothing of what belonged to a sail and a
rudder; and was the most amazed when he saw me work the boat to and
again in the sea by the rudder, and how the sail gibbed, and filled this way
or that way, as the course we sailed changed; I say, when he saw this, he
stood like one astonished and amazed. However, with a little use, I made
all these things familiar to him, and he became an expert suilor, except
that of the compass I could make him understand very little On the
other hand, as there was very little cloudy weather, and seldom or never
any fogs in those parts, there was the less occasion for a compass, seeing
the stars were always to be seen by night, and the shore by day, except in
the rainy seasons, and then nobody cared to stir abroad either by land
or sea.

I was now entered on the seven-and-twentieth year of my captivity in
this place; though the three last years that I had this creature with me
ought rather to be left out of the account, my habitation being quite of
another kind than in all the rest of the time. I kept the anniversary of
my landing here with the same thankfulness to God for His mercies as at _
first: and if I had such cause of acknowledgment at first, I had much more
so now, having such additional testimonies of the care of Providence over
me, and the great hopes I had of being effectually and speedily delivered ;
for I had an invincible impression upon my thoughts that my deliverance .

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES

was at hand, and that I should not be another year in this place. I went
on, however, with my husbandry ; digging, planting, and fencing, as usual,
I gathered and cured my grapes, and did every necessary thing as before.

The rainy season was, in the mean time, upon me, when I kept more
within doors than at other times. We had stowed our new vessel as secure
as we could, bringing her up into the creek, where, as I said in the
beginning, I landed my rafts from the ship; and hauling her up to the
shore at high water-mark, I made my man Friday dig a little dock, just
big enough to hold her, and just deep enough to give her water enough
to float in; and then, when the tide was out, we made a strong dam across
the end of it, to keep the water out; and so she lay dry as to the tide from
the sea: and to keep the rain off, we laid a great many boughs of trees, so
thick that she was as well thatched as a house; and thus we waited for
the months of November and December, in which I designed to make my
adventure.

When the settled season began to come in, as the thought of my design
returned with the fair weather, I was preparing daily for the voyage. And
the first thing I did was to lay by a certain quantity of provisions, being
the stores for our voyage; and intended in a week or a fortnight’s time, to
open the dock, and Jaunch out our boat. I was busy one morning upon
something of this kind, when I called to Friday, and bid him to go to the
sea-shore, and see if he could find a turtle or tortoise, a thing which we
generally got once a week, for the sake of the eggs as well as the flesh.
Friday had not been long gone when he came running back, and flew over
my outer wall, or fence, like one that felt not the ground, or the steps he
set his feet on; and before I had time to speak to him, he cries out to me,
“O master! O master! O sorrow! O bad!”—‘“ What's the matter, Friday?”
says I. “O yonder there,” says he, “one, two, three canoes; one, two,
three!” By this way of speaking, I concluded there were six; but on
inquiry I found there were but three. “ Well, Friday,” says I, “do not be
frightened.” So I heartened him up as well as I could. However, I saw
the poor fellow was most terribly scared, for nothing ran in his head but
that they were come to look for him, and would cut him in pieces and eat
him; and the poor fellow trembled so that I scarcely knew what to do with
him. I comforted him as well as I could, and told him I was in. as much
danger as he, and that they would cat me as well as him, “But,” says I,
“Friday, we must resolve to fight them. ‘Can you fight, Friday?” “Me

shoot,” says he, “but there come many great number.” ‘No matter for.
216

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OF ROBINSON ORUSOE.

that,” said I, again; “our guns will fright them that we do not kill” So
{asked him whether, if I resolved to defend him, he would defend me, and
stand by me, and do just as I bid him. He said, “Me die, when you bid
die, master.” So I went and fetched a good dram of rum and gave him ;
for I had been so good a husband of my rum, that I had a great deal left.
When he had drunk it, I made him take the two fowling-pieces, which we
alwavs carried, and loaded them with large swan-shot, as big as small
pistol-bullets. Then I took four muskets, and loaded them with two slugs,
and five small bullets. each; and my two pistols I loaded with a brace of
bullets each. I hung my great sword, as usual, naked by my'side, and
gave Friday his hatchet. When I had thus prepared myself, I took my
perspective-glass, and went up to the side of the hill, to see what I could
discover; and I found quickly by my glass, that there were one-and-twenty
savages, three prisoners, and three canoes; and that their whole business
seemed to be the triumphant banquet upon these three human bodies; a
barbarous feast, indeed! but nothing more than, as I had observed, was
usual with them. I observed also, that they had landed, not where they
had done when Friday made his escape, but nearer to my creek, where the
shore was low, and where a thick wood came almost close down to the sea.
This, with the abhorrence of the inhuman errand these wretches came
about, filled me with such indignation that I came down again to Friday,
and told him I was resolved to go down to them, and kill them all; and
asked him if he would stand by me. He had now got over his fright, and
his spirits being a little raised with the dram I had given him, he was very
cheerful, and told me, as before, he would die when I bid die.

In this fit of fury I divided the arms which I had charged, as. before,
between us; I gave Friday one pistol to stick in his girdle, and three guns
upon his shoulder, and I took one pistol and the other three guns myself;
and in this posture we marched out. I took a small bottle of rum in my
pocket, and gave Friday a large bag with more powder and bullets; and as
to orders, I charged him to keep close behind. me, and. not to stir, or shoot,
or do anything till I bid him, and in the mean time not to speak a word.
In this posture I fetched a compass to my right hand of near a mile, as
well to get over the creek as to get into the wood, so that I could come
within shot of them before I should be discovered, which I had seen by my
glass it was easy to do.

While I was making this march, my former thoughts returning, I began
to abate my resolution :—I do not mean that I entertained ay fear of their -

217

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ROBINSON CRUSOE.

number, for, as they were naked, unarmed wretches, it is certain I was
superior to them—nay, though I had been alone. But it occurred to my
thoughts, what call, what occasion, much less what necessity, I was in to
go and dip my hands in blood, to attack people who had neither done or
intended me any wrong? who, as to me, were innocent, and whose barbarous
customs were their own disaster, being in them a token, indeed, of God’s
having left them, with the other nations of that part of the world, to such
stupidity, and to such inhuman courses, but did not call me to take upon
me to be a judge of their actions, much less an executioner of His justice,
—that whenever He thought fit He would take the cause into His own
hands, and by national vengeance punish them as a people for national
crimes, but that, in the mean time, it was none of my business,—that it
was true Friday might justify it, because he was a declared enemy, and in
a state of war with those very particular people, and it was lawful for him
to attack them,—but I could not say the same with regard to myself.
These things were so warmly pressed upon my thoughts all the way as I
went, that I resolved I would only go and place myself near them that I
might observe their barbarous feast, and that I would act then as God
should direct ; but that unless something offered that was more a call to
me than yet I knew of, I would not meddle with them.

With this resolution I entered the wood, and, with all possible wariness
and silence, Friday following close at my heels, I marched till I came to the
skirt of the wood on the side which was next to them, only that one corner
of the wood lay between me and them. Here I called softly to Friday, and
showing him a great tree which was just at the corner of the wood, I bade
him go to the tree, and bring me word if he could see there plainly what
they were doing. He did so, and came immediately back to me, and told
me they might be plainly viewed there—that they were all about their fire
eating the flesh of one of their prisoners, and that another lay bound upon
the sand a little from them, whom he said they would kill next; and this
fired the very soul within me. He told me it was not one of their nation,
but one of the bearded men he had told me of, that came to their country
in the boat. I was filled with horror at the very naming of the white
bearded man; and going to the tree, I saw plainly by my glass a white
man, who lay upon the beach of the sea with his hands and his feet tied
with flags, or things like rushes, and that he was an European, and had
clothes on.

There was another tree, and a little thicket beyond it, about fifty yards

218


CRUSOE AND FRIDAY STEAL UPON THE SAVAGES,

nearer to them tnan the place where I was, which, by going a little way
about, I saw I might come at undiscovered, and that then I should be
within half a shot of them; so I withheld my passion, though I was indeed
enraged to the highest degree; and going back about twenty paces, I got
behind some bushes, which held all the way till I came to the other tree,
and then came to a little rising ground, which gave me a full view of them
at the distance of about eighty yards.

I had now not a moment to lose, for nineteen of the dreadful wretches
sat upon the ground, all close huddled together, and had just sent the other
two to butcher the poor Christian, and bring him perhaps limb by limb to
their fire, and they were stooping down to untie the bands at his feet. I
turned to Friday :—“ Now, Friday,” said I, “do as I bid thee.” Friday said
he would. “Then, Friday,” says I, “do exactly as you see me do; fail in
nothing.” So I set down one of the muskets and the fowling-piece upon
the ground, and Friday did the like by his, and with the other musket I
took my aim at the savages, bidding him to do the like; then asking him
if he was ready, he said, “Yes.” “Then fire at them,” said I; and at the,

same moment I fired also.
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LIFE AND ADVENTURES

Friday took his aim so much better than I, that on the side that he
shot he killed two of them, and wounded three more; and on my side I
killed one, und wounded two. They were, you may be sure, in a dreadful
consternation; and all of them that were not hurt jumped upon their feet,
but did not immediately know which way to run, or which way to look, for
they knew not from whence their destruction came. Friday kept his eyes
close upon me, that, as I had bid him, he might observe what I did; so, as
soon as the first shot was made, I threw down the piece, and took up the
fowling-piece, and Friday did the like; he saw me cock and present; he
did the same again. “Are you ready, Friday?” said I. “Yes,” says he.
“Let fly, then,” says I, “in the name of God!” and with that I fired again
among the amazed wretches, and so did Friday; and as our pieces were
now loaded with what I call swan-shot, or small pistol-bullets, we found
only two drop; but so many were wounded, that they ran about yelling
and screaming like mad creatures, all bloody, and most of them miserably
wounded ; whereof three more fell quickly after, though not quite dead.

“Now, Friday,” says I, laying down the discharged pieces, and taking
up the musket which was yet loaded, “follow me,” which he did with a
great deal of courage; upon which I rushed out of the wood and showed
myself, and Friday close at my foot. As soon as I perceived they saw me,
T shouted as loud as I could, and bade Friday do so too, and running as fast
as I could, which by the way was not very fast, being loaded with arms as
I was, I made directly towards the poor victim, who was, as I said, lying
upon the beach or shore, between the place where they sat and the sea
The two butchers who were just going to work with him had left him at
the surprise of our first fire, and fled in a terrible fright to the sea-side, and
had jumped into a canoe, and three more of the rest made the same way.
I turned to Friday, and bade him step forwards and fire at them ; he under-
stood me immediately, and running about forty yards, to be nearer them,
he shot at them; and I thought he had killed them all, for I saw them ali
fall of a heap into the boat, though I saw two of them up again quickly ;
however, he killed two of them, and wounded the third, so that he lay down
in the bottom of the boat as if he had been dead.

While my man Friday fired at them, I pulled out my knife and cut
the flags that bound the poor victim; and loosing his hands and feet, J
lifted him up, and asked him in the Portuguese tongue, what he was. He
answered in Latin, Christianus; but was so weak and faint that he could

scarce stand or speak. I took my bottle out of my pocket, and gave it
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OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

him, making signs that he should drink, which he did; and I gave him a
piece of bread, which he ate. . Then I asked him what countryman he was:
and he said Espagniole ; and being a little recovered, let me know, by all
the signs he could possibly make, how much he was in my debt for his
deliverance. “Seignior,” said I, with as much Spanish as I could make up,
“we will talk afterwards, but we must fight now: if you have any strength
left, take this pistol and sword, and lay about you.” He took them very
thankfully ; and no sooner had he the arms in his hands, but; as if they
had put new vigour into him, he flew upon his murderers like a fury, and
had cut two of them in pieces in an instant; for the truth is, as the whole
was a surprise to them, so the poor creatures were so much frightened with
the noise of our pieces that they fell down for mere amazement and fear,
and had no more power to attempt their own escape, than their flesh had
to resist our shot: and that was the case of those five that Friday shot at
in the boat; for as three of them fell with the hurt they received, so the
other two fell with the fright.

I kept my piece in my hand still without firing, being willing to keep
my charge ready, because I had given the Spaniard my pistol and sword:
so I called to Friday, and bade him run up to the tree from whence we first
fired, and fetch the arms which lay there that had been discharged, which
he did with great swiftness; and then giving him my musket, I sat down
myself to load all the rest again, and bade them come to me when they
wanted. While I was loading these pieces, there happened a fierce engage-
ment between the Spaniard and one of the savages, who made at him with
one of their great wooden swords, the weapon that was to have killed him
before, if I had not prevented it. The Spaniard, who was as bold and brave
as could be imagined, though weak, had fought the Indian a good while,
and had cut two great wounds on his head; but the savage being a stout,
lusty fellow, closing in with him, had thrown him down, being faint, and
was wringing my sword out of his hand ; when the Spaniard, though under-
most, wisely quitting the sword, drew the pistol from his girdle, shot the
savage through the body, and killed him upon the spot, before I, who was
Tunning to help him, could come near him,

Friday, being now left to his liberty, pursued the flying wretches, with
no weapon in his hand but his hatchet ; and with that he despatched those
three who, as I said before, were wounded at first, and fallen, and all the
rest he could come up with: and the Spaniard coming to me for a gun, I
gave him one. of: the fowling-pieces, with which he pursued two of the

221


THE SPANIARD HAS A FIERCE ENGAGEMENT WITH A SAVAGE

savages, and wounded them both; but, as he was not able to run, they both
got from him into the wood, where Friday pursued them, and killed one of
them, but the other was too nimble for him; and though he was wounded,
yet had plunged himself into the sea, and swam with all his might off to
those two who were left in the canoe; which three in the canoe, with one
wounded, that we knew not whether he died or no, were all that escaped
our hands, of one-and-twenty. The account of the whole is as follows :—
three killed at our first shot from the tree; two killed at the next shot;
two killed by Friday in the boat; two killed by Friday of those at first
wounded ; one killed by Friday in the wood; three killed by the Spaniard;
four killed, being found dropped here and there, of the wounds, or killed
by Friday in his chase of them; four escaped in the boat, whereof one
wounded, if not dead—twenty-one i in all a

Those that were in the canoe worked hard to get ous of gunshot, an
though Friday made two or three shots at them, I did not find that he hit
any of them. Friday would fain have had me take one of their canoes,
and pursue them ; and, indeed, I was very anxious about their escape, lest,
carrying the news home to their people, they should come back perhaps

with two or three hundred of the canoes, and devour us by mere multitude;
222
ROBINSON CRUSOE.

so I consented to pursue them by sea, and running to one of their canoes,
J jumped in, and bade Friday follow me; but when I was in the canoe, I
was surprised to find another poor creature lie there, bound hand and foot,
as the Spaniard was, for the slaughter, and almost dead with fear, not
knowing what was the matter; for he had not been able to look up over
the side of. the boat, he was tied so hard neck and heels, and had been tied
so long, that he had really but little life in him.

I immediately cut the twisted flags or rushes, which they had bound him
with, and would have helped him up; but he could not stand or speak, but
groaned most piteously, believing, it seems, still, that he was only unbound
in order to be killed. When Friday came to him, I bade him speak to him,
and tell him of his deliverance; and pulling out my bottle, made him give
the poor wretch a dram; which, with the news of his being delivered,
revived him, and he sat up in the boat. But when Friday came to hear
him speak, and look in his face, it would have moved any one to tears to
have seen how Friday kissed him, embraced him, hugged him, cried, laughed,
hallooed, jumped about, danced, sung; then cried again, wrung his hands,
beat his own face and head; and then sung and jumped about again like
a distracted creature. It was a good while before I could make him speak
to me, or tell me what was the matter; but when he came a little to him-
self, he told me that it was his father.

It is not easy for me to express how it moved me to see what ecstasy and
filial affection had worked in this poor savage at the sight of his father,
and of his being delivered from death ; nor, indeed, can I describe half the
extravagances of his affection after this; for he went into the boat, and out
of the boat, a great many times: when he went in to him, he would sit
down by him, open his breast, and hold his father’s head close to his bosom
for many minutes together, to nourish it; then he took his arms and ankles,
which were numbed and stiff with the binding, and chafed and rubbed them
with his hands; and I, perceiving what the case was, gave him some rum
out of my bottle to rub them with, which did them a great deal of good.

This affair put an end to our pursuit of the canoe with the other
savages, who were now almost out of sight; and it was happy for us that
we did not, for it blew so hard within two hours after, and before they
could be got a quarter of their way, and continued blowing so hard all
night, and that from the north-west, which was against them, that I could
not suppose their boat could live, or that they ever reached their own coast.

But to return to Friday ; he was so busy about his father, that I could

228
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

not find in my heart to take him off for some time: but after I thought ne
could leave him a little, I called him to me, and he came jumping and
laughing, and pleased to the highest extreme: then I asked him if he had
given his father any bread. He shook his head, and said, “None; ugly
dog eat all up self.” I then gave him a cake of bread, out of a little pouch
I carried on purpose; I also gave him a dram for himself; but'he would
not taste it, but carried it to his father. I had in my pocket two or three
bunches of raisins, so I gave him a handful of them for his father. He had
no sooner given his father these raisins, but I saw him come out of the boat,
and run away as if he had been bewitched, for he was the swiftest fellow
on his feet that ever I saw: I say, he ran at such a rate that he was out of
sight, as it were, in an instant; and though I called, and hallooed out too,
after him, it was all one—away he went; and in a quarter of an hour I
saw him come back again, though not so fast as he went ; and, as he came
nearer, I found his pace slacker, because he had something in his hand.
When he came up to me, I found he had been quite home for an earthen
jug or pot, to bring his father some fresh water, and that he had got two
more cakes or loaves of bread: the bread he gave me, but the water he
carried to his father; however, as I was very thirsty too, I took a little of
it, The water revived his father more than all the rum or spirits I had
given him, for he was fainting with thirst.

When his father had drunk, I called to him to know if there was any
water left: he said “Yes;” and I bade him give it to the poor Spaniard,
who was in as much want of it as his father; and I sent one of the cakes,
that Friday brought, to the Spaniard too, who was indeed very weak, and
was reposing himself upon a green place under the shade of a tree; and
whose limbs were also very stiff, and very much swelled with the rude
bandage he had been tied with. When I saw that upon Friday's coming
to him with the water, he sat up and drank, and took the bread and began
to eat, I went to him and gave him a handful of raisins: he looked up in
my face with all the tokens of gratitude and thankfulness that could appear
in any countenance; but was so weak, notwithstanding he had so exerted
himself in the fight, that he could not stand up upon his feet: he tried to
do it two or three times, but was really not able, his ankles were so swelled
and so painful to him ; so I bade him sit still, and caused Friday to rub his
ankles, and bathe them with rum, as he had done his father’s.

I observed the poor affectionate creature, every two minutes, or perhaps

less, all the while he was here, turn his head about, to-see if his father was
224
OF ROBINSON CROSOE.

in the same place and posture as he left him sitting; and at last he found
he was not to be seen; at which he started up, and, without speaking a
word, flew with that swiftness to him, that one could scarce perceive his
feet to touch the ground as he went: but when he came, he only found
he had laid himself down to ease his limbs, so Friday came back to me
presently ; and then I spoke to the Spaniard to let Friday help him up, if
he could, and lead him to the boat, and then he should carry him to our
dwelling, where I would take care of him. But Friday, a lusty strong
fellow, took the Spaniard upon his back, and carried him away to the boat,
and set him down softly upon the side or gunnel of the canoe, with his feet
in the inside of it; and then lifting him quite in, he set him close to his
father ; and presently stepping out again, launched the boat off, and paddled
it along the shore faster than I could walk, though the wind blew pretty
hard too; so he brought them both safe into our creek, and leaving them in
the boat, ran away to fetch the other canoe. As he passed me I spoke to
him, and asked him whither he went. He told me, “Go fetch more boat:”
so away he went like the wind, for sure never man or horse ran like him;
and he had the other canoe in the creek almost as soon as I got to it by
land; so he wafted me over, and then went to help our new guests out of
the boat, which he did; but they were neither of them able to walk; so -
that poor Friday knew not what to do.

To remedy this, I went to work in my thought, and calling to Friday
to bid them sit down on the bank while he came to me, I soon made a
kind of hand-barrow to lay them on, = Friday and I carried them both
up together upon it between us.

But when we got them to the ontaide of our wall, or fortification, we
were at a worse.loss than before, for it was impossible to get them over,
and I was resolved not to break it down; so I set to work again, and
Friday and I, in about two hours’ time, made a very handsome tent,
covered with old sails, and above that with boughs of trees, being in the
space without our outward fence, and between that and the grove of young
wood -which I had planted; and here we made them two beds of such
things as I had; viz. of good rice-straw, with blankets laid upon it to lie
on, and another to cover them, on each bed. .

My island was now peopled, and I thought myself very rich in sub-
jects; and it was a merry reflection, which I frequently made, how like
a king I looked. First of all, the whole country was my own property
so that I a an undoubted right of dominion. Secondly, my people were

a5 @ :
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

perfectly subjected: I was absolutely lord and lawgiver: they all owed
their lives to me, and were ready to lay down their lives, if there had been
occasion for it, for me. It was remarkable, too, I had but three subjects,
and they were of three different religions: my man Friday was a Protestant,
his father was a Pagan and a cannibal, and the Spaniard was a Papist.
However, I allowed liberty of conscience throughout my dominions :—But
this is by the way.

As soon as I had secured my two weak rescued prisoners, and given
them shelter, and a place to rest them upon, I began to think of making
some provision for them: and the first thing I did, I ordered Friday to take
a yearling goat, betwixt a kid and a goat, out of my particular flock, to be
killed ; when I cut off the hinder-quarter, and chopping it into small pieces,
I set Friday to work to boiling and stewing, and made them a very good
dish, I assure you, of flesh and broth; and as I cooked it without-doors, for
I made no fire within my inner wall, so I carried it all into the new tent,
and having set a table there for them, I sat down, and ate my own dinner
also with them, and, as well as I could, cheered them and encouraged
them. Friday was my interpreter, especially to his father, and, indeed,
to the Spaniard too; for the Spaniard spoke the language of the savages
pretty well.

After we had dined, or rather supped, I ordered Friday to take one of
the canoes, and go and fetch our muskets and other fire-arms, which, for
want of time, we had left upon the place of battle; and, the next day, I
ordered him to go and bury the dead bodies of the savages, which lay open
to the sun, and would presently be offensive. I also ordered him to bury
the horrid remains of their barbarous feast, which I could not think of
doing myself: nay, I could not bear to see them, if I went that way; all
which he punctually performed, and effaced the very appearance of the
savages being there; so that when I went again, I could scarce know where
it was, otherwise than by the corner of the wood pointing to the place.

I then began to enter into a little conversation ‘with my two new subjects ;
and, first, I set Friday to inquire of his father what he thought of the
escape of the savages in that canoe, and whether we might expect a return
of them, with a power too great for us to resist.. His first opinion was, that
the savages in the boat never could live out the storm which blew that
night they went off, but must, of necessity, be drowned, or driven south to
those other shores, where they were as sure to be devoured as they were
to be drowned if they were cast away; but, as to what they would do

226
QF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

if they came safe on shore, he said he knéw not; but, it was his opinion,
that they were so dreadfully frightened with the manner of their being
attacked, the noise, and the fire, that he believed they would tell the people
they were all killed by thunder and lightning, not by the hand of man;
and that the two which appeared, viz. Friday and I, were two heavenly
spirits, or furies, come down to destroy them, and not men with weapons.
This, he said he knew; because he heard them all cry out so, in their
language, one to another; for it was impossible for them to conceive that
a man could dart fire, and speak thunder, and kill at a distance, without
lifting up the hand, as was done now: and this old savage was in the
right; for, as I understood since, by other hands, the savages never
attempted to go over to the island afterwards, they were so terrified with
the accounts given by those four men (for it seems they did escape the
sea), that they believed whoever went to that enchanted island would be
destroyed with fire from the gods. This, however, I knew not; and there-
fore was under continual apprehensions for a good while, and kept always
upon my guard, with all my army: for, as there were now four of us,
I would have ventured upon a hundred of them, fairly in the’ open field,
at any time,

In a little time, however, no more’ canoes appearing, the fear of their
coming wore off; and I began to take my former thoughts of a voyage ta
the main into consideration; being likewise assured, by Friday’s father,
that I might depend upon good usage from their nation, on his account, if’
I would go. But my thoughts were a little suspended when I had a serious
discourse with the Spaniard, and when I understood that there were sixteen
more of his countrymen and Portuguese, who having been cast away and
made their escape to that side, lived there at peace, indeed, with the
savages, but were very sore put to it for necessaries, and, indeed, for life.
I asked him all the particulars of their voyage, and found they were a
Spanish ship, bound from the Rio de la Plata to the Havanna, being
directed to leave their loading there, which was chiefly hides and. silver,
and to bring back what European goods they could meet with there; that
they had five Portuguese seamen on board, whom they-took out of another
wreck ; that five of their own men were drowned when first the ship was
lost, and that these escaped through infinite dangers and hazards, and
arrived, almost starved, on the cannibal coast, where they expected to have
been devoured every moment. He told me they had some arms with ~
them, but they were sol useless, for that Pe had neither ‘powder

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES

nor ball, the washing of the sea having spoiled all their powder, but a
little, which they used at their first landing, to provide themselves with
some food.

T asked him what he thought would become of them there, and if they
had formed any design of making their escape. He said they had many
consultations about it; but that having neither vessel, nor tools to build
one, nor provisions of any kind, their councils always ended in tears and
despair. I asked him how he thought they would receive a proposal from
me, which might tend towards an escape; and whether, if they were all
here, it might not be done. I told him with freedom, I feared mostly their
treachery and ill-usage of me, if I put my life in their hands; for that
gratitude was no inherent virtue in the nature of man, nor did men always
square their dealings by the obligations they had received, so much as they
did by the advantages they expected. I told him it would be very hard
that I should be the instrument of their deliverance, and that they should
afterwards make me their prisoner in New Spain, where an. Englishman
was certain to be made a sacrifice, what necessity, or what accident soever
brought him thither; and that I had rather be delivered up to the savages,
and be devoured alive,:than fall into the merciless claws of the priests, and
be carried into the Inquisition. I added that, otherwise, I was persuaded,
if they were all here, we might, with so many hands, build a barque large
enough to carry us all away, either to the Brazils southward, or to the
islands or Spanish coast northward; but that if, in requital, they should,
when I had put weapons into their hands, carry me by force among their
own people, I might be ill used for my kindness to them, and make my
case worse than it was before.

He answered, with a great deal of candour and ingenuousness, that their
condition was so miserable, and that they were so sensible of it, that he
believed they would abhor the thought of using any man unkindly that
should contribute to their deliverance; and that, if I pleased, he would
go to them, with the old man, and discourse with them about it, and
return again, and bring me their answer; that he would make conditions
with them upon their solemn oath, that they should be absolutely under
my direction, as their commander and captain; and they should swear
upon the holy sacraments and gospel, to be true to me, and go to such
Christian country as I should agree to, and no other; and to be directed
wholly and absolutely by my orders, till they were landed safely in such

country as { intended; and that he would bring a contract from them,
228
OF ROBINSON ORUSOE.

under their hands, for that purpose. Then he told me he would first swear
to me himself, that he would never stir from me as long as he lived, till I
gave him orders; and that he would take my side to the last drop of his
blood, if there should happen the least breach of faith among his country-
men. He told me they were all of them very civil, honest men, and they
were under the greatest distress imaginable, having neither weapons nor
clothes, nor any food, but at the mercy and discretion of the savages; out
of all hopes of ever returning to their own country; and that he was sure,
if I would undertake their relief, they would live and die by me.

Upon these assurances, I resolved to venture to relieve them, if possible,
and to send the old savage and this Spaniard over to them to treat. But
when we had got all things in readiness to go, the Spaniard himself started
an objection, which had so much prudence in it on one hand, and so much
sincerity on the other hand, that I could not but be very well satisfied in
it; and, by his advice, put off the deliverance of his comrades for at least
half a year. The case was thus: he had been with us now about a month,
during which time I had let him see in what manner I had provided, with
the assistance of Providence, for my support; and he saw evidently what
stock of corn and rice I had laid up; which, though it was more than
sufficient for myself, yet it was not sufficient, without good husbandry, for
my family, now it was increased to four; but much less would it be
sufficient if his countrymen, who were, as he said, sixteen, still alive, should
come over; and, least of all, would it be sufficient to victual our vessel, if
we should build one, for a voyage to any of the Christian colonies of
America; so he told me he thought it would be more advisable to let him
and the other two dig and cultivate some more land, as much ag I could
spare seed to sow, and that we should wait another harvest, that we might
have a supply of corn for his countrymen, when they should come; for
want might be a temptation to them to disagree, or not to think them-
selves delivered, otherwise than out of one difficulty into another. ‘“ You
know,” says he, “the children of Israel, though they rejoiced at first for
their being delivered out of Egypt, yet rebelled even against God Himself,
that delivered them, when they came to want bread in the wilderness.”

His caution was so seasonable, and his advice so good, that I could not
but be very well pleased with his proposal, as well as I was satisfied with
his fidelity ; so we fell to digging, all four of us, as well as the wooden
tools we were furnished with permitted ; and, in about a month’s time, by
the end of which it was seed-time, we had got as much land cured and

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trimmed up, as we sowed two-and-twenty bushels of barley on, and sixteen
jars of rice, which was, in short, all the seed we had to spare: indeed, we
left ourselves barely sufficient for our own food for the six months that we
had to expect our crop; that is to say, reckoning from the time we set our
seed aside for sowing; for it is not to be supposed it is six months in the
ground in that country.

Having now society enough, and our number being sufficient to put us
out of fear of the savages, if they had come, unless their number had been
very great, we went freely all over the island, whenever we found occasion ;
and as we had our escape or deliverance upon our thoughts, it was im-
possible, at least for me, to have the means of it out of mine. For this
purpose, I marked out several trees, which I thought fit for our work, and
I set Friday and his father to cut them down; and then I caused the
Spaniard, to whom I imparted my thoughts on that affair, to oversee and
direct their work. I showed them with what indefatigable pains I had
hewed a large tree into single planks, and I caused them to do the like, till
they made about a dozen large planks of good oak, near two feet broad,
thirty-five feet long, and from two inches to four inches thick: what pro-
digious labour it took up, any one may imagine.

At the same time, I contrived to increase my little flock of tame goats
as much as I could; and for this purpose, I made Friday and the Spaniard
go out one day, and myself with Friday the next day (for we took our
turns), and by this means we got about twenty young kids to breed up with
the rest; for whenever we shot the dam, we saved the kids, and added
them to our flock. But, above all, the season for curing the grapes coming
on, I caused such a prodigious quantity to be hung up in the sun, that, I
believe, had we been at Alicant, where the raisins of the sun are cured, we
could have filled sixty or eighty barrels; and these, with our bread, formed
a great part of our food—very good living, too, I assure you, for they are
exceedingly nourishing.

It was now harvest, and our crop in good order: it was not the most
plentiful increase I had seen in the island, but, however, it was enough to
answer our end ; for, from twenty-two bushels of barley, we brought in and
thrashed out above two hundred and twenty bushels; and the like in
proportion of the rice; which was store enough for our food to the next
harvest, though all the sixteen Spaniards had been on shore with me; or,
if we had been ready for a voyage, it would very plentifully have victualled
our ship to have carried us to any part of the world, that is to say, any part

230
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE,

of America. "When we had thus housed and secured our magazine of corn;
we fell to work to make more wicker-ware, viz. great ‘baskets, in which we
kept it; and the Spaniard was very handy and dexterous at this part, and
often blamed me that I did not make some things for defence of this kind
of work ; but I saw no need of it. ; jacie

And now, having a full supply of food for all the guests I expected, I
gave the Spaniard leave to go over to the main, to see what he could do
with those he had left behind him there. I gave him a strict charge not to
bring any man who would not first swear, in the presence of himself and the
old savage, that he would in no way injure, fight with, or attack the person
he should find in the island, who was so kind as to send for them in order
to their deliverance ; but that they would stand by him and defend him
against all such attempts, and wherever they went, would be entirely under
and subjected to his command ; and that this should be put in writing, and
signed in their hands. How they were to have done this, when I knew they
had neither pen nor ink, was a question which we never asked. Under
these instructions, the Spaniard and the old savage, the father of Friday,
went away in one of the canoes which they might be said to have come ir
or rather were brought in, when they came as prisoners to be devoured by
the savages. I gave each of them a musket, with a firelock on it, and about
eight charges of powder and ball, charging them to be very good husbands
of both, and not to use either of them but upon urgent occasions.

This was a cheerful work, being the first measures used by me, in view
of my deliverance, for now twenty-seven years and some days. I gave
them provisions of bread, and of dried grapes, sufficient for themselves for
many days, and sufficient for all the Spaniards for about eight days’ time ;
and wishing them a good voyage, I saw them go, agreeing with them about
a signal they should hang out at their return, by which I should know
them again, when they came back, at a distance, before they came on shore,
They went away, with a fair gale, on the day that the moon was at full, by
my account in the month of October; but as for an exact reckoning of
days, after I had once lost it, I could never recover it again; nor had I
kept even the number of years so punctually as to be sure I was right;
though, as it proved, when I afterwards examined my account, I found I
had kept a true reckoning of years.

It was no less than eight days I had waited for them, when a strange
and unforeseen accident intervened, of which the like has not, perhaps, been
heard of in history. I was fast asleep in my hutch one morning, when my

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man Friday came running in to me, and called aloud, “ Master, master, they
are come, they are come!” I jumped up, and, regardless of danger, I went
as soon as I could get my clothes on, through my little grove, which, by
the way, was by this time grown to be a very thick wood; I say, regardless
of danger, I went without my arms, which was not my custom to do: but
I was surprised, when, turning my eyes to the sea, I presently saw a boat at
about a league and a half distance, standing in for the shore, with a
shoulder-of-mutton sail, as they call it, and the wind blowing pretty fair to
bring them in : also I observed, presently, that they did not come from that
side which the shore lay on, but from the southernmost end of the island.
Upon this I called Friday in, and bade him lie close, for these were not the
people we looked for, and that we might not know yet whether they were
friends or enemies. In the next place, I went in to fetch my perspective
glass, to see what I could make of them; and, having taken the ladder out,
I climbed up to the top of the hill, as I used to do when I was apprehensive
of anything, and to take my view the plainer, without being discovered. I
had scarce set my foot upon the hill, when my eye plainly discovered a
ship lying at anchor, at about two leagues and a half distance from me,
S.S.E., but not above a league and a half from the shore. By my observation,
it appeared plainly to be an English ship, and the boat appeared to be an
English long-boat.

I cannot express the confusion I was in, though the joy of seeing a ship,
and one that I had reason to believe was manned by my own countrymen,
and consequently friends, was such as I cannot describe ; but yet I had some
secret doubts hung about me—I cannot tell from whence they came—
bidding me keep upon my guard. In the first place, it occurred to me to
consider what business an English ship could have in that part of the
world, since it was not the way to or from any part of the world where the
English had any traffic; and I knew there had been no storms to drive
them in there, in distress ; and that if they were really English, it was most
probable that they were here upon no good design ; and that I had better
continue as I was, than fall into the hands of thieves and murderers.

Let no man despise the secret hints and notices of danger which some-
times are given him when he may think there is no possibility of its being
real. That such hints and notices are given us, I believe few that have
made any observations of things can deny ; that they are certain discoveries
of an invisible world, and a converse of spirits, we cannot doubt; and if
the tendency of them seems to be to warn us of danger, why should we not

232
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

suppose they are from some friendly agent (whether supreme, or inferior
and subordinate, is not the question), and that they are given for our good?
The present question abundantly confirms me in the justice of this
reasoning ; for had I not been made cautious by this secret admonition,
come it from whence it will, I had been undone inevitably, and in a far
worse condition than before, as you will see presently. I had not kept
myself long in this posture, till I saw the boat draw near the shore, as if
they looked for a creek to thrust in at, for the convenience of landing;
however, as they did not come quite far enough, they did not see the little
inlet where I formerly landed my rafts, but ran their boat on shore upon
the beach, at about half a mile from me; which was very happy for me;
for otherwise they would have landed just at my door, as I may say, and
would soon have beaten me out of my castle, and perhaps have plundered
me of all I had. "When they were on shore, I was fully satisfied they were
Englishmen, at least most of them; one or two I thought were Dutch, but
it did not prove so; there were in all eleven men, whereof three of them I
found were unarmed, and, as I thought, bound; and when the first four or
five of them were jumped on shore, they took those three out of the boat,
as prisoners: one of the three I could perceive using the most passionate
gestures of entreaty, affliction, and despair, even to a kind of extravagance ;
the other two, I could perceive, lifted up their hands. sometimes, and
appeared concerned indeed, but not to such a degree as the first. I was
perfectly confounded at the sight, and knew not what the meaning of it
should be. Friday called out to me in English, as well as he could, “O
master! you see English mans eat prisoner as well as savage mans.” “Why
Friday,” says I, “do you think they are going to eat them, then? »—“ Yes,”
says Friday, “they will eat them.”—“No, no,” says I, “Friday; I am
afraid they will murder them, indeed; but you may be sure they will not
eat them.”
All this while I had no thought of what the matter really was, but
stood trembling with the horror of the sight, expecting every moment when
the three prisoners should be killed; nay, once I saw one of the villains
lift up his arm with a great cutlass, as the seamen call it, or sword, to
strike one of the poor men; and I expected to see him fall every moment ;
at which all the’ blood in my body seemed to run chill in my veins. I
wished heartily now for the Spaniard, and the savage that was gone with
him, or that I had any way to have come undiscovered within shot of them,
that I might have secured the three men, for I saw no fire-arms they had
2338
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

among them; but it fell out to my mind another way. After I had observed
the outrageous usage of the three men by the insolent seamen, I observed
the fellows run scattering about the island, as if they wanted to see the
country. I observed that the three other men had liberty to go also where
they pleased ; but they sat down all three upon the ground, very pensive,
and looked like men in despair. This put me in mind of the first time
when I came on shore, and began to look about me; how I gave myself
over for lost ; how wildly I looked round me; what dreadful apprehensions
T had; and how I lodged in the tree all night, for fear of being devoured
by wild beasts. As I knew nothing, that night, of the supply I was to
receive by the providential driving of the ship nearer the land by. the
storms and tide, by which I have since been so long nourished and sup-
ported; so these three poor desolate men knew nothing how certain of
deliverance and supply they were, how near it was to them, and how
effectually and really they were in a condition of safety, at the same time
that they thought themselves lost, and their case desperate. So little do
we see before us in the world, and so much reason have we to depend
cheerfully upon the great Maker of the world, that He does not leave His
creatures so absolutely destitute, but that, in the worst circumstances, they
-have always something to be thankful for, and sometimes are nearer
deliverance than they imagine; nay, are even brought to their deliverance
by the means by which they seem to be brought to their destruction.

It was just at high water when these people came on shore; and while
they rambled about to see what kind of a place they were in, they had
carelessly stayed till the tide was spent, and the water was ebbed consider-
ably away, leaving their boat aground. They had left two men in the boat,
who, as I found afterwards, having drunk a little too much brandy, fell
asleep ; however, one of them waking a little sooner than the other, and
finding the boat too fast aground for him to stir it, hallooed out for the rest,
who were straggling about; upon which they all soon came to the boat:
but it was past all their strength to launch her, the boat being very heavy,
and the shore on that side being a soft oozy sand, almost like a quicksand.
In this condition, like true seamen, who are, perhaps, the least of all man-
kind given to forethought, they gave it over, and away they strolled about
the country again ; and I heard one of them say aloud to another, calling
them off from the boat, “ Why, let her alone, Jack, can’t you? shell float
next tide;” by which I was fully confirmed in the main inquiry of what
countrymen they were. All this while I kept myself very close, not once

234
OF ROBINSON ‘CRUSOE.

daring to stir out of my castle, any farther than to my place of observation,
near the top of the hill: and very glad I was to think how well it was for-
tified. I knew it was no less than ten hours before the boat could float
again, and by that time it would be dark, and I might be at more liberty
to see their motions, and to hear their discourse, if they had any. In the
mean time, I fitted myself up for a battle, as before, though with more
caution, knowing I had to do with another kind of enemy than I had at
first. I ordered Friday also, whom I had made an excellent marksman with
his gun, to load himself with arms. I took myself two fowling-pieces, and I
gave him three muskets. My figure, indeed, was very fierce; I had my
formidable goat-skin coat on, with the great cap I have mentioned, a naked
sword by my side, two pistols in my belt, and a gun upon each shoulder.
Tt was my design, as I said above, not to have made any attempt till it
was dark; but about two o'clock, being the heat of the day, I found that
they were all gone straggling into the woods, and, as I thought, laid down
to sleep. The three poor distressed men, too anxious for their condition to
get any sleep, had, however, sat down under the shelter of a great tree, at
about a quarter of a mile from me, and, as I thought, out of sight of any of
the rest. Upon this I resolved to discover myself to them, and learn some-
thing of their condition ; immediately I marched as above, my man Friday
at a good distance behind me, as formidable for his arms as I, but not
making quite so staring a spectre-like figure as I did. I came as near them
undiscovered as I could, and then, before any of them saw me, I called
aloud to them in Spanish, “What are ye, gentlemen?” They started up
at the noise, but were ten times more confounded when they saw me, and
the uncouth figure that I made. They made no answer at all, but.I thought
I perceived them just going to fly from me, when I spoke to them in Eng-
lish: “Gentlemen,” said I, “do not be surprised at me; perhaps you may
have a friend near, when you did not expect it.” “He must be sent directly
from Heaven then,” said one of them very gravely to me, and pulling off
his hat at the same time to me; “for our condition is past the help of
man.” “ All help is from Heaven, sir,” said I: “ but can you put a stranger
in the way to help you? for you seem to be in some great distress. I saw
you when you landed ; and when you seemed to make application to the
brutes that came with you, I saw one of them lift up his sword to kill you.”
The poor man, with tears running down his face, and trembling, looked
like one astonished, returned, “ Am I talking to God, or man? Is it a real
man, or an angel ?"—“ Be in no fear about that, sir,” said I; “if God had
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LIFE AND ADVENTURES

sent an angel to relieve you, he would have come better clothed, and armed
after another manner than you see me; pray lay aside your fears; I am a
man, an Englishman, and disposed to assist you; you see I have one ser-
vant only; we have arms and ammunition ; tell us freely, can we serve
you? What is your case?” “Our case, sir,” said he, “is too long to tell
you, while our murderers are so near us; but, in short, sir, I was com-
mander of that ship: my men have mutinied against me; they have been
hardly prevailed on not to murder me, and, at last, have set me on shore in

y Saye Wy
yee



CRUSOE APPEARS BEFORE THE DESPAIRING PRISONERS.

this desolate place, with these two men with me,—one my mate, the other
a passenger, where we expected to perish, believing the place to be unin-
habited, and know not yet what to think of it.” ‘Where are these brutes,
your enemies?” said I; “do you know where they are gone?” “There
they lie, sir,” said he, pointing to a thicket of trees ; “my heart trembles for
fear they have seen us, and heard you speak; if they have, they will cer-
tainly murder us all.” “Have they any fire-arms?” said I. He answered,
“They had only two pieces, one of which they left in the boat.” “Well,

then,” said IJ, “leave the rest to me; I see they are all asleep; it is an easy
E 236
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE,

thing to kill them all; but shall we rather take them prisoners?” He told
me there were two desperate villains among them that it was scarce safe to
show any mercy to; but if they were secured, he believed all the rest
would return to their duty. I asked him which they were. He told me
he could not at that distance distinguish them, but he would obey my
orders in anything I would direct. “Well,” says I, “let us retreat out of
their view or hearing, lest they awake, and we will resolve further.” So
they willingly went back with me, till the woods covered us from them.

“Look you, sir,” said I, “if I venture upon your deliverance, are you
willing to make two conditions with me?” He anticipated my proposals
by telling me that both he and the ship, if recovered, should be wholly
directed and commanded by me in everything; and if the ship was not
recovered, he would live and die with me in what part of the world soever
I would send him ; and the two other men said the same. “Well,” says I,
“my conditions are but two ; first,—that while you stay in this island with
me, you will not pretend to any authority here; and if I put arms in your
hands, you will, upon all occasions, give them up to me, and do no pre-
judice to me or mine upon this island, and in the mean time be governed
by my orders ; secondly,—that if the ship is or may be recovered, you will
carry me and my man to England passage free.”

He gave me all the assurances that the invention or faith of man could
devise that he would comply with these most reasonable demands, and
besides would owe his life to me, and acknowledge it upon all occasions as
long as he lived. “ Well, then,” said I, “here are three muskets for you,
with powder and ball; tell me next what you think is proper to be done.”
He showed all the testimonies of his gratitude that he was able, but offered
to be wholly guided by me. I told him I thought it was hard venturing
anything; but the best method I could think of was to fire on them at once
as they lay, and if any were not killed at the first volley, and offered to
submit, we might save them, and so put it wholly upon God’s providence
to direct the shot. He said, very modestly, that he was loath to kill them,
if he could help it; but that those two were incorrigible villains, and had
been the authors of all the mutiny in the ship, and if they escaped, we
should be undone still, for they would go on board and bring the whole
ship’s company, and destroy us all. “Well, then,” says I, “ necessity legi-
timates my advice, for it is the only way to save our lives.” However,
seeing him still cautious of shedding blood, I told him they should go aS
selves, and manage as they found convenient.

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES

In the middle of this discourse we heard some of them awake, and soon
after we saw two of them on their feet. I asked him if either of them were
the heads of the mutiny? He said, “No.” “Well, then,” said I, “you
may let them escape ; and Providence seems to have awakened them on
purpose to save themselves. Now,” says I, “if the rest escape you, it is
your fault.” Animated with this, he took the musket I had given him in
his hand, and a pistol in his belt, and his two comrades with him, with
each a piece in his hand; the two men who were with him going first made
some noise, at which one of the seamen, who was awake, turned about, and
seeing them coming, cried out to the rest ; but it was too late then, for the
moment he cried out they fired—I mean the two men, the captain wisely
reserving his own piece. They had so well aimed their shot at the men
they knew, that one of them was killed on the spot, and the other very
much wounded ; but not being dead, he started up on his feet, and called
eagerly for help to the other ; but the captain stepping to him, told him it
was too late to cry for help, he should call upon God to forgive his villany,
and with that word knocked him down with the stock of his musket, so
that he never spoke more ; there were three more in the company, and one
of them was slightly wounded. By this time I was come ; and when they
saw their danger, and that it was in vain to resist, they begged for mercy.
The captain told them he would spare their lives if they would give him an
assurance of their abhorrence of the treachery they had been guilty of, and
would swear to be faithful to him in recovering the ship, and afterwards in
carrying her back to Jamaica, from whence they came. They gave him all
the protestations of their sincerity that could be desired; and he was
willing to believe them, and spare their lives, which I was not against,
only that I obliged him to keep them bound hand and foot while they
were on the island.

While this was doing, I sent Friday with the captain’s mate to the boat,
with orders to secure her, and bring away the oars and sails, which they
did; and by-and-by three straggling men, that were (happily for them)
parted from the rest, came back upon hearing the guns fired; and seeing
the captain, who was before their prisoner, now their conqueror, they
submitted to be bound also; and so our victory was complete.

It now remained that the captain and I should inquire into one
another’s circumstances. I began first, and told him my whole history,
which he heard with an attention even to amazement,—and particularly

at the wonderful manner of my being furnished with provisions and ammu-
238
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

nition ; and, indeed, as my story is a whole collection of wonders, it affectea
nim deeply. But when he reflected from thence upon himself, and how I
seemed to have been preserved there on purpose to save his life, the tears
yan down his face, and he could not speak a word more. After this
communication was at an end, I carried him and his two men into my
apartment, leading them in just where I came out, viz, at the top of the
house, where I refreshed him with such provision as I had, and showed
them all the contrivances I had made during my long, long inhabiting
that place.

All I showed them, all I said to them, was perfectly amazing; but
above all, the captain admired my fortification, and how perfectly I had .
concealed my retreat with a grove of trees, which, having been now planted
nearly twenty years, and the trees growing much faster than in England,
was become a little wood, so thick that it was impassable in any part of it
put at that one side where I had reserved my little winding passage into it.
I told him this was my castle and my residence, but that I had a seat in the
country, as most princes have, whither I could retreat upon occasion, and, I
would show him that too another time; but at present our business was to
consider how to recover the ship. He agreed with me as to that, but told
me he was perfectly at a loss what measures to take, for that there were
still six-and-twenty hands on board, who, having entered into a cursed
conspiracy, by which they had all forfeited their lives to the law, would be
hardened in it now by desperation, and would carry it on, knowing that if
they were subdued they would be brought to the gallows as soon as they
came to England, or to any of the English colonies, and that, therefore,
there would be no attacking them with so small a number as we were.

I mused for some time upon what he had said, and found it was a very
rational conclusion, and that therefore something was to be resolved on
speedily, as well to draw the men on board into some snare for their
surprise, as to prevent their landing upon us, and destroying us. Upon
this, it presently occurred to me that in a little while the ship’s crew,
wondering what was become of their comrades and of the boat, would
certainly come on shore in their other boat to look for them, and that then,
perhaps, they might come armed, and be too strong for us:’ this he allowed
to be rational. Upon this, I told him the first thing we had to do was to
stave the boat; which lay upon the beach, so that they might not carry her
off, and taking everything out of her, leave her so far useless as not to be
fit to swim. Accordingly we went on board, took the arms which were left ,

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LIFE AND ADVENTURES

on board out of her, and whatever else we found there-—which was a bottle
of brandy, and another of rum, a few biscuit-cakes, a horn of powder, and a
great lump of sugar in a piece of canvas (the sugar was five or six pounds) ;
all which was very welcome to me, especially the brandy and sugar, of
which I had had none left for many years.

When we had carried all these things on shore (the oars, mast, sail, and
rudder of the boat were carried away before), we knocked a great hole in
her bottom, that if they had come strong enough to master us, yet they
could not carry off the boat. Indeed, it was not much in my thoughts that
we could be able to recover the ship; but my view was, that if they went
away without the boat, I did not much question to make her again fit to
carry us to the Leeward Islands, and call upon our friends the Spaniards
in my way, for I had them still in my thoughts.

While we were thus preparing our designs, and had first, by main
strength, heaved the boat upon the beach, so high that the tide would not
float her off at high-water mark, and besides, had broke @ hole in her
bottom too big to be quickly stopped, and were set down musing what we
should do, we heard the ship fire a gun, and make a waft with her ensign
as a signal for the boat to come on board: but no boat stirred; and they
fired several times, making other signals for the boat. At last, when all
their signals and firing proved fruitless, and they found the boat did not
stir, we saw them, by the help of my glasses, hoist another boat out, and
row towards the shore; and we found, as they approached, that there were
no less than ten men in her, and that they had fire-arms with them.

As the ship lay almost two leagues from the shore, we had a full view
of them as they came, and a plain sight even of their faces; because the
tide having set them a little to the east of the other boat, they rowed up
under shore, to come to the same place where the other had landed, and
where the boat lay; by this means, I say, we had a full view of them, and
the captain knew the persons and characters of all the men in the boat, of
whom, he said, there were three very honest fellows, who, he was sure, were
led into this conspiracy by the rest, being overpowered and frightened ; but
that as for the boatswain, who it seems was the chief officer among them,
and all the rest, they were as outrageous as any of the ship’s crew, and were
no doubt made desperate in their new enterprise ; and terribly apprehensive
he was that they would be too powerful for us. I smiled at him, and told
him that men in our circumstances were past the operation of fear ;.that

seeing almost every condition that could be was better than that which we
240
OF, ROBINSON CRUSOE.

were supposed to be in, we ought to expect that the consequence, whether
death or life, would be sure to be a deliverance. I asked him what he
thought of the circumstances of my life, and whether a deliverance were not
worth venturing for? “And where, sir,” said I, “is your belief of my being
preserved: here on purpose to save your life, which elevated you a little
while ago? For my part,” said I, “there seems to be but one thing amiss
in all the prospect of it.” “What is that?” says he. “Why,” said I, “it is,

that as you say there are three or four honest fellows among them, which
should be spared, had they been all of the wicked part of the crew, I should
have thought God’s providence had singled them out to deliver them into
your hands; for depend upon it, every man that comes ashore is our own,
and shall die or live as they behave to us.” As I spoke this with a raised
voice and cheerful countenance, I found it greatly encouraged him ; so we
set vigorously to our business. :

We had, upon the first appearance of the boats coming from the ship,
considered of separating our prisoners ; and we had, indeed, secured them
effectually. Two of them, of whom the captain was less assured than
ordinary, I sent with Friday, and one of the three delivered men, to my
cave, where they were remote enough, and out of danger of being heard or
discovered, or of finding their way out of the woods, if they could have
delivered themselves: here they left them bound, but gave them provisions ;
and promised them, if they continued there quietly, to give them their
liberty in a day or two; but that if they attempted their escape, they
should be put to death without mercy. They promised faithfully to bear
their confinement with patience, and were very thankful that they had such
good usage as to have provisions and light left them ; for Friday gave them
candles (such as we made ourselves) for their comfort; and they did not
know but that he stood sentinel over them at the entrance.

The other prisoners had better usage; two of them were kept pinioned.
indeed, because the captain was not able to trust them; but the other two
were taken into my service, upon the captain’s recommendation, and upon
their solemnly engaging to live and die with us; so with them and the
three honest men we were seven men, well armed; and I made no doubt
we should be able to.deal well enough with the ten that were coming,
considering that the captain had said there were three or four honest men
among them also. ‘As soon as they got to the place where their other boat
lay, they ran their boat into the beach and came all on shore, hauling the

boat up after them, which I was glad to see, for I was afraid they wont
_ 241° R
ROBINSON CRUSOE.

rather have left the boat at an anchor some distance from the shore, with
some hands in her, to guard her, and so we should not be able to seize the
boat. Being on shore, the first thing they did, they ran all to their other
boat; and it was easy to see they were under a great surprise to find her
stripped, as above, of all that was in her, and a great hole in her bottom.
After they had mused awhile upon this, they set up two or three great
shouts, hallooing with all their might, to try if they could make their
companions hear; but all was to no purpose: then they came all close in a
ring, and fired a volley of their small arms, which, indeed, we heard, and
the echoes made the woods ring: but it was all one; those in the cave, we
were sure, could not hear; and those in our keeping, though they heard it
well enough, yet durst give no answer to them. They were so astonished
at the surprise of this, that, as they told us afterwards, they resolved to go
all on board again to their ship, and let them know that the men were all
murdered, and the long-boat staved ; accordingly, they immediately launched
their boat again, and got all of them on board.

The captain was terribly amazed, and even confounded, at this, believing
they would go on board the ship again, and set sail, giving their comrades
over for lost, and so he should still lose the ship, which he was in hopes
we should have recovered; but he was quickly as much frightened the
other way.

They had not been long put off with the boat, when we perceived them
all coming on shore again; but with this new measure in their conduct,
which it seems they consulted together upon, viz. to leave three men in the
boat, and the rest to go on shore, and go up into the country to look for
their fellows. This was a great disappointment to us, for now we were at a
Yoss what to do, as our seizing those seven men on shore would be no
advantage to us if we let the boat escape; because they would row away to
the ship, and then the rest of them would be sure to weigh and set sail, and
so our recovering the ship would be lost. However, we had no remedy but
to wait.and see what the issue of things might present. The seven men
came on shore, and the three who remained in the boat put her off to a good
distance from the shore, and came to an anchor to wait for them ; so that it
was impossible for us to come at them in the boat. Those that came on
shore kept close together, marching towards the top of the little hill under
which my habitation lay; and we could see them plainly, though they
could not perceive us. We should have been very glad if they would have

come nearer to us, so that we might have fired at them, or that they would
242


THE SAILORS CALL TO THEIR COMRADES,

have gone farther off, that we might come abroad. But when they were
come to the brow of the hill where they could see a great way into the
valleys and woods, which lay towards the north-east part, and where the
island lay lowest, they shouted and hallooed till they were weary : and not
caring, it seems, to venture far from the shore, nor far from one another,
they sat down together under a tree to consider it. Had they thought fit
to have gone to sleep there, as the other part of them had done, they had
done the job for us; but they were too full of apprehensions of danger to
venture to go to sleep, though they could not tell what the danger was they
had to fear.

The captain made a very just proposal to me upon this consultation of
theirs, viz. that perhaps they would all fire a volley again, to endeavour to
make their fellows hvar, and that we should all sally upon them just at the
juncture when their pieces were all discharged, and they would certainly

yield, and we should have them without bloodshed. I liked this proposal,
243
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

provided it was done while we were near enough to come up to them before
they could load their pieces again. But this event did not happen ; and
we lay still a long time, very irresolute what course to take. At length, I
told them there would be nothing done, in my opinion, till night ; and then,
if they did not return to the boat, perhaps we might find a way to get
between them and the shore, and so might use some stratagem with them
in the boat to get them on shore. We waited a great while, though very
impatient for their removing ; and were very uneasy, when, after long con-
sultation, we saw them all start up, and march down towards the sea: it
seems they had such dreadful apprehensions of the danger of the place,
that they resolved to go on board the ship again, give their companions
over for lost, and so go on with their intended voyage with the ship.

As soon as I perceived them go towards the shore, I imagined it to be
as it really was, that they had given over their search, and were going back
again ; and the captain, as soon as I told him my thoughts, was ready to
sink at the apprehensions of it: but I presently thought of a stratagem to
fetch them back again, and which answered my end toa tittle. I ordered
Friday and the captain’s mate to go over the little creek westward, towards
the place where the savages came on shore when Friday was rescued, and
so soon as they came to a little rising ground, at about half a mile distance,
I bade them halloo out, as loud as they could, and wait till they found the
seamen heard them; that as soon as ever they heard the seamen answer
them, they should return it again; and then, keeping out of sight, take a
round, always answering when the others hallooed, to draw them as far into
the island and among the woods as possible, and then wheel about again
to me by such ways as I directed them.

They were just going into the boat when Friday and the mate hallooed ;
and they presently heard them, and, answering, ran along the shore west-
ward, towards the voice they heard, when they were stopped by the creek,
where, the water being up, they could not get over, and called for the boat
to come up and set them over; as, indeed, I expected. When they had set
themselves over, I observed that the boat being gone a good way into the
creek, and, as it were, in a harbour within the land, they took one of the
three men out of her, to go along with them, and left only two in the boat,
having fastened her to the stump of a little tree on the shore. This was
what I wished for; and immediately leaving Friday and the captain’s mate
to their business, I took the rest with me; and, crossing the creek out of
their sight, we surprised the two men before they were aware—one of them

244
OF ROBINSON ORUSOE.

lying on the shore, and the other being in the boat. The fellow on shore
was between sleeping and waking, and going to start up; the captain, who .
was foremost, ran in upon him, and knocked him down; and then called
out to him in the boat to yield, or he was a dead man. There needed very
few arguments to persuade a single man to yield, when he saw five men
upon him, and his comrade knocked down: besides, this was, it seems, one
of the three who were not so hearty in the mutiny as the rest of the crew,
and therefore was easily persuaded not only to yield, but afterwards to join -
very sincerely with us. In the mean time, Friday and the captain’s mate
so well managed their business with the rest, that they drew them, by
hallooing and answering, from one hill to another, and from one wood to-
another, till they not only heartily tired them, but left them where they
were very sure they could not reach back to the boat before it was dark ;
and, indeed, they were heartily tired themselves also, by the time they came
back to us. .

We had nothing now to do but to watch for them in the dark, and to
fall upon them, so as to make sure work with them. It was several hours
after Friday came back to me before they came back to their boat; and we
could hear the foremost of them, long before they came quite up, calling to
those behind to come along; and could also hear them answer, and com-
plain how lame and tired they were, and not able to come any faster:
which was very welcome news to us. At length they came up to the boat :
but it is impossible to express their confusion when they found the boat
fast aground in the creek, the tide ebbed out, and their two men gone. We
could hear them call one to another in a most lamentable manner, telling
one another they were got into an enchanted island; that either there were
inhabitants in it, and they should all be murdered, or else there were devils
and spirits in it,.and they should be all carried away and devoured. They
hallooed again, and called their two comrades by their names a great many
times ; but no answer. After some time, we could see them, by the little
light there was, run about, wringing their hands like men in despair, and
sometimes they would go and sit down in the boat to rest themselves: then
come ashore again, and walk about again, and so the same thing over again.
My men would fain have had me give them leave to fall upon them at once
in the dark; but I was willing to take them at some advantage, so as to .
spare them, and kill as few of them as I could; and especially I was
unwilling to hazard the killing of any of our men, knowing the others

were very well armed. I resolved to wait, to see if they did not separate’;:
245
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

and therefore, to make sure of-them, I drew my ambuscade nearer, and
ordered Friday ‘and the captain to creep upon their hands and feet, as close
to the ground as they could, that they might not be discovered, and get as
near them as they could possibly, before they offered to fire.

They had not been long in that posture, when the boatswain, who was
the principal ringleader of the mutiny, and had now shown himself the
most dejected and dispirited of all the rest, came walking towards them,
with two more of the crew; the captain was so eager at having this prin-
cipal rogue so much in his power, that he could hardly have patience to let
him come so near as to be sure of him, for they only heard his tongue
before: but when they came nearer, the captain and Friday, starting up on
their feet, let fly at them. The boatswain was killed upon the spot: the
next man was shot in the body, and fell just by him, though he did not die
till an hour or two after; and the third ran for it. At the noise of the
fire, I immediately advanced with my whole army, which was now eight
men; viz. myself, generalissimo ; Friday, my lieutenant-general; the captain
and his two men, and the three prisoners of war whom we had trusted with
arms. We came upon them, indeed, in the dark, so that they could not see
our number; and I made the man they had left in the boat, who was now
one of us, to call them by name, to try if I could bring them to a parley
and so perhaps might reduce them to terms; which fell out just as we
desired : for, indeed, it was easy to think, as their condition then was, they
would be very willing to capitulate. So he calls out as loud as he could to
one of them, “Tom Smith! Tom Smith!” Tom Smith answered imme-
diately, “Is that Robinson?” for it seems he knew the voice. The other
answered, “ Ay, ay; for God’s sake, Tom Smith, throw down your arms and
yield, or you are all dead men this moment.” “Who must we yield to?
Where are they?” says Smith again. “Here they are,” says he ; “here’s our
captain and fifty men with him, have been hunting you these two hours ;
the boatswain is killed, Will Fry is wounded, and I am a prisoner; and if
you do not yield, you are all lost.” “Will they give us quarter then ?”
says Tom Smith, “and we will yield.” “Tl go and ask, if you promise to
yield,” said Robinson: so he asked the captain; and the captain himself
then calls out, “You, Smith, you know my voice; if you lay down
your arms immediately, and submit, you shall have your lives, all but
Will Atkins.”

Upon this, Will Atkins cried out, “For God’s sake, captain, give me
quarter; what have I done? They have all been as bad as I:” which, by

246
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the way, was not true; for, it seems, this Will Atkins was the first man
that laid hold of the captain, when they first mutinied, and used him
barbarously, in tying his hands, and giving him injurious language. How-
ever, the captain told him he must lay down his arms at discretion, and
trust to the governor’s mercy: by which he meant me, for they all called
me governor. In a word, they all laid down their arms, and begged thei:
lives ; and I sent the man that had parleyed with them, and two more, whe
bound them all; and then my great army of fifty men, which, with those
three, were in all but eight, came up and seized upon them, and upon their
boat; only that I kept myself and one more out of sight, for reasons of state.

Our next work was to repair the boat, and think of seizing the ship:
and as for the captain, now he had leisure to parley with them, he expostu-
lated with them upon the villany of their practices with him, and upon the
further wickedness of their design, and how certainly it must bring them to-
misery and distress in the end, and perhaps to the gallows. They all
appeared very penitent, and begged hard for their lives. As for that, he
told them they were not his prisoners, but the commander’s of the island ’
that they thought they had set him on shore in a barren, uninhabited
island ; but it had pleased God so to direct them, that it was inhabited, and
that the governor was an Englishman ; that he might hang them all there,
if he pleased; but as he had given them all quarter, he supposed. he would
send them to England, to be dealt with there as justice required, except
Atkins, whom he was commanded by the governor to advise to prepare for
death, for that he would be hanged in the morning.

Though this was all but a fiction of his own, yet it had its desired
effect ; Atkins fell upon his knees, to beg the captain to intercede with the
governor for his life; and all the rest begged of him, for God’s sake, that
they might not be sent to England.

It now occurred to me, that the time of our deliverance was come, and
that it would be a most easy thing to bring these fellows in to be hearty in
getting possession of the ship ; so I retired in the dark from them, that they
might not see what kind of a governor they had, and called the captain to
me; when I called, at a good distance, one of the men was ordered to speak
again, and say to the captain, “Captain, the commander calls for you;” and
presently the captain replied, “Tell his Excellency, I am just coming”
This more perfectly amazed them, and they all believed that the commander
was just by, with his fifty men. Upon the captain coming to me, I told
him my project for seizing the ship, which he liked wonderfully well, and

247 ‘
LIFE AND ADVENTURES:

resolved to put it in execution the next morning. But, in order to execute; .
it with more art, and to be secure of success, I told him we must divide the
prisoners, and that he should go and take Atkins, and two more of the
worst of them, and send them pinioned to the cave where the others lay..
This was committed to Friday and the two men who came on shore with
the captain. They conveyed them to the cave as to a prison: and it was,'
indeed, a dismal place, especially to men in their condition. The others I
ordered to my bower, as I called it, of which I have given a full description:
and as it was fenced in, and they pinioned, the place was secure enough,
considering they were upon their behaviour.

To these in the morning I sent the captain, who was to enter into a
parley with them; in a word, to try them, and tell me whether he thought
they might be trusted or not to go on board and surprise the ship. He
talked to them of the injury done him, of the condition they were brought
to, and that though the governor had given them quarter for their lives as
to the present action, yet that if they were sent to England, they would all
be hanged in chains; but that if they would join in so just an attempt as
to recover the ship, he would have the governor’s engagement for their
pardon. 5

Any one may guess how readily such a proposal would be accepted by
men in their condition ; they fell down on their knees to the captain, and
promised, with the deepest imprecations, that they would be faithful to him
to the last drop, and that they should owe their lives to him, and would
go with him all over the world; that they would own him as a father to
them as long as they lived. “Well,” says the captain, “I must go and tell
the governor what you say, and see what I can do to bring him to consent
to it.” So he brought me an account of the temper he found them in, and
that he verily believed they would be faithful. However, that we might be
very secure, I told him he should go back again and choose out those five,
and tell them, that they might see he did not want men, that he would take
out those five to be his assistants, and that the governor would keep the
other two and the three that were sent prisoners to the castle (my cave), as
hostages for the fidelity of those five; and that if they proved unfaithful in
the execution, the five hostages should be hanged in chains alive on the
shore. This looked severe, and convinced them that the governor was in
earnest ; however, they had no way left them but to accept it; and it was
now the business of the prisoners, as much as of the captain, to persuade
the other five te do their duty.

248
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE,

‘Our strength was now thus ordered for the expedition: first, the captain,
his mate, and passenger: second, the two prisoners of the first gang, to
whom, having their character from the captain, I had given their liberty,
and trusted them with arms: third, the other two that I had kept till: now
in my bower pinioned, but, on the captain’s motion, had now released:
fourth, these five released at last; so that they were twelve in all, besides
five we kept prisoners in the cave for hostages.

I asked the captain if he was willing to venture with these hands on
board the ship; but as for me and my man Friday, I did not think it was
proper for us to stir, having seven men left behind ; and it was employment
enough for us to keep them asunder, and supply them with victuals. As to
the five in the cave, I resolved to keep them fast, but Friday went in twice
a day to them, to supply them with necessaries ; and I made the other two
carry provisions to a certain distance, where Friday was to take them.

When I showed myself to the two hostages, it was with the captain,
who told them I was the person the governor had ordered to look after
them ; and that it was the governor’s pleasure they should not stir any-
where but by my direction ; that if they did, they would be fetched into
the castle, and be laid in irons: so that as we never suffered them to see me
as governor, I now appeared as another person, and spoke of the governor,
the garrison, the castle, and the like, upon ‘all occasions.

The captain now had no difficulty before him, but to furnish his two
boats, stop the breach of one, and man them. He made his passenger
captain of one, with four of the men; and himself, his mate, and five more,
went in the other; and they contrived their business very well, for they
came up to the ship about midnight. As soon as they came within call of
the ship, he made Robinson hail them, and tell them they had brought off
the men and the boat, but that it was a long time before they had found _
them, and the like; holding them in a chat till they came to the ship’s side;
when the captain and the mate entering first with their arms, immediately
knocked down the second mate and carpenter with the butt-end of their
muskets, being very faithfully seconded by their men; they secured all the —
rest that were upon the main and quarter-decks, and began to fasten the
hatches, to keep them down that were below; when the other boat and
their men, entering at the forechains, secured the forecastle of the ship,
and the scuttle which went down into the cook-room, making three men
they found there prisoners. When this was done, and all safe upon deck,
the captain ordered the maie, with three men, to break into the round-

: 249
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

house, where the new rebel captain lay, who, having taken the alarm, had
got up, and with two men and a boy had got fire-arms in their hands;
and when the mate, with a crow, split open the door, the new captain and
his men fired boldly among them, and wounded the mate with a musket
ball, which broke his arm, and wounded two more of the men, but killed
nobody. The mate, calling for help, rushed, however, into the round-house,
wounded as he was, and, with his pistol, shot the new captain through the



THE MUTINEER CAPTAIN IS SHOT ~

/
head, the bullet entering at his mouth, and came out again behind.one of
his ears, so that he never spoke a word more: upon which the rest yielded,
and the ship was taken effectually, without any more lives lost.
As soon as the ship was thus secured, the captain ordered seven guns
to be fired, which was the signal agreed upon with me to give me notice of
his success, which, you may be sure, I was very glad to hear, having sat

watching upon the shore for it till near two o’clock in the morning. Having
250

OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

thus heard the signal plainly, I laid me down ; and it having been a day
of great fatigue to me, I slept very sound, till I was surprised with the
noise of a gun; and presently starting up, I heard a man call me by the
name of “Governor! Governor!” and presently I knew the captain’s voice ;
when, climbing up to the top of the hill, there he stood, and, pointing to
the ship, he embraced me in his arms, “ My dear friend and deliverer,”
says he, “ there’s your ship ; for she is all yours, and so are we, and all that
belong to her.” I cast my eyes to the ship, and there she rode, within
little more than half a mile of the shore; for they had weighed her anchor
as soon as they were masters of her, and, the weather being fair, had
brought her to an anchor just against the mouth of the little creek ; and,
the tide being up, the captain had brought the pinnace in near the place
where I had first landed my rafts, and so landed just at my door. I was at
first ready to sink down with the surprise; for I saw my deliverance,
indeed, visibly put into my hands, all things easy, and a large ship just
ready to carry me away whither I pleased to go. At first, for some time,
I was not able to answer him one word; but as he had taken me in his
arms, I held fast by him, or I should have fallen to the ground. He
perceived the surprise, and immediately pulled a bottle out of his pocket
and gave me a dram of cordial, which he had brought on purpose for me.
After I had drunk it, I sat down upon the ground; and though it brought
me to myself, yet it was a good while before I could speak a word to him.
All this time the poor man was in as great an ecstasy as I, only not under
any surprise as I was; and he said a thousand kind and tender things to
me, to compose and bring me to myself; but such was the flood of joy in
my breast, that it put all my spirits into confusion : at last it broke out
into tears ; and, in a little while after, I recovered my speech. I then took
my turn, and embraced him as my deliverer, and we rejoiced together. I
told him I looked upon him as a man sent by Heaven to deliver me, and
that the whole transaction seemed to be a chain of wonders ; that such
things as these were the testimonies we had of a secret hand of Providence
governing the world, and an evidence that the eye of an infinite Power
could search into the remotest corner of the world, and send help to the
miserable whenever He pleased. I forgot not to lift up my heart in.
thankfulness to Heaven; and what heart could forbear to bless Him, who
had not only in a miraculous manner provided for me in such a wilderness,
and in such a desolate condition, but from whom every deliverance must
always be acknowledged to proceed.
251


CRUSOE IS OVERCOME BY THE NEAR PROSPECT OF DELIVERANCE.

When we had talked a while, the captain told me ne nad brought me
some little refreshment, such as the ship afforded, and such as the wretches
that had been so long his masters had not plundered him of. Upon this, he
called aloud to the boat, and bade his men bring the things ashore that
were for the governor ; and, indeed, it was a present as if I had been one
that was not to be carried away with them, but as if I had been to dwell
upon the island still. First, he had brought me a case of bottles full of
excellent cordial waters, six large bottles of Madeira wine (the bottles held
two quarts each), two pounds of excellent good tobacco, twelve good pieces
of the ship’s beef, and six pieces of pork, with a bag of peas, and about a
hundred-weight of biscuit ; he also brought me a box of sugar, a box of
flour, a bag full of lemons, and two bottles of lime-juice, and abundance of

252
ROBINSON CRUSOE.

other things. But besides these, and what was a thousand times more
useful to me, he brought me six new clean shirts, six very good neckcloths,
two pair of gloves, one pair of shoes, a hat, and one pair of stockings, with
a very good suit of clothes of his own, which had been worn but very little :
in a word, he clothed me from head to foot. It was a very kind and
agreeable present, as any one may imagine, to one in my circumstances;
but never was anything in the world of’ that kind so unpleasant, awkward,
and uneasy as it was to me to wear such clothes at first.

After these ceremonies were past, and after all his good things were
brought into my little apartment, we began to consult what was to be done
with the prisoners we had; for it was worth considering whether we might
venture to take them away with us or.no, especially two of them, whom he .
knew to be incorrigible and refractory to the last degree ; and the captain
said he knew they were such rogues that there was no obliging them, and
if he did carry them away, it must be in irons, as malefactors, to be
delivered over to justice at the first English colony he could come to; and
I found that the captain himself was very anxious about it. Upon this, I
told him that, if he desired it, I would undertake to bring the two men he
spoke of to make it their own request that he should leave them upon the
island. “TI should be very glad of that,” says the captain, “with all my
heart.” “ Well,” says I, “I will send for them up, and talk with them for
you. So I caused Friday and the two hostages, for they were now dis-
charged, their comrades having: performed their promise; I say, I caused
them to go to the cave, and bring up the five men, pinioned as they were,
to the bower, and keep them there till I came. After some time, I came
thither dressed in my new habit; and now I was called governor again.
Being all met, and the captain with me, I caused the men to be brought
before me, and I told them I had got a full account of their villanous
behaviour to the captain, and how they had run away with the ship, and
were preparing to commit farther robberies, but that Providence had
ensnared them in their own ways, and that they were fallen into the pit
_ which they had dug for others, I let them know that by my direction the
ship had been seized; that she lay now in the road; and they might see
by-and-by, that their new captain had received the reward of his villany,
and that they would see him hanging at the yard-arm; that, as to them, I
wanted to know what they had to say why I should not execute. them as
pirates, taken in the fact, as by my commission they could not doubt but'I
had authority so to do.

258
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

One of them answered in the name of the rest, that they had nothing
to say but this, that when they were taken, the captain promised them their
lives, and they humbly implored my mercy. But I told them I knew not
what mercy to show them; for as for myself, I had resolved to quit the
island with all my men, and had taken passage with the captain to go for
England ; and as for the captain, he could not carry them to England, other
than as prisoners in irons, to be tried for mutiny, and running away with
the ship; the consequence of which, they must needs know, would be the
gallows; so that I could not tell what was best for them, unless they had
a mind to take their fate in the island. If they desired that, as I had
liberty to leave the island, I had some inclination to give them their lives,
if they thought they could shift on shore. They seemed very thankful for
it, and said they would much rather venture to stay there than be carried
to England to be hanged. So I left it on that issue.

However, the captain seemed to make some difficulty of it, as if he durst
not leave them there. Upon this, I seemed a little angry with the captain,
and told him that they were my prisoners, not his; and that seeing I had
offered them so much favour, I would be as good as my word; and that if
he did not think fit to consent to it, I would set them at liberty, as I found
them ; and if he did not like it, he might take them again if he could catch
them. Upon this, they appeared very thankful, and I accordingly set them
at liberty, and bade them retire into the woods, to the place whence they
came, and I would leave them some fire-arms, some ammunition, and some
directions how they should live very well, if they thought fit. Upon this
I prepared to go on board the ship; but told the captain I would stay that
night to prepare my things, and desired him to go on board in the mean-
time, and keep all right in the ship, and send the boat on shore next day
for me; ordering him, at all events, to cause the new captain, who was
killed, to be hanged at the yard-arm, that these men might see him.

When the captain was gone, I sent for the men up to me to my apart-
ment, and entered seriously into discourse with them on their circumstances.
I told them I thought they had made a right choice; that if the captain
had carried them away, they would certainly be hanged. I showed them
the new captain hanging at the yard-arm of the ship, and told them they
had nothing less to expect.

When they had all declared their willingness to stay, I then told them
1 would let them into the story of my living there, and pws them into the
way of making it easy tothem. Accordingly, I gave them the whole history

254
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

of the place, an(l of my coming to it; showed them my fortifications, the
way I made my bread, planted my corn, cured my grapes; and, in a word,
all that was necessary to make them easy. I told them the story also of
the seventeen Spaniards that were to be expected, for whom I left a letter,
and made them promise to treat them in common with themselves. Here
it may be noted that the captain, who had ink on board, was greatly sur-
prised that I never hit upon a way of making ink of charcoal and water, or
of something else, as I had done things much more difficult.

I left them my fire-arms, viz. five muskets, three fowling-pieces, and
three swords. I had above a barrel and a half of powder left; for after
the first year or two I used but little, and wasted none. I gave them a
description of the way I managed the goats, and directions to milk and
fatten them, and to make both butter and cheese. In a word, I gave them
every part of my own story; and told them I should prevail with the
captain to leave them two barrels of gunpowder more, and some garden-
seeds, which I told them I would have been very glad of. Also, I gave
them the bag of peas which the captain had brought me to eat, and bade
them be sure to sow and increase them.

Having done all this, I left them the next day, and went on board the
ship. We prepared immediately to sail, but did not weigh that night. The
next morning early, two of the five men came swimming to the ship’s side,
and, making the most lamentable complaint of the other three, begged to be
taken into the ship for God’s sake, for they should be murdered, and begged
the captain to take them on board, though he hanged them immediately.
Upon this, the captain pretended to have no power without me; but after
some difficulty, and after their solemn promises of amendment, they were
taken on board, and were, some time after, soundly whipped and pickled;
after which they proved very honest and quiet fellows.

Some time after this, the boat was ordered on shore, the tide being
up, with the things promised to the men; to which the captain, at my
intercession, caused their chests and clothes to be added, which they took,
and were very thankful for. I also encouraged them, by telling them, that
if it lay in my power to send any vessel to take them in, I would not
forget them.

When I took leave of this island, I carried on board, for reliques, the
great goat-skin cap I had made, my umbrella, and one of my parrots; also,
I forgot not to take the money I formerly mentioned, which had lain by

me so long useless that it was grown rusty or tarnished, and could hardly
255 :
ROBINSON CRUSO.

pass for silver till it had been a little rubbed and handled, as also the money
I found in the wreck of the Spanish ship. And thus I left the island, the
19th of December, as I found by the ship’s account, in the year 1686, after
T had been upon it cight-and-twenty years, two months, and nineteen days ;
being delivered from this second captivity the same day of the month that
I first made my escape in the long-boat from among the Moors of Sallee.
In this vessel, after a long voyage, I arrived in England the 11th of June,
in the year 1687, having been thirty-five years absent.

When I came to England, I was as perfect a stranger to all the world
as if I had never been known there. My benefactor and faithful steward,
whom I had left my money in trust with, was alive, but had had great mis-
fortunes in the world; was become a widow the second time, and very low
in the world. I made her very easy as to what she owed me, assuring her
I would give her no trouble; but, on the contrary, in gratitude for her
former care and faithfulness to me, I relieved her as my little stock would
afford ; which at that time would, indeed, allow me to do but little for her :
but I assured her I would never forget her former kindness to me; nor did
I forget her when I had sufficient to help her, as shall be observed in its
proper place. I went down afterwards into Yorkshire; but my father was
dead, and my mother and all the family extinct, except that I found two
sisters, and two of the children of one of my brothers; and as I had been
long ago given over for dead, there had been no provision made for me; so
that, in a word, I found nothing to relieve or assist me; and that the little
money I had would not do much for me as to settling in the world.

I met with one piece of gratitude, indeed, which I did not expect; and
this was, that the master of the ship, whom I had so happily delivered, and
by the same means saved the ship and cargo, having given a very handsome
account to the owners of the manner how I had saved the lives of the men,
and the ship, they invited me to meet them and some other merchants con-
cerned, and all together made me a very handsome compliment upon the
subject, and a present of almost £200 sterling.

But after making several reflections upon the circumstances of my life,
and how little way this would go towards settling me in the world, I resolved
to go to Lisbon, and see if I might not come at some information of the
state of my plantation in the Brazils, and of what was become of my
partner, who, I had reason to suppose, had some years past given me over
for dead. With this view, I took shipping for Lisbon, where I arrived in
April following; my man Friday accompanying me very honestly in. all

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256
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CRUSOK VISITS THE OLD CAPTAIN,

these ramblings, and proving a most faithful servant upon all occasions.
When I came to Lisbon, I found out, by inquiry, and to my particular
satisfaction, my old friend, the captain of the ship, who first took me up at
sea off the shore of Africa. He was now grown old, and had left off going

to sea. having put his son, who was far from a young man, into his ship
257 8
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

and who still used the Brazil trade. The old man did not know me; and
indeed, I hardly knew him. But I soon brought him to my remembrance,
and as soon brought myself to his remembrance, when I told him who
T was.

After some passionate expressions of the old acquaintance between us,
I inquired, you may be sure. after my plantation and my partner. The old
man told me he had not been in the Brazils for about nine years; but that
he could assure me, that when he came away my partner was living; but
the trustees, whom I had joined with him to take cognizance of my part,
were both dead: that, however, he believed I would have a very good
account of the improvement of the plantation; for that, upon the general
belief of my being cast away and drowned, my trusteés had given in the
account of the produce of my part of the plantation te the procurator-fiscal,
who had appropriated it, in case I never came to claim it, one-third to the
king, and two-thirds to the monastery of St. Augustine, to be expended for
the benefit of the poor, and for the comversion of the Indians to the Catholic
faith : but that, if I appeared, or amy one for me, to claim the inheritance,
it would be restored; only that the improvement, or annual production
being distributed to charitable uses, could not be restored: but he assured
me that the steward of the king’s revenue from lands, and the providore, or
steward of the monastery, had taken great care all along that the incumbent,
that is to say, my partner, gave every year a faithful account of the produce,
of which they had duly received my moiety. I asked him if he knew to
what height of improvement he had brought the plantation, and whether
he thought it might be worth looking after; or whether,