Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Chapter I: My birth and parent...
 Chapter II: Make a trading voyage...
 Chapter III: Make for the southward,...
 Chapter IV: Appearance of the wreck...
 Chapter V: I begin to keep...
 Chapter VI: Observe the ship driven...
 Chapter VII: I begin to take a...
 Chapter VIII: Make a second tour...
 Chapter IX: I attempt to mould...
 Chapter X: I succeed in getting...
 Chapter XI: Description of...
 Chapter XII: I observe a canoe...
 Chapter XIII: Description of my...
 Chapter XIV: Reflections
 Chapter XV: I am at great pains...
 Chapter XVI: I determine to go...
 Chapter XVII: I learn from the...
 Chapter XVIII: The ship makes signals...
 Chapter XIX: I take leave of the...
 Chapter XX: Strange battle betwixt...
 Chapter XXI: Reflections
 Chapter XXII: Steer for the West...
 Chapter XXIII: Narrative conti...
 Chapter XXIV: Fresh broils betwixt...
 Chapter XXV: The island is invaded...
 Chapter XXVI: I hold a conversation...
 Chapter XXVII: Dialogue with Will...
 Chapter XXVIII: I entertain the...
 Chapter XXIX: I dispatch a number...
 Chapter XXX: Difference with my...
 Chapter XXXI: Make a trading voyage...
 Chapter XXXII: Obliged to come...
 Chapter XXXIII: We arrive in China...
 Chapter XXXIV: Set out by...
 Chapter XXXV: Further account of...
 Chapter XXXVI: Conversations with...

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York, mariner
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073628/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York, mariner
Series Title: Lorne series
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: viii, 560 p., 1 leaf of plates : ill. ; 20 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Gall & Inglis ( Publisher )
Publisher: Gall and Inglis
Place of Publication: London ( 25 Paternoster Square )
Publication Date: 1890?
Edition: Complete ed.
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1890   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Scotland -- Edinburgh
Citation/Reference: Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe,
Citation/Reference: NUC pre-1956,
General Note: Spine and cover title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Date from inscription. Both Lovett and NUC citations below give a date of 189- and 189-? respectively.
General Note: Series from spine.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe, divided into chapters. Part II originally published under title: The farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel Defoe.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073628
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28307143

Table of Contents
        Page i
    Title Page
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Chapter I: My birth and parentage
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Chapter II: Make a trading voyage to Guinea very successfully
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 24a
        Page 25
    Chapter III: Make for the southward, in hopes of meeting with some European vessel
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
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        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
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        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Chapter IV: Appearance of the wreck and country next day, etc.
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
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        Page 48
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        Page 64
    Chapter V: I begin to keep a journal
        Page 65
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        Page 76
        Page 77
    Chapter VI: Observe the ship driven farther aground by the late storm
        Page 78
        Page 79
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    Chapter VII: I begin to take a survey of my island
        Page 93
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        Page 96
        Page 97
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    Chapter VIII: Make a second tour through the island
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
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        Page 113
    Chapter IX: I attempt to mould earthenware, and succeed
        Page 114
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        Page 116
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        Page 128
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    Chapter X: I succeed in getting a canoe afloat, and set out on a voyage in the sixth year of my reign, or captivity
        Page 130
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    Chapter XI: Description of my figure
        Page 142
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    Chapter XII: I observe a canoe out at sea
        Page 156
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    Chapter XIII: Description of my situation in the twenty-third year of my residence
        Page 172
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    Chapter XIV: Reflections
        Page 186
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    Chapter XV: I am at great pains to instruct Friday respecting my abhorrence of the cannibal practices of the savages
        Page 202
        Page 202a
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        Page 204
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    Chapter XVI: I determine to go over to the continent
        Page 217
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    Chapter XVII: I learn from the Spaniard that there were sixteen more of his countrymen among the savages
        Page 234
        Page 235
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        Page 237
        Page 238
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    Chapter XVIII: The ship makes signals for her boat
        Page 250
        Page 251
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        Page 253
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    Chapter XIX: I take leave of the island, and, after a long voyage, arrive in England
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
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        Page 273
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    Chapter XX: Strange battle betwixt Friday and a bear
        Page 283
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    Chapter XXI: Reflections
        Page 294
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        Page 297
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    Chapter XXII: Steer for the West Indies
        Page 314
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    Chapter XXIII: Narrative continued
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    Chapter XXIV: Fresh broils betwixt the turbulent Englishmen and the Spaniards
        Page 348
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    Chapter XXV: The island is invaded by a formidable fleet of savages
        Page 373
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    Chapter XXVI: I hold a conversation with the Spaniards, and learn the history of their situation among the savages, from which I relieved them
        Page 387
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    Chapter XXVII: Dialogue with Will Atkins
        Page 418
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    Chapter XXVIII: I entertain the prospect of converting the Indians
        Page 432
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    Chapter XXIX: I dispatch a number of additional recruits, and a quantity of extra stores, to the island, and take my leave of it for ever
        Page 446
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    Chapter XXX: Difference with my nephew on account of the cruelties practised at Madagascar
        Page 463
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    Chapter XXXI: Make a trading voyage in this ship
        Page 476
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    Chapter XXXII: Obliged to come to an anchor on a savage coast, to repair our ship
        Page 485
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    Chapter XXXIII: We arrive in China in safety
        Page 499
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    Chapter XXXIV: Set out by the caravan
        Page 512
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    Chapter XXXV: Further account of our journey
        Page 525
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    Chapter XXXVI: Conversations with a Russian grandee
        Page 544
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Full Text



"It is not possible for me to express the horror of my mind, at seeing the shore
spread with skulls, hands, feet, and other bones of human bodies."-p. 157.

1 7








SAuthor of Captain Singleton," "Memoirs of a Cavalier,"
&c. &e.

complete ambition.



My Birth and Parentage-At nineteen years of age I determine
to go to Sea-Dissuaded by my Parents-Elope with a School-
fellow, and go on board Ship-A Storm arises, during which I
am dreadfully frightened-Ship founders-Myself and crew
saved by a Boat from another Vessel, and landed near Yar-
mouth-Meet my Companion's Father there, who advises me
never to go to Sea more, but all in vain, 1

Make a trading voyage to Guinea very successfully-Death of
my Captain-Sail another Trip with his Mate-The Vengeance
of Providence for Disobedience to Parents now overtakes me-
Taken by a Salee Rover, and all sold as Slaves-My Master
frequently sends me a-fishing, which suggests an idea of escape
-Make my escape in an open Boat, with a Moresco Boy, 14

Make for the Southward, in hopes of meeting with some Euro-
pean Vessel-See Savages along Shore-Shoot a large Leopard
-Am taken up by a Merchantman-Arrive at the Brazils, and
buy a Settlement there-Cannot be quiet, but sail on a Voyage
of Adventure to Guinea-Ship strikes on a Sand-bank in un-
known Land-All lost but myself who am driven ashore, half-
dead, 26

Appearance of the Wreck and Country next day- Swim on board
of the Ship, and, by means of a contrivance, get a quantity of
Stores on Shore-Shoot a bird, but it turns out perfect Carrion
-Moralize upon my Situation-The Ship blown off Land, and
totally lost-Set out in search of a proper Place for aHabita-
tion-See numbers of Goats-Melancholy Reflections, 44

I begin to keep a Journal-Christen my desert Island the Island
of Despair-Fall upon various Schemes to make Tools, Baskets,
&c., and begin to build my house-At a great loss of an Evening
for Candle, but fall upon an expedient to supply the want-
Strange discovery of Corn-A terrible Earthquake and Storm. 65


Observe the Ship driven farther aground by the late Storm-
Procure a vast quantity of Necessaries from the Wreck-Catch
a large Turtle-I fall ill of a Fever and Ague-Terrible Dream,
and serious Reflections thereupon-Find a Bible in one of the
Seamen's Chests thrown ashore, the reading whereof gives me
great comfort, 78

I begin to take a survey of my Island-Discover plenty of Tobacco,
Grapes, Lemons, and Sugar-Canes, wild, but no human Inhabi-
tants-Resolve to lay up a store of these Articles, to furnish
me against the wet Season-My Cat, which I supposedlost, re-
turns with Kittens-I regulate my Diet, and shut myself up
for the wet Season-Sow my Grain, which comes to nothing;
but I discover and remedy my error-Take account of the course
of the Weather, 93

Make a second Tour through the Island-Catch a young Parrot,
which I afterwards teach to speak-My mode of sleeping at
night-Find the other side of the Island much more pleasant
than mine, and covered with Turtle and Sea-fowl-Catch a
young Kid, which I tame-Return to my old Habitation-Great
plague with my Harvest, 102

I attempt to mould Earthenware, and succeed-Description of
my mode of Baking-Begin to make a Boat-After it is finished,
am unable to get it down to the Water-Serious Reflections-
My Ink and Biscuit exhausted, and Clothes in a bad state-
Contrive to make a Dress of Skins, 114

I succeed in getting a Canoe afloat, and set out on a Voyage in
the Sixth year of my Reign, or Captivity-Blown out to Sea-
Reach the Shore with great difficulty-Fall asleep, and am
awakened by a Voice calling my name-Devise various schemes
to tame Goats, and at last succeed, 130

Description of my figure-Also of my Dwelling and Enclosures
-Dreadful alarm on seeing the Print of a Man's Foot on the
Shore-Reflections-Take every possible measure of precau-
tion, 142


I observe a Canoe out at Sea-Find on the Shore the remnant
of a Feast of Cannibals-Horror of Mind thereon-Double arm
myself-Terribly alarmed by a Goat-Discover a singular
Cave, or Grotto, of which I form my Magazine-My fears on
account of the Savages begin to subside, 156

Description of my Situation in the Twenty-third Year of my
Residence-Discover Nine naked Savages round a Fire on my
side of the Island-My horror on beholding the dismal Work
they were about-I determine on the destruction of the next
Party at all risks-A Ship lost off the Island-Go on board the
Wreck, which I discern to be Spanish-Procure a great
variety of articles from the Vessel, 172

Reflections-An Extraordinary Dream-Discover five Canoes of
Savages on Shore-Observe from my station two miserable
Wretches dragged out of their Boats to be devoured-One of
them makes his escape, and runs directly towards me, pur-
sued by two others-1 take measures so as to destroy his Pur-
suers, and save his life-Christen him by the name of Friday,
and he becomes a faithful and excellent Servant, 186

I am at great pains to instruct Friday respecting my abhorrence
of the Cannibal practices of the Savages-He is amazed at the
effects of the Gun, and considers it an intelligent Being-
Begins to talk English tolerably-A Dialogue-I instruct him
in the knowledge of Religion, and find him very apt--He de-
scribes to me some white Men who had come to his Country,
and still lived there, 202
I determine to go over to the Continent-Friday and I construct
a Boat equal to carry twenty Men-His dexterity in managing
her-Friday brings intelligence of three Canoes of Savages
on Shore-Resolve to go down upon them-Friday and I fire
upon the Wretches, and save the life of a poor Spaniard-List
of the killed and wounded-Discover a poor Indian bound in
one of the Canoes, who turns out to be Friday's Father, 217

I learn from me Spaniard that there were sixteen more of his
Countrymen among the Savages-The Spaniard and Friday's
Father. well armed. sail on a Mission to the Continent-I dis-


cover an English Ship lying at anchor off the Island-Her
Boat comes on Shore with three Prisoners-The Crew straggle
into the Wood, their Boat being aground-Discover myself to
the Prisoners, who prove to be the Captain and Mate of the
Vessel, and a Passenger-Secure the Mutineers, 234

The Ship makes Signals for her Boat-On receiving no answer,
she sends another Boat on Shore-Methods by which we secure
this Boat's Crew, and recover the Ship, .. 250

I take leave of the Island, and, after a long voyage, arrive in
England-Go down into Yorkshire, and find the greater part
of my Family dead-Resolve to go to Lisbon for information
respecting my Plantation at the Brazils--Meet an old Friend
there, by whose means I become rich-Set out for England
overland-Much annoyed by Wolves on the road, 268

Strange battle betwixt Friday and a Bear-Terrible Engagement
with a whole army of Wolves-Arrive in England safely, and
settle my Affairs there-I marry, and have a family, 283

Reflections-Unsettled state of Mind, and conversation with my
Wife thereon-Purchase a Farm in the County of Bedford-
Lose my Wife-I determine to revisit my Island, and for that
purpose settle all my Affairs in England-Description of the
Cargo I carried out with me-Save the crew of a Vessel burnt
at Sea, 294

Steer for the West Indies-Distressing Account of a Bristol Ship,
the Crew of which we save in a state of Starvation-Arrive at
my Island-Friday's joy on discovering it-Affecting interview
betwixt him and his Father on landing-Narrative of the Oc-
currences on the Island during my absence, 314

Narrative continued-Insolence of three of the Englishmen to
the Spaniards-They are disarmed, and brought to order-A
great body of Savages land upon the Island-They turn out to
be two adverse Nations met there by chance-A bloody battle
betwixt them-Several of the vanquished Party secured by the
Spaniards, 833

Fresh broils betwixt the turbulent Englishmen and the Spaniards
-The English make a voyage to the Mainland, and return in
twenty-two Days-Particulars of their Voyage-Description of
the Men and Women they brought with them-The Colony dis-
covered by an unlucky accident to the Savages, who invade the
Island, but are defeated, 348
The Island is invaded by a formidable Fleet of Savages-A ter-
rible Engagement, in which the Cannibals are utterly routed
-Thirty-seven Wretches, the Survivors, are saved, and em-
ployed by my people as servants-Description of Will Atlans'
ingenious Contrivances for his Accommodation, 873
I hold Conversation with the Spaniards, and learn the History
of their situation among the Savages, from which I relieved
them-I inform the Colony for what purpose I am come, and
what I mean to do for them-Distribution of the Stores I brought
with me-The Priest I saved at Sea solemnises the Marriages
of the Sailors and Female Indians, who had hitherto lived to-
gether as Man and Wife, 387
Dialogue with Will Atkins and myself-Conversation betwixt
Atkins and his Indian Wife on the Subject of Religion-Her
Baptism-Settlement of the Commonwealth, 418
I entertain the prospect of converting the Indians-Amiable
Character of the Young Woman we saved in a famished state
at Sea-Her own Relation of her sufferings from Hunger-Sail
from the island for the Brazils-Encounter and rout a whole
Fleet of Savages-Death of Friday-Arrival at Brazil, 432

I dispatch a Number of additional Recruits, and a Quantity of
extra Stores, to the Island, and take my leave of it for ever-I
determine to go with the Ship to the East Indies-Arrival at
Madagascar-Dreadful Occurrences there, 446

Difference with my Nephew on account of the Cruelties practised
at Madagascar-Five men lost on the Arabian Shore, off the
Gulf of Persia-The Seamen refuse to sail, if I continue on


Doard, in consequence of which I am left on Shore-Make a
very advantageous trading Voyage in company with an English
Merchant, and purchase a Vessel, which, it turns out, the Crew
had mutinied and run away with, 463

Make a trading Voyage in this Ship-Put into the River of Cam-
bodia-Am warned of my Danger by a Countryman, in conse-
quence of which we set sail and are pursued-Great difficulty
in making our Escape, 476

Obliged to come to an anchor on a Savage Coast, to repair our
Ship-We are attacked by the Natives, whom our Carpenter
disperses by a whimsical Contrivance-Serious Reflections upon
our disagreeable Situation, 485

We arrive in China in safety-Dispose of the Ship-Description
of the Inhabitants-Arrive at Pekin, and find an opportunity
of returning to Europe, 499

Set out by the Caravan-Account of the valuable Effects we took
with us-Further Description of the Interior of China-Pass
the Great Wall-Attacked by Tartars, who are dispersed by the
Resolution of a Scots Merchant-The old Pilot saves my Life
-We are again attacked, and defeat the Tartars, 512

Further Account of our Journey-Description of an Idol, which
we destroy-Great danger we incur thereby-Account of our
Travels through Muscovy, 525

Conversations with a Russian Grandee-Set out on my Journey
Homewards-Harassed by Kalmucks on the Road-Arrival at
Archangel-Sail from thence and arrive safely in England, 544





WAS born in the year 1682, in the city of York, of a
good family, though not of that country, my father
being a foreigner of Bremen, who settled first at Hull. He
got a good estate by merchandise, and, leaving off his trade,
lived afterwards at York; from whence he had married
my mother, whose relations were named Robinson, a
very good family in that country, and from whom I was
called Robinson Kreutznaer; but, by the usual corruption
of words in England, we are now called, nay, we call
ourselves, and write our name, Crunoe; and so my com-
panions always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant
colonel to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, for-
merly commanded by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and
was killed at the battle near Dunkirk against the Span-
iards. What became of my second brother I never knew,
any more than my father and mother did know what
was become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any
trade, my head began to be flled very early with ramb-
ling thoughts.. My father, who was very ancient, had
given me a competent share of learning, as far as house-
education and a country free school generally go, and
designed ine for the law; but I would be satisfied with
nothing but going to sea; and my inclination to this led

me so strongly against the will, nay, the commands of my
father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions ol
my mother and other friends, that there seemed to be
something fatal in that propension of nature, tending
directly to the life of misery which was to befall me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and
excellent counsel against what he foresaw was my design.
He called me one morning into his chamber, where he
was confined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly
with me upon this subject. He asked me what reasons,
more than a mere wandering inclination, I had for leav-
ing my father's house and my native country; where I
might be well introduced, and had a prospect of raising
my fortune by application and industry, with a life of ease
and pleasure. He told me it was only men of desperate
fortunes on the one hand, or of aspiring superior
fortunes on the other, who went abroad upon adven-
tures, to rise by enterprise, and make themselves famous
in undertakings of a nature out of the common road;
that these things were all either too far above me, or too
far below me; and that mine was the middle state, or
what might be called the upper station of low ife,
which he had found, by long experience, was the best
state in the world the most suited to human happiness,
not exposed to the miseries and hardships, the labour and
sufferings of the mechanic part of mankind, and not
embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy
of the upper part of mankind. He told me I might
judge of the happiness of this state by this one thing,
viz., that this was the state of life which all other people
envied; that kings had frequently lamented the miserable
consequences of being born to great things, and wished
they had been placed in the middle of the two extremes,
between the mean and the great; that the Wise Man
gave his testimony to this, as the just standard of true
felicity, when he prayed to have neither poverty nor riches.
He bade me observe it, and I should always find,
that the calamities of life were shared among the upper
and lower part of mankind; but that the middle station
had the fewest disasters, and was not exposed to so

many vicissitudes as the higher or lower part of man-
kind: nay, they were not subjected to so many distem-
pers and uneasiness, either of body or mind, as those
were, who, by vicious living, luxury, and extravagances,
on one hand, or by hard labour, want of necessaries, and
mean and insufficient diet, on the other hand, bring dis-
tempers upon themselves by the natural consequences of
their way of living; that the middle station of life was
calculated for all kind of virtues, and all kind of enjoy-
ments; that peace and plenty were the handmaids of a
middle fortune; that temperance, moderation, quietness,
health, society, all agreeable diversions, and all desir-
able pleasures, were the blessings attending the middle
station of life; that this way men went silently and smooth-
ly through the world, and comfortably out of it; not em-
barrassed with the labours of the hands or of the head;
not sold to a life of slavery for daily bread, or harassed
with perplexed-circumstances, which rob the soul of peace
and the body of rest; not enraged with the passion of
envy, or the secret burning lust of ambition for great
things-but in easy circumstances, sliding gently through
the world, and sensibly tasting the sweets of living with-
out the bitter; feeling that they are happy, and learning,
by every day's experience, to know it more sensibly.
After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most
affectionate manner, not to play the young man, or to
precipitate.myself into miseries, which nature, and the
station of life I was born in, seemed to have provided
against-that I was under no necessity of seeking my
bread-that he would do well for me, and endeavour to
enter me fairly into the station of life which he had been
just recommending to me; and that, if I was not very
easy and happy in the world, it must be my mere fate,
or fault, that must hinder it; and that he should have
nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his duty,
in warning me against measures which he knew would be
to my hurt. In a word, that as he would do very kind
things for me, if I would stay and settle at home as he
directed, so he would not have so much hand in my mis-
fortunes as to give me any encouragement to go away

-and, to close all, he told me, I had my elder brother
for my example, to whom he had used the same earnest
persuasions to keep him from going into the Low Country
wars, but could not prevail, his young desires prompting
him to run into the army, where he was killed-and
though he said he would not cease to pray for me, yet he
would venture to say to me, that if I did take this foolish
step, God would not bless me-and I would have leisure
hereafter to reflect upon having neglected his counsel,
when there might be none to assist in my recovery.
I observed, in this last part of his discourse, which was
truly prophetic, though I suppose my father did not know
it to be so himself-I say, I observed the tears run down
his face very plentifully, especially when he spoke of my
brother who was killed; and that when he spoke of my
having leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was
so moved that he broke off the discourse, and told me his
heart was so full he could say no more to me.
I was sincerely afflicted with this discourse-as, in.
deed, who could be otherwise ?-and I resolved not to
think of going abroad any more, but to settle at home ac.
cording to my father's desire. But, alas a few days wore
it all off; and, in short, to prevent any of my father's
further importunities, in a few weeks after, I resolved to
run quite away from him. However, I did not act so hastily
neither, as the first heat of my resolution prompted,
but I took my mother at a time when I thought her a
little pleasanter than ordinary, and told her that my
thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing the world, that
I should never settle to anything with resolution enough
to go through with it, and my father had better give me
his consent, than force me to go without it-that I was
now eighteen years old, which was too late to go appren-
tice to a trade, or clerk to an attorney, that I was sure if
I did, I should never serve out my time, but I should
certainly run away from my master before my time was
out, and go to sea--and if she would speak to my father to
let me go one voyage abroad, if I came home again, and
did not like it, I would go no more, and I would promise,
by double diligence, to recover the time I had lost.

This put my mother into a great passion; she told me
she knewit would be to no purpose to speak to my father
upon any such subject-that he knew too well what was
my interest, to give his consent to any such thing so
much for my hurt-and that she wondered how I could
think of any such thing, after the discourse I had had
with my father, and such kind and tender expressions as
she knew my father had used to me-and that, in short,
if I would ruin myself, there was no help for me; but I
might depend I should never have their consent to it-
that, for her part, she would not have so much hand in
my destruction-and I should never have it to say, that
my mother was willing when my father was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my father,
yet I heard afterwards, that she reported all the discourse
to him; and that my father, after showing a great con-
cern at it, said to her, with a sigh, That boy might be
happy if he would stay at home; but if he goes abroad,
he will be the most miserable wretch that ever was born
-I can give no consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke
loose, though in the meantime I continued obstinately
deaf to all proposals of settling to business, and fre-
quently expostulating with my father and mother about
their being so positively determined against what they
knew my inclinations prompted me to. But being one
day at Hull, whither I went casually, and without any
purpose of making an elopement that time-but, I say,
being there, and one of my companions being going by
sea to London, in his father's ship, and prompting me
to go with him, with the common allurement of a sea-
faring man, that it should cost me nothing for my pas-
sage, I consulted neither father nor mother any more,
nor so much as sent them word of it; but leaving them
to hear of it as they might, without asking God's bless-
ing or my father's, without any consideration of circum-
stances or consequences, and in an ill hour, God knows,
on the 1st of September, 1651, I went on board a ship
bound for London. Never any young adventurer's mis-
fortunes, I believe, began sooner, or continued longer,

:: .

than mine. The ship was no sooner got out of the Hum.
her, than the wind began to blow, and the sea to rise in a
most frightful manner; and as I had never been at sea
before, I was most inexpressibly sick in body, and ter-
rified in mind. I began now seriously to reflect upon
what I had done, and how justly I was overtaken by the
judgment of Heaven for my wicked leaving my father's
house, and abandoning my duty; all the good counsel of
my parents, my father's tears, and my mother's entreaties.
came now fresh into my mind; and my conscience, which
was not yet come to the pitch of hardness to which it has
been since, reproached me with the contempt of advice,
and the breach of my duty to God and my father
All this while the storm increased, and the sea went
very high, though nothing like what I have seen many
times since-no, nor what I saw a few days after: but it
was enough to affect me then, who was but a young sailor,
and had never known anything of the matter. I expected
every wave would have swallowed us up. and that every
time the ship fell down, as I thought it did in the trough
or hollow of the sea, we should never rise more. In this
agony of mind, I made many vows and resolutions, that
if it would please God to spare my life in this one voyage,
if ever I got once my foot upon dry land again, I would
go directly home to my father, and never set it into a ship
again while I lived; but I would take his advice, and never
run myself into such miseries as these any more. Now
I saw plainly the goodness of his observations about the
middle station of life, how easy, how comfortable he had
lived all his days, and never had been exposed to tem-
pests at sea, nor trouble on shore; and, in short, I re-
solved that I would, like a true repenting prodigal, go
home to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while
the storm continued, and indeed some time after; but
the next day the wind was abated, and the sea calmer,
and I began to be a little inured to it. However, I was
very grave for all that day, being also a little sea-sick
still; but towards night the weather cleared up, the wind
was quite over, and a charming fine evening followed:

the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next
morning; and having little or no wind, and a smooth sea,
the sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the
most delightful that ever I saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-
sick, but very cheerful-looking with wonder upon the
sea, that was so rough and terrible the day before, and
could be so calm and so pleasant in so little a time after:
and now, lest my good resolutions should continue, my
companion, who had indeed enticed me away, comes to
me. "Well, Bob," says he, clapping me upon the shoul-
der, "how do you do after it ? I warrant you were fright-
ened, weren't you, last night, when it blew but a capful
of wind?" "A capful d'ye call it?" said I, "'twas a
terrible storm." "A storm, you fool you I" replies he,
"do you call that a storm? whyit was nothing at all;
give us but a good ship and sea-room, and we think nothing
of such a squall of wind as that; but you're but a fresh-
water sailor, Bob; come, let us make a bowl of punch,
and we'll forget all that: d'ye see what charming weather
'tis now ?" To make short this sad part of my story, we
went the way of all sailors; the punch was made, and J
was made half drunk with it, and in that one night's
wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my reflec-
tions upon my past conduct, all my resolutions for the
future. In a word, as the sea was returned to its smooth-
ness of surface, and settled calmness, by the abatement of
that storm, so, the hurry of my thoughts being over, my
fears and apprehensions of being swallowed up by the sea
being forgotten, and the current of my former desires
returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises that 1
made in my distress. 1 found, indeed, some intervals of
reflection; and the serious thoughts did, as it were, en-
deavour to return again sometimes; but I shook them off,
and roused myself from them, as it were from a distem-
per; and, applying myself to drinking and company, soon
mastered the return of those fits (for so I called them);
and I had, in five or six days, got a complete victory over
my conscience, as any young fellow that resolved not to
be troubled with it could desire. But I was to have another

trial for it still; and Providence, as in such cases generally
it does, resolved to leave me entirely without excuse; for
if I would not take this for a deliverance, the next was to
be such an one, as the worst and most hardened wretch
among us would confess both the danger and the mercy.
The sixth day of our being at sea, we came into Yar-
mouth roads ; the wind having been contrary and the
weather calm, we had made but little way since the storm.
Here we were obliged to come to an anchor, and here we
lay, the wind continuing contrary, namely, at south-west.
for seven or eight days; during which time a great many
ships from Newcastle came in to the same roads, as the
common harbour where the ships might wait for a wind
for the river.
We had not, however, rid here so long, but we should
have tided it up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh;
and after we had lain four or five days, blew very hard.
However, the roads being reckoned as good as a harbour,
the anchorage good, and our ground-tackle very strong,
our men were unconcerned, and not in the least appre-
hensive of danger, but spent the time in rest and mirth,
after the manner of the sea; but the eighth day, in the
morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands at
work to strike our top-masts, and make everything snug
and close, that the ship might ride as easy as possible.
By noon, the sea went very high indeed, and our ship rid
forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought once or
twice our anchor had come home; upon which our master
ordered out the sheet anchor; so that we rode with two
anchors a-head, and the cables veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now
I began to see terror and amazement in the faces even of
the seamen themselves. The master, though vigilant in
the business of preserving the ship, yet, as he went in and
out of his cabin by me, I could hear him, softly to himself,
say several times, Lord, be merciful to us i we shall be
all lost-we shall be all undone I" and the like. During
these first hurries, I was stupid, lying still in my cabin,
which was in the steerage, and cannot describe my tem-
per. I could ill resume the first penitence which 1 had so

apparently trampled upon, and hardened myself against:
I thought the bitterness of death had been past; and that
this would be nothing, too, like the first. But when the
master himself came by me, as I said just now, and said
we should be all lost, I was dreadfully frighted: I got up
out of my cabin, and looked out; but such a dismal sight
I never saw: the sea went mountains high, and broke
upon us every three or four minutes; when I could look
about, I could see nothing but distress round us. Two
ships that rid near us, we found, had cut their masts by
the board, being deep laden; and our men cried out that
a ship, which rid about a mile a-head of us, was found-
ered. Two more ships, being driven from their anchors,
were run out of the roads to sea, at all adventures, and
that with not a mast standing. The light ships fared the
best, as not so much labouring in the sea; but two or
three of them drove, and came close by us, running away
with only their sprit sail out before the wind.
Towards the evening, the mate and boatswain begged
the master of our ship to let them cut away the foremast,
which he was very unwillingto do; but the boatswain pro-
testing to him, that if he did not the ship would founder,
he consented; and when they had cut away the foremast,
the mainmast stood so loose, and shook the ship so much,
they were obliged to cut it away also, and make a clear deck.
Any one must judge what a condition I must be in at
all this, who was but a young sailor, and who had been in
such a fright before at but a little. But if I can express
at this distance the thoughts I had about me at that time,
I was in tenfold more horror of mind upon account of my
former convictions, and the having returned from them
to the resolutions I had wickedly taken at first, than I
was at death itself; and these, added to the terror of the
storm, put me into such a condition, that I can by no
words describe it. But the worst was not come yet; the
storm continued with such fury that the seamen them-
selves acknowledged they had never seen a worse. We
had a good ship, but she was deep laden, and wallowed in
the sea, that the seamen everynow and then cried out she
would founder. It was my advantage, in one respect,

that I did not know what they meant by founder, till 1
inquired. However, the storm was so violent, that I saw,
what is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and
some others more sensible than the rest, at their prayers,
and expecting every moment when the ship would go to
the bottom. In the middle of the night, and under all
the rest of our distresses, one of the men that had been
down on purpose to see, cried out we had sprung a leak;
another said there was four feet water in the hold. Then
all hands were called to the pump. At that very word,
my heart, as I thought, died within me; and I fell back-
wards upon the side of my bed where I sat, into the cabin.
However, the men roused me, and told me, that I that
was able to do nothing before, was as well able to pump as
another; at which I stirred up, and went to the pump and
worked very heartily. While this was doing, the master
seeing some light colliers, who, not able to ride out the
storm, were obliged to slip and run away to the sea, and
would come near us, ordered to fire a gun as a signal of
distress. I, who knew nothing what that meant, was so
surprised, that I thought the ship had broke, or some
dreadful thing happened. In a word, I was so surprised
that I fell down in a swoon. As this was a time when
everybody had his own life to think of, nobody minded me,
or what was become of me; but another man stepped up
to the pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot, let me
lie, thinking I had been dead; and it was a great while
before I came to myself.
We worked on, but the water increasing m the hold, it
was apparent that the ship would founder; and though
the storm began to abate a little, yet as it was not pos-
sible she could swim till we might run into a port, so the
master continued firing guns for help; and a light ship,
who had rid it out just a-head of us, ventured a boat out
to help us. It was with the utmost hazard the boat came
near us; but it was impossible for us to get on board, or
for the boat to lie near the ship side, till at last the men
rowing very heartily, and venturing their lives to save
ours, our men cast them a rope over the stern with a buoy
to it, and then veered it out a great length, which they,

after much labour and hazard, took hold of, and we hauled
them close under our stern, and got all into their boat.
It was to no purpose for them or us, after we were in the
boat, to think of reaching to their own ship; so all agreed
to let her drive, and only to pull her in towards shore as
as much as we could; and our master promised them,
that if the boat was staved upon shore, he would make it
good to their master: so, partly rowing, and partly driv-
ing, our boat went away to the northward, sloping to-
wards the shore, almost as far as Winterton Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out
of our ship, but we saw her sink: and then I understood
for the first time, what was meant by a ship foundering
in the sea. I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look
up, when the seamen told me she was sinking; for from
that moment they rather put me into the boat, than that
I might be said to go in, my heart was, as it were, dead
within me, partly with fright, partly with horror of mind,
and the thoughts of what was yet before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet labour-
ing at the oar to bring the boat near the shore, we could
see (when our boat mounting the waves, we were able to
see the shore) a great many people running along the
shore to assist us, when we should come near; but we
made but slow way towards the shore, nor were we able
to reach the shore, till being past the light-house at Win-
terton, the shore falls off to the westward towards Cro-
mer, and so the land broke off a little the violence of the
wind. Here we got in, and, though not without much
difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked afterwards on
foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were
used with great humanity, as well by the magistrates of
the town, who assigned us good quarters, as by particular
merchants and owners of ships, and had money given us
sufficient to carry us either to London, or back to Hull,
as we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull,
and-have gone home, I had been happy, and my father,
an emblem of our blessed Saviour's parable, had even
killed the fatted calf for me; for, hearing the ship I went

in was cast away in Yarmouth Roads. it was a great while
before he had any assurance that I was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on now with a obstinacy
that nothing could resist: and though I had several times
loud calls from my reason and my more composed judg-
ment to go home, yet I had no power to do it. I know
not what to call this, nor will I urge that it is a secret,
overruling decree, that hurries us on to be the instru-
ments of our own destruction, even though it be before
us, and that we push upon it with our eyes open. Cer-
tainly, nothing but some such decreed unavoidable misery
attending, and which it was impossible for me to escape,
could have pushed me forward against the calm reason-
ings and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and
against two such visible instructions as I had met with
in my first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and
who was the master's son, was now less forward than I.
The first time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth,
which was not till two or three days, for we were separated
in the town to several quarters-I say, the first time he
saw me, it appeared his tone was altered; and looking
very melancholy, and shaking his head, asked me how I
did: and telling his father who I was, and how I had
come this voyage only for a trial, in order to go farther
abroad, his father, turning to me with a very grave and
concerned tone, "Young man," says he, "you ought
never to go to sea any more; you ought to take this for
a plain and visible token, that you are not to be a sea-
fearing man." "Why, sir," said I, "will you go to sea
no more ?" "That is another case," said he, "it is my
calling, and therefore my duty; but as you made this
voyage for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given
you of what you are to expect, if you persist: perhaps all
this has befallen us on your account, like Jonah in the
ship of Tarshish. Pray," continues he, "what are you ?
and on what account did you go to sea ?" Upon that I
told him some of my story; at the end of which he burst
out with a strange kind of passion: "What had I done,"
says he, "that such an unhappy wretch should come in

to my ship ? I would not set my foot in the same ship
with thee again for a thousand pounds." This indeedwas,
as I said, an excursion of the spirits, which were yet agitated
by the sense of his loss, and was farther than he could
have authority to go. However, he afterwards talked
very gravely to me, exhorted me to go back to my father
and not tempt Providence to my ruin; told me, I might
see a visible hand of Heaven against me: "And, young
man," said he, "depend upon it, if you do not go back,
wherever you go, you will meet with nothing but dis-
asters and disappointments, till your father's words are
fulfilled upon you."
We parted soon after; for I made him little answer,
and I saw him no more: which way he went I know not.
As for me, having some money in my pocket, I travelled
to London by land; and there, as well as on the road,
had many struggles with myself, what course of life I
should take, and whether I should go home or go to sea.
As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that
offered to my thoughts; and it immediately occurred to me
now I should be laughed at among the neighbours, and
should be ashamed to see, not my father and mother only.
but even everybody else; from whence I have since often
observed, how incongruous and irrational the common
temper of mankind is, especially of youth, to that reason
which ought to guide them in such cases, namely, that
they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to re-
pent; nor ashamed of the action for which they ought
justly to be esteemed fools, but are ashamed of the re-
turning, which only can make them be esteemed wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some time,
uncertain what measures to take, and what course of life
to lead. An irresistible reluctance continued to going
home; and as I stayed a while, the remembrance of the
distress I had been in wore off; and, as that abated, the
little motion I had in my desires to a return wore off with
it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts of it, and
looked out for a voyage.
That evil influence which carried me first away from my
father's house, that hurried me into the wild and indi-

gested notion of raising my fortune, and that impressed
those conceits so forcibly upon me, as to make deaf me to
all good advice, and to the entreaties and even the com-
mand of my father-I say, the same influence, whatever
it was, presented the most unfortunate of all enterprises
to my view; and I went on board a vessel bound to the
coast of Africa; or, as our sailors vulgarly call it, a voy-
age to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune, that in all these adven-
tures I did not ship myself as a sailor; whereby, though
I might indeed have worked a little harder than ordinary,
yet, at the same time, I had learned the duty and office
of a fore-mastman, and in time might have qualified my-
self for a mate or lieutenant, if not for a master. But
as it was always my fate to choose for the worst, so I did
here; for, having money in my pocket, and good clothes
upon my back, I would always go on board in the habit
of a gentleman; and so I neither had any business in the
ship, nor learned to do any.


IT was my lot, first of all, to fall into pretty good company
in London, which does not always happen to such loose
and unguided young fellows as I then was, the devil gene-
rally not omitting to lay some snare for them very early;
but it was not so with me. I first fell acquainted with
the master of a ship who had been on the coast of Guinea;
and who, having had very good success there, was resolved
to go again; and who, taking a fancy to my conversation,
which was not at all disagreeable at that time, hearing
me say I had a mind to see the world, told me, ifI would
go the voyage with him I should be at no expense--I
should be his mess-mate and his companion; and if I
could carry any thirg with me, I shouldhave all the ad-
vantage of it that the trade would admit; and, perhaps,
I might meet with some encouragement.

I embraced the offer; and, entering into a strict friend.
ship with this captain, who was an honest and plain-
dealing man, I went the voyage with him, and carried a
small adventure with me, which, by the disinterested
honesty of my friend, the captain, I increased very con-
siderably; for I carried about forty pounds in such toys
and trifles as the captain directed me to buy. This forty
pounds I had mustered together by the assistance of
some of my relations, whom I corresponded with, and
who, I believe, got my father, or at least my mother, to
contribute so much as that to my first adventure.
This was the only voyage which I may say was success-
ful in all my adventures, and which I owe to the integrity
and honesty of my friend, the captain; under whom also
I got a competent knowledge of the mathematics, and the
rules of navigation-learned how to keep an account of
the ship's course, take an observation, and, in short, to
understand some things that were needfulto be understood
by a sailor; for, as he took delight to instruct me, I took
delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage made me
both a sailor and a merchant: for I brought home five
pounds nine ounces of gold dust for my adventure, which
yielded me in London, at my return, almost three hun-
dred pounds; and this filled me with those aspiring
thoughts which have since so completed my ruin.
Yet, even in this voyage, I had my misfortunes too,
particularly that I was continually sick, being thrown into
a violent calenture by the excessive heat of the climate
-our principal trading being upon the coast, from the
latitude of fifteen degrees north, even to the Line itself.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend,
to my great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I re-
solved to go the same voyage again; and I embarked in
the same vessel with one who was his mate in the former
voyage, and had now got the command of the ship. This
was the unhappiest voyage that ever man made; for
though I did not carry quite 100 of my new gained
wealth, so that I had 200 left, and which I lodged with
my friend's widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell
into terrible misfortunes in this voyage; and the first was

this-namely, our ship, making her course towards the
Canary Islands, or rather between those islands and the
African shore, was surprised, in the grey of the morning,
by a Moorish rover of Sallee, who gave chase to us with
all the sail she could make. We crowded also as much
canvas as our yards would spread, or our masts carry, to
have got clear; but finding the pirate gained upon us,
and would certainly come up with us in a few hours, we
prepared to fight, our ship having twelve guns, and the
rover eighteen. About three in the afternoon he came
up with us, and bringing to, by mistake,just athwart our
quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as he intended, we
brought eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured
in a broadside upon him, which made him sheer off again
after returning our fire, and pouringin also his small shot
from near two hundred men which he had on board.
However, we had not a man touched, all our men keep-
ing close. He prepared to attack us again, and we to de-
fend ourselves; but laying us on board the next time upon
our other quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks,
who immediately fell to cutting and hacking the decks and
rigging. We plied them with small shot, half-pikes, pow-
der-chests, and such like, and cleared our deck of them
twice. However, to cut short this melancholy part of oui
story, our ship being disabled, and three of our men killed,
and eight wounded, we were obliged to yield, and were car-
ried all prisoners into Sallee, a port belongingto the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first
I apprehended: nor was I carried up the country to the
emperor's court, as the rest of our men were, but was
kept by the captain of the rover, as his proper prize, and
made his slave, being young and nimble, and fit for his
business. At this surprising change of my circumstances,
from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was perfectly
overwhelmed; and now I looked back upon my father's
prophetic discourse to me, that I should be miserable,
and have none to relieve me; which I thought was now
so effectually brought to pass, that I could not be worse-
that now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was
undone without redemption. But. alas this was but a

taste of the misery I was to go through, as will appear in
the sequel of this story.
As my new patron or master had taken me home to his
house, so I was in hopes that he would take me with him
when he went to sea again, believing that it would be some
time or other his fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portugal
man-of-war, and that then I should be set at liberty.
But this nope of mine was soon taken away; for when
he went to sea, he left me on shore to look after his little
garden and do the common drudgery of slaves about his
house; and when he came home again from his cruise,
he ordered me to lie in the cabin, to look afterthe ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what
method I might take to effect it; but found no way that
had the least probabilityin it. Nothing presented to make
the supposition of it rational; for I had nobody to com-
municate it to that would embark with me-no fellow,
slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or Scotsman there,
but myself; so that for two years, though I often pleased
myself with the imagination, yet I never had the least
encouraging prospect of putting it in practice.
After about two years, an odd circumstance presented
itself, which put the old thought of making some attempt
for my liberty again in my head: mypatron lying at home
longer than usual, without fitting out his ship, which, as
I heard, was for want of money, he used constantly, once
or twice a-week, sometimes oftener, if the weather was
fair, to take the ship's pinnace, and go out into the road
a-fishing; and as he always took me and a young Moresco
with him to row the boat, we made him very merry, and
I proved very dexterous in catching fish; insomuch that
sometimes he would send me with a Moor, one of his
kinsmen, and the youth, the Moresco, as they called him,
to catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time that going a-fishing with him in
a calm morning, a fog rose so thick, that though we were
not half a league from the shore, we lost sight of it; and
rowing we knew not whither, or which way, we laboured
all day, and all the next night; and when the morning
came, we found we had pulled off to sea, instead of pull-

ing in for the shore, and that we were at least two leagues
from the land: however we got well in again, though with
a great deal of labour, and some danger, for the wind
began to blow pretty fresh in the morning; but, particu-
larly, we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to
take more care of himself for the future; and having lying
by him the long-boat of our English ship which he had
taken, he resolved he would not go a-fishing any more
without a compass and some provision; so he ordered
the carpenter of his ship, who also was an English slave,
to build a little state-room or cabin in the middle of the
long-boat, like that of a barge, with a place to stand be-
hind it to steer, and haul home the mainsheet; and room
before for a hand or two to stand and work the sails.
She sailed with what we call a shoulder-of-mutton sail;
and the boom jibbed over the top of the cabin, which lay
very snug and low, and had in it room for him to lie, with
a slave or two, and a table to eat on, with some small
lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor as he thought
fit to drink, particularly his bread, rice, and coffee.
We were frequently out with this boat a-fishing; and
as I was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never
went without me. It happened one day, that he had ap-
pointed to go out in this boat, either for pleasure or for
fish, with two or three Moors of some distinction, and for
whom he had provided extraordinary; and had therefore
sent on board the boat over night a larger store of pro-
visions than usual, and had ordered me to get ready three
fusils with powder and shot, which were on board his
ship; for that they designed some sport of fowling as well
as fishing.
I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited
the next morning with the boat washed clean, her ancient
and pendants out, and everything to accommodate his
guests; when by and by my patron came on board alone,
and told me his guests had put off going, upon some
business that fell out, and ordered me, with the man and
boy, as usual, to go out with the boat, and catch them
some fish, for that his friends were to sup at his house;

he commanded me, too, that as soon as I had got some
fish, I should bring it home to his house: all which I
prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance darted
into my thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a
little ship at my command; and my master being gone,
I prepared to furnish myself, not for fishing business, but
for a voyage, though I knew not, neither did I so much
as consider, whither I would steer; for anywhere to get
out of that place was my way.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to
this Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board;
for I told him we must not presume to eat of our patron's
bread. He said, that was true; so he brought a large
basket of rusk, or biscuit of their kind, and three jars with
fresh water into the boat. I knew where my-patron's
case of bottles stood, which it was evident by the make
were taken out of some English prize, and I conveyed
them into the boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they
had been there before for our master: I conveyed also a
great lump of bees'-wax into the boat, which weighed
above half a hundred weight, with a parcel of twine or
thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all which were
of great use to us afterwards, especially the wax to make
candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which he in-
nocently came into also. His name was Ishmael, whom
they called Muly or Moley; so I called to him: Moley,"
said I, our patron's guns are on board the boat; can you
not get a little powder and shot ? It may be we may kill
some alcamies (a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves for
I know he keeps the gunner's stores in the ship." "Yes,
sayshe, "I'll bring some;" and accordingly he brought a
great leather pouch, which held about a pound and a half
of powder, or rather more, and another with shot, that had
five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put all into the
boat: at the same time I had found some powder of my
master's in the great cabin, with which I filled one of the
large bottles in the case, which was almost empty, pour-
ing what was in it into another; and thus furnished with
everything needful, we sailed out of the port to fish.


The castle, which is at the entrance of the port, knew
who we were, and took no notice of us; and we were not
above a mile out of the port before we hauled in our sail,
and set us down to fish. The wind blew from the north-
north-east, which was contrary to my desire; for had it
blown southerly, I had been sure to have made the coast
of Spain, and at least reached to the bay of Cadiz; but
my resolutions were, blow which way it would, I would
be gone from that horrid place where I was, and leave
the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time, and watched nothing-
for when I had fish on my hook I would not pull them
up, that he might not see them-I said to the Moor,
This will not do-our master will not be thus served-
we must stand farther off." He, thinking no harm,
agreed, and being in the head of the boat, set the sails;
and as I had the helm, I ran the boat out near a league
farther, and then brought her to, as if I would fish; when,
giving the boy the helm, I stepped forward to where the
Moor was, and making as if I stooped for something be-
hind him, I took him by surprise with my arm under his
waist, and tossed him clear overboard into the sea: he
rose immediately, for he swam like a cork, and called to
me, begged to be taken in, told me he would go all over
the world with me. He swam so strong after the boat,
that he would have reached me very quickly, there being
but little wind; upon which I stepped into the cabin, and
fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented it at him,
and told him, I had done him no hurt, and if he would
be quiet I would do him none-"' But," said I," you swim
well enough to reach to the shore, and the sea is calm-
make the best of your way to shore, and I will do you no
harm; but if you come near the boat, I'll shoot you
through the head, for I am resolved to have my liberty '
-so he turned himself about, and swam for the shore,
and I make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for he
was an excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor with
me, and have drowned the boy, but there was no ventur-
ing to trust him. When he was gone, 1 turned to the

boy, whom they called Xury, and said to him, "Xury, if
ou will be faithful to me, I'll make you a great man;
ut if you will not stroke your face to be true to me (that
is, swear by Mahomet and his father's beard), I must
throw you into the sea too." The boy smiled in my face,
and spoke so innocently, that I could not mistrust him;
and swore to be faithful to me, and go all over the world
with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming,
I stood out directly to sea with the boat, rather stretch-
ing to windward, that they might think me gone towards
the Straits' mouth, as indeed any one that had been in
their wits must have been supposed to do; for who would
have supposed we were sailed on to the southward, to the
truly barbarian coast, where whole nations of negroes
were sure to surround us with their canoes, and destroy
us; where we could never once go on shore, but we should
be devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless savages
of human kind ?
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed
my course, and steered directly south and by east, bend-
ing my course a little toward the east, that I might keep
in with the shore; and having a fair fresh gale of wind,
and a smooth quiet sea, I made such sail, that I believe,
by the next day at three o'clock in the afternoon, when I
first made the land, I could not be less than one hundred
and fifty miles south of Salee, quite beyond the Emperor
of Morocco's dominions, or, indeed, of any other king
thereabouts, for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and
the dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their
hands, that I would not stop, or go on shore, or come to
an anchor, the wind continuing fair, till I had sailed in
that manner five days; and then the wind shifting to the
southward, I concluded also that if any of our vessels were
in chase of me, they also would now give over; so I ven-
tured to make to the coast, and come to an anchor in the
mouth of a little river, I knew not what or where-nei-
ther what latitude, what country, what nation, nor what
river: I neither saw, nor desired,to see, any people--the

principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came into
this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as
soon as it was dark, and discover the country; but as soon
as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful noises of the
barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures, of we
knew not what kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die
with fear, and begged of me not to go on shore till day.
"Well, Xury," said I, "then I won't; but, it may be
we may see men by day, who will be as bad to us as those
lions." "Then we give them the shoot gun," says Xury,
laughing, "make them run way." Such English Xury
spoke by conversing among us slaves. However, I was glad
to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dram, out of
our patron's case of bottles, to cheer him up. After all,
Xury's advice was good, and I took it; we dropped our
little anchor, and lay still all night-I say still, for we
slept none-for in two or three hours we saw vast great
creatures (we knew not what to call them) of many sorts,
come down to the sea-shore, and run into the water,
wallowing and washing themselves for the pleasure of
cooling themselves; and they made such hideous howl-
ings and yelling, that I never indeed heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too;
but we were both more frighted when we heard one of
these mighty creatures come swimming towards our boat.
We could not see him, but we might hear him by his
blowing, to be a monstrous, huge, and furious beast;
Xury said it was a lion, and it might be so for aught I
know. Poor Xury cried to me to weigh the anchor, and
row away. No," says I, Xury, we can slip our cable
with a buoy to it, and go to sea; they cannot follow us
far." I had no sooner said so, but I perceived the crea-
ture (whatever it was) within two oars' length, which
something surprised me; however, I immediately stepped
to the cabin door, and taking up my gun, fired at him,
upon which he immediately turned about, and swam to
the shore again.
But it was not possible to describe the horrible noises,
and hideous cries and howlings, that were raised, as well
upon the edge of the shore, as higher within the counLry,

upon the noise or report of a gun-a thing 1 have some
reason to believe those creatures had never heard before.
This convinced me that there was no going on shore for
us in the night upon that coast; and how to venture on
shore in the day, was another question too; for to have
fallen into the hands of any of the savages, had been as
bad as to have fallen into the paws of lions and tigers;
at least, we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore
somewhere or other for water, for we had not a pint left
in the boat; when or where to get it was the point. Xury
said if I would let him go on shore with one of the jars,
he would find if there was any water, and bring some to
me. I asked him why he would go ? why I should not go,
and he stay in the boat? The boy answered with so
much affection, that made me love him ever after. Says
he, "If wild mans come, they eat me, you go way."
Well, Xury," said I, we will both go, and if the wild
mans come, we willkill them; they shall eat neither of us."
So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a dram
out of our patron's case of bottles, which I mentioned
before; and we hauled the boat in as near the shore as
we thought was proper, and waded on shore, carrying
nothing but our arms, and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the
coming of canoes with savages down the river: but the
boy, seeing a low place about a mile up the country, ram-
bled to it; and by and by I saw him come running towards
me. I thought he was pursued by some savage, or frighted
with some wild beast, and I ran forward towards him to
help him; but when I came nearer to him, I saw some-
thing hanging over his shoulders, which was a creature
that he had shot, like a hare, but different in colour, and
longer legs: however, we were very glad of it, and it was
very good meat; but the great joy that poor Xury came
with, was to tell me he had found good water, and seen
no wild mans.
But we found afterwards that we need not take such
pains for water, for a little higher up the creek where we
were. we found the water fresh when the tide was out,

which flows but a little way up; so we filled our jars and
feasted on the hare we had killed, and prepared to go on
our way, having seen no footsteps of any human creature
in that part of the country.
As I had been one voyage to the coast before, I knew
very well that the islands of the Canaries, and the Cape
de Verd islands also, lay not far off from the coast. But
as I had no instruments to take an observation to know
what latitude we were in, and did not exactly know, or
at least not remember, what latitude they were in, and
knew not where to lookfor them, or when to stand off to sea
towards them: otherwise I might now easily have found
some of these islands. But my hope was, that if I stood
along this coast till I came to that part where the English
traded, I should find some of their vessels upon their
usual design of trade, that would relieve and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, that place where I now
was must be that country which, lying between the Em-
peror of Morocco's dominions and the negroes, lies waste
and uninhabited, except by wild beasts; the negroes hav-
ing abandoned it, and gone farther south for fear of the
Moors; and the Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting,
by reason of its barrenness-and, indeed, both forsaking
it because of the prodigious numbers of tigers, lions, leo-
pards, and other furious creatures, which harbour there;
so that the Moors use it for their hunting only, where
they go like an army, two or three thousand men at a
time-and, indeed, for near an hundred miles together
upon this coast, we saw nothing but a waste uninhabited
country by day, and heard nothing but howlings and roar-
ing of wild beasts by night.
Once or twice in the day-time I thought I saw the Pico
of Teneriffe, being the high top of the mountain Teneriffe
in the Canaries, and had a great mind to venture out, in
hopes of reaching thither; but having tried twice, I was
forced in again by contrary winds, the sea also going too
high for my little vessel; so I resolved to pursue my first
design, and keep along the shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after
we had left this place: and once, in particular, being early

N ___ _

He started up, growling at first, but finding his leg broke, fell down
again,"-p. 25.


in the morning, we came to an anchor under a little point
of land which was pretty high; and the tide beginning
to flow, we lay still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes
were more about him than it seems mine were, calls softly
to me, and tells me, that we had best go farther off the
shore: "For," says he, "look-yonder lies a dreadful
monster, on the side of that hillock, fast asleep." I looked
where he pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed, for it
was a terrible great lion that lay on the side of the shore
under the shade of a piece of the hill that hung, as it were,
a little overhim. Xury," says I, you shall go on shore
and kill him." Xury looked frighted, and said, "Mekill!
he eat me at one mouth! "-one mouthful he meant:
however, I said no more to the boy, but bade him lie still,
and I took our biggest gun, which was almost musket-
bore, and loaded it with a good charge of powder, and with
two slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded another gun
with two bullets; and the third-for we had three pieces
-I loaded with five smaller bullets. I took the best aim
I could with the first piece to have shot him into the head,
but he lay so with his leg raised a little above his nose,
that the slugs hit his leg about the knee and broke the
bone. He started up, growling at first, but finding his
leg broke, fell down again, and then got up upon three
legs, and gave the most hideous roar that ever I heard.
I was a little surprised that I had not hit him on the
head; however, I took up the second piece immediately,
and, though he began to move off, fired again, and shot
him into the head, and had.the pleasure to see him drop,
and make but little noise, but lie struggling for life. Then
Xury took heart, and would have me let him go on shore.
"Well, go," said I; so the boy jumped into the water,
and, taking a little gun in one hand, swam to shore with
the other hand, and coming close to the creature, put the
muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him into the head
again, which despatched him quite.
This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and
I was very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot
upon a creature that was good for nothing to us. How-
ever, Xury said he would have some of him; so he comes

on board, and asked me to give him the hatchet. "For
what, Xury?" said I. "Me cut off his head," said he.
However, Xury could not cut off his head, but he cut off
a foot, and brought it with him, and it was a monstrous
great one.
I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of
him might, one way or other, be of some value to us;
and I resolved to take off his skin if I could. So Xury
and I went to work with him; but Xury was much the
better workman at it, for I knew very ill how to do it.
Indeed, it took us both up the whole day, but at last we
got off the hide of him, and, spreading it on the top of
our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two days' time,
and it afterwards served me to lie upon.

AFTER this stop, we made on to the southward continually
for ten or twelve days, living very sparingly on our pro-
visions, which began to abate very much, and going no
oftener into the shore than we were obliged to do for fresh
water: my design in this was, to make the river Gambia
or Senegal, that is to say, anywhere about the Cape de
Verd, where I was in hopes to meet with some European
ship; and if I did not, I knew not what course I had to
take, but to seek for the islands, or perish there among
the negroes. I knew that all the ships from Europe, which
sailed either to the coast of Guinea, or to Brazil, or to the
East Indies, made this Cape, or those islands; and, in a
word, I put the whole of my fortune uponthis single point,
either that I must meet with some ship, or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days
longer, as I have said, I began to see that the land was
inhabited; and in two or three places, as we sailed by, we
saw people stand upon the shore to look at us: we could
also perceive they were quite black, and stark naked. I
was once inclined to go on shore to them; but Xury was
my better counsellor and said to me, "No go, no go."

However, I hauled in nearer the shore that I might talk
to them, and I found they ran along the shore by me a
good way: Iobserved they had no weapons in their hands
except one, who had a long slender stick, which Xury
said was a lance, and that they would throw them a great
way with good aim; so I kept at a distance, but talked
with them by signs as well as I could, and particularly
made signs for something to eat; they beckoned to me to
stop my boat, and they would fetch me some meat. Upon
this, I lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and two of
them ran up into the country, and in less than half an
hour came back, and brought with them two pieces of dry
flesh and some corn, such as is the produce of their
country; but we neither knew what the one nor the other
was; however, we were willing to accept it. But how to
come at it was our next dispute, for I was not for ven-
turing on shore to them, and they were as much afraid
of us; but they took a safe way for us all, for they brought
it to the shore and laid it down, and went and stood a
great way off till we fetched it on board, and then came
close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing
to make them amends; but an opportunity offered that
very instant to oblige them wonderfully; for while we were
lying by the shore, came two mighty creatures, one pur.
suing the other (as we took it) with great fury'from the
mountains towards the sea: whether it was the male pur-
suing the female, or whether they were in sport or in rage,
we could not tell, any more than we could tell whether
it was usual or strange, but I believe it was the latter;
because, in the first place, those ravenous creatures sel-
dom appear but in the night; and, in the second place, we
found the people terribly frighted, especially the women.
The man that had the lance or dart did not fly from them,
but the rest did: however, as the two creatures ran
directly into the water, they did not seem to offer to fall
upon any of the negroes, but plunged themselves into the
sea, and swam about as if they had come for their diver-
sion. At last one of them began to come nearer our
boat than at first I expected; but I lay ready for him.

for I had loaded my gun with all possible expedition, and
bade Xury load both the others. As soon as he came
fairly within my reach, I fired, and shot him directly into
the head: immediately he sank down into the water, but
rose instantly, and plunged up and down as if he was
struggling for life, and so indeed he was: he immediately
made to the shore; but between the wound, which was
his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the water, he died
just before he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these
poor creatures at the noise and the fire of my gun; some
of them were even ready to die for fear, and fell down
as dead with the very terror. But when they saw the
creature dead, and sunk in the water, and that I made
signs to them to come to the shore, they took heart, and
came to the shore, and began to search for the creature.
I found him by his blood staining the water, and by the
help of a rope, which I slung round hin, and gave the
negroes to haul, they dragged him on shore, and found
that it was a most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an
admirable degree, and the negroes held up their hands
with admiration to think what it was I had killed him
The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and
the noise of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly
to the mountains from whence they came, nor could I at
that distance know what it was. I found quickly the
negroes were for eating the flesh of this creature, so I
was willing to have them take it as a favour from me,
which when 1 made signs to them that they might take
him, they were very thankful for. Immediately they fell
to work with him, and though they had no knife, yet,
with a sharpened piece of wood, they took off his skin as
readily, and much more readily, than we could have done
with a knife. They offered me some of the flesh, which
I declined, making as if I would give it them, but made
signs for the skin, which they gave me very freely, and
brought me a great deal more of their provision, which,
though I did not understand, yet I accepted; then I made
signs to them for some water, and held out one of my

jars to them, turning it bottom upward, to show that it
was empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They
called immediately to some of their friends, and there
came two women, and brought a great vessel made ol
earth, and burned, as I suppose, in the sun; this they
set down for me, as before, and I sent Xury on shore
with my jars, and filled them all three. The women were
as stark naked as the men.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it
was, and water; and, leaving my friendly negroes, I made
forward for about eleven days mpre, without offering to
go near the shore, till I saw the land run out a great
length into the sea, at about the distance of four or five
leagues before me; and the sea being very calm, I kept
a large offing to make this point: at length, doubling the
point, at about two leagues from the land, I saw plainly
land on the other side to sea-ward; then I concluded, as it
was most certain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verd,
and those the islands, called from thence Cape de Verd
Islands. However, they were at a great distance, and I
could not well tell what I had best to do; for, if I should
be taken with a fresh of wind, I might neither reach one
nor the other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into
the cabin and sat me down, Xury having the helm, when,
on a sudden, the boy cried out, "Master, master, a ship
with a sail I" and the foolish boy was frighted out of his
wits, thinking it must needs be some of his master's ships
sent to pursue us, when I knew we were gotten far
enough out of their reach. I jumped out of the cabin,
and immediately saw, not only the ship, but what she
was, namely, that it was a Portuguese ship, and, as I
thought, was bound to the coast of Guinea for negroes.
But when I observed the coast she steered, I was sgon
convinced they were bound some other way, and did not
design to come any nearer to the shore; upon which I
stretched out to sea as much as I could, resolving to
speak with them if possible.
With :2 the sail I could make, I found I should not be
able to come in their way, but that they would be gone

by before I could make any signal to them; but after 1
had crowded to the utmost, and began to despair, they,
it seems, saw me by the help of their perspective glasses,
and that it was some European boat, which, as the vsup-
posed, must belong to some ship that was lost; so they
shortened sail to let me come up. I was encouraged
with this; and as I had my patron's ancient on board,
I made a waft of it to them for a signal of distress, and
fired a gun, both which they saw, for they told me they
saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon
these signals they very kindly brought to, and lay by for
me, and, in about three hours' time, I came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in
Spanish, and in French; but I understood none of them:
but, at last, a Scots sailor, who was on board, called to
me, and I answered him, and told him I was an English-
man-that I had made my escape out of slavery from
the Moors at Sallee. They bade me come on board, and
very kindly took me in, and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, as any one would
believe, that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from
such a miserable and almost hopeless condition as I was
in, and immediately offered all I had to the captain of the
ship, as a return for my deliverance; but he generously
told me he would take nothing from me, but that allI had
should be delivered safe to me when I came to the Brazils.
"For," says he, I have saved your life on no other
terms than I wouldbe gladto be saved myself; andit may
one time or other be my lot to be taken up in the same
condition: besides," said he, "when I carry you to the
Brazils, so great away from your own country, if I should
take from you what you have, you will be starved there,
and then I only take away that life I have given. "No
no, Seignor Inglese," says he, Mr Englishman, I will
carry you thither in charity, and those things will help
you to buy your subsistence there, and your passage
home again."
As he was charitable in his proposal, so he was just in
the performance to a tittle; for he ordered the seamen,
that none should offer to touch anything I had: then he

took everything into his own possession, and gave me
back an exact inventory of them, that I might have
them; even so much as my earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was averygood one, and that he saw,
and told me he would buy it of me for the ship's use,
and asked me what I would have for it ? I told him he
had been so generous in everything, that I could not
offer to make any price of the boat, but left it entirely to
him; upon which he told me, he would give me a note of
his hand to pay me eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil.
and when it came there, if any one offered to give more,
he would make it up: he offered me also sixty pieces of
eight more for my boy Xury, which I was loath to take:
not that I was not willing to let the captain have him,
but I was very loath to sell the poor boy's liberty, who
hadassistedme so faithfullyinprocuringmy own. How-
ever, when I let him know my reason, he owned it to be
just, and offered me this medium, that he would give the
boy an obligation to set him free in ten years, if he
turned Christian. Upon this, and Xury saying he was
willing to go to him, I let the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and arrived
in the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints' Bay, in
about twenty-two days after. And now I was once more
delivered from the most miserable of all conditions of life;
and what to do next with myself I was now to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can
never enough remember. He would take nothing of me
for my passage-gave me twenty ducats for the leopard's
skin, and forty for the lion's skin, which I had in my boat,
and caused everything I had in the ship to be punctually
delivered me; and what I was willing to sell he bought,
such as the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of
the lump of bees' wax, for I had made candles of the rest
-in a word, I made about two hundred and twenty pieces
of eight of all my cargo; and with this stock I went on
shore in the Brazils.
I had not been long here, but being recommended to the
house of a good honest man like himself, who had an
ingeino, as they call it-that is. a plantation and a sugar-

house-I lived with him some time, and acquainted my-
self by that means with the manner of their planting and
making of sugar; and seeing how well the planters lived,
and how they grew rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could
get license to settle there, I would turn planter among
them; resolving, in the meantime, to find out some way
to get my money, which I had left in London, remitted
to me. To this purpose, getting a kind of a letter of
naturalisation, I purchased as much land that was un-
cured as my money would reach, and formed a plan for
my plantation and settlement, and such a one as might
be suitable to the stock which I proposed to myself to
receive from England.
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born
of English parents, whose name was Wells, and in much
such circumstances as I was. I call him neighbour, be-
cause his plantation lay next to mine, and we went on
very sociably together. My stock was but low, as well
as his; and we rather planted for food, than anything
else, for about two years. However, we began to increase,
and our land began to come into order; so that the third
year we planted some tobacco, and made each of us a
large piece of ground ready for planting canes in the year
to come; but we both wanted help: and now I found,
more than before, I had done wrong in parting with my
boy Xury.
But, alas! for me to do wrong, that never did right,
was no great wonder. I had no remedy but to go on
-I was gotten into an employment quite remote to my
genius, and directly contrary to the life I delighted in,
and for which I forsook my father's house, and broke
through all his good advice-nay, I was coming into the
very middle station, or upper degree of low life, which my
father advised me to before; and which, if I resolved to go
on with, I might as well have staid at home, and never
have fatigued myself in the world as I had done; and I
used often, to say to myself, I could have done this as well
in England among my friends, as have gone five thou-
sand miles off to do it among strangers and savages in
a wilderness and at such distance, as never to hear

from any part of the world that had the least knowledge
of me.
In this manner I used to look upon my condition with
the utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with, but
now and then this neighbour-no work to be done but by
the labour of my hands; and I used to say, I lived just like
a man cast away upon some desolate island, that had
nobody there but himself. But how just has it been, and
how should all men reflect, that, when they compare their
present conditions with others that are worse, Heaven
may oblige them to make the exchange, and be convinced
of their former felicity, by their experience-I say, how
just has it been, that the truly solitary life I reflected on
in an island of mere desolation should be my lot, who had
so often unjustly compared it with the life which I then
led, in which, had I continued, I had, in all probability,
been exceeding prosperous and rich.
I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carry-
ing on the plantation, before my kind friend, the captain
of the ship that took me up at sea, went back; for the
ship remained there, in providing his loading, and pre-
paring for his voyage, near three months; when, telling
him what little stock I had left behind me in London, he
gave me this friendly and sincere advice: "Seignor
Inglese," says he, for so he always called me, "if you will
give me letters, and a procuration here in form to me,
with orders to the person who has your money in Lon.
don, to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as 1
shall direct, and in such goods as are proper for this
country, I will bring you the produce of them, God will-
ing, at my return; but, since human affairs are all sub-
ject to changes and disasters, I would have you give
orders but for one hundred pounds sterling, which, you
say, is half your stock, and let the hazard be run for the
first; so that, if it come safe, you may order the rest the
same way, and if it miscarry, you may have the other
half to have recourse to for your supply."
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly,
that I could not but be convinced it was the best course
I could take; so I accordingly prepared letters to the

gentlewoman with whom I had left my money, and a
procuration to the Portuguese captain, as he desired.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of
all my adventures, my slavery, escape, and how I had
met with the Portugal captain at sea, the humanity of
his behaviour, and what condition I was now in, with
all other necessary directions for my supply; and when
this honest captain came to Lisbon, he found means, by
some of the English merchants there, to send over, not
the order only, but a full account of my story, to a mer-
chant at London, who represented it effectually to her;
whereupon, she not only delivered the money, but, out
of her own pocket, sent the Portugal captain a very hand-
some present for his humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London vesting this hundred pounds
in English goods, such as the captain had writ for, sent
them directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all
safe to me to the Brazils; among which, without my
direction (for I was too young in my business to think
of them), he had taken care to have all sort of tools,
iron-work, and utensils, necessary for my plantation, and
which were of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made,
for I was surprised with joyof it; and my good steward,
the captain, had laid out the five pounds which my friend
had sent him for a present for himself, to purchase, and
bring me over a servant under bond for six years' service.
and would not accept of any consideration, except a little
tobacco, which I would have him accept, being of my
own produce.
Neither was this all; but my goods being all English
manufactures, such as cloth, stuffs, baize, and things
particularly valuable and desirable in the country, I found
means to sell them to a very great advantage; so that I
may say I had more than four times the value of my first
cargo, and was now infinitely beyond my poor neighbour,
I mean in the advancement of my plantation; for the
first thing I did, I bought me a negro slave, and an
European servant also-I mean another besides that
which the captain brought me from Lisbon.

But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the means
of our greatest adversity, so was it with me. I went on
the next year with great success in my plantation: I raised
fifty great rolls of tobacco on my own ground, more than
I had disposed of for necessaries among my neighbours;
and these fifty rolls beingeach of above a hundred weight,
were well cured and laid by against the return of the
fleet from Lisbon. And now, increasing in business and
in wealth, my headbegan to be full of projects and under-
takings beyond my reach; such as are, indeed, often the
ruin of the best heads in business.
Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had
room for all the happy things to have yet befallen me,
for which my father so earnestly recommended a quiet
retired life, and of which he had so sensibly described the
middle station of life to be full; but other things attended
me, and I was still to be the wilful agent of all my own
miseries; and particularly to increase my fault, and double
the reflections upon myself, which in my future sorrows
I should have leisure to make, all these miscarriages
were procured by my apparent obstinate adhering to my
foolish inclination of wandering abroad, and pursuing
that inclination, in contradiction to the clearest views
of doing myself good in a fair and plain pursuit of those
prospects and those measures of life, which nature and
Providence concurred to present me with, and to make
my duty.
As I had done thus in my breaking away from my
parents, so I couldn't be content now, butI must go and
leave the happy view I had of being a rich and thriving
man in my new plantation, only to pursue a rash and
immoderate desire of rising faster than the nature of
the thing admitted; and thus I cast myself down again
into the deepest gulf of human misery that ever man fell
into, or perhaps could be consistent with life and a state
of health in the world.
To come, then, by just degrees, to the particulars of this
part of my story: you may suppose, that, having now
lived almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning to
thrive and prosper very well upon my plantation, I had

not only learnt the language, but had contracted acquain-
tance and friendship among my fellow-planters, as well as
among the merchants at St Salvadore, which was our
port; and that in my discourse among them, I had fre-
quently given them an account of my two voyages to the
coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with the negroes
there, and how easy it was to purchase upon the coast,
for trifles-such as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets,
bits of glass, and the like-not only gold dust, Guinea
grains, elephants' teeth, &c., but negroes for the service
of the Brazils in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my discourses
on these heads, but especially to that part which related
to buying negroes, which was a trade at that time not
only not far entered into, but, as far as it was, had been
carried on by the assientos, or permission, of the kings of
Spain and Portugal, and engrossed in the public, so that
few negroes were bought, and those excessively dear.
It happened, being in company with some merchants
and planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those
things very earnestly, three of them came to me the next
morning, and told me they had been musing very much
upon what I had discoursed with them of the last night,
and they came to make a secret proposal to me; and,
after enjoining me secrecy, they told me, that they had a
mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that they had all
plantations as well as I, and were straitened for nothing
so much as servants; that as it was a trade that could
not be carried on, because they could not publicly sell
the negroes when they came home, so they desired to
make but one voyage, to bring the negroes on shore
privately, and divide them among their own plantations;
and, in a word, the question was, whether I would go
their supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading part
upon the coast of Guinea? and they offered me, that I
should have my equal share of the negroes, without pro-
viding any part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it
been made to any one that had not had a settlement and
plantation of his own to look after, which was in a fair

way of coming to be very considerable, and with a good
stock upon it. But for me, that was thus entered and
established, and had nothing to do but go on as I had
begun, for three or four years more, and to have sent for
the other hundred pounds from England, and who, in
that time and with that little addition, could scarce have
failed of being worth three or four thousand pounds ster-
ling, and that increasing too-for me to think of such a
voyage, was the most preposterous thing that ever man
in such circumstances could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no
more resist the offer than I could restrain my first ramb-
ling designs, when my father's good counsel was lost upon
me. In a word, I told them I would go with all my heart
if they would undertake to look after my plantation in
my absence, and would dispose of it to such as I should
direct, if I miscarried. This they all engaged to do, and
entered into writings, or covenants, to do so ; and I made
a formal will, disposing of my plantation and effects in
case of my death, making the captain of the ship that
had saved my life as before, my universal heir, but oblig-
ing him to dispose of my effects as I had directed in my
will, one half of the produce being to himself, and the
other to be shipped to England.
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my
effects, and keep up my plantation; had I used half as
much prudence to have looked into my own interest, and
have made a judgment of what I ought to have done, and
not to have done, I had certainly never gone away from
so prosperous an undertaking, leaving all the probable
views of a thriving circumstance, and gone upon a voyage
to sea, attended with all its common hazards; to say
nothing of the reasons I had to expect particular misfor-
tunes to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates
of my fancy, rather than my reason: and, accordingly, the
ship being fitted out, and the cargo furnished, and all
things done as by agreement bymypartners in the voyage,
I went on board in an evil hour again, the 1st of Septem-
ber 1659, being the same day eight years that I went from

my father and mother at Hull in order to act the rebel
to their authority, and the fool to my own interest.
Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons
burden, carried six guns, and fourteen men, besides the
master, his boy, and myself; we had on board no large
cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit for ouw
trade with the negroes, such as beads, bits of glass, shells,
and odd trifles, especially little looking-glasses, knives,
scissors, hatchets, and the like.
The same day I went on board we set sail, standing
away to the northward upon our own coast, with design
to stretch over for the African coast, when they came about
ten or twelve degrees of northern latitude, which, it seems,
was the manner of their course in those days. We had
very good weather, only excessively hot, all the way upon
our own coast, till we came to the height of Cape St
Augustino, from whence, keeping farther off at sea, we
lost sight of land, and steered as if we were bound for the
isle Fernand de Noronha, holding our course north-east
by north, and leaving those isles on the east. In this
course we passed the Line in about twelve days' time, and
were, by our last observation, in seven degrees, twenty-
two minutes, northern latitude, when a violent tornado, or
hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge: it began
from the south-east, came about to the north-west, and
then settled into the north-east; from whence it blew in
such a terrible manner, that for twelve days together we
could do nothing but drive, and, scudding away before it,
let it carry us whither ever fate and the fury of the winds
directed; and during those twelve days, I need not say
that I expected every day to be swallowed up, nor indeed,
did any in the ship expect to save their lives.
In this distress, we had, besides the terror of the storm,
one of our men dead of the calenture, and one man and
the boy washed overboard. About the twelfth day, the
weather abating a little, the master made an observation
as well as he could, and found that he was in about twenty-
two degrees of longitude difference west from Cape St
Augustino; so that he found he was gotten upon the coast
of Guinea. or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river

Amazons, towards that of the river Oroonoque, commonly
called the Great River, and began to consult with me
what course he should take; for the ship was leaky, and
very much disabled, and he was going directly back to
the coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that, and, looking over the
charts of the sea coasts of America with him, we concluded,
there was no inhabited country for us to have recourse to,
till we came within the circle of the Caribbee Islands; and
therefore resolved to stand away for Barbadoes, which,
by keeping off at sea, to avoid the indraft of the bay or
gulf of Mexico, we might easily perform, as we hoped, in
about fifteen days' sail: whereas we could not possibly
make our voyage to the coast of Africa, without some
assistance, both to our ship and ourselves.
With this design we changed our course, and steered
away north-west by west, in order to reach some of our
English islands, where I hoped for relief: but our voyage
was otherwise determined; for, being in the latitude of
twelve degrees eighteen minutes, a second storm came
upon us, which carried us away with the same impetu-
osity westward, and drove us so out of the very way of all
human commerce, that, had all our lives been saved as to
the sea, we were rather in danger of being devoured by
savages than ever returning to our own country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one
of our men, early in the morning, cried out, "Land!"
and we had no sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in
hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we were, but
the ship struck upon a sand, and, in a moment, her mo-
tion being so stopped, the sea broke over her in such a
manner that we expected we should all have perished im-
mediately; and we were immediately driven into our close
quarters, to shelter us from the very foam and spray of
the sea.
It is not easy for any one, who has not been in the
like condition, to describe or conceive the consternation
of men in such circumstances: we knew nothing where
we were, or upon what land it was we were driven-
whether an island or the main, whether inhabited or nol

inhabited; and as the rage of the wind was still great,
though rather less than at first, we could not so much as
hope to have the ship hold many minutes without break-
ing in pieces, unless the winds, by a kind of miracle,
should turn immediately about. In a word, we sat look-
ing one upon another, and expecting death every moment,
and every man acting accordingly, as preparing for an-
other world; for there was little or nothing more for us
to do in this: that which was our present comfort, and
all the comfort we had, was, that, contrary to our ex-
pectation, the ship did not break yet, and that the mas-
ter said the wind began to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little
abate, yet, the ship having thus struck upon the sand,
and sticking too fast for us to expect her getting off, we
were in a dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing to
do but to think of saving our lives as well as we could.
We had a boat at our stern just before the storm; but
she was first staved by dashing against the ship's rudder,
and, in the next place, she broke away, and either sunk
or was driven off to sea; so there was no hope from her.
We had another boat on board, but how to get her off
into the sea was a doubtful thing; however, there was no
room to debate, for we fancied the ship would break in
pieces every minute, and some told us she was actually
broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of the
boat, and, with the help of the rest of the men, they got
her slung over the ship's side, and getting all into her,
let go, and committed ourselves, being eleven in number,
to God's mercy and the wild sea; for though the storm
was abated considerably, yet the sea went dreadfully high
upon the shore, and might well be called den wild zee, as
the Dutch call the sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all
saw plainly, that the sea went so high that the boat could
not live, and that we should be inevitably drowned. As
to making sail, we had none, nor, if we had, could we
have done anything with it; so we worked at the oar to-
wards the land, though with heavy hearts, like men going

to execution; for we all knew, that when the boat came
nearer the shore, she would be dashed in a thousand
pieces by the breach of the sea. However, we commit-
ted our souls to God in the most earnest manner; and
the wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened our
destruction with our own hands, pulling as well as we
could towards land.
What the shore was, whether rock, or sand, whether
steep or shoal, we knew not; the only hope that could
rationally give us the least shadow of expectation was if
we might happen into some bay or gulf, or the mouth of
some river, where, by great chance, we might have run
our boat in, or got under the lee of the land, and per-
haps made smooth water. But there was nothing of this
appeared; but, as we made nearer and nearer the shore,
the land looked more frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and
a half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like,
came rolling astern of us, and plainly bade us expect a
watery grave. In a word, it took us with such a fury,
that it overset the boat at once; and, separating us as
well from the boat as from one another, gave us not
time hardly to say, "0 God!" for we were all swallowed
up in a moment.
Nothing can describe thle confusion of thought which I
felt when I sank into the water; for though I swam very
well, yet I could not deliver myself from the waves so as
to draw breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather
carried me, a vast way on towards the shore, and having
spent itself, went back, and left me upon the land almost
dry, but half dead with the water I took in. I had so
much presence of mind, as well as breath left, that, see-
ing myself nearer the mainland than I expected, I got
upon my feet, and endeavoured to make on towards the
land as fast as I could, before another wave should return
and take me up again. But I soon found it was im-
possible to avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as
high as a great hill, and as furious as an enemy, which
I had no means or strength to contend with-my busi-
ness was to hold my breath, and raise myself upon the

water, if 1 could; and so, by swimming, to preserve my
breathing, and pilot myself towards the shore, if possible
-my greatest concern now being, that the sea, as it
would carry me a great way towards the shore when it
came on, might not carry me back again with it when it
gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again, buried me at once
twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body; and I could
feel myself carried with a mighty force and swiftness to-
wards the shore a very great way; but I held my breath,
and assisted myself to swim still forward with all my
might. I was ready to burst with holding my breath,
when, as I felt myself rising up, so, to my immediate
relief, I found my head and hands shoot out above the
surface of the water; and though it was not two seconds
of time that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved me
greatly, gave me breath, and new courage. I was covered
again with water a good while, but not so long, but I
held it out; and, finding the water had spent itself, and
began to return, I struck forward against the return of
the waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I stood
still a few moments to recover breath, and till the water
went from me, and then took to my heels, and run with
what strength I had farther towards the shore. But
neither would this deliver me from the fury of the sea,
which came pouring in after me again; and twice more
I was lifted up by the waves, and carried forwards as
before, the shore being very flat.
The last time of those two had well near been fatal to
me; for the sea, having hurried me along as before, landed
me, or rather dashed me, against a piece of a rock, and
that with such force as it left me senseless, and indeed
helpless, as to my own deliverance; for the blow taking
my side and breast, beat the breath, as it were, quite out
of my body, and had it returned again immediately, I
must have been strangled in the water; but I recovered
a little before the return of the waves, and, seeing I
should be covered again with the water, I resolved to
hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath,
if possible, till the wave went back. Now, as the waves

were not so high as at first, being near land, I held my
hold till the wave abated, and then fetched another run,
which brought me so near the shore, that the next wave,
though it went over me, yet did not so swallow me up as
to carry me away; and the next run I took I got to the
mainland, where, to my great comfort, I clambered up the
cliffs of the shore, and sat me down upon the grass, free
from danger, and quite out of the reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look
up and thank God that my life was saved, in a case
wherein there was, some minutes before, scarce any room
to hope. I believe it is impossible to express to the life
what the ecstacies and transports of the soul are when
it is so saved, as I may say, out of the very grave; and,
I do not wonder now, at that custom, namely, that when
a malefactor, who has the halter about his neck, is tied
up, and just going to be turned off, and has a reprieve
brought to him-I say, I do not wonder that they bring
a surgeon with it, to let him blood that very moment
they tell him of it, that the surprise may not drive the
animals spirits from the heart, and overwhelm him:
For sudden joys, like grief, confound at first.
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and
my whole being, as I may say, wrapt up in the contempla-
tion of my deliverance, making a thousand gestures and
motions which I cannot describe-reflecting upon all my
comrades that were drowned, and that there should not be
one soul saved but myself-for, as for them, Inever saw
them afterwards, or any sign of them, except three of their
hats, one cap, and two shoes that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when the breach
and froth of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it,
it lay so far off, and considered, Lord I how was it pos-
sible I could get on shore?
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part
of my condition, I began to look round me, to see what
kind of place I was in, and what was next to be done;
and I soon found my comforts abate, and that, in a word,
I had a dreadful deliverance: for I was wet, had no
clothes to shift me, nor anything either to eat or drink

to comfort me; neither did I see any prospect before me
but that of perishing with hunger, or being devoured by
wild beasts; and that which was particularly afflicting
to me was, that I had no weapon either to hunt and kill
any creature for my sustenance, or to defend myself
against any other creature that might desire to kill me
for theirs-in a word, I had nothing about me but a knife,
a tobacco pipe, and a little tobacco in a box; this was
all my provision, and this threw me into terrible agonies
of mind, that, for a while, I ran about like a madman.
Night coming upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to
consider what would be my lot if there were any raven-
ous beasts in that country, seeing at night they always
come abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time
was, to get up into a thick bushy tree like a fir, but
thorny, which grew near me, and where I resolved to sit
all night, and consider the next day what death I should
die, for as yet I saw no prospect of life. I walked about
a furlong from the shore, to see if I could find any fresh
water to drink, which I did, to my great joy; and having
drunk, and put a little tobacco in my mouth to prevent
hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it, en-
deavoured to place myself so as that if I should sleep I
might not fall; and having cut me a short stick, like a
truncheon, for my defence, I took up my lodging; and,
having been excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and
slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could have done
in my condition, and found myself the most refreshed
with it that I think I ever was on such an occasion.


WHEN I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and
the storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell
as before; but that which surprised me most was, that
the ship was lifted off in the night from the sand where
she lay, by the swelling of the tide, and was driven up

almost as far as the rock which I first mentioned, where
I had been so bruised by the dashing me against it; this
being within about a mile from the shore where I was,
and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished my-
self on board, that, at least, I might save some neces-
sary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree,
I looked about me again, and the first thing I found was
the boat, which lay as the wind and the sea had tossed
her up upon the land, about two miles on my right
hand. I walked as far as I could upon the shore to nave
got to her, but found a neck, or inlet of water, between
me and the boat, which was about half a mile broad: so
I came back for the present, being more intent upon
getting at the ship, where I hoped to find something for
my present subsistence.
A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the
tide ebbed so far out, that I could come within a quar-
ter of a mile of the ship; and here I found a fresh renew-
ing of my grief: for I saw evidently, that if we had kept
on board, we had been all safe-that is to say, we had
all got safe on shore, and I had not been so miserable
as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort and company,
as I now was. This forced tears from my eyes again;
but as there was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible,
to get to the ship-so I pulled off my clothes, for the
weather was hot to extremity, and took the water. But
when I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater
to know how to get on board; for, as she lay aground and
high out of the water, there was nothing within my reach
to lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and the second
time I spied a small piece of a rope, which Iwondered I
did not see at first, hang down by the fore-chains, so low
as that with great difficulty I got hold of it, and, by the
help of that rope, got up into the forecastle of the ship.
Here I found that the ship was bulged, and had a great
deal of water in her hold, but that she lay so on the side
of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth, and her stern
lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head, low almost to
the water: by this means all her quarter was free, and all

that was in that part was dry; for you may be sure my
first work was to search and to see what was spoiled,
and what was free: and first I found that all the ship's
provisions were dry and untouched by the water; and
being very well disposed to eat, I went to the bread-room,
and filled my pockets with biscuit, and ate it as I went
about other things, for I had no time to lose. I also
found some rum in the great cabin, of which I took a
large dram, and which I had indeed need enough of to
spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted noth-
ing but a boat, to furnish myself with many things which
I foresaw would be very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not
to be had; and this extremity roused my application.
We had several spare yards, and two or three large spars
of wood, and a spare topmast or two in the ship; I re-
solved to fall to work with these, and flung as many of
them overboard as I could manage of their weight, tying
every one with a rope, that they might not drive away.
When this was done, I went down to the ship's side, and
pulling them to me, I tied four of them fast together at
both ends as well as I could, in the form of a raft, and
laying two or three short pieces of plank upon them cross-
ways, I found I could walk upon it very well, but that it
was not able to bear any great weight, the pieces being
too light; so I went to work, and, with the carpenter's
saw, I cut a spare topmast into three lengths, and added
them to my raft, with a great deal of labour and pains;
but hope of furnishing myself with necessaries, encour-
aged me to go beyond what I should have been able to
have done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable
weight; my next care was what to load it with, and how
to preserve what I laid upon it from the surf of the sea;
but I was not long considering this. I first laid all the
planks or boards upon it that I could get, and having
considered well what I most wanted, I first got three of
the seamen's chests, which I had broken open and emptied,
and lowered them down upon my raft. The first of these
I filled with provisions, namely, bread, rice, three Dutch

cheeses, five pieces of dried goats' flesh, which we lived
much upon, and a little remainder of European corn,
which had been laid by for some fowls which we brought
to sea with us, but the fowls were killed. There had
been some barley and wheat together, but, to my great
disappointment, I found afterwards that the rats had
eaten or spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found several
cases of bottles belonging to our skipper, in which were
some cordial waters, and, in all, above five or six gallons
of rack: these I stowed by themselves, there being no need
to put them into the chest, nor no room for them. While
I was doing this, I found the tide began to flow, though
very calm, and I had the mortification to see my coat,
shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on shore upon the
sand, swim away; as for my breeches, which were only
linen, and open-kneed, I swam on board in them and my
stockings: however, this put me upon rummaging for
clothes, of which I found enough, but took no more than
I wanted for present use, for I had other things which my
eye was more upon: as, first, tools to work with on shore;
and it was after long searching that I found out the car-
penter's chest, which was indeed a very useful prize to
me, and much more valuable than a ship load of gold
would have been at that time. I got it down to my raft,
even whole as it was, without losing time to look into it,
for I knew in general what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms.
There were two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin,
and two pistols: these I secured first, with some powder-
horns, and a small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords.
I knew there were three barrels of powder in the ship,
but knew not where our gunner had stowed them; but
with much search I found them, two of them dry and
good, the third had taken water; those two I got to my
raft, with the arms. And now I thought myself pretty
well freighted, and began to think how I should get to
shore with them, having neither sail, oar, nor rudder,
and the least capful of wind would have overset all my
I had three encouragements: 1. A smooth, calm sea:

2. The tide rising, and setting in to the shore; 3, What
little wind there was blew me toward the land: and thus,
having found two or three broken oars belonging to the
boat, and, besides the tools which were in the chest, 1
found two saws, an axe, and a hammer; and with this
cargo I put to sea. For a mile, or thereabouts, my raft
went very well, only that I found it drive a little distant
from the place where I had landed before; by which I
perceived that there was some indraft of the water, and,
consequently, I hoped to find some creek or river there,
which I might make use of as a port to get to land with
my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was: there appeared before me a
little opening of the land, and I found a strong current
of the tide set into it, so I guided my raft as well as I
could to keep in the middle of the stream; but here I had
like to have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if I had,
I think verily would have broke my heart; for, knowing
nothing of the coast, my raft ran aground at one end of
it upon a shoal, and, not being aground at the other end,
it wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped off
towards that end that was afloat, and so fallen into the
water. I did my utmost, by setting my back against the
chests, to keep them in their places, but could not thrust
off the raft with all my strength; neither durst I stir from
the posture I was in, but, holding up the chests with all
my might, stood in that manner near half an hour, in
which time the rising of the water brought me a little
more upon a level; and, a little after, the water still ris-
ing, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off with the
oar I had into the channel; and then, driving up higher,
I at length found myself in the mouth of a little river,
with land on both sides, and a strong current, or tide,
running up. I looked on both sides for a proper place to
get to shore; for I was not willing to be driven too high
up the river, hoping, in time, to see some ship at sea.
and therefore resolved to place myself as near the coast
as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore df the
creek, to which, with great pam and difficulty, I guided

my raft. and at last got so near as that, reaching ground
with my oar, I could thrust her directly in: but here I
had like to have dipped all my cargo in the sea again:
for that shore lying pretty steep, that is to say, sloping.
there was no place to land, but where one end of the
float, if it ran on shore, would lie so high, and the other
sink lower as before, that it would endanger my cargo
again: all that I could do, was to wait till the tide was at
the highest, keeping the raft with my oar like an anchor,
to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece
of ground, which I expected the water would flow over;
and so it did. As soon as I found water enough-for
my raft drew about a foot of water-I thrust her on upon
that flat piece of ground, and there fastened, or moored
her, by sticking my two broken oars into the ground-
one on one side, near one end, and one on the other side,
near the other end; and thus I lay till the water ebbed
away, and left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a
proper place for my habitation, and where to stow my
goods, to secure them from whatever might happen.
Where I was, I yet knew not; whether on the continent
or on an island-whether inhabited or not inhabited-
whether in danger of wild beasts or not. There was a
hill, not above a mile from me, which rose up very steep
and high, and which seemed to overtop some other hills
which lay as in a ridge from it northward. I took out
one of the fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols, and a
horn of powder; and thus armed, I travelled for discovery
up to the top of that hill, where, after I had with great
labour and difficulty got to the top, I saw my fate, to my
great affliction, namely, that I was in an island, environed
every way with the sea-no land to be seen, except some
rocks which lay a great way off, and two small islands
less than this, which lay about three leagues to the west.
I found also, that the island I was in was barren, and,
as I saw good reason to believe, uninhabited, except by
wild beasts, of which, however, I saw none; yet I saw
abundance of fowls, but knew not their kinds; neither,
when I killed them, could I tell what was fit for food, and

what not. At my coming back, I shot at a great bird,
which I saw sitting upon a tree on the side of a great
wood: I believe it was the first gun that had been fired
there since the creation of the world. I had no sooner
fired, but, from all parts of the wood, there arose an in-
numerable number of fowls of many sorts, making a con-
fused screaming and crying, every one according to his
usual note; but not one of them of any kind that I knew.
As for the creature I killed, I took it to be a kind of a
hawk, its colour and beak resembling it, but had no talons,
or claws, more than common; its flesh was carrion, and
fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft,
and fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took
me up the rest of that day: and what to do with myself
at night I knew not, nor indeed where to rest; for I was
afraid to lie down on the ground, not knowing but some
wild beast might devour me; though, as I afterwards
found, there was really no need for those fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricadoed myself round
with the chests and boards that I had brought on shore,
and made a kind of a hut for that night's lodging. As for
food, I yet saw not which way to supply myself, except
that I had seen two or three creatures like hares run out
of the wood where I shot the fowl.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a great
many things out of the ship, which would be useful to
me, and particularly some of the rigging and sails, and
such other things as might come to land, and I resolved
to make another voyage on board the vessel, if possible;
and as I knew that the first storm that blew must neces-
sarily break her all in pieces, I resolved to set all other
things apart, till I got everything out of the ship that I
could get. Then I called a council (that is to say in my
thoughts), whether I should take back the raft; but this
appeared impracticable; so I resolved to go as before,
when the tide was down, and I did so, only that I strip-
ped before I went from my hut, having nothing on but a
checked shirt and a pair of linen trousers, and a pair of
pumps on my feet.

I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second
raft; and having had experience of the first, I neither
made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but yet I
brought away several things very useful to me; as first,
in the carpenter's stores, I found two or three bags full
of nails and spikes, a great screw-jack, a dozen or two of
hatchets, and, above all, that most useful thing called a
grindstone: all these I secured, together with several
things belonging to the gunner, particularly two or three
iron crows, and two barrels of musket-bullets, seven
muskets, and another fowling-piece, with some small
quantity of powder more; a large bag full of small shot,
and a great roll of sheet lead; but this last was so heavy
I could not hoist it up to get it over the ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes that
I could find, and a spare foretop-sail, hammock, and some
bedding; and with this I loaded my second raft, and
brought them all safe on shore, to my very great comfort.
I was under some apprehensions during my absence
from the land, that at least my provisions might be de.
voured on shore; but, when I came back, I found no sign
of any visitor, only there sat a creature, like a wild cat,
upon one of the chests, which, when I came towards it,
ran away a little distance, and then stood still: she sat
very composed and unconcerned, and looked full in my
face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with me. I
presented my gun at her, but as she did not understand
it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer
to stir away; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit,
though, by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store
was not great: however, I spared her a bit, I say, and
she went to it, smelled of it, and ate it, and looked, as
pleased, for more; but I thanked her, and could spare no
more-so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore, though I was
fain to open the barrels of powder, and bring them by
parcels-for they were too heavy, being large casks-I
went to work to make me a little tent, with the sail and
some poles which I cut for that purpose; and into this
tent I brought everything that I knew would spoil either

with rain or sun; and I piled all the empty chests and
casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from
any sudden attempt, either from man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the
tent with some boards within, and an empty chest set up
on end without, and, spreading one of the beds upon the
ground, laying my two pistols just at my head, and my
gun at length by me, I went to bed for the first time, and
slept very quietly all night, for I was very weary and
heavy; as the night before I had slept little, and had
laboured very hard all day, as well to fetch all those things
from the ship as to get them on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever
was laid up, I believe, for one man, but I was not satisfied
still; for, while the ship sat upright in that posture, I
thought I ought to get everything out of her that I could:
so every day, at low water, I went on board, and brought
away something or other; but particularly the third time
I went, I brought away as much of the rigging as I could,
as also all the small ropes and rope-twine I could get,
with a piece of spare canvass, which was to mend the
sails upon occasion, and the barrel of wet gunpowder;
in a word, I brought away all the sails first and last,
only that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and bring as
much at a time as I could; for they were no more useful
to be sails, but as mere canvass only.
But that which comforted me more still, was, that last
of all, after I had made five or six such voyages as these,
and thought I had nothing more to expect from the ship
that was worth my meddling with-I say, after all this,
I found a great hogshead of bread, and three large runlets
of rum or spirits, and a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine
flour; this was surprising to me, because I had given over
expecting any more provisions, except what was spoiled
bythe water. I soon emptied the hogshead of that bread,
and wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails,
which I cut out: and, in a word, I got all this safe on
shore also.
The next day I made another voyage; and now, hav-
ing plundered the ship of what was portable and fit to

hand out, I began with the cables; and cutting the great
cable into pieces, such as I could move, I got two cables
and a hawser on shore, with all the iron-work I could
get; and having cut down the spritsail-yard, and the
mizen-yard, and everything I could, to make a large raft,
I loaded it with all those heavy goods, and came away:
but my good luck began now to leave me; for this raft
was so unwieldy and overladen, that, after I had entered
the little cove, where I had landed the rest of my goods,
not being able to guide it so handily as I did the others,
it overset, and threw me and all my cargo into the water.
As for myself, it was no great harm, for I was near the
shore ; but as to my cargo, it was, great part of it, lost,
especially the iron, which I expected would have been of
great use to me: however, when the tide was out, I got
most of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron,
though with infinite labour; for I was fain to dip for it
into the water, a work which fatigued me very much.
After this, I went every day on board, and brought away
what I could get.
I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been
eleven times on board the ship; in which time I had
brought away all that one pair of hands could well be sup-
posed capable to bring, though I believe verily, had the
calm held, I should have brought away the whole ship,
piece by piece: but, preparing the twelfth time to go on
board, I found the wind began to rise; however, at low
water, I went on board, and though I thought I had
rummaged the cabin so effectually as that nothing more
could be found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers in
it, in one of which I found two or three razors, and one
pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good
knives and forks; in another I found about thirty- six
pounds value in money, some European coin, some Brazil,
some pieces of eight, some gold, some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. 0
drug said I, aloud, what art thou good for ? thou art
not worth to me-no, not the taking off of the ground;
one of those knives is worth all this heap; I have no
manner of use for thee; even remain where thou art, and

go to the bottom as a creature whose life is not worth
saving." However, upon second thoughts, I took it away,
and, wrapping all this in a piece of canvass, I began to
think of making another raft; but, while I was preparing
this, I found the sky overcast, and the wind began to rise,
and in quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the
shore. It presently occurred to me, that it was in vain to
pretend to make a raft with the wind off shore, and that
it was my business to be gone before the tide of flood
began, otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore
at all: accordingly, I let myself down into the water, and
swam across the channel which lay between the ship and
the sands, and even that with difficulty enough, partly
with the weight of things I had about me, and partly the
roughness of the water, for the wind rose very hastily, and,
before it was quite high water, it blew a storm.
But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I lay
with all my wealth about me very secure. It blew very
hard all that night, and in the morning when I looked
out, behold no more ship was to be seen I was a little
surprised, but recovered myself with this satisfactory re-
flection, namely, that I had lost no time, nor abated no
diligence, to get everything out of her that could be useful
to me, and that indeed there was little left in her that I
was able to bring away, if I had had more time.
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of
anything out of her, except what might drive on shore
from the wreck, as indeed divers pieces of her afterwards
did; but those things were of small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing
myself against either savages, if any should appear, or
wild beasts, if any were on the island; and I had many
thoughts of the method how to do this, and what kind of
dwelling to make-whether I should make me a cave in
the earth, or a tent upon the earth: and, in short, I re-
solved upon both, the manner and description of which
it may not be improper to give an account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not for my settle-
ment, particularly because it was upon a low moorish
ground near the sea, and I believe would not be whole-

some, and more particularly because there was no fresh
water near it; so I resolved to find a more healthy and
more convenient spot of ground.
I consulted several things in my situation which I found
would be proper for me:-1st, Health and fresh water I
just now mentioned; 2dly, Shelter from the heat of the
sun; 3dly, Security from ravenous creatures, whether man
or beast; 4thly, A view to the sea, that, if God send any
ship in sight, I might not lose any advantage for my
deliverance, of which I was not willing to banish all my
expectation yet.
In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain
on the side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little
plain was steep as a house-side, so that nothing could come
down upon me from the top: on the side of this rock there
was a hollow place worn a little way in, like the entrance
or door of a cave, but there was not really any cave or
way into the rock at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place
I resolved to pitch my tent: this plain was not above an
hundred yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay
like a green before my door, and at the end of it descended
irregularly every way down into the low grounds by the
sea-side. It was on the north-north-west side of the hill,
so that I was sheltered from the heat every day, till it
came to a west-and-by-south sun, or thereabouts, which
in those countries is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half circle before the
hollow place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-
diameter from the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter,
from its beginning and ending.
In this half circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes,
driving them into the ground till they stood very firm,
like piles, the biggest end being out of the ground about
five feet and a half, and sharpened on the top: the two
rows did not stand above six inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the
ship, and laid them in rows, one upon another, with-
in the circle between these two rows of stakes up to the
top, placing other stakes in the inside, leaning against

them, about two feet and a half high, like a spur to a
post; and this fence was so strong that neither man nor
beast could get into it, or over it: this cost me a great
deal of time and labour, especially to cut the piles in the
woods, bring them to the place, and drive them into
the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a
door, but by a short ladder, to go over the top; which
ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after me: and so I
was completely fenced in, and fortified, as I thought,
from all the world, and consequently slept secure in the
night, which otherwise I could not have done; though
as it appeared afterward, there was no need of all this
caution from the enemies that I apprehended danger from.
Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried
all my riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores,
of which you have the account above; and I made me a
large tent, which, to preserve me from the rains, that in
one part of the year are very violent there, I made double,
namely, one smaller tent within, and one larger tent
above it, and covered the uppermost with a large tar-
paulin, which I had saved among the sails.
And now I lay no more, for a while, in the bed which
1 had brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was,
indeed, a very good one, and belonged to the mate of the
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and every-
thing that would spoil by the wet; and having thus en-
closed all my goods, I made up the entrance, which, till
now, I had left open, and so passed and repassed, as I
said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way into
the rock, and, bringing all the earth and stones that I
dug down, out through my tent, I laid them up within
my fence in the nature of a terrace, that so it raised the
ground within about a foot and a half; and thus I made
me a cave just behind my tent, which served me like a
cellar to my house.
It cost me much labour and many days before all
these things were brought to perfection: and, therefore.

I must go back to some other things which took up some
of my thoughts. At the same time, it happened, after 1
had laid my scheme for the setting up my tent, and mak-
ing the cave, that a storm of rain falling from a thick dark
cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened, and after
that a great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it.
I was not so much surprised with the lightning as I was
with a thought which darted into my mind, as swift as
the lightning itself: Oh, my powder I my very heart sank
within me, when I thought that, at one blast, all my pow-
der might be destroyed, on which, not my defence only,
but the providing me food, as I thought, entirely depend-
ed: I was nothing near so anxious about my own dan-
ger, though, had the powder took fire, I had never known
who had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that after the
storm was over, I laid aside all my works, my building
and fortifying, and applied myself to make bags and boxes,
to separate the powder, and to keep it a little and a little
in a parcel, in hope that, whatever might come, it might
not all take fire at once, and to keep it so apart, that it
should not be possible to make one part fire another. I
finished this work in about a fortnight; and I think my
powder, which, in all, was about two hundred and forty
pounds weight, was divided in not less than a hundred
parcels. As to the barrel that had been wet, I did not
apprehend any danger from that, so I placed it in my
new cave, which, in my fancy, I called my kitchen; and
the rest I hid up and down in holes among the rocks,
so that no wet might come to it, marking very carefully
where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went
out once at least every day with my gun, as well to divert
myself as to see if I could kill anything fit for food, and,
as near as I could, to acquaint myself with what the
island produced. The first time I went out, I presently
discovered that there were goats in the island, which was
a great satisfaction to me; but then, it was attended with
this misfortune to me, namely, that they were so shy, so
subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the most difficult

thing in the world to come at them. But I was not dis-
couraged at this, not doubting but I might now and then
shoot one, as it soon happened; for, after I had found
their haunts a little, I laid wait in this manner for them.
I observed, if they saw me in the valleys, though they were
upon the rocks, they would run away as in a terrible
fright; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and I was
upon the rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence
I concluded, that, by the position of their optics, their
sight was so directed downward, that they did not readily
see objects that were above them: so afterwards I took
this method: I always climbed the rocks first, to get
above them, and then had frequently a fair mark. The
first shot I made among these creatures I killed a she-
goat, which had a little kid by her which she gave suck to,
which grieved me heartily; but when the old one fell, the
kid stood stock still by her till I came and took her up;
and not only so, but, when I carried the old one with me
upon my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my en-
closure; upon which I laid down the dam, and took the
rid in my arms, and carried it over my pale, in hopes to
have bred it up tame; but it would not eat, so I was
forced to kill it, and eat it myself. These two supplied
me with flesh a great while, for I ate sparingly, and saved
my provisions (my bread especially) as much as possibly
I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely
necessary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to
burn; and what I did that for, as also how I enlarged my
cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a full
account of in its place; but I must first give some little
account of myself, and of my thoughts about living, which,
it may well be supposed, were not a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for, as I was
not cast away upon that island without being driven, as
is said, by a violent storm, quite out of the course of our
intended voyage, and a great way, namely, some hundreds
of leagues, out of the ordinary course of the trade oi
mankind, I had great reason to consider it as a determin-
ation of Heaven, that, in this desolate place, and in this

desolate manner, I should end my life. The tears would
run plentifully down my face when I made these reflec-
tions; and sometimes I would expostulate with myself why
Providence should thus completely ruin his creatures,
and render them so absolutely miserable, so without help
abandoned, so entirely depressed, that it could hardly be
rational to be thankful for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me to check
these thoughts, and to reprove me; and, particularly, one
day walking, with my gun in my hand, by the sea-side, I
was very pensive upon the subject of my present condi-
tion, when reason, as it were, expostulated with me the
other way, thus:-" Well, you are in a desolate condition,
it is true; but pray, remember, where are the rest of you ?
Did not you come eleven of you into the boat ? Where
are the ten? Why were they not saved and you lost ? Why
were you singled out ? Is it better to be here or there?"
And then I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be con-
sidered with the good that is in them, and with what
worse attended them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished
for my subsistence, and what would have been my case
if it had not happened, which was an hundred thousand
to one, that the ship floated from the place where she first
struck, and was driven so near the shore that I had time
to get all things out of her. What would have been my
case, if I had been to have lived in the condition in which
I at first came on shore, without necessaries of life, or
necessaries to supply or procure them? "Particularly,"
said I, loud, though to myself, "what should I have
done without a gun, without ammunition, without any
tools to make anything, or to workwith-without clothes,
bedding, a tent or any manner of covering ?" and that
now I had all these to a sufficient quantity, and was in
a fair way to provide myself in such a manner as to live
without my gun when my ammunition was spent; so that
I had a tolerable view of subsisting without any want, as
long as I lived: for I considered, from the beginning, how
I should provide for the accidents that might happen,
and for the time that was to come, even not only after

my ammunition should be spent, but even after my health
and strength should decay.
I confess I had not entertained any notion of my
ammunition being destroyed at one blast, I mean, my
powder being blown up by lightning; and this made the
thoughts of it so surprising to me when it lightened and
thundered, as I observed just now.
And now, being about to enter into a melancholy re-
lation of a scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never
heard of in the world before, I shall take it from its
beginning, and continue it in its order. It was, by my
account, the 80th of September, when, in the manner as
above said, I first set foot upon this horrid island, when
the sun being, to us, in its autumnal equinox, was almost
just over my head; for I reckoned myself, by observation,
to be in the latitude of nine degrees twenty two minutes,
north of the Line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came
into my thoughts, that I should lose my reckoning of time
for want of books, and pen and ink, and should even for-
get the Sabbath days from the working days; but, to pre-
vent this, I cut it with my knife upon a large post in capital
letters, and making it into a great cross, I set it up on the
shore where I first landed, namely, I came on shore here
on the 80th of September 1659. Upon the sides of this
square post, I cut every day a notch with my knife, and
every seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and
every first day of the month as long again as that long
one; and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly,
and yearly, reckoning of time.
In the next place, we are to observe, that, among the
many things which I brought out of the ship in the several
voyages, which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got
several things of less value, but not at all less useful to
me, which I omitted setting down before; as, in particular,
pens, ink, and paper, several parcels in the captain's,
mate's, gunner's, and carpenter's keeping, three or four
compasses, some mathematical instruments, dials, per-
pectives, charts, and books of navigation, all which J
huddled together, whether I might want them or no. Also,

[ found three very good Bibles, which came to me in my
cargo from England, and which I had packed up among
my things; some Portuguese books also, and among them
two or three Popish prayer-books, and several other books:
all which I carefully secured. And I must not forget
that we had in the ship a dog and two cats, of whose
eminent history I may have occasion to say something
in its place; for I carried both the cats, with me: and as
for the dog, he jumped out of the ship of himself, and
swam on shore to me the day after I went on shore with
my first cargo, and was. a trusty servant to me many
years: I wanted nothing that he could fetch me, nor any
company that he could make up to me-I only wanted
to have him talk to me; but that he could not do. As I
observed before, I found pen, ink, and paper, and I hus-
banded them to the utmost; and I shall show, that while
my ink lasted, I kept things very exact; but after that was
gone I could not, for I could not make any ink by any
means that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things,
notwithstanding all that I had amassed together; and of
these, this of ink was one, as also spade, pick-axe, and
shovel, to dig or remove the earth; needles, pins, and
thread. As for linen, I soon learnt to want that without
anuch difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on heavi-
ly, and it was near a whole year before I had entirely fin-
ished my little pale, or surrounded habitation: the piles,
or stakes, which were as heavy as I could well lift, were
a long time in cutting and preparing in the woods, and
more by far in bringing home; so that I spent sometimes
two days in cutting and bringing home one of those posts,
and a third day in driving it into the ground; for which
purpose I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last
bethought myself of one of the iron crows, which, how-
ever, though I found it, yet it made driving those posts,
or piles, very laborious and tedious work.
But what need I have been concerned at the tedious-
ness of anything I had to do, seeing I had time enough
to do it in ? Nor had I any other employment, if that


had been over, at least that I could foresee, except the
ranging the island to seek for food, which I did more or
less every day.
I now began to consider seriously my condition, and
the circumstances I was reduced to, and I drew up the
state of my affairs in writing, not so much to leave them
to any that were to come after me (for I was like to have
but few heirs), as to deliver my thoughts from daily
poring upon them, and afflicting my mind; and as my
reason began now to master my despondency, I began to
comfort myself as well as I could, and to set the good
against the evil, that I might have something to distin.
guish my case from worse; and stated it very impartially,
like debtor and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed against
the miseries I suffered, thus :-

I am cast upon a horrible de-
solate island, void of all hope of

I am singled out
as it were, from al
be miserable.

I am divided fr
solitaire, one banis]
I have no clothe

I am without
means to resist any
or beast.

I have no soul
relieve me.

But I am alive, and not drown-
ed, as all my ship's company was.

and separated, But I am singled out, too, from
11 the world, to all the ship's crew, to be spared
from death; and He that miracu-
lously saved me from death, can
deliver me from this condition.
om mankind, a But I am not starved and per-
hed from human fishing on a barren place, afford-
ing no sustenance.
es to cover me. But I am in a hot climate,
where, if I had clothes, I could
hardly wear them.
any defence, or But I am cast on an island,
'violence of man where I see no wild beasts to hurt
me, as I saw on the coast of Af-
rica; and what if Ihad been ship-
wrecked there?
to speak to, or But God wonderfully sent the
ship in near enough to the shore,
that I have gotten out so many
necessary things as will either sup-
ply my wants, or enable me to sup-
ply myself, even as long as I live

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony, that
there was scarce any condition in the world so miserable,
but there was something negative or something positive

to be thankful for in it; and let this stand as a direction
from the experience of the most miserable of all conditions
in this world, that we may always find in it something
to comfort ourselves from, and to set in the description of
good and evil on the credit side of the account.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my con-
dition, and given over looking out to sea, to see if I could
spy a ship-I say, giving over these things, I began to
apply myself to accommodate my way of living, and to
make things as easy to me as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was a
tent, under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong
pale of posts and cables; but I might now rather call it
a wall, for I raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs,
about two feet thick on the outside; and after some time
-I think it was a year and a half-I raised rafters from it,
leaning to the rock, and thatched or covered it with boughs
of trees, and such things as I could get to keep out the rain,
which I found at some times of the year very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods
into this pale, and into the cave whichI had made behind
me: but I must observe, too, that at first this was a con-
fused heap of goods, which, as they lay in no order, so
they took up all my place: I had no room to turn my-
self, so I set myself to enlarge my cave and works farther
into the earth; for it was a loose sandy rock, which yielded
easily to the labour I bestowed on it-and so, when I found
I was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways
to the right hand into the rock: and then, turning to the
right again, worked quite out, and made me a door to
come out, on the outside of my pale, or fortification.
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were
a back way to my tent and to my storehouse, but gave
me room to stow my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such neces-
sary things as I found I most wanted, particularly a chair
and a table; for without these I was not able to enjoy the
few comforts I had in the world-I could not write or eat
or do several things, with so much pleasure without a table.
So I went to work; and here I must needs observe.

that as reason is the substance and original of the ma
thematics, so, by stating and squaring everything by rea-
son, and by making the most rational judgment of things,
every man may be in time master of every mechanic art. I
had never handled a tool in my life, and yet in time, by
labour, application, and contrivance, I found at last that
I wanted nothing but I could have made it, especially if
I had had tools; however, I made abundance of things
even without tools, and some with no more tools than an
adzeand a hatchet, which, perhaps, were never made that
way before, and that with infinite labour-for example,
if I wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down a
tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either
side with my axe, till I had brought it to be as thin as a
plank, and then dub it smooth with my adze. It is true,
by this method I could make but one board out of a whole
tree; but this I had no remedy for but patience, any more
than I had for the prodigious deal of time and labour which
it took me up to make a plank or board; but my time and
labour were little worth, and so they were as well employed
one way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed
above, in the first place-and this I did out of the short
pieces of boards that I brought on my raft from the ship;
but, when I had wrought out some boards, as above, I
made large shelves of the breadth of a foot and a half, one
over another, all along one side of my cave, to lay allmy
tools, nails, and iron-work, and, in a word, to separate
everything at large in their places, that I might come
easily at them. I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock
to hang my guns, and all things that would hang up.
So that, had my cave been to be seen, it looked like
a general magazine of all necessary things; and I had
everything so ready at my hand, that it was a great
pleasure to me to see all my goods in such order, and
especially to find my stock of all necessaries so great.
And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every
day's employment; for indeed at first I was in too much
a hurry; and not only hurry as to labour, but in too
much discomposure of mind, and my journal would have

been full of many dull things. For example, I must have
said thus:-September the 80th, after I got to shore, and
had escaped drowning, instead of being thankful to God
for my deliverance, having first vomited with the great
quantity of salt water which was gotten into my stomach,
and recovering myself a little, I ran about the shore,
wringing my hands, and beating my head and face, ex-
claiming at my misery, and crying out, I was undone, un-
done till, tired and faint, I was forced to lie down on the
ground to repose, but durst not sleep for fear of being de-
Some days after this, and after I had been on board
the ship, and got all that I could out of her, yet I could
not forbear getting up to the top of a little mountain, and
looking out to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship; then fancy
at a vast distance I spied a sail-please myself with the
hopes of it-and then, after looking steadily till I was
almost blind, lose it quite, and sit down and weep like a
child, and thus increase my misery by my folly.
But having gotten over these things in some measure,
and having settled my household stuff and habitation,
made me a table and a chair, and all as handsome about
me as I could, I began to keep my journal, of which I
shall here give you the copy (though in it will be told all
these particulars over again), as long as it lasted; for,
having no more ink, I was forced to leave it off.


September, 80, 1659.
I, POOR miserable Robinson Crusoe, being shipwrecked
during a dreadful storm in the offing, came on shore on
this dismal unfortunate island, which I called the Island
of Despair; all the rest of the ship's company being
drowned, and myself almost dead.
All the rest of that day I spent m afflicting myself at
the dismal circumstances I was brought to, namely, I

had neither food, house, clothes, weapon, nor place to
fly to, and in despair of any relief, saw nothing but death
before me, either that I should be devoured by wild beasts,
murdered by savages, or starved to death for want of food.
At the approach of night I slept in a tree, for fear of
wild creatures, but slept soundly, though it rained all
October 1.-In the morning I saw, to my great sur-
prise, the ship had floated with the high tide, and was
driven on shore again much nearer the island; which, as
it was some comfort on one hand, for seeing her sit up-
right, and not broken to pieces, I hoped, if the wind
abated, I might get on board, and get some food and
necessaries out of her for my relief; so, on the other hand,
it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades, who, I
imagined, if we had all staid on board, might have saved
the ship, or at least that they would not have been all
drowned as they were; and that had the men been saved.
we might perhaps have built us a boat out of the ruins
of the ship, to have carried us to some other part of the
world. I spent great part of this day in perplexing my-
self on these things; but at length, seeing the ship almost
dry, I went upon the sand as near as I could, and then
swam on board. This day also it continued raining,
though with no wind at all.
From the 1st of October to the 24th.-All these days
entirely spent in many several voyages to get all I could
out of the ship, which I brought on shore, every tide of
flood, upon rafts. Much rain also in these days, though
with some intervals of fair weather; but it seems this
was the rainy season.
Oct. 20.-I oversee my raft, and all the goods I had got
upon it; but being in shoal water, and the things being
chiefly heavy, 1 recovered many of them when the tide
was out.
Oct. 25.-It rained all night and all day, with some
gusts of wind; during which time the ship broke in pieces,
the wind blowing a little harder than before, and was
no more to be seen except the wreck of her, and that
ouly at low water. I spent this dayin covering and secur-

ing the goods which I had saved, that rain might not spoil
Oct. 26.-I walked about the shore almost all day, to
find out a place to fix my habitation, greatly concerned
to secure myself from any attack in the night, either from
wild beasts or men. Towards night I fixed upon a pro-
per place under a rock, and marked out a semicircle for
my encampment, which I resolved to strengthen with a
work, wall, or fortification, made of double piles, lined
within with cable, and without with turf.
From the 26th to the 80th I worked very hard in carry-
ing all my goods to my new habitation, though some part
of the time it rained exceedingly hard.
The 81st, in the morning, I went out into the island
with my gun, to seek for some food, and discover the
country; when I killed a she-goat, and her kid followed
me home, which I afterwards killed also, because it would
not feed.
November 1.-I set up my tent under a rock, and lay
there for the first night, making it as large as I could,
with stakes driven in to swing my hammock upon.
Nov. 2.-I set up all my chests and boards, and the
pieces of timber, which made my rafts, and with them
formed a fence round me, a little within the place I had
marked out for my fortification.
Nov. 8.-I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls
like ducks, which were very good food. In the afternoon,
went to work to make me a table.
Nov. 4.-This morning I began to order my times of
work-of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time
of diversion: namely, every morning I walked out with
my gun for two or three hours, if it did not rain, then
employed myself to work till about eleven o'clock, then
ate what I had to live on, and from twelve to two I lay
down to sleep, the weather being excessively hot, and
then in the evening to work again. The working part of
this day and of the next were wholly employed in making
my table, for I was yet but a very sorry workman, though
time and necessity made me a complete natural mechanic
soon after, as I believe it would do any one else.

Nov. 4.-This day went abroad with my gun and my
dog, and killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her
flesh good for nothing: every creature I killed I took off
the skins, and preserved them. Coming back by the sea-
shore, I saw many sorts of sea-fowls, which I did not
understand; but was surprised, and almost frighted, with
two or three seals, which, while I was gazing at, not well
knowing what they were, got into the sea, and escaped
me for that time.
Nov. 6.-After my morning walk, I went to work with
my table again, and finished it, though not to my liking;
nor was it long before I learned to mend it.
Nov. 7.-Now it began to be settled fair weather. The
7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and part of the 12th (for the llth
was Sunday), I took wholly up to make me a chair, and
with much ado, brought it to a tolerable shape, but never
to please me; and even in the making, I pulled it in pieces
several times. Note.-I soon neglected my keeping Sun-
days; for omitting my mark for them on my post, 1
forgot which was which.
Nov. 13.-This day it rained, which refreshed me ex-
ceedingly, and cooled the earth; but was accompanied
with terrible thunder and lightning, which frighted me
dreadfully for fear of my powder. As soon as it was over,
I resolved to separate my stock of powder into as many
little parcels as possible, that it might not be in danger.
Nov. 14, 15, 16.-These three days I spent in making
little square chests or boxes, which might hold about a
pound, or two pound at most, of powder; and so putting
the powder in, I stowed it in places as secure and remote
from one another as possible. On one of these three days
I killed a large bird that was good to eat, but I knew
not what to call it.
Nov. 17.-This day I began to dig behind my tent into
the rock, to make room for my farther conveniency.
Note.-Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work,
namely, a pick-axe, a shovel, and a wheel-barrow or bas-
ket; so I desisted from my work, and began to consider
how to supply that want, and make me some tools: as
for a pick-axe. I made use of the iron crows, which were

proper enough, though heavy; but the next thing was a
shovel or spade; this was so absolutely necessary, that
indeed I could do nothing effectually without it, but what
kind of one to make I knew not.
Nov. 18.-The next day, in searching the woods, 1
found a tree of that wood, or like it, which in the Brazils
they call the iron tree, for its exceeding hardness: of this,
with great labour, and almost spoiling my axe, I out a
piece, and brought it home too with difficulty enough, for
it was exceedingly heavy.
The excessive hardness of the wood, and having no
other way, made me a long while upon this machine; for
I worked it effectually by little and little into the form
of a shovel or spade, the handle exactly shaped like ours
in England, only that the broad part having no iron shod
upon it at bottom, it would not last me so long; how-
ever, it served well enough for the uses which I had
occasion to put it to; but never was a shovel, I believe,
made after that fashion, or so long a-making.
I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket or a wheel.
barrow: a basket I could not make by any means, hav-
ing no such things as twigs, that would bend to make
wicker-ware, at least not yet found out; and as to a
wheelbarrow, I fancied I could make all but the wheel,
but that I had no notion of, neither did I know how to
go about it; besides, I had no possible way to make the
iron gudgeons for the spindle, or axis, of the wheel, to
run in, so I gave it over; and so, for carrying away the
earth which I dug out of the cave, I made me a thing like
a hod, which the labourers carry mortar in when they
serve the bricklayers.
This was not so difficult to me as the makingthe shovel;
and yet this, and the shovel, and the attempt which I
made in vain to make a wheelbarrow, took me up no less
than four days-I mean always excepting my morning
walk with my gun, which I seldom failed; and seldom
failed also bringing home something to eat.
Nov. 28.-My other work having now stood still, be-
cause of my making these tools, when they were finished
I went on, and working every day, as my strength and

time allowed, I spent eighteen days entirely in widening
and deepening my cave. that it might hold my goods
Note.-During all this time I worked to make this room,
or cave, spacious enough to accommodate me as a ware-
house, or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cel-
lar: as for my lodging I kept to the tent, except that
sometimes, in the wet season of the year, it rained so
hard that I could not keep myself dry, which caused me
afterwards to cover all my place within my pale with long
poles in the form of rafters, leaning against the rock, and
load them with flags and large leaves of trees like a thatch.
December 10.-I began now to think my cave, or vault,
finished, when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too
large), a great quantity of earth fell down from the top
and one side, so much, that, in short, it frighted me, and
not without reason too; for if I had been under it, Ihad
never wanted a grave-digger. Upon this disaster I had
a great deal of work to do over again; for I had the loose
earth to carry out, and, which was of more importance,
I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no
more would come down.
Dec. 11.-This day I went to work with it accordingly,
and got two shores or posts pitched upright to the top,
with two pieces of boards across over each post; this I
finished the next day; and setting more posts up with
boards, in about a week more I had the roof secured;
and the posts standing in rows, served me for partitions
to part off my house.
Dec. 17.-From this day to the 20th I placed shelves,
and knocked up nails on the posts to hang everything up
that could be hung up: and now I began to be in some
order within doors.
Dec. 20.-Now I carried everything into the cave, and
began to furnish my house, and set up some pieces of
boards like a dresser, to order my victuals upon; but
boards began to be very scarce with me: also, I made
me another table.
Dec. 24.-Much rain all night and all day; no stirring

Dec. 25.-Rain all day.
Dec. 26.--No rain, and the earth much cooler than
before, and pleasanter.
Dec. 27.-Killed a young goat, and lamed another, so
that I caught it, and led it home in a string: when I had
it home, I bound and splintered up its leg, which was
broke. N.B.-I took such care of it, that it lived, and
the leg grew well and as strong as ever; but by nursing
it so long it grew tame, and fed upon the little green at
my door, and would not go away. This was the first
time that I entertained a thought of breeding up some
tame creatures, that I might have food when my powder
and shot are all spent.
Dec. 28, 29, 80.-Great heats, and no breeze; so that
there was no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for
food. This time I spent in putting all my things in or
der within doors.
January 1.-Very hot still: but I went abroad early
and late with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the
day. This evening, going farther into the valleys which
lay towards the centre of the island, I found there was
plenty of goats, though exceedingly shy and hard to come
at; however, I resolved to try if I could not bring my
dog to hunt them down.
Jan. 2.-Accordingly, the next day I went out with
my dog, and set him upon the goats; but I was mistaken,
for they all faced about upon the dog; and he knew his
danger too well, for he would not come near them.
Jan. 8.-I began my fence, or wall, which, being still
jealous of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to
make very thick and strong.
N.B.-This wall being described before, I purposely
omit what was said in the journal; it is sufficient to
observe, that I was no less time than from the 8d of
January to the 14th of April, working, finishing, and
perfecting this wall, though it was no more than about
twenty-four yards in length, being a half circle from one
place in the rock to another place about eight yards from
it, the door of the cave being in the centre behind it.
All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me

many days, nay, sometimes weeks together; but I thought
I should never be perfectly secure until this wall was
finished; and it is scarce credible what inexpressible la-
bour everything was done with, especially the bringing
piles out of the woods, and driving them into the ground;
for I made them much bigger than I need to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double
fenced with a turf wall raised up close to it, I persuaded
myself, that if any people were to come on shore there,
they would not perceive anything like a habitation; and
it was very well I did so, as may be observed hereafter,
upon a very remarkable occasion.
During this time I made my rounds in the woods for
game every day, when the rain permitted me, and made
frequent discoveries in these walks, of something or other
to my advantage; particularly, I found a kind of wild
pigeons, who built, not as wood pigeons, in a tree, but
rather as house pigeons, in the holes of the rocks; and
taking some young ones, I endeavoured to breed them
up tame, and did so ; but when they grew older they flew
away, which, perhaps, was at first for want of feeding
them; for I had nothing to give them. However, I fre-
quently found their nests, and got their young ones,
which were very good meat.
And now, in the managing my household affairs, I
found myself wanting in many things, which I thought
at first it was impossible for me to make, as indeed, as
to some of them, it was-for instance, I could never make
a cask to be hooped. I had a small runlet or two, as I
observed before, but I could never arrive to the capacity
of making one by them, though I spent many weeks
about it; I could neither put in the heads, nor joint the
staves so true to one another as to make them hold water,
so I gave that also over.
In the next place, I was at great loss for candle, so
that as soon as ever it was dark, which was generally by
seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I remembered
the lump of bees' wax with which I made candles in my
African adventure, but I had none of that now. The
only remedy I had was, that, when I had killed a goat I

saved the tallow, and, with a little dish made of clay,
which I baked in the sun, to which I added a wick of
some oakum, I made me a lamp; and this gave me a
light, though not a clear steady light like a candle. In
the middle of all my labours, it happened that, rummag-
ing my things, I found a little bag, which, as I hinted
before, had been filled with corn for the feeding of poultry,
not for this voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the
ship came from Lisbon. What little remainder of corn
had been in the bag was all devoured with the rats, and
I saw nothing in the bag but husks and dust; and being
willing to have the bag for some other use-I think it
was to put powder in, when I divided it for fear of the
lightning, or some such use-I shook the husks of corn
out of it, on one side of my fortification, under the
It was a little before the great rains, just now men-
tioned, that I threw this stuff away, taking no notice of
anything, and not so much as remembering that I had
thrown anything there; when about a month after, or
thereabout, I saw some few stalks of something green
shooting out of the ground, which I fancied might be some
plant I had not seen; but I was surprised and perfectly
astonished, when, after a little longer time, I saw about
ten or twelve ears come out, which were perfectly green
barley, of the same kind as our European-nay, as our
English barley.
It is impossible to express the astonishment and con-
fusion of my thoughts on this occasion. I had hitherto
acted upon no religious foundation at all. Indeed, I had
very few notions of religion in my head, or had enter-
tained any sense of anything that had befallen me, other-
wise than as a chance, or, as we lightly say, what pleases
God; without so much as inquiring into the end of Pro-
vidence in these things, or his order in governing events
in the world. But after I saw barley grow there, in a
climate which I knew was not proper for corn, and es-
pecially, that I knew not how it came there, it startled
me strangely, and I began to suggest, that God had
miraculously caused this grain to grow, without any help

of seed sown; and that it so was directed, purely for my
sustenance on that wild miserable place.
This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out
of my eyes, and I began to bless myself that such a pro-
digy of nature should happen upon my account; and this
was the more strange to me, because I saw near it still, all
along by the side of the rock, some other straggling stalks,
which proved to be stalks of rice, and which I knew, be-
cause I had seen it grow in Africa, when I was ashore there.
I not only thought these the pure productions of Pro-
vidence for my support, but, not doubting but that there
was more in the place, I went all over that part of the
island where I had been before, peeping in every corner,
and under every rock, to see for more of it, but I could not
find any. At last, it occurred to my thought, that I had
shook a bag of chickens' meat out in that place, and then
the wonder began to cease; and I must confess, my religi-
ous thankfulness to God's providence began to abate too,
upon discovering that all this was nothing but what was
common, though I ought to have been as thankful for
so strange and unforeseen a providence, as if it had been
miraculous; for it was really the work of Providence, as
to me, that should order or appoint ten or twelve grains
of corn to remain unspoiled, when the rats had destroyed
all the rest, as if it had been dropped from heaven-as
also, that I should throw it out in that particular place,
where, it being in the shade of a high rock, it sprang up
immediately; whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere else
at that time, it had been burnt up and destroyed.
I carefully saved the ears of corn, you may be sure, in
their season, which was about the end of June, and lay-
ing up every corn, I resolved to sow them all again, hoping
in time to have some quantity sufficient to supply me with
bread; but it was not till the fourth year that I could
allow myself the least grain of this corn to eat, and even
then but sparingly, as I shall say afterwards in its order
--for I lost all that I sowed the first season, by not ob-
serving the proper time-for I sowed it just before the
dry season, so that it never came up at all, at least not
as it would have done-of which in its place.

Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or
thirty stalks of rice, which I preserved with the same care
and whose use was of the same kind, or to the same pur-
pose, namely, to make me bread, or rather food; for I
found ways to cook it up without baking, though I did
that also after some time. But to return to my journal.
I worked excessively hard these three or four months
to get my wall done; and the 14th of April I closed it
up, contriving to go into it, not by a door, but over the
wall by a ladder, that there might be no sign in the out-
side of my habitation.
April 16.-I finished the ladder; so I went up with
the ladder to the top, and then pulled it up after me, and
let it down in the inside. This was a complete enclosure
to me; for within I had room enough, and nothing could
come at me from without, unless it could first mount my
The very next day after this wall was finished, I had
almost had all my labour overthrown at once, and myself
killed. The case was thus :-as I was busy in the inside
of it, behind my tent, just in the entrance into my cave,
I was terribly frighted with a most dreadful surprising
thing indeed; for on a sudden I found the earth come
crumbling down from the roof of my cave, and from the
edge of the hill, over my head, and two of the posts I
had set up in the cave cracked in a frightful manner. I
was heartily scared, but thought nothing of what was
really the cause, only thinking that the top of my cave
was falling in, as some of it had done before; and, for
fear I should be buried in it, Iran forward to my ladder,
and not thinking myself safe there neither, I got over
my wall for fear of the pieces of the hill, which I expected
might roll down upon me. I was no sooner stept down
upon the firm ground, but I plainly saw it was a terrible
earthquake, for the ground I stood on shook three times
at about eight minutes' distance, with three such shocks,
as would have overturned the strongest building that
could be supposed to have stood on the earth; and a
great piece of the top of a rock, which stood about half
a mile from me, next the sea,fell down with such a ter-

rible noise as I never heard in all my life : I perceived
also the very sea was put into violent motion by it; and
I believe the shocks were stronger under the water than
on the island.
I was so amazed with the thing itself, having never
felt the like, or discoursed with any one that had, that 1
was like one dead or stupified; and the motion of the earth
made my stomach sick, like one that was tossed at sea;
but the noise of the falling of the rock awaked me, as it
were, and, rousing me from the stupified condition I was
in, filled me with horror, and I thought of nothing then
but the hill falling upon my tent and all my household
goods, and burying all at once; and thus sunk my very
soul within me a second time.
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for
some time, I began to take courage; and yet I had not
heart enough to get over my wall again, for fear of being
buried alive, but sat still upon the ground, greatly cast
down and disconsolate, not knowing what to do. All
this while I had not the least serious religious thought,
nothing but the common Lord, have mercy upon me '
and when it was over, that went away too.
While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow
cloudy, as if it would rain; soon after that, the wind rose
by little and little, so that in less than half an hour it
blew a most dreadful hurricane: the sea was all on a sud-
den covered over with foam and froth, the shore was cov-
ered with the breach of the water, the trees were torn up
by the roots, and a terrible storm it was; and this held
about three hours, and then began to abate, and in two
hours more it was stark calm, and began to rain very hard.
All this while I sat upon the ground, very much ter-
rified and dejected, when on a sudden it came into my
thoughts, that these winds and rain being the conse
quence of the earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent
and over, and I might venture into my cave again: with
this thought my spirits began to revive, and, the rain also
helping to persuade me, I went in and sat down in my
tent; but the rain was so violent, that my tent was ready
to be beaten down with it; and I was forced to go into

my cave, though very much afraid and uneasy, for fear
it should fall on my head.
This violent rain forced me to a new work, namely,
to cut a hole through my new fortification, like a sink, to
let water go out, which would else have drowned my cave.
After I had been in my cave some time, and found still
no more shocks of the earthquake follow, I began to be
more composed; and now, to support my spirits, which
indeed wanted it very much, I went to my little store,
and took a small cup of rum, which, however, I did then,
and always, very sparingly, knowing I could have no more
when that was gone.
It continued raining all that night and great part of
the next day, so that I could not stir abroad; but, my
mind being more composed, I began to think of what I
had best do, concluding, that if the island was subject to
these earthquakes, there would be no living for me in a
cave, but I must consider of building me some little hut
in an open place, which I might surround with a wall as
I had done here, and so make myself secure from wild
beasts or men: but concluded, if I staid where I was, I
should certainly, one time or other, be buried alive.
With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent from
the place where it stood, which was just under the hang-
ing precipice of the hill, and which, if it should be shaken
again, would certainly fall upon my tent. And I spent
the two next days, being the 19th and 20th of April, in
contriving where and how to remove my habitation.
The fear of being swallowed up alive made me that I
never slept in quiet, and yet the apprehension of lying
abroad without any fence was almost equal to it; but
still, when I looked about, and saw how everything was
put in order, how pleasantly concealed I was, and how
safe from danger, it made me very loath to remove.
In the meantime, it occurred to me, that it would re-
quire a vast deal of time for me to do this, and that 1
must be contented to run the venture where I was, till I
had formed a camp for myself, and had secured it so as
to remove to it. So, with this resolution, I composed
myself for a time, and resolved that I would go to work

with all speed, to build me a wall with piles and cables,
&c., in a circle, as before, and set my tent up in it when
it was finished; but that I would venture to stay where
I was till it was finished, and fit to remove to. This was
the 21st.
April 22.-The next morning I began to consider of
means to put this resolve in execution, but I was at a
great loss about my tools. I had three large axes, and
abundance of hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for
traffic with the Indians); but, with much chopping and
cutting knotty hard wood, they were all full of notches
and dull; and, though I had a grindstone, I could not
turn it, and grind my tools too; this cost me as much
thought as a statesman would have bestowed upon a grand
point of politics, or a judge upon the life and death of a
man. At length I contrived a wheel with a string, to
turn it with my foot, that I might have both my hands
at liberty. Note.-I had never seen any such thing in
England, or at least not to take notice how it was done,
though since I have observed it is very common there;
besides that, my grindstone was very large and heavy.
This machine cost me a full week's work to bring it to
April 28, 29.-These two whole days I took up in
grinding my tools, my machine for turning my grind-
stone performing very well.
April 80.-Having perceived my bread had been low
a great while, now I took a survey of it, and reduced my-
self to one biscuit-cake a-day, which made my heart very


MAY 1.-In the morning, looking towards the sea-side
the tide being low, I saw something lie on the shore big-
ger than ordinary, and it looked like a cask. When I
came to it, I found a small barrel, and two or three pieces
of the wreck of the ship which were driven on shore by

the late hurricane; and looking towards the wreck itself,
I thought it seemed to lie higher out of the water than
it used to do. I examined the barrel which was driven
on shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder,
but it had taken water, and the powder was caked as hard
as a stone; however, I rolled it farther on shore for the
present, and went on upon the sands as near as I could
to the wreck of the ship, to look for more.
When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely
removed: the forecastle, which lay before buried in sand,
was heaved up at least six feet; and the stern (which was
broke to pieces, and parted from the rest by the force of
the sea, soon after I had left rummaging her) was tossed,
as it were, up, and cast on one side; and the sand was
thrown so high on that side next her stern, that whereas
there was a great piece of water before, so that I could
not come within a quarter of a mile of the wreck without
swimming, I could now walk quite up to her when the
tide was out. I was surprised with this at first, but soon
concluded it must be done with the earthquake; and, as
by this violence the ship was more broken open than
formerly, so many things came daily on shore, which the
sea had loosened, and which the winds and waters rolled
by degrees to the land.
This wholly diverted my thoughts fruom the design of
removing my habitation; and I busied myself mightily,
that day especially, in searching whether I could make
any way into the ship; but I found nothing was to be
expected of that kind, for that all the inside of the ship
was choked up with sand; however, as I had learned not
to despair of anything, I resolved to pull everything to
pieces that I could of the ship, concluding, that every-
thing I could get from her would be of some use or other
to me.
May 8.-I began with my saw, and out a piece of a
beam through, which I thought held some of the upper
part or quarter-deck together, and when I had cut it
through, I cleared away the sand as well as I could from
the side which lay highest; but the tide coming in, I
was obliged to give over for that time.

May 4.-I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that
I durst eat of, till I was weary of my sport, when, just
going to leave off, I caught a young dolphin. I had
made me a long line of some rope yarn, but I had no
hooks, yet I frequently caught fish enough, as much as I
cared to eat; all which I dried in the sun, and ate them dry.
May 5.-Worked on the wreck-cut another beam
asunder, and brought three great fir planks off from the
decks, which I tied together, and made swim on shore
when the tide of flood came in.
May 6.-Worked on the wreck-got several iron bolts
out of her, and other pieces of iron work; worked very
hard, and came home very much tired, and had thoughts
of giving it over.
May 7.-Went to the wreck again, but with an intent
not to work, but found the weight of the wreck had
brought itself down, the beams being cut; that several
pieces of the ship seemed to lie loose, and the inside of
the hold lay so open that I could see into it, but almost
full of water and sand.
May 8.-Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow
to wrench up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the
water or sand; I wrenched open two planks, and brought
them on shore also with the tide : I left the iron crow in
the wreck for next day.
May 9.-Went to the wreck, and with the crow made
way into the body of the wreck, and felt several casks, and
loosened them with the crow, but could not break them
up : I felt also the roll of English lead, and could stir it,
but it was too heavy to remove.
May 10, 11, 12, 18, 14.-Went every day to the wreck,
and got a great many pieces of timber, and boards, or
plank, and two or three hundred weight of iron.
May 15.-I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not
cut a piece of the roll of lead, by placing the edge of one
hatchet, and driving it with the other, but as it lay about
a foot and a half in the water, I could not make any blow
to drive the hatchet.
May 16.--It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck
appeared more broken by the force of the water; but 1

staid so long in the woods to get pigeons for food, that
the tide prevented me going to the wreck that day.
May 17.-I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on
shore, at a great distance, near two miles off me, but
resolved to see what they were, and found it was a piece
of the head, but two heavy for me to bring away.
May 24.-Everyday to this day I worked on the wreck,
and with hard labour I loosened some things so much
with the crow, that the first flowing tide several casks
floated out, and two of the seamen's chests; but the wind
blowing from the shore, nothing came to land that day
but pieces of timber, and a hogshead, which had some
Brazil pork in it; but the salt water and the sand had
spoiled it.
I continued this work every day to the 15th of June,
except the time necessary to get food, which I always
appointed during this part of my employment to be when
the tide was up, that I might be ready when it was ebbed
out; and by this time I had gotten timber, and plank,
and iron work enough to have built a good boat, if I had
known how; and also I got at several times, and in
several pieces, near one hundred weight of the sheet
June 16.-Going down to the sea-side, I found a large
tortoise or turtle; this was the first that I had seen,
which it seems was only my misfortune, not any defect
of the place, or scarcity; for had I happened to be on the
other side of the island, I might have had hundreds of
them every day, as I found afterwards, but perhaps had
paid dear enough for them.
June 17th I spent in cooking the turtle: I found in her
three score eggs; and her flesh was to me, at that time,
the most savoury and pleasant that ever I tasted in my
life, having had no flesh but of goats and fowls, since I
landed in this horrid place.
June 18.-Rained all day, and I staid within. I
thought at this time the rain felt cold, and I was some-
thing chilly, which I knew was not usual in that latitude
June 19.-Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather
had been cold.

June 20.-No rest all night, violent pains in my head,
and feverish.
June 21.-Very ill, frighted almost to death with the
apprehensions of my sad condition, to be sick, and no
help. Prayed to God, for the first time since the storm
off Hull; but scarce knew what I said, or why, my
thoughts being all confused.
June 22.-A little better, but under dreadful appre-
hensions of sickness.
June 23.-Very bad again, cold and shivering, and then
a violent headache.
June 24.-Much better
June 25.-An ague very violent; the fit held me seven
hours, cold fit and hot, with faint sweats after it.
June 26.-Better; and, having no victuals to eat, took
my gun, but found myself very weak; however, I killed
a she-goat, and with much difficulty got it home, and
broiled some of it, and ate; I would fain have stewed it,
and made some broth, but had no pot.
June 27.-The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed
all day, and neither ate nor drank. I was ready to perish
for thirst, but so weak I had not strength to stand up,
or to get myself any water to drink. Prayed to God
again, but was light-headed: and when I was not, I was
so ignorant that I knew not what to say, only I lay, and
cried, "Lord, look upon me I Lord, pity me! Lord, have
mercy upon me!" I suppose I did nothing else for two
or three hours, till, the fit wearing off, I fell asleep, and
did not wake till far in the night; when I waked, I found
myself much refreshed, but weak, and exceedingly thirsty:
however, as I had no water in my whole habitation, I
was forced to lie till morning, and went to sleep again.
In this second sleep I had this terrible dream:-
I thought that I was sitting on the ground, on the out-
side of my wall, where I sat when the storm blew after
the earthquake, and that I saw a man descend from a
great black cloud, in a bright flame of fire, and light upon
the ground. He was all over as bright as a flame, so that
I could but just bear to look towards him; his counte-
nance was most inexpressibly dreadful, impossible for

words to describe; when he stepped upon the ground with
his feet, I thought the earth trembled, just as it had done
before in the earthquake, and all the air looked to my
apprehension as if it had been filled with flashes of fire.
He was no sooner landed upon the earth but he moved
forward towards me, with a long spear, or weapon, in his
hand, to kill me; and when he came to a rising ground,
at some distance, he spoke to me, or I heard a voice so
terrible that it is impossible to express the terror of it;
all that I can say I understood, was this:-" Seeing all
these things have not brought thee to repentance, now
thou shalt die I at which words, I thought he lifted up
the spear that was in his hand, to kill me.
No one that shall ever read this account, will expect that
I should be able to describe the horrors of my soul at this
terrible vision-I mean, that even while it was a dream,
I even dreamed of those horrors; nor is it any more pos-
sible to describe the impression that remained upon my
mind when I awaked and found it was but a dream.
I had, alas no divine knowledge. What Ihadreceived
by the good instruction of my father was then Worn out
by an uninterrupted series, for eight years, of seafaring
wickedness, and a constant conversation with nothing
but such as were, like myself, wicked and profane to the
last degree. I do not remember that I had, in all that
time, one thought that so much as tended either to look-
ing upwards towards God, or inwards towards a reflection
upon my own ways. But a certain stupidity of soul,
without desire of good, or conscience of evil, had entirely
overwhelmed me, and I was all that the most hardened,
unthinking, wicked creature, among our common sailors,
can be supposed to be, not having the least sense, either
of the fear of God in danger, or of thankfulness to God
in deliverances.
In the relating what is already past of my story, this
will be the more easily believed, when I shall add, that,
through all the variety of miseries that had to this day
befallen me, I never had so much as one thought of it
being the hand of God, or that it was a just punishment
for my sin, my rebellious behaviour against my father, or

my present sins, which were great-or so much as a
punishment for the general course of my wicked life.
When I was on the desperate expedition on the desert
shores of Africa, I never had so much as one thought of
what would become of me, or one wish to God to direct
me whither I should go, or keep me from the danger
which apparently surrounded me, as well from voracious
creatures as cruel savages : but I was merely thoughtless
of a God, or a Providence, acted like a mere brute from
the principles of nature, and by the dictates of common
sense only, and indeed hardly that.
When I was delivered and taken up at sea by the Por-
tugal captain, well used, and dealt justly and honour-
ably with, as well as charitably, I had not the least
thankfulness in my thoughts. When again I was ship-
wrecked, ruined, and in danger of drowning on this
island, I was as far from remorse, or looking on it as a
judgment-I only said to myself often, that I was an un-
fortunate dog, and born to be always miserable.
It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found all
my ship's crew drowned, and myself spared, I was sur-
prised with a kind of ecstacy, and some transports of
soul, which, had the grace of God assisted, might have
come up to true thankfulness; but it ended where it
began, in a mere common flight of joy, or, as I may say,
being glad I was alive, without the least reflection upon
the distinguishing goodness of the Hand which had pre-
served me, and had singled me out to be preserved when
all the rest were destroyed; or an inquiry why Provi-
dence had been thus merciful to me: even just the same
common sort of joy which seamen generally have after
they have got safe on shore from a shipwreck, which they
drown all in the next bowl of punch, and forget almost
as soon as it is over; and all the rest of my life was like it.
Even when I was afterwards, on due consideration,
made sensible of my condition, how I was cast on this
dreadful place, out of the reach of human kind, out of
all hope of relief, or prospect of redemption, as soon as
I saw but a prospect of living, and that I should not
starve or perish for hunger, all the sense of my affliction

wore off, and I began to be very easy, applied myself to
the works proper for my preservation and supply, and
was far Anough from being afflicted at my condition, as
a judgment from Heaven, or as the hand of God against
me; these were thoughts which very seldom entered my
The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my jour-
nal, had at first some little influence upon me, and began
to affect me with seriousness, as long as I thought it had
something miraculous in it; but as soon as ever that part
of thought was removed, all the impression which was
raised from it wore off also, as I have noted already.
Even the earthquake, though nothing could be more
terrible in its nature, or more immediately directing to
the invisible Power, which alone directs such things; yet
no sooner was the first fright over, but the impression it
had made went off also. I had no more sense of God or
his judgments, much less of the present affliction of my
circumstances being from his hand, than if I had been
in the most prosperous condition of life.
But now, when I began to be sick, and a leisurely view
of the miseries of death came to place itself before me;
when my spirits began to sink under the burden of a
strong distemper, and nature was exhausted with the
violence of the fever, conscience, that had slept so long,
began to awake, and I began to reproach myself with my
past life, in which I had so evidently, by uncommon
wickedness, provoked the justice of God to lay me under
uncommon strokes, and to deal with me in so vindictive
a manner.
These reflections oppressed me from the second or third
day of my distemper; and in the violence, as well of the
fever as of the dreadful reproaches of my conscience,
extorted some words from me like praying to God, though
I cannot say they were either a prayer, attended with
desires or with hopes: it was rather the voice of mere
fright and distress: my thoughts were confused, the con-
victions great upon my mind, and the horror of dyingin
such a miserable condition raised vapours into my head
with the mere apprehensions: and. in these hurries of

my soul, I knew not what my tongue might express: but
it was rather exclamation, such as, Lord! what a mis-
erable creature am II If I should be sick, I shall cer-
tainly die for want of help, and what will become of me!"
Then the tears burst out of my eyes, and I could say no
more for a good while.
In this interval, the good advice of my father came to
my mind, and presently his prediction, which I men-
tioned in the beginning of this story, namely, that, if I
did take this foolish step, God would not bless me, and I
would have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having ne-
glected his counsel, when there might be none to assist
in my recovery. "Now," said I, aloud, my dear father's
words are come to pass: God's justice has overtaken me,
and I have none to help or hear me. I rejected the voice
of Providence, which had mercifully put me in a posture
or station of life wherein I might have been happy and
easy; but I would neither see it myself, nor learn to know
the blessing of it from my parents. I left them to mourn
over my folly, and now I am left to mourn under the
consequences of it. I refused their help and assistance,
who would have lifted me into the world, and would have
made everything easy to me, and now I have difficulties
to struggle with, too great for even nature itself to sup-
port, and no assistance, no help, no comfort, no advice."
Then I cried out, Lord, be my help; for I am in great
This was the first prayer, if I might call it so, that I
had made for many years. But I return to my journal.
June 28.-Having been somewhat refreshed with the
sleep I had had, and the fit being entirely off, I got up;
and though the fright and terror of my dream was very
great, yet I considered that the fit of the ague would re-
turn again the next day, and now was my time to get
something to refresh and support myself, when I should
be ill: and the first thing I did, I filled a large square case-
bottle with water, and set it upon my table in reach of my
bed; and to take off the chill or aguish disposition of the
water, I put about a quarter of a pint of rum into it, and
mixed them together; then I got me a piece of the goat's

flesh, and broiled it on the coals, but could eat very little.
I walked about, but was very weak, and withal very sad
and heavy-hearted, under a sense of my miserable con-
dition, dreading the return of my distemper the next day.
At night, I made my supper of three of the turtle's eggs,
which I roasted in the ashes, and ate, as we call it, in
the shell; and this was the first bit of meat I had ever
asked God's blessing to, even, as I could remember, in
my whole life.
After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself so
weak that I could hardly carry the gun (for I never went
out without that); so I went but a little way, and sat
down upon the ground, looking out upon the sea, which
was just before me, and very calm and smooth. As I sat
here, some such thoughts as these occurred to me:-
What is the earth and sea, of which I have seen so
much? Whence is it produced? And what am I, and
all the other creatures-wild and tame, human and brutal
-whence are we ?
Sure we are all made by some secret Power, who formed
the earth and sea, the air and sky-and who is that ?
Then it followed most naturally:-It is God that has
made it all. Well, but then-it came on strangely-if
God has made all these things, he guides and governs them
all, and all things that concern them; for the Being that
could make all things must certainly have power to guide
and direct them.
If so, nothing can happen in the great circuit of his
works, either without his knowledge or appointment.
And if nothing happens without his knowledge, he
knows that I am here, and in a dreadful condition: and
if nothing happens without his appointment, he has ap-
pointed all this to befall me.
Nothing occurred to my thoughts to contradict any of
these conclusions; and, therefore, it rested upon me with
the greater force, that it must needs be that God had ap-
pointed all this to befall me-that I was brought to this
miserable circumstance by his direction, he having the
sole power, not of me only, but of everything that hap-
pened in the world. Immediately it followed-

Why has God done this to me ? What have I done to
be thus used?
My conscience presently checked me in that inquiry,
as if I had blasphemed; and methought it spoke to me like
a voice :-" Wretch! dost thou ask what thou hast done ?
Look back upon a dreadful misspent life, and ask thyself
what thou hast not done ? Ask why it is that thou wert
not long ago destroyed ? Why wert thou not drowned
in Yarmouth Roads ? killed in the fight, when the ship
was taken by the Sallee man-of-war ? devoured by the wild
beasts on the coast of Africa ; or drowned HERE, when all
the crew perished but thyself ? Dost thou ask, What have
[ done? "
I was struck with these reflections, as one astonished,
and had not a word to say-no, not to answer to myself;
but rose up, pensive and sad, walked back to my retreat,
and went up over my wall, as if I had been going to bed;
but my thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I had no in-
clination to sleep, so I sat down in my chair, and light-
ed my lamp, for it began to be dark. Now, as the appre-
hensions of the return of my distemper terrified me very
much, it occurred to my thought, that the Brazilians
take no physic but their tobacco for almost all distempers;
and I had a piece of a roll of tobacco in one of the chests,
which was quite cured, and some also that was green,
and not quite cured.
I went, directed by Heaven, no doubt; for in this chest
I found a cure both for soul and body. I opened the
chest, and found what I had looked for, namely, the to-
bacco; and as the few books I had saved lay there too,
I took out one of the Bibles, which I mentioned before,
and which, to this time, I had not found leisure, or so
much as inclination, to look into-I say, I took it out and
brought both that and the tobacco with me to the table.
What use to make of the tobacco I knew not, as to my
distemper, or whether it was good for it or no; but I
tried several experiments with it, as if I was resolved it
should hit one way or other. I first took a piece of a
leaf, and chewed it in my mouth, which indeed, at first,
almost stupified my brain, the tobacco being green and

strong, and I had not been much used to it; then I took
some, and steeped it an hour or two in some rum, and
resolved to take a dose of it when I lay down; and, lastly,
I burnt some upon a pan of coals, and held my nose close
over the smoke of it, as long as I could bear it, as well
for the heat as the virtue of it, and I held almost to suf-
In the interval of this operation, I took up the Bible,
and began to read; but my head was too much disturbed
with the tobacco to bear reading, at least at that time;
only, having opened the book casually, the first words that
occurred to me were these:-" Call on me in the day of
trouble, and I will deliver; and thou shalt glorify me."
The words were very apt to my case, and made some
impression upon my thoughts at the time of reading them,
though not so much as they did afterwards; for, as for
being delivered, the word had no sound, as I may, say to
me. The thing was so remote, so impossible, in my ap-
prehension of things, that I began to say, as the children
of Israel did when they were promisedflesh to eat, Can
God spread a table in the wilderness?" So I began to
say, "Can God himself deliver me from this place ?" And
as it was not for many years that any hope appeared,
this prevailed very often upon my thoughts. But, how-
ever, the words made a very great impression upon me,
and I mused upon them very often. It grew now late,
and the tobacco had, as I said, dosed my head so much,
that I inclined to sleep, so that I left my lamp burning in
the cave, lest I should want anything in the night, and
went to bed. But before I lay down, I did what I never
had done in all my life-I kneeled down, and prayed to
God to fulfil the promise to me, that, if I called upon him
in the day of trouble, he would deliver me. After my
broken and imperfect prayer was over, I drank the rum,
in which I had steeped the tobacco, which was so strong
and rank of the tobacco, that indeed I could scarce get it
down. Immediately upon this, I went to bed, and found
presently it flew up into my head violently; but I fell into
a sound sleep, and waked no mord, till, by the sun, ii
must necessarily be near three o'clock m the afternoon

the next day; nay, to this day, I am partly of the opinion,
that I slept all the next day and night, and till almost
three the day after; for otherwise, I know not how I
should lose a day out of my reckoning, in the days of the
week, as it appeared, some years after, I had done: for
if I had lost it by crossing and recrossing the Line, I
should have lost more than a day; but in my account it
was lost, and I never knew which way.
Be that, however, one way or other; when I awaked, I
found myself exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively
and cheerful. When I got up, I was stronger than I was
the day before, and my stomach better; for I was hungry;
and, in short, I had no fit the next day, but continued
much altered for the better: this was the 29th.
The 80th was my well day of course, and I went abroad
with my gun, but did not care to travel too far: I killed a
sea-fowl or two, something like a brand goose, and brought
them home, but was not very forward to eat them; so I
ate some more of the turtle's eggs, which were very good.
This evening I renewed the medicine, which I had sup-
posed did me good the day before, namely, the tobacco
steeped in rum; only, I did not take so much as before,
nor did I chew any of the leaf, or hold my head over the
smoke; however, I was not so well the next day, which
was the 1st of July, as I hoped I should have been; for
I had a little spice of the cold fit, but it was not much.
July 2.-I renewed the medicine all the three ways,
and dosed myself with it as at first, and doubled the
quantity which I drank.
July 8.-I missed the fit for good and all, though I did
not recover my full strength for some weeks after. While
I was thus gathering strength, my thoughts ran exceed-
ingly upon this Scripture, I will deliver thee ;" and the
impossibility of my deliverance lay much upon my mind,
in bar of my ever expecting it: but as I was discouraging
myself with such thoughts, it occurred to my mind, that
I pored so much upon my deliverance from the main
affliction, that I disregarded the deliverance I had received,
and I was, as it were, made to ask myself such questions
as these: namely, Have I not been delivered, and won-

derfully too, from sickness-from the most distressing
condition that could be, and that was so frightful to me ?
and what notice had I taken of it ? had I done my part ?
God had delivered me, but I had not glorified him-that
is to say, I had not owned and been thankful for that as a
deliverance; and how could I expect greater deliverance ?
This touched my heart very much, and immediately I
kneeled down, and gave God thanks aloud, for my recovery
from my sickness.
July 4.-In the morning I took the Bible; and, begin-
ning at the New Testament, I began seriously to read
it, and imposed upon myself to read a while every morn-
ing and every night, not tying myself to the number of
chapters, but as long as my thoughts should engage me.
It was not long after I set seriously to this work, but I found
my heart more deeply and sincerely affected with the
wickedness of my past life. The impression of my dream
revived; and the words, "All these things have not brought
thee to repentance," ran seriously in my thoughts. I was
earnestly begging of God to give me repentance, when it
happened providentially that very day, that, reading the
Scripture, I came to these words: He is exalted a Prince
and a Saviour, to give repentance, and to give remission.'
I threw down the book, and, with my heart as well as my
hand lifted up to heaven, in a kind of ecstasy of joy, I
cried out aloud, "Jesus, thou Son of David 1 Jesus, thou
exalted Prince and Saviour, give me repentance I"
This was the first time that 1 could say, in the true
sense of the words, that I prayed in all my life; for now
I prayed with a sense of my condition, and with a true
Scripture view of hope, founded on the encouragement of
the word of God; and from this time, I may say, I began
to have hope that God would hear me.
Now I began to construe the words mentioned above.
"Call on me, and I will deliver thee," in a different sense
from what I had ever done before; for then I had no no-
tion of anything being called deliverance, but my being
delivered from the captivity I was in: for, though I was
indeed at large in the place, yet the island was certainly
a prison to me, and that in the worst sense of the word;

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